WorldWideScience

Sample records for tampering

  1. Tamper proofing of safeguards monitors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riley, R.J.

    1982-11-01

    The tamper proofing of safeguards monitors is essential if the data they produce is, and can be seen to be, reliable. This report discusses the problem of tamper proofing and gives guidance on when and how to apply tamper proofing techniques. The report is split into two parts. The first concerns the fundamental problem of how much tamper proofing to apply and the second describes methods of tamper proofing and discusses their usefulness. Both sections are applicable to all safeguards monitors although particular reference will be made to doorway monitors in some cases. The phrase 'tamper proofing' is somewhat misleading as it is impossible to completely tamper proof any device. Given enough time and resources, even the most elaborate tamper proofing can be overcome. In safeguards applications we are more interested in making the device tamper resistant and tamper indicating. That is, it should be able to resist a certain amount of tampering, and if tampering proves successful, that fact should be immediately obvious. Techniques of making a device tamper indicating and tamper resistant will be described below. The phrase tamper proofing will be used throughout this report as a generic term, including both tamper resistance and tamper indicating. (author)

  2. Tamper tape seals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wright, B.W.; Undem, H.A.

    1994-07-01

    Tamper tapes are appealing for many applications due to their ease of use and relative robustness. Applications include seals for temporary area denial, protection of sensitive equipment, chain-of-custody audit trails, and inventory control practices. A next generation of adhesive tamper tapes is being developed that combines the best features of commercially available devices with additional state-of-the-art features in tamper indication, tamper-resistance, and counterfeit-resistance. The additional features are based on U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) research and development (R ampersand D) activities that were originally associated with preparations for the Strategic Arms Reduction Treaty (START). New features include rapid-set, chemical-cure adhesive systems that allow user-friendly application and layered levels of counterfeit-resistance based on unique open-quotes fingerprintclose quotes characteristics that can be accessed as desired

  3. Bounded Tamper Resilience

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damgård, Ivan Bjerre; Faust, Sebastian; Mukherjee, Pratyay

    2013-01-01

    Related key attacks (RKAs) are powerful cryptanalytic attacks where an adversary can change the secret key and observe the effect of such changes at the output. The state of the art in RKA security protects against an a-priori unbounded number of certain algebraic induced key relations, e.......g., affine functions or polynomials of bounded degree. In this work, we show that it is possible to go beyond the algebraic barrier and achieve security against arbitrary key relations, by restricting the number of tampering queries the adversary is allowed to ask for. The latter restriction is necessary......-protocols (including the Okamoto scheme, for instance) are secure even if the adversary can arbitrarily tamper with the prover’s state a bounded number of times and obtain some bounded amount of leakage. Interestingly, for the Okamoto scheme we can allow also independent tampering with the public parameters. We show...

  4. Systems approach to tamper protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Myre, W.C.; Eaton, M.J.

    1980-01-01

    Tamper-protection is a fundamental requirement of effective containment and surveillance systems. Cost effective designs require that the tamper protection requirements be considered early in the design phase and at the system level. A discussion of tamper protection alternatives as well as an illustrative example system is presented

  5. Tamper indicating packaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baumann, M.J.; Bartberger, J.C.; Welch, T.D.

    1994-01-01

    Protecting sensitive items from undetected tampering in an unattended environment is crucial to the success of non-proliferation efforts relying on the verification of critical activities. Tamper Indicating Packaging (TIP) technologies are applied to containers, packages, and equipment that require an indication of a tamper attempt. Examples include: the transportation and storage of nuclear material, the operation and shipment of surveillance equipment and monitoring sensors, and the retail storage of medicine and food products. The spectrum of adversarial tampering ranges from attempted concealment of a pin-hole sized penetration to the complete container replacement, which would involve counterfeiting efforts of various degrees. Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) has developed a technology base for advanced TIP materials, sensors, designs, and processes which can be adapted to various future monitoring systems. The purpose of this technology base is to investigate potential new technologies, and to perform basic research of advanced technologies. This paper will describe the theory of TIP technologies and recent investigations of TIP technologies at SNL

  6. Enhanced tamper indicator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Anthony R.; Johnston, Roger G.

    2003-07-08

    The present invention provides an apparatus and method whereby the reliability and tamper-resistance of tamper indicators can be improved. A flexible connector may be routed through a latch for an enclosure such as a door or container, and the free ends of the flexible connector may be passed through a first locking member and firmly attached to an insert through the use of one or more attachment members such as set screws. A second locking member may then be assembled in interlocking relation with the first locking member to form an interlocked assembly around the insert. The insert may have one or more sharp projections extending toward the first or second locking member so that any compressive force applied in an attempt to disassemble the interlocked assembly results in permanent, visible damage to the first or second locking member.

  7. Insider tamper detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaeger, C.D.

    1991-01-01

    There are many areas within our security systems where an insider can tamper with the components of the system and cause a deficiency. A survey conducted of some DOE facilities identified several types of deficiencies associated with the alarm communications system. The seriousness of these deficiencies depends to a large extent on the total security system. Sandia has initiated an effort to identify systems and concepts which appear promising for protection against insider tampering. An area of particular attention is in the development of techniques to increase the protection of information within the alarm communications system. In particular, techniques are being evaluated to provide enhanced line security (ELS) between the sensors and the multiplexers (MUX). A technique that appears to be particularly promising and which will be discussed in more detail in this paper utilizes modules at the sensors and MUXs

  8. Tampere ja Unt / Jaak Lõhmus

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Lõhmus, Jaak

    2003-01-01

    Ülevaade 5.-9. märtsini toimunud Tampere 33. lühifilmide festivalist. Riho Undi nukufilm "Hing sees" sai animafilmide žürii diplomi. Võistluskavas minifilmide seas osales ka Priit Pärna joonislaast "Liiga hilja" ("2 Late")

  9. Triboluminescent tamper-indicating device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Roger G.; Garcia, Anthony R. E.

    2002-01-01

    A tamper-indicating device is described. The device has a transparent or translucent cylindrical body that includes triboluminescent material, and an outer opaque layer that prevents ambient light from entering. A chamber in the body holds an undeveloped piece of photographic film bearing an image. The device is assembled from two body members. One of the body members includes a recess for storing film and an optical assembly that can be adjusted to prevent light from passing through the assembly and exposing the film. To use the device with a hasp, the body members are positioned on opposite sides of a hasp, inserted through the hasp, and attached. The optical assembly is then manipulated to allow any light generated from the triboluminescent materials during a tampering activity that damages the device to reach the film and destroy the image on the film.

  10. Tamper indicating radiation surveillance instrumentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chambers, W.H.; Ney, J.F.

    1975-01-01

    Prototype personnel and shipping dock portal monitors suitable for unattended use were fabricated and tested. The requirement for continuous operation with only periodic inspection along with a desire for minimum costs and minimum interference with normal plant operation imposed unique design constraints. The design, operation, and performance of the detection and data recording instrumentation are described, as well as the tamper indicating techniques required to protect the collected data. The essential elements of either of the two instruments include a gamma detector array, signal conditioning electronics, digital alarm logic circuitry, power supplies, a microwave occupancy monitor, surveillance camera, irreversible electromechanical counters, and the appropriate tamper indicating envelope protecting these elements. Attempts to penetrate the tamper indicating envelope require material removal, and undetectable repair is very difficult, if not impossible. The techniques for joining major subassemblies and providing unique seals are also described. The personnel doorway uses a double pole array of NaI(Tl) detectors, and outputs are taken from a single channel pulse height analyzer with a window set at 60 to 250 keV and the lower level discriminator at greater than 60 keV. A sliding interval counter is used to make comparisons to an accumulated background at the 4sigma level. Logic design, sensitivity for special nuclear materials, false alarm data, and test procedures are described in detail. The shipping dock monitor had different design constraints and therefore uses a single, long, cylindrical plastic scintillator. Some differences in signal conditioning and processing are also described. (auth)

  11. Real estate transaction radon test tampering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ritter, D.L.

    1990-01-01

    A thousand-house study, over the past two years showed 35% of the houses were tampered with. This paper offers statistical charts representing the different methods of tampering; A slide presentation showing houses and the non-tamper controls used to monitor EPA closed-house conditions, movement of detectors and covering of detectors. A strong message must be conveyed now, that tampering will not be tolerated by radon technicians, when performing radon tests in the field. A message that incorporates non-tamper controls that are cost effective and provide for reasonably priced testing; A message that will lend credibility to our Radon industry by means of separating the professional test from a do-it-yourself homeowner test. This paper will address that message and offer a program for the prevention of tampering in a house during a PROFESSIONALLY done Radon test

  12. Tamper Resilient Cryptography Without Self-Destruct

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damgård, Ivan Bjerre; Faust, Sebastian; Mukherjee, Pratyay

    2013-01-01

    We initiate a general study of schemes resilient to both tampering an d leakage attacks. Tamper- ing attacks are powerful cryptanalytic attacks where an advers ary can change the secret state and observes the effect of such changes at the output. Our cont ributions are outlined below: 1. We propose...... a general construction showing that any cryptographic primitive where the secret key can be chosen as a uniformly random string can be made s ecure against bounded tampering and leakage. This holds in a restricted model where the ta mpering functions must be chosen from a set of bounded size after...... arbitrarily tamper with the prover’s state a bounded number of times and/or obtain some bounded amount of leakage. Interestingly, for the Okamoto scheme we can allow also independent tampering with the public parameters. 3. We show a bounded tamper and leakage resilient CCA secure public key cryptosystem...

  13. 40 CFR 205.58-2 - Tampering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Tampering. 205.58-2 Section 205.58-2 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) NOISE ABATEMENT PROGRAMS TRANSPORTATION EQUIPMENT NOISE EMISSION CONTROLS Medium and Heavy Trucks § 205.58-2 Tampering. (a) For each configuration...

  14. 43 CFR 423.25 - Vandalism, tampering, and theft.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Vandalism, tampering, and theft. 423.25 Section 423.25 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands BUREAU OF RECLAMATION... of Conduct § 423.25 Vandalism, tampering, and theft. (a) You must not tamper or attempt to tamper...

  15. Tamper-Proof Circuits : : How to Trade Leakage for Tamper-Resilience

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Faust, Sebastian; Pietrzak, Krzysztof; Venturi, Daniele

    2011-01-01

    Tampering attacks are cryptanalytic attacks on the implementation of cryptographic algorithms (e.g., smart cards), where an adversary introduces faults with the hope that the tampered device will reveal secret information. Inspired by the work of Ishai et al. [Eurocrypt’06], we propose a compiler...... complex computation to protecting simple components....... that transforms any circuit into a new circuit with the same functionality, but which is resilient against a well-defined and powerful tampering adversary. More concretely, our transformed circuits remain secure even if the adversary can adaptively tamper with every wire in the circuit as long as the tampering......-box access to the original circuit and log(q) bits of additional auxiliary information. Thus, if the implemented cryptographic scheme is secure against log(q) bits of leakage, then our implementation is tamper-proof in the above sense. Surprisingly, allowing for this small amount of information leakage...

  16. Improving Tamper Detection for Hazardous Waste Security

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnston, R. G.; Garcia, A. R. E.; Pacheco, N.; Martinez, R. K.; Martinez, D. D.; Trujillo, S. J.; Lopez, L. N.

    2003-01-01

    Since September 11, waste managers are increasingly expected to provide effective security for their hazardous wastes. Tamper-indicating seals can help. This paper discusses seals, and offers recommendations for how to choose and use them

  17. Tampere Teatrisuve maiuspalaks olid soomlased / Tiiu Laks

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Laks, Tiiu, 1984-

    2006-01-01

    38. Tampere teatrisuvest (Tamperen teatterikesä), vaatluse all on soomlaste menutükid - Anna Krogeruse "Armastusest minu vastu" (lav. Irene Aho, Soome Rahvusteater) ja William Shakespeare'i "Richard III" (lav. Juha Luukkonen, Vaasa Linnateater)

  18. Methods and predictors of tampering with a tamper-resistant controlled-release oxycodone formulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peacock, Amy; Degenhardt, Louisa; Hordern, Antonia; Larance, Briony; Cama, Elena; White, Nancy; Kihas, Ivana; Bruno, Raimondo

    2015-12-01

    In April 2014, a tamper-resistant controlled-release oxycodone formulation was introduced into the Australian market. This study aimed to identify the level and methods of tampering with reformulated oxycodone, demographic and clinical characteristics of those who reported tampering with reformulated oxycodone, and perceived attractiveness of original and reformulated oxycodone for misuse (via tampering). A prospective cohort of 522 people who regularly tampered with pharmaceutical opioids and had tampered with the original oxycodone product in their lifetime completed two interviews before (January-March 2014: Wave 1) and after (May-August 2014: Wave 2) introduction of reformulated oxycodone. Four-fifths (81%) had tampered with the original oxycodone formulation in the month prior to Wave 1; use and attempted tampering with reformulated oxycodone amongst the sample was comparatively low at Wave 2 (29% and 19%, respectively). Reformulated oxycodone was primarily swallowed (15%), with low levels of recent successful injection (6%), chewing (2%), drinking/dissolving (1%), and smoking (word-of-mouth or the internet). Participants rated reformulated oxycodone as more difficult to prepare and inject and less pleasant to use compared to the original formulation. Current findings suggest that the introduction of the tamper-resistant product has been successful at reducing, although not necessarily eliminating, tampering with the controlled-release oxycodone formulation, with lower attractiveness for misuse. Appropriate, effective treatment options must be available with increasing availability of abuse-deterrent products, given the reduction of oxycodone tampering and use amongst a group with high rates of pharmaceutical opioid dependence. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Reusable, tamper-indicating seal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryan, M.J.

    1978-01-01

    A reusable, tamper-indicating seal is comprised of a drum confined within a fixed body and rotatable in one direction therewithin, the top of the drum constituting a tray carrying a large number of small balls of several different colors. The fixed body contains parallel holes for looping a seal wire therethrough. The base of the drums carries cams adapted to coact with cam followers to lock the wire within the seal at one angular position of the drum. A channel in the fixed body, visible from outside the seal, adjacent the tray constitutes a segregated location for a small plurality of the colored balls. A spring in the tray forces colored balls into the segregated location at one angular position of the drum, further rotation securing the balls in position and the wires in the seal. A wedge-shaped plough removes the balls from the segregated location, at a different angular position of the drum, the wire being unlocked at the same postion. A new pattern of colored balls will appear in the segregated location when the seal is relocked

  20. Protecting Cryptographic Memory against Tampering Attack

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mukherjee, Pratyay

    In this dissertation we investigate the question of protecting cryptographic devices from tampering attacks. Traditional theoretical analysis of cryptographic devices is based on black-box models which do not take into account the attacks on the implementations, known as physical attacks. In prac......In this dissertation we investigate the question of protecting cryptographic devices from tampering attacks. Traditional theoretical analysis of cryptographic devices is based on black-box models which do not take into account the attacks on the implementations, known as physical attacks....... In practice such attacks can be executed easily, e.g. by heating the device, as substantiated by numerous works in the past decade. Tampering attacks are a class of such physical attacks where the attacker can change the memory/computation, gains additional (non-black-box) knowledge by interacting...... with the faulty device and then tries to break the security. Prior works show that generically approaching such problem is notoriously difficult. So, in this dissertation we attempt to solve an easier question, known as memory-tampering, where the attacker is allowed tamper only with the memory of the device...

  1. Tamper indicating gold nanocup plasmonic films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DeVetter, Brent M.; Bernacki, Bruce E.; Bennett, Wendy D.; Schemer-Kohrn, Alan; Alvine, Kyle J.

    2017-02-13

    The spectral signature of nanoplasmonic films are both robust and tailorable with optical responses ranging from the visible to the near-infrared. We present the development of flexible, elastomeric nanoplasmonic films consisting of periodic arrays of gold nanocups as tamper indicating films. Gold nanocups have polarization-sensitive optical properties that may be manufactured into films that offer unique advantages for tamper indication. These flexible films can be made quickly and at low-cost using commercially available monodisperse polystyrene nanospheres through self-assembly followed by plasma etching, metal deposition, and lift-off from a sacrificial substrate. Polarization- and angle-dependent optical spectroscopic measurements were performed to characterize the fabricated films. Using polarization-sensitive hyperspectral imaging, we demonstrate how these films can be applied to tamper indication and counterfeit resistance applications.

  2. Reusable tamper-indicating security seal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryan, M.J.

    1981-01-01

    A reusable tamper-indicating mechanical security seal for use in safeguarding nuclear material has been developed. The high-security seal displays an unpredictable, randomly selected, five-digit code each time it is used. This five digit code serves the same purpose that the serial number does for conventional non-reusable seals - a unique identifier for each use or application. The newly developed reusable seal is completely enclosed within a seamless, tamper-indicating, plastic jacket. The jacket is designed to reveal any attempts to penetrate, section or to chemically remove and replace with a counterfeit for surreptitious purposes

  3. Tamper Detection for Active Surveillance Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Theodore, Tsesmelis; Christensen, Lars; Fihl, Preben

    2013-01-01

    If surveillance data are corrupted they are of no use to neither manually post-investigation nor automatic video analysis. It is therefore critical to automatically be able to detect tampering events such as defocusing, occlusion and displacement. In this work we for the first time ad- dress...... of different tampering events. In order to assess the developed methods we have collected a large data set, which contains sequences from different active cameras at different scenarios. We evaluate our sys- tem on these data and the results are encouraging with a very high detecting rate and relatively few...

  4. Detection of Tampering Inconsistencies on Mobile Photos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Hong; Kot, Alex C.

    Fast proliferation of mobile cameras and the deteriorating trust on digital images have created needs in determining the integrity of photos captured by mobile devices. As tampering often creates some inconsistencies, we propose in this paper a novel framework to statistically detect the image tampering inconsistency using accurately detected demosaicing weights features. By first cropping four non-overlapping blocks, each from one of the four quadrants in the mobile photo, we extract a set of demosaicing weights features from each block based on a partial derivative correlation model. Through regularizing the eigenspectrum of the within-photo covariance matrix and performing eigenfeature transformation, we further derive a compact set of eigen demosaicing weights features, which are sensitive to image signal mixing from different photo sources. A metric is then proposed to quantify the inconsistency based on the eigen weights features among the blocks cropped from different regions of the mobile photo. Through comparison, we show our eigen weights features perform better than the eigen features extracted from several other conventional sets of statistical forensics features in detecting the presence of tampering. Experimentally, our method shows a good confidence in tampering detection especially when one of the four cropped blocks is from a different camera model or brand with different demosaicing process.

  5. Detecting Test Tampering Using Item Response Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wollack, James A.; Cohen, Allan S.; Eckerly, Carol A.

    2015-01-01

    Test tampering, especially on tests for educational accountability, is an unfortunate reality, necessitating that the state (or its testing vendor) perform data forensic analyses, such as erasure analyses, to look for signs of possible malfeasance. Few statistical approaches exist for detecting fraudulent erasures, and those that do largely do not…

  6. Study on tamper-indicating technology in electronic seals system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Xiong; Han Feng; Zuo Guangxia; Zhao Xin; Zhang Quanhu; Di Yuming

    2009-01-01

    To strengthen our national arms control verification technical storage and deepen electronic seals' research, this paper mainly introduces seals' characteristics, functions and work principle, studies on tamper-indicating technology which is a key technology in electronic seals, designs some hardware circuit such as optical transceiver, temperature detection circuit, move detection circuit, re-prized circuit and so on, also designs a software program which is used for recording the destroying or tampering events' information. Experimental results show that electronic seals system can record the destroying or tampering events' information accurately and quickly, and give corresponding tamper-indication. (authors)

  7. Tamper Indicating Device: Initial Training, Course 50112

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bonner, Stephen Ray [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Sandoval, Dana M. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2018-01-29

    Tamper Indicating Device (TID): Initial Training, course #50112, covers Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) Material Control & Accountability (MC&A) TID Program procedures for the application and removal of TIDs. LANL’s policy is to comply with Department of Energy (DOE) requirements for the use of TIDs consistent with the graded safeguards described in DOE Manual DOE O 474.2, Nuclear Material Control and Accountability. When you have completed this course, you will: recognize standard practices and procedures of the LANL TID Program; have hands-on experience in the application and removal of LANL TIDs, and; verify the application and removal of LANL TIDs.

  8. DTP2 Laboratory Situation in Tampere, Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Timperi, A.

    2006-01-01

    Remote Handling is very important technology in the ITER project. Even ITER is regarded as a fairly long project, for the remote handling methods, tools and systems there is not very much development time provided. The technology has to be developed and demonstrated a long before supplied to the site in Cadarache. This is a large challenge, because the complex operations and extremely high reliability requirements. In the end of 2004, the Remote Operation and Virtual Reality Centre (ROViR) was established in Tampere Finland. The start up for this facility creation was an agreement with EFDA to host the Divertor Test Platform 2 (DTP2) in Finland. During the year 2005 the ROViR Centre was put in action. The construction work for DTP2 is currently going on and the platform should be ready for hosting the remote handling development by the end of 2006. After that the laboratory will receive the robots, tools and employees for the DTP2 operation. This abstract will give an overview of the DTP 2 platform in Tampere Finland as well as describe some other projects started in 2005. Presentation describes some problems of the ITER remote handling and tells about the state-of-the-art solutions. It also highlights some of the next tasks after putting the DTP2 platform in action. There are a plenty of tasks in the development of the ITER remote handling, after DTP2 laboratory is established. (author)

  9. Wireless tamper detection sensor and sensing system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodard, Stanley E. (Inventor); Taylor, Bryant D. (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    A wireless tamper detection sensor is defined by a perforated electrical conductor. The conductor is shaped to form a geometric pattern between first and second ends thereof such that the conductor defines an open-circuit that can store and transfer electrical and magnetic energy. The conductor resonates in the presence of a time-varying magnetic field to generate a harmonic response. The harmonic response changes when the conductor experiences a change in its geometric pattern due to severing of the conductor along at least a portion of the perforations. A magnetic field response recorder is used to wirelessly transmit the time-varying magnetic field and wirelessly detecting the conductor's harmonic response.

  10. Tamper-indicating quantum optical seals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Humble, Travis S [ORNL; Williams, Brian P [ORNL

    2015-01-01

    Confidence in the means for identifying when tampering occurs is critical for containment and surveillance technologies. Fiber-optic seals have proven especially useful for actively surveying large areas or inventories due to the extended transmission range and flexible layout of fiber. However, it is reasonable to suspect that an intruder could tamper with a fiber-optic sensor by accurately replicating the light transmitted through the fiber. In this contribution, we demonstrate a novel approach to using fiber-optic seals for safeguarding large-scale inventories with increased confidence in the state of the seal. Our approach is based on the use of quantum mechanical phenomena to offer unprecedented surety in the authentication of the seal state. In particular, we show how quantum entangled photons can be used to monitor the integrity of a fiber-optic cable - the entangled photons serve as active sensing elements whose non-local correlations indicate normal seal operation. Moreover, we prove using the quantum no-cloning theorem that attacks against the quantum seal necessarily disturb its state and that these disturbances are immediately detected. Our quantum approach to seal authentication is based on physical principles alone and does not require the use of secret or proprietary information to ensure proper operation. We demonstrate an implementation of the quantum seal using a pair of entangled photons and we summarize our experimental results including the probability of detecting intrusions and the overall stability of the system design. We conclude by discussing the use of both free-space and fiber-based quantum seals for surveying large areas and inventories.

  11. Tamper-indicating devices and safeguards seals evaluation test report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horton, P.R.V.; Waddoups, I.G.

    1993-12-01

    Sandia National Laboratories was asked to evaluate the seals used as tamper-indicating devices (TIDs) at DOE facilities. Initially, a survey determined what seal manufacturers were being used and what similar seal types were available. Once the required specifications for TIDs were defined, a test plan measured the currently available seals against the requirements. Environmental and physical type tests stressed the seals under two broad categories: (1) handling durability and (2) tamper resistance. Results of the testing provide comparative ratings for the various seals, recommendations for using currently available seals, and a new tamper-indicating technology

  12. Tampere Teattrerikesä algas veidi teispoolselt / Andres Keil

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Keil, Andres, 1974-

    2005-01-01

    Soomes alanud teatrifestivalist Tampere teatrisuvi. Pikemalt A. Raivio "Viimasest karavanist" Q-teatteri esituses, M. Ivashkeviciuse " Poisikesest" Korshunovase Teatri ja Vilniuse Linnateatri koostöös ning sakslaste norton.commander.productions lavastusest "Solaris"

  13. Reisikiri Tampere lühifilmide festivalilt / Miljard Masin

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Masin, Miljard

    2001-01-01

    Tampere 31. lühifilmifestivalilt. Grand Prix sai soome dokumentaalfilm "Hüppaja" : režissöör P.V. Lehtinen. Ka eelreklaami eelseisvale I Turu animafestivalile, mille initsiaatoriks seal õpetav Priit Pärn

  14. Accelerated aging studies and environmental stability of prototype tamper tapes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wright, B.W.; Wright, C.W. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Bunk, A.R. [Battelle Columbus Lab., OH (United States)] [and others

    1995-05-01

    This report describes the results of accelerated aging experiments (weathering) conducted on prototype tamper tapes bonded to a variety of surface materials. The prototype tamper tapes were based on the patented Confirm{reg_sign} tamper-indicating technology developed and produced by 3M Company. Tamper tapes bonded to surfaces using pressure sensitive adhesive (PSA) and four rapid-set adhesives were evaluated. The configurations of the PSA-bonded tamper tapes were 1.27-cm-wide Confirm{reg_sign} 1700 windows with vinyl underlay and 2.54-cm-wide Confirm{reg_sign} 1700 windows with vinyl and polyester underlays. The configurations of the rapid-set adhesive-bonded tamper tapes were 2.54-cm-wide Confirm{reg_sign} (1700, 1500 with and without primer, and 1300) windows with vinyl underlay. Surfaces used for bonding included aluminum, steel, stainless steel, Kevlar{reg_sign}, brass, copper, fiberglass/resin with and without gel coat, polyurethane-painted steel, acrylonitrile:butadiene:styrene plastic, polyester fiberglass board, Lexan polycarbonate, and cedar wood. Weathering conditions included a QUV cabinet (ultraviolet light at 60{degrees}C, condensing humidity at 40{degrees}C), a thermal cycling cabinet (-18{degrees}C to 46{degrees}C), a Weather-O-Meter (Xenon lamp), and exposure outdoors in Daytona Beach, Florida. Environmental aging exposures lasted from 7 weeks to 5 months. After exposure, the tamper tapes were visually examined and tested for transfer resistance. Tamper tapes were also exposed to a variety of chemical liquids (including organic solvents, acids, bases, and oxidizing liquids) to determine chemical resistance and to sand to determine abrasion resistance.

  15. Söder Airlines alustab Tampere-Tallinna lende / Toivo Tänavsuu

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Tänavsuu, Toivo

    2003-01-01

    2002. aastal Soome ärimeeste loodud lennufirma Söder Airlines lennuk hakkab lendama Tallinna ja Tampere vahel, edaspidi kavatsetakse avada ka lennuliin Tampere-Kuressaare. Vt. samas: Lennust Eestisse huvitub ka SkyEurope

  16. Tamper-indicating device having a glass body

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Roger G.; Garcia, Anthony R. E.

    2003-04-29

    A tamper-indicating device is described. The device has a first glass body member and a second glass body member that are attached to each other through a hasp. The glass body members of the device can be tempered. The body members can be configured with hollow volumes into which powders, microparticles, liquids, gels, or combinations thereof are sealed. The choice, the amount, and the location of these materials can produce a visible, band pattern to provide each body member with a unique fingerprint identifier, which makes it extremely difficult to repair or replace once it is damaged in order to avoid tamper detection.

  17. Detect Image Tamper by Semi-Fragile Digital Watermarking

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIUFeilong; WANGYangsheng

    2004-01-01

    To authenticate the integrity of image while resisting some valid image processing such as JPEG compression, a semi-fragile image watermarking is described. Image name, one of the image features, has been used as the key of pseudo-random function to generate the special watermarks for the different image. Watermarks are embedded by changing the relationship between the blocks' DCT DC coefficients, and the image tamper are detected with the relationship of these DCT DC coefficients.Experimental results show that the proposed technique can resist JPEG compression, and detect image tamper in the meantime.

  18. Kuidas soomlased end laval näitavad : Nähtuna Tampere teatrifestivalil / Ott Karulin

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Karulin, Ott, 1980-

    2009-01-01

    Tampere teatrifestivalist. Pikemalt vaadeldakse nelja lavastust: Ilmari Kianto "Punainen viiva" (Lappenranta Linnateater) samanimelise romaani põhjal, Sirkku Peltola "Yksiöön en äitee ota" (Tampere Töölisteater), Leea ja Klaus Klemola "Kohti kylmempää" (Tampere Teater) ning Kristian Smedsi "Tuntematon sotilas" Väino Linna samanimelise romaani ainetel (Soome Rahvusteater)

  19. STREAMTO: Streaming Content using a Tamper-Resistant Token

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cheng, Jieyin; Chong, C.N.; Doumen, J.M.; Etalle, Sandro; Hartel, Pieter H.; Nikolaus, Stefan

    2004-01-01

    StreamTo uses tamper resistant hardware tokens to generate the key stream needed to decrypt encrypted streaming music. The combination of a hardware token and steaming media effectively brings tried and tested PayTV technology to the Internet. We provide a security analysis and present two prototype

  20. Towards Tamper-Evident Storage on Patterned Media

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hartel, Pieter H.; Abelmann, Leon; Khatib, Mohammed G.; Baker, M.; Riedel, E.

    We propose a tamper-evident storage system based on probe storage with a patterned magnetic medium. This medium supports normal read/write operations by out-of-plane magnetisation of individual magnetic dots. We report on measurements showing that in principle the medium also supports a separate

  1. Medical Image Tamper Detection Based on Passive Image Authentication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulutas, Guzin; Ustubioglu, Arda; Ustubioglu, Beste; V Nabiyev, Vasif; Ulutas, Mustafa

    2017-12-01

    Telemedicine has gained popularity in recent years. Medical images can be transferred over the Internet to enable the telediagnosis between medical staffs and to make the patient's history accessible to medical staff from anywhere. Therefore, integrity protection of the medical image is a serious concern due to the broadcast nature of the Internet. Some watermarking techniques are proposed to control the integrity of medical images. However, they require embedding of extra information (watermark) into image before transmission. It decreases visual quality of the medical image and can cause false diagnosis. The proposed method uses passive image authentication mechanism to detect the tampered regions on medical images. Structural texture information is obtained from the medical image by using local binary pattern rotation invariant (LBPROT) to make the keypoint extraction techniques more successful. Keypoints on the texture image are obtained with scale invariant feature transform (SIFT). Tampered regions are detected by the method by matching the keypoints. The method improves the keypoint-based passive image authentication mechanism (they do not detect tampering when the smooth region is used for covering an object) by using LBPROT before keypoint extraction because smooth regions also have texture information. Experimental results show that the method detects tampered regions on the medical images even if the forged image has undergone some attacks (Gaussian blurring/additive white Gaussian noise) or the forged regions are scaled/rotated before pasting.

  2. DEVELOPMENT OF A CERAMIC TAMPER INDICATING SEAL: SRNL CONTRIBUTIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krementz, D.; Brinkman, K.; Martinez-Rodriguez, M.; Mendez-Torres, A.; Weeks, G.

    2013-06-03

    Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) and Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) are collaborating on development of a Ceramic Seal, also sometimes designated the Intrinsically Tamper Indicating Ceramic Seal (ITICS), which is a tamper indicating seal for international safeguards applications. The Ceramic Seal is designed to be a replacement for metal loop seals that are currently used by the IAEA and other safeguards organizations. The Ceramic Seal has numerous features that enhance the security of the seal, including a frangible ceramic body, protective and tamper indicating coatings, an intrinsic unique identifier using Laser Surface Authentication, electronics incorporated into the seal that provide cryptographic seal authentication, and user-friendly seal wire capture. A second generation prototype of the seal is currently under development whose seal body is of Low Temperature Co-fired Ceramic (LTCC) construction. SRNL has developed the mechanical design of the seal in an iterative process incorporating comments from the SNL vulnerability review team. SRNL is developing fluorescent tamper indicating coatings, with recent development focusing on optimizing the durability of the coatings and working with a vendor to develop a method to apply coatings on a 3-D surface. SRNL performed a study on the effects of radiation on the electronics of the seal and possible radiation shielding techniques to minimize the effects. SRNL is also investigating implementation of Laser Surface Authentication (LSA) as a means of unique identification of each seal and the effects of the surface coatings on the LSA signature.

  3. Development of a ceramic tamper indicating seal: SRNL contributions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krementz, Dan; Brinkman, Kyle S.; Martinez-Rodriguez, Michael J.; Mendez-Torres, Adrian E.; Weeks, George E.

    2013-01-01

    Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) and Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) are collaborating on development of a Ceramic Seal, also sometimes designated the Intrinsically Tamper Indicating Ceramic Seal (ITICS), which is a tamper indicating seal for international safeguards applications. The Ceramic Seal is designed to be a replacement for metal loop seals that are currently used by the IAEA and other safeguards organizations. The Ceramic Seal has numerous features that enhance the security of the seal, including a frangible ceramic body, protective and tamper indicating coatings, an intrinsic unique identifier using Laser Surface Authentication, electronics incorporated into the seal that provide cryptographic seal authentication, and user-friendly seal wire capture. A second generation prototype of the seal is currently under development whose seal body is of Low Temperature Co-fired Ceramic (LTCC) construction. SRNL has developed the mechanical design of the seal in an iterative process incorporating comments from the SNL vulnerability review team. SRNL is developing fluorescent tamper indicating coatings, with recent development focusing on optimizing the durability of the coatings and working with a vendor to develop a method to apply coatings on a 3-D surface. SRNL performed a study on the effects of radiation on the electronics of the seal and possible radiation shielding techniques to minimize the effects. SRNL is also investigating implementation of Laser Surface Authentication (LSA) as a means of unique identification of each seal and the effects of the surface coatings on the LSA signature.

  4. Secure Audit Logging with Tamper-Resistant Hardware

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chong, C.N.; Peng, Z.; Peng, Z.; Hartel, Pieter H.; Gritzalis, D.; De Capitani di Vimercati, S.; Katsikas, S.K.; Samarati, P.

    Secure perimeter schemes (e.g. DRM) and tracing traitor schemes (e.g. watermarking, audit logging) strive to mitigate the problems of content escaping the control of the rights holder. Secure audit logging records the user's actions on content and enables detection of some forms of tampering with

  5. Ranking of sabotage/tampering avoidance technology alternatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andrews, W.B.; Tabatabai, A.S.; Powers, T.B.

    1986-01-01

    Pacific Northwest Laboratory conducted a study to evaluate alternatives to the design and operation of nuclear power plants, emphasizing a reduction of their vulnerability to sabotage. Estimates of core melt accident frequency during normal operations and from sabotage/tampering events were used to rank the alternatives. Core melt frequency for normal operations was estimated using sensitivity analysis of results of probabilistic risk assessments. Core melt frequency for sabotage/tampering was estimated by developing a model based on probabilistic risk analyses, historic data, engineering judgment, and safeguards analyses of plant locations where core melt events could be initiated. Results indicate the most effective alternatives focus on large areas of the plant, increase safety system redundancy, and reduce reliance on single locations for mitigation of transients. Less effective options focus on specific areas of the plant, reduce reliance on some plant areas for safe shutdown, and focus on less vulnerable targets

  6. Ranking of sabotage/tampering avoidance technology alternatives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrews, W.B.; Tabatabai, A.S.; Powers, T.B.; Daling, P.M.; Fecht, B.A.; Gore, B.F.; Overcast, T.D.; Rankin, W.R.; Schreiber, R.E.; Tawil, J.J.

    1986-01-01

    Pacific Northwest Laboratory conducted a study to evaluate alternatives to the design and operation of nuclear power plants, emphasizing a reduction of their vulnerability to sabotage. Estimates of core melt accident frequency during normal operations and from sabotage/tampering events were used to rank the alternatives. Core melt frequency for normal operations was estimated using sensitivity analysis of results of probabilistic risk assessments. Core melt frequency for sabotage/tampering was estimated by developing a model based on probabilistic risk analyses, historic data, engineering judgment, and safeguards analyses of plant locations where core melt events could be initiated. Results indicate the most effective alternatives focus on large areas of the plant, increase safety system redundancy, and reduce reliance on single locations for mitigation of transients. Less effective options focus on specific areas of the plant, reduce reliance on some plant areas for safe shutdown, and focus on less vulnerable targets.

  7. Internet pseudoscience: Testing opioid containing formulations with tampering potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pascali, Jennifer P; Fais, Paolo; Vaiano, Fabio; Pigaiani, Nicola; D'Errico, Stefano; Furlanetto, Sandra; Palumbo, Diego; Bertol, Elisabetta

    2018-05-10

    Drug tampering practices, with the aim to increase availability of drug delivery and/or enhance drug effects, are accessible on Internet and are practiced by some portion of recreational drug users. Not rarely, recreational misuse may result in toxic and even fatal results. The aim of the present study was to assess the tampering risk of medicaments containing different formulations of an opioid in combination with paracetamol or dexketoprofen, following the procedures reported in dedicated forums on the web. Tablets and suppositories containing codeine, tramadol and oxycodone were extracted following the reported "Cold water extraction"; dextromethorphan was extracted from cough syrup following the procedure reported as "Acid/base extraction" and fentanyl was extracted from transdermal patches according the procedure reported in Internet. The tampered products and opportunely prepared calibrators in water were analysed by liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). The separation of the analytes was carried on Agilent ZORBAX Eclipse Plus C18 (RRHT 2.1 mm × 50 mm, 1.8 μm) by the gradient elution of 0.01% formic acid in water and 0.01% formic acid in methanol. Acquisition was by MRM mode considering at least two transitions for compound. Declared recoveries for these home-made extractions claimed to exceed 99% for the opioid and to complete remove paracetamol, often associated to liver toxicity and thus to obtain a "safer" preparation. In this study, the authors demonstrated that rarely the recoveries for the opioid reached 90% and that up to 60% of the paracetamol amount remained in solution. Thus, high risks for health remained both for the potential lethality of the opioid content, but also for the sub-lethal chronic use of these mixtures, which contained still uncontrolled, ignored, but often important amounts of paracetamol. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Tamper-Resistant Mobile Health Using Blockchain Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    Background Digital health technologies, including telemedicine, mobile health (mHealth), and remote monitoring, are playing a greater role in medical practice. Safe and accurate management of medical information leads to the advancement of digital health, which in turn results in a number of beneficial effects. Furthermore, mHealth can help lower costs by facilitating the delivery of care and connecting people to their health care providers. Mobile apps help empower patients and health care providers to proactively address medical conditions through near real-time monitoring and treatment, regardless of the location of the patient or the health care provider. Additionally, mHealth data are stored in servers, and consequently, data management that prevents all forms of manipulation is crucial for both medical practice and clinical trials. Objective The aim of this study was to develop and evaluate a tamper-resistant mHealth system using blockchain technology, which enables trusted and auditable computing using a decentralized network. Methods We developed an mHealth system for cognitive behavioral therapy for insomnia using a smartphone app. The volunteer data collected with the app were stored in JavaScript Object Notation format and sent to the blockchain network. Thereafter, we evaluated the tamper resistance of the data against the inconsistencies caused by artificial faults. Results Electronic medical records collected using smartphones were successfully sent to a private Hyperledger Fabric blockchain network. We verified the data update process under conditions where all the validating peers were running normally. The mHealth data were successfully updated under network faults. We further ensured that any electronic health record registered to the blockchain network was resistant to tampering and revision. The mHealth data update was compatible with tamper resistance in the blockchain network. Conclusions Blockchain serves as a tamperproof system for m

  9. Optical-based smart structures for tamper-indicating applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sliva, P.; Anheier, N.C.; Simmons, K.L.; Undem, H.A.

    1996-11-01

    This report is a compilation of several related projects performed from 1991 through 1996 concerning the design, construction, and application of optical-based smart structure to tamper-indicating and sensing secure containers. Due to several influences, the projects were carried through to varying degrees of completion. Cancellation of the overall project at the client level motivated the authors to gather all of the technology and ideas about smart structures developed during these several projects, whether completed or just conceptualized, into one document. Although each section individually discusses a specific project, the overall document is written chronologically with each successive section showing how increased smart structure complexity was integrated into the container

  10. Tamper-Resistant Mobile Health Using Blockchain Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ichikawa, Daisuke; Kashiyama, Makiko; Ueno, Taro

    2017-07-26

    Digital health technologies, including telemedicine, mobile health (mHealth), and remote monitoring, are playing a greater role in medical practice. Safe and accurate management of medical information leads to the advancement of digital health, which in turn results in a number of beneficial effects. Furthermore, mHealth can help lower costs by facilitating the delivery of care and connecting people to their health care providers. Mobile apps help empower patients and health care providers to proactively address medical conditions through near real-time monitoring and treatment, regardless of the location of the patient or the health care provider. Additionally, mHealth data are stored in servers, and consequently, data management that prevents all forms of manipulation is crucial for both medical practice and clinical trials. The aim of this study was to develop and evaluate a tamper-resistant mHealth system using blockchain technology, which enables trusted and auditable computing using a decentralized network. We developed an mHealth system for cognitive behavioral therapy for insomnia using a smartphone app. The volunteer data collected with the app were stored in JavaScript Object Notation format and sent to the blockchain network. Thereafter, we evaluated the tamper resistance of the data against the inconsistencies caused by artificial faults. Electronic medical records collected using smartphones were successfully sent to a private Hyperledger Fabric blockchain network. We verified the data update process under conditions where all the validating peers were running normally. The mHealth data were successfully updated under network faults. We further ensured that any electronic health record registered to the blockchain network was resistant to tampering and revision. The mHealth data update was compatible with tamper resistance in the blockchain network. Blockchain serves as a tamperproof system for mHealth. Combining mHealth with blockchain technology may

  11. Using Focus Groups to Study Consumer Understanding and Experiences with Tamper-Evident Packaging Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pascall, Melvin A.; Lee, Ken; Fraser, Angela; Halim, Linna

    2009-01-01

    A focus group with an educational component was used to help initiate a new research hypothesis. Early-stage development of a new tamper-evident invention was improved with input from a consumer focus group. The focus group comprised consumers who were shown several tamper-evident devices, including a new color-changing cap under active…

  12. Linear-time non-malleable codes in the bit-wise independent tampering model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R.J.F. Cramer (Ronald); I.B. Damgård (Ivan); N.M. Döttling (Nico); I. Giacomelli (Irene); C. Xing (Chaoping)

    2017-01-01

    textabstractNon-malleable codes were introduced by Dziembowski et al. (ICS 2010) as coding schemes that protect a message against tampering attacks. Roughly speaking, a code is non-malleable if decoding an adversarially tampered encoding of a message m produces the original message m or a value m′

  13. Authenticating a tamper-resistant module in a base station router

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosch, H.G.P.; Kraml, M.; Mullender, Sape J.; Polakos, P.; Samuel, L.G.

    2007-01-01

    The present invention provides a method involving a tamper-resistant module and an authentication server. The method includes receiving, at the tamper-resistant module, information encrypted using a first secret key stored in the authentication server. The method also includes authenticating the

  14. Active fiber optic technologies used as tamper-indicating devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horton, P.R.V.; Waddoups, I.G.

    1995-11-01

    The Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) Safeguards and Seals Evaluation Program is evaluating new fiber optic active seal technologies for use at Department of Energy (DOE) facilities. The goal of the program is to investigate active seal technologies that can monitor secured containers storing special nuclear materials (SNM) within DOE vaults. Specifically investigated were active seal technologies that can be used as tamper-indicating devices to monitor secured containers within vaults while personnel remain outside the vault area. Such a system would allow minimal access into vaults while ensuring container content accountability. The purpose of this report is to discuss tamper-indicating devices that were evaluated for possible DOE use. While previous seal evaluations (Phase I and II) considered overall facility applications, this discussion focuses specifically on their use in vault storage situations. The report will highlight general background information, specifications and requirements, and test procedures. Also discussed are the systems available from four manufacturers: Interactive Technologies, Inc., Fiber SenSys, Inc., Inovonics, Inc., and Valve Security Systems

  15. Tamper and radiation resistant instrumentation for safeguarding special nuclear materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parsons, B.B.; Wells, J.L.

    1977-01-01

    A tamper-resistant liquid level/accountability instrumentation system for safeguards use has been developed and tested. The tests demonstrate the accuracy of liquid level measurement using TDR (Time Domain Reflectometry) techniques and the accuracy of differential pressure and temperature measurements utilizing a custom designed liquid level sensor probe. The calibrated liquid level, differential pressure, and temperature data provide sufficient information to accurately determine volume, density, and specific gravity. Test solutions used include ordinary tap water, diluted nitric acid in varying concentrations, and diluted uranium trioxide also in varying concentrations. System operations and preliminary test results conducted at the General Electric Midwest Fuel Recovery Plant and the National Bureau of Standards, respectively, suggest that the system will provide the safeguards inspector with an additional tool for real-time independent verification of normal operations and special nuclear materials accountancy data for chemical reprocessing plants. This paper discusses the system design concepts, including a brief description of the tamper and radiation resistant features, the preliminary test results, and the significance of the work

  16. Linear-Time Non-Malleable Codes in the Bit-Wise Independent Tampering Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cramer, Ronald; Damgård, Ivan Bjerre; Döttling, Nico

    Non-malleable codes were introduced by Dziembowski et al. (ICS 2010) as coding schemes that protect a message against tampering attacks. Roughly speaking, a code is non-malleable if decoding an adversarially tampered encoding of a message m produces the original message m or a value m' (eventuall...... non-malleable codes of Agrawal et al. (TCC 2015) and of Cher- aghchi and Guruswami (TCC 2014) and improves the previous result in the bit-wise tampering model: it builds the first non-malleable codes with linear-time complexity and optimal-rate (i.e. rate 1 - o(1)).......Non-malleable codes were introduced by Dziembowski et al. (ICS 2010) as coding schemes that protect a message against tampering attacks. Roughly speaking, a code is non-malleable if decoding an adversarially tampered encoding of a message m produces the original message m or a value m' (eventually...... abort) completely unrelated with m. It is known that non-malleability is possible only for restricted classes of tampering functions. Since their introduction, a long line of works has established feasibility results of non-malleable codes against different families of tampering functions. However...

  17. Apparatus and method for detecting tampering in flexible structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maxey, Lonnie C [Knoxville, TN; Haynes, Howard D [Knoxville, TN

    2011-02-01

    A system for monitoring or detecting tampering in a flexible structure includes taking electrical measurements on a sensing cable coupled to the structure, performing spectral analysis on the measured data, and comparing the spectral characteristics of the event to those of known benign and/or known suspicious events. A threshold or trigger value may used to identify an event of interest and initiate data collection. Alternatively, the system may be triggered at preset intervals, triggered manually, or triggered by a signal from another sensing device such as a motion detector. The system may be used to monitor electrical cables and conduits, hoses and flexible ducts, fences and other perimeter control devices, structural cables, flexible fabrics, and other flexible structures.

  18. Secure RFID tag or sensor with self-destruction mechanism upon tampering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nekoogar, Faranak; Dowla, Farid; Twogood, Richard; Lefton, Scott

    2016-12-27

    A circuit board anti-tamper mechanism comprises a circuit board having a frangible portion, a trigger having a trigger spring, a trigger arming mechanism actuated by the trigger wherein the trigger arming mechanism is initially non-actuated, a force producing mechanism, a latch providing mechanical communication between the trigger arming mechanism and the force producing mechanism, wherein the latch initially retains the force producing mechanism in a refracted position. Arming pressure applied to the trigger sufficient to overcome the trigger spring force will actuate the trigger arming mechanism, causing the anti-tamper mechanism to be armed. Subsequent tampering with the anti-tamper mechanism results in a decrease of pressure on the trigger below the trigger spring force, thereby causing the trigger arming mechanism to actuate the latch, thereby releasing the force producing mechanism to apply force to the frangible portion of the circuit board, thereby breaking the circuit board.

  19. Tamper-indicating devices and safeguards seals evaluation test report. Volume 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horton, P.R.V.; Waddoups, I.G.

    1995-08-01

    Volume I was based on a survey and an evaluation of seals that are used as tamper-indicating devices at DOE facilities. For that evaluation, currently available seals were physically and environmentally evaluated under two broad categories: handling durability and tamper resistance. Our study indicated that the environmental testing had no negative effects on the results of the mechanical tests. In Volume II, we evaluate some loop, fiber optic loop, and pressure-sensitive seals that are not used at DOE facilities. However, we continue to focus on qualities required by DOE: durability and tamper resistance. The seals are comparatively rated, and recommendations are made for using currently available seals and new tamper-indicating device technology.

  20. Tamper-indicating devices and safeguards seals evaluation test report. Volume 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horton, P.R.V.; Waddoups, I.G.

