WorldWideScience

Sample records for tallinn international horse

  1. Internal Fixation of Cervical Fractures in Three Horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossignol, Fabrice; Brandenberger, Olivier; Mespoulhes-Rivière, Céline

    2016-01-01

    To describe the surgical treatment outcome of cervical fractures in 3 horses. Case report. Three client-owned horses with cervical vertebral fractures. Three horses were refered for neck stiffness, pain, and ataxia after a cervical trauma because of a fall. Radiographic examination showed an oblique displaced fracture of the caudal aspect of the body of the second cervical vertebra (C2) in horse 1, an oblique displaced fracture of the caudal aspect of C4 involving the disc between C4 and C5 in horse 2, and a displaced transverse fracture of the body of the axis (C2) extending to the lateral arches and involving the vertebral canal in horse 3. In horse 1, the fracture was reduced and stabilized using a 14-hole narrow DCP plate, applied ventrally, and fixed with cancellous screws. A cervical fusion was performed. In horses 2 and 3, fracture fixation was performed using a 5-hole narrow LCP and 5 mm locking screws. All horses showed improvement and returned to full activity. The fracture healed in all horses. Internal fixation of cervical fracture in these horses was associated with minimal complications, and was associated with healing and a highly functional outcome in all horses. The LCP was preferred and would be recommended for ventral stabilization of selected cases of vertebral fractures. © Copyright 2015 by The American College of Veterinary Surgeons.

  2. Tallinn - Taani linn / Ago Vallas

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Vallas, Ago

    2002-01-01

    rets. rmt.: Zobel, Rein. Tallinn (Reval) keskajal : linnaehitus 13. - 14. sajandil = Tallinn (Reval) in the middle ages : town building in the 13 th - 14 th centuries. Tallinn : Eesti Entsüklopeediakirjastus, 2001. 213 lk. : ill., kaart

  3. Flux in Tallinn

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2004-01-01

    Rahvusvahelise elektroonilise kunsti sümpoosioni ISEA2004 klubiõhtu "Flux in Tallinn" klubis Bon Bon. Eestit esindasid Ropotator, Ars Intel Inc., Urmas Puhkan, Joel Tammik, Taavi Tulev (pseud. Wochtzchee). Klubiõhtu koordinaator Andres Lõo

  4. Horses

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... young children or people with very little riding experience who are living in the household. Research how to properly care for your horse before purchase. Ask your veterinarian about the proper food, care, ...

  5. Tallinn 2011 sai oma margi

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2010-01-01

    Eesti Post andis 9. septembril 2010 välja 2011 aasta Euroopa kultuuripealinnale Tallinnale pühendatud postmargi, mis trükiti SA Tallinn 2011 ja Eesti Posti postmargi kavandamiseks korraldatud konkursi Heino Prunsvelti võidutöö "Lost in Tallinn" järgi

  6. Moda opjat vernulas v Tallinn - Fashion Is Back In Tallinn

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2008-01-01

    Moeüritus Fashion is Back in Tallinn (FIBIT) Viru Keskuses Tallinnas. Gala-etendusel "Sinine, Must ja Valge" esitletud Anu Samarüütel-Longi, Tanel Veenre ja Arne Niidu moekollektsioonidest. Lisaks värvilised fotod

  7. Our Man in Tallinn / Martin Anderson

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Anderson, Martin

    1997-01-01

    Muljeid kontserdist "Warner Classics Gala" "Estonia" kontserdisaalis, kus E. Mägi, E.-S. Tüüri, V. Tormise, U. Sisaski jt. loomingut esitasid "Camerata Tallinn", NYYD Ensemble, RAM, pianist Lauri Väinmaa

  8. Raimo Pullati XX "Vana Tallinn" / Tõnis Liibek

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Liibek, Tõnis

    2009-01-01

    Ilmus professor Raimo Pullati poolt välja antava linnaajalugu ja -kultuuri tutvustava sarja "Vana Tallinn" XX köide. Tšehhi Teaduste Akadeemia raamatukogus toimus Raimo Pullati poolt välja antud entsüklopeedilise suurteose "Johann Christoph Brotze. Estonica" esitlus

  9. ESADSE, Option Design: Workshop Tallinn For All

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2011-01-01

    Rahvusvahelisest koostööprojektist "Cities For All - Tallinn For All". Projekti viis läbi Eesti Disainerite Liit. Ilona Gurjanova organiseeritud töötubades osalesid ajavahemikus september 2010 - september 2011 järgmised kõrgkoolid: Eesti Kunstiakadeemia, Mainori Kõrgkool, Tartu Ülikooli Pärnu Kolledž, Aalto Ülikool (Soome), Saint-Étienne Higher School of Art and Design (Prantsusmaa)

  10. Detergent zeolite complex "Ceosil", Tallinn, Estonia

    OpenAIRE

    Stanković Mirjana S.; Pezo Lato L.

    2003-01-01

    The IGPC Engineering Department, together with the "Birac", Zvornik Engineering Department designed basic projects for detergent zeolite production, using waste flotation sand and hydrates. Several projects were completed: technological, machine, electrical, automation. On the basis of these projects, production plant in Tallinn, Estonia was constructed, with a capacity of 100,000 t/y from 1989. to 1993. This plant became the biggest producer of detergent zeolite in the world.Several goals we...

  11. Tallinn Fashion Week algas moeillustraatorite näitusega

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2011-01-01

    Näitus "Uus Põhjamaade moeillustratsioon" Rotermanni kvartalis 18. sept.-ni. Osalejad Eestist, Soomest ja Rootsist loetletud. Näituse kujundaja Tuuli Aule. Väljapaneku loovjuhi Toomas Volkmanni selgitus. Tallinn Fashion Week'i põhiprogrammist

  12. Transmission of some species of internal parasites in horse foals born in 2013 in the same pasture on a farm in Central Kentucky

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tolliver S. C.

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The present research is a continuation of studies conducted periodically over 40 years on transmission of natural infections of internal parasites in the same horse herd on pasture (Field 10 on a farm in Central Kentucky. It included 12 mixed light horse foals born in 2013 and euthanatized between July, 2013 and April, 2014 for collection of internal parasites. Parasites found: Gasterophilus intestinalis, Strongyloides westeri, Parascaris equorum, Anoplocephala perfoliata, small strongyles (cyathostomes, Strongylus vulgaris, Strongylus edentatus and Thelazia lacrymalis. Prevalence generally was related to age of the foals. Overall prevalence and number of specimens were lower than in earlier studies except for P. equorum. There were 15 species (much fewer than previously of small strongyles found and recorded by location in the large intestines. All stages of small strongyles encysted in the mucosa of the large intestine were recovered by artificial digestion and in significantly lower numbers in older foals

  13. Tallinn makes most intellegent city list / Ella Karapetyan

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Karapetyan, Ella

    2010-01-01

    Intelligent Community Forum (ICF) kuulutas välja 2010. aastal Smart21 nimekirja pääsenud kogukonnad. Tallinn asub nimekirjas 7. kohal. Nimekirja jõuavad suure majandusliku ja sotsiaalse arengu läbi teinud kogukonnad. 21. mail kuulutatakse välja võitnud kogukond

  14. Tallinn soovib linnahalli Ameerika investoritega ikka edasi minna / Raimo Poom

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Poom, Raimo

    2010-01-01

    Tallinna linnavalitsus ootab enne otsustamist, kas pikendada Tallinna linnahalli arendamiseks sõlmitud eellepingut Ameerika ettevõttega Tallinn Entertainment LLC, Ameerika investorite delegatsiooni visiiti Tallinna. Rahandusminister Jürgen Ligi vastusest Tallinna abilinnapea Taavi Aasa kirjale, milles oli ettepanek kaaluda võimalust anda riigi garantii linnahalli arendamise projektile

  15. Hoogsalt moodne Tallinn Fashion Week / Jaanika Terasmaa : intervjueerinud Annely Martin

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Terasmaa, Jaanika

    2010-01-01

    Tallinn Fashion Week kestab 7. novembrini. Üks moenädala korraldajaid Jaanika Terasmaa, sellest, mida moenädal pakub tavainimesele ja kui oluline on selline ettevõtmine moeloojatele, moenädala eesmärgist

  16. Multi-Ethnicity and Material Exchangesin Late Medieval Tallinn

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Naum, Magdalena

    2014-01-01

    his article examines the cultural and social dynamics of a multi-ethnic medieval town. Taking the lower town of Tallinn as a case study, this paper identifies the major urban ethnic groups living in the town and discusses their co-existence, self-definition, and processes of categorization...

  17. Tallinn 1991. aastast alates / Kristjan Mändmaa

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Mändmaa, Kristjan, 1973-

    2006-01-01

    9.-16. I Eesti Kunstiakadeemia graafilise disaini osakonnas Kaisa Lassinaro (Soome) ja Bart de Baetsi (Holland) juhendamisel toimunud workshop'ist. Tuli luua esikaas ajalehele The Tallinn'91 Onwards. Valminud esikaaned pandi kokku üheks ajaleheks ja trükiti ära

  18. Kas Tallinn vajab uut brändi? / Andreas Sepp

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Sepp, Andreas

    2010-01-01

    Tallinnas viibinud saksa loomemajanduse õppejõudude Bernd Hartmanni ja Jan Runge sõnul on kultuuripealinna aasta hea võimalus linnakuvandi parandamiseks. Nende arvates võiks Tallinn kultuuripealinna raames anda noortele disaineritele ja filmitegijatele loomingu eksponeerimiseks piisavalt võimalusi ning keskenduda kohaliku kultuurielu parandamisele

  19. An international multi-centre prospective study on the efficacy of an intraarticular polyacrylamide hydrogel in horses with osteoarthritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tnibar, Aziz; Schougaard, Hans; Camitz, Linus

    2015-01-01

    Background: Polyacrylamide hydrogel (PAAG) was evaluated recently to treat osteoarthritis (OA) in horses with highly encouraging results; however no long term field-study was done to explore its clinical efficacy and lasting effect. The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of PAAG...

  20. Tallinna Inglise kolledzhi spordihoone = The Tallinn English College's sports building

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2008-01-01

    Tallinna Inglise kolledzhi spordihoone (Estonia pst. 10, Tallinn) sisekujundusest. Arhitektid: Lembit-Kaur Stöör ja Margus Maiste (KOKO Arhitektid), sisearhitektid: Liisi Murula (Mari OÜ), Liis Lindvere ja Raili Paling, ornamentika: Martin Lazarev (KOKO Arhitektid). Sisearhitektidest, nende tähtsamad tööd. 5 korruse plaani, 2 värv. välis- ja 11 sisevaadet, fotod sisearhitektidest

  1. Genetic diversity of Syrian Arabian horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almarzook, S; Reissmann, M; Arends, D; Brockmann, G A

    2017-08-01

    Although Arabian horses have been bred in strains for centuries and pedigrees have been recorded in studbooks, to date, little is known about the genetic diversity within and between these strains. In this study, we tested if the three main strains of Syrian Arabian horses descend from three founders as suggested by the studbook. We examined 48 horses representing Saglawi (n = 18), Kahlawi (n = 16) and Hamdani (n = 14) strains using the Equine SNP70K BeadChip. For comparison, an additional 24 Arabian horses from the USA and three Przewalski's horses as an out group were added. Observed heterozygosis (H o ) ranged between 0.30 and 0.32, expected heterozygosity (H e ) between 0.30 and 0.31 and inbreeding coefficients (F is ) between -0.02 and -0.05, indicating high genetic diversity within Syrian strains. Likewise, the genetic differentiation between the three Syrian strains was very low (F st  horses. Among Arabian horses, we found three clusters containing either horses from the USA or horses from Syria or horses from Syria and the USA together. Individuals from the same Syrian Arabian horse strain were spread across different sub-clusters. When analyzing Syrian Arabian horses alone, the best population differentiation was found with three distinct clusters. In contrast to expectations from the studbook, these clusters did not coincide with strain affiliation. Although this finding supports the hypothesis of three founders, the genetic information is not consistent with the currently used strain designation system. The information can be used to reconsider the current breeding practice. Beyond that, Syrian Arabian horses are an important reservoir for genetic diversity. © 2017 Stichting International Foundation for Animal Genetics.

  2. Tallinn 2011 panustab tänavu turismifirmadesse / Kärt Anvelt, Jan Jõgis-Laats ; kommenteerib Roman Geiser

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Anvelt, Kärt, 1973-

    2010-01-01

    Reklaamibüroo Zavod juht Marek Reinaas annab hinnangu SA Tallinn 2011 eelarvekava turundusosale. Kommunikatsioonispetsialist Daniel Vaarik viitab võimalusele kasutada Tallinn 2011 tutvustamiseks sotsiaalvõrgustikke, nt. Facebooki ja Twitterit

  3. Tallinn pürib Euroopa kultuuripealinnaks / Age-Kristel Kartau

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kartau, Age-Kristel

    2003-01-01

    Kultuuriväärtuste ameti ettevõtmisest, idekampaaniast juhuks, kui Tallinn peaks saama Euroopa kultuuripealinna tiitli aastal 2008. Artiklis ka eesti noorte filmirežissööride Hendrik Toompere jun., Marko Raadi ja Andri Luubi sõidust Inglismaale osalemaks "Tyne-Tallinn Digital Challenge" nimelises projektis

  4. Asian horses deepen the MSY phylogeny.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felkel, S; Vogl, C; Rigler, D; Jagannathan, V; Leeb, T; Fries, R; Neuditschko, M; Rieder, S; Velie, B; Lindgren, G; Rubin, C-J; Schlötterer, C; Rattei, T; Brem, G; Wallner, B

    2018-02-01

    Humans have shaped the population history of the horse ever since domestication about 5500 years ago. Comparative analyses of the Y chromosome can illuminate the paternal origin of modern horse breeds. This may also reveal different breeding strategies that led to the formation of extant breeds. Recently, a horse Y-chromosomal phylogeny of modern horses based on 1.46 Mb of the male-specific Y (MSY) was generated. We extended this dataset with 52 samples from five European, two American and seven Asian breeds. As in the previous study, almost all modern European horses fall into a crown group, connected via a few autochthonous Northern European lineages to the outgroup, the Przewalski's Horse. In total, we now distinguish 42 MSY haplotypes determined by 158 variants within domestic horses. Asian horses show much higher diversity than previously found in European breeds. The Asian breeds also introduce a deep split to the phylogeny, preliminarily dated to 5527 ± 872 years. We conclude that the deep splitting Asian Y haplotypes are remnants of a far more diverse ancient horse population, whose haplotypes were lost in other lineages. © 2018 Stichting International Foundation for Animal Genetics.

  5. Severe polysaccharide storage myopathy in Belgian and Percheron draught horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valentine, B A; Credille, K M; Lavoie, J P; Fatone, S; Guard, C; Cummings, J F; Cooper, B J

    1997-05-01

    A severe myopathy leading to death or euthanasia was identified in 4 Belgian and 4 Percheron draught horses age 2-21 years. Clinical signs ranged from overt weakness and muscle atrophy in 2 horses age 2 and 3 years, to recumbency with inability to rise in 6 horses age 4-21 years. In 5 horses there was mild to severe increases in muscle enzyme levels. Clinical diagnoses included equine motor neuron disease (2 horses), post anaesthetic myopathy (2 horses), exertional myopathy (2 horses), myopathy due to unknown (one horse), and equine protozoal myelitis (one horse). Characteristic histopathology of muscle from affected horses was the presence of excessive complex polysaccharide and/or glycogen, revealed by periodic acid-Schiff staining in all cases and by electron microscopy in one case. Evaluation of frozen section histochemistry performed on 2 cases indicated that affected fibres were Type 2 glycolytic fibres. Subsarcolemmal and intracytoplasmic vacuoles were most prominent in 3 horses age 2-4 years, and excessive glycogen, with little or no complex polysaccharide, was the primary compound stored in affected muscle in these young horses. Myopathic changes, including fibre size variation, fibre hypertrophy, internal nuclei, and interstitial fat infiltration, were most prominent in 5 horses age 6-21 years, and the accumulation of complex polysaccharide appeared to increase with age. Mild to moderate segmental myofibre necrosis was present in all cases.

  6. WAR HORSES:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    War Horses: Helhesten and the Danish Avant-Garde During World War II This exhibition is the first to explore the history and significance of the accomplishments of Danish artists working during the Nazi occupation of their country (1940-45), who called themselves Helhesten, such as Ejler Bille......-1951), which they became part of. Cobra greatly influenced the development of European modern art after World War II. The exhibition includes over 100 works and reconstructs for the first time the most important exhibition these artists staged in Denmark during the war, 13 Artists in a Tent (1941). It draws...

  7. Euroopa kultuuripealik 2011 (Tallinn) lõpuks leitud / Mikko Fritze ; interv. Kaarel Tarand

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Fritze, Mikko, 1963-

    2007-01-01

    Tallinn on Euroopa 2011. a. kultuuripealinn. Intervjuu korraldava sihtasutuse tegevjuhi Mikko Fritzega. Tegevusprogrammist, ka infrastruktuuri projektidest (linnateater, Kultuurikatel, rannapromenaad, lauluväljak, linnahall) jm. SA bürool on kavatsus kolida Kultuurikatlasse

  8. Siim Nestor soovitab : Tallinn Doom Night vol.1. Odessa Pop / Siim Nestor

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Nestor, Siim, 1974-

    2006-01-01

    Soome doom-metal ansambel Reverend Bizarre üritusel "Tallinn Doom Night vol.1" 8. dets. klubis Rockstar's. Indipoppi viljelev Rootsi duo My Darling Yoy! üritusel "Odessa Pop" 9. dets. Tallinnas klubis KuKu

  9. Uhiuus orkester Tallinn Sinfonietta / Ivo Lille ja Risto Joost ; intervjueerinud Kristina Kõrver

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Lille, Ivo, 1977-

    2009-01-01

    Kontserdiagentuurist HIMusic Agency ja Tallinn Sinfoniettast räägivad dirigent R. Joost ja I. Lille. Avakontserdist Vene Kultuurikeskuses, kus oli kavas Mozarti sümfooniad 1, 10 ja 40 ning kontsertaariad bulgaaria soprani Sonya Youncheva esituses

  10. Tallinn 2011 ... mitte ainult koorikonkurss / Aivar Leštšinski

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Leštšinski, Aivar, 1958-

    2011-01-01

    Festivali avapäeval esitletud CD-komplektist "Läbilõige eesti koorimuusikast" ja mõtteid, et riigitelevisioonis võik olla koorimuusikat puudutav saade ning koorifestivali "Tallinn 2011" tulemused

  11. [Karin Hallas. Das Tallinner Mietshaus. Vom Historismus bis zum Jugendstil] / Paul Kaegbein

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kaegbein, Paul

    2006-01-01

    Arvustus: Karin Hallas. Das Tallinner Mietshaus. Vom Historismus bis zum Jugendstil. In: Architektur und bildende Kunst im Baltikum um 1900. Frankfurt am Main, Berlin, Bern, Bruxelles, New York, Wien: Lang 1999. S. 173-192.

  12. "Tallinn Jazz Weekend" tõi kultuuripealinna Euroopa jazzielu korraldajad / Marje Ingel, Joosep Sang

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Ingel, Marje

    2011-01-01

    Jazziorganisatsioonist Europe Jazz Network ja selle aastakonverentsist Tallinnas ning J. Sang selle raames Von Krahli teatris toimunud Tallinn Jazz Weekendi eesti jazzmuusika showcase-festivalist lühidalt

  13. A Comparison of Taste of Helsinki and Tallinn Restaurant Week : Possible Cooperation & Benefits

    OpenAIRE

    Harnova, Veronika

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this Bachelor’s Thesis is to analyse restaurant events happening in Helsinki and Tallinn, compare them and create a new event that joins both cities in cooperation. Two events were chosen, Taste of Helsinki and Tallinn Restaurant Week, as they have a common purpose and target market. The theoretical framework studies the strategies of event organising, the factors of consumer buying behaviour and the consumer buying decision process. The Twin-Capital project is examined...

  14. Welfare of Aged Horses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine McGowan

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Horses form a unique and special part of their owners’ lives and aged horses are no exception. This review considers the health and management of aged horses, including the role of the owner and their perceptions of aged horses, potential threats or risks to their welfare and finally, factors affecting quality of life and euthanasia of aged horses. Owners of aged horses are concerned about the health, welfare and quality of life of their aged animals. Yet surveys of management and preventive healthcare reflect that there may be some limitations to what owners are actually achieving in practice. They show declining management as horses age, particularly for the retired horse and insufficient appropriate preventive healthcare via veterinary surgeons. The veterinary surgeon plays an essential and influential role in preventive healthcare, management of diseases and disorders and ultimately in the decision making process for euthanasia of aged horses at the end of their lives. The value of aged horses should not be underestimated by veterinarians and others working with them and the continuing care of aged horses should be regarded with the same importance as the care of younger horses with more obvious monetary value.

  15. Russification of non-Estonian pupils in Tallinn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ülle Rannut

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available In the article home languages, their qualities and use by pupils in grades 2 to 5 in Tallinn are analyzed. Two larger and more characteristic groups (Ukrainians and Belarusians and two groups with Islamic backgrounds (Azerbaijanis and Tatars were compared with the aim of analysing different language loss and preservation factors. Although Ukrainians and Belarusians form much larger ethnic groups within Estonia, they have not managed to preserve their language anywhere near as successfully as the Azerbaijanis and Tatars. Comparison of the data suggests that language preservation in Estonia and the ability to withstand Russification are most influenced by the degree of difference of the language from Russian and the religious difference from the Russian Orthodox faith (and Soviet era atheism. Home languages are characterised by their use mainly in the verbal form, with skills in the literary language generally low or even non-existent. Languages are for the most part learned informally, primarily through communication with parents and/or grandparents. The result is a supersaturated vernacular with a large degree of variation and loans from superstratum languages which falls far from the standard of the language in question.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5128/ERYa6.15

  16. Data Envelopment Analysis of Helsinki-Tallinn Transportation Chains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olli-Pekka Hilmola

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The Baltic Sea shipping is at a crossroads as sulphur regulation will lead to excessive cost increases from the year 2015 onwards and CO2 emission trading is planned to be implemented for the entire shipping sector within the EU area. Therefore, shipping is going to be minimized and hinterland transportation (road and rail will act as substitute. This research analyzes the situation on one of the highest volume general cargo transportation routes of Finland (operating between Helsinki, Finland and Tallinn, Estonia, including loading and unloading at seaports and short sea shipping activity in between. Based on the efficiency evaluation results, it seems that containers should be favoured over semi-trailers – containers could be carried efficiently either in container ships or even at currently favoured RoRo or RoPax ships. Our research illustrates that pure container shipping with larger container ships within the analyzed route is not entirely out of question, but lead time and hinterland operations should receive more attention. Alternatively, RoRo and RoPax ships can also do something to increase their competitiveness in environmental harm caused and diesel consumption – higher cargo loads and utilization levels are short-term key for continued dominance.

  17. Inhalation Therapy in Horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cha, Mandy L; Costa, Lais R R

    2017-04-01

    This article discusses the benefits and limitations of inhalation therapy in horses. Inhalation drug therapy delivers the drug directly to the airways, thereby achieving maximal drug concentrations at the target site. Inhalation therapy has the additional advantage of decreasing systemic side effects. Inhalation therapy in horses is delivered by the use of nebulizers or pressured metered dose inhalers. It also requires the use of a muzzle or nasal mask in horses. Drugs most commonly delivered through inhalation drug therapy in horses include bronchodilators, antiinflammatories, and antimicrobials. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Bone scintigraphy for horses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jahn, Werner

    2010-01-01

    Scintigraphy (bone scan) is being used approximately since 1980 in the horse under general anaesthesia. With the construction of custom-made overhead gantries for gamma-cameras scintigraphy found widespread entry in big equine referral hospitals for bone-scanning of the standing horse. Indications for the use of a bone scan in the horse are inflammatory alterations in the locomotor apparatus. It is primarily used for diagnosis of lameness of unknown origin, suspect of stress fracture or hairline fracture and for horses with bad riding comfort with suspected painful lesions in the spine. (orig.)

  19. Püha Siimeoni ja Naisprohvet Hanna kiriku restaureerimine : Ahtri 5, Tallinn = Restoration of the Church of Righteous Symeon and Prophetess Ann : Ahtri 5, Tallinn / Epp Lankots

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Lankots, Epp, 1976-

    2005-01-01

    18. sajandil ehitatud, 2001. a. Eesti Apostlik-Õigeusu Kirikule tagastatud kirikuhoone restaureerimine. Ees on interjööride konserveerimistööd. Uuringud: Juhan Kilumets, Eva Mölder. Arhitektuurne projekt: Tõnu Parmakson, Ilmar Kannelmäe. Konstruktiivne projekt: Aleksander Danil. Teostus: J. Kilumets (Rändmeister), T. Parmakson (Frantsiskus), E. Mölder (Vana Tallinn). Ill.: 3 värv. välis- ja 3 sisevaadet

  20. Copper sulphate poisoning in horses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bauer, M

    1975-01-01

    In the archives of the Clinic for Internal Diseases of Domestic Animals at the Veterinary Faculty of Zagreb University some thirty cases of horse disease diagnosed as copper sulphate poisoning were noted. The data correspond in many respects to the clinical findings of copper sulphate poisoning in other domestic animals. A series of experimental horse poisonings were undertaken in order to determine the toxicity of copper sulphate. The research results are as follows: Horses are sensitive to copper sulphate. Even a single application of 0.125 g/kg body weight in 1% concentration by means of incubation into the stomach causes stomach and gut disturbances and other poisoning symptoms. Poisoning occurs in two types: acute and chronic. The former appears after one to three applications of copper sulphate solution and is characterized by gastroenteritis, haemolysis, jaundice and haemoglobinuria with signs of consecutive damage of kidney, liver and other organs. The disease, from the first application to death lasts for two weeks. Chronic poisoning is caused by ingestion of dry copper sulphate in food (1% solution dried on hay or clover) for two or more months. There are chronic disturbances of stomach and gut and loss of weight, and consecutive (three to four) haemolytic crises similar to those of acute poisoning. From the beginning of poisoning to death six or more months can elapse.

  1. Horse trichinellosis, an unresolved puzzle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pozio E.

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available In spite of routine controls to detect Trichinella larvae in horse-meat, human infections due to horse-meat consumption continue to occur in France and Italy, The epidemiology of horse trichinellosis since its discovery in 1975 is outlined, addressing the possible modes of natural transmission to horses, the need to develop more sensitive methods for detecting Trichinella larvae in horses, and the economic impact of horse trichinellosis. Investigations of human outbreaks due to horse-meat consumption have implicated single cases of inadequate veterinary controls on horses imported from non-European Union countries. In particular, most cases of human infection have been attributed to horses imported from Eastern Europe, where pig trichinellosis is re-emerging and the main source of infection in horses.

  2. Euroopa kultuuripealinn Tallinn 2011 paneb PÖFF-ile õla alla

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2011-01-01

    15. Pimedate Ööde Filmifestivali ja Euroopa Kultuuripealinna Tallinn 2011 koostöös alguse saanud noortele animavallas tegutsevatele professionaalidele mõeldud koolitussarjast AnimaCampus, rahvusvahelise filmituru Black Market ja programmi "60 sekundit üksindust aastal Null" toetamisest

  3. Tallinn Fashion Week täidab nädala kodumaise moega / Karilin Engelbrecht

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Engelbrecht, Karilin

    2009-01-01

    Tallinn Fashion Week'i üritustest. Ülevaade eesti moekunstnike loomingu esitlustest. Näitus "Uus Eesti moejoonistus" Arhitektuuri- ja Disainigaleriis. Anu Hindi moefotonäitus "Aeg maha 3" Iida galeriis. Raamatu "Eesti moepiibel 2010" esitlus Rotermanni kvartali kohvikus Platz. Oksana Tanditi ja Filippo Caroti moefotonäitus "Butterflies" Tallinna botaanikaaias

  4. [Lea Kõiv. Paul Johansen und das Stadtarchiv Reval/Tallinn] / Paul Kaegbein

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kaegbein, Paul

    2008-01-01

    Arvustus: Lea Kõiv. Paul Johansen und das Stadtarchiv Reval/Tallinn. - Nordosteuropa als Geschichtsregion. Helsinki : Aue-Stiftung; Lübeck : Schmict-Röhmild, 2006. Lk. 45-59. Artiklis on kasutatud seni avalikkusele vähetuntud materjale ja osaliselt käsitletud avalikke vaidlusi, kuhu olid segatud nii Paul Johansen kui järgmine linnaarhivaar Rudolf Kenkmaa

  5. Bob Scott: Tallinn 2011 saab oma preemiaraha kätte / Bob Scott ; intervjueerinud Teele Tammeorg

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Scott, Bob

    2010-01-01

    Euroopa kultuuripealinnade hindamiskomisjoni esimees räägib oma kohtumisest Tallinna linnapea Edgar Savisaare ja kultuuriministri Laine Jänesega ning sellest, et Tallinnal ja Eestil tuleb lisatoetuse saamiseks saata Euroopa Komisjonile vaid kiri, milles nad kinnitavad, et kultuuripealinna programmi jaoks on raha olemas

  6. Madalmaade nukunäitlejate paremik hiilgas Tallinn Treffil / Tiiu Laks

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Laks, Tiiu, 1984-

    2010-01-01

    5.-8. juunini 2010 toimuvast rahvusvahelisest festivalist Tallinn Treff. Hollandi trupi DudaPaiva lavastusest "Needus". Nukunäitleja Neville Tranteri (Austraalia-Holland) lavastusest "Punch ja Judy Afganistanis". Stef Vettersi (Belgia) etendusest "Tema kõrgeausus Ottfriedi tundmatu maailm"

  7. Genetic diversity of Halla horses using microsatellite markers

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    Joo-Hee Seo

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Currently about 26,000 horses are breeding in Korea and 57.2% (14,776 horses of them are breeding in Jeju island. According to the statistics published in 2010, the horses breeding in Jeju island are subdivided into Jeju horse (6.1%, Thoroughbred (18.8% and Halla horse (75.1%. Halla horses are defined as a crossbreed between Jeju and Thoroughbred horses and are used for horse racing, horse riding and horse meat production. However, little research has been conducted on Halla horses because of the perception of crossbreed and people’s weighted interest toward Jeju horses. Method Using 17 Microsatellite (MS Markers recommended by International Society for Animal Genetics (ISAG, genomic DNAs were extracted from the hair roots of 3,880 Halla horses breeding in Korea and genetic diversity was identified by genotyping after PCR was performed. Results and conclusion In average, 10.41 alleles (from 6 alleles in HTG7 to 17 alleles in ASB17 were identified after the analysis using 17 MS Markers. The mean value of Hobs was 0.749 with a range from 0.612(HMS1 to 0.857(ASB2. Also, it was found that Hexp and PIC values were lowest in HMS1 (0.607 and 0.548, respectively, and highest in LEX3(0.859 and 0.843, respectively, and the mean value of Hexp was 0.760 and that of PIC was 0.728. 17 MS markers used in this studies were considered as appropriate markers for the polymorphism analysis of Halla horses. The frequency for the appearance of identical individuals was 5.90 × 10−20 when assumed as random mating population and when assumed as half-sib and full-sib population, frequencies were 4.08 × 10−15 and 3.56 × 10−8, respectively. Based on these results, the 17 MS markers can be used adequately for the Individual Identification and Parentage Verification of Halla horses. Remarkably, allele M and Q of ASB23 marker, G of HMS2 marker, H and L of HTG6 marker, L of HTG7 marker, E of LEX3 marker were the specific alleles

  8. Renal replacement therapy in healthy adult horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, D M; Witty, D; Alcott, C J; Sponseller, B A; Wang, C; Hepworth, K

    2013-01-01

    Renal replacement therapy (RRT) has been implemented extensively in people to facilitate recovery from acute renal failure (ARF). RRT has not been explored in horses, but might provide a further treatment option in horses with ARF. To investigate efficacy and safety of RRT in horses. Five healthy adult horses. A prospective study was performed on horses restrained in stocks and intravenously connected to a commercial RRT machine to allow continuous venovenous hemodiafiltration to be performed for 6 hours. The RRT machine was set at the following flow rates: blood flow rate 250 mL/min; dialysate rate 3,000 mL/h; prefilter replacement pump 3,000 mL/h; and postfilter replacement pump rate 2,000 mL/h. Balanced electrolyte solution was used as dialysate and replacement fluid. Heart rate, respiratory rate, body temperature, direct arterial blood pressure, urine output, and various clinicopathologic parameters were measured over the study period. Renal replacement therapy was successfully performed in horses, resulting in a mean creatinine clearance of 0.127 mL/kg/min (68.9 mL/min) and urea reduction ratio of 24%. No adverse effects were detected although a significant decrease in rectal temperature was observed (P ≤ .007). A significant increase in serum phosphorus (P ≤ .001) and decrease in BUN (P replacement therapy can safely and effectively be used in adult horses. Copyright © 2013 by the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine.

  9. Clinical and clinicopathological factors associated with survival in 44 horses with equine neorickettsiosis (Potomac horse Fever).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertin, F R; Reising, A; Slovis, N M; Constable, P D; Taylor, S D

    2013-01-01

    The epidemiology of equine neorickettsiosis (EN) has been extensively studied but limited clinical and clinicopathological data are available concerning naturally infected horses. Factors predictive of survival will be identified in horses diagnosed with EN. Convenience sample of 44 horses with EN admitted to 2 referral institutions. A retrospective study was performed. A diagnosis of EN was based on the presence of positive blood or fecal PCR. The most common clinical signs included diarrhea (66%), fever (50%), anorexia (45%), depression (39%), colic (39%), and lameness (18%). The median duration of hospitalization was 6 days and 73% of horses survived to discharge. Laminitis was present in 36% of horses, 88% of which were affected in all 4 feet. Serum creatinine and urea nitrogen concentrations, as well as RBC count, blood hemoglobin concentration, hematocrit, band neutrophils, serum AST activity, serum CK activity, and anion gap, were significantly (P < .05) higher in nonsurvivors. Serum chloride and sodium, concentrations as well as duration of hospitalization were significantly lower in nonsurvivors. The results of forward stepwise logistic regression indicated that blood hemoglobin concentration on admission and antimicrobial treatment with oxytetracycline were independent factors associated with survival. Severity of colitis as reflected by electrolyte loss, hemoconcentration, and prerenal azotemia were predictors of survival in horses diagnosed with EN. Treatment with oxytetracycline was associated with increased survival. Copyright © 2013 by the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine.

  10. Use of locking compression plates in ulnar fractures of 18 horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, Carrie C; Levine, David G; Richardson, Dean W

    2017-02-01

    To describe the outcome, clinical findings, and complications associated with the use of the locking compression plate (LCP) for various types of ulnar fractures in horses. Retrospective case series. Client owned horses (n = 18). Medical records, radiographs, and follow-up for horses having an ulnar fracture repaired using at least 1 LCP were reviewed. Fifteen of 18 horses had fractures of the ulna only, and 3 horses had fractures of the ulna and proximal radius. All 18 horses were discharged from the hospital. Complications occurred in 5 horses; incisional infection (n = 4, 22%), implant-associated infection (n = 2, 11%), and colic (n = 1, 6%). Follow-up was available for all horses at a range of 13-120 months and 15 horses (83%) were sound for their intended purpose and 3 horses (17%) were euthanatized. One horse was euthanatized for complications associated with original injury and surgery. The LCP is a viable method of internal fixation for various types of ulnar fractures, with most horses in this series returning to soundness. © 2017 The American College of Veterinary Surgeons.

  11. Environmental exposures and airway inflammation in young thoroughbred horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivester, K M; Couëtil, L L; Moore, G E; Zimmerman, N J; Raskin, R E

    2014-01-01

    Inflammatory airway disease (IAD) in horses is a widespread, performance-limiting syndrome believed to develop in response to inhaled irritants in the barn environment. To evaluate changes in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) cytology and exposure to particulates, endotoxin, and ammonia during horses' first month in training. Forty-nine client-owned 12- to 36-month-old Thoroughbred horses entering race training. In this prospective cohort study, a convenience sample of horses was assigned to be fed hay from a net (n = 16), whereas the remaining horses were fed hay from the ground (n = 33). BALF was collected at enrollment and after 14 and 28 days in training. Respirable particulate, inhalable particulate, respirable endotoxin, and ammonia concentrations were measured at the breathing zone of each horse weekly. Median respirable particulates were significantly higher when horses were fed from hay nets than when fed hay from the ground (hay net 0.28 mg/m(3) , no hay net 0.055 mg/m(3) , P horses were fed from hay nets. Feeding hay from a net resulted in significantly higher BALF eosinophil proportions over time (P Thoroughbreds, indicating a potential hypersensitivity to inhaled particulate allergens. Copyright © 2014 by the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine.

  12. "Tallinn Treff" - maailma lavade uus põlvkond Tallinnas / Meelis Pai, Vahur Keller, Reeda Toots ; intervjueerinud Margot Visnap

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Pai, Meelis, 1968-

    2009-01-01

    30. maist 6. juunini toimuvast rahvusvahelisest nukuteatrifestivalist "Tallinn Treff" ning selle alafestivalist "Noor vaim" annavad ülevaate festivali peakorraldaja Meelis Pai, kusntiline juht Vahut Keller ja "Noor vaimu" juht Reeda Toots

  13. The epidemiology of horse-related injuries for different horse exposures, activities, and age groups in Queensland, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, Jacelle; Sathivelu, Maria; Tetsworth, Kevin; Pollard, Cliff; Harvey, Kathy; Bellamy, Nicholas

    2014-01-01

    The dangers associated with horse riding, a popular activity throughout Australia, are well documented; yet, few studies have comprehensively described injuries caused by horses to nonriders. This study aimed to facilitate targeted injury prevention strategies and appropriate trauma management by describing all horse-related injuries, for both riders and nonriders, in Queensland, and identifying those at greatest risk. Horse-related injury data from 2005 to 2009 were extracted from the Queensland Trauma Registry. Descriptive comparisons were undertaken for demographic, injury, and acute care characteristics between riders and nonriders, between pediatric and adult cases, and between sports/leisure and work injuries. The relative risk of surgery by sex and between riders and nonriders was assessed. More than 25% of injuries occurred in people not riding a horse. Nonriders sustained a significantly higher proportion of internal organ injuries, open wounds, as well as facial and pelvic/abdominal injuries. Females accounted for more than 80% of children who were injured while riding a horse. For adults, 25% were injured while working, and more than 66% of injured workers were male. Injuries most commonly occurred in regional areas. Surgery was most common among children, nonriders, and those with Injury Severity Score (ISS) of 1 to 8. The likelihood of surgery was 25% higher for nonriders (95% confidence interval, 1.14-1.38%). Horse-related injuries are most prevalent in identifiable populations, particularly young female riders and adult males injured while working. Injuries inflicted by horses to nonriders contribute more than 27% of all horse-related injuries; however, most previous research has been limited to injured riders. Compared with riders, nonriders more frequently sustain internal, facial, and pelvic injuries; are male; and undergo surgery. The results of this study may be used to tailor prevention strategies and inform trauma management specific to the

  14. Horse in the Turkmen Culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tuna BEŞEN DELİCE

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Horses have provided speed and mobility for Turkish people in steppes. Through war capability and skil ls of riding horse they were successful against resident communities in different geographies throughout history and when circumstances became difficult they migrated to convenient land riding horses. They benefited from horse's milk and meat as well as it s power and speed. In feast and festivals they compete with each other using horses, even if they played on horseback. This indicates that horses were how important for Turks in the political, civil, economic, social and cultural fields. Horse was located in the center of the lives of Turks throughout history. Such that, robbing a horse conneted was capital offence as well as rebellion, treason, murder, adultery according to the criminal law of the former Turks. Horse still has not lost its importance in t he present Turkish regions, especially Central Asian geography. Horse is so important for Turkmens that horse figure has taken place in the state coat of arms of Turkmenistan and the last sunday in April is celebrated as a feast in Turkmenistan. Ahal - Teke which is most exclusive horse breed of the word is brought up in Turkmenistan. Horse has also an important place in the vocabulary. In this work, it would be determine horse’s important in social and cultural life of Turkmens as following both language and non - language indicators.

  15. Programming Basics for Beginners. Experience of the Institute of Informatics at Tallinn University of Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Mironova

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The present paper demonstrates the teaching approach in programming basics course for novices: schoolchildren of different ages and schoolteachers. This programming course was developed at the Institute of Informatics at Tallinn University of Technology in Tallinn, Estonia and it based on many years experience in teaching programming for non-IT first year students. The main aim of the chosen teaching approach in the course is to raise the motivation and keep the learners’ interest in programming field on the high level. The idea of developed teaching technique is the implementation of the visual programming before a serious textual coding. Furthermore, authors suggest readers some ways and methods to overcome learners’ difficulties in the first stage in a textual coding.

  16. Polyuria and polydipsia in horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKenzie, Erica C

    2007-12-01

    Polyuria and polydipsia provide a diagnostic challenge for the equine clinician. This article describes the various known causes of polyuria and polydipsia in horses and provides a description of a systematic diagnostic approach for assessing horses with polyuria and polydipsia to delineate the underlying cause. Treatment and management strategies for addressing polyuria and polydipsia in horses are also described.

  17. A rapid situation assessment of the market for surrogate and illegal alcohols in Tallinn, Estonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pärna, Kersti; Lang, Katrin; Raju, Kadi; Väli, Marika; McKee, Martin

    2007-01-01

    To understand the phenomenon of consumption of surrogate and illegal alcohols in Tallinn, capital of Estonia. This study, conducted in Tallinn in May 2006, used rapid situation assessment. Interviews with key informants in relevant settings such as emergency departments of hospitals, accommodation for the homeless, police etc. (n = 22), with alcohol abusers (n = 33), natural observations of surrogate sale and consumption venues (n = 46), and tracking of trade data were carried out. Key informants confirmed that consumption of illegal and surrogate alcohols are widely used by alcohol abusers, a finding confirmed by the alcohol abusers. Availability of surrogates varied by area of the city, mainly sold from street kiosks. Illegally produced spirits were also easily available. Sales of surrogates appear to have increased in recent years. A range of alcohol-containing substances that appear to be easily available at low cost, and that have high concentration of ethanol or contaminants known to be toxic, were identified in Tallinn. Alcohol policies in Estonia should address the consumption and availability of these substances.

  18. Xenophon on Horses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alenka Cedilnik

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Based on Xenophon’s writings on horses, the paper begins with a partial account of his life prior to his decision to join Cyrus, and continues by outlining his attitude to horses, animals with whom he lived in close contact. Except for the period spent campaigning with Cyrus’ Greek mercenaries (401–400 BC, the life of Xenophon remains largely unknown, raising a number of still unanswered questions. While the final answers are probably going to remain obscure, it may be surmised – on the basis of his horse writings as well – that the author came from an affluent family. As an Athenian of substance, he would have been classified as a knight, and since the representatives of this class fought in the Athenian cavalry, it was this combat arm to which he would have belonged. There is no hard and fast evidence that he took an active part in the last years of the Peloponnesian War. However, his fairly detailed account of the Athenian developments following the peace treaty suggests that Xenophon remained in the city during the rule of the Thirty Tyrants, when many residents were obliged to leave, and, as a cavalry mem- ber, actively supported the regime to the end. In fact, Xenophon’s presentation of the contemporary events highlights the cavalry’s role to the extent that it appears to have played a crucial part in defending the city and regime. But despite the cavalry’s support of the Thirty, its members do not seem to have flocked out of Athens in the uncertain conditions which followed the fall of the Thirty and the restoration of democracy. Thus Xenophon’s decision to join Cyrus the Younger’s expedition may have been influenced not by his recent support of the Thirty alone, but also by reasons unknown today. While there is no solid proof of his closer association with horses prior to Cyrus’ expedition, Xenophon’s writing in the Anabasis leaves no doubt that he spent at least the greater part of the campaign on horseback. The

  19. Mechanics of evolutionary digit reduction in fossil horses (Equidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    McHorse, Brianna K; Biewener, Andrew A; Pierce, Stephanie E

    2017-08-30

    Digit reduction is a major trend that characterizes horse evolution, but its causes and consequences have rarely been quantitatively tested. Using beam analysis on fossilized centre metapodials, we tested how locomotor bone stresses changed with digit reduction and increasing body size across the horse lineage. Internal bone geometry was captured from 13 fossil horse genera that covered the breadth of the equid phylogeny and the spectrum of digit reduction and body sizes, from Hyracotherium to Equus To account for the load-bearing role of side digits, a novel, continuous measure of digit reduction was also established-toe reduction index (TRI). Our results show that without accounting for side digits, three-toed horses as late as Parahippus would have experienced physiologically untenable bone stresses. Conversely, when side digits are modelled as load-bearing, species at the base of the horse radiation through Equus probably maintained a similar safety factor to fracture stress. We conclude that the centre metapodial compensated for evolutionary digit reduction and body mass increases by becoming more resistant to bending through substantial positive allometry in internal geometry. These results lend support to two historical hypotheses: that increasing body mass selected for a single, robust metapodial rather than several smaller ones; and that, as horse limbs became elongated, the cost of inertia from the side toes outweighed their utility for stabilization or load-bearing. © 2017 The Author(s).

  20. Monitoring distances travelled by horses using GPS tracking collars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hampson, B A; Morton, J M; Mills, P C; Trotter, M G; Lamb, D W; Pollitt, C C

    2010-05-01

    The aims of this work were to (1) develop a low-cost equine movement tracking collar based on readily available components, (2) conduct preliminary studies assessing the effects of both paddock size and internal fence design on the movements of domestic horses, with and without foals at foot, and (3) describe distances moved by mares and their foals. Additional monitoring of free-ranging feral horses was conducted to allow preliminary comparisons with the movement of confined domestic horses. A lightweight global positioning system (GPS) data logger modified from a personal/vehicle tracker and mounted on a collar was used to monitor the movement of domestic horses in a range of paddock sizes and internal fence designs for 6.5-day periods. In the paddocks used (0.8-16 ha), groups of domestic horses exhibited a logarithmic response in mean daily distance travelled as a function of increasing paddock size, tending asymptotically towards approximately 7.5 km/day. The distance moved by newborn foals was similar to their dams, with total distance travelled also dependent on paddock size. Without altering available paddock area, paddock design, with the exception of a spiral design, did not significantly affect mean daily distance travelled. Feral horses (17.9 km/day) travelled substantially greater mean daily distances than domestic horses (7.2 km/day in 16-ha paddock), even when allowing for larger paddock size. Horses kept in stables or small yards and paddocks are quite sedentary in comparison with their feral relatives. For a given paddock area, most designs did not significantly affect mean daily distance travelled.

  1. Association analysis of KIT, MITF, and PAX3 variants with white markings in Spanish horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negro, S; Imsland, F; Valera, M; Molina, A; Solé, M; Andersson, L

    2017-06-01

    Several variants in the KIT, PAX3 and MITF genes have previously been associated with white markings in horses. In this study, we examined eight variants of these genes in 70 Menorca Purebred horses (PRMe, only black solid-coloured horses) and 70 Spanish Purebred horses (PRE, different coat colour patterns) that were scored for the extent of white markings. A maximum-likelihood chi-square test, logistic regression model and ridge regression analyses showed that a missense mutation (p.Arg682His) in KIT was associated with white facial markings (P horses. The relative contribution of this variant to white markings in PRMe horses was estimated at 47.6% (head) and 43.4% (total score). In PRE horses, this variant was also associated with hindlimb scores (P T intronic variant located 29.9 kb downstream from the transcription start site of the MITF gene was associated with less white markings on forelimbs (P horses, with a relative contribution of 63.9%, whereas in PRE horses this variant was associated with white facial markings (P horses, providing breeders with an opportunity to use genetic testing to aid in breeding for their desired level of white markings. © 2017 Stichting International Foundation for Animal Genetics.

  2. Risk Factors Associated With Survival to Hospital Discharge of 54 Horses With Fractures of the Radius.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Suzanne; Richardson, Dean; Boston, Ray; Schaer, Thomas P

    2015-11-01

    To determine (1) survival to discharge of horses with radial fractures (excluding osteochondral fragmentation of the distal aspect of the radius and stress fractures); and (2) risk factors affecting survival to hospital discharge in conservative and surgically managed fractures. Case series. Horses (n = 54). Medical records (1990-June 2012) and radiographs of horses admitted with radial fracture were reviewed. Horses with osteochondral fragmentation of the distal aspect of the radius or stress fractures were excluded. Evaluated risk factors were age, fracture configuration, surgical repair method, surgical duration, hospitalization time, implant failure rate, and surgical site infection (SSI) rate. Of 54 horses, overall survival to discharge was 50%. Thirteen (24%) were euthanatized on admission because of (1) fracture severity; (2) presence of an open fracture; or (3) financial constraints. Fourteen (26%) horses with minimally displaced incomplete fractures were conservatively managed and 12 (86%) survived to discharge. Twenty-seven (50%) horses had surgical treatment by open reduction and internal fixation (ORIF) and 15 (56%) survived to hospital discharge. Open fractures were significantly more likely to develop SSI (P = .008), which also resulted in a 17-fold increase in implant failure (P horses with an open fracture did not survive to discharge. Outcome was also adversely affected by age (P 168 minutes (P fractures is good. Young horses have a good prognosis survival to discharge for ORIF, whereas ORIF in adult horses has a poor prognosis and SSI strongly correlates with catastrophic implant failure. © Copyright 2015 by The American College of Veterinary Surgeons.

  3. Arvustus : Vello Paatsi. Eesti talurahva loodusteadusliku maailmapildi kujunemine rahvakooli kaudu (1803-1918). - Tallinn : TPÜ Kirjastus, 2003. 206 lk. / Jaan-Mati Punning

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Punning, Jaan-Mati, 1940-2009

    2003-01-01

    Rets. rmt. : Paatsi, Vello. Eesti talurahva loodusteadusliku maailmapildi kujunemine rahvakooli kaudu (1803-1918). - Tallinn : Tallinna Pedagoogikaülikooli kirjastus, 2003. - 206 lk. : ill. - (Tallinna Pedagoogikaülikool. Sotsiaalteaduste dissertatsioonid = Tallinn Pedagogical University. Dissertations on social sciences, 1406-4405 ; 5)

  4. Brainstem auditory evoked responses in an equine patient population: part I--adult horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aleman, M; Holliday, T A; Nieto, J E; Williams, D C

    2014-01-01

    Brainstem auditory evoked response has been an underused diagnostic modality in horses as evidenced by few reports on the subject. To describe BAER findings, common clinical signs, and causes of hearing loss in adult horses. Study group, 76 horses; control group, 8 horses. Retrospective. BAER records from the Clinical Neurophysiology Laboratory were reviewed from the years of 1982 to 2013. Peak latencies, amplitudes, and interpeak intervals were measured when visible. Horses were grouped under disease categories. Descriptive statistics and a posthoc Bonferroni test were performed. Fifty-seven of 76 horses had BAER deficits. There was no breed or sex predisposition, with the exception of American Paint horses diagnosed with congenital sensorineural deafness. Eighty-six percent (n = 49/57) of the horses were younger than 16 years of age. The most common causes of BAER abnormalities were temporohyoid osteoarthropathy (THO, n = 20/20; abnormalities/total), congenital sensorineural deafness in Paint horses (17/17), multifocal brain disease (13/16), and otitis media/interna (4/4). Auditory loss was bilateral and unilateral in 74% (n = 42/57) and 26% (n = 15/57) of the horses, respectively. The most common causes of bilateral auditory loss were sensorineural deafness, THO, and multifocal brain disease whereas THO and otitis were the most common causes of unilateral deficits. Auditory deficits should be investigated in horses with altered behavior, THO, multifocal brain disease, otitis, and in horses with certain coat and eye color patterns. BAER testing is an objective and noninvasive diagnostic modality to assess auditory function in horses. Copyright © 2014 by the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine.

  5. Short incomplete sagittal fractures of the proximal phalanx in ten horses not used for racing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuemmerle, Jan M; Auer, Jörg A; Rademacher, Nathalie; Lischer, Christoph J; Bettschart-Wolfensberger, Regula; Fürst, Anton E

    2008-02-01

    To describe short incomplete sagittal fractures of the proximal phalanx (type Ia P1 fractures) in horses not used for racing and report outcome. Retrospective study. Horses (n=10) with type Ia P1 fractures. Retrieved data of horses with type Ia P1 fractures were signalment, history and results of orthopedic examination. Radiographs were re-evaluated for position and length of the fracture line, presence of osteoarthritis or subchondral cystic lesions (SCL), periosteal new bone formation and subchondral sclerosis. Conservative treatment (n=4) included box confinement for 2 months followed by 1 month of hand walking. Surgical therapy (n=6) consisted of internal fixation by screws inserted in lag fashion in 5 horses. Concurrent SCL were debrided by curettage via a transcortical drilling approach. In 1 horse, only SCL curettage but not internal fixation was performed. Outcome was assessed on a clinical and radiographic follow-up examination in all horses. Mean follow-up time was 27 months (median, 13.5 months; range, 9 months to 9 years). All horses treated with internal fixation were sound at follow-up and had radiographic fracture healing. Of the 4 horses managed conservatively, 3 remained lame and only 1 horse had radiographic evidence of fracture healing. Catastrophic fracture propagation occurred in 2 horses not treated by internal fixation, 20 and 30 months after diagnosis, respectively. Horses with a type Ia P1 fracture treated surgically had a better outcome than those managed conservatively and lack of fracture healing seemingly increases the risk of later catastrophic fracture. Surgical repair of type Ia P1 fractures should be considered to optimize healing and return to athletic use.

  6. The origin of ambling horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wutke, Saskia; Andersson, Leif; Benecke, Norbert; Sandoval-Castellanos, Edson; Gonzalez, Javier; Hallsson, Jón Hallsteinn; Lõugas, Lembi; Magnell, Ola; Morales-Muniz, Arturo; Orlando, Ludovic; Pálsdóttir, Albína Hulda; Reissmann, Monika; Muñoz-Rodríguez, Mariana B; Ruttkay, Matej; Trinks, Alexandra; Hofreiter, Michael; Ludwig, Arne

    2016-08-08

    Horseback riding is the most fundamental use of domestic horses and has had a huge influence on the development of human societies for millennia. Over time, riding techniques and the style of riding improved. Therefore, horses with the ability to perform comfortable gaits (e.g. ambling or pacing), so-called 'gaited' horses, have been highly valued by humans, especially for long distance travel. Recently, the causative mutation for gaitedness in horses has been linked to a substitution causing a premature stop codon in the DMRT3 gene (DMRT3_Ser301STOP) [1]. In mice, Dmrt3 is expressed in spinal cord interneurons and plays an important role in the development of limb movement coordination [1]. Genotyping the position in 4396 modern horses from 141 breeds revealed that nowadays the mutated allele is distributed worldwide with an especially high frequency in gaited horses and breeds used for harness racing [2]. Here, we examine historic horse remains for the DMRT3 SNP, tracking the origin of gaitedness to Medieval England between 850 and 900 AD. The presence of the corresponding allele in Icelandic horses (9(th)-11(th) century) strongly suggests that ambling horses were brought from the British Isles to Iceland by Norse people. Considering the high frequency of the ambling allele in early Icelandic horses, we believe that Norse settlers selected for this comfortable mode of horse riding soon after arrival. The absence of the allele in samples from continental Europe (including Scandinavia) at this time implies that ambling horses may have spread from Iceland and maybe also the British Isles across the continent at a later date. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Atlantic mackerel and Horse mackerel egg survey 2016: Dutch participation on board FV Atlantic Lady: May

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Damme, van C.J.G.

    2016-01-01

    From 10 till 25 May 2016 IMARES carried out a mackerel and horse mackerel egg survey on board the FV Atlantic Lady. This survey was part of the international mackerel and horse mackerel egg survey coordinated by ICES. The Redersvereniging voor de Zeevisserij (RVZ) asked IMARES to carry out this

  8. Pharmacokinetics of methocarbamol and phenylbutazone in exercised Thoroughbred horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knych, H K; Stanley, S D; Seminoff, K N; McKemie, D S; Kass, P H

    2016-10-01

    Methocarbamol (MCBL) is commonly used in performance horses for the treatment of skeletal muscle disorders. Current regulatory recommendations for show horses and racehorses are based on a single oral dose of 5 g, although doses in excess of this are often administered. The goal of the current study was to characterize the disposition of MCBL following higher dose administration and administration in combination with another commonly used drug in performance horses, phenylbutazone (PBZ). Exercised Thoroughbred horses were administered various doses of MCBL as a sole agent and MCBL in combination with PBZ. Blood samples were collected at various times, concentrations of MCBL and PBZ measured using LC-MS/MS and pharmacokinetic parameters calculated using compartmental analysis. Following administration of 15 g of MCBL, either as part of a single- or multiple-dose regimen, a number of horses exceeded the Association of Racing Commissioners International and the United States Equestrian Federation's recommended regulatory threshold at the recommended withdrawal time. There was not a significant difference between horses that received only MCBL and those that received MCBL and PBZ. Results of the current study support an extended withdrawal guideline when doses in excess of 5 g are administered. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Characteristics of cardiovascular deaths in forensic medical cases in Budapest, Vilnius and Tallinn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Törő, Klara; Väli, Marika; Lepik, Delia; Tuusov, Jana; Dunay, György; Marcsa, Boglarka; Pauliukevicius, Alvydas; Raudys, Romas; Caplinskiene, Marija

    2013-11-01

    Evaluation of the pathomorphological characteristics of cases involving natural and sudden cardiovascular death is essential for the determination of the cause of death. The main purpose of this study is to investigate sudden unexpected cardiovascular death and to study how different geographical climatic influences may affect cardiac mortality in three capitals: Budapest, Vilnius and Tallinn. There were 8482 (5753 male, 2729 female) cardiovascular deaths between 2005 and 2009. The highest rate was observed in the age group between 71 and 80 years (35.17%) and 51-60 years (24.45%). The highest number of cardiovascular deaths occur in January (805/9.49%) and December (770/9.07%). Seasonal distribution was observed, with winter prevalence in Tallinn (279/3.20%) and spring prevalence in Vilnius (760/8.90%). Though in Vilnius and Budapest a great number of deaths occurred in winter and spring, any correlation with other factors (e.g. age, gender, BAC) was not statistically significant. Based on our results we can conclude that environmental-geographical parameters may affect natural cardiovascular death. Examination of pathological patterns and predisposing environmental parameters may help to improve prevention strategies. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  10. Patterns of horse-rider coordination during endurance race: a dynamical system approach.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sylvain Viry

    Full Text Available In riding, most biomechanical studies have focused on the description of the horse locomotion in unridden condition. In this study, we draw the prospect of how the basic principles established in inter-personal coordination by the theory of Coordination Dynamics may provide a conceptual and methodological framework for understanding the horse-rider coupling. The recent development of mobile technologies allows combined horse and rider recordings during long lasting natural events such as endurance races. Six international horse-rider dyads were thus recorded during a 120 km race by using two tri-axial accelerometers placed on the horses and riders, respectively. The analysis concentrated on their combined vertical displacements. The obtained shapes and angles of Lissajous plots together with values of relative phase between horse and rider displacements at lower reversal point allowed us to characterize four coordination patterns, reflecting the use of two riding techniques per horse's gait (trot and canter. The present study shows that the concepts, methods and tools of self-organizing dynamic system approach offer new directions for understanding horse-rider coordination. The identification of the horse-rider coupling patterns constitutes a firm basis to further study the coalition of multiple constraints that determine their emergence and their dynamics in endurance race.

  11. [Heinz von zur Mühlen. Paul Johansen und die Sogenannten Undeutschen in Reval/Tallinn] / Paul Kaegbein

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kaegbein, Paul

    2008-01-01

    Arvustus: Heinz von zur Mühlen. Paul Johansen und die Sogenannten Undeutschen in Reval/Tallinn. - Nordosteuropa als Geschichtsregion. Helsinki : Aue-Stiftung :; Lübeck : Schmidt-Römhild, 2006. lk. 103-111. Paul Johanseni lähim töökaaslane kirjeldab teose "Deutsch und Undeutsch im mittelalterlichen und frühneuzeitlichen Reval" valmimist

  12. Uudised : Preemia "edition 49" noodigraafikale. Noor muusik ئ Tallinn 2000. Bergenisse sõidab Bezrodnaja / Hugo Alter

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Alter, Hugo-Eduard, 1929-2003

    2000-01-01

    Kirjastuse "Edition 49" noodigraafikaga teos võitis muusikakirjastuspreemia "Frankfurt 2000". 6.-9. juunini toimub rahvusvaheline konkurss "Noor muusik ئ Tallinn 2000", millest võtavad osa kuni 13 aastased muusikud 11-st riigist. "Klassika-Eurovisiooni" Eesti võistluse finaali võitis A.-L. Bezrodnaja, kes esindab Eestit võistluse Euroopa finaalis juunis Bergenis

  13. Echocardiographic Assessment of Left Ventricular Function in Healthy Horses and in Horses with Heart Disease Using Pulsed-Wave Tissue Doppler Imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koenig, T R; Mitchell, K J; Schwarzwald, C C

    2017-03-01

    Assessment of left ventricular (LV) function by tissue Doppler imaging (TDI) is not well established in horses with heart disease. To describe the use of pulsed-wave (PW) TDI for the assessment of LV function, establish reference intervals, investigate effects of mitral regurgitation (MR), aortic regurgitation (AR), and primary myocardial disease (MD), and provide proof of concept for the use of PW TDI in Warmblood horses with heart disease. Thirty healthy horses, 38 horses with MR, 25 with AR, 8 with MD. Echocardiograms were retrospectively analyzed. Reference intervals were calculated. PW TDI indices of healthy horses and horses with MR, AR, and MD were compared by one-way ANOVA and Dunnett's test. A complete set of PW TDI variables could be obtained in 94 of 101 horses. Variables corresponding to isovolumic intervals were most difficult to measure. Valvular regurgitation influenced variables describing isovolumic contraction and ejection. Horses with MD had significantly shortened ET m (-118.5 [-154.1 to -82.9] ms; mean difference [95% CI of difference of means]), increased PEP m /ET m (0.11 [0.05 to 0.17]), prolonged IMP m (0.28 [0.18 to 0.37]), increased S 1 (8.9 [5.2 to 12.6] cm/s), and decreased E 1 (-2.6 [-4.7 to -0.5] cm/s), E m (-14.2 [-19.9 to -8.5] cm/s), and E m /A m ratio (-1.6 [-2.6 to -0.6]). Pulsed-wave TDI might be useful for detection of LV dysfunction in horses with primary MD. The clinical value of TDI in horses with MR and AR remains uncertain. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine.

  14. Internal Entrepreneurship--A Trojan Horse of the Neoliberal Governance of Education? Finnish Pre- and In-Service Teachers' Implementation of and Resistance towards Entrepreneurship Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komulainen, Katri; Naskali, Paivi; Korhonen, Maija; Keskitalo-Foley, Seija

    2011-01-01

    This paper explores the effects of neoliberal education policies, by examining how the Finnish pre- and in-service teachers engage with the discourses of "external" and "internal entrepreneurship", create related inclusions and exclusions, and implement or challenge the aim of educating enterprising and entrepreneurial…

  15. Welfare in horse breeding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Campbell, M.L.H.; Sandøe, Peter

    2015-01-01

    and identifies areas in which data is lacking. We suggest that all methods of horse breeding are associated with potential welfare problems, but also that the judicious use of ARTs can sometimes help to address those problems. We discuss how negative welfare effects could be identified and limited and how...... positive welfare effects associated with breeding might be maximised. Further studies are needed to establish an evidence base about how stressful or painful various breeding procedures are for the animals involved, and what the lifetime welfare implications of ARTs are for future animal generations....

  16. Environmental innovation through transport policy. The implementation of the free fare policy on public transport in Tallinn, Estonia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gabaldon-Estevan, D.

    2016-07-01

    Urban areas are of increasing relevance when it comes to sustainability: First, about half of the world’s population now lives in cities (increasing to 60% by 2030). Second, cities are nowadays responsible for levels of resource consumption and waste generation that are higher beyond their share on world population. Third, cities are more vulnerable to disruptive events that can lead to restrictions on the provision of resources and to changes on the environment caused by climate change. And fourth, because they concentrate key resources (political, social, cultural…), cities are seen as strategic scenarios where to experiment and develop solutions to cope with the prevailing sustainability challenges driven by the major social and environmental transformations. Urban agglomerations can be seen as complex innovation systems where human activities are shaped in order to transform societies towards sustainable development. For this paper, we focus on the case of an environmental innovation regarding transport policy, the implementation of the fare-free policy on public transport for all inhabitants of Tallinn, Estonia. Tallinn, with 414,000 inhabitants in 2015, is the capital of Estonia and the largest city in the country. Over the last two decades the share of public transport trips decreased dramatically. After a public opinion poll in 2012, in which over 75% of the participants voted for a fare-free public transportation system (FFPTS) in Tallinn, the new policy was implemented on 1st January 2013. From that date on inhabitants of Tallinn could use all public transport services (busses, trams, trolly-busses) operated by city-run operators for free. Later the fare-free system was implemented also on trains within Tallinn. In this paper we analyze the context, in which this policy was implemented, the main characteristics of its implementation and its actual situation. (Author)

  17. AHP 47: RAG DRUG: A FAITHFUL HORSE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lcags so lhun 'grub ལྕགས་སོ་ལྷུན་འགྲུབ། (Klu sgrub ཀླུ་སྒྲུབ།

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available My family had three horses in 2016, but when I was about five years old (2006 we had seven horses. Over time, we sold four horses to people living in other communities. We do not want to sell horses to Chinese and Muslim businessmen because Father says, "They take the horses directly to big slaughterhouses and kill them." Instead, we prefer to sell our livestock, including sheep, yaks, and goats to Tibetans, even though the payment is less. ...

  18. Morphological evolution of the Haflinger horse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Pasquini

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The Haflinger horse has certainly a lot of success, considering its popularity not only in its native region, South Tyrol, but also worldwide. Therefore, for its preservation and mainly for a larger diffusion of these horses, Haflinger horse’ breeders thought it could be useful to change, with an appropriated selection, the functional type, originally a pack-horse and a horse for agricultural work, into a saddle horse for riding purpose (Pagnacco, 1994...

  19. Morphological evolution of the Haflinger horse

    OpenAIRE

    M. Pasquini; S. Rizzi; A. Falaschini

    2011-01-01

    The Haflinger horse has certainly a lot of success, considering its popularity not only in its native region, South Tyrol, but also worldwide. Therefore, for its preservation and mainly for a larger diffusion of these horses, Haflinger horse’ breeders thought it could be useful to change, with an appropriated selection, the functional type, originally a pack-horse and a horse for agricultural work, into a saddle horse for riding purpose (Pagnacco, 1994)...

  20. Rutgers Young Horse Teaching and Research Program: undergraduate student outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ralston, Sarah L

    2012-12-01

    Equine teaching and research programs are popular but expensive components of most land grant universities. External funding for equine research, however, is limited and restricts undergraduate research opportunities that enhance student learning. In 1999, a novel undergraduate teaching and research program was initiated at Rutgers University, New Brunswick, NJ. A unique aspect of this program was the use of young horses generally considered "at risk" and in need of rescue but of relatively low value. The media interest in such horses was utilized to advantage to obtain funding for the program. The use of horses from pregnant mare urine (PMU) ranches and Bureau of Land Management (BLM) mustangs held the risks of attracting negative publicity, potential of injury while training previously unhandled young horses, and uncertainty regarding re-sale value; however, none of these concerns were realized. For 12 years the Young Horse Teaching and Research Program received extensive positive press and provided invaluable learning opportunities for students. Over 500 students, at least 80 of which were minorities, participated in not only horse management and training but also research, event planning, public outreach, fund-raising, and website development. Public and industry support provided program sustainability with only basic University infrastructural support despite severe economic downturns. Student research projects generated 25 research abstracts presented at national and international meetings and 14 honors theses. Over 100 students went on to veterinary school or other higher education programs, and more than 100 others pursued equine- or science-related careers. Laudatory popular press articles were published in a wide variety of breed/discipline journals and in local and regional newspapers each year. Taking the risk of using "at risk" horses yielded positive outcomes for all, especially the undergraduate students.

  1. The impact of herpesviruses on reproductive performance in horses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schulman, Martin

    2016-01-01

    The thesis addresses the largely-undefined influence of the equine herpesviruses (EHVs) and in particular EHV-1 and -4 on reproductive performance in horse-breeding systems. These pathogens cause significant losses to the international equine breeding industry primarily through infectious abortion

  2. Horse Shampoo for Human Hair?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiriac Anca

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Lately, a new idea has caught the attention of young people of both genders, being debated in consultation rooms, during classes, and especially on social media: is using horse shampoo for human hair wrong or not?

  3. Trojan Horse Method: Recent Experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cherubini, S.; Spitaleri, C.; Crucilla, V.; Gulino, M.; La Cognata, M.; Lamia, L.; Pizzone, R. G.; Romano, S.; Tudisco, S.; Tumino, A.; Mukhamedzhanov, A.; Trache, L.; Tribble, R.; Rolfs, C.; Typel, S.

    2006-01-01

    The Trojan Horse Method allows for the measurements of cross sections in nuclear reactions between charged particles at astrophysical energies. The basic features of the method are discussed and recent applications are presented

  4. Effect of long-term fluticasone treatment on immune function in horses with heaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dauvillier, J; Felippe, M J B; Lunn, D P; Lavoie-Lamoureux, A; Leclère, M; Beauchamp, G; Lavoie, J-P

    2011-01-01

    Corticosteroids currently are the most effective pharmacological treatment available to control heaves in horses. Systemically administered corticosteroids have been shown to alter immune response in horses, humans, and other species. Aerosolized administration theoretically minimizes systemic adverse effects, but the effect of inhaled corticosteroids on immune function has not been evaluated in horses. To evaluate the effects of prolonged administration of inhaled fluticasone on the immune system of heaves-affected horses. Heaves-affected horses were treated with inhaled fluticasone (n = 5) for 11 months or received environmental modifications only (n = 5). Prospective analysis. Clinical parameters and CBC, lymphocyte subpopulations and function, and circulating neutrophil gene expression were sequentially measured. Primary and anamnestic immune responses also were evaluated by measuring antigen-specific antibodies in response to vaccination with bovine viral antigen and tetanus toxoid, respectively. No clinical adverse effects were observed and no differences in immune function were detected between treated and untreated horses. The treatment of heaves-affected horses with inhaled fluticasone at therapeutic dosages for 11 months has no significant detectable effect on innate and adaptive (both humoral and cell-mediated) immune parameters studied. These results suggest that prolonged administration of fluticasone would not compromise the systemic immune response to pathogens nor vaccination in adult horses. Copyright © 2011 by the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine.

  5. Horse domestication and conservation genetics of Przewalski's horse inferred from sex chromosomal and autosomal sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Allison N; Peng, Lei; Goto, Hiroki; Chemnick, Leona; Ryder, Oliver A; Makova, Kateryna D

    2009-01-01

    Despite their ability to interbreed and produce fertile offspring, there is continued disagreement about the genetic relationship of the domestic horse (Equus caballus) to its endangered wild relative, Przewalski's horse (Equus przewalskii). Analyses have differed as to whether or not Przewalski's horse is placed phylogenetically as a separate sister group to domestic horses. Because Przewalski's horse and domestic horse are so closely related, genetic data can also be used to infer domestication-specific differences between the two. To investigate the genetic relationship of Przewalski's horse to the domestic horse and to address whether evolution of the domestic horse is driven by males or females, five homologous introns (a total of approximately 3 kb) were sequenced on the X and Y chromosomes in two Przewalski's horses and three breeds of domestic horses: Arabian horse, Mongolian domestic horse, and Dartmoor pony. Five autosomal introns (a total of approximately 6 kb) were sequenced for these horses as well. The sequences of sex chromosomal and autosomal introns were used to determine nucleotide diversity and the forces driving evolution in these species. As a result, X chromosomal and autosomal data do not place Przewalski's horses in a separate clade within phylogenetic trees for horses, suggesting a close relationship between domestic and Przewalski's horses. It was also found that there was a lack of nucleotide diversity on the Y chromosome and higher nucleotide diversity than expected on the X chromosome in domestic horses as compared with the Y chromosome and autosomes. This supports the hypothesis that very few male horses along with numerous female horses founded the various domestic horse breeds. Patterns of nucleotide diversity among different types of chromosomes were distinct for Przewalski's in contrast to domestic horses, supporting unique evolutionary histories of the two species.

  6. The earliest horse harnessing and milking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Outram, Alan K; Stear, Natalie A; Bendrey, Robin; Olsen, Sandra; Kasparov, Alexei; Zaibert, Victor; Thorpe, Nick; Evershed, Richard P

    2009-03-06

    Horse domestication revolutionized transport, communications, and warfare in prehistory, yet the identification of early domestication processes has been problematic. Here, we present three independent lines of evidence demonstrating domestication in the Eneolithic Botai Culture of Kazakhstan, dating to about 3500 B.C.E. Metrical analysis of horse metacarpals shows that Botai horses resemble Bronze Age domestic horses rather than Paleolithic wild horses from the same region. Pathological characteristics indicate that some Botai horses were bridled, perhaps ridden. Organic residue analysis, using delta13C and deltaD values of fatty acids, reveals processing of mare's milk and carcass products in ceramics, indicating a developed domestic economy encompassing secondary products.

  7. The Effect of Geographic Location on Circannual Adrenocorticotropic Hormone Plasma Concentrations in Horses in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Secombe, C J; Tan, R H H; Perara, D I; Byrne, D P; Watts, S P; Wearn, J G

    2017-09-01

    Longitudinal evaluation of plasma endogenous ACTH concentration in clinically normal horses has not been investigated in the Southern Hemisphere. To longitudinally determine monthly upper reference limits for plasma ACTH in 2 disparate Australian geographic locations and to examine whether location affected the circannual rhythm of endogenous ACTH in the 2 groups of horses over a 12-month period. Clinically normal horses horses from Perth and ≤67 pg/mL (upper limit of the 90% CI) in horses from Townsville, than at the acrophase, ≤94 pg/mL (upper limit of the 90% CI) in horses from Perth, ≤101 pg/mL (upper limit of the 90% CI) in horses from Townsville. Circannual rhythms of endogenous ACTH concentrations vary between geographic locations, this could be due to changes in photoperiod or other unknown factors, and upper reference limits should be determined for specific locations. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine.

  8. Health impact assessment of particulate pollution in Tallinn using fine spatial resolution and modeling techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kimmel Veljo

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Health impact assessments (HIA use information on exposure, baseline mortality/morbidity and exposure-response functions from epidemiological studies in order to quantify the health impacts of existing situations and/or alternative scenarios. The aim of this study was to improve HIA methods for air pollution studies in situations where exposures can be estimated using GIS with high spatial resolution and dispersion modeling approaches. Methods Tallinn was divided into 84 sections according to neighborhoods, with a total population of approx. 390 000 persons. Actual baseline rates for total mortality and hospitalization with cardiovascular and respiratory diagnosis were identified. The exposure to fine particles (PM2.5 from local emissions was defined as the modeled annual levels. The model validation and morbidity assessment were based on 2006 PM10 or PM2.5 levels at 3 monitoring stations. The exposure-response coefficients used were for total mortality 6.2% (95% CI 1.6–11% per 10 μg/m3 increase of annual mean PM2.5 concentration and for the assessment of respiratory and cardiovascular hospitalizations 1.14% (95% CI 0.62–1.67% and 0.73% (95% CI 0.47–0.93% per 10 μg/m3 increase of PM10. The direct costs related to morbidity were calculated according to hospital treatment expenses in 2005 and the cost of premature deaths using the concept of Value of Life Year (VOLY. Results The annual population-weighted-modeled exposure to locally emitted PM2.5 in Tallinn was 11.6 μg/m3. Our analysis showed that it corresponds to 296 (95% CI 76528 premature deaths resulting in 3859 (95% CI 10236636 Years of Life Lost (YLL per year. The average decrease in life-expectancy at birth per resident of Tallinn was estimated to be 0.64 (95% CI 0.17–1.10 years. While in the polluted city centre this may reach 1.17 years, in the least polluted neighborhoods it remains between 0.1 and 0.3 years. When dividing the YLL by the number of

  9. Transpalpebral eye enucleation in the standing horse

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christophersen, Mogens Teken

    Transpalpebral eye enucleation in the standing horse. The Nordic Equine Veterinary Conference, Proceedings, Copenhagen. Denmark. Nov. 2011.......Transpalpebral eye enucleation in the standing horse. The Nordic Equine Veterinary Conference, Proceedings, Copenhagen. Denmark. Nov. 2011....

  10. Four Legged Healers: Horse Culture as Medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    White Plume, Jessica

    2016-01-01

    For tribal communities to overcome the health disparities that plague them, they need to honor Indigenous healthcare paradigms. The Horse Nation Initiative at Nueta Hidatsa Sahnish College embraces the people's historical connection to the horse as an avenue to wellness.

  11. Species Identification, Strain Differentiation, and Antifungal Susceptibility of Dermatophyte Species Isolated From Clinically Infected Arabian Horses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    El Damaty, Hend M; Tartor, Yasmine H; Mahmmod, Yasser Saadeldien Ibrahim

    2017-01-01

    Arabian horses, the eldest equine breeds, have great economic and social significance for its long, unique, and storied history. Molecular characterization of dermatophyte species affecting Arabian horses is a crucial necessity for epidemiologic and therapeutic purposes. The objective of this study...... are more effective against T. mentagrophytes and T. verrucosum. In conclusion, PCR-RFLP technique is a reliable tool for the identification of dermatophyte species from Arabian horses. Internal transcribed spacer sequencing provides a precise and useful technique for the identification and differentiation...

  12. Horse Husbandry and Preventive Health Practices in Australia: An Online Survey of Horse Guardians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Kirrilly R; Clarkson, Larissa; Riley, Christopher B; van den Berg, Mariette

    2018-02-08

    Little is known about the horse health management practices of Australian horse caregivers (owners). This article presents findings from a convenience sample of 505 horse owners who participated in an online survey. No large-scale welfare issues were identified, but there were some areas of potential concern, including owners who did not regularly deworm their horses (4%), a lack of strategic parasite control (3.1%), and a lack of regular dental care (11%). Several participants did not have their horse's hooves regularly shod or trimmed (2%), and 14% had an unqualified person maintain their horse's hooves. One in five owners (19%) did not vaccinate their horses against tetanus. The findings are discussed in relation to current Australian horse health guidelines and traditional sources of horse health information, together with recommendations for providing horse owners with relevant information in relevant forms.

  13. Periorbital skull fractures in five horses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caron, J.P.; Barber, S.M.; Bailey, J.V.; Fretz, P.B.; Pharr, J.W.

    1986-01-01

    Periorbital skull fractures were diagnosed in 5 horses, and were associated with ophthalmic complications including corneal ulceration, uveitis, and entrapment of the eye by retrobulbar bone fragments. Physical examination was of greater diagnostic use than radiography. Surgical repair was performed on all horses and was associated with a more favorable postoperative appearance in horses treated acutely; however, the cosmetic results were considered acceptable in all horses. Major postoperative complications were not observed

  14. Paediatric horse-related trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theodore, Jane E; Theodore, Sigrid G; Stockton, Kellie A; Kimble, Roy M

    2017-06-01

    This retrospective cohort study reported on the epidemiology of horse-related injuries for patients presenting to the only tertiary paediatric trauma hospital in Queensland. The secondary outcome was to examine the use of helmets and adult supervision. Traumatic brain injury (TBI) was examined in relation to helmet use. Morbidity and mortality were also recorded. Included were all patients presenting with any horse-related trauma to the Royal Children's Hospital in Brisbane from January 2008 to August 2014. Data were retrospectively collected on patient demographics, hospital length of stay (LOS), mechanism of injury (MOI), safety precautions taken, diagnoses and surgical procedures performed. Included in the analysis were 187 incidents involving 171 patients. Most patients were aged 12-14 years (36.9%) and female (84.5%). The most common MOI were falls while riding horses (97.1%). Mild TBI (24.6%) and upper limb fractures (20.9%) were common injuries sustained. Patients who wore helmets had significantly reduced hospital LOS and severity of TBI when compared with those who did not wear helmets (P horses, in addition to being a compulsory requirement whilst horse riding. Prompts in documentation may assist doctors to record the use of safety attire and adult supervision. This will allow future studies to further investigate these factors in relation to clinical outcomes. © 2017 Paediatrics and Child Health Division (The Royal Australasian College of Physicians).

  15. Esophageal Dysfunction in Friesian Horses: Morphological Features

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ploeg, M.; Grone, A.; Saey, V.; Bruijn, de C.M.; Back, W.; Weeren, van P.R.; Scheideman, W.; Picavet, T.; Ducro, B.J.; Wijnberg, I.; Delesalle, C.

    2015-01-01

    Megaesophagus appears to be more common in Friesian horses than in other breeds. A prevalence of approximately 2% was observed among Friesian horses presented to the Wolvega Equine Clinic and the Utrecht University Equine Clinic. In this study, morphologic changes in the esophagi of Friesian horses

  16. Three-dimensional shuffling of horses in a strike-slip duplex: an example from the Lambertville sill, New Jersey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laney, Stephen E.; Gates, Alexander E.

    1996-06-01

    Detailed analysis of a dextral strike-slip duplex within the relatively isotropic rocks of the Lambertville sill, New Jersey indicates that horses have experienced vertical, horizontal and oblique movements resulting from extrusional shuffling within a restraining bend. This is the first documentation of the three-dimensional movement of horses within a strike-slip duplex. Deformation within the duplex shows a complex system of early synthetic fractures and reverse faults followed by antithetic fractures which dissect previously continuous slab-shaped horses into diamond-shaped lenses. Most faults are oblique slip. Antithetic fault movements and clockwise rigid rotation of horses dominate the south half of the duplex and synthetic movements and counterclockwise rotations dominate the north half. Slickenline plunges on curved horse-bounding fault surfaces within the duplex range from nearly horizontal to 40° resulting in both lateral movements (middle) to normal movements (tails) on a single horse. Curved slickensides commonly have opposite senses of movement on either side of individual horses indicating relative emergence or submergence. Such a geometry could also result from a group of horses moving in the same oblique direction but at different rates. These complex extrusional-type movements were observed in both cross-sectional and plan views. The net result of the movements is a contraction or flattening of the duplex normal to the bounding faults. The horses shifted to accommodate this flattening as overall displacement was transferred between the bounding faults along curved internal faults.

  17. Lyme neuroborreliosis in 2 horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imai, D M; Barr, B C; Daft, B; Bertone, J J; Feng, S; Hodzic, E; Johnston, J M; Olsen, K J; Barthold, S W

    2011-11-01

    Lyme neuroborreliosis--characterized as chronic, necrosuppurative to nonsuppurative, perivascular to diffuse meningoradiculoneuritis--was diagnosed in 2 horses with progressive neurologic disease. In 1 horse, Borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto was identified by polymerase chain reaction amplification of B burgdorferi sensu stricto-specific gene targets (ospA, ospC, flaB, dbpA, arp). Highest spirochetal burdens were in tissues with inflammation, including spinal cord, muscle, and joint capsule. Sequence analysis of ospA, ospC, and flaB revealed 99.9% sequence identity to the respective genes in B burgdorferi strain 297, an isolate from a human case of neuroborreliosis. In both horses, spirochetes were visualized in affected tissues with Steiner silver impregnation and by immunohistochemistry, predominantly within the dense collagenous tissue of the dura mater and leptomeninges.

  18. Eesti Gaas. Inspection of Kohtal-Jaerve - Tallinn pipeline. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-11-01

    The project `Inspection of Pipelines in Estonia` was funded by Danish government and was carried out in collaboration between DONG, Balslev and FORCE. By agreement between Eesti Gaas and DONG, the pipeline system between Kohtla-Jaerve and Tallinn was selected for inspection. This pipeline system has a total length of 176.9 km. The objective of the project has been, based on detailed inspection of relative short lengths of pipe, to determine the integrity of the pipeline and to give advice concerning the continued use as a high pressure transmission pipeline. The objectives have been met as set out by the project Proposal with the investigation and this report as follows: Based on a document review together with the measurements and observations in the field and in the laboratory, the condition of approximately 5 km of the pipeline has been evaluated; Recommendations are given in this report with the aim of extending the life of the pipeline. A further objective has been to provide know-how transfer in order to permit Eesti Gaas to run similar inspections on other parts of their transmission system. (EG)

  19. Fatal traffic injuries among children and adolescents in three cities (capital Budapest, Vilnius, and Tallinn).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Töro, Klára; Szilvia, Fehér; György, Dunay; Pauliukevicius, Alvydas; Caplinskiene, Marija; Raudys, Romas; Lepik, Delia; Tuusov, Jana; Vali, Marika

    2011-05-01

    Motor vehicle accidental injuries are a frequent cause of death among young children and adolescents. The goal of this study was to compare patterns of injury between three capitals (Budapest, Vilnius, and Tallinn). Information on 190 fatal traffic accidents (69 pedestrians, 14 bicyclists, and 107 motor vehicle occupants) between 2002 and 2006 was collected from databases of medico-legal autopsies. The role of victims in accidents, the location of injuries, cause of death, survival period, and blood alcohol levels were evaluated. One-hundred and forty-one (74%) victims had a passive role in traffic as pedestrians, passengers in cars, or public transport. In victims who died at the scene, the rate of head injury was higher than in cases who received medical treatment (odds ratio = 2.58, CI = 1.2-5.55, p = 0.0127). These results underline the importance of postmortem studies to examine the pathomechanism of fatal traffic accidental injuries and to provide information for the prevention of road traffic accidents against children and adolescents. © 2011 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  20. TRENDS IN URBAN STORM WATER QUALITY IN TALLINN AND INFLUENCES FROM STORMFLOW AND BASEFLOW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bharat Maharjan

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Temporal trends provide a good interpretation of change in stormwater quality over time. This study aimed to analyse trends and influences due to stormflow and baseflow. Grab samples of 18-19 years from 1995 to 2014 recorded at outlets of 7 Tallinn watersheds were analysed for monotonic trend through seasonal Mann Kendall test for long-term, short-term, baseflow and stormflow. Statistically significant downward trends (P-value (p 0.05 and < 0.2 for 3 – SS, 1 – BOD, 1 – TN and 1 – TP were identified. Statistically significant long-term upward trends of pH were revealed in 5 basins, which reduced to 2 with 5 less significant upward trends over the 10 year period, indicating improvements in pH reduction. Härjapea has the highest pH without trend but it includes an upward trend of TN at p = 0.051. The highly possible causes for downward trends are street sweeping, sewer network improvement, decline in sub-urban agricultural areas, etc. The upward trend results of pH are related to increased alkalinisation due to acidic rain, weathering of carbonate rocks, sewage discharge and alkaline road dust. In most of the basins, stormflow has more influence on trends than baseflow.

  1. Method for Pedestrian Crossing Risk Assessment and Safety Level Determination: the Case Study of Tallinn

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pashkevich, M.; Krasilnikova, A.; Antov, D.

    2016-07-01

    Pedestrians are a part of vulnerable road users which safety requires a special attention. Official statistics in Estonia from the last decade returns the following numbers: around 30 % of all road traffic accidents in the country were accidents with pedestrians, 32 % of all traffic fatalities were finished with pedestrian death. Pedestrian crossing has the biggest risk level between all kinds of pedestrian facilities, because it includes a direct conflict point between vehicle and pedestrian traffics. The article presents a method to assess risk of pedestrian crossing users and to determine safety level of this road infrastructure element. This approach is based on observation and collection of infrastructural as well as traffic data, which includes: (1) information about each pedestrian crossing facility, its location and state, (2) data about accidents with pedestrians and their features, (3) data from road traffic measurements. The main advantages of the described method are universality and comprehensiveness. The case study was done in Kristiine district of the city Tallinn, which was chosen as the most typical average district of Estonian capital. Results of this study are also presented in the article. (Author)

  2. Molecular epidemiology of Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis isolated from horses in California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haas, Dionei J; Dorneles, Elaine M S; Spier, Sharon J; Carroll, Scott P; Edman, Judy; Azevedo, Vasco A; Heinemann, Marcos B; Lage, Andrey P

    2017-04-01

    Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis biovar Equi is an important pathogen of horses. It is increasing in frequency in the United States, and is responsible for various clinical forms of infection, including external abscesses, internal abscesses of the abdominal or thoracic cavities, and ulcerative lymphangitis. The host/pathogen factors dictating the form or severity of infection are currently unknown. Our recent investigations have shown that genotyping C. pseudotuberculosis isolates using enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus (ERIC)-PCR is useful for understanding the evolutionary genetics of the species as well for molecular epidemiology studies. The aims of the present study were to assess (i) the genetic diversity of C. pseudotuberculosis strains isolated from horses in California, United States and (ii) the epidemiologic relationships among isolates. One hundred and seven C. pseudotuberculosis biovar Equi isolates from ninety-five horses, and two C. pseudotuberculosis biovar Ovis strains, C. pseudotuberculosis ATCC 19410 T type strain and C. pseudotuberculosis 1002 vaccine strain, were fingerprinted using the ERIC 1+2-PCR. C. pseudotuberculosis isolated from horses showed a high genetic diversity, clustering in twenty-seven genotypes with a diversity index of 0.91. Minimal spanning tree showed four major clonal complexes with a pattern of temporal clustering. Strains isolated from the same horse showed identical ERIC 1+2-PCR genotype, with the exception of two strains isolated from the same animal that showed distinct genotypes, suggesting a co-infection. We found no strong genetic signals related to clinical form (including internal versus external infections). However, temporal clustering of genotypes was observed. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  3. Temperature regulation in horses during exercise and recovery in a cool environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wallsten Hanna

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Clipping the winter coat in horses is done to improve heat dissipation during exercise and make grooming easier. It is often combined with blanketing to keep the horse warm. The aims of the present study were to investigate how clipping and the use of blankets affect thermoregulation during exercise and recovery in horses. Methods One Gotland pony, one New Forest pony, and one warm-blooded horse exercised one after the other on a 6450 m long track. The horses walked, trotted and cantered according to a predetermined scheme, which took about 50 minutes including three stops. The scheme was repeated on five consecutive days when horses were: 1 unclipped 2 unclipped + blanket during recovery, 3 left or right side clipped, 4 clipped, and 5 clipped + riding blanket + blanket during recovery. Heart rate (HR was measured with telemetry, respiratory rate (RR by counting flank contractions, skin temperatures by thermistor probes, and rectal temperature with a digital thermometer. Skin wetness (SW was estimated by ocular inspection (dripping = 5, dry = 0. Results Mean outdoor temperature varied from -1.1 to - 8.7°C. HR increased progressively during exercise with no difference between treatments. Maximum RR was 77 ± 30 breaths/min (unclipped and 49 ± 27 breaths/min (clipped. The lowest skin temperature was 17.5 ± 2.7°C in a hind leg during exercise, which increased to 34.5 ± 0.1°C during recovery. Rectal temperature was elevated during recovery in unclipped, but not in clipped horses and skin temperature at base of tail was elevated during recovery except in unclipped horses without blanket. Moisture after exercise scored 3.2 ± 0.8 in unclipped and zero in clipped horses. Discussion and conclusion Leg skin temperature initially dropped at onset of exercise in clipped horses, and then increased after about 30 minutes due to internal heat from the working muscles. These changes were not significant when

  4. Comparison of body conformation of Moravian warm-blooded horse and Sarvar horse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jana Šamková

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Measurements of 7 body measures and 6 indices of body conformation on 34 breeding individuals of Moravian warm-blooded horse and 19 of Sarvar horse (Leutstettener were used to analyse the effect of country of origin (Czech Republik, Germany, sire lines or breed (Furioso, Przedswit, English thoroughbred, Sarvar, Others and age (4 classes. All horses were measured by one person. Measures and indexes were analysed by GLM procedure. Significant differences were found between both Czech and German population only in index of body frame. Sarvar horses are longer to their height than Moravian warm-blooded horses. The shorter body frame have the horses by English thoroughbred, the longer by Furioso. The younger horses are higher than the older. According to results of Linear Description of Body Conformation we found out, that population of Sarvar horse is more balanced than population of Moravian warm-blooded horse.

  5. A Trojan Horse in Birmingham

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yarker, Patrick

    2014-01-01

    "Trojan Horse" has become journalistic shorthand for an apparent attempt by a small group in East Birmingham to secure control of local non-faith schools and impose policies and practices in keeping with the very conservative (Salafist and Wahhabi) version of Islam which they hold. In this article, Pat Yarker gives an account of two…

  6. Invisible Trojan-horse attack

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sajeed, Shihan; Minshull, Carter; Jain, Nitin

    2017-01-01

    We demonstrate the experimental feasibility of a Trojan-horse attack that remains nearly invisible to the single-photon detectors employed in practical quantum key distribution (QKD) systems, such as Clavis2 from ID Quantique. We perform a detailed numerical comparison of the attack performance...

  7. Morphological evolution of Bardigiano horse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.L. Catalano

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The Bardigiano horse is a local breed of the province of Parma. Since the institution of the Stud Book in 1977, the breed has improved its diffusion and is currently present with 110 stallions and over 1700 mares in 43 provinces in Italy and beyond that in Germany, Switzerland and Hungary.

  8. Increased adrenocortical response to adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) in sport horses with equine glandular gastric disease (EGGD).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheidegger, M D; Gerber, V; Bruckmaier, R M; van der Kolk, J H; Burger, D; Ramseyer, A

    2017-10-01

    This study tested the hypothesis that adrenocortical function would be altered in horses with equine gastric ulcer syndrome (EGUS). Twenty-six sport horses competing at national or international levels in eventing (n=15) or endurance (n=11) were subjected to a gastroscopic examination and an adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) stimulation test. Salivary cortisol concentrations were measured before (baseline) and after (30, 60, 90, 120 and 150min) IV ACTH injection (1μg/kg bodyweight). Within EGUS, two distinct diseases, equine squamous gastric disease (ESGD) and equine glandular gastric disease (EGGD), can be distinguished. ESGD was diagnosed in 8/11 (73%; 95% confidence intervals [95%CI], 43-92%) endurance horses and 5/15 (33%; 95% CI, 14-58%) eventing horses. EGGD was observed in 9/11 (82%; 95% CI, 53-96%) endurance horses and 9/15 (60%; 95% CI, 35-81%) eventing horses. The presence or severity of ESGD was unrelated to the presence or severity of EGGD. ACTH stimulation induced a larger increase in cortisol concentration in horses with moderate EGGD than in horses with mild EGGD. Cortisol concentration during the entire sampling period (total increase in cortisol concentration during the entire sampling period [dAUC], 31.1±6.4ng/mL) and the highest measured concentration at a single time point (maximal increase in cortisol concentration [dMAX], 10.3±2.3ng/mL) were increased (P=0.005 and P=0.038, respectively), indicating that horses with glandular gastric disease exhibited increased adrenocortical responses to ACTH stimulation. These results suggest that EGGD might be associated with an enhanced adrenocortical sensitivity. Further investigations are warranted to confirm the association between adrenocortical sensitivity and EGGD and to elucidate the pathophysiological mechanisms involved. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Role of environment in strengthening competitiveness of cities by example of European Green Capitals and Tallinn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jüri Ratas

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Guaranteeing a high-level living environment is one of the most important preconditions to the balanced and sustainable economic and social development of the European Union. Serious environmental problems can be seen in European cities, which are the places where most of the population live and which create the highest number of jobs, economic growth and added value. The level of urbanisation in Europe was 72.7% in 2010 and the UN forecast that it will increase to 82.2% by 2050. The European Green Capital Award was created in 2006 in order to recognise cities that have contributed to the improvement of their quality of life. The cities that have won the award have started using the most innovative and efficient measures for increasing the city’s competitiveness, and are an example of how to achieve sustainable development for all cities, not just capitals. The environmental indicators of cities that have won the European Green Capital Award are high. In this article the problem is analysed using the example of Tallinn, the capital of Estonia, which strives for a place among cities with the highest quality of life in Europe. The objective of this article is to analyse the areas of the city’s environmental activities and environmental organisation in the context of increasing competitiveness. The original database used by the author in this article consists of the responses given by the governments of the cities who have already been awarded the title of European Green Capital when asked to describe the impact that applying for and achieving the title had on their cities

  10. SOME SLAUGHTER-HOUSE RATES OF HORSES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vlasta Mandić

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available Nowdays horses are raised and used almost only for sport and recreation and, of course, for meat production. With the possibility of buying fresh horse meat and products based on horse meat, new eating habits have been acquired. The number of horses in the Republic of Croatia has been decreasing continually, which can result in import rather than in export of horse meat, unless a proper and a good breeding plan for horse meat production is made soon. In existing small private slaughter-houses, together with other animals, horses are slaughtered but in a very small number (just to meet the needs of the market. As those horses are of different genetic bases, (mostly cold blooded and cross-bred as well as of different age, sex and physical shape, the slaughter-house yield greatly varies. Due to some injuries, blindenss or lameness horses are killed coercively as to gain minimal profit. In distinction from other animals where the percentage of carcass yield is very high, sloughter-house yield of horse carcass is not high due to a small number of killed animals

  11. ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS AFFECTING RACING TIME OF TROTTER HORSES IN SERBIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ljuba Štrbac

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Speed, the most important trait in trotter horses, forms the basis for examining their racing ability, and is calculated according to the time it takes to run a certain distance. The phenotypic manifestation of a horse’s speed is controlled by numerous genes and larger or smaller impacts of environmental factors. To improve trotter horse selection to be more successful and faster in genetic progress it is very important to determine the impacts of such gene-related and environmental factors. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of year and month of birth, sex, year and season of race, age, racetrack, distance and type of start on trotter horse racing times. Data from the Association for Trotting Sport of Serbia (UKSS for the registered horses and races in the period from 1998 to 2010 were used. The database is comprised of data for 1263 horses over a total of 14398 races. After calculating descriptive statistics of racing times, the effect of fixed factors using the general linear model (GLM was examined. The average racing time achieved was 84.21s, and ranged from 73.8 to 132.2s. All of the tested factors had a statistically significant effect on the observed racing times. Thus, each of these factors should be included in future models for genetic prediction of the suitability of animals use as parents of further generations of racing trotters. This should increase the rate of genetic progress and competitiveness of the animals at both national and international levels.

  12. Training young horses to social separation: Effect of a companion horse on training efficiency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hartmann, E.; Christensen, Janne Winther; Keeling, LJ

    2011-01-01

    : To investigate whether the initial presence of a familiar companion horse modifies responses to separation from the group, lowers stress levels (as measured by heart rate) and increases training efficiency. Hypothesis: Habituation to separation proceeds more quickly if the horse is first trained with a companion......Reasons for performing study: The intensity with which a horse responds to separation from its group and subsequently to being alone is relevant for both horse and handler safety. Identification of training methods that may reduce responses to separation would be useful in practice. Objectives......, and heart rate is lower when the horse is subsequently trained alone, compared to control horses trained individually from the start. Methods: Young mares (n = 32), kept in groups of 4 were exposed to social separation: 2 horses of the group were trained singly (S1, n = 16) and the remaining 2 horses (n...

  13. [Stomach ulcers in the horse--clinical and gastroscopic findings in 12 horses (1989-1990)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dieckmann, M; Deegen, E

    1991-08-01

    Twelve horses with clinical symptoms of a gastric disorder were studied by gastroscopy. Symptoms of gastric disorders were periprandial colic, bruxism, ructus and reflux. Preliminary to gastroscopy the horses were fasted for 24 h. Access to water was not restricted. The gastroscopy could be conducted easily using a fiberscope 2.5 m in length and 11 mm in outer diameter. While ulcers were present in the squamous fundus of all horses only one horse showed ulceration of the glandular fundus. Solitary ulcers near the margo plicatus were found in horses with mild clinical symptoms. In contrast, diffuse gastroesophageal ulceration was accompanied by severe clinical symptoms. Four horses were affected by an acute gastroesophageal ulceration with gastric reflux and subsequent aspiration pneumonia. Two of those horses suffered from acute gastric ulceration 3-4 days following laparatomy. All horses were treated with cimetidine (5 mg/kg bwt/q.i.d.) until clinical symptoms ceased.

  14. Autosomal genetic diversity in non-breed horses from eastern Eurasia provides insights into historical population movements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warmuth, Vera; Manica, Andrea; Eriksson, Anders; Barker, Graeme; Bower, Mim

    2013-02-01

    Many events in the history of eastern Eurasia, including the process of domestication itself, the initial spread of domestic horses and subsequent movements, are believed to have affected the genetic structure of domestic horse populations in this area. We investigated levels of within- and between-population genetic diversity in 'non-breed horses' (working horses sampled in remote areas) from 17 locations in Asia and parts of Eastern Europe, using 26 autosomal microsatellite loci. Non-breed horses have not been subject to the same intensity of artificial selection and closed breeding as have most breed animals and are thus expected to better reflect the population history of domestic horses. Despite geographic distances of between 300 and 7000 km between sampling locations, pairwise F (ST) was very low (range: <0.001 to -0.033), suggesting historically high levels of gene flow. Our analyses of non-breed horses revealed a pattern of isolation by distance and a significant decline in genetic diversity (expected heterozygosity and allelic richness) from east to west, consistent with a westward expansion of horses out of East Asia. Although the timing of this putative expansion is unclear, our results highlight the benefit of studying animals that do not belong to particular breeds when investigating aspects of a population's history. © 2012 The Authors, Animal Genetics © 2012 Stichting International Foundation for Animal Genetics.

  15. Entomologic evaluation of insect hypersensitivity in horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greiner, E C

    1995-04-01

    Potential methods of incriminating insects as the cause of insect hypersensitivity are presented. A listing of the biting midges known to attack horses in North America is presented also. An example of how species may be determined to be the cause of the hypersensitivity is given using data from a recent study in Florida. Light trap collections indicated the temporal and geographic distribution of potential contributing species and collections made by vacuuming horses further delineated species by proving they feed on horses and the correct locations on the horses to match lesion distribution. Culicoides hypersensitivity in horses in Florida seems to be caused by a series of species active and feeding on the horses at different times of the year.

  16. Keeping horses in groups: A review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hartmann, Elke; Søndergaard, Eva; Keeling, Linda J.

    2012-01-01

    Although husbandry conditions for horses have improved over the last decades, many horses are still kept singly with limited or no physical contact to other horses. This is surprising, given the fact that keeping horses in groups is recognised best to fulfil their physical and behavioural needs......, especially their need for social contact with conspecifics, as well as to have a beneficial effect on horse–human interactions during training. Group housing of farm animals is widely applied in practice. As a consequence, scientists have investigated numerous aspects of group housing to help further improve...... animal welfare and human–animal interactions under these conditions. However, compared to this literature available in farm animals, and the plentiful studies conducted of feral horse populations, there is much less done when it comes to the management of horses kept in groups in the domestic environment...

  17. Environmental Assessment for Wild Horse Gathering Inside and Outside Wild Horse Herd Management Areas

    OpenAIRE

    United States Department of the Interior, Bureau of Land Management

    1999-01-01

    Enclosed you will find the Environmental Assessment (EA) which describes the impacts of gathering wild horses in the Rock Springs Field Office area. Gathering wild horses would take place in the Great Divide Basin, White Mountain, Little Colorado, and Salt Wells Creek Wild Horse Herd Management Areas (HMA) and in an area known as the North Baxter/Jack Morrow area (outside the HMAs).

  18. Copy Number Variation in the Horse Genome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Sharmila; Qu, Zhipeng; Das, Pranab J.; Fang, Erica; Juras, Rytis; Cothran, E. Gus; McDonell, Sue; Kenney, Daniel G.; Lear, Teri L.; Adelson, David L.; Chowdhary, Bhanu P.; Raudsepp, Terje

    2014-01-01

    We constructed a 400K WG tiling oligoarray for the horse and applied it for the discovery of copy number variations (CNVs) in 38 normal horses of 16 diverse breeds, and the Przewalski horse. Probes on the array represented 18,763 autosomal and X-linked genes, and intergenic, sub-telomeric and chrY sequences. We identified 258 CNV regions (CNVRs) across all autosomes, chrX and chrUn, but not in chrY. CNVs comprised 1.3% of the horse genome with chr12 being most enriched. American Miniature horses had the highest and American Quarter Horses the lowest number of CNVs in relation to Thoroughbred reference. The Przewalski horse was similar to native ponies and draft breeds. The majority of CNVRs involved genes, while 20% were located in intergenic regions. Similar to previous studies in horses and other mammals, molecular functions of CNV-associated genes were predominantly in sensory perception, immunity and reproduction. The findings were integrated with previous studies to generate a composite genome-wide dataset of 1476 CNVRs. Of these, 301 CNVRs were shared between studies, while 1174 were novel and require further validation. Integrated data revealed that to date, 41 out of over 400 breeds of the domestic horse have been analyzed for CNVs, of which 11 new breeds were added in this study. Finally, the composite CNV dataset was applied in a pilot study for the discovery of CNVs in 6 horses with XY disorders of sexual development. A homozygous deletion involving AKR1C gene cluster in chr29 in two affected horses was considered possibly causative because of the known role of AKR1C genes in testicular androgen synthesis and sexual development. While the findings improve and integrate the knowledge of CNVs in horses, they also show that for effective discovery of variants of biomedical importance, more breeds and individuals need to be analyzed using comparable methodological approaches. PMID:25340504

  19. Copy number variation in the horse genome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharmila Ghosh

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available We constructed a 400K WG tiling oligoarray for the horse and applied it for the discovery of copy number variations (CNVs in 38 normal horses of 16 diverse breeds, and the Przewalski horse. Probes on the array represented 18,763 autosomal and X-linked genes, and intergenic, sub-telomeric and chrY sequences. We identified 258 CNV regions (CNVRs across all autosomes, chrX and chrUn, but not in chrY. CNVs comprised 1.3% of the horse genome with chr12 being most enriched. American Miniature horses had the highest and American Quarter Horses the lowest number of CNVs in relation to Thoroughbred reference. The Przewalski horse was similar to native ponies and draft breeds. The majority of CNVRs involved genes, while 20% were located in intergenic regions. Similar to previous studies in horses and other mammals, molecular functions of CNV-associated genes were predominantly in sensory perception, immunity and reproduction. The findings were integrated with previous studies to generate a composite genome-wide dataset of 1476 CNVRs. Of these, 301 CNVRs were shared between studies, while 1174 were novel and require further validation. Integrated data revealed that to date, 41 out of over 400 breeds of the domestic horse have been analyzed for CNVs, of which 11 new breeds were added in this study. Finally, the composite CNV dataset was applied in a pilot study for the discovery of CNVs in 6 horses with XY disorders of sexual development. A homozygous deletion involving AKR1C gene cluster in chr29 in two affected horses was considered possibly causative because of the known role of AKR1C genes in testicular androgen synthesis and sexual development. While the findings improve and integrate the knowledge of CNVs in horses, they also show that for effective discovery of variants of biomedical importance, more breeds and individuals need to be analyzed using comparable methodological approaches.

  20. Genetic analysis of the Venezuelan Criollo horse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cothran, E G; Canelon, J L; Luis, C; Conant, E; Juras, R

    2011-10-07

    Various horse populations in the Americas have an origin in Spain; they are remnants of the first livestock introduced to the continent early in the colonial period (16th and 17th centuries). We evaluated genetic variability within the Venezuelan Criollo horse and its relationship with other horse breeds. We observed high levels of genetic diversity within the Criollo breed. Significant population differentiation was observed between all South American breeds. The Venezuelan Criollo horse showed high levels of genetic diversity, and from a conservation standpoint, there is no immediate danger of losing variation unless there is a large drop in population size.

  1. Occurrence of Wounds in Nigerian Horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agina, Onyinyechukwu A; Ihedioha, John I

    2017-01-01

    This study investigated the occurrence of wounds in Nigerian horses. The study population was 1,621 horses sold at the Obollo Afor horse lairage in Enugu State, Nigeria, during a 6-month period: 3 months of dry season and 3 months of rainy season (February-April and June-August 2012). A total of 207 horses were systematically sampled and subjected to a comprehensive physical examination. Those with wounds were marked, recorded, and clinically examined. Of the 207 horses sampled, 21 (10.1%) had wounds. The body distribution of the wounds was 9.5% head, 9.5% forelimbs, 19.1% hind limbs, 4.8% tail, 14.3% flank, 9.5% loin, 19.1% hip, 9.5% barrel, and 4.8% croup. The occurrence of the wounds was not significantly associated with sex or season, but the occurrence in adults was significantly (p horses. It was concluded that the occurrence of wounds is relatively high (10.1%), and mainly the hind limbs, hip, and flank of adult horses are affected. It was recommended that horse guardians and handlers should be properly educated on the care of horses.

  2. Discospondylitis in an adult horse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hillyer, M.H.; Innes, J.F.; Patteson, M.W.; Barr, A.R.S.

    1996-01-01

    Discospondylitis, of presumed bacterial origin, was diagnosed in an adult thoroughbred racehorse. The clinical signs were vague and associated with abnormal mobility of the neck and forelimbs. Clinical pathology showed only a non-specific inflammatory response. A scintigraphic examination revealed the site of the lesion and the diagnosis was confirmed by the identification of radiographic changes affecting two thoracic vertebrae. A prolonged course of antimicrobial agents produced a complete recovery and the horse returned to full athletic use

  3. Coagulation profiles of healthy Andalusian donkeys are different than those of healthy horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendoza, F J; Perez-Ecija, R A; Monreal, L; Estepa, J C

    2011-01-01

    Coagulation disorders are frequently diagnosed, especially in hospitalized equidae, and result in increased morbidity and mortality. However, hemostatic reference intervals have not been established for donkeys yet. To determine whether the most common coagulation parameters used in equine practice are different between healthy donkeys and horses. Thirty-eight healthy donkeys and 29 healthy horses. Blood samples were collected to assess both coagulation and fibrinolytic systems by determination of platelet count, fibrinogen concentration, clotting times (prothrombin time [PT] and activated partial thromboplastin time [aPTT]), fibrin degradation products (FDP) and D-Dimer concentrations. PT and aPTT in donkeys were significantly (P donkeys than in horses. The coagulation parameters most commonly determined in equine practice are different in donkeys compared with horses. Thus, the use of normal reference ranges reported previously for healthy horses in donkeys might lead to a misdiagnosis of coagulopathy in healthy donkeys, and unnecessary treatments in sick donkeys. This is the first report of normal coagulation profile results in donkeys, and further studies are warranted to elucidate the physiological mechanisms of the differences observed between donkeys and horses. Copyright © 2011 by the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine.

  4. Accuracy and Precision of Noninvasive Blood Pressure in Normo-, Hyper-, and Hypotensive Standing and Anesthetized Adult Horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heliczer, N; Lorello, O; Casoni, D; Navas de Solis, C

    2016-05-01

    Blood pressure is relevant to the diagnosis and management of many medical, cardiovascular and critical diseases. The accuracy of many commonly used noninvasive blood pressure (NIBP) monitors and the accuracy of NIBP measurements in hypo- and hypertensive standing horses has not been determined. The objective of this study was to investigate the accuracy of an oscillometric BP monitor in standing horses before and during pharmacologically induced hyper- and hypotension and to compare results in standing and anesthetized horses. Eight standing mares from a research herd (SG) and eight anesthetized horses from a hospital population (AG). Prospective experimental and observational studies. Invasive blood pressure (IBP) and NIBP, corrected to heart level, were measured simultaneously. In the SG hyper- and hypotension were induced by administration of phenylephrine (3 μg/kg/min IV for 15 minutes) and acepromazine (0.05 mg/kg IV), respectively. In the AG NIBP and IBP were recorded during regular hospital procedures. There was a significant correlation between mean NIBP and IBP in standing (R = 0.88, P horses (R = 0.81, P horses, but in the SG significant correlation between NIBP and IBP was only detected for the normotensive phase. While the evaluated oscillometric BP device allowed estimation of BP and adequately differentiated marked trends, the accuracy and precision were low in standing horses. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine.

  5. Vertebral body osteomyelitis in the horse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Markel, M.D.; Madigan, J.E.; Lichtensteiger, C.A.; Large, S.M.; Hornof, W.J.

    1986-01-01

    The clinical signs, laboratory data, results of nuclear scintigraphy and radiographic examination of five horses with vertebral body osteomyelitis are described together with response to treatment. Three horses were less than five months of age. Four horses demonstrated hindlimb paresis and in three a focus of pain in the thoracolumbar region could be identified. An umbilical abscess, a caudal lobe lung abscess and a patent urachus were considered primary niduses of infection in each of three horses. Leucocytosis, neutrophilia, anaemia and elevated fibrinogen were the most consistent laboratory abnormalities. Nuclear scintigraphy was performed in three horses and identified the site of the vertebral lesion which was subsequently evaluated radiographically. In the other two horses radiographic examination in the region of areas of focal pain identified a lesion. Radiographic abnormalities included compression fractures of vertebral bodies (two), proliferative new bone (three) and soft tissue swelling ventral to a vertebral body (one). Two horses, including one with a compression fracture of the second lumbar vertebra, received parenteral antimicrobial therapy for 40 and 74 days, respectively. When re-examined six months later they showed no neurological abnormalities. The other three horses failed to respond to antimicrobial treatment and were humanely destroyed. The horse with a lung abscess also had an abscess cranial to the right tuber coxae which extended into the vertebral bodies of the third and fourth lumbar vertebrae from which Streptococcus zooepidemicus was cultured. A horse with proliferative new bone on the ventral aspect of the fifth and sixth thoracic vertebrae had a mediastinal mass associated with these vertebrae and fungal granulomas, from which Aspergillus species was cultured, in the heart and aorta, trachea, spleen and kidney. The horse with a patent urachus and soft tissue swelling ventral to the vertebral body of the 12th thoracic vertebra

  6. Development of a Safety Management Web Tool for Horse Stables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leppälä, Jarkko; Kolstrup, Christina Lunner; Pinzke, Stefan; Rautiainen, Risto; Saastamoinen, Markku; Särkijärvi, Susanna

    2015-11-12

    Managing a horse stable involves risks, which can have serious consequences for the stable, employees, clients, visitors and horses. Existing industrial or farm production risk management tools are not directly applicable to horse stables and they need to be adapted for use by managers of different types of stables. As a part of the InnoEquine project, an innovative web tool, InnoHorse, was developed to support horse stable managers in business, safety, pasture and manure management. A literature review, empirical horse stable case studies, expert panel workshops and stakeholder interviews were carried out to support the design. The InnoHorse web tool includes a safety section containing a horse stable safety map, stable safety checklists, and examples of good practices in stable safety, horse handling and rescue planning. This new horse stable safety management tool can also help in organizing work processes in horse stables in general.

  7. Retsensioon : Riigikogu VII, VIII ja IX koosseis. Statistikat ja kommentaare. Peatoimetaja Aaro Mõttus. Tallinn : Riigikogu Kantselei, Eesti Rahvusraamatukogu, 2004. 326 lk. / Mart Nutt

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Nutt, Mart, 1962-

    2004-01-01

    Arvustus: Riigikogu VII, VIII ja IX koosseis. Statistikat ja kommentaare / peatoim. Aaro Mõttus. Tallinn : Riigikogu Kantselei, Eesti Rahvusraamatukogu, 2004. - Lisatud: Ott Heinapuu tutvustav sõnum retsenseeritud väljaande kohta lk. 193. - Vt. ka: http://www.riigikogu.ee/rito/index.php?id=11357

  8. ALARM, a life saving training program for inpatient mental health care staff. Tallinn, Estland (27-30 augustus 2014) : Oral presentation European Symposium on Suicide and Suicidal Behaviour

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nienke Kool

    2014-01-01

    Oral presentation European Symposium on Suicide and Suicidal Behaviour. Titel: ALARM, a life saving training program for inpatient mental health care staff. Tallinn, Estland (27-30 augustus 2014) Introduction Despite precautions, suicide does happen. Sometimes patients are found while attempting

  9. International humanitarian law applied to cyber-warfare: Precautions, proportionality and the notion of ‘attack’ under the humanitarian law of armed conflict

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gill, T.D.; Tsagourias, N.; Buchan, R.

    2015-01-01

    This chapter examines the application of international humanitarian law to cyber warfare in the sense of rising to the level of an armed conflict. Building upon the work of the Tallinn Manual on the Application of International Law to Cyber Warfare, it places particular emphasis on the application

  10. Rutgers Young Horse Teaching and Research Program: sustainability of taking a risk with "at risk" horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ralston, Sarah L; Molnar, Anne

    2012-12-01

    In 1999, the Young Horse Teaching and Research Program (YHTRP) was initiated at Rutgers University. The unique aspect of the program was using horses generally considered "at risk" and in need of rescue, but of relatively low value. The risks of using horses from pregnant mare urine (PMU) ranches and Bureau of Land Management (BLM) mustangs were high, but, ultimately, unrealized. No students or staff members were seriously injured over the course of the next 12 yr, and the horses were sold annually as highly desirable potential athletes or pleasure horses, usually at a profit. The use of "at risk" horses generated a significant amount of positive media attention and attracted substantial funding in the form of donations and sponsorships, averaging over $60,000 (USD)per year. Despite economic downturns, public and industry support provided sustainability for the program with only basic University infrastructural support. Taking the risk of using "at risk" horses paid off, with positive outcomes for all.

  11. Relevance of test information in horse breeding

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ducro, B.J.

    2011-01-01

    The aims of this study were 1) to determine the role of test results of young

    horses in selection for sport performance, 2) to assess the genetic diversity

    of a closed horse breed and 3) the consequences of inbreeding for male

    reproduction. The study was

  12. Incomplete linear tibial fractures in two horses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, P.J.; Allhands, R.V.; Baker, G.J.; Boero, M.J.; Foreman, J.H.; Hyyppa, T.; Huhn, J.C.

    1988-01-01

    Incomplete linear tibial fractures were identified in two horses with the aid of scintigraphy. Both horses were treated successfully by strict stall confinement, and both returned to normal athletic activity. Scintigraphy can be used to facilitate the generally difficult diagnosis of incomplete tibial fractures

  13. Exploring the virome of diseased horses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Linlin; Giannitti, Federico; Low, Jason; Keyes, Casey; Ullmann, Leila S.; Deng, Xutao; Aleman, Monica; Pesavento, Patricia A.; Pusterla, Nicola

    2015-01-01

    Metagenomics was used to characterize viral genomes in clinical specimens of horses with various organ-specific diseases of unknown aetiology. A novel parvovirus as well as a previously described hepacivirus closely related to human hepatitis C virus and equid herpesvirus 2 were identified in the cerebrospinal fluid of horses with neurological signs. Four co-infecting picobirnaviruses, including an unusual genome with fused RNA segments, and a divergent anellovirus were found in the plasma of two febrile horses. A novel cyclovirus genome was characterized from the nasal secretion of another febrile animal. Lastly, a small circular DNA genome with a Rep gene, from a virus we called kirkovirus, was identified in the liver and spleen of a horse with fatal idiopathic hepatopathy. This study expands the number of viruses found in horses, and characterizes their genomes to assist future epidemiological studies of their transmission and potential association with various equine diseases. PMID:26044792

  14. Culicoides species attracted to horses with and without insect hypersensitivity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rijt, van der R.; Boom, van den R.; Jongema, Y.; Sloet van Oldruitenborgh-Oosterbaan, M.M.

    2008-01-01

    The aims of this study were to determine (1) which species of Culicoides is most commonly attracted to horses, (2) whether horses suffering insect hypersensitivity attract more Culicoides spp. than unaffected horses, and (3) the times when Culicoides spp. are most active. Horses affected by insect

  15. 29 CFR 780.122 - Activities relating to race horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Activities relating to race horses. 780.122 Section 780.122... Activities relating to race horses. Employees engaged in the breeding, raising, and training of horses on..., employees engaged in the racing, training, and care of horses and other activities performed off the farm in...

  16. 9 CFR 93.307 - Articles accompanying horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Articles accompanying horses. 93.307... FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Horses § 93.307 Articles accompanying horses. No..., blankets, or other things used for or about horses governed by the regulations this part, shall be landed...

  17. 9 CFR 93.311 - Milk from quarantined horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Milk from quarantined horses. 93.311... FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Horses § 93.311 Milk from quarantined horses. Milk or cream from horses quarantined under the provisions of this part shall not be used by any person other...

  18. 9 CFR 11.4 - Inspection and detention of horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Inspection and detention of horses. 11... AGRICULTURE ANIMAL WELFARE HORSE PROTECTION REGULATIONS § 11.4 Inspection and detention of horses. For the purpose of effective enforcement of the Act: (a) Each horse owner, exhibitor, trainer, or other person...

  19. 9 CFR 93.312 - Manure from quarantined horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Manure from quarantined horses. 93.312... FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Horses § 93.312 Manure from quarantined horses. No manure shall be removed from the quarantine premises until the release of the horses producing same. ...

  20. 9 CFR 93.317 - Horses from Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Horses from Canada. 93.317 Section 93... CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Horses Canada 16 § 93.317 Horses from Canada. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (c) of this section, horses from Canada shall be inspected as provided in § 93.306; shall be...

  1. Effect of early training on the jumping technique of horses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Santamaría, Susana; Bobbert, Maarten F.; Back, Willem; Barneveld, Ab; van Weeren, P. Rene

    Objective - To investigate the effects of early training for jumping by comparing the jumping technique of horses that had received early training with that of horses raised conventionally. Animals - 40 Dutch Warmblood horses. Procedure - The horses were analyzed kinematically during free jumping at

  2. 9 CFR 93.325 - Horses from Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Horses from Mexico. 93.325 Section 93... CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Horses Mexico 18 § 93.325 Horses from Mexico. Horses offered for entry from Mexico shall be inspected as provided in §§ 93.306 and 93.323; shall be accompanied by a...

  3. Injuries in group kept horses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mejdell, C.M.; Jorgensen, G.M.; Keeling, L.

    2014-01-01

    developed and validated a scoring system for external injuries in horses to be able to record the severity of a lesion in a standardized and simple way under field conditions. The scoring system has five categories from insignificant loss of hair to severe, life threatening injuries. It was used...... of different breeds, age and gender. Most injuries occurred the day after mixing. Injuries of the more severe categories 4 and 5, which normally would necessitate veterinary care and/or loss of function for some time, were not observed at all. The minor injuries categorized as 1-2 counted for 99% of the total...

  4. Endocrine Disease in Aged Horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durham, Andy E

    2016-08-01

    Aging horses may be at particular risk of endocrine disease. Two major equine endocrinopathies, pituitary pars intermedia dysfunction and equine metabolic syndrome, are commonly encountered in an aging population and may present with several recognizable signs, including laminitis. Investigation, treatment, and management of these diseases are discussed. Additionally, aging may be associated with development of rarer endocrinopathic problems, often associated with neoplasia, including diabetes mellitus and other confounders of glucose homeostasis, as well as thyroid, parathyroid, and adrenal diseases. Brief details of the recognition and management of these conditions are presented. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Trojan Horse Method: Recent Results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pizzone, R. G.; Spitaleri, C.

    2008-01-01

    Owing the presence of the Coulomb barrier at astrophysically relevant kinetic energies, it is very difficult, or sometimes impossible to measure astrophysical reaction rates in laboratory. This is why different indirect techniques are being used along with direct measurements. The THM is unique indirect technique allowing one measure astrophysical rearrangement reactions down to astrophysical relevant energies. The basic principle and a review of the main application of the Trojan Horse Method are presented. The applications aiming at the extraction of the bare S b (E) astrophysical factor and electron screening potentials U e for several two body processes are discussed

  6. Whole genome sequencing reveals a novel deletion variant in the KIT gene in horses with white spotted coat colour phenotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dürig, N; Jude, R; Holl, H; Brooks, S A; Lafayette, C; Jagannathan, V; Leeb, T

    2017-08-01

    White spotting phenotypes in horses can range in severity from the common white markings up to completely white horses. EDNRB, KIT, MITF, PAX3 and TRPM1 represent known candidate genes for such phenotypes in horses. For the present study, we re-investigated a large horse family segregating a variable white spotting phenotype, for which conventional Sanger sequencing of the candidate genes' individual exons had failed to reveal the causative variant. We obtained whole genome sequence data from an affected horse and specifically searched for structural variants in the known candidate genes. This analysis revealed a heterozygous ~1.9-kb deletion spanning exons 10-13 of the KIT gene (chr3:77,740,239_77,742,136del1898insTATAT). In continuity with previously named equine KIT variants we propose to designate the newly identified deletion variant W22. We had access to 21 horses carrying the W22 allele. Four of them were compound heterozygous W20/W22 and had a completely white phenotype. Our data suggest that W22 represents a true null allele of the KIT gene, whereas the previously identified W20 leads to a partial loss of function. These findings will enable more precise genetic testing for depigmentation phenotypes in horses. © 2017 Stichting International Foundation for Animal Genetics.

  7. Diagnosis of hoof diseases in horses using computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kovac, M.; Nowak, M.; Kaufels, N.; Tambur, Z.

    2002-01-01

    This study describes findings of computed tomography investigations at the Bergische Equine Clinic (Bergische Tierklinik), Germany, of 39 horses with hoof diseases. The most frequently findings were the navicular syndrome (eight horses), laminitis (seven horses), keratnoma (six horses) and ossification of collateral cartilages in the distal phalanx (four horses). The special value of the computed tomography is in evaluating the size and courses fracture/fissure of the navicular and koffin bones, which were diagnose in five horses. In four of horses no pathologic changes of the hoof were determined by computed tomography

  8. Distal phalanx fractures in horses: a survey of 274 horses with radiographic assessment of healing in 36 horses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Honnas, C.M.; O'Brien, T.R.; Linford, R.L.

    1988-01-01

    The case records of 274 horses with fractures of the distal phalanx were reviewed. Fifty-two horses had bilateral forelimb fractures, for a total of 326 distal phalanx fractures. The fractures were classified into one of five previously described types, based on the radiographic anatomic configuration of the fracture. Solar margin fractures, which have been briefly described in other reports and previously classified as type V fractures, were identified in 132 horses. This type of fracture is distinct from other distal phalanx fractures. Due to the high incidence of solar margin fractures, these fractures were classified as a separate type (type VI). Follow-up radiographic examinations to assess fracture healing were available for 36 horses. Twenty-two horses with distal phalanx fractures (three type I, nine type II, two type III, one type IV, one type V, and six type VI) had radiographic evidence of complete bony union of the fracture at a mean of 11 months after injury. Eight horses with conplete type II fractures involving the articular surface had bony union of the body and solar margin, but not the subchondral bone at the articular surface, a mean of 11 months after injury. Six horses (four type II and two type IV) had little radiographic evidence of bony healing during the follow-up period. All fractures that eventually healed had evidence of progression toward bony union by 6 months after injury

  9. THE INFLUENCE OF SOCIAL STATUS AND ETHNICITY ON DIET IN MEDIAEVAL TALLINN AS SEEN THROUGH STABLE ISOTOPE ANALYSIS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lightfoot, Emma; Naum, Magdalena; Kadakas, Villu

    2016-01-01

    , for comparative purposes. The individuals were investigated using carbon, nitrogen and oxygen stable isotope analysis. The results indicate that while all analysed individuals consumed diets based on C3 plants and animals consuming C3 plants, some individuals also consumed small amounts of C4 plants (likely......Food encodes social and cultural values and has an important role to play in defining identities. In mixed populations, diet can be used to distinguish between ‘us’ and ‘them’. This study investigates the extent to which the inhabitants of mediaeval Tallinn, an important trading centre, used food...... millet) or seafood. C 4 plants were consumed by the urban residents buried at the Church of the Holy Spirit and one or two individuals from Sulevimägi. It is thought that millet was an imported food consumed by the middle class. Marine foods were consumed by the individuals at St Catherine’s Church...

  10. Open Fracture of the Forearm Bones due to Horse Bite

    OpenAIRE

    Santoshi, John Ashutosh; Leshem, Lall

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Fractures have been described mainly following falling accidents in horse-related injuries. Horse bites are uncommon accidents. We present a case of open fracture of the forearm due to horse bite. Case Report: A 35-year-old male farm-worker presented to the emergency room with alleged history of horse bite to the right forearm about 2 hours prior to presentation while feeding the horse. There was deformity of the forearm with multiple puncture wounds, deep abrasions and small...

  11. Stress and its effects on horses reproduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amal M. AboEl-Maaty

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available A total of 90 mares and horses were subjected to blood sampling for determining the effect of management (farm, reproductive condition, sex, age, breed and month of the year during breeding on circulating levels of cortisol and sex hormones. Blood samples were collected from December to the following June from four farms. Blood sera underwent testosterone, estradiol, progesterone and cortisol assaying using ELISA kits. Cortisol levels were significantly low in lactating mares during their foal heat but significantly high levels were recorded in both repeat breeder mares and horses used for racing. High and significant testosterone and estradiol levels were recorded in both stallions used for breeding especially after semen collection and early pregnant mares. Similar testosterone levels were recorded in both early pregnant mares and racing horses but high levels were recorded in stallions. Estradiol was high in both early pregnant and mares with endometritis but the highest levels were observed in stallions. Horses held in private farms had high cortisol levels compared to those of governmental farms. In contrast to mares, horses had low cortisol and high estradiol levels. Cortisol levels were high from April to June (Spring and early summer compared to its levels from December to March (Winter. Arab horses had low cortisol compared to native and imported foreign breeds. In conclusion, environmental condition, exercise, breed, management and the purpose of raising horses all are affecting its cortisol levels.

  12. Generalization of a tactile stimulus in horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dougherty, D M; Lewis, P

    1993-05-01

    Using horses, we investigated the control of operant behavior by a tactile stimulus (the training stimulus) and the generalization of behavior to six other similar test stimuli. In a stall, the experimenters mounted a response panel in the doorway. Located on this panel were a response lever and a grain dispenser. The experimenters secured a tactile-stimulus belt to the horse's back. The stimulus belt was constructed by mounting seven solenoids along a piece of burlap in a manner that allowed each to provide the delivery of a tactile stimulus, a repetitive light tapping, at different locations (spaced 10.0 cm apart) along the horse's back. Two preliminary steps were necessary before generalization testing: training a measurable response (lip pressing) and training on several reinforcement schedules in the presence of a training stimulus (tapping by one of the solenoids). We then gave each horse two generalization test sessions. Results indicated that the horses' behavior was effectively controlled by the training stimulus. Horses made the greatest number of responses to the training stimulus, and the tendency to respond to the other test stimuli diminished as the stimuli became farther away from the training stimulus. These findings are discussed in the context of behavioral principles and their relevance to the training of horses.

  13. Serologically silent, occult equine infectious anemia virus (EIAV) infections in horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricotti, Sonia; Garcia, Maria Inés; Veaute, Carolina; Bailat, Alejandra; Lucca, Eduardo; Cook, R Frank; Cook, Sheila J; Soutullo, Adriana

    2016-05-01

    Molecular and serological techniques for Equine Infectious Anemia Virus (EIAV) diagnosis were compared using samples from 59 clinically normal horses stabled on five farms in the Santa Fe Province of Argentina. Of these 26 (44.1%) were positive in official AGID tests and/or gp45/gp90-based ELISA. Surprisingly 18 of the 33 seronegative horses were positive in a PCR against viral sequences encoding gp45 (PCR-positive/AGID-negative) with all but one remaining EIAV-antibody negative throughout a two year observation period. The gp45 PCR results are supported by fact that 7/18 of these horses were positive in the Office International des Epizooties (OIE) recommended EIAV gag gene specific PCR plus 2 of this 7 also reacted in a PCR directed predominantly against the 5' untranslated region of the viral genome. Furthermore sufficient quantities of serum were available from 8 of these horses to verify their seronegative status in sensitive Western Blot tests and demonstrate by ELISA the absence of EIAV-specific antibodies was not attributable to abnormalities in total IgG concentration. Studies involving 7 of the PCR-positive/AGID-negative horses to measure lymphocyte proliferation in the presence of PHA showed no significant differences between this group and control animals. In addition, lymphocytes from 2 of these 7 horses responded to peptides derived from gp90 and gp45. Together these results demonstrate that apparently clinically normal horses with no gross signs of immunodeficiency in terms of total IgG concentration or T helper-cell function can remain seronegative for at least 24 months while harboring EIAV specific nucleic acid sequences. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. BREEDING AND UTILIZATION OF ARABIAN HORSE TODAY

    OpenAIRE

    Vlasta Mandić; Josip Ljubešić; Tomo Rastija; Živko Bošnjak

    2000-01-01

    Arab horse raising has a hundred year old tradition. A real stud farm raising started by purchasing original reproductive material from Asia in 1895, 1897 and 1899. Apart from state stud in Goražde, Arab horse was also raised in several private stud farms, especially in Slavonia and Srijem region. By the end of the II World war Arab horse raising was restricted to only 2-3 stud farms, regardless the above mentioned oldest Arab stud farm Goražde. According to reports refering to en...

  15. BREEDING AND UTILIZATION OF ARABIAN HORSE TODAY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vlasta Mandić

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available Arab horse raising has a hundred year old tradition. A real stud farm raising started by purchasing original reproductive material from Asia in 1895, 1897 and 1899. Apart from state stud in Goražde, Arab horse was also raised in several private stud farms, especially in Slavonia and Srijem region. By the end of the II World war Arab horse raising was restricted to only 2-3 stud farms, regardless the above mentioned oldest Arab stud farm Goražde. According to reports refering to end of 1940 in former Yugoslavia there were slightly more than 150 grown up thoroughbred Arab heads, stallions and mares in both private and public property. A number of well known stud farms was reduced, thus, Arab horse raising was limited only to stud farms Goražde, Inocens Dvor and Karađorđevo. Sires were mostly used in Bosnian-mountain horse breeding whereas in plain areas they were used for ceossing with heavy draft mares or raising of, in that time numerous represented, nonius breed. The year 1970 was characterized by Arab horses reduction, thereby raising stagnation. Horse raising was closed, so, 77 Sabich stallion, bought in Germany, started again Arab horse raising, firstly in Goražde. It was also attributed by raising establishment of agricultural economy Višnjica near Slatina. At the same time Arab horse raising increased slowly at individual raisers in Kutina, Vrbovsko, Istria, Čađavica and Zagreb vicinity. According to available data from 1999 there were approx. 132 stallions and mares due to horse raisers scattered throught Croatia. All male and female reproductive heads were mostly used as raising heads for thoroughbred raising or for crossing with other breeds which is justified by the data from the period 1930-1935. On the other hand one part of reproductive heads, especially males, were used as sports heads for gallop races and distance riding as Arab horses were used by their arrival to present areas and by Arab horse raising tradition.

  16. Exercising is like flogging a dead horse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Molhoek, W.

    2003-01-01

    - FR (NPP Gravelines) was conducted (22-23th of May 2001). The main objectives of the INEX series of exercises were focused on: decision making based on limited information and uncertain plant conditions; the use of real time communications with actual equipment and procedures; public information and interaction with media; the use of real weather for real time forecasts. For real further improvement of (nuclear) emergency management and response, not only national and international exercises such as INEX, CONVEX, JINEX etc. are needed, but the efforts to improve personal performance of key-persons involved is crucial. Structural plans to train and exercise individuals and teams should therefore be developed as well. To move the dead horse and create a racehorse need a lot of personal skills and attention. It is also recognized that often the carrot is better than the whip. (author)

  17. Ethics as a beneficial Trojan horse in a technological society.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Queraltó, Ramón

    2013-03-01

    This article explores the transformation of ethics in a globalizing technological society. After describing some basic features of this society, particularly the primacy it gives to a special type of technical rationality, three specific influences on traditional ethics are examined: (1) a change concerning the notion of value, (2) the decreasing relevance of the concept of axiological hierarchy, and (3) the new internal architecture of ethics as a net of values. These three characteristics suggest a new pragmatic understanding of ethics. From a pragmatic perspective, the process of introducing ethical values into contemporary society can be regarded as a beneficial Trojan horse, a metaphor that will be developed further.

  18. Atlantic mackerel and Horse mackerel egg survey 2016: Dutch participation on board FV Atlantic Lady: May

    OpenAIRE

    Damme, van, C.J.G.

    2016-01-01

    From 10 till 25 May 2016 IMARES carried out a mackerel and horse mackerel egg survey on board the FV Atlantic Lady. This survey was part of the international mackerel and horse mackerel egg survey coordinated by ICES. The Redersvereniging voor de Zeevisserij (RVZ) asked IMARES to carry out this survey. Numbers of mackerel eggs in the samples were low, lower compared to previous surveys. Most mackerel eggs were found along the 200m depth contour of the continental slope. Most of the adult mack...

  19. Genetic Correlations between Young Horse and Dressage Competition Results in Danish Warmblood Horses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jönsson, Lina Johanna Maria; Christiansen, Karina; Holm, Maiken

    2014-01-01

    .13˗0.48) than the breeding goal trait of dressage competition results (0.16). Young horse results showed medium high to high genetic correlations to dressage competition results (0.32˗0.91) where most recorded young horse gait- and conformation scores contributed with considerable information to future dressage...... competition results. If considering both accuracy of each young horse trait and genetic correlation to dressage competition results, as rg×rIA, the best young horse indicator traits for future performance were capacity, trot, canter, and rideability, all under own rider. Most important conformation traits...

  20. Horses for courses: a DNA-based test for race distance aptitude in thoroughbred racehorses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Emmeline W; Ryan, Donal P; MacHugh, David E

    2012-12-01

    Variation at the myostatin (MSTN) gene locus has been shown to influence racing phenotypes in Thoroughbred horses, and in particular, early skeletal muscle development and the aptitude for racing at short distances. Specifically, a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in the first intron of MSTN (g.66493737C/T) is highly predictive of best race distance among Flat racing Thoroughbreds: homozygous C/C horses are best suited to short distance races, heterozygous C/T horses are best suited to middle distance races, and homozygous T/T horses are best suited to longer distance races. Patent applications for this gene marker association, and other linked markers, have been filed. The information contained within the patent applications is exclusively licensed to the commercial biotechnology company Equinome Ltd, which provides a DNA-based test to the international Thoroughbred horse racing and breeding industry. The application of this information in the industry enables informed decision making in breeding and racing and can be used to assist selection to accelerate the rate of change of genetic types among distinct populations (Case Study 1) and within individual breeding operations (Case Study 2).

  1. Ancient genomes revisit the ancestry of domestic and Przewalski's horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaunitz, Charleen; Fages, Antoine; Hanghøj, Kristian; Albrechtsen, Anders; Khan, Naveed; Schubert, Mikkel; Seguin-Orlando, Andaine; Owens, Ivy J; Felkel, Sabine; Bignon-Lau, Olivier; de Barros Damgaard, Peter; Mittnik, Alissa; Mohaseb, Azadeh F; Davoudi, Hossein; Alquraishi, Saleh; Alfarhan, Ahmed H; Al-Rasheid, Khaled A S; Crubézy, Eric; Benecke, Norbert; Olsen, Sandra; Brown, Dorcas; Anthony, David; Massy, Ken; Pitulko, Vladimir; Kasparov, Aleksei; Brem, Gottfried; Hofreiter, Michael; Mukhtarova, Gulmira; Baimukhanov, Nurbol; Lõugas, Lembi; Onar, Vedat; Stockhammer, Philipp W; Krause, Johannes; Boldgiv, Bazartseren; Undrakhbold, Sainbileg; Erdenebaatar, Diimaajav; Lepetz, Sébastien; Mashkour, Marjan; Ludwig, Arne; Wallner, Barbara; Merz, Victor; Merz, Ilja; Zaibert, Viktor; Willerslev, Eske; Librado, Pablo; Outram, Alan K; Orlando, Ludovic

    2018-04-06

    The Eneolithic Botai culture of the Central Asian steppes provides the earliest archaeological evidence for horse husbandry, ~5500 years ago, but the exact nature of early horse domestication remains controversial. We generated 42 ancient-horse genomes, including 20 from Botai. Compared to 46 published ancient- and modern-horse genomes, our data indicate that Przewalski's horses are the feral descendants of horses herded at Botai and not truly wild horses. All domestic horses dated from ~4000 years ago to present only show ~2.7% of Botai-related ancestry. This indicates that a massive genomic turnover underpins the expansion of the horse stock that gave rise to modern domesticates, which coincides with large-scale human population expansions during the Early Bronze Age. Copyright © 2018 The Authors, some rights reserved; exclusive licensee American Association for the Advancement of Science. No claim to original U.S. Government Works.

  2. Distortion effects in Trojan Horse applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pizzone, R. G.; La Cognata, M.; Lamia, L.; Mukhamedzhanov, A. M.; Blokhintsev, L. D.; Irgaziev, B.; Bertulani, C. A.; Spitaleri, C. [Laboratori Nazionali del Sud - INFN , Catania (Italy); Universita di Catania and Laboratori Nazionali del Sud - INFN, Catania (Italy); Texas A and M University, College Station (United States); Moscow State University, Moscow (Russian Federation); Taskent University, Taskent (Uzbekistan); Texas A and M University, Commerce (United States); Universita di Catania and Laboratori Nazionali del Sud - INFN, Catania (Italy)

    2012-11-20

    Deuteron induced quasi-free scattering and reactions have been extensively investigated in the past few decades. This was done not only for nuclear structure and processes study but also for the important astrophysical implication (Trojan Horse Method, THM). In particular the width of the neutron momentum distribution in deuteron will be studied as a function of the transferred momentum. The same will be done for other nuclides of possible use as Trojan Horse particles. Trojan horse method applications will also be discussed because the momentum distribution of the spectator particle inside the Trojan horse nucleus is a necessary input for this method. The impact of the width (FWHM) variation on the extraction of the astrophysical S(E)-factor is discussed.

  3. Invisible Trojan-horse attack.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sajeed, Shihan; Minshull, Carter; Jain, Nitin; Makarov, Vadim

    2017-08-21

    We demonstrate the experimental feasibility of a Trojan-horse attack that remains nearly invisible to the single-photon detectors employed in practical quantum key distribution (QKD) systems, such as Clavis2 from ID Quantique. We perform a detailed numerical comparison of the attack performance against Scarani-Ac´ın-Ribordy-Gisin (SARG04) QKD protocol at 1924 nm versus that at 1536 nm. The attack strategy was proposed earlier but found to be unsuccessful at the latter wavelength, as reported in N. Jain et al., New J. Phys. 16, 123030 (2014). However at 1924 nm, we show experimentally that the noise response of the detectors to bright pulses is greatly reduced, and show by modeling that the same attack will succeed. The invisible nature of the attack poses a threat to the security of practical QKD if proper countermeasures are not adopted.

  4. Molecular characterization of the Babesia caballi rap-1 gene and epidemiological survey in horses in Israel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rapoport, Adi; Aharonson-Raz, Karin; Berlin, Dalia; Tal, Saar; Gottlieb, Yuval; Klement, Eyal; Steinman, Amir

    2014-04-01

    Equine piroplasmosis imposes great concerns for the equine industry regarding international horse movement, and therefore requires reliable diagnostic tools. Recent studies from South Africa and Jordan, including a preliminary study in Israel, reported extremely low seroprevalence to Babesia caballi (B. caballi) (0-1%) using the acceptable rhoptry-associated protein-1 (RAP-1) cELISA. In accordance with the study from South Africa demonstrating a significant heterogeneity in the rap-1 gene sequence of South African B. caballi isolates, the objectives of this study were to phylogenetically characterize the rap-1 gene of the Israeli isolates and determine the prevalence of B. caballi in horses in Israel. Out of 273 horses tested using the RAP-1 cELISA, only one was sero-positive, while 9.3% were positive on PCR performed on the rap-1 gene. Phylogenetic analysis of the rap-1 gene grouped the Israeli isolates in a cluster together with the South African strains (99% nt identity), but in a separate cluster from the American/Caribbean strains (81-82% nt identity). These findings support the existence of heterogeneity in the RAP-1 amino-acid sequences of the Israeli and South African isolates as compared to that used in the cELISA commercial kit and raise doubts as to the ability of this assay to serve as a sole regulatory test for international horse movement. Risk factor analysis found management and age to significantly associate with prevalence of B. caballi, as higher prevalence was noted in horses held out on pasture and a negative association was recorded with age. In addition, B. caballi was not detected in horses in the steppe-arid and extreme-arid climatic regions as compared to the wetter regions. Findings of this study emphasize the need to combine several detection methods to ameliorate the control and spread of the disease. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Whole mitochondrial genome sequencing of domestic horses reveals incorporation of extensive wild horse diversity during domestication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lippold Sebastian

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background DNA target enrichment by micro-array capture combined with high throughput sequencing technologies provides the possibility to obtain large amounts of sequence data (e.g. whole mitochondrial DNA genomes from multiple individuals at relatively low costs. Previously, whole mitochondrial genome data for domestic horses (Equus caballus were limited to only a few specimens and only short parts of the mtDNA genome (especially the hypervariable region were investigated for larger sample sets. Results In this study we investigated whole mitochondrial genomes of 59 domestic horses from 44 breeds and a single Przewalski horse (Equus przewalski using a recently described multiplex micro-array capture approach. We found 473 variable positions within the domestic horses, 292 of which are parsimony-informative, providing a well resolved phylogenetic tree. Our divergence time estimate suggests that the mitochondrial genomes of modern horse breeds shared a common ancestor around 93,000 years ago and no later than 38,000 years ago. A Bayesian skyline plot (BSP reveals a significant population expansion beginning 6,000-8,000 years ago with an ongoing exponential growth until the present, similar to other domestic animal species. Our data further suggest that a large sample of wild horse diversity was incorporated into the domestic population; specifically, at least 46 of the mtDNA lineages observed in domestic horses (73% already existed before the beginning of domestication about 5,000 years ago. Conclusions Our study provides a window into the maternal origins of extant domestic horses and confirms that modern domestic breeds present a wide sample of the mtDNA diversity found in ancestral, now extinct, wild horse populations. The data obtained allow us to detect a population expansion event coinciding with the beginning of domestication and to estimate both the minimum number of female horses incorporated into the domestic gene pool and the

  6. Refractive state of the Spanish Thoroughbred horse: a comparison with the Crossbred horse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rull-Cotrina, Jorge; Molleda, Jose M; Gallardo, José; Martín-Suárez, Eva

    2013-01-01

    To assess the refractive state of the equine eye utilizing retinoscopy. To compare the refractive state of Spanish Thoroughbred horses with the refractive state of Crossbred horses. The refractive state of 135 horses (264 eyes) was assessed utilizing streak retinoscopy. Two perpendicular meridians were examined in order to assess astigmatism at a working distance of approximately 67 cm. A group of 81 Spanish Thoroughbred horses was compared with a group of 54 Crossbred horses. Cyclopentolate ophthalmic solution was instilled in the eyes of a group of 18 horses to determine if accommodation has any influence on the assessment of the refractive state.   Mean ± SE refractive state of all horses examined was -0.17 ± 0.04 D. The mean refractive state of the Spanish Thoroughbred was -0.28 ± 0.06 D while that of the Crossbred was -0.01 ± 0.05 D. The refractive state of the Spanish Thoroughbred was found to be statistically different to that of the Crossbred. The most prevalent refractive state was emmetropia in all cases, followed by hyperopia for the Crossbred, and myopia for the Spanish Thoroughbred. Astigmatism ≥0.50 D present in both eyes from the same individual was found in 21.7% of all horses examined. Anisometropia ≥1.00 D was diagnosed in 4 out of 129 horses with both visual eyes. Cycloplegia did not statistically affect the refractive state of the evaluated eyes. The equine eye has a refractive state close to emmetropia. Myopia is higher among Spanish Thoroughbred horses than among Crossbred horses. © 2012 American College of Veterinary Ophthalmologists.

  7. Miscellaneous neurologic or neuromuscular disorders in horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aleman, Monica

    2011-12-01

    NMD is an important cause of morbidity in horses. Signs of dysfunction could be variable depending on the specific area affected. NM disease can go unrecognized if a thorough evaluation is not performed in diseased horses. Electrodiagnostic testing is an area that has the potential to document and improve our understanding of NM disease yet is uncommonly performed. Keeping an open and observant mind will enhance our ability to search and find answers.

  8. Generalization of a tactile stimulus in horses.

    OpenAIRE

    Dougherty, D M; Lewis, P

    1993-01-01

    Using horses, we investigated the control of operant behavior by a tactile stimulus (the training stimulus) and the generalization of behavior to six other similar test stimuli. In a stall, the experimenters mounted a response panel in the doorway. Located on this panel were a response lever and a grain dispenser. The experimenters secured a tactile-stimulus belt to the horse's back. The stimulus belt was constructed by mounting seven solenoids along a piece of burlap in a manner that allowed...

  9. Horses--Haulers, Racers, and Healers

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIntosh, Phyllis

    2014-01-01

    Providing healing support for everyone from an autistic child to a wounded veteran is just the latest addition to the horse's 5,000-year-old résumé. No animal has played a greater role in human history. Horses have carried us into war, pulled our loads, plowed our fields, and transported us over all kinds of terrain. Freed of such drudgery by…

  10. Vascular Dysfunction in Horses with Endocrinopathic Laminitis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruth A Morgan

    Full Text Available Endocrinopathic laminitis (EL is a vascular condition of the equine hoof resulting in severe lameness with both welfare and economic implications. EL occurs in association with equine metabolic syndrome and equine Cushing's disease. Vascular dysfunction, most commonly due to endothelial dysfunction, is associated with cardiovascular risk in people with metabolic syndrome and Cushing's syndrome. We tested the hypothesis that horses with EL have vascular, specifically endothelial, dysfunction. Healthy horses (n = 6 and horses with EL (n = 6 destined for euthanasia were recruited. We studied vessels from the hooves (laminar artery, laminar vein and the facial skin (facial skin arteries by small vessel wire myography. The response to vasoconstrictors phenylephrine (10-9-10-5M and 5-hydroxytryptamine (5HT; 10-9-10-5M and the vasodilator acetylcholine (10-9-10-5M was determined. In comparison with healthy controls, acetylcholine-induced relaxation was dramatically reduced in all intact vessels from horses with EL (% relaxation of healthy laminar arteries 323.5 ± 94.1% v EL 90.8 ± 4.4%, P = 0.01, laminar veins 129.4 ± 14.8% v EL 71.2 ± 4.1%, P = 0.005 and facial skin arteries 182.0 ± 40.7% v EL 91.4 ± 4.5%, P = 0.01. In addition, contractile responses to phenylephrine and 5HT were increased in intact laminar veins from horses with EL compared with healthy horses; these differences were endothelium-independent. Sensitivity to phenylephrine was reduced in intact laminar arteries (P = 0.006 and veins (P = 0.009 from horses with EL. Horses with EL exhibit significant vascular dysfunction in laminar vessels and in facial skin arteries. The systemic nature of the abnormalities suggest this dysfunction is associated with the underlying endocrinopathy and not local changes to the hoof.

  11. Spine fractures caused by horse riding

    OpenAIRE

    Siebenga, Jan; Segers, Michiel J. M.; Elzinga, Matthijs J.; Bakker, Fred C.; Haarman, Henk J. T. M.; Patka, Peter

    2006-01-01

    Study Design: Retrospective study and review of literature. Objectives: Study of demographic data concerning spinal fractures caused by horse riding, classification of fractures according to the AO and Load Sharing classifications, evaluation of mid-term radiological results and long-term functional results. Methods: A review of medical reports and radiological examinations of patients presented to our hospital with horse riding-related spine fractures over a 13-year period; long-term functio...

  12. [Kreem, Juhan. Sketches of a Clerk. Pen-and-ink Drawings in the Margins of the Medieval Accoung Books of Reval (Tallinn)] / Anu Mänd

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Mänd, Anu, 1968-

    2008-01-01

    Arvustus: Kreem, Juhan. Sketches of a Clerk. Pen-and-ink Drawings in the Margins of the Medieval Accoung Books of Reval (Tallinn). (Krems, 2006). Juhan Kreemi raamat käsitleb Tallinna rae keskaegsetes arveraamatutes leiduvaid sulejoonistusi. Autor on välja selgitanud nende, esmapilgul juhuslikena näivate joonistuste otstarbe ning püüdnud nende kaudu avada tolleaegsete linnaametnike mõttemalle

  13. Do horses generalise between objects during habituation?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Janne Winther; Zharkikh, Tatjana; Ladevig, Jan

    2008-01-01

    Habituation to frightening stimuli plays an important role in horse training. To investigate the extent to which horses generalise between different visual objects, 2-year-old stallions were habituated to feeding from a container placed inside a test arena and assigned as TEST (n = 12) or REFERENCE...... horses (n = 12). In Experiment 1, TEST horses were habituated to six objects (ball, barrel, board, box, cone, cylinder) presented in sequence in a balanced order. The objects were of similar size but different colour. Each object was placed 0.5 m in front of the feed container, forcing the horses to pass...... the object to get to the food. TEST horses received as many 2 min exposures to each object as required to meet a habituation criterion. We recorded behavioural reactions to the object, latency to feed, total eating time, and heart rate (HR) during all exposures. There was no significant decrease in initial...

  14. Identification of copy number variants in horses

    KAUST Repository

    Doan, R.

    2012-03-01

    Copy number variants (CNVs) represent a substantial source of genetic variation in mammals. However, the occurrence of CNVs in horses and their subsequent impact on phenotypic variation is unknown. We performed a study to identify CNVs in 16 horses representing 15 distinct breeds (Equus caballus) and an individual gray donkey (Equus asinus) using a whole-exome tiling array and the array comparative genomic hybridization methodology. We identified 2368 CNVs ranging in size from 197 bp to 3.5 Mb. Merging identical CNVs from each animal yielded 775 CNV regions (CNVRs), involving 1707 protein- and RNA-coding genes. The number of CNVs per animal ranged from 55 to 347, with median and mean sizes of CNVs of 5.3 kb and 99.4 kb, respectively. Approximately 6% of the genes investigated were affected by a CNV. Biological process enrichment analysis indicated CNVs primarily affected genes involved in sensory perception, signal transduction, and metabolism. CNVs also were identified in genes regulating blood group antigens, coat color, fecundity, lactation, keratin formation, neuronal homeostasis, and height in other species. Collectively, these data are the first report of copy number variation in horses and suggest that CNVs are common in the horse genome and may modulate biological processes underlying different traits observed among horses and horse breeds.

  15. Racing prognosis of horses following surgically repaired olecranon fractures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodgerson, Dwayne H.; Hunt, Robert J.; Spirito, Michael A.; Thorpe, Paul E.; Tessman, Ron K.

    2006-01-01

    Abstract Olecranon fracture is a common orthopedic problem in juvenile horses. Prognosis for complete fracture healing when various methods of internal fixation are used is good; however, the impact of olecranon fracture stabilization on the likelihood that foals will start on a racecourse is unknown. Medical records of foals undergoing internal fixation for an olecranon fracture were reviewed. The dam’s foaling records were obtained and lifetime racing records were then retrieved for both the affected foals and 1 of their siblings. Twenty-two of 24 repaired fractures healed completely, subsequently, 16 of the foals started in at least 1 race. Statistical calculations suggest that when compared with their siblings, the occurrence of olecranon factures requiring internal fixation in juvenile racehorses will not significantly reduce the likelihood that they will race; however, the siblings had significantly more lifetime race starts and higher career earnings. PMID:16604980

  16. Molecular characterization and multilocus genotypes of Enterocytozoon bieneusi among horses in southwestern China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Deng

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Enterocytozoon bieneusi is one of the most prevalent causative species of diarrhea and enteric diseases in various hosts. E. bieneusi has been identified in humans, mammals, birds, rodents and reptiles in China, but few studies have reported E. bieneusi in horses. Therefore, the present study was conducted to assess the prevalence, molecular characteristics and zoonotic potential of E. bieneusi among horses in southwestern China. Findings Three hundred and thirty-three fecal specimens were collected from horses on five farms in the Sichuan and Yunnan provinces of southwestern China. The prevalence of E. bieneusi was 22.5 % (75/333, as determined by nested polymerase chain reaction and sequencing analysis of the internal transcribed spacer region of the ribosomal RNA gene of E. bieneusi. Altogether, 10 genotypes were identified among the 75 E. bieneusi-positive samples: four of these genotypes were known (horse1, horse2, SC02 and D and six were novel (SCH1-4 and YNH1-2. Multilocus sequence typing using three microsatellites (MS1, MS3 and MS7 and one minisatellite (MS4 revealed three, two, three and three genotypes at these four loci, respectively. In phylogenetic analysis, all the genotypes of E. bieneusi obtained in this study were clustered into three distinct groups: D, SC02 and SCH1-3 were clustered into group 1 (zoonotic potential; SCH4 was clustered into group 2 (cattle-hosted; whereas horse2, YNH1 and YNH2 were clustered into group 6 (unclear zoonotic potential. Conclusions This is the first report of E. bieneusi among horses in southwestern China. This is also the first multilocus genotyping analysis using microsatellite and minisatellite markers of E. bieneusi in horses. The presence of genotype D, which was previously identified in humans, and genotypes SC02 and SCH1-3, which belong to potential zoonotic group 1, these results indicate that horses are a potential source of human E. bieneusi infections in China.

  17. Preliminary investigation of orally administered benazepril in horses with left-sided valvular regurgitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afonso, T; Giguère, S; Brown, S A; Barton, M H; Rapoport, G; Barba, M; Dembek, K A; Toribio, R E; Coleman, A E

    2017-10-17

    Despite the paucity of data available, orally administered angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors are empirically used in horses with valvular regurgitation. Evaluate the echocardiographic and hormonal changes in response to oral benazepril in horses with left-sided valvular regurgitation. Prospective, randomised double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Horses with mitral valve (MR) and/or aortic valve regurgitation (AR) received oral benazepril (n = 6) at a dosage of 1 mg/kg q 12 h or a placebo (n = 5) for 28 days. Echocardiography was performed before drug administration and after 28 days of treatment. Plasma renin activity, serum ACE activity, angiotensin II concentration, aldosterone concentration and biochemical variables were measured before drug administration and after 7 and 28 days of treatment. Relative to baseline, horses treated with benazepril had statistically significant reduction in left ventricular internal diameter in systole (mean difference between groups = -0.97 cm; 95% CI = -1.5 to -0.43 cm), aortic sinus diameter (-0.31 cm; -0.54 to -0.07 cm), and percentage of the aortic annulus diameter occupied by the base of the AR jet (-17.05%; -31.17 to -2.93%) compared with horses receiving a placebo. In addition, horses treated with benazepril had a significantly greater increase in cardiac output (11.95 L/min; 1.17-22.73 L/min) and fractional shortening (7.59%; 3.3-11.88%) compared with horses receiving a placebo. Despite profound serum ACE inhibition, renin activity and concentrations of angiotensin II and aldosterone were not significantly different between treatment groups or among time points. Very small sample size and short treatment period. Treatment with oral benazepril resulted in statistically significant echocardiographic changes that might indicate reduced cardiac afterload in horses with left-sided valvular regurgitation. Additional studies with a larger sample size will be necessary to determine if administration of benazepril is

  18. The Effect of Increasing Numbers of Horses of Undefined Breed on Horse Breeding in the Czech Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iveta Bihuncová

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to analyse the numbers and division of horses of undefined breed. At the present time this group is the most numerous in the entire population of horses. Horses of undefined breed do not come under any breeder union which would provide reports about these horses; these horses are only registered and breeders are informed only about their numbers. Our study is the first to deal with the problem of increasing numbers of horses of undefined breed. The database contained 22 211 horses not entered registered in any of the stud books. In the database we filed approved horses born between 1972 and 1 September 2012 and horses registered from 1987. The data were processed in the Excel programme and results were evaluated in graphs. The most frequent horse in this group was the warm-blood type (n = 9 303, pony type (n = 6 285, cold-blooded type (n = 2 663 and unlisted horses (n = 2 278. Since 2001 the number of registered horses of undefined breed has increased. The most numerous dams of horses of undefined breed is the Czech warm-blood with 1 912 offspring; dams of the English Thoroughbred with 552 offspring and mares of the utility Huzule horse with 492 offspring. In the group of registered horses of undefined breed the Czech warm-blood appears in the pedigree of 507 colts and the American Paint Horse in the pedigree of sires of 506 colts. Why the numbers of horses of undefined breed are increasing is the boom of leisure horsemanship and unqualified horse breeding.

  19. 77 FR 33607 - Horse Protection Act; Requiring Horse Industry Organizations To Assess and Enforce Minimum...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-07

    ... substantively identical form letters submitted by individuals who commented through an animal welfare advocacy... associations, horse and animal welfare advocacy groups, participants in the horse industry, and the general... Show Report'' at http://www.aphis.usda.gov/animal_welfare/hp/hp_pubs_reports.shtml . The list of shows...

  20. Comparison between the robo-horse and real horse movements for hippotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Ji H; Shurtleff, Timothy; Engsberg, Jack; Rafferty, Sandy; You, Joshua Y; You, Isaac Y; You, Sung H

    2014-01-01

    While the novel robotic hippotherapy system has gradually gained clinical application for therapeutic intervention on postural and locomotor control in individuals with neurological or musculoskeletal impairments, the system's validity and reliability for the robotic hippotherapy system has not been well established. The objective of the current study was to investigate the validity and test-retest reliability of the robotic hippotherapy system by comparing with real horse movements. The 3-axis accelerometer sensors attached on the robotic and real horse saddles were used to collect 3-dimensional acceleration data at a preferred walking velocity. Linear regression analysis showed an excellent correlation in the time-to-peak acceleration (TPA) (R(2)=0.997), but little correlation in X-axis acceleration between the real and robotic horses (R(2)=0.177), thus confirming consistent time control and a certain degree of variability between the robotic and real horse movements. The mean resultant accelerations for a real horse and robotic horse were 3.22 m/s(2) and 0.67 m/s(2), respectively, accounting for almost five times greater acceleration in the real horse than the robotic horse.

  1. 76 FR 30864 - Horse Protection Act; Requiring Horse Industry Organizations To Assess and Enforce Minimum...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-27

    ... prohibiting the showing or selling of sored horses. The regulations in 9 CFR part 11, referred to below as the... substance or device has been used by a person on any limb of a horse or a person has engaged in a practice... the regulations in Sec. 11.2 prohibit the use of devices, methods, and substances that are used to...

  2. Show Horse Welfare: Horse Show Competitors' Understanding, Awareness, and Perceptions of Equine Welfare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voigt, Melissa A; Hiney, Kristina; Richardson, Jennifer C; Waite, Karen; Borron, Abigail; Brady, Colleen M

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to gain a better understanding of stock-type horse show competitors' understanding of welfare and level of concern for stock-type show horses' welfare. Data were collected through an online questionnaire that included questions relating to (a) interest and general understanding of horse welfare, (b) welfare concerns of the horse show industry and specifically the stock-type horse show industry, (c) decision-making influences, and (d) level of empathic characteristics. The majority of respondents indicated they agree or strongly agree that physical metrics should be a factor when assessing horse welfare, while fewer agreed that behavioral and mental metrics should be a factor. Respondent empathy levels were moderate to high and were positively correlated with the belief that mental and behavioral metrics should be a factor in assessing horse welfare. Respondents indicated the inhumane practices that most often occur at stock-type shows include excessive jerking on reins, excessive spurring, and induced excessive unnatural movement. Additionally, respondents indicated association rules, hired trainers, and hired riding instructors are the most influential regarding the decisions they make related to their horses' care and treatment.

  3. A lateral approach for screw repair in lag fashion of spiral third metacarpal and metatarsal medial condylar fractures in horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Lewis C R; Greet, Timothy R C; Bathe, Andrew P

    2009-08-01

    To describe a lateral approach for screw fixation in lag fashion of simple spiral medial condylar fractures of the third metacarpus/metatarsus (MC3/MT3). Case series. Thoroughbred racehorses (n=9). Nondisplaced medial MC3/MT3 condylar fractures (3 thoracic, 6 pelvic limbs), with mean length 126 mm (range, 91-151 mm) were repaired by internal fixation, under general anesthesia, using multiple 4.5 mm cortical screws inserted in lag fashion from the lateral aspect of the limb, using radiographic or fluoroscopic guidance. Horses were recovered from anesthesia in half-limb casts; 7 unassisted and 2 using a rope-recovery system. Horses had 2 months box rest, 1 month in-hand walking, and follow-up radiographic examination at 3 months. Horses recovered uneventfully from anesthesia. Five horses raced; 1 returned to training, was persistently lame, and was retired to stud; 2 were retired directly to stud; and 1 horse was lost to follow-up. MC3/MT3 medial condylar fractures were successfully repaired by screws inserted n lag fashion form the lateral aspect. Use of a lateral approach to medial condylar MC3/MT3 fractures allows screw insertion perpendicular to the fracture plane without interference with palmar/plantar soft tissue structures or from the splint bones. Although repair was performed under general anesthesia, the technique should be adaptable to application in standing horses.

  4. Motivation for social contact in horses measured by operant conditioning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søndergaard, Eva; Jensen, Margit Bak; Nicol, Christine J.

    2011-01-01

    and muzzle contact, respectively, to a familiar companion horse. Horses were housed individually next to their companion horse and separations between pens prevented physical contact. During daily test sessions horses were brought to a test area where they could access an arena allowing social contact. Arena......Although horses are social animals they are often housed individually with limited social contact to other horses and this may compromise their welfare. The present study included eight young female horses and investigated the strength of motivation for access to full social contact, head contact...... test session was recorded. All horses could access all three types of social contact in a cross-over design, and an empty arena was used as control. Motivational strength was assessed using elasticity of demand functions, which were estimated based on the number of rewards earned and FR. Elasticities...

  5. Behaviour and stress responses in horses with gastric ulceration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malmkvist, Jens; Poulsen, Janne Møller; Luthersson, Nanna

    2012-01-01

    Only little is known about behaviour and stress responses in horses with gastric ulceration, despite the high prevalence of this condition. Our objectives in the present study was to (i) describe the severity of gastric ulceration in horses, housed under relatively standardised conditions, and (ii......) to investigate whether horses with severe glandular gastric ulceration have increased baseline and response concentration of stress hormones and behave differently than control horses. We investigated stomachs of 96 horses at one stud, and compared an ulcer group (n = 30; with severe lesions in the glandular...... conclude that the prevalence of gastric ulcers was high, and our results suggest different factors affecting ulceration in the glandular versus the nonglandular region of the horse stomach. Obvious external signs (e.g. poor body condition) identifying ulcer horses were absent. Horses with severe glandular...

  6. Genetic diversity in German draught horse breeds compared with a group of primitive, riding and wild horses by means of microsatellite DNA markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aberle, K S; Hamann, H; Drögemüller, C; Distl, O

    2004-08-01

    We compared the genetic diversity and distance among six German draught horse breeds to wild (Przewalski's Horse), primitive (Icelandic Horse, Sorraia Horse, Exmoor Pony) or riding horse breeds (Hanoverian Warmblood, Arabian) by means of genotypic information from 30 microsatellite loci. The draught horse breeds included the South German Coldblood, Rhenish German Draught Horse, Mecklenburg Coldblood, Saxon Thuringa Coldblood, Black Forest Horse and Schleswig Draught Horse. Despite large differences in population sizes, the average observed heterozygosity (H(o)) differed little among the heavy horse breeds (0.64-0.71), but was considerably lower than in the Hanoverian Warmblood or Icelandic Horse population. The mean number of alleles (N(A)) decreased more markedly with declining population sizes of German draught horse breeds (5.2-6.3) but did not reach the values of Hanoverian Warmblood (N(A) = 6.7). The coefficient of differentiation among the heavy horse breeds showed 11.6% of the diversity between the heavy horse breeds, as opposed to 21.2% between the other horse populations. The differentiation test revealed highly significant genetic differences among all draught horse breeds except the Mecklenburg and Saxon Thuringa Coldbloods. The Schleswig Draught Horse was the most distinct draught horse breed. In conclusion, the study demonstrated a clear distinction among the German draught horse breeds and even among breeds with a very short history of divergence like Rhenish German Draught Horse and its East German subpopulations Mecklenburg and Saxon Thuringa Coldblood.

  7. Gc globulin as a diagnostic and prognostic marker in horses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pihl, Tina Holberg

    can prevent development of shock and thereby increase survival chances. The in vivo toxicity of Gc-globulin infusion is currently being investigated in horses and other species. Gc-globulin has been demonstrated in horse plasma and its structure closely resembles that of human Gc-globulin. Gc......-globulin concentrations in horses under clinical conditions have never previously been investigated. The Ph.D. project focuses on Gc-globulin as a prognostic marker in horses with acute abdominal pain....

  8. [Equine dentistry: Survey on Swiss horse owners].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiesser, E; Geyer, H; Kummer, M; Jackson, M

    2017-08-01

    The interest in equine dentistry has significantly increased in the last 15 years. On the part of the veterinarians as well as of the horse owners there is a strong attention to the topic. The aim of the questionnaire was to investigate amongst horse owners what their level of information and preferences about dental treatment are and how they are implemented. The questionnaire was translated into the three national languages and included 20 questions about level and sources of information, frequency of treatments and the horse owner's stance over sedation of the animals. With a return rate of 45% (1'466 of 3'250 sent questionnaires) significant conclusions could be drawn. Horse owners showed a strong demand for clarification regarding tooth problems, the causes, consequences and methods of treatment. More than half of the owners considered themselves not well informed. The treating person was in 66.7% a veterinarian with a special education. Horse owners indicated that information circulated most frequently by word of mouth recommendations and they explicitly wished information from professional and reliable sources. The questionnaire provided a clear result about current equine dental treatments. We suggest that they should be performed by veterinarians only with a special education.

  9. Life Cycle Assessment of Horse Manure Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ola Eriksson

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Horse manure consists of feces, urine, and varying amounts of various bedding materials. The management of horse manure causes environmental problems when emissions occur during the decomposition of organic material, in addition to nutrients not being recycled. The interest in horse manure undergoing anaerobic digestion and thereby producing biogas has increased with an increasing interest in biogas as a renewable fuel. This study aims to highlight the environmental impact of different treatment options for horse manure from a system perspective. The treatment methods investigated are: (1 unmanaged composting; (2 managed composting; (3 large-scale incineration in a waste-fired combined heat and power (CHP plant; (4 drying and small-scale combustion; and (5 liquid anaerobic digestion with thermal pre-treatment. Following significant data uncertainty in the survey, the results are only indicative. No clear conclusions can be drawn regarding any preference in treatment methods, with the exception of their climate impact, for which anaerobic digestion is preferred. The overall conclusion is that more research is needed to ensure the quality of future surveys, thus an overall research effort from horse management to waste management.

  10. Pharmacokinetics of procaterol in thoroughbred horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kusano, K; Nomura, M; Toju, K; Ishikawa, Y; Minamijima, Y; Yamashita, S; Nagata, S

    2016-06-01

    Procaterol (PCR) is a beta-2-adrenergic bronchodilator widely used in Japanese racehorses for treating lower respiratory disease. The pharmacokinetics of PCR following single intravenous (0.5 μg/kg) and oral (2.0 μg/kg) administrations were investigated in six thoroughbred horses. Plasma and urine concentrations of PCR were measured using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. Plasma PCR concentration following intravenous administration showed a biphasic elimination pattern. The systemic clearance was 0.47 ± 0.16 L/h/kg, the steady-state volume of the distribution was 1.21 ± 0.23 L/kg, and the elimination half-life was 2.85 ± 1.35 h. Heart rate rapidly increased after intravenous administration and gradually decreased thereafter. A strong correlation between heart rate and plasma concentration of PCR was observed. Plasma concentrations of PCR after oral administration were not quantifiable in all horses. Urine concentrations of PCR following intravenous and oral administrations were quantified in all horses until 32 h after administration. Urine PCR concentrations were not significantly different on and after 24 h between intravenous and oral administrations. These results suggest that the bioavailability of orally administrated PCR in horses is very poor, and the drug was eliminated from the body slowly based on urinary concentrations. This report is the first study to demonstrate the pharmacokinetic character of PCR in thoroughbred horses. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. 9 CFR 93.326 - Horses for immediate slaughter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... CERTAIN ANIMALS, BIRDS, FISH, AND POULTRY, AND CERTAIN ANIMAL, BIRD, AND POULTRY PRODUCTS; REQUIREMENTS FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Horses Mexico 18 § 93.326 Horses for immediate slaughter. Horses may be imported from Mexico, subject to the applicable provisions of §§ 93.321, 93.322...

  12. 9 CFR 93.322 - Declaration for horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... CERTAIN ANIMALS, BIRDS, FISH, AND POULTRY, AND CERTAIN ANIMAL, BIRD, AND POULTRY PRODUCTS; REQUIREMENTS FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Horses Mexico 18 § 93.322 Declaration for horses. For all horses offered for importation from Mexico, the importer or his or her agent shall present two...

  13. We know next to nothing about vitamin D in horses!

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hymøller, Lone; Jensen, Søren Krogh

    2015-01-01

    Very few references on vitamin D in horses exist, but the limited research available suggests that the vitamin D physiology of horses may be very different from other species. Horses can obtain vitamin D both through endogenous synthesis in the skin during sunlight exposure and through dietary so...

  14. Micro-Doppler classification of riders and riderless horses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tahmoush, David

    2014-05-01

    Micro-range Micro-Doppler can be used to isolate particular parts of the radar signature, and in this case we demonstrate the differences in the signature between a walking horse versus a walking horse with a rider. Using micro-range micro-Doppler, we can distinguish the radar returns from the rider as separate from the radar returns of the horse.

  15. Navicular bone fracture in the pelvic limb in two horses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaser-Hotz, B.; Ueltschi, G.; Hess, N.

    1991-01-01

    The case history, radiographic and scintigraphic findings of two horses with pelvic limb navicular bone fractures are presented. In both cases the fractures were of traumatic origin. One horse had a bilateral fracture of the navicular bone, distal border, the other horse had a fracture of the proximal articular border in one pelvic limb navicular bone

  16. Plasma serotonin in horses undergoing surgery for small intestinal colic

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Torfs, Sara C; Maes, An A; Delesalle, Catherine J; Pardon, Bart; Croubels, Siska M; Deprez, Piet

    This study compared serotonin concentrations in platelet poor plasma (PPP) from healthy horses and horses with surgical small intestinal (SI) colic, and evaluated their association with postoperative ileus, strangulation and non-survival. Plasma samples (with EDTA) from 33 horses with surgical SI

  17. Relationship Between β-cell Response and Insulin Sensitivity in Horses based on the Oral Sugar Test and the Euglycemic Hyperinsulinemic Clamp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindåse, S; Nostell, K; Söder, J; Bröjer, J

    2017-09-01

    A hyperbolic relationship between β-cell response and insulin sensitivity (IS) has been described in several species including rodents, dogs, and humans. This relationship has not been elucidated in the horse. To determine whether the hyperbolic relationship between β-cell response and IS exists in horses by using indices of β-cell response from the oral sugar test (OST) and IS measurements from the euglycemic hyperinsulinemic clamp (EHC). A second aim was to compare how well IS estimates from the OST and EHC correlate. Forty-nine horses with different degrees of insulin regulation (normal-to-severe insulin dysregulation). Cross-sectional study. Horses were examined with an OST and an EHC. Decreased IS was associated with increased β-cell response in the horses. Nine of 12 comparisons between indices of β-cell response and IS measures fulfilled the criteria for a hyperbolic relationship. Indices of IS calculated from the OST correlated highly with the insulin-dependent glucose disposal rate (M) and the insulin-dependent glucose disposal rate per unit of insulin (M/I) determined from the EHC (r = 0.81-0.87). A hyperbolic relationship between β-cell response and IS exists in horses, which suggest that horses with insulin dysregulation respond not only with postprandial hyperinsulinemia but are also insulin resistant. The OST is primarily a test for β-cell response rather than a test for IS, but calculated indices of IS from the OST may be useful to estimate IS in horses, especially when the horse is insulin resistant. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine.

  18. An intestinal Trojan horse for gene delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Haisheng; Wang, Chao; Xu, Xiaoyang; Yu, Chenxu; Wang, Qun

    2015-03-14

    The intestinal epithelium forms an essential element of the mucosal barrier and plays a critical role in the pathophysiological response to different enteric disorders and diseases. As a major enteric dysfunction of the intestinal tract, inflammatory bowel disease is a genetic disease which results from the inappropriate and exaggerated mucosal immune response to the normal constituents in the mucosal microbiota environment. An intestine targeted drug delivery system has unique advantages in the treatment of inflammatory bowel disease. As a new concept in drug delivery, the Trojan horse system with the synergy of nanotechnology and host cells can achieve better therapeutic efficacy in specific diseases. Here, we demonstrated the feasibility of encapsulating DNA-functionalized gold nanoparticles into primary isolated intestinal stem cells to form an intestinal Trojan horse for gene regulation therapy of inflammatory bowel disease. This proof-of-concept intestinal Trojan horse will have a wide variety of applications in the diagnosis and therapy of enteric disorders and diseases.

  19. Cervical myelography with iohexol in horses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fialho, S.A.G.; Graca, D.L.; Silva, A.M. da; Pellegrine, L.C. de; Oliveira, L.S.S. de; Lopes, S.T.D.A.

    1989-01-01

    Five horses, weighing 337 to 400 kg, were used in this research, one of them being used as control. Cervical myelography with iohexol (Omnipaque) was performed on four horses tranquilized with flunitrazepan before induction of anesthesia with sodium thiopental. Anesthesia was maintained with fluothane and oxygen. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) was analysed before and after an injection of ioxheol into the subarachnoid space. The animals received 25 to 50 ml of iohexol, after removal of 20 ml cerebrospinal fluid. Radiographies were taken with the horses at lateral recumbency, and the cranial, central and caudal regions of the cervical spine being focalized. No significant changes occurred in the cerebrospinal fluid after injecting the contrast medium. Pathologic changes were not found by gross or microscopic examination of the brain and the cervical spinal cord. Radiographies of good to excellent image quality were obtained. At autopsy, radiographic diagnosis of cervical vertebral instability was confirmed in the animal that had pelvic limb ataxia

  20. Cervical myelography with iohexol in horses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fialho, S. A.G.; Graca, D. L.; Silva, A.M. da; Pellegrine, L.C. de; Oliveira, L. S.S. de; Lopes, S. T.D.A.

    1989-08-15

    Five horses, weighing 337 to 400 kg, were used in this research, one of them being used as control. Cervical myelography with iohexol (Omnipaque) was performed on four horses tranquilized with flunitrazepan before induction of anesthesia with sodium thiopental. Anesthesia was maintained with fluothane and oxygen. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) was analysed before and after an injection of ioxheol into the subarachnoid space. The animals received 25 to 50 ml of iohexol, after removal of 20 ml cerebrospinal fluid. Radiographies were taken with the horses at lateral recumbency, and the cranial, central and caudal regions of the cervical spine being focalized. No significant changes occurred in the cerebrospinal fluid after injecting the contrast medium. Pathologic changes were not found by gross or microscopic examination of the brain and the cervical spinal cord. Radiographies of good to excellent image quality were obtained. At autopsy, radiographic diagnosis of cervical vertebral instability was confirmed in the animal that had pelvic limb ataxia.

  1. Genetic variability of Italian Heavy Draught Horse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio Maretto

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to analyze the genetic variability of the Italian Heavy Draught Horse (IHDH breed using a panel of 23 microsatellite markers. We also compared the population structure of the IHDH to other two unrelated breeds (Italian Haflinger, IH and Quarter Horse, QH. The IHDH showed a genetic variability comparable with other European heavy draught horse breeds and with the IH and QH breeds analyzed. Clustering analyses using a posterior Bayesian approach clearly differentiated the three breeds; it also showed a fragmentation of the IHDH in three subpopulations that need to be further investigated. These findings are an indicator of the present situation of the IHDH and will contribute to the conservation and implementation of the selection programme for this breed.

  2. 9 CFR 93.304 - Import permits for horses from regions affected with CEM and for horse specimens for diagnostic...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Import permits for horses from regions affected with CEM and for horse specimens for diagnostic purposes; reservation fees for space at quarantine... POULTRY PRODUCTS; REQUIREMENTS FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Horses § 93.304 Import...

  3. Horse manure as feedstock for anaerobic digestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadin, Sa; Eriksson, Ola

    2016-10-01

    Horse keeping is of great economic, social and environmental benefit for society, but causes environmental impacts throughout the whole chain from feed production to manure treatment. According to national statistics, the number of horses in Sweden is continually increasing and is currently approximately 360,000. This in turn leads to increasing amounts of horse manure that have to be managed and treated. Current practices could cause local and global environmental impacts due to poor performance or lack of proper management. Horse manure with its content of nutrients and organic material can however contribute to fertilisation of arable land and recovery of renewable energy following anaerobic digestion. At present anaerobic digestion of horse manure is not a common treatment. In this paper the potential for producing biogas and biofertiliser from horse manure is analysed based on a thorough literature review in combination with mathematical modelling and simulations. Anaerobic digestion was chosen as it has a high degree of resource conservation, both in terms of energy (biogas) and nutrients (digestate). Important factors regarding manure characteristics and operating factors in the biogas plant are identified. Two crucial factors are the type and amount of bedding material used, which has strong implications for feedstock characteristics, and the type of digestion method applied (dry or wet process). Straw and waste paper are identified as the best materials in an energy point of view. While the specific methane yield decreases with a high amount of bedding, the bedding material still makes a positive contribution to the energy balance. Thermophilic digestion increases the methane generation rate and yield, compared with mesophilic digestion, but the total effect is negligible. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  4. Glucocorticoids and laminitis in the horse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Philip J; Slight, Simon H; Ganjam, Venkataseshu K; Kreeger, John M

    2002-08-01

    The administration of exogenously administered GCs and syndromes associated with GC excess are both attended by increased risk for the development of laminitis in adult horses. However, there exists substantial controversy as to whether excess GCs cause laminitis de novo. If true, the pathogenesis of laminitis arising from the effects of GC excess is probably different from that associated with diseases of the gastrointestinal tract and endotoxemia. Although a satisfactory explanation for the development of laminitis as a consequence of GC action is currently lacking, numerous possible and plausible theoretical mechanisms do exist. Veterinarians must exert caution with respect to the use of GCs in adult horses. The extent to which individual horses are predisposed to laminitis as a result of GC effect cannot be predicted based on current information. However, the administration of systemic GCs to horses that have been previously affected by laminitis should be used only with extreme caution, and should be accompanied by careful monitoring for further signs of laminitis. The risk of laminitis appears to be greater during treatment using some GCs (especially dexamethasone and triamcinalone) compared with others (prednisone and prednisolone). Whenever possible, to reduce the risk of laminitis, GCs should be administered locally. For example, the risk of GC-associated laminitis is evidently considerably reduced in horses affected with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) if GC treatment is administered via inhalation. We have hypothesized that structural changes in the equine hoof that resemble laminitis may arise as a consequence of excess GC effect. Although these changes are not painful per se, and are not associated with inflammation, they could likely predispose affected horses to the development of bona fide laminitis for other reasons. Moreover, the gross morphological appearance of the chronically GC-affected hoof resembles that of a chronically

  5. Pathological Findings in Accidental Electrocution in a Horse (Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian Florin Gal

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Recently, the veterinarians are dealing with a number of cases that require forensic expertise. Such a circumstance could be the accidental electrocution in animals, one of the causes of unnatural death. There is a scarcity with reference to the pathological findings in veterinary forensic medicine. In this paper, we present the main lesions that occurred in a horse with accidental electrocution that was presented for complete necropsy survey. A horse corpse was sent to the Pathology Department (Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Cluj-Napoca, Romania for a full medical survey. Preliminary results and external examination: the body was in rigor mortis; from the nasal cavities drained out reddish foam and in the mouth was observed the presence of ingested feed (straw that was not chewed, suggesting a quick death. The findings detected after internal examination of the carcass were poor blood coagulability, haemorrhagic diathesis throughout the body, with haemorrhages of various sizes in different body regions (e.g., muscles of the withers, in the gluteal muscle, the mucosa of epiglottis, larynx, trachea, in the interstitium of the lung, and ecchymosis in the left kidney. Some other lesions detected were infarcts and haemorrhages in the fundic region of the stomach’s mucosa. In electrocution, haemorrhages are most often located in the respiratory tract, aspect observed in our case too. However, the diagnosis of electrocution has to corroborate the necropsy findings (which are not specific, with some other data such as the fulminant death and inspection of power source.

  6. Genetic parameters of eventing horse competition in France

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chanu Isabelle

    2001-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Genetic parameters of eventing horse competitions were estimated. About 13 000 horses, 30 000 annual results during 17 years and 110 000 starts in eventing competitions during 8 years were recorded. The measures of performance were logarithmic transformations of annual earnings, annual earnings per start, and annual earnings per place, and underlying variables responsible for ranks in each competition. Heritabilities were low (0.11/0.17 for annual results, 0.07 for ranks. Genetic correlations between criteria were high (greater than 0.90 except between ranks and earnings per place (0.58 or per start (0.67. Genetic correlations between ages (from 5 to 10 years old were also high (more than 0.85 and allow selection on early performances. The genetic correlation between the results in different levels of competition (high/international and low/amateur was near 1. Genetic correlations of eventing with other disciplines, which included partial aptitude needed for eventing, were very low for steeplechase races (0.18 and moderate with sport: jumping (0.45, dressage (0.58. The results suggest that selection on jumping performance will lead to some positive correlated response for eventing performance, but much more response could be obtained if a specific breeding objective and selection criteria were developed for eventing.

  7. Horse keeping in peri-urban areas

    OpenAIRE

    Elgåker, Hanna

    2011-01-01

    The number of horses in Sweden has increased from 70 000 to almost 300 000 in 30 years. Today these horses are to a large extent kept for the purpose of hobby and leisure and create a substantial land use but link a diverse and a large amount of activities in peri-urban areas in Sweden. The sector contributes with new economic, social and physical possibilities, but also with conflicts between various stakeholders and interests. The overall aim of this work was to contribute to increased unde...

  8. Water homeostasis and diabetes insipidus in horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schott, Harold C

    2011-04-01

    Diabetes insipidus (DI) is a rare disorder of horses characterized by profound polyuria and polydipsia (PU/PD), which can be caused by loss of production of arginine vasopressin (AVP). This condition is termed neurogenic or central DI. DI may also develop with absence or loss of AVP receptors or activity on the basolateral membrane of collecting-duct epithelial cells. This condition is termed nephrogenic DI. Equine clinicians may differentiate true DI from more common causes of PU/PD by a systematic diagnostic approach. DI may not be a correctable disorder, and supportive care of affected horses requires an adequate water source. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Dominance and Leadership: Useful Concepts in Human–Horse Interactions?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hartmann, Elke; Christensen, Janne Winther; McGreevy, Paul D.

    2017-01-01

    of management scenarios, ranging from taking a horse out of its social group to the prospect of humans mimicking the horse's social system by taking a putative leadership role and seeking after an alpha position in the dominance hierarchy to achieve compliance. Yet, there is considerable debate about whether...... the roles horses attain in their social group are of any relevance in their reactions to humans. This article reviews the empirical data on social dynamics in horses, focusing on dominance and leadership theories and the merits of incorporating those concepts into the human–horse context. This will provide...

  10. The role of the horse in Europe. Editorial

    OpenAIRE

    Goodwin, D.; Davidson, N.

    1999-01-01

    The horse has a unique place in European society. Historically, it has played a major part in shaping political and agricultural advances. Today, the horse has diverse roles ranging from the companion and leisure horse, to the sporting athlete. The horse continues to work on the land in many European countries, it serves in the police and the armed forces, and in some regions is a source of food. This has resulted in a vast range of horse-human interactions and relationships. Despite the l...

  11. Blood Glucose and Insulin Concentrations after Octreotide Administration in Horses With Insulin Dysregulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, N; Hermida, P; Sanchez-Londoño, A; Singh, R; Gradil, C M; Uricchio, C K

    2017-07-01

    Octreotide is a somatostatin analog that suppresses insulin secretion. We hypothesized that octreotide would suppress insulin concentrations in horses and that normal (N) horses and those with insulin dysregulation (ID) would differ significantly in their plasma glucose and insulin responses to administration of octreotide. Twelve horses, N = 5, ID = 7. Prospective study. An oral sugar test was performed to assign horses to N and ID groups. Octreotide (1.0 μg/kg IV) was then administered, and blood was collected at 0, 5, 10, 15, 20, 25, 30, 45, 60, 75, and 90 minute, and 2, 3, 4, 6, 8, 12, and 24 hour for measurement of glucose and insulin concentrations. Area under the curve (AUC) values were calculated. Mean AUC values for glucose and insulin did not differ between normal (n = 5) and ID (n = 7) groups after octreotide injection. Significant time (P glucose and insulin concentrations. A group × time interaction (P = .091) was detected for insulin concentrations after administration of octreotide, but the group (P = .33) effect was not significant. Octreotide suppresses insulin secretion, resulting in hyperglycemia, and then concentrations increase above baseline as glycemic control is restored. Our hypothesis that octreotide causes insulin concentrations to decrease in horses was supported, but differences between N and ID groups did not reach statistical significance when blood glucose and insulin responses were compared. The utility of an octreotide response test remains to be determined. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine.

  12. Leisure riding horses: research topics versus the needs of stakeholders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janczarek, Iwona; Wilk, Izabela

    2017-07-01

    Horses intended for leisure riding do not undergo any selection and most often retired sports horses or defective horses are chosen, as a low selling price determines their purchase by a leisure riding center. Unfortunately, horses bought at low prices usually have low utility value, are difficult to handle, require a special or individual approach and do not provide satisfaction in riding. However, neither modern horse breeding nor scientific research address the need to breed horses for leisure activities. There is no clear definition of a model leisure horse and criteria or information for its selection are not readily available in scientific publications. A wide spectrum of research methods may be used to evaluate various performance traits in horses intended for leisure activities. The fact that the population of recreational horses and their riders outnumber sporting horses should attract the special attention of scientific research. Their utility traits need to be determined with modern technology and methods in the same way they are for sporting horses. Such a system of evaluation would be very helpful for riders. © 2017 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  13. European domestic horses originated in two holocene refugia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vera Warmuth

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The role of European wild horses in horse domestication is poorly understood. While the fossil record for wild horses in Europe prior to horse domestication is scarce, there have been suggestions that wild populations from various European regions might have contributed to the gene pool of domestic horses. To distinguish between regions where domestic populations are mainly descended from local wild stock and those where horses were largely imported, we investigated patterns of genetic diversity in 24 European horse breeds typed at 12 microsatellite loci. The distribution of high levels of genetic diversity in Europe coincides with the distribution of predominantly open landscapes prior to domestication, as suggested by simulation-based vegetation reconstructions, with breeds from Iberia and the Caspian Sea region having significantly higher genetic diversity than breeds from central Europe and the UK, which were largely forested at the time the first domestic horses appear there. Our results suggest that not only the Eastern steppes, but also the Iberian Peninsula provided refugia for wild horses in the Holocene, and that the genetic contribution of these wild populations to local domestic stock may have been considerable. In contrast, the consistently low levels of diversity in central Europe and the UK suggest that domestic horses in these regions largely derive from horses that were imported from the Eastern refugium, the Iberian refugium, or both.

  14. Effects of repeated regrouping on horse behaviour and injuries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Janne Winther; Søndergaard, Eva; Thodberg, Karen

    2011-01-01

    about how repeated regrouping affect horse behaviour and welfare, and it is unknown whether horses may adapt to regrouping. In this study, we aimed to investigate the effects of an unstable group structure, caused by weekly regroupings, on behaviour and frequency of injuries in young horses. Forty...... after each regrouping (2 × 20 min/group/day). Injuries were scored by the end of the experimental period. The level of aggression shown by horses in Unstable groups immediately after regrouping was not affected by week (F5,35 = 0.42, P = 0.83), indicating that horses neither habituated, nor sensitized...... injuries were registered and there was no treatment effect (U = 184; P = 0.11). We conclude that the behaviour of young horses is affected by group management, and that horses appear not to adapt to weekly regroupings....

  15. Experimental induction of mycotic plaques in the guttural pouches of horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greppi, Maria Carla; Guillot, Jacques; Melloul, Elise; Bourdoiseau, Gilles; Lepage, Olivier; Cadoré, Jean-Luc

    2017-04-01

    Guttural pouch mycosis (GPM) is a rare but potentially life-threatening condition in horses. GPM is caused by a fungal invasion into the mucosal lining of the guttural pouches and, frequently, the associated neurovascular structