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Sample records for tamara arkovskaja allen

  1. Tamara Dembo's European years: working with Lewin and Buytendijk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Veer, R

    2000-01-01

    In this paper early work of the American rehabilitation psychologist Tamara Dembo (1902-1993) is brought to light. She was highly influenced by the concepts of Kurt Lewin's topological psychology, and she used the framework of topological psychology to analyze her investigations on animal behavior carried out with the Dutch zoopsychologist Frederik J. J. Buytendijk. These investigations have so far been ignored and are being described for the first time making use of archival materials. Copyright 2000 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  2. Woody Allen kimpus arhitektuuriga

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2000-01-01

    Woody Allen protesteerib oma uue lühifilmiga kavatsuse vastu ehitada 16-korruseline ärihoone tema New Yorgi kodu lähedale. W. Allen hindab New Yorgi ajaloolisi rajoone, mida näitab ka oma filmides

  3. Allen Ginsberg kirjutab Ameerikast

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2003-01-01

    Arvustus: Ginsberg, Allen. Ameerika : valik luuletusi 1947-1996 / koostanud ja toimetanud Hasso Krull ; inglise keelest tõlkinud Contra, Lauri Kitsnik, Hasso Krull, Andres Langemets, Margit Langemets, Jürgen Rooste, Tõnu Õnnepalu. Tallinn : Perioodika, 2003

  4. V Las-Vegas so statujei Svobodõ / Katrin Sangla, Gerly Tinn, Tamara Korjagina ; interv. Alina Zelimhanova

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Sangla, Katrin

    2002-01-01

    Küsitletakse soengukunsti maailmameistrivõistlustel Hair World 2002 Las-Vegases osalenud juuksur Tamara Korjaginat, jumestuskunstnik Katrin Sanglat ja moekunstnik Gerly Tinni võistluse kohta. Saavutasid võiskondlikus arvestuses kolmanda koha

  5. Askey, Prof. Richard Allen

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Fellow Profile. Elected: 1988 Honorary. Askey, Prof. Richard Allen. Date of birth: 4 June 1933. Address: 5915, American Parkway, Apt. 228, Madison, WI 43718, U.S.A.. Contact: Office: (+1-608) 262 2880. Residence: (+1-608) 233 7900. Fax: (+1-608) 263 8891. Email: askey@math.wisc.edu. YouTube; Twitter; Facebook ...

  6. EPICS: Allen-Bradley hardware reference manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nawrocki, G.

    1993-01-01

    This manual covers the following hardware: Allen-Bradley 6008 -- SV VMEbus I/O scanner; Allen-Bradley universal I/O chassis 1771-A1B, -A2B, -A3B, and -A4B; Allen-Bradley power supply module 1771-P4S; Allen-Bradley 1771-ASB remote I/O adapter module; Allen-Bradley 1771-IFE analog input module; Allen-Bradley 1771-OFE analog output module; Allen-Bradley 1771-IG(D) TTL input module; Allen-Bradley 1771-OG(d) TTL output; Allen-Bradley 1771-IQ DC selectable input module; Allen-Bradley 1771-OW contact output module; Allen-Bradley 1771-IBD DC (10--30V) input module; Allen-Bradley 1771-OBD DC (10--60V) output module; Allen-Bradley 1771-IXE thermocouple/millivolt input module; and the Allen-Bradley 2705 RediPANEL push button module

  7. Allen's astrophysical quantities

    CERN Document Server

    2000-01-01

    This new, fourth, edition of Allen's classic Astrophysical Quantities belongs on every astronomer's bookshelf. It has been thoroughly revised and brought up to date by a team of more than ninety internationally renowned astronomers and astrophysicists. While it follows the basic format of the original, this indispensable reference has grown to more than twice the size of the earlier editions to accommodate the great strides made in astronomy and astrophysics. It includes detailed tables of the most recent data on: - General constants and units - Atoms, molecules, and spectra - Observational astronomy at all wavelengths from radio to gamma-rays, and neutrinos - Planetary astronomy: Earth, planets and satellites, and solar system small bodies - The Sun, normal stars, and stars with special characteristics - Stellar populations - Cataclysmic and symbiotic variables, supernovae - Theoretical stellar evolution - Circumstellar and interstellar material - Star clusters, galaxies, quasars, and active galactic nuclei ...

  8. Tamara Shapiro Ledley Receives 2013 Excellence in Geophysical Education Award: Citation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reiff, Patricia

    2014-01-01

    It gives me great pleasure to cite Tamara Shapiro Ledley for the AGU Excellence in Geophysical Education Award "for her outstanding sustained leadership in Earth systems and climate change education." Tamara has shown an ongoing commitment to bridging the scientific and educational communities to make geophysical science knowledge and data accessible and usable to teachers and students and by extension to all citizens. She works extensively with both the scientific and educational communities. She began her educational work in 1990 as the leader for weather and climate in my Teacher Research program at Rice University. She continued as the lead for atmospheric sciences in our projects Earth Today and Museums Teaching Planet Earth, which introduced her to the Earth Science Information Partners (ESIP Federation). She has served many roles at ESIP, including creating the Standing Committee for Education and serving as vice president. ESIP recognized her many accomplishments with its President's Award in 2012. At TERC her education and outreach efforts have blossomed. She was the lead author of the "Earth as a System" investigation of the GLOBE Teacher's Guide. She was a member of the original Digital Library for Earth System Education (DLESE) Data Access Working Group in 2001, where the idea for a cookbook-like resource to facilitate the use of Earth science data by teachers and students resulted in her leading the development of the "Earth Exploration Toolbook" (EET), which allows teachers to easily access and use real scientific data in the classroom. Her efforts were recognized with the EET being awarded Science Magazine's Science Prize for Online Research in Education in 2011.

  9. Frances Allen Wins Turing Award

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 12; Issue 8. Frances Allen Wins Turing Award. Priti Shankar. Article-in-a-Box Volume 12 Issue 8 August 2007 pp 5-5. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: http://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/012/08/0005-0005. Author Affiliations.

  10. Frances Allen Wins Turing Award

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 12; Issue 8. Frances Allen Wins Turing Award. Priti Shankar. Article-in-a-Box Volume 12 Issue 8 August 2007 pp ... Author Affiliations. Priti Shankar1. Department of Computer Science and Automation, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore 560 012, India ...

  11. Saturation of Van Allen's belts

    CERN Document Server

    Le Bel, E

    2002-01-01

    The maximum number of electrons that can be trapped in van Allen's belts has been evaluated at CEA-DAM more precisely than that commonly used in the space community. The modelization that we have developed allows to understand the disagreement (factor 50) observed between the measured and predicted electrons flux by US satellites and theory. This saturation level allows sizing-up of the protection on a satellite in case of energetic events. (authors)

  12. Allene functionalization via bicyclic methylene aziridines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boralsky, Luke A; Marston, Dagmara; Grigg, R David; Hershberger, John C; Schomaker, Jennifer M

    2011-04-15

    The oxidative functionalization of olefins is a common method for the formation of vicinal carbon-heteroatom bonds. However, oxidative methods to transform allenes into synthetic motifs containing three contiguous carbon-heteroatom bonds are much less developed. This paper describes the use of bicyclic methylene aziridines (MAs), prepared via intramolecular allene aziridination, as scaffolds for functionalization of all three allene carbons. © 2011 American Chemical Society

  13. The Van Allen Probes mission

    CERN Document Server

    Burch, James

    2014-01-01

    This collection of articles provides broad and detailed information about NASA’s Van Allen Probes (formerly known as the Radiation Belt Storm Probes) twin-spacecraft Earth-orbiting mission. The mission has the objective of achieving predictive understanding of the dynamic, intense, energetic, dangerous, and presently unpredictable belts of energetic particles that are magnetically trapped in Earth’s space environment above the atmosphere. It documents the science of the radiation belts and the societal benefits of achieving predictive understanding. Detailed information is provided about the Van Allen Probes mission design, the spacecraft, the science investigations, and the onboard instrumentation that must all work together to make unprecedented measurements within a most unforgiving environment, the core of Earth’s most intense radiation regions.
 This volume is aimed at graduate students and researchers active in space science, solar-terrestrial interactions and studies of the up...

  14. Modular functionalization of allenes to aminated stereotriads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Christopher S; Boralsky, Luke A; Guzei, Ilia A; Schomaker, Jennifer M

    2012-07-04

    Nitrogen-containing stereotriads, compounds with three adjacent stereodefined carbons, are commonly found in biologically important molecules. However, the preparation of molecules bearing these motifs can be challenging. Herein, we describe a modular oxidation protocol which converts a substituted allene to a triply functionalized amine of the form C-X/C-N/C-Y. The key step employs a Rh-catalyzed intramolecular conversion of the allene to a strained bicyclic methylene aziridine. This reactive intermediate is further elaborated to the target products, often in one reaction vessel and with effective transfer of the axial chirality of the allene to point chirality in the stereotriad.

  15. Rejuvenating Allen's Arc with the Geometric Mean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, William A.

    1994-01-01

    Contends that, despite ongoing criticism, Allen's arc elasticity formula remains entrenched in the microeconomics principles curriculum. Reviews the evolution and continuing scrutiny of the formula. Argues that the use of the geometric mean offers pedagogical advantages over the traditional arithmetic mean approach. (CFR)

  16. The Brosimum allene: a structural revision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Gaojie; Liu, Kai; Williams, Lawrence J

    2008-12-04

    Insight derived from a synthetic model, calculated (13)C NMR data, and comparison to experimental data indicate that the proposed allenic structure A, originally assigned to an isolate from Brosimum acutifolium Huber, should be revised to B, a natural product and nonallenic substance, mururin C.

  17. 49 ALLEN'S DEFENCE OF THE EXTENDED ORDERING ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The primary a~m of this paper is to determine the correctness of the ordering claim expressed by the EOR, i.e. the correctness of the claim that no affixes may appear outs ide compounds. Allen (1978 : 232ff.) discusses various morphologically complex words of English in which, apparently, affixes appear outside ...

  18. Diastereoselective Au-Catalyzed Allene Cycloisomerizations to Highly Substituted Cyclopentenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reeves, Ryan D; Phelps, Alicia M; Raimbach, William A T; Schomaker, Jennifer M

    2017-07-07

    Site- and regiocontrolled Au-catalyzed allene carbocyclizations furnish highly substituted cyclopentenes in >1:1 dr. Significant substitution on the substrate is tolerated, with potential to install five contiguous stereocenters after alkene functionalization. Major challenges include identifying a Au/Cu catalyst that controls both the relative rates of allene epimerization/cyclization and the facial selectivity in addition of a metal enolate to the allene. Experiments to achieve stereodivergent cyclizations and transform key cyclopentenes into useful synthetic building blocks are described.

  19. Fluorinated Amine Stereotriads via Allene Amination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Lu; Gerstner, Nels C; Oxtoby, Lucas J; Guzei, Ilia A; Schomaker, Jennifer M

    2017-06-16

    The incorporation of fluorine into organic scaffolds often improves the bioactivity of pharmaceutically relevant compounds. C-F/C-N/C-O stereotriad motifs are prevalent in antivirals, neuraminidase inhibitors, and modulators of androgen receptors, but are challenging to install. An oxidative allene amination strategy using Selectfluor rapidly delivers triply functionalized triads of the form C-F/C-N/C-O, exhibiting good scope and diastereoselectivity for all syn products. The resulting stereotriads are readily transformed into fluorinated pyrrolidines and protected α-, β-, and γ-amino acids.

  20. Woody Allen, serial schlemiel ?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frédérique Brisset

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Woody Allen a développé au fil des années une persona cinématographique de schlemiel new-yorkais aisément reconnaissable par le spectateur. Elle marque nombre de ses films, qu’il y apparaisse en tant qu’acteur ou y dirige des substituts comédiens comme déclinaisons de lui-même. Si cette figure prototypique est le fondement de la sérialité dans sa filmographie, il est des traits stylistiques qui en portent trace tout au long de son œuvre : la récurrence annuelle de ses réalisations, la signature formelle symbolisée par ses génériques à la typographie singulière, le rythme de ses dialogues ponctués d’interjections et l’usage de l’autocitation sont autant de procédés qui marquent son cinéma d’un sceau très personnel. Ils fonctionnent comme des clins d’œil au spectateur qui reçoit dès lors LE Woody Allen millésimé comme une invitation à retrouver son microcosme. Ainsi la sérialité se pose comme à la fois initiale et conséquentielle de son système filmique, processus de création unique dans le cinéma américain.Woody Allen has long constructed a cinematographic persona of schlemiel New- Yorker that the audience can easily identify. It impacts most of his films, whether he stars in them or directs “substitute” actors to impersonate his character. If this prototypical figure is the basis of seriality in his cinematography, serial stylistic features can also be found all along his career: the annual recurrence of his productions, the formal signature symbolised by the typography of his singular credit titles, his rhythmical interjection-punctuated dialogues and the use of self-quotation imprint a very personal seal upon his movies. They all work as a recognition signals for the audience who thus receive THE Woody Allen vintage as an invitation to re-enter his microcosm. Seriality is then both initial and consequential to his cinematographic system, a unique creative process in American film history.

  1. 33 CFR 80.1440 - Port Allen, Kauai, HI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Port Allen, Kauai, HI. 80.1440 Section 80.1440 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY INTERNATIONAL NAVIGATION RULES COLREGS DEMARCATION LINES Pacific Islands § 80.1440 Port Allen, Kauai, HI. A line drawn from...

  2. Gold-catalyzed intermolecular hydroamination of allenes with sulfonamides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Zhang

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available A co-catalyst of (PPh3AuCl/AgOTf for the intermolecular hydroamination of allenes with sulfonamides is shown. The reaction proceeded smoothly under mild conditions for differently substituted allenes giving N-allylic sulfonamides in good yields with high regioselectivity and E-selectivity.

  3. Allen diesel standby sets at Sellafield

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruff, G.

    1982-01-01

    As part of the extension and improvement plans for the British Nuclear Fuels Ltd reprocessing facilities at Sellafield, three Allen diesel engines have been installed for essential standby duty. They are 16-cylinder V-form engines with a continuous rating of 2,832 bhp and drive a 2000kW 11,000 volt 3 phase 50Hz salient pole synchronous alternator at 750r/min. They are arranged for running in parallel and with the public electricity mains supply and are also controlled to operate as standby in the event of mains failure. To prevent radioactive contamination from the atmosphere, primary and secondary air filtration has been supplied for each engine. Other operational facilities and safeguards are mentioned and the cooling system described. (U.K.)

  4. Allenes in Asymmetric Catalysis. Asymmetric Ring-Opening of Meso-Epoxides Catalyzed by Allene-Containing Phosphine Oxides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pu, Xiaotao; Qi, Xiangbing; Ready, Joseph M.

    2009-01-01

    Unsymmetrically substituted allenes (1,2 dienes) are inherently chiral and can be prepared in optically pure form. Nonetheless, to date the allene framework has not been incorporated into ligands for asymmetric catalysis. Since allenes project functionality differently than either tetrahedral carbon or chiral biaryls, they may create complementary chiral environments. This study demonstrates that optically active C2 symmetric allene-containing bisphosphine oxides can catalyze the addition of SiCl4 to meso epoxides with high enantioselectivity. The epoxide-opening likely involves generation of a Lewis acidic, cationic (bisphosphine oxide)SiCl3 complex. The fact that high asymmetric induction is observed suggests that allenes may represent a new platform for the development of ligands and catalysts for asymmetric synthesis. PMID:19722613

  5. James Van Allen The First Eight Billion Miles

    CERN Document Server

    Foerstner, Abigail

    2009-01-01

    Astrophysicist and space pioneer James Van Allen (1914-2006), for whom the Van Allen radiation belts were named, was among the principal scientific investigators for twenty-four space missions, including Explorer I in 1958, the first successful U.S. satellite; Mariner 2's 1962 flyby of Venus, the first successful mission to another planet; and the 1970's Pioneer 10 and Pioneer 11, missions that surveyed Jupiter and Saturn. Abigail Foerstner blends space science, drama, military agenda's, cold war politics, and the events of Van Allen's lengthy career to create the first biography of this highl

  6. A Summing Up. Allen Memorial Art Museum Addition, Oberlin, Ohio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Progressive Architecture, 1977

    1977-01-01

    Venturi and Rauch's addition to the Allen Art Museum at Oberlin College is in two separate parts: a loft that houses new facilities for the art department and a gallery for contemporary art. (Author/MLF)

  7. Substituent effects on dynamics at conical intersections: Allene and methyl allenes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neville, Simon P. [Department of Chemistry, University of Ottawa, 10 Marie Curie, Ottawa, Ontario K1N 6N5 (Canada); Wang, Yanmei [State Key Laboratory of Magnetic Resonance and Atomic and Molecular Physics, Wuhan Institute of Physics and Mathematics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Wuhan 430071 (China); Boguslavskiy, Andrey E.; Stolow, Albert, E-mail: albert.stolow@nrc-cnrc.gc.ca [Department of Chemistry, University of Ottawa, 10 Marie Curie, Ottawa, Ontario K1N 6N5 (Canada); National Research Council of Canada, 100 Sussex Drive, Ottawa, Ontario K1A 0R6 (Canada); Department of Physics, University of Ottawa, 150 Louis Pasteur, Ottawa ON K1N 6N5 (Canada); Schuurman, Michael S., E-mail: michael.schuurman@nrc-cnrc.gc.ca [Department of Chemistry, University of Ottawa, 10 Marie Curie, Ottawa, Ontario K1N 6N5 (Canada); National Research Council of Canada, 100 Sussex Drive, Ottawa, Ontario K1A 0R6 (Canada)

    2016-01-07

    We report a joint experimental and theoretical study on the ultrafast excited state dynamics of allene and a series of its methylated analogues (1,2-butadiene, 1,1-dimethylallene, and tetramethylallene) in order to elucidate the conical intersection mediated dynamics that give rise to ultrafast relaxation to the ground electronic state. We use femtosecond time-resolved photoelectron spectroscopy (TRPES) to probe the coupled electronic-vibrational dynamics following UV excitation at 200 nm (6.2 eV). Ab initio multiple spawning (AIMS) simulations are employed to determine the mechanistic details of two competing dynamical pathways to the ground electronic state. In all molecules, these pathways are found to involve as follows: (i) twisting about the central allenic C–C–C axis followed by pyramidalization at one of the terminal carbon atoms and (ii) bending of allene moiety. Importantly, the AIMS trajectory data were used for ab initio simulations of the TRPES, permitting direct comparison with experiment. For each molecule, the decay of the TRPES signal is characterized by short (30 fs, 52 fs, 23 fs) and long (1.8 ps, 3.5 ps, [306 fs, 18 ps]) time constants for 1,2-butadiene, 1,1-dimethylallene, and tetramethylallene, respectively. However, AIMS simulations show that these time constants are only loosely related to the evolution of electronic character and actually more closely correlate to large amplitude motions on the electronic excited state, modulating the instantaneous vertical ionization potentials. Furthermore, the fully substituted tetramethylallene is observed to undergo qualitatively different dynamics, as displacements involving the relatively massive methyl groups impede direct access to the conical intersections which give rise to the ultrafast relaxation dynamics observed in the other species. These results show that the branching between the “twisting” and “bending” pathways can be modified via the selective methylation of the terminal

  8. Chemoselective allene aziridination via Ag(I) catalysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rigoli, Jared W; Weatherly, Cale D; Vo, Brian T; Neale, Samuel; Meis, Alan R; Schomaker, Jennifer M

    2013-01-18

    Allene aziridination generates useful bicyclic methylene aziridine scaffolds that can be flexibly transformed into a range of stereochemically complex and densely functionalized amine-containing stereotriads. The scope of this chemistry has been limited by the poor chemoselectivity that often results when typical dinuclear Rh(II) catalysts are employed with homoallenic carbamates. Herein, Ag(I) catalysts that significantly improve the scope and yield of bicyclic methylene aziridines that can be prepared via allene aziridination are described.

  9. Plasma Wave Measurements from the Van Allen Probes

    OpenAIRE

    Hospodarsky, George B.; Kurth, W. S.; Kletzing, C. A.; Bounds, S. R.; Santolik, O.; Wygant, J. R.; Bonnell, J. W.

    2014-01-01

    The twin Van Allen Probes spacecraft were launched on August 30, 2012 to study the Earth's Van Allen radiation belts. The Electric and Magnetic Field Instrument Suite and Integrated Science (EMFISIS) investigation includes a plasma wave instrument (Waves) that simultaneously measures three orthogonal components of the wave magnetic field from ~10 Hz to 12 kHz and, with the support of the Electric Fields and Waves (EFW) instrument sensors, three components of the wave electric field from ~10 H...

  10. Biosynthesis of allene oxides in Physcomitrella patens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scholz Julia

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The moss Physcomitrella patens contains C18- as well as C20-polyunsaturated fatty acids that can be metabolized by different enzymes to form oxylipins such as the cyclopentenone cis(+-12-oxo phytodienoic acid. Mutants defective in the biosynthesis of cyclopentenones showed reduced fertility, aberrant sporophyte morphology and interrupted sporogenesis. The initial step in this biosynthetic route is the conversion of a fatty acid hydroperoxide to an allene oxide. This reaction is catalyzed by allene oxide synthase (AOS belonging as hydroperoxide lyase (HPL to the cytochrome P450 family Cyp74. In this study we characterized two AOS from P. patens, PpAOS1 and PpAOS2. Results Our results show that PpAOS1 is highly active with both C18 and C20-hydroperoxy-fatty acid substrates, whereas PpAOS2 is fully active only with C20-substrates, exhibiting trace activity (~1000-fold lower kcat/KM with C18 substrates. Analysis of products of PpAOS1 and PpHPL further demonstrated that both enzymes have an inherent side activity mirroring the close inter-connection of AOS and HPL catalysis. By employing site directed mutagenesis we provide evidence that single amino acid residues in the active site are also determining the catalytic activity of a 9-/13-AOS – a finding that previously has only been reported for substrate specific 13-AOS. However, PpHPL cannot be converted into an AOS by exchanging the same determinant. Localization studies using YFP-labeled AOS showed that PpAOS2 is localized in the plastid while PpAOS1 may be found in the cytosol. Analysis of the wound-induced cis(+-12-oxo phytodienoic acid accumulation in PpAOS1 and PpAOS2 single knock-out mutants showed that disruption of PpAOS1, in contrast to PpAOS2, results in a significantly decreased cis(+-12-oxo phytodienoic acid formation. However, the knock-out mutants of neither PpAOS1 nor PpAOS2 showed reduced fertility, aberrant sporophyte morphology or interrupted sporogenesis

  11. Obituary: James Alfred Van Allen, 1914-2006

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludwig, George H.; McIlwain, Carl Edwin

    2006-12-01

    James Alfred Van Allen, world-renowned space scientist, died 9 August 2006 at the age of ninety-one. He succumbed to heart failure after a ten-week period of declining health. Van Allen served for his entire sixty-seven-year professional career as an amazingly productive researcher, space science spokesman, inspired teacher, and valued colleague. The realization by him and his associates that charged particles are trapped by the Earth's magnetic field began a whole new field of research, magnetospheric physics. Following that initial discovery, he and his associates quickly extended their observations, first to the inner planets, and then to the rest of the planets and beyond. During his tenure at Iowa, he and his group flew instruments on more than sixty successful Earth satellites and planetary spacecraft, including the first missions to the planets Venus, Mars, Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, and Neptune. Van Allen's lifetime publication list numbers more than 275, of which many are widely-cited, seminal papers. He was the sole author of more than 125 of those papers. Beyond the research laboratory, Van Allen worked energetically throughout his career in establishing space research as a new branch of human inquiry. He was among the most sought-after as a committee member and adviser, working at the highest levels of government, including the White House and Congress, and at all levels of the national and international research establishments. Many presentations in the non-scientific arena helped to bring the exciting discoveries and challenges of space research to the attention of the general public. James Van Allen (Van to his many friends and colleagues) was born on 7 September 1914 on a small farm near Mount Pleasant, Iowa, the second of four sons of Alfred Morris Van Allen and Alma Olney Van Allen. After high school in Mount Pleasant, he entered Iowa Wesleyan College, majoring in physics and graduating summa cum laude. While there, he was introduced to geophysics

  12. Allene oxide synthase, allene oxide cyclase and jasmonic acid levels in Lotus japonicus nodules.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Zdyb

    Full Text Available Jasmonic acid (JA, its derivatives and its precursor cis-12-oxo phytodienoic acid (OPDA form a group of phytohormones, the jasmonates, representing signal molecules involved in plant stress responses, in the defense against pathogens as well as in development. Elevated levels of JA have been shown to play a role in arbuscular mycorrhiza and in the induction of nitrogen-fixing root nodules. In this study, the gene families of two committed enzymes of the JA biosynthetic pathway, allene oxide synthase (AOS and allene oxide cyclase (AOC, were characterized in the determinate nodule-forming model legume Lotus japonicus JA levels were to be analysed in the course of nodulation. Since in all L. japonicus organs examined, JA levels increased upon mechanical disturbance and wounding, an aeroponic culture system was established to allow for a quick harvest, followed by the analysis of JA levels in whole root and shoot systems. Nodulated plants were compared with non-nodulated plants grown on nitrate or ammonium as N source, respectively, over a five week-period. JA levels turned out to be more or less stable independently of the growth conditions. However, L. japonicus nodules formed on aeroponically grown plants often showed patches of cells with reduced bacteroid density, presumably a stress symptom. Immunolocalization using a heterologous antibody showed that the vascular systems of these nodules also seemed to contain less AOC protein than those of nodules of plants grown in perlite/vermiculite. Hence, aeroponically grown L. japonicus plants are likely to be habituated to stress which could have affected JA levels.

  13. Photolysis of allene-ozone mixtures at 647 nm in cryogenic matrices. Part 1. Formation of allene oxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singmaster, Karen A.; Pimentel, George C.

    1989-03-01

    Matrix studies of the photolytic reaction at 647 nm between allene and ozone were carried out at 12 K. Primary photoproducts include carbon monoxide, acrolein ( cis and trans), cyclopropanone, ketene, ethylene, allene oxide and formaldehyde. In Ar and Kr matrices both acrolein and cyclopropanone are produced in high yields, whereas in Xe matrices cyclopropanone is the major product. Infrared spectra for cyclopropanone and its oxygen-18 and deuterium substitutes are reported. The carbonyl stretch for cyclopropanone is observed at 1815 cm -1 in an Ar matrix. Also reported is the first synthesis of allene oxide. The carbon—carbon double bond stretch is observed at 1823.4 cm -1 and it exhibits a small oxygen-18 shift. The change in product distribution is discussed in terms of heavy atom spin—orbit enhancement of singlet—triplet excitation, so that in xenon reaction takes place on a triplet surface, whereas in argon it occurs on a singlet surface.

  14. Van Allen Probes Science Gateway: A Centralized Data Access Point

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romeo, G.; Barnes, R. J.; Ukhorskiy, A. Y.; Sotirelis, T.; Stephens, G. K.; Kessel, R.; Potter, M.

    2015-12-01

    The Van Allen Probes Science Gateway acts a centralized interface to the instrument Science Operation Centers (SOCs), provides mission planning tools, and hosts a number of science related activities such as the mission bibliography. Most importantly, the Gateway acts as the primary site for processing and delivering the Van Allen Probes Space Weather data to users. Over the past years, the web-site has been completely redesigned with the focus on easier navigation and improvements of the existing tools such as the orbit plotter, position calculator and magnetic footprint tool. In addition, a new data plotting facility has been added. Based on HTML5, which allows users to interactively plot Van Allen Probes science and space weather data. The user can tailor the tool to display exactly the plot they wish to see and then share this with other users via either a URL or by QR code. Various types of plots can be created, including, simple time series, data plotted as a function of orbital location, and time versus L-Shell, capability of visualizing data from both probes (A & B) on the same plot. In cooperation with all Van Allen Probes Instrument SOCs, the Science Gateway will soon be able to serve higher level data products (Level 3), and to visualize them via the above mentioned HTML5 interface. Users will also be able to create customized CDF files on the fly.

  15. Commentary on Sowcik and Allen: Getting Down to Business

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Susan Elaine

    2013-01-01

    Sowcik and Allen's paper, "Getting Down to Business: A Look at Leadership Education in Business Schools," identifies a number of compelling issues in improving leadership education in business schools and provides a thorough overview of how these efforts could benefit from the considerations present in the National Leadership Educators…

  16. Push-Pull-Allenes: The Influences of Substituents on the Activation of Allenes by Biomimetic Zinc Complexes

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jahn, Burkhard O.; Eger, W. A.; Anders, E.

    65b, č. 3 (2010), s. 425-432 ISSN 0932-0776 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40550506 Keywords : allenes * substitution effects * carbonic anhydrase Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 0.816, year: 2010

  17. Kõik saab korda / Tamara Luuk

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Luuk, Tamara, 1952-

    2010-01-01

    Rahvusvaheline videokunsti näitus "Kõik saab korda" Kumu Kunstimuuseumis 2. jaanuarini 2011. Kuraator Maria-Kristiina Soomre, kujundaja Berit Teeäär. Osalevad Marina Abramović (Serbia/USA), Eija-Liisa Ahtila (Soome), Kai Kaljo, Mike Marshall (Inglismaa), Ene-Liis Semper, Santeri Tuori (Soome), Guido van der Werve (Holland)

  18. Oxidative allene amination for the synthesis of azetidin-3-ones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, Eileen G; Schomaker, Jennifer M

    2015-10-05

    Regioselectivity in the aziridination of silyl-substituted homoallenic sulfamates is readily diverted to the distal double bond of the allene to yield endocyclic bicyclic methyleneaziridines with excellent stereocontrol. Subsequent reaction with electrophilic oxygen sources initiates facile rearrangement to densely functionalized, fused azetidin-3-ones in excellent d.r., effectively transferring the axial chirality of the allene to central chirality in the products. The steric nature of the silyl group dictates which of the two rings of the fused azetidin-3-one will undergo further functionalization, providing an additional element of diversity for the preparation of enantioenriched azetidine scaffolds with potential biological activity. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. Secondary bifurcation for a nonlocal Allen-Cahn equation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuto, Kousuke; Mori, Tatsuki; Tsujikawa, Tohru; Yotsutani, Shoji

    2017-09-01

    This paper studies the Neumann problem of a nonlocal Allen-Cahn equation in an interval. A main result finds a symmetry breaking (secondary) bifurcation point on the bifurcation curve of solutions with odd-symmetry. Our proof is based on a level set analysis for the associated integral map. A method using the complete elliptic integrals proves the uniqueness of secondary bifurcation point. We also show some numerical simulations concerning the global bifurcation structure.

  20. Performing Allen's test in immobile hand: The Esmarch bandage method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nebil Yesiloglu

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study, an alternative method of assessing hand vascular flow using a modification of Allen's test is presented. This technique may be helpful for patients who have immobile hands due to severe trauma, patients scheduled for free tissue transfer reconstruction, patients under general anesthesia in intensive care units that require serial arterial blood gas analyses, and emergency coronary by-pass candidates who decided to receive radial arterial grafts. [Hand Microsurg 2015; 4(3.000: 83-85

  1. Regioselective Annulation of Aryl Sulfonamides with Allenes through Cobalt-Promoted C-H Functionalization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lan, Tianlong; Wang, Liguo; Rao, Yu

    2017-03-03

    The development of an efficient method for the construction of biologically relevant sultams is described, which represents the first case of cobalt-promoted C-H/N-H functionalization of sulfonamides with allenes. This newly developed annulation reaction demonstrated good functional group tolerance and excellent regioselectivity. Both terminal monosubstituted allenes and internal disubstituted allenes can be employed to give the desired sultams in good yields. This strategy can be successfully used to build a unique sultam library with novel structural diversity.

  2. Cyclization reactions of bis(allenes) for the synthesis of polycarbo(hetero)cycles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alcaide, Benito; Almendros, Pedro; Aragoncillo, Cristina

    2014-05-07

    The chemistry of allenes is an appealing topic which fascinates chemists nowadays. Their reactivity and versatility makes this skeleton a useful moiety to create a great variety of structures depending on the functional groups attached and the reaction conditions used. Recently, there is a growing interest in the study of the reactivity of bis(allenes) inspired in the chemistry developed in simple allenes. In this review a collection of examples of cyclization reactions of bis(allenes) is presented as well as the future perspectives.

  3. Neuroinformatics of the Allen Mouse Brain Connectivity Atlas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuan, Leonard; Li, Yang; Lau, Chris; Feng, David; Bernard, Amy; Sunkin, Susan M; Zeng, Hongkui; Dang, Chinh; Hawrylycz, Michael; Ng, Lydia

    2015-02-01

    The Allen Mouse Brain Connectivity Atlas is a mesoscale whole brain axonal projection atlas of the C57Bl/6J mouse brain. Anatomical trajectories throughout the brain were mapped into a common 3D space using a standardized platform to generate a comprehensive and quantitative database of inter-areal and cell-type-specific projections. This connectivity atlas has several desirable features, including brain-wide coverage, validated and versatile experimental techniques, a single standardized data format, a quantifiable and integrated neuroinformatics resource, and an open-access public online database (http://connectivity.brain-map.org/). Meaningful informatics data quantification and comparison is key to effective use and interpretation of connectome data. This relies on successful definition of a high fidelity atlas template and framework, mapping precision of raw data sets into the 3D reference framework, accurate signal detection and quantitative connection strength algorithms, and effective presentation in an integrated online application. Here we describe key informatics pipeline steps in the creation of the Allen Mouse Brain Connectivity Atlas and include basic application use cases. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Hovering and forward flight energetics in Anna's and Allen's hummingbirds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Christopher James; Dudley, Robert

    2010-01-01

    Aerodynamic theory predicts that the mechanical costs of flight are lowest at intermediate flight speeds; metabolic costs of flight should trend similarly if muscle efficiency is constant. We measured metabolic rates for nine Anna's hummingbirds (Calypte anna) and two male Allen's hummingbirds (Selasphorus sasin) feeding during flight from a free-standing mask over a range of airspeeds. Ten of 11 birds exhibited higher metabolic costs during hovering than during flight at intermediate airspeeds, whereas one individual exhibited comparable costs at hovering and during forward flight up to speeds of approximately 7 m s(-1). Flight costs of all hummingbirds increased at higher airspeeds. Relative to Anna's hummingbirds, Allen's hummingbirds exhibited deeper minima in the power curve, possibly due to higher wing loadings and greater associated costs of induced drag. Although feeding at a mask in an airstream may reduce body drag and, thus, the contributions of parasite power to overall metabolic expenditure, these results suggest that hummingbird power curves are characterized by energetic minima at intermediate speeds relative to hovering costs.

  5. Life, the Universe, and Numeracy: Review of A Numerate Life by John Allen Paulos (2015

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kira Hamman

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available John Allen Paulos. A Numerate Life: A Mathematician Explores the Vagaries of Life, His Own and Probably Yours (Buffalo, NY: Prometheus Books 200 pp. ISBN: 978-1633881181. John Allen Paulos, author of Innumeracy and many other books addressing quantitative literacy and numeracy in society, tackles autobiography in this quirky "anti-memoir."

  6. A Regio- and Enantioselective CuH-Catalyzed Ketone Allylation with Terminal Allenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Erica Y; Liu, Richard Y; Yang, Yang; Buchwald, Stephen L

    2018-02-14

    We report a method for the highly enantioselective CuH-catalyzed allylation of ketones that employs terminal allenes as allylmetal surrogates. Ketones and allenes bearing diverse and sensitive functional groups are efficiently coupled with high stereoselectivity and exclusive branched regioselectivity. In stoichiometric experiments, each elementary step of the proposed hydrocupration-addition-metathesis mechanism can be followed by NMR spectroscopy.

  7. Photochemical generation and 1H NMR detection of alkyl allene oxides in solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Breen, L.E.; Schepp, N.P.; Tan, C.-H.E.

    2005-01-01

    Irradiation of substituted 5-alkyl-4,5-epoxyvalerophenones leads to the formation of alkyl allene oxides that, in some cases, are sufficiently long-lived to be detected at room temperature by 1 H NMR spectroscopy. Absolute lifetime measurements show that the size of the alkyl group has a significant influence on the reactivity of the allene oxide, with tert-butyl allene oxide having a lifetime of 24 h in CD 3 CN at room temperature that is considerably longer than the 1.5 h lifetime of the ethyl allene oxide. The allene oxides react rapidly with water to give α-hydroxyketones. The mechanism involves nucleophilic attack to the epoxide carbon to give an enol, which can also be detected as an intermediate by 1 H NMR spectroscopy. (author)

  8. Energetic Proton Spectra Measured by the Van Allen Probes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Summers, Danny; Shi, Run; Engebretson, Mark J.; Oksavik, Kjellmar; Manweiler, Jerry W.; Mitchell, Donald G.

    2017-10-01

    We test the hypothesis that pitch angle scattering by electromagnetic ion cyclotron (EMIC) waves can limit ring current proton fluxes. For two chosen magnetic storms, during 17-20 March 2013 and 17-20 March 2015, we measure proton energy spectra in the region 3 ≤ L ≤ 6 using the RBSPICE-B instrument on the Van Allen Probes. The most intense proton spectra are observed to occur during the recovery periods of the respective storms. Using proton precipitation data from the POES (NOAA and MetOp) spacecraft, we deduce that EMIC wave action was prevalent at the times and L-shell locations of the most intense proton spectra. We calculate limiting ring current proton energy spectra from recently developed theory. Comparisons between the observed proton energy spectra and the theoretical limiting spectra show reasonable agreement. We conclude that the measurements of the most intense proton spectra are consistent with self-limiting by EMIC wave scattering.

  9. [Reliability and validity of the modified Allen test: a systematic review and metanalysis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romeu-Bordas, Óscar; Ballesteros-Peña, Sendoa

    2017-01-01

    The objective was to evaluate the reliability and validity of the modified Allen test in screening for collateral circulation deficits in the palm and for predicting distal hand ischemia. We performed a systematic review of the literature indexed in 6 databases. We developed a search strategy to locate studies comparing the Allen test to Doppler ultrasound to detect circulation deficits in the hand, studies assessing the incidence of ischemic events on arterial puncture after an abnormal Allen test result, and studies of Allen test interobserver agreement. Fourteen articles met the inclusion criteria. Nine assessed the validity of the test as a screening tool for detecting collateral circulation deficits. From data published in 3 studies that had followed comparable designs we calculated a sensitivity of 77% and specificity of 93% for the Allen test. Four studies that assessed the ability of the test to predict ischemia did not predict any ischemic hand events following arterial puncture in patients with abnormal Allen test results. A single study assessing the test's reliability reported an interobserver agreement rate of 71.5%. This systematic review and metanalysis allows to conclude that the Allen test does not have sufficient diagnostic validity to serve as a screening tool for collateral circulation deficits in the hand. Nor is it a good predictor of hand ischemia after arterial puncture. Moreover, its reliability is limited. There is insufficient evidence to support its systematic use before arterial puncture.

  10. Prozaci asemel GTD ehk getting things done / David Allen ; interv. Endrik Randoja

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Allen, David

    2007-01-01

    Konsultant ja koolitaja David Allen oma aja- ja enesejuhtimise meetodist GTD - getting things done. Vt. samas: Väikesed nipid, et tõhusam olla; Milles seisneb Alleni meetod; Kuidas ma oma ülesannet täitsin - logiraamat

  11. Diagnostic accuracy of guys Hospital stroke score (allen score) in acute supratentorial thrombotic/haemorrhagic stroke

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zulfiqar, A.; Toori, K. U.; Khan, S. S.; Hamza, M. I. M.; Zaman, S. U.

    2006-01-01

    A consecutive series of 103 patients, 58% male with mean age of 62 year (range 40-75 years), admitted with supratentorial stroke in our teaching hospital were studied. All patients had Computer Tomography scan brain done after clinical evaluation and application of Allen stroke score. Computer Tomography Scan confirmed thrombotic stroke in 55 (53%) patients and haemorrhagic stroke in 48 (47%) patients. Out of the 55 patients with definitive thrombotic stroke on Computer Tomography Scan, Allen stroke score suggested infarction in 67%, haemorrhage in 6% and remained inconclusive in 27% of cases. In 48 patients with definitive haemorrhagic stroke on Computer Tomography Scan, Allen stroke score suggested haemorrhage in 60%, infarction in 11% and remained inconclusive in 29% of cases. The overall accuracy of Allen stroke score was 66%. (author)

  12. Miks meil on kogu aeg kiire? / David Allen ; interv. Endrik Randoja

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Allen, David

    2006-01-01

    Produktiivsuse ekspert vastab küsimustele ettevõetud tegevuste tulemuslikumalt lõpule viimise kohta. Lisa: Aja paremaks kasutamiseks pakub David Allen lisaks veel kolm tõhusat ja lihtsasti rakendatavat põhimõtet

  13. CARSTEP, Particle Flux on Space Vehicle in Van Allen Zone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    1 - Description of program or function: The CARSTEP code determines the flux of particles from the Van Allen zones that strike a space vehicle which is executing a mission in that volume of space. Using latitude, longitude, altitude of perigee, inclination and eccentricity of orbits, and mission time as input, the following data is given: latitude, longitude, and altitude of the vehicle at points along the trajectory, the flux of particles at these points, and time integrated flux for the total mission. 2 - Method of solution: The position of the vehicles as a function of time is determined by a two-body analysis. The program is divided into three parts: lunar transfer trajectories, lunar return trajectories, and geocentric orbits. The environment portion of CARSTEP uses a coordinate system (B,L) for mapping the distribution of geomagnetically trapped particles which has been developed by C.E. McIlwain. 3 - Restrictions on the complexity of the problem: The earth is considered a perfect sphere and atmospheric drag is neglected. One energy spectrum for particles is valid throughout the volume of space

  14. SETI OBSERVATIONS OF EXOPLANETS WITH THE ALLEN TELESCOPE ARRAY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harp, G. R.; Richards, Jon; Tarter, Jill C.; Dreher, John; Jordan, Jane; Shostak, Seth; Smolek, Ken; Kilsdonk, Tom; Wilcox, Bethany R.; Wimberly, M. K. R.; Ross, John; Barott, W. C.; Ackermann, R. F.; Blair, Samantha [SETI Institute, Mountain View, CA 94043 (United States)

    2016-12-01

    We report radio SETI observations on a large number of known exoplanets and other nearby star systems using the Allen Telescope Array (ATA). Observations were made over about 19000 hr from 2009 May to 2015 December. This search focused on narrowband radio signals from a set totaling 9293 stars, including 2015 exoplanet stars and Kepler objects of interest and an additional 65 whose planets may be close to their habitable zones. The ATA observations were made using multiple synthesized beams and an anticoincidence filter to help identify terrestrial radio interference. Stars were observed over frequencies from 1 to 9 GHz in multiple bands that avoid strong terrestrial communication frequencies. Data were processed in near-real time for narrowband (0.7–100 Hz) continuous and pulsed signals with transmitter/receiver relative accelerations from −0.3 to 0.3 m s{sup −2}. A total of 1.9 × 10{sup 8} unique signals requiring immediate follow-up were detected in observations covering more than 8 × 10{sup 6} star-MHz. We detected no persistent signals from extraterrestrial technology exceeding our frequency-dependent sensitivity threshold of 180–310 × 10{sup −26} W m{sup −2}.

  15. Wave acceleration of electrons in the Van Allen radiation belts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horne, Richard B; Thorne, Richard M; Shprits, Yuri Y; Meredith, Nigel P; Glauert, Sarah A; Smith, Andy J; Kanekal, Shrikanth G; Baker, Daniel N; Engebretson, Mark J; Posch, Jennifer L; Spasojevic, Maria; Inan, Umran S; Pickett, Jolene S; Decreau, Pierrette M E

    2005-09-08

    The Van Allen radiation belts are two regions encircling the Earth in which energetic charged particles are trapped inside the Earth's magnetic field. Their properties vary according to solar activity and they represent a hazard to satellites and humans in space. An important challenge has been to explain how the charged particles within these belts are accelerated to very high energies of several million electron volts. Here we show, on the basis of the analysis of a rare event where the outer radiation belt was depleted and then re-formed closer to the Earth, that the long established theory of acceleration by radial diffusion is inadequate; the electrons are accelerated more effectively by electromagnetic waves at frequencies of a few kilohertz. Wave acceleration can increase the electron flux by more than three orders of magnitude over the observed timescale of one to two days, more than sufficient to explain the new radiation belt. Wave acceleration could also be important for Jupiter, Saturn and other astrophysical objects with magnetic fields.

  16. Mathematics Intervention Supporting Allen, a Latino EL: A Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marialuisa Di Stefano

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available This research discusses a single case study of a first-grade Latino English Learner (EL student, Allen (pseudonym, from a larger inquiry-based intervention on inversion and mental reversibility development. The purpose of this case study was to develop a better understanding of the relationship between Allen’s English language proficiency and his ability to solve inversion and compensation mathematics tasks. The integration of multiple paradigms confronting radical constructivism and sociocultural theory of learning via culturally relevant pedagogy provided us with a multi-faceted set of perspectives in understanding the interconnection between Allen’s cultural and linguistic background and his development of algebraic reasoning. Through conceptual and retrospective analyses, we found that Allen’s language features are highly correlated with the development of his thinking strategies and his ability to solve mathematics tasks. Implications of this study include the development of teaching strategies that address critical issues in mathematics, such as the individual differences of learners, specifically ELs from Latino background. We suggest further research is needed in the field of language acquisition and access to STEM related concepts.

  17. Diastereoselective Synthesis of the Aminocyclitol Core of Jogyamycin via an Allene Aziridination Strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerstner, Nels C; Adams, Christopher S; Grigg, R David; Tretbar, Maik; Rigoli, Jared W; Schomaker, Jennifer M

    2016-01-15

    Oxidative allene amination provides rapid access to densely functionalized amine-containing stereotriads through highly reactive bicyclic methyleneaziridine intermediates. This strategy has been demonstrated as a viable approach for the construction of the densely functionalized aminocyclitol core of jogyamycin, a natural product with potent antiprotozoal activity. Importantly, the flexibility of oxidative allene amination will enable the syntheses of modified aminocyclitol analogues of the jogyamycin core.

  18. Toward an integrated route to the vernonia allenes and related sesquiterpenoids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Da Xu

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The synthesis of a model endocyclic allene related to the vernonia allenes is described. Fragmentation of a suitable decalin derivative gave the simplified germacrane scaffold. Computational analysis of this and related substrates provides insight into the stereoelectronic requirements of C–C fragmentation. The overall strategy to access these and other sesquiterpenes and the key steps in the present sequence are also discussed.

  19. Microwave-promoted synthesis of bicyclic azocine-β-lactams from bis(allenes).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alcaide, Benito; Almendros, Pedro; Aragoncillo, Cristina; Fernández, Israel; Gómez-Campillos, Gonzalo

    2014-08-01

    A metal-free preparation of structurally novel bicyclic azocine-β-lactams has been developed. The first examples accounting for the preparation of eight-membered rings from bis(allenes) in the absence of metals have been achieved by the thermolysis of nonconjugated 2-azetidinone-tethered bis(allenes) on application of microwave irradiation. This selective carbocyclization reaction has been studied experimentally, and additionally, its mechanism has been investigated by a DFT study.

  20. Particle Energization in Earth's Van Allen Radiation Belts Due to Solar Wind Forcing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, D. N.

    2017-12-01

    Early observations of the Earth's radiation environment clearly indicated that the Van Allen belts could be delineated into an inner zone dominated by high-energy protons and an outer zone dominated by high-energy electrons. The energy distribution, spatial extent and particle species makeup of the Van Allen belts has been subsequently explored by several space missions. However, recent observations by the NASA dual-spacecraft Van Allen Probes mission have revealed unexpected properties of the radiation belts, especially for electrons at highly relativistic (E > 2 MeV) and ultra-relativistic (E > 5 MeV) kinetic energies. In this presentation we show using high spatial and temporal resolution data from the experiments on board the Van Allen Probes that multiple belts can exist concurrently and that an exceedingly sharp inner boundary exists for ultra-relativistic electrons. Using additionally available Van Allen Probes data, we demonstrate that these remarkable features of energetic electrons are driven by strong solar and solar wind forcings. The comprehensive Van Allen Probes data show more broadly and in many ways how extremely high energy particles are accelerated, transported, and lost in the magnetosphere due to interplanetary shock wave interactions, coronal mass ejection impacts, and high-speed solar wind streams. The new data have shown especially how dayside processes play a key role in electron acceleration and loss processes.

  1. Analysis of the passage of a spacecraft between the Van Allen belts considering a low and high solar activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, M. R.; Rocco, E. M.

    2017-10-01

    The radiation in the Van Allen belts, produced by electrically charged particles, can cause damages to the electrical equipments of a satellite in orbit of Earth. In this paper, the Van Allen belts are modeled using the data from the space mission Van Allen Probes Mission. With this model, a study was made taking into account the passage of a spacecraft through the Van Allen belts estimating the absorbed radiation dose and the time that spacecraft remained in the radiation zones, considering the effects of a low and high solar activity.

  2. Memory and Nostalgia in Woody Allen’s "Midnight in Paris" (Memoria y nostalgia en "Medianoche en París" de Woody Allen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Eubanks

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: Woody Allen´s recent "Midnight in Paris" describes a Paris that has as many identities as there are observers to ascribe them. Indeed, there is no one, true Paris that everyone objectively shares; Paris, in Allen´s film, exists only in the phenomenology of the observer’s perception, a perception often marred and made unreliable by an escapist need to withdraw from the present in order to take shelter in a glorified, utopian past. Allen thus criticizes the nostalgic impulse, the "Golden-Age thinking" (as it is called in the film that forces various characters simultaneously to inhabit two worlds, that of a prelapsarian past and that of the fallen present. His protagonist´s journey back and forth between the present and the idealized Roaring Twenties is everyman´s journey, the sometimes surreal voyage between reality and imagination, between the world actually inhabited and the world artificially constructed for oneself. Yet it is when Allen´s protagonist finally discovers nostalgia within his nostalgia, a longing within his longing, that he recognizes the flawed thinking behind his almost mythologized perception of the past, reflecting everyman´s realization that the past is ultimately the expression of our present needs.Resumen: Uno de los films recientes de Woody Allen, "Midnight in Paris", describe un París que tiene tantas identidades como observadores hay a quienes atribuirlos. De hecho, no hay un París auténtico que compartan todos. París, en el film de Allen, solo existe en la fenomenología de la percepción del observador, una percepción con frecuencia dañada/arruinada y realizada poco fidedigna por una necesidad escapista a retirarse del presente para refugiarse en un pasado glorificado, utópico. Así Allen critica el impulso nostálgico, la idea del "pensamiento del siglo de oro" (tal y como viene a ser llamado en el film que obliga a que varios personajes residan en dos mundos al mismo tiempo: el de un mundo

  3. Theory of the Allen method and its practical bearing on pipe discharge measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guizerix, J.; Margrita, R.

    1976-01-01

    The Allen method for measurement of pipe discharge is based on a general relationship between discharge, instrument section volume and the first moment of the residence time distribution. An original demonstration of this standard chemical engineering relationship is given. The Allen method thus offers a very wide practical application scope. Requirements are limited to knowing the volume of the instrument section and the residence time distribution; the shape of the instrument section is immaterial. The information can be obtained for example by means of a system correlating the instrument section input and output signals [fr

  4. Diels-Alder reactions of allene with benzene and butadiene: concerted, stepwise, and ambimodal transition states.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pham, Hung V; Houk, K N

    2014-10-03

    Multiconfigurational complete active space methods (CASSCF and CASPT2) have been used to investigate the (4 + 2) cycloadditions of allene with butadiene and with benzene. Both concerted and stepwise radical pathways were examined to determine the mechanism of the Diels-Alder reactions with an allene dienophile. Reaction with butadiene occurs via a single ambimodal transition state that can lead to either the concerted or stepwise trajectories along the potential energy surface, while reaction with benzene involves two separate transition states and favors the concerted mechanism relative to the stepwise mechanism via a diradical intermediate.

  5. Diels–Alder Reactions of Allene with Benzene and Butadiene: Concerted, Stepwise, and Ambimodal Transition States

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Multiconfigurational complete active space methods (CASSCF and CASPT2) have been used to investigate the (4 + 2) cycloadditions of allene with butadiene and with benzene. Both concerted and stepwise radical pathways were examined to determine the mechanism of the Diels–Alder reactions with an allene dienophile. Reaction with butadiene occurs via a single ambimodal transition state that can lead to either the concerted or stepwise trajectories along the potential energy surface, while reaction with benzene involves two separate transition states and favors the concerted mechanism relative to the stepwise mechanism via a diradical intermediate. PMID:25216056

  6. Cooperative Metal–Ligand Catalyzed Intramolecular Hydroamination and Hydroalkoxylation of Allenes Using a Stable Iron Catalyst

    KAUST Repository

    El-Sepelgy, Osama

    2018-01-18

    A new iron-catalyzed chemoselective intramolecular hydroamination and hydroalkoxylation of the readily available α-allenic amines and alcohols to valuable unsaturated 5-membered heterocycles, 2,3-dihydropyrrole and 2,3-dihydrofuran, is reported. Effective selectivity control is achieved by a metal–ligand cooperative activation of the substrates. The mild reaction conditions and the use of low amounts of an air and moisture stable iron catalyst allow for the hydrofunctionalization of a wide range of allenes bearing different functional groups in good yields in the absence of base or any sensitive additives.

  7. Book Review: Vivien Allen, "Lady Trader – A biography of Mrs Sarah ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    VIVIEN ALLEN Lady Trader – A biography of Mrs Sarah Heckford (Second Edition) Protea Book House, Pretoria 2010. Soft cover, index, foreword, index of names of persons and places, 307 pp. Illustrations – photographs, paintings and drawings, 12 pp. ISBN 978-1-86919-337-7. R225 ...

  8. Regiocontrolled synthesis of polysubstituted pyrroles starting from terminal alkynes, sulfonyl azides, and allenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miura, Tomoya; Hiraga, Kentaro; Biyajima, Tsuneaki; Nakamuro, Takayuki; Murakami, Masahiro

    2013-07-05

    1-Sulfonyl-1,2,3-triazoles, readily prepared from terminal alkynes and sulfonyl azides, react with allenes in the presence of a nickel(0) catalyst to produce the corresponding isopyrroles. The initially produced isopyrroles are further converted to a wide range of polysubstituted pyrroles through double bond transposition and Alder-ene reactions.

  9. Gold-catalyzed oxycyclization of allenic carbamates: expeditious synthesis of 1,3-oxazin-2-ones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benito Alcaide

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available A combined experimental and computational study on regioselective gold-catalyzed synthetic routes to 1,3-oxazinan-2-ones (kinetically controlled products and 1,3-oxazin-2-one derivatives (thermodynamically favored from easily accessible allenic carbamates has been carried out.

  10. Mysterious Illnesses of Human Commodities in Woody Allen and Franz Kafka

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iris Bruce

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available The article examines correspondences between Woody Allen's film Zelig and texts by Franz Kafka. Both Leonard Zelig and Gregor Samsa ( The Metamorphosis suffer from mysterious illnesses which are multi-determined. Twentieth-century racial stereotypes are partially responsible for them; other causes lie in the commercialization of life in early twentieth-century society. Zelig's illness parallels the cultural trends and political movements of his time and becomes full-blown in the fascist movement. Zelig is therefore also a commentary on the cultural climate which helped bring about the rise of fascism. Kafka could not benefit from Allen's hindsight, but Kafka's representation of what turns human beings into commodities with no identity of their own nonetheless complements Allen's picture. Further parallels are drawn between Zelig and Kafka's hunger artist, the performing ape Rotpeter ("A Report to an Academy", and Karl Rossmann ( Amerika . All of these protagonists fail to retain a sense of selfhood in a commodified world. Yet the causes for their illnesses lie not in themselves but in society on the whole, and for this reason there is no cure for these human commodities. Unlike Kafka, though, Woody Allen grants Zelig a cure in the end, a cure which is possible only in the realm of fantasy.

  11. A generalized solution to a Cahn-Hilliard/Allen-Cahn system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose Luiz Boldrini

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available We study a system consisting of a Cahn-Hilliard and several Allen-Cahn type equations. This system was proposed by Fan, L.-Q. Chen, S. Chen and Voorhees for modelling Ostwald ripening in two-phase system. We prove the existence of a generalized solution whose concentration component is in $L^{infty}$.

  12. Tim Allen, one of Hollywood's top comedy actors with Rolf Landua from CERN

    CERN Document Server

    Laurent Guiraud

    2000-01-01

    Tim Allen ('Galaxy Quest', 'For Richer and Poorer', 'The Santa Clause', Voice of 'Buzz Lightyear', in Toy Story 1 and 2), visited CERN in July 2000. He has a keen interest in modern physics. In his last book "I'm not really here" he contemplates the funny and the intriguing aspects of quantum physics in his daily life.

  13. Automated Identification and Shape Analysis of Chorus Elements in the Van Allen Radiation Belts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sen Gupta, Ananya; Kletzing, Craig; Howk, Robin; Kurth, William; Matheny, Morgan

    2017-12-01

    An important goal of the Van Allen Probes mission is to understand wave-particle interaction by chorus emissions in terrestrial Van Allen radiation belts. To test models, statistical characterization of chorus properties, such as amplitude variation and sweep rates, is an important scientific goal. The Electric and Magnetic Field Instrument Suite and Integrated Science (EMFISIS) instrumentation suite provides measurements of wave electric and magnetic fields as well as DC magnetic fields for the Van Allen Probes mission. However, manual inspection across terabytes of EMFISIS data is not feasible and as such introduces human confirmation bias. We present signal processing techniques for automated identification, shape analysis, and sweep rate characterization of high-amplitude whistler-mode chorus elements in the Van Allen radiation belts. Specifically, we develop signal processing techniques based on the radon transform that disambiguate chorus elements with a dominant sweep rate against hiss-like chorus. We present representative results validating our techniques and also provide statistical characterization of detected chorus elements across a case study of a 6 s epoch.

  14. Activity Regulation by Heteromerization of Arabidopsis Allene Oxide Cyclase Family Members

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Otto, M.; Naumann, Ch.; Brandt, W.; Wasternack, Claus; Hause, B.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 5, č. 1 (2016), č. článku 3. ISSN 2223-7747 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LO1204 Institutional support: RVO:61389030 Keywords : Activity regulation * Arabidopsis allene oxide cyclase isoforms * Heteromerization Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology

  15. Application of allenylsilver(I) compounds in organic synthesis. A simple route to substituted allenes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westmijze, H.; Kleijn, H.; Bos, H.J.T.; Vermeer, P.

    1980-01-01

    Allenylsilver(I) compounds, prepared in situ by addition of alkylsilver(I)-lithium bromide complexes to butenynes, readily react with a variety of electrophiles. The produced compounds are usually almost pure allenes, but in some cases substantial amounts of the isomeric acetylenes are also formed.

  16. Bis-phosphine allene ligand: coordination chemistry and preliminary applications in catalysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanitcha, Avassaya; Damelincourt, Cecilia; Gontard, Geoffrey; Vanthuyne, Nicolas; Mouriès-Mansuy, Virginie; Fensterbank, Louis

    2016-05-21

    A 1,3-bis-diphenylphosphine allene can give rise to new coordination complexes with palladium, platinum and gold metals. These complexes were fully characterized by NMR, HRMS and X-ray diffraction analysis. For gold(i), the corresponding dinuclear complex has been used in a series of diagnostic catalytic reactions and gave promising preliminary results in asymmetric catalysis.

  17. Well-posedness for one-dimensional anisotropic Cahn-Hilliard and Allen-Cahn systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Makki

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Our aim is to prove the existence and uniqueness of solutions for one-dimensional Cahn-Hilliard and Allen-Cahn type equations based on a modification of the Ginzburg-Landau free energy proposed in [8]. In particular, the free energy contains an additional term called Willmore regularization and takes into account strong anisotropy effects.

  18. Precipitation of relativistic electrons of the Van Allen belts into the proton aurora

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jordanova, Vania K [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Miyoshi, Y [NAGOYA UNIV; Sakaguchi, K [NAGOYA UNIV; Shiokawa, K [NAGOYA UNIV; Evans, D S [SEC/NOAA; Albert, Jay [AFRL; Connors, M [UNIV OF ATHABASCA

    2008-01-01

    The Van Allen electron belts consist of two regions encircling the earth in which relativistic electrons are trapped in the earth's magnetic field. Populations of relativistic electrons in the Van Allen belts vary greatly with geomagnetic disturbance and they are a major source of damage to space vehicles. In order to know when and by how much these populations of relativistic electrons increase, it is important to elucidate not only the cause of acceleration of relativistic electrons but also the cause of their loss from the Van Allen belts. Here we show the first evidence that left-hand polarized electromagnetic ion cyclotron (EMIC) plasma waves can cause the loss of relativistic electrons into the atmosphere, on the basis of results of an excellent set of ground and satellite observations showing coincident precipitation of ions with energies of tens of keV and of relativistic electrons into an isolated proton aurora. The proton aurora was produced by precipitation of ions with energies of tens of keV due to EMIC waves near the plasma pause, which is a manifestation of wave-particle interactions. These observations clarify that ions with energies of tens of keV affect the evolution of relativistic electrons in the Van Allen belts via parasitic resonance with EMIC waves, an effect that was first theoretically predicted in the early 1970's.

  19. Energetic electron precipitation associated with pulsating aurora: EISCAT and Van Allen Probe observations

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Miyoshi, Y.; Oyama, S.; Saito, S.; Kurita, S.; Fujiwara, H.; Kataoka, R.; Ebihara, Y.; Kletzing, C.; Reeves, G.; Santolík, Ondřej; Clilverd, M.; Rodger, C. J.; Turunen, E.; Tsuchiya, F.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 120, č. 4 (2015), s. 2754-2766 ISSN 2169-9380 Institutional support: RVO:68378289 Keywords : pulsating aurora * EISCAT * Van Allen Probes * pitch angle scattering Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics Impact factor: 3.318, year: 2015 http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/2014JA020690/abstract

  20. Automatic control model of water filling system with Allen Bradley Micrologix 1400 PLC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harahap, R.; Adyatma, AF; Fahmi, F.

    2018-02-01

    Programmable Logic Controller or PLC today plays an important role in most industrial control systems. PLC usage can be encountered in almost all fields of industry, not only in the manufacturing world but also on many other things such as elevators in office buildings, hotels hospitals, and others. PLC is an electronic control tool that operates in logic that its programming can be modified with relative ease. As with any controller in general, the PLC processes input signals to further discharge output according to the desired program. PLC usage is very broad because of its high reliability, can be reprogrammed or modified with relative ease, and very helpful in the tracking troubleshooting. One type of existing PLC is Allen Bradley PLC. Allen Bradley PLC program is commonly used in various industries. PLC Allen Bradley (AB) has several types, and one of them is the type of Micrologic 1400. In this study we design a system as a comparison with the conventional system. For that to explore the use of a PLC program which will be supported by a simulator tool, including a program to RSLogic 500, how to programming, monitoring via RSView32, and modification. It is expected to understand the application aspect of operation and programming of this specific PLC and its potential. The purpose of this research is to design water filling automation system by using Allen Bradley Micrologic 1400 type 1766-L32BXB PLC, empowering the use of Allen Bradley Micrologic 1400 PLC and to regulate the desired process to obtain efficiency and effectiveness compared with conventional system arrangement using Relay.

  1. Allenols versus Allenones: Rhodium-Catalyzed Regiodivergent and Tunable Allene Reactivity with Triazoles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alcaide, Benito; Almendros, Pedro; Cembellín, Sara; Martínez Del Campo, Teresa; Palop, Guillermo

    2017-10-04

    2-Pyrrolines and 6-oxo-hexa-2,4-dienals have been prepared through the divergent reactions of 1-benzenesulfonyl-4-aryl-1,2,3-triazoles with functionalized allenes. The rhodium-catalyzed reactions between allenols and 1-benzenesulfonyl-4-aryl-1,2,3-triazoles yielded 2-pyrrolines. This transformation is compatible with the presence of aliphatic, aromatic, heterocyclic, amide, and halogen functional groups. Interestingly, a reactivity switch took place when the allene-tethered alcohol substrate was replaced by its ketone counterpart. When the rhodium-catalyzed reaction of 1-benzenesulfonyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3-triazole was performed with allenones, acyclic 6-oxo-hexa-2,4-dienals were stereoselectively formed as (2Z,4E) isomers. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. Electron acceleration in the heart of the Van Allen radiation belts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reeves, G D; Spence, H E; Henderson, M G; Morley, S K; Friedel, R H W; Funsten, H O; Baker, D N; Kanekal, S G; Blake, J B; Fennell, J F; Claudepierre, S G; Thorne, R M; Turner, D L; Kletzing, C A; Kurth, W S; Larsen, B A; Niehof, J T

    2013-08-30

    The Van Allen radiation belts contain ultrarelativistic electrons trapped in Earth's magnetic field. Since their discovery in 1958, a fundamental unanswered question has been how electrons can be accelerated to such high energies. Two classes of processes have been proposed: transport and acceleration of electrons from a source population located outside the radiation belts (radial acceleration) or acceleration of lower-energy electrons to relativistic energies in situ in the heart of the radiation belts (local acceleration). We report measurements from NASA's Van Allen Radiation Belt Storm Probes that clearly distinguish between the two types of acceleration. The observed radial profiles of phase space density are characteristic of local acceleration in the heart of the radiation belts and are inconsistent with a predominantly radial acceleration process.

  3. Quantitative mid-infrared spectra of allene and propyne from room to high temperatures

    KAUST Repository

    Es-sebbar, Et-touhami

    2014-11-01

    Allene (a-C3H4; CH2CCH2) and propyne (p-C3H4; CH3C2H) have attracted much interest because of their relevance to the photochemistry in astrophysical environments as well as in combustion processes. Both allene and propyne have strong absorption in the infrared region. In the present work, infrared spectra of a-C3H4 and p-C3H4 are measured in the gas phase at temperatures ranging from 296 to 510 K. The spectra are measured over the 580-3400 cm-1 spectral region at resolutions of 0.08 and 0.25 cm-1 using Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy. Absolute integrated intensities of the main infrared bands are determined at room temperature and compared with values derived from literature for both molecules. Integrated band intensities are also determined as a function of temperature in various spectral regions.

  4. Synthesis of propargylic and allenic carbamates via the C-H amination of alkynes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grigg, R David; Rigoli, Jared W; Pearce, Simon D; Schomaker, Jennifer M

    2012-01-06

    Propargylic amines are important intermediates for the synthesis of nitrogen-containing heterocycles. The insertion of a nitrene into a propargylic C-H bond has not been explored, despite the attention directed toward the Rh-catalyzed amination of other types of C-H bonds. In this communication, the conversion of a series of homopropargylic carbamates to propargylic carbamates and aminated allenes is described. © 2011 American Chemical Society

  5. Stereocontrolled Syntheses of Seven-Membered Carbocycles by Tandem Allene Aziridination/[4+3] Reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerstner, Nels C; Adams, Christopher S; Tretbar, Maik; Schomaker, Jennifer M

    2016-10-10

    A tandem allene aziridination/[4+3]/reduction sequence converts simple homoallenic sulfamates into densely functionalized aminated cycloheptenes, where the relative stereochemistry at five contiguous asymmetric centers can be controlled through the choice of the solvent and the reductant. The products resulting from this chemistry can be readily transformed into complex molecular scaffolds which contain up to seven contiguous stereocenters. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  6. New global loss model of energetic and relativistic electrons based on Van Allen Probes measurements

    OpenAIRE

    Ksenia Orlova; Yuri Shprits; Maria Spasojevic

    2016-01-01

    The Electric and Magnetic Field Instrument Suite and Integrated Science (EMFISIS) instrument on the Van Allen Probes provides a vast quantity of fully resolved wave measurements below L = 5.5, a critical region for radiation belt acceleration and loss. EMFISIS data show that plasmaspheric hiss waves can be observed at frequencies as low as 20 Hz and provide three-component magnetic field measurements that can be directly used for electron scattering calculations. Updated models of hiss proper...

  7. Wave-driven butterfly distribution of Van Allen belt relativistic electrons

    OpenAIRE

    Xiao, Fuliang; Yang, Chang; Su, Zhenpeng; Zhou, Qinghua; He, Zhaoguo; He, Yihua; Baker, D. N.; Spence, H. E.; Funsten, H. O.; Blake, J. B.

    2015-01-01

    Van Allen radiation belts consist of relativistic electrons trapped by Earth's magnetic field. Trapped electrons often drift azimuthally around Earth and display a butterfly pitch angle distribution of a minimum at 90° further out than geostationary orbit. This is usually attributed to drift shell splitting resulting from day–night asymmetry in Earth's magnetic field. However, direct observation of a butterfly distribution well inside of geostationary orbit and the origin of this phenomenon h...

  8. Electron acceleration and loss caused by wave-particle interactions in the Van Allen radiation belts

    OpenAIRE

    Kersten, Tobias

    2016-01-01

    Modern society relies substantially on satellite technology as it is involved in vital services like telecommunication services, Earth observation, navigation, and many more. There are more than 1000 operational satellites in Earth orbit and most of these spend at least some of their time in the harsh environment of the Van Allen radiation belts. The radiation belts are usually split into two regions, the inner and the outer radiation belt. While the inner belt is considered stable, the flux ...

  9. Electron acceleration in the Van Allen radiation belts by fast magnetosonic waves

    OpenAIRE

    Horne, Richard B.; Thorne, Richard M.; Glauert, Sarah A.; Meredith, Nigel P.; Pokhotelov, Dimitry; Santolik, Ondrej

    2007-01-01

    Local acceleration is required to explain electron flux increases in the outer Van Allen radiation belt during magnetic storms. Here we show that fast magnetosonic waves, detected by Cluster 3, can accelerate electrons between ∼10 keV and a few MeV inside the outer radiation belt. Acceleration occurs via electron Landau resonance, and not Doppler shifted cyclotron resonance, due to wave propagation almost perpendicular to the ambient magnetic field. Using quasi-linear theory, pitch angle and ...

  10. Explaining the dynamics of the ultra-relativistic third Van Allen radiation belt

    OpenAIRE

    Mann, I. R.; Ozeke, L. G.; Murphy, K. R.; Claudepierre, S. G.; Turner, D. L.; Baker, D. N.; Rae, I. J.; Kale, A.; Milling, D. K.; Boyd, A. J.; Spence, H. E.; Reeves, G. D.; Singer, H. J.; Dimitrakoudis, S.; Daglis, I. A.

    2016-01-01

    Since the discovery of the Van Allen radiation belts over 50 years ago, an explanation for their complete dynamics has remained elusive. Especially challenging is understanding the recently discovered ultra-relativistic third electron radiation belt. Current theory asserts that loss in the heart of the outer belt, essential to the formation of the third belt, must be controlled by high-frequency plasma wave-particle scattering into the atmosphere, via whistler mode chorus, plasmaspheric hiss,...

  11. A Neural Network Approach for Identifying Particle Pitch Angle Distributions in Van Allen Probes Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza, V. M.; Vieira, L. E. A.; Medeiros, C.; Da Silva, L. A.; Alves, L. R.; Koga, D.; Sibeck, D. G.; Walsh, B. M.; Kanekal, S. G.; Jauer, P. R.; hide

    2016-01-01

    Analysis of particle pitch angle distributions (PADs) has been used as a means to comprehend a multitude of different physical mechanisms that lead to flux variations in the Van Allen belts and also to particle precipitation into the upper atmosphere. In this work we developed a neural network-based data clustering methodology that automatically identifies distinct PAD types in an unsupervised way using particle flux data. One can promptly identify and locate three well-known PAD types in both time and radial distance, namely, 90deg peaked, butterfly, and flattop distributions. In order to illustrate the applicability of our methodology, we used relativistic electron flux data from the whole month of November 2014, acquired from the Relativistic Electron-Proton Telescope instrument on board the Van Allen Probes, but it is emphasized that our approach can also be used with multiplatform spacecraft data. Our PAD classification results are in reasonably good agreement with those obtained by standard statistical fitting algorithms. The proposed methodology has a potential use for Van Allen belt's monitoring.

  12. Tunable Metal-Catalyzed Heterocyclization Reactions of Allenic Amino Alcohols: An Experimental and Theoretical Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alcaide, Benito; Almendros, Pedro; Aragoncillo, Cristina; Gómez-Campillos, Gonzalo; Quirós, M Teresa; Soriano, Elena

    2016-08-10

    Controlled preparation of 2,5-dihydro-1H-pyrroles, 3,6-dihydro-2H-pyrans, and pyrroles has been achieved through switchable chemo- and regioselectivity in the metal-catalyzed heterocyclization reactions of allenic amino alcohols. The gold-catalyzed cycloisomerization reaction of α-amino-β-hydroxyallenes was effective as 5-endo cyclization by addition of amino functionality to the distal allene carbon to yield enantiopure 2,5-dihydro-1H-pyrroles, whereas their palladium-catalyzed cyclizative coupling reactions furnished 3,6-dihydro-2H-pyrans through a chemo- and regioselective 6-endo cycloetherification. Conversely, the gold-catalyzed heterocyclization reaction of β-amino-γ-hydroxyallenes generated exclusively pyrrole derivatives. These results could be explained through a chemo- and regioselective 5-exo aminocyclization to the central allene carbon followed by aromatization. Chemo- and regioselectivity depend on both linker elongation as well as the type of catalyst. This behavior can be justified by means of density functional theory calculations.

  13. Multipoint observations of energetic electron injections with MMS and Van Allen Probes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, D. L.; Fennell, J. F.; Blake, J. B.; Claudepierre, S. G.; Jaynes, A. N.; Baker, D. N.; Reeves, G. D.; Cohen, I. J.; Mauk, B.; Li, W.; Kletzing, C.; Torbert, R. B.; Burch, J. L.

    2016-12-01

    Between March and September of 2016, the orbits of NASA's Magnetospheric Multiscale (MMS) and Van Allen Probes missions overlapped on the dawn side of the near-equatorial magnetosphere, a region ideal for studying injections of 10s to 100s of keV electrons from the plasma sheet into the inner magnetosphere. During this period, the four MMS spacecraft also underwent a series of conjunctions with both Van Allen Probes, including several in which all six spacecraft were within 1 Earth radii of each other. From such multipoint observations, we investigate the connection between Earth's magnetotail and inner magnetosphere via dipolarization events and the energetic particle injections associated with them. Using the multipoint MMS data, we show how dipolarization fronts surge earthwards through the tail at 100s of kilometers per second, corresponding to strong electric fields that accelerate energetic particles and transport them earthward. Combining MMS with Van Allen Probes, we are able to estimate the transport of particles over larger spatial scales (macroscopic view) and multipoint observations of wave activity during close conjunctions (microscopic view). With such observations, we examine and report on new perspectives concerning the role of energetic electron injections as the seed populations of Earth's outer radiation belt electrons as well as the relationship between freshly injected electrons and chorus and ultra-low frequency (ULF) wave activity.

  14. Gradual Diffusion and Punctuated Phase Space Density Enhancements of Highly Relativistic Electrons: Van Allen Probes Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, D. N.; Jaynes, A. N.; Li, X.; Henderson, M. G.; Kanekal, S. G.; Reeves, G. D.; Spence, H. E.; Claudepierre, S. G.; Fennell, J. F.; Hudson, M. K.

    2014-01-01

    The dual-spacecraft Van Allen Probes mission has provided a new window into mega electron volt (MeV) particle dynamics in the Earth's radiation belts. Observations (up to E (is) approximately 10MeV) show clearly the behavior of the outer electron radiation belt at different timescales: months-long periods of gradual inward radial diffusive transport and weak loss being punctuated by dramatic flux changes driven by strong solar wind transient events. We present analysis of multi-MeV electron flux and phase space density (PSD) changes during March 2013 in the context of the first year of Van Allen Probes operation. This March period demonstrates the classic signatures both of inward radial diffusive energization and abrupt localized acceleration deep within the outer Van Allen zone (L (is) approximately 4.0 +/- 0.5). This reveals graphically that both 'competing' mechanisms of multi-MeV electron energization are at play in the radiation belts, often acting almost concurrently or at least in rapid succession.

  15. [A study on Horace N. Allen's medicine and recognition of Korean body].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Young Ah

    2011-12-31

    Je Jung Won was the first modern-style Government hospital built by the Korean King Ko-Jong in April 1885, and it was the medical missionary Horace Newton Allen(1858~1932) who made one of the greatest contributions to the establishment of the hospital. Allen was an American missionary. He graduated from Ohio Wesleyan University with a degree in theology in 1881, and completed one-yearcourse at Miami Medical College. In Korea and America he worked as a physician, a missionary, an American diplomatic minister to Korea and a Korean minister's secretary to America. While acting as a mediator between Korea and America, he knew and recorded the domestic and foreign situation of Korea during Gaehwagi(the civilized and enlightened age). Thus to study him is to understand Korea's Gaehwagi as well as to research American medical missionaries. During his stay in Korea(1884~1905), Allen steadily wrote diaries and letters about Korean politics, diplomacy, society, culture, and medicine. Thus his public/private record through diaries and letters(the quantity of these materials amounts to several thousands) supplements the Korean early modern era's historical record. However, until now these materials have received little scholarly attention from researchers except for a few historians of missionary work between Korea and America, or of Korean modern medicine. I intended to use these materials to suggest a new perspective on the study of Korean Gaehwagi. Allen, along with John W. Heron, who came to Seoul on June 21st 1885, treated about 10,460 Korean patients in the first year of the opening of JeJungWon. They made "the first annual report of the Korean Government Hospital". This report explained how Allen and Heron regarded and treated Korean patients. Allen's diaries, letters and other writings offer a realistic view of how the western people actually recognized the Korean people at that time. As a western doctor, Allen had an ambivalent attitude toward Korean medical concepts

  16. Rate Coefficients of the Reaction of OH with Allene and Propyne at High Temperatures

    KAUST Repository

    Es-sebbar, Et-touhami

    2016-09-28

    Allene (H2C═C═CH2; a-C3H4) and propyne (CH3C≡CH; p-C3H4) are important species in various chemical environments. In combustion processes, the reactions of hydroxyl radicals with a-C3H4 and p-C3H4 are critical in the overall fuel oxidation system. In this work, rate coefficients of OH radicals with allene (OH + H2C═C═CH2 → products) and propyne (OH + CH3C≡CH → products) were measured behind reflected shock waves over the temperature range of 843–1352 K and pressures near 1.5 atm. Hydroxyl radicals were generated by rapid thermal decomposition of tert-butyl hydroperoxide ((CH3)3–CO–OH), and monitored by narrow line width laser absorption of the well-characterized R1(5) electronic transition of the OH A–X (0,0) electronic system near 306.7 nm. Results show that allene reacts faster with OH radicals than propyne over the temperature range of this study. Measured rate coefficients can be expressed in Arrhenius form as follows: kallene+OH(T) = 8.51(±0.03) × 10–22T3.05 exp(2215(±3)/T), T = 843–1352 K; kpropyne+OH(T) = 1.30(±0.07) × 10–21T3.01 exp(1140(±6)/T), T = 846–1335 K.

  17. Magnetohydrodynamic modeling of three Van Allen Probes storms in 2012 and 2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Paral

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Coronal mass ejection (CME-shock compression of the dayside magnetopause has been observed to cause both prompt enhancement of radiation belt electron flux due to inward radial transport of electrons conserving their first adiabatic invariant and prompt losses which at times entirely eliminate the outer zone. Recent numerical studies suggest that enhanced ultra-low frequency (ULF wave activity is necessary to explain electron losses deeper inside the magnetosphere than magnetopause incursion following CME-shock arrival. A combination of radial transport and magnetopause shadowing can account for losses observed at radial distances into L = 4.5, well within the computed magnetopause location. We compare ULF wave power from the Electric Field and Waves (EFW electric field instrument on the Van Allen Probes for the 8 October 2013 storm with ULF wave power simulated using the Lyon–Fedder–Mobarry (LFM global magnetohydrodynamic (MHD magnetospheric simulation code coupled to the Rice Convection Model (RCM. Two other storms with strong magnetopause compression, 8–9 October 2012 and 17–18 March 2013, are also examined. We show that the global MHD model captures the azimuthal magnetosonic impulse propagation speed and amplitude observed by the Van Allen Probes which is responsible for prompt acceleration at MeV energies reported for the 8 October 2013 storm. The simulation also captures the ULF wave power in the azimuthal component of the electric field, responsible for acceleration and radial transport of electrons, at frequencies comparable to the electron drift period. This electric field impulse has been shown to explain observations in related studies (Foster et al., 2015 of electron acceleration and drift phase bunching by the Energetic Particle, Composition, and Thermal Plasma Suite (ECT instrument on the Van Allen Probes.

  18. Estimating Outer Zone Radial Diffusion Coefficients from Drift Scale Fluctuations in Van Allen Particle Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, T. P., III; Claudepierre, S. G.

    2017-12-01

    During geomagnetic storms, the Earth's outer radiation belt experiences enhanced radial transport. This transport occurs via phase-dependent radial displacements of particles, either by impulsive events or drift resonant waves. Because transport is phase dependent, it produces drift phase bunching, which can be observed with in situ particle detectors. We provide bounds on the radial diffusion coefficients derived from this drift phase structure as seen by NASA's Van Allen Probes. We compare these bounds to published radial diffusion coefficient models, particularly those derived independently from electromagnetic field observations.

  19. Cognition About the Creative Process – Interview With Dr Andrew P. Allen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew P. Allen

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available What is the relationship between the creative process and cognition and perception? Lynda Loughnane, a master’s student in Art and Process in Crawford College of Art and Design, Cork, Ireland interviewed Dr Andrew P. Allen about the subject. Areas covered include mindfulness, Type 1 and Type 2 thinking, stage theories of creativity, engagement with the art process and the artwork, phenomenology and consciousness with and without self report. The interview was constructed to cover a wide range of subject matter, so as to gather as much information as possible in layman's language about the cognitive process in relation to creativity and interaction with art.

  20. Explaining the diverse response of ultra-relativistic Van Allen belt electrons to solar wind forcing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mann, Ian; Ozeke, Louis; Murphy, Kyle; Claudepierre, Seth; Rae, Jonathan; Milling, David; Kale, Andy; Baker, Daniel

    2017-04-01

    The NASA Van Allen Probes have opened a new window on the dynamics of ultra-relativistic electrons in the Van Allen radiation belts. Under different solar wind forcing the outer belt is seen to respond in a variety of apparently diverse and sometimes remarkable ways. For example, sometimes a third radiation belt is carved out (e.g., September 2012), or the belts can remain depleted for 10 days or more (September 2014). More usually there is a sequential response of a strong and sometimes rapid depletion followed by a re-energization, the latter increasing outer belt electron flux by orders of magnitude on hour timescales during some of the strongest storms of this solar cycle (e.g., March 2013, March 2015). Such dynamics also appear to be always bounded at low-L by an apparently impenetrable barrier below L 2.8 through which ultra-relativistic electrons do not penetrate. Many studies in the Van Allen Probes era have sought explanations for these apparently diverse features, often incorporating the effects from multiple plasma waves. In contrast, we show how this apparently diverse behaviour can instead be explained by one simple dominant process: ULF wave radial transport. Once ULF wave transport rates are accurately specified by observations, and coupled to the dynamical variation of the outer boundary condition at the edge of the outer belt, the observed diverse responses can all be explained. In order to get good agreement with observations, the modeling reveals the importance of still currently unexplained fast loss in the main phase which decouples pre- and post-storm ultra-relativistic electron flux on hour timescales. Similarly, varying plasmasheet source populations are seen to be of critical importance such that near-tail dynamics likely play a crucial role in Van Allen belt dynamics. Nonetheless, simple models incorporating accurate transport rates derived directly from ULF wave measurements are shown to provide a single natural and compelling explanation

  1. Science Highlights from the RBSP-ECT Particle Instrument Suite on NASA's Van Allen Probes Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spence, Harlan

    2014-05-01

    The NASA Van Allen Probes mission includes an instrument suite known as the Radiation Belt Storm Probes (RBSP) - Energetic Particle, Composition, and Thermal Plasma (ECT) suite. RBSP-ECT contains a well-proven complement of particle instruments to ensure the highest quality measurements ever made in the radiation belts and the inner magnetosphere. The coordinated RBSP-ECT particle measurements, analyzed in combination with fields and waves observations and state of-the-art theory and modeling, provide new understanding on the acceleration, global distribution, and variability of radiation belt electrons and ions, key science objectives of NASA's Living With a Star program and the Van Allen Probes mission. The RBSP-ECT suite consists of three highly-coordinated instruments: the Helium Oxygen Proton Electron (HOPE) spectrometer, the Magnetic Electron Ion Spectrometer (MagEIS), and the Relativistic Electron Proton Telescope (REPT). Collectively these three instrument types cover comprehensively the full electron and ion spectra from one eV to 10's of MeV with sufficient energy resolution, pitch angle coverage and resolution, and with composition measurements in the critical energy range up to 50 keV and also from a few to 50 MeV/nucleon. All three instruments are based on measurement techniques proven in the radiation belts, then optimized to provide unambiguous separation of ions and electrons and clean energy responses even in the presence of extreme penetrating background environments. In this presentation, we summarize overall ECT science goals and then show scientific results derived from the ECT suite on the dual Van Allen Probes spacecraft to date. Mission operations began only in late October 2012, and we have now achieved significant results. Results presented here will include substantial progress toward resolving primary Van Allen Probes science targets, such as: the relative role of localized acceleration versus transport-generated particle acceleration

  2. Early Science Results From the NASA Van Allen Probes Mission RBSP-ECT Instrument Suite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spence, Harlan; Reeves, Geoff; Rbspect Team

    2013-04-01

    The NASA Van Allen Probes mission includes an instrument suite known as the Radiation Belt Storm Probes (RBSP) - Energetic Particle, Composition, and Thermal Plasma (ECT) suite. RBSP-ECT contains a well-proven complement of particle instruments to ensure the highest quality measurements ever made in the radiation belts and the inner magnetosphere. The coordinated RBSP-ECT particle measurements, analyzed in combination with fields and waves observations and state of-the-art theory and modeling, provide new understanding on the acceleration, global distribution, and variability of radiation belt electrons and ions, key science objectives of NASA's Living With a Star program and the Van Allen Probes mission. The RBSP-ECT suite consists of three highly-coordinated instruments: the Helium Oxygen Proton Electron (HOPE) spectrometer, the Magnetic Electron Ion Spectrometer (MagEIS), and the Relativistic Electron Proton Telescope (REPT). Collectively these three instrument types cover comprehensively the full electron and ion spectra from one eV to 10's of MeV with sufficient energy resolution, pitch angle coverage and resolution, and with composition measurements in the critical energy range up to 50 keV and also from a few to 50 MeV/nucleon. All three instruments are based on measurement techniques proven in the radiation belts, then optimized to provide unambiguous separation of ions and electrons and clean energy responses even in the presence of extreme penetrating background environments. In this presentation, we summarize overall ECT science goals and then show early scientific results derived from the ECT suite on the dual Van Allen Probes spacecraft. Mission operations began only in late October 2012, but we have already achieved significant early results. Results presented here will include substantial progress toward resolving primary Van Allen Probes science targets, such as: the relative role of localized acceleration versus transport-generated particle

  3. Coherent population transfer in multi-level Allen-Eberly models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wei; Cen, Li-Xiang

    2018-04-01

    We investigate the solvability of multi-level extensions of the Allen-Eberly model and the population transfer yielded by the corresponding dynamical evolution. We demonstrate that, under a matching condition of the frequency, the driven two-level system and its multi-level extensions possess a stationary-state solution in a canonical representation associated with a unitary transformation. As a consequence, we show that the resulting protocol is able to realize complete population transfer in a nonadiabatic manner. Moreover, we explore the imperfect pulsing process with truncation and display that the nonadiabatic effect in the evolution can lead to suppression to the cutoff error of the protocol.

  4. The Inner Magnetosphere Plasma Response to Interplanetary Shocks: Van Allen Probes HOPE Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winter, L. M.; Denton, M.; Ferradas, C.; Henderson, M. G.; Larsen, B.; Reeves, G.; Skoug, R. M.; Thomsen, M. F.

    2017-12-01

    The Van Allen Probes' Helium, Oxygen, Proton, and Electron (HOPE) sensors measure ion and electron populations in the plasmasphere, plasma sheet, and lower-energy ring current, providing unique observations at low energies (0.001-50 keV) and low L-shell (down to 1.5 RE). We use the capabilities of these two spacecraft to probe changes in the low energy particles in response to interplanetary (IP) shocks. We focus on changes in the plasma energies, composition, and pitch angle distributions following IP shocks and storm sudden commencements from 2012-2017 through a comparison of HOPE observations preceding and post shock.

  5. Effect of the orbital debris environment on the high-energy Van Allen proton belt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konradi, Andrei

    1988-01-01

    The lifetimes of high-energy (greater than 55 MeV) protons in the Van Allen radiation belt are calculated, assuming that in time the protons will collide with and be absorbed by particulate orbiting material. The calculations are based on the NASA/DoD Civil Needs Database for orbital debris (Gaines, 1966) and moderate assumptions of future space traffic. It is found that the lifetimes of high-energy protons below 1500 km will decrease, leading to a noticeable redution in their fluxes.

  6. The Flux and Energy Spectra of the Protons in the Inner Van Allen Belt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naugle, John E.; Kniffen, Donald A.

    1961-01-01

    A cylindrical stack of G-5 nuclear emulsions housed in the payload section of a four-stage research rocket was flown into the northern edge of the inner Van Allen belt on September 19, 1960. The experimental design permitted, for the first time, measurements of the particle fluxes and energy spectra as functions of position along the rocket trajectory. Eight points along the trajectory have been selected for analysis. Results are presented herein for three of these points, and they are discussed in the light of various theories on the trapped radiation.

  7. Generation of EMIC Waves Observed by Van Allen Probes at Low L-shells of Earth's Magnetosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamayunov, K. V.; Zhang, J.; Saikin, A.; Rassoul, H.

    2017-12-01

    In a multi-ion magnetospheric plasma, where the major species are H+, He+, and O+, the He-band of electromagnetic ion cyclotron (EMIC) waves is the dominant band observed in the inner magnetosphere, and waves are generally quasi-field-aligned inside the geostationary orbit. Almost all the satellite-based studies of EMIC waves before Van Allen Probes, however, have not reported waves below L 3.5. There is probably only one exception from the Akebono satellite where both the H-band and He-band EMIC waves were observed at L 2. The situation has changed dramatically after two Van Allen Probes spacecraft were launched on 30 August, 2012, and many EMIC wave events have been observed below L=4. The Van Allen Probes observations confirm that the He-band of EMIC waves is a dominant band in the inner magnetosphere, but the observation of the He-band waves below L=4 is a new and quite unexpected result compared to our knowledge about EMIC waves before the Van Allen Probes era. In addition, observations show that almost all the He-band EMIC waves are linearly polarized in the region L field, and energetic ion distribution functions will be taken from the Van Allen Probes observations during the EMIC wave event to calculate growth rates of EMIC waves. We will then identify the energetic ions responsible for instability, frequencies and normals generated, and physical mechanism of instability.

  8. Automatic registration of imaging mass spectrometry data to the Allen Brain Atlas transcriptome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdelmoula, Walid M.; Carreira, Ricardo J.; Shyti, Reinald; Balluff, Benjamin; Tolner, Else; van den Maagdenberg, Arn M. J. M.; Lelieveldt, B. P. F.; McDonnell, Liam; Dijkstra, Jouke

    2014-03-01

    Imaging Mass Spectrometry (IMS) is an emerging molecular imaging technology that provides spatially resolved information on biomolecular structures; each image pixel effectively represents a molecular mass spectrum. By combining the histological images and IMS-images, neuroanatomical structures can be distinguished based on their biomolecular features as opposed to morphological features. The combination of IMS data with spatially resolved gene expression maps of the mouse brain, as provided by the Allen Mouse Brain atlas, would enable comparative studies of spatial metabolic and gene expression patterns in life-sciences research and biomarker discovery. As such, it would be highly desirable to spatially register IMS slices to the Allen Brain Atlas (ABA). In this paper, we propose a multi-step automatic registration pipeline to register ABA histology to IMS- images. Key novelty of the method is the selection of the best reference section from the ABA, based on pre-processed histology sections. First, we extracted a hippocampus-specific geometrical feature from the given experimental histological section to initially localize it among the ABA sections. Then, feature-based linear registration is applied to the initially localized section and its two neighbors in the ABA to select the most similar reference section. A non-rigid registration yields a one-to-one mapping of the experimental IMS slice to the ABA. The pipeline was applied on 6 coronal sections from two mouse brains, showing high anatomical correspondence, demonstrating the feasibility of complementing biomolecule distributions from individual mice with the genome-wide ABA transcriptome.

  9. Genetic diversity and structure in the Endangered Allen Cays Rock Iguana, Cyclura cychlura inornata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea C. Aplasca

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The Endangered Allen Cays Rock Iguana (Cyclura cychlura inornata is endemic to the Allen Cays, a tiny cluster of islands in the Bahamas. Naturally occurring populations exist on only two cays (<4 ha each. However, populations of unknown origin were recently discovered on four additional cays. To investigate patterns of genetic variation among these populations, we analyzed nuclear and mitochondrial markers for 268 individuals. Analysis of three mitochondrial gene regions (2,328 bp and data for eight nuclear microsatellite loci indicated low genetic diversity overall. Estimates of effective population sizes based on multilocus genotypes were also extremely low. Despite low diversity, significant population structuring and variation in genetic diversity measures were detected among cays. Genetic data confirm the source population for an experimentally translocated population while raising concerns regarding other, unauthorized, translocations. Reduced heterozygosity is consistent with a documented historical population decline due to overharvest. This study provides the first range-wide genetic analysis of this subspecies. We suggest strategies to maximize genetic diversity during ongoing recovery including additional translocations to establish assurance populations and additional protective measures for the two remaining natural populations.

  10. Genetic diversity and structure in the Endangered Allen Cays Rock Iguana, Cyclura cychlura inornata

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aplasca, Andrea C.; Iverson, John B.; Welch, Mark E.; Colosimo, Giuliano

    2016-01-01

    The Endangered Allen Cays Rock Iguana (Cyclura cychlura inornata) is endemic to the Allen Cays, a tiny cluster of islands in the Bahamas. Naturally occurring populations exist on only two cays (<4 ha each). However, populations of unknown origin were recently discovered on four additional cays. To investigate patterns of genetic variation among these populations, we analyzed nuclear and mitochondrial markers for 268 individuals. Analysis of three mitochondrial gene regions (2,328 bp) and data for eight nuclear microsatellite loci indicated low genetic diversity overall. Estimates of effective population sizes based on multilocus genotypes were also extremely low. Despite low diversity, significant population structuring and variation in genetic diversity measures were detected among cays. Genetic data confirm the source population for an experimentally translocated population while raising concerns regarding other, unauthorized, translocations. Reduced heterozygosity is consistent with a documented historical population decline due to overharvest. This study provides the first range-wide genetic analysis of this subspecies. We suggest strategies to maximize genetic diversity during ongoing recovery including additional translocations to establish assurance populations and additional protective measures for the two remaining natural populations. PMID:26989628

  11. Book review: The man who saved the whooping crane: The Robert Porter Allen story

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Sammy L.

    2013-01-01

    Kathleen Kaska has done a remarkable job of capturing the life of Robert Porter Allen, truly one of the premier biologist/conservationists of the twentieth century. Allen, born in 1905, grew up reading outdoor adventure books and playing in the woods of northern Pennsylvania with his brother. At a young age, he was encouraged to join the Junior Audubon club and his passion for ornithology soon crystallized. He attended Lafayette College to study ornithology, but he was disinterested in academics and fared poorly. He dropped out after two years and joined the Merchant Marines. Not an auspicious beginning for such a highly respected scientist and conservationist! Soon, however, he landed a librarian job with Audubon and his diligence, acumen, and communication skills allowed him to take more and more responsibilities. He became one of the youngest Audubon sanctuary directors ever appointed, and he was also able to secure a fellowship through Cornell to work on Roseate Spoonbills (Platalea ajaja). Audubon later appointed him to lead their Whooping Crane (Grus americana) studies.

  12. An impenetrable barrier to ultrarelativistic electrons in the Van Allen radiation belts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, D N; Jaynes, A N; Hoxie, V C; Thorne, R M; Foster, J C; Li, X; Fennell, J F; Wygant, J R; Kanekal, S G; Erickson, P J; Kurth, W; Li, W; Ma, Q; Schiller, Q; Blum, L; Malaspina, D M; Gerrard, A; Lanzerotti, L J

    2014-11-27

    Early observations indicated that the Earth's Van Allen radiation belts could be separated into an inner zone dominated by high-energy protons and an outer zone dominated by high-energy electrons. Subsequent studies showed that electrons of moderate energy (less than about one megaelectronvolt) often populate both zones, with a deep 'slot' region largely devoid of particles between them. There is a region of dense cold plasma around the Earth known as the plasmasphere, the outer boundary of which is called the plasmapause. The two-belt radiation structure was explained as arising from strong electron interactions with plasmaspheric hiss just inside the plasmapause boundary, with the inner edge of the outer radiation zone corresponding to the minimum plasmapause location. Recent observations have revealed unexpected radiation belt morphology, especially at ultrarelativistic kinetic energies (more than five megaelectronvolts). Here we analyse an extended data set that reveals an exceedingly sharp inner boundary for the ultrarelativistic electrons. Additional, concurrently measured data reveal that this barrier to inward electron radial transport does not arise because of a physical boundary within the Earth's intrinsic magnetic field, and that inward radial diffusion is unlikely to be inhibited by scattering by electromagnetic transmitter wave fields. Rather, we suggest that exceptionally slow natural inward radial diffusion combined with weak, but persistent, wave-particle pitch angle scattering deep inside the Earth's plasmasphere can combine to create an almost impenetrable barrier through which the most energetic Van Allen belt electrons cannot migrate.

  13. Generation and effects of EMIC waves observed by the Van Allen Probes on 18 March 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, J.; Saikin, A.; Gamayunov, K. V.; Spence, H. E.; Larsen, B.; Geoffrey, R.; Smith, C. W.; Torbert, R. B.; Kurth, W. S.; Kletzing, C.

    2015-12-01

    Electromagnetic ion cyclotron (EMIC) waves play a crucial role in particle dynamics in the Earth's magnetosphere. The free energy for EMIC wave generation is usually provided by the temperature anisotropy of the energetic ring current ions. EMIC waves can in turn cause particle energization and losses through resonant wave-particle interactions. Using measurements from the Van Allen Probes, we perform a case study of EMIC waves and associated plasma conditions observed on 18 March 2013. From 0204 to 0211 UT, the Van Allen Probe-B detected He+-band EMIC wave activity in the post-midnight sector (MLT=4.6-4.9) at very low L-shells (L=2.6-2.9). The event occurred right outside the inward-pushed plasmapause in the early recovery phase of an intense geomagnetic storm - min. Dst = -132 nT at 2100 UT on 17 March 2013. During this event, the fluxes of energetic (> 1 keV), anisotropic O+ dominate both the H+ and He+ fluxes in this energy range. Meanwhile, O+ fluxes at low energies (magnetic field. EMIC wave growth rates are also calculated to evaluate the role of loss-cone distributed ring current ions in the EMIC wave generation.

  14. Cross-scale observations of the 2015 St. Patrick's day storm: THEMIS, Van Allen Probes, and TWINS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstein, J.; Angelopoulos, V.; De Pascuale, S.; Funsten, H. O.; Kurth, W. S.; LLera, K.; McComas, D. J.; Perez, J. D.; Reeves, G. D.; Spence, H. E.; Thaller, S. A.; Valek, P. W.; Wygant, J. R.

    2017-01-01

    We present cross-scale magnetospheric observations of the 17 March 2015 (St. Patrick's Day) storm, by Time History of Events and Macroscale Interactions during Substorms (THEMIS), Van Allen Probes (Radiation Belt Storm Probes), and Two Wide-angle Imaging Neutral-atom Spectrometers (TWINS), plus upstream ACE/Wind solar wind data. THEMIS crossed the bow shock or magnetopause 22 times and observed the magnetospheric compression that initiated the storm. Empirical models reproduce these boundary locations within 0.7 RE. Van Allen Probes crossed the plasmapause 13 times; test particle simulations reproduce these encounters within 0.5 RE. Before the storm, Van Allen Probes measured quiet double-nose proton spectra in the region of corotating cold plasma. About 15 min after a 0605 UT dayside southward turning, Van Allen Probes captured the onset of inner magnetospheric convection, as a density decrease at the moving corotation-convection boundary (CCB) and a steep increase in ring current (RC) proton flux. During the first several hours of the storm, Van Allen Probes measured highly dynamic ion signatures (numerous injections and multiple spectral peaks). Sustained convection after ˜1200 UT initiated a major buildup of the midnight-sector ring current (measured by RBSP A), with much weaker duskside fluxes (measured by RBSP B, THEMIS a and THEMIS d). A close conjunction of THEMIS d, RBSP A, and TWINS 1 at 1631 UT shows good three-way agreement in the shapes of two-peak spectra from the center of the partial RC. A midstorm injection, observed by Van Allen Probes and TWINS at 1740 UT, brought in fresh ions with lower average energies (leading to globally less energetic spectra in precipitating ions) but increased the total pressure. The cross-scale measurements of 17 March 2015 contain significant spatial, spectral, and temporal structure.

  15. Crystallization and Preliminary X-ray Analysis of Allene Oxide Synthase, Cytochrome P450 CYP74A2, from Parthenium argentatum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oxylipins are oxygenated derivatives of fatty acids and pivotal signaling molecules in plants and animals. Allene oxide synthase (AOS) is a key cytochrome P450 CYP74 enzyme involved in the biosynthesis of plant oxylipin jasmonates to convert 13(S)-hydroperoxide to allene oxide. Guayule (Parthenium a...

  16. EMIC waves covering wide L shells: MMS and Van Allen Probes observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Xiongdong; Yuan, Zhigang; Huang, Shiyong; Wang, Dedong; Li, Haimeng; Qiao, Zheng; Yao, Fei

    2017-07-01

    During 04:45:00-08:15:00 UT on 13 September in 2015, a case of Electromagnetic ion cyclotron (EMIC) waves covering wide L shells (L = 3.6-9.4), observed by the Magnotospheric Multiscale 1 (MMS1) are reported. During the same time interval, EMIC waves observed by Van Allen Probes A (VAP-A) only occurred just outside the plasmapause. As the Van Allen Probes moved outside into a more tenuous plasma region, no intense waves were observed. Combined observations of MMS1 and VAP-A suggest that in the terrestrial magnetosphere, an appropriately dense background plasma would make contributions to the growth of EMIC waves in lower L shells, while the ion anisotropy, driven by magnetospheric compression, might play an important role in the excitation of EMIC waves in higher L shells. These EMIC waves are observed over wide L shells after three continuous magnetic storms, which suggests that these waves might obtain their free energy from those energetic ions injected during storm times. These EMIC waves should be included in radiation belt modeling, especially during continuous magnetic storms. Moreover, two-band structures separated in frequencies by local He2+ gyrofrequencies were observed in large L shells (L > 6), implying sufficiently rich solar wind origin He2+ likely in the outer ring current. It is suggested that multiband-structured EMIC waves can be used to trace the coupling between solar wind and the magnetosphere.tract type="synopsis">le type="main">Plain Language SummaryThe spatial distribution of EMIC waves is an opening question. With combined observations of MMS and Van Allen Probes, this paper has reported EMIC waves covering wide L shells. Moreover, two-band structures separated in frequencies by local He2+ gyrofrequencies were observed in large L shells (L > 6), implying sufficiently rich solar wind origin He2+ likely in the outer ring current. The result is helpful to revealing the spatial distribution and role of He2+ in excitation of EMIC waves.

  17. Estudo da resistência do tendão do supra-espinal com pontos simples, duplos e Mason Allen Study on the resistance of the supraspinous tendon using simple, matress and mason allen stitches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Yukio Ikemoto

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: O objetivo do trabalho foi comparar a resistência entre os pontos simples, duplo e Mason-Allen modificado, utilizados para o reparo do manguito rotador, e verificar se há diferença significativa que justifique a utilização do ponto do tipo Mason-Allen modificado ao invés dos pontos simples ou duplo. MÉTODO: Retiramos tendões do músculo supra-espinal de 15 cadáveres humanos frescos (30 ombros, com a média de idade de 45 anos. Os testes foram realizados na máquina universal de ensaio mecânico Kratos® 500/2000 e os resultados submetidos aos testes estatísticos de t-student, análise de variância (ANOVA, comparação múltipla de Bonferroni e calculadas as correlações de Pearson. Os testes foram realizados ao nível de significância de 5%. RESULTADOS: Não houve diferença significativa com relação à idade, ao tamanho das amostras e deslocamento do tendão. A resistência variou com média de 127,50 N com o ponto simples, 163,95 N com o duplo e com o ponto de Mason-Allen modificado esta foi de 198,45 N. CONCLUSÃO: não existe diferença da resistência no tendão quanto à falha na interface sutura - tendão comparando-se o ponto duplo com o Mason-Allen modificado e os pontos simples e duplo, porém há diferença quando comparados os pontos simples e Mason-Allen modificado.OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to compare the rotator cuff tendon resistance at the interface tendon-suture using three different sorts of stitches (simple, mattress and modified Mason-Allen. METHODS: To do this, 30 rotator cuffs were totally dissected from 15 specimens, which were 45 years old on average. The tests were done using a Kratos® 500/2000 machine and the statistical analyses applied were the Student t-test, ANOVA test, Multiple Bonferroni Comparison, and Pearson's correlation coefficients; all the analyses used a significance level of 5%. RESULTS: No significant difference was observed regarding the age, sample sizes and

  18. Regioselective Rh-Catalyzed Hydroformylation of 1,1,3-Trisubstituted Allenes Using BisDiazaPhos Ligand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eshon, Josephine; Landis, Clark R; Schomaker, Jennifer M

    2017-09-15

    The efficient hydroformylation of 1,1,3-trisubstituted allenes is accomplished with low loadings of a Rh catalyst supported by a BisDiazaPhos (BDP) ligand. The ligand identity is key to achieving high regioselectivity, while the mild reaction conditions minimize competing isomerization and hydrogenation to produce β,γ-unsaturated aldehydes and their derivatives in excellent yields.

  19. Copper-Catalyzed Intermolecular Trifluoromethylazidation and Trifluoromethylthiocyanation of Allenes: Efficient Access to CF3-Containing Allyl Azides and Thiocyanates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Na; Wang, Fei; Chen, Pinhong; Ye, Jinxing; Liu, Guosheng

    2015-07-17

    A mild and efficient method for copper-catalyzed trifluoromethylazidation and trifluoromethylthiocyanation of allenes was explored. A series of CF3-containing allyl azides and thiocyanates were obtained with high yields and good stereoselectivities, which can be used for further transformation to some valuable compounds.

  20. Optique moderne et post-moderne dans la composition d'images transculturelles dans trois films de Woody Allen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadia Fuchs

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Avec le personnage récurrent juif new-yorkais névrosé plus ou moins autobiographique, les films de Woody Allen ont créé, volontairement ou pas, leur propre mythologie et un genre à part entière composé de codes que le spectateur décrypte instantanément. Pourtant, Woody Allen est surtout un cinéaste post-moderne, analysant et déconstruisant les simulacres de son époque. Il est ainsi un passeur d'images retraçant l'histoire des arts modernes des XXe et XXIe siècles et de leurs stratégies énonciatives et réceptives.With the recurrent persona of the neurotic and more or less autobiographical Jewish New Yorker, Woody Allen's films have created, willingly or not, their own mythology and a specific genre made up of codes readily accessible to the spectator. However, Woody Allen is more than anything else a postmodern filmmaker who analyses and deconstructs the simulacra of his time. He is thus a conveyor of images which retrace the history of modern art of the XXth and XXIth centuries, and of their strategies of enunciation and reception.

  1. New approach for exact solutions of time fractional Cahn-Allen equation and time fractional Phi-4 equation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tariq, Hira; Akram, Ghazala

    2017-05-01

    In this article, new exact analytical solutions of some nonlinear evolution equations (NLEEs) arising in science, engineering and mathematical physics, namely time fractional Cahn-Allen equation and time fractional Phi-4 equation are developed using tanh method by means of fractional complex transform. The obtained results are demonstrated by graphs for the new solutions.

  2. Michelle Allen-Emerson, ed. Sanitary Reform in Victorian Britain, 6 vols.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefania Gallini

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Los seis volúmenes publicados por Michelle Allen-Emerson (Profesora en el Departamento de Inglés de la Academia Naval Norteamericana como editora general, acerca de la “Reforma sanitaria en la Gran Bretaña victoriana”, no son el género de libros que el puntímetro de Colciencias premiaría o que las editoriales académicas tradicionales estarían prestas a publicar. Es, a toda luz, ilógico publicar una serie como la que es objeto de esta reseña, y se necesita visión editorial para entender porqué en cambio es necesario.

  3. Evidence for Nonlinear VLF Wave Physics from Van Allen Probe Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crabtree, C. E.; Tejero, E. M.; Ganguli, G.; Hospodarsky, G. B.; Kletzing, C.

    2015-12-01

    VLF waves in the whistler mode branch in the Earth's radiation belts play a critical role in both the acceleration and loss of energetic electrons. VLF waves are often observed with magnetic field amplitudes that are a significant fraction of the background magnetic field suggesting that nonlinear effects may be important. We develop new Bayesian time-series analysis tools to investigate magnetic and electric field data from the EMFISIS instrument on board the Van Allen Probes. We also validate the analysis techniques through laboratory experiments. We apply these tools to Chorus waves to show that the picture of a single coherent plane wave is insufficient to explain EMFISIS data and that nonlinear collective wave interactions play an important role in moderating Chorus wave growth. We also apply these techniques to show that nonlinear induced scattering by thermal electrons can play a significant role in controlling the propagation of large amplitude lightning generated whistlers inside the plasmasphere.

  4. Crossed molecular beam study of the reaction O(3P) + allene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmoltner, A. M.; Huang, S. Y.; Brudzynski, R. J.; Chu, P. M.; Lee, Y. T.

    1993-08-01

    The reaction between ground state (3P) oxygen atoms and allene was studied under single collision conditions using the crossed molecular beams method. Product angular distributions and the translational energy distribution were determined for each channel. Two major reaction channels could be identified unambiguously: the formation of carbon monoxide and ethylene following oxygen atom attack on the central carbon atom, and the formation of allenyloxy (formyl-vinyl) radical and hydrogen atom following oxygen atom attack on the terminal carbon atom. In addition, at least one other reaction channel, which could be identified as the production of vinyl and formyl radicals, occurs. This channel involves the decomposition of acrolein which is formed by the addition of oxygen to the terminal carbon atom, followed by 1,2-hydrogen migration.

  5. Rir Por Quê? ironia e pensamento, vida e morte em Kierkegaard e Woody Allen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ACSELRAD, Marcio

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The studies on humor and laughter have been growing in the past few years. Adored and divinized in ancient Greece, humor was later banished from the field of thought in Greece and, later on, with a modernity so serious and scientific. Nowadays it is being revisited strongly. The goal of the present article is to try and understand the phenomenon in recent times, mainly from the end of the nineteen century on, more specifically after Nietzsche and Kierkegaard have laid eyes upon the subject of irony. We intend to work both the philosophical and the communicational aspects, showing how they are bonded. We shall also use the cinema of Woody Allen to exemplify our main ideas.

  6. When Harry met Zuckerman: self-reflexivity and metafiction in Philip Roth and Woody Allen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomás Creus

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this essay is to compare the works of novelist Philip Roth and film-maker Woody Allen in what regards their treatment of the highly complex theme of the interrelations between fiction and reality. A comparative analysis of selected Roth’s novels and Allen’s films evinces their recurrent preoccupation with the creation of art and its implications, be it through the choice of writers or artists as main characters, be it through plots that mix real facts with invented ones and imaginary characters with real ones, be it through the use of autobiographical elements in a fictional discourse—all metafictional devices that call attention to the artist’s own process of creation.

  7. Statistical distribution of EMIC wave spectra: Observations from Van Allen Probes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, X.-J.; Li, W.; Thorne, R. M.; Angelopoulos, V.; Bortnik, J.; Kletzing, C. A.; Kurth, W. S.; Hospodarsky, G. B.

    2016-12-01

    It has been known that electromagnetic ion cyclotron (EMIC) waves can precipitate ultrarelativistic electrons through cyclotron resonant scattering. However, the overall effectiveness of this mechanism has yet to be quantified, because it is difficult to obtain the global distribution of EMIC waves that usually exhibit limited spatial presence. We construct a statistical distribution of EMIC wave frequency spectra and their intensities based on Van Allen Probes measurements from September 2012 to December 2015. Our results show that as the ratio of plasma frequency over electron gyrofrequency increases, EMIC wave power becomes progressively dominated by the helium band. There is a pronounced dawn-dusk asymmetry in the wave amplitude and the frequency spectrum. The frequency spectrum does not follow the commonly used single-peak Gaussian function. Incorporating these realistic EMIC wave frequency spectra into radiation belt models is expected to improve the quantification of EMIC wave scattering effects in ultrarelativistic electron dynamics.

  8. Explaining occurrences of auroral kilometric radiation in Van Allen radiation belts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Fuliang; Zhou, Qinghua; Su, Zhenpeng; He, Zhaoguo; Yang, Chang; Liu, Si; He, Yihua; Gao, Zhonglei

    2016-12-01

    Auroral kilometric radiation (AKR) is a strong terrestrial radio emission and dominates at higher latitudes because of reflection in vicinities of the source cavity and plasmapause. Recently, Van Allen Probes have observed occurrences of AKR emission in the equatorial region of Earth's radiation belts but its origin still remains an open question. Equatorial AKR can produce efficient acceleration of radiation belt electrons and is a risk to space weather. Here we report high-resolution observations during two small storm periods 4-6 April and 18-20 May 2013 and show, using a 3-D ray tracing simulation, that AKR can propagate downward all the way into the equatorial plane in the radiation belts under appropriate conditions. The simulated results can successfully explain the observed AKR's spatial distribution and frequency range, and the current results have a wide application to all other magnetized astrophysical objects in the universe.

  9. EMIC wave scale size in the inner magnetosphere: Observations from the dual Van Allen Probes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blum, L. W.; Bonnell, J. W.; Agapitov, O.; Paulson, K.; Kletzing, C.

    2017-02-01

    Estimating the spatial scales of electromagnetic ion cyclotron (EMIC) waves is critical for quantifying their overall scattering efficiency and effects on thermal plasma, ring current, and radiation belt particles. Using measurements from the dual Van Allen Probes in 2013-2014, we characterize the spatial and temporal extents of regions of EMIC wave activity and how these depend on local time and radial distance within the inner magnetosphere. Observations are categorized into three types—waves observed by only one spacecraft, waves measured by both spacecraft simultaneously, and waves observed by both spacecraft with some time lag. Analysis reveals that dayside (and H+ band) EMIC waves more frequently span larger spatial areas, while nightside (and He+ band) waves are more often localized but can persist many hours. These investigations give insight into the nature of EMIC wave generation and support more accurate quantification of their effects on the ring current and outer radiation belt.

  10. Wave-driven butterfly distribution of Van Allen belt relativistic electrons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Fuliang; Yang, Chang; Su, Zhenpeng; Zhou, Qinghua; He, Zhaoguo; He, Yihua; Baker, D N; Spence, H E; Funsten, H O; Blake, J B

    2015-10-05

    Van Allen radiation belts consist of relativistic electrons trapped by Earth's magnetic field. Trapped electrons often drift azimuthally around Earth and display a butterfly pitch angle distribution of a minimum at 90° further out than geostationary orbit. This is usually attributed to drift shell splitting resulting from day-night asymmetry in Earth's magnetic field. However, direct observation of a butterfly distribution well inside of geostationary orbit and the origin of this phenomenon have not been provided so far. Here we report high-resolution observation that a unusual butterfly pitch angle distribution of relativistic electrons occurred within 5 Earth radii during the 28 June 2013 geomagnetic storm. Simulation results show that combined acceleration by chorus and magnetosonic waves can successfully explain the electron flux evolution both in the energy and butterfly pitch angle distribution. The current provides a great support for the mechanism of wave-driven butterfly distribution of relativistic electrons.

  11. Van Allen Probes observations of oxygen cyclotron harmonic waves in the inner magnetosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usanova, M.; Malaspina, D.; Jaynes, A. N.; Bruder, R.; Mann, I. R.; Wygant, J. R.; Ergun, R.

    2016-12-01

    Waves with frequencies in the vicinity of the oxygen cyclotron frequency and its harmonics have been regularly observed on the Van Allen Probes satellites during geomagnetic storms. We focus on properties of these waves and present events from the main phase of two storms on November 1, 2012 and March 17, 2013 and associated dropouts of few MeV electron fluxes. They are electromagnetic, in the frequency range 0.5 - several Hz, and amplitude 0.1- a few nT in magnetic and 0.1- a few mV/m in electric field, with both the wave velocity and the Poynting vector directed almost parallel to the background magnetic field. These properties are very similar to those of electromagnetic ion cyclotron (EMIC) waves, which are believed to contribute to loss of ring current ions and radiation belt electrons and therefore can be also important for inner magnetosphere dynamics.

  12. Van Allen Probe Measurements of the Scale Sizes and Detailed Properties of EMIC Waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blum, L. W.; Bonnell, J. W.; Agapitov, O. V.; Mozer, F.

    2016-12-01

    Electromagnetic ion cyclotron (EMIC) waves are able to resonate with MeV electrons and cause precipitation loss of radiation belt electrons. EMIC waves can provide a strong source of electron pitch angle diffusion, but the waves are often quite localized - thus the spatial extents of these waves can have a large effect on their overall scattering efficiency. Using measurements from the dual Van Allen Probes, we characterize the spatial and temporal extents of EMIC wave active regions and how these depend on local time, radial distance, and wave properties (e.g. amplitude, frequency). Analysis of the detailed wave properties is also performed; we estimate the active region and coherence scales of EMIC waves and examine nonlinear features and parallel electric fields present in some events. These investigations help determine the nature of EMIC wave-particle interactions and support more accurate quantification of their effects on the outer radiation belt.

  13. "Her mouth is medicine": Beth Brant and Paula Gunn Allen's decolonizing queer erotics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burford, Arianne

    2013-01-01

    This article asserts the need to recognize the complexity of the theoretical work of more lesbian Native American writers, focusing specifically Beth Brant (Bay of Quinte Mohawk) and Paula Gunn Allen (Laguna Pueblo). Their poetry and short stories provide a theoretically nuanced analysis of how heteronormativity is intertwined in and dependent on colonialism, and thus a methodology for Queer Theory that requires an understanding of it in relation to colonialism. They reject heteronormative Pocahontas fantasies about Native women, offering a lesbian-based tactic for decolonization through the expression of erotic desire. This article demonstrates the endless possibilities for fierce queer resistance, revolutionary change, and healing from the trauma of genocide and the accompanying colonialist heteropatriarchal disciplining of Native women's bodies.

  14. The colour of blood in skin: a comparison of Allen's test and photonics simulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Välisuo, Petri; Kaartinen, Ilkka; Kuokkanen, Hannu; Alander, Jarmo

    2010-11-01

    The colour of the skin reflects many physiological and pathological states of an individual. Usually, the skin colour is examined by the bare eye alone. Several scaling systems have been developed to quantify the sensory evaluation of skin colour. In this work, the reflectance of the skin is measured directly using an objective instrument. Haemoglobin inside the dermal circulation is one of the key factors of skin colour and it also has a major role in the appearance of many skin lesions and scars. To quantitatively measure and analyse such conditions, the relation between the skin colour and the haemoglobin concentration in the skin needs to be resolved. To examine the effect of blood concentration on the skin colour, five Allen's tests were performed on 20 persons. The skin colour change was measured using a spectrophotometer by changing the blood concentration by the Allen's test. Light interaction with the skin was simulated with a Monte Carlo model, tuning the blood concentration parameter until the simulated and the measured spectra matched, yielding the relationship between the skin colour and the blood concentration. The simulation produced spectra similar to those measured. The change in the blood concentration in the simulation model and in the skin produced changes similar to the spectra. The reflectance of the skin was found to be a nonlinear function of the blood concentration. The relationship found between skin colour and blood concentration makes it possible to quantify those skin conditions expressed by blood volume better than plain colour. © 2010 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  15. Synthetic Empirical Chorus Wave Model From Combined Van Allen Probes and Cluster Statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agapitov, O. V.; Mourenas, D.; Artemyev, A. V.; Mozer, F. S.; Hospodarsky, G.; Bonnell, J.; Krasnoselskikh, V.

    2018-01-01

    Chorus waves are among the most important natural electromagnetic emissions in the magnetosphere as regards to their potential effects on electron dynamics. They can efficiently accelerate or precipitate electrons trapped in the outer radiation belt, producing either fast increases of relativistic particle fluxes or auroras at high latitudes. Accurately modeling their effects, however, requires detailed models of their wave power and obliquity distribution as a function of geomagnetic activity in a particularly wide spatial domain, rarely available based solely on the statistics obtained from only one satellite mission. Here we seize the opportunity of synthesizing data from the Van Allen Probes and Cluster spacecraft to provide a new comprehensive chorus wave model in the outer radiation belt. The respective spatial coverages of these two missions are shown to be especially complementary and further allow a good cross calibration in the overlap domain. We used 4 years (2012-2016) of Van Allen Probes VLF data in the chorus frequency range up to 12 kHz at latitudes lower than 20°, combined with 10 years of Cluster VLF measurements up to 4 kHz in order to provide a full coverage of geomagnetic latitudes up to 45° in the chorus frequency range 0.1fce-0.8fce. The resulting synthetic statistical model of chorus wave amplitude, obliquity, and frequency is presented in the form of analytical functions of latitude and Kp in three different magnetic local time sectors and for two ranges of L shells outside the plasmasphere. Such a synthetic and reliable chorus model is crucially important for accurately modeling global acceleration and loss of electrons over the long run in the outer radiation belt, allowing a comprehensive description of electron flux variations over a very wide energy range.

  16. New results from the Colorado CubeSat and comparison with Van Allen Probes data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, X.

    2013-05-01

    The Colorado Student Space Weather Experiment (CSSWE) is a 3-unit (10cm x 10cm x 30cm) CubeSat mission funded by the NSF, launched into a highly inclined (650) low-Earth (490km x 790km) orbit on 09/13/12 as a secondary payload under NASA's Educational Launch of Nanosatellites (ELaNa) program. CSSWE contains a single science payload, the Relativistic Electron and Proton Telescope integrated little experiment (REPTile), which is a simplified and miniaturized version of the Relativistic Electron and Proton Telescope (REPT) built at the Laboratory for Atmospheric and Space Physics (LASP) of University of Colorado for NASA/Van Allen Probes mission, which consists of two identical spacecraft, launched on 08/30/12, that traverse the heart of the radiation belts in a low inclination (100) orbit. REPTile is designed to measure the directional differential flux of protons ranging from 9 to 40 MeV and electrons from 0.5 to >3.3 MeV. Three-month science mission (full success) was completed on 1/05/13. We are now into the extended mission phase, focusing on data analysis and modeling. REPTile measures a fraction of the total population that has small enough equatorial pitch angles to reach the altitude of CSSWE, thus measuring the precipitating population as well as the trapped population. These measurements are critical for understanding the loss of outer radiation belt electrons. New results from CSSWE and comparison with Van Allen Probes data will be presented. The CSSWE is also an ideal class project, involving over 65 graduate and undergraduate students and providing training for the next generation of engineers and scientists over the full life-cycle of a satellite project.

  17. Van Allen Probes Mission Space Academy: Educating middle school students about Earth's mysterious radiation belts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, L.; Turney, D.; Matiella Novak, A.; Smith, D.; Simon, M.

    2013-12-01

    How's the weather in space? Why on Earth did NASA send two satellites above Earth to study radiation belts and space weather? To learn the answer to questions about NASA's Van Allen Probes mission, 450 students and their teachers from Maryland middle schools attended Space Academy events highlighting the Van Allen Probes mission. Sponsored by the Applied Physics Laboratory (APL) and Discovery Education, the events are held at the APL campus in Laurel, MD. Space Academies take students and teachers on behind-the-scenes exploration of how spacecraft are built, what they are designed to study, and introduces them to the many professionals that work together to create some of NASA's most exciting projects. Moderated by a public relations representative in the format of an official NASA press conference, the daylong event includes a student press conference with students as reporters and mission experts as panelists. Lunch with mission team members gives students a chance to ask more questions. After lunch, students don souvenir clean room suits, enjoy interactive science demonstrations, and tour APL facilities where the Van Allen Probes were built and tested before launch. Students may even have an opportunity to peek inside a clean room to view spacecraft being assembled. Prior to the event, teachers are provided with classroom activities, lesson plans, and videos developed by APL and Discovery Education to help prepare students for the featured mission. The activities are aligned to National Science Education Standards and appropriate for use in the classroom. Following their visit, student journalists are encouraged to write a short article about their field trip; selections are posted on the Space Academy web site. Designed to engage, inspire, and influence attitudes about space science and STEM careers, Space Academies provide an opportunity to attract underserved populations and emphasize that space science is for everyone. Exposing students to a diverse group of

  18. Since Yesterday: The Nineteen Thirties in America. By Frederick Allen Lewis. New York: Bantam Books, 1939. 292pp. Since Yesterday: The Nineteen Thirties in America. By Frederick Allen Lewis. New York: Bantam Books, 1939. 292pp.

    OpenAIRE

    Eileen Klink

    2008-01-01

    Material Covered: A compendium of events, people, places, and settings of the Thirties, this book offers information on: 1.chronology and impact of events on national and international levels–from the prelude to the Panic, September 3, 1929, through the outbreak of the war with Germany, September 3, 1939. 2.major political and business figures plus celebrities of the era–Hoover, Roosevelt, Hitler, Charles Lindbergh, Fred & Gracie Allen, etc. ...

  19. Chiroptical Properties and the Racemization of Pyrene and Tetrathiafulvalene-Substituted Allene: Substitution and Solvent Effects on Racemization in Tetrathiafulvalenylallene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masashi Hasegawa

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Dissymmetric 1,3-diphenylallene derivative 3 connected with 4,5-bis(methyl-thiotetrathiafulvalenyl and 1-pyrenyl substituents was prepared and characterized. The molecular structure was determined by X-ray crystallographic analysis. Optical resolution was accomplished using a recycling chiral HPLC, and its chiroptical properties were examined with optical rotation and electronic circular dichroism (ECD spectra. The title compound underwent photoracemization under daylight. This behavior was investigated in various solvents and compared with that of 1,3-bis(tetrathiafulvalenylallene (bis-TTF-allene derivative 2. The first-order rate plot of the intensity of the ECD spectra at a given time interval gave the rate of racemization. Mild racemization was observed in polar solvents, whereas a relatively fast rate was obtained in less polar solvents. In addition, the TTF groups of the allene also accelerate the racemization rate. These results suggest that the racemization mechanism occurs via a non-polar diradical structure.

  20. An extreme distortion of the Van Allen belt arising from the 'Hallowe'en' solar storm in 2003.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, D N; Kanekal, S G; Li, X; Monk, S P; Goldstein, J; Burch, J L

    2004-12-16

    The Earth's radiation belts--also known as the Van Allen belts--contain high-energy electrons trapped on magnetic field lines. The centre of the outer belt is usually 20,000-25,000 km from Earth. The region between the belts is normally devoid of particles, and is accordingly favoured as a location for spacecraft operation because of the benign environment. Here we report that the outer Van Allen belt was compressed dramatically by a solar storm known as the 'Hallowe'en storm' of 2003. From 1 to 10 November, the outer belt had its centre only approximately 10,000 km from Earth's equatorial surface, and the plasmasphere was similarly displaced inwards. The region between the belts became the location of high particle radiation intensity. This remarkable deformation of the entire magnetosphere implies surprisingly powerful acceleration and loss processes deep within the magnetosphere.

  1. An extreme distortion of the Van Allen belt arising from the `Hallowe'en' solar storm in 2003

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, D. N.; Kanekal, S. G.; Li, X.; Monk, S. P.; Goldstein, J.; Burch, J. L.

    2004-12-01

    The Earth's radiation belts-also known as the Van Allen belts-contain high-energy electrons trapped on magnetic field lines. The centre of the outer belt is usually 20,000-25,000km from Earth. The region between the belts is normally devoid of particles, and is accordingly favoured as a location for spacecraft operation because of the benign environment. Here we report that the outer Van Allen belt was compressed dramatically by a solar storm known as the `Hallowe'en storm' of 2003. From 1 to 10 November, the outer belt had its centre only ~10,000km from Earth's equatorial surface, and the plasmasphere was similarly displaced inwards. The region between the belts became the location of high particle radiation intensity. This remarkable deformation of the entire magnetosphere implies surprisingly powerful acceleration and loss processes deep within the magnetosphere.

  2. Intermolecular Hydroamination of Allenes with N-Unsubstituted Carbamates Catalyzed by a Gold(I) N-Heterocyclic Carbene Complex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinder, Robert E.; Zhang, Zhibin; Widenhoefer, Ross A.

    2009-01-01

    Reaction of 2,3-pentadienyl benzoate and benzyl carbamate with a catalytic 1:1 mixture of (NHC)AuCl and AgOTf in dioxane at 23 °C for 5 h led to isolation of (E)-4-(benzyloxycarbonylamino)-2-pentenyl benzoate in 84% yield as a single regio- and diastereomer. Gold(I)-catalyzed hydroamination was effective for a number of N-unsubstituted carbamates and a range of substituted allenes. PMID:18570376

  3. Allen's big-eared bat (Idionycteris phyllotis) documented in colorado based on recordings of its distinctive echolocation call

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, M.A.; Navo, K.W.; Bonewell, L.; Mosch, C.J.; Adams, Rick A.

    2009-01-01

    Allen's big-eared bat (Idionycteris phyllotis) inhabits much of the southwestern USA, but has not been documented in Colorado. We recorded echolocation calls consistent with I. phyllotis near La Sal Creek, Montrose County, Colorado. Based on characteristics of echolocation calls and flight behavior, we conclude that the echolocation calls described here were emitted by I. phyllotis and that they represent the first documentation of this species in Colorado.

  4. Identification of the source of quasiperiodic VLF emissions using ground-based and Van Allen Probes satellite observations

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Titova, E. E.; Kozelov, B. V.; Demekhov, A. G.; Manninen, J.; Santolík, Ondřej; Kletzing, C. A.; Reeves, G.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 42, č. 15 (2015), s. 6137-6145 ISSN 0094-8276 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP209/11/2280 Institutional support: RVO:68378289 Keywords : energetic electrons * quasiperiodic emissions * Van Allen Probes * VLF waves Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics Impact factor: 4.212, year: 2015 http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/2015GL064911/full

  5. Van Allen Probes Science Gateway: Single-Point Access to Long-Term Radiation Belt Measurements and Space Weather Nowcasting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romeo, G.; Barnes, R. J.; Ukhorskiy, A. Y.; Sotirelis, T.; Stephens, G.

    2017-12-01

    The Science Gateway gives single-point access to over 4.5 years of comprehensive wave and particle measurements from the Van Allen Probes NASA twin-spacecraft mission. The Gateway provides a set of visualization and data analysis tools including: HTML5-based interactive visualization of high-level data products from all instrument teams in the form of: line plots, orbital content plots, dynamical energy spectra, L-shell context plots (including two-spacecraft plotting), FFT spectra of wave data, solar wind and geomagnetic indices data, etc.; download custom multi-instrument CDF data files of selected data products; publication quality plots of digital data; combined orbit predicts for mission planning and coordination including: Van Allen Probes, MMS, THEMIS, Arase (ERG), Cluster, GOES, Geotail, FIREBIRD; magnetic footpoint calculator for coordination with LEO and ground-based assets; real-time computation and processing of empirical magnetic field models - computation of magnetic ephemeris, computation of adiabatic invariants. Van Allen Probes is the first spacecraft mission to provide a nowcast of the radiation environment in the heart of the radiation belts, where the radiation levels are the highest and most dangerous for spacecraft operations. For this purpose, all instruments continuously broadcast a subset of their science data in real time. Van Allen Probes partners with four foreign institutions who operate ground stations that receive the broadcast: Korea (KASI), the Czech republic (CAS), Argentina (CONAE), and Brazil (INPE). The SpWx broadcast is then collected at APL and delivered to the community via the Science Gateway.

  6. Statistical properties of plasmaspheric hiss derived from Van Allen Probes data and their Effects on radiation belt electron dynamics

    OpenAIRE

    Li, W; Ma, Q; Thorne, RM; Bortnik, J; Kletzing, CA; Kurth, WS; Hospodarsky, GB; Nishimura, Y

    2015-01-01

    ©2015. American Geophysical Union. Plasmaspheric hiss is known to play an important role in controlling the overall structure and dynamics of radiation belt electrons inside the plasmasphere. Using newly available Van Allen Probes wave data, which provide excellent coverage in the entire inner magnetosphere, we evaluate the global distribution of the hiss wave frequency spectrum and wave intensity for different levels of substorm activity. Our statistical results show that observed hiss peak ...

  7. Van Allen Probes, THEMIS, GOES, and Cluster observations of EMIC waves, ULF pulsations, and an electron flux dropout

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Sigsbee, K.; Kletzing, C. A.; Smith, C. W.; MacDowall, R.; Spence, H.; Reeves, G.; Blake, J. B.; Baker, D. N.; Green, J. C.; Singer, H. J.; Carr, C.; Santolík, Ondřej

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 121, č. 3 (2016), s. 1990-2008 ISSN 2169-9380 Grant - others:AV ČR(CZ) AP1401 Program:Akademická prémie - Praemium Academiae Institutional support: RVO:68378289 Keywords : EMIC waves * ULF pulsations * electron flux dropouts * Dst effect * magnetopause shadowing * Van Allen Probes Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics Impact factor: 2.733, year: 2016 http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/2014JA020877/full

  8. Modeling the Proton Radiation Belt With Van Allen Probes Relativistic Electron-Proton Telescope Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selesnick, R. S.; Baker, D. N.; Kanekal, S. G.; Hoxie, V. C.; Li, X.

    2018-01-01

    An empirical model of the proton radiation belt is constructed from data taken during 2013-2017 by the Relativistic Electron-Proton Telescopes on the Van Allen Probes satellites. The model intensity is a function of time, kinetic energy in the range 18-600 MeV, equatorial pitch angle, and L shell of proton guiding centers. Data are selected, on the basis of energy deposits in each of the nine silicon detectors, to reduce background caused by hard proton energy spectra at low L. Instrument response functions are computed by Monte Carlo integration, using simulated proton paths through a simplified structural model, to account for energy loss in shielding material for protons outside the nominal field of view. Overlap of energy channels, their wide angular response, and changing satellite orientation require the model dependencies on all three independent variables be determined simultaneously. This is done by least squares minimization with a customized steepest descent algorithm. Model uncertainty accounts for statistical data error and systematic error in the simulated instrument response. A proton energy spectrum is also computed from data taken during the 8 January 2014 solar event, to illustrate methods for the simpler case of an isotropic and homogeneous model distribution. Radiation belt and solar proton results are compared to intensities computed with a simplified, on-axis response that can provide a good approximation under limited circumstances.

  9. Space Weather Operation at KASI With Van Allen Probes Beacon Signals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jongkil; Kim, Kyung-Chan; Giuseppe, Romeo; Ukhorskiy, Sasha; Sibeck, David; Kessel, Ramona; Mauk, Barry; Giles, Barbara; Gu, Bon-Jun; Lee, Hyesook; Park, Young-Deuk; Lee, Jaejin

    2018-02-01

    The Van Allen Probes (VAPs) are the only modern National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) spacecraft broadcasting real-time data on the Earth's radiation belts for space weather operations. Since 2012, the Korea Astronomy and Space Science Institute (KASI) has contributed to the receipt of these data via a 7 m satellite-tracking antenna and used these beacon data for space weather operations. An approximately 15 min period is required from measurement to acquisition of Level-1 data. In this paper, we demonstrate the use of VAP data for monitoring space weather conditions at geostationary orbit (GEO) by highlighting the Saint Patrick's Day storm of 2015. During that storm, Probe-A observed a significant increase in the relativistic electron flux at 3 RE. Those electrons diffused outward resulting in a large increase of the electron flux >2 MeV at GEO, which potentially threatened satellite operations. Based on this study, we conclude that the combination of VAP data and National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration-Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (NOAA-GOES) data can provide improved space environment information to geostationary satellite operators. In addition, the findings obtained indicate that more data-receiving sites would be necessary and data connections improved if this or a similar system were to be used as an operational data service.

  10. Application of New Chorus Wave Model from Van Allen Probe Observations in Earth's Radiation Belt Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, D.; Shprits, Y.; Spasojevic, M.; Zhu, H.; Aseev, N.; Drozdov, A.; Kellerman, A. C.

    2017-12-01

    In situ satellite observations, theoretical studies and model simulations suggested that chorus waves play a significant role in the dynamic evolution of relativistic electrons in the Earth's radiation belts. In this study, we developed new wave frequency and amplitude models that depend on Magnetic Local Time (MLT)-, L-shell, latitude- and geomagnetic conditions indexed by Kp for upper-band and lower-band chorus waves using measurements from the Electric and Magnetic Field Instrument Suite and Integrated Science (EMFISIS) instrument onboard the Van Allen Probes. Utilizing the quasi-linear full diffusion code, we calculated corresponding diffusion coefficients in each MLT sector (1 hour resolution) for upper-band and lower-band chorus waves according to the new developed wave models. Compared with former parameterizations of chorus waves, the new parameterizations result in differences in diffusion coefficients that depend on energy and pitch angle. Utilizing obtained diffusion coefficients, lifetime of energetic electrons is parameterized accordingly. In addition, to investigate effects of obtained diffusion coefficients in different MLT sectors and under different geomagnetic conditions, we performed simulations using four-dimensional Versatile Electron Radiation Belt simulations and validated results against observations.

  11. Suppression of allene oxide synthase 3 in potato increases degree of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal colonization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morcillo, Rafael Jorge León; Navarrete, María Isabel Tamayo; Bote, Juan Antonio Ocampo; Monguio, Salomé Prat; García-Garrido, José Manuel

    2016-01-15

    Arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) is a mutually beneficial interaction among higher plants and soil fungi of the phylum Glomeromycota. Numerous studies have pointed that jasmonic acid plays an important role in the development of the intraradical fungus. This compound belongs to a group of biologically active compounds known as oxylipins which are derived from the oxidative metabolism of polyunsaturated fatty acids. Studies of the regulatory role played by oxylipins in AM colonization have generally focused on jasmonates, while few studies exist on the 9-LOX pathway of oxylipins during AM formation. Here, the cDNA of Allene oxide synthase 3 (AOS3), a key enzyme in the 9-LOX pathway, was used in the RNA interference (RNAi) system to transform potato plants in order to suppress its expression. Results show increases in AOS3 gene expression and 9-LOX products in roots of wild type potato mycorrhizal plants. The suppression of AOS3 gene expression increases the percentage of root with mycorrhizal colonization at early stages of AM formation. AOS3 RNA interference lead to an induction of LOXA and 13-LOX genes, a reduction in AOS3 derived 9-LOX oxylipin compounds and an increase in jasmonic acid content, suggesting compensation between 9 and 13-LOX pathways. The results in a whole support the hypothesis of a regulatory role for the 9-LOX oxylipin pathway during mycorrhization. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  12. Cellular localization and detergent dependent oligomerization of rice allene oxide synthase-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoeun, Sereyvath; Kim, Jeong-Il; Han, Oksoo

    2015-01-01

    Allene oxide synthase-1 from Oryza sativa (OsAOS1) localizes to the chloroplast, but lacks a putative chloroplast targeting sequence typically found in dicot AOS. Here, kinetic parameters and the oligomerization state/subunit composition of OsAOS1 were characterized in vitro in the absence or presence of detergent micelles. The catalytic efficiency (k(cat)/K(m)) of OsAOS1 reached a maximum near the critical micelle concentration for polyoxyethylene 10 tridecyl ether. Native gel analysis showed that OsAOS1 exists as a multimer in the absence of detergent micelles. The multimeric form of OsAOS1 was stably cross-linked in the absence of detergents, while only monomeric OsAOS1 was detected in the presence of detergent micelles. Gel filtration analysis indicated that the oligomeric state of OsAOS1 depends strongly on the detergents and that the monomer becomes the predominant form in the presence of detergent micelles. These data suggest that the detergent-dependent oligomeric state of OsAOS1 is an important factor for the regulation of its catalytic efficiency.

  13. Propagation of Dipolarization Signatures Observed by the Van Allen Probes in the Inner Magnetosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohtani, S.; Motoba, T.; Gkioulidou, M.; Takahashi, K.; Kletzing, C.

    2017-12-01

    Dipolarization, the change of the local magnetic field from a stretched to a more dipolar configuration, is one of the most fundamental processes of magnetospheric physics. It is especially critical for the dynamics of the inner magnetosphere. The associated electric field accelerates ions and electrons and transports them closer to Earth. Such injected ions intensify the ring current, and electrons constitute the seed population of the radiation belt. Those ions and electrons may also excite various waves that play important roles in the enhancement and loss of the radiation belt electrons. Despite such critical consequences, the general characteristics of dipolarization in the inner magnetosphere still remain to be understood. The Van Allen Probes mission, which consists of two probes that orbit through the equatorial region of the inner magnetosphere, provides an ideal opportunity to examine dipolarization signatures in the core of the ring current. In the present study we investigate the spatial expansion of the dipolarization region by examining the correlation and time delay of dipolarization signatures observed by the two probes. Whereas in general it requires three-point measurements to deduce the propagation of a signal on a certain plane, we statically examined the observed time delays and found that dipolarization signatures tend to propagate radially inward as well as away from midnight. In this paper we address the propagation of dipolarization signatures quantitatively and compare with the propagation velocities reported previously based on observations made farther away from Earth. We also discuss how often and under what conditions the dipolarization region expands.

  14. Hydrogeochemical and stream sediment reconnaissance basic data for Brownsville-McAllen NTMS Quadrangles, Texas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-01-01

    Results of a reconnaissance geochemical survey of the Brownsville-McAllen Quadrangles, Texas are reported. Field and laboratory data are presented for 427 groundwater and 171 stream sediment samples. Statistical and areal distributions of uranium and possible uranium-related variables are displayed. Pertinent geologic factors which may be of significance in evaluating the potential for uranium mineralization are briefly discussed. Groundwater data indicate the most promising area for potential uranium mineralization occurs in the northwestern section of the quadrangles (Jim Hogg, Starr, and Zapata Counties), where waters are derived from the Catahoula Formation. These groundwaters have high concentrations of uranium, uranium associated elements, and low values for specific conductance. Another area with high uranium concentrations is in the southeastern portion of the survey area (Hidalgo, Cameron, and Willacy Counties). Shallow wells <10 m (30 ft) are numerous in this area and high specific conductance values may indicate contamination from extensive fertilization. Stream sediment data for the survey does not indicate an area favorable for uranium mineralization. Anomalous acid soluble uranium values in the southeastern area (Hidalgo, Cameron, and Willacy Counties) can be attributed to phosphate fertilizer contamination. Four samples in the western part of the area (western Starr County) have anomalously high total uranium values and low acid soluble uranium values, indicating the uranium may be contained in resistate minerals

  15. Charisma and Counterculture: Allen Ginsberg as a Prophet for a New Generation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaakov Ariel

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The cultural role of Allen Ginsberg does not fit a typical Weberian model of charisma. The avant-garde poet was an outstanding personality and possessed an unusual ability to affect people. He played a vital role in expanding the boundaries of personal freedom in America of the 1950s–1990s, blazing new paths for spiritual, communal and artistic expression. Serving as a father figure for the counterculture—a symbol of an alternative set of cultural norms, lifestyles and literary forms—Ginsberg was a charismatic counter-leader, with no clearly defined followers or movement. As a leader in a more liberated era, he offered energy, ideas, inspiration, and color, but no structure or authority. Instead he was a prophet of freedom, calling on people to express themselves openly, to expand and experiment. This role demanded charisma but of a different kind—one that was more spiritual and less organizational or hierarchical. This article follows Gary Dickson’s essay “Charisma, Medieval and Modern,” in offering a suggestive analysis of and supplement to Weber’s understanding of charisma. The article grapples with the concept of charisma in relation to a generation that resented rigid structures and authorities.

  16. Statistical Features of EMIC Waves Observed on Van Allen Probes in the Inner Magnetosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, D. Y.; Roh, S. J.; Cho, J.; Shin, D. K.; Hwang, J.; Kim, K. C.; Kurth, W. S.; Kletzing, C.; Wygant, J. R.; Thaller, S. A.

    2015-12-01

    Electromagnetic ion cyclotron (EMIC) waves are one of the key plasma waves that can affect charged particle dynamics in the Earth's inner magnetosphere. Knowledge of global distribution of the EMIC waves is critical for accurately assessing the significance of its interaction with charged particles. With the Van Allen Probes EMFISIS observations, we have surveyed EMIC events for ~2.5 years period. We have identified well-defined, banded wave activities only, as distinguished from broad band wave activities. We have obtained global distribution of occurrence of the identified waves with distinction between H- and He-bands. We compare it with previous observations such as THEMIS and CRRES. For the identified events we have drawn all the basic wave properties including wave frequency, polarization, wave normal angle. In addition, we have distinguished the EMIC events that occur inside the plasmasphere and at the plasmapause from those outside the plasmasphere. Finally, we have tested solar wind and geomagnetic dependence of the wave events. We give discussions about implications of these observations on wave generation mechanism and interaction with radiation belt electrons.

  17. Understanding the Mechanisms of Radiation Belt Dropouts Observed by Van Allen Probes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiang, Zheng; Tu, Weichao; Li, Xinlin; Ni, Binbin; Morley, S. K.; Baker, D. N.

    2017-10-01

    To achieve a better understanding of the dominant loss mechanisms for the rapid dropouts of radiation belt electrons, three distinct radiation belt dropout events observed by Van Allen Probes are comprehensively investigated. For each event, observations of the pitch angle distribution of electron fluxes and electromagnetic ion cyclotron (EMIC) waves are analyzed to determine the effects of atmospheric precipitation loss due to pitch angle scattering induced by EMIC waves. Last closed drift shells (LCDS) and magnetopause standoff position are obtained to evaluate the effects of magnetopause shadowing loss. Evolution of electron phase space density (PSD) versus L* profiles and the μ and K (first and second adiabatic invariants) dependence of the electron PSD drops are calculated to further analyze the dominant loss mechanisms at different L*. Our findings suggest that these radiation belt dropouts can be classified into distinct classes in terms of dominant loss mechanisms: magnetopause shadowing dominant, EMIC wave scattering dominant, and combination of both mechanisms. Different from previous understanding, our results show that magnetopause shadowing can deplete electrons at L* 4. Compared to the magnetopause standoff position, it is more reliable to use LCDS to evaluate the impact of magnetopause shadowing. The evolution of electron PSD versus L* profile and the μ, K dependence of electron PSD drops can provide critical and credible clues regarding the mechanisms responsible for electron losses at different L* over the outer radiation belt.

  18. Van Allen Probes observations of whistler-mode chorus with long-lived oscillating tones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Zhonglei; Su, Zhenpeng; Chen, Lunjin; Zheng, Huinan; Wang, Yuming; Wang, Shui

    2017-06-01

    Whistler-mode chorus plays an important role in the radiation belt electron dynamics. In the frequency-time spectrogram, chorus often appears as a hiss-like band and/or a series of short-lived (up to ˜1 s) discrete elements. Here we present some rarely reported chorus emissions with long-lived (up to 25 s) oscillating tones observed by the Van Allen Probes in the dayside (MLT ˜9-14) midlatitude (|MLAT|>15°) region. An oscillating tone can behave either regularly or irregularly and can even transform into a nearly constant tone (with a relatively narrow frequency sweep range). We suggest that these highly coherent oscillating tones were generated naturally rather than being related to some artificial VLF transmitters. Possible scenarios for the generation of the oscillating tone chorus are as follows: (1) being nonlinearly triggered by the accompanying hiss-like bands or (2) being caused by the modulation of the wave source. The details of the generation and evolution of such a long-lived oscillating tone chorus need to be investigated both theoretically and experimentally in the future.

  19. Observations Directly Linking Relativistic Electron Microbursts to Whistler Mode Chorus: Van Allen Probes and FIREBIRD II

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breneman, A. W.; Crew, A.; Sample, J.; Klumpar, D.; Johnson, A.; Agapitov, O.; Shumko, M.; Turner, D. L.; Santolik, O.; Wygant, J. R.; Cattell, C. A.; Thaller, S.; Blake, B.; Spence, H.; Kletzing, C. A.

    2017-11-01

    We present observations that provide the strongest evidence yet that discrete whistler mode chorus packets cause relativistic electron microbursts. On 20 January 2016 near 1944 UT the low Earth orbiting CubeSat Focused Investigations of Relativistic Electron Bursts: Intensity, Range, and Dynamics (FIREBIRD II) observed energetic microbursts (near L = 5.6 and MLT = 10.5) from its lower limit of 220 keV, to 1 MeV. In the outer radiation belt and magnetically conjugate, Van Allen Probe A observed rising-tone, lower band chorus waves with durations and cadences similar to the microbursts. No other waves were observed. This is the first time that chorus and microbursts have been simultaneously observed with a separation smaller than a chorus packet. A majority of the microbursts do not have the energy dispersion expected for trapped electrons bouncing between mirror points. This confirms that the electrons are rapidly (nonlinearly) scattered into the loss cone by a coherent interaction with the large amplitude (up to ˜900 pT) chorus. Comparison of observed time-averaged microburst flux and estimated total electron drift shell content at L = 5.6 indicate that microbursts may represent a significant source of energetic electron loss in the outer radiation belt.

  20. Chorus whistler wave source scales as determined from multipoint Van Allen Probe measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agapitov, Oleksiy; Mozer, Forrest; Blum, Lauren; Bonnell, John; Wygant, John

    2017-04-01

    Whistler-mode chorus waves are a particularly important process in outer radiation belt dynamics due to their key role in controlling the acceleration and scattering of electrons over a very wide energy range. The key parameters for both nonlinear and quasi-linear treatment of wave-particle interactions are the temporal and spatial scales of the wave source region and coherence of the wave field perturbations. Both of these scales, the source scale and the coherence scale, are not well-established experimentally, mostly because of a lack of VLF waveform data. We present an unprecedentedly long interval of coordinated VLF waveform measurements (sampled at 16384 s-1) aboard the two Van Allen Probes spacecraft. The cross spacecraft distance varied from about 100 up to 5000 km. Using time-domain correlation techniques, the chorus source regions have been determined to be about 450-550 km for upper band chorus waves with amplitude less than 100 pT and up to 1000 km for larger amplitude lower band chorus waves. The ratio between wave amplitudes measured on the two spacecraft is also examined and reveals that the wave amplitude distribution within a region of chorus element generation can be well approximated by the Gaussian with the characteristic distance r0 around 300 km. This work was supported by the JHU/APL contract 922613 (RBSP-EFW) and NASA Grant NNX16AF85G.

  1. Generation of extremely low frequency chorus in Van Allen radiation belts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Fuliang; Liu, Si; Tao, Xin; Su, Zhenpeng; Zhou, Qinghua; Yang, Chang; He, Zhaoguo; He, Yihua; Gao, Zhonglei; Baker, D. N.; Spence, H. E.; Reeves, G. D.; Funsten, H. O.; Blake, J. B.

    2017-03-01

    Recent studies have shown that chorus can efficiently accelerate the outer radiation belt electrons to relativistic energies. Chorus, previously often observed above 0.1 equatorial electron gyrofrequency fce, was generated by energetic electrons originating from Earth's plasma sheet. Chorus below 0.1 fce has seldom been reported until the recent data from Van Allen Probes, but its origin has not been revealed so far. Because electron resonant energy can approach the relativistic level at extremely low frequency, relativistic effects should be considered in the formula for whistler mode wave growth rate. Here we report high-resolution observations during the 14 October 2014 small storm and firstly demonstrate, using a fully relativistic simulation, that electrons with the high-energy tail population and relativistic pitch angle anisotropy can provide free energy sufficient for generating chorus below 0.1 fce. The simulated wave growth displays a very similar pattern to the observations. The current results can be applied to Jupiter, Saturn, and other magnetized planets.

  2. A long-lived relativistic electron storage ring embedded in Earth's outer Van Allen belt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, D N; Kanekal, S G; Hoxie, V C; Henderson, M G; Li, X; Spence, H E; Elkington, S R; Friedel, R H W; Goldstein, J; Hudson, M K; Reeves, G D; Thorne, R M; Kletzing, C A; Claudepierre, S G

    2013-04-12

    Since their discovery more than 50 years ago, Earth's Van Allen radiation belts have been considered to consist of two distinct zones of trapped, highly energetic charged particles. The outer zone is composed predominantly of megaelectron volt (MeV) electrons that wax and wane in intensity on time scales ranging from hours to days, depending primarily on external forcing by the solar wind. The spatially separated inner zone is composed of commingled high-energy electrons and very energetic positive ions (mostly protons), the latter being stable in intensity levels over years to decades. In situ energy-specific and temporally resolved spacecraft observations reveal an isolated third ring, or torus, of high-energy (>2 MeV) electrons that formed on 2 September 2012 and persisted largely unchanged in the geocentric radial range of 3.0 to ~3.5 Earth radii for more than 4 weeks before being disrupted (and virtually annihilated) by a powerful interplanetary shock wave passage.

  3. Estimates of trapped radiation encountered on low-thrust trajectories through the Van Allen belts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karp, I. M.

    1973-01-01

    Estimates were made of the number of trapped protons and electrons encountered by vehicles on low-thrust trajectories through the Van Allen belts. The estimates serve as a first step in assessing whether these radiations present a problem to on-board sensitive components and payload. The integrated proton spectra and electron spectra are presented for the case of a trajectory described by a vehicle with a constant-thrust acceleration A sub c equal to 0.001 meter/sq sec. This value of acceleration corresponds to a trip time of about 54 days from low earth orbit to synchronous orbit. It is shown that the time spent in the belts and hence the radiation encountered vary nearly inversely with the value of thrust acceleration. Thus, the integrated spectral values presented for the case of A sub c = 0.001 meter/sq sec can be generalized for any other value of thrust acceleration by multiplying them by the factor 0.001/A sub c.

  4. Explaining the Dynamics of the Ultra-relativistic Third Van Allen Radiation Belt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mann, I. R.; Ozeke, L.; Murphy, K. R.; Claudepierre, S. G.; Turner, D. L.; Baker, D. N.; Rae, J.; Kale, A.; Milling, D. K.; Boyd, A. J.; Spence, H. E.; Reeves, G. D.; Singer, H. J.; Dimitrakoudis, S.; Daglis, I. A.; Honary, F.

    2016-12-01

    Since the discovery of the Van Allen radiation belts over 50 years ago, an explanation for their complete dynamics has remained elusive. Especially challenging is understanding losses deep in the heart of the belt which lead to the recently discovered ultra-relativistic third electron radiation belt. Prior theory asserted that loss in the heart of the outer belt, essential to the formation of the third belt, must be controlled by high-frequency plasma wave-particle scattering into the atmosphere, via whistler mode chorus, plasmaspheric hiss, or electromagnetic ion cyclotron waves. However, this has failed to accurately reproduce the third belt. Using a data driven, time-dependent specification of ultra-low-frequency (ULF) waves we show for the first time how the third radiation belt can be established as a simple, elegant consequence of storm-time extremely fast outward ULF wave transport. High-frequency wave-particle scattering loss into the atmosphere is not needed in this case. When rapid ULF wave transport coupled to a dynamic boundary is accurately specified, the sensitive dynamics controlling the enigmatic ultra-relativistic third radiation belt are naturally explained.

  5. ACE EPAM and Van Allen Probes RBSPICE measurements of interplanetary oxygen injection to the inner magnetosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, J. D.; Manweiler, J. W.; Gerrard, A. J.; Lanzerotti, L. J.

    2015-12-01

    On March 17, 2015, a significant oxygen-rich interplanetary event was measure by the Advanced Composition Explorer (ACE) Electron Proton Alpha Monitor (EPAM) instrument. At the same time the Van Allen Probes Radiation Belt Storm Probes Ion Composition Experiment (RBSPICE) instrument recorded significant enhancements of oxygen in the inner magnetosphere. We present a detailed analysis of this event utilizing a new method of exploiting the EPAM Pulse Height Analyzer (PHA) data to precisely resolve helium and oxygen spectra within the 0.5 to 5 MeV/nuc range. We also present the flux, partial particle pressures, and pitch angle distributions of the ion measurements from RBSPICE. During this event, both EPAM and RBSPICE measured O:He ratios greater than 10:1. The pitch angle distributions from RBSPICE-B show a strong beam of oxygen at an L ~ 5.8 early on March 17th during orbit. The timing between the observations of the oxygen peak at ACE and the beam observed at RBSPICE-B is consistent with the travel-time required for energetic particle transport from L1 to Earth and access to the magnetosphere. We assert that the oxygen seen by RBSPICE during the initial phase of this event is the result of direct injection from the interplanetary medium of energetic ions. This poster contains the observations and detailed calculations to support this assertion.

  6. Primary Beam and Dish Surface Characterization at the Allen Telescope Array by Radio Holography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harp, G. R.; Ackermann, R. F.; Nadler, Z. J.; Blair, Samantha K.; Davis, M. M.; Wright, M. C. H.; Forster, J. R.; Deboer, D. R.; Welch, W. J.; Atkinson, Shannon; Backer, D. C.; Backus, P. R.; Barott, William; Bauermeister, Amber; Blitz, Leo; Bock, D. C.-J.; Bower, Geoffrey C.; Bradford, Tucker; Cheng, Calvin; Croft, Steve; Dexter, Matt; Dreher, John; Engargiola, Greg; Fields, E. D.; Heiles, Carl; Helfer, Tamara; Jordan, Jane; Jorgensen, Susan; Kilsdonk, Tom; Gutierrez-Kraybill, Colby; Keating, Garrett; Law, Casey; Lugten, John; MacMahon, D. H. E.; McMahon, Peter; Milgrome, Oren; Siemion, Andrew; Smolek, Ken; Thornton, Douglas; Pierson, Tom; Randall, Karen; Ross, John; Shostak, Seth; Tarter, J. C.; Urry, Lynn; Werthimer, Dan; Williams, Peter K. G.; Whysong, David

    2011-06-01

    The Allen Telescope Array (ATA) is a cm-wave interferometer in California, comprising 42 antenna elements with 6-m diameter dishes. We characterize the antenna optical accuracy using two-antenna interferometry and radio holography. The distortion of each telescope relative to the average is small, with RMS differences of 1% of beam peak value. Holography provides images of dish illumination, characterizing as-built mirror surfaces. Maximal distortions across ~ 2 meter lengths appear to result from mounting stresses or solar radiation. Experimental RMS errors are 0.7 mm at night and 3 mm under worst-case solar illumination. For frequencies 4, 10, and 15 GHz, the nighttime values indicate sensitivity losses of 1, 10 and 20%, respectively. ATA's wide-bandwidth receiver permits observations over a continuous range 0.5-11.2 GHz. We probe the antenna optical gain and beam pattern stability as a function of focus position and observation frequency, concluding that ATA can produce high fidelity images over a decade of simultaneous observation frequencies. We quantify solar heating effects on antenna sensitivity and pointing accuracy. We find that during the day, observations >=5 GHz will suffer some sensitivity loss and it may be necessary to make antenna pointing corrections on a 1-2 hourly basis.

  7. Integrating the Allen Brain Institute Cell Types Database into Automated Neuroscience Workflow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stockton, David B; Santamaria, Fidel

    2017-10-01

    We developed software tools to download, extract features, and organize the Cell Types Database from the Allen Brain Institute (ABI) in order to integrate its whole cell patch clamp characterization data into the automated modeling/data analysis cycle. To expand the potential user base we employed both Python and MATLAB. The basic set of tools downloads selected raw data and extracts cell, sweep, and spike features, using ABI's feature extraction code. To facilitate data manipulation we added a tool to build a local specialized database of raw data plus extracted features. Finally, to maximize automation, we extended our NeuroManager workflow automation suite to include these tools plus a separate investigation database. The extended suite allows the user to integrate ABI experimental and modeling data into an automated workflow deployed on heterogeneous computer infrastructures, from local servers, to high performance computing environments, to the cloud. Since our approach is focused on workflow procedures our tools can be modified to interact with the increasing number of neuroscience databases being developed to cover all scales and properties of the nervous system.

  8. Observation of chorus waves by the Van Allen Probes: dependence on solar wind parameters and scale size

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aryan, H.; Sibeck, D. G.; Balikhin, M. A.; Agapitov, O. V.; Kletzing, C.

    2016-12-01

    Highly energetic electrons in the Earth's Van Allen radiation belts can cause serious damage to spacecraft electronic systems, and affect the atmospheric composition if they precipitate into the upper atmosphere. Whistler mode chorus waves have attracted significant attention in recent decades for their crucial role in the acceleration and loss of energetic electrons that ultimately change the dynamics of the radiation belts. The distribution of these waves in the inner magnetosphere is commonly presented as a function of geomagnetic activity. However, geomagnetic indices are non-specific parameters that are compiled from imperfectly covered ground based measurements. The present study uses wave data from the two Van Allen Probes to present the distribution of lower band chorus waves not only as functions of single geomagnetic index and solar wind parameters, but also as functions of combined parameters. Also the current study takes advantage of the unique equatorial orbit of the Van Allen Probes to estimate the average scale size of chorus wave packets, during close separations between the two spacecraft, as a function of radial distance, magnetic latitude, and geomagnetic activity respectively. Results show that the average scale size of chorus wave packets is approximately 1300 - 2300 km. The results also show that the inclusion of combined parameters can provide better representation of the chorus wave distributions in the inner magnetosphere, and therefore can further improve our knowledge of the acceleration and loss of radiation belt electrons.

  9. Empirical modeling of whistler-mode chorus and hiss in the inner magnetosphere using measurements of the Van Allen Probes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santolik, Ondrej; Hospodarsky, George B.; Kurth, William S.; Kletzing, Craig A.

    2017-04-01

    Recent studies of the dynamics of energetic in the Earth radiation belts show that whistler mode chorus and hiss play an important role. This especially concerns the slot region and the outer Van Allen radiation belts where empirical wave models are used as a component of existing approaches. We analyze these whistler-mode waves using a database of survey measurements of the Waves instruments of the Electric and Magnetic Field Instrument Suite and Integrated Science (EMFISIS) onboard the Van Allen Probes. We use multicomponent data to estimate wave polarization and propagation parameters and to asses variability of wave amplitudes as a function of position and geomagnetic activity. Four years of Van Allen Probes EMFISIS Waves survey data give a good orbital coverage in L, latitude, and MLT. Average amplitudes increase with geomagnetic activity but the observed amplitude variations are still much larger than this effect. Statistics of planarity and wave vector directions are strongly linked to wave amplitudes. The planarity of magnetic field polarization is high for strong chorus and its wave normal directions are well defined. We obtain low planarities of the magnetic field polarization for a substantial fraction of plasmaspheric hiss. This invalidates the assumption of a single plane wave for these whistler mode emissions.

  10. Observation of Chorus Waves by the Van Allen Probes: Dependence on Solar Wind Parameters and Scale Size

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aryan, Homayon; Sibeck, David; Balikhin, Michael; Agapitov, Oleksiy; Kletzing, Craig

    2016-01-01

    Highly energetic electrons in the Earths Van Allen radiation belts can cause serious damage to spacecraft electronic systems and affect the atmospheric composition if they precipitate into the upper atmosphere. Whistler mode chorus waves have attracted significant attention in recent decades for their crucial role in the acceleration and loss of energetic electrons that ultimately change the dynamics of the radiation belts. The distribution of these waves in the inner magnetosphere is commonly presented as a function of geomagnetic activity. However, geomagnetic indices are nonspecific parameters that are compiled from imperfectly covered ground based measurements. The present study uses wave data from the two Van Allen Probes to present the distribution of lower band chorus waves not only as functions of single geomagnetic index and solar wind parameters but also as functions of combined parameters. Also the current study takes advantage of the unique equatorial orbit of the Van Allen Probes to estimate the average scale size of chorus wave packets, during close separations between the two spacecraft, as a function of radial distance, magnetic latitude, and geomagnetic activity, respectively. Results show that the average scale size of chorus wave packets is approximately 13002300 km. The results also show that the inclusion of combined parameters can provide better representation of the chorus wave distributions in the inner magnetosphere and therefore can further improve our knowledge of the acceleration and loss of radiation belt electrons.

  11. Translation and Audience: Edgar Allen Poe’s “The Gold-Bug”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clayton Tyler McKee

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available This study intends to explore how the intended audience of a translation shapes the techniques used by the translators of the same text in order to convey the same message in a different manner. Focusing on two translations of a work done by Edgar Allen Poe, this work demonstrates how the translator shapes a translation to its audience, whether it is a pedagogical purpose or a literary one. In nineteenth century France, translations of Edgar Allan Poe began appearing in newspapers and journals catching the attention of well-known authors, such as Charles Baudelaire. While many academics, such as Wallaert and Bonnefoy, have compared Baudelaire’s translations and language choice to the original works and other translators working in the intellectual arena, the translation of “The Gold-Bug” in a young women’s magazine has not been included in the conversation. Twenty-two years before Baudelaire translates “The Gold-Bug,” originally published in English in 1843, Le magasin de desmoiselles offered a version of “Le scarabée d’or” which differed greatly in style from the version Baudelaire would provide. Comparing the two versions of the story through Schleiermacher’s theory on moving the text and Nida’s theory of equivalencies demonstrates how methods of translation fit for specific audiences in terms of a text’s foreignization and domestication. Le magasin strove to educate young bourgeoisie women à l’aristocrat while Baudelaire found inspiration in Poe’s work which would influence other movements in France. These purposes led to two translations that educate readers on foreign authors also allowing a view into how audience has influenced the translation of Poe for the French public.

  12. Second harmonic poloidal waves observed by Van Allen Probes in the dusk-midnight sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Min, Kyungguk; Takahashi, Kazue; Ukhorskiy, Aleksandr Y.; Manweiler, Jerry W.; Spence, Harlan E.

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents observations of ultralow-frequency (ULF) waves from Van Allen Probes. The event that generated the ULF waves occurred 2 days after a minor geomagnetic storm during a geomagnetically quiet time. Narrowband pulsations with a frequency of about 7 mHz with moderate amplitudes were registered in the premidnight sector when Probe A was passing through an enhanced density region near geosynchronous orbit. Probe B, which passed through the region earlier, did not detect the narrowband pulsations but only broadband noise. Despite the single-spacecraft measurements, we were able to determine various wave properties. We find that the observed waves are a second harmonic poloidal mode propagating westward with an azimuthal wave number estimated to be ~100; the magnetic field fluctuations have a finite compressional component due to small but finite plasma beta (~0.1); the energetic proton fluxes in the energy ranging from above 10 keV to about 100 keV exhibit pulsations with the same frequency as the poloidal mode and energy-dependent phase delays relative to the azimuthal component of the electric field, providing evidence for drift-bounce resonance; and the second harmonic poloidal mode may have been excited via the drift-bounce resonance mechanism with free energy fed by the inward radial gradient of ~80 keV protons. Here, we show that the wave active region is where the plume overlaps the outer edge of ring current and suggest that this region can have a wide longitudinal extent near geosynchronous orbit.

  13. Van Allen Probes Observations of Second Harmonic Poloidal Standing Alfvén Waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Kazue; Oimatsu, Satoshi; Nosé, Masahito; Min, Kyungguk; Claudepierre, Seth G.; Chan, Anthony; Wygant, John; Kim, Hyomin

    2018-01-01

    Long-lasting second-harmonic poloidal standing Alfvén waves (P2 waves) were observed by the twin Van Allen Probes (Radiation Belt Storm Probes, or RBSP) spacecraft in the noon sector of the plasmasphere, when the spacecraft were close to the magnetic equator and had a small azimuthal separation. Oscillations of proton fluxes at the wave frequency (˜10 mHz) were also observed in the energy (W) range 50-300 keV. Using the unique RBSP orbital configuration, we determined the phase delay of magnetic field perturbations between the spacecraft with a 2nπ ambiguity. We then used finite gyroradius effects seen in the proton flux oscillations to remove the ambiguity and found that the waves were propagating westward with an azimuthal wave number (m) of ˜-200. The phase of the proton flux oscillations relative to the radial component of the wave magnetic field progresses with W, crossing 0 (northward moving protons) or 180° (southward moving protons) at W ˜ 120 keV. This feature is explained by drift-bounce resonance (mωd ˜ ωb) of ˜120 keV protons with the waves, where ωd and ωb are the proton drift and bounce frequencies. At lower energies, the proton phase space density (FH+) exhibits a bump-on-tail structure with ∂FH+/∂W>0 occurring in the 1-10 keV energy range. This FH+ is unstable and can excite P2 waves through bounce resonance (ω ˜ ωb), where ω is the wave frequency.

  14. Correlation of dose rate and spectral measurements in the Inner Van Allen Belt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thede, A L; Radke, G E

    1968-01-01

    Dose rate measurements and the charged particle environment of the Inner Van Allen Belt have been correlated using recent data obtained from the radiation research satellite, OV3-4. Six tissue equivalent ionization chambers, constructed of a material which simulates the muscle tissue response to ionizing radiation, measured the dose rate behind various types and thicknesses of material. The specific shields used for several of the chambers were 0.192 g/cm2 aluminum, 0.797 g/cm2 Lucite and 4.485 g/cm2 brass. The proton and electron spectra were determined with an omnidirectional spectrometer using solid state detectors. The spectral measurements discussed here include geomagnetically trapped protons with energies in the range of 15 to 200 MeV. The proton spectra and dose rates are presented as profiles in terms of the McIlwain parameters of L (1.5, 2.0 and 2.5 earth radii) and the magnetic field B (0.050 to 0.250 gauss). The excellent agreement between the measured dose rate and the theoretically predicted dose rate based on the measured spectra provides justification for the radiation transport techniques now being employed to predict the doses to be encountered during future manned space missions. It was found, however, that a more adequate description of the proton fluxes for energies greater than 50 MeV will be necessary to predict dose rate accurately behind shields of 2.5 g/cm2 thickness or greater.

  15. Innermost Van Allen Radiation Belt for High Energy Protons at Saturn

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, John F.

    2008-01-01

    The high energy proton radiation belts of Saturn are energetically dominated by the source from cosmic ray albedo neutron decay (CRAND), trapping of protons from beta decay of neutrons emitted from galactic cosmic ray nuclear interactions with the main rings. These belts were originally discovered in wide gaps between the A-ring, Janus/Epimetheus, Mimas, and Enceladus. The narrow F and G rings significant affected the CRAND protons but did not produce total depletion. Voyager 2 measurements subsequently revealed an outermost CRAND proton belt beyond Enceladus. Although the source rate is small, the trapping times limited by radial magnetospheric diffusion are very long, about ten years at peak measured flux inwards of the G ring, so large fluxes can accumulate unless otherwise limited in the trapping region by neutral gas, dust, and ring body interactions. One proposed final extension of the Cassini Orbiter mission would place perikrone in a 3000-km gap between the inner D ring and the upper atmosphere of Saturn. Experience with CRAND in the Earth's inner Van Allen proton belt suggests that a similar innermost belt might be found in this comparably wide region at Saturn. Radial dependence of magnetospheric diffusion, proximity to the ring neutron source, and northward magnetic offset of Saturn's magnetic equator from the ring plane could potentially produce peak fluxes several orders of magnitude higher than previously measured outside the main rings. Even brief passes through such an intense environment of highly penetrating protons would be a significant concern for spacecraft operations and science observations. Actual fluxes are limited by losses in Saturn's exospheric gas and in a dust environment likely comparable to that of the known CRAND proton belts. The first numerical model of this unexplored radiation belt is presented to determine limits on peak magnitude and radial profile of the proton flux distribution.

  16. Photofragment imaging study of the CH2CCH2OH radical intermediate of the OH+allene reaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raman, Arjun S.; Justine Bell, M.; Lau, K.-C.; Butler, Laurie J.

    2007-01-01

    These velocity map imaging experiments characterize the photolytic generation of one of the two radical intermediates formed when OH reacts via an addition mechanism with allene. The CH 2 CCH 2 OH radical intermediate is generated photolytically from the photodissociation of 2-chloro-2-propen-1-ol at 193 nm. Detecting the Cl atoms using [2+1] resonance-enhanced multiphoton ionization evidences an isotropic angular distribution for the Cl+CH 2 CCH 2 OH photofragments, a spin-orbit branching ratio for Cl( 2 P 1/2 ):Cl( 2 P 3/2 ) of 0.28, and a bimodal recoil kinetic energy distribution. Conservation of momentum and energy allows us to determine from this data the internal energy distribution of the nascent CH 2 CCH 2 OH radical cofragment. To assess the possible subsequent decomposition pathways of this highly vibrationally excited radical intermediate, we include electronic structure calculations at the G3//B3LYP level of theory. They predict the isomerization and dissociation transition states en route from the initial CH 2 CCH 2 OH radical intermediate to the three most important product channels for the OH+allene reaction expected from this radical intermediate: formaldehyde+C 2 H 3 , H+acrolein, and ethene+CHO. We also calculate the intermediates and transition states en route from the other radical adduct, formed by addition of the OH to the center carbon of allene, to the ketene+CH 3 product channel. We compare our results to a previous theoretical study of the O+allyl reaction conducted at the CBS-QB3 level of theory, as the two reactions include several common intermediates

  17. Photofragment imaging study of the CH2CCH2OH radical intermediate of the OH +allene reaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raman, Arjun S.; Justine Bell, M.; Lau, Kai-Chung; Butler, Laurie J.

    2007-10-01

    These velocity map imaging experiments characterize the photolytic generation of one of the two radical intermediates formed when OH reacts via an addition mechanism with allene. The CH2CCH2OH radical intermediate is generated photolytically from the photodissociation of 2-chloro-2-propen-1-ol at 193nm. Detecting the Cl atoms using [2+1] resonance-enhanced multiphoton ionization evidences an isotropic angular distribution for the Cl +CH2CCH2OH photofragments, a spin-orbit branching ratio for Cl(P1/22):Cl(P3/22) of 0.28, and a bimodal recoil kinetic energy distribution. Conservation of momentum and energy allows us to determine from this data the internal energy distribution of the nascent CH2CCH2OH radical cofragment. To assess the possible subsequent decomposition pathways of this highly vibrationally excited radical intermediate, we include electronic structure calculations at the G3//B3LYP level of theory. They predict the isomerization and dissociation transition states en route from the initial CH2CCH2OH radical intermediate to the three most important product channels for the OH +allene reaction expected from this radical intermediate: formaldehyde+C2H3, H +acrolein, and ethene+CHO. We also calculate the intermediates and transition states en route from the other radical adduct, formed by addition of the OH to the center carbon of allene, to the ketene+CH3 product channel. We compare our results to a previous theoretical study of the O +allyl reaction conducted at the CBS-QB3 level of theory, as the two reactions include several common intermediates.

  18. An ab initio study on the allene-isocyanic acid and ketene-vinylimine [2 + 2] cycloaddition reaction paths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rode, Joanna E; Dobrowolski, Jan Cz

    2006-03-16

    The reaction paths of [2 + 2] cycloadditions of allene (H2C=C=CH2) to isocyanic acid (HN=C=O) and ketene (H2C=C=O) to vinylimine (H2C=C=NH), leading to all the possible 14 four-membered ring molecules, were investigated by the MP2/aug-cc-pVDZ method. In the two considered reactions, the 2-azetidinone (beta-lactam) ring compounds were predicted to be the most stable thermodynamically in the absence of an environment. Although 4-methylene-2-azetidinone is the most stable product of the ketene-vinylimine cycloaddition, its activation barrier is higher than that for 4-methylene-2-iminooxetane by ca. 6 kcal/mol. Therefore, the latter product can be obtained owing to kinetic control. The activation barriers in the allene-isocyanic acid reactions are quite high, 50-70 kcal/mol, whereas in the course of the ketene-vinylimine cycloaddition they are equal to ca. 30-55 kcal/mol. All the reactions studied were found to be concerted and mostly asynchronous. Simulation of the solvent environment (toluene, tetrahydrofuran, acetonitrile, and water) by using Tomasi's polarized continuum model with the integral equation formalism (IEF-PCM) method showed the allene-isocyanic reactions remained concerted, yet the activation barriers were somewhat higher than those in the gas phase, whereas the ketene-vinylimine reactions became stepwise. The larger the solvent dielectric constant, the lower the activation barriers found. The lowest-energy pathways in the gas phase and in solvent were confirmed by intrinsic reaction coordinate (IRC) calculations. The atoms in molecules (AIM) analysis of the electron density distribution in the transition-state (TS) structures allowed us to distinguish pericyclic from pseudopericyclic from nonplanar-pseudopericyclic types of reactions.

  19. Radiation belt electron dynamics at low L (<4): Van Allen Probes era versus previous two solar cycles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, X.; Baker, D. N.; Zhao, H.; Zhang, K.; Jaynes, A. N.; Schiller, Q.; Kanekal, S. G.; Blake, J. B.; Temerin, M.

    2017-05-01

    Long-term (>2 solar cycles) measurements reveal that MeV electron fluxes, solar wind speed, and geomagnetic activity have been extremely low during this current solar cycle, including years before and during the Van Allen Probes era. This study examines solar wind speed, the geomagnetic storm index (Dst), >2 MeV electrons at geostationary orbit, and 2 MeV electrons across various L shells measured by Solar Anomalous Magnetospheric Particle Explorer in low Earth orbit (LEO) and by the Van Allen Probes/Relativistic Electron and Proton Telescope (REPT) in a geotransfer-like orbit; the latter measurements are normalized to LEO based on comparison with Colorado Student Space Weather Experiment/Relativistic Electron and Proton Telescope integrated little experiment (REPTile) measurements in LEO. The average ratio of REPTile/REPT varies in a systematic manner with L, 16% at L = 2.7, decreasing with L and reaching 0.7% at L = 4.7, and increasing again with L though with greater uncertainty. We show that there have been no 2 MeV electron enhancements inside L 2.6 since 2006, prior to which numerous penetrations of 2 MeV electrons into L periods of stronger solar wind conditions (in terms of high-speed solar wind, magnitude of interplanetary magnetic field, B, and a sustained southward Bz) and thus stronger geomagnetic activity. We conclude that results from the Van Allen Probes, which have been providing the finest measurements but in operation during a quiet solar activity period, may not be representative of radiation belt dynamics, particularly for the inner edge of the outer belt, during other solar cycle phases.

  20. Wounding stimulates ALLENE OXIDE SYNTHASE gene and increases the level of jasmonic acid in Ipomoea nil cotyledons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilia Wilmowicz

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Allene oxide synthase (AOS encodes the first enzyme in the lipoxygenase pathway, which is responsible for jasmonic acid (JA formation. In this study we report the molecular cloning and characterization of InAOS from Ipomoea nil. The full-length gene is composed of 1662 bp and encodes for 519 amino acids. The predicted InAOS contains PLN02648 motif, which is evolutionarily conserved and characteristic for functional enzymatic proteins. We have shown that wounding led to a strong stimulation of the examined gene activity in cotyledons and an increase in JA level, which suggest that this compound may be a modulator of stress responses in I. nil.

  1. Leptoglossus lonchoides Allen (Heteroptera, Coreidae), causente de la caida de los frutos de Bactris gasipaes (Palmae) en la Amazonia central

    OpenAIRE

    Couturier, Guy; Clement, C.R.; Viana Filho, P.

    1991-01-01

    #Leptoglossus lonchoïdes$ Allen (Heteroptera Coreidae) provoque la chute des fruits de #Bactris gasipaes$ HBK (Palmae) en Amazonie centrale. Les plantations de "pejibaye", #B.gasipaes$, un palmier neotropical domestiqué, souffrent d'importantes chutes de jeunes fruits en Amazonie centrale (Manaus, Amazonas, Brésil), dues en partie, peut-être principalement, à la punaise #L. lonchoïdes$. Dans cet article, on évalue l'importance économique des dégâts et on décrit l'insecte. (Résumé d'auteur)...

  2. Explaining the Diverse Response of the Ultra-relativistic Van Allen Radiation Belt to Solar Wind Forcing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mann, I. R.; Ozeke, L.; Murphy, K. R.; Claudepierre, S. G.; Rae, J.; Milling, D. K.; Kale, A.; Baker, D. N.

    2017-12-01

    The NASA Van Allen Probes have opened a new window on the dynamics of ultra-relativistic electrons in the Van Allen radiation belts. Under different solar wind forcing the outer belt is seen to respond in a variety of apparently diverse and sometimes remarkable ways. For example, sometimes a third radiation belt is carved out (e.g., September 2012), or the belts can remain depleted for 10 days or more (September 2014). More usually there is a sequential response of a strong and sometimes rapid depletion followed by a re-energization, the latter increasing outer belt electron flux by orders of magnitude on hour timescales during some of the strongest storms of this solar cycle (e.g., March 2013, March 2015). Such dynamics also appear to be often bounded at low-L by an apparently impenetrable barrier at L 2.8 through which ultra-relativistic electrons do not penetrate. Many studies in the Van Allen Probes era have sought explanations for these apparently diverse features, often incorporating the effects from multiple plasma waves. In contrast, we show how this apparently diverse behaviour can instead be explained by one dominant process: ULF wave radial transport. Once ULF wave transport rates are accurately specified by observations, and coupled to the dynamical variation of the outer boundary condition at the edge of the outer belt, the observed diverse responses can all be explained. However, in order to get good agreement with observations, the modeling reveals the importance of still currently unexplained very fast loss in the main phase which results in an almost total extinction of the belts and decouples pre- and post-storm ultra-relativistic electron flux on hour timescales. Similarly, varying plasmasheet source populations are seen to be of critical importance such that near-tail dynamics play a crucial role in Van Allen belt dynamics. Nonetheless, simple models incorporating accurate transport rates derived directly from ULF wave measurements are shown to

  3. Van Allen Probes observations of unusually low frequency whistler mode waves observed in association with moderate magnetic storms: Statistical study

    OpenAIRE

    Cattell, C. A.; Breneman, A. W.; Thaller, S. A.; Wygant, J. R.; Kletzing, C. A.; Kurth, W. S.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract We show the first evidence for locally excited chorus at frequencies below 0.1?f ce (electron cyclotron frequency) in the outer radiation belt. A statistical study of chorus during geomagnetic storms observed by the Van Allen Probes found that frequencies are often dramatically lower than expected. The frequency at peak power suddenly stops tracking the equatorial 0.5?f ce and f/f ce decreases rapidly, often to frequencies well below 0.1?f ce (in situ and mapped to equator). These ve...

  4. Near?Earth injection of MeV electrons associated with intense dipolarization electric fields: Van Allen Probes observations

    OpenAIRE

    Dai, Lei; Wang, Chi; Duan, Suping; He, Zhaohai; Wygant, John R.; Cattell, Cynthia A.; Tao, Xin; Su, Zhenpeng; Kletzing, Craig; Baker, Daniel N.; Li, Xinlin; Malaspina, David; Blake, J. Bernard; Fennell, Joseph; Claudepierre, Seth

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Substorms generally inject tens to hundreds of keV electrons, but intense substorm electric fields have been shown to inject MeV electrons as well. An intriguing question is whether such MeVelectron injections can populate the outer radiation belt. Here we present observations of a substorm injection of MeV electrons into the inner magnetosphere. In the premidnight sector at L ? 5.5, Van Allen Probes (Radiation Belt Storm Probes)?A observed a large dipolarization electric field (50?m...

  5. An improved sheath impedance model for the Van Allen Probes EFW instrument: Effects of the spin axis antenna

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hartley, D. P.; Kletzing, C. A.; Kurth, W. S.; Hospodarsky, G. B.; Bounds, S. R.; Averkamp, T. F.; Bonnell, J. W.; Santolík, Ondřej; Wygant, J. R.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 122, č. 4 (2017), s. 4420-4429 ISSN 2169-9380 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LH15304 Grant - others:AV ČR(CZ) AP1401 Program:Akademická prémie - Praemium Academiae Institutional support: RVO:68378289 Keywords : antenna sheath impedance * electric field * Van Allen Probes * EFW * EMFISIS * whistler mode waves Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics OBOR OECD: Fluids and plasma physics (including surface physics ) Impact factor: 2.733, year: 2016 http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/2016JA023597/abstract

  6. Reply to David Kemmerer's "a critique of Mark D. Allen's 'the preservation of verb subcategory knowledge in a spoken language comprehension deficit'".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Mark D; Owens, Tyler E

    2008-07-01

    Allen [Allen, M. D. (2005). The preservation of verb subcategory knowledge in a spoken language comprehension deficit. Brain and Language, 95, 255-264] presents evidence from a single patient, WBN, to motivate a theory of lexical processing and representation in which syntactic information may be encoded and retrieved independently of semantic information. In his critique, Kemmerer argues that because Allen depended entirely on preposition-based verb subcategory violations to test WBN's knowledge of correct argument structure, his results, at best, address a "strawman" theory. This argument rests on the assumption that preposition subcategory options are superficial syntactic phenomena which are not represented by argument structure proper. We demonstrate that preposition subcategory is in fact treated as semantically determined argument structure in the theories that Allen evaluated, and thus far from irrelevant. In further discussion of grammatically relevant versus irrelevant semantic features, Kemmerer offers a review of his own studies. However, due to an important design shortcoming in these experiments, we remain unconvinced. Reemphasizing the fact the Allen (2005) never claimed to rule out all semantic contributions to syntax, we propose an improvement in Kemmerer's approach that might provide more satisfactory evidence on the distinction between the kinds of relevant versus irrelevant features his studies have addressed.

  7. Comparing the Expression of Genes Related to Serotonin (5-HT in C57BL/6J Mice and Humans Based on Data Available at the Allen Mouse Brain Atlas and Allen Human Brain Atlas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. A. Acevedo-Triana

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Brain atlases are tools based on comprehensive studies used to locate biological characteristics (structures, connections, proteins, and gene expression in different regions of the brain. These atlases have been disseminated to the point where tools have been created to store, manage, and share the information they contain. This study used the data published by the Allen Mouse Brain Atlas (2004 for mice (C57BL/6J and Allen Human Brain Atlas (2010 for humans (6 donors to compare the expression of serotonin-related genes. Genes of interest were searched for manually in each case (in situ hybridization for mice and microarrays for humans, normalized expression data (z-scores were extracted, and the results were graphed. Despite the differences in methodology, quantification, and subjects used in the process, a high degree of similarity was found between expression data. Here we compare expression in a way that allows the use of translational research methods to infer and validate knowledge. This type of study allows part of the relationship between structures and functions to be identified, by examining expression patterns and comparing levels of expression in different states, anatomical correlations, and phenotypes between different species. The study concludes by discussing the importance of knowing, managing, and disseminating comprehensive, open-access studies in neuroscience.

  8. Comparing the Expression of Genes Related to Serotonin (5-HT) in C57BL/6J Mice and Humans Based on Data Available at the Allen Mouse Brain Atlas and Allen Human Brain Atlas

    Science.gov (United States)

    León, L. A.; Cardenas, F. P.

    2017-01-01

    Brain atlases are tools based on comprehensive studies used to locate biological characteristics (structures, connections, proteins, and gene expression) in different regions of the brain. These atlases have been disseminated to the point where tools have been created to store, manage, and share the information they contain. This study used the data published by the Allen Mouse Brain Atlas (2004) for mice (C57BL/6J) and Allen Human Brain Atlas (2010) for humans (6 donors) to compare the expression of serotonin-related genes. Genes of interest were searched for manually in each case (in situ hybridization for mice and microarrays for humans), normalized expression data (z-scores) were extracted, and the results were graphed. Despite the differences in methodology, quantification, and subjects used in the process, a high degree of similarity was found between expression data. Here we compare expression in a way that allows the use of translational research methods to infer and validate knowledge. This type of study allows part of the relationship between structures and functions to be identified, by examining expression patterns and comparing levels of expression in different states, anatomical correlations, and phenotypes between different species. The study concludes by discussing the importance of knowing, managing, and disseminating comprehensive, open-access studies in neuroscience. PMID:28630769

  9. Since Yesterday: The Nineteen Thirties in America. By Frederick Allen Lewis. New York: Bantam Books, 1939. 292pp. Since Yesterday: The Nineteen Thirties in America. By Frederick Allen Lewis. New York: Bantam Books, 1939. 292pp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eileen Klink

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Material Covered: A compendium of events, people, places, and settings of the Thirties, this book offers information on: 1.chronology and impact of events on national and international levels–from the prelude to the Panic, September 3, 1929, through the outbreak of the war with Germany, September 3, 1939. 2.major political and business figures plus celebrities of the era–Hoover, Roosevelt, Hitler, Charles Lindbergh, Fred & Gracie Allen, etc. 3.influential organizations and unions. 4.statistical information and analysis. 5. day–to–day life—e.g., the books, magazines, and newspapers; films and radio programs; automobiles; fashions; the weather. Material Covered: A compendium of events, people, places, and settings of the Thirties, this book offers information on: 1.chronology and impact of events on national and international levels–from the prelude to the Panic, September 3, 1929, through the outbreak of the war with Germany, September 3, 1939. 2.major political and business figures plus celebrities of the era–Hoover, Roosevelt, Hitler, Charles Lindbergh, Fred & Gracie Allen, etc. 3.influential organizations and unions. 4.statistical information and analysis. 5. day–to–day life—e.g., the books, magazines, and newspapers; films and radio programs; automobiles; fashions; the weather.

  10. When Harry met Zuckerman: self-reflexivity and metafiction in Philip Roth and Woody Allen When Harry met Zuckerman:self-reflexivity and metafiction in Philip Roth and Woody Allen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomás Creus

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this essay is to compare the works of novelist Philip Roth and film-maker Woody Allen in what regards their treatment of the highly complex theme of the interrelations between fiction and reality. A comparative analysis of selected Roth’s novels and Allen’s films evinces their recurrent preoccupation with the creation of art and its implications, be it through the choice of writers or artists as main characters, be it through plots that mix real facts with invented ones and imaginary characters with real ones, be it through the use of autobiographical elements in a fictional discourse—all metafictional devices that call attention to the artist’s own process of creation. The objective of this essay is to compare the works of novelist Philip Roth and film-maker Woody Allen in what regards their treatment of the highly complex theme of the interrelations between fiction and reality. A comparative analysis of selected Roth’s novels and Allen’s films evinces their recurrent preoccupation with the creation of art and its implications, be it through the choice of writers or artists as main characters, be it through plots that mix real facts with invented ones and imaginary characters with real ones, be it through the use of autobiographical elements in a fictional discourse—all metafictional devices that call attention to the artist’s own process of creation.

  11. V poiskah garmonii / Rafael Danieljants ; interv. Tamara Unanova

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Danieljants, Rafael

    2000-01-01

    Armeenia päritolu skulptor Rafael Danieljants (EKA, 1984) oma töödest, õpetajatööst Maardu kunstikoolis jm. Viimane tema tööde näitus oli Armeenia kultuurikeskuses Tallinnas : eksponeeriti armeeniateemalisi skulptuure

  12. Zamok krassotõ ili tsarstvo duhha / Tamara Unanova

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Unanova, Tamara

    2005-01-01

    14. veebr. andsid Maria Teatri balletisolistid Tallinna Linnahallis galakontserdi. Esinesid teatri solistid Natalja Sologub, Darja Pavlenkova, Igor Kolb, Anton Korsakov ja tõmbenumbrina reklaamitud Farukh Ruzimatov

  13. On the interactions between energetic electrons and lightning whistler waves observed at high L-shells on Van Allen Probes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, H.; Holzworth, R. H., II; Brundell, J. B.; Hospodarsky, G. B.; Jacobson, A. R.; Fennell, J. F.; Li, J.

    2017-12-01

    Lightning produces strong broadband radio waves, called "sferics", which propagate in the Earth-ionosphere waveguide and are detected thousands of kilometers away from their source. Global real-time detection of lightning strokes including their time, location and energy, is conducted with the World Wide Lightning Location Network (WWLLN). In the ionosphere, these sferics couple into very low frequency (VLF) whistler waves which propagate obliquely to the Earth's magnetic field. A good match has previously been shown between WWLLN sferics and Van Allen Probes lightning whistler waves. It is well known that lightning whistler waves can modify the distribution of energetic electrons in the Van Allen belts by pitch angle scattering into the loss cone, especially at low L-Shells (referred to as LEP - Lightning-induced Electron Precipitation). It is an open question whether lightning whistler waves play an important role at high L-shells. The possible interactions between energetic electrons and lightning whistler waves at high L-shells are considered to be weak in the past. However, lightning is copious, and weak pitch angle scattering into the drift or bounce loss cone would have a significant influence on the radiation belt populations. In this work, we will analyze the continuous burst mode EMFISIS data from September 2012 to 2016, to find out lightning whistler waves above L = 3. Based on that, MAGEIS data are used to study the related possible wave-particle interactions. In this talk, both case study and statistical analysis results will be presented.

  14. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Extinction law in the Cep OB3b young cluster (Allen+, 2014)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, T. S.; Prchlik, J. J.; Megeath, S. T.; Gutermuth, R. A.; Pipher, J. L.; Naylor, T.; Jeffries, R. D.

    2017-06-01

    We use Johnson V and Cousins Rc (hereafter called VR) band phot from the Isaac Newton Telescope (INT), compiled in the catalog of Littlefair et al. (2010, J/MNRAS/403/545). The R-band photometry was obtained using the Sloan r filter. It was calibrated against photometric standard stars measured in the Cousins Rc filter with an arbitrary zero point. Moderate resolution ((λ/Δλ)~1000-2000, FWHM resolution of about 6 Å) optical spectra (covering 4000-9000 Å) were obtained for ~1700 sources toward Cep OB3b using the multi-fiber spectrograph Hectospec on the MMT telescope. About 600 sources were selected for observation because they were determined to be possible cluster members (Allen et al. 2012, J/ApJ/750/125), based on indicators of youth, such as IR emission due to circumstellar dusty material and heightened X-ray activity. We use an extinction map from Allen et al. (2012, J/ApJ/750/125) to initially estimate the extinction toward each source. This map is derived using the 2MASS Point Source Catalog (Skrutskie et al. 2006AJ....131.1163S, Cat. VII/233) H and Ks band photometry of background stars. (1 data file).

  15. Dayside response of the magnetosphere to a small shock compression: Van Allen Probes, Magnetospheric MultiScale, and GOES‐13

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breneman, A.; Colpitts, C.; Dombeck, J.; Thaller, S.; Tian, S.; Wygant, J.; Fennell, J.; Hudson, M. K.; Ergun, Robert; Russell, C. T.; Torbert, Roy; Lindqvist, Per‐Arne; Burch, J.

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Observations from Magnetospheric MultiScale (~8 Re) and Van Allen Probes (~5 and 4 Re) show that the initial dayside response to a small interplanetary shock is a double‐peaked dawnward electric field, which is distinctly different from the usual bipolar (dawnward and then duskward) signature reported for large shocks. The associated E × B flow is radially inward. The shock compressed the magnetopause to inside 8 Re, as observed by Magnetospheric MultiScale (MMS), with a speed that is comparable to the E × B flow. The magnetopause speed and the E × B speeds were significantly less than the propagation speed of the pulse from MMS to the Van Allen Probes and GOES‐13, which is consistent with the MHD fast mode. There were increased fluxes of energetic electrons up to several MeV. Signatures of drift echoes and response to ULF waves also were seen. These observations demonstrate that even very weak shocks can have significant impact on the radiation belts. PMID:29104327

  16. Prompt injections of highly relativistic electrons induced by interplanetary shocks: A statistical study of Van Allen Probes observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiller, Q.; Kanekal, S. G.; Jian, L. K.; Li, X.; Jones, A.; Baker, D. N.; Jaynes, A.; Spence, H. E.

    2016-12-01

    We conduct a statistical study on the sudden response of outer radiation belt electrons due to interplanetary (IP) shocks during the Van Allen Probes era, i.e., 2012 to 2015. Data from the Relativistic Electron-Proton Telescope instrument on board Van Allen Probes are used to investigate the highly relativistic electron response (E > 1.8 MeV) within the first few minutes after shock impact. We investigate the relationship of IP shock parameters, such as Mach number, with the highly relativistic electron response, including spectral properties and radial location of the shock-induced injection. We find that the driving solar wind structure of the shock does not affect occurrence for enhancement events, 25% of IP shocks are associated with prompt energization, and 14% are associated with MeV electron depletion. Parameters that represent IP shock strength are found to correlate best with highest levels of energization, suggesting that shock strength may play a key role in the severity of the enhancements. However, not every shock results in an enhancement, indicating that magnetospheric preconditioning may be required.

  17. Dayside response of the magnetosphere to a small shock compression: Van Allen Probes, Magnetospheric MultiScale, and GOES-13

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cattell, C.; Breneman, A.; Colpitts, C.; Dombeck, J.; Thaller, S.; Tian, S.; Wygant, J.; Fennell, J.; Hudson, M. K.; Ergun, Robert; Russell, C. T.; Torbert, Roy; Lindqvist, Per-Arne; Burch, J.

    2017-09-01

    Observations from Magnetospheric MultiScale ( 8 Re) and Van Allen Probes ( 5 and 4 Re) show that the initial dayside response to a small interplanetary shock is a double-peaked dawnward electric field, which is distinctly different from the usual bipolar (dawnward and then duskward) signature reported for large shocks. The associated E × B flow is radially inward. The shock compressed the magnetopause to inside 8 Re, as observed by Magnetospheric MultiScale (MMS), with a speed that is comparable to the E × B flow. The magnetopause speed and the E × B speeds were significantly less than the propagation speed of the pulse from MMS to the Van Allen Probes and GOES-13, which is consistent with the MHD fast mode. There were increased fluxes of energetic electrons up to several MeV. Signatures of drift echoes and response to ULF waves also were seen. These observations demonstrate that even very weak shocks can have significant impact on the radiation belts.

  18. Results from the magnetic electron ion spectrometer (MagEIS) instruments aboard the Van Allen Probes spacecraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fennell, Joseph; O'Brien, Paul; Roeder, James; Reeves, Geoffrey; Claudepierre, Seth; Clemmons, James; Spence, Harlan; Blake, Bernard

    The Magnetic Electron Ion Spectrometer (MagEIS) instruments aboard the Van Allen Probes Spacecraft (formerly RBSP) measure electrons and ions in the Earth's inner and outer radiation belts. The MagEIS instruments are part of the Energetic Particle, Composition, and Thermal Plasma Suite (ECT), which also includes the Relativistic Electron Proton Telescope (REPT) and the Helium Oxygen Proton Electron (HOPE) analyzer. MagEIS consists of four magnetic electron spectrometers aboard each of the two Van Allen Probes spacecraft that measure the differential fluxes, energies, and angular distributions of electrons from 20 keV to 4 MeV. The MagEIS suite also contains a silicon-detector telescope that measures the differential fluxes, energies, and angular distributions of protons from 60 keV to 20 MeV, and helium and oxygen ions above a hundred keV/AMU. We briefly describe the instrument design and measurement technique and present a set of results from the MagEIS observations, including ultra-low frequency (ULF) modulations of energetic electron flux, and observations of electron flux enhancements associated with the recent BARREL x-ray observations.

  19. Initial Results from the Magnetic Electron Ion Spectrometer (MagEIS) Instruments Aboard the Van Allen Probes Spacecraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claudepierre, S. G.; Blake, J. B.; Fennell, J. F.; Clemmons, J. H.; Roeder, J. L.; Spence, H. E.; Reeves, G. D.; Van Allen Probes ECT Team

    2013-05-01

    The Magnetic Electron Ion Spectrometer (MagEIS) instruments aboard the Van Allen Probes Spacecraft (formerly RBSP) measure electrons and ions in the Earth's inner and outer radiation belts. The MagEIS instruments are part of the Energetic Particle, Composition, and Thermal Plasma Suite (ECT), which also includes the Relativistic Electron Proton Telescope (REPT) and the Helium Oxygen Proton Electron (HOPE) analyzer. MagEIS consists of four magnetic electron spectrometers aboard each of the two Van Allen Probes spacecraft that measure the differential fluxes, energies, and angular distributions of electrons from 20 keV to 4 MeV. The MagEIS suite also contains a silicon-detector telescope that measures the differential fluxes, energies, and angular distributions of protons from 60 keV to 20 MeV, and helium and oxygen ions above a hundred keV/AMU. We briefly describe the instrument design and measurement technique and present a set of initial results from the MagEIS observations, including ultra-low frequency (ULF) modulations of energetic electron flux, and observations of electron flux enhancements associated with the recent BARREL x-ray observations.

  20. Electron acceleration through wave-particle interactions in the Van Allen belts: results of the MAARBLE project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daglis, Ioannis A.; Turner, Drew; Balasis, Georgios; Papadimitriou, Constantinos; Georgiou, Marina; Katsavrias, Christos

    Wave-particle interactions in the inner magnetosphere play a critical role in the acceleration of electrons to high energies characteristic of the Van Allen belts. In the MAARBLE project we have been investigating the properties of ultra-low-frequency electromagnetic waves in the magnetosphere and the particular ways in which these waves can influence electron acceleration. For a number of selected intense magnetic storms, we studied the variations of energetic electron fluxes in the outer Van Allen belt along with variations of the power of Pc 4-5 waves and their earthward penetration, using multi-point observations both from a number of spacecraft and from ground-based magnetometer arrays. We present and discuss the results of this study. The work leading to this paper has received funding from the European Union’s Seventh Framework Programme (FP7-SPACE-2011-1) under grant agreement no. 284520 for the MAARBLE (Monitoring, Analyzing and Assessing Radiation Belt Energization and Loss) collaborative research project. This paper reflects only the authors’ views and the Union is not liable for any use that may be made of the information contained therein.

  1. [ALLEN-MASTERS SYNDROME AS A CAUSE FOR CHRONIC PELVIC PAIN: DIAGNOSIS, TREATMENT AND LONG TERM FOLLOW-UP].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braun, Naama Marcus; Ben Shachar, Inbar

    2016-04-01

    Chronic pelvic pain is one of the main causes for repeated ambulatory and hospital visits. The main findings on exploratory laparoscopy performed for these complaints are endometriosis and adhesions, while in more than 50% of cases, no cause for the pain is found. In 1955, Allen and Masters reported pain associated with traumatic labor. They reported retroverted and hyper-mobile uterus in all women and during operation, tears in the posterior serosa of the broad igament. A few therapeutic options have been discussed, including repair of the tears, but without long term follow-up and significant relief of symptoms. Tightening of the utero-sacral ligaments following peritoneal resection of the Douglas as a long effective treatment was initially suggested in France in 1972. In 1997, von Theobald showed that it could be conducted by laparoscopy with long term follow-up. We report 3 cases of women diagnosed with Allen-Masters Syndrome, the surgical treatment performed and the long follow-up of these patients. We also discuss the ways to diagnose the syndrome and the preferred modality of treatment.

  2. Modes of Heme-Binding and Substrate Access for Cytochrome P450 CYP74A Revealed by Crystal Structures of Allene Oxide Synthase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cytochrome P450s exist ubiquitously in all organisms and are involved in many biological processes. Allene oxide synthase (AOS) is a P450 enzyme that plays a key role in the biosynthesis of oxylipin jasmonates which are involved in signal and defense reactions in higher plants. The crystal structure...

  3. Isomerization of Internal Alkynes to Iridium(III) Allene Complexes via C-H Bond Activation: Expanded Substrate Scope, and Progress towards a Catalytic Methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phadke, Neha; Findlater, Michael

    2015-11-10

    The synthesis of a series of allene complexes (POCOP)Ir(η²-RC=(.)=CR') 1b-4b (POCOP = 2,6-bis(di-tert-butylphosphonito)benzene) via isomerization of internal alkynes is reported. We have demonstrated that the application of this methodology is viable for the isomerization of a wide variety of alkyne substrates. Deuterium labeling experiments support our proposed mechanism. The structures of the allene complexes 1b-4b were determined using spectroscopic data analysis. Additionally, the solid-state molecular structure of complex 2b was determined using single crystal X-ray diffraction studies and it confirmed the assignment of an iridium-bound allene isomerization product. The rates of isomerization were measured using NMR techniques over a range of temperatures to allow determination of thermodynamic parameters. Finally, we report a preliminary step towards developing a catalytic methodology; the allene may be liberated from the metal center by exposure of the complex to an atmosphere of carbon monoxide.

  4. Density functional theory study of Rh(III)-catalyzed C-H activations and intermolecular annulations between benzamide derivatives and allenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, Zhong; Huang, Fang; Sun, Chuanzhi; Zhao, Xue; Liu, Jianbiao; Chen, Dezhan

    2015-04-20

    Density functional theory has been applied to gain insight into the Cp*Rh(OAc)2-catalyzed C-H activation and intermolecular annulation of benzamide derivatives with allenes. The study shows that the reactions proceed in three steps: (1) C-H activation induced by Rh catalyst reacting with benzamide derivatives, (2) carborhodation of allene, and (3) regeneration of Rh catalyst. The results indicate that the N-H deprotonation makes the following C-H activation much easier. The regio- and stereoselectivities of 1a (N-pivaloyloxy benzamide)/2a (cyclohexylallene) and 1b (N-pivaloyloxy-4-methyl-benzamide)/2b (1,1-dimethyl allene) depend on the allene carborhodation step. The steric hindrance effect is the dominant factor. We also discuss the reaction mechanism of 1c (N-methoxy benzamide)/2a. The chemoselectivity between 1c/2a is determined by the N-O cleavage step. Replacement of OPiv by OMe leads to loss of the stabilization effect provided by C=O in OPiv. Additionally, Cp*Rh(OAc)(OPiv) is produced in the Cp*Rh(OAc)2 regeneration step, which can work as catalyst as well.

  5. The Allen Telescope Array Twenty-centimeter Survey—a 690 deg2, 12 epoch radio data set. I. Catalog and long-duration transient statistics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Croft, S.; Bower, G.C.; Ackermann, R.; Atkinson, S.; Backer, D.; Backus, P.; Barott, W.C.; Bauermeister, A.; Blitz, L.; Bock, D.; Bradford, T.; Cheng, C.; Cork, C.; Davis, M.; DeBoer, D.; Dexter, M.; Dreher, J.; Engargiola, G.; Fields, E.; Fleming, M.; Forster, J.R.; Gutierrez-Kraybill, C.; Harp, G.; Helfer, T.; Hull, C.; Jordan, J.; Jorgensen, S.; Keating, G.; Kilsdonk, T.; Law, C.; van Leeuwen, J.; Lugten, J.; MacMahon, D.; McMahon, P.; Milgrome, O.; Pierson, T.; Randall, K.; Ross, J.; Shostak, S.; Siemion, A.; Smolek, K.; Tarter, J.; Thornton, D.; Urry, L.; Vitouchkine, A.; Wadefalk, N.; Welch, J.; Werthimer, D.; Whysong, D.; Williams, P.K.G.; Wright, M.

    2010-01-01

    We present the Allen Telescope Array Twenty-centimeter Survey (ATATS), a multi-epoch (12 visits), 690 deg(2) radio image and catalog at 1.4 GHz. The survey is designed to detect rare, very bright transients as well as to verify the capabilities of the ATA to form large mosaics. The combined image

  6. The Allen Telescope Array Pi GHz Sky Survey. I. Survey description and static catalog results for the Boötes field

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bower, G.C.; Croft, S.; Keating, G.; Whysong, D.; Ackermann, R.; Atkinson, S.; Backer, D.; Backus, P.; Barott, B.; Bauermeister, A.; Blitz, L.; Bock, D.; Bradford, T.; Cheng, C.; Cork, C.; Davis, M.; DeBoer, D.; Dexter, M.; Dreher, J.; Engargiola, G.; Fields, E.; Fleming, M.; Forster, R.J.; Gutierrez-Kraybill, C.; Harp, G.R.; Heiles, C.; Helfer, T.; Hull, C.; Jordan, J.; Jorgensen, S.; Kilsdonk, T.; Law, C.; van Leeuwen, J.; Lugten, J.; MacMahon, D.; McMahon, P.; Milgrome, O.; Pierson, T.; Randall, K.; Ross, J.; Shostak, S.; Siemion, A.; Smolek, K.; Tarter, J.; Thornton, D.; Urry, L.; Vitouchkine, A.; Wadefalk, N.; Weinreb, S.; Welch, J.; Werthimer, D.; Williams, P.K.G.; Wright, M.

    2010-01-01

    The Pi GHz Sky Survey (PiGSS) is a key project of the Allen Telescope Array. PiGSS is a 3.1 GHz survey of radio continuum emission in the extragalactic sky with an emphasis on synoptic observations that measure the static and time-variable properties of the sky. During the 2.5 year campaign, PiGSS

  7. Broad and Visionary. Commentary on Allen Kent (1977) Information Science. (Journal of Education for Librarianship, 17(3), 131-139)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bates, Marcia J.

    2015-01-01

    Allen Kent was a pioneer in many aspects of library and information science (LIS), and yet, as this author reads Kent's 1977 article, there is not much in it that has become ancient, irrelevant history. The questions he discusses are still alive in the discipline in 2014, whether it is called LIS (library and information science), information…

  8. A synthesis of African and western Indian Ocean Island mammal taxa (class: Mammalia) described between 1988 and 2008: An update to Allen and Ansell

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoffmann, M.; Grubb, P.; Groves, C.P.; Hutterer, R.; van der Straeten, E.; Simmons, N.; Bergmans, W.

    2009-01-01

    We provide a synthesis of all mammal taxa described from the African mainland, Madagascar and all surrounding islands in the 20 years since 1988, thereby supplementing the earlier works of G.M. Allen (1939) and W.F.H. Ansell (1989), and bringing the list of African mammals described over the last

  9. Typical values of the electric drift E × B/B2 in the inner radiation belt and slot region as determined from Van Allen Probe measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lejosne, Solène; Mozer, F. S.

    2016-12-01

    The electric drift E × B/B2 plays a fundamental role for the description of plasma flow and particle acceleration. Yet it is not well-known in the inner belt and slot region because of a lack of reliable in situ measurements. In this article, we present an analysis of the electric drifts measured below L 3 by both Van Allen Probes A and B from September 2012 to December 2014. The objective is to determine the typical components of the equatorial electric drift in both radial and azimuthal directions. The dependences of the components on radial distance, magnetic local time, and geographic longitude are examined. The results from Van Allen Probe A agree with Van Allen Probe B. They show, among other things, a typical corotation lag of the order of 5 to 10% below L 2.6, as well as a slight radial transport of the order of 20 m s-1. The magnetic local time dependence of the electric drift is consistent with that of the ionosphere wind dynamo below L 2 and with that of a solar wind-driven convection electric field above L 2. A secondary longitudinal dependence of the electric field is also found. Therefore, this work also demonstrates that the instruments on board Van Allen Probes are able to perform accurate measurements of the electric drift below L 3.

  10. Isomerization of Internal Alkynes to Iridium(III Allene Complexes via C–H Bond Activation: Expanded Substrate Scope, and Progress towards a Catalytic Methodology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neha Phadke

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The synthesis of a series of allene complexes (POCOPIr(η2-RC=.=CR’ 1b–4b (POCOP = 2,6-bis(di-tert-butylphosphonitobenzene via isomerization of internal alkynes is reported. We have demonstrated that the application of this methodology is viable for the isomerization of a wide variety of alkyne substrates. Deuterium labeling experiments support our proposed mechanism. The structures of the allene complexes 1b–4b were determined using spectroscopic data analysis. Additionally, the solid-state molecular structure of complex 2b was determined using single crystal X-ray diffraction studies and it confirmed the assignment of an iridium-bound allene isomerization product. The rates of isomerization were measured using NMR techniques over a range of temperatures to allow determination of thermodynamic parameters. Finally, we report a preliminary step towards developing a catalytic methodology; the allene may be liberated from the metal center by exposure of the complex to an atmosphere of carbon monoxide.

  11. Histrionicotoxins: roentgen-ray analysis of the novel allenic and acetylenie spiroalkaloids isolated from a Colombian frog, Dendrobates histrionicus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daly, J W; Karle, I; Myers, C W; Tokuyama, T; Waters, J A; Witkop, B

    1971-08-01

    The structures and absolute configuration of two unique alkaloids isolated from the Colombian frog, Dendrobates histrionicus, have been elucidated by Roentgen-ray (x-ray) crystallography. Histrionicotoxin is (2pR, 6S, 7pS, 8aS)-7-(cis-1-buten-3-ynyl)-8-hydroxy-2-(cis-2-penten-4- ynyl)-1-azaspiro[5.5] undecane, while in dihydro-isohistrionicotoxin the acetylenic 2-pentenynyl side chain is replaced by an allenic 2-(3,4 pentadienyl) substituent. Dendrobates histrionicus exhibits remarkable interpopulational variations in amounts and composition of skin toxins, in behavior, and in phenotypic characters, aspects of which are illustrated in a color plate. The histrionico-toxins are the third class of alkaloids isolated from the defensive skin secretions of Neotropical (Dendrobatidae) frogs.

  12. Histrionicotoxins: Roentgen-Ray Analysis of the Novel Allenic and Acetylenic Spiroalkaloids Isolated from a Colombian Frog, Dendrobates histrionicus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daly, John W.; Karle, Isabella; Myers, Charles W.; Tokuyama, Takashi; Waters, James A.; Witkop, Bernhard

    1971-01-01

    The structures and absolute configuration of two unique alkaloids isolated from the Colombian frog, Dendrobates histrionicus, have been elucidated by Roentgen-ray (x-ray) crystallography. Histrionicotoxin is (2pR, 6S, 7pS, 8aS)-7-(cis-1-buten-3-ynyl)-8-hydroxy-2-(cis-2-penten-4- ynyl)-1-azaspiro[5.5] undecane, while in dihydro-isohistrionicotoxin the acetylenic 2-pentenynyl side chain is replaced by an allenic 2-(3,4 pentadienyl) substituent. Dendrobates histrionicus exhibits remarkable interpopulational variations in amounts and composition of skin toxins, in behavior, and in phenotypic characters, aspects of which are illustrated in a color plate. The histrionico-toxins are the third class of alkaloids isolated from the defensive skin secretions of Neotropical (Dendrobatidae) frogs. Images PMID:5288773

  13. Gold coordination during homogeneous alkyne and allene cyclisation catalysis: Coordination to substrates, to ancillary ligands and in intermediates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hubert Schmidbaur

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The ever-increasing role of homogeneous gold catalysis in organic synthesis and the consequent need to be able to rationally control the rate and outcome of such reactions has emphasised the importance of each successive metal–carbon coordination step. Concentrating on alkyne and allene cyclisation and upon reaction mechanisms postulated on the basis of empirical and theoretical results, we have examined the coordination of gold fragments to triple bonds, the modification of gold(I precatalysts to effect specific reaction pathways or enantioselectivity and the isolation of coordinated intermediates or model compounds thereof. Some of the recent advances that have been made in various laboratories are described in this compact review.

  14. Radial Diffusion Caused by Pitch Angle Scattering and Drift Shell Splitting - Simulation and Van Allen Probes Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, M. G.; Morley, S.; Cunningham, G.; Tu, W.; Reeves, G. D.; Fennell, J. F.; Claudepierre, S. G.; Blake, J. B.; Spence, H.; Baker, D. N.

    2013-12-01

    In realistic asymmetric magnetic fields, particles with different pitch angles starting on the same field line will trace out different drift shells. As a result of this drift shell splitting, pitch angle scattering automatically leads to additional radial diffusion. At a given position on a drift shell, the instantaneous DLL associated with this process is related to the gradient of L* with respect to equatorial pitch angle and the local value of the bounce averaged Daa diffusion coefficient. The final DLL associated with pitch angle scattering is then obtained by drift averaging. We show initial results of computed DLL coefficients and simulations using the DREAM diffusion code. The results are compared with Phase Space Densities measured with the recently launched Van Allen Probes.

  15. Van Allen Probes observations of prompt MeV radiation belt electron acceleration in nonlinear interactions with VLF chorus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, J. C.; Erickson, P. J.; Omura, Y.; Baker, D. N.; Kletzing, C. A.; Claudepierre, S. G.

    2017-01-01

    Prompt recovery of MeV (millions of electron Volts) electron populations in the poststorm core of the outer terrestrial radiation belt involves local acceleration of a seed population of energetic electrons in interactions with VLF chorus waves. Electron interactions during the generation of VLF rising tones are strongly nonlinear, such that a fraction of the relativistic electrons at resonant energies are trapped by waves, leading to significant nonadiabatic energy exchange. Through detailed examination of VLF chorus and electron fluxes observed by Van Allen Probes, we investigate the efficiency of nonlinear processes for acceleration of electrons to MeV energies. We find through subpacket analysis of chorus waveforms that electrons with initial energy of hundreds of keV to 3 MeV can be accelerated by 50 keV-200 keV in resonant interactions with a single VLF rising tone on a time scale of 10-100 ms.

  16. Signatures of Ultrarelativistic Electron Loss in the Heart of the Outer Radiation Belt Measured by Van Allen Probes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aseev, N. A.; Shprits, Y. Y.; Drozdov, A. Y.; Kellerman, A. C.; Usanova, M. E.; Wang, D.; Zhelavskaya, I. S.

    2017-10-01

    Up until recently, signatures of the ultrarelativistic electron loss driven by electromagnetic ion cyclotron (EMIC) waves in the Earth's outer radiation belt have been limited to direct or indirect measurements of electron precipitation or the narrowing of normalized pitch angle distributions in the heart of the belt. In this study, we demonstrate additional observational evidence of ultrarelativistic electron loss that can be driven by resonant interaction with EMIC waves. We analyzed the profiles derived from Van Allen Probe particle data as a function of time and three adiabatic invariants between 9 October and 29 November 2012. New local minimums in the profiles are accompanied by the narrowing of normalized pitch angle distributions and ground-based detection of EMIC waves. Such a correlation may be indicative of ultrarelativistic electron precipitation into the Earth's atmosphere caused by resonance with EMIC waves.

  17. Van Allen Probes show that the inner radiation zone contains no MeV electrons: ECT/MagEIS data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fennell, J. F.; Claudepierre, S. G.; Blake, J. B.; O'Brien, T. P.; Clemmons, J. H.; Baker, D. N.; Spence, H. E.; Reeves, G. D.

    2015-03-01

    We present Van Allen Probe observations of electrons in the inner radiation zone. The measurements were made by the Energetic Particle, Composition, and Thermal Plasma/Magnetic Electron Ion Spectrometer (MagEIS) sensors that were designed to measure electrons with the ability to remove unwanted signals from penetrating protons, providing clean measurements. No electrons >900 keV were observed with equatorial fluxes above background (i.e., >0.1 el/(cm2 s sr keV)) in the inner zone. The observed fluxes are compared to the AE9 model and CRRES observations. Electron fluxes electrons in the inner zone while current radiation belt models and previous publications do.

  18. Energetic, Relativistic and Ultra-Relativistic Electrons: Comparison of Long-term VERB Code Simulations with Van Allen Probes Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drozdov, A.; Shprits, Y.; Orlova, K.; Kellerman, A. C.; Subbotin, D.; Baker, D. N.; Spence, H. E.

    2014-12-01

    In this study, we compare long-term simulations performed by the Versatile Electron Radiation Belt (VERB) code with observations from the MagEIS and REPT instruments on the Van Allen Probes. The model takes into account radial, energy, pitch-angle and mixed diffusion, losses into the atmosphere, and magnetopause shadowing. We consider the energetic (>100 KeV), relativistic (~0.5-1 MeV) and ultra-relativistic (>2 MeV) electrons. One year of relativistic electron measurements (μ=700 MeV/G) from October 1, 2012 to October 1, 2013 are well reproduced by the simulation during a period of the various geomagnetic activity. However, for ultra-relativistic energies (μ=3500 MeV/G), the VERB code simulation overestimates electron phase space density (PSD). These results indicate that an additional loss mechanism is operational and efficient for these high energies. We discuss possible solutions for improving the modeling of the radiation belts dynamics.

  19. Long-term VERB code simulations of ultra-relativistic electrons and comparison with Van Allen Probes measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drozdov, Alexander; Shprits, Yuri; Kellerman, Adam; Usanova, Maria; Aseev, Nikita; Baker, Daniel; Spence, Harlan; Reeves, Geoff

    2016-04-01

    In this study, we compare long-term simulations performed by the Versatile Electron Radiation Belt (VERB) code with the Van Allen Probes observations. The model takes into account radial, energy, pitch-angle and mixed diffusion, losses into the atmosphere, and magnetopause shadowing. We include scattering by hiss and chorus based on a recently developed statistical models of VLF/ELF waves obtained from EMFISIS instrument. We consider the energetic (>100 KeV), relativistic (~0.5-1 MeV) and ultra-relativistic (>2 MeV) electrons. One year of relativistic electron measurements are well reproduced by the simulation during a period of the various geomagnetic activity. However, for ultra-relativistic energies, the VERB code simulation significantly overestimates electron phase space density. Since the additional loss is required only at very high energies we conclude that EMIC waves is the most likely additional source of scattering that could explain observed decay rates.

  20. Detection of Chorus Elements and other Wave Signatures Using Geometric Computational Techniques in the Van Allen radiation belts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sengupta, A.; Kletzing, C.; Howk, R.; Kurth, W. S.

    2017-12-01

    An important goal of the Van Allen Probes mission is to understand wave particle interactions that can energize relativistic electron in the Earth's Van Allen radiation belts. The EMFISIS instrumentation suite provides measurements of wave electric and magnetic fields of wave features such as chorus that participate in these interactions. Geometric signal processing discovers structural relationships, e.g. connectivity across ridge-like features in chorus elements to reveal properties such as dominant angles of the element (frequency sweep rate) and integrated power along the a given chorus element. These techniques disambiguate these wave features against background hiss-like chorus. This enables autonomous discovery of chorus elements across the large volumes of EMFISIS data. At the scale of individual or overlapping chorus elements, topological pattern recognition techniques enable interpretation of chorus microstructure by discovering connectivity and other geometric features within the wave signature of a single chorus element or between overlapping chorus elements. Thus chorus wave features can be quantified and studied at multiple scales of spectral geometry using geometric signal processing techniques. We present recently developed computational techniques that exploit spectral geometry of chorus elements and whistlers to enable large-scale automated discovery, detection and statistical analysis of these events over EMFISIS data. Specifically, we present different case studies across a diverse portfolio of chorus elements and discuss the performance of our algorithms regarding precision of detection as well as interpretation of chorus microstructure. We also provide large-scale statistical analysis on the distribution of dominant sweep rates and other properties of the detected chorus elements.

  1. Statistical study of the storm time radiation belt evolution during Van Allen Probes era: CME- versus CIR-driven storms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Xiao-Chen; Hudson, Mary K.; Jaynes, Allison N.; Shi, Quanqi; Tian, Anmin; Claudepierre, Seth G.; Qin, Mu-Rong; Zong, Qiu-Gang; Sun, Wei-Jie

    2017-08-01

    Coronal mass ejection (CME)-driven or corotating interaction region (CIR)-driven storms can change the electron distributions in the radiation belt dramatically, which can in turn affect the spacecraft in this region or induce geomagnetic effects. The Van Allen Probes twin spacecraft, launched on 30 August 2012, orbit near the equatorial plane and across a wide range of L∗ with apogee at 5.8 RE and perigee at 620 km. Electron data from Van Allen Probes MagEIS and REPT instruments have been binned every 6 h at L∗=3 (defined as 2.5 < L∗<3.5), 4 (3.5 < L∗<4.5), 5 (4.5 < L∗<5.5). The superposed epoch analysis shows that (1) CME storms induce more electron flux enhancement at L∗=3 for energy channels below 1 MeV than CIR storms; (2) CME storms induce more electron flux enhancement at L∗=4 and 5 in the energy channels above 1 MeV than CIR storms; (3) CIR storms induce more electron flux enhancement at L∗=4 and 5 in the energy channels below 1 MeV than CME storms; (4) intense CME induce more than 50 times flux enhancement for the energy channel around 400 keV at L∗=3; (5) intense CIR induce more than 50 times flux enhancement for the energy channel around 200 keV at L∗=4. These results are consistent with a general picture of enhanced convection over a longer period for CIR storms which increased flux closer to geosynchronous orbit consistent with earlier studies, while CME storms likely produce deeper penetration of enhanced flux and local heating which is greater at higher energies at lower L∗.

  2. A tribute to Dr. Robert C. Allen, an inspirational teacher, humanitarian, and friend (Nov. 18, 1950-Mar. 24, 2005).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edlich, Richard F; Greene, Jill A; Long, William B

    2006-01-01

    Dr. Robert C. Allen was a gifted educator, as well as experienced ophthalmologist, who was a close personal friend of Dr. Edlich at the University of Virginia Health System. While serving on the faculty at the University of Virginia Health System, Dr. Allen proved to be a compassionate physician, who developed close personal relationships with the residents, faculty, and his patients. Dr. Allen was invited by Dr Edlich to be a member of the Editorial Board of the Journal of Long-Term Effects of Medical Implants. When Dr. Allen told Dr. Edlich that he had ocular melanoma in 2000, this news was a wake-up call to Dr. Edlich on the need to prevent skin cancer, as well as ocular melanoma. Empowered by this news, Dr. Edlich was honored to co-author four articles on skin cancer prevention, as well as the latest article focusing on prevention of ocular melanoma. The Ocular Melanoma Foundation (Richmond, VA (USA)) was founded in 2003 by Dr. Robert C. Allen to increase awareness, enhance education, and provide advocacy among both patients and health care professionals regarding this rare, but potentially lethal cancer. It has a website that provides patient information, up-to-date information and enables communication/ discourse between and among patients and practitioners (admin@ocularmelanoma.org). Dr. Allen died on March 24, 2005, at his home surrounded by family and loved ones. When surgeons are faced with challenging healthcare diseases, Dr. Edlich's mentor, Dr. Owen Wangensteen, advised Dr. Edlich that he should seek the advice and guidance of skilled basic scientists, who are familiar with the problem. Dr. Wangensteen is recognized as the greatest surgical teacher during the 20th century. Consequently, Dr. Edlich enlisted the advice and guidance from the two co-authors of the next article regarding the scientific basis for the selection of sunglasses to prevent the development of cataracts, pterygia, skin cancer, as well as ocular melanoma. Dr. Reichow is a Professor

  3. Deterministic methods for the relativistic Vlasov-Maxwell equations and the Van Allen belts dynamics; Methodes deterministes de resolution des equations de Vlasov-Maxwell relativistes en vue du calcul de la dynamique des ceintures de Van Allen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Le Bourdiec, S

    2007-03-15

    Artificial satellites operate in an hostile radiation environment, the Van Allen radiation belts, which partly condition their reliability and their lifespan. In order to protect them, it is necessary to characterize the dynamics of the energetic electrons trapped in these radiation belts. This dynamics is essentially determined by the interactions between the energetic electrons and the existing electromagnetic waves. This work consisted in designing a numerical scheme to solve the equations modelling these interactions: the relativistic Vlasov-Maxwell system of equations. Our choice was directed towards methods of direct integration. We propose three new spectral methods for the momentum discretization: a Galerkin method and two collocation methods. All of them are based on scaled Hermite functions. The scaling factor is chosen in order to obtain the proper velocity resolution. We present in this thesis the discretization of the one-dimensional Vlasov-Poisson system and the numerical results obtained. Then we study the possible extensions of the methods to the complete relativistic problem. In order to reduce the computing time, parallelization and optimization of the algorithms were carried out. Finally, we present 1Dx-3Dv (mono-dimensional for x and three-dimensional for velocity) computations of Weibel and whistler instabilities with one or two electrons species. (author)

  4. Elliptic and solitary wave solutions for Bogoyavlenskii equations system, couple Boiti-Leon-Pempinelli equations system and Time-fractional Cahn-Allen equation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mostafa M.A. Khater

    Full Text Available In this article and for the first time, we introduce and describe Khater method which is a new technique for solving nonlinear partial differential equations (PDEs.. We apply this method for each of the following models Bogoyavlenskii equation, couple Boiti-Leon-Pempinelli system and Time-fractional Cahn-Allen equation. Khater method is very powerful, Effective, felicitous and fabulous method to get exact and solitary wave solution of (PDEs.. Not only just like that but it considers too one of the general methods for solving that kind of equations since it involves some methods as we will see in our discuss of the results. We make a comparison between the results of this new method and another method. Keywords: Bogoyavlenskii equations system, Couple Boiti-Leon-Pempinelli equations system, Time-fractional Cahn-Allen equation, Khater method, Traveling wave solutions, Solitary wave solutions

  5. Vinyl azides derived from allenes: thermolysis leading to multisubstituted 1,4-pyrazines and Mn(III)-catalyzed photochemical reaction leading to pyrroles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sajna, K V; Kumara Swamy, K C

    2012-10-05

    Thermolysis of phosphorus-based vinyl azides under solvent- and catalyst-free conditions furnished a new route for 1,4-pyrazines. A simple one-pot, Mn(III)-catalyzed photochemical route has been developed for multisubstituted pyrroles starting from allenes and 1,3-dicarbonyls via in situ-generated vinyl azides. The utility of new phosphorus-based pyrroles is also demonstrated in the Horner reaction. The structures of key products are unequivocally confirmed by X-ray crystallography.

  6. Cloning of allene oxide cyclase gene from Leymus mollis and analysis of its expression in wheat?Leymus chromosome addition lines

    OpenAIRE

    Eltayeb Habora, Mohamed Elsadig; Eltayeb, Amin Elsadig; Oka, Mariko; Tsujimoto, Hisashi; Tanaka, Kiyoshi

    2013-01-01

    Leymus mollis (Triticeae; Poaceae) is a useful genetic resource for wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) breeding via wide hybridization to introduce its chromosomes and integrate its useful traits into wheat. Leymus mollis is highly tolerant to abiotic stresses such as drought and salinity and resistant to various diseases, but the genetic mechanisms controlling its physiological tolerance remain largely unexplored. We identified and cloned an allene oxide cyclase (AOC) gene from L. mollis that was ...

  7. Using the cold plasma dispersion relation and whistler mode waves to quantify the antenna sheath impedance of the Van Allen Probes EFW instrument

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hartley, D. P.; Kletzing, C. A.; Kurth, W. S.; Bounds, S. R.; Averkamp, T. F.; Hospodarsky, G. B.; Wygant, J. R.; Bonnell, J. W.; Santolík, Ondřej; Watt, C. E. J.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 121, č. 5 (2016), s. 4590-4606 ISSN 2169-9380 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LH15304 Institutional support: RVO:68378289 Keywords : EFW * EMFISIS * plasmaspheric hiss * sheath impedance * Van Allen Probes * whistler mode chorus Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics Impact factor: 2.733, year: 2016 http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/2016JA022501/abstract

  8. Direct Observation of a Photochemical Alkyne-Allene Reaction and of a Twisted and Rehybridized Intramolecular Charge-Transfer State in a Donor-Acceptor Dyad.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dereka, Bogdan; Svechkarev, Denis; Rosspeintner, Arnulf; Tromayer, Maximilian; Liska, Robert; Mohs, Aaron M; Vauthey, Eric

    2017-11-22

    The excited-state dynamics of an aniline-triazine electron donor-acceptor dyad with an alkyne spacer has been investigated using a combination of ultrafast broadband mid-IR and visible transient absorption and fluorescence spectroscopies. The transient IR data reveal the occurrence of an efficient alkyne to allene isomerization of the spacer with a time constant increasing from a few hundreds of femtoseconds to a few picoseconds with solvent viscosity. This process is faster than the vibrational cooling of the Franck-Condon excited state, indicative of nonequilibrium dynamics. The transient electronic absorption and fluorescence data evidence that this transformation is accompanied by a charge separation between the donor and the acceptor subunits. The allene character of the spacer implies an orthogonal orientation of the donor and acceptor moieties, similar to that proposed for twisted intramolecular charge-transfer states. Such states are often invoked in the excited-state dynamics of donor-acceptor dyads, but their involvement could never be unambiguously evidenced spectroscopically. The alkyne-allene isomerization involves not only a torsional motion but also a bending of the molecule due to the sp to sp 2 rehybridization of one of the alkyne carbon atoms. This twisted and rehybridized intramolecular charge transfer ("TRICT") state decays back to the planar and linear alkyne ground state on a time scale decreasing from a few hundred to ten picoseconds upon going from weakly to highly polar solvents. The different solvent dependencies reveal that the dynamics of the allene buildup are controlled by the structural changes, whereas the decay is limited by the charge recombination step.

  9. Three Neoclassicisms. Exploring the Possibilities of a Comparative Average Shot Length Through Clint Eastwood, Brian De Palma and Woody Allen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agustín Rubio Alcover

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available This study is intended to compare the complete filmographies of the three American directors whose works are analyzed. They are Clint Eastwood, Brian De Palma and Woody Allen. We define the approach as a trampoline for leaping over the wall of a difficult conceptual and methodological blind alley—an understanding of movie editors and their task, but above all their contribution. Their work is disguised as something merely technical and obvious but, even in the best of cases, this attitude never anything other than lazy. It is the analysis route upheld and cultivated by the David Bordwell and Barry Salt that we are prepared to travel along. If we want to abjure an unsustainably radical anti-empiricism without precipitating ourselves into neo-empiricist infantilism or regressing to a chaotic teratology—that is: to try to remain focused on both the wood and the trees—a statistical-type study, aided by the latest-generation digital and computer tools and, more specifically, an Average Shot Length study (which we will refer to from now on with the acronym ASL appears to us an objective and, consequently, literally unobjectionable criterion. It is probably as reductionist as it is stimulating when it comes to reaching conclusions that are non-definitive but undoubtedly worthy of interest, because, faced with the subjectivity of the analysis and at the general macroscopic level of the movie, the normative and the standard blends with the deviant, or exceptional.   

  10. Empirical Modeling of the Storm Time Innermost Magnetosphere Using Van Allen Probes and THEMIS Data: Eastward and Banana Currents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephens, G. K.; Sitnov, M. I.; Ukhorskiy, A. Y.; Roelof, E. C.; Tsyganenko, N. A.; Le, G.

    2016-01-01

    The structure of storm time currents in the inner magnetosphere, including its innermost region inside 4R(sub E), is studied for the first time using a modification of the empirical geomagnetic field model TS07D and new data from Van Allen Probes and Time History of Events and Macroscale Interactions during Substorms missions. It is shown that the model, which uses basis-function expansions instead of ad hoc current modules to approximate the magnetic field, consistently improves its resolution and magnetic field reconstruction with the increase of the number of basis functions and resolves the spatial structure and evolution of the innermost eastward current. This includes a connection between the westward ring current flowing largely at R > or approx. 3R(sub E) and the eastward ring current concentrated at R banana current' was previously inferred from the pressure distributions based on the energetic neutral atom imaging and first-principles ring current simulations. The morphology of the equatorial currents is dependent on storm phase. During the main phase, it is complex, with several asymmetries forming banana currents. Near SYM-H minimum, the banana current is strongest, is localized in the evening-midnight sector, and is more structured compared to the main phase. It then weakens during the recovery phase resulting in the equatorial currents to become mostly azimuthally symmetric.

  11. Variation of Radiation Belt Content Indices and total electron energy During Magnetic Storms Based On Van Allen Probe Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Y.; Xie, L.; Chen, L.; Pu, Z.

    2017-12-01

    We investigate the variability of the RBC indices and total electron energy for varying energies within outer belt during 42 isolate magnetic storms based on the electron flux data from MagEIS and REPT onboard Van Allen Probe-A spacecraft. Van Allan Probes travel throughout the entire radiation belt twice during each orbit, providing an excellent opportunity to measure the electron's pitch angle distributions near the magnetic equatorial plane which is essential to calculate the RBC index accurately. Instead of assuming an isotropic electron pitch angle distribution which is widely used in previous studies, we develop a new and reliable technique to infer the equatorial pitch angle distributions based on the off-equator measurements. The statistic results show that the total electron energy in outer belt increase in 80% storms and has a positive correlation with median value of AE during recovery phase and minimum -Dst. The possibility of observing RBC depletion increase at high energies. The upper limit energy of RBC enhancement has a positive correlation with median value of AE and Vsw during recovery phase and a negative correlation with median value of Nsw during storm, which is consist of the balance of acceleration by chorus waves and loss by EMIC waves.

  12. Generation of lower and upper bands of electrostatic electron cyclotron harmonic waves in the Van Allen radiation belts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Qinghua; Xiao, Fuliang; Yang, Chang; Liu, Si; He, Yihua; Baker, D. N.; Spence, H. E.; Reeves, G. D.; Funsten, H. O.

    2017-06-01

    Electrostatic electron cyclotron harmonic (ECH) waves generated by the electron loss cone distribution can produce efficient scattering loss of plasma sheet electrons, which has a significant effect on the dynamics in the outer magnetosphere. Here we report two ECH emission events around the same location L≈ 5.7-5.8, MLT ≈ 12 from Van Allen Probes on 11 February (event A) and 9 January 2014 (event B), respectively. The spectrum of ECH waves was centered at the lower half of the harmonic bands during event A, but the upper half during event B. The observed electron phase space density in both events is fitted by the subtracted bi-Maxwellian distribution, and the fitting functions are used to evaluate the local growth rates of ECH waves based on a linear theory for homogeneous plasmas. ECH waves are excited by the loss cone instability of 50 eV-1 keV electrons in the lower half of harmonic bands in the low-density plasmasphere in event A, and 1-10 keV electrons in the upper half of harmonic bands in a relatively high-density region in event B. The current results successfully explain observations and provide a first direct evidence on how ECH waves are generated in the lower and upper half of harmonic frequency bands.

  13. VLF waves from ground-based transmitters observed by the Van Allen Probes: Statistical model and effects on plasmaspheric electrons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Qianli; Mourenas, Didier; Li, Wen; Artemyev, Anton; Thorne, Richard M.

    2017-07-01

    Whistler mode very low frequency (VLF) waves from powerful ground-based transmitters can resonantly scatter energetic plasmaspheric electrons and precipitate them into the atmosphere. A comprehensive 4 year statistics of Van Allen Probes measurements is carried out to assess their consequences on the dynamics of the inner radiation belt and slot region. Statistical models of the measured wave electric field power and of the inferred full wave magnetic amplitude are provided as a function of L, magnetic local time, season, and Kp over L = 1-3, revealing the localization of VLF wave intensity and its variation with geomagnetic activity over 2012-2016. Since this VLF wave model can be directly used together with existing hiss and lightning-generated wave models in radiation belt simulation codes, we perform numerical calculations of the corresponding quasi-linear pitch angle diffusion rates, allowing us to demonstrate the crucial role played by VLF waves from transmitters in energetic electron loss at L < 2.5.

  14. Van Allen Probes observation of a 360° phase shift in the flux modulation of injected electrons by ULF waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, X.-R.; Zong, Q.-G.; Zhou, X.-Z.; Blake, J. Bernard; Wygant, J. R.; Kletzing, C. A.

    2017-02-01

    We present Van Allen Probe observation of drift-resonance interaction between energetic electrons and ultralow frequency (ULF) waves on 29 October 2013. Oscillations in electron flux were observed at the period of ˜450 s, which is also the dominant period of the observed ULF magnetic pulsations. The phase shift of the electron fluxes (˜50 to 150 keV) across the estimated resonant energy (˜104 keV) is ˜360°. This phase relationship is different from the characteristic 180° phase shift as expected from the drift-resonance theory. We speculate that the additional 180° phase difference arises from the inversion of electron phase space density (PSD) gradient, which in turn is caused by the drift motion of the substorm injected electrons. This PSD gradient adjusts the characteristic particle signatures in the drift-resonance theory, which indicates a coupling effect between the magnetotail and the radiation belt and helps to better understand the wave-particle interaction in the magnetosphere.

  15. On the Effect of Geomagnetic Storms on Relativistic Electrons in the Outer Radiation Belt: Van Allen Probes Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moya, Pablo S.; Pinto, Víctor A.; Sibeck, David G.; Kanekal, Shrikanth G.; Baker, Daniel N.

    2017-11-01

    Using Van Allen Probes Energetic Particle, Composition, and Thermal Plasma-Relativistic Electron-Proton Telescope (ECT-REPT) observations, we performed a statistical study on the effect of geomagnetic storms on relativistic electrons fluxes in the outer radiation belt for 78 storms between September 2012 and June 2016. We found that the probability of enhancement, depletion, and no change in flux values depends strongly on L and energy. Enhancement events are more common for ˜2 MeV electrons at L ˜ 5, and the number of enhancement events decreases with increasing energy at any given L shell. However, considering the percentage of occurrence of each kind of event, enhancements are more probable at higher energies, and the probability of enhancement tends to increases with increasing L shell. Depletion are more probable for 4-5 MeV electrons at the heart of the outer radiation belt, and no-change events are more frequent at L 4.5 the probability of enhancement, depletion, or no-change response presents little variation for all energies. Because these probabilities remain relatively constant as a function of radial distance in the outer radiation belt, measurements obtained at geosynchronous orbit may be used as a proxy to monitor E≥1.8 MeV electrons in the outer belt.

  16. Near-Earth injection of MeV electrons associated with intense dipolarization electric fields: Van Allen Probes observations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Lei; Wang, Chi; Duan, Suping; He, Zhaohai; Wygant, John R; Cattell, Cynthia A; Tao, Xin; Su, Zhenpeng; Kletzing, Craig; Baker, Daniel N; Li, Xinlin; Malaspina, David; Blake, J Bernard; Fennell, Joseph; Claudepierre, Seth; Turner, Drew L; Reeves, Geoffrey D; Funsten, Herbert O; Spence, Harlan E; Angelopoulos, Vassilis; Fruehauff, Dennis; Chen, Lunjin; Thaller, Scott; Breneman, Aaron; Tang, Xiangwei

    2015-08-16

    Substorms generally inject tens to hundreds of keV electrons, but intense substorm electric fields have been shown to inject MeV electrons as well. An intriguing question is whether such MeVelectron injections can populate the outer radiation belt. Here we present observations of a substorm injection of MeV electrons into the inner magnetosphere. In the premidnight sector at L ∼ 5.5, Van Allen Probes (Radiation Belt Storm Probes)-A observed a large dipolarization electric field (50 mV/m) over ∼40 s and a dispersionless injection of electrons up to ∼3 MeV. Pitch angle observations indicated betatron acceleration of MeV electrons at the dipolarization front. Corresponding signals of MeV electron injection were observed at LANL-GEO, THEMIS-D, and GOES at geosynchronous altitude. Through a series of dipolarizations, the injections increased the MeV electron phase space density by 1 order of magnitude in less than 3 h in the outer radiation belt ( L > 4.8). Our observations provide evidence that deep injections can supply significant MeV electrons.

  17. Van Allen Probes observations of unusually low frequency whistler mode waves observed in association with moderate magnetic storms: Statistical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cattell, C A; Breneman, A W; Thaller, S A; Wygant, J R; Kletzing, C A; Kurth, W S

    2015-09-28

    We show the first evidence for locally excited chorus at frequencies below 0.1  f ce (electron cyclotron frequency) in the outer radiation belt. A statistical study of chorus during geomagnetic storms observed by the Van Allen Probes found that frequencies are often dramatically lower than expected. The frequency at peak power suddenly stops tracking the equatorial 0.5  f ce and f / f ce decreases rapidly, often to frequencies well below 0.1  f ce (in situ and mapped to equator). These very low frequency waves are observed both when the satellites are close to the equatorial plane and at higher magnetic latitudes. Poynting flux is consistent with generation at the equator. Wave amplitudes can be up to 20 to 40 mV/m and 2 to 4 nT. We conclude that conditions during moderate to large storms can excite unusually low frequency chorus, which is resonant with more energetic electrons than typical chorus, with critical implications for understanding radiation belt evolution.

  18. Kalman Filtering and Smoothing of the Van Allen Probes Observations to Estimate the Radial, Energy and Pitch Angle Diffusion Rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podladchikova, T.; Shprits, Y.; Kellerman, A. C.

    2015-12-01

    The Kalman filter technique combines the strengths of new physical models of the Earth's radiation belts with long-term spacecraft observations of electron fluxes and therefore provide an extremely useful method for the analysis of the state and evolution of the electron radiation belts. However, to get the reliable data assimilation output, the Kalman filter application is confronted with a set of fundamental problems. E.g., satellite measurements are usually limited to a single location in space, which confines the reconstruction of the global evolution of the radiation environment. The uncertainties arise from the imperfect description of the process dynamics and the presence of observation errors, which may cause the failure of data assimilation solution. The development of adaptive Kalman filter that combines the Van Allen Probes data and 3-D VERB code, its accurate customizations in the reconstruction of model describing the phase space density (PSD) evolution, extension of the possibilities to use measurement information, and the model adjustment by developing the identification techniques of model and measurement errors allowed us to reveal hidden and implicit regularities of the PSD dynamics and obtain quantitative and qualitative estimates of radial, energy and pitch angle diffusion characteristics from satellite observations. In this study we propose an approach to estimate radial, energy and pitch angle diffusion rates, as well as the direction of their propagation.

  19. Energetic, relativistic, and ultrarelativistic electrons: Comparison of long-term VERB code simulations with Van Allen Probes measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drozdov, A. Y.; Shprits, Y. Y.; Orlova, K. G.; Kellerman, A. C.; Subbotin, D. A.; Baker, D. N.; Spence, H. E.; Reeves, G. D.

    2015-05-01

    In this study, we compare long-term simulations performed by the Versatile Electron Radiation Belt (VERB) code with observations from the Magnetic Electron Ion Spectrometer and Relativistic Electron-Proton Telescope instruments on the Van Allen Probes satellites. The model takes into account radial, energy, pitch angle and mixed diffusion, losses into the atmosphere, and magnetopause shadowing. We consider the energetic (>100 keV), relativistic (~0.5-1 MeV), and ultrarelativistic (>2 MeV) electrons. One year of relativistic electron measurements (μ = 700 MeV/G) from 1 October 2012 to 1 October 2013 are well reproduced by the simulation during varying levels of geomagnetic activity. However, for ultrarelativistic energies (μ = 3500 MeV/G), the VERB code simulation overestimates electron fluxes and phase space density. These results indicate that an additional loss mechanism is operational and efficient for these high energies. The most likely mechanism for explaining the observed loss at ultrarelativistic energies is scattering by the electromagnetic ion cyclotron waves.

  20. Combined convective and diffusive simulations: VERB-4D comparison with 17 March 2013 Van Allen Probes observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shprits, Yuri Y.; Kellerman, Adam C.; Drozdov, Alexander Y.; Spence, Harlan E.; Reeves, Geoffrey D.; Baker, Daniel N.

    2015-11-01

    This study is focused on understanding the coupling between different electron populations in the inner magnetosphere and the various physical processes that determine evolution of electron fluxes at different energies. Observations during the 17 March 2013 storm and simulations with a newly developed Versatile Electron Radiation Belt-4D (VERB-4D) are presented. Analysis of the drift trajectories of the energetic and relativistic electrons shows that electron trajectories at transitional energies with a first invariant on the scale of ~100 MeV/G may resemble ring current or relativistic electron trajectories depending on the level of geomagnetic activity. Simulations with the VERB-4D code including convection, radial diffusion, and energy diffusion are presented. Sensitivity simulations including various physical processes show how different acceleration mechanisms contribute to the energization of energetic electrons at transitional energies. In particular, the range of energies where inward transport is strongly influenced by both convection and radial diffusion are studied. The results of the 4-D simulations are compared to Van Allen Probes observations at a range of energies including source, seed, and core populations of the energetic and relativistic electrons in the inner magnetosphere.

  1. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray analysis of allene oxide synthase, cytochrome P450 CYP74A2, from Parthenium argentatum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, Zhenzhan; Li, Lenong; Pan, Zhiqiang; Wang, Xiaoqiang

    2008-01-01

    Allene oxide synthase, an atypical cytochrome P450 from Parthenium argentatum, was crystallized and diffraction data were collected to 2.4 Å resolution. Oxylipins are oxygenated derivatives of fatty acids and pivotal signaling molecules in plants and animals. Allene oxide synthase (AOS) is a key cytochrome P450 CYP74 enzyme involved in the biosynthesis of plant oxylipin jasmonates to convert 13(S)-hydroperoxide to allene oxide. Guayule (Parthenium argentatum) AOS, CYP74A2, was expressed in Escherichia coli. Protein was purified using affinity chromatography and size exclusion chromatography, and then crystallized. Two different crystal forms were obtained from 0.2 M (NH 4 )H 2 PO 4 , 50% MPD, 0.1 M Tris, pH 8.5 at 277 K using the hanging-drop vapor-diffusion method. Preliminary X-ray analysis was carried out, and the crystals were found to belong to the tetragonal space group I422 with cell parameters a = b = 126.5, c = 163.9 Å, and the monoclinic space group C2 with cell parameters a = 336.5, b = 184.2, c = 159.0 Å, β = 118.6°. Diffraction data were collected to 2.4 Å resolution from a tetragonal form of crystal using a home X-ray source

  2. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray analysis of allene oxide synthase, cytochrome P450 CYP74A2, from Parthenium argentatum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, Zhenzhan; Li, Lenong [Plant Biology Division, Samuel Roberts Noble Foundation, 2510 Sam Noble Parkway, Ardmore, OK 73401 (United States); Pan, Zhiqiang, E-mail: zpan@ars.usda.gov [USDA, ARS, Natural Products Utilization Research Unit, PO Box 8048, University, MS 38677 (United States); Wang, Xiaoqiang, E-mail: zpan@ars.usda.gov [Plant Biology Division, Samuel Roberts Noble Foundation, 2510 Sam Noble Parkway, Ardmore, OK 73401 (United States)

    2008-07-01

    Allene oxide synthase, an atypical cytochrome P450 from Parthenium argentatum, was crystallized and diffraction data were collected to 2.4 Å resolution. Oxylipins are oxygenated derivatives of fatty acids and pivotal signaling molecules in plants and animals. Allene oxide synthase (AOS) is a key cytochrome P450 CYP74 enzyme involved in the biosynthesis of plant oxylipin jasmonates to convert 13(S)-hydroperoxide to allene oxide. Guayule (Parthenium argentatum) AOS, CYP74A2, was expressed in Escherichia coli. Protein was purified using affinity chromatography and size exclusion chromatography, and then crystallized. Two different crystal forms were obtained from 0.2 M (NH{sub 4})H{sub 2}PO{sub 4}, 50% MPD, 0.1 M Tris, pH 8.5 at 277 K using the hanging-drop vapor-diffusion method. Preliminary X-ray analysis was carried out, and the crystals were found to belong to the tetragonal space group I422 with cell parameters a = b = 126.5, c = 163.9 Å, and the monoclinic space group C2 with cell parameters a = 336.5, b = 184.2, c = 159.0 Å, β = 118.6°. Diffraction data were collected to 2.4 Å resolution from a tetragonal form of crystal using a home X-ray source.

  3. A Self-Study Tutorial using the Allen Brain Explorer and Brain Atlas to Teach Concepts of Mammalian Neuroanatomy and Brain Function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenks, Bruce G

    2009-01-01

    The Allen Brain Atlas is a repository of neuroanatomical data concerning the mouse brain. The core of the database is a Nissl-stained reference atlas of the brain accompanied by in situ hybridization data for essentially the entire mouse genome. This database is freely available at the Allen Institute for Brain Science website, as is an innovative tool to explore the database, the Brain Explorer. This tool is downloaded and installed on your own computer. I have developed a self-study tutorial, "Explorations with the Allen Brain Explorer", which uses the Brain Explorer and the Brain Atlas to teach fundamentals of mammalian neuroanatomy and brain function. In this tutorial background information and step-by-step exercises on the use of the Brain Explorer are given using PowerPoint as a platform. To do the tutorial both the PowerPoint and the Brain Explorer are opened on the computer and the students switch from one program to the other as they go, in a step-wise fashion, through the various exercises. There are two main groups of exercises, titled "The Basics" and "Explorations", with both groups accessed from a PowerPoint "Start Menu" by clicking on dynamic links to the appropriate exercises. Most exercises have a number of dynamic links to PowerPoint slides where background information for the exercises is given or the neuroanatomical data collected from the Brain Atlas is discussed.

  4. Study of the temporal stability of the Van Allen belts looking for geophysical correlation in the POES data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esposito, Gennaro

    The study of the high energy particle plasma outside the atmosphere, in the vicinity of our planet, has steadily improved in the last decades. The capability achieved by space experiments based on very accurate detectors able to identify and trace charged particles above few MeV, nowadays allows the study of radiation belt details not accessible before like, for example, the discovery of quasi stable belts dominated by positrons below few GeV by AMS-01. The sensitivity achieved by modern experiments opens new frontiers in the study of the Earth magnetosphere characteristics and of its interaction with our planet. The magnetosphere properties are determined by Earth's magnetic field, solar wind and cosmic ray interactions. Modifications in the characteristics of the magnetosphere imply perturbation of electric and magnetic fields as well energetic particles trapped in the Earth magnetic field. Several studies have shown, that during a seismic event of adequate intensity, magnetic and electric perturbations are emitted near the epicenter area and propagate in the surrounding space reaching the magnetosphere and creating measurable effects on the plasma. Other studies even suggest that a component of this perturbation could be emitted before (days/hours) the seismic event. These studies are supported by preliminary measurements done with satellites, inducing a correlation between instabilities in the Van Allen belt structures and terrestrial seismic phenomena. In this work we analyze the NOAA data coming from three different POES satellites (NOAA15, NOAA16, NOAA17) in long duration campaigns looking for possible correlation between particle bursts (sudden proton and electron flux enhancement) and strong earthquakes occurred in the period 1998-2006. In the energy range of the particle detectors (MEPED) on board the POES satellites no strong correlation among particle bursts and strong earthquake can be seen.

  5. Time-fractional Cahn-Allen and time-fractional Klein-Gordon equations: Lie symmetry analysis, explicit solutions and convergence analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inc, Mustafa; Yusuf, Abdullahi; Isa Aliyu, Aliyu; Baleanu, Dumitru

    2018-03-01

    This research analyzes the symmetry analysis, explicit solutions and convergence analysis to the time fractional Cahn-Allen (CA) and time-fractional Klein-Gordon (KG) equations with Riemann-Liouville (RL) derivative. The time fractional CA and time fractional KG are reduced to respective nonlinear ordinary differential equation of fractional order. We solve the reduced fractional ODEs using an explicit power series method. The convergence analysis for the obtained explicit solutions are investigated. Some figures for the obtained explicit solutions are also presented.

  6. Long-term radiation belt relativistic electron simulations with the VERB code using new wave parameterizations derived from Van Allen Probes measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, H.; Shprits, Y. Y.; Spasojevic, M.; Kellerman, A. C.; Drozdov, A.

    2016-12-01

    New wave frequency and amplitude models for nightside and dayside chorus waves are developed based on measurement from the Electric and Magnetic Field Instrument Suite and Integrated Science (EMFISIS) instrument on board Van Allen Probes. New paremetrizations can be used for quiet, moderate and disturbed conditions. The corresponding 3D diffusion coefficients are calculated using the Full Diffusion Code. The new parameterizations result in differences in the diffusion coefficients as a function of both electron energy and pitch angle. Furthermore, one-year 3D simulations are performed using the Versatile Electron Radiation Belt (VERB) code. Simulations with new parametrizations show better agreement with observations.

  7. Study protocol for a randomised controlled trial of Allen Carr's Easyway programme versus Lambeth and Southwark NHS for smoking cessation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Kerry V; Albery, Ian P; Moss, Antony C; White, Sarah; Frings, Daniel

    2017-12-14

    Smoking is a major cause of ill health and is associated with several diseases including cancer, coronary heart disease and stroke. Many psychological and pharmacological smoking cessation treatments are available and although they are undoubtedly the most cost-effective health interventions available, many people still fail to maintain cessation in the longer term. Recently, National Institute for Health and Care Excellence called for comparative studies to determine the short-term and long-term effectiveness of Allen Carr's Easyway (ACE) method of stopping smoking. This study will compare the efficacy of the ACE programme and a 1-1 counselling service available via the National Health Service. A two-arm, parallel-group, blinded, randomised controlled trial will be conducted with people who smoke tobacco cigarettes, are aged ≥18 years and are motivated to quit. Exclusion criteria comprise self-reported mental health condition, pregnancy or respiratory disease such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease or emphysema. The primary treatment outcome is smoking cessation 26 weeks after treatment. Participants will be analysed on an intention to treat basis at the point of randomisation. Before being randomised, the research team will not inform participants which two treatments are being compared. Once randomised researchers will be blinded to participant condition, and participants will be blinded to the condition they are not assigned to. Logistic regression will be used to estimate the effectiveness of the treatment condition on smoking cessation at 26 weeks. The following covariates will be included: baseline quit efficacy (at inclusion), age (at inclusion), gender and baseline nicotine dependency. Approval was granted by London-Fulham Research Ethics Committee (ref: 16/LO/1657). The study's findings will be published in peer-reviewed journals and disseminated at national and international conferences. ClinicalTrials.gov identifier number: NCT02855255. ISRCTN

  8. Askey, Prof. Richard Allen

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Academy News. IAS Logo. Theory Of Evolution. Posted on 23 January 2018. Joint Statement by the Three Science Academies of India on the teaching of the theory of evolution more... ACADEMY PUBLIC LECTURE: How Things Break – The Mechanics of Dynamic Fracture. Posted on 16th February 2018. SPEAKER: Prof.

  9. A versatile synthesis of β-lactam-fused oxacycles through the palladium-catalyzed chemo-, regio-, and diastereoselective cyclization of allenic diols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alcaide, Benito; Almendros, Pedro; Carrascosa, Rocío; Casarrubios, Luis; Soriano, Elena

    2015-01-26

    Chemo-, regio- and stereocontrolled palladium-catalyzed preparations of enantiopure morpholines, oxocines, and dioxonines have been developed starting from 2-azetidinone-tethered γ,δ-, δ,ε-, and ε,ζ-allendiols. The palladium-catalyzed cyclizative coupling reaction of γ,δ-allendiols 2 with allyl bromide or lithium bromide was effective as 8-endo cyclization by attack of the primary hydroxy group to the terminal allene carbon to afford enantiopure functionalized oxocines; whereas the palladium-catalyzed cyclizative coupling reaction of 2-azetidinone-tethered ε,ζ-allendiols 4 furnished dioxonines 16 through a totally chemo- and regioselective 9-endo oxycyclization. By contrast, the palladium-catalyzed cyclizative coupling reaction of 2-azetidinone-tethered δ,ε-allendiols 3 with aryl and alkenyl halides exclusively generated six-membered-ring compounds 14 a and 15 a. These results could be explained through a 6-exo cyclization by chemo- and regiospecific attack of the secondary hydroxy group to the internal allene carbon. Chemo- and regiocontrol issues are mainly influenced by the length of the tether rather than by the nature of the metal catalysts and substituents. This reactivity can be rationalized by means of density functional theory calculations. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. Using ACE Observations of Interplanetary Particles and Magnetic Fields as Possible Contributors to Variations Observed at Van Allen Probes during Major events in 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, T. P.; Manweiler, J. W.; Gerrard, A. J.; Gkioulidou, M.; Lanzerotti, L. J.; Patterson, J. D.

    2013-12-01

    Observations from ACE EPAM including energy spectra of protons, helium, and oxygen will be prepared for coordinated use in estimating the direct and indirect access of energetic particles to inner and outer geomagnetic trapping zones. Complete temporal coverage from ACE at 12 seconds, 5 minutes, 17 minutes, hourly and daily cadences will be used to catalog interplanetary events arriving at Earth including interplanetary magnetic field sector boundaries, interplanetary shocks, and interplanetary coronal mass ejections, ICMEs. The first 6 months of 2013 have included both highly disturbed times, March 17 and May 22, and extended quiet periods of little or no variations. Among the specific questions that ACE and Van Allen Probes coordinated observations may aid in resolving are: 1. How much, if any, direct capture of interplanetary energetic particles occurs and what conditions account for it? 2. How much influence do interplanetary field and particle variations have on energization and/or loss of geomagnetically trapped populations? The poster will also present important links and describe methods and important details of access to numerically expressed ACE EPAM and Van Allen Probes RBSPICE observations that can be flexibly and easily accessed via the internet for student and senior researcher use.

  11. What Can Be Learned from the Van Allen Probe Measurements of the Electric Drift ExB/B2 in the Inner Magnetosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lejosne, S.; Mozer, F.

    2016-12-01

    Although electric fields play a fundamental role in space physics, they are difficult to observe experimentally. This is particularly true closest to Earth, where the electric field induced by the spacecraft motion around perigee is very large. As a result, the traditional assumption is that spacecraft cannot deliver reliable measurements of the electric drift velocity ExB/B2 close to Earth. Yet, it has recently been shown that the Van Allen Probes had an accuracy such that even the electric fields due to the ionosphere dynamo could be detected around the magnetic equator at L = 1.4. Since the electric drift velocity is common to all particles, it plays a fundamental role in many situations and its description is key. With this in mind, we have developed a unique database spanning several years of inner magnetospheric electric drifts measured by both Van Allen Probes around magnetic equator and its analysis is underway. We report on the first results of the work with a focus on identifying the different drivers of the electric drift. We also address possible consequences with respect to particle dynamics.

  12. Biomechanical evaluation between the modified Mason-Allen stitch and the locked double-tie stitch on the infraspinatus of sheep,

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Naoki Miyazaki

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Objectives:To evaluate and compare the in vitro biomechanical results from two stitches: the Mason-Allen stitch, as modified by Habermeyer; and the locked double-tie stitch developed at our service, on tendons of the infraspinatus muscle of sheep.Methods:Twenty tendons from the infraspinatus muscle of sheep were randomly divided into two groups: LDT, on which the locked double-tie stitch was performed; and MA, with the modified Mason-Allen stitch. The evaluation was performed in the mechanics laboratory, using a standard test machine with unidirectional traction, constant velocity of 20 mm per second and a 500 N load cell, without force cycling.Results:We observed that LDT was superior to MA, for the force needed to form spaces of both 5 mm (p = 0.01 and 10 mm (p = 0.002 and also for the maximum traction resistance (p = 0.003.Conclusion:We confirmed our hypothesis that LDT stitches are superior to MA stitches from a biomechanical point of view. This is a further stitching option for surgeons, when fragile and poorly vascularized tendons need to be sutured, and it improves the quality of fixation without increasing the "strangulation" and, consequently, the ischemic area.

  13. Lewis Carroll and Mathematical Ideals of John Allen Paulos: Review of Alice's Adventures in Wonderland (1865 and Through the Looking-Glass, and What Alice Found There (1871

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul H. Grawe

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available At first blush it may seem that linking the acclaimed achievements of John Allen Paulos and the acclaimed achievements of Lewis Carroll (a.k.a. Oxford mathematics don Charles Lutwidge Dodgson is merely an exercise in free association. Both are prestigious academic mathematicians. Both have an obvious interest in humor. Both have made it to best-seller lists. That free association, however, is not the issue here. Instead, the issue is whether John Allen Paulos has highlighted basic questions of mathematical literacy and whether the issues that Paulos highlights do not, in fact, reflect mathematical and artistic concerns of Lewis Carroll in writing his immortal classics, Alice’s Adventures in Wonderland and Through a Looking Glass. How can these immortal classics be read—given that they are written in a disguised, symbolic, and literary form—to explain Carroll’s wide attraction for adult mathematical and STEM-discipline audiences? And when we have read them so, do Carroll’s concerns adumbrate Paulos’ insistence on mathematics as a set of mind, a disjunction between that mindset and the mindset of the society around it? Specifically the intent of this paper is to suggest a consistent reading of Carroll in light of Paulos and to do so in such a way that it suggests important new directions for the discussion of Numeracy (as the opposite of Paulos’ Innumeracy and for the discussion of Quantitative Literacy.

  14. A test of Allen's rule in ectotherms: the case of two south American Melanopline Grasshoppers (Orthoptera: Acrididae) with partially overlapping geographic ranges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bidau, Claudio J; Martí, Dardo A

    2008-01-01

    We studied the geographic variation of three morphometric characters in relation to body size in two South American grasshoppers (Acrididae), Dichroplus vittatus Bruner and D. pratensis Bruner to test Allen's rule in these ectotherms. Since both species follow the converse to Bergmann's rule owing to latitudinal and/or altitudinal variation in time available for growth and reproduction, geographic variation in body size proportions of protruding parts may obey to differential allometric growth in different geographic areas. Alternatively, it could reflect true Allenian variation related to thermoregulation. Body proportions were studied by correlation/regression analyses with geographic and climatic variables. In D. pratensis, body proportions increased with latitude and decreased with altitude. These results probably obey to the effects of water balance and seasonality on final body size, and on the allometric growth of the three studied characters not being related to thermoregulation. In D. vittatus, a generally non-significant trend towards the decrease of the mean proportions of all three characters with increasing latitude was observed. Nevertheless, also in this species, it is probable that the environmental gradient responds to seasonality factors (although not to water balance) that affect the length of growing season and, in consequence, body size and its allometric relationships. We conclude that the regularities in the geographic distribution of body proportions of D. pratensis and D. vittatus do not follow Allen's rule in the sense of thermoregulation, and result from variables that determine growing season length and the allometric growth of different body parts.

  15. What have we learned about the energetic particle dynamics in the inner belt and slot region from Van Allen Probes and CSSWE missions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xinlin; Selesnick, Richard; Zhao, Hong; Baker, Dan; Jaynes, Allison; Kanekal, Shrikanth; Bern Blake, J.

    2017-04-01

    Comprehensive measurements of energetic protons (10s of MeV) in the inner belt (LVan Allen Probes, in a geo-transfer-like orbit, revealed new features of these energetic protons in terms of their spectrum distribution, spatial distribution, pitch angle distribution, and their different dynamic variations associated with their different source populations. Measurements from the Relativistic Electron-Proton Telescope integrated little experiment (REPTile) on board Colorado Student Space Weather Experiment (CSSWE) CubeSat, in a highly inclined low Earth orbit, demonstrated that there exist sub-MeV electrons in the inner belt and their flux level is orders of magnitude higher than the background associated with the inner belt protons, while higher energy electron (>1.6 MeV) measurements cannot be distinguished from the background. Analysis on sub-MeV electrons data in the inner belt and slot region from the Magnetic Electron Ion Spectrometer (MagEIS) on board Van Allen Probes revealed rather complex pitch angle distribution of these energetic electrons, with the 90 deg-minimum (butterfly) pitch angle distribution dominating near the magnetic equator, which has inspired a great deal of theoretical interest in an attempt to explain such a peculiar pitch angle distribution. These are part of a summary of the most recent measurements and understanding of the dynamics of energetic particles in the inner zone and slot region to be exhibited and discussed in this presentation.

  16. Indium and zinc-mediated Barbier-type addition reaction of 2,3-allenals with allyl bromide: an efficient synthesis of 1,5,6-alkatrien-4-ols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Wangqing; Fu, Chunling; Ma, Shengming

    2008-12-21

    A zinc or indium-mediated Barbier-type addition reaction of 2,3-allenals with allyl bromide in a mixed medium of aqueous NH(4)Cl and THF (5:2) was developed to provide an efficient route to 1,5,6-alkatrien-4-ols, which is synthetically very useful. No 1,4-addition reaction was observed. Depending on the substrates, both indium and activated zinc afforded the 1,2-addition products in moderate to excellent yields: for terminal allenals, activated zinc was better while in other cases the yields with indium were relatively higher.

  17. Reauthorization of the Bilingual Education Act. Hearing before the Subcommittee on Early Childhood, Youth and Families of the Committee on Education and the Workforce. House of Representatives, One Hundred Sixth Congress, First Session (McAllen, Texas, July 7, 1999).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. House Committee on Education and the Workforce.

    This Congressional hearing on the reauthorization of the Bilingual Education Act, held in McAllen Texas, focuses on issues to consider in the reauthorization of the Bilingual Education Act. After opening statements by Chairman Michael Castle and Representative Ruben Hinojosa, both of the Subcommittee on Early Childhood, Youth and Families of the…

  18. Taxonomy and biogeography of African fruit bats (Mammalia, Megachiroptera). 2. The genera Micropteropus Matschie, 1899, Epomops Gray, 1870, Hypsignathus H. Allen, 1861, Nanonycteris Matschie, 1899, and Plerotes Andersen, 1910

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergmans, Wim

    1989-01-01

    The genera Micropteropus Matschie, 1899, Epomops Gray, 1870, Hypsignathus H. Allen, 1861, Nanonycteris Matschie, 1899 and Plerotes Andersen, 1910 and the species assigned to them are reviewed. All the currently recognized taxa are maintained except subspecific partitions in Epomops franqueti (Tomes,

  19. 9 July 2008 - Microsoft Co-Founder P. Allen visiting ATLAS control room and underground experimental area with Adviser J. Ellis and IT Department Head W. von Rüden.

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2008-01-01

    9 July 2008 - Microsoft Co-Founder P. Allen visiting ATLAS control room and underground experimental area with Adviser J. Ellis and IT Department Head W. von Rüden and guided by ATLAS Collaboration Users S. Goldfarb, P. Nevski and L. Price.

  20. Van Allen Probe observations of drift-bounce resonances with Pc 4 pulsations and wave–particle interactions in the pre-midnight inner magnetosphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. I. Korotova

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available We present Van Allen Probe B observations of azimuthally limited, antisymmetric, poloidal Pc 4 electric and magnetic field pulsations in the pre-midnight sector of the magnetosphere from 05:40 to 06:00 UT on 1 May 2013. Oscillation periods were similar for the magnetic and electric fields and proton fluxes. The flux of energetic protons exhibited an energy-dependent response to the pulsations. Energetic proton variations were anticorrelated at medium and low energies. Although we attribute the pulsations to a drift-bounce resonance, we demonstrate that the energy-dependent response of the ion fluxes results from pulsation-associated velocities sweeping energy-dependent radial ion flux gradients back and forth past the spacecraft.

  1. A Telescopic and Microscopic Examination of Acceleration in the June 2015 Geomagnetic Storm: Magnetospheric Multiscale and Van Allen Probes Study of Substorm Particle Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, D. N.; Jaynes, A. N.; Turner, D. L.; Nakamura, R.; Schmid, D.; Mauk, B. H.; Cohen, I. J.; Fennell, J. F.; Blake, J. B.; Strangeway, R. J.; hide

    2016-01-01

    An active storm period in June 2015 showed that particle injection events seen sequentially by the four (MagnetosphericMultiscale) MMS spacecraft subsequently fed the enhancement of the outer radiation belt observed by Van Allen Probes mission sensors. Several episodes of significant southward interplanetary magnetic field along with a period of high solar wind speed (Vsw 500kms) on 22 June occurred following strong interplanetary shock wave impacts on the magnetosphere. Key events on 22 June 2015 show that the magnetosphere progressed through a sequence of energy-loading and stress-developing states until the entire system suddenly reconfigured at 19:32 UT. Energetic electrons, plasma, and magnetic fields measured by the four MMS spacecraft revealed clear dipolarization front characteristics. It was seen that magnetospheric substorm activity provided a seed electron population as observed by MMS particle sensors as multiple injections and related enhancements in electron flux.

  2. Acceleration and loss of relativistic and ultra-relativistic electrons in the outer Van Allen belt during intense storms: a statistical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katsavrias, Christos; Daglis, Ioannis A.; Li, Wen; Dimitrakoudis, Stavros; Georgiou, Marina; Papadimitriou, Constantinos

    2017-04-01

    We present electron phase space density (PSD) calculations as well as concurrent Pc5 and chorus wave activity observations in the outer radiation belt during 18 intense geospace magnetic storms by employing multi-point particle and field observations (both in-situ and through ground-based remote sensing), including the THEMIS, Van Allen Probes, NOAA POES and GOES constellations, the XMM and INTEGRAL spacecraft, and the CARISMA and IMAGE ground magnetometer arrays. The data provide a broad range of particle energies and a wide radial and azimuthal spatial coverage. Observations show that different acceleration and loss mechanisms act simultaneously on different electron populations, depending on the values of the electrons' 1st and 2nd adiabatic invariants. This work has been supported by the NOA/IAASARS SOLPLA project.

  3. Enrico Fermi Awards Ceremony for Dr. Allen J. Bard and Dr. Andrew Sessler, February 2014 (Presentations, including remarks by Energy Secretary, Dr. Ernest Moniz)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moniz, Ernest [U.S. Energy Secretary

    2014-02-03

    The Fermi Award is a Presidential award and is one of the oldest and most prestigious science and technology honors bestowed by the U.S. Government. On February 3, 2014 it was conferred upon two exceptional scientists. The first to be recognized is Dr. Allen J. Bard, 'for international leadership in electrochemical science and technology, for advances in photoelectrochemistry and photocatalytic materials, processes, and devices, and for discovery and development of electrochemical methods including electrogenerated chemiluminescence and scanning electrochemical microscopy.' The other honoree is Dr. Andrew Sessler, 'for advancing accelerators as powerful tools of scientific discovery, for visionary direction of the research enterprise focused on challenges in energy and the environment, and for championing outreach and freedom of scientific inquiry worldwide.' Dr. Patricia Dehmer opened the ceremony, and Dr. Ernest Moniz presented the awards.

  4. Hydrogeologic framework and water quality of the Vermont Army National Guard Ethan Allen Firing Range, northern Vermont, October 2002 through December 2003

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Stewart F.; Chalmers, Ann; Mack, Thomas J.; Denner, Jon C.

    2005-01-01

    The Ethan Allen Firing Range of the Vermont Army National Guard is a weapons-testing and training facility in a mountainous region of Vermont that has been in operation for about 80 years. The hydrologic framework and water quality of the facility were assessed between October 2002 and December 2003. As part of the study, streamflow was continuously measured in the Lee River and 24 observation wells were installed at 19 locations in the stratified drift and bedrock aquifers to examine the hydrogeology. Chemical analyses of surface water, ground water, streambed sediment, and fish tissue were collected to assess major ions, trace elements, nutrients, and volatile and semivolatile compounds. Sampling included 5 surface-water sites sampled during moderate and low-flow conditions; streambed-sediment samples collected at the 5 surface-water sites; fish-tissue samples collected at 3 of the 5 surface-water sites; macroinvertebrates collected at 4 of the 5 surface-water sites; and ground-water samples collected from 10 observation wells, and samples collected at all surface- and ground-water sites. The hydrogeologic framework at the Ethan Allen Firing Range is dominated by the upland mountain and valley setting of the site. Bedrock wells yield low to moderate amounts of water (0 to 23 liters per minute). In the narrow river valleys, layered stratified-drift deposits of sand and gravel of up to 18 meters thick fill the Lee River and Mill Brook Valleys. In these deposits, the water table is generally within 3 meters below the land surface and overall ground-water flow is from east to west. Streamflow in the Lee River averaged 0.72 cubic meters per second (25.4 cubic feet per second) between December 2002 and December 2003. Streams are highly responsive to precipitation events in this mountainous environment and a comparison with other nearby watersheds shows that Lee River maintains relatively high streamflow during dry periods. Concentrations of trace elements and nutrients

  5. A Comparison of Van Allen Belt Radiation Environment Modeling Programs: AE8/AP8 Legacy, AE9/AP9, and SPENVIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, Evan; Pellish, Jonathan

    2016-01-01

    In the space surrounding Earth there exists an active radiation environment consisting mostly of electrons and protons that have been trapped by Earths magnetic field. This radiation, also known as the Van Allen Belts, has the potential to damage man-made satellites in orbit; thus, proper precautions must be taken to shield NASA assets from this phenomenon. Data on the Van Allen Belts has been collected continuously by a multitude of space-based instruments since the beginning of space exploration. Subsequently, using theory to fill in the gaps in the collected data, computer models have been developed that take in the orbital information of a hypothetical mission and output the expected particle fluence and flux for that orbit. However, as new versions of the modeling system are released, users are left wondering how the new version differs from the old. Therefore, we performed a comparison of three different editions of the modeling system: AE8/AP8 (legacy), which is included in the model 9 graphical user interface as an option for ones calculations, AE9/AP9, and the Space Environment Information System (SPENVIS), which is an online-based form of AE8/AP8 developed by NASA and the European Space Agency that changed the code to allow the program to extrapolate data to predict fluence and flux at higher energies. Although this evaluation is still ongoing, it is predicted that the model 8 (legacy) and SPENVIS version will have identical outputs with the exception of the extended energy levels from SPENVIS, while model 9 will provide different fluences than model 8 based on additional magnetic field descriptions and on-orbit data.

  6. Magnetosphere dynamics during the 14 November 2012 storm inferred from TWINS, AMPERE, Van Allen Probes, and BATS-R-US-CRCM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buzulukova, Natalia; Goldstein, Jerry; Fok, Mei-Ching; Glocer, Alex; Valek, Phil; McComas, David; Korth, Haje; Anderson, Brian

    2018-01-01

    During the 14 November 2012 geomagnetic storm, the Van Allen Probes spacecraft observed a number of sharp decreases (dropouts) in particle fluxes for ions and electrons of different energies. In this paper, we investigate the global magnetosphere dynamics and magnetosphere-ionosphere (M-I) coupling during the dropout events using multipoint measurements by Van Allen Probes, TWINS, and AMPERE together with the output of the two-way coupled global BATS-R-US-CRCM model. We find different behavior for two pairs of dropouts. For one pair, the same pattern was repeated: (1) weak nightside Region 1 and 2 Birkeland currents before and during the dropout; (2) intensification of Region 2 currents after the dropout; and (3) a particle injection detected by TWINS after the dropout. The model predicted similar behavior of Birkeland currents. TWINS low-altitude emissions demonstrated high variability during these intervals, indicating high geomagnetic activity in the near-Earth tail region. For the second pair of dropouts, the structure of both Birkeland currents and ENA emissions was relatively stable. The model also showed quasi-stationary behavior of Birkeland currents and simulated ENA emissions with gradual ring current buildup. We confirm that the first pair of dropouts was caused by large-scale motions of the OCB (open-closed boundary) during substorm activity. We show the new result that this OCB motion was associated with global changes in Birkeland (M-I coupling) currents and strong modulation of low-altitude ion precipitation. The second pair of dropouts is the result of smaller OCB disturbances not related to magnetospheric substorms. The local observations of the first pair of dropouts result from a global magnetospheric reconfiguration, which is manifested by ion injections and enhanced ion precipitation detected by TWINS and changes in the structure of Birkeland currents detected by AMPERE. This study demonstrates that multipoint measurements along with the global

  7. The plasma wave experiment (PWE) on board the Arase (ERG) Satellite Initial results and collaboration with the ground network stations and Van Allen Probes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasahara, Y.; Matsuda, S.; Kasaba, Y.; Kojima, H.; Tsuchiya, F.; Kumamoto, A.; Ozaki, M.; Yagitani, S.; Ishisaka, K.; Miyoshi, Y.; Hikishima, M.; Kitahara, M.; Katoh, Y.; Ota, M.; Kurita, S.; Shoji, M.; Imachi, T.; Teramoto, M.; Matsuoka, A.; Shinohara, I.; Hosokawa, K.; Ogawa, Y.; Shiokawa, K.; Kadokura, A.; Wygant, J. R.; Kletzing, C.

    2017-12-01

    The ERG (Exploration of energization and Radiation in Geospace) project is a mission to study acceleration and loss mechanisms of relativistic electrons around the Earth. To achieve comprehensive observations of plasma/particles, fields, and waves, the Arase satellite was launched on December 20, 2016. The Plasma Wave Experiment (PWE) is one of scientific instruments on board Arase. It measures electric field from DC to 10 MHz by the wire-probe antennas (WPT), and magnetic field from a few Hz to 100 kHz by the magnetic search coils (MSC). Three kinds of receivers are implemented in the PWE; EFD (Electric Field Detector), OFA/WFC (Onboard Frequency Analyzer and Waveform Capture), and HFA (High Frequency Analyzer). Several kinds of operational modes are implemented in the PWE, and the telemetry data consists of several kinds of data such as power spectrum, waveform, spectral matrix and DC E-field. The Arase has started nominal scientific operation in March 2017. Varieties of wave phenomena such as chorus, EMIC, and lightning whistlers have been successfully observed by the PWE. The wave activities are sometimes correlated with drastic variation of electron density derived from UHR frequency along the trajectory. We have also conducted cooperative observations with the ground-based stations, Van Allen Probes and the other satellites in the magnetosphere. During these conjunction periods, we intensively conducted the PWE burst mode operations, by which waveforms were continuously captured and once stored in the mission data recorder (MDR). The data stored in the MDP were selected and downloaded to the tracking stations according to the decision of the stakeholders of the campaign observation. In the presentation, we introduce the initial observation results of the PWE as well as quick report on the conjunction studies with the ground network stations and Van Allen Probes. Acknowledgements: We are greatly indebted to Mitsubishi Heavy Industries Ltd. for their

  8. Science Goals and Overview of the Radiation Belt Storm Probes (RBSP) Energetic Particle, Composition, and Thermal Plasma (ECT) Suite on NASA's Van Allen Probes Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spence, H. E.; Reeves, G. D.; Baker, D. N.; Blake, J. B.; Bolton, M.; Bourdarie, S.; Chan, A. A.; Claudepierre, S. G.; Clemmons, J. H.; Cravens, J. P.; Elkington, S. R.; Fennell, J. F.; Friedel, R. H. W.; Funsten, H. O.; Goldstein, J.; Green, J. C.; Guthrie, A.; Henderson, M. G.; Horne, R. B.; Hudson, M. K.; Jahn, J.-M.; Jordanova, V. K.; Kanekal, S. G.; Klatt, B. W.; Larsen, B. A.; Li, X.; MacDonald, E. A.; Mann, I. R.; Niehof, J.; O'Brien, T. P.; Onsager, T. G.; Salvaggio, D.; Skoug, R. M.; Smith, S. S.; Suther, L. L.; Thomsen, M. F.; Thorne, R. M.

    2013-11-01

    The Radiation Belt Storm Probes (RBSP)-Energetic Particle, Composition, and Thermal Plasma (ECT) suite contains an innovative complement of particle instruments to ensure the highest quality measurements ever made in the inner magnetosphere and radiation belts. The coordinated RBSP-ECT particle measurements, analyzed in combination with fields and waves observations and state-of-the-art theory and modeling, are necessary for understanding the acceleration, global distribution, and variability of radiation belt electrons and ions, key science objectives of NASA's Living With a Star program and the Van Allen Probes mission. The RBSP-ECT suite consists of three highly-coordinated instruments: the Magnetic Electron Ion Spectrometer (MagEIS), the Helium Oxygen Proton Electron (HOPE) sensor, and the Relativistic Electron Proton Telescope (REPT). Collectively they cover, continuously, the full electron and ion spectra from one eV to 10's of MeV with sufficient energy resolution, pitch angle coverage and resolution, and with composition measurements in the critical energy range up to 50 keV and also from a few to 50 MeV/nucleon. All three instruments are based on measurement techniques proven in the radiation belts. The instruments use those proven techniques along with innovative new designs, optimized for operation in the most extreme conditions in order to provide unambiguous separation of ions and electrons and clean energy responses even in the presence of extreme penetrating background environments. The design, fabrication and operation of ECT spaceflight instrumentation in the harsh radiation belt environment ensure that particle measurements have the fidelity needed for closure in answering key mission science questions. ECT instrument details are provided in companion papers in this same issue. In this paper, we describe the science objectives of the RBSP-ECT instrument suite on the Van Allen Probe spacecraft within the context of the overall mission objectives

  9. Phosphine Catalysis using Allenoates with pro-Nucleophiles or Arylidenes; Development of an Asymetric Phosphine Catalyst; and Allenes as π-Ligands in Copper-Mediated Cross-Coupling

    OpenAIRE

    Martin, Tioga Jarrett

    2014-01-01

    The unique characteristics of 1,2-dienes have proven to be a dynamic and ever growing field of study in organic chemistry. Allenes have been manipulated into a myriad of transformations, and have offered their unique characteristics to a number of fields of study. Chapter 1 discusses a phosphine catalyzed annulation between allenoates and alkenes to form cyclohexenes. In Chapter 2 the new phosphine catalyzed β'-Addition of a Pronucleophile to an allenoate is examined. Chapter 3 presents ...

  10. The Banister Allen Plantation (38AB102) and Thomas B. Clinkscales Farm: (38AB221) Data Recovery in the Richard B. Russell Multiple Resource Area Abbeville County, South Carolina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-01-01

    short logging spur approximately 75 meters long extends to the middle of the Allen homesite and ends as the ridge top contour drops sharply to the...indeterminate sex. Two left talus fragments, including tibial articulation and fibular shelf were recovered, as well as five left calcaneous ...property line between the former Clinkscales and McCalla properties. The Clinkscales Farm complex is situated at a point where a northern spur ridge joins

  11. Valor da oximetria de pulso na avaliação da perfusão da mão para retirada da artéria radial: O teste de Allen é satisfatório?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renato Bauab DAUAR

    1998-07-01

    Full Text Available Com o crescimento da utilização da artéria radial como enxerto em operações de revascularização tornou-se importante a avaliação fidedigna da integridade da arcada palmar em cada paciente a fim de se prevenir complicações vasculares da mão. Classicamente, utiliza-se para esta finalidade o teste de Allen, que é baseado em avaliação subjetiva da coloração da mão ao se comprimir os pulsos radial e ulnar e, portanto, mais sujeitos a erros de interpretação. Com a finalidade de avaliação objetiva, propusemos a realização do teste, analisando-se a perfusão através da oximetria de pulso, método simples e facilmente disponível em centro cirúrgico. Objetivo: Os autores apresentam uma nova proposta para avaliação da perfusão e integridade da arcada palmar com a utilização do oxímetro de pulso e comparam os dados obtidos por este método com os do teste de Allen. Método: Foram estudadas 50 artérias radiais, 50 artérias ulnares de 25 pacientes em decúbito dorsal, com idade igual ou superior a 45 anos, sendo 19 do sexo masculino e 6 do sexo feminino, em condições cardio-respiratórias estáveis e sem alterações vasculares periféricas conhecidas em membros superiores. O oxímetro utilizado foi o da marca Ohmeda, sendo o Doppler portátil de fluxo contínuo da Medical Eletronics. A princípio colocou-se o dedal do oxímetro no dedo indicador de cada mão anotando-se a saturação que chamamos de inicial. Verificou-se ao Doppler os pulsos radial e ulnar. Foi realizado o teste de Allen em cada mão comprimindo-se digitalmente ambas as artérias, com o oxímetro no 2º dedo e observando-se o desaparecimento da onda de pulso. Após isso, descomprimiu-se a artéria ulnar retornando a onda de pulso e medindo-se a saturação final. Houve queda de 0 a 2 pontos, no valor da saturação, em 96% dos casos. O Doppler foi utilizado distalmente à compressão da artéria radial mostrando não haver fluxo nesta artéria. Resultado

  12. Propagation of lower-band whistler-mode waves in the outer Van Allen belt: Systematic analysis of 11 years of multi-component data from the Cluster spacecraft

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Santolík, Ondřej; Macúšová, Eva; Kolmašová, Ivana; Cornilleau-Wehrlin, N.; De Conchy, Y.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 41, č. 8 (2014), s. 2729-2737 ISSN 0094-8276 R&D Projects: GA MŠk 7E12026; GA ČR GAP205/10/2279 Institutional support: RVO:68378289 Keywords : whistler-mode chorus * wave vector directions * Van Allen radiation belts Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics Impact factor: 4.456, year: 2013 http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/2014GL059815/abstract

  13. Modes of heme binding and substrate access for cytochrome P450 CYP74A revealed by crystal structures of allene oxide synthase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Lenong; Chang, Zhenzhan; Pan, Zhiqiang; Fu, Zheng-Qing; Wang, Xiaoqiang (US-Agriculture); (SRNF); (Georgia)

    2009-01-12

    Cytochrome P450s exist ubiquitously in all organisms and are involved in many biological processes. Allene oxide synthase (AOS) is a P450 enzyme that plays a key role in the biosynthesis of oxylipin jasmonates, which are involved in signal and defense reactions in higher plants. The crystal structures of guayule (Parthenium argentatum) AOS (CYP74A2) and its complex with the substrate analog 13(S)-hydroxyoctadeca-9Z,11E-dienoic acid have been determined. The structures exhibit a classic P450 fold but possess a heme-binding mode with an unusually long heme binding loop and a unique I-helix. The structures also reveal two channels through which substrate and product may access and leave the active site. The entrances are defined by a loop between {beta}3-2 and {beta}3-3. Asn-276 in the substrate binding site may interact with the substrate's hydroperoxy group and play an important role in catalysis, and Lys-282 at the entrance may control substrate access and binding. These studies provide both structural insights into AOS and related P450s and a structural basis to understand the distinct reaction mechanism.

  14. Cloning of allene oxide cyclase gene from Leymus mollis and analysis of its expression in wheat-Leymus chromosome addition lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eltayeb Habora, Mohamed Elsadig; Eltayeb, Amin Elsadig; Oka, Mariko; Tsujimoto, Hisashi; Tanaka, Kiyoshi

    2013-03-01

    Leymus mollis (Triticeae; Poaceae) is a useful genetic resource for wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) breeding via wide hybridization to introduce its chromosomes and integrate its useful traits into wheat. Leymus mollis is highly tolerant to abiotic stresses such as drought and salinity and resistant to various diseases, but the genetic mechanisms controlling its physiological tolerance remain largely unexplored. We identified and cloned an allene oxide cyclase (AOC) gene from L. mollis that was strongly expressed under salt stress. AOC is involved in biosynthesis of jasmonic acid, an important signaling compound that mediates a wide range of adaptive responses. LmAOC cDNA consisted of 717 bp, coding for a protein with 238 amino acids that was highly similar to AOCs from barley (Hordeum vulgare) and other monocots. Subcellular localization using Nicotiana benthamiana confirmed it as a chloroplast-localized protein. LmAOC was found to be a multiple-copy gene, and that some copies were conserved and efficiently expressed in wheat-Leymus chromosome addition lines. LmAOC expression was upregulated under drought, heat, cold and wounding stresses, and by jasmonic acid and abscisic acid. Our results suggest that LmAOC plays an important role in L. mollis adaptation to abiotic stresses and it could be useful for wheat improvement.

  15. Cloning of allene oxide cyclase gene from Leymus mollis and analysis of its expression in wheat–Leymus chromosome addition lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eltayeb Habora, Mohamed Elsadig; Eltayeb, Amin Elsadig; Oka, Mariko; Tsujimoto, Hisashi; Tanaka, Kiyoshi

    2013-01-01

    Leymus mollis (Triticeae; Poaceae) is a useful genetic resource for wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) breeding via wide hybridization to introduce its chromosomes and integrate its useful traits into wheat. Leymus mollis is highly tolerant to abiotic stresses such as drought and salinity and resistant to various diseases, but the genetic mechanisms controlling its physiological tolerance remain largely unexplored. We identified and cloned an allene oxide cyclase (AOC) gene from L. mollis that was strongly expressed under salt stress. AOC is involved in biosynthesis of jasmonic acid, an important signaling compound that mediates a wide range of adaptive responses. LmAOC cDNA consisted of 717 bp, coding for a protein with 238 amino acids that was highly similar to AOCs from barley (Hordeum vulgare) and other monocots. Subcellular localization using Nicotiana benthamiana confirmed it as a chloroplast-localized protein. LmAOC was found to be a multiple-copy gene, and that some copies were conserved and efficiently expressed in wheat–Leymus chromosome addition lines. LmAOC expression was upregulated under drought, heat, cold and wounding stresses, and by jasmonic acid and abscisic acid. Our results suggest that LmAOC plays an important role in L. mollis adaptation to abiotic stresses and it could be useful for wheat improvement. PMID:23641183

  16. Carotenoid composition of the flowers of Mimulus lewisii and related species: Implications regarding the prevalence and origin of two unique, allenic pigments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaFountain, Amy M; Frank, Harry A; Yuan, Yao-Wu

    2015-05-01

    The genus Mimulus has been used as a model system in a wide range of ecological and evolutionary studies and contains many species with carotenoid pigmented flowers. However, the detailed carotenoid composition of these flowers has never been reported. In this paper the floral carotenoid composition of 11 Mimulus species are characterized using high-performance liquid chromatography, mass spectrometry and chemical methods with a particular focus on the genetic model species, Mimulus lewisii. M. lewisii flowers have five major carotenoids: antheraxanthin, violaxanthin, neoxanthin, and the unique allenic carotenoids, deepoxyneoxanthin and mimulaxanthin. This carotenoid profile is consistent with the expression levels of putative carotenoid biosynthetic genes in the M. lewisii flower. The other 10 species possess the same five carotenoids or a subset of these. Comparison of the carotenoid profiles among species in a phylogenetic context provides new insights into the biosynthesis and evolution of deepoxyneoxanthin and mimulaxanthin. This work also lays the foundation for future studies regarding transcriptional control of the carotenoid biosynthesis pathway in Mimulus flowers. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Inferring electromagnetic ion cyclotron wave intensity from low altitude POES proton flux measurements: A detailed case study with conjugate Van Allen Probes observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yang; Shi, Run; Ni, Binbin; Gu, Xudong; Zhang, Xianguo; Zuo, Pingbing; Fu, Song; Xiang, Zheng; Wang, Qi; Cao, Xing; Zou, Zhengyang

    2017-03-01

    Electromagnetic ion cyclotron (EMIC) waves play an important role in the magnetospheric particle dynamics and can lead to resonant pitch-angle scattering and ultimate precipitation of ring current protons. Commonly, the statistics of in situ EMIC wave measurements is adopted for quantitative investigation of wave-particle interaction processes, which however becomes questionable for detailed case studies especially during geomagnetic storms and substorms. Here we establish a novel technique to infer EMIC wave amplitudes from low-altitude proton measurements onboard the Polar Operational Environmental Satellites (POES). The detailed procedure is elaborated regarding how to infer the EMIC wave intensity for one specific time point. We then test the technique with a case study comparing the inferred root-mean-square (RMS) EMIC wave amplitude with the conjugate Van Allen Probes EMFISIS wave measurements. Our results suggest that the developed technique can reasonably estimate EMIC wave intensities from low-altitude POES proton flux data, thereby providing a useful tool to construct a data-based, near-real-time, dynamic model of the global distribution of EMIC waves once the proton flux measurements from multiple POES satellites are available for any specific time period.

  18. The characteristic pitch angle distributions of 1 eV to 600 keV protons near the equator based on Van Allen Probes observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yue, C.; Bortnik, J.; Thorne, R. M.; Ma, Q.; An, X.; Chappell, C. R.; Gerrard, A. J.; Lanzerotti, L. J.; Shi, Q.

    2017-12-01

    Understanding the source and loss processes of various plasma populations is greatly aided by having accurate knowledge of their pitch angle distributions (PADs). Here, we statistically analyze 1 eV to 600 keV hydrogen (H+) PADs near the geomagnetic equator in the inner magnetosphere based on Van Allen Probes measurements, to comprehensively investigate how the H+ PADs vary with different energies, magnetic local times (MLTs), L-shells, and geomagnetic conditions. Our survey clearly indicates four distinct populations with different PADs: (1) a pancake distribution of the plasmaspheric H+ at low L-shells except for dawn sector; (2) a bi-directional field-aligned distribution of the warm plasma cloak; (3) pancake or isotropic distributions of ring current H+; (4) radiation belt particles show pancake, butterfly and isotropic distributions depending on their energy, MLT and L-shell. Meanwhile, the pancake distribution of ring current H+ moves to lower energies as L-shell increases which is primarily caused by adiabatic transport. Furthermore, energetic H+ (> 10 keV) PADs become more isotropic following the substorm injections, indicating wave-particle interactions. The radiation belt H+ butterfly distributions are identified in a narrow energy range of 100 5), which are less significant during quiet times and extend from dusk to dawn sector through midnight during substorms. The different PADs near the equator provide clues of the underlying physical processes that produce the dynamics of these different populations.

  19. Automated bow shock and radiation belt edge identification methods and their application for Cluster, THEMIS/ARTEMIS and Van Allen Probes data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Facsko, Gabor; Sibeck, David; Balogh, Tamas; Kis, Arpad; Wesztergom, Viktor

    2017-04-01

    The bow shock and the outer rim of the outer radiation belt are detected automatically by our algorithm developed as a part of the Boundary Layer Identification Code Cluster Active Archive project. The radiation belt positions are determined from energized electron measurements working properly onboard all Cluster spacecraft. For bow shock identification we use magnetometer data and, when available, ion plasma instrument data. In addition, electrostatic wave instrument electron density, spacecraft potential measurements and wake indicator auxiliary data are also used so the events can be identified by all Cluster probes in highly redundant way, as the magnetometer and these instruments are still operational in all spacecraft. The capability and performance of the bow shock identification algorithm were tested using known bow shock crossing determined manually from January 29, 2002 to February 3,. The verification enabled 70% of the bow shock crossings to be identified automatically. The method shows high flexibility and it can be applied to observations from various spacecraft. Now these tools have been applied to Time History of Events and Macroscale Interactions during Substorms (THEMIS)/Acceleration, Reconnection, Turbulence, and Electrodynamics of the Moon's Interaction with the Sun (ARTEMIS) magnetic field, plasma and spacecraft potential observations to identify bow shock crossings; and to Van Allen Probes supra-thermal electron observations to identify the edges of the radiation belt. The outcomes of the algorithms are checked manually and the parameters used to search for bow shock identification are refined.

  20. The Characteristic Pitch Angle Distributions of 1 eV to 600 keV Protons Near the Equator Based On Van Allen Probes Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yue, Chao; Bortnik, Jacob; Thorne, Richard M.; Ma, Qianli; An, Xin; Chappell, C. R.; Gerrard, Andrew J.; Lanzerotti, Louis J.; Shi, Quanqi; Reeves, Geoffrey D.; Spence, Harlan E.; Mitchell, Donald G.; Gkioulidou, Matina; Kletzing, Craig A.

    2017-09-01

    Understanding the source and loss processes of various plasma populations is greatly aided by having accurate knowledge of their pitch angle distributions (PADs). Here we statistically analyze 1 eV to 600 keV hydrogen (H+) PADs near the geomagnetic equator in the inner magnetosphere based on Van Allen Probes measurements, to comprehensively investigate how the H+ PADs vary with different energies, magnetic local times (MLTs), L shells, and geomagnetic conditions. Our survey clearly indicates four distinct populations with different PADs: (1) a pancake distribution of the plasmaspheric H+ at low L shells except for dawn sector; (2) a bidirectional field-aligned distribution of the warm plasma cloak; (3) pancake or isotropic distributions of ring current H+; (4) radiation belt particles show pancake, butterfly, and isotropic distributions depending on their energy, MLT, and L shell. Meanwhile, the pancake distribution of ring current H+ moves to lower energies as L shell increases, which is primarily caused by adiabatic transport. Furthermore, energetic H+ (>10 keV) PADs become more isotropic following the substorm injections, indicating wave-particle interactions. The radiation belt H+ butterfly distributions are identified in a narrow energy range of 100 5), which are less significant during quiet times and extend from dusk to dawn sector through midnight during substorms. The different PADs near the equator provide clues of the underlying physical processes that produce the dynamics of these different populations.

  1. First direct evidence of a one-one correspondence of chorus wave packets and microbursts: Van Allen Probes EFW and FIREBIRD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breneman, A. W.; Crew, A. B.; Klumpar, D. M.; Agapitov, O. V.; Wygant, J. R.; Kletzing, C.; Hospodarsky, G. B.

    2016-12-01

    Chorus waves are a major controlling factor in the loss of ring current and radiation belt electrons during active times. One form in which this loss is thought to occur is microbursts, which are observed on low altitude satellites and balloons as impulsive electron precipitation events. Past observations have shown a broad correlation in time and MLT of chorus and microbursts. In addition, nonlinear theories of chorus/electron interactions provide a possible mechanism through which this loss occurs. However, due to the small scale size of chorus wave (phase) coherence - on the order of 10-100 km across a magnetic field line - a direct comparison of chorus and microbursts requires a near perfect magnetic conjunction of an equatorial satellite traversing the chorus source and a low altitude payload capable of observing loss cone electrons. We present fortuitous simultaneous observations on Van Allen Probe A and the FIREBIRD II cubesat showing a clear one-one correspondence of chorus wave packets and microbursts. A comparison of observations to theory suggests that Landau resonance is likely the cause for the electron scattering, observed from 250 keV (the lower limit of FIREBIRD II) up to 620 keV. Our results confirm and provide insight to the idea that chorus waves cause electron microbursts, which constitute a major loss mechanism of the radiation belts.

  2. On the ultra-low frequency wave contributions to the relativistic electron flux dynamics in the outer Van Allen radiation belt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dal Lago, A.; Marchezi, J. P.; Alves, L. R.; da Silva, L.; Dallaqua, R.; Medeiros, C.; Souza, V. M. C. E. S.; Rockenbach, M.; Vieira, L.; Mendes, O., Jr.; Sibeck, D. G.; Kanekal, S. G.; Kletzing, C.; Baker, D. N.; Wygant, J. R.

    2016-12-01

    Various physical processes can contribute to loss and acceleration of energetic electrons in the Earth's radiation belts. In the range of 1 mHz to 10 Hz, ultra-low frequency (ULF) waves are known to cause significant changes in the energetic particle flux in the radiation belts. On board the Van Allen Probes, the Relativistic Electron Proton Telescope (REPT) measures the relativistic electron flux in the outer radiation belts in the energy range from 1.8 MeV up to 20 MeV. We selected events that have significant electron flux dropouts, classified into two categories regarding the time elapsed between the outer radiation belt dropout and the refurbishing, namely events that time scale had taken (i) a few hours and, (ii) some days. This work aims to investigate the presence of ULF waves using the radial and azimuthal magnetic and electric field components recorded by the Electric and Magnetic Field Instrument Suite and Integrated Science (EMFISIS). The evaluation of the power spectral density of those components unravels the poloidal and toroidal characteristc of the rapid compressional waves. We discuss how these modes can contribute to modifications of the relativistic electron fluxes considering the (i) and (ii) cases.

  3. Van Allen Probes observations of drift-bounce resonance and energy transfer between energetic ring current protons and poloidal Pc4 wave

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oimatsu, S.; Masahito, N.; Takahashi, K.; Yamamoto, K.; Keika, K.; Kletzing, C.; MacDowall, R. J.; Smith, C.; Mitchell, D. G.

    2017-12-01

    Poloidal Pc4 wave and proton flux oscillation due to the drift-bounce resonance are observed in the inner magnetosphere on the dayside near the magnetic equator by the Van Allen Probes spacecraft on 2 March 2014. The flux modulation is observed in the energy range of 67.0 keV to 268.8 keV with the same frequency of poloidal Pc4 wave. We estimate the resonant energy to be 120 keV for pitch angle (α) of 20º-40º or 140º-160º, and 170-180 keV for α=40º-60º or 120º-140º. The drift-bounce resonance theory gives the resonant energy of 110-120 keV, which is consistent with the observation for small α (or large α when α≥90º), but slightly higher than the observation for large α (or small α when α≥90º). We consider that this discrepancy of the resonant energy is due to the drift shell splitting. In order to examine the direction of energy flow between protons and the wave, we calculate the sign of the gradient of proton phase space density (df/dW) in both outbound and inbound paths. Results showed positive gradient in both paths, which means that the energy is transferred from the protons to the wave. During the appearance of poloidal Pc4 wave, the Dst* index shows a sudden increase of 6.7 nT. We estimate the total energy loss of the ring current from the recovery of the Dst* index and the variation of proton flux by the drift-bounce resonance. The estimated energy loss is almost comparable for both cases. Therefore, we suggest that the energy transfer from the ring current protons to the wave via the drift-bounce resonance cause the increase of Dst* index.

  4. The Distribution of Chorus and Plasmaspheric Hiss Waves in the Inner Magnetospahere as Functions of Geomagnetic Activity and Solar Wind Parameters as Observed by The Van Allen Probes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aryan, H.; Sibeck, D. G.; Balikhin, M. A.; Agapitov, O. V.; Kletzing, C.

    2015-12-01

    The dynamics of the radiation belts is dependent upon the acceleration and loss of radiation belt electrons that is largely determined by the interaction of georesonant wave particles with chorus and plasmaspheric hiss waves. The distribution of these waves in the inner magnetosphere is commonly presented as a function of geomagnetic activity as expressed by the geomagnetic indices (Ae, Kp, and Dst). However, it has been shown that not all geomagnetic storms necessarily increase the flux of energetic electrons at the radiation belts. In fact, almost 20% of all geomagnetic storms cause a decrease in the flux of energetic electrons, while 30% has relatively no effect. Also, the geomagnetic indices are indirect, nonspecific parameters compiled from imperfectly covered ground based measurements that lack time history. This emphasises the need to present wave distributions as a function of both geomagnetic activity and solar wind parameters, such as velocity (V), density (n), and interplanetary magnetic field component (Bz), that are known to be predominantly effective in the control of radiation belt energetic electron fluxes. This study presents the distribution of chorus and plasmaspheric hiss waves in the inner magnetosphere as functions of both geomagnetic activity and solar wind parameters for different L-shell, magnetic local time, and magnetic latitude. This study uses almost three years of data measured by the EMFISIS on board the Van Allen Probes. Initial results indicate that the intensity of chorus and plasmaspheric hiss emissions are not only dependent on the geomagnetic activity but also dependent on solar wind parameters. The largest average wave intensities are observed with equatorial chorus in the region 4

  5. Measurement of Functional Cognition and Complex Everyday Activities in Older Adults with Mild Cognitive Impairment and Mild Dementia: Validity of the Large Allen's Cognitive Level Screen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wesson, Jacqueline; Clemson, Lindy; Crawford, John D; Kochan, Nicole A; Brodaty, Henry; Reppermund, Simone

    2017-05-01

    To explore the validity of the Large Allen's Cognitive Level Screen-5 (LACLS-5) as a performance-based measure of functional cognition, representing an ability to perform complex everyday activities in older adults with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and mild dementia living in the community. Using cross-sectional data from the Sydney Memory and Ageing Study, 160 community-dwelling older adults with normal cognition (CN; N = 87), MCI (N = 43), or dementia (N = 30) were studied. Functional cognition (LACLS-5), complex everyday activities (Disability Assessment for Dementia [DAD]), Assessment of Motor and Process Skills [AMPS]), and neuropsychological measures were used. Participants with dementia performed worse than CN on all clinical measures, and MCI participants were intermediate. Correlational analyses showed that LACLS-5 was most strongly related to AMPS Process scores, DAD instrumental activities of daily living subscale, Mini-Mental State Exam, Block Design, Logical Memory, and Trail Making Test B. Multiple regression analysis indicated that both cognitive (Block Design) and functional measures (AMPS Process score) and sex predicted LACLS-5 performance. Finally, LACLS-5 was able to adequately discriminate between CN and dementia and between MCI and dementia but was unable to reliably distinguish between CN and MCI. Construct validity, including convergent and discriminative validity, was supported. LACLS-5 is a valid performance-based measure for evaluating functional cognition. Discriminativevalidity is acceptable for identifying mild dementia but requires further refinement for detecting MCI. Copyright © 2017 American Association for Geriatric Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Van Allen Probes Observations of Magnetic Field Dipolarization and Its Associated O+ Flux Variations in the Inner Magnetosphere at L 6.6

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nose, M.; Keika, K.; Kletzing, C. A.; Spence, H. E.; Smith, C. W.; MacDowall, R. J.; Reeves, G. D.; Larsen, B. A.; Mitchell, D. G.

    2016-01-01

    We investigate the magnetic field dipolarization in the inner magnetosphere and its associated ion flux variations, using the magnetic field and energetic ion flux data acquired by the Van Allen Probes. From a study of 74 events that appeared at L= 4.5-6.6 between 1 October 2012 and 31 October 2013, we reveal the following characteristics of the dipolarization in the inner magnetosphere: (1) its time scale is approximately 5 min; (2) it is accompanied by strong magnetic fluctuations that have a dominant frequency close to the O+ gyrofrequency; (3) ion fluxes at 20-50 keV are simultaneously enhanced with larger magnitudes for O+ than for H+; (4) after a few minutes of the dipolarization, the flux enhancement at 0.1-5 keV appears with a clear energy-dispersion signature only for O+; and (5) the energy-dispersed O+ flux enhancement appears in directions parallel or antiparallel to the magnetic field. From these characteristics, we discuss possible mechanisms that can provide selective acceleration to O+ ions at > 20 keV. We conclude that O+ ions at L= 5.4-6.6 undergo nonadiabatic local acceleration caused by oscillating electric field associated with the magnetic fluctuations and/or adiabatic convective transport from the plasma sheet to the inner magnetosphere by the impulsive electric field. At L= 4.5-5.4, however, only the former acceleration is plausible. We also conclude that the field-aligned energy-dispersed O+ ions at 0.1-5 keV originate from the ionosphere and are extracted nearly simultaneously to the onset of the dipolarization.

  7. Rännuteed Aasiast Euroopasse / Selvadore Rähni ; intervjueerinud Tamara Unanova

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Rähni, Selvadore, 1968-

    2009-01-01

    Klarnetist Selavdore Rähni oma õpingutest, klarnetist, tööst Kyoto sümfooniaorkestris. Muusikut iseloomustavad tema kolleegid Kyoto sümfooniaorkestri peadirigent Naoto Otomo, tšellist David Geringas, dirigent Uwe Mund, helilooja Peeter Vähi, muusikakriitikud Toshiya Hibiki ja Lilian Langsepp

  8. Tabaquismo en médicos de la República Argentina. Estudio TAMARA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susana Fernández

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available ObjetivoAnalizar el tabaquismo en una muestra de médicos de la Argentina, los factores que favorecen su consumo y la conducta frente a sus pacientes fumadores. Material y métodosEl presente es un estudio observacional y transversal que incluyó médicos de la Argentina, seleccionados aleatoriamente desde abril a julio de 2004. Se analizaron la prevalencia de tabaquismo, los factores de riesgo coronario, el índice de masa corporal, la actividad física, el antecedente de eventos vasculares, los antecedentes familiares de coronariopatía y tabaquismo,si habían recibido entrenamiento en tabaquismo, si brindaban consejo para la cesación del hábito y la utilización de fármacos específicos.ResultadosSe encuestaron 6.497 médicos (63% varones, edad promedio 41,5 ± 10 años. La proporción de fumadores fue del 30,0% y la de ex fumadores, del 22,4%.Hubo mayor prevalencia de fumadores en servicios de urgencia (p < 0,0001 y en especialidades quirúrgicas (p < 0,00001, con un perfil de conducta adictiva y brindaban con menos frecuencia consejo para el abandono del hábito de fumar (p < 0,00001.Los que recibieron algún tipo de entrenamiento en tabaquismo (31,3% brindaban consejo para el cese del hábito y prescribían fármacos específicos con más frecuencia (p < 0,00001.Los ex fumadores presentaron mayor prevalencia de factores de riesgo coronario, de IAM y de revascularización (p < 0,00001. Éstos y los fumadores tenían más antecedentes familiaresde tabaquismo (p < 0,001. ConclusionesExiste una elevada proporción de médicos fumadores, con mayor prevalencia en servicios de urgencia y quirúrgicos y brindan menos consejo antitabaco. El haber recibido entrenamientose asoció con mayor uso de consejo y fármacos para la cesación de la adicción tabáquica, por lo que se plantea la necesidad de generalizar la capacitación médica en este tema.

  9. Sojuz muzõki i notshnõh sfer / Tamara Unanova

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Unanova, Tamara

    2007-01-01

    Tallinnas Pirita kloostri varemetes Birgitta festivalil nähtust : Anton Rubinshteini ooper "Deemon" Moskva Novaja Opera esituses 16. aug., Arthur Honeggeri oratoorium "Jeanne d'Arc tuleriidal" 10. aug., Carl Orffi lavaline kantaat "Carmina Burana" 15. aug., lavastatud galakontsert filmikatketega ooperidiiva Maria Callasest 17. aug

  10. Tamara Jacka, Rural Women in Urban China: Gender, Migration and Social Change.

    OpenAIRE

    Sargeson, Sally

    2009-01-01

    China’s "urban revolution" has become the focus of a large body of literature in recent years. But while much of the new urbanisation literature builds on earlier research into the roles played by rural-urban migration in propelling urban population growth, challenging urban governance institutions and practices, and diversifying urban cultures, there has been relatively little attention given to the gender analysis agenda that undergirded and enriched some of the best studies of rural-urban ...

  11. Õhuloss ehk tuletorni juurde / Tiina Käesel ; kommenteerinud Tamara Luuk

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Käesel, Tiina, 1943-

    2011-01-01

    Ehtekunstinäitus "Õhuloss" Tallinna Põhjatuletornis 25. septembrini 2011. Näitusega kaasneb raamat "Castle in the Air - Jewellery from Estonia - Õhuloss", koostajad Kadri Mälk ja Tanel Veenre. Rühmitusse "õhuLoss" kuuluvad Kadri Mälk, Piret Hirv, Eve Margus-Villems, Kristiina Laurits, Villu Plink, Tanel Veenre, Katrin Sipelgas

  12. Omad võõraste hulgas / Viktor Matizen ; tõlk. Tamara Korts

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Matizen, Viktor

    2004-01-01

    Moskvas lõppes XXVI rahvusvaheline filmifestival. Peapreemia sai venelase Dmitri Meshijevi "Omad" ("Svoi"), FIPRESCI auhinna Marina Razbezhkina "Lõikuse aeg" ("Vremja zhatvõ"), publiku auhinna Vladimir Mashkovi "Isa" ("Papa!"), vene kriitikute auhinna brasiillase Heitor Dhalia "Nina", konkursi "Perspektiiv" auhinna jaapanlane Hideta Takahata ("Hotell Veenus") ja žürii eriauhinna Hõbedase Püha Jüri eestlaste Jaak Kilmi ja Rene Reinumägi "Sigade revolutsioon"

  13. NASA's Van Allen Probes RBSP-ECT and NSF's FIREBIRD Data Products and Access to Them: An Insider's Outlook on the Inner and Outer Belts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, S. S.; Spence, H. E.; Geoffrey, R.; Klumpar, D. M.

    2017-12-01

    In this poster, we present a summary of access to data products Radiation Belt Storm Probes - Energetic Particle Composition, and Thermal plasma (RBSP-ECT) suite of NASA's Van Allen Probes mission. The RBSP-ECT science investigation (http://rbsp-ect.sr.unh.edu) measures comprehensively the near-Earth charged particle environment in order to understand the processes that control the acceleration, global distribution, and variability of radiation belt electrons and ions. RBSP-ECT data products derive from the three instrument elements that comprise the suite, which collectively covers the broad energies that define the source and seed populations, the core radiation belts, and also their highest energy ultra-relativistic extensions. These RBSP-ECT instruments include, from lowest to highest energies: the Helium, Oxygen, Proton, and Electron (HOPE) sensor, the Magnetic Electron and Ion Spectrometer (MagEIS), and the Relativistic Electron and Proton Telescope (REPT). We provide a brief overview of their principles of operation, as well as a description of the Level 1-3 data products that the HOPE, MagEIS, and REPT instruments produce, both separately and together. We provide a summary of how to access these RBSP-ECT data products at our Science Operation Center and Science Data Center (http://www.rbsp-ect.lanl.gov/rbsp_ect.php ) as well as caveats for their use. In addition, we also provide a summary of access to the data products from NSF's CubeSat mission called Focused Investigation of Relativistic Electron Burst: Intensity, Range, and Dynamics (FIREBIRD). The dual CubeSat FIREBIRD missions provide data on energetic radiation belt electrons precipitating into the atmosphere at low altitudes, which complements and is contemporary with RBSP-ECT measurements. We provide a similar summary of how to access these data (https://ssel.montana.edu/firebird2.html). Finally, in the spirit of efficiently and effectively promoting and encouraging new collaborations, we present a

  14. SYNTHESIS OF ALLENIC NAPHTHALENE DERIVATIVES ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    7.47-7.60 (m, 3H), 7.85-7.90 (m, 3H), 8.31 (d, J = 8.4 Hz, 1H), 13C NMR (125 MHz, CDCl3), δ: -0.054, 63.4, 92.5, 104.9, 124.1, 124.9, 125.3, 125.9, 126.5, 128.8, 129.5, 130.8, 134.1, 135.5. IR (CH2Cl2), νmax: 1503, 1695, 2163, 2296, 2894, 2959, 3041 cm-1; UV/Vis (CH2Cl2), λmax (ε) = 233 (11100), 273 (9330), 282 (7750) ...

  15. floodzones_allen_FEMA_1999

    Data.gov (United States)

    Louisiana Geographic Information Center — The Q3 Flood Data are derived from the Flood Insurance Rate Maps (FIRMS) published by the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA). The file is georeferenced to...

  16. Flow of Energy through the Inner Magnetosphere during the March 17, 2015 solar storm as observed by the Van Allen Probes Radiation Belt Storm Probes Ion Composition Experiment (RBSPICE)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manweiler, J. W.; Madanian, H.; Gerrard, A. J.; Patterson, J. D.; Mitchell, D. G.; Lanzerotti, L. J.

    2017-12-01

    On March 17, 2015, a large solar storm impacted the Earth's magnetosphere with a maximum negative Dst of -232 nT. We report on the temporal and spatial evolution of the proton energetic particle distributions in phase space during this storm, as measured by the Radiation Belt Storm Probes Ion Composition Experiment (RBSPICE) instrument on board each of the Van Allen Probes. We characterize the distribution prior to onset of the storm to provide a definition of quiet time conditions. We then show how the distribution evolves during the storm noting key changes of the distribution as a function of L and MLT and showing how the pitch angle distributions change throughout the storm. These observations displayed a number of interesting features of the storm including high beta plasma conditions and multiple injections of protons into the inner magnetosphere. We present the radial changes of the distribution at storm onset and following the evolution of the distribution during storm recovery. We compare observations of the East/West asymmetry in the proton distribution before versus after onset using both Van Allen Probes A and B spacecraft observations. Finally, we note interesting changes in the distribution showing an anomalous dropout in mid-energies of the distribution and observe an outward radial propagation of this dropout during recovery.

  17. Chloroacetone photodissociation at 193 nm and the subsequent dynamics of the CH3C(O)CH2 radical--an intermediate formed in the OH + allene reaction en route to CH3 + ketene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alligood, Bridget W; FitzPatrick, Benjamin L; Szpunar, David E; Butler, Laurie J

    2011-02-07

    We use a combination of crossed laser-molecular beam experiments and velocity map imaging experiments to investigate the primary photofission channels of chloroacetone at 193 nm; we also probe the dissociation dynamics of the nascent CH(3)C(O)CH(2) radicals formed from C-Cl bond fission. In addition to the C-Cl bond fission primary photodissociation channel, the data evidence another photodissociation channel of the precursor, C-C bond fission to produce CH(3)CO and CH(2)Cl. The CH(3)C(O)CH(2) radical formed from C-Cl bond fission is one of the intermediates in the OH + allene reaction en route to CH(3) + ketene. The 193 nm photodissociation laser allows us to produce these CH(3)C(O)CH(2) radicals with enough internal energy to span the dissociation barrier leading to the CH(3) + ketene asymptote. Therefore, some of the vibrationally excited CH(3)C(O)CH(2) radicals undergo subsequent dissociation to CH(3) + ketene products; we are able to measure the velocities of these products using both the imaging and scattering apparatuses. The results rule out the presence of a significant contribution from a C-C bond photofission channel that produces CH(3) and COCH(2)Cl fragments. The CH(3)C(O)CH(2) radicals are formed with a considerable amount of energy partitioned into rotation; we use an impulsive model to explicitly characterize the internal energy distribution. The data are better fit by using the C-Cl bond fission transition state on the S(1) surface of chloroacetone as the geometry at which the impulsive force acts, not the Franck-Condon geometry. Our data suggest that, even under atmospheric conditions, the reaction of OH with allene could produce a small branching to CH(3) + ketene products, rather than solely producing inelastically stabilized adducts. This additional channel offers a different pathway for the OH-initiated oxidation of such unsaturated volatile organic compounds, those containing a C=C=C moiety, than is currently included in atmospheric models.

  18. The Cinema as Therapy: Psychoanalysis in the Work of Woody Allen Miguel Ángel Huerta Floriano Facultad de Comunicación, Universidad Pontificia de Salamanca (Spain. Correspondence: Miguel Ángel Huerta Floriano. Facultad de Comunicación de la Universi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Ángel Huerta Floriano

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available There is undoubtedly no other film producer who has devoted such attention to psychoanalysis and psychoanalysts as Woody Allen. The work of this New York film maker is based on a series of formal, narrative, and thematic constants in which issues such as emotional instability and its psychotherapeutic treatment –normally addressed in comic tone- are featured strongly. Additionally, owing to their peculiar structures some of the most representative movies of Allen’s universe can in the long run be understood as exercises in psychological release. In Allen’s films the figure of the psychiatrist is usually represented with criticism in mind, although the need for such professionals in this contemporary urban world of ours, in which confusion and meaninglessness are rampant, is not demeaned. For all of the above, then, Woody Allen is considered to be one of the pivotal references in the cinematographic treatment of the obsessions of our times.

  19. Uranium metalla-allenes with carbene imido R{sub 2}C=U{sup IV}=NR' units (R=Ph{sub 2}PNSiMe{sub 3}; R'=CPh{sub 3}): alkali-metal-mediated push-pull effects with an amido auxiliary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, Erli; Tuna, Floriana; Kaltsoyannis, Nikolas; Liddle, Stephen T. [School of Chemistry, The University of Manchester (United Kingdom); Lewis, William [School of Chemistry, The University of Nottingham (United Kingdom)

    2016-08-08

    We report uranium(IV)-carbene-imido-amide metalla-allene complexes [U(BIPM{sup TMS})(NCPh{sub 3})(NHCPh{sub 3})(M)] (BIPM{sup TMS}=C(PPh{sub 2}NSiMe{sub 3}){sub 2}; M=Li or K) that can be described as R{sub 2}C=U=NR' push-pull metalla-allene units, as organometallic counterparts of the well-known push-pull organic allenes. The solid-state structures reveal that the R{sub 2}C=U=NR' units adopt highly unusual cis-arrangements, which are also reproduced by gas-phase theoretical studies conducted without the alkali metals to remove their potential structure-directing roles. Computational studies confirm the double-bond nature of the U=NR' and U=CR{sub 2} interactions, the latter increasingly attenuated by potassium then lithium when compared to the hypothetical alkali-metal-free anion. Combined experimental and theoretical data show that the push-pull effect induced by the alkali metal cations and amide auxiliary gives a fundamental and tunable structural influence over the C=U{sup IV}=N units. (copyright 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  20. Kuraator ilust ja väest / Roger Pierre Turine ; tõlk. Tamara Luuk, interv. Teet Veispak

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Turine, Roger Pierre

    2003-01-01

    Roger Pierre Turine'i kureeritud aafrika kunsti näitus "Ilu ja vägi" Rakvere Kesklinna galeriis kuni 27. IX. Näitusel eksponeeritakse osa Kadri ja Sven Viirese Ghanas, lobide maal tehtud reisifotodest

  1. The influence of Hurricanes Katrina and Rita on the inflammatory cytokine response and protein expression in A549 cells exposed to PM2.5 collected in the Baton Rouge-Port Allen industrial corridor of Southeastern Louisiana in 2005.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourgeois, Brian; Owens, John Wesley

    2014-03-01

    Hurricanes Katrina and Rita hit the coast of Louisiana in 2005 and killed more than 2000 people. The two storms resulted in a significant spike in particulate matter (PM2.5) levels across the state of Louisiana. This report focuses on PM2.5 samples collected in 2005 from two monitoring sites in the neighboring cities of Baton Rouge and Port Allen, Louisiana. Inductively coupled plasma (ICP) revealed the presence of PM2.5-adsorbed representative and Fenton-active transition metals. Gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analyses revealed the presence of 23 PAH compounds. Endotoxins were also detected. Metals and endotoxins were extracted with water. PAH were extracted with dichloromethane. In order to assess cytotoxicity, aqueous PM2.5 extracts were introduced to A549 Human Epithelial Lung Carcinoma Cells. Results indicated decreased cell viability in a dose-dependent manner, with an LC50 of 235 µg/ml and 250 µg/ml, respectively, for the two sites featured here. Endotoxins alone were not cytotoxic. The concentration of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and released LDH activity increased following exposure of A549 cells to aqueous PM2.5 extracts. Fluorescence microscopy revealed apoptotic and necrotic cell death mechanisms. ELISA revealed increased secretion of primary pro-inflammatory cytokines, IL-6, IL-8, and TNF-α. Global PCR gene expression revealed up-regulation of proteins associated with the cytokine storm; e.g. interleukins, chemokines, and TNF-α. Global antibody microarray was consistent with an inflammatory response, with up-regulation of cytokines involved in the down-field activation of the caspase cascade and kinase pathways. The up-regulation of metal-redox sensitive transcription factors, NF-κβ and AP-1, is consistent with a cell death mechanism initiated by Fenton-active transition metal redox catalysis.

  2. Obituary: John Allen Eddy (1931-2009)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gingerich, Owen

    2011-12-01

    Jack Eddy, who was born 25 March 1931 in Pawnee City in southeastern Nebraska, died after a long battle with cancer in Tucson, Arizona, on 10 June 2009. Best known for his work on the long-term instability of the sun, described in a landmark paper in Science titled "The Maunder Minimum," he also deserves recognition as one of the triumvirate who founded the Historical Astronomy Division of the AAS. His father ran a cooperative farm store where Jack worked as a teenager; his parents were of modest means and there were concerns whether he could afford college, but one of the state senators, also from Pawnee City, nominated him for the U.S. Naval Academy. A course in celestial navigation gave him a love of the sky. After graduation in 1953, he served four years on aircraft carriers in the Pacific during the Korean War and then as a navigator and operations officer on a destroyer in the Persian Gulf. In 1957, he left the Navy and entered graduate school at the University of Colorado in Boulder, where in 1962 he received a Ph.D. in astro-geophysics. His thesis, supervised by Gordon Newkirk, dealt with light scattering in the upper atmosphere, based on data from stratospheric balloon flights. He then worked as teacher and researcher at the High Altitude Observatory in Boulder. Always adventuresome and willing to explore new frontiers, on his own time Eddy examined an Amerindian stone circle in the Big Horn mountains of Wyoming, a so-called medicine wheel, concluding that there were alignments with both the solstitial sun and Aldebaran. His conjectures became a cover story on Science magazine in June of 1974. In 1971 Jack privately reproduced for his friends a small collection of his own hilarious cartoons titled "Job Opportunities for Out-of-work Astronomers," with an abstract beginning, "Contrary to popular belief, a PhD in Astronomy/Astrophysics need not be a drawback in locating work in this decade." For example, under merchandising, a used car salesman advertises, "This Mercury is Hot! Red Shift, Black Body, and a Perfect Radiator." Ironically, within a few years he was laid off from his HAO position as a result of budget cuts at its parent organization, the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR). In an interview a quarter of a century later Eddy remarked, "I found out how hard it is for a person with a Ph.D. to get another job at that time, and often wished I didn't have one, for I was often told, true or not, that I was overqualified for the few jobs that turned up." Eddy found a temporary job writing a book for NASA as part of a series on the Skylab spacecraft; the book, The New Sun, was published in 1979. Again, working on his own time, he revived an earlier finding, namely, that between 1645 and 1715 the sun was almost devoid of spots, and he greatly extended the previous work of Gustav Spörer and Walter Maunder by showing during that period a dearth of aurorae and atmospheric carbon-14, a diminution of the solar corona during eclipses, and probably a correlation with cooling of the earth. For onomatopoiec reasons, the rhythm of the m's, Eddy chose the title "the Maunder Minimum" for the phenomenon, and for his unusually long cover story in the 18 June 1976 issue of Science. The paper was well received, and for a while Eddy was an invited speaker fifty times a year. In 1977, Eddy scored yet again, with his third cover story in Science, a jointly authored paper on solar rotation in the early 17th century. In 1977-78 Eddy had a fellowship at the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics in Cambridge, and during that time Ken Brecher and I had a series of conversations with Jack in which we worked out a proposal for a historical astronomy division within the AAS; since I had just been an AAS Councilor, I negotiated with the Society for its actualization, and Eddy became the first HAD president, in 1981-83. He introduced the logo, Dürer's ancient astronomer, and at the end of his term, the plaque with the motto "Ich bin HAD," which has been passed on to every subsequent division president. At the IAU meeting in New Delhi, Eddy became president of the IAU Commission 41 on the history of astronomy (1985-88). While at the CfA Eddy received a tenure offer from the director, George Field. But Eddy's wife, Marjorie Bratt Eddy, and four children had remained behind, and Jack felt obliged to return to Colorado. With the offer from the Smithsonian Observatory and his considerable fame, HAO and NCAR were eager to rehire him. Eddy soon became increasingly interested in interdisciplinary sciences, turning away from his earlier enthusiasm for the history of astronomy. He became the first chairman of a National Academy of Sciences committee for an International Geosphere-Biosphere Program, which later became the U.S. Global Change Program. Early in 1986, UCAR (the University Corporation for Atmospheric research, which managed NCAR) formalized its response to the challenge of global change with a new Office for Interdisciplinary Earth Studies, which Eddy founded and directed. The office focused efforts to bring the atmospheric sciences and other relevant disciplines together to study the earth's living and inanimate elements as a single system. In 1987 Eddy received the Arctowski medal from the National Academy of Science, an honor awarded triennially for studies in solar physics and solar terrestrial relationships. In 1992 Eddy found a new opportunity as chief scientist and vice president of the Center for International Earth Science Information Network, which he described as a federally funded pork barrel project in Michigan. Meanwhile Eddy had divorced; he remarried in 1992 to a fellow worker at UCAR, and he and his new wife, Barbara, relocated to Saginaw, Michigan. After two years he was "extremely frustrated" by the bureaucracy, so he and Barbara struck out on their own, founding the newsletter Consequences (with support from five federal agencies) to explain in popular terms the nature and eventual impacts of environmental changes of all kinds. In 2004 they moved to Tucson, where Eddy worked for NASA at the National Solar Observatory until the time of his death. Author's Note: A principal source of information is the interview with John A. Eddy by Spencer Weart on 21 April 1999, Niels Bohr Library & Archives, American Institute of Physics, College Park, MD USA, www.aip.org/history/ohilist/22910.html. See also the obituary by Peter Foukal in Physics Today, January 2010, pp. 60-61.

  3. SYNTHESIS OF ALLENIC NAPHTHALENE DERIVATIVES | Erenler ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bulletin of the Chemical Society of Ethiopia. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 21, No 2 (2007) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  4. Jan Hoet : " Magritte ja Ensor - ühtaegu Valloonia ja Flandria keskpunkt" : Hermine Bokhorsti intervjuu Jan Hoetiga / Jan Hoet ; interv. Hermine Bokhorst, tõlk. Tamara Luuk

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Hoet, Jan

    2002-01-01

    Tänapäevasest belgia kunstist, flaami ja vallooni kunstniku lähenemisviisidest, kunstnike toetamisest, Flandria ja frankofoonse Belgia muuseumipoliitika erinevusest, belglaste tundlikkusest kunsti suhtes jm.

  5. Uranium-carbene-imido metalla-allenes: ancillary-ligand-controlled cis-/trans-isomerisation and assessment of trans influence in the R{sub 2}C=U{sup IV}=NR' unit (R=Ph{sub 2}PNSiMe{sub 3}; R'=CPh{sub 3})

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, Erli; Cooper, Oliver J.; Tuna, Floriana; Wooles, Ashley J.; Kaltsoyannis, Nikolas; Liddle, Stephen T. [School of Chemistry, The University of Manchester (United Kingdom)

    2016-08-08

    Uranium(IV)-carbene-imido complexes [U(BIPM{sup TMS})(NCPh{sub 3})(κ{sup 2}-N,N'-BIPY)] (2; BIPM{sup TMS}=C(PPh{sub 2}NSiMe{sub 3}){sub 2}; BIPY=2,2-bipyridine) and [U(BIPM{sup TMS})(NCPh{sub 3})(DMAP){sub 2}] (3; DMAP=4-dimethylamino-pyridine) that contain unprecedented, discrete R{sub 2}C=U=NR' units are reported. These complexes complete the family of E=U=E (E=CR{sub 2}, NR, O) metalla-allenes with feasible first-row hetero-element combinations. Intriguingly, 2 and 3 contain cis- and trans-C=U=N units, respectively, representing rare examples of controllable cis/trans isomerisation in f-block chemistry. This work reveals a clear-cut example of the trans influence in a mid-valent uranium system, and thus a strong preference for the cis isomer, which is computed in a co-ligand-free truncated model - to isolate the electronic trans influence from steric contributions - to be more stable than the trans isomer by approximately 12 kJ mol{sup -1} with an isomerisation barrier of approximately 14 kJ mol{sup -1}. (copyright 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  6. Kanye West versus Kris Allen: Teaching Rhetorical Structure via Music

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaylor, Brian T.

    2012-01-01

    One important aspect of analyzing a rhetorical text is through consideration of the text or artifact's structure, which is why rhetorical criticism textbooks often devote a chapter to issues of structure, form, or genre. Such an emphasis should not be surprising since understanding rhetorical structure remains a foundational concept for rhetorical…

  7. Philosophy and Porous Imagination: Between Coral Reefs | Allen ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... shaping a polymetrics of sites and an aesthetics of nourishment. In an epoch beset by the treacherous fractals of overpowering domination and luminous liberation, the morphosis of philosophy through transdisciplinary and transcultural interpretation offers new ways of listening to and retuning songs of sorrow and lament.

  8. Semiotic Text - discovering perspective accidentally / Daniel Edward Allen

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Allen, Daniel Edward, 1966-

    2014-01-01

    Läti fotolaagrist, kus autor tutvus esmakordsest Eesti esimese fotograafi Johannes Pääsukese sajandivanuste töödega, mis andsid talle inspiratsiooni oma kunstiprojekti läbiviimiseks. Pildistamisest minevikus ja tänapäeval

  9. Allen Newell's Program of Research: The Video-Game Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gobet, Fernand

    2017-04-01

    Newell (1973) argued that progress in psychology was slow because research focused on experiments trying to answer binary questions, such as serial versus parallel processing. In addition, not enough attention was paid to the strategies used by participants, and there was a lack of theories implemented as computer models offering sufficient precision for being tested rigorously. He proposed a three-headed research program: to develop computational models able to carry out the task they aimed to explain; to study one complex task in detail, such as chess; and to build computational models that can account for multiple tasks. This article assesses the extent to which the papers in this issue advance Newell's program. While half of the papers devote much attention to strategies, several papers still average across them, a capital sin according to Newell. The three courses of action he proposed were not popular in these papers: Only two papers used computational models, with no model being both able to carry out the task and to account for human data; there was no systematic analysis of a specific video game; and no paper proposed a computational model accounting for human data in several tasks. It is concluded that, while they use sophisticated methods of analysis and discuss interesting results, overall these papers contribute only little to Newell's program of research. In this respect, they reflect the current state of psychology and cognitive science. This is a shame, as Newell's ideas might help address the current crisis of lack of replication and fraud in psychology. Copyright © 2017 The Author. Topics in Cognitive Science published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of Cognitive Science Society.

  10. The Promotion of Drug Abuse - PO* | Allen | South African Medical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The problem of drug abuse is both international and multifactorial. Traditional approaches toward finding a solution have so far achieved little. Lateral thinking, a recent concept providing freedom from the constraints of logic, offers the basis for a different kind of evaluation of the problem. The normal concepts are reversed ...

  11. The Promotion of Drug Abuse - PO* | Allen | South African Medical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors · FAQ's · More about AJOL · AJOL's Partners · Terms and Conditions of Use · Contact AJOL · News. OTHER RESOURCES... for Researchers · for Journals · for Authors · for Policy Makers · about Open Access · Journal Quality.

  12. DIGITAL TERRAIN DCS DATABASE for ALLEN PARISH, LA, USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Terrain data, as defined in FEMA Guidelines and Specifications, Appendix N: Data Capture Standards, describes the digital topographic data that was used to create...

  13. Trans Youth Faces: Photographs of Mariette Pathy Allen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beemyn, Brett Genny; Sanders, Jim

    2005-01-01

    Despite more representations of transgender people in popular culture today than ten or twenty years ago, the dominant image of a transgender individual continues to be a middle-aged "guy in a dress." Perhaps that "guy" is now perceived to be in a more stylish dress than in the past and to look more feminine, but the image remains one of a male…

  14. Convergence Analysis of the Graph Allen-Cahn Scheme

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-02-01

    of F ′dt(r) = 0, ri = ± √ 1 3 ( 1 dt + 1). Since Fdt is qubic , it is easy to see that Fdt is monotone on [−1, 1] iff |ri| > 1, i.e., dt < 0.5. Note...for dt < 2.1. Derivation of the constants: Define φ(c) to be the maximum dt for which Fdt maps [−c, c] to itself. Since Fdt is qubic , φ is...noting Φ is qubic , the limit stepsize is given by Φ′dt(1) = 0. Thus dt = 1 2+η . 2.4. Uniform Convergence to ODE. As an interesting corollary of the

  15. Between Retribution and Restoration: Justice and the TRC. | Allen ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In the second section of the article, I argue that truth commissions should be regarded as a defensible moral compromise between the values of justice and social unity, and I criticize claims that truth commissions promote transitional justice, when that is understood as a distinctive conception of justice that emerges in circum ...

  16. Distsiplineeri end! : elustiili kureerimine Sejima ja Nishizawa loomingus / Matthew Allen

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Allen, Matthew

    2011-01-01

    Kazuyo Sejima ja Ryue Nishizawa (AB SANAA, Jaapan) loomingust. Autor kirjutab, et Sejima ja Nishizawa ühisbüroos SANAA valminud projektid loovad spetsiifilise arhitektuurse subjekti. Arhitektide looming ärgitab asukaid omaenda elustiili estetiseerima ja kureerima, ruum juhib ja distsiplineerib kasutajat

  17. Lämmastikoksiid : nuhtlus ja ime / Allen Kaasik, Ave Minajeva

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kaasik, Allen, 1970-

    1998-01-01

    Nobeli füsioloogia- ja meditsiinipreemia said Robert Furchgott, Louis Ignarro ja Ferid Murad nitroglütseriini kui ravimi toimemehhanismi väljaselgitamise eest. Lämmastikoksiidi tähtsus nüüd ja tulevikus

  18. Miks infarkt armastab eestlast? / Peeter Ernits, Allen Kaasik

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Ernits, Peeter, 1953-

    2000-01-01

    Neljast tähtsamast südame seisundit mõjutavast riskitegurist - sotsiaalsest keskkonnast, toitumistavadest, kehalisest aktiivsusest ja tubakapoliitikast. Tartlaste ja stockholmlaste tervisenäitajate võrdlus. Diagrammid : Ainult Lätis on hullem, Suremus südamehaigustesse, Elu Eesti moodi

  19. James A. Van Allen: The Trip to Jupiter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobsen, Sally

    1973-01-01

    Discusses the research purposes and activities of the Pioneer mission, including the instruments used, data on Jupiter's radiation belt, and information about cosmic ray intensity. Included is a description of the scientist's view about the value of the space program. (CC)

  20. Calculated limits for particle fluxes in Jupiter's Van Allen belts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haffner, J.

    1972-01-01

    Electron and proton fluxes in Jupiter's radiation belts are calculated, along with the envelopes of dose rates. The following assumptions are made: the particles in the Jupiter belts are influenced only by the magnetic field of the planet; the particles act correspondingly to the particles in the Earth's belts and the Earth's belts can be used as a model; the magnetic field of Jupiter is essentially a dipole; the radiation of a decimetric nature received from Jupiter is synchrotron radiation due to the electrons, and to a first approximation it is emitted isotropically; and the strength of the emission in the decimetric wavelength range gives an upper bound considering how strong the field can be and how many electrons there are. The point dose rates for tissue and 0.1 gram/cm aluminum shielding at about 3 Jupiter radii are 10000 rads/hr for electrons and 1000 rads/hr for protons.

  1. 'Volksmoeder' : mother of a rugby playing nation | Allen | South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Based on the exploits of Voortrekker women and perhaps more significantly, those who'd suffered at the hands of the British during the 1899-1902 conflict, the notion of an 'idealised womanhood' was woven into a male-dominated nationalism. (S. African J. for Research in Sport, Physical Ed. and Recreation: 2001 23 (2): ...

  2. Basemap Framework Submission for Allen Parish, LA, USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — FEMA Framework Basemap datasets comprise six of the seven FGDC themes of geospatial data that are used by most GIS applications (Note: the seventh framework theme,...

  3. STS-96 Crew Training, Mission Animation, Crew Interviews, STARSHINE, Discovery Rollout and Repair of Hail Damage

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-01-01

    Live footage shows the crewmembers of STS-96, Commander Kent V. Rominger, Pilot Rick D. Husband, Mission Specialists Ellen Ochoa, Tamara E. Jernigan, Daniel T. Barry, Julie Payette and Valery Ivanovich Tokarev during various training activities. Scenes include astronaut suit-up, EVA training in the Virtual Reality Lab, Orbiter space vision training, bailout training, and crew photo session. Footage also shows individual crew interviews, repair activities to the external fuel tank, and Discovery's return to the launch pad. The engineers are seen sanding, bending, and painting the foam used in repairing the tank. An animation of the deployment of the STARSHINE satellite, International Space Station, and the STS-96 Mission is presented. Footage shows the students from Edgar Allen Poe Middle School sanding, polishing, and inspecting the mirrors for the STARSHINE satellite. Live footage also includes students from St. Michael the Archangel School wearing bunny suits and entering the clean room at Goddard Space Flight Center.

  4. Young, Black, Mathematically Gifted, and Stereotyped

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGee, Ebony

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, I describe the academic dilemma experienced by Tamara (pseudonym), a mathematically high-achieving high school sophomore. Raised in an economically strapped neighborhood, Tamara had the opportunity to attend a prestigious private high school, tuition free. Confronted by being viewed as an affirmative action student Tamara uses this…

  5. Finding Support Online: Parents are Finding Comfort and Support in Virtual Hugs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Janice

    2006-01-01

    When Tamara learned that she and her husband were expecting a baby girl, Tamara remembers the doctor telling her "the odds were high" her daughter would inherit her bipolar disorder. As it turned out, her daughter, Lindsay was also formally diagnosed with bipolar disorder after her 11th birthday. Tamara turned to Internet to find someone who…

  6. The fauna and flora of a kelp bed canopy | Allen | African Zoology

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The fauna and flora of the canopy of a kelp bed off Oudekraal, on the Cape Peninsula, Is surveyed. Four species of epiphytic algae occur In the kelp canopy, three restricted to Ecklonia maxima and the fourth to Laminaria pallida. Epiphyte biomass is equivalent to 4-9% of host standing crop amongst E. maxima, but less than ...

  7. Understanding Chirality for the Design of Toulored Chiroptical Systems: Synthesis of Allenic and Spiranic Marcocycles

    OpenAIRE

    Castro Fernandez, Silvia

    2017-01-01

    1. Quiralidad: estructuras y respuestas quiroópticas La naturaleza ha sido desde el comienzo del desarrollo científico una fuente de inspiración en la creación de nuevas estructuras funcionales y en la resolución de problemas humanos y la mejora de la calidad de vida. La quiralidad está presente en la naturaleza a diferentes niveles de jerarquía estructural; desde la escala molecular y supramolecular, a la escala macroscópica. Esta observación de cómo la quiralidad es explotada por los seres ...

  8. Woody Allen - Henrik Ibsen. Hedda and her sisters - on women and space

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Astrid Sæther

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this article is to relate Henrik Ibsen’s Hedda Gabler to Woody Allen’s Interiors with respect to their inquiry into women’s relation to power and art. Both artists are close watchers and profound analysts of women’s positions in times of transition, and both relate their themes to class and gender. The subordination of women is apparent in the use of cinematic and theatrical space. In order to compare the screenplay and the drama text I have studied how the artists allow women to use space, building on C. Hermann’s theory (1976 about spatial systematization and hierarchization.

  9. Metal-Free Allene-Based Synthesis of Enantiopure Fused Polycyclic Sultones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alcaide, Benito; Almendros, Pedro; Aragoncillo, Cristina; Fernández, Israel; Gómez-Campillos, Gonzalo

    2016-01-04

    The controlled metal-free preparation of fused δ-sultone derivatives has been developed starting from hydroxyallenynes. The use of 2-(3,3-diethyltriaz-1-enyl)-4-methylbenzene-1-sulfonyl chloride in a sulfonylation/rearrangement sequence gives access to 1,3-dien-2-yl arenesulfonates. These functionalized enynes suffered a direct cyclization/desaturation radical cascade, allowing the synthesis of a variety of enynyl [1,2]oxathiine 1,1-dioxides. Stereoselective cyclization of the readily formed core through intramolecular Diels-Alder reaction has also been demonstrated, affording β-lactam- and glucofuranoside-fused δ-sultone polycycles. These selective reactions have been studied experimentally and additionally, their reaction mechanisms have been investigated computationally by means of density functional theory calculations. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. Barb'ra Allen, Tom Dooley, and Sweet Betsy from PS 42.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Praver, Jerry; Praver, Bev

    1984-01-01

    Folk music is not necessarily old, anonymous, or unwritten. Its most important characteristic is change through the folk process. Folk music is a part of our national heritage that children can usually acquire only in school. It can be used to support a variety of school subjects. (CS)

  11. "In allen guten Buchhandlungen ist zu haben". Buchwerbung in Deutschland im 17. und 18. Jahrhundert

    OpenAIRE

    Hauke, Marie-Kristin

    2005-01-01

    Der Buchhandel entwickelte im Laufe des 17. und 18. Jahrhunderts zahlreiche Hilfsmittel zur Absatzförderung, auf die er als Produzent des „Massenartikels“ Buch angewiesen war und die ihn zum Vorreiter der modernen Wirtschaftswerbung machten. Ausgangsbasis dafür waren die im 16. Jahrhundert entstandenen Werbemittel Buchtitel, Titelblatt und Katalog, die durch die Buchanzeigen in verschiedenen Werbeträgern (Zeitung, Zeitschrift, Intelligenzblatt, Buch) sowie einige kleinere Formen (Handzettel, ...

  12. The Vortex and the Line: Performative Gestures in Allen Ginsberg's ‘Wichita Vortex Sutra’

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Bent

    In Lines: A Brief History Tim Ingold proposes the following idea: “The straight line has emerged as a virtual icon of modernity, an index of the triumph of rational, purposeful design over the vicissitudes of the natural world.” But not all authors follow straight lines in their writings...... to provide the reader of the Sutra with the possibility of Enlightenment. While the poet may be forced to travel along straight lines to penetrate the vortex, he should at any given opportunity queer these lines as much as possible....

  13. At CES Paul Allen beaming about Hawks, wishing Bill Gates well

    CERN Multimedia

    2008-01-01

    when word came out that he and Bill Gates were supporting a spectacular new telescope with $30 million in donations. E-mail was apparently a little spotty on the yacht, but he responded last night to a few questions about the LSST project:

  14. Effect of temperature on embryonic development of Melanotaenia boesemani (Allen and Cross, 1982).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radael, Marcella Costa; Cardoso, Leonardo Demier; de Andrade, Dalcio Ricardo; Ferreira, André Veloso; da Cruz Mattos, Douglas; Vidal, Manuel Vazquez

    2016-04-01

    The present study aimed to provide data on the time required for Melanotaenia boesemani to complete embryonic development, and to investigate the influence that incubation at different temperatures caused in this species. The effects of temperature on the time and hatching rate are presented, as well as information related to embryonic development stages. After fertilization, the eggs were kept in incubators at 23, 26, 29 or 32°C and observed at predetermined times until the moment of hatching. Stages of development were identified and classified according to morphological and physiological characteristics. Oil droplets were visualized inside the eggs as well as filament adhesion present at the chorion. Embryonic development was similar to that observed in other species of the genus Melanotaenia with hatching and faster development in higher temperatures.

  15. Effects of over-expression of allene oxide cyclase on camptothecin ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    emily

    2012-03-22

    Mar 22, 2012 ... The transcription factors (ORCA) responded to JAs, and regulated the activation of several. CPT biosynthesis pathway genes. Then the CPT production in transgenic callus was enhanced. This might be a way that metabolic engineering and physiological manipulation was used as complementary to ...

  16. Advances in Nucleophilic Phosphine Catalysis of Alkenes, Allenes, Alkynes, and MBHADs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Yi Chiao

    2014-01-01

    In nucleophilic phosphine catalysis, tertiary phosphines undergo conjugate additions to activated carbon–carbon multiple bonds to form β-phosphonium enolates, β-phosphonium dienolates, β-phosphonium enoates, and vinyl phosphonium ylides as intermediates. When these reactive zwitterionic species react with nucleophiles and electrophiles, they may generate carbo- and heterocycles with multifarious molecular architectures. This Article describes the reactivities of these phosphonium zwitterions, the applications of phosphine catalysis in the syntheses of biologically active compounds and natural products, and recent developments in the enantioselective phosphine catalysis. PMID:24196409

  17. Lifshitz-Allen-Cahn domain-growth kinetics of Ising models with conserved density

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fogedby, Hans C.; Mouritsen, Ole G.

    1988-01-01

    The domain-growth kinetics of p=fourfold degenerate (2×1) ordering in two-dimensional Ising models with conserved density is studied as a function of temperature and range of Kawasaki spin exchange. It is found by computer simulations that the zero-temperature freezing-in behavior for nearest...

  18. Annie Hall e Manhattan : Woody Allen e a cidade de Nova Iorque

    OpenAIRE

    Melo, Ana Maria Pereira de Oliveira e

    2007-01-01

    Dissertação de Mestrado em Estudos Americanos apresentada à Universidade Aberta Resumo - Este trabalho centra-se na minoria étnica/religiosa judeus, porque foram eles, juntamente com outras minorias, que contribuíram para desenvolver o país que os acolheu, nomeadamente, no campo cinematográfico Fazemos também referência aos anos sessenta, porque o seu impacto cultural nos anos setenta foi incontornável e porque foi também, neste período, que os filmes Annie Hall e Manhattan foram filma...

  19. Swiss pioneers enjoy success - in spite of all prophesies of doom; Allen Unkenrufen zum Trotz

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Niederhaeusern, A.

    2005-07-01

    This article takes a look at two Swiss companies, both founded in 1991, that were initially laughed at but are now two market leaders in their business segments. They demonstrate that renewable forms of energy are an economic factor that is to be taken seriously. The first company discussed is Sputnik Engineering who build and sell inverters for photovoltaic installations. The success of this Swiss company, especially in Germany, is discussed and the importance of reliable inverter technology for the high availability rates needed by solar installations is discussed. The second company looked at is the Kompogas AG, who manufacture and operate digester systems for green wastes from kitchens and gardens. These fermenters produce biogas which can be fed into the gas mains or used as a fuel for vehicles or combined heat and power units. Market chances at home and abroad are discussed.

  20. Economic Efficiency, Allen / Uzama and Morishima Elasticities of Smallholder Agriculture In Dedza District, Malawi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Assa MAGANGA

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper is an attempt to measure the economic efficiency of Dedza smallholder Irish potato (Solanum tuberosum farmers in Malawi using a translog cost frontier, inefficiency effect model and input Elasticities from Seeming Unrelated Regression Model for asystem of cost share equations for labour, fertilizer, seed and land. A sample of 200 farmers has been considered from Dedza district in Malawi. Results indicate that the mean economic efficiency of Irish potato production in Dedza District is 0.61 with scores ranging between 0.12 and 0.94. The economic efficiency differences are significantly explained by non-farm employment, education, credit access, farm experience, degree of specialization, household size and frequency of weeding. The highest input substitution existed between labour and fertilizer, followed by seedfertilizer.

  1. Epidemiology of HIV/AIDS in South Africa | Allen | Southern African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Southern African Journal of HIV Medicine. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 1, No 1 (2000) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  2. Intramolecular butenolide allene photocycloadditions and ensuing retro-ene reactions of some photoadducts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lutteke, G.; Kleinnijenhuis, R.A.; Jacobs, I.; Wrigstedt, P.J.; Correia, A.C.A.; Nieuwenhuizen, R.; Hue, B.T.B.; Goubitz, K.; Peschar, R.; van Maarseveen, J.H.; Hiemstra, H.

    2011-01-01

    This report describes intramolecular [2+2] photocycloadditions of several butenolides with an allenylmethyl substituent at the 5-position. These photosubstrates were prepared from 2-(silyloxy)furans through silver-mediated reactions with allenylmethyl bromides. Two cases were studied where the

  3. Magnetohydrodynamic modeling of three Van Allen Probes storms in 2012 and 2013

    OpenAIRE

    J. Paral; J. Paral; M. K. Hudson; B. T. Kress; M. J. Wiltberger; J. R. Wygant; H. J. Singer

    2015-01-01

    Coronal mass ejection (CME)-shock compression of the dayside magnetopause has been observed to cause both prompt enhancement of radiation belt electron flux due to inward radial transport of electrons conserving their first adiabatic invariant and prompt losses which at times entirely eliminate the outer zone. Recent numerical studies suggest that enhanced ultra-low frequency (ULF) wave activity is necessary to explain electron losses deeper inside the magnetosphere ...

  4. Wave-induced loss of ultra-relativistic electrons in the Van Allen radiation belts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shprits, Yuri Y; Drozdov, Alexander Y; Spasojevic, Maria; Kellerman, Adam C; Usanova, Maria E; Engebretson, Mark J; Agapitov, Oleksiy V; Zhelavskaya, Irina S; Raita, Tero J; Spence, Harlan E; Baker, Daniel N; Zhu, Hui; Aseev, Nikita A

    2016-09-28

    The dipole configuration of the Earth's magnetic field allows for the trapping of highly energetic particles, which form the radiation belts. Although significant advances have been made in understanding the acceleration mechanisms in the radiation belts, the loss processes remain poorly understood. Unique observations on 17 January 2013 provide detailed information throughout the belts on the energy spectrum and pitch angle (angle between the velocity of a particle and the magnetic field) distribution of electrons up to ultra-relativistic energies. Here we show that although relativistic electrons are enhanced, ultra-relativistic electrons become depleted and distributions of particles show very clear telltale signatures of electromagnetic ion cyclotron wave-induced loss. Comparisons between observations and modelling of the evolution of the electron flux and pitch angle show that electromagnetic ion cyclotron waves provide the dominant loss mechanism at ultra-relativistic energies and produce a profound dropout of the ultra-relativistic radiation belt fluxes.

  5. New chorus wave properties near the equator from Van Allen Probes wave observations

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Li, W.; Santolík, Ondřej; Bortnik, J.; Thorne, R. M.; Kletzing, C. A.; Kurth, W. S.; Hospodarsky, G. B.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 43, č. 10 (2016), s. 4725-4735 ISSN 0094-8276 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LH15304 Grant - others:AV ČR(CZ) AP1401 Program:Akademická prémie - Praemium Academiae Institutional support: RVO:68378289 Keywords : chorus wave * wave normal angles * oblique * quasi-parallel * quasi-electrostatic Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics Impact factor: 4.253, year: 2016 http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/2016GL068780/abstract

  6. Conjugate observations of quasiperiodic emissions by the Cluster, Van Allen Probes, and THEMIS spacecraft

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Němec, F.; Hospodarsky, G.; Pickett, J. S.; Santolík, Ondřej; Kurth, W. S.; Kletzing, C.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 121, č. 8 (2016), s. 7647-7663 ISSN 2169-9380 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LH15304 Grant - others:AV ČR(CZ) AP1401 Program:Akademická prémie - Praemium Academiae Institutional support: RVO:68378289 Keywords : quasiperiodic emissions * QP emissions Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics Impact factor: 2.733, year: 2016 http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/2016JA022774/full

  7. Observations Directly Linking Relativistic Electron Microbursts to Whistler Mode Chorus: Van Allen Probes and FIREBIRD II

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Breneman, A. W.; Crew, A.; Sample, J.; Klumpar, D.; Johnson, A.; Agapitov, O.; Shumko, M.; Turner, D. L.; Santolík, Ondřej; Wygant, J. R.; Cattell, C. A.; Thaller, S. A.; Blake, B.; Spence, H.; Kletzing, C. A.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 44, č. 22 (2017), s. 11265-11272 ISSN 0094-8276 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA17-07027S Grant - others:AV ČR(CZ) AP1401 Program:Akademická prémie - Praemium Academiae Institutional support: RVO:68378289 Keywords : VLF-CHORUS * RADIATION BELT * ZONE ELECTRONS * SOURCE REGION * AURORAL-ZONE * GEM STORMS * PRECIPITATION * ASSOCIATION * RESOLUTION * EMISSIONS Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics OBOR OECD: Fluids and plasma physics (including surface physics) Impact factor: 4.253, year: 2016 http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/2017GL075001/epdf

  8. Van Allen Probe observations of EMIC wave propagation in the inner magnetosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saikin, A.; Zhang, J.; Smith, C. W.; Spence, H. E.; Torbert, R. B.; Kletzing, C.; Wygant, J. R.

    2017-12-01

    This study examines the propagation of inner magnetosphere (L vector, , analysis on all observed EMIC wave events to determine the direction of propagation, with bi-directionally propagating EMIC waves indicating the presence of the EMIC wave source region. EMIC waves were considered bi-directional (i.e., in the source region) if at least two wave packets exhibited opposing flux components, and (W/km2), consistently for 60 seconds. Events not observed to have opposing flux components are considered unidirectional. EMIC wave events observed at relatively high magnetic latitudes, generally, are found to propagate away from the magnetic equator (i.e., unidirectional). Bi-directionally propagating EMIC waves are preferably observed at lower magnetic latitudes. The occurrence rate, spatial distribution, and the energy propagation angle of both unidirectionally and bi-directionally propagating EMIC waves are examined with respect to L, MLT, and MLAT.

  9. Food allergy

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Maleki, Soheila J; Burks, A. Wesley; Helm, Ricki M

    2006-01-01

    ... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . vii ix I. CLINICAL ASPECTS 1. Clinical Manifestations of Food Allergic Disease * Tamara T. Perry, Amy M. Scurlock, and Stacie M. Jones...

  10. Four seasons abundance changes of Zalophus californianus californianus (Lesson 1828, Allen, 1880, in the Gulf of California, Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Octavio Maravilla-Chávez

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes for the first time the relative abundance, population structure and numeric variation of California sea lions in the Gulf of California, Mexico, during four different seasons. The relative abundance estimates varied from the highest 17,162 sea lions in July of 1990 (summer to a minimum 7,470 in February of 1992 (winter, representing a reduction of 10,000 sea lions. Hypotheses about the migration of part of the population to the Pacific Ocean were compared and discussed against their residency inside the Gulf, and seasonal dispersion of individuals along this inner sea.O leão marinho da Califórnia (Zalophus californianus californianus é a única espécie de Otariidae (PINNIPEDIA que vive em permanência no Golfo da Califórnia, México. Vive em grupos, principalmente em rochas, ilhas ou porções de praias de algumas ilhas. Este artigo descreve pela primeira vez as variações da abundância e estrutura populacional dos leões marinhos desta região, nas quatro estações do ano. Realizamos seis censos, entre Outubro de 1989 e Janeiro de 1992 (3 censos correspondendo ao outono e um a cada uma das outras estações. Os censos foram feitos de barco, em terra ou combinados, com contagem direta e separando os indivíduos em 5 classes de idade e sexo. As estimativas de abundância variaram de 17,162 indivíduos, em Julho de 1990 (na Primavera, ao mínimo de 7,470, no Inverno de 1992, o que representa uma redução de 10,000 leões marinhos. A hipótese da migração de parte da população para o Oceano Pacífico é discutida e comparada com a de residência da população, bem como a nossa proposta de uma dispersão dos indivíduos pelo Golfo do Califórnia.

  11. Three-step metal-promoted allene-based preparation of bis(heterocyclic) cyclophanes from carbonyl compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alcaide, Benito; Almendros, Pedro; Quirós, M Teresa; Lázaro, Carlos; Torres, M Rosario

    2014-07-03

    A straightforward metal-mediated method for the synthesis of bis(dihydrofuryl) cyclophane scaffolds from carbonyl compounds has been developed. The combination of the dihydrofuran moiety with different heterocycles such as β-lactams and sugars allows high levels of skeletal diversity. The process comprises indium-promoted one-pot carbonyl bis(allenylation) and gold- or palladium-catalyzed double cyclization in the resulting bis(allenols), followed by selective ruthenium-catalyzed macrocyclization. In some cases, the method has been successfully applied to the synthesis of the challenging Z-isomers. The E- versus Z-stereochemistry of the metathesis-formed double bonds could not be assigned taking into consideration the usual coupling constants criteria, but a diagnostic based on the chemical shifts of the two olefinic protons located at the macrocyclic double bond was established.

  12. Scattering of Ultra-relativistic Electrons in the Van Allen Radiation Belts Accounting for Hot Plasma Effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Xing; Shprits, Yuri Y; Ni, Binbin; Zhelavskaya, Irina S

    2017-12-18

    Electron flux in the Earth's outer radiation belt is highly variable due to a delicate balance between competing acceleration and loss processes. It has been long recognized that Electromagnetic Ion Cyclotron (EMIC) waves may play a crucial role in the loss of radiation belt electrons. Previous theoretical studies proposed that EMIC waves may account for the loss of the relativistic electron population. However, recent observations showed that while EMIC waves are responsible for the significant loss of ultra-relativistic electrons, the relativistic electron population is almost unaffected. In this study, we provide a theoretical explanation for this discrepancy between previous theoretical studies and recent observations. We demonstrate that EMIC waves mainly contribute to the loss of ultra-relativistic electrons. This study significantly improves the current understanding of the electron dynamics in the Earth's radiation belt and also can help us understand the radiation environments of the exoplanets and outer planets.

  13. ELF/VLF wave propagation at subauroral latitudes: Conjugate observation between the ground and Van Allen Probes

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Martinez‐Calderon, C.; Shiokawa, K.; Miyoshi, Y.; Keika, K.; Ozaki, M.; Schofield, I.; Connors, M.; Kletzing, C.; Hanzelka, Miroslav; Santolík, Ondřej; Kurth, W. S.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 121, č. 6 (2016), s. 5384-5393 ISSN 2169-9380 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA14-31899S Institutional support: RVO:68378289 Keywords : QP * conjugate event * VLF/ELF * propagation * time delay * ray tracing Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics Impact factor: 2.733, year: 2016 http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/2015JA022264/full

  14. Cultura vs. instituciones en la cooperación al desarrollo. De Woody Allen a Mitt Romney

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agustín E. Ferraro

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available La intervención de la providencia, o mejor dicho la irresponsabilidad de Romney como candidato a la presidencia de los Estados Unidos, queda fuera de nuestro tema de análisis. Pero hay que decir que, con todas sus deficiencias, el discurso de Romney pronunciado en Israel llamó la atención hacia la discusión sobre cultura vs. instituciones como factores determinantes del desarrollo económico, un debate muy relevante que se ha ido volviendo cada vez más central en los últimos años, tanto en los ámbitos académicos y científicos, como en el de las organizaciones dedicadas a la cooperación al desarrollo.

  15. Phosphahelicenes in asymmetric organocatalysis: [3+2] cyclizations of γ-substituted allenes and electron-poor olefins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gicquel, Maxime; Zhang, Yang; Aillard, Paul; Retailleau, Pascal; Voituriez, Arnaud; Marinetti, Angela

    2015-04-27

    The first use of phosphahelicene in enantioselective organocatalysis is reported. New chiral phosphahelicenes have been prepared and enable highly enantioselective [3+2] cyclization reactions between arylidene- or alkylidenemalononitriles and γ-substituted allenoates or cyanoallenes. These reactions afford cyclopentene derivatives in both high yields and diastereoselectivities, with enantiomeric excesses of up to 97 %. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. Cost efficiency, Morishima, Allen-Uzawa and Cross-Price elasticities among Irish potato farmers in Dedza district, Malawi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Greenwell C. Matchaya

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Malawi has experienced a forward shift in its demand for Irish potato (Solanum tuberosum consumption. Given limited resources at farmers’ disposal, meeting the growing demand will require farmers to follow the efficient path of the farm production resources. This paper, therefore, is an attempt to measure the cost efficiency of smallholder Irish potato farmers in Dedza district of Malawi using a translog cost function, inefficiency effect model and input elasticities derived from a system of cost share equations estimated by Iterated Seeming Unrelated Regression method. A multi-stage random sampling technique was used to select 200 Irish potato farmers in Dedza in 2011 from whom input-output data and their prices were obtained. Results indicate that the mean cost efficiency of Irish potato production in Dedza District is 0.67 with scores ranging between 0.15 and 0.94. The cost efficiency differences are significantly explained by non-farm employment, education, credit access, farm experience, degree of specialization, household size and frequency of weeding. The highest input substitution existed between labour and fertilizer, followed by seed-fertilizer. One policy issue is raised; credit should be extended to Irish potato farmers to enable them purchase farm inputs.

  17. Otolith growth of Springer's demoiselle, Chrysiptera springeri (Pomacentridae, Allen & Lubbock), on a protected and non-protected coral reef

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Retzel, A.; Hansen, A.D.; Grønkjær, P.

    2007-01-01

    's demoiselle Chrysiptera springeri primarily utilize complex coral heads for shelter and are hence vulnerable to human disturbance. In order to evaluate the potential effect of habitat degradation on juvenile fish growth, coral reef cover, fish age at settling and otolith growth, juvenile Springer's demoiselle....... The growth rates of the otoliths from Springer's demoiselle were similar during the pre-settlement period on the two reefs (manova, P > 0.05), but from age 20 to 48 days (post-settlement period) the otolith growth rate of juveniles on the non-protected reef was reduced compared to those from the protected...... reef (manova, P = 0.017). However, the differences in the otolith size, and by inference, fish size, after 48 days were small. The small effect of habitat degradation on growth is likely related to the fact that the Springer's demoiselles collected on the non-protected reef were associated with the few...

  18. Novel Allyl Cobalt Phosphine Complexes: Synthesis, Characterization and Behavior in the Polymerization of Allene and 1,3-Dienes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanni Ricci

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Novel allyl cobalt complexes, i.e., (η3-C4H7(η4-C4H6Co(PCyPh2 (1, (η3-C4H7(η4-C4H6Co(PMePh2 (2 and (η3-C5H9(η4-C5H8Co(PMePh2 (3, were synthesized by reacting CoCl2(PRPh22 (R = methyl, cyclohexyl with 1,3-butadiene or isoprene in presence of metallic zinc. The complexes were fully characterized by Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR spectroscopy (1H and 2D experiments; in case of 1, single crystals, suitable for X-ray analysis, were obtained and the molecular structure was determined. The allyl cobalt phosphine complexes alone gave highly crystalline 1,2 polymers from 1,2-propadiene, but they did not polymerize 1,3-dienes. Nevertheless, in the presence of a stoichiometric amount of methylaluminoxane (MAO, they were able to polymerize 1,3-butadiene and substituted 1,3-butadienes such as isoprene, (E-1,3-pentadiene, (E-1,3-hexadiene, and (E-3-methyl-1,3-pentadiene. Specifically, 1/MAO gave predominantly syndiotactic 1,2 polymers from 1,3-butadiene and terminally substituted 1,3-butadienes (e.g., 1,3-pentadiene and 1,3-hexadiene, but it was practically not active in the polymerization of internally substituted 1,3-butadienes (e.g., isoprene and 3-methyl-1,3-pentadiene; 2/MAO and 3/MAO exhibited instead an opposite behavior, giving predominantly isotactic 1,2 polymers from 3-methyl-1,3-pentadiene, and showing very low activity in the polymerization of 1,3-butadiene, 1,3-pentadiene and 1,3-hexadiene. The results obtained are interesting from the mechanistic point of view, and some hypotheses to explain this particular behavior were formulated.

  19. Effect of thermal loads on substructures : New Trammel Creek Bridge on KY-100 in Allen County, Kentucky.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-08-01

    When infrastructure is subjected to temperature changes, structural members that are either partially or fully : restrained against motion can develop internal stresses. The phenomenon of temperature-induced internal stress development : in superstru...

  20. Expressiveness of the Interval Logics of Allen's Relations on the Class of all Linear Orders: Complete Classification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Monica, Dario Della; Goranko, Valentin; Montanari, Angelo

    2011-01-01

    We compare the expressiveness of the fragments of Halpern and Shoham’s interval logic (HS), i.e., of all interval logics with modal operators associated with Allen’s relations between intervals in linear orders. We establish a complete set of interdefinability equations between these modal...... operators, and thus obtain a complete classification of the family of 212 fragments of HS with respect to their expressiveness. Using that result and a computer program, we have found that there are 1347 expressively different such interval logics over the class of all linear orders....

  1. Applying the cold plasma dispersion relation to whistler mode chorus waves: EMFISIS wave measurements from the Van Allen Probes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartley, D P; Chen, Y; Kletzing, C A; Denton, M H; Kurth, W S

    2015-02-01

    Most theoretical wave models require the power in the wave magnetic field in order to determine the effect of chorus waves on radiation belt electrons. However, researchers typically use the cold plasma dispersion relation to approximate the magnetic wave power when only electric field data are available. In this study, the validity of using the cold plasma dispersion relation in this context is tested using Electric and Magnetic Field Instrument Suite and Integrated Science (EMFISIS) observations of both the electric and magnetic spectral intensities in the chorus wave band (0.1-0.9 f ce ). Results from this study indicate that the calculated wave intensity is least accurate during periods of enhanced wave activity. For observed wave intensities >10 -3 nT 2 , using the cold plasma dispersion relation results in an underestimate of the wave intensity by a factor of 2 or greater 56% of the time over the full chorus wave band, 60% of the time for lower band chorus, and 59% of the time for upper band chorus. Hence, during active periods, empirical chorus wave models that are reliant on the cold plasma dispersion relation will underestimate chorus wave intensities to a significant degree, thus causing questionable calculation of wave-particle resonance effects on MeV electrons.

  2. Initial measurements of O-ion and He-ion decay rates observed from the Van Allen probes RBSPICE instrument.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerrard, Andrew; Lanzerotti, Louis; Gkioulidou, Matina; Mitchell, Donald; Manweiler, Jerry; Bortnik, Jacob; Keika, Kunihiro

    2014-11-01

    H-ion (∼45 keV to ∼600 keV), He-ion (∼65 keV to ∼520 keV), and O-ion (∼140 keV to ∼1130 keV) integral flux measurements, from the Radiation Belt Storm Probe Ion Composition Experiment (RBSPICE) instrument aboard the Van Allan Probes spacecraft B, are reported. These abundance data form a cohesive picture of ring current ions during the first 9 months of measurements. Furthermore, the data presented herein are used to show injection characteristics via the He-ion/H-ion abundance ratio and the O-ion/H-ion abundance ratio. Of unique interest to ring current dynamics are the spatial-temporal decay characteristics of the two injected populations. We observe that He-ions decay more quickly at lower L shells, on the order of ∼0.8 day at L shells of 3-4, and decay more slowly with higher L shell, on the order of ∼1.7 days at L shells of 5-6. Conversely, O-ions decay very rapidly (∼1.5 h) across all L shells. The He-ion decay time are consistent with previously measured and calculated lifetimes associated with charge exchange. The O-ion decay time is much faster than predicted and is attributed to the inclusion of higher-energy (> 500 keV) O-ions in our decay rate estimation. We note that these measurements demonstrate a compelling need for calculation of high-energy O-ion loss rates, which have not been adequately studied in the literature to date. We report initial observations of ring current ionsWe show that He-ion decay rates are consistent with theoryWe show that O-ions with energies greater than 500 keV decay very rapidly.

  3. Unusual refilling of the slot region between the Van Allen radiation belts from November 2004 to January 2005

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xiaochao; Ni, Binbin; Yu, Jiang; Zhang, Yang; Zhang, Xiaoxin; Sun, Yueqiang

    2017-06-01

    Using multisatellite measurements, a uniquely strong and long-lived relativistic electron slot region refilling event from November 2004 to January 2005 is investigated. This event occurred under remarkable interplanetary and magnetospheric conditions. Both empirically modeled and observationally estimated plasmapause locations demonstrate that the plasmasphere eroded significantly prior to the enhancement phase of this event. The estimated diffusion coefficients indicate that the radial diffusion due to ULF waves is insufficient to account for the observed enhancement of slot region electrons. However, the diffusion coefficients evaluated using the distribution of chorus wave intensities derived from low-altitude POES electron observations indicate that the local acceleration induced by chorus could account for the major feature of observed enhancement outside the plasmapause. When the plasmasphere recovered, the refilled slot region was enveloped inside the plasmapause. In the plasmasphere, while the efficiency of hiss scattering loss increases by including unusually low frequency hiss waves, the interaction with hiss alone cannot fully explain the decay of this event, especially at higher energies, which suggests that electromagnetic ion cyclotron waves contribute to the relativistic electron loss process at such low L shells for this refilling event. Through a comprehensive analysis on the basis of data analyses and numerical calculations, the present study sheds light on the underlying physics responsible for the unusual slot refilling by relativistic electrons, which exhibits the complexity of both radiation belt electron dynamics and associated wave-particle interactions.

  4. Scattering of Ultra-relativistic Electrons in the Van Allen Radiation Belts Accounting for Hot Plasma Effects

    OpenAIRE

    Cao, Xing; Shprits, Yuri Y.; Ni, Binbin; Zhelavskaya, Irina S.

    2017-01-01

    Electron flux in the Earth’s outer radiation belt is highly variable due to a delicate balance between competing acceleration and loss processes. It has been long recognized that Electromagnetic Ion Cyclotron (EMIC) waves may play a crucial role in the loss of radiation belt electrons. Previous theoretical studies proposed that EMIC waves may account for the loss of the relativistic electron population. However, recent observations showed that while EMIC waves are responsible for the signific...

  5. H08465: NOS Hydrographic Survey , Pemaquid Neck to Allen Island Wire Drag, Maine, 1955-05-26

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) has the statutory mandate to collect hydrographic data in support of nautical chart compilation for safe...

  6. Spontaneous dimerization of allenes in situ: an efficient synthesis of substituted 1,2-dimethylenecyclobutanes with high regio- and stereoselectivities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miao, Maozhong; Wang, Wenmin; Yang, Weijun; Xu, Lijun; Ma, Jing; Ren, Hongjun

    2015-10-05

    An intermolecular [2+2] cycloaddition reaction for the synthesis of 1,2-dimethylenecyclobutane derivatives from the commercially available starting materials aryl acetylenes, nBuLi, formamides, and trimethylsilyl cyanide (TMSCN) has been achieved. This reaction displays high regio- and stereoselectivities due to the captodative effect. The mechanism of the reaction has been investigated by the deuterium labeling experiments and DFT calculations. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  7. Prototype Development: Context-Driven Dynamic XML Ophthalmologic Data Capture Application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peissig, Peggy; Schwei, Kelsey M; Kadolph, Christopher; Finamore, Joseph; Cancel, Efrain; McCarty, Catherine A; Okorie, Asha; Thomas, Kate L; Allen Pacheco, Jennifer; Pathak, Jyotishman; Ellis, Stephen B; Denny, Joshua C; Rasmussen, Luke V; Tromp, Gerard; Williams, Marc S; Vrabec, Tamara R; Brilliant, Murray H

    2017-09-13

    The capture and integration of structured ophthalmologic data into electronic health records (EHRs) has historically been a challenge. However, the importance of this activity for patient care and research is critical. The purpose of this study was to develop a prototype of a context-driven dynamic extensible markup language (XML) ophthalmologic data capture application for research and clinical care that could be easily integrated into an EHR system. Stakeholders in the medical, research, and informatics fields were interviewed and surveyed to determine data and system requirements for ophthalmologic data capture. On the basis of these requirements, an ophthalmology data capture application was developed to collect and store discrete data elements with important graphical information. The context-driven data entry application supports several features, including ink-over drawing capability for documenting eye abnormalities, context-based Web controls that guide data entry based on preestablished dependencies, and an adaptable database or XML schema that stores Web form specifications and allows for immediate changes in form layout or content. The application utilizes Web services to enable data integration with a variety of EHRs for retrieval and storage of patient data. This paper describes the development process used to create a context-driven dynamic XML data capture application for optometry and ophthalmology. The list of ophthalmologic data elements identified as important for care and research can be used as a baseline list for future ophthalmologic data collection activities. ©Peggy Peissig, Kelsey M Schwei, Christopher Kadolph, Joseph Finamore, Efrain Cancel, Catherine A McCarty, Asha Okorie, Kate L Thomas, Jennifer Allen Pacheco, Jyotishman Pathak, Stephen B Ellis, Joshua C Denny, Luke V Rasmussen, Gerard Tromp, Marc S Williams, Tamara R Vrabec, Murray H Brilliant. Originally published in JMIR Medical Informatics (http://medinform.jmir.org), 13.09.2017.

  8. Editorial: South African Guidelines Excellence (SAGE): Efficient ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Editorial: South African Guidelines Excellence (SAGE): Efficient, effective and unbiased clinical practice guideline teams. Karen Grimmer, Janine Margarita Dizon, Quinette Louw, Tamara Kredo, Taryn Young, Shingai Machingaidze ...

  9. Caracterización de la proteína PSTPIP1 implicada en el síndrome PAPA

    OpenAIRE

    Marcos de Mena, Tamara

    2015-01-01

    Tesis Doctoral presentada por Tamara Marcos de Mena para optar al grado de doctor por la Universidad de Valladolid, Facultad de Medicina: Departamento de Bioquímica y Biología Molecular y Fisiología

  10. Effect of antimicrobial compounds on cut Gerbera flowers: Poor relation between stem bending and numbers of bacteria in the vase water

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Witte, van de Y.; Harkema, H.; Doorn, van W.G.

    2014-01-01

    Gerbera flowers (Gerbera jamesonii) often show stem bending. In four cultivars (Tamara, Liesbeth, Cora, and Mickey), we tested the effects on bending of antimicrobial compounds (chlorine bleach, a slow release chlorine compound, 8-hydroxyquinoline citrate [HQC], silver nitrate, carvacrol and

  11. Tantsupäev toob publiku ette säravaid balletitähti / Raimu Hanson

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Hanson, Raimu, 1957-

    2006-01-01

    29. apr. esinevad Vanemuises rahvusvaheliselt tuntud tantsijad - Tamara Rojo, Jan-Erik Wikström, Inaki Urlezaga, Anna Valev, Olga Volobujeva, Priit Kripson, Diana Cuni ja Kristoffer Sakurai -, et tähistada rahvusvahelist tantsupäeva

  12. Tantsupäev toob priimad tantsijad / Stuart Sweeney

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Sweeney, Stuart

    2006-01-01

    Rahvusvahelisel tantsupäeval 29. aprillil esinevad Vanemuises nimekad Euroopa tantsijad. Neist tuntumad on Londoni Kuningliku balleti priimabaleriin Tamara Rojo ja Rootsi Kuningliku Balleti koosseisus tantsiv Jan-Erik Wikström

  13. Ideede paraad Zürichis / Tanel Veenre

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Veenre, Tanel, 1977-

    2000-01-01

    Üleeuroopaline noorte moeloojate etendus Barclay-Catwalk Zürichis ja Rotterdamis. Uued nimed: Wei Gao, Natasha ja Tamara Surguladze, Jacqueline Burtsche, Tom Notte, Jessy Heuvelink, Daniel Controversio jt.

  14. Premija znamenitogo Sinebrjuhhova dostalas Russkomu dramatitsheskomu teatru / Anna Litvinjuk

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Litvinjuk, Anna

    2000-01-01

    14. jaanuaril anti kolmandat korda firma "Sinebrychoff Eesti AS" auhinnad eesti kultuuritegelastele. Seekord said auhinna filmirežissöör Hardi Volmer ja Vene Draamateatri näitlejad Larissa Savankova, Tamara Solodnikova ja Nikolai Hrustaljov

  15. Lutsheje, koneshno, vperedi! / Marta Krõll

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Krõll, Marta

    2006-01-01

    Eesti juuksurite võistkond osales Moskvas toimunud XXXI ülemaailmsel juuksurite tshempionaadil. Osalejad loetletud. Parim tulemus oli Jekaterina Mosendz'i 7. koht kategoorias Fashion Look. Kommenteerib võistkonna üks treeneritest Tamara Korjagina

  16. I Met Lucky People: The Story of the Romani Gypsies. By Yaron Matras. London: Allen Lane, Penguin Books, 2014, 276 pp.; ISBN 978-1-846-14481-3.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor A Friedman

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This is a book review of I met lucky people: The story of the Romani Gypsies, by Yaron Matras. The work is oriented for a general reading public, but it can be highly recommended for academics and policy makers as well.

  17. A long-lived refilling event of the slot region between the Van Allen radiation belts from Nov 2004 to Jan 2005

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, X.

    2015-12-01

    A powerful relativistic electron enhancement in the slot region between the inner and outer radiation belts is investigated by multi-satellites measurements. The measurement from Space Particle Component Detectors (SPCDs) aboard Fengyun-1 indicates that the relativistic electron (>1.6MeV) flux began to enhance obviously on early 10 November with the flux peak fixed at L~3.0. In the next day, the relativistic electron populations increased dramatically. Subsequently, the flux had been enhancing slowly, but unceasingly, until 17 November, and the maximum flux reached up to 7.8×104 cm-2·sr-1·s-1 at last. The flux peak fixed at L~3.0 and the very slow decay rate in this event make it to be an unusual long-lived slot region refilling event. We trace the cause of the event back to the interplanetary environment and find that there were two evident magnetic cloud constructions: dramatically enhanced magnetic field strength and long and smooth rotation of field vector from late 7 to 8 November and from late 9 to 10 November, respectively; solar wind speed increased in 'step-like' fashion on late 7 November and persisted the level of high speed >560 km·s-1 for about 124 hours. Owed to the interplanetary disturbances, very strong magnetic storms and substorms occurred in the magnetosphere. Responding to the extraordinarily magnetic perturbations, the plasmasphere shrank sharply. The location of plasmapause inferred from Dst indicates that the plasmapause shrank inward to as low as L~2.5. On account of these magnetospheric conditions, strong chorus emissions are expected near the earth. In fact, the STAFF on Cluster mission measured intensive whistler mode chorus emissions on 10 and 12 November, corresponding to the period of the remarkable enhancement of relativistic electron. Furthermore, we investigate the radial profile of phase space density (PSD) by electron flux from multi-satellites, and the evolution of the phase space density profile reveals that the local acceleration by whistler mode chorus could be the important mechanism in this event. The movement of the inferred plasmapause location indicates that the enhanced outer zone is divided into two portions by the plasmapause and the slow loss rate in the plasmasphere due to hiss primarily contributed to the long-lived characteristic of this event.

  18. CuCl-catalyzed aerobic oxidation of 2,3-allenols to 1,2-allenic ketones with 1:1 combination of phenanthroline and bipyridine as ligands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shengming Ma

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available A protocol has been developed to prepare 1,2-allenyl ketones using molecular oxygen in air or pure oxygen as the oxidant from 2,3-allenylic alcohols with moderate to good yields under mild conditions. In this reaction CuCl (20 mol % with 1,10-phenanthroline (10 mol % and bipyridine (10 mol % was used as the catalyst. It is interesting to observe that the use of the mixed ligands is important for the higher yields of this transformation: With the monoligand approach developed by Markó et al., the yields are relatively lower.

  19. Formal synthesis of solanoeclepin A: enantioselective allene diboration and intramolecular [2+2] photocycloaddition for the construction of the tricyclic core

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kleinnijenhuis, R.A.; Timmer, B.J.J.; Lutteke, G.; Smits, J.M.M.; de Gelder, R.; van Maarseveen, J.H.; Hiemstra, H.

    2016-01-01

    An enantioselective synthesis of an intermediate in the Tanino total synthesis of solanoeclepin A has been developed. The key step was an intramolecular [2+2] photocycloaddition, which led to the tricyclo[5.2.1.0(1,6)]decane core in six steps. The first photosubstrate, prepared through an

  20. 77 FR 48960 - Foreign-Trade Zone 12-McAllen, TX Notification of Proposed Export Production Activity TST NA Trim...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-15

    ... Notification of Proposed Export Production Activity TST NA Trim, LLC (Fabric/Leather Lamination and Cutting... reduced on foreign status production equipment. Upholstery fabrics and material sourced from abroad... production activity on behalf of TST NA Trim, LLC (TST), located in Hidalgo, Texas. The notification...

  1. Demographic Differences in Organizational Commitment to the University of College of Business Administration Students: An Application of the Allen and Meyer Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Love, Kevin G.

    2013-01-01

    Organizational commitment of undergraduate college students to the university was measured by modifying an established measure and demographic differences were examined. Affective, continuance, and normative commitment facets were assessed. No differences based upon gender, race, and GPA were found. Length of time at the university and transfer…

  2. Challenges Facing ZnO and GaN: Facts and Myths. Held in Glen Allen, Virginia on 18-19 October 2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-10-01

    Sierra Nevada Corporation). calculation, 1 eV bowing was used to get the bandgap of AlGaN, and the conduction band offset was given by the...Figure 63. Current oscillations (courtesy of V. Litvinov of WaveBand/Sierra Nevada Corporation). To start the oscillations the bias was...409 K. Nakahara, H. Takasu, P. Fons, A. Yamada, K. Iwata, K. Matsubara, R. Hunger , and S. Niki; "Interactions between gallium and nitrogen

  3. Quantification of Brain Access of Exendin-4 in the C57BL Mouse Model by SPIM Fluorescence Imaging and the Allen Mouse Brain Reference Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Casper Bo; Secher, Anna; Hecksher-Sørensen, Jacob

    2015-01-01

    With the recent advance in 3D microscopy such as Single Plane Illumination Microscopy (SPIM) it is possible to obtain high resolution image volumes of the entire mouse brain. These data can be used to study the access of several peptides such as the glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) analogue Exendi...

  4. Figurations of the Spiritual Squalid in Allen Ginsberg's Indian Journals: Transformation of India in Post-War Beat and American Imagination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gayathri Prabhu

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available This article explores the impact that India had on Beat imagination with specific emphasis on Ginsberg's under-studied Indian Journals, written during his travels in India in 1962-63, and published in 1970. The earlier American literary view of India was dominated by the notion of the spiritual East, and was evoked in the high prose of Emerson and Whitman. In the new context and historical time of post-war counterculture, India came to constitute a different kind of repertoire: 1 the trope of physical travel (unlike the earlier literary forebears who had never actually visited India and its sense of encounter with the un-transcendable physical 'dirt' of India; 2 India as a new realm of the sexual (in contrast with the more traditional dominant trend of India as 'ascetic spiritual' and the intertwining of the sexual and spiritual; and 3 Experimenting with drugs to explore the spaces between pilgrimage and tourism wherein India as a whole and in itself offers alternate states of bodily being. Moving away from conventional postcolonial notions of 'representation' in modes that might still be seen as quasi-Orientalist, I read the Ginsberg's text as creating a new kind of literary and aesthetic density, mixing genres of travelogue, diary, poetry, confession, doodle, photography. Further, in contrast to the entirely uni-directional notions of Orientalist representation, I argue that this encounter re-defined Beat notions of space, sexuality, and alternate consciousness.

  5. Van Allen probes, NOAA, GOES, and ground observations of an intense EMIC wave event extending over 12 h in magnetic local time

    OpenAIRE

    Engebretson, M. J.; Posch, J. L.; Wygant, J. R.; Kletzing, C. A.; Lessard, M. R.; Huang, C.-L.; Spence, H. E.; Smith, C. W.; Singer, H. J.; Omura, Y.; Horne, R. B.; Reeves, G. D.; Baker, D. N.; Gkioulidou, M.; Oksavik, K.

    2015-01-01

    Although most studies of the effects of EMIC waves on Earth's outer radiation belt have focused on events in the afternoon sector in the outer plasmasphere or plume region, strong magnetospheric compressions provide an additional stimulus for EMIC wave generation across a large range of local times and L shells. We present here observations of the effects of a wave event on February 23, 2014 that extended over 8 hours in UT and over 12 hours in local time, stimulated by a gradual 4-hour rise ...

  6. Finding the Walls of Troy: Frank Calvert and Heinrich Schliemann at Hisarlik. Susan Heuck Allen. Uni­versity of California Press, Berkeley, 1999

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew L. Christenson

    2000-05-01

    Full Text Available As a teenager my parents received through the Book-of-the-Month Club a volume that could easily have led me to want to become an archaeologist if I had not already made that decision. Gods, Graves. and Scholars by C. W. Cerarn (pseudonym of German journalist Kurt W. Marek had been first published in Germany in 1949 and translated and published in the U.S. in 1951 (Ceram 1951. This book, still in print, was one of the few written in the first half of the century to bring the history of archaeology to a general audience.

  7. Three dimensional data-assimilative VERB-code simulations of the Earth's radiation belts: Reanalysis during the Van Allen Probe era, and operational forecasting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kellerman, Adam; Shprits, Yuri; Podladchikova, Tatiana; Kondrashov, Dmitri

    2016-04-01

    The Versatile Electron Radiation Belt (VERB) code 2.0 models the dynamics of radiation-belt electron phase space density (PSD) in Earth's magnetosphere. Recently, a data-assimilative version of this code has been developed, which utilizes a split-operator Kalman-filtering approach to solve for electron PSD in terms of adiabatic invariants. A new dataset based on the TS07d magnetic field model is presented, which may be utilized for analysis of past geomagnetic storms, and for initial and boundary conditions in running simulations. Further, a data-assimilative forecast model is introduced, which has the capability to forecast electron PSD several days into the future, given a forecast Kp index. The model assimilates an empirical model capable of forecasting the conditions at geosynchronous orbit. The model currently runs in real time and a forecast is available to view online http://rbm.epss.ucla.edu.

  8. A one-dimensional, steady-state, dissolved-oxygen model and waste-load assimilation study for Cedar Creek, Dekalb and Allen counties, Indiana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilber, William G.; Peters, J.G.; Ayers, M.A.; Crawford, Charles G.

    1979-01-01

    A digital model calibrated to conditions in Cedar Creek was used to develop alternatives for future waste loadings that would be compatible with Indiana stream water-quality standards defined for two critical hydrologic conditions, summer and winter low flows. The model indicates that the dissolved-oxygen concentration of the Auburn wastewater effluent and nitrification are the most significant factors affecting the dissolved-oxygen concentration in Cedar Creek during summer low flows. The observed dissolved-oxygen concentration of the Auburn wastewater effluent was low and averaged 30 percent of saturation. Projected nitrogenous biochemical-oxygen demand loads, from the Indiana State Board of Health, for the Auburn and Waterloo wastewater-treatment facilities will result in violations of the current instream dissolved-oxygen standard (5 mg/l), even with an effluent dissolved-oxygen concentration of 80 percent saturation. Natural streamflow for Cedar Creek upstream from the confluence of Willow and Little Cedar Creeks is small compared with the waste discharge, so benefits of dilution for Waterloo and Auburn are minimal. The model also indicates that, during winter low flows, ammonia toxicity, rather than dissolved oxygen, is the limiting water-quality criterion in the reach of Cedar Creek downstream from the wastewater-treatment facility at Auburn and the confluence of Garrett ditch. Ammonia-nitrogen concentrations predicted for 1978 through 2000 downstream from the Waterloo wastewater-treatment facility do not exceed Indiana water-quality standards for streams. Calculations of the stream 's assimilative capacity indicate that future waste discharge in the Cedar Creek basin will be limited to the reaches between the Auburn wastewater-treatment facility and County Road 68. (Kosco-USGS)

  9. Análisis estratigráfico secuencial de las formaciones Anacleto y Allen (Cretácico Tardío en el borde nororiental de Cuenca Neuquina, Argentina Sequential stratigraphic analysis of the Anacleto and Allen formations (Late Cretaceous in the northeastern margin of the Neuquina Basin, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Armas

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available En las provincias de Neuquén y Río Negro a partir de un estudio sedimentológico de detalle se realizó un análisis estratigráfico secuencial de los depósitos del Cretácico Superior de la Formación Anacleto y miembro inferior de la Formación Alien para el borde nororiental de Cuenca Neuquina. La asociación de las litofacies permitió interpretar elementos arquitecturales de origen fluvial y elementos con influencia de mareas. Tres sistemas fluviales (sistema entrelazado, sistema anastomosado y sistema meándrico, un sistema estuárico proximal y uno medio fueron identificados para La Formación Anacleto. Para el miembro basal de la Formación Alien, se definió un sistema estuárico distal o boca de estuario. En el análisis de estratigrafía secuencial se identificó una secuencia constituida por: un cortejo de baja acomodación, en ambiente continental limitado por una superficie de inundación fluvial (discontinuidad I y la discontinuidad II; y un cortejo de alta acomodación y su equivalente cortejo transgresivo en ambiente marino, incluyendo este último las discontinuidades III, IV y V.Based on a detailed sedimentological study we carried out a sequential stratigraphic analysis of the Upper Cretaceous deposits of the Anacleto Formation and lower member of the Alien Formation in the north-eastern border of the Neuquina Basin. The lithofacies association allowed interpre-ting architectural elements of fluvial origin and tide influenced elements. Three fluvial systems (a braided system, an anastomosed one, and a high sinuosity one, a proximal and a middle estuarine system were recognized for the Anacleto Formation. A distal estuarine system or estuary outlet was defined for the basal member of the Alien Formation. In the sequential stratigraphy analysis the following systems were identified: a low accommodation system tract in a continental environment limited by a flooding fluvial surface (discontinuity I and discontinuity II; and a high accommodation system tract and its equivalent transgressive system tract in a marine environment, with discontinuities III, IV y V.

  10. The Arabidopsis male-sterile mutant dde2-2 is defective in the ALLENE OXIDE SYNTHASE gene encoding one of the key enzymes of the jasmonic acid biosynthesis pathway

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    von Malek, Bernadette; van der Graaff, Eric; Schneitz, Kay

    2002-01-01

    The Arabidopsis thaliana (L.) Heynh. mutant delayed-dehiscence2-2 (dde2-2) was identified in an En1/Spm1 transposon-induced mutant population screened for plants showing defects in fertility. The dde2-2 mutant allele is defective in the anther dehiscence process and filament elongation and thus e...

  11. Chiral Induction in the synthesis of 4,4-dimethyl-1-phenylpenta-1,2-diene (1-Ph-3-t-Bu-allene) catalyzed by chiral phosphine complexes of palladium

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koten, G. van; Graaf, W. de; Boersma, J.; Elsevier, C.J.

    1989-01-01

    4, 4-Dimethyl-1-phenylpenta-1,2-diene (1-phenyl-3-t-butylallene) (2) has been prepared by a palladium-catalyzed cross-coupling reaction between either in situ prepared 4,4-dimethylpenta-1,2-dienylzinc chloride and iodobenzene (Route A) or 1-bromo-4,4-dimethylpenta-1,2-diene and phenylzinc chloride

  12. "Zu allen diesen kirchen arbeiten hat er zugleich auch die Risse verfertigt...". Brněnský sochař Ondřej Schweigl (1735 - 1812) jako kreslíř, dekoratér a architekt

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Valeš, Tomáš

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 62, č. 2 (2013), s. 122-137 ISSN 1211-7390 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP409/12/0617 Institutional support: RVO:68378033 Keywords : And reas Schweigl * drawing * graphic art * sculpture * 18th century * Moravia * Brno Subject RIV: AL - Art , Architecture, Cultural Heritage

  13. UK-5 Van Allen belt radiation exposure: A special study to determine the trapped particle intensities on the UK-5 satellite with spatial mapping of the ambient flux environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stassinopoulos, E. G.

    1972-01-01

    Vehicle encountered electron and proton fluxes were calculated for a set of nominal UK-5 trajectories with new computational methods and new electron environment models. Temporal variations in the electron data were considered and partially accounted for. Field strength calculations were performed with an extrapolated model on the basis of linear secular variation predictions. Tabular maps for selected electron and proton energies were constructed as functions of latitude and longitude for specified altitudes. Orbital flux integration results are presented in graphical and tabular form; they are analyzed, explained, and discussed.

  14. Displacement of ethene from the decamethyltitanocene-ethene complex with internal alkynes, substituent-dependent alkyne-to-allene rearrangement, and the electronic transition relevant to the back-bonding interaction

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pinkas, Jiří; Gyepes, R.; Císařová, I.; Kubišta, Jiří; Horáček, Michal; Mach, Karel

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 44, č. 16 (2015), s. 7276-7291 ISSN 1477-9226 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP207/12/2368 Institutional support: RVO:61388955 Keywords : titanocene-ethene complex * tail dimerization * molecular structure Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 4.177, year: 2015

  15. Author Details

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cupido, Tamara. Vol 6, No 1 (2016) - Articles Sustainable tourism development and the world heritage status of the Wadden Sea: The case of Terschelling Abstract PDF. ISSN: 2224-3534. AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors · FAQ's · More about AJOL · AJOL's ...

  16. South African Medical Journal - Vol 106, No 5 (2016)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Editorial: South African Guidelines Excellence (SAGE): Efficient, effective and unbiased clinical practice guideline teams · EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. Karen Grimmer, Janine Margarita Dizon, Quinette Louw, Tamara Kredo, Taryn Young, Shingai ...

  17. Liquid Nitrogen Dewar Loading at KSC for STS-71 Flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-01-01

    Liquid nitrogen dewar loading at Kennedy Space Center for STS-71 flight with Stan Koszelak (right), University of California at Riverside, adn Tamara Chinareva (left), Russian Spacecraft Coporation-Energia. The picture shows Koszelak removing the insert from the transportation dewar.

  18. 75 FR 80977 - Disclosure of Payments by Resource Extraction Issuers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-23

    ...: Tamara Brightwell, Senior Special Counsel, Division of Corporation Finance, or Elliot Staffin, Special Counsel in the Office of International Corporate Finance, Division of Corporation Finance, at (202) 551... issuers would be required to disclose taxes on corporate profits, corporate income, and production and...

  19. 76 FR 29817 - Further Definition of “Swap,” “Security-Based Swap,” and “Security-Based Swap Agreement”; Mixed...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-23

    ...'') (collectively, ``Commissions''), in consultation with the Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System..., Division of Trading and Markets, or Michael J. Reedich, Special Counsel, or Tamara Brightwell, Senior... Options and Commodity Options Embedded in Forward Contracts (c) Security Forwards 3. Consumer and...

  20. Spinal clearance guideline for out-of hospital providers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. McCaul*

    2013-12-01

    Conclusion: An out-of hospital spinal clearance guideline was developed with evaluation and implementation strategies for the out-of hospital context. The author would like to acknowledge the South African Cochrane Centre and Dr Tamara Kredo for their support.

  1. STS-52 Mission Specialist (MS) Jernigan during food planning session at JSC

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-01-01

    STS-52 Columbia, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 102, Mission Specialist (MS) Tamara E. Jernigan sips a beverage from a plastic container using a straw. She appears to be pondering what beverages she would like to have on her 10-day flight this coming autumn. Other crewmembers joined Jernigan for this food planning session conducted by JSC's Man-Systems Division.

  2. Foreign Cultural Policy in the Interbellum: The Italian Dante Alighieri Society and the British Council Contesting the Mediterranean

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Kessel, T.

    2016-01-01

    This book considers the growing awareness in the wake of World War I that culture could play an effective political role in international relations. Tamara van Kessel shows how the British created the British Council in support of those cultural aims, which took on particular urgency in light of the

  3. Learning to Compute. Indigenous Mathematics Project. Working Paper 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souviney, Randall J.

    This set of 13 activities, adapted from "Mathmatters: Developing Computational Skills with Developmental Activity Sequences (by Randall Souviney, Tamara Keyser, and Alan Sarver) was designed to help teachers using the Indigenous Mathematics Project materials (in Papua New Guinea) understand the basic processes involved in computation with…

  4. Kaitstud magistritööd, 1. juuni 2012

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2013-01-01

    Oma töid kaitsesid Claudio Julio Rodriguez Higuera, Davi William Ferreira Gomes, Karlina Vaivade, Mohamed Gamal Abdelmeged Elmaayergy, Sigita Tamošauskaite, Eduardo Chávez Herrera, Tyler James Bennett, Felipe Cuervo Restrepo, Julia Popova, Anastasiia Sidielnik, Thomas Mark Boyle, Mirjam Männik, Sandra Preiman, Tamara Stojanovic

  5. Browse Title Index

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 51 - 100 of 209 ... Vol 11, No 2 (2016), Gambling addiction in primary care: a survey of general practitioners in Solihull, Abstract PDF. Tamara Naomi Chithiramohan, Sanju George. Vol 3, No 2 (2008), Gender Determination using Fingertip Features, Abstract. J-F Wang, C-L Lin, Y-H Chang, ML Nagurka, C-W Yen, C Yeh.

  6. 3. Surveys for Mansonellaperstans Filariasis in Kalabo, Kazungula ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    RICHY

    2Department of Clinical Studies, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of Zambia, Lusaka, Zambia. 3Department of Veterinary Disease Biology, Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences, University of Copenhagen,. Denmark. Corresponding author: Sheila Tamara Shawa (Ph.D.) Department of Paraclinical Studies.

  7. Co-sintering of treated APC-residues with bottom ash

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Dorthe Lærke; Bergfeldt, Britta; Vehlow, Jürgen

    2001-01-01

    Air pollution control residues stabilised by means of the Ferrox process can be sager disposed of due to lower contents of soluble salts and lesssoluble heavy metals stabilised in iron oxides. Co-combustion tests in the Karlsruhe test incinerator TAMARA were carried out in order to investigate...

  8. Threat Based Risk Assessment for Enterprise Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-02-15

    Weller-Fahy, and Tamara Yu. References 1. G. Greenwald, No Place to Hide: Edward Snowden , the NSA, and the U.S. Surveillance State. London: Hamish...devastating insider attacks, Edward Snowden exfiltrated 1.7 million documents from the National Security Agency [1]. That same year, the security company

  9. Air Force Research Laboratory’s 2006 Technology Milestones

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-01-01

    17 Sensors Assistant to the Chief Scientist Earns WSU Institute Award...Robert W. Patton (pictured top right), a program manager in the Information Directorate; Mr. Douglas K. Simpson (pictured bottom left), an integration...sn.marketing@wpafb.af.mil • (937)904-9771 Sensors Assistant to the Chief Scientist Earns WSU Institute Award Dr. Tamara Chelette, assistant to the chief

  10. 78 FR 15994 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; Financial Industry Regulatory Authority, Inc.; Notice of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-13

    ... sites, social media pages, and any comparable Internet presence, and on Web sites, social media pages... 15, 2013; Letter from Tamara K. Salmon, Senior Associate Counsel, Investment Company Institute, dated... prescribed by FINRA, on their Web sites, social media pages, and any comparable Internet presence, and on Web...

  11. Chemical process developments in reprocessing from 1965--1975 in the Institute for Hot Chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baumgaertner, F.

    Work on the aqueous reprocessing of fuels is described. The following are discussed: LABEX (laboratory-scale extraction), MILLI facility (1 kg/day), problems of aqueous reprocessing, centrifugal extractor development, radiolytic products from Purex process, and TAMARA facility. Results of the MILLI operation are reviewed. Solutions to problems are discussed

  12. Kuni 4. VII on Y-galeriis...

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2004-01-01

    Mooste külalisstuudios elanud ja töötanud serbia tekstiilikunstniku Tamara Jelaca näitus "Fine Art Embroideries" ja tekstiilikunsti üliõpilase Anneli Kaarna näitus "Naine jäi kellatorni külge rippuma"

  13. 76 FR 9341 - Grand River Dam Authority; Notice of Application Accepted for Filing, Soliciting Comments...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-17

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Project No. 1494-391] Grand River Dam.... Project No.: 1494-391. c. Date Filed: January 7, 2011. d. Applicant: Grand River Dam Authority (GRDA). e... Contact: Tamara E. Jahnke, Assistant General Counsel, Grand River Dam Authority, P.O. Box 409, Vinita, OK...

  14. 77 FR 30518 - Grand River Dam Authority; Notice of Application for Amendment of License and Soliciting Comments...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-23

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Project No. 1494-403] Grand River Dam.... Project No.: 1494-403. c. Date Filed: April 11, 2012. d. Applicant: Grand River Dam Authority. e. Name of.... Tamara E. Jahnke, Assistant General Counsel, Grand River Dam Authority, P.O. Box 409, Vinita, Oklahoma...

  15. Premija znamenitogo Sinebrjuhhova dostalas Pusskomu dramatitsheskomu teatru / Anna Litvinjuk

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Litvinjuk, Anna

    2000-01-01

    14. jaan anti üle kolmandat korda firma "Sinebrychoff Eesti AS" auhinnad eesti kultuuritegelastele. Seekord said auhinna filmirežissöör Hardi Volmer ja Vene Draamateatri näitlejad Larissa Savankova, Tamara Solodnikova ja Nikolai Hrustaljov

  16. PÖFF / Egle Loo

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Loo, Egle

    2010-01-01

    14. Pimedate Ööde filmifestivali filmidest: "Päris koopia" (Prantsuse-Itaalia-Iraani 2010), "Taevariik" (Rootsi-Taani 2010), "Teisel pool" (Rootsi-Soome 2010), "Tamara Drewe" (Inglise 2010), "Mesi" (Türgi-Saksa 2010), "Inimestest ja jumalatest" (Prantsuse 2010)

  17. 4.-25. III on Nuova Icona galerii Veneetsias Kai Kaljo ja Ly Lestbergi päralt

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2001-01-01

    Näitust "Mida te loete, mu lord" kureerivad Vittorio Urbani ja Michele de Marchi. Kataloogi eessõna: Anu Liivak, Tamara Luuk. Aprillis K. Kaljo isiknäitus Bratislavas Slovakkia kaasaegse kunsti keskuse galeriis. 27. IV Bonnis avatavale videonäitusele "Videonale" valiti Eestist K. Kaljo, Mari Laanemets, Killu Sukmit.

  18. African Journal of Chemical Education - Vol 7, No 3 (2017)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Examining systems thinking through the application of systemic approach in the secondary school chemistry teaching · EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. Tamara N. Hrin, Dušica D. Milenković, Mirjana D. Segedinac, 66-81 ...

  19. Co-sintering of treated APC-residues with bottom ash

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergfeldt, B.; Jensen, Dorthe Lærke; Vehlow, J.

    2001-01-01

    Air pollution control residues stabilised by means of the Ferrox process can be sager disposed of due to lower contents of soluble salts and lesssoluble heavy metals stabilised in iron oxides. Co-combustion tests in the Karlsruhe test incinerator TAMARA were carried out in order to investigate th...

  20. Can the United States be Partners with China?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-16

    Zedong , Deng strongly opposed Western values, like materialism, capitalism, individualism and freedom, within China. He believed they undermined both...Robson, and Tamara Hamlish. China: A Global Studies Handbook. Santa Barbra: ABC CLIO, 2003. Lilley, James, John J. Mearsheimer, Wu Jianmin, and

  1. Kingisseppadest suitsiiditerroristideni / Lauri Kärk

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kärk, Lauri, 1954-

    2005-01-01

    Berliini 55. filmifestivalist ja saksa filmidest festivalil : Marc Rothemundi "Sophie Scholli viimane päev", Hannes Stöhri "Üks päev Euroopas", Tamara Trampe ning Johann Feindti dokumentaal "Valged varesed - Tšetšeenia õudus" ja Palestiinas elava Hany Abu-Assadi "Paradise Now"

  2. Ilmafilosoofia ilma filosoofiata / Jüri Rato

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Rato, Jüri

    2000-01-01

    Arvustus: Hoff, Benjamin. Puhh ja Tao / tlk. Mait Talts. Tln. : Olympia, 1998 ; Hoff, Benjamin. Notsu ja Te / tlk. Paavo Kivine. Tln.: Olympia, 1999 ; Allen, Roger E. ; Allen, Stephen D. Puhh lahendab probleeme / tlk. Paavo Kivine. Tallinn : Olympia, 2000

  3. Security credentials management system (SCMS) design and analysis for the connected vehicle system : draft.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-27

    This report presents an analysis by Booz Allen Hamilton (Booz Allen) of the technical design for the Security Credentials Management System (SCMS) intended to support communications security for the connected vehicle system. The SCMS technical design...

  4. Cave- and Crevice-Dwelling Bats on USACE Projects: Townsend's Big-Eared Bat (Corynorhinus townsendii)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mitchell, Wilma

    2002-01-01

    ..." (Dickerson, Martin, and Allen 1999; Kasul, Martin, and Allen 2000). This technical note provides information on selected bat species that have the potential to occur on Corps projects in the eastern United States and be impacted by Corps activities...

  5. Reference: 567 [Arabidopsis Phenome Database[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Tamara et al. 2007 Mar. Plant Cell 19(3):831-46. Arabidopsis thaliana seedling growth with pure oxylipins r...oic acid (9-HOT) was a potent inducer of root waving. Studies with noxy2 (for nonresponding to oxylipin...ive) revealed at least three signaling cascades mediating the oxylipin actions. Treatment with 9-HOT resulte...ing genes are consistent with mechanistic links among these processes. The nature of the changes detected suggests that oxylipin

  6. The epidemiology of acne vulgaris in late adolescence

    OpenAIRE

    Lynn, Darren D; Umari, Tamara; Dunnick, Cory A; Dellavalle, Robert P

    2016-01-01

    Darren D Lynn,1 Tamara Umari,1 Cory A Dunnick,2,3 Robert P Dellavalle2–4 1Department of Dermatology, University of Colorado School of Medicine, 2Department of Dermatology, University of Colorado Anschutz Medical Campus, Aurora, 3Dermatology Service, US Department of Veterans Affairs, Eastern Colorado Health Care System, Denver, 4Department of Epidemiology, Colorado School of Public Health, University of Colorado Anschutz Medical Campus, Aurora, CO, USA Importance: Acne vulgaris is ...

  7. Natsionalistlike meeleolude kaardistamine jätkub / Rael Artel

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Artel, Rael, 1980-

    2008-01-01

    "Public Preparation Social Club. Natsionalismi sümptomid ja kriitika kaasaegses kunstis" 11. VII Pärnu Kunstnike Majas ja 12.-16. VII Pärnumaal. Korraldas ja modereeris Rael Artel, ettekannetega esinesid Kendra Ballingall (Winnipeg), Remco de Blaaij (Eindhoven), Övül Durmusoglu (Istanbul/Viin), Ronen Eidelman (Tel Aviv/Weimar), Claire Feeley (Dublin), Erden Kosova (Istanbul), Johannes Paul Raether (Berliin), Sara Stenczer (Budapest/Pariis) ja Tamara Zlobina (Kiiev)

  8. Ehtekunsti kõrgmäestik Münchenis / Kadri Mälk, Piret Hirv, Tanel Veenre

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Mälk, Kadri, 1958-

    2009-01-01

    Ehtekunsti suurüritusest "Schmuckszene" ("Ehtepaik"). Arnoldsche Art Publishers esitles viit aasta paremaks ehtekunstiraamatuks tituleeritut, nende seas Eestis trükikojas Pakett trükitud raamatut "Just must" (kujundaja Aadam Kaarma, fotod: Tanel Veenre). Darling Publications'i poolt esitletud raamatust "The Compendium Finale of Contemporary Jewellery Makes", kus tutvustatakse kümmet eesti ehtekunstnikku, tekstide autorid on Kadri Mälk, Harry Liivrand ja Tamara Luuk

  9. Exponential and Logarithmic Functions

    OpenAIRE

    Todorova, Tamara

    2010-01-01

    Exponential functions find applications in economics in relation to growth and economic dynamics. In these fields, quite often the choice variable is time and economists are trying to determine the best timing for certain economic activities to take place. An exponential function is one in which the independent variable appears in the exponent. Very often that exponent is time. In highly mathematical courses, it is a truism that students learn by doing, not by reading. Tamara Todorova’s Pr...

  10. The U.S. Army in Asia: Opportunities and Challenges Report of a Workshop of Experts

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-01

    the staff of a member of the National Diet . Dr. Green received his master’s and doctoral degrees from SAIS and did additional graduate and...operational assignment was as an AV-8A Harrier Pilot, in which he completed numerous deployments to both the Mediterranean Sea and Okinawa. Major... The U.S. Army in Asia: Opportunities and Challenges Report of a Workshop of Experts Joel Wuthnow Tamara Hemphill David Finkelstein Albert

  11. Bridging the Gap in Port Security; Network Centric Theory Applied to Public/Private Collaboration

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wright, Candice L

    2007-01-01

    ...." Admiral Thad Allen, 2007 The application of Network Centric Warfare theory enables all port stakeholders to better prepare for a disaster through increased information sharing and collaboration...

  12. International Perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Kenn; Habermann, Ulla; Chowdhury, Omar Faruque; Guerra, Iraida Manzanilla

    1998-01-01

    Includes "Introduction to International Perspectives" (Allen); "Volunteerism in the Welfare State: The Case of Denmark" (Habermann); "Grassroots Organizing in Bangladesh" (Chowdhury); and "Volunteerism in Latin America" (Guerra). (SK)

  13. Fertility and pregnancy: an epidemiologic perspective

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wilcox, Allen J

    2010-01-01

    .... Weaving together history, biology, obstetrics, pediatrics, demography, infectious diseases, molecular genetics, and evolutionary biology, Allen Wilcox brings a fresh coherence to the epidemiologic...

  14. Gold-catalyzed heterocyclizations in alkynyl- and allenyl-β-lactams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Almendros

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available New gold-catalyzed methods using the β-lactam scaffold have been recently developed for the synthesis of different sized heterocycles. This overview focuses on heterocyclization reactions of allenic and alkynic β-lactams which rely on the activation of the allene and alkyne component. The mechanism as well as the regio- and stereoselectivity of the cyclizations are also discussed.

  15. Evaluation Of Three Methods Of Sugar Analyses For Determination ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Chemical methods developed by Lane and Eynon, Knight and Allen, and colorimetric method by Dubois et al were used to determine reducing sugar in eight fruit samples. The methods showed detection limits as follows: Lane and Eynon (1ppt); Knight and Allen (0.1ppt); and Dubois et al (<2ppm). The coefficients of ...

  16. 77 FR 12081 - Stanley Black and Decker, CDIY Division, Warranty Evaluation Center (WEC), Including On-Site...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-28

    ... (WEC), Including On-Site Leased Workers From Manpower, McAllen, TX; Amended Certification Regarding... Center (WEC), CDIY Division of Stanley Black and Decker, McAllen, Texas. The intent of the Department's...: All workers of Stanley Black and Decker, CDIT Division, Warranty Evaluation Center (WEC), including on...

  17. Antioch Self-Destructs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Howard S.

    2009-01-01

    The announcement in June 2007 by Antioch University that it would be closing Antioch College produced a great deal of commentary. One of the better offerings was a 2007 piece in the "Weekly Standard" by Charlotte Allen, which ran under the title "Death by Political Correctness." Her analysis presents a complex picture, but Allen leaves no doubt…

  18. Experiences in Nature: Resolute Second-Plane Directions toward Erdkinder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonard, Gerard; Allen, Kathleen

    2013-01-01

    Gerard Leonard and Kathleen Allen describe a variety of nature experiences as a part of the Montessori elementary tradition, beginning with a warning about the way contemporary life constrains children's experience of nature. Through a lyrical rendering of the nature-based expressions of children, Leonard and Allen look at a variety of approaches…

  19. 75 FR 14656 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Vision

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-26

    ....regulations.gov at any time or Room W12-140 on the ground level of the West Building, 1200 New Jersey Avenue.... Qualifications of Applicants Dean R. Allen Mr. Allen, age 55, has had optic nerve atrophy in his left eye since... complete loss of vision in his left eye due to a traumatic injury sustained during childhood. The best...

  20. Sources of variability in consonant perception and their auditory correlates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zaar, Johannes; Dau, Torsten

    Responses obtained in consonant percepBon experiments typically show a large variability across sBmuli of the same phoneBc idenBty (Phatak at al., 2008; Sing & Allen, 2012; Toscano & Allen, 2014). The present study invesBgated the influence of different potenBal sources of this response variabili...

  1. Données préliminaires sur la distribution spatio-temporelle des ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Primary data on the space and time distribution of the hammer-headed bats, Hypsignathus monstrosus H. Allen, 1861 in the district of Plateau (Abidjan, Côte d'Ivoire). The population ofhammer-headed bats, Hypsignathus monstrosus H. Allen, 1861, in the district of Plateau in Abidjan has been studied from August 2005 to ...

  2. Stabilized lipid coated lipoplexes for the delivery of antisense oligonucleotides to liver endothelial cells in vitro and in vivo

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bartsch, M; Weeke-Klimp, AH; Hoenselaar, EPD; Stuart, MCA; Meijer, DKF; Scherphof, GL; Kamps, JAAM

    2004-01-01

    We report on the preparation and in vivo / in vitro disposition of antisense ODN encapsulating coated cationic lipoplexes (CCLs), prepared by a procedure essentially developed by Stuart and Allen (Stuart, D.D. and Allen, T.M. (2000) "A new liposomal formulation for antisense oligodeoxynucleotides

  3. Tourism: Good or Bad? : Impacts of tourism in Tanzania

    OpenAIRE

    Laakso, Paula

    2011-01-01

    This thesis discusses the impacts of tourism, from economic, socio-cultural and physical environmental point of view. Tanzania was used in the case study because of the author’s own internship in the country. The purpose was to research the impacts of tourism from the perspective of local people in different parts of Tanzania in all sectors mentioned above. The theoretical part of the work is based on Tamara Rátz’s book The impacts of tourism (2002) as well as on the theoretical models ap...

  4. Tööjõuvahetus viib teise keskkonda : mida kogesid Ida-Virumaa raamatukoguhoidjad Pärnus ja Rakveres töötades / Ene Riet

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Riet, Ene, 1954-

    2010-01-01

    Integratsiooni ja Migratsiooni Sihtasutuse Meie Inimesed tööjõuvahetusprogrammis osalenud räägivad oma muljetest. Pärnu Keskraamatukogus töötasid Kohtla-Järve Keskraamatukogu töötajad Tatjana Agafonova ja Alla Rõtova ning vastuvõtjateks ja tugiisikuteks olid Lenna Eliste, Krista Visas ja Heinike Sinijärv. Lääne-Virumaa Keskraamatukogus olid Jõhvi Keskraamatukogu töötajad Natalja Jakovleva ja Tamara Saar, vastu võtsid Leigi Kütt ja Lea Lehtmets

  5. Supra-molecular structure and chemical reactivity of cellulose I studied using CP/MAS (sup)13 C-NMR

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Chunilall, Viren

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available medium, provided the original work is properly cited. Supra-Molecular Structure and Chemical Reactivity of Cellulose I Studied Using CP/MAS 13C-NMR Viren Chunilall, Tamara Bush and Per Tomas Larsson Additional information is available at the end... can be used in the production of many different types and qualities of pulp samples for a broad range of applications. The sulphite process can be categorised according to the pH into four different types of pulping namely Acid bi-sulphite, Bi...

  6. STS-96 FD Highlights and Crew Activities Report: Flight Day 07

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-01-01

    On this seventh day of the STS-96 Discovery mission, the flight crew, Commander Kent V. Rominger, Pilot Rick D. Husband, and Mission Specialists Ellen Ochoa, Tamara E. Jernigan, Daniel T. Barry, Julie Payette, and Valery Ivanovich Tokarev are seen completing the transfer of material and equipment to the International Space Station. The astronauts install parts of a wireless strain gauge system, clean filters and check smoke detectors. The crew participates in a variety of news conferences with media representatives. Payette accepts a congratulatory call from Canadian Prime Minister Jean Chretien and answers questions from schoolchildren in Ottawa.

  7. STS-96 FD Highlights and Crew Activities Report: Flight Day 09

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-01-01

    On this ninth day of the STS-96 Discovery mission, the flight crew, Commander Kent V. Rominger, Pilot Rick D. Husband, and Mission Specialists Ellen Ochoa, Tamara E. Jernigan, Daniel T. Barry, Julie Payette, and Valery Ivanovich Tokarev are seen as they prepare to depart from the International Space Station. After the undocking of the spacecraft, Husband navigated the spacecraft around the International Space Station. Images of the crew removing centerline cameras, tracking the solar arrays and beautiful panoramic views of the Station above the Earth are seen.

  8. STS-96 FD Highlights and Crew Activities Report: Flight Day 10

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-01-01

    On this tenth day of the STS-96 Discovery mission, the flight crew, Commander Kent V. Rominger, Pilot Rick D. Husband, and Mission Specialists Ellen Ochoa, Tamara E. Jernigan, Daniel T. Barry, Julie Payette, and Valery Ivanovich Tokarev are seen making final preparation for their return to Earth. Rominger Husband, and Ochoa checkout the flight control systems, perform hot-fired tests and verify the performance of Discovery's small steering jets. Jernigan and Tokarev stow all the equipment used in the mission. Payette deploys a small student-built payload called STARSHINE. The crew also tests all the communications channels.

  9. STS-96 FD Highlights and Crew Activities Report: Flight Day 08

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-01-01

    On this eight day of the STS-96 Discovery mission, the flight crew, Commander Kent V. Rominger, Pilot Rick D. Husband, and Mission Specialists Ellen Ochoa, Tamara E. Jernigan, Daniel T. Barry, Julie Payette, and Valery Ivanovich Tokarev are seen closing the hatches of the Space Station. The crew begins its departure from the International Space Station. Ochoa and Payette uses the shuttles robot arms to conduct a survey of the port side antenna for the Early Communications System on Unity. Views of the Orbiter docking system are also seen.

  10. STS-96 FD Highlights and Crew Activities Report: Flight Day 01

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-01-01

    On this first day of the STS-96 Discovery mission, the flight crew, Commander Kent V. Rominger, Pilot Rick D. Husband, and Mission Specialists Ellen Ochoa, Tamara E. Jernigan, Daniel T. Barry, Julie Payette, and Valery Ivanovich Tokarev are seen performing pre-launch activities such as eating the traditional breakfast, crew suit-up, and the ride out to the launch pad. Also, included are various panoramic views of the shuttle on the pad. The crew is readied in the 'white room' for their mission. After the closing of the hatch and arm retraction, launch activities are shown including countdown, engine ignition, launch, and the separation of the Solid Rocket Boosters.

  11. Brassica oleracea como fuente de compuestos biosaludables: aproximación genética

    OpenAIRE

    Sotelo Pérez, Tamara

    2015-01-01

    Fecha de lectura de tesis 2015-03-04.-- 253 páginas.-- Dña. Mª Elena Cartea González, Investigadora Científica del Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas y Dña. Pilar Soengas Fernández, Científica titular del Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas, ambas investigadoras de la Misión Biológica de Galicia, en Pontevedra.-- Memoria presentada por Tamara Sotelo Pérez para la obtención del grado de Doctor con Mención Internacional por la Universidad de Vigo

  12. Hyperproperties

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-14

    flow can be expressed in dynamic logic. Barthe et al. [8] give an equivalent formulation for Hoare logic and temporal logic, based on a self-composition...still holds, no matter what the values of high variables were. Barthe et al. generalize the self-composition operator from sequential composition to any...Sciences, 23(1):49–68, August 1981. [8] Gilles Barthe , Pedro R. D’Argenio, and Tamara Rezk. Secure information flow by self-composition. In Proc. of IEEE

  13. Short Outlines of Books by Estonian authors / Rutt Hinrikus

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Hinrikus, Rutt, 1946-

    2007-01-01

    Tutvustus: Miljutina, Tamara. Inimesed minu elus. Tallinn : Varrak, 2007 ; Soosaar, Enn. Isa ja aeg. Tallinn : Kultuurileht, 2007. (Loomingu Raamatukogu ; 5) ; Paju, Imbi. Tõrjutud mälestused. Tallinn : Eesti Entsüklopeediakirjastus, 2007 ; Kaplinski, Jaan. Seesama jõgi. Tallinn : Vagabund, 2007 ; Laanem, Tiina. Väikesed vanamehed. Tallinn : Eesti Päevalehe Kirjastus, 2007 ; Vaarandi, Debora. Aastad ja päevad. Tallinn : Tänapäev, 2006 ; Berg, Maimu. Unustatud inimesed. Tallinn : Tuum, 2007 ; Heinsaar, Mehis. Rändaja õnn. Tallinn : Verb, 2007

  14. Global Ocean Forecast System 3.1 Validation Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-05-04

    Ocean Forecast System 3.1 Validation Testing E. JosEph MEtzgEr robErt W. hElbEr patrick J. hogan paMEla g. posEy prasad g. thoppil taMara l...LIMITATION OF ABSTRACT Global Ocean Forecast System 3.1 Validation Test E. Joseph Metzger, Robert W. Helber, Patrick J. Hogan, Pamela G. Posey, Prasad G...26.3 8 Sea of Okhotsk 18.9 21.9 14 Bering/Chukchi/Beaufort Seas 21.1 25.5 17 Canadian Archipelago 23.8 24.0 1 “ Wins ” 6 0 Table 1: Mean 24-hour

  15. Measuring Operational Resilience

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-24

    Julia Allen CERT Allen is a principal researcher within the CERT Program at the SEI. Allen’s areas of interest include operational resilience...funded research and development center. The government of the United States has a royalty-free government-purpose license to use, duplicate, or...Technologies Forum Twitter: #SEIVirtualForum We offer a diverse range of learning products—including classroom training, eLearning , certification, and more—to serve the needs of customers and partners worldwide.

  16. Census Report, Volume II, 1967 through 1974. Sanitized Version.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-08-15

    084386 0680 ALLEN, CARDEAN 3 095711 0686 ALLEN, RICHARD G.- 3 050514 0803 ALLEN, VICTOR E. 3 097032 0792 ALLPORT , GEORGE H. 3 094277 0851 ALMOND, HAROLD B...0682 CHAFIN, EARL S. 3 088071 0838 CHAMBERS, FLOYD A. 3 096285 0680 CHAMBERS, GORDON J. 2 0638 CHAMP, EUGENE H. 3 097816 0832 CHAMPIN, WILLIAM F. 3...Dose Information - 1967 - ID ID ORG. NAME CODE NUMBER CODE CONRAD, FLOYD M. 2 0687 COOK, CHARLES J. 3 094052 0746 COOK, FRANCIS E. 3 096759 0803 COOKE

  17. 78 FR 14010 - Standard Instrument Approach Procedures, and Takeoff Minimums and Obstacle Departure Procedures...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-04

    ...). Issued in Washington, DC, on February 15, 2013. John M. Allen, Director, Flight Standards Service..., RNAV (GPS) RWY 36, Orig Siren, WI, Burnett County, Takeoff Minimums and Obstacle DP, Orig BILLING CODE...

  18. 75 FR 63712 - Standard Instrument Approach Procedures, and Takeoff Minimums and Obstacle Departure Procedures...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-18

    ... 1, 2010. John M. Allen, Director, Flight Standards Service. Adoption of the Amendment 0 Accordingly..., Takeoff Minimums and Obstacle DP, Amdt 3 Siren, WI, Burnett County, VOR OR GPS RWY 5, Amdt 2B Solon...

  19. Contested Peripheries” in World Systems Theory: Megiddo and the Jezreel Valley as a Test Case*

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric H. Cline

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The term “contested periphery” was recently coined by Mitchell Allen for use in his 1997 UCLA dissertation concerned with Philistia, the Neo-Assyrians, and World systems theory (Allen 1997: 49-51, 320-21, Fig. 1.4; cf. also Berquist 1995a, 1995b. Allen identi?ed “contested peripheries” as “border zones where different systems intersect” (Allen 1997: 320. Chase-Dunn and Hall immediately adopted this term and de?ned it more formally as “a peripheral region for which one or more core regions compete” (Chase-Dunn and Hall 1997: 37.

  20. Alien Registration Number Verification via the U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Service's Systematic Alien Verification for Entitlements System

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ainslie, Frances M; Buck, Kelly R

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the implications of conducting high-volume automated checks of the United States Citizenship and Immigration Services Systematic Allen Verification for Entitlements System (SAVE...

  1. static correction parameters in the lower flood plain of the central ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DJFLEX

    Offshore shelf environments are from Allen, 1965) ... average sediment thickness of about 12.0km (Figure 1). This siliciclastic system began to prograde ... characterized by Parallic to marine-coastal and fluvial- marine deposits, mainly composed of ...

  2. 78 FR 46407 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Vision

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-31

    ...,'' Journal of American Statistical Association, June 1971). A 1964 California Driver Record Study prepared by... applications, FMCSA exempts Deneris G. Allen (LA), Terry L. Baker (KY), Rocky B. Bentz (WI), Ryan L. Brown (IL...

  3. Program evaluation of FHWA pedestrian and bicycle safety activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-01

    "Introduction : FHWAs Office of Highway Safety (HSA) initiated a program evaluation by Booz Allen Hamilton to assess the overall effectiveness of the Agencys Pedestrian and Bicycle Safety Program. The evaluation covers pedestrian and bicycle sa...

  4. Resonance – Journal of Science Education | Indian Academy of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Author Affiliations. Samuel M Allen1. POSCO Professor of Physical Metallurgy Department of Materials Science and Engineering Massachusetts Institute of Technology 77 Massachusetts Avenue Room 4-132 Cambridge MA 02139-4307, USA ...

  5. Einige Beobachtungen an Anemonenfischen in der Karibischen See

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Albrecht, H.

    1977-01-01

    Unter Anemonenfischen verstehen wir hauptsächlich Arten der indopazifischen Gattung Amphiprion (Riffbarsche, Pomacentridae), die in Seeanemonen leben. Mariscal (1966) und neuerdings Allen (1975) haben die vielen Untersuchungen dieser Beziehung zusammengefasst. Aus der Literatur sind andere

  6. 76 FR 53223 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Designation of Critical Habitat for Astragalus...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-25

    .... coachellae habitat by impacting these sand formations (for example, development, unauthorized off- highway... new sand to the aeolian transport corridor (Barrows and Allen 2007, p. 323; USFWS GIS data). This type...

  7. Divergent reactivity of homologue ortho-allenylbenzaldehydes controlled by the tether length: chromone versus chromene formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alcaide, Benito; Almendros, Pedro; Fernández, Israel; Martínez del Campo, Teresa; Naranjo, Teresa

    2015-01-19

    The divergent behavior of two homologue allenals, namely, 2-(buta-2,3-dienyloxy)- and 2-(propa-1,2-dienyloxy)benzaldehydes, as cyclization substrates is described. 2-(Buta-2,3-dienyloxy)benzaldehydes suffers a formal allenic carbocyclization reaction to afford chromenes, whereas 2-(propa-1,2-dienyloxy)benzaldehydes react to yield chromones. The formation of chromenes is strictly a formal hydroarylation process divided into two parts, namely, allenic Claisen-type rearrangement and oxycyclization. An unknown N-heterocyclic carbene (NHC)-catalyzed allenic hydroacylation reaction must be invoked to account for the preparation of chromones. ortho-Allenylbenzaldehydes bearing either electron-donating substituents or electron-withdrawing substituents worked well to afford both the hydroarylation and hydroacylation products. This unexpected difference in reactivity can be rationalized by means of density functional theory calculations. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  8. 78 FR 77711 - National Register of Historic Places; Notification of Pending Nominations and Related Actions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-24

    ..., 13001009 Dearborn County River View Cemetery, 3635 E. Laughery Creek Rd., Aurora, 13001011 La Porte County... for removal has been made for the following resources: Indiana Allen County Byron, Irene, Tuberculosis...

  9. Onderzoeksnotitie: Een vernieuwd meetinstrument voor organizational commitment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jak, S.; Evers, A.

    2010-01-01

    The prevailing model in organizational commitment research is Allen and Meyer's (1990) 3-component model of organizational commitment. They developed three scales to measure commitment, the affective commitment scale (ACS), the continuance commitment scale (CCS) and the normative commitment scale

  10. 76 FR 59890 - IFR Altitudes; Miscellaneous Amendments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-28

    ..., 2011. John M. Allen, Director, Flight Standards Service. Adoption of the Amendment Accordingly... Federal Airway V449 Is Amended to Read in Part MILTON, PA VORTAC MEGSS, PA FIX *3500 *GNSS MEA MEGSS, PA...

  11. 78 FR 44577 - Senior Executive Service Performance Review Board

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-24

    ... Gersten, David Gina, Allen Goode, Brendan Gowadia, Huban Grade, Deborah C. Gramlick, Carl Graves, Margaret.... Roche, William W. Rodriguez, Waldemar Rogers, Debra Rudolph, Alan Ruppel, Joanna Russell, Anthony A...

  12. Green Engineering Textbook and Training Modules

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA's Green Engineering textbook, Green Engineering: Environmentally Conscious Design of Chemical Processes, is a college senior-to-graduate-level engineering textbook. The primary authors are Dr. David Allen and Dr. David Shonnard.

  13. Eastern Cave- and Crevice-Dwelling Bats Potentially Impacted by USACE Reservoir Operations

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Martin, C.O

    2002-01-01

    ...; Kasul, Martin, and Allen 2000). This note provides information on six species of forest bats that roost in caves or cave-like structures and potentially occur on Corps projects in the Eastern United States...

  14. Rome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Nelis

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Apted, Michael; Farino, Julia; Coulter, Allen et al. (dirs.; HBO/BBC (prod.; Heller, Bruno; Milius, John; Frankel, David; Macdonald, William J.; Cunningham, Alexandra and Hodges, Adrian (script. United Kingdom, 2005: son., col.

  15. Rome

    OpenAIRE

    Jan Nelis

    2010-01-01

    Apted, Michael; Farino, Julia; Coulter, Allen et al. (dirs.); HBO/BBC (prod.); Heller, Bruno; Milius, John; Frankel, David; Macdonald, William J.; Cunningham, Alexandra and Hodges, Adrian (script). United Kingdom, 2005: son., col.

  16. 76 FR 40600 - Standard Instrument Approach Procedures, and Takeoff Minimums and Obstacle Departure Procedures...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-11

    ... Navigation (air). Issued in Washington, DC, on June 24, 2011. John M. Allen, Director, Flight Standards... Corinth, MS, Roscoe Turner, RNAV (GPS) RWY 36, Amdt 1 Harvey, ND, Harvey Muni, RNAV (GPS) RWY 29, Orig-A...

  17. De reductiedeeling bij eenige Triticum-soorten

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mol, de W.

    1924-01-01

    Reduction division and haploid chromosome number of several species and varieties of Triticum were studied in haematoxylin-stained microtome sections (16- 18 μ) after Bouin Allen fixation. Five stages of nuclear contraction ('ball') could usually be distinguished: preleptotene, prezygotene,

  18. Fin de siecle, Beat Generation / Rando Tooming

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Tooming, Rando

    2002-01-01

    Dokumentaalfilm kolmest biitnikute ideoloogist-kirjanikust Jack Kerouac'ist, William S. Burroughs'st ja Allen Ginsburgist "Hipid ja biitnikud" ("The Source") : režissöör Chuck Workman : Ameerika Ühendriigid 1998

  19. Approach for Business Case Analysis of Using PKI on Smart Cards for Governmentwide Applications

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2001-01-01

    Booz Allen & Hamilton, under contract to the General Services Administration, was tasked to document a business case approach that can be utilized by Federal agencies considering an investment in Public Key Infrastructure (PKI...

  20. Zn Mediated Regioselective Barbier Reaction of Propargylic Bromides in THF/aq. NH4Cl Solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uno Mäeorg

    2001-11-01

    Full Text Available The reaction of substituted and unsubstituted propargylic bromides with butanal in presence of zinc power in THF/saturated aqueous NH4Cl solution gave corresponding allenic and propargylic alcohols with high selectivity.

  1. Zn Mediated Regioselective Barbier Reaction of Propargylic Bromides in THF/aq. NH4Cl Solution

    OpenAIRE

    Jõgi, Artur; Mäeorg, Uno

    2001-01-01

    The reaction of substituted and unsubstituted propargylic bromides with butanal in presence of zinc power in THF/saturated aqueous NH4Cl solution gave corresponding allenic and propargylic alcohols with high selectivity.

  2. 75 FR 25760 - Standard Instrument Approach Procedures, and Takeoff Minimums and Obstacle Departure Procedures...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-10

    .... John M. Allen, Director, Flight Standards Service. Adoption of the Amendment 0 Accordingly, pursuant to... Muni, Takeoff Minimums and Obstacle DP, Amdt 3 Galliano, LA, South Lafourche Leonard Miller Jr, LOC/DME...

  3. 75 FR 9098 - Standard Instrument Approach Procedures, and Takeoff Minimums and Obstacle Departure Procedures...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-01

    ... 19, 2010. John M. Allen, Director, Flight Standards Service. Adoption of the Amendment 0 Accordingly... GALLIANO SOUTH LAFOURCHE 0/3269 2/3/10 RNAV (GPS) RWY 18, AMDT 1. LEONARD MILLER JR. 8-Apr-10 LA JENNINGS...

  4. Sex and Fertility After SCI

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Cord Injury Allen Heinemann, PhD How Peer Counseling Works Julie Gassaway, MS, RN Pediatric Injuries Pediatric Spinal ... play_arrow How is the delivery of a child affected by the mother's spinal cord injury? play_ ...

  5. Sex and Fertility After SCI

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Spinal Cord Injury Guy W. Fried, MD Substance Abuse and Spinal Cord Injury Allen Heinemann, PhD How ... play_arrow How is the delivery of a child affected by the mother's spinal cord injury? play_ ...

  6. Pop / Tauno Maarpuu

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Maarpuu, Tauno

    2006-01-01

    Heliplaatidest: The Fiery Furnaces "Bitter Tea", Ian Gillan "Gillan's Inn", Feeder "The Singels", Phoenix "It's Never Been Like That", Elvis Costello & Allen Toussaint "The River in Reverse", Erinevad esitajad "The New Gold Standard", Erinevad esitajad "R2 Live Vol. 1"

  7. Asbestos and its diseases

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gibbs, A. R; Craighead, John E

    2008-01-01

    ... Chapter 8. Malignant Diseases of the Pleura, Peritoneum, and Other Serosal Surfaces Allen R. Gibbs and John E. Craighead 190 Chapter 9. Nonthoracic Cancers Possibly Resulting from Asbestos Exposu...

  8. 75 FR 15669 - Notice of Intent To Request an Extension of a Currently Approved Information Collection

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-30

    ... Research Program,'' the ``Administrative Manual for the Evans-Allen Cooperative Agricultural Research... burden of the proposed collection of information; (c) ways to enhance the quality, utility, and clarity...

  9. 78 FR 57351 - A Reinstatement of a Previously Approved Information Collection

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-18

    ... ``Administrative Manual for the Evans-Allen Cooperative Agricultural Research Program,'' and the ``Administrative... burden of the proposed collection of information; (c) ways to enhance the quality, utility, and clarity...

  10. Paratext, serialisation and authorship in Victorian England

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Allen, R.G.

    2012-01-01

    Robert Allen deed onderzoek naar de materiële eigenschappen en paratekstuele elementen in de representatie van auteurschap. Hij analyseert hiertoe Victoriaanse paratekstuele elementen - zoals pseudoniemen, titels, titelplaten, illustraties, auteursportretten, voor- en nawoorden, en andere teksten

  11. Influence of a second wave in the wave-particle interaction in the magnetosphere

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Serra, F.M. (Universidade Tecnica, Lisbon (Portugal). Centro de Electrodinamica; Instituto Supeior Tecnico, Lisbon (Portugal))

    1982-02-01

    The influence of a secondary wave, propagating in a whistle mode, is analyzed in the evolution of the cyclotron resonance interaction between a primary whistle and energetic electrons magnetically confined in the Van Allen radiation belts.

  12. Sex and Fertility After SCI

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Spinal Cord Injury Diane M. Rowles, MS, NP How Family Life Changes After Spinal Cord Injury Nancy ... Abuse and Spinal Cord Injury Allen Heinemann, PhD How Peer Counseling Works Julie Gassaway, MS, RN Pediatric ...

  13. Spinal Cord Injury 101

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Spinal Cord Injury Diane M. Rowles, MS, NP How Family Life Changes After Spinal Cord Injury Nancy ... Abuse and Spinal Cord Injury Allen Heinemann, PhD How Peer Counseling Works Julie Gassaway, MS, RN Pediatric ...

  14. Basics of SCI Rehabilitation

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Spinal Cord Injury Diane M. Rowles, MS, NP How Family Life Changes After Spinal Cord Injury Nancy ... Abuse and Spinal Cord Injury Allen Heinemann, PhD How Peer Counseling Works Julie Gassaway, MS, RN Pediatric ...

  15. Preventing Pressure Sores

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Spinal Cord Injury Diane M. Rowles, MS, NP How Family Life Changes After Spinal Cord Injury Nancy ... Abuse and Spinal Cord Injury Allen Heinemann, PhD How Peer Counseling Works Julie Gassaway, MS, RN Pediatric ...

  16. Assessment of nonindigenous marine species in harbors and nearby coral reefs on Kauai, Molokai, Maui, and Hawaii, 2002 - 2003 (NODC Accession 0002270)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Collections and observations in 2002-2003 at harbor and nearby reef sites at Nawilwili and Port Allen, Kauai; Hale O Lono and Kaunakakai, Molokai; Kahului and...

  17. Plasma astrophysics: Acceleration of killer electrons

    OpenAIRE

    Horne, Richard Bertram

    2007-01-01

    Relativistic electrons in the outer Van Allen belt wreak havoc with satellites in geosynchronous orbit, but how they reach such high energies has been unclear. New data identify gyro-resonant wave-particle interactions as the culprit.

  18. Eestlaste loodud tehisintellekt lahendas ameeriklaste tasemetöö

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2016-01-01

    Tartu ülikooli meeskond koosseisus informaatikadoktorant Tambet Matiisen ja arvutiteduse instituudi töötaja Tanel Pärnamaa, saavutas tehisintellekti võistlusel Allen AI Science Challenge neljanda koha

  19. Opportunities Abound for Moving Around: Get Active, Wherever You Are

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Allen Glicksman, director of research at the Philadelphia Corporation for Aging. “We’ve also found that, from ... Issues About Us Privacy Accessibility Freedom of Information Act No Fear Act Office of Inspector General USA. ...

  20. Tartusse tuleb Wilde'i ja Vilde monument

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    1998-01-01

    Tartu kesklinnas Wilde Irish Pubi ees peaks 1999. a. kevadel avatama kirjanike Oscar Wilde'i ja Eduard Vilde pronkskujud. Elusuuruses kirjanikud hakkavad istuma graniitistmel. Idee autorid - pubipidaja Liam Allen, ettevõtja Marju Unt, skulptor Tiiu Kirsipuu.