    1995-08-01

    Volume I was based on a survey and an evaluation of seals that are used as tamper-indicating devices at DOE facilities. For that evaluation, currently available seals were physically and environmentally evaluated under two broad categories: handling durability and tamper resistance. Our study indicated that the environmental testing had no negative effects on the results of the mechanical tests. In Volume II, we evaluate some loop, fiber optic loop, and pressure-sensitive seals that are not used at DOE facilities. However, we continue to focus on qualities required by DOE: durability and tamper resistance. The seals are comparatively rated, and recommendations are made for using currently available seals and new tamper-indicating device technology

  1. Regenerative Medicine as an Emergent Cluster in Tampere Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tuomo Heinonen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Clusters are important for regional economies and emergent clusters are in a key position, as a means of adding more diversification to the current economic activity by involving new technologies and industries. Science-based industries may be the most promising in this regard since they are encouraged to develop and enhance the economic imaginaries of territories under the umbrella of radical innovations or in the name of broadening the current economic model based on mostly traditional industries. Regenerative medicine (RM could be an example of these so-called emergent clusters. Regenerative medicine is highly dependent on academic research, which means that local territories must fund the research in this field and, hence, they expect some returns as well. As territories do not typically have existing industries specifically in RM, these industries must emerge or expand from existing ones. Regenerative medicine involves a wide spectrum of different technologies and industries that are likely to form a cluster and benefit from it if successfully developed. The first aim of this paper is to show how some obstacles eventually impede the proper development of these emergent clusters. The second aim is to shed light on how innovations emerge in the cluster and what are the main implications for the territory. In this study, existing literature is used in order to describe the technology market and commercial aspects of the RM sector. Empirically this study is based on the emergent RM cluster in the region of Tampere in Finland. Analysis of 24 conducted interviews helps to contextualize the emergence of the RM cluster in Tampere, where academia is both the booster and the driver of the emergent RM cluster. Commercialization of research in the RM field is one of the goals at the university, even though there are no commercial outcomes yet available. This study contributes to the understanding of emergent cluster development in science

  2. Reusable tamper-indicating security seal. [Patent Application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryan, M.J.

    1981-06-23

    The invention teaches means for detecting unauthorized tampering or substitutions of a device, and has particular utility when applied on a seal device used to secure a location or thing. The seal has a transparent body wall, and a first indicia, viz., a label identification is formed on the inside surface of this wall. Second and third indicia are formed on the outside surface of the transparent wall, and each of these indicia is transparent to allow the parallax angled viewing of the first indicia through these indicia. The second indicia is in the form of a broadly uniform pattern, viz., many small spaced dots; while the third indicia is in the form of easily memorized objects, such as human faces, made on a substrate by means of halftone printing. The substrate is lapped over the outside surface of the transparent wall. A thin cocoon of a transparent material, generally of the same material as the substrate such as plastic, is formed over the seal body and specifically over the transparent wall and the second and third indicia formed thereon. This cocoon is seamless and has walls of nonuniform thickness. Both the genuineness of the seal and whether anyone has attempted to compromise the seal can thus be visually determined upon inspection.

  3. Tamper indicating and sensing optical-based smart structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sliva, P.; Anheier, N.C.; Gordon, N.R.; Simmons, K.L.; Stahl, K.A.; Undem, H.A.

    1995-05-01

    This paper has presented an overview of the type of optical-based structures that can be designed and constructed. These smart structures are capable of responding to their environment. The examples given represent a modest sampling of the complexity that can be achieved in both design and practice. Tamper-indicating containers and smart, sensing windows demonstrate just a few of the applications. We have shown that optical-based smart structures can be made multifunctional with the sensing built in. The next generation smart structure will combine the sensing functionality of these optical-based smart structures with other sensors such as piezoelectrics and electro-rheological fluids to not only be able to respond to the environment, but to adapt to it as well. An example of functionality in this regime would be a piezosensor that senses pressure changes (e.g., shock waves), which then causes an electro-rheological fluid to change viscosity. A fiber sensor located in or near the electro-rheological fluid senses the stiffness change and sends a signal through a feedback loop back to the piezosensor for additional adjustments to the electro-rheological fluid

  4. Non-contact tamper sensing by electronic means

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gritton, D.G.

    1993-01-01

    A tamper-sensing tag is described comprising: a tag body adapted to be fixed against movement relative to a surface of an article, a capacitor having at least one variable-capacity section with first and second elements, said first element being positionable relative to said second element at various positions, displaced from each other, said one variable-capacity section having different amounts of capacity when said first element is in its various positions, respectively, relative to said second element, means for generating a first signal which is a function of the amount of capacity of said one variable-capacity section, said first signal having various values distinguishable from each other when said first element is in its various positions, respectively, relative to said second element, one of said first and second elements being fixed against movement relative to said tag body, and the other of said first and second elements being adapted to be fixed against movement relative to said surface of said article and with said first element being in a first position relative to said second element, said tag body and said other of said first and second elements being positionable relative to each other on said article prior to said tag body's being fixed to said article so as to enable said elements to be fixed to said article in said first position relative to each other, means in said tag for generating a second signal having a value unrelated to the amount of capacity of said one variable-capacity section, means in said tag for combining said first and second signals, means in said tag for encrypting said combined signals, means in said tag responsive to external interrogation of said tag for sending from said tag the encrypted combined signals in digital form, and wherein said means for generating said second signal has the function of changing the value of said second signal for each interrogation of said tag

  5. A graphite oxide (GO)-based remote readable tamper evident seal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cattaneo, A; Marchi, A N; Farrar, C R; Mascareñas, D D L; Bossert, J A; Gupta, G; Mohite, A; Dumont, J H; Purdy, G M; Guzman, C; Haaker, A; Miller, K A

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a prototype of a remotely readable graphite oxide (GO) paper-based tamper evident seal. The proposed device combines the tunable electrical properties offered by reduced graphite oxide (RGO) with a compressive sampling scheme. The benefit of using RGO as a tamper evident seal material is the sensitivity of its electrical properties to the common mechanisms adopted to defeat tamper-evident seals. RGO’s electrical properties vary upon local stress or cracks induced by mechanical action (e.g., produced by shimming or lifting attacks). Further, modification of the seal’s electrical properties can result from the incidence of other defeat mechanisms, such as temperature changes, solvent treatment and steam application. The electrical tunability of RGO enables the engraving of a circuit on the area of the tamper evident seal intended to be exposed to malicious attacks. The operation of the tamper evident seal, as well as its remote communication functionality, is supervised by a microcontroller unit (MCU). The MCU uses the RGO-engraved circuitry to physically implement a compressive sampling acquisition procedure. The compressive sampling scheme provides the seal with self-authentication and self-state-of-health awareness capabilities. The prototype shows potential for use in low-power, embedded, remote-operation non-proliferation security related applications. (paper)

  6. Identifying Time Measurement Tampering in the Traversal Time and Hop Count Analysis (TTHCA Wormhole Detection Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonny Karlsson

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Traversal time and hop count analysis (TTHCA is a recent wormhole detection algorithm for mobile ad hoc networks (MANET which provides enhanced detection performance against all wormhole attack variants and network types. TTHCA involves each node measuring the processing time of routing packets during the route discovery process and then delivering the measurements to the source node. In a participation mode (PM wormhole where malicious nodes appear in the routing tables as legitimate nodes, the time measurements can potentially be altered so preventing TTHCA from successfully detecting the wormhole. This paper analyses the prevailing conditions for time tampering attacks to succeed for PM wormholes, before introducing an extension to the TTHCA detection algorithm called ∆T Vector which is designed to identify time tampering, while preserving low false positive rates. Simulation results confirm that the ∆T Vector extension is able to effectively detect time tampering attacks, thereby providing an important security enhancement to the TTHCA algorithm.

  7. A Novel Image Authentication with Tamper Localization and Self-Recovery in Encrypted Domain Based on Compressive Sensing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rui Zhang

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a novel tamper detection, localization, and recovery scheme for encrypted images with Discrete Wavelet Transformation (DWT and Compressive Sensing (CS. The original image is first transformed into DWT domain and divided into important part, that is, low-frequency part, and unimportant part, that is, high-frequency part. For low-frequency part contains the main information of image, traditional chaotic encryption is employed. Then, high-frequency part is encrypted with CS to vacate space for watermark. The scheme takes the processed original image content as watermark, from which the characteristic digest values are generated. Comparing with the existing image authentication algorithms, the proposed scheme can realize not only tamper detection and localization but also tamper recovery. Moreover, tamper recovery is based on block division and the recovery accuracy varies with the contents that are possibly tampered. If either the watermark or low-frequency part is tampered, the recovery accuracy is 100%. The experimental results show that the scheme can not only distinguish the type of tamper and find the tampered blocks but also recover the main information of the original image. With great robustness and security, the scheme can adequately meet the need of secure image transmission under unreliable conditions.

  8. Watering the city of Tampere from the mid-1800s to the 21st century

    OpenAIRE

    Juuti, Petri; Katko, Tapio

    2007-01-01

    The history and development of Tampere, the biggest inland city in the Nordic countries, have been shaped extensively by issues related to water and water management over the years. The city was established along rapids that cut their way through the glacio-fl uvial esker between two large lakes some 7 500 years ago (Tikkanen 2006). Tampere is the city with the longest history of modern industrial enterprises in Finland, and it is currently known for its high-tech industries, including the re...

  9. Passive Noise Analysis for Advanced Tamper Indication. End of Year Report 2015

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baker, Benjamin [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Sanders, Jeff [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); West, James [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Svoboda, John [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2015-09-01

    Idaho National Laboratory (INL) is part of a multi-lab project assessing front-end electronics for unattended measurement (FEUM) being developed for the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) unattended systems. The FEUM development activity provides an opportunity to address tampering detection between FEUM and the detector, signal integrity from FEUM to the data acquisition systems, and data validity – long-standing challenges for the IAEA. This report summarizes the INL activities in Fiscal Year (FY) 2015 to characterize and test passive noise analysis as a potential tamper-indicating approach for implementation into FEUM or as a stand-alone method. The project’s primary objectives in FY-15 were to (1) determine detectable tamper scenarios using four pre-amplifier/detector systems, (2) perform tests of tampering scenarios with three common cable types used by the IAEA, (3) separate radio-frequency-induced events from inherent effect by means of an anechoic chamber, and (4) perform tests at an industrial facility. General conclusions were reached in several areas.

  10. 21 CFR 700.25 - Tamper-resistant packaging requirements for cosmetic products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... cosmetic products. 700.25 Section 700.25 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) COSMETICS GENERAL Requirements for Specific Cosmetic Products § 700.25 Tamper-resistant packaging requirements for cosmetic products. (a) General. Because most cosmetic liquid...

  11. Gorjatshije finskije dni : Teatralnõi festival v Tampere 10-15 avgusta 2004 / Eteri Kekelidze

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kekelidze, Eteri, 1944-

    2004-01-01

    Tampere teatrisuvi 2004 : J. Niilekselä ja M. Ulmani näidend "Taksojuhid" I. Vihmani lavastuses, J. Steinbecki "Hiirtest ja inimestest" L. Jantti lavastuses Lilla Teaternis ja A. Tšehhovi "Kolm õde" samas teatris M. Roiha lavastuses, A. Solzhenitsõni "Üks päev Ivan Denissovitshi elus" A. Zholdaki" lavastuses ja Harkovi Draamateatri esituses

  12. Use of tamper-indicating seals at model facility. Part 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Logsdon, R.B.

    1984-01-01

    Tamper-indicating seals, when applied to containers of nuclear material, serve a vital safeguards function. Because of the importance of the seal in safeguards, it is essential that their acquisition, storage, and distribution be controlled effectively. These functions are described for the model facility

  13. The Social Construction of the Urban Use of Information Technology: The Case of Tampere, Finland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inkinen, Tommi

    2006-01-01

    This paper explores the social use of information and communication technologies (ICTs) in the city of Tampere, Finland. It focuses on two essential elements: the city (as the location with national context) and citizens (as members of the "local" information society). The paper also examines the question of building social networks via…

  14. Tamper-resistant prescription forms for narcotics in France:should we generalise them?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daveluy, Amélie; Sauvaget, Lucie; Bastien, Angela; Lapeyre-Mestre, Maryse; Collin, Cédric; Richard, Nathalie; Haramburu, Françoise

    2018-03-27

    In France, prescription of narcotics must be written on a tamper-resistant prescription form with specific technical particularities. Dosage and daily dose of medicines shall be written out entirely in letters. These prescription forms are also mandatory for buprenorphine, clorazepate, clonazepam, tianeptine, buccal midazolam and zolpidem owing to traffic, abuse or diversion. In 2012, to assess the use of standard and tamper-resistant prescription forms and the acceptability of the generalization of the latter to all medicines, a national opinion survey was performed, with a postal questionnaire, within 3 randomized samples of 1,500 prescribers (physicians, dentists and midwives). Of the 403 participating prescribers (participation rate of 26.8%), 373 were physicians, 14 dentists and 16 midwives. Tamper-resistant prescription forms were used by 76.2% of prescribers, but only by 5.1% in a computerised version, whereas, for standard prescription forms, 61% used computer assisted prescription software. The main reason was the inability of the prescription software to print these forms or to respect the mandatory prescription rules for narcotics. Theft and falsification of prescriptions had ever occurred (working life). Most prescribers (62.5%) were against the generalization of tamper-resistant prescription forms. Those in favour were for a generalization to all medicines (65%) and not only to psychotropic agents. Generalization of tamper-resistant prescription forms is not a consensual solution to prevent medicines' diversion. Some prescribers alluded to the possibility of dematerialisation and electronic transmission of prescription forms, which could avoid theft, forgery or falsification. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  15. Ajatud piirajad tervendavad hinge. Eile esietendus Tartus Tampere majas Sagar Sagitta lavastus "Ajatud" / Pille-Riin Purje

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Purje, Pille-Riin, 1963-

    2006-01-01

    Sagar Sagitta lavastus "Ajatud" eesti folkloori, Uku Masingu ja Jakob Mändmetsa luule ja proosa põhjal Tartus Tampere majas, esitavad Jaan Tooming, Anne Maasik, Anne Türnpu, Madli Võsoberg, Heikki-Rein Veromann. Esietendus 26. jaan

  16. How resistant to tampering are codeine containing analgesics on the market? Assessing the potential for opioid extraction

    OpenAIRE

    Kimergård, Andreas; Deluca, Paolo; Hindersson, Peter; Breindahl, Torben

    2016-01-01

    IntroductionMisuse of opioid analgesics, in combination with diversion, dependence, and fatal overdoses, presents a serious problem for public health, which affects many countries worldwide. Within this context, tampering with opioids has been associated with serious harm. The aim of the present study was to assess the tampering potential of codeine combination analgesics on the market (containing codeine/non-opioid analgesics) by the extraction of codeine.MethodsCodeine was extracted from th...

  17. "Tampering to Death": A Fatal Codeine Intoxication Due to a Homemade Purification of a Medical Formulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fais, Paolo; Pigaiani, Nicola; Cecchetto, Giovanni; Montisci, Massimo; Gottardo, Rossella; Viel, Guido; Pascali, Jennifer Paola; Tagliaro, Franco

    2017-11-01

    Many homemade tamper processes of medical codeine formulations are available on selected "forums" on the Internet, where recreational codeine users claim to be able to purify codeine by removing additives, such as acetaminophen, to avoid or limit adverse effects. In this work, it is reported and discussed a fatal case of codeine intoxication. The findings of objects such as jars, filters, and tablets, and amounts of unknown liquid material at the death scene investigation suggested a fatal codeine intoxication after the tampering procedure called "cold water extraction." Toxicological results obtained from the analysis of both the nonbiological material and the body fluids of the decedent integrated with the information collected at the death scene investigation confirmed the above-mentioned hypothesis. This report underlines the importance of a tight interconnection between criminalistics and legal medicine to strengthen the identification of the cause of death and the reconstruction of the event. © 2017 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  18. Security protection of DICOM medical images using dual-layer reversible watermarking with tamper detection capability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Chun Kiat; Ng, Jason Changwei; Xu, Xiaotian; Poh, Chueh Loo; Guan, Yong Liang; Sheah, Kenneth

    2011-06-01

    Teleradiology applications and universal availability of patient records using web-based technology are rapidly gaining importance. Consequently, digital medical image security has become an important issue when images and their pertinent patient information are transmitted across public networks, such as the Internet. Health mandates such as the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act require healthcare providers to adhere to security measures in order to protect sensitive patient information. This paper presents a fully reversible, dual-layer watermarking scheme with tamper detection capability for medical images. The scheme utilizes concepts of public-key cryptography and reversible data-hiding technique. The scheme was tested using medical images in DICOM format. The results show that the scheme is able to ensure image authenticity and integrity, and to locate tampered regions in the images.

  19. An Efficient Semi-fragile Watermarking Scheme for Tamper Localization and Recovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Xiang; Yang, Hui; Min, Lianquan

    2018-03-01

    To solve the problem that remote sensing images are vulnerable to be tampered, a semi-fragile watermarking scheme was proposed. Binary random matrix was used as the authentication watermark, which was embedded by quantizing the maximum absolute value of directional sub-bands coefficients. The average gray level of every non-overlapping 4×4 block was adopted as the recovery watermark, which was embedded in the least significant bit. Watermarking detection could be done directly without resorting to the original images. Experimental results showed our method was robust against rational distortions to a certain extent. At the same time, it was fragile to malicious manipulation, and realized accurate localization and approximate recovery of the tampered regions. Therefore, this scheme can protect the security of remote sensing image effectively.

  20. VACOSS 3, a versatile and tamper-resistant electronic sealing system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arning, F.; Reuters, H.; Bueker, H.

    1981-01-01

    Seal systems for c/s instrumentation used at present need considerable technical and personal expenditure for installation and verification. This paper describes new electronic seal system VACOSS 3, developed by ProCom GmbH, Aachen, and the Nuclear Research Center Juelich within the frame work of an IAEA research contract. This system allows simple installation, verification, the possibility of remote verification and has high tamper resistance

  1. Vertically and Horizontally Mounted Wind Mills : Wind Energy Production in Tampere University of Applied Sciences

    OpenAIRE

    Evdokimova, Ekaterina

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this thesis was to gather information about vertical and horizontal wind mills and to complete a research on wind power production by wind mills which were installed in Tampere University of Applied Sciences. The horizontally mounted wind mill Windspot 3.5 and vertically mounted wind mill Cypress were installed in summer 2011 but they started functioning and supplying energy only during 2012. In the theoretical part of this thesis wind speed and wind power production is dis...

  2. Optically resonant subwavelength films for tamper-indicating tags and seals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvine, Kyle J.; Suter, Jonathan D.; Bernacki, Bruce E.; Bennett, Wendy D.

    2015-05-01

    We present the design, modeling and performance of a proof-of-concept tamper indicating approach that exploits newlydeveloped subwavelength-patterned films. These films have a nanostructure-dependent resonant optical reflection that is wavelength, angle, and polarization dependent. As such, they can be tailored to fabricate overlay transparent films for tamper indication and authentication of sensitive or controlled materials not possible with currently-known technologies. An additional advantage is that the unique optical signature is dictated by the geometry and fabrication process of the nanostructures in the film, rather than on the material used. The essential structure unit in the subwavelength resonant coating is a nanoscale Open-Ring Resonator (ORR). This building block is fabricated by coating a dielectric nanoscale template with metal to form a hemispherical shell-like structure. This curved metallic shell structure has a cross-section with an intrinsic capacitance and inductance and is thus the optical equivalent to the well-known "LC" circuit where the capacitance and inductance are determined by the nanoshell dimensions. For structures with sub 100 nm scale, this resonance occurs in the visible electromagnetic spectrum, and in the IR for larger shells. Tampering of the film would be visible though misalignment of the angle-sensitive features in the film. It is additionally possible to add in intrinsic oxidation and strain sensitive matrix materials to further complicate tamper repair and counterfeiting. Cursory standoff readout would be relatively simple using a combination of a near-infrared (or visible) LED flashlight and polarizer or passively using room lighting illumination and a dispersive detector.

  3. Tamper temperature and compression from simultaneous proton and alpha-particle measurements in laser fusion experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cover, R.A.; Kubis, J.J.; Mayer, F.J.; Slater, D.C.

    1978-01-01

    The energy loss per unit path length for a charged particle incident on a spatially uniform isothermal Maxwellian plasma is a function of the temperature and density of the medium. Within this model the temperature and compression rhoΔr of the tamper of a laser-driven microshell target can be accurately determined, in the absence of electrostatic acceleration, by the simultaneous measurement of the energy loss from 3.52-MeV α particles from D-T reactions and 3.02-MeV protons from D-D reactions

  4. Identification of Sparse Audio Tampering Using Distributed Source Coding and Compressive Sensing Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valenzise G

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In the past few years, a large amount of techniques have been proposed to identify whether a multimedia content has been illegally tampered or not. Nevertheless, very few efforts have been devoted to identifying which kind of attack has been carried out, especially due to the large data required for this task. We propose a novel hashing scheme which exploits the paradigms of compressive sensing and distributed source coding to generate a compact hash signature, and we apply it to the case of audio content protection. The audio content provider produces a small hash signature by computing a limited number of random projections of a perceptual, time-frequency representation of the original audio stream; the audio hash is given by the syndrome bits of an LDPC code applied to the projections. At the content user side, the hash is decoded using distributed source coding tools. If the tampering is sparsifiable or compressible in some orthonormal basis or redundant dictionary, it is possible to identify the time-frequency position of the attack, with a hash size as small as 200 bits/second; the bit saving obtained by introducing distributed source coding ranges between 20% to 70%.

  5. Uniquely identifiable tamper-evident device using coupling between subwavelength gratings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fievre, Ange Marie Patricia

    Reliability and sensitive information protection are critical aspects of integrated circuits. A novel technique using near-field evanescent wave coupling from two subwavelength gratings (SWGs), with the input laser source delivered through an optical fiber is presented for tamper evidence of electronic components. The first grating of the pair of coupled subwavelength gratings (CSWGs) was milled directly on the output facet of the silica fiber using focused ion beam (FIB) etching. The second grating was patterned using e-beam lithography and etched into a glass substrate using reactive ion etching (RIE). The slightest intrusion attempt would separate the CSWGs and eliminate near-field coupling between the gratings. Tampering, therefore, would become evident. Computer simulations guided the design for optimal operation of the security solution. The physical dimensions of the SWGs, i.e. period and thickness, were optimized, for a 650 nm illuminating wavelength. The optimal dimensions resulted in a 560 nm grating period for the first grating etched in the silica optical fiber and 420 nm for the second grating etched in borosilicate glass. The incident light beam had a half-width at half-maximum (HWHM) of at least 7 microm to allow discernible higher transmission orders, and a HWHM of 28 microm for minimum noise. The minimum number of individual grating lines present on the optical fiber facet was identified as 15 lines. Grating rotation due to the cylindrical geometry of the fiber resulted in a rotation of the far-field pattern, corresponding to the rotation angle of moire fringes. With the goal of later adding authentication to tamper evidence, the concept of CSWGs signature was also modeled by introducing random and planned variations in the glass grating. The fiber was placed on a stage supported by a nanomanipulator, which permitted three-dimensional displacement while maintaining the fiber tip normal to the surface of the glass substrate. A 650 nm diode laser was

  6. Workshops on tamper-indicating device (TID) programs and program administration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Key, C.; Dickman, D.A.; Amacker, O.P. Jr.

    1996-01-01

    The US/Russia Government-to-Government Cooperative Program for Material Protection, Control and Accounting (MPC and A) was established in an agreement between the Department of Defense of the US and the Ministry of the Russian Federation for Atomic Energy (MINATOM). The goal of this program is to attain certain rapid progress in the improvement of nuclear material protection, control, and accounting in the Russian nuclear complex. One program element of materials control and accounting (MC and A) in the US is the use of tamper-indicating devices (TIDs) as a layer of defense in depth protection against possible theft and/or diversion of nuclear materials. A TID Workshop was developed in the US for implementation throughout Russia as a means for MPC and A. This paper describes the development, implementation, and results to date of the TID Workshops

  7. Time-Domain Reflectometry for Tamper Indication in Unattended Monitoring Systems for Safeguards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tedeschi, Jonathan R. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Smith, Leon E. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Moore, David E. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Sheen, David M. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Conrad, Ryan C. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2014-12-01

    The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) continues to expand its use of unattended, remotely monitored measurement systems. An increasing number of systems and an expanding family of instruments create challenges in terms of deployment efficiency and the implementation of data authentication measures. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) leads a collaboration that is exploring various tamper-indicating (TI) measures that could help to address some of the long-standing detector and data-transmission authentication challenges with IAEA’s unattended systems. PNNL is investigating the viability of active time-domain reflectometry (TDR) along two parallel but interconnected paths: (1) swept-frequency TDR as the highly flexible, laboratory gold standard to which field-deployable options can be compared, and (2) a low-cost commercially available spread-spectrum TDR technology as one option for field implementation. This report describes PNNL’s progress and preliminary findings from the first year of the study, and describes the path forward.

  8. Tamper-proof secret image-sharing scheme for identifying cheated secret keys and shared images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chien-Chang; Liu, Chong-An

    2013-01-01

    A (t,n) secret image-sharing scheme shares a secret image to n participants, and the t users recover the image. During the recovery procedure of a conventional secret image-sharing scheme, cheaters may use counterfeit secret keys or modified shared images to cheat other users' secret keys and shared images. A cheated secret key or shared image leads to an incorrect secret image. Unfortunately, the cheater cannot be identified. We present an exponent and modulus-based scheme to provide a tamper-proof secret image-sharing scheme for identifying cheaters on secret keys or shared images. The proposed scheme allows users to securely select their secret key. This assignment can be performed over networks. Modulus results of each shared image is calculated to recognize cheaters of a shared image. Experimental results indicate that the proposed scheme is excellent at identifying cheated secret keys and shared images.

  9. Tampering by office-based methadone maintenance patients with methadone take home privileges: a pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frank Nathan

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Methadone Maintenance Treatment (MMT is among the most widely studied treatments for opiate dependence with proven benefits for patients and society. When misused, however, methadone can also be lethal. The issue of methadone diversion is a major concern for all MMT programs. A potential source for such diversion is from those MMT patients who receive daily take home methadone doses. Using a reverse phase high performance liquid chromatography method, seven of the nine patients who were randomly selected to have all of their remaining methadone take home doses (within a 24 hour period analyzed, returned lower than expected quantities of methadone. This finding suggests the possibility that such patients may have tampered with their daily take home doses. Larger prospective observational studies are clearly needed to test the supposition of this pilot study.

  10. Fiber Optic Tamper Indicating Enclosure (TIE); A Case Study in Authentication

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anheier, Norman C.; Benz, Jacob M.; Tanner, Jennifer E.; Westman, Matthew P.

    2015-07-15

    A robust fiber optic-based tamper-indicating enclosure (TIE) has been developed by PNNL through funding by the National Nuclear Security Administration Office of Nuclear Verification over the past few years. The objective of this work is to allow monitors to have confidence in both the authenticity and integrity of the TIE and the monitoring equipment inside, throughout the time it may be located at a host facility. Incorporating authentication features into the design were the focus of fiscal year 2014 development efforts. Throughout the development process, modifications have been made to the physical TIE design based on lessons learned via exercises and expert elicitation. The end result is a robust and passive TIE which can be utilized to protect monitoring party equipment left in a host facility.

  11. The Design and Implementation of Tamper Resistance for Mobile Game Service

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hang Bae Chang

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The commensurate number of the attacks and infringement targeting a vulnerability of the game service has been increasing constantly, due to the dramatic growth and expansion of the impact of the game industry. However, there exist no subsequent researches for the differentiated technology, which is to prevent the reverse function of the game service. Therefore, in this study, we examined the current status of infringement toward online game services which are provided in the market currently and designed the proper technical measures ('Software Tamper Resistance' for a manipulation of the game service which is the most vulnerable part. In detail, we have encrypted an execution file and decrypted it in real time process. After that we implemented antibebugging, disassemble, and antidump technology.

  12. Front-End Electronics for Verification Measurements: Performance Evaluation and Viability of Advanced Tamper Indicating Measures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, E.; Conrad, R.; Morris, S.; Ramuhalli, P.; Sheen, D.; Schanfein, M.; Ianakiev, K.; Browne, M.; Svoboda, J.

    2015-01-01

    The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) continues to expand its use of unattended, remotely monitored measurement systems. An increasing number of systems and an expanding family of instruments create challenges in terms of deployment efficiency and the implementation of data authentication measures. A collaboration between Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), Idaho National Laboratory (INL), and Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) is working to advance the IAEA's capabilities in these areas. The first objective of the project is to perform a comprehensive evaluation of a prototype front-end electronics package, as specified by the IAEA and procured from a commercial vendor. This evaluation begins with an assessment against the IAEA's original technical specifications and expands to consider the strengths and limitations over a broad range of important parameters that include: sensor types, cable types, and the spectrum of industrial electromagnetic noise that can degrade signals from remotely located detectors. A second objective of the collaboration is to explore advanced tamper-indicating (TI) measures that could help to address some of the long-standing data authentication challenges with IAEA's unattended systems. The collaboration has defined high-priority tampering scenarios to consider (e.g., replacement of sensor, intrusion into cable), and drafted preliminary requirements for advanced TI measures. The collaborators are performing independent TI investigations of different candidate approaches: active time-domain reflectometry (PNNL), passive noise analysis (INL), and pulse-by-pulse analysis and correction (LANL). The initial investigations focus on scenarios where new TI measures are retrofitted into existing IAEA UMS deployments; subsequent work will consider the integration of advanced TI methods into new IAEA UMS deployments where the detector is separated from the front-end electronics. In this paper, project progress

  13. Kuulates ja võrreldes : Soome Jalostuspäivät Tamperes 19.02.2011 / Raigo Kollom

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kollom, Raigo, 1936-

    2011-01-01

    Lühiülevaade veebruaris Tamperes toimunud Jalotuspäivät koolitusest, mille peaesinejad olid Taani DWB tõuraamatu aretusjuht ja WBFSH peasekretär Karina Christiansen, dr Kathryn F. Stock Hannoveri Veterinaarmeditsiini Ülikoolist ja Soome parim takistussõitja Mikael Forsten ning põhiteemaks ratsahobuste aretus, samuti võrreldakse artiklis eri riikide hobumajanduse teenistuses olevad keskandmebaase ja aretusvalikuid. Järgneb ajakirja lõpus ESHKS infolehe veergudel

  14. Operator agency in process intervention: tampering versus application of tacit knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Gestel, P.; Pons, D. J.; Pulakanam, V.

    2015-09-01

    Statistical process control (SPC) theory takes a negative view of adjustment of process settings, which is termed tampering. In contrast, quality and lean programmes actively encourage operators to acts of intervention and personal agency in the improvement of production outcomes. This creates a conflict that requires operator judgement: How does one differentiate between unnecessary tampering and needful intervention? Also, difficult is that operators apply tacit knowledge to such judgements. There is a need to determine where in a given production process the operators are applying tacit knowledge, and whether this is hindering or aiding quality outcomes. The work involved the conjoint application of systems engineering, statistics, and knowledge management principles, in the context of a case study. Systems engineering was used to create a functional model of a real plant. Actual plant data were analysed with the statistical methods of ANOVA, feature selection, and link analysis. This identified the variables to which the output quality was most sensitive. These key variables were mapped back to the functional model. Fieldwork was then directed to those areas to prospect for operator judgement activities. A natural conversational approach was used to determine where and how operators were applying judgement. This contrasts to the interrogative approach of conventional knowledge management. Data are presented for a case study of a meat rendering plant. The results identify specific areas where operators' tacit knowledge and mental model contribute to quality outcomes and untangles the motivations behind their agency. Also evident is how novice and expert operators apply their knowledge differently. Novices were focussed on meeting throughput objectives, and their incomplete understanding of the plant characteristics led them to inadvertently sacrifice quality in the pursuit of productivity in certain situations. Operators' responses to the plant are affected by

  15. A data communications systems for tamper-protected special nuclear materials (SNM) inventory management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hurkamp, A.C.

    1995-01-01

    The Department of Energy (D.O.E.) is responsible for the long term storage and protection of large quantities of Special Nuclear Material (SNM). This material is stored within individual containers located in vaults. Security measures are required to ensure that the SNM remains within the canisters where it is stored and that it is not disturbed in any manner. Conventional security and inventory techniques are manpower intensive and often require exposure to radiation hazards. The Purpose of this D.O.E sponsored project is to develop a cost effective system to monitor Special Nuclear Materials that, when fielded, would result in an extension of manual inventory cycles at a wide variety of SNM storage locations. The system consists of a computer, radio frequency interrogator, and individual miniaturized radio frequency transponders (tags) that are co-located with individual SNM containers. Each tag can perform SNM inventory, tamper alarm, and multiple sensor data transmission to the interrogator under the control of software designed by the user. SNM custodians can customize the system by their choice of packaging, software, and sensors. When implemented in accordance with current department of energy (D.O.E.) Policy on SNM inventory extension, the system has the potential to qualify for maximum extension times thus saving considerable resources through reduction of radiation exposure

  16. The indirect detection of bleach (sodium hypochlorite) in beverages as evidence of product tampering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, David S; Crockett, David F; Wolnik, Karen A

    2006-07-01

    Bleach (sodium hypochlorite) has been identified as the adulterant in a relatively large number of product tamperings that have been investigated by the Forensic Chemistry Center (FCC) of the U.S. Food and Drug Administration. In this work, household bleach was added to 23 different beverages at each of three levels. The impact of sodium hypochlorite on these beverages over a 13-day study period was evaluated using the following techniques: diphenylamine spot test for oxidizing agents, potassium iodide-starch test paper for oxidizing agents, pH, iodometric titration for quantitating hypochlorite, ion chromatography for chloride and chlorate quantitation, automated headspace sampling with gas chromatography-flame ionization detection (GC-FID) for determination of chloroform, and visual and organoleptic observations. This study has shown that hypochlorite is fragile when added to most common beverages and typically breaks down either partially or completely over time. In cases where a beverage is suspected of being adulterated with bleach but tests for hypochlorite are negative, it is still possible to characterize the product to demonstrate that the results are consistent with the addition of bleach. An adulterated product will give a positive test for oxidizing agents using the diphenylamine spot test. It is likely that the pH of the adulterated product will be higher than a control of that product. Ion chromatographic analysis shows elevated chloride and chlorate as compared with a control. And, chloroform may also be detected by GC-FID especially if the beverage that was adulterated contains citric acid.

  17. HiGate (High Grade Anti-Tamper Equipment Prototype and Application to e-Discovery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yui Sakurai

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available These days, most data is digitized and processed in various ways by computers. In the past, computer owners were free to process data as desired and to observe the inputted data as well as the interim results. However, the unrestricted processing of data and accessing of interim results even by computer users is associated with an increasing number of adverse events. These adverse events often occur when sensitive data such as personal or confidential business information must be handled by two or more parties, such as in the case of e-Discovery, used in legal proceedings, or epidemiologic studies. To solve this problem, providers encrypt data, and the owner of the computer performs decoding in the memory for encrypted data. The computer owner can be limited to performing only certain processing of data and to observing only the final results. As an implementation that uses existing technology to realize this solution, the processing of data contained in a smart card was considered, but such an implementation would not be practical due to issues related to computer capacity and processing speed. Accordingly, the authors present the concept of PC-based High Grade Anti-Tamper Equipment (HiGATE, which allows data to be handled without revealing the data content to administrators or users. To verify this concept, an e-Discovery application on a prototype was executed and the results are reported here.

  18. Kansainvälisen markkinointiviestinnän kehittämisen vertaileva tutkimus Tampere-talolle

    OpenAIRE

    Mäkinen, Kirsikka

    2015-01-01

    Tämän opinnäytetyön tarkoitus oli selvittää, kuinka suomalainen kongressikeskus Tampere-talo voisi parantaa kansainvälistä markkinointiviestintäänsä. Tutkimus toteutettiin kvalitatiivisena tutkimusmenetelmänä sekä benchmarking-tutkimustekniikalla. Opinnäytetyön teoriaosuus sisältää lisäksi joitain keskeisimpinä pidettyjä haasteita markkinointiviestinnän kansainvälisessä kontekstissa ja tämä näkökulma on pidetty mukana läpi tutkimuksen, myös tuloksia analysoidessa. Vertailukohteiksi Tampe...

  19. Planar ultra thin glass seals with optical fiber interface for monitoring tamper attacks on security eminent components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiel, M.; Flachenecker, G.; Schade, W.; Gorecki, C.; Thoma, A.; Rathje, R.

    2017-11-01

    Optical seals consisting of waveguide Bragg grating sensor structures in ultra thin glass transparencies have been developed to cover security relevant objects for detection of unauthorized access. For generation of optical signature in the seals, femtosecond laser pulses were used. The optical seals were connected with an optical fiber to enable external read out of the seal. Different attack scenarios for getting undetected access to the object, covered by the seal, were proven and evaluated. The results presented here, verify a very high level of security. An unauthorized detaching and subsequent replacement by original or copy of the seals for tampering would be accompanied with a very high technological effort, posing a substantial barrier towards an attacker. Additionally, environmental influences like temperature effects have a strong but reproducible influence on signature, which in context of a temperature reference database increases the level of security significantly.

  20. Process design and control of a twin screw hot melt extrusion for continuous pharmaceutical tamper-resistant tablet production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baronsky-Probst, J; Möltgen, C-V; Kessler, W; Kessler, R W

    2016-05-25

    Hot melt extrusion (HME) is a well-known process within the plastic and food industries that has been utilized for the past several decades and is increasingly accepted by the pharmaceutical industry for continuous manufacturing. For tamper-resistant formulations of e.g. opioids, HME is the most efficient production technique. The focus of this study is thus to evaluate the manufacturability of the HME process for tamper-resistant formulations. Parameters such as the specific mechanical energy (SME), as well as the melt pressure and its standard deviation, are important and will be discussed in this study. In the first step, the existing process data are analyzed by means of multivariate data analysis. Key critical process parameters such as feed rate, screw speed, and the concentration of the API in the polymers are identified, and critical quality parameters of the tablet are defined. In the second step, a relationship between the critical material, product and process quality attributes are established by means of Design of Experiments (DoEs). The resulting SME and the temperature at the die are essential data points needed to indirectly qualify the degradation of the API, which should be minimal. NIR-spectroscopy is used to monitor the material during the extrusion process. In contrast to most applications in which the probe is directly integrated into the die, the optical sensor is integrated into the cooling line of the strands. This saves costs in the probe design and maintenance and increases the robustness of the chemometric models. Finally, a process measurement system is installed to monitor and control all of the critical attributes in real-time by means of first principles, DoE models, soft sensor models, and spectroscopic information. Overall, the process is very robust as long as the screw speed is kept low. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Occupational exposure to electric and magnetic fields during work tasks at 110 kV substations in the Tampere region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korpinen, Leena H; Pääkkönen, Rauno J

    2010-04-01

    The occupational exposure to electric and magnetic fields during various work tasks at seven 110 kV substations in Finland's Tampere region was studied. The aim was to investigate if the action values (10 kV/m for the E-field and 500 microT for the B-field) of the EU Directive 2004/40/EC were exceeded. Electric and magnetic fields were measured during the following work tasks: (1) walking or operating devices on the ground; (2) working from a service platform; (3) working around the power transformer on the ground or using a ladder; and (4) changing a bulb from a man hoist. In work task 2 "working from a service platform" the measured electric field (maximum value 16.6 kV/m) exceeded 10 kV/m in three cases. In the future it is important to study if the limit value (10 mA/m(2)) of Directive 2004/40/EC is exceeded at 110 kV substations. The occupational 500 microT action value of the magnetic flux density field (B-field) was not exceeded in any working situation.

  2. Potential and impacts of car-sharing in the Helsinki metropolitan area, Tampere and Turku; Autojen yhteiskayton potentiaali ja vaikutukset paakaupunkiseudulla, Turussa ja Tampereella

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Voltti, V.

    2010-07-01

    The objective of the study was to assess the potential and impacts of car-sharing in the Helsinki metropolitan area, Tampere and Turku. Car-sharing means flexible car rental suitable for everyday needs. It is a service that is growing rapidly in Central Europe and North America. The number car-sharing users has increased, for example, in Belgium by approximately 35% and in Great Britain by up to 70-100% each year. The characteristics of car sharers have been studied on the basis of an online questionnaire aimed at the customers of the City Car Club operating in the Helsinki metropolitan area. The potential number of car-sharing customers has been estimated, for example, with the so called 'Kulkuri' postal survey material and the National Travel Survey (HLT) material, based on a population-based cohort. In addition to the questionnaire material, overseas studies and statistical data from car-sharing operators in various countries have also been used as source and reference material. Car sharers are typically young adults. In the Helsinki metropolitan area, almost half of car sharers are families with children. The most popular reasons for using car sharing cars include shopping trips and various leisure trips. The daily travel of car sharers relies strongly on public transport. As a result of its transparent cost structure, a car-sharing car is not used in vain, and therefore public transport, cycling and walking remain as primary modes of travel. Approximately 60% of households using the car-sharing service have not owned a car before joining the car-sharing service. After joining, about 80% of households do not own a car. Approximately 30% of customers give up a previously owned car and about 20% of customers who did not own a car will not purchase one, either. One car-sharing car replaces about 20 private cars, and therefore more widespread use of car-sharing will save street space to a considerable extent. The mobility options for car sharers who were

  3. 40 CFR 204.58-2 - Tampering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... noise control systems on compressors subject to this part. (Secs. 6 and 13, Noise Control Act, Pub. L... rendering inoperative of noise control devices or elements of design of the compressor. (b) The manufacturer... Control System Prohibited Federal law prohibits the following acts or the causing thereof: (1) The removal...

  4. Forensic Analysis of Digital Image Tampering

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-12-01

    analysis of when each method fails, which Chapter 4 discusses. Finally, a test image containing an invisible watermark using LSB steganography is...2.2 – Example of invisible watermark using Steganography Software F5 ............. 8 Figure 2.3 – Example of copy-move image forgery [12...used to embed the hidden watermark is Steganography Software F5 version 11+ discussed in Section 2.2. Original JPEG Image – 580 x 435 – 17.4

  5. A Case for Tamper-Resistant and Tamper-Evident Computer Systems

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Solihin, Yan

    2007-01-01

    .... These attacks attempt to snoop or modify data transfer between various chips in a computer system such as between the processor and memory, and between processors in a multiprocessor interconnect network...

  6. Myynnin ja markkinoinnin parantaminen case Lady Line Tampere

    OpenAIRE

    Savolainen, Johanna

    2016-01-01

    Tämän opinnäytetyön tavoitteena oli kehittää myynnin ja markkinoinnin keinoja franchising-yrityksessä. Toimeksiantaja työlle oli Lady Line Tampereen toimitusjohtaja Jukka Heinola. Heinola omistaa Tampereen Lady Linen toimipisteen sekä Nokian Lady Linen toimipisteen. Lady Line on suomalainen naisten hyvinvointi ketju, joka on aloittanut toimintansa vuonna 1987 Vaasassa. Markkinoinnissa liikkumavaraa on jonkin verran, mutta rajoitteitakin löytyy kiitettävästi. Lady Linen jokainen keskus noudatt...

  7. Tampere pilvelõhkuja Tallinnast üle

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2006-01-01

    Tamperesse kavatsetakse ehitada 37korruseline hotell Tähtitorni, mille kõrguseks tuleks 141 meetrit. Tallinna kõrgeim hoone on 124meetrine Oleviste kirik. Põhjamaade kõrgeim hoone on 190meetrine elamu Rootsis Malmös

  8. Behind the Box: A Sociological Analysis of Theft, Tampering and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    There is no gainsaying the fact that besides the physical requirements of food and shelter, man has another fundamental need, the need to communicate with his fellow human beings. The urge for communication is natural, primal and, in our modern interdependent world, a necessity. Indeed, our social life revolves around ...

  9. Iz Berlina v Tampere za neskolko tshasov? / Helga Balode

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Balode, Helga

    2002-01-01

    Rail Baltica raudtee, mis hakkab reisi- ja kaubaronge teenindama marsruudil Tallinn-Varssavi, läheb maksma miljardeid kroone. Kommenteerivad Soome transpordi- ja kommunikatsiooniministeeriumi nõunik Kai-Peter Mattson, Läti sideministeeriumi raudteeosakonnajuhataja Janis Veidmanis ja Eesti raudteeameti peadirektor Oleg Epner

  10. Secure Oblivious Hiding, Authentication, Tamper Proofing, and Verification Techniques

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Fridrich, Jessica

    2002-01-01

    In this report, we describe an algorithm for robust visual hash functions with applications to digital image watermarking for authentication and integrity verification of video data and still images...

  11. Tampering detection system using quantum-mechanical systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humble, Travis S [Knoxville, TN; Bennink, Ryan S [Knoxville, TN; Grice, Warren P [Oak Ridge, TN

    2011-12-13

    The use of quantum-mechanically entangled photons for monitoring the integrity of a physical border or a communication link is described. The no-cloning principle of quantum information science is used as protection against an intruder's ability to spoof a sensor receiver using a `classical` intercept-resend attack. Correlated measurement outcomes from polarization-entangled photons are used to protect against quantum intercept-resend attacks, i.e., attacks using quantum teleportation.

  12. Tampering detection system using quantum-mechanical systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Humble, Travis S [Knoxville, TN; Bennink, Ryan S [Knoxville, TN; Grice, Warren P [Oak Ridge, TN

    2011-12-13

    The use of quantum-mechanically entangled photons for monitoring the integrity of a physical border or a communication link is described. The no-cloning principle of quantum information science is used as protection against an intruder's ability to spoof a sensor receiver using a `classical` intercept-resend attack. Correlated measurement outcomes from polarization-entangled photons are used to protect against quantum intercept-resend attacks, i.e., attacks using quantum teleportation.

  13. Soome valitsuskommunikatsioonis puhuvad muutuste tuuled / Päivi Tampere

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Tampere, Päivi

    2016-01-01

    Soome riigikantselei moodustas 2016. a. veebruaris töörühma, et hinnata valitsuse ja ministeeriumite kommunikatsiooni. Kogutud informatsiooni põhjal koostatud kommunikatsiooni SWOT-analüüsist, kus loetleti põhilised tugevused, nõrkused, võimalused ja ohud ning soovitused muutusteks ja uuendusteks

  14. Tamper-Resistant Mobile Health Using Blockchain Technology

    OpenAIRE

    Ichikawa, Daisuke; Kashiyama, Makiko; Ueno, Taro

    2017-01-01

    Background Digital health technologies, including telemedicine, mobile health (mHealth), and remote monitoring, are playing a greater role in medical practice. Safe and accurate management of medical information leads to the advancement of digital health, which in turn results in a number of beneficial effects. Furthermore, mHealth can help lower costs by facilitating the delivery of care and connecting people to their health care providers. Mobile apps help empower patients and health care p...

  15. A Tamper-Resistant and Portable Healthcare Folder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolas Anciaux

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Electronic health record (EHR projects have been launched in most developed countries to increase the quality of healthcare while decreasing its cost. The benefits provided by centralizing the healthcare information in database systems are unquestionable in terms of information quality, availability, and protection against failure. Yet, patients are reluctant to give to a distant server the control over highly sensitive data (e.g., data revealing a severe or shameful disease. This paper capitalizes on a new hardware portable device, associating the security of a smart card to the storage capacity of a USB key, to give back to the patient the control over his medical data. This paper shows how this device can complement a traditional EHR server to (1 protect and share highly sensitive data among trusted parties and (2 provide a seamless access to the data even in disconnected mode. The proposed architecture is experimented in the context of a medicosocial network providing medical care and social services at home for elderly people.

  16. Continuous Tamper-proof Logging using TPM2.0

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-16

    process each log entry. Additional hardware support could mitigate this problem. Tradeoffs between performance and security guarantees Disk write...becomes weaker as the block size increases. This problem is mitigated in protocol B by allowing offline recovery from a power failure and detection of...M.K., Isozaki, H.: Flicker : An execution infrastructure for TCB minimization. ACM SIGOPS Operating Systems Review 42(4) (2008) 315–328 24. Parno, B

  17. License protection with a tamper-resistant token

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chong, C.N.; Ren, Bin; Doumen, J.M.; Etalle, Sandro; Hartel, Pieter H.; Corin, R.J.; Lim, Chae Hoon; Yung, Moti

    Content protection mechanisms are intended to enforce the usage rights on the content. These usage rights are carried by a license. Sometimes, a license even carries the key that is used to unlock the protected content. Unfortunately, license protection is difficult, yet it is important for digital

  18. GEOGRAPHICAL ASSESMENT OF RESULTS FROM PREVENTING THE PARAMETER TAMPERING IN A WEB APPLICATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Menemencioğlu

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The improving usage of internet and attained intensity of usage rate attracts the malicious in around the world. Many preventing systems are offered by researchers with different infrastructures. Very effective preventing system was proposed most recently by the researchers. The previously offered mechanism has prevented the multi-type vulnerabilities after preventing system was put into use. The attack attempts have been recorded. The researchers analysed the results geographically, discussed the obtained results and made some inference of the results. Our assessments show that the geographical findings can be used to retrieve some implication and build an infrastructure which prevents the vulnerabilities by location.

  19. Elcodrum I, a tamper-resistant and integrity controlled container for SNM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bueker, H.; Arning, F.; Reuters, H.; Nicolai, S.

    1984-01-01

    The safekeeping of special nuclear material (SNM) requires the use of a container with opening and surface area protection, which means that any access to the nuclear material whether by opening or damaging the container shell must be recorded. Based on the optoelectronic sensor principle, a 55-gallon drum with opening and surface area protection has been developed for which the opening status as well as the integrity of its entire surface can be verified at any time in a tamperproof manner. This may be done either ''in situ'' or from a remote monitoring station by means of a computer-aided remote verification system. The prototype of such a container has been successfully tested for more than five months at the Juelich Nuclear Research Center. It can be used both for national and international nuclear materials safeguards. It also offers itself for application in the planned ''International Plutonium Storage (IPS)'' system. The design and functioning of the container as well as the use of several containers in conjunction with a computer-aided remote verification system will be described

  20. 23 CFR Appendix A to Part 1313 - Tamper Resistant Driver's License

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...) Block graphics. (15) Security fonts and graphics with known hidden flaws. (16) Card stock, layer with colors. (17) Micro-graphics. (18) Retroflective security logos. (19) Machine readable technologies such... permit that has one or more of the following security features: (1) Ghost image. (2) Ghost graphic. (3...

  1. 21 CFR 800.12 - Contact lens solutions and tablets; tamper-resistant packaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL Requirements for Specific Medical Devices § 800... packer who packages for retail sale a product regulated as a medical device that is a solution intended... bottle with a shrink band could say “For your protection, this bottle has an imprinted seal around the...

  2. 49 CFR Appendix C to Part 218 - Statement of Agency Enforcement Policy on Tampering

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... available under the railroad safety laws and made individuals liable for willful violations of those laws... brings FRA's enforcement of the rail safety laws into a new era and because the changes being introduced... simple negligence standard of conduct, i.e., a standard of reasonable care under the circumstances. FRA's...

  3. Sulgmadu ja jaaguarijumal : Mehhiko ja Guatemala indiaani kultuur Tampere kunstimuuseumis / Livia Viitol

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Viitol, Livia, 1953-

    1998-01-01

    Kolumbuse-eelse mesoameerika indiaani kultuuride näitus. Eksponeeritud 350 Mehhiko, Guatemala ja Prantsuse muuseumidele kuuluvat eksponaati ajavahemikust 1500 a. e. kr.-1500 a. p. kr. Indiaani jumalatest

  4. A Maximum Entropy-Based Chaotic Time-Variant Fragile Watermarking Scheme for Image Tampering Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guo-Jheng Yang

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The fragile watermarking technique is used to protect intellectual property rights while also providing security and rigorous protection. In order to protect the copyright of the creators, it can be implanted in some representative text or totem. Because all of the media on the Internet are digital, protection has become a critical issue, and determining how to use digital watermarks to protect digital media is thus the topic of our research. This paper uses the Logistic map with parameter u = 4 to generate chaotic dynamic behavior with the maximum entropy 1. This approach increases the security and rigor of the protection. The main research target of information hiding is determining how to hide confidential data so that the naked eye cannot see the difference. Next, we introduce one method of information hiding. Generally speaking, if the image only goes through Arnold’s cat map and the Logistic map, it seems to lack sufficient security. Therefore, our emphasis is on controlling Arnold’s cat map and the initial value of the chaos system to undergo small changes and generate different chaos sequences. Thus, the current time is used to not only make encryption more stringent but also to enhance the security of the digital media.

  5. Tampering with springs: phosphorylation of titin affecting the mechanical function of cardiomyocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamdani, Nazha; Herwig, Melissa; Linke, Wolfgang A

    2017-06-01

    Reversible post-translational modifications of various cardiac proteins regulate the mechanical properties of the cardiomyocytes and thus modulate the contractile performance of the heart. The giant protein titin forms a continuous filament network in the sarcomeres of striated muscle cells, where it determines passive tension development and modulates active contraction. These mechanical properties of titin are altered through post-translational modifications, particularly phosphorylation. Titin contains hundreds of potential phosphorylation sites, the functional relevance of which is only beginning to emerge. Here, we provide a state-of-the-art summary of the phosphorylation sites in titin, with a particular focus on the elastic titin spring segment. We discuss how phosphorylation at specific amino acids can reduce or increase the stretch-induced spring force of titin, depending on where the spring region is phosphorylated. We also review which protein kinases phosphorylate titin and how this phosphorylation affects titin-based passive tension in cardiomyocytes. A comprehensive overview is provided of studies that have measured altered titin phosphorylation and titin-based passive tension in myocardial samples from human heart failure patients and animal models of heart disease. As our understanding of the broader implications of phosphorylation in titin progresses, this knowledge could be used to design targeted interventions aimed at reducing pathologically increased titin stiffness in patients with stiff hearts.

  6. Unelmien hostelli - markkinoinnin vaikutus tunnettuuteen : Tunnettuus- ja mielipidekysely TAMK:n opiskelijoille case: Dream Hostel Tampere

    OpenAIRE

    Isokangas, Eeva

    2011-01-01

    Tämä opinnäytetyö on tehty yhteistyössä Tamperelaisen Dream Hostelin kanssa. Tarkoituksena oli selvittää sähköisen kyselylomakkeen avulla Dream Hostelin tunnettuutta, onko Dream Hostel tuttu ja mitä kautta. Lisäksi selvitettiin kyselyyn vastanneiden mielipiteitä yrityksen internet-sivujen antamasta kuvasta ja aamiaispalvelun tärkeydestä, sekä saatiin vastauksia siihen, mitä kriteereitä potentiaalinen asiakas pitää tärkeimpinä edullista majoitusta valitessaan ja kuinka paljon vastaajat ol...

  7. Starting a Small Business in Tampere Region in Finland : Business plan

    OpenAIRE

    Zhigalkin, Ivan

    2016-01-01

    Nowadays in Finland, there are a lot of people who are searching for a job. Also, there are opportunities for opening a new business which provides better quality or cheaper service. Such findings can lead someone to create his own workplace and reduce the level of unemployment. Repair, maintenance, and service of a passenger car are very expensive in Finland, especially in central and southern parts of Finland. The author assumes that there is a possibility to provide the described servi...

  8. Growing with Driving Leadership Style in School: A Case Study on Leadership of Finnish Elementary Schools in Tampere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajbhandari, Mani Man Singh

    2012-01-01

    "Driving leadership style" of the school leadership proclaims to be important in bringing about changes in behavioural aspect of the followers. The hallmark of driving leadership style illustrated the characteristic of teaming, toning, tasking, timing and transforming with realistic view to subjective approach. This allowed the…

  9. 21 CFR 211.132 - Tamper-evident packaging requirements for over-the-counter (OTC) human drug products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS: GENERAL CURRENT GOOD MANUFACTURING PRACTICE FOR...; (ii) Is prominently placed on the package; and (iii) Is so placed that it will be unaffected if the... product or, if the petition seeks an exemption for a drug class, the name of the drug class, and a list of...

  10. Relationships between basin architecture, basin closure, and occurrence of sulphide-bearing schists: an example from Tampere Schist Belt, Finland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kalliomäki, Henrik; Torvela, Taija; Moreau, Julien

    , therefore, offers an excellent opportunity to examine the volcano-sedimentary evolution of an ancient marginal basin, and the mechanics of and strain distribution during its subsequent closure. The aim of this study is to investigate the structural development and the architecture of a part of the TSB...... in more detail, including the relationships between the volcano-sedimentary sequences, the tectonic structures, and the sulphide-bearing schist horizons. Important insights are gained into understanding the mechanisms of the basin closure and the localisation of the sulphide mineralisation within......, in order to accommodate the crustal shortening during basin closure. Furthermore, it is suggested that there is a genetic relationship between the interpreted palaeothrusts and the sulphide-bearing schist horizons in the study area: early, gently dipping thrusts acted as both channels and traps...

  11. Cryptanalysis of Three Password-Based Remote User Authentication Schemes with Non-Tamper-Resistant Smart Card

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chenyu Wang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Remote user authentication is the first step to guarantee the security of online services. Online services grow rapidly and numerous remote user authentication schemes were proposed with high capability and efficiency. Recently, there are three new improved remote user authentication schemes which claim to be resistant to various attacks. Unfortunately, according to our analysis, these schemes all fail to achieve some critical security goals. This paper demonstrates that they all suffer from offline dictionary attack or fail to achieve forward secrecy and user anonymity. It is worth mentioning that we divide offline dictionary attacks into two categories: (1 the ones using the verification from smart cards and (2 the ones using the verification from the open channel. The second is more complicated and intractable than the first type. Such distinction benefits the exploration of better design principles. We also discuss some practical solutions to the two kinds of attacks, respectively. Furthermore, we proposed a reference model to deal with the first kind of attack and proved its effectiveness by taking one of our cryptanalysis schemes as an example.

  12. Cryptanalysis of Three Password-Based Remote User Authentication Schemes with Non-Tamper-Resistant Smart Card

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Chenyu; Xu, Guoai

    2017-01-01

    Remote user authentication is the first step to guarantee the security of online services. Online services grow rapidly and numerous remote user authentication schemes were proposed with high capability and efficiency. Recently, there are three new improved remote user authentication schemes which claim to be resistant to various attacks. Unfortunately, according to our analysis, these schemes all fail to achieve some critical security goals. This paper demonstrates that they all suffer from ...

  13. Empirical evaluation of grouping of lower urinary tract symptoms: principal component analysis of Tampere Ageing Male Urological Study data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pöyhönen, Antti; Häkkinen, Jukka T; Koskimäki, Juha; Hakama, Matti; Tammela, Teuvo L J; Auvinen, Anssi

    2013-03-01

    WHAT'S KNOWN ON THE SUBJECT? AND WHAT DOES THE STUDY ADD?: The ICS has divided LUTS into three groups: storage, voiding and post-micturition symptoms. The classification is based on anatomical, physiological and urodynamic considerations of a theoretical nature. We used principal component analysis (PCA) to determine the inter-correlations of various LUTS, which is a novel approach to research and can strengthen existing knowledge of the phenomenology of LUTS. After we had completed our analyses, another study was published that used a similar approach and results were very similar to those of the present study. We evaluated the constellation of LUTS using PCA of the data from a population-based study that included >4000 men. In our analysis, three components emerged from the 12 LUTS: voiding, storage and incontinence components. Our results indicated that incontinence may be separate from the other storage symptoms and post-micturition symptoms should perhaps be regarded as voiding symptoms. To determine how lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) relate to each other and assess if the classification proposed by the International Continence Society (ICS) is consistent with empirical findings. The information on urinary symptoms for this population-based study was collected using a self-administered postal questionnaire in 2004. The questionnaire was sent to 7470 men, aged 30-80 years, from Pirkanmaa County (Finland), of whom 4384 (58.7%) returned the questionnaire. The Danish Prostatic Symptom Score-1 questionnaire was used to evaluate urinary symptoms. Principal component analysis (PCA) was used to evaluate the inter-correlations among various urinary symptoms. The PCA produced a grouping of 12 LUTS into three categories consisting of voiding, storage and incontinence symptoms. Post-micturition symptoms were related to voiding symptoms, but incontinence symptoms were separate from storage symptoms. In the analyses by age group, similar categorization was found at ages 40, 50, 60 and 80 years, but only two groups of symptoms emerged among men aged 70 years. The prevalence among men aged 30 was too low for meaningful analysis. This population-based study suggests that LUTS can be divided into three subgroups consisting of voiding, storage and incontinence symptoms based on their inter-correlations. Our empirical findings suggest an alternative grouping of LUTS. The potential utility of such an approach requires careful consideration. © 2012 BJU International.

  14. Tracking the source of mineralisation in the Tampere Basin (southern Finland), insights from structure, sedimentology and geophysics studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moreau, Julien; Torvela, Taija; Kalliomäki, Henrik

    2013-01-01

    The ancient basins are of a wide interest to geoscientists as they archive the early development of plate tectonics, life, and ore-bearing systems. Several basins, especially those involving volcanic-derived materials, contain ore and mineral deposits. The formation of these ores is often related...... marginal basin, and the mechanics of and strain distribution during its subsequent closure. In order to investigate the deposition, the tectonic deformation and the fluid migration, geological mapping of a key area of the basin has been performed. In addition, georadar reflection profiles have been...... covered. This study highlighted several sulphide-rich horizon within the basal succession of the basin infill. The sulphides are either in relation with tectonic structures or with genuinely clay-rich deposits. The studied succession shows a progressive deepening of the basin through time with facies...

  15. Library as a Partner in Co-Designing Learning Spaces: A Case Study at Tampere University of Technology, Finland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tevaniemi, Johanna; Poutanen, Jenni; Lähdemäki, Riitta

    2015-01-01

    This article presents a case of co-designed temporary learning spaces at a Finnish academic library, together with the results of a user-survey. The experimental development of the multifunctional spaces offered an opportunity for the library to collaborate with its parent organisation thus broadening the role of the library. Hence, library can be…

  16. European Conference on Molecular Beam Epitaxy and Related Growth Methods (6th) Held in Tampere, Finland on 21-14 April 1991

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-04-24

    2X2) structure caracteristic of a cation rich surface. During the growth we observe intense RHEED oscillations, which show that the growth of Hg...layer which then suffers plastic deformation when the energy stored in the epilayer (proportional to its thickness) is sufficient to create dislocations...table I we present the variation of the in plane lattice mismatch vs. layerthickness. Plastic deformation of the layer starts around 4 to 5 ML, which can

  17. Current Over-the-Counter Medicine Label: Take a Look

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... This is to help protect consumers against possible criminal tampering. Drug products with tamper-evident packaging have ... Medicines Medicines in My Home (MIMH) Choosing the right over-the-counter medicine (OTCs) The Over-the- ...

  18. Kuulus Ralf Langbacka lavastab Estonias Verdi "Othello" / Andres Laasik

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Laasik, Andres, 1960-2016

    2005-01-01

    Rahvusooper Estonia 8. septembril 2005 Rocca al Mares asuvas Coral Clubi spordikeskuses esietenduvast ooperist "Othello", etendus valmib koostöös Tampere Ooperiga. 7. aprillil Tampere Talos toimuvast esietendusest

  19. Gender dysphoria in adolescence: current perspectives

    OpenAIRE

    Kaltiala-Heino,Riittakerttu; Bergman,Hannah; Työläjärvi,Marja; Frisen,Louise

    2018-01-01

    Riittakerttu Kaltiala-Heino,1–3 Hannah Bergman,4 Marja Työläjärvi,2 Louise Frisén4 1Faculty of Medicine and Life Sciences, University of Tampere, Tampere, Finland; 2Department of Adolescent Psychiatry, Tampere University Hospital, Tampere, Finland; 3Vanha Vaasa Hospital, Vaasa, Finland; 4Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden Abstract: Increasing numbers of adolescents are seeking treatment at gender identi...

  20. Design of fiber optic electronic seal system based on C8051 microcontroller

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Di Yuming; Chen Rongye; Zuo Guangxia; Song Cang

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents fiber optic electronic seal system, witch uses C8051 microcontroller as core, matching other circuits such as optical signal detection module, movement detection module, temperature detection module and power module, etc. The results show that the seal system can record the tampering events' information accurately and quickly no matter there is one tamper event or more, and the ability of anti-tamper is improved. (authors)

  1. Information Security: Comments on the Proposed Federal Information Security Management Act of 2002

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Dacey, Robert

    2002-01-01

    ... 2001.1 Concerned with reports that continuing, pervasive information security weaknesses place federal operations at significant risk of disruption, tampering, fraud, and inappropriate disclosures...

  2. Computer Security: Improvements Needed to Reduce Risk to Critical Federal Operations and Assets

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Dacey, Robert

    2001-01-01

    .... Accordingly, the security of these systems and data is essential to avoiding disruptions in critical operations, as well as to helping prevent data tampering, fraud, and inappropriate disclosure...

  3. 7 CFR 272.4 - Program administration and personnel requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... from unauthorized creation or tampering, the State agency shall establish an organizational structure..., tapes, or similar memory devices. The issuance unit shall provide certified households with the...

  4. 33 CFR 106.265 - Security measures for restricted areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...) Protect stores and industrial supplies from tampering. (b) Designation of restricted areas. The OCS... stores and industrial supplies; and (vii) Areas containing hazardous materials. (c) The OCS facility...

  5. Complex VLSI Feature Comparison for Commercial Microelectronics Verification

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-03-27

    corruption , tampering and counterfeiting due to these technologies’ extremely sensitive purposes. Adversarial intervention in the IC design and...counterfeiting in its motive: whereas counterfeiting is usually motivated by greed , tampering is an act of espionage or sabotage [26]. Finally, poor

  6. Marketing Plan for a SME

    OpenAIRE

    Heurman, Mark; Paavola, Johannes

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this bachelor’s thesis was to create a marketing plan for E.A.T. Tampere, a bike rental and city tour business in Tampere, Finland. Being a decidedly small business, the company has never been able to focus on marketing and has thus not had a structured marketing plan. The objectives for the marketing plan were developed using first-hand information provided by the company and self-conducted research into tours in the Tampere area. The main purpose of the marketing plan was to incr...

  7. Media rights and media security

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baugher, Mark

    2005-03-01

    Digital Rights Management (DRM) systems typically do not treat rights management as a security problem. DRM uses cryptographic techniques but not security relationships. Instead, DRM systems use "tamper-resistant mechanisms" to discourage unauthorized access to rights-managed content. Although proven ineffective in practice, tamper-resistant mechanisms penalize legitimate customers with added complexity and costs that arise from tamper-resisting data or program code. This paper explores how a security relationship between provider and consumer might be more effective for managing rights to content works on two-way networks.

  8. Kolm plaati eesti klassikast : Cyrillus Kreegi "Requiemi" kaks ettekanet ja "Eesti heliloojad V" / Kerri Kotta

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kotta, Kerri, 1969-

    2009-01-01

    Arvustus : Kreek, Cyrillus. Requiem. Musica sacra. Tampere : Alba, 2007. Kreek, Cyrillus. Requiem. Tõnu Kõrvits. Kreegi vihik. [Tallinn] : Eesti Filharmoonia Kammerkoor, 2008. Eesti heliloojad V. Tallinn : Eesti Rahvusringhääling, 2008

  9. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Conversion Regulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    . Conversion systems must meet the same emissions standards that gasoline or diesel products do. Refer to EPA's manufacturer that holds the relevant emissions-related certifications and tampering exemptions. New and

  10. Tiia Tamm: sotsiaaltöötajad vajavad rohkem ühiskonna mõistmist ja tuge / Tiia Tamm ; intervjueerinud Regina Lind

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Tamm, Tiia, 1949-

    2010-01-01

    Intervjuu Tallinna Ülikooli sotsiaaltöö instituudi õppejõu Tiia Tammega, kes tutvustab artiklis oma Tampere Ülikoolis kaitstud doktoritööd "Professional identity and self-concept of Estonian social workers"

  11. Computer Security Systems Enable Access.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riggen, Gary

    1989-01-01

    A good security system enables access and protects information from damage or tampering, but the most important aspects of a security system aren't technical. A security procedures manual addresses the human element of computer security. (MLW)

  12. Research Article Special Issue

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    pc

    2018-05-01

    May 1, 2018 ... the control center to optimize the power distribution in return. The increasing ... electric smart meter to record reading of electricity consumption from utility meters ... spoofing, tampering and Denial of Service (DoS) attacks [26].

  13. Medicines and You: A Guide for Older Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... or the label, tells you. If you to buy medicines on the Internet , check the web site for ... package tampering and the expiration date. Don't buy medicines if the packaging has been broken or if ...

  14. 29 CFR 1910.243 - Guarding of portable powered tools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ..., powered tampers, jack hammers, rock drills, garden appliances, household and kitchen appliances, personal... clearance between the wheel hole and the machine spindle (or wheel sleeves or adaptors) is essential to...

  15. But what about girls? : introduction into girls' studies / Eda Kalmre

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kalmre, Eda, 1958-

    2012-01-01

    5203 Tutvustus: Entäs tytöt : johdatus tyttötutkimukseen / toimittaneet Karoliina Ojanen, Heta Mulari & Sanna Aaltonen. Tampere : Vastapaino, 2011. (Julkaisuja / Nuorisotutkimusverkosto & Nuorisotutkimusseura ; 113)

  16. Lühifilmid internetis / Jaak Lõhmus

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Lõhmus, Jaak

    2000-01-01

    Mika Salmi internetifirma Atom Films, kes on 8.-12. märtsini toimuva 30. Tampere rahvusvahelise lühifilmifestivali üks sponsoreid, tegeleb lühifilmide tutvustamise ja turustamisega interneti kaudu

  17. Täna kell 20 esitletakse EKA galerii...

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2004-01-01

    Esitletakse norra kunstnike (loetletud) videosid "Darling, don't leave me all by myself". Korraldaja Bergeni kuraatoriduo Rakett (Asa Lövgren, Karolin Tampere). 4. IV näeb Tallinna projekti Von Krahli teatris

  18. Studies and research concerning BNFP: process monitoring and process surveillance demonstration program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kight, H R

    1979-11-01

    Computerized methods of monitoring process functions and alarming off-standard conditions were implemented and demonstrated during the FY 1979 Uranium Run. In addition, prototype applications of instruments for the purpose of tamper indication and surveillance were tested.

  19. A Bat in the dustbin of Auropean history / Heikki Jokinen

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Jokinen, Heikki

    2006-01-01

    Artikli autor meenutab 1988.a. Tampere Rahvusvahelisel Lühifilmifestivalil nähtud Riho Undi-Hardi Volmeri nukufilmi "Sõda" ja Priit Pärna animafilmi "Eine murul". Veel Eesti animafilmist, tegijatest

  20. 78 FR 59723 - Petitions for Modification of Application of Existing Mandatory Safety Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-27

    ... to prevent regulator tampering. 9. The air spray manifold will consist of a schedule 80 steel pipe.... The mine will exhaust dust-laden air from the booth into a local exhaust ventilation system or duct...

  1. Trustworthy Voting: From Machine to System

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Paul, N.; Tanenbaum, A.S.

    2009-01-01

    The authors describe an electronic voting approach that takes a system view, incorporating a trustworthy process based on open source software, simplified procedures, and built-in redundant safeguards that prevent tampering. © 2009 IEEE.

  2. Blockchain learning: can crypto-currency methods be appropriated to enhance online learning?

    OpenAIRE

    Devine, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Blockchain is a distributed database that maintains a dynamic list of data records, hardened to prevent tampering and revision. It is the framework for cryptocurrencies like Bitcoin.\\ud \\ud A Blockchain learning tool would provide a secure and verifiable learning transaction ledger. Its decentralised nature would ensure a learner, rather than institution-centred record of achievements that would be difficult to tamper with, enabling parties, such as employers or learning institutions, to revi...

  3. 耐タンパハードウェアを用いたモバイルエージェント保護手法

    OpenAIRE

    春木, 洋美; HARUKI, HIROYOSHI; 河口, 信夫; KAWAGUCHI, NOBUO; 稲垣, 康善; INAGAKI, YASUYOSHI

    2003-01-01

    Recentrly, it is getting possible to make simple data sharing and exchage among personalcomputers by advances in computers and wireless communication technology. However, inthe existing technology,once a data has been sent to other hosts, it is impossible to controlthe redistribution of it. In this paper, we propose a data protecting and management methodusing mobile agents. However, mobile agent can be tampered by malicious hosts. We proposea mobile agent protection method using tamper resis...

  4. What's under the hood? Improving SCADA security with process awareness

    OpenAIRE

    Chromik, Justyna Joanna; Remke, Anne Katharina Ingrid; Haverkort, Boudewijn R.H.M.

    2016-01-01

    SCADA networks are an essential part of monitoring and controlling physical infrastructures, such as the power grid. Recent news item show that tampering with the data exchanged in a SCADA network occurs and has severe consequences. A possible way of improving the security of SCADA networks is to use intrusion detection systems. By monitoring and analysing the traffic, it is possible to detect whether information has a legitimate source or was tampered with. However, in many cases the knowled...

  5. Voitka-filmi esilinastus / Jaak Lõhmus

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Lõhmus, Jaak

    2004-01-01

    Inglase Daniel Elliotti Eestis tehtud lühimängufilm "Fender Bender" sai Tampere lühifilmide festivalil maineka Prix UIP (United International Pictures) Tampere auhinna. Samal festivalil toimus Pekka Lehto tõsielufilmi "V.O.I.T.K.A. - Metsa vennad" maailmaesilinastus. Erkki Määttäneni "Järveehitaja" portreteeris Leigo järvemuusikakontsertide korraldajat Tõnu Tamme

  6. Review of fission-fusion pellet designs and inertial confinement system studies at EIR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seifriz, W [Eidgenoessisches Inst. fuer Reaktorforschung, Wuerenlingen (Switzerland)

    1978-01-01

    The article summarizes the work done so far at the Swiss Federal Institute for Reactor Research (EIR) in the field of the inertial confinement fusion technique. The following subjects are reviewed: a) fission fusion pellet designs using fissionable triggers, b) uranium tampered pellets, c) tampered pellets recycling unwanted actinide wastes from fission reactors in beam-driven micro-explosion reactors, and d) symbiotic fusion/fission reactor studies.

  7. The volume ignition for ICF ignition target

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Y. S.; He, X. T.; Yu, M.

    1997-01-01

    Compared with central model, volume ignition has no hot spot, avoids the mixing at the hot-cold interface, the α-particle escaping, and the high convergence, greatly reduces the sharp demanding for uniformity. In laser indirect driving, from theoretical estimation and computational simulation, we have proved that using a tamper with good heat resistance, the DT fuel can be ignited in LTE at ∼3 KeV and then evolves to the non-LTE ignition at >5 KeV. In this case, 1 MJ radiation energy in the hohlraum could cause near 10 MJ output for a pellet with 0.2 mg DT fuel. We have compared results with and without α-particle transport, it shows that in the condition of ρR>0.5 g/cm 2 of DT fuel, both have the same results. For the system with ρR≅0.5 g/cm 2 we can use α-particle local deposition scheme. The non-uniformly doped tamper with density ρ≅1-5 g/cc can reduce mixing due to the small convergence ratio. The input energy is deposited in DT and tamper during the implosion, we try to reduce the tamper energy by changing the ratio of CH and doped Au and the thickness of the tamper

  8. Nuclear safeguards and security: we can do better.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnston, R. G. (Roger G.); Warner, Jon S.; Garcia, A. R. E. (Anthony R. E.); Martinez, R. K. (Ronald K.); Lopez, L. N. (Leon N.); Pacheco, A. N. (Adam N.); Trujillo, S. J. (Sonia J.); Herrera, A. M. (Alicia M.); Bitzer, E. G. (Edward G.), III

    2005-01-01

    There are a number of practical ways to significantly improve nuclear safeguards and security. These include recognizing and minimizing the insider threat; using adversarial vulnerability assessments to find vulnerabilities and countermeasures; fully appreciating the disparate nature of domestic and international nuclear safeguards; improving tamper detection and tamper-indicating seals; not confusing the inventory and security functions; and recognizing the limitations of GPS tracking, contact memory buttons, and RFID tags. The efficacy of nuclear safeguards depends critically on employing sophisticated security strategies and effective monitoring hardware. The Vulnerability Assessment Team (VAT) at Los Alamos National Laboratory has extensively researched issues associated with nuclear safeguards, especially in the areas of tamper/intrusion detection, transport security, and vulnerability assessments. This paper discusses some of our findings, recommendations, and warnings.

  9. Research on seal control systems for international nuclear safeguard and the vulnerability assessment on the seals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Hongjian; Liu Tianshu; Cao Fangfang; Xu Chunyan

    2014-01-01

    Safeguard seals, also called Tamper-indicating devices (TIDs), are widely used to detect tampering or unauthorized entry in the international safeguard and security systems, Seal control systems consist of seal implementing plan, seal development and the vulnerability assessment on tbe seals, effective implementing procedures and methods of the seals. The vulnerability assessment contents of safeguard seals, thermo-shrinked film seals being as an example, and seals control systems in the implementation program are researched. The seal control systems discuss task assignment, seals management flow and seals program data flow to promote applying effectively seals. The vulnerability assessment program of seals studies assurance level to some different tampering techniques and measures. The researches must promote utilizing seals effectively for nuclear security, non-proliferation of nuclear weapons, radioactive waste management, and the nuclear material accounting and control. (authors)

  10. Real-time inventory system for special nuclear material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuckertz, T.H.; Ethridge, C.D.; Nicholson, N.

    1979-01-01

    This paper describes a special purpose peripheral device for a minicomputer that can monitor SNM in vault storage in real time and give timely indication of any tampering with the material. This device, called a shelf monitor, is designed around a single-chip microcomputer, and can be manufactured in quantity for about $100. A typical system of shelf monitors controlled by a minicomputer is described. The minicomputer is used to acquire data associated with the weight and gamma activity of the sample of SNM under observation. Significant deviations in the weight and gamma activity are cause for a tampering alarm.

  11. Real-time inventory system for special nuclear material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuckertz, T.H.; Ethridge, C.D.; Nicholson, N.

    1979-01-01

    This paper describes a special purpose peripheral device for a minicomputer that can monitor SNM in vault storage in real time and give timely indication of any tampering with the material. This device, called a shelf monitor, is designed around a single-chip microcomputer, and can be manufactured in quantity for about $100. A typical system of shelf monitors controlled by a minicomputer is described. The minicomputer is used to acquire data associated with the weight and gamma activity of the sample of SNM under observation. Significant deviations in the weight and gamma activity are cause for a tampering alarm

  12. Material control and accountability procedures for a waste isolation repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jenkins, J.D.; Allen, E.J.; Blakeman, E.D.

    1978-05-01

    The material control and accountability needs of a waste isolation repository are examined. Three levels of control are discussed: (1) item identification and control, (2) tamper indication, and (3) quantitative material assay. A summary of waste characteristics is presented and, based on these, plus a consideration of the accessibility of the various types of waste, material control by item identification and accountability (where the individual waste container is the basic unit) is recommended. Tamper indicating procedures are also recommended for the intermediate and low level waste categories

  13. Akrobaatiline armastuslugu, rämesotsiaalsus ja laevakajut / Ott Karulin

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Karulin, Ott, 1980-

    2005-01-01

    8.-14. augustini toimunud Tampere teatrifestivalist. Pikemalt lavastustest : "Romeo ja Julia" (Islandi trupp Vesturport & Artbox), "La Strada" (F. Fellini filmi vabaõhuversioon, Stockholms Stadsteatern/Parkteatern), "Solaris" (Commander. productions & Forum Freies Theater, filmi lavaversioon), "Kolm õde" kahes lavastuses, (Teatrul Andrei Muresanu, lav. R. Afrim ja Kajaani Linnateater, lav. K. Smeds), L. Klemola "Kokkola" (Tampere Teater), "Back in U.S.S.R" (Kasahstani teater Art & Shock), M. Ivashkevièiuse "Malõsh" (Oskaras Korshunovase Teater) ja islandlase J. A. Jonassoni "Brim"

  14. Relationships between basin architecture, basin closure, and occurrence of sulphide-bearing schists

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kalliomäki, Henrik; Torvela, Taija; Moreau, Julien

    2014-01-01

    We present field observations from the Palaeoproterozoic volcano-sedimentary Tampere palaeobasin, where the primary structures have been exceptionally well preserved. We use the observations to construct a new tectonic model for the southeastern margin of the Tampere basin during its inversion...... and subsequent closure. The observed volcano-sedimentary and structural features suggest a change in the local structural style from thick-skinned inversion to thin-skinned thrusting, in order to accommodate the crustal shortening during basin closure. Furthermore, it is suggested that there is a genetic...

  15. Creation of virtual reality stimulus for a psychophysiological body balance measurement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tero Alatalo

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Tero Alatalo1, Martti Juhola1, Veikko Surakka1,2, Timo Tossavainen11Department of Computer Sciences, University of Tampere, Tampere, Finland; 2Department of Clinical Neurophysiology, Tampere University Hospital, Tampere, FinlandAbstract: Virtual reality methods and equipment can be used to create stimulations for several psychophysiological measurements. Such stimulations can be flexibly modified and their versatility is wide; in principle even such could be prepared that are not possible in the real physical world like virtual flying in the space. For the generation of virtual reality stimulations we constructed a three-dimensional (3D graphics engine to measure body balance variations in response to emotional stimulation. The stimulation was implemented as a virtual reality scene, where the subject watched a street view with a human figure approaching the subject at a constant speed. The functioning of the system was tested by measuring body balance variations while the approaching figure’s facial expression was angry, neutral, or happy. The results showed that our young, healthy subjects were slightly, but still statistically significantly affected by the stimulation of the approaching figure. Thus, the whole system offers a tool for controlled experimental studies for analyzing body balance, for example, during stimulating approach-withdrawal behavior. There are several opportunities to further develop new visual psychophysiological stimulations and test forms.Keywords: virtual reality stimulations, signal analysis, body balance measurements, approachwithdrawal behavior, emotions

  16. 600 filmi kenas ruskes Soome linnas / Tarmo Teder

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Teder, Tarmo, 1958-

    2005-01-01

    Tampere 35. lühifilmide festivalil nähtust. Näidati ka täissaalile 12 Riho Undi ja Hardi Volmeri animafilmi aastatest 1986-2000. Grand prix "Suur Suudlus" läks vene päritolu Norra animaatorile filmi eest "Läbi mu paksude prillide" ("Gjennom mine tykke briller")

  17. Nanoparticle (MPG)-mediated delivery of small RNAs into human ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aghomotsegin

    Divita and co-workers reported that MPG delivers active macromolecules permitting the control of the release of the cargo in the appropriate target subcellular compart- ment. Therefore, by tampering with the NLS sequence of. MPG, delivery between the nucleus and the cytoplasm can be discriminated and MPG containing ...

  18. 40 CFR 51.363 - Quality assurance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ....363 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS REQUIREMENTS... the use of aids such as binoculars or video cameras, at least once per year per inspector in high... concentrations to actual readings; (2) A check for tampering, worn instrumentation, blocked filters, and other...

  19. Authentication and recovery of medical diagnostic image using dual reversible digital watermarking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Xiaohong; Chen, Zhigang; Zeng, Feng; Zhang, Yaoping; Mao, Yimin

    2013-03-01

    This paper proposes a new region-based tampering detection and recovering method that utilizes both reversible digital watermarking and quad-tree decomposition for medical diagnostic image's authentication. Firstly, the quad-tree decomposition is used to divide the original image into blocks with high homogeneity, and then we computer pixels' linear interpolation as each block's recovery feature. Secondly, these recovery features as the first layer watermarking information is embedded by using simple invertible integer transformation. In order to enhance the proposed method's security, the logistic chaotic map is exploited to choose each block's reference pixel. The second layer watermark comprises by the quad-tree information and essential parameters for extraction are embedded by LSB replacement. In the authentication phase, the embedded watermark is extracted and the source image is recovered, and the similar linear interpolation technique is utilized to get each block's feature. Therefore, the tampering detection and localization can be achieved through comparing the extracted feature with the recomputed one, and the extracted feature can be used to recover those tampered regions with high similarity to their original state. Experimental results show that, compared with previous similar existing scheme, the proposed method not only achieves high embedding capacity and good visual quality of marked and restored image, but also has more accuracy for tampering detection.

  20. Project 93L-EWL-097, fire alarm system improvements, 300 Area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scott, M.V.

    1995-01-01

    This document contains the Acceptance Test Procedure (ATP) which will demonstrate that the modifications to the Fire Protection systems in the 338 Building function as intended. The ATP will test the fire alarm control panel, flow alarm pressure switch, post indicator valve tamper switch, heat detectors, flow switches, and fire alarm signaling devices

  1. 46 CFR 61.35-1 - General.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... equipment must be tested and inspected to verify their proper design, construction, installation, and operation. (d) All tests must be performed after installation of the automatic auxiliary boiler and its... monitored system conditions by misadjustment, artificial signals, improper wiring, tampering, or revision of...

  2. 75 FR 27318 - Notice of Intent To Grant an Exclusive License; FIXMO U.S. INC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-14

    ..., license to practice the following Government-Owned invention as described in U.S. Patent Application Serial No.11/999,050 entitled: ``Method of Tamper Detection for Digital Device,'' which was allowed by... above-mentioned invention is assigned to the United States Government as represented by the National...

  3. 10 CFR 75.8 - IAEA inspections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... NRC Operations Center (commercial telephone number 301-816-5100). (d) Each applicant, licensee, or... surveillance; and (6) Perform other measures requested by the IAEA and approved by the NRC. (f) Each applicant... measurement and surveillance; (ii) Enabling the IAEA to apply its seals and other identifying and tamper...

  4. UK Safeguards R and D Project progress report for the period July 1983 - April 1984

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adams, J.M.

    1984-10-01

    Progress reports are presented on the following projects: centrifuge enrichment plant safeguards; stores safeguards and general accounting techniques; generic programmes (projects underlying many instrument systems (e.g. tamper proofing and indication; neutron interrogation systems); system studies); FBR fuel cycle safeguards; service programmes (services to the IAEA); exploratory and short projects. (U.K.)

  5. 49 CFR 214.505 - Required environmental control and protection systems for new on-track roadway maintenance...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... operative positive pressurized ventilation systems: (1) Ballast regulators; (2) Tampers; (3) Mechanical... or sold. (e) If the ventilation system on a new on-track roadway maintenance machine or a designated... respiratory protective equipment shall be provided for each such employee until the machine is repaired in...

  6. Tooge need Eestisse! : paar soovitust meie teatrifestivalide korraldajatele / Rait Avestik

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Avestik, Rait, 1974-

    2005-01-01

    Tampere teatrisuve meeldejäävamad lavastused - Riia Uue Teatri lavastus "Pikk elu" (lav. A. Hermanis), Kasahstani teatri Art and shock lavastus "Back in U.S.S.R" (lav. G. Pjalova) ja Islandi Vesturport and Artboxi Shakespeare'i "Romeo ja Julia" G. Ö. Gardarssoni lavastuses

  7. Message Integrity Model for Wireless Sensor Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qleibo, Haider W.

    2009-01-01

    WSNs are susceptible to a variety of attacks. These attacks vary in the way they are performed and executed; they include but not limited to node capture, physical tampering, denial of service, and message alteration. It is of paramount importance to protect gathered data by WSNs and defend the network against illegal access and malicious…

  8. Quantum key distribution using three basis states

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Pramana – Journal of Physics; Volume 54; Issue 5. Quantum key distribution using three ... This note presents a method of public key distribution using quantum communication of photons that simultaneously provides a high probability that the bits have not been tampered. It is a variant of the quantum ...

  9. Basic Hand Tools for Bricklaying and Cement Masonry [and] Basic Hand Tools of the Carpenter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Texas A and M Univ., College Station. Vocational Instructional Services.

    Intended for student use, this unit discusses and illustrates the tools used in brick and masonry and carpentry. Contents of the brick and masonry section include informative materials on bricklaying tools (brick trowels, joint tools, levels, squares, line and accessories, rules, hammers and chisels, tool kits) and cement masonry tools (tampers,…

  10. Experimental treatment of neoplasic diseases and tumors with iono magnetic therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizsanyi, Elek Karsay; Quiróz, David Lavan; Huamaccto, Carlos Levano; Marroquín, Erwin Guerra

    2001-10-01

    The Iono Magnetic Therapy is a alternative control method for cell growth population in pancreas and cerebral cancer. The magnetic field applied to cells with cancer decrease the growth of this cells or their multiplication. We observed a potential difference opposite to cell potential and propose that the ionic interchange is very slow tampering with cell growth in cancer.

  11. Critical Dimensions of Water-tamped Slabs and Spheres of Active Material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greuling, E.; Argo, H.: Chew, G.; Frankel, M. E.; Konopinski, E.J.; Marvin, C.; Teller, E.

    1946-08-06

    The magnitude and distribution of the fission rate per unit area produced by three energy groups of moderated neutrons reflected from a water tamper into one side of an infinite slab of active material is calculated approximately in section II. This rate is directly proportional to the current density of fast neutrons from the active material incident on the water tamper. The critical slab thickness is obtained in section III by solving an inhomogeneous transport integral equation for the fast-neutron current density into the tamper. Extensive use is made of the formulae derived in "The Mathematical Development of the End-Point Method" by Frankel and Goldberg. In section IV slight alterations in the theory outlined in sections II and III were made so that one could approximately compute the critical radius of a water-tamper sphere of active material. The derived formulae were applied to calculate the critical dimensions of water-tamped slabs and spheres of solid UF{sub 6} leaving various (25) isotope enrichment fractions. Decl. Dec. 16, 1955.

  12. Using over-the-counter medicines safely

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... about OTC drugs. About OTC Medicines You can buy OTC medicines without a prescription in: Drug stores Grocery stores ... Safely You should: Examine the package before you buy it. Make sure it has not been tampered with. Never use medicine you have bought that does not look the ...

  13. Kunstnik Julian Schnabel vallutab Soome kahel rindel / Jukka Kiho

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kiho, Jukka

    2008-01-01

    Tamperes esilinastub kunstniku film "Lou Reed's Berlin", mis valmis Ameerikas 2006. a. ja kus laulja Lou Reed mängib esimest korda tervikuna ära 1973. aastal ilmunud plaadi. Kiasmas Helsingis avatakse kunstniku maalinäitus "Noorte kartlike nunnade pühendunud vaade"

  14. Optimizing Key Updates in Sensor Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yuksel, Ender; Nielson, Hanne Riis; Nielson, Flemming

    2011-01-01

    Sensor networks offer the advantages of simple and low–resource communication. Nevertheless, security is of particular importance in many cases such as when sensitive data is communicated or tamper-resistance is required. Updating the security keys is one of the key points in security, which...

  15. Implic ations of climate change and deforestation on behavioural ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Indiscriminate forest exploitation leads to deforestation also, release of CO2 and other pollutants tampers with ozone layer which has been acting as a big umbrella against ultraviolet radiation. This paper discusses effects of climate change and deforestation on physical environment as they affect animal population, ...

  16. PR-spetsid annavad Partsile nõu puhata ja analüüsida

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2005-01-01

    TÜ avalikkussuhete õppejõud Kaja Saksakulm-Tampere soovitab Juhan Partsil toimunut analüüsida, suhtekorraldusspetsialist Ivo Rulli arvates oleks Juhan Partsil mõistlik võtta oma edasises avalikus elus pikem paus, taanduda Res Publica esimehe kohalt ja tegutseda parlamendis opositsioonis

  17. Gender dysphoria in adolescence: current perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaltiala-Heino R

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Riittakerttu Kaltiala-Heino,1–3 Hannah Bergman,4 Marja Työläjärvi,2 Louise Frisén4 1Faculty of Medicine and Life Sciences, University of Tampere, Tampere, Finland; 2Department of Adolescent Psychiatry, Tampere University Hospital, Tampere, Finland; 3Vanha Vaasa Hospital, Vaasa, Finland; 4Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden Abstract: Increasing numbers of adolescents are seeking treatment at gender identity services in Western countries. An increasingly accepted treatment model that includes puberty suppression with gonadotropin-releasing hormone analogs starting during the early stages of puberty, cross-sex hormonal treatment starting at ~16 years of age and possibly surgical treatments in legal adulthood, is often indicated for adolescents with childhood gender dysphoria (GD that intensifies during puberty. However, virtually nothing is known regarding adolescent-onset GD, its progression and factors that influence the completion of the developmental tasks of adolescence among young people with GD and/or transgender identity. Consolidation of identity development is a central developmental goal of adolescence, but we still do not know enough about how gender identity and gender variance actually evolve. Treatment-seeking adolescents with GD present with considerable psychiatric comorbidity. There is little research on how GD and/or transgender identity are associated with completion of developmental tasks of adolescence. Keywords: gender dysphoria, gender identity, adolescence, developmental tasks

  18. Conference report

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tamara Shefer

    Bloomberg Philanthropies. The conference theme “from research to implementation” emphasised the importance of connecting knowledge around violence with injury prevention, while stressing the need to address the multitude of transnational public health challenges. In speaking to this theme, the. Tampere Declaration ...

  19. Universally Composable Multiparty Computation with Partially Isolated Parties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damgård, Ivan Bjerre; Nielsen, Jesper Buus; Wichs, Daniel

    2009-01-01

    global setup such as a common reference string (CRS) or a public key infrastructure (PKI). The recent work of Katz shows that we may instead rely on physical assumptions, and in particular tamper-proof hardware tokens. In this paper, we consider a similar but strictly weaker physical assumption. We...

  20. 9 CFR 93.419 - Sheep and goats from Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... before being moved to the recognized slaughtering establishment. The shipment must be accompanied from... before being moved to the designated feedlot; (4) The animals must remain at the designated feedlot until... otherwise tamper with the official identification while the animal is in the United States or moving into or...

  1. What's under the hood? Improving SCADA security with process awareness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chromik, Justyna Joanna; Remke, Anne Katharina Ingrid; Haverkort, Boudewijn R.H.M.

    2016-01-01

    SCADA networks are an essential part of monitoring and controlling physical infrastructures, such as the power grid. Recent news item show that tampering with the data exchanged in a SCADA network occurs and has severe consequences. A possible way of improving the security of SCADA networks is to

  2. Teatrihuviline kisub end täna õhtul lõhki / Raimu Hanson

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Hanson, Raimu, 1957-

    2006-01-01

    26. jaan. on Tartus võimalik vaadata järgmisi lavastusi - Sagar Sagitta "Ajatud" Tampere majas, Vanemuise "Adolf" Püssirohukeldris, Võru Teatriateljee "Ilma luuminõ @ muu äri" Sadamateatris ja Emajõe Suveteatri "Frankenstein" vanas anatoomikumis

  3. 10 CFR 26.129 - Assuring specimen security, chain of custody, and preservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ..., licensee or other entity management shall ensure that corrective actions are taken. (ii) If there is reason... on the custody-and-control form; (iii) A specimen bottle seal is broken or shows evidence of... shipping containers are no longer accessible without breaking a tamper-evident seal. (h) Couriers, express...

  4. 10 CFR 26.159 - Assuring specimen security, chain of custody, and preservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... other entity has reason to question the integrity and identity of the specimens, the specimens may not... identification numbers on the custody-and-control form; (iii) A specimen bottle seal is broken or shows evidence... of the shipping containers are inaccessible without breaking a tamper-evident seal. (g) Couriers...

  5. Source and special nuclear material sealing and labeling requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jordan, K.N.

    1978-04-01

    Purpose of this document is to define requirements for the use of tamper-indicating seals and identifying labels on SS Material containers at Rockwell Hanford Operations. The requirements defined in this document are applicable to all Rockwell Hanford Operation employees involved in handling, processing, packaging, transferring, shipping, receiving or storing SS Material

  6. Koomiksid näitusel ja seminaril

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2005-01-01

    Tartus Tampere majas on väljas näitus Soome koomiksikunstnike Kati Kovacsi (sünd. 1963) ja Timo Mäkelä (1951) loomingust. Tartu Kunstikoolis toimub koomiksiseminar, kus loengutega esinevad Mari Laaniste, Joonas Sildre jt.

  7. The Key to School Security.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hotle, Dan

    1993-01-01

    In addition to legislative accessibility requirements, other security issues facing school administrators who select a security system include the following: access control; user friendliness; durability or serviceability; life safety precautions; possibility of vandalism, theft, and tampering; and key control. Offers steps to take in considering…

  8. All Rights Reversed: A Study of Copyleft, Open-Source, and Open-Content Licensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frantsvog, Dean A.

    2012-01-01

    In the United States and much of the world, the current framework of intellectual property laws revolves around protecting others from tampering with an author's work. The copyright holder decides who can use it, who can change it, and who can share. There is a growing school of thought, though, that holds that intellectual creations should be…

  9. Development and applications of diffractive optical security devices for banknotes and high value documents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drinkwater, John K.; Holmes, Brian W.; Jones, Keith A.

    2000-04-01

    Embossed holograms and othe rdiffractive optically variable devices are increasingly familiar security items on plastic cards, banknotes, securyt documetns and on branded gods and media to protect against counterfeit, protect copyright and to evidence tamper. This paper outlines some of the diffractive optical seuryt and printed security develoepd for this rapidly growing field and provides examles of some current security applications.

  10. A prototype TV-link for authentication of video information

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richter, B.; Stein, G.; Neumann, G.; Gartner, K.J.

    1987-01-01

    In the frame of the Programme of the Federal Republic of Germany in Support of the International Atomic Energy Agency a prototype TV-link with high tamper resistance has been developed. The paper describes the technical realization of the authentication method for the transmission of video information

  11. Õnnitleme - Kristi Toode on doktorikraadiga õde

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2015-01-01

    10. aprillil 2015 kaitses Põhja-Eesti Regionaalhaigla onkoloogia- ja hematoloogiakliiniku õendusjuht Kirsti Toode Tampere Ülikoolis terviseteaduste osakonnas doktoritööd Nurses' work motivation: essence and associations = Õdede töömotivatsioon: olemus ja seosed

  12. 75 FR 20965 - Petition for Approval of Alternate Odometer Disclosure Requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-22

    ..., Congress enacted the Cost Savings Act to, among other things, prohibit tampering with odometers on motor... can be used for auditing and recording keeping, which include, among other things, a history of each... electronic signature that can uniquely identify the person. Identity verification begins with the customer...

  13. Non destructive assay techniques applied to nuclear materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gavron, A.

    2001-01-01

    Nondestructive assay is a suite of techniques that has matured and become precise, easily implementable, and remotely usable. These techniques provide elaborate safeguards of nuclear material by providing the necessary information for materials accounting. NDA techniques are ubiquitous, reliable, essentially tamper proof, and simple to use. They make the world a safer place to live in, and they make nuclear energy viable. (author)

  14. Multichannel Distribution Meter: A Veritable Solution in Power ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Partitioned apartments in commercial buildings particularly in congested environments shares energy supply meters among several users. This often leads to disputes and results to power theft in the form of unpaid bills and meter tampering. This paper described how power from a single supply meter can be adequately ...

  15. Timber tracking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Düdder, Boris; Ross, Omry

    2017-01-01

    Managing and verifying forest products in a value chain is often reliant on easily manipulated document or digital tracking methods - Chain of Custody Systems. We aim to create a new means of tracking timber by developing a tamper proof digital system based on Blockchain technology. Blockchain...

  16. Kenya: Current Conditions and the Challenges Ahead

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-05-14

    declared that “those alleging vote tampering may pursue legal remedies and should be able, consistent with respect for freedom of speech , to make...executive influence on the judiciary; disrespect for freedom of speech and of the press; internally displaced persons, refugees, and stateless

  17. Uued professorid ja audoktorid

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2009-01-01

    TÜ nõukogu valis rahvusvahelise õiguse professoriks Lauri Mälksoo, peremeditsiini professorik Ruth Kalda, spordipsühholoogia professoriks Lennart Raudsepa; audoktoriteks nimetati EELK peapiiskop Andres Taul, Groningeni ülikooli prof. Cornelius Theodor Hasselblatt, Tampere ülikooli emeriitprof. Kai Krohn, Hollandi Erasmuse Ülikooli prof. Frank G. Grosveld, Suurbritannia Sussexi ülikooli prof. George Nicholas von Tunzelmann

  18. Global Ischemia ECG pattern for diagnosis of acute left main occlusion: prevalence and associated mortality in patients with suspected acute myocardial infarction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stengaard, Carsten; Sørensen, Jacob Thorsted; Andersen, M.P.

    2011-01-01

    , Department of Cardiology, Heart Center - Tampere - Finland, 5Duke University Medical Center, Department of Medicine, Division of Cardiology - Durham - United States of America, Topic(s): Infarction acute phase STEMI Citation: European Heart Journal ( 2011 ) 32 ( Abstract Supplement ), 1054 Purpose: A global...... occlusion of 4.3%. Mortality in patients with GIP was significantly higher compared to patients without GIP (preports...

  19. Naine : masin või loom? / Maris Palgi

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Palgi, Maris

    2007-01-01

    Eero Taltsi, Margus Kiisi, Maia Mölleri, Kaie Luige, Eva Orava ja Maris Palgi projektist "Maine-loom, naine-masin", mida tutvustati 2006. a. Moostes üritusel "Postsovkhoz 6", 2007. a. jaanuaris-veebruaris Tartu Kunstimajas ja Tartu Tampere Majas. Näitused avati E. Taltsi ja M. Kiisi loeng-performance'itega

  20. Homme kell 19 algab EKA galeriis Norra eri väljapanek "(A guide to) constructing the universe"

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2005-01-01

    Kuraatoriduo Rakett koosseisus Karolin Tampere ja Ase Lovgren norra noorema kunsti ja muusikaga.12. III toimuva norra video- ja performance'i-õhtu esinejad loetletud, vt. ka lk. 24. Projekti II osa 19. märtsil Ku-Ku klubis (bändid ja dj-d)

  1. 76 FR 6199 - Enhanced Weapons, Firearms Background Checks, and Security Event Notifications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-03

    ... comments, contact us directly at 301-415-1677. Hand deliver comments to: 11555 Rockville Pike, Rockville..., President Bush signed into law the Energy Policy Act of 2005 (EPAct), Public Law 109-58, 119 Stat. 594 (2005... locked containers which are sealed with a high-integrity, tamper-indicating device (TID) (e.g., ``ready...

  2. Tritium in Exit Signs | RadTown USA | US EPA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-08-07

    Many exit signs contain tritium to light the sign without batteries or electricity. Using tritium in exit signs allows the sign to remain lit if the power goes out. Tritium is most dangerous when it is inhaled or swallowed. Never tamper with a tritium exit sign. If a tritium exit sign is broken, leave the area immediately and notify the building maintenance staff.

  3. Unattended video surveillance systems for international safeguards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, C.S.

    1979-01-01

    The use of unattended video surveillance systems places some unique requirements on the systems and their hardware. The systems have the traditional requirements of video imaging, video storage, and video playback but also have some special requirements such as tamper safing. The technology available to meet these requirements and how it is being applied to unattended video surveillance systems are discussed in this paper

  4. 76 FR 65485 - Petition for Approval of Alternate Odometer Disclosure Requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-21

    ... consumers and provide mechanisms for tracing odometer tampering and prosecuting violators. TIMA's... odometer history through a Web-based application and thereby evaluate the accuracy of the odometer readings... Dockets Management System Web site at http://dms.dot.gov . Click on ``Help & Information,'' or ``Help/Info...

  5. 77 FR 50071 - Petition for Approval of Alternate Odometer Disclosure Requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-20

    ... be better informed and provide a mechanism for tracing odometer tampering and prosecuting violators... background, according to information posted on the Arizona Department of Transportation (ADOT) Web site... explanation for this omission, which could make tracing and prosecuting fraud more difficult.\\38\\ \\38...

  6. Learning and lifehistory in relation to caring-jobs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liveng, Anne

    2003-01-01

    'Work and Lifelong Learning in Different Contexts'. Proceedings Book V: 'Life History and Work', edited by 3.rd International Conference of Researching Work and Learning, July 2003. University of Tampere. 2003 Kort beskrivelse: Artiklen argumenterer for, hvorfor en subjektiv, livshistorisk vinkel...

  7. Blind Authentication Using Periodic Properties ofInterpolation

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mahdian, Babak; Saic, Stanislav

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 3, č. 3 (2008), s. 529-538 ISSN 1556-6013 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA102/08/0470 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10750506 Keywords : image forensics * digital forgery * image tampering * interpolation detection * resampling detection Subject RIV: IN - Informatics, Computer Science Impact factor: 2.230, year: 2008

  8. Klaas on kaasaegne ja vastupidav materjal : skulptuur / Meeli Kõiva ; interv. Reet Varblane

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kõiva, Meeli

    2007-01-01

    Klaasikunstnik Meeli Kõiva tutvustas Tamperes klaasifoorumil "Glass Performance Days 2007" oma klaasvalgusskulptuure. Ettekanne valmis koostöös Aulis Bertiniga. Arhitektuursest klaasikunstist, koostööst Ekku Peltomäkiga, Eestis teostamata jäänud klaas- ja valgusskulptuuridest, kunstist, mida 1% ulatuses kogu hoone maksumusest rahastatakse

  9. Muusika. Cannes Classical Award Eri Klasile. EFK USAsse ja Kanadasse. "opeNBaroque" ئ 11 kontserti. Chopini konkurss Narvas. Tubina ühingu aastakoosolek

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2002-01-01

    Eri Klasi ja Tampere Linnaorkestri CD helilooja Einar Englundi loominguga pälvis mainekaplaadiauhinna, Cannes Classical Award'i. 7.-24. veebruarini on Eesti Filharmoonia Kammerkoorringreisil USAs ja Kanadas. Festivali "opeNBaroque" kontsertidest. Chopini loomingule pühendatud Läänemeremaade noorte pianistide konkursist Narvas. Tubina ühingu aastakoosolekust 5. veebruaril

  10. Secure surveillance videotapes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Resnik, W.M.; Kadner, S.P.; Olsen, R.; Chitumbo, K.; Pepper, S.

    1995-01-01

    With assistance from the US Program for Technical Assistance to IAEA Safeguards (POTAS), Aquila Technologies Group developed the Tamper-Resistant Analog Media (TRAM-1000) system to provide standard VHS surveillance video tapes with an enhanced tamper-indicating capability. This project represents further implementation of the partnership approach in facilities including light water reactors with MOX facilities. These facilities use Uniplex Digiquad system video tapes. The partnership approach ensures that one organization can exchange the tapes in a machine without the presence of the other, without losing continuity of information. The TRAM-1000 system development project was accomplished in two stages. In the first stage of the project, the original system delivered to the IAEA, consists of three parts: (1) the tamper detection unit, (2) a specially augmented VHS video tape, and (3) an HP-95 reader. The tamper detection unit houses a VACOSS active fiber-optic seal and an electronic identification tag (E-TAG) reader. In the second stage of the project, the original TRAM-1000 was modified to its current design based on agency input. After delivery of the original TRAM-1000 system to the IAEA, it was reviewed by inspectors. The inspectors felt that the initial system's tape storage/transport method could be simplified. Rather than threading the fiber through the tape spindles, the inspectors suggested that the tape be placed in a bag capable of being sealed. Also, a more flexible fiber-optic cable was recommended. As a result of these suggestions, Aquila developed a tamper-proof bag specifically for holding a surveillance video tape and sealable with a VACOSS fiber optical seal

  11. Authentication via wavefront-shaped optical responses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eilers, Hergen; Anderson, Benjamin R.; Gunawidjaja, Ray

    2018-02-01

    Authentication/tamper-indication is required in a wide range of applications, including nuclear materials management and product counterfeit detection. State-of-the-art techniques include reflective particle tags, laser speckle authentication, and birefringent seals. Each of these passive techniques has its own advantages and disadvantages, including the need for complex image comparisons, limited flexibility, sensitivity to environmental conditions, limited functionality, etc. We have developed a new active approach to address some of these short-comings. The use of an active characterization technique adds more flexibility and additional layers of security over current techniques. Our approach uses randomly-distributed nanoparticles embedded in a polymer matrix (tag/seal) which is attached to the item to be secured. A spatial light modulator is used to adjust the wavefront of a laser which interacts with the tag/seal, and a detector is used to monitor this interaction. The interaction can occur in various ways, including transmittance, reflectance, fluorescence, random lasing, etc. For example, at the time of origination, the wavefront-shaped reflectance from a tag/seal can be adjusted to result in a specific pattern (symbol, words, etc.) Any tampering with the tag/seal would results in a disturbance of the random orientation of the nanoparticles and thus distort the reflectance pattern. A holographic waveplate could be inserted into the laser beam for verification. The absence/distortion of the original pattern would then indicate that tampering has occurred. We have tested the tag/seal's and authentication method's tamper-indicating ability using various attack methods, including mechanical, thermal, and chemical attacks, and have verified our material/method's robust tamper-indicating ability.

  12. Continuous Non-malleable Codes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Faust, Sebastian; Mukherjee, Pratyay; Nielsen, Jesper Buus

    2014-01-01

    or modify it to the encoding of a completely unrelated value. This paper introduces an extension of the standard non-malleability security notion - so-called continuous non-malleability - where we allow the adversary to tamper continuously with an encoding. This is in contrast to the standard notion of non...... is necessary to achieve continuous non-malleability in the split-state model. Moreover, we illustrate that none of the existing constructions satisfies our uniqueness property and hence is not secure in the continuous setting. We construct a split-state code satisfying continuous non-malleability. Our scheme...... is based on the inner product function, collision-resistant hashing and non-interactive zero-knowledge proofs of knowledge and requires an untamperable common reference string. We apply continuous non-malleable codes to protect arbitrary cryptographic primitives against tampering attacks. Previous...

  13. Two-layer fragile watermarking method secured with chaotic map for authentication of digital Holy Quran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalil, Mohammed S; Kurniawan, Fajri; Khan, Muhammad Khurram; Alginahi, Yasser M

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a novel watermarking method to facilitate the authentication and detection of the image forgery on the Quran images. Two layers of embedding scheme on wavelet and spatial domain are introduced to enhance the sensitivity of fragile watermarking and defend the attacks. Discrete wavelet transforms are applied to decompose the host image into wavelet prior to embedding the watermark in the wavelet domain. The watermarked wavelet coefficient is inverted back to spatial domain then the least significant bits is utilized to hide another watermark. A chaotic map is utilized to blur the watermark to make it secure against the local attack. The proposed method allows high watermark payloads, while preserving good image quality. Experiment results confirm that the proposed methods are fragile and have superior tampering detection even though the tampered area is very small.

  14. Authenticated Secure Container System (ASCS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    Sandia National Laboratories developed an Authenticated Secure Container System (ASCS) for the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). Agency standard weights and safeguards samples can be stored in the ASCS to provide continuity of knowledge. The ASCS consists of an optically clear cover, a base containing the Authenticated Item Monitoring System (AIMS) transmitter, and the AIMS receiver unit for data collection. The ASCS will provide the Inspector with information concerning the status of the system, during a surveillance period, such as state of health, tampering attempts, and movement of the container system. The secure container is located inside a Glove Box with the receiver located remotely from the Glove Box. AIMS technology uses rf transmission from the secure container to the receiver to provide a record of state of health and tampering. The data is stored in the receiver for analysis by the Inspector during a future inspection visit. 2 refs

  15. Structured Assessment Approach: a microcomputer-based insider-vulnerability analysis tool

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patenaude, C.J.; Sicherman, A.; Sacks, I.J.

    1986-01-01

    The Structured Assessment Approach (SAA) was developed to help assess the vulnerability of safeguards systems to insiders in a staged manner. For physical security systems, the SAA identifies possible diversion paths which are not safeguarded under various facility operating conditions and insiders who could defeat the system via direct access, collusion or indirect tampering. For material control and accounting systems, the SAA identifies those who could block the detection of a material loss or diversion via data falsification or equipment tampering. The SAA, originally desinged to run on a mainframe computer, has been converted to run on a personal computer. Many features have been added to simplify and facilitate its use for conducting vulnerability analysis. For example, the SAA input, which is a text-like data file, is easily readable and can provide documentation of facility safeguards and assumptions used for the analysis

  16. System for the identification of objects, for example nuclear fuel elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crutzen, S.; Dal Cero, J.; Denis, R.

    1983-01-01

    This invention provides a system for identifying objects (eg. fuel rods) or providing an indication of tampering with the objects which consists of a hollow body adopted for attachment to an object, a matrix material such as 'ARALDITE' or aluminum with inclusions in a random configuration. The inclusions may be a mixture of bronze or tungsten or voids and at least one must be a piezoelectric transducer. The transducer(s) on connection to an exterior ultrasonic testing apparatus will provide an output indicative of the structure of the seal and particularly the configuration of the various inclusions. Tampering with the seal or removal of the cap will alter its structure so subsequent testing will produce a different result indicating the occurrence of such an unauthorized event

  17. Surveillance system using the CCTV at the fuel transfer pond in the Tokai reprocessing plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayakawa, T.; Fukuhara, J.; Ochiai, K.; Ohnishi, T.; Ogata, Y.; Okamoto, H.

    1991-01-01

    The Fuel Transfer Pond (FTP) in the Tokai Reprocessing Plant (TRP) is a strategic point for safeguards. Spent fuels, therefore, in the FTP have been surveyed by the surveillance system using the underwater CCTV. This system was developed through the improvement of devices composed of cameras and VCRs and the provision of tamper resistance function as one of the JASPAS (Japan Support Program for Agency Safeguards) program. The purpose of this program is to realize the continuous surveillance of the slanted tunnel through which the spent fuel on the conveyor is moved from the FTP to the Mechanical Processing Cell (MPC). This paper reports that, when this surveillance system is applied to an inspection device, the following requirements are needed: To have the ability of continuous and unattended surveillance of the spent fuel on the conveyor path from the FTP to the MPC; To have the tamper resistance function for continuous and unattended surveillance of the spent fuel

  18. Electricity theft: a comparative analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, T.B.

    2004-01-01

    Electricity theft can be in the form of fraud (meter tampering), stealing (illegal connections), billing irregularities, and unpaid bills. Estimates of the extent of electricity theft in a sample of 102 countries for 1980 and 2000 are undertaken. The evidence shows that theft is increasing in most regions of the world. The financial impacts of theft are reduced income from the sale of electricity and the necessity to charge more to consumers. Electricity theft is closely related to governance indicators, with higher levels of theft in countries without effective accountability, political instability, low government effectiveness and high levels of corruption. Electricity theft can be reduced by applying technical solutions such as tamper-proof meters, managerial methods such as inspection and monitoring, and in some cases restructuring power systems ownership and regulation

  19. Hydrodynamics of layer structured targets impinged by intense ion beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davila, J.; Barrero, A.

    1989-01-01

    To minimize the energy loss in the corona outflow, a layer structured spherical hollow shell has been proposed to be used as target in inertial confinement fusion. For ion beam drivers, the major part of the beam energy is absorbed in the middle layer, which is called either absorber or pusher. The outer layer, called tamper, slows down the outward expansion of the absorbed low density region. The materials of the tamper and pusher are usually in the inner layer. The knowledge of the hydrodynamics of the interaction of an intense beam with a structured target is then an essential point in order to achieve break-even conditions in ion-beam fusion. (author) 2 refs., 2 figs

  20. Mini-Sosie - a new concept in high-resolution seismic surveys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiles, C J

    1977-12-01

    Mini-Sosie is a new approach to high-resolution reflection seismics using a nondynamite source. The basic principles is to use an ordinary earth tamper to produce a long duration pseudo-random input pulse train. Returning signals from suitable geophone arrays are decoded in real time by crosscorrelation with the reference signal recorded from a source-sensor attached to the tamper plate. Relatively weak signals are stacked until sufficient amplitude is obtained; most noise is phased out during the decoding process while in-phase seismic events are added, resulting in good signal-to-noise ratios. The resulting output is the standard field seismogram. The source is relatively quiet and surface damage is insignificant thereby avoiding environmental restrictions. Mini-Sosie is especially useful for shallow investigation to one second (two-way time) and has a wide range of applications from shallow oil and gas exploration, coal, and hard mineral exploration to hydrology and engineering studies.

  1. Security seal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gobeli, Garth W.

    1985-01-01

    Security for a package or verifying seal in plastic material is provided by a print seal with unique thermally produced imprints in the plastic. If tampering is attempted, the material is irreparably damaged and thus detectable. The pattern of the imprints, similar to "fingerprints" are recorded as a positive identification for the seal, and corresponding recordings made to allow comparison. The integrity of the seal is proved by the comparison of imprint identification records made by laser beam projection.

  2. RAICS AS ADVANCED CLOUD BACKUP TECHNOLOGY IN TELECOMMUNICATION NETWORKS

    OpenAIRE

    Luntovskyy, Andriy; Vasyutynskyy, Volodymyr; Spillner, Josef

    2014-01-01

    Data crashes can cause unpredictable and even hard-out effects for an enterprise or authority. Backup strategies as antidote uni-fy a complex of organizational and technical measures that are necessary for data restoring, processing and transfer as well as for data security and defense against its loss, crash and tampering. High-performance modern Internet allows delivery of back-up functions and is complemented by attractive (mobile) services with a Quality of Service comparable to that in L...

  3. DESIGN AND IMPLEMENTATION OF A PRIVACY PRESERVED OFF-PREMISES CLOUD STORAGE

    OpenAIRE

    Sarfraz Nawaz Brohi; Mervat Adib Bamiah; Suriayati Chuprat; Jamalul-lail Ab Manan

    2014-01-01

    Despite several cost-effective and flexible characteristics of cloud computing, some clients are reluctant to adopt this paradigm due to emerging security and privacy concerns. Organization such as Healthcare and Payment Card Industry where confidentiality of information is a vital act, are not assertive to trust the security techniques and privacy policies offered by cloud service providers. Malicious attackers have violated the cloud storages to steal, view, manipulate and tamper client&...

  4. Rewarding as a relational driver of customer loyalty in the Finnish grocery trade

    OpenAIRE

    LAUKKANEN, MAARIT

    2011-01-01

    TamPubissa tutkielman rajattu versio. Täydellinen versio luettavissa Tampereen yliopiston Linna-kirjastossa. The PDF is a limited version of the Master's thesis. The complete version can be viewed in print at Tampere University Library.   The study addressed the phenomenon of rewarding that has become an essential element of customer loyalty programs. It was indicated that the area of rewarding driving customer loyalty lacked qualitative studies that stressed different life stages....

  5. On Cyber Risk Management of Blockchain Networks: A Game Theoretic Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Feng, Shaohan; Wang, Wenbo; Xiong, Zehui; Niyato, Dusit; Wang, Ping; Wang, Shaun Shuxun

    2018-01-01

    Open-access blockchains based on proof-of-work protocols have gained tremendous popularity for their capabilities of providing decentralized tamper-proof ledgers and platforms for data-driven autonomous organization. Nevertheless, the proof-of-work based consensus protocols are vulnerable to cyber-attacks such as double-spending. In this paper, we propose a novel approach of cyber risk management for blockchain-based service. In particular, we adopt the cyber-insurance as an economic tool for...

  6. Технология Blockchain как инструмент повышения эффективности транспортной логистики

    OpenAIRE

    Карнач, С. В.

    2016-01-01

    Blockchain is a distributed database that holds records of digital data or events in a way that makes them tamper-resistant. Today Blockchain allows: recording the quantity and transfer of assets (pallets, trailers, containers) as they move between supply chain nodes; tracking purchase orders, change orders, receipts, shipment notifications; assigning or verifying certifications or certain properties of physical products; linking physical goods to serial numbers, bar codes, digital tags like ...

  7. Safeguards Summary Event List (SSEL)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-03-01

    The Safeguards Summary Event List (SSEL) provides brief summaries of several hundred safeguards-related events involving nuclear material or facilities regulated by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). Events are described under the categories of bomb-related, intrusion, missing and/or allegedly stolen, transportation, tampering/vandalism, arson, firearms, radiological sabotage and miscellaneous. The information contained in the event descriptions is derived primarily from official NRC reporting channels

  8. Side Channel Attacks on STTRAM and Low Overhead Countermeasures

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-03-20

    about the cache addresses used in encryption . This timing information can be exploited for key recovery of encryption algorithms like AES [9]. Since a...Nevertheless, the raw un- encrypted sensitive data can be extracted. D. Impact of Magnetic Tampering: External DC magnetic field of opposite strength could...tions like encryption . The malicious user then measures the loading time to find which of his data has been replaced by the other user and learns

  9. Linear shaped charge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peterson, David; Stofleth, Jerome H.; Saul, Venner W.

    2017-07-11

    Linear shaped charges are described herein. In a general embodiment, the linear shaped charge has an explosive with an elongated arrowhead-shaped profile. The linear shaped charge also has and an elongated v-shaped liner that is inset into a recess of the explosive. Another linear shaped charge includes an explosive that is shaped as a star-shaped prism. Liners are inset into crevices of the explosive, where the explosive acts as a tamper.

  10. How to improve J(c(T)) in Ag/(BiPb)2Sr2Ca2Cu3O10 tapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karkut, M.; Fossheim, K.

    1994-06-01

    We consider how to improve the magnetic field dependence of the critical current density J(c) in Ag/BSCCO superconducting tapes. First we look at mechanisms that provide pinning in the oxide superconductors and then consider the special problems that one encounters with Ag/BSCCO tapes. We propose several testable propositions to be performed in collaboration with NKT, Denmark and Tampere University, Finland.

  11. An empirical analysis of smart contracts: platforms, applications, and design patterns

    OpenAIRE

    Bartoletti, Massimo; Pompianu, Livio

    2017-01-01

    Smart contracts are computer programs that can be consistently executed by a network of mutually distrusting nodes, without the arbitration of a trusted authority. Because of their resilience to tampering, smart contracts are appealing in many scenarios, especially in those which require transfers of money to respect certain agreed rules (like in financial services and in games). Over the last few years many platforms for smart contracts have been proposed, and some of them have been actually...

  12. Taxonomy of Digital Forensics: Investigation Tools and Challenges

    OpenAIRE

    Rana, Nikita; Sansanwal, Gunjan; Khatter, Kiran; Singh, Sukhdev

    2017-01-01

    In today's world of computers, any kind of information can be made available within few clicks for different endeavors. The information may be tampered by changing the statistical properties and can be further used for criminal activities. These days, Cyber crimes are happening at a very large scale, and possess big threats to the security of an individual, firm, industry and even to developed countries. To combat such crimes, law enforcement agencies and investment institutions are incorpora...

  13. Customer Satisfaction of S-card members in Sokos Hotel Ilves

    OpenAIRE

    Thande, Eric

    2012-01-01

    Companies try to find point of uniqueness to differentiate themselves from their competitors. In order for the companies to differentiate themselves from competitors, they must measure their customer satisfaction level. This way they can take corrective action to strengthen their relationship with the customers. The main aim of this thesis is to measure the customer satisfaction of level of S-card members. The research is carried out in Sokos hotel Ilves located in Tampere Finland. The author...

  14. Material control and accounting at Exxon Nuclear, II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schneider, R.A.

    1985-01-01

    In this session the measurements and the associated measurement control program used at the Model Plant are described. The procedures for evaluating MUF and sigma MUF are also discussed. The use of material composition codes and their role in IAEA safeguards under the US/IAEA Safeguards Agreement are described. In addition, the various accounting forms used at the plant are described and the use of tamper-indicating seals is discussed

  15. EASYTRAC Project: Work package 6.4 Reversal technique to calibrate gear and thread standards

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carmignato, Simone; De Chiffre, Leonardo; Larsen, Erik

    This report was produced as a part of the project EASYTRAC, an EU project under the programme Competitive and Sustainable Growth: Contract No. G6RD-CT-2000-00188, coordinated by UNIMETRIK S.A. (Spain). The project is concerned with low uncertainty calibrations on coordinate measuring machines (CM...... (PTB) - Germany and Tampere University of Technology (TUT) - Finland. The present report describes feasibility and experimental results of a reversal and substitute element technique application for thread calibration on CMMs....

  16. Secure Programming Cookbook for C and C++ Recipes for Cryptography, Authentication, Input Validation & More

    CERN Document Server

    Viega, John

    2009-01-01

    Secure Programming Cookbook for C and C++ is an important new resource for developers serious about writing secure code for Unix® (including Linux®) and Windows® environments. This essential code companion covers a wide range of topics, including safe initialization, access control, input validation, symmetric and public key cryptography, cryptographic hashes and MACs, authentication and key exchange, PKI, random numbers, and anti-tampering.

  17. Using SIM for strong end-to-end Application Authentication

    OpenAIRE

    Lunde, Lars; Wangensteen, Audun

    2006-01-01

    Today the Internet is mostly used for services that require low or none security. The commercial and governmental applications have started to emerge but met problems since they require strong authentication, which is both difficult and costly to realize. The SIM card used in mobile phones is a tamper resistant device that contains strong authentication mechanisms. It would be very convenient and cost-efficient if Internet services could use authentication methods based on the SIM. This mast...

  18. Outbreaks of infections associated with drug diversion by US health care personnel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaefer, Melissa K; Perz, Joseph F

    2014-07-01

    To summarize available information about outbreaks of infections stemming from drug diversion in US health care settings and describe recommended protocols and public health actions. We reviewed records at the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention related to outbreaks of infections from drug diversion by health care personnel in US health care settings from January 1, 2000, through December 31, 2013. Searches of the medical literature published during the same period were also conducted using PubMed. Information compiled included health care setting(s), infection type(s), specialty of the implicated health care professional, implicated medication(s), mechanism(s) of diversion, number of infected patients, number of patients with potential exposure to blood-borne pathogens, and resolution of the investigation. We identified 6 outbreaks over a 10-year period beginning in 2004; all occurred in hospital settings. Implicated health care professionals included 3 technicians and 3 nurses, one of whom was a nurse anesthetist. The mechanism by which infections were spread was tampering with injectable controlled substances. Two outbreaks involved tampering with opioids administered via patient-controlled analgesia pumps and resulted in gram-negative bacteremia in 34 patients. The remaining 4 outbreaks involved tampering with syringes or vials containing fentanyl; hepatitis C virus infection was transmitted to 84 patients. In each of these outbreaks, the implicated health care professional was infected with hepatitis C virus and served as the source; nearly 30,000 patients were potentially exposed to blood-borne pathogens and targeted for notification advising testing. These outbreaks revealed gaps in prevention, detection, and response to drug diversion in US health care facilities. Drug diversion is best prevented by health care facilities having strong narcotics security measures and active monitoring systems. Appropriate response includes assessment of harm to

  19. Safeguards Summary Event List (SSEL), Pre-NRC through December 31, 1985

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-02-01

    The Safeguards Summary Event List (SSEL) provides brief summaries of several hundred safeguards-related events involving nuclear material or facilities regulated by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). Events are described under the categories of bomb-related, intrusion, missing and/or allegedly stolen, transportation, tampering/vandalism, arson, firearms, radiological sabotage, non-radiological sabotage, and miscellaneous. The information contained in the event descriptions is derived primarily from official NRC reporting channels

  20. Carbon dioxide titration method for soil respiration measurements

    OpenAIRE

    Martín Rubio, Luis

    2017-01-01

    This thesis was commissioned by Tampere University of Applied Sciences, which was interested in studying and developing a titration measurement method for soil respiration and biodegradability. Some experiments were carried out measuring soil respiration for testing the method and others adding some biodegradable material like polylactic acid compressed material and 100% biodegradable plastic bags to test its biodegradability and the possibility to measure it via titration. The thesi...

  1. Believing Your Eyes: Strengthening the Reliability of Tags and Seals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brim, Cornelia P.; Denlinger, Laura S.

    2013-07-01

    NNSA’s Office of Nonproliferation and International Security (NIS) is working together with scientific experts at the DOE national laboratories to develop the tools needed to safeguard and secure nuclear material from diversion, theft, and sabotage--tasks critical to support future arms control treaties that may involve the new challenge of monitoring nuclear weapons dismantlement. Use of optically stimulated luminescent material is one method to enhance the security and robustness of existing tamper indicating devices such as tags and seals.

  2. Workshop presentation: research guidelines for Construction Management

    OpenAIRE

    Marco Alvise Bragadin

    2013-01-01

    Nowadays the European economic system challenges the construction sector to take part to industrial recovery of western countries. In co-operation with the Construction Production research group of the Tampere University of of research about construction management tools and methods were detected. Research guidelines: 1) Construction management: tools and methods to manage construction projects 2) environmental impact of construction projects 3) construction management and safety 4) project p...

  3. Workshop presentation: research guidelines for Construction Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Alvise Bragadin

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays the European economic system challenges the construction sector to take part to industrial recovery of western countries. In co-operation with the Construction Production research group of the Tampere University of of research about construction management tools and methods were detected. Research guidelines: 1 Construction management: tools and methods to manage construction projects 2 environmental impact of construction projects 3 construction management and safety 4 project procurement 5 construction management for major public works & complex projects

  4. Vitality Detection in Face Images using Second Order Gradient

    OpenAIRE

    Aruni Singh

    2012-01-01

    Spoofing is a very big challenge in biometrics, specially in face image. So many artificial techniques are available to tamper or hide the original face. To ensure the actual presence of live face image in contrast to fake face image this research has been contributed. The intended purpose of proposed approach is also to endorse the biometric authentication, by joining the liveness awareness with Facial Recognition Technology (FRT). In this research 200 dummy face images and 200 real face ima...

  5. Two boilers from Kvaerner to Sumatra, Indonesia; Sumatralle kaksi kattilaa Kvaernerilta

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salja, A. [Kvaerner Pulping Oy, Tampere (Finland)

    1997-12-31

    Kvaerner Pulping Oy has won a contract to supply soda and power boilers to the new Musi Pulp plant under construction in southern Sumatra in Indonesia. The boiler will be built in Tampere. The plant is scheduled for completion in December 1999 and it will produce 450 000 t/a. The contract is an important step forward for Kvaerner Pulping in promoting its fluidized bed technology

  6. Social Media as a Marketing Tool for a Small Business

    OpenAIRE

    Honkaniemi, Noora

    2015-01-01

    This Bachelor’s thesis focuses on social media and utilising it as a marketing strategy for a photography entrepreneur in Tampere. Marketing theories and the concept of social media are defined in order to facilitate understanding the case in a more constructive manner. Social media platforms are introduced through literature and web materials. The purpose was to give a general guideline in marketing through various social media platforms. The objective was to gain knowledge of the more popul...

  7. The introduction of a potentially abuse deterrent oxycodone formulation: Early findings from the Australian National Opioid Medications Abuse Deterrence (NOMAD) study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Degenhardt, Louisa; Bruno, Raimondo; Ali, Robert; Lintzeris, Nicholas; Farrell, Michael; Larance, Briony

    2015-06-01

    There is increasing concern about tampering of pharmaceutical opioids. We describe early findings from an Australian study examining the potential impact of the April 2014 introduction of an abuse-deterrent sustained-release oxycodone formulation (Reformulated OxyContin(®)). Data on pharmaceutical opioid sales; drug use by people who inject drugs regularly (PWID); client visits to the Sydney Medically Supervised Injecting Centre (MSIC); and last drug injected by clients of inner-Sydney needle-syringe programmes (NSPs) were obtained, 2009-2014. A cohort of n=606 people tampering with pharmaceutical opioids was formed pre-April 2014, and followed up May-August 2014. There were declines in pharmacy sales of 80mg OxyContin(®) post-introduction of the reformulated product, the dose most commonly diverted and injected by PWID. Reformulated OxyContin(®) was among the least commonly used and injected drugs among PWID. This was supported by Sydney NSP data. There was a dramatic reduction in MSIC visits for injection of OxyContin(®) post-introduction of the new formulation (from 62% of monthly visits pre-introduction to 5% of visits, August 2014). The NOMAD cohort confirmed a reduction in OxyContin(®) use/injection post-introduction. Reformulated OxyContin(®) was cheaper and less attractive for tampering than Original OxyContin(®). These data suggest that, in the short term, introduction of an abuse-deterrent formulation of OxyContin(®) in Australia was associated with a reduction in injection of OxyContin(®), with no clear switch to other drugs. Reformulated OxyContin(®), in this short follow-up, does not appear to be considered as attractive for tampering. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Description of reference (model) plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schneider, R.A.

    1984-01-01

    For the workshop on Safeguards System design for a fuel fabrication plant, a generic example of a LEU bulk-handling facility that is based on the Exxon LWR fuel fabrication plants is used. The model plant information is given in the following separate sections: (1) process assumptions; (2) six-month material balance model; (3) measurements; (4) error parameters, measurements, and sigma MUF calculations; (5) material control areas; (6) accounting, records, and reports; (7) tamper-safing; and (8) measurement control program

  9. fairCASH based on Loss resistant Teleportation

    OpenAIRE

    Kreft, Heinz

    2010-01-01

    This work contributes technical to the field of fair exchange protocols by proposing a new way to move safeguarded secrets between cryptographically secure endpoints excluding the possibility of duplication. After a brief introduction and presentation of an overview of the subject matter, the problem areas of creating a way to teleport secrets with the help of tamper-resistant hardware are defined. Objects like the CASTOR (a HSM element), eCoins (the secrets) and a copy-less transportation (t...

  10. Safeguards Summary Event List (SSEL). Pre-NRC through December 31, 1984. Revision 10

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-05-01

    The Safeguards Summary Event List (SSEL) provides brief summaries of several hundred safeguards-related events involving nuclear material or facilities regulated by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). Events are described under the categories of bomb-related, intrusion, missing and/or allegedly stolen, transportation, tampering/vandalism, arson, firearms, radiological sabotage, non-radiological sabotage and miscellaneous. The information contained in the event descriptions in derived primarily from official NRC reporting channels

  11. PIZZARO: Forensic analysis and restoration of image and video data

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kamenický, Jan; Bartoš, Michal; Flusser, Jan; Mahdian, Babak; Kotera, Jan; Novozámský, Adam; Saic, Stanislav; Šroubek, Filip; Šorel, Michal; Zita, Aleš; Zitová, Barbara; Šíma, Z.; Švarc, P.; Hořínek, J.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 264, č. 1 (2016), s. 153-166 ISSN 0379-0738 R&D Projects: GA MV VG20102013064; GA ČR GA13-29225S Institutional support: RVO:67985556 Keywords : Image forensic analysis * Image restoration * Image tampering detection * Image source identification Subject RIV: JD - Computer Applications, Robotics Impact factor: 1.989, year: 2016 http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2016/ZOI/kamenicky-0459504.pdf

  12. Detection of Copy-move Image Modification Using JPEG Compression Model

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Novozámský, Adam; Šorel, Michal

    2018-01-01

    Roč. 283, č. 1 (2018), s. 47-57 ISSN 0379-0738 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA16-13830S; GA ČR GA15-16928S Institutional support: RVO:67985556 Keywords : Copy-move modification * Forgery * Image tampering * Quantization constraint set Subject RIV: JD - Computer Applications, Robotics Impact factor: 1.989, year: 2016 http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2017/ZOI/novozamsky-0483329.pdf

  13. Corporate brand positioning : searching for a new position - case Metso Power

    OpenAIRE

    KUURU, TIINA-KAISA

    2013-01-01

    Tutkielmasta TamPubissa rajattu versio. Täydellinen versio luettavissa Tampereen yliopiston Linna-kirjastossa. This is a limited version of the Master's thesis. The complete version can be viewed in print at Tampere University Library The purpose of this study is to describe and analyse the process of corporate brand positioning. Study is focused on B2B market, precisely on industrial brands. Corporate brand positioning is defined as a process of searching and finding a...

  14. Reverse Engineering Socialbot Infiltration Strategies in Twitter

    OpenAIRE

    Freitas, Carlos A.; Benevenuto, Fabrício; Ghosh, Saptarshi; Veloso, Adriano

    2014-01-01

    Data extracted from social networks like Twitter are increasingly being used to build applications and services that mine and summarize public reactions to events, such as traffic monitoring platforms, identification of epidemic outbreaks, and public perception about people and brands. However, such services are vulnerable to attacks from socialbots $-$ automated accounts that mimic real users $-$ seeking to tamper statistics by posting messages generated automatically and interacting with le...

  15. Safeguards Summary Event List (SSEL). Pre-NRC-June 30, 1985. Revision 11

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-01-01

    The Safeguards Summary Event List (SSRL) provides brief summaries of several hundred safeguards-related events involving nuclear material or facilities regulated by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). Events are described under the categories of bomb-related, intrusion, missing and/or allegedly stolen, transportation, tampering/vandalism, arson, firearms, radiological sabotage, non-radiological sabotage and miscellaneous. The information contained in the event descriptions is derived primarily from official NRC reporting channels. 12 figs

  16. A bibliography on blind methods for identifying image forgery

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Saic, Stanislav; Mahdian, Babak

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 25, č. 6 (2010), s. 389-399 ISSN 0923-5965 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA102/08/0470 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10750506 Keywords : Image forensics * Digital forgery * Image tampering * Blind forgery detection * Multimedia security Subject RIV: IN - Informatics, Computer Science Impact factor: 1.186, year: 2010 http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2010/ZOI/saic-0346813.pdf

  17. Safeguards Summary Event List (SSEL): Pre-NRC through December 31, 1986

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-07-01

    The Safeguards Summary Event List (SSEL) provides brief summaries of several hundred safeguards-related events involving nuclear material or facilities regulated by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). Events are described under the categories of bomb-related, intrusion, missing and/or allegedly stolen, transportation, tampering/vandalism, arson, firearms, radiological sabotage, nonradiological sabotage and miscellaneous. The information contained in the event descriptions is derived primarily from official NRC reporting channels

  18. Safeguards summary event list (SSEL): Pre-NRC through December 31, 1987

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-07-01

    The Safeguards Summary Event List (SSEL) provides brief summaries of several hundred safeguards-related events involving nuclear material or facilities regulated by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). Events are described under the categories of bomb-related, intrusion, missing and/or allegedly stolen, transportation, tampering/vandalism, arson, firearms, radiological sabotage, nonradiological sabotage, alcohol and drugs, and miscellaneous. The information contained in the event descriptions is derived primarily from official NRC reporting channels

  19. Safeguards Summary Event List (SSEL), Pre-NRC through December 31, 1983. Rev. 9

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-06-01

    The Safeguards Summary Event List (SSEL) provides brief summaries of several hundred safeguards-related events involving nuclear material or facilities regulated by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). Events are described under the categories of bomb-related, intrusion, missing/allegedly stolen, transportation, tampering/vandalism, arson, firearms-related, radiological sabotage and miscellaneous. The information contained in the event descriptions is derived primarily from official NRC reporting channels

  20. Biometric Template Security

    OpenAIRE

    Abhishek Nagar; Karthik Nandakumar; Anil K. Jain

    2008-01-01

    Biometric recognition offers a reliable solution to the problem of user authentication in identity management systems. With the widespread deployment of biometric systems in various applications, there are increasing concerns about the security and privacy of biometric technology. Public acceptance of biometrics technology will depend on the ability of system designers to demonstrate that these systems are robust, have low error rates, and are tamper proof. We present a high-level categorizat...

  1. Cancelable Biometrics - A Survey

    OpenAIRE

    Indira Chakravarthy; VVSSS. Balaram; B. Eswara Reddy

    2011-01-01

    In recent times Biometrics has emerged as a reliable, convenient and effective method of user authentication. However, with the increasing use of biometrics in several diverse applications, concerns about the privacy and security of biometric data contained in the database systems has increased. It is therefore imperative that Biometric systems instill confidence in the general public, by demonstrating that, these systems are robust, have low error rates and are tamper proof. In this context,...

  2. Journalism and School Shootings in Finland 2007 -2008

    OpenAIRE

    Raittila, Pentti; Koljonen, Kari; Väliverronen, Jari

    2010-01-01

    Two school shootings in Finland (Jokela in 2007 and Kauhajoki in 2008) resulted in the death of 20 people, and they shook not only the foundations of Finnish society but also of the profession that reported about the tragedies. This report is based on research conducted on school shootings at the University of Tampere Journalism Research and Development Centre between 2008 and 2009. The analysis concentrates on both the journalistic texts published on the shootings and journalists' actions...

  3. Computational Design of Short Pulse Laser Driven Iron Opacity Measurements at Stellar-Relevant Conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, Madison E. [Univ. of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States)

    2017-05-20

    Opacity is a critical parameter in the simulation of radiation transport in systems such as inertial con nement fusion capsules and stars. The resolution of current disagreements between solar models and helioseismological observations would bene t from experimental validation of theoretical opacity models. Overall, short pulse laser heated iron experiments reaching stellar-relevant conditions have been designed with consideration of minimizing tamper emission and optical depth effects while meeting plasma condition and x-ray emission goals.

  4. Customer Satisfaction and Service Quality at Fafa's Restaurant

    OpenAIRE

    Tcvetkova, Daria

    2017-01-01

    The commissioning company of this thesis is Fafa’s restaurant, which opened in Tampere in 2016. Fafa’s restaurant is a chain of fast-food concept restaurants located in several cities in Finland. The purpose of the research is to analyse customer satisfaction and service quality at the commissioning company and find positive solutions for its improvement. The theoretical framework of the study includes different theories on customer satisfaction and quality of the service, models and dime...

  5. Avionics Design for Reliability

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-03-01

    user and a supplier arfue to determine if a failure is, or is not to be ascribed to the equipment, some disputable cases are difficult to nettle ... combat action, or tampering by Government personnel, provided there is clear and c~nvincing evidence of such cause. In addition, the contrac- tor...satellite there in are described The OR of resulting module pest fail signals an bood preocoistr4 A K Geiqer MU S Navy. Electronic Systems indicates

  6. Blockchain-based database to ensure data integrity in cloud computing environments

    OpenAIRE

    Gaetani, Edoardo; Aniello, Leonardo; Baldoni, Roberto; Lombardi, Federico; Margheri, Andrea; Sassone, Vladimiro

    2017-01-01

    Data is nowadays an invaluable resource, indeed it guides all business decisions in most of the computer-aided human activities. Threats to data integrity are thus of paramount relevance, as tampering with data may maliciously affect crucial business decisions. This issue is especially true in cloud computing environments, where data owners cannot control fundamental data aspects, like the physical storage of data and the control of its accesses. Blockchain has recently emerged as a fascinati...

  7. Confidentialité et Intégrité de Bases de Données embarquées

    OpenAIRE

    Guo , Yanli

    2011-01-01

    As the amount of personal data collected by governments, institutions and companies increase, centralized data suffer from privacy violations arising from negligence, abusive use, internal and external attacks. Therefore, we envision a radically different, fully decentralized vision of personal data managed within a Personal Data Server (PDS) where the data is let under the control of its owner. The PDS approach resorts to Secure Portable Token (SPT), a new device which combines the tamper re...

  8. DataDotDNA: an alternative marking system for tortoises of genus Testudo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luca Brugnola

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available It was analyzed the effectiveness of one method of individual and unique marking, alternative to the application of microchip, on 17 specimens of Testudo hermanni through DataDotDNA technology. This technology has proven to be an effective system of marking of Testudo spp., answering the need for unambiguous identification of individuals. Further advantages are the easy application and reading, the long-term resistance as well as the difficulties of possible fraudulent tampering.

  9. Muusika / Priit Kuusk

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kuusk, Priit, 1938-

    2005-01-01

    EMA ooperistuudio diplomietendusest Mozarti "Võluflööt", Tampere talos toimunud Verdi ooperi "Otello" esietendusest, Neeme Järvi, Anu Tali, Paavo Järvi töödest. Arvo Pärdile pühendatud kontserttsüklist festivalil "Heidelbergi kevad", A. Pärdi sünnipäeva tähistamisest festivaliga Arvo Pärt Festival 2005. Phil Collinsi kontserdist Tallinnas

  10. Army Research Office’s ARO in Review 2014.The Annual Historical Record of the Army Research Laboratory’s Army Research Office (ARO) Programs and Funding Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-07-01

    MINERVA RESEARCH INITIATIVE ( MRI ) The Minerva Research Initiative ( MRI ) is a DoD-sponsored, university-based social science basic research program...Core, MRI , MURI, PECASE, and DURIP. Received Accepted Declined Pending Withdrawn Chemical Sciences 90 39 28 23 0 Computing Sciences 46 35 3 8...mobile devices (PDAs, tablets , and Smartphones) are subject to tampering and compromise. To secure mobile computing and communication, previous

  11. Best of Tshehhov. Best before / Ott Karulin

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Karulin, Ott, 1980-

    2006-01-01

    Analüüsitakse A. Tšehhovi näidenditel "Kolm õde" ja "Kirsiaed" põhinevaid erinevaid lavastusi - Kristian Smedsi ja Radu Afrimi "Kolm õde" Tampere "Teatrisuvel" ning Rimas Tuminase "Kolme õde" Leedu teatrifestivalil "Sirenos", Sasha Pepeljajevi "Kirsiaeda" NO99 teatris, Roman Baskini "Kirsiaeda" Vanalinnastuudios ja Mati Undi "Kirsiaeda" Vanemuises, samuti Mikk Mikiveri "Tšehhovi kolme õde" (autor Per Olov Enquist) Vanemuises

  12. Timing-based location estimation for OFDM signals with applications in LTE, WLAN and Wimax Timing-based location estimation for OFDM signals with applications in LTE, WLAN and Wimax Timing-based location estimation for OFDM signals with applications in LTE, WLAN and Wimax

    OpenAIRE

    Juárez Leria, Víctor

    2012-01-01

    Projecte realitzat en el marc d'un programa de mobilitat amb la Tampere University of Technology (Tampereen Teknillinen Yliopisto) [ANGLÈS] Literature study of various preamble-based and non-preamble-based timing synchronization algorithms in OFDM - Implementation (in Matlab) of the following preamble-based algorithms: Schmidl, Minn, Park, Kim, Ren and Kang. Implementation (in Matlab) of Correlation-Based Timing Synchronization and MUltiple SIgnal Classification estimators. Comparison of v...

  13. Analysis and outlook of applications of blockchain technology to equity crowdfunding in China

    OpenAIRE

    Zhu, Huasheng; Zhou, Zach Zhizhong

    2016-01-01

    Equity crowdfunding via the Internet is a new channel of raising money for startups. It features low barriers to entry, low cost, and high speed, and thus encourages innovation. In recent years, equity crowdfunding in China has experienced some developments. However, some problems remain unsolved in practice. Blockchain is a decentralized and distributed ledger technology to ensure data security, transparency, and integrity. Because it cannot be tampered with or forged, the technology is deem...

  14. National Seismic Station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stokes, P.A.

    1982-06-01

    The National Seismic Station was developed to meet the needs of regional or worldwide seismic monitoring of underground nuclear explosions to verify compliance with a nuclear test ban treaty. The Station acquires broadband seismic data and transmits it via satellite to a data center. It is capable of unattended operation for periods of at least a year, and will detect any tampering that could result in the transmission of unauthentic seismic data

  15. Image content authentication based on channel coding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Fan; Xu, Lei

    2008-03-01

    The content authentication determines whether an image has been tampered or not, and if necessary, locate malicious alterations made on the image. Authentication on a still image or a video are motivated by recipient's interest, and its principle is that a receiver must be able to identify the source of this document reliably. Several techniques and concepts based on data hiding or steganography designed as a means for the image authentication. This paper presents a color image authentication algorithm based on convolution coding. The high bits of color digital image are coded by the convolution codes for the tamper detection and localization. The authentication messages are hidden in the low bits of image in order to keep the invisibility of authentication. All communications channels are subject to errors introduced because of additive Gaussian noise in their environment. Data perturbations cannot be eliminated but their effect can be minimized by the use of Forward Error Correction (FEC) techniques in the transmitted data stream and decoders in the receiving system that detect and correct bits in error. This paper presents a color image authentication algorithm based on convolution coding. The message of each pixel is convolution encoded with the encoder. After the process of parity check and block interleaving, the redundant bits are embedded in the image offset. The tamper can be detected and restored need not accessing the original image.

  16. Postgraduate Studies in the Field of HCI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vainio, Teija; Surakka, Veikko; Raisamo, Roope; Räihä, Kari-Jouko; Isokoski, Poika; Väänänen-Vainio-Mattila, Kaisa; Kujala, Sari

    In September of 2007, the Tampere Unit for Computer Human Interaction (TAUCHI) at the University of Tampere and The Unit of Human-Centered Technology (IHTE) at the Tampere University of Technology initiated a joint effort to increase collaboration in the field of human-technology interaction (HTI). One of the main aims was to develop higher quality education for university students and to carry out joint internationally recognized HTI research. Both research units have their own master and postgraduate students while the focus of education is at IHTE on usability and humancentered design of interactive products and services whereas TAUCHI focuses on human-technology interaction developing it by harmonizing the potential of technology with human abilities, needs, and limitations. Based on our joint analysis we know now that together TAUCHI and IHTE are offering an internationally competitive master’s program consisting of more than 40 basic, intermediate and advanced level courses. Although both units are partners in the national Graduate School in User- Centered Information Technology (UCIT) led by TAUCHI we have recognized a clear need for developing and systematizing our doctoral education.

  17. Active Time-Domain Reflectometry for Unattended Safeguards Systems: FY16 Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tedeschi, Jonathan R. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Smith, Leon E. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Conrad, Ryan C. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Gavric, Gordan [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Zalavadia, Mital A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Keller, Daniel T. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Pratt, Richard M. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-10-21

    The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) continues to expand its use of unattended measurement systems. An increasing number of systems and an expanding family of instruments create challenges in terms of deployment efficiency and the implementation of data authentication measures. Traditional data security measures, for example tamper-indicating (TI) conduit, are impractical for the long separation distances (often 100 meters or more) between unattended monitoring system (UMS) components. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) is studying the viability of active time-domain reflectometry (TDR) for the detection of cable tampering in unattended radiation detection systems. The instrument concept under investigation would allow for unmanned cable integrity measurements, remote surveillance reporting and locating of cable faults and/or tampers. This report describes PNNL’s FY16 progress and includes: an overview of the TDR methods under investigation; description of the TDR evaluation testbed developed by PNNL; development and testing of advanced signal processing algorithms to extract weak signals from relatively high noise levels; and initial testing of a laboratory prototype intended for IAEA UMS applications and based on a commercially available TDR module. Preliminary viability findings and recommendations for the next stage of development and testing are provided.

  18. Protecting high value assets in transit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tennefoss, M.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports that one of the most daunting tasks facing a security manager is how to protect classified or high value assets such as nuclear materials in transit, especially when the shipment is to be handled by a commercial carrier. There are many opportunities for an adversary to gain access to cargo shipments en route, including situations in which the cargo must be held in storage for weeks or even months. Standard commercial alarm systems are not suitable for use in containers subject to vibration or high and low temperature extremes, or situations in which national assets might be used to gain surreptitious access to the container and to defeat the alarm system. A new alarm monitoring system has been developed to provide a secure auditing system for use in rail cars, Conex containers, and other transportable containers. The system, referred to as the PEL-100, electronically supervises intrusion detection sensors mounted on or within a container, and records all intrusion attempts in a secure, solid state memory storage device. The security archive can be withdrawn and reviewed after the container has completed its travels, and will provide a complete audit trail of intrusion attempts in transit. The PEL-100 includes one of the most comprehensive security tamper systems ever fielded, and is intended to operate reliably and securely in an environment subject to vibration, EMI/RFI emissions, electronic spoofing, and physical manipulation. The unit provides a clear and unambiguous indication of tampering and includes a comprehensive internal security system to detect insider tampering

  19. The application of safeguards design principles to the spent fuel bundle counter for 600 MW

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stirling, A.J.; Allen, V.H.

    1978-10-01

    The irradiated fuel bundle counters for CANDU 600 MW reactors provide the IAEA with a secure and independent means of estimating the inventory of the spent fuel storage bay at each inspection. Their function is straightforward: to count the bundles entering the storage area through the normal transfer ports. However, location, reliability, security and operating requirements make them highly ΣintelligentΣ instruments which have required a major development program. Moreover, the bundle counters incorporate principles which apply to many unattended safeguards instruments. For example, concealing the operating status from potential diverters eases reliability specifications, continuous self-checking gives the inspector confidence in the readout, independence from continuous station services improves tamper resistance, and the detailed data display provides tamper indication and a high level of credibility. Each irradiated fuel bundle counter uses four Geiger counters to detect the passage of fuel bundles as they pass sequentially through the field-of-view. A Microprocessor analyzes the sequence of the Geiger counter signals and determines the number and direction of bundles transferred. The readout for IAEA inspectors includes both a tally and a printed log. The printer is also used to alert the inspector to abnomal fuel movements, tampering, Geiger counter failures and contamination of the fuel transfer mechanism. (author)

  20. Application of safeguards design principles to the spent-fuel bundle counters for 600-MW CANDU reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stirling, A.J.; Allen, V.H.

    1979-01-01

    The irradiated fuel bundle counters for CANDU 600-MW reactors provide the IAEA with a secure and independent means of estimating the inventory of the spent-fuel storage bay at each inspection. Their function is straightforward - to count the bundles entering the storage area through the normal transfer ports. However, location, reliability, security and operating requirements make them highly ''intelligent'' instruments which have required a major development programme. Moreover, the bundle counters incorporate principles which apply to many unattended safeguards instruments. For example, concealing the operating status from potential diverters eases reliability specifications, continuous self-checking gives the inspector confidence in the readout, independence from continuous station services improves tamper-resistance, and the detailed data display provides tamper indication and a high level of credibility. Each irradiated fuel-bundle counter uses four Geiger counters to detect the passage of fuel bundles as they pass sequentially through the field-of-view. A microprocessor analyses the sequence of the Geiger counter signals and determines the number and direction of bundles transferred. The readout for IAEA inspectors includes both a tally and a printed log. The printer is also used to alert the inspector to abnormal fuel movements, tampering, Geiger counter failures and contamination of the fuel transfer mechanism. (author)

  1. Effect of tunnel placements on clinical and magnetic resonance imaging findings 2 years after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction using the double-bundle technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suomalainen P

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Piia Suomalainen,1 Tommi Kiekara,2 Anna-Stina Moisala,1 Antti Paakkala,2 Pekka Kannus,3 Timo Järvelä4 1Division of Orthopaedics and Traumatology, Department of Trauma, Musculoskeletal Surgery and Rehabilitation, Tampere University Hospital, Tampere, 2Medical Imaging Centre, Tampere University Hospital, Tampere, 3Injury and Osteoporosis Research Center, UKK Institute, Tampere, 4Arthroscopic and Sports Medicine Center Omasairaala, Helsinki, Finland Purpose: The purpose of the study reported here was to find out if the clinical and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI findings of a reconstructed anterior cruciate ligament (ACL have an association. Our hypothesis, which was based on the different functions of the ACL bundles, was that the visibility of the anteromedial graft would have an impact on anteroposterior stability, and the visibility of the posterolateral graft on rotational stability of the knee. Methods: This study is a level II, prospective clinical and MRI study (NCT02000258. The study involved 75 patients. One experienced orthopedic surgeon performed all double-bundle ACL reconstructions. Two independent examiners made the clinical examinations at 2-year follow-up: clinical examination of the knee; KT-1000, International Knee Documentation Committee and Lysholm knee evaluation scores; and International Knee Documentation Committee functional score. The MRI evaluations were made by two musculoskeletal radiologists separately, and the means of these measurements were used. Results: We found that the location of the graft in the tibia had an impact on the MRI visibility of the graft at 2-year follow-up. There were significantly more partially or totally invisible grafts if the insertion of the graft was more anterior in the tibia. No association was found between the clinical results and the graft locations. Conclusion: Anterior graft location in the tibia can cause graft invisibility in the MRI 2 years after ACL reconstruction, but this

  2. Acute opioid withdrawal precipitated by ingestion of crushed embeda (morphine extended release with sequestered naltrexone): case report and the focused review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruan, Xiulu; Chen, Tao; Gudin, Jeff; Couch, John Patrick; Chiravuri, Srinivas

    2010-01-01

    The introduction of newly formulated extended release (ER) morphine with sequestered naltrexone (Embeda) has provided another treatment option for moderate to severe persistent pain. Embeda was designed to be an abuse-deterrent opioid formulation. Naltrexone is a centrally acting opioid receptor antagonist that blocks the action of opioid. When taken as directed, insignificant amount of sequestered naltrexone would reach systemic circulation, but upon tampering, the released naltrexone may blunt the euphoria of opioids, and possibly precipitate opioid withdrawal in opioid-dependent patient. To describe a case report ofa 50-year-old opioid-dependent male who developed acute opioid withdrawal after taking crushed Embeda. A 50-year-old male with severe, chronic low back pain due to degenerative disc disease was referred to our clinic for pain management. He was taking ER oxycodone 80 mg tid and Roxicodone 30 mg qid prn, with inadequate pain relief A trial of ER oxymorphone was decided, at 40 mg 1-2 doses bid. The patient returned to the clinic 1 week early, out of his ER oxymorphone. At this time, the decision to switch him to Embeda was made, at 80 mg/3.2 mg, 1-2 doses bid. The patient and his family members were counseled about risk involved with tampering with Embeda. A few hours later, our clinic was informed that the patient was brought to emergency room by ambulance, in severe opioid withdrawal. He was treated with IV fluid, antiemetics, clonidine, and IV hydromorphone. His condition improved and he was discharged home the next morning. Later on, the patient admitted that he took two prescribed Embeda within half an hour, the 1st one whole and the 2nd one crushed. He further admitted that he did so against our medical advice. CONCLUSION. Taking tampered Embeda may precipitate opioid withdrawal in opioid-tolerant patient. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of induced opioid withdrawal following consumption of crushed Embeda.

  3. Corona helps curb losses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laasonen, M.; Lahtinen, M.; Lustre, L.

    1996-11-01

    The greatest power losses in electricity transmission arise through a phenomenon called load losses. Corona losses caused by the surface discharge of electricity also constitute a considerable cost item. IVS, the nationwide network company, is investigating corona- induced losses, and has also commissioned similar research from IVO International, the Technical Research Centre of Finland (VTT) and from Tampere University of Technology. The research work strives to gain more in-depth knowledge on the phenomenon of frosting and its impact on corona losses. The correct prediction of frost helps reduce corona losses, while also cutting costs considerably. (orig.)

  4. Safeguards summary event list (SSEL)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-07-01

    The Safeguards Summary Event List (SSEL) provides brief summaries of several hundred safeguards-related events involving nuclear material or facilities regulated by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). Because of public interest, also included are events reported involving byproduct material which is exempt from safeguards requirements. Events are described under the categories of bomb-related, intrusion, missing and/or allegedly stolen, transportation, tampering/vandalism, arson, firearms, radiological sabotage, nonradiological sabotage, alcohol and drugs, and miscellaneous. The information contained in the event descriptions is derived primarily from official NRC reporting channels

  5. Rotary mechanical latch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spletzer, Barry L.; Martinez, Michael A.; Marron, Lisa C.

    2012-11-13

    A rotary mechanical latch for positive latching and unlatching of a rotary device with a latchable rotating assembly having a latching gear that can be driven to latched and unlatched states by a drive mechanism such as an electric motor. A cam arm affixed to the latching gear interfaces with leading and trailing latch cams affixed to a flange within the drive mechanism. The interaction of the cam arm with leading and trailing latch cams prevents rotation of the rotating assembly by external forces such as those due to vibration or tampering.

  6. Characteristics of Key Update Strategies for Wireless Sensor Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yuksel, Ender; Nielson, Hanne Riis; Nielson, Flemming

    2011-01-01

    Wireless sensor networks offer the advantages of simple and low-resource communication. Challenged by this simplicity and low-resources, security is of particular importance in many cases such as transmission of sensitive data or strict requirements of tamper-resistance. Updating the security keys...... is one of the essential points in security, which restrict the amount of data that may be exposed when a key is compromised. In this paper, we investigate key update methods that may be used in wireless sensor networks, and benefiting from stochastic model checking we derive characteristics...

  7. Computational model of exploding metallic fuses for multimegajoule switching

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindemuth, I.R.; Brownell, J.H.; Greene, A.E.; Nickel, G.H.; Oliphant, T.A.; Weiss, D.L.

    1985-01-01

    A new model for determining the time-dependent behavior of exploding metallic fuses is formulated. The model draws on an atomic data base and gives insight into the temporal behavior of the material density and temperature of the fuse as well as the nonlinear electrical circuit interaction. The model includes an embedding insulating tamper and leads to a plausible explanation of fuse ''restrike.'' The model predicts time-scale compression of 500 for inductive store systems powered by explosive driven magnetic flux compression generators. A scenario for achieving multimegajoule foil implosions is predicted

  8. ITER council proceedings: 1997

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    This volume of the ITER EDA Documentation Series presents records of the 12th ITER Council Meeting, IC-12, which took place on 23-24 July, 1997 in Tampere, Finland. The Council received from the Parties (EU, Japan, Russia, US) positive responses on the Detailed Design Report. The Parties stated their willingness to contribute to fulfil their obligations in contributing to the ITER EDA. The summary discussions among the Parties led to the consensus that in July 1998 the ITER activities should proceed for additional three years with a general intent to enable an efficient start of possible, future ITER construction

  9. Software To Secure Distributed Propulsion Simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blaser, Tammy M.

    2003-01-01

    Distributed-object computing systems are presented with many security threats, including network eavesdropping, message tampering, and communications middleware masquerading. NASA Glenn Research Center, and its industry partners, has taken an active role in mitigating the security threats associated with developing and operating their proprietary aerospace propulsion simulations. In particular, they are developing a collaborative Common Object Request Broker Architecture (CORBA) Security (CORBASec) test bed to secure their distributed aerospace propulsion simulations. Glenn has been working with its aerospace propulsion industry partners to deploy the Numerical Propulsion System Simulation (NPSS) object-based technology. NPSS is a program focused on reducing the cost and time in developing aerospace propulsion engines

  10. Design of Remote Heat-Meter System Based on Trusted Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Changgeng; Lai, Liping

    2018-03-01

    This article presents a proposal of a heat meter and remote meter reading system for the disadvantages of the hackers very easily using eavesdropping, tampering, replay attack of traditional remote meter reading system. The system selects trusted technology such as, the identity authentication, integrity verifying, and data protection. By the experiments, it is proved that the remote meter reading system of the heat meter can be used to verify the feasibility of the technology, and verify the practicability and operability of data protection technology.

  11. Safeguards Summary Event List (SSEL)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fadden, M.; Yardumian, J.

    1993-07-01

    The Safeguards Summary Event List provides brief summaries of hundreds of safeguards-related events involving nuclear material or facilities regulated by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission. Events are described under the categories: Bomb-related, Intrusion, Missing/Allegedly Stolen, Transportation-related, Tampering/Vandalism, Arson, Firearms-related, Radiological Sabotage, Non-radiological Sabotage, and Miscellaneous. Because of the public interest, the Miscellaneous category also includes events reported involving source material, byproduct material, and natural uranium, which are exempt from safeguards requirements. Information in the event descriptions was obtained from official NRC sources

  12. Eestit külastasid õppekavaspetsialistid / Urve Läänemets

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Läänemets, Urve

    2003-01-01

    Eesti Õppekava Ühingu kutsel viibis Tallinnas IAACS (International Association for Advancement of Curriculum Studies) president, Louisiana Ülikooli professor William Pinar. Teda saatsid Tampere Ülikooli professor Tero Autio ja Louisiana Ülikooli doktorand Jeff Turner. Külastati Õismäe vene lütseumi, Nõmme gümnaasiumi ja Inglise kolledžit. Õpetajate Majas toimunud loengul käsitles prof Pinar hariduspoliitika, õpetajakoolituse ja õppekavade arenduse probleeme USA-s

  13. A Mechanism for Anonymous Credit Card Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamura, Shinsuke; Yanase, Tatsuro

    This paper proposes a mechanism for anonymous credit card systems, in which each credit card holder can conceal individual transactions from the credit card company, while enabling the credit card company to calculate the total expenditures of transactions of individual card holders during specified periods, and to identify card holders who executed dishonest transactions. Based on three existing mechanisms, i.e. anonymous authentication, blind signature and secure statistical data gathering, together with implicit transaction links proposed here, the proposed mechanism enables development of anonymous credit card systems without assuming any absolutely trustworthy entity like tamper resistant devices or organizations faithful both to the credit card company and card holders.

  14. Telos: The Revival of an Aristotelian Concept in Present Day Ethics

    OpenAIRE

    HAUSKELLER, MICHAEL

    2005-01-01

    Genetic engineering is often looked upon with disfavour on the grounds that it involves ‘tampering with nature’. Most philosophers do not take this notion seriously. However, some do. Those who do tend to understand nature in an Aristotelian sense, as the essence or form which is the final end or telos for the sake of which individual organisms live, and which also explains why they are as they are. But is this really a tenable idea? In order to secure its usage in present day ethics, I will ...

  15. Tool Monitoring and Electronic Event Logging for Sheet Metal Forming Processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerd Heiserich

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available This contribution describes some innovative solutions regarding sensor systems for tool monitoring in the sheet metal industry. Autonomous and tamper-proof sensors, which are integrated in the forming tools, can detect and count the strokes carried out by a sheet metal forming press. Furthermore, an electronic event logger for documentary purposes and quality control was developed. Based on this technical solution, new business models such as leasing of sheet metal forming tools can be established for cooperation among enterprises. These models allow usage-based billing for the contractors, taking the effectively produced number of parts into account.

  16. Clerics urge ban on altering germline cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norman, C

    1983-06-24

    A resolution calling for a ban on genetic engineering of human reproductive cells has been signed by leaders of almost every major church group in the United States. Some of the religious leaders, while not certain that a total moratorium should be placed on altering germline cells, signed the statement in order to stimulate public debate on the issue. Legislation has recently been introduced in Congress to set up a committee to monitor genetic engineering and its human applications, but author Jeremy Rifkin, the impetus behind the church leaders' resolution, argues that such tampering threatens the gene pool and should be banned altogether.

  17. Development of advanced tool for financial analysis. : The case of UPM-Kymmene Oyj

    OpenAIRE

    Shidlovskaya, Alina

    2013-01-01

    The commissioner company, UPM-Kymmene Oyj (UPM), formed in 1995 in Finland, is a market leader in the bio and forest industries with long roots history. This thesis has been carried out for UPM’s Credit Risk Management Europe organization (CRM) in Tampere, in particular for the Risk Assessment team. Sound and proactive credit risk assessment is a crucial part of credit risk management in every company including UPM for whom trade credit is a part of the customer strategy. Therefore, it is...

  18. Analisis Dampak Negatif Facebook pada Remaja Kelas X IPS SMA Kemala Bhayangkari Kubu Raya

    OpenAIRE

    Malindo, Hari

    2017-01-01

    The negative impact of the use of facebook is a result caused the use of facebook excessively that can give rise to abuse and diversion to brpengaruh directly to the consumer, and often waste time just to tamper with his facebook account, if not used wisely facebook will have a negative impact to pengggunanya it sendiri..Oleh because the researchers wanted to know more profound analysis of the negative impact on teenagers facebook IPS class X SMA Kemala Bhayangkari Kubu Raya.A common problem ...

  19. Simple, low-cost ways to dramatically improve the security of tags and seals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnston, R.G.; Garcia, A.R.E.

    1999-01-01

    The Vulnerability Assessment Team at Los Alamos National Laboratory has analyzed over 100 different tags and security seals (tamper-indicating devices). We have demonstrated how all these security products can be defeated quickly, easily, and inexpensively using low-tech methods. In our view, most of these security devices can be significantly improved with minor changes in their design and/or in how they are used. In this paper, we present some generic suggestions for improving the security and reliability of tags and seals. (author)

  20. Radiation detectors as surveillance monitors for IAEA safeguards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fehlau, P.E.; Dowdy, E.J.

    1980-10-01

    Radiation detectors used for personnel dosimetry are examined for use under IAEA Safeguards as monitors to confirm the passage or nonpassage (YES/NO) of plutonium-bearing nuclear material at barrier penetrations declared closed. In this application where backgrounds are ill defined, no advantage is found for a particular detector type because of intrinsic efficiency. Secondary considerations such as complexity, ease of tamper-proofing, and ease of readout are used to recommend specific detector types for routine monitoring and for data-base measurements. Recommendations are made for applications, data acquisition, and instrument development

  1. Vastakaid muljeid ja meenutusi : Tampereen teatterikesä 2004 / Kalju Uibo

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Uibo, Kalju

    2004-01-01

    Teatrifestivalist Tampere teatrisuvi. Lähemalt vaadeldakse lavastusi - A. Solzhenitsõni romaani instseneering "Üks päev Ivan Denissovitshi elus" A. Zholdaki lavastuses ja I. Turgenevi "Kuu aega maal" samas lavastuses Harkovi Riikliku Akad. Draamateatri esituses; T. Williamsi "Klaasist loomaaed" A. Petrase lavastuses ja Schauspiel Frankfurti teatri esituses, samuti S. Kane'i "Blasted" samas lavastuses ; Rootsi Riksteaterni monoetendus "Kaevuritüdruk, kes lendas õhku" L. Kauppi esituses ; J. Penhalli "Sinine apelsin" Helsingi Linnateatri esituses ; A. Tshehhovi "Kolm õde" Lilla Teaterni esituses ja O. Autio " Pesalõhkumine" M. Roiha lavastuses ja Seinajoe Linnateatri esituses

  2. THE ANALYSIS OF COUNTERFEITING FOOD PRODUCTS

    OpenAIRE

    Paula - Angela VIDRASCU

    2013-01-01

    The issue addressed in this paper makes a significant contribution to research on the effects that food tampering has at the expense of consumer health. Nowadays quality and food safety that consumers are entitled directly reflects the quality of life. In other words the present subject is of particular importance to the work of the bodies created for the purpose of protecting the health and quality of life of consumers. This study has an important role both in the short and long term through...

  3. Raamatun puhuttelussa: Teksti, kokemus ja vuorovaikutus adventistien raamatuntutkistelussa

    OpenAIRE

    Lehtinen, Esa

    2002-01-01

    The aim of this dissertation is to describe the Seventh-day Adventist Bible study as situated action. The methodology is based on ethnomethodological conversation analysis. The data consists of audio-recordings of Bible study interaction in Tampere, Finland. The Bible study in an institution with a history of almost 150 years, and it is part of the weekly worship service in the Seventh-day Adventist church. It is based on an international study book that includes the texts that should be ...

  4. Spoiled Onions: Exposing Malicious Tor Exit Relays

    OpenAIRE

    Winter, Philipp; Lindskog, Stefan

    2014-01-01

    Several hundred Tor exit relays together push more than 1 GiB/s of network traffic. However, it is easy for exit relays to snoop and tamper with anonymised network traffic and as all relays are run by independent volunteers, not all of them are innocuous. In this paper, we seek to expose malicious exit relays and document their actions. First, we monitored the Tor network after developing a fast and modular exit relay scanner. We implemented several scanning modules for detecting common attac...

  5. Global Ischemia ECG pattern for diagnosis of acute left main occlusion: prevalence and associated mortality in patients with suspected acute myocardial infarction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stengaard, Carsten; Sørensen, Jacob Thorsted; Andersen, M.P.

    2011-01-01

    .J. Terkelsen2, 1Aarhus University Hospital, Aarhus, Department of medicine and Cardiology A - Aarhus - Denmark, 2Aarhus University Hospital, Skejby, Department of Cardiology - Aarhus - Denmark, 3Aalborg University, Department of Health Science and Technology - Aalborg - Denmark, 4Tampere University Hospital...... ischemia ECG pattern (GIP) has been proposed for diagnosis of acute left main stem (LM) occlusion. The GIP is defined by ST-elevation of 1mm in lead aVR and ST-depression of 0.5mm in seven or more ECG leads. Previous studies focus on the sensitivity of GIP in patients with confirmed LM occlusion. We...

  6. Safeguards Summary Event List (SSEL). January 1, 1990--December 31, 1994, Volume 2, Revision 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-07-01

    The Safeguards Summary Event List provides brief summaries of hundreds of safeguards-related events involving nuclear material or facilities regulated by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission. Events are described under the categories: Bomb-related, Intrusion, Missing/Allegedly Stolen, Transportation-related, Tampering/Vandalism, Arson, Firearms-related, Radiological Sabotage, Non-radiological Sabotage, and Miscellaneous. Because of the public interest, the Miscellaneous category also includes events reported involving source material, byproduct material, and natural uranium, which are exempt from safeguards requirements. Information in the event descriptions was obtained from official NRC sources

  7. Strict integrity control of biomedical images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coatrieux, Gouenou; Maitre, Henri; Sankur, Bulent

    2001-08-01

    The control of the integrity and authentication of medical images is becoming ever more important within the Medical Information Systems (MIS). The intra- and interhospital exchange of images, such as in the PACS (Picture Archiving and Communication Systems), and the ease of copying, manipulation and distribution of images have brought forth the security aspects. In this paper we focus on the role of watermarking for MIS security and address the problem of integrity control of medical images. We discuss alternative schemes to extract verification signatures and compare their tamper detection performance.

  8. Safeguards Summary Event List (SSEL), pre-NRC through December 31, 1989

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-07-01

    The Safeguards Summary Event List (SSEL) provides brief summaries of several hundred safeguards-related events involving nuclear material or facilities regulated by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). Because of public interest, the Miscellaneous category includes a few events which involve either source material, byproduct material, or natural uranium which are exempt from safeguards requirements. Events are described under the categories of bomb-related, intrusion, missing and/or allegedly stolen, transportation, tampering/vandalism, arson, firearms, radiological sabotage, nonradiological sabotage, alcohol and drugs (involving reactor operators, security force members, or management persons), and miscellaneous. The information contained in the event descriptions is derived primarily from official NRC reporting channels

  9. Image authentication using distributed source coding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yao-Chung; Varodayan, David; Girod, Bernd

    2012-01-01

    We present a novel approach using distributed source coding for image authentication. The key idea is to provide a Slepian-Wolf encoded quantized image projection as authentication data. This version can be correctly decoded with the help of an authentic image as side information. Distributed source coding provides the desired robustness against legitimate variations while detecting illegitimate modification. The decoder incorporating expectation maximization algorithms can authenticate images which have undergone contrast, brightness, and affine warping adjustments. Our authentication system also offers tampering localization by using the sum-product algorithm.

  10. Giving away music to make money: Independent musicians on the Internet

    OpenAIRE

    Pfahl, Michael

    2001-01-01

    No one has felt the impact of music on the Internet more than the independent musician. The recording industry has dominated the production and distribution of music for many years. The big six recording labels are making a push to incorporate the Internet into their distribution process. Standing in their way is the issue of security. It seems that music files on the Internet, no matter how secure they may seem, are susceptible to tampering. This will force a shift in distribution away f...

  11. Giving away music to make money: Independent musicians on the Internet (originally published in August 2001)

    OpenAIRE

    Pfahl, Michael

    2005-01-01

    No one has felt the impact of music on the Internet more than the independent musician. The recording industry has dominated the production and distribution of music for many years. The big six recording labels are making a push to incorporate the Internet into their distribution process. Standing in their way is the issue of security. It seems that music files on the Internet, no matter how secure they may seem, are susceptible to tampering. This will force a shift in distribution away f...

  12. Idaho National Laboratory Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition Intrusion Detection System (SCADA IDS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jared Verba; Michael Milvich

    2008-05-01

    Current Intrusion Detection System (IDS) technology is not suited to be widely deployed inside a Supervisory, Control and Data Acquisition (SCADA) environment. Anomaly- and signature-based IDS technologies have developed methods to cover information technology-based networks activity and protocols effectively. However, these IDS technologies do not include the fine protocol granularity required to ensure network security inside an environment with weak protocols lacking authentication and encryption. By implementing a more specific and more intelligent packet inspection mechanism, tailored traffic flow analysis, and unique packet tampering detection, IDS technology developed specifically for SCADA environments can be deployed with confidence in detecting malicious activity.

  13. Proposal for an IT Security Standard for Preventing Tax Fraud in Cash Registers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neuhaus, Mathias; Wolff, Jörg; Zisky, Norbert

    This paper describes a technology solution for preventing tax fraud in electronic cash registers (ECR) and point of sale (POS) systems. The solution is based on electronic signatures, and as a result, any alterations to protected data will be detected. The signed transaction data can be stored on various electronic memory devices. Technical provisions enable the estimation of transaction volumes, even after tampering or loss of data. In this way the solution presented here differs significantly from other fiscal solutions where a pattern of approvals for ECRs and permanent technical supervision of the market is necessary. This paper is focused on the architecture, the protocols and the usability of the proposed system.

  14. Radiation detectors as surveillance monitors for IAEA safeguards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fehlau, P.E.; Dowdy, E.J.

    1980-10-01

    Radiation detectors used for personnel dosimetry are examined for use under IAEA Safeguards as monitors to confirm the passage or nonpassage (YES/NO) of plutonium-bearing nuclear material at barrier penetrations declared closed. In this application where backgrounds are ill defined, no advantage is found for a particular detector type because of intrinsic efficiency. Secondary considerations such as complexity, ease of tamper-proofing, and ease of readout are used to recommend specific detector types for routine monitoring and for data-base measurements. Recommendations are made for applications, data acquisition, and instrument development.

  15. Automatic identification of NDA measured items: Use of E-tags

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chitumbo, K.; Olsen, R.; Hatcher, C.R.; Kadner, S.P.

    1995-01-01

    This paper describes how electronic identification devices or E-tags could reduce the time spent by LAEA inspectors making nondestructive assay (NDA) measurements. As one example, the use of E-tags with a high-level neutron coincidence counter (HLNC) is discussed in detail. Sections of the paper include inspection procedures, system description, software, and future plans. Mounting of E-tabs, modifications to the HLNC, and the use of tamper indicating devices are also discussed. The technology appears to have wide application to different types of nuclear facilities and inspections and could significantly change NDA inspection procedures

  16. When War Rigs the Vote

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Bertel Teilfeldt

    2014-01-01

    This paper investigates the effect of intrastate conflict on electoral manipulation. Using a rationalist bargaining model, it produces a hypothesis stating that actors in post-conflict elections will have increased incentive to reallocate seats through manipulation. To test this causal claim a new...... % seat threshold critical for obtaining absolute majority, the intensity of intrastate conflict before each election exhibits a large, positive jump right at the cut-off. This is interpreted as evidence of conflict having a substantial, manipulation-inducing effect on the largest parties in parliament...... – in the aftermath of war they tend to tamper with election results in order to gain absolute majority....

  17. Laboratory for Laser Energetics annual report, 1 October 1984-30 September 1985

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-01-01

    Overviews of the GDL and OMEGA facilities are given. The retrofit of the GDL with liquid crystal polarizers is described. Synchronization of the actively mode-locked and actively Q-switched oscillators is described. Progress in laser fusion includes a theory of electron heat transport, sputter-coating of laser targets, absorption line measurement of the tamper, x-ray conversion for high-Z targets, mass ablation in uv-irradiated targets, uv target designs, stimulated Raman scattering in a collisional homogeneous plasma, and absorption spectroscopy as a diagnostic. 267 refs., 134 figs., 113 tabs

  18. Corantes marcadores de combustíveis: legislação e métodos analíticos para detecção

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magno Aparecido Gonçalves Trindade

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of dyes in the commercialization of fuel is usually associated with protection of the source and destination. It is used as "markers" to identify and guarantee the identity of the specific product of a particular manufacturer to discourage theft, tampering and disclosure of the quality of solvent or fuel. This work presents a critical analysis on the state of the art about the available analytical methods for identification and quantification of dyes used as markers of solvents and fuels, as well as evaluation of the physical-chemical staining and laws surrounding their use and commercialization.

  19. A case of psychosis after use of a detoxification kit and a review of techniques, risks, and regulations associated with the subversion of urine drug tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mittal, Moneeshindra Singh; Kalia, Rachna; Khan, Ahsan Y

    2011-01-01

    The practice of drug testing in the workplace has been adopted for US federal government employees, and many state and local governments as well as private businesses have followed suit. However, a parallel industry dedicated to subverting the results of urine drug testing has emerged with little or no regulation. First, the case of a 19-year-old man who developed psychosis after the use of a detoxification kit is presented. Second, a review of the existing literature on the techniques, risks, and regulations associated with the use of drug tampering kits is provided. PubMed, Cochrane Database, and Google Scholar were searched using the keywords UDS, urine toxicology, pass the drug test, and clean UA, with no restrictions on publication date. Case reports, letters to the editor, and original research and review articles in multiple languages were reviewed, as were federal regulations and acts on the topic. The search yielded 4,082 results, of which 49 articles were selected for relevance. Some articles were later omitted as they had cited the original article and had nothing new to offer. Three commonly used tampering techniques are in vivo adulteration, urine substitution, and in vitro adulteration. Review of the literature regarding the risks involved with use of tampering kits yielded no results. In 1986, an executive order was issued requiring all federal employees to refrain from illicit drug use, and the 1988 Drug-Free Workplace Act precipitated the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration guidelines and their subsequent revisions. Recently, many states have made regulatory efforts to bring drug test defrauding under the ambit of law. Clinicians need to be aware of the tampering techniques and the possibility of false-negative urine drug tests. Cognizance of inherent risks involved with using these techniques including psychiatric and/or medical complications is also warranted. The manufacture, sale, and use of these products have little or

  20. Uranium Enrichment Safeguards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Demuth, Scott F. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Trahan, Alexis Chanel [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-06-26

    DIV of facility layout, material flows, and other information provided in the DIQ. Material accountancy through an annual PIV and a number of interim inventory verifications, including UF6 cylinder identification and counting, NDA of cylinders, and DA on a sample collection of UF6. Application of C/S technologies utilizing seals and tamper-indicating devices (TIDs) on cylinders, containers, storage rooms, and IAEA instrumentation to provide continuity of knowledge between inspection. Verification of the absence of undeclared material and operations, especially HEU production, through SNRIs, LFUA of cascade halls, and environmental swipe sampling

  1. Peer Learning in Social Media Enhanced Learning Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne-Maritta Tervakari

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available TUT Circle, a dedicated social media service for students at Tampere University of Technology (TUT, was used as a learning environment for the purpose of enhancing students‘ collaboration, communication and networking skills required in business and working life and for promoting peer learning in small groups. Unfortunately, active conversation was limited. The students intensively read content created by other students, but they did not actively present their opinions, arguments or comments. Another reason for the lack of real conversation was procrastination. The students seemed to need more encouragement to comment on or question the ideas of others, more support to promote intergroup interaction and more assistance with time management.

  2. Evaluations of fiber optic sensors for interior applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sandoval, M.W.; Malone, T.P.

    1996-02-01

    This report addresses the testing and evaluation of commercial fiber optic intrusion detection systems in interior applications. The applications include laying optical fiber cable above suspended ceilings to detect removal of ceiling tiles, embedding optical fibers inside a tamper or item monitoring blanket that could be placed over an asset, and installing optical fibers on a door to detect movement or penetration. Detection capability of the fiber optic sensors as well as nuisance and false alarm information were focused on during the evaluation. Fiber optic sensor processing, system components, and system setup are described.

  3. Optically pumped semiconductor lasers for atomic and molecular physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burd, S.; Leibfried, D.; Wilson, A. C.; Wineland, D. J.

    2015-03-01

    Experiments in atomic, molecular and optical (AMO) physics rely on lasers at many different wavelengths and with varying requirements on spectral linewidth, power and intensity stability. Optically pumped semiconductor lasers (OPSLs), when combined with nonlinear frequency conversion, can potentially replace many of the laser systems currently in use. We are developing a source for laser cooling and spectroscopy of Mg+ ions at 280 nm, based on a frequency quadrupled OPSL with the gain chip fabricated at the ORC at Tampere Univ. of Technology, Finland. This OPSL system could serve as a prototype for many other sources used in atomic and molecular physics.

  4. Using noise inconsistencies for blind image forensics

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Saic, Stanislav; Mahdian, Babak

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 27, č. 10 (2009), s. 1497-1503 ISSN 0262-8856 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA102/08/0470 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10750506 Keywords : Image forensics * Digital forgery * Image tampering * Image segmentation Subject RIV: IN - Informatics, Computer Science Impact factor: 1.474, year: 2009 http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2009/ZOI/saic-using%20noise%20inconsistencies%20for%20blind%20image%20forensics.pdf

  5. Expected performance and benefits of an advanced containment and surveillance system at the fast critical facility fca of jaeri

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mukaiyama, T.; Kuroi, H.

    1981-01-01

    This paper reports on the development and test of a personnel portal monitor for IAEA safeguards at the fast critical facility FCA. The main components of the portal are 1) the walk-through metal detector, 2) the visual surveillance system with CCTV, 3) the tamper indication system using multi sensors and 4) the remote monitoring capability through RECOVER system. The metal detector developed can detect a single coupon of metallic nuclear fuel plate (2 in. *2 in. *1/16 in.) regardless of the orientation of a fuel plate relative to the electromagnetic field generated in the metal detector. 3 refs

  6. Preliminary concepts: safeguards for spent light-water reactor fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cobb, D.D.; Dayem, H.A.; Dietz, R.J.

    1979-06-01

    The technology available for safeguarding spent nuclear fuels from light-water power reactors is reviewed, and preliminary concepts for a spent-fuel safeguards system are presented. Essential elements of a spent-fuel safeguards system are infrequent on-site inspections, containment and surveillance systems to assure the integrity of stored fuel between inspections, and nondestructive measurements of the fuel assemblies. Key safeguards research and development activities necessary to implement such a system are identified. These activities include the development of tamper-indicating fuel-assembly identification systems and the design and development of nondestructive spent-fuel measurement systems

  7. Ceramic Seal.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smartt, Heidi A. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Romero, Juan A. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Custer, Joyce Olsen [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Hymel, Ross W. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Krementz, Dan [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Gobin, Derek [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Harpring, Larry [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Martinez-Rodriguez, Michael [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Varble, Don [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); DiMaio, Jeff [Tetramer Technologies, Pendleton, SC (United States); Hudson, Stephen [Tetramer Technologies, Pendleton, SC (United States)

    2016-11-01

    Containment/Surveillance (C/S) measures are critical to any verification regime in order to maintain Continuity of Knowledge (CoK). The Ceramic Seal project is research into the next generation technologies to advance C/S, in particular improving security and efficiency. The Ceramic Seal is a small form factor loop seal with improved tamper-indication including a frangible seal body, tamper planes, external coatings, and electronic monitoring of the seal body integrity. It improves efficiency through a self-securing wire and in-situ verification with a handheld reader. Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) and Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL), under sponsorship from the U.S. National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) Office of Defense Nuclear Nonproliferation Research and Development (DNN R&D), have previously designed and have now fabricated and tested Ceramic Seals. Tests have occurred at both SNL and SRNL, with different types of tests occurring at each facility. This interim report will describe the Ceramic Seal prototype, the design and development of a handheld standalone reader and an interface to a data acquisition system, fabrication of the seals, and results of initial testing.

  8. Nuclear forensics. Searching for nuclear device debris in trinitite-hosted inclusions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bellucci, J.J.; Antonio Simonetti

    2012-01-01

    This study documents the 3D morphology of trinitite-hosted metallic inclusions and the first observations of alloys consisting primarily of Pb, Ta, Ga, and W. Scanning electron and backscatter electron imaging, as well as energy dispersive X-ray spectra chemical composition data are reported for heavy metal inclusions in 14 different samples of trinitite. Inclusions consisting of Fe-Ti-Si are the most abundant and presumably derived predominantly from the explosion tower. Grains of Cu, Pb, Ta + Ga + W were also observed and are likely derivatives of the trinitite device wiring, tamper, and tamper and core, respectively. Additionally, a Ba-rich grain and multiple zircons (ZrSiO 4 ) were observed in a large majority of samples. The spherical morphology and the ubiquitous positioning of the heavy metal inclusions on the crater walls of the glassy trinitite surfaces indicate a two-step formation. Stage one involves formation of the glassy trinitite, while the second stage involved the precipitation of the inclusions that were incorporated onto the surface of the trinitite. Furthermore, the precarious positioning of these inclusions further emphasizes the need for analysis using non-destructive techniques prior to methods employing a bulk sample digestion approach. (author)

  9. An Enhanced Secure Identity-Based Certificateless Public Key Authentication Scheme for Vehicular Sensor Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Congcong; Zhang, Xi; Wang, Haiping; Li, Dongfeng

    2018-01-01

    Vehicular sensor networks have been widely applied in intelligent traffic systems in recent years. Because of the specificity of vehicular sensor networks, they require an enhanced, secure and efficient authentication scheme. Existing authentication protocols are vulnerable to some problems, such as a high computational overhead with certificate distribution and revocation, strong reliance on tamper-proof devices, limited scalability when building many secure channels, and an inability to detect hardware tampering attacks. In this paper, an improved authentication scheme using certificateless public key cryptography is proposed to address these problems. A security analysis of our scheme shows that our protocol provides an enhanced secure anonymous authentication, which is resilient against major security threats. Furthermore, the proposed scheme reduces the incidence of node compromise and replication attacks. The scheme also provides a malicious-node detection and warning mechanism, which can quickly identify compromised static nodes and immediately alert the administrative department. With performance evaluations, the scheme can obtain better trade-offs between security and efficiency than the well-known available schemes. PMID:29324719

  10. A secret-sharing-based method for authentication of grayscale document images via the use of the PNG image with a data repair capability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Che-Wei; Tsai, Wen-Hsiang

    2012-01-01

    A new blind authentication method based on the secret sharing technique with a data repair capability for grayscale document images via the use of the Portable Network Graphics (PNG) image is proposed. An authentication signal is generated for each block of a grayscale document image, which, together with the binarized block content, is transformed into several shares using the Shamir secret sharing scheme. The involved parameters are carefully chosen so that as many shares as possible are generated and embedded into an alpha channel plane. The alpha channel plane is then combined with the original grayscale image to form a PNG image. During the embedding process, the computed share values are mapped into a range of alpha channel values near their maximum value of 255 to yield a transparent stego-image with a disguise effect. In the process of image authentication, an image block is marked as tampered if the authentication signal computed from the current block content does not match that extracted from the shares embedded in the alpha channel plane. Data repairing is then applied to each tampered block by a reverse Shamir scheme after collecting two shares from unmarked blocks. Measures for protecting the security of the data hidden in the alpha channel are also proposed. Good experimental results prove the effectiveness of the proposed method for real applications.

  11. A Hybrid Digital-Signature and Zero-Watermarking Approach for Authentication and Protection of Sensitive Electronic Documents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omar Tayan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper addresses the problems and threats associated with verification of integrity, proof of authenticity, tamper detection, and copyright protection for digital-text content. Such issues were largely addressed in the literature for images, audio, and video, with only a few papers addressing the challenge of sensitive plain-text media under known constraints. Specifically, with text as the predominant online communication medium, it becomes crucial that techniques are deployed to protect such information. A number of digital-signature, hashing, and watermarking schemes have been proposed that essentially bind source data or embed invisible data in a cover media to achieve its goal. While many such complex schemes with resource redundancies are sufficient in offline and less-sensitive texts, this paper proposes a hybrid approach based on zero-watermarking and digital-signature-like manipulations for sensitive text documents in order to achieve content originality and integrity verification without physically modifying the cover text in anyway. The proposed algorithm was implemented and shown to be robust against undetected content modifications and is capable of confirming proof of originality whilst detecting and locating deliberate/nondeliberate tampering. Additionally, enhancements in resource utilisation and reduced redundancies were achieved in comparison to traditional encryption-based approaches. Finally, analysis and remarks are made about the current state of the art, and future research issues are discussed under the given constraints.

  12. Modular integrated video system (MIVS) review station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia, M.L.

    1988-01-01

    An unattended video surveillance unit, the Modular Integrated Video System (MIVS), has been developed by Sandia National Laboratories for International Safeguards use. An important support element of this system is a semi-automatic Review Station. Four component modules, including an 8 mm video tape recorder, a 4-inch video monitor, a power supply and control electronics utilizing a liquid crystal display (LCD) are mounted in a suitcase for probability. The unit communicates through the interactive, menu-driven LCD and may be operated on facility power through the world. During surveillance, the MIVS records video information at specified time intervals, while also inserting consecutive scene numbers and tamper event information. Using either of two available modes of operation, the Review Station reads the inserted information and counts the number of missed scenes and/or tamper events encountered on the tapes, and reports this to the user on the LCD. At the end of a review session, the system will summarize the results of the review, stop the recorder, and advise the user of the completion of the review. In addition, the Review Station will check for any video loss on the tape

  13. Digital Image Authentication Algorithm Based on Fragile Invisible Watermark and MD-5 Function in the DWT Domain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nehad Hameed Hussein

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Using watermarking techniques and digital signatures can better solve the problems of digital images transmitted on the Internet like forgery, tampering, altering, etc. In this paper we proposed invisible fragile watermark and MD-5 based algorithm for digital image authenticating and tampers detecting in the Discrete Wavelet Transform DWT domain. The digital image is decomposed using 2-level DWT and the middle and high frequency sub-bands are used for watermark and digital signature embedding. The authentication data are embedded in number of the coefficients of these sub-bands according to the adaptive threshold based on the watermark length and the coefficients of each DWT level. These sub-bands are used because they are less sensitive to the Human Visual System (HVS and preserve high image fidelity. MD-5 and RSA algorithms are used for generating the digital signature from the watermark data that is also embedded in the medical image. We apply the algorithm on number of medical images. The Electronic Patient Record (EPR is used as watermark data. Experiments demonstrate the effectiveness of our algorithm in terms of robustness, invisibility, and fragility. Watermark and digital signature can be extracted without the need to the original image.

  14. DNA-based random number generation in security circuitry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gearheart, Christy M; Arazi, Benjamin; Rouchka, Eric C

    2010-06-01

    DNA-based circuit design is an area of research in which traditional silicon-based technologies are replaced by naturally occurring phenomena taken from biochemistry and molecular biology. This research focuses on further developing DNA-based methodologies to mimic digital data manipulation. While exhibiting fundamental principles, this work was done in conjunction with the vision that DNA-based circuitry, when the technology matures, will form the basis for a tamper-proof security module, revolutionizing the meaning and concept of tamper-proofing and possibly preventing it altogether based on accurate scientific observations. A paramount part of such a solution would be self-generation of random numbers. A novel prototype schema employs solid phase synthesis of oligonucleotides for random construction of DNA sequences; temporary storage and retrieval is achieved through plasmid vectors. A discussion of how to evaluate sequence randomness is included, as well as how these techniques are applied to a simulation of the random number generation circuitry. Simulation results show generated sequences successfully pass three selected NIST random number generation tests specified for security applications.

  15. Global Peace through the Global University System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cengiz Hakan AYDIN

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Utopia is defined in Encarta Dictionary as “an ideal and perfect place or state, where everyone lives in harmony and everything is for the best.” Developments all around the world especially in the last decade have supported the idea that global peace is nothing but just a utopian dream. However, for centuries a group of believers have always been in search of global peace via different means. This book, titled as “Global Peace through the Global University System”, can be considered as one of the artifacts of this search.Actually this book is a collection of papers presented in working conference on the Global University System (GUS hosted by the University of Tampere, Finland in 1999. The main goal of the conference was bringing international experts to share their philosophy, past and present experiences about the GUS. The conference was held by the University of Tampere because UNESCO has an agreement with the University to establish the UNESCOChair in Global e-Learning.

  16. Improving the Authentication Scheme and Access Control Protocol for VANETs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei-Chen Wu

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Privacy and security are very important in vehicular ad hoc networks (VANETs. VANETs are negatively affected by any malicious user’s behaviors, such as bogus information and replay attacks on the disseminated messages. Among various security threats, privacy preservation is one of the new challenges of protecting users’ private information. Existing authentication protocols to secure VANETs raise challenges, such as certificate distribution and reduction of the strong reliance on tamper-proof devices. In 2011, Yeh et al. proposed a PAACP: a portable privacy-preserving authentication and access control protocol in vehicular ad hoc networks. However, PAACP in the authorization phase is breakable and cannot maintain privacy in VANETs. In this paper, we present a cryptanalysis of an attachable blind signature and demonstrate that the PAACP’s authorized credential (AC is not secure and private, even if the AC is secretly stored in a tamper-proof device. An eavesdropper can construct an AC from an intercepted blind document. Any eavesdropper can determine who has which access privileges to access which service. For this reason, this paper copes with these challenges and proposes an efficient scheme. We conclude that an improving authentication scheme and access control protocol for VANETs not only resolves the problems that have appeared, but also is more secure and efficient.

  17. A Hybrid Digital-Signature and Zero-Watermarking Approach for Authentication and Protection of Sensitive Electronic Documents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabir, Muhammad N.; Alginahi, Yasser M.

    2014-01-01

    This paper addresses the problems and threats associated with verification of integrity, proof of authenticity, tamper detection, and copyright protection for digital-text content. Such issues were largely addressed in the literature for images, audio, and video, with only a few papers addressing the challenge of sensitive plain-text media under known constraints. Specifically, with text as the predominant online communication medium, it becomes crucial that techniques are deployed to protect such information. A number of digital-signature, hashing, and watermarking schemes have been proposed that essentially bind source data or embed invisible data in a cover media to achieve its goal. While many such complex schemes with resource redundancies are sufficient in offline and less-sensitive texts, this paper proposes a hybrid approach based on zero-watermarking and digital-signature-like manipulations for sensitive text documents in order to achieve content originality and integrity verification without physically modifying the cover text in anyway. The proposed algorithm was implemented and shown to be robust against undetected content modifications and is capable of confirming proof of originality whilst detecting and locating deliberate/nondeliberate tampering. Additionally, enhancements in resource utilisation and reduced redundancies were achieved in comparison to traditional encryption-based approaches. Finally, analysis and remarks are made about the current state of the art, and future research issues are discussed under the given constraints. PMID:25254247

  18. Pukala intrusion, its age and connection to hydrothermal alteration in Orivesi, southwestern Finland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matti Talikka

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The Pukala intrusion is situated in the Paleoproterozoic Svecofennian domain of the Fennoscandian Shield in the contact region between the Central Finland Granitoid Complex and the Tampere Belt. The acid subvolcanic intrusion, which is in contact or close to severalaltered domains, mainly consists of porphyritic granodiorite and trondhjemite. The Pukala intrusion was emplaced into volcanic sequence in an island-arc or fore-arc setting before or during the early stages of the main regional deformation phase of the Svecofennian orogeny. On the basis of the geochemical data, the Pukala intrusion is a peraluminous volcanic-arc granitoid. After crystallisation at 1896±3 Ma, multiphase deformation and metamorphismcaused alteration, recrystallisation, and orientation of the minerals, and tilted the intrusion steeply towards south. The 1851±5 Ma U-Pb age for titanite is connected to the late stages of the Svecofennian tectonometamorphic evolution of the region. Several hydrothermally altered domains are located in the felsic and intermediate metavolcanic rocks of the Tampere Belt within less than one kilometre south of the Pukala intrusion. Alteration is divided into three basic types: partial silica alteration, chlorite-sericite±silica alteration, and sericite alteration in shear zones. The first two types probably formed during the emplacement and crystallisation of the Pukala intrusion, and the third is linked to late shearing. Intense sericitisation and comb quartz bands in the contact of theintrusion and the altered domain at Kutemajärvi suggest that the hydrothermal system was driven by the Pukala intrusion.

  19. Costs of Robotic-Assisted Versus Traditional Laparoscopy in Endometrial Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vuorinen, Riikka-Liisa K; Mäenpää, Minna M; Nieminen, Kari; Tomás, Eija I; Luukkaala, Tiina H; Auvinen, Anssi; Mäenpää, Johanna U

    2017-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the costs of traditional laparoscopy and robotic-assisted laparoscopy in the treatment of endometrial cancer. A total of 101 patients with endometrial cancer were randomized to the study and operated on starting from 2010 until 2013, at the Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology of Tampere University Hospital, Tampere, Finland. Costs were calculated based on internal accounting, hospital database, and purchase prices and were compared using intention-to-treat analysis. Main outcome measures were item costs and total costs related to the operation, including a 6-month postoperative follow-up. The total costs including late complications were 2160 &OV0556; higher in the robotic group (median for traditional 5823 &OV0556;, vs robot median 7983 &OV0556;, P costs for instruments and equipment as well as to more expensive operating room and postanesthesia care unit time. Traditional laparoscopy involved higher costs for operation personnel, general costs, medication used in the operation, and surgeon, although these costs were not substantial. There was no significant difference in in-patient stay, laboratory, radiology, blood products, or costs related to complications. According to this study, robotic-assisted laparoscopy is 37% more expensive than traditional laparoscopy in the treatment of endometrial cancer. The cost difference is mainly explained by amortization of the robot and its instrumentation.

  20. An Enhanced Secure Identity-Based Certificateless Public Key Authentication Scheme for Vehicular Sensor Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Congcong; Zhang, Xi; Wang, Haiping; Li, Dongfeng

    2018-01-11

    Vehicular sensor networks have been widely applied in intelligent traffic systems in recent years. Because of the specificity of vehicular sensor networks, they require an enhanced, secure and efficient authentication scheme. Existing authentication protocols are vulnerable to some problems, such as a high computational overhead with certificate distribution and revocation, strong reliance on tamper-proof devices, limited scalability when building many secure channels, and an inability to detect hardware tampering attacks. In this paper, an improved authentication scheme using certificateless public key cryptography is proposed to address these problems. A security analysis of our scheme shows that our protocol provides an enhanced secure anonymous authentication, which is resilient against major security threats. Furthermore, the proposed scheme reduces the incidence of node compromise and replication attacks. The scheme also provides a malicious-node detection and warning mechanism, which can quickly identify compromised static nodes and immediately alert the administrative department. With performance evaluations, the scheme can obtain better trade-offs between security and efficiency than the well-known available schemes.

  1. Privacy-Preserving Authentication Using a Double Pseudonym for Internet of Vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Jie; Xu, Wenyu; Zhong, Hong; Zhang, Jing; Xu, Yan; Liu, Lu

    2018-05-07

    The Internet of Vehicles (IoV) plays an important role in smart transportation to reduce the drivers’s risk of having an accident and help them manage small emergencies. Therefore, security and privacy issues of the message in the tamper proof device (TPD) broadcasted to other vehicles and roadside units (RSUs) have become an important research subject in the field of smart transportation. Many authentication schemes are proposed to tackle the challenges above and most of them are heavy in computation and communication. In this paper, we propose a novel authentication scheme that utilizes the double pseudonym method to hide the real identity of vehicles and adopts the dynamic update technology to periodically update the information (such as member secret, authentication key, internal pseudo-identity) stored in the tamper-proof device to prevent the side-channel attack. Because of not using bilinear pairing, our scheme yields a better performance in terms of computation overhead and communication overhead, and is more suitable to be applied in the Internet of Vehicles.

  2. Active Time-Domain Reflectometry for Unattended Safeguards Systems FY15 Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tedeschi, Jonathan R. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Smith, Leon E. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Moore, David E. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Sheen, David M. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Conrad, Ryan C. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Gavric, Gordan [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2015-09-01

    The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) continues to expand its use of unattended measurement systems. An increasing number of systems and an expanding family of instruments create challenges in terms of deployment efficiency and the implementation of data authentication measures. In collaboration with the IAEA, tamper-indicating measures to address data-transmission authentication challenges with unattended safeguards systems are under investigation. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) is studying the viability of active time-domain reflectometry (TDR) along two parallel but interconnected paths: (1) swept-frequency TDR as the highly flexible, laboratory gold standard to which field-deployable options can be compared, and (2) a low-cost commercially available spread-spectrum TDR technology as one option for field implementation. This report describes PNNL’s FY15 progress in the viability study including: an overview of the TDR methods under investigation; description of the testing configurations and mock tampering scenarios; results from a preliminary sensitivity comparison of the two TDR methods; demonstration of a quantitative metric for estimating field performance that acknowledges the need for high detection probability while minimizing false alarms. FY15 progress reported here sets the stage for a rigorous comparison of the candidate TDR methods, over a range of deployment scenarios and perturbing effects typical of IAEA unattended monitoring systems.

  3. Phase velocity enhancement of linear explosive shock tubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loiseau, Jason; Serge, Matthew; Szirti, Daniel; Higgins, Andrew; Tanguay, Vincent

    2011-06-01

    Strong, high density shocks can be generated by sequentially detonating a hollow cylinder of explosives surrounding a thin-walled, pressurized tube. Implosion of the tube results in a pinch that travels at the detonation velocity of the explosive and acts like a piston to drive a shock into the gas ahead of it. In order to increase the maximum shock velocities that can be obtained, a phase velocity generator can be used to drag an oblique detonation wave along the gas tube at a velocity much higher than the base detonation velocity of the explosive. Since yielding and failure of the gas tube is the primary limitation of these devices, it is desirable to retain the dynamic confinement effects of a heavy-walled tamper without interfering with operation of the phase velocity generator. This was accomplished by cutting a slit into the tamper and introducing a phased detonation wave such that it asymmetrically wraps around the gas tube. This type of configuration has been previously experimentally verified to produce very strong shocks but the post-shock pressure and shock velocity limits have not been investigated. This study measured the shock trajectory for various fill pressures and phase velocities to ascertain the limiting effects of tube yield, detonation obliquity and pinch aspect ratio.

  4. Parameterization of LSB in Self-Recovery Speech Watermarking Framework in Big Data Mining

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuo Li

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The privacy is a major concern in big data mining approach. In this paper, we propose a novel self-recovery speech watermarking framework with consideration of trustable communication in big data mining. In the framework, the watermark is the compressed version of the original speech. The watermark is embedded into the least significant bit (LSB layers. At the receiver end, the watermark is used to detect the tampered area and recover the tampered speech. To fit the complexity of the scenes in big data infrastructures, the LSB is treated as a parameter. This work discusses the relationship between LSB and other parameters in terms of explicit mathematical formulations. Once the LSB layer has been chosen, the best choices of other parameters are then deduced using the exclusive method. Additionally, we observed that six LSB layers are the limit for watermark embedding when the total bit layers equaled sixteen. Experimental results indicated that when the LSB layers changed from six to three, the imperceptibility of watermark increased, while the quality of the recovered signal decreased accordingly. This result was a trade-off and different LSB layers should be chosen according to different application conditions in big data infrastructures.

  5. Passive Forensics for Region Duplication Image Forgery Based on Harris Feature Points and Local Binary Patterns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Zhao

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays the demand for identifying the authenticity of an image is much increased since advanced image editing software packages are widely used. Region duplication forgery is one of the most common and immediate tampering attacks which are frequently used. Several methods to expose this forgery have been developed to detect and locate the tampered region, while most methods do fail when the duplicated region undergoes rotation or flipping before being pasted. In this paper, an efficient method based on Harris feature points and local binary patterns is proposed. First, the image is filtered with a pixelwise adaptive Wiener method, and then dense Harris feature points are employed in order to obtain a sufficient number of feature points with approximately uniform distribution. Feature vectors for a circle patch around each feature point are extracted using local binary pattern operators, and the similar Harris points are matched based on their representation feature vectors using the BBF algorithm. Finally, RANSAC algorithm is employed to eliminate the possible erroneous matches. Experiment results demonstrate that the proposed method can effectively detect region duplication forgery, even when an image was distorted by rotation, flipping, blurring, AWGN, JPEG compression, and their mixed operations, especially resistant to the forgery with the flat area of little visual structures.

  6. "Glitch Logic" and Applications to Computing and Information Security

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoica, Adrian; Katkoori, Srinivas

    2009-01-01

    This paper introduces a new method of information processing in digital systems, and discusses its potential benefits to computing and information security. The new method exploits glitches caused by delays in logic circuits for carrying and processing information. Glitch processing is hidden to conventional logic analyses and undetectable by traditional reverse engineering techniques. It enables the creation of new logic design methods that allow for an additional controllable "glitch logic" processing layer embedded into a conventional synchronous digital circuits as a hidden/covert information flow channel. The combination of synchronous logic with specific glitch logic design acting as an additional computing channel reduces the number of equivalent logic designs resulting from synthesis, thus implicitly reducing the possibility of modification and/or tampering with the design. The hidden information channel produced by the glitch logic can be used: 1) for covert computing/communication, 2) to prevent reverse engineering, tampering, and alteration of design, and 3) to act as a channel for information infiltration/exfiltration and propagation of viruses/spyware/Trojan horses.

  7. Detection of Double-Compressed H.264/AVC Video Incorporating the Features of the String of Data Bits and Skip Macroblocks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heng Yao

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Today’s H.264/AVC coded videos have a high quality, high data-compression ratio. They also have a strong fault tolerance, better network adaptability, and have been widely applied on the Internet. With the popularity of powerful and easy-to-use video editing software, digital videos can be tampered with in various ways. Therefore, the double compression in the H.264/AVC video can be used as a first step in the study of video-tampering forensics. This paper proposes a simple, but effective, double-compression detection method that analyzes the periodic features of the string of data bits (SODBs and the skip macroblocks (S-MBs for all I-frames and P-frames in a double-compressed H.264/AVC video. For a given suspicious video, the SODBs and S-MBs are extracted for each frame. Both features are then incorporated to generate one enhanced feature to represent the periodic artifact of the double-compressed video. Finally, a time-domain analysis is conducted to detect the periodicity of the features. The primary Group of Pictures (GOP size is estimated based on an exhaustive strategy. The experimental results demonstrate the efficacy of the proposed method.

  8. Procedure for taking physical inventories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1981-01-01

    This session is intended to apprise one of the various aspects of procedures and routines that Exxon Nuclear uses with respect to its nuclear materials physical inventory program. The presentation describes how plant physical inventories are planned and taken. The description includes the planning and preparation for taking the inventory, the clean-out procedures for converting in-process material to measurable items, the administrative procedures for establishing independent inventory teams and for inventorying each inventory area, the verification procedures used to include previously measured tamper-safed items in the inventory, and lastly, procedures used to reconcile the inventory and calculate MUF (materials unaccounted for). The purpose of the session is to enable participants to: (1) understand the planning and pre-inventorty procedures and their importance; (2) understand the need for and the required intensity of clean-out procedures; (3) understand how inventory teams are formed, and how the inventory is conducted; (4) understand the distinction between inventory previously measured tamper-safed items and other materials not so characterized; (5) understand the reconciliation procedures; and (6) calculate a MUF given the book and inventory results

  9. As Fraudes na Cadeia Produtiva do Leite. Um Estudo de Caso na Região Fronteira Noroeste do Rio Grande do Sul Sob a Luz da Nova Economia Institucional

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Eveline dos Santos Roncato

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available During the years 2013 and 2014 were identified adulteration in milk composition, being recorded by prosecutors cases of agents who had preventive arrest, accused of tampering with the crime results opportunistic situations foods. Similarly, the milk production chain has been showing increasing the tax burden on the sector, rising production costs, fraud and tampering with the product. Thus, this study aims to analyze the effects on transaction costs, the adulteration of the product identified in the operation milk Compensated for producers, transporters, industry and milk consumers in North-West Frontier region of Rio Grande do Sul in the light New Institutional Economics. The case study was conducted in three cities, Boa Vista do Buricá, Horizontina and Três de Maio, through interviews with representatives of institutions. The results show an increase in transaction costs due to opportunistic behavior in the milk chain links, reducing the frequency and increasing the uncertainty of the milk producers and generating losses for both the producer and for the industry and consumers. Thus, it was possible to demonstrate the need of institutional actors examine the chain and promote actions to reorganize the sector and regain credibility in the market.

  10. Copy-move forgery detection through stationary wavelets and local binary pattern variance for forensic analysis in digital images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmood, Toqeer; Irtaza, Aun; Mehmood, Zahid; Tariq Mahmood, Muhammad

    2017-10-01

    The most common image tampering often for malicious purposes is to copy a region of the same image and paste to hide some other region. As both regions usually have same texture properties, therefore, this artifact is invisible for the viewers, and credibility of the image becomes questionable in proof centered applications. Hence, means are required to validate the integrity of the image and identify the tampered regions. Therefore, this study presents an efficient way of copy-move forgery detection (CMFD) through local binary pattern variance (LBPV) over the low approximation components of the stationary wavelets. CMFD technique presented in this paper is applied over the circular regions to address the possible post processing operations in a better way. The proposed technique is evaluated on CoMoFoD and Kodak lossless true color image (KLTCI) datasets in the presence of translation, flipping, blurring, rotation, scaling, color reduction, brightness change and multiple forged regions in an image. The evaluation reveals the prominence of the proposed technique compared to state of the arts. Consequently, the proposed technique can reliably be applied to detect the modified regions and the benefits can be obtained in journalism, law enforcement, judiciary, and other proof critical domains. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Ceramic Seal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smartt, Heidi A.; Romero, Juan A.; Custer, Joyce Olsen; Hymel, Ross W.; Krementz, Dan; Gobin, Derek; Harpring, Larry; Martinez-Rodriguez, Michael; Varble, Don; DiMaio, Jeff; Hudson, Stephen

    2016-01-01

    Containment/Surveillance (C/S) measures are critical to any verification regime in order to maintain Continuity of Knowledge (CoK). The Ceramic Seal project is research into the next generation technologies to advance C/S, in particular improving security and efficiency. The Ceramic Seal is a small form factor loop seal with improved tamper-indication including a frangible seal body, tamper planes, external coatings, and electronic monitoring of the seal body integrity. It improves efficiency through a self-securing wire and in-situ verification with a handheld reader. Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) and Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL), under sponsorship from the U.S. National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) Office of Defense Nuclear Nonproliferation Research and Development (DNN R&D), have previously designed and have now fabricated and tested Ceramic Seals. Tests have occurred at both SNL and SRNL, with different types of tests occurring at each facility. This interim report will describe the Ceramic Seal prototype, the design and development of a handheld standalone reader and an interface to a data acquisition system, fabrication of the seals, and results of initial testing.

  12. Improvements for optical surveillance systems in international safeguards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richter, B.; Stein, G.; Neumann, G.; Gaertner, K.J.; Whichello, J.N.

    1988-01-01

    Within the next few years, a transition from film camera systems to video surveillance systems will take place in international safeguards. In order to maintain the indispensable requirements of reliability and authentication, development and tests continued under the Federal Republic of Germany Support Programme of video components for IAEA safeguards applications. The prototype of a tamper resistant TV-link was developed under Task D.12/4/. A field test of the TV-link is in preparation using a production model suitable for multiplexed TV applications. The test will utilize an Agency owned, multiplexed TV system. An evaluation of the tamper resistant TV-link is given. After a successful field trial of the prototype Solid State Video Memory (SSVM-516) under task D.14 a production model has been developed under Task D.17. Several operating modes are envisaged, depending on whether it will be used in an on-site video surveillance system or in a video review station. The concept and technical features, including an explanation of the function of the video memory, are discussed

  13. Development and design optimization of water hydraulic manipulator for ITER

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kekaelaeinen, Teemu; Mattila, Jouni; Virvalo, Tapio

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes one of the research projects carried out in The Preparation of Remote Handling Engineers for ITER (PREFIT) program within the European Fusion Training Scheme (EFTS). This research project is focusing on the design and optimization of water hydraulic manipulators used to test several remote handling tasks of ITER at Divertor Test Platform 2 (DTP2), Tampere, Finland, and later in ITER. In this project, a water hydraulic manipulator designed and build by Department of Intelligent Hydraulics and Automation in Tampere University of Technology, Finland (TUT/IHA) is further optimized as a case study for a given manipulator requirement specification in order to illustrate and verify developed comprehensive design guidelines and performance metrics. Without meaningful manipulator performance parameters, the evaluation of alternative robot manipulators designs remains ad hoc at best. Therefore, more comprehensive design guidelines and performance metrics are needed for comparing and improving different existing manipulators versus task requirements or for comparing different digital prototypes at early design phase of manipulators. In this paper the description of the project, its background and developments are presented and discussed.

  14. Computer-aided protective system (CAPS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Squire, R.K.

    1988-01-01

    A method of improving the security of materials in transit is described. The system provides a continuously monitored position location system for the transport vehicle, an internal computer-based geographic delimiter that makes continuous comparisons of actual positions with the preplanned routing and schedule, and a tamper detection/reaction system. The position comparison is utilized to institute preprogrammed reactive measures if the carrier is taken off course or schedule, penetrated, or otherwise interfered with. The geographic locater could be an independent internal platform or an external signal-dependent system utilizing GPS, Loran or similar source of geographic information; a small (micro) computer could provide adequate memory and computational capacity; the insurance of integrity of the system indicates the need for a tamper-proof container and built-in intrusion sensors. A variant of the system could provide real-time transmission of the vehicle position and condition to a central control point for; such transmission could be encrypted to preclude spoofing

  15. A Framework for Secure Data Delivery in Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonidas PERLEPES

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Typical sensor nodes are resource constrained devices containing user level applications, operating system components, and device drivers in a single address space, with no form of memory protection. A malicious user could easily capture a node and tamper the applications running on it, in order to perform different types of attacks. In this paper, we propose a 3-layer Security Framework composed by physical security schemes, cryptography of communication channels and live forensics protection techniques that allows for secure WSN deployments. Each of the abovementioned techniques maximizes the security levels leading to a tamper proof sensor node. By applying the proposed security framework, secure communication between nodes is guaranteed, identified captured nodes are silenced and their destructive effect on the rest of the network infrastructure is minimized due to the early measures applied. Our main concern is to propose a framework that balances its attributes between robustness, as long as security is concerned and cost effective implementation as far as resources (energy consumption are concerned.

  16. Data provenance assurance in the cloud using blockchain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shetty, Sachin; Red, Val; Kamhoua, Charles; Kwiat, Kevin; Njilla, Laurent

    2017-05-01

    Ever increasing adoption of cloud technology scales up the activities like creation, exchange, and alteration of cloud data objects, which create challenges to track malicious activities and security violations. Addressing this issue requires implementation of data provenance framework so that each data object in the federated cloud environment can be tracked and recorded but cannot be modified. The blockchain technology gives a promising decentralized platform to build tamper-proof systems. Its incorruptible distributed ledger/blockchain complements the need of maintaining cloud data provenance. In this paper, we present a cloud based data provenance framework using block chain which traces data record operations and generates provenance data. We anchor provenance data records into block chain transactions, which provide validation on provenance data and preserve user privacy at the same time. Once the provenance data is uploaded to the global block chain network, it is extremely challenging to tamper the provenance data. Besides, the provenance data uses hashed user identifiers prior to uploading so the blockchain nodes cannot link the operations to a particular user. The framework ensures that the privacy is preserved. We implemented the architecture on ownCloud, uploaded records to blockchain network, stored records in a provenance database and developed a prototype in form of a web service.

  17. Implementation of blockchain-based energy trading system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Se-Chang Oh

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose - The centralized processes of today’s power trading systems are complex and pose a risk of price tampering and hacking. The decentralized and unmodifiable nature of the blockchain technology that has recently been highlighted offers the potential to improve this power trading process. The purpose of this study is to implement a system to apply the blockchain technology to the problem of power trading. Design/methodology/approach - The authors modeled the power trading problem as the interaction between admin, producer and consumer nodes. And a power trading scenario has been created for this model using a blockchain platform called Multichain which is both fast and highly scalable. To verify this scenario, they implemented a trading system using Savoir, a Python-based JsonRPC module. Findings - Experimental results show that all processes, such as blockchain creation, node connectivity, asset issuance and exchange transactions have been correctly handled according to the scenario. Originality/value - In this study, the authors have proposed and implemented a power trading method that determines price according to the pure market principle and cannot be manipulated or hacked. It is based on the nature of blockchain technology that is decentralized and cannot be tampered.

  18. Privacy-Preserving Authentication Using a Double Pseudonym for Internet of Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Cui

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available The Internet of Vehicles (IoV plays an important role in smart transportation to reduce the drivers’s risk of having an accident and help them manage small emergencies. Therefore, security and privacy issues of the message in the tamper proof device (TPD broadcasted to other vehicles and roadside units (RSUs have become an important research subject in the field of smart transportation. Many authentication schemes are proposed to tackle the challenges above and most of them are heavy in computation and communication. In this paper, we propose a novel authentication scheme that utilizes the double pseudonym method to hide the real identity of vehicles and adopts the dynamic update technology to periodically update the information (such as member secret, authentication key, internal pseudo-identity stored in the tamper-proof device to prevent the side-channel attack. Because of not using bilinear pairing, our scheme yields a better performance in terms of computation overhead and communication overhead, and is more suitable to be applied in the Internet of Vehicles.

  19. Heating, Hydrodynamics, and Radiation From a Laser Heated Non-LTE High-Z Target

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, William; Foord, M. E.; Schneider, M. B.; Barrios, M. A.; Brown, G. V.; Heeter, R. F.; Jarrott, L. C.; Liedahl, D. A.; Marley, E. V.; Mauche, C. W.; Widmann, K.

    2016-10-01

    We present 2D R-z simulations that model the hydrodynamics and x-ray output of a laser heated, tamped foil, using the rad-hydro code LASNEX. The foil consists of a thin (2400 A) cylindrical disk of iron/vanadium/gold that is embedded in a thicker Be tamper. The simulations utilize a non-LTE detailed configuration (DCA) model, which generates the emission spectra. Simulated pinhole images are compared with data, finding qualitative agreement with the time-history of the face-on emission profiles, and exhibiting an interesting reduction in emission size over a few ns time period. Furthermore, we find that the simulations recover similar burn through times in both the target and Be tamper as measured by a time-dependent filtered x-ray detector (DANTE). Additional results and characterization of the experimental plasma will be presented. This work performed under the auspices of U.S. Department of Energy by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344.

  20. Privacy-Preserving Authentication Using a Double Pseudonym for Internet of Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Wenyu; Zhang, Jing; Xu, Yan; Liu, Lu

    2018-01-01

    The Internet of Vehicles (IoV) plays an important role in smart transportation to reduce the drivers’s risk of having an accident and help them manage small emergencies. Therefore, security and privacy issues of the message in the tamper proof device (TPD) broadcasted to other vehicles and roadside units (RSUs) have become an important research subject in the field of smart transportation. Many authentication schemes are proposed to tackle the challenges above and most of them are heavy in computation and communication. In this paper, we propose a novel authentication scheme that utilizes the double pseudonym method to hide the real identity of vehicles and adopts the dynamic update technology to periodically update the information (such as member secret, authentication key, internal pseudo-identity) stored in the tamper-proof device to prevent the side-channel attack. Because of not using bilinear pairing, our scheme yields a better performance in terms of computation overhead and communication overhead, and is more suitable to be applied in the Internet of Vehicles. PMID:29735941

  1. Measuring and predicting the dynamic effects of a confined thin metal plate pulse heated into the liquid-vapor regime

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baxter, R.C.

    1977-01-01

    The dynamic response of a confined thin layer of lead heated rapidly and uniformly to a supercritical state was investigated. Lead targets 0.025 mm and 0.05 mm thick were contained between a thin titanium tamping layer and a thick layer of fused quartz with several different gap widths between the lead and the confining surfaces. After being heated by an electron beam for about 50 ns, lead specimens expanded to a state of approximately half liquid and half vapor. Measurements of the stress in the quartz and the velocity of the tamper produced by the expanding lead were compared with one dimensional hydrodynamic computer program predictions. Measured and predicted peak stresses in the quartz for no gaps were approximately 12 kilobars and agreed within one kilobar. Peak stresses decreased rapidly with gap size to values, at 0.02 mm gaps, of about one kilobar for the 0.025 mm lead targets and five kilobars for the 0.05 mm targets. These values were confirmed by measurements. Predictions and measurements of tamper velocity (momentum) were within 10% only when the lead and confining walls were in close contact. The observed velocities for even very small gaps were substantially below predictions. These differences are attributed primarily to separation of the liquid and vapor phases during the expansion

  2. Reliability Analysis of Load-Sharing K-out-of-N System Considering Component Degradation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunbo Yang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The K-out-of-N configuration is a typical form of redundancy techniques to improve system reliability, where at least K-out-of-N components must work for successful operation of system. When the components are degraded, more components are needed to meet the system requirement, which means that the value of K has to increase. The current reliability analysis methods overestimate the reliability, because using constant K ignores the degradation effect. In a load-sharing system with degrading components, the workload shared on each surviving component will increase after a random component failure, resulting in higher failure rate and increased performance degradation rate. This paper proposes a method combining a tampered failure rate model with a performance degradation model to analyze the reliability of load-sharing K-out-of-N system with degrading components. The proposed method considers the value of K as a variable which is derived by the performance degradation model. Also, the load-sharing effect is evaluated by the tampered failure rate model. Monte-Carlo simulation procedure is used to estimate the discrete probability distribution of K. The case of a solar panel is studied in this paper, and the result shows that the reliability considering component degradation is less than that ignoring component degradation.

  3. Container Verification Using Optically Stimulated Luminescence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanner, Jennifer E.; Miller, Steven D.; Conrady, Matthew M.; Simmons, Kevin L.; Tinker, Michael R.

    2008-01-01

    Containment verification is a high priority for safeguards containment and surveillance. Nuclear material containers, safeguards equipment cabinets, camera housings, and detector cable conduit are all vulnerable to tampering. Even with a high security seal on a lid or door, custom-built hinges and interfaces, and special colors and types of finishes, the surfaces of enclosures can be tampered with and any penetrations repaired and covered over. With today's technology, these repairs would not be detected during a simple visual inspection. Several suggested solutions have been to develop complicated networks of wires, fiber-optic cables, lasers or other sensors that line the inside of a container and alarm when the network is disturbed. This results in an active system with real time evidence of tampering but is probably not practical for most safeguards applications. A more practical solution would be to use a passive approach where an additional security feature was added to surfaces which would consist of a special coating or paint applied to the container or enclosure. One type of coating would incorporate optically stimulated luminescent (OSL) material. OSL materials are phosphors that luminesce in proportion to the ionizing radiation dose when stimulated with the appropriate optical wavelengths. The OSL fluoresces at a very specific wavelength when illuminated at another, very specific wavelength. The presence of the pre-irradiated OSL material in the coating is confirmed using a device that interrogates the surface of the enclosure using the appropriate optical wavelength and then reads the resulting luminescence. The presence of the OSL indicates that the integrity of the surface is intact. The coating itself could be transparent which would allow the appearance of the container to remain unchanged or the OSL material could be incorporated into certain paints or epoxies used on various types of containers. The coating could be applied during manufacturing

  4. The lasting legacy of war: epidemiology of injuries from landmines and unexploded ordnance in Afghanistan, 2002-2006.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilukha, Oleg O; Brennan, Muireann; Anderson, Mark

    2008-01-01

    Due to several decades of armed conflict and civil unrest, Afghanistan is one of the countries most affected by landmines and unexploded ordnance worldwide. The study was performed to assess the magnitude of injuries due to landmines and unexploded ordnance in Afghanistan during 2002-2006 and to describe epidemiological patterns and potential risk factors for these events. Surveillance data including 5,471 injuries caused by landmines and unexploded ordnance in Afghanistan during 2002-2006 were analyzed. The International Committee of the Red Cross collects data on such injuries from 490 reporting health facilities and volunteers throughout the country. These surveillance data were used to describe injury trends, victim demographics, injury types, risk behaviors, and explosive types related to landmine and unexploded ordnance accidents. The largest number of injuries (1,706) occurred in 2002. The number declined sharply to 1,049 injuries in 2003, and remained relatively stable with slight decline thereafter. Overall, 92% of victims were civilians, 91% were males, and 47% were children <18 years of age. The case-fatality ratio was 17%. Approximately 50% of all injuries were caused by unexploded ordnance and 42% by landmines. Among children, 65% of injuries were caused by unexploded ordnance and only 27% by landmines, whereas in adults, most injuries (56%) were caused by landmines. The most common risk behaviors among children were tending animals, playing, and tampering with explosive devices. In adults, most common risk behaviors were traveling, performing activities of economic necessity, and tampering with explosives. Twenty-eight percent of the surviving victims who received mine awareness training and 2% of those who did not receive such training reported that the area where event occurred was marked. The large number of injuries and high proportion of child victims suggest that clearance and risk education activities fall short of achieving their goals, and

  5. Detection and localization of copy-paste forgeries in digital videos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Raahat Devender; Aggarwal, Naveen

    2017-12-01

    Amidst the continual march of technology, we find ourselves relying on digital videos to proffer visual evidence in several highly sensitive areas such as journalism, politics, civil and criminal litigation, and military and intelligence operations. However, despite being an indispensable source of information with high evidentiary value, digital videos are also extremely vulnerable to conscious manipulations. Therefore, in a situation where dependence on video evidence is unavoidable, it becomes crucial to authenticate the contents of this evidence before accepting them as an accurate depiction of reality. Digital videos can suffer from several kinds of manipulations, but perhaps, one of the most consequential forgeries is copy-paste forgery, which involves insertion/removal of objects into/from video frames. Copy-paste forgeries alter the information presented by the video scene, which has a direct effect on our basic understanding of what that scene represents, and so, from a forensic standpoint, the challenge of detecting such forgeries is especially significant. In this paper, we propose a sensor pattern noise based copy-paste detection scheme, which is an improved and forensically stronger version of an existing noise-residue based technique. We also study a demosaicing artifact based image forensic scheme to estimate the extent of its viability in the domain of video forensics. Furthermore, we suggest a simplistic clustering technique for the detection of copy-paste forgeries, and determine if it possess the capabilities desired of a viable and efficacious video forensic scheme. Finally, we validate these schemes on a set of realistically tampered MJPEG, MPEG-2, MPEG-4, and H.264/AVC encoded videos in a diverse experimental set-up by varying the strength of post-production re-compressions and transcodings, bitrates, and sizes of the tampered regions. Such an experimental set-up is representative of a neutral testing platform and simulates a real

  6. Collaborative Russian-US work in nuclear material protection, control and accounting at the Institute of Physics and Power Engineering. II. extension to additional facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuzin, V.V.; Pshakin, G.M.; Belov, A.P.

    1996-01-01

    During 1995, collaborative Russian-US nuclear material protection, control and accounting (MPC ampersand A) tasks at the Institute of Physics and Power Engineering (IPPE) in Obninsk, Russia focused on improving the protection of nuclear materials at the BFS Fast Critical Facility. BFS has thousands of fuel disks containing highly enriched uranium and weapons-grade plutonium that are used to simulate the core configurations of experimental reactors in two critical assemblies. Completed tasks culminated in demonstrations of newly implemented equipment and methods that enhanced the MPC ampersand A at BFS through computerized accounting, nondestructive inventory verification measurements, personnel identification and assess control, physical inventory taking, physical protection, and video surveillance. The collaborative work is now being extended. The additional tasks encompass communications and tamper-indicating devices; new storage alternatives; and systemization of the MPC ampersand A elements that are being implemented

  7. Urine Creatinine Concentrations in Drug Monitoring Participants and Hospitalized Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Love, Sara A; Seegmiller, Jesse C; Kloss, Julie; Apple, Fred S

    2016-10-01

    Urine drug testing is commonly performed in both clinical and forensic arenas for screening, monitoring and compliance purposes. We sought to determine if urine creatinine concentrations in monitoring program participants were significantly different from hospital in-patients and out-patients undergoing urine drug testing. We retrospectively reviewed urine creatinine submitted in June through December 2015 for all specimens undergoing urine drug testing. The 20,479 creatinine results were categorized as hospitalized patients (H) and monitoring/compliance groups for pain management (P), legal (L) or recovery (R). Median creatinine concentrations (interquartile range, mg/dL) were significantly different (P creatinine concentrations were significantly lower in the R vs. L group (Pcreatinine concentration and may indicate participants' attempts to tamper with their drug test results through dilution means. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  8. Reporting of safeguards events

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dwyer, P.A.; Ervin, N.E.

    1988-02-01

    On June 9, 1987, the Commission published in the Federal Register a final rule revising the reporting requirements for safeguards events. Safeguards events include actual or attempted theft of special nuclear material (SNM); actual or attempted acts or events which interrupt normal operations at power reactors due to unauthorized use of or tampering with machinery, components, or controls; certain threats made against facilities possessing SNM; and safeguards system failures impacting the effectiveness of the system. The revised rule was effective October 8, 1987. On September 14, 1987, the NRC held a workshop in Bethesda, MD, to answer affected licensees' questions on the final rule. This report documents questions discussed at the September 14 meeting, reflects a completed staff review of the answers, and supersedes previous oral comment on the topics covered

  9. Keeping electronic records secure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Easton, David

    2013-10-01

    Are electronic engineering maintenance records relating to the hospital estate or a medical device as important as electronic patient records? Computer maintenance management systems (CMMS) are increasingly being used to manage all-round maintenance activities. However, the accuracy of the data held on them, and a level of security that prevents tampering with records, or other unauthorised changes to them to 'cover' poor practice, are both essential, so that, should an individual be injured or killed on hospital grounds, and a law suit follow, the estates team can be confident that it has accurate data to prove it has fulfilled its duty of care. Here David Easton MSc CEng FIHEEM MIET, director of Zener Engineering Services, and chair of IHEEM's Medical Devices Advisory Group, discusses the issues around maintenance databases, and the security and integrity of maintenance data.

  10. Formal Analysis of Key Integrity in PKCS#11

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falcone, Andrea; Focardi, Riccardo

    PKCS#11 is a standard API to cryptographic devices such as smarcards, hardware security modules and usb crypto-tokens. Though widely adopted, this API has been shown to be prone to attacks in which a malicious user gains access to the sensitive keys stored in the devices. In 2008, Delaune, Kremer and Steel proposed a model to formally reason on this kind of attacks. We extend this model to also describe flaws that are based on integrity violations of the stored keys. In particular, we consider scenarios in which a malicious overwriting of keys might fool honest users into using attacker's own keys, while performing sensitive operations. We further enrich the model with a trusted key mechanism ensuring that only controlled, non-tampered keys are used in cryptographic operations, and we show how this modified API prevents the above mentioned key-replacement attacks.

  11. Benford's Law: textbook exercises and multiple-choice testbanks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slepkov, Aaron D; Ironside, Kevin B; DiBattista, David

    2015-01-01

    Benford's Law describes the finding that the distribution of leading (or leftmost) digits of innumerable datasets follows a well-defined logarithmic trend, rather than an intuitive uniformity. In practice this means that the most common leading digit is 1, with an expected frequency of 30.1%, and the least common is 9, with an expected frequency of 4.6%. Currently, the most common application of Benford's Law is in detecting number invention and tampering such as found in accounting-, tax-, and voter-fraud. We demonstrate that answers to end-of-chapter exercises in physics and chemistry textbooks conform to Benford's Law. Subsequently, we investigate whether this fact can be used to gain advantage over random guessing in multiple-choice tests, and find that while testbank answers in introductory physics closely conform to Benford's Law, the testbank is nonetheless secure against such a Benford's attack for banal reasons.

  12. Banknote security using a biometric-like technique: a hylemetric approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schirripa Spagnolo, Giuseppe; Cozzella, Lorenzo; Simonetti, Carla

    2010-01-01

    Banknote security is an issue that has led in the last decades to insert, inside the banknote itself, a very high number of controlling methods with the aim of verifying possible tampering attempts. In order to distinguish the false banknotes, sophisticated means (i.e. watermark, feel of the paper, raised print, metallic threads, quality of the printing, holograms, ultraviolet features, micro-lettering, etc) are often used. The purpose of this paper is to show a new approach and related method to protect banknotes and to verify their originality, based on the idea of hylemetry (methodology conceptually similar to biometry) applied to banknotes. Specifically, the hylemetric feature used in this paper is the random distribution pattern of the metallic security fibers set into the paper pulp. The outcome of the proposed solution is to identify an original banknote using a binary sequence derived from the banknote itself

  13. Problems and challenges in relation to the treatment of patients with multimorbidity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søndergaard, Elisabeth; Willadsen, Tora Grauers; Guassora, Ann Dorrit

    2015-01-01

    Objective. To explore views and attitudes among general practitioners (GPs) and researchers in the field of general practice towards problems and challenges related to treatment of patients with multimorbidity. Setting. A workshop entitled Patients with multimorbidity in general practice held...... during the Nordic Congress of General Practice in Tampere, Finland, 2013. Subjects. A total of 180 GPs and researchers. Design. Data for this summary report originate from audio-recorded, transcribed verbatim plenary discussions as well as 76 short questionnaires answered by attendees during the workshop...... of multimorbid patients underlined the GPs’ impression of a fragmented health care system; (iii) GPs found it challenging to establish a good dialogue and prioritize problems with patients within the timeframe of a normal consultation; (iv) the future role of the GP was discussed in relation to diminishing...

  14. Radiation detectors as surveillance monitors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fehlau, P.E.; Dowdy, E.J.

    1981-01-01

    The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) proposes to use personnel dosimetry radiation detectors as surveillance monitors for safeguards purposes. It plans to place these YES/NO monitors at barrier penetration points declared closed under IAEA safeguards to detect the passage of plutonium-bearing nuclear material, usually spent fuel. For this application, commercially available dosimeters were surveyed as well as other radiation detectors that appeared suitable and likely to be marketed in the near future. No primary advantage was found in a particular detector type because in this application backgrounds vary during long counting intervals. Secondary considerations specify that the monitor be inexpensive and easy to tamper-proof, interrogate, and maintain. On this basis radiophotoluminescent, thermoluminescent, and electronic dosimeters were selected as possible routine monitors; the latter two may prove useful for data-base acquisition

  15. Untangling complex networks: risk minimization in financial markets through accessible spin glass ground states.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lisewski, Andreas Martin; Lichtarge, Olivier

    2010-08-15

    Recurrent international financial crises inflict significant damage to societies and stress the need for mechanisms or strategies to control risk and tamper market uncertainties. Unfortunately, the complex network of market interactions often confounds rational approaches to optimize financial risks. Here we show that investors can overcome this complexity and globally minimize risk in portfolio models for any given expected return, provided the relative margin requirement remains below a critical, empirically measurable value. In practice, for markets with centrally regulated margin requirements, a rational stabilization strategy would be keeping margins small enough. This result follows from ground states of the random field spin glass Ising model that can be calculated exactly through convex optimization when relative spin coupling is limited by the norm of the network's Laplacian matrix. In that regime, this novel approach is robust to noise in empirical data and may be also broadly relevant to complex networks with frustrated interactions that are studied throughout scientific fields.

  16. Realization and optimization of AES algorithm on the TMS320DM6446 based on DaVinci technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Wen-bin; Xiao, Fu-hai

    2013-03-01

    The application of AES algorithm in the digital cinema system avoids video data to be illegal theft or malicious tampering, and solves its security problems. At the same time, in order to meet the requirements of the real-time, scene and transparent encryption of high-speed data streams of audio and video in the information security field, through the in-depth analysis of AES algorithm principle, based on the hardware platform of TMS320DM6446, with the software framework structure of DaVinci, this paper proposes the specific realization methods of AES algorithm in digital video system and its optimization solutions. The test results show digital movies encrypted by AES128 can not play normally, which ensures the security of digital movies. Through the comparison of the performance of AES128 algorithm before optimization and after, the correctness and validity of improved algorithm is verified.

  17. Radioactive material package closures with the use of shape memory alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koski, J.A.; Bronowski, D.R.

    1997-11-01

    When heated from room temperature to 165 C, some shape memory metal alloys such as titanium-nickel alloys have the ability to return to a previously defined shape or size with dimensional changes up to 7%. In contrast, the thermal expansion of most metals over this temperature range is about 0.1 to 0.2%. The dimension change of shape memory alloys, which occurs during a martensite to austenite phase transition, can generate stresses as high as 700 MPa (100 kspi). These properties can be used to create a closure for radioactive materials packages that provides for easy robotic or manual operations and results in reproducible, tamper-proof seals. This paper describes some proposed closure methods with shape memory alloys for radioactive material packages. Properties of the shape memory alloys are first summarized, then some possible alternative sealing methods discussed, and, finally, results from an initial proof-of-concept experiment described

  18. Recent trends and future of pharmaceutical packaging technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zadbuke, Nityanand; Shahi, Sadhana; Gulecha, Bhushan; Padalkar, Abhay; Thube, Mahesh

    2013-04-01

    The pharmaceutical packaging market is constantly advancing and has experienced annual growth of at least five percent per annum in the past few years. The market is now reckoned to be worth over $20 billion a year. As with most other packaged goods, pharmaceuticals need reliable and speedy packaging solutions that deliver a combination of product protection, quality, tamper evidence, patient comfort and security needs. Constant innovations in the pharmaceuticals themselves such as, blow fill seal (BFS) vials, anti-counterfeit measures, plasma impulse chemical vapor deposition (PICVD) coating technology, snap off ampoules, unit dose vials, two-in-one prefilled vial design, prefilled syringes and child-resistant packs have a direct impact on the packaging. The review details several of the recent pharmaceutical packaging trends that are impacting packaging industry, and offers some predictions for the future.

  19. Recent trends and future of pharmaceutical packaging technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nityanand Zadbuke

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The pharmaceutical packaging market is constantly advancing and has experienced annual growth of at least five percent per annum in the past few years. The market is now reckoned to be worth over $20 billion a year. As with most other packaged goods, pharmaceuticals need reliable and speedy packaging solutions that deliver a combination of product protection, quality, tamper evidence, patient comfort and security needs. Constant innovations in the pharmaceuticals themselves such as, blow fill seal (BFS vials, anti-counterfeit measures, plasma impulse chemical vapor deposition (PICVD coating technology, snap off ampoules, unit dose vials, two-in-one prefilled vial design, prefilled syringes and child-resistant packs have a direct impact on the packaging. The review details several of the recent pharmaceutical packaging trends that are impacting packaging industry, and offers some predictions for the future.

  20. Origin of life experts might find inspiration at CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    Katarina Anthony & Anaïs Schaeffer

    2011-01-01

    “How did life appear on Earth?” That was the unanswered question on attendees’ minds at a single-day workshop held at CERN, 20 May. The brainstorming session featured experts from the biology field and CERN physicists. Although the million-dollar question wasn't answered, the group explored the possibility of organising a large-scale research project that could do just that.   Darwin’s vision of "descent with modification" from his "B" notebook. According to workshop chair Stuart Kauffman, an American theoretical biologist, currently Finland Distinguished Professor (FiDiPro) at the Tampere University of Technology: “The Origin of Life problem began with Louis Pasteur, who refused to believe in the ‘spontaneous generation principle’ of life. All life, he said, comes from life. This left Pasteur in a conundrum: how did life start in the first place?” As a renowne...

  1. Water Hydraulic Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Conrad, Finn

    2005-01-01

    The paper presents research results using IT-Tools for CAD and dynamic modelling, simulation, analysis, and design of water hydraulic actuators for motion control of machines, lifts, cranes and robots. Matlab/Simulink and CATIA are used as IT-Tools. The contributions include results from on......-going research projects on fluid power and mechatronics based on tap water hydraulic servovalves and linear servo actuators and rotary vane actuators for motion control and power transmission. Development and design a novel water hydraulic rotary vane actuator for robot manipulators. Proposed mathematical...... modelling, control and simulation of a water hydraulic rotary vane actuator applied to power and control a two-links manipulator and evaluate performance. The results include engineering design and test of the proposed simulation models compared with IHA Tampere University’s presentation of research...

  2. TEE-Based Trusted Storage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gonzalez, Javier; Bonnet, Philippe

    Today, it is safe to assume that any program or data can be compromised, if they are not protected by hardware within a secure area. Systems based on crypto-processors (e.g., a trusted platform module, a smart card or a hardware security module) rely on the properties of tamper resistant hardware...... to establish a tight security parameter around a reduced set of predefined functionalities. Such systems are very secure, but they impose strong constraints on the functionalities, the connectivity or the resources available within the secure area. They have not proven versatile enough to provide mainstream...... trusted storage for personal data. We believe that this role can be taken over by systems equipped with Trusted Execution Environments (TEE), such as ARM’s TrustZone. Indeed, even if TEEs provide weaker security guarantees than crypto-processors, they already provide a secure area on many personal devices...

  3. A novel image authentication scheme based on hyper-chaotic cell neural network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao Tiegang; Gu Qiaolun; Emmanuel, Sabu

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents a new image authentication scheme based on cell neural network with hyper-chaos characteristics (HCCNN). In the scheme, the authentication code, which is used as secret key and the pixel values of image are used for the input of HCCNN. The secret information that HCCNN produces is transmitted to the receiving end through secret channel. The receiver can then use the received secret information to authenticate the suspect image by comparing the original authentication code with that calculated from the suspect image. Simulations show that the suggested image authentication algorithm has the advantages of large key space and high security, and moreover, it can detect and locate the position of any slightly tampered parts of a suspect image.

  4. Color Image Authentication and Recovery via Adaptive Encoding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chun-Hung Chen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We describe an authentication and recovery scheme for color image protection based on adaptive encoding. The image blocks are categorized based on their contents and different encoding schemes are applied according to their types. Such adaptive encoding results in better image quality and more robust image authentication. The approximations of the luminance and chromatic channels are carefully calculated, and for the purpose of reducing the data size, differential coding is used to encode the channels with variable size according to the characteristic of the block. The recovery data which represents the approximation and the detail of the image is embedded for data protection. The necessary data is well protected by using error correcting coding and duplication. The experimental results demonstrate that our technique is able to identify and localize image tampering, while preserving high quality for both watermarked and recovered images.

  5. SULA 2 - Energy-efficient steel and metal production. Yearbook 1996; SULA 2 - Perusmetallien energiataloudellinen valmistus. Vuosikirja 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hakulin, H [ed.

    1997-12-31

    The main objective of SULA 2 programme are (1) reduction of specific energy consumption, (2) reduction of harmful emissions and impact on the environment, (3) promoting technology export. Participants in the programme are the steel and base metal producers; Fundia wire, Imatra Steel Oy Ab, Outokumpu Oy and Rautaruukki Oy, as well as universities with laboratories for research on metal producing processes and their control such as Helsinki University of Technology, University of Oulu, Aabo Akademi and Tampere University of Technology. The programme consists of 32 research projects, of which 14 are applied technology. The total funding for 1995-1996 is 52,5 mill. FIM. Information on the research results is exchanged at the SULA-seminars arranged in 1994, 1996 and at the beginning of 1999. In connection with the seminars a yearbook will be published. The yearbook contains the reports of all the programme projects

  6. The design and performance evaluation of the ultrasonic random coil identity-integrity element for underwater safeguards seals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allen, V.H.; Backer, S.; Smith, M.T.

    1983-06-01

    Irradiated fuel discharged from CANDU power reactors is stored underwater and, in order to comply with the requirements of International Safe-guards, the fuel is stacked in sealed containers which are examined at intervals by IAEA inspectors. The seals are verified for identity and integrity and this report describes the design of an identity/integrity element for the seals. The element is in the form of a random coil of wire which is interrogated by ultrasonic methods. An evaluation of thirty-six seals is reported. The application of seals to stacks of fuel was simulated in a water-filled bay at CRNL and repetitive verification measurements were made which simulated inspection procedures. The seal identity signatures were compared using cross-correlation methods and the results show that a broken or tampered seal can be identified with a high level of confidence

  7. Safeguards Summary Event List (SSEL), January 1, 1990--December 31, 1996, Vol. 2, Rev. 5

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-07-01

    The Safeguards Summary Event List (SSEL), Vol. 2, Rev. 5, provides brief summaries of several hundred safeguards-related events involving nuclear material or facilities regulated by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) which occurred and were reported from January 1, 1990, through December 31, 1996. Because of public interest, the Miscellaneous category includes a few events which involve either source material, byproduct material, or natural uranium which are exempt from safeguards requirements. Events are described under the categories of Bomb-related, Intrusion, Missing and/or Allegedly Stolen, Transportation-related, Tampering/Vandalism, Arson, Firearms, Radiological Sabotage, Nonradiological Sabotage, and Miscellaneous. The information contained in the event descriptions is derived primarily from official NRC reporting channels

  8. Benford's Law: textbook exercises and multiple-choice testbanks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aaron D Slepkov

    Full Text Available Benford's Law describes the finding that the distribution of leading (or leftmost digits of innumerable datasets follows a well-defined logarithmic trend, rather than an intuitive uniformity. In practice this means that the most common leading digit is 1, with an expected frequency of 30.1%, and the least common is 9, with an expected frequency of 4.6%. Currently, the most common application of Benford's Law is in detecting number invention and tampering such as found in accounting-, tax-, and voter-fraud. We demonstrate that answers to end-of-chapter exercises in physics and chemistry textbooks conform to Benford's Law. Subsequently, we investigate whether this fact can be used to gain advantage over random guessing in multiple-choice tests, and find that while testbank answers in introductory physics closely conform to Benford's Law, the testbank is nonetheless secure against such a Benford's attack for banal reasons.

  9. Water hydraulic manipulator for fail safe and fault tolerant remote handling operations at ITER

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nieminen, Peetu; Esque, Salvador; Muhammad, Ali; Mattila, Jouni; Vaeyrynen, Jukka; Siuko, Mikko; Vilenius, Matti

    2009-01-01

    Department of Intelligent Hydraulics and Automation (IHA) of Tampere University of Technology has been involved in the European Fusion program since 1994 within the ITER reactor maintenance activities. In this paper we discuss the design and development of a six degrees of freedom water hydraulic manipulator with a force feedback for teleoperation tasks. The manipulator is planned to be delivered to Divertor Test Platform 2 (DTP2) during year 2008. The paper also discusses the possibility to improve the fail safe and redundant operation of the manipulator. During the design of the water hydraulic manipulator, special provisions have been made in order to meet the safety requirements such as servo valve block for redundant operation and safety vane brakes for fail safe operation.

  10. Magnetic vector field tag and seal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Roger G.; Garcia, Anthony R.

    2004-08-31

    One or more magnets are placed in a container (preferably on objects inside the container) and the magnetic field strength and vector direction are measured with a magnetometer from at least one location near the container to provide the container with a magnetic vector field tag and seal. The location(s) of the magnetometer relative to the container are also noted. If the position of any magnet inside the container changes, then the measured vector fields at the these locations also change, indicating that the tag has been removed, the seal has broken, and therefore that the container and objects inside may have been tampered with. A hollow wheel with magnets inside may also provide a similar magnetic vector field tag and seal. As the wheel turns, the magnets tumble randomly inside, removing the tag and breaking the seal.

  11. Benefits of switching from latanoprost to preservative-free tafluprost eye drops: a meta-analysis of two Phase IIIb clinical trials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uusitalo H

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Hannu Uusitalo,1 Evgeniy Egorov,2 Kai Kaarniranta,3 Yuri Astakhov,4 Auli Ropo5 On behalf of the Switch Study Tafluprost Study Groups 1Department of Ophthalmology, SILK, University of Tampere, Tampere University Hospital, Tampere, Finland; 2Department of Ophthalmology, The Russian National Research Medical University, Moscow, Russia; 3Department of Ophthalmology, University of Eastern Finland, Kuopio University Hospital, Kuopio, Finland, 4Department of Ophthalmology, First Pavlov State Medical University of St Petersburg, Saint Petersburg, Russia, 5Global Medical Affairs, Santen Oy, Tampere, Finland Introduction: Glaucoma patients frequently exhibit ocular surface side effects during treatment with prostaglandin eye drops. The present work investigated whether glaucoma patients suffering from signs and symptoms of ocular surface disease while using preserved latanoprost eye drops benefited from switching to preservative-free tafluprost eye drops. Patients and methods: The analysis was based on 339 glaucoma patients enrolled in two Phase IIIb trials. The patients were required to have two symptoms, or one sign and one symptom of ocular surface disease at baseline, and at least 6 months preceding treatment with latanoprost eye drops preserved with benzalkonium chloride. All eligible patients were switched from latanoprost to preservative-free tafluprost for a total of 12 weeks. Ocular symptoms and ocular signs were evaluated at baseline and at 2 weeks, 6 weeks, and 12 weeks after commencing treatment with tafluprost. Intraocular pressure (IOP, drop discomfort, and treatment preference were evaluated to investigate the clinical efficacy and patient-related outcomes. Results: After 12 weeks of treatment with preservative-free tafluprost, the incidences of irritation/burning/stinging, foreign body sensation, tearing, itching, and dry eye sensation had diminished to one-third of those reported for preserved latanoprost at baseline. The incidences

  12. A toy model for the yield of a tamped fission bomb

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, B. Cameron

    2018-02-01

    A simple expression is developed for estimating the yield of a tamped fission bomb, that is, a basic nuclear weapon comprising a fissile core jacketed by a surrounding neutron-reflecting tamper. This expression is based on modeling the nuclear chain reaction as a geometric progression in combination with a previously published expression for the threshold-criticality condition for such a core. The derivation is especially straightforward, as it requires no knowledge of diffusion theory and should be accessible to students of both physics and policy. The calculation can be set up as a single page spreadsheet. Application to the Little Boy and Fat Man bombs of World War II gives results in reasonable accord with published yield estimates for these weapons.

  13. Molten salt reactors - safety options galore

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gat, U.; Dodds, H.L.

    1997-01-01

    Safety features and attributes of molten salt reactors (MSR) are described. The unique features of fluid fuel reactors of on-line continuous processing and the ability for so-called external cooling result in simple and safe designs with low excess reactivity, low fission product inventory, and small source term. These, in turn, make a criticality accident unlikely and reduce the severity of a loss of coolant to where they are no longer severe accidents. A melt down is not an accident for a reactor that uses molten fuel. The molten salts are stable, non-reactive and efficient heat transfer media that operate at high temperatures at low pressures and are highly compatible with selected structural materials. All these features reduce the accident plethora. Freeze valves can be used for added safety. An ultimate safe reactor (U.S.R) is described with safety features that are passive, inherent and non-tamperable (PINT)

  14. Wiring for the secure storage module for the Plutonium Protection System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arlowe, H.D.

    1979-12-01

    The wiring for the SSM is divided into two major subsystems: the logic subsystem and the power subsystem. The logic subsystem uses flat ribbon cables and printed wiring cards for low-level signal distribution. Its primary purpose is to provide communications from the Container Modules (CMs) directly to the microcomputer in the SSM Controller. The power subsystem uses conventional cables and does not generally handle signals of less than 30 volts. The 110V ac power is routed to all equipment in the Electronic Enclosure and to cubicle cooling fans. Wiring for drive power and monitor signals for the carrousel stepper motors, deadbolts, and CM-locking solenoids are provided, as well as for the annuciator status lights and tamper switches

  15. Magnetic signature surveillance of nuclear fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernatowicz, H.; Schoenig, F.C.

    1981-01-01

    Typical nuclear fuel material contains tramp ferromagnetic particles of random size and distribution. Also, selected amounts of paramagnetic or ferromagnetic material can be added at random or at known positions in the fuel material. The fuel material in its non-magnetic container is scanned along its length by magnetic susceptibility detecting apparatus whereby susceptibility changes along its length are obtained and provide a unique signal waveform of the container of fuel material as a signature thereof. The output signature is stored. At subsequent times in its life the container is again scanned and respective signatures obtained which are compared with the initially obtained signature, any differences indicating alteration or tampering with the fuel material. If the fuel material includes a paramagnetic additive by taking two measurements along the container the effects thereof can be cancelled out. (author)

  16. Problems and Perspectives of Doing Business in Post-crisis Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonid L. Lubimov

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with one of the key problems facing modern Russian society in terms of development of the market economy and increase of competitiveness in the world market, that is improvement of relationship between business structures and public authorities. Over the last two decades after transition of the country to the market model of economy, relations between the government and private sector have repeatedly changed that was promoted by changes of the political environment and members of the Russian ruling elite. The process of business start-up in post-Soviet Russia and redistributions of considerable part of the state property between private owners were accompanied by a great number of troubles, including criminalization of economy and tampering with government institutions. These problems were largely caused by absence of initial economic reforms in the country with the developed state policy concerning business.

  17. Galileo positioning technology

    CERN Document Server

    Lohan, Elena; Sand, Stephan; Hurskainen, Heikki

    2015-01-01

    This book covers multi-band Galileo receivers (especially E1-E5 bands of Galileo) and addresses all receiver building blocks, from the antenna and front end, through details of the baseband receiver processing blocks, up to the navigation processing, including the Galileo message structure and Position, Velocity, Time (PVT) computation. Moreover, hybridization solutions with communications systems for improved localization are discussed and an open-source GNSS receiver platform (available for download) developed at Tampere University of Technology (TUT) is addressed in detail. • Takes a holistic approach to GALILEO and related systems, such as EGNOS and hybrid solutions on mobile phones; • Provides an invaluable reference to Binary Offset Carrier modulations and related families, which are some of the trademarks of GALILEO; • Includes a detailed survey of GALILEO receiver research in Europe and existing software-defined radio (SDR) GALILEO receiver implementations; • Addresses the multiple challen...

  18. Material control and accounting at Exxon Nuclear, I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schneider, R.A.

    1985-01-01

    The nuclear material control and accounting system at Exxon Nuclear will be described in detail. Subjects discussed will include: the basis of the MC and A system, the nuclear materials accounting systems (NMRS and NICS), physical inventory taking, IAEA inspection experience, safeguards organization, measurements and measurement control, MUF evaluation, accounting forms and reports and use of tamper-indicating seals. The general requirements for material accounting and control in this type of a bulk-handling facility are described. The way those requirements are met for the subject areas shown above is illustrated using a reference (Model Plant) version of the Exxon Nuclear plant The difference between the item-accounting procedures used at reactor facilities and the bulk-accounting procedures used at fuel fabrication facilities is discussed in detail

  19. SULA 2 - Energy-efficient steel and metal production. Yearbook 1996; SULA 2 - Perusmetallien energiataloudellinen valmistus. Vuosikirja 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hakulin, H. [ed.

    1996-12-31

    The main objective of SULA 2 programme are (1) reduction of specific energy consumption, (2) reduction of harmful emissions and impact on the environment, (3) promoting technology export. Participants in the programme are the steel and base metal producers; Fundia wire, Imatra Steel Oy Ab, Outokumpu Oy and Rautaruukki Oy, as well as universities with laboratories for research on metal producing processes and their control such as Helsinki University of Technology, University of Oulu, Aabo Akademi and Tampere University of Technology. The programme consists of 32 research projects, of which 14 are applied technology. The total funding for 1995-1996 is 52,5 mill. FIM. Information on the research results is exchanged at the SULA-seminars arranged in 1994, 1996 and at the beginning of 1999. In connection with the seminars a yearbook will be published. The yearbook contains the reports of all the programme projects

  20. Plasma assisted measurements of alkali metal concentrations in pressurised combustion processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hernberg, R; Haeyrinen, V [Tampere Univ. of Technology (Finland)

    1997-10-01

    In this project the continuous alkali measurement method plasma excited alkali resonance line spectroscopy (PEARLS) was developed, tested and demonstrated in pressurised combustion facilities. The PEARLS method has been developed at Tampere University of Technology (TUT). During 1994-1996 the PEARLS method was developed from the laboratory level to an industrial prototype. The alkali measuring instrument has been tested and used for regular measurements in four different pressurised combustion installations ranging up to industrial pilot scale. The installations are: (1) a pressurised entrained flow reactor (PEFR) at VTT Energy in Jyvaeskylae, Finland (2) a pressurised fluidised bed combustion facility, called FRED, at DMT in Essen, Germany. (3) a 10 MW pressurised circulating fluidised bed combustion pilot plant at Foster Wheeler Energia Oy in Karhula, Finland (4) PFBC Research Facility at ABB Carbon in Finspaang, Sweden

  1. Fallen Astronaut: Violence Bodies and 'Moon Art'

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Bent

    race this reminder of the shared respect for the profession of space traveller and fellow soldier harks back to traditions from other wars where soldiers from the warring sides found a common ground and respect, before proceeding again to attempt to slaughter one another. Thus rather than a gesture...... of space exploration prior to 1971". This surprising message on a website called The Proceedings of the Athanasius Kircher Society captured my imagination in connection with the call for papers for the Tampere conference with its theme: American bodies, American violence. The art piece in question seems...... into consideration that the piece is not on public display itself and known to us exclusively through its mediated forms, to wit, a photo kept in NASA's archives and reproduced in various ways on web sites and in other mass media, and a replica of the sculpture found at the Space Museum in Houston, we are forced...

  2. An authenticated image encryption scheme based on chaotic maps and memory cellular automata

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakhshandeh, Atieh; Eslami, Ziba

    2013-06-01

    This paper introduces a new image encryption scheme based on chaotic maps, cellular automata and permutation-diffusion architecture. In the permutation phase, a piecewise linear chaotic map is utilized to confuse the plain-image and in the diffusion phase, we employ the Logistic map as well as a reversible memory cellular automata to obtain an efficient and secure cryptosystem. The proposed method admits advantages such as highly secure diffusion mechanism, computational efficiency and ease of implementation. A novel property of the proposed scheme is its authentication ability which can detect whether the image is tampered during the transmission or not. This is particularly important in applications where image data or part of it contains highly sensitive information. Results of various analyses manifest high security of this new method and its capability for practical image encryption.

  3. Safeguards summary event list (SSEL), January 1, 1990--December 31, 1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-07-01

    The Safeguards Summary Event List (SSEL), Vol. 2, Rev. 4, provides brief summaries of several hundred safeguards-related events involving nuclear material or facilities regulated by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) which occurred and were reported from January 1, 1990, rough December 31, 1995. Because of public interest, the Miscellaneous category includes a few events which involve either source material, byproduct material, or natural uranium which are exempt from safeguards requirements. Events are described under the categories of Bomb-related, Intrusion, Missing and/or Allegedly Stolen, Transportation-related, Tampering/Vandalism, Arson, Firearms, Radiological Sabotage, Nonradiological Sabotage, and Miscellaneous. The information contained in the event descriptions is derived primarily from official NRC reporting channels

  4. Safeguards Summary Event List (SSEL)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-07-01

    The Safeguards Summary Event List (SSEL) provides brief summaries of several hundred safeguards-related events involving nuclear material or facilities regulated by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). Because of public interest, the Miscellaneous category includes a few events which involve either source material, byproduct material, or natural uranium which are exempt from safeguards requirements. Events are described under the categories of bomb-related, intrusion, missing and/or allegedly stolen, transportation, tampering/vandalism, arson, firearms, radiological sabotage, nonradiological sabotage, pre-1990 alcohol and drugs (involving reactor operators, security force members, or management persons), and miscellaneous. The information contained in the event descriptions is derived primarily from official NRC reporting channels

  5. Long-term efficacy, safety and tolerability of Remoxy for the management of chronic pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pergolizzi, Joseph V; Zampogna, Gianpietro; Taylor, Robert; Raffa, Robert B

    2015-03-01

    Historically, chronic pain generally went under-treated for a variety of objective and subjective reasons, including difficulty to objectively diagnose and manage over a long period of time, potential serious adverse effects of commonly available medications, and patient, healthcare and societal concerns over opioid medications. More recently, in an effort to redress the under-treatment of pain, the number of prescriptions of opioid analgesics has risen dramatically. However, paralleling the increased legitimate use has been a concomitant increase in opioid abuse, misuse and diversion. Pharmaceutical companies have responded by developing a variety of opioid formulations designed to deter abuse by making the products more difficult to tamper with. One such product is Remoxy(®), an extended-release formulation of the strong opioid oxycodone. We review the efficacy, safety and tolerability of this formulation based on the available published literature.

  6. Hardware device binding and mutual authentication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamlet, Jason R; Pierson, Lyndon G

    2014-03-04

    Detection and deterrence of device tampering and subversion by substitution may be achieved by including a cryptographic unit within a computing device for binding multiple hardware devices and mutually authenticating the devices. The cryptographic unit includes a physically unclonable function ("PUF") circuit disposed in or on the hardware device, which generates a binding PUF value. The cryptographic unit uses the binding PUF value during an enrollment phase and subsequent authentication phases. During a subsequent authentication phase, the cryptographic unit uses the binding PUF values of the multiple hardware devices to generate a challenge to send to the other device, and to verify a challenge received from the other device to mutually authenticate the hardware devices.

  7. Hardware device to physical structure binding and authentication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamlet, Jason R.; Stein, David J.; Bauer, Todd M.

    2013-08-20

    Detection and deterrence of device tampering and subversion may be achieved by including a cryptographic fingerprint unit within a hardware device for authenticating a binding of the hardware device and a physical structure. The cryptographic fingerprint unit includes an internal physically unclonable function ("PUF") circuit disposed in or on the hardware device, which generate an internal PUF value. Binding logic is coupled to receive the internal PUF value, as well as an external PUF value associated with the physical structure, and generates a binding PUF value, which represents the binding of the hardware device and the physical structure. The cryptographic fingerprint unit also includes a cryptographic unit that uses the binding PUF value to allow a challenger to authenticate the binding.

  8. Authentication of an operator-provided containment and surveillance (C and S) system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watkins, L.M.; Rundquist, D.E.

    1987-01-01

    Large multicomponent Operator-provided C and S systems with computer control, such as the pioneering Japanese Fast Critical Assembly Portal Monitor (FCA P/M), can efficiently meet evolving IAEA C and S requirements but they present substantial challenges to the IAEA's need to authenticate the data produced. To authenticate such systems by traditional IAEA methods would require a prohibitive expenditure of resources to ensure that each individual component is provided with credible tamper indication and that the control and interpretation of the data is appropriate. Consequently, in parallel with the FCA P/M field trial currently underway in Japan, the IAEA has initiated a programme aimed at producing resource-efficient and credible authentication of the system. Although initially focused on the P/M system, the methods under consideration are applicable to other similar Operator-provided systems

  9. Dynamics of explosively imploded pressurized tubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szirti, Daniel; Loiseau, Jason; Higgins, Andrew; Tanguay, Vincent

    2011-04-01

    The detonation of an explosive layer surrounding a pressurized thin-walled tube causes the formation of a virtual piston that drives a precursor shock wave ahead of the detonation, generating very high temperatures and pressures in the gas contained within the tube. Such a device can be used as the driver for a high energy density shock tube or hypervelocity gas gun. The dynamics of the precursor shock wave were investigated for different tube sizes and initial fill pressures. Shock velocity and standoff distance were found to decrease with increasing fill pressure, mainly due to radial expansion of the tube. Adding a tamper can reduce this effect, but may increase jetting. A simple analytical model based on acoustic wave interactions was developed to calculate pump tube expansion and the resulting effect on the shock velocity and standoff distance. Results from this model agree quite well with experimental data.

  10. Safeguards Summary Event List (SSEL), January 1, 1990--December 31, 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yardumian, J.; Fadden, M.

    1992-07-01

    The Safeguards Summary Event List (SSEL), Vol. 2, provides brief summaries of several hundred safeguards-related events involving nuclear material or facilities regulated by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) which occurred and were reported from January 1, 1990 through December 31, 1991. Because of public interest, the Miscellaneous category includes a few events which involve either source material, byproduct material, or natural uranium which are exempt from safeguards requirements. Events are described under the categories of bomb-related, intrusion, missing and/or allegedly stolen, transportation, tampering/vandalism, arson, firearms, radiological sabotage, nonradiological sabotage, and miscellaneous. The information contained in the event descriptions is derived primarily from official NRC reporting channels

  11. An integrated video- and weight-monitoring system for the surveillance of highly enriched uranium blend down operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lenarduzzi, R.; Castleberry, K.; Whitaker, M.; Martinez, R.

    1998-01-01

    An integrated video-surveillance and weight-monitoring system has been designed and constructed for tracking the blending down of weapons-grade uranium by the US Department of Energy. The instrumentation is being used by the International Atomic Energy Agency in its task of tracking and verifying the blended material at the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant, Portsmouth, Ohio. The weight instrumentation developed at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory monitors and records the weight of cylinders of the highly enriched uranium as their contents are fed into the blending facility while the video equipment provided by Sandia National Laboratory records periodic and event triggered images of the blending area. A secure data network between the scales, cameras, and computers insures data integrity and eliminates the possibility of tampering. The details of the weight monitoring instrumentation, video- and weight-system interaction, and the secure data network is discussed

  12. Safeguards Summary Event List (SSEL), January 1, 1990--December 31, 1996, Vol. 2, Rev. 5

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-07-01

    The Safeguards Summary Event List (SSEL), Vol. 2, Rev. 5, provides brief summaries of several hundred safeguards-related events involving nuclear material or facilities regulated by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) which occurred and were reported from January 1, 1990, through December 31, 1996. Because of public interest, the Miscellaneous category includes a few events which involve either source material, byproduct material, or natural uranium which are exempt from safeguards requirements. Events are described under the categories of Bomb-related, Intrusion, Missing and/or Allegedly Stolen, Transportation-related, Tampering/Vandalism, Arson, Firearms, Radiological Sabotage, Nonradiological Sabotage, and Miscellaneous. The information contained in the event descriptions is derived primarily from official NRC reporting channels.

  13. 10th World Congress on Engineering Asset Management

    CERN Document Server

    Kortelainen, Helena; Aaltonen, Jussi; Uusitalo, Teuvo; Komonen, Kari; Mathew, Joseph; Laitinen, Jouko

    2016-01-01

    This book comprises refereed papers from the 10th World Congress on Engineering Asset Management (WCEAM 2015), held in Tampere, Finland in September 2015. These proceedings include a compilation of state-of-the-art papers covering a comprehensive range of subjects equally relevant to business managers and engineering professionals alike. With a focus on various aspects of engineering asset management ranging from strategic level issues to detail-level machine health issues, these papers address both industry and public sector concerns and issues, as well as advanced academic research. Proceedings of the WCEAM 2015 is an excellent reference and resource for asset management practitioners, researchers and academics, as well as undergraduate and postgraduate students at tertiary institutions or in the industry.

  14. Research on manufacturing service behavior modeling based on block chain theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Gang; Zhang, Guangli; Liu, Ming; Yu, Shuqin; Liu, Yali; Zhang, Xu

    2018-04-01

    According to the attribute characteristics of processing craft, the manufacturing service behavior is divided into service attribute, basic attribute, process attribute, resource attribute. The attribute information model of manufacturing service is established. The manufacturing service behavior information is successfully divided into public and private domain. Additionally, the block chain technology is introduced, and the information model of manufacturing service based on block chain principle is established, which solves the problem of sharing and secreting information of processing behavior, and ensures that data is not tampered with. Based on the key pairing verification relationship, the selective publishing mechanism for manufacturing information is established, achieving the traceability of product data, guarantying the quality of processing quality.

  15. Remaining stress-state and strain-energy in tempered glass fragments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jens Henrik

    2016-01-01

    to the fragmentation process and some authors e.g. Barsom (J Am Ceram Soc 51(2):75, 1968), Gulati (Glass processing days, Tamglass Engineering Oy, Tampere, 1997), Warren (Fractography of glasses and ceramics IV, Alfred University, Alfred, 2001) and Tandon and Glass (Fracture mechanics of ceramics—active materials......When tempered glass breaks, it shatters into relatively small pieces depending on the residual stress state in the glass. This has been known for centuries and is currently used in standards for classifying whether a piece of glass is tempered or not. However, the process of fragmentation...... is complex and only a few, relatively simple, models have been suggested for predicting the fragment size. The full theoretical explanation is still to be found and this work aims at providing another brick to the puzzle. The strain-energy present in tempered glass is obviously contributing...

  16. A confirmatory measurement technique for HEU [highly enriched uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sprinkle, J.K. Jr.; Goldman, A.; Russo, P.A.; Stovall, L.; Brumfield, T.L.; Gunn, C.S.; Watson, D.R.; Beedgen, R.

    1987-01-01

    Precise measurements of the special nuclear material (SNM) in an item can be used to confirm that the item has not been tampered with. These measurements do not require a highly accurate calibration, but they should be based on an attribute that is unique to the SNM. We describe an instrument that performs gamma-ray measurements at three energies: 185.7 keV, 1001 keV, and 2614 keV. This instrument collects data for 200 s from shipping containers (208-l barrels). These measurements help to distinguish the issue of material control - Has any material been diverted? - from the issue of measurement control - Is there a measurement bias?

  17. The many lives of SHH in limb development and evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez-Rios, Javier

    2016-01-01

    The SHH signaling pathway is essential for proper formation of the limb skeleton, as is required for the survival and expansion of distal chondrogenic progenitor cells. At the same time, SHH is important to specify digit identities along the anterior-posterior axis. Upon gain or loss of activity of the SHH pathway, bones are gained, lost or malformed, and such deregulation underlies the aetiology of various human congenital limb defects. Likewise, accumulating evidence suggests that evolutionary tampering with SHH signaling underlies the morphological diversification of the tetrapod appendicular skeleton. This review summarizes the roles of the SHH pathway in the context of limb development and evolution and incorporates recent evidence into a mechanistic view of how the positioning of digit condensations is integrated with the specification of distinct bone morphologies. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. A Data-origin Authentication Protocol Based on ONOS Cluster

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qin Hua

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper is aim to propose a data-origin authentication protocol based on ONOS cluster. ONOS is a SDN controller which can work under a distributed environment. However, the security of an ONOS cluster is seldom considered, and the communication in an ONOS cluster may suffer from lots of security threats. In this paper, we used a two-tier self-renewable hash chain for identity authentication and data-origin authentication. We analyse the security and overhead of our proposal and made a comparison with current security measure. It showed that with the help of our proposal, communication in an ONOS cluster could be protected from identity forging, replay attacks, data tampering, MITM attacks and repudiation, also the computational overhead would decrease apparently.

  19. Intentional cargo disruption by nefarious means: Examining threats, systemic vulnerabilities and securitisation measures in complex global supply chains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGreevy, Conor; Harrop, Wayne

    2015-01-01

    Global trade and commerce requires products to be securely contained and transferred in a timely way across great distances and between national boundaries. Throughout the process, cargo and containers are stored, handled and checked by a range of authorities and authorised agents. Intermodal transportation involves the use of container ships, planes, railway systems, land bridges, road networks and barges. This paper examines the the nefarious nature of intentional disruption and nefarious risks associated with the movement of cargo and container freight. The paper explores main threats, vulnerabilities and security measures relevant to significant intermodal transit risk issues such as theft, piracy, terrorism, contamination, counterfeiting and product tampering. Three risk and vulnerability models are examined and basic standards and regulations that are relevant to safe and secure transit of container goods across international supply networks are outlined.

  20. Protecting Digital Evidence Integrity by Using Smart Cards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saleem, Shahzad; Popov, Oliver

    RFC 3227 provides general guidelines for digital evidence collection and archiving, while the International Organization on Computer Evidence offers guidelines for best practice in the digital forensic examination. In the light of these guidelines we will analyze integrity protection mechanism provided by EnCase and FTK which is mainly based on Message Digest Codes (MDCs). MDCs for integrity protection are not tamper proof, hence they can be forged. With the proposed model for protecting digital evidence integrity by using smart cards (PIDESC) that establishes a secure platform for digitally signing the MDC (in general for a whole range of cryptographic services) in combination with Public Key Cryptography (PKC), one can show that this weakness might be overcome.

  1. Experimental Development of Dual Phase Steel Laser-arc Hybrid Welding and its Comparison to Laser and Gas Metal Arc Welding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wagner Duarte Antunes

    Full Text Available Abstract Dual phase DP600 steels have been used in many automobile structures and laser welding has been the standard method for the joining of different sections. This work proposed a comparison between laser welding with arc welding (GMAW and with hybrid laser-arc welding in order to access the microstructures and the mechanical behavior. The laser and hybrid welds are competitive in terms of microstructure and mechanical behavior, presenting both acceptable and tough welds. The maximum ductility of the laser and hybrid welds are very similar, around 14%, and near to the values observed in the base material. The GMAW presents low ductility due to the softening caused by tampering of the martensite, and thus is unacceptable as the welding procedure.

  2. Finns and energy policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoikka, P.; Kiljunen, P.

    1990-01-01

    A wide range of energy attitude studies was launched in the University of Tampere in 1983. The objective of the study is to find out the attitude of the Finns on different energy sources. Energy economy, safety, environmental effects, availability and realiability are the most important factors dealt with. The main conclusions of the study are: people are more anxious about the environmental effects, natural gas is the most popular and coal the less popular energy source, nuclear power has stabilized its approval at the 1988 level and people think, that savings is not the solution to the increasing energy demand in the future. 28% of the people want more nuclear power, 35% less and the rest are still thinking

  3. Feasibility study tool for semi-rigid joints design of high-rise buildings steel structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagautdinov, Ruslan; Monastireva, Daria; Bodak, Irina; Potapova, Irina

    2018-03-01

    There are many ways to consider the final cost of the high-rise building structures and to define, which of their different variations are the most effective from different points of view. The research of Jaakko Haapio is conducted in Tampere University of Technology, which aims to develop a method that allows determining the manufacturing and installation costs of steel structures already at the tender phase while taking into account their details. This paper is aimed to make the analysis of the Feature-Based Costing Method for skeletal steel structures proposed by Jaakko Haapio. The most appropriate ways to improve the tool and to implement it in the Russian circumstances for high-rise building design are derived. Presented tool can be useful not only for the designers but, also, for the steel structures manufacturing organizations, which can help to utilize BIM technologies in the organization process and controlling on the factory.

  4. Adaptive Secret Sharing for Color Images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jia-Hong Li

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available A secret sharing model can secure a secret over multiple noise-like shadows and remain recoverable despite multiple shadow failures. Even if some of the shadows are compromised, the secret will not be revealed as long as the number of the compromised shadows is smaller than a pre-determined threshold. Moreover, there are some necessary details of concerns: the malicious tampering on shadows must be detectable; the shadows must be concealed in a camouflage image with adequate quality to reduce suspicion and possible attack; color image properties must be considered. In addition to these concerns, in this paper, an adaptable mechanism is further designed to balance the hiding quantity and the quality of camouflage images depending on different applications.This is an important and interesting aspect that has never been discussed in previous research.

  5. Safeguards Summary Event List (SSEL), pre-NRC through December 31, 1989

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-07-01

    The Safeguards Summary Event List (SSEL), Vol. 1, provides brief summaries of several hundred safeguards-related events involving nuclear material or facilities regulated by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) which occurred and were reported from pre-NRC through December 31, 1989. Because of public interest, the Miscellaneous category includes a few events which involve either source material, byproduct material, or natural uranium which are exempt from safeguards requirements. Events are described under the categories of bomb-related, intrusion, missing and/or allegedly stolen, transportation, tampering/vandalism, arson, firearms, radiological sabotage, nonradiological sabotage, and miscellaneous. The information contained in the event descriptions is derived primarily from official NRC reporting channels

  6. THE ANALYSIS OF COUNTERFEITING FOOD PRODUCTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula - Angela VIDRASCU

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The issue addressed in this paper makes a significant contribution to research on the effects that food tampering has at the expense of consumer health. Nowadays quality and food safety that consumers are entitled directly reflects the quality of life. In other words the present subject is of particular importance to the work of the bodies created for the purpose of protecting the health and quality of life of consumers. This study has an important role both in the short and long term through proper understanding of the terms of quality, adulteration and food safety. The essential aim of this article is played understanding and easy identification of counterfeit food. Thus the awareness of counterfeit food products consumers are becoming more aware and responsible on quality of life. Quality will always be one of the most important competitive factors of ensuring health and environmental protection.

  7. Procedure for the assessment of material control and accounting systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maimoni, A.; Sacks, I.; Cleland, L.

    1978-01-01

    The current status of the LLL program for MC and A system assessment is reviewed. Particular emphasis is given to the assessment procedure and results. The integrated approach we have taken includes many of the functions normally assigned to physical security. Deceit and tampering are explicitly considered. The results of such a detailed assessment include a systematic identification of adversary targets; the most vulnerable portions of the safeguards system; the number and type of adversaries required, in collusion, to fail the system; and the conditional probabilities of safeguard system failure for a variety of assumptions. The assessment procedure was demonstrated by analyzing a prototype fuel cycle facility, the Test Bed. We believe our methodology will be useful to the NRC as a means of performing detailed, objective assessments. The nuclear industry also should find it valuable as a design tool

  8. Validating User Flows to Protect Software Defined Network Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ihsan H. Abdulqadder

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Software Defined Network is a promising network paradigm which has led to several security threats in SDN applications that involve user flows, switches, and controllers in the network. Threats as spoofing, tampering, information disclosure, Denial of Service, flow table overloading, and so on have been addressed by many researchers. In this paper, we present novel SDN design to solve three security threats: flow table overloading is solved by constructing a star topology-based architecture, unsupervised hashing method mitigates link spoofing attack, and fuzzy classifier combined with L1-ELM running on a neural network for isolating anomaly packets from normal packets. For effective flow migration Discrete-Time Finite-State Markov Chain model is applied. Extensive simulations using OMNeT++ demonstrate the performance of our proposed approach, which is better at preserving holding time than are other state-of-the-art works from the literature.

  9. Secure and Efficient Reactive Video Surveillance for Patient Monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    An Braeken

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Video surveillance is widely deployed for many kinds of monitoring applications in healthcare and assisted living systems. Security and privacy are two promising factors that align the quality and validity of video surveillance systems with the caliber of patient monitoring applications. In this paper, we propose a symmetric key-based security framework for the reactive video surveillance of patients based on the inputs coming from data measured by a wireless body area network attached to the human body. Only authenticated patients are able to activate the video cameras, whereas the patient and authorized people can consult the video data. User and location privacy are at each moment guaranteed for the patient. A tradeoff between security and quality of service is defined in order to ensure that the surveillance system gets activated even in emergency situations. In addition, the solution includes resistance against tampering with the device on the patient’s side.

  10. Postural stability and quality of life after guided and self-training among older adults residing in an institutional setting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tuunainen E

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Eeva Tuunainen,1 Jyrki Rasku,1 Pirkko Jäntti,2 Päivi Moisio-Vilenius,3 Erja Mäkinen,3 Esko Toppila,4 Ilmari Pyykkö1 1Department of Otolaryngology, Section of Hearing and Balance Research Unit, University of Tampere and University Hospital of Tampere, Finland; 2Department of Geriatric Medicine, Hatanpää City Hospital, Tampere, Finland; 3Koukkuniemi Residential Home, Tampere, Finland; 4Finnish Institute of Occupational Health, Helsinki, Finland Purpose: To evaluate whether rehabilitation of muscle force or balance improves postural stability and quality of life (QoL, and whether self-administered training is comparable with guided training among older adults residing in an institutional setting. Patients and methods: A randomized, prospective intervention study was undertaken among 55 elderly patients. Three intervention groups were evaluated: a muscle force training group; a balance and muscle force training group; and a self-administered training group. Each group underwent 1-hour-long training sessions, twice a week, for 3 months. Postural stability was measured at onset, after 3 months, and after 6 months. Time-domain-dependent body sway variables were calculated. The fall rate was evaluated for 3 years. General health related quality of life (HRQoL was measured with a 15D instrument. Postural stability was used as a primary outcome, with QoL and falls used as secondary outcomes. Results: Muscle force trainees were able to undertake training, progressing towards more strenuous exercises. In posturography, the number of spiky oscillations was reduced after training, and stationary fields of torque moments of the ankle increased, providing better postural stability in all groups; in particular, the zero crossing rate of weight signal and the number of low variability episodes in the stabilogram were improved after training. While no difference was found between different training groups in posturography outcomes, a reduction of fall rate

  11. Kunstisuvi 2008, esimene osa / Andri Ksenofontov

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Ksenofontov, Andri, 1962-

    2008-01-01

    Eesti Maalikunstnike Liidu aastanäitused: Mara Koppel-Ljutjuki ja Toomas Tõnissoo kureeritud "Perfektne ring" ArtDepoo galeriis, Tiiu Talvistu ja Mare Joonsalu kureeritud "Äratus" Rotermanni soolalaos. Mart Lepa ja Rene Kuulmanni kogudest avatud näitus "Kirg ja valu" Tartu Kunstimuuseumis. Ilmar Kruusamäe näitus "30 aastat hiljem" Tampere majas. Tartu Ülikooli maaliosakonna lõputööde väljapanekud Tartu Kunstimaja monumentaalgaleriis (Eda Lõhmus), Athena keskuses (Natali Pahapill) ja Tartu Kunstimuuseumis (Maria Ader, Riho Pärn, Katrin Paomets). Vaal-galerii korraldatud rändnäitus "Sinimustvalge eesti kunstis" Tartu Kunstimajas. Ernö Kochi näitus Haus galeriis. Maret Olveti näitus Vabaduse ja SEBi galeriis. Vive Tolli juubelinäitused Tallinna Kunstihoone galeriis ja Eesti Lastekirjanduse Keskuses

  12. A Targeted Attack For Enhancing Resiliency of Intelligent Intrusion Detection Modules in Energy Cyber Physical Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Youssef, Tarek [Florida Intl Univ., Miami, FL (United States); El Hariri, Mohammad [Florida Intl Univ., Miami, FL (United States); Habib, Hani [Florida Intl Univ., Miami, FL (United States); Mohammed, Osama [Florida Intl Univ., Miami, FL (United States); Harmon, E [Florida Intl Univ., Miami, FL (United States)

    2017-02-28

    Abstract— Secure high-speed communication is required to ensure proper operation of complex power grid systems and prevent malicious tampering activities. In this paper, artificial neural networks with temporal dependency are introduced for false data identification and mitigation for broadcasted IEC 61850 SMV messages. The fast responses of such intelligent modules in intrusion detection make them suitable for time- critical applications, such as protection. However, care must be taken in selecting the appropriate intelligence model and decision criteria. As such, this paper presents a customizable malware script to sniff and manipulate SMV messages and demonstrates the ability of the malware to trigger false positives in the neural network’s response. The malware developed is intended to be as a vaccine to harden the intrusion detection system against data manipulation attacks by enhancing the neural network’s ability to learn and adapt to these attacks.

  13. Banknote security using a biometric-like technique: a hylemetric approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schirripa Spagnolo, Giuseppe; Cozzella, Lorenzo; Simonetti, Carla

    2010-05-01

    Banknote security is an issue that has led in the last decades to insert, inside the banknote itself, a very high number of controlling methods with the aim of verifying possible tampering attempts. In order to distinguish the false banknotes, sophisticated means (i.e. watermark, feel of the paper, raised print, metallic threads, quality of the printing, holograms, ultraviolet features, micro-lettering, etc) are often used. The purpose of this paper is to show a new approach and related method to protect banknotes and to verify their originality, based on the idea of hylemetry (methodology conceptually similar to biometry) applied to banknotes. Specifically, the hylemetric feature used in this paper is the random distribution pattern of the metallic security fibers set into the paper pulp. The outcome of the proposed solution is to identify an original banknote using a binary sequence derived from the banknote itself.

  14. New flexible origination technology based on electron-beam lithography and its integration into security devices in combination with covert features based on DNA authentication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drinkwater, John K.; Ryzi, Zbynek; Outwater, Chris S.

    2002-04-01

    Embossed diffractive optically variable devices are becoming increasingly familiar security items on plastic cards, banknotes, security documents and on branded goods and media to protect against counterfeit, protect copyright and to evidence tamper. Equally as this devices become both more widely available there is a pressing requirement for security technology upgrades to keep ahead of technology advances available to potential counterfeiters. This paper describes a new generation electron beam DOVID origination technology particularly suitable for high security applications. Covert marking of security devices is provided using the DNA matrix by creating and verifying unique DNA sequences. This integration of this into practical security features in combination with covert features based on DNA matrix authentication and other more straightforwardly authenticable features to provide multi- technology security solutions will be described.

  15. English Lecturer’s Attitude Toward English Variety In English Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahma Yanti

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available This research investigates English lecturers’ attitude toward the variation of English in the process of English learning. The purpose of this study is to discuss the types of English variations uttered by English lecturers who are considered as respondents in this study and their attitudes toward the variations of language that appear to their own speech during the teaching-learning process. This research is descriptive by using qualitative approach. The data to be presented in this research is taken from several words of Indonesian lecturers at several universities in Padang West Sumatra by distributing some questionnaires and also interviews. The method of data analysis is divided into two types, first, methods which related to the correlation of external language objects with a non-linguistic element called correlation method or method of matching, and secondly, methods which related to surgical, processing or internal verbal tampering called the method of operation or distribution method.

  16. Estimation of gastric emptying time (GET) in clownfish (Amphiprion ocellaris) using X-radiography technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ling, Khoo Mei; Ghaffar, Mazlan Abd. [School of Environmental and Natural Resource Sciences, Faculty of Science and Technology, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600 Bangi, Selangor (Malaysia)

    2014-09-03

    This study examines the movement of food item and the estimation of gastric emptying time using the X-radiography techniques, in the clownfish (Amphiprion ocellaris) fed in captivity. Fishes were voluntarily fed to satiation after being deprived of food for 72 hours, using pellets that were tampered with barium sulphate (BaSO{sub 4}). The movement of food item was monitored over different time of feeding. As a result, a total of 36 hours were needed for the food items to be evacuated completely from the stomach. Results on the modeling of meal satiation were also discussed. The size of satiation meal to body weight relationship was allometric, with the power value equal to 1.28.

  17. Soap-stone in architecture of North European cities. A nomination as a candidate for a Global Heritage Stones Resource

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulakh, Andrey

    2016-04-01

    Soap stone represents soft Proterozoic rock type from the deposit Nunnalahti situated on the western shore of the big Lake Pielinen in Eastern Finland. It consists of talc (40 - 50 %), magnesite MgCO3 (40 - 50 %), chlorite (5 - 8 %), dolomite, calcite, etc. The colour of the stone is very spectacular and varies from yellow and brownish-yellow to grey, greenish grey. The soft stone is a highly workable material for a sculptor's chisel. It was one of the most popular ornamental rocks used architecture of the Modern style in St Petersburg, Helsinki, Turku, Tampere and other North European cities lately in the XIX-th centuries. Examples are given and discussed. References: Bulakh, A.G., Abakumova, N.B., and Romanovsky, J.V. St Petersburg: a History in Stone. 2010. Print House of St Petersburg State University. 173 p. (In English).

  18. The remote monitoring systems LOVER and RECOVER for international safeguards technical, economic and legal aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lauppe, W.D.; Stein, G.; Rezniczek, A.; Stienen, U.

    1983-12-01

    The electronic remote monitoring systems RECOVER and LOVER were developed to comply with the IAEA's tasks concerning international nuclear materials safeguards with the aim of reducing the inspection expenditure and enhancing control effectiveness. The present study on the technical, economic and legal aspects of an application of these systems is intended to show possible implications and provide argumentation aids for discussions on the application of these systems. RECOVER and LOVER offer the possibility of establishing a direct communication path between containment and surveillance system (c/s), instruments at the site of application and a central monitoring station. The demonstration versions of both systems have shown that remote interrogation of data under safeguards-specific boundary conditions (e.g. requirement of tamper safety) will be technically feasible. (orig./HP)

  19. Secure passive RFID tag with seal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nekoogar, Faranak; Reynolds, Matthew; Lefton, Scott; Dowla, Farid; Twogood, Richard

    2017-11-14

    A secure passive RFID tag system comprises at least one base station and at least one passive RFID tag. The tag includes a fiber optic cable with the cable ends sealed within the tag and the middle portion forming an external loop. The loop may be secured to at least portions of an object. The tag transmits and receives an optical signal through the fiber optic cable, and the cable is configured to be damaged or broken in response to removal or tampering attempts, wherein the optical signal is significantly altered if the cable is damaged or broken. The tag transmits the optical signal in response to receiving a radio signal from the base station and compares the transmitted optical signal to the received optical signal. If the transmitted optical signal and the received optical signal are identical, the tag transmits an affirmative radio signal to the base station.

  20. Improving tag/seal technologies: the vulnerability assessment component

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, J.L.

    1996-01-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE), specifically the Office of Nonproliferation and National Security, has sponsored the development of numerous tag and seal technologies for high-security/high-valued applications. One important component in this technology development effort has been the continuous integration of vulnerability assessments. The Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) has been the lead laboratory for vulnerability assessments of fiber-optic-based tag/seal technologies. This paper presents a brief historical overview and the current status of the DOE high-security tag/seal development program and discusses INEL's adversarial role and assessment philosophy. Verification testing criteria used to define ''successful'' tampering attempts/attacks are discussed. Finally, the advantages of integrating a vulnerability assessment into the development of commercial security tag/seals are presented

  1. Safeguards summary event list (SSEL), January 1, 1990--December 31, 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-07-01

    The Safeguards Summary Event List (SSEL), Vol. 2, Rev. 4, provides brief summaries of several hundred safeguards-related events involving nuclear material or facilities regulated by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) which occurred and were reported from January 1, 1990, rough December 31, 1995. Because of public interest, the Miscellaneous category includes a few events which involve either source material, byproduct material, or natural uranium which are exempt from safeguards requirements. Events are described under the categories of Bomb-related, Intrusion, Missing and/or Allegedly Stolen, Transportation-related, Tampering/Vandalism, Arson, Firearms, Radiological Sabotage, Nonradiological Sabotage, and Miscellaneous. The information contained in the event descriptions is derived primarily from official NRC reporting channels.

  2. TID Environmental Performance Testing In Support of the Mayak Fissile Material Storage Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanner, Jennifer E.; Undem, Halvor A.; Roberts, Bruce A.; Griggs, James R.; Pratt, Sharon L.; Smith, Matthew H.

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of the test and evaluation of tamper indicating devices (TIDs) described in this report is to assure that the recommended TID technologies are acceptable for use at the Mayak FMSF. TID acceptance is based on TID performance with respect to mutually agreed functional, operational, and security requirements for the FMSF, taking into account both the United States and the Russian Federation views. Although some Russian views have been documented, very little information at the level required for formal test planning had been received prior to the start of the testing campaign. Consequently, this report currently represents US recommendations for an arms control and/or safeguards and security application. Acceptance of these test results and recommendations by those Russian Federation entities responsible for the Mayak FMSF will be required before implementing any TID regime at Mayak FMSF

  3. THE BIGGS AND MOORE MODEL IN E-LEARNING: The Role of Motivation and Collaboration as Moderators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matti J. HAVERILA

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to report the findings of a research conducted to evaluate the effect of e-learning experience on students’ perceived learning outcomes, and more specifically the role of motivation and collaboration as moderators between the e-learning experience and the learning outcome. The perceived learning outcome was measured with whether the students perceived to learn more in e-learning vis-à-vis traditional learning context. The participants came from an undergraduate course at Tamk University of Applied Sciences in Tampere, Finland. The Biggs and Moore learning model indicates that the process variables (motivation and collaboration in this study have a mediating role. It was found out in this study, however, that these process variables have a moderating role rather than mediating role. Specific recommendations for the practitioners are provided, and implications for educators are discussed. Finally suggestions for further research on e-learning are provided.

  4. Privacy and Security in Mobile Health (mHealth) Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arora, Shifali; Yttri, Jennifer; Nilse, Wendy

    2014-01-01

    Research on the use of mobile technologies for alcohol use problems is a developing field. Rapid technological advances in mobile health (or mHealth) research generate both opportunities and challenges, including how to create scalable systems capable of collecting unprecedented amounts of data and conducting interventions-some in real time-while at the same time protecting the privacy and safety of research participants. Although the research literature in this area is sparse, lessons can be borrowed from other communities, such as cybersecurity or Internet security, which offer many techniques to reduce the potential risk of data breaches or tampering in mHealth. More research into measures to minimize risk to privacy and security effectively in mHealth is needed. Even so, progress in mHealth research should not stop while the field waits for perfect solutions.

  5. Feasibility study tool for semi-rigid joints design of high-rise buildings steel structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bagautdinov Ruslan

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available There are many ways to consider the final cost of the high-rise building structures and to define, which of their different variations are the most effective from different points of view. The research of Jaakko Haapio is conducted in Tampere University of Technology, which aims to develop a method that allows determining the manufacturing and installation costs of steel structures already at the tender phase while taking into account their details. This paper is aimed to make the analysis of the Feature-Based Costing Method for skeletal steel structures proposed by Jaakko Haapio. The most appropriate ways to improve the tool and to implement it in the Russian circumstances for high-rise building design are derived. Presented tool can be useful not only for the designers but, also, for the steel structures manufacturing organizations, which can help to utilize BIM technologies in the organization process and controlling on the factory.

  6. The Mailbox Computer System for the IAEA verification experiment on HEU downblending at the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aronson, A.L.; Gordon, D.M.

    2000-01-01

    IN APRIL 1996, THE UNITED STATES (US) ADDED THE PORTSMOUTH GASEOUS DIFFUSION PLANT TO THE LIST OF FACILITIES ELIGIBLE FOR THE APPLICATION OF INTERNATIONAL ATOMIC ENERGY AGENCY (IAEA) SAFEGUARDS. AT THAT TIME, THE US PROPOSED THAT THE IAEA CARRY OUT A ''VERIFICATION EXPERIMENT'' AT THE PLANT WITH RESPECT TO DOOWNBLENDING OF ABOUT 13 METRIC TONS OF HIGHLY ENRICHED URANIUM (HEU) IN THE FORM OF URANIUM HEXAFLUROIDE (UF6). DURING THE PERIOD DECEMBER 1997 THROUGH JULY 1998, THE IAEA CARRIED OUT THE REQUESTED VERIFICATION EXPERIMENT. THE VERIFICATION APPROACH USED FOR THIS EXPERIMENT INCLUDED, AMONG OTHER MEASURES, THE ENTRY OF PROCESS-OPERATIONAL DATA BY THE FACILITY OPERATOR ON A NEAR-REAL-TIME BASIS INTO A ''MAILBOX'' COMPUTER LOCATED WITHIN A TAMPER-INDICATING ENCLOSURE SEALED BY THE IAEA

  7. Recent trends and future of pharmaceutical packaging technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zadbuke, Nityanand; Shahi, Sadhana; Gulecha, Bhushan; Padalkar, Abhay; Thube, Mahesh

    2013-01-01

    The pharmaceutical packaging market is constantly advancing and has experienced annual growth of at least five percent per annum in the past few years. The market is now reckoned to be worth over $20 billion a year. As with most other packaged goods, pharmaceuticals need reliable and speedy packaging solutions that deliver a combination of product protection, quality, tamper evidence, patient comfort and security needs. Constant innovations in the pharmaceuticals themselves such as, blow fill seal (BFS) vials, anti-counterfeit measures, plasma impulse chemical vapor deposition (PICVD) coating technology, snap off ampoules, unit dose vials, two-in-one prefilled vial design, prefilled syringes and child-resistant packs have a direct impact on the packaging. The review details several of the recent pharmaceutical packaging trends that are impacting packaging industry, and offers some predictions for the future. PMID:23833515

  8. Gasification of peat and biomass in suspension flow 2; Turpeen ja biomassan suspensiokaasutus 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurkela, E.; Hepola, J. [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland); Haukka, P.; Raiko, R. [Helsinki Univ. of Technology, Otaniemi (Finland). Lab. of Thermal Engineering

    1995-11-01

    This project is an extension of the earlier Liekki-project 402, which was carried out in 1993-1994 in the Department of Thermal Engineering of Tampere University of Technology (TUT). In the previous project the feasibility of a two-stage entrained-flow gasification was studied by the means of process modeling and pyrolysis experiments. The present project carried out in cooperation with the Gasification Research Group of VTT and TUT. The aims of the project are: (a) to study the formation of blematic tar/soot compounds and nitrogen compounds in the conditions entrained flow gasification of biomass and peat, (b) to study the product yields and kinetics of pyrolysis and (c) to develop simulation methods for entrained flow pyrolysis and gasification. (author)

  9. Untangling complex networks: Risk minimization in financial markets through accessible spin glass ground states

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lisewski, Andreas Martin; Lichtarge, Olivier

    2010-08-01

    Recurrent international financial crises inflict significant damage to societies and stress the need for mechanisms or strategies to control risk and tamper market uncertainties. Unfortunately, the complex network of market interactions often confounds rational approaches to optimize financial risks. Here we show that investors can overcome this complexity and globally minimize risk in portfolio models for any given expected return, provided the margin requirement remains below a critical, empirically measurable value. In practice, for markets with centrally regulated margin requirements, a rational stabilization strategy would be keeping margins small enough. This result follows from ground states of the random field spin glass Ising model that can be calculated exactly through convex optimization when relative spin coupling is limited by the norm of the network’s Laplacian matrix. In that regime, this novel approach is robust to noise in empirical data and may be also broadly relevant to complex networks with frustrated interactions that are studied throughout scientific fields.

  10. AN EFFICIENT ROBUST IMAGE WATERMARKING BASED ON AC PREDICTION TECHNIQUE USING DCT TECHNIQUE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaurav Gupta

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The expansion of technology has made several simple ways to manipulate the original content. This has brought the concern for security of the content which is easily available in open network. Digital watermarking is the most suitable solution for the defined issue. Digital watermarking is the art of inserting the logo into multimedia object to have proof of ownership whenever it is required. The proposed algorithm is useful in authorized distribution and ownership verification. The algorithm uses the concept of AC prediction using DCT to embed the watermark in the image. The algorithm has excellent robustness against all the attacks and outperforms the similar work with admirable performance in terms of Normalized Correlation (NC, Peak Signal to Noise Ratio (PSNR and Tamper Assessment Function (TAF.

  11. Problem of routine photofluorography of the lungs of patients and medical personnel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lehtinen, E; Pakkanen, J; Geiger, U [Zentralkrankenhaus, Tampere (Finland). Roentgendiagnostische Abteilung

    1978-02-01

    In the years 1974 and 1975 4,248 staff members of the hospital and 12,880 patients have been examined by photofluorography of the Central Hospital in Tampere. At the time of the examination no actual pulmonary or cardiac diseases were known to these patients. Among the staff two new cases of active pulmonary tuberculosis were found. Among the patients seven cases of reactivated pulmonary tuberculosis were found. Altogether there were 17 remarkable radiological results leading to treatment or follow-up examinations. A malignant pulmonary tumour was not found. The low number of positive results is not in a reasonable relation to the radiation risk; thus routine photofluorography is not indicated. Serial examinations of the staff should be continued. These examinations, however, should be made with large-size pictures, so that the radiation dose is reduced to about 20%.

  12. Method of monitoring the identity and integrity of an object, particularly a closed container

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crutzen, S.; Franzetti, G.A.; Battagin, G.P.

    1983-01-01

    The invention consists of a method of ultrasonically scanning the walls of a sealed container to determine if the walls were breached and also to identify the container by a distinct signal. This was done by constructing a lid of a matrix material having inclusions embedded in a random pattern. These inclusions may be tungsten particles and at least one piezoelectric transducer capable of transmitting ultrasonic signals through the structure which can identify it distinctly and determine that the container was not tampered with. Variations on the invention include chamfered junctions between the walls capable of reflecting the ultrasonic signal throughout the structure and more than one transducer to perform the signal-sending functions. The invention can also be adopted for remote handling methods for inaccesible locations

  13. The role of optics in secure credentials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lichtenstein, Terri L.

    2006-02-01

    The global need for secure ID credentials has grown rapidly over the last few years. This is evident both in government and commercial sectors. Governmental programs include national ID card programs, permanent resident cards for noncitizens, biometric visas or border crossing cards, foreign worker ID programs and secure vehicle registration programs. The commercial need for secure credentials includes secure banking and financial services, security and access control systems and digital healthcare record cards. All of these programs necessitate the use of multiple tamper and counterfeit resistant features for credential authentication and cardholder verification. It is generally accepted that a secure credential should include a combination of overt, covert and forensic security features. The LaserCard optical memory card is a proven example of a secure credential that uses a variety of optical features to enhance its counterfeit resistance and reliability. This paper will review those features and how they interact to create a better credential.

  14. Revolutions and shifting paradigms in human factors & ergonomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boff, Kenneth R

    2006-07-01

    The "Revolution in Information Technology" has spawned a series of transformational revolutions in the nature and practice of human factors and ergonomics (HFE). "Generation 1" HFE evolved with a focus on adapting equipment, workplace and tasks to human capabilities and limitations. Generation 2, focused on cognitive systems integration, arose in response to the need to manage automation and dynamic function allocation. Generation 3 is focused on symbiotic technologies that can amplify human physical and cognitive capabilities. Generation 4 is emergent and is focused on biological enhancement of physical or cognitive capabilities. The shift from HFE Generations 1 and 2 to Generations 3 and 4 profoundly alters accepted boundary constraints on the adaptability of humans in complex systems design. Furthermore, it has opened an ethical divide between those that see cognitive and physical enhancement as a great benefit to society and those who perceive this as tampering with the fundamentals of human nature.

  15. Lessons learned about the information activities related to local hearings in Finland, based on a university study, and the latest opinion survey results from autumn 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruuskanen, Antti [Communications, Imatran Voima Oy (Finland)

    1993-07-01

    This paper considers the results of two studies by the University of Tampere, financed by power companies (IVO, TVO and PEVO) in Finland. The first one deals with information events arranged during the application process for the fifth nuclear power plant unit. The results demonstrate both the validity of some well-known information theories and the power of local media compared to booklets issued by power companies. The second study reported is the newest part of a longitudinal energy attitude survey. The results found may hold true even in other countries, due to the general symbolic values related to energy questions. Perhaps the most amazing result is the stability of attitudes. Other findings are discussed and evaluated, too. (author)

  16. Lessons learned about the information activities related to local hearings in Finland, based on a university study, and the latest opinion survey results from autumn 1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruuskanen, Antti

    1993-01-01

    This paper considers the results of two studies by the University of Tampere, financed by power companies (IVO, TVO and PEVO) in Finland. The first one deals with information events arranged during the application process for the fifth nuclear power plant unit. The results demonstrate both the validity of some well-known information theories and the power of local media compared to booklets issued by power companies. The second study reported is the newest part of a longitudinal energy attitude survey. The results found may hold true even in other countries, due to the general symbolic values related to energy questions. Perhaps the most amazing result is the stability of attitudes. Other findings are discussed and evaluated, too. (author)

  17. University Students Seeking Hormonal Emergency Contraception: Why Do They Not Want Pregnancy Now? When is it Suitable to Have Children?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aira Virtala

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available University students who sought hormonal emergency contraception (EC in the Tampere Student Health Station during the period 1.9.2000-31.12.2001 received a questionnaire on their use of it. Of the total, 114 responded (67%. The aim of this study was to ascertain why the respondents did not want to get pregnant now and when it would be suitable for them to get children. Free answers to these questions were analysed using a collective consensus method. The main reasons for not wanting pregnancy now were un? nished studies and the non-steady character of the relationship. Almost all planned to become pregnant some day in the future when their life situation was appropriate, usually at the age of about 30 years.

  18. Managing severe pain and abuse potential: the potential impact of a new abuse-deterrent formulation oxycodone/naltrexone extended-release product

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pergolizzi, J

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Joseph V Pergolizzi, Jr,1 Robert Taylor Jr,1 Jo Ann LeQuang,1 Robert B Raffa2,3 On behalf of the NEMA Research Group 1NEMA Research Inc., Naples, FL, USA; 2University of Arizona College of Pharmacy, Tucson, AZ, USA; 3Temple University School of Pharmacy, Philadelphia, PA, USA Abstract: Proper management of severe pain represents one of the most challenging clinical dilemmas. Two equally important goals must be attained: the humanitarian/medical goal to relieve suffering and the societal/legal goal to not contribute to the drug abuse problem. This is an age-old problem, and the prevailing emphasis placed on one or the other goal has resulted in pendulum swings that have resulted in either undertreatment of pain or the current epidemic of misuse and abuse. In an effort to provide efficacious strong pain relievers (opioids that are more difficult to abuse by the most dangerous routes of administration, pharmaceutical companies are developing products in which the opioid is manufactured in a formulation that is designed to be tamper resistant. Such a product is known as an abuse-deterrent formulation (ADF. ADF opioid products are designed to deter or resist abuse by making it difficult to tamper with the product and extracting the opioid for inhalation or injection. To date, less than a dozen opioid formulations have been approved by the US Food and Drug Administration to carry specific ADF labeling, but this number will likely increase in the coming years. Most of these products are extended-release formulations. Keywords: oxycodone/naltrexone, abuse-deterrent formulation, abuse-deterrent opioid, oxycodone, abuse liability

  19. Ensuring safe access to medication for palliative care while preventing prescription drug abuse: innovations for American inner cities, rural areas, and communities overwhelmed by addiction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francoeur RB

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Richard B FrancoeurSchool of Social Work, Adelphi University, Garden City, NY, USA; Center for the Psychosocial Study of Health and Illness, Columbia University, New York, NY, USAAbstract: This article proposes and develops novel components of community-oriented programs for creating and affording access to safe medication dispensing centers in existing retail pharmacies and in permanent or travelling pharmacy clinics that are guarded by assigned or off-duty police officers. Pharmacists at these centers would work with police, medical providers, social workers, hospital administrators, and other professionals in: planning and overseeing the safe storage of controlled substance medications in off-site community safe-deposit boxes; strengthening communication and cooperation with the prescribing medical provider; assisting the prescribing medical provider in patient monitoring (checking the state prescription registry, providing pill counts and urine samples; expanding access to lower-cost, and in some cases, abuse-resistant formulations of controlled substance medications; improving transportation access for underserved patients and caregivers to obtain prescriptions; and integrating community agencies and social networks as resources for patient support and monitoring. Novel components of two related community-oriented programs, which may be hosted outside of safe medication dispensing centers, are also suggested and described: (1 developing medication purchasing cooperatives (ie, to help patients, families, and health institutions afford the costs of medications, including tamper- or abuse-resistant/deterrent drug formulations; and (2 expanding the role of inner-city methadone maintenance treatment programs in palliative care (ie, to provide additional patient monitoring from a second treatment team focusing on narcotics addiction, and potentially, to serve as an untapped source of opioid medication for pain that is less subject to abuse

  20. Use of Specialized Security Techniques to Enhance the Authenticity of Surveillance Data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rocchi, S.; Simlinger, R.; Moeslinger, M.; Murray, J.; Hadfi, G.; John, M.

    2015-01-01

    In 2013, the IAEA started testing a commercial application-specific integrated circuit (ASIC) from LiveWire technology for its ability to monitor changes in wiring systems in real time. This technology is useful in specific situations where digital video signal authentication cannot be used due to analog cameras used in high radiation level (e.g., hot cells, reading spent fuel identification numbers), dimensional requirements, or when an analog signal has to be shared with a facility's built-in camera. The LiveWire ASIC can be used for tamper indication with resulting cost savings by eliminating the need for specifically manufactured tamper indicating conduits. This technology can also be integrated within the Next Generation Surveillance System (NGSS) camera module, coupled with the upcoming implementation of the analogue video input, for the protection of analog video signals provided by an external camera head. Digital camera identification based on sensor pattern noise analysis is another technique under investigation at the IAEA. Sensor pattern noise is unique to a device and can be used as a distinct identification ''fingerprint''. This technique is increasingly being employed for camera identification and in-image authentication & video forensics by commercial software suites. Interest in this technique for use in safeguards applications is justified by the need to own specific forensic tools and the requirement to verify the authenticity of surveillance streams acquired in analog video input configurations where the camera head is external to the NGSS camera module). Preliminary tests have been performed on surveillance data acquired by NGSS cameras and post-processed with commercial forensic software. The promising results obtained encourage further development efforts and tests to be conducted to fully assess the potential capabilities this technology offers. This paper will focus on these two applications recently addressed by

  1. Regarding Reality: Some Consequences of Two Incapacities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edelman, Shimon

    2011-01-01

    By what empirical means can a person determine whether he or she is presently awake or dreaming? Any conceivable test addressing this question, which is a special case of the classical metaphysical doubting of reality, must be statistical (for the same reason that empirical science is, as noted by Hume). Subjecting the experienced reality to any kind of statistical test (for instance, a test for bizarreness) requires, however, that a set of baseline measurements be available. In a dream, or in a simulation, any such baseline data would be vulnerable to tampering by the same processes that give rise to the experienced reality, making the outcome of a reality test impossible to trust. Moreover, standard cryptographic defenses against such tampering cannot be relied upon, because of the potentially unlimited reach of reality modification within a dream, which may range from the integrity of the verification keys to the declared outcome of the entire process. In the face of this double predicament, the rational course of action is to take reality at face value. The predicament also has some intriguing corollaries. In particular, even the most revealing insight that a person may gain into the ultimate nature of reality (for instance, by attaining enlightenment in the Buddhist sense) is ultimately unreliable, for the reasons just mentioned. At the same time, to adhere to this principle, one has to be aware of it, which may not be possible in various states of reduced or altered cognitive function such as dreaming or religious experience. Thus, a subjectively enlightened person may still lack the one truly important piece of the puzzle concerning his or her existence. PMID:21716920

  2. Experiences with SCRAMx alcohol monitoring technology in 100 alcohol treatment outpatients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alessi, Sheila M; Barnett, Nancy P; Petry, Nancy M

    2017-09-01

    Transdermal alcohol monitoring technology allows for new research on alcohol use disorders. This study assessed feasibility, acceptability, and adherence with this technology in the context of two clinical research trials. Participants were the first 100 community-based alcohol treatment outpatients enrolled in randomized studies that monitored drinking with the secure continuous remote alcohol monitor (SCRAMx ® ) for 12 weeks. Study 1 participants were randomized to usual care (n=36) or usual care with contingency management incentives for treatment attendance (CM-Att; n=30). Study 2 participants were randomized to usual care (n=17) or usual care with CM for each day of no drinking per SCRAMx (CM-Abst; n=17). After 12 weeks, participants completed a survey about the bracelet. Nine percent of individuals screened (54 of 595) declined participation because of the bracelet. Of participants, 84% provided 12weeks of data, and 96% of bracelets were returned fully intact. Ninety-four equipment tampers occurred, affecting 2% of monitoring days; 56% (67) of tampers coincided with detected drinking. Common concerns reported by participants were skin marks (58%), irritation (54%), and interfered with clothing choices (51%), but severity ratings were generally mild (60%-94%). Eighty-one percent of participants reported that the bracelet helped them reduce drinking, and 75% indicated that they would wear it for longer. A common suggestion for improvement was to reduce the size of the bracelet. Results support the viability of transdermal monitoring in voluntary substance abuse treatment participants for an extended duration. Issues to consider for future applications of this technology are discussed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Active photonic sensor communication cable for field application of optical data and power transmission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suthau, Eike; Rieske, Ralf; Zerna, Thomas

    2014-10-01

    Omitting electrically conducting wires for sensor communication and power supply promises protection for sensor systems and monitored structures against lightning or high voltages, prevention of explosion hazards, and reduction of susceptibility to tampering. The ability to photonically power remote systems opens up the full range of electrical sensors. Power-over-fiber is an attractive option in electromagnetically sensitive environments, particularly for longterm, maintenance-free applications. It can deliver uninterrupted power sufficient for elaborate sensors, data processing or even actuators alongside continuous high speed data communication for remote sensor application. This paper proposes an active photonic sensor communication system, which combines the advantages of optical data links in terms of immunity to electromagnetic interference (EMI), high bandwidth, hardiness against tampering or eavesdropping, and low cable weight with the robustness one has come to expect from industrial or military electrical connectors. An application specific integrated circuit (ASIC) is presented that implements a closed-loop regulation of the sensor power supply to guarantee continuous, reliable data communications while maintaining a highly efficient, adaptive sensor supply scheme. It is demonstrated that the resulting novel photonic sensor communication cable can handle sensors and actuators differing orders of magnitude with respect to power consumption. The miniaturization of the electro-optical converters and driving electronics is as important to the presented development as the energy efficiency of the detached, optically powered sensor node. For this reason, a novel photonic packaging technology based on wafer-level assembly of the laser power converters by means of passive alignment will be disclosed in this paper.

  4. Statin use and risk of disease recurrence and death after radical prostatectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keskiväli, Teemu; Kujala, Paula; Visakorpi, Tapio; Tammela, Teuvo L J; Murtola, Teemu J

    2016-04-01

    Statins have been linked with improved prostate cancer survival and lower risk of recurrence in men treated with radiation therapy. However, the association is unclear for surgically-treated men. We studied the risk of prostate cancer recurrence and death by statin usage after radical prostatectomy in a cohort of prostate cancer patients treated with radical prostatectomy. A cohort of 1,314 men who underwent curative-intent radical prostatectomy at the Tampere University Hospital, Tampere, Finland during 1995-2009 were linked to national prescription database to obtain detailed information on statin purchases. The risk of PSA recurrence and death (overall and prostate cancer-specific) by statin use before and after the surgery were evaluated using Cox regression with model adjustment for tumor characteristics, total cholesterol and simultaneous use of antidiabetic and antihypertensive drugs. Tissue expression of putative prognostic markers were measured from a subgroup of 323 men. During the median follow-up of 8.6 years after surgery 484 men recurred, while 244 men died (32 due to prostate cancer). In general statin use before or after prostatectomy was not associated with risk of disease recurrence or death. Tissue expression of Ki-67 and ERG modified the association between statin use and risk of disease recurrence; the risk estimates were lower in men with Ki-67 expression above the median (P for interaction 0.001 and 0.004 for statin use before and after prostatectomy, respectively) and no ERG expression in the tumor tissue (P for interaction 0.006 and 0.011). Statin use generally did not affect prostate cancer prognosis after prostatectomy. The effect on disease recurrence may depend on tumor properties, such as proliferation activity. Thus possible future prospective studies should recognize and enroll subgroups of prostate cancer patients most likely to benefit from statins. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Patients' assessments of the continuity of primary care in Finland: a 15-year follow-up questionnaire survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raivio, Risto; Holmberg-Marttila, Doris; Mattila, Kari J

    2014-10-01

    Continuity of care is an essential aspect of quality in general practice. This study is the first systematic follow-up of Finnish primary care patients' assessments with regard to personal continuity of care. To ascertain whether patient-reported longitudinal personal continuity of care is related to patient characteristics and their consultation experiences, and how this had changed over the study period. A 15-year follow-up questionnaire survey that took place at Tampere University Hospital catchment area, Finland. The survey was conducted among patients attending health centres in the Tampere University Hospital catchment area from 1998 until 2013. From a sample of 363 464 patients, a total of 157 549 responded. The responses of patients who had visited a doctor during the survey weeks (n = 97 468) were analysed. Continuity of care was assessed by asking the question: 'When visiting the health centre, do you usually see the same doctor?'; patients could answer 'yes' or 'no'. Approximately half of the responders had met the same doctor when visiting the healthcare centre. Personal continuity of care decreased by 15 percentage points (from 66% to 51%) during the study years. The sense of continuity was linked to several patients' experiences of the consultation. The most prominent factor contributing to the sense of continuity of care was having a doctor who was specifically appointed (odds ratio 7.28, 95% confidence interval = 6.65 to 7.96). Continuity of care was proven to enhance the experienced quality of primary care. Patients felt that continuity of care was best realised when they could consult a doctor who had been specifically appointed to them. Despite efforts of the authorities, over the past 15 years patient-reported continuity of care has declined in Finland. © British Journal of General Practice 2014.

  6. Risk factor investigation for cardiovascular health through WHO STEPS approach in Ardabil, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mashadi-Abdollahi H

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available H Sadeghi-Bazargani1,2, H Jafarzadeh3, M Fallah4, S Hekmat3, J Bashiri3, GH Hosseingolizadeh3, MS Soltanmohammadzadeh3, A Mortezazadeh3, A Shaker3, M Danehzan3, A Zohouri3, O Khosravi3, R Nasimidoust3, N Malekpour3, E Kharazmi4, M Babaei3, M Nadirmohammadi3, H Mashhadi-Abdollahi51Neuroscience Research Center, 2Statistics and Epidemiology Department, Faculty of Health and Nutrition, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran; 3Public Health Department, Ardabil University of Medical Sciences, Ardabil, Iran; 4Tampere School of Public Health, University of Tampere, Tampere, Finland; 5National Public Health Management Center (NPMC, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, IranObjectives: Reliable evidence is the keystone for any noncommunicable disease (NCD prevention plan to be initiated. In this study we carried out a risk factor investigation based on the WHO Stepwise approach to Surveillance (STEPS.Methods: The study was conducted out on 1000 adults between 15 and 64 years of age living in Ardabil province, north-west Iran during 2006, based on the WHO STEPS approach to surveillance of risk factors for NCD. At this stage only the first and second steps were carried out. Data were collected through standard questionnaires and methods analyzed using STATA version 8 statistical software package.Results: 29.0% of men and 2.6% of women were current daily tobacco smokers. The mean number of manufactured cigarettes smoked per day was 18.9 among current daily smokers. Smoking was most prevalent among men of low-income families and those of lower education. The mean body mass index (BMI was 26.6 kg/m2, and was significantly correlated with systolic blood pressure. 58.9% were overweight or obese; 18.0% had raised blood pressure and 3.7% had isolated systolic hypertension. The mean number of servings of fruit consumed per day was 1.1; 33.1% had low levels of activity. Combined risk factor analysis showed that 4.1% of participants were in the

  7. The possibilities of municipal operations to control greenhouse gas emissions of road traffic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saeily, S.

    2004-07-01

    Kyoto protocol obligates industrialized countries to decrease their greenhouse gas emissions averagely by 5,2 percent from the 1990 level before 2008-2012. Finland is committed to stabilize its greenhouse gas emissions to the level of year 1990 before 2008-2012. Carbon monoxide, hydrocarbon, nitric oxide, sulphur dioxide, particles and carbon dioxide are regarded as hazardous emissions of road traffic. These gases are generated by impure burning which is generally expected. From these gases carbon dioxide is considered to be the actual greenhouse gas. Nitric oxide, vaporizing hydrocarbons, sulphur dioxide and carbon monoxide are considered to be indirect greenhouse gases. 20 percent of Finland's carbon dioxide emissions comes from road traffic. Actions aimed to decrease greenhouse gas emissions can be executed at various levels. The smaller the size of an actor is, the more specific the possible actions are. The actions of public administration are based on controlling economy, traffic systems and maintenance of order. The actions of private companies and communities are based on economical profitability. Decisions of individual persons are still the most significant factor in decreasing green house gases generated by passenger traffic. In this study an operations model was developed for municipalities to reduce their greenhouse gas emissions. As a case city of the study was the city of Tampere. Tampere is the third largest city in Finland and has over 15,000 employees. A more specific set of measures was introduced to three different operational units, the University Hospital of Tampere, the primary school of Tammela and the amusement park Saerkaenniemi. For each unit suitable measures were searched by studying the unit's traffic-related significance to help to decrease the unit's greenhouse gas emissions. The traffic generated by municipal operations is mainly related to commuting, work-related, customer and maintenance traffic. Measures which are

  8. Seen but not heard: injuries and deaths from landmines and unexploded ordnance in Chechnya, 1994-2005.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilukha, Oleg O; Brennan, Muireann; Anderson, Mark; Tsitsaev, Zaur; Murtazaeva, Eliza; Ibragimov, Ramzan

    2007-01-01

    Due to more than a decade of armed conflict and civil unrest, Chechnya is among the regions most affected by landmines and unexploded ordnance worldwide. The study was performed to assess the magnitude of injuries and deaths due to landmines and unexploded ordnance in Chechnya between 1994 and 2005 and to describe epidemiologic patterns and risk factors for these events. Surveillance data that included 3,021 civilian non-combatants injured by landmines and unexploded ordnance in Chechnya during 1994-2005 were analyzed. Local non-governmental organizations in collaboration with the United Nations Children's Fund conducted victim data collection using trained staff to interview victims or their families. Surveillance data were used to describe injury trends, victim demographics, injury types, risk behaviors, and types of explosives related to landmine and unexploded ordnance events. The largest number of injuries occurred in 2000 (716, injury rate 6.6 per 10,000) and 2001 (640, injury rate 5.9 per 10,000). One-quarter of all victims were younger than 18 years, and 19% were females. The case-fatality rate was 23%. Approximately 40% of victims were injured by landmines, 30% by unexploded ordnance, and 7% by booby traps. A large proportion of children and adults were injured while traveling or performing activities of economic necessity; 29% of children were injured while tampering with explosives or playing in a contaminated area. The proportion of victims with lower limb amputations was similar among children and adults (14% and 17%, respectively), whereas the proportion ofvictims with upper limb amputations was three times higher in children than in adults (12% and 4%, respectively). Most accidents that occurred while the victim was traveling or performing activities of economic necessity were caused by landmines, while most accidents that occurred while the victim was playing near an explosive device or tampering with it were caused by unexploded ordnance. Civilians

  9. Surveillance of environmental radiation in Finland. Annual Report 2002

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mustonen, R.

    2003-01-01

    Meteorological Institute, the FMI Observatory at Sodankylae, the Southeast Finland Regional Environment Centre, the North Ostrobothnia Regional Environment Centre, the Lapland Regional Environment Centre, the Southeast Finland Frontier Guard District, the Lapland Frontier Guard District, Jyvaeskylae Airport, the Rescue Centre of Kotka, the Health Department of Helsinki/Maria Hospital, Tampere University Central Hospital, Lapland Central Hospital, the Secondary school Helsingin yhteislyseo, the Hatanpaeae Secondary school in Tampere, and the Korkalovaara Secondary school in Rovaniemi. This report is addressed to all who are interested in environmental radioactivity in Finland. STUK also delivers monitoring data to the European Commission on a regular basis, and this report is a summary of the results delivered to the Commission. The report is also available on STUK's home page; www.stuk.fi. (orig.)

  10. Surveillance of environmental radiation in Finland. Annual Report 2001

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mustonen, R.

    2002-01-01

    Forces, Finnish Meteorological Institute, FMI Observatory of Sodankylae, Southeast Finland Regional Environment Centre, North Ostrobothnia Regional Environment Centre, Lapland Regional Environment Centre, Southeast Finland Frontier Guard District, Lapland Frontier Guard District, Jyvaeskylae Airport, Rescue Centre of Kotka, Water works of Turku and Oulu. Health Department of Helsinki/ Maria Hospital, Tampere University Central Hospital, Lapland Central Hospital, Secondary school of Helsingin yhteislyseo, Secondary school of Hatanpaeae in Tampere, Secondary school of Korkalovaara in Rovaniemi. This report is addressed to all who are interested in environmental radioactivity in Finland. STUK delivers monitoring data also to the European Commission on regular basis, and this report is a summary of the results delivered to the Commission. The report is also available at the STUK's home pages www.stuk.fi. (orig.)

  11. Surveillance of environmental radiation in Finland. Annual Report 2003

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mustonen, R.

    2004-01-01

    Meteorological Institute, the FMI Observatory at Sodankylae, the Southeast Finland Regional Environment Centre, the North Ostrobothnia Regional Environment Centre, the Lapland Regional Environment Centre, the Southeast Finland Frontier Guard District, the Lapland Frontier Guard District, Jyvaeskylae Airport, the Rescue Centre of Kotka, the Health Department of Helsinki/Maria Hospital, Tampere University Central Hospital, Lapland Central Hospital, the Secondary school Helsingin yhteislyseo, the Hatanpaeae Secondary school in Tampere, and the Korkalovaara Secondary school in Rovaniemi. This report is addressed to all who are interested in environmental radioactivity in Finland. STUK also delivers monitoring data to the European Commission on a regular basis, and this report is a summary of the results delivered to the Commission. The report is also available on STUK's home page; www.stuk.fi. (orig.)

  12. Reformulation of controlled-release oxycodone and pharmacy dispensing patterns near the US-Canada border.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, Tara; Paterson, J Michael; Juurlink, David N; Dhalla, Irfan A; Mamdani, Muhammad M

    2012-01-01

    In August 2010, a tamper-resistant formulation of controlled-release oxycodone (OxyContin-OP) was introduced in the United States but not in Canada. Our objective was to determine whether introduction of OxyContin-OP in the United States influenced prescription volumes for the original controlled-release oxycodone formulation (OxyContin) at Canadian pharmacies near the international border. We conducted a population-based, serial, cross-sectional study of prescriptions dispensed from pharmacies in the 3 cities with the highest volume of US-Canada border crossings in Ontario: Niagara Falls, Windsor and Sarnia. We analyzed data on all outpatient prescriptions for OxyContin dispensed by Canadian pharmacies near each border crossing between 2010 Apr. 1 and 2012 Feb. 29. We calculated and compared monthly prescription rates, adjusted per 1000 population and stratified by tablet strength. The number of tablets dispensed near 4 border crossings in the 3 Canadian cities remained stable over the study period. However, the rate of dispensing at pharmacies near the Detroit-Windsor Tunnel increased roughly 4-fold between August 2010 and February 2011, from 505 to 1969 tablets per 1000 population. By April 2011, following warnings to prescribers and pharmacies regarding drug-seeking behaviour, the dispensing rate declined to 1683 tablets per 1000 population in this area. By November 2011, the rate had returned to levels observed in early 2010. Our analyses suggest that 242 075 excess OxyContin tablets were dispensed near the Detroit-Windsor Tunnel between August 2010 and October 2011. Prescribing of the original formulation of controlled-release oxycodone rose substantially near a major international border crossing following the introduction of a tamper-resistant formulation in the United States. It is possible that the restriction of this finding to the area surrounding the Detroit-Windsor Tunnel reflects specific characteristics of this border crossing, including its high

  13. Fusion yearbook. Association Euratom-Tekes Annual report 2011

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Airila, M.; Karttunen, S. (eds.)

    2012-07-01

    This Annual Report summarises the fusion research activities of the Finnish and Estonian Research Units of the Association Euratom-Tekes in 2011. The emphasis of EFDA is in exploiting JET and co-ordinating physics research in the Associations. In addition, emerging technology and goal oriented training (GOT) activities are under EFDA. R and D Grants for the Joint Undertaking 'Fusion for Energy' on remote handling for ITER divertor maintenance and MEMS magnetometer development constituted a significant fraction of the total research volume. The activities of the Research Unit are divided in the fusion physics under the Contract of Association and EFDA. The physics work is carried out at VTT, Aalto University (AU), University of Helsinki and University of Tartu. The research areas of the EFDA Workprogramme within Association Euratom-Tekes are (i) Heat and particle transport and fast particle studies, (ii) Plasma-wall interactions and material transport in SOL region, and (iii) Code development and diagnostics. Association Euratom-Tekes participated in the EFDA JET Workprogramme 2011, including C28 experiments with the ITER-like wall, diagnostics development and code integration. Two persons were seconded to the JET operating team, one physicist (codes and modelling) and one engineer (remote handling) in preparation of the ITER-like wall. The Association participated also in the 2011 experimental programmes of ASDEX Upgrade at IPP, DIII-D at GA and C-Mod at MIT. The technology work is carried out at VTT, Aalto University, Tampere University of Technology (TUT) and Lappeenranta University of Technology (LUT) in close collaboration with Finnish industry. Industrial participation is co-ordinated by Tekes. The technology research and development includes the DTP2 facility at VTT Tampere, materials and joining techniques, vessel/in-vessel components, magnetic diagnostics by micromechanical magnetometers for ITER, upgrading of the JET NPA diagnostics, Power Plant

  14. Seminar.net with special issue from Finland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yngve Nordkvelle

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Most of the world has learned to ”see to Finland” over the last decade, beacuse of its reputation as a leading nation in educational achievement, as well as its many creative and diligent approaches in technology. Since 1990 Finnish researchers in media, technology and education have met annually to discuss research matters and further advances in the area. For the conference of 2016, held 13-15th April in Hämeenlinna, Finland, we were asked to have the best papers published in Seminar.net. After a rigourous review process we will print six papers, four in this issue and two in the next.Antti Syvänen, Jaana-Piia Mäkiniemi, Sannu Syrjä, Kirsi Heikkilä-Tammi and Jarmo Viteli, all of the University of Tampere, present the paper “When does the educational use of ICT become a source of technostress for Finnish teachers?» This interesting paper is based on the analysis of questionnaires filled in by 2741 Finnish teachers. It provides significant insight into what causes teachers to experience stress and alienation when using information and communication technologies (ICT in their classrooms.Tuulikki Keskitalo and Heli Ruokamo of Lapland University present a paper dealing with “Students’ Expectations and Experiences of Meaningful Simulation-Based Medical Education». Simulation in nursing education is a very rapidly developing area, and the students – as well as their teachers – have high expectation. This project is about student’s expectations and the very positive result from this study was that their experiences were even higher than their expectations.Hanna Vuojärvi, of the University of Lapland and Miikka Eriksson, of the University of Eastern Finland, have written the article «Using Mobile Tools to Support Meaningful Work-based Learning in Vocational Education» together. Their case study focused on meaningful work-based learning (WBL and the pedagogical use of mobile information and communication technologies (ICTs

  15. Fusion yearbook. Association Euratom-Tekes Annual report 2011

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Airila, M.; Karttunen, S.

    2012-01-01

    This Annual Report summarises the fusion research activities of the Finnish and Estonian Research Units of the Association Euratom-Tekes in 2011. The emphasis of EFDA is in exploiting JET and co-ordinating physics research in the Associations. In addition, emerging technology and goal oriented training (GOT) activities are under EFDA. R and D Grants for the Joint Undertaking 'Fusion for Energy' on remote handling for ITER divertor maintenance and MEMS magnetometer development constituted a significant fraction of the total research volume. The activities of the Research Unit are divided in the fusion physics under the Contract of Association and EFDA. The physics work is carried out at VTT, Aalto University (AU), University of Helsinki and University of Tartu. The research areas of the EFDA Workprogramme within Association Euratom-Tekes are (i) Heat and particle transport and fast particle studies, (ii) Plasma-wall interactions and material transport in SOL region, and (iii) Code development and diagnostics. Association Euratom-Tekes participated in the EFDA JET Workprogramme 2011, including C28 experiments with the ITER-like wall, diagnostics development and code integration. Two persons were seconded to the JET operating team, one physicist (codes and modelling) and one engineer (remote handling) in preparation of the ITER-like wall. The Association participated also in the 2011 experimental programmes of ASDEX Upgrade at IPP, DIII-D at GA and C-Mod at MIT. The technology work is carried out at VTT, Aalto University, Tampere University of Technology (TUT) and Lappeenranta University of Technology (LUT) in close collaboration with Finnish industry. Industrial participation is co-ordinated by Tekes. The technology research and development includes the DTP2 facility at VTT Tampere, materials and joining techniques, vessel/in-vessel components, magnetic diagnostics by micromechanical magnetometers for ITER, upgrading of the JET NPA diagnostics, Power Plant Physics

  16. Fusion Yearbook. 2008 Annual report Association Euratom-Tekes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nora, M.; Karttunen, S.

    2009-05-01

    This Annual Report summarises the fusion research activities of the Finnish and Estonian Research Units of the Association Euratom-Tekes in 2008. The activities of the Research Unit are divided in the fusion physics under the Contract of Association and new EFDA. A few EFDA Technology Tasks and Contracts were still running in 2008 and are now completed. New R and D Grant work on remote handling for ITER launched by the Joint Undertaking 'Fusion for Energy' started in 2008. The Physics Programme is carried out at VTT - Technical Research Centre of Finland, Helsinki University of Technology (TKK) and University of Helsinki (UH). The research areas of the Physics Programme are: (i) Heat and particle transport, MHD physics and plasma edge phenomena, (ii) Plasma-wall interactions and material transport in SOL region, and (iii) Code development and diagnostics. Association Euratom-Tekes participated actively in the EFDA JET Workprogramme 2008 and exploitation of JET facilities in experimental campaigns C20-C25. Three persons were seconded to the UKAEA operating team, two physicists in codes and modelling and one engineer in remote handling. One person was a Task Force Leader in TF T (transport). One engineer from VTT was seconded to the ITER IO at Cadarache in 2008 (Assembly). Practically all physics activities of the Research Unit are carried out in co-operation with other Associations with the focus on EFDA JET work. In addition to EFDA JET activities, the Tekes Association participated in the 2008 experimental programme of ASDEX Upgrade (AUG). Several staff mobility visits of total 530 days took place in 2008. The Technology work is carried out at VTT, Helsinki University of Technology (TKK), Tampere University of Technology (TUT) and Lappeenranta University of Technology (LUT) in close collaboration with Finnish industry. The technology research and development is focused on the remote handling, vessel/in-vessel materials and components plus some activities in

  17. Antimicrobial characterization of silver nanoparticle-coated surfaces by “touch test” method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gunell M

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Marianne Gunell,1,2 Janne Haapanen,3 Kofi J Brobbey,4 Jarkko J Saarinen,4 Martti Toivakka,4 Jyrki M Mäkelä,3 Pentti Huovinen,1 Erkki Eerola1,2 1Department of Medical Microbiology and Immunology, University of Turku, 2Department of Clinical Microbiology and Immunology, Microbiology and Genetics Service Area, Turku University Hospital, Turku, 3Aerosol Physics Laboratory, Department of Physics, Tampere University of Technology, Tampere, 4Laboratory of Paper Coating and Converting, Center for Functional Materials, Åbo Akademi University, Turku, Finland Abstract: Bacterial infections, especially by antimicrobial resistant (AMR bacteria, are an increasing problem worldwide. AMR is especially a problem with health care-associated infections due to bacteria in hospital environments being easily transferred from patient to patient and from patient to environment, and thus, solutions to prevent bacterial transmission are needed. Hand washing is an effective tool for preventing bacterial infections, but other approaches such as nanoparticle-coated surfaces are also needed. In the current study, direct and indirect liquid flame spray (LFS method was used to produce silver nanoparticle-coated surfaces. The antimicrobial properties of these nanoparticle surfaces were evaluated with the “touch test” method against Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus. It was shown in this study that in glass samples one silver nanoparticle-coating cycle can inhibit E. coli growth, whereas at least two coating cycles were needed to inhibit S. aureus growth. Silver nanoparticle-coated polyethylene (PE and PE terephthalate samples did not inhibit bacterial growth as effectively as glass samples: three nanoparticle-coating cycles were needed to inhibit E. coli growth, and more than 30 coating cycles were needed until S. aureus growth was inhibited. To conclude, with the LFS method, it is possible to produce nanostructured large-area antibacterial surfaces which show

  18. Safeguards and security benefits of project straight-line

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaeger, C.D.; Waddoups, I.G.

    1995-01-01

    As a result of a number of events the inventory of fissile materials no longer in nuclear weapons in the United States is increasing. This has led to a growing concern regarding the potential for theft and/or diversion and accountability of this material. Straight-Line is a project whose purpose is to demonstrate a site-independent system to monitor stored nuclear material (e.g. plutonium) and integrate the collection, processing and dissemination of information regarding this material. Safeguards and security (S ampersand S) goals of this project include data transfer of information on nuclear material to appropriate users to enhance S ampersand S, continuous on-line accountability, reduction of hands-on access to nuclear materials, incorporation of information security technologies, and early detection of tampering or unauthorized material movement. This paper addresses threat considerations, S ampersand S requirements, S ampersand S objectives, and issues for the Straight-Line project. S ampersand S features and benefits of this project are discussed with respect to existing item monitoring systems and/or other material tracking systems being developed

  19. Risk reduction and TQM: A corporate culture of continuous improvement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nau, D.C.

    1992-01-01

    A company supplying products and services to the nuclear industry that implements a cultural commitment to continuous improvement, in addition to providing higher quality products and services, also represents a significant reduction in operational risk to that industry. The implementation of a culture of total quality management (TQM), initiated by Sorrento Electronics (SE) in 1989, involves total commitment to the basic TQM principles: continuous improvement, people performing the work are the best sources of how to do it better, and employees must be empowered to make the improvements. What this means to the nuclear industry is a significant reduction in operational risk through: (1) products based on simpler, standardized, proven designs with established operational track records, enhancing confidence that they will perform as expected; (2) the highest confidence that products and supporting documentation are delivered with zero defects; (3) critical power plant schedules can be supported through the shortest possible equipment delivery times; (4) highly motivated employees with extremely positive attitudes, working together in cross-functional teams, virtually eliminate the possibility of deliberate product tampering or sabotage

  20. U.S. and Russian cooperative efforts to enhance nuclear material protection, control, and accountability at the Siberian Chemical Combine at Tomsk-7

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kreykes, J.; Petrushev, V.I.; Griggs, J.

    1996-01-01

    The US partners in the Laboratory-to-Laboratory Program in Nuclear Materials Protection, Control, and Accountability (MPC and A) have reached signed agreements with the Siberian Chemical Combine (SKhK) to rapidly enhance the protection, control, and accountability of nuclear material at all of its facilities. SKhK is the largest multi-function production center of the Russian nuclear complex and, until recently, its facilities produced and processed special nuclear materials for the Russian Defense Ministry. SKhK produces heat and electricity, enriches uranium for commercial reactor fuel, reprocesses irradiated fuel, and converts highly enriched uranium metal into oxide for blending into low-enriched reactor-grade uranium, and manufactures civilian products. SKhK is aggressively pursuing a program to enhance MPC and A which includes the installation of pedestrian and vehicle radiation monitors, rapid inventory methods, tamper-indicating devices, computerized accounting systems, and physical protection measures. This work is a collaboration between technical experts from Brookhaven, Lawrence Livermore, Los Alamos, Oak Ridge, pacific Northwest, and Sandia National Laboratories and their Russian counterparts at SKhK. This paper reviews the status of this initial effort and outlines plans for continuing the work in 1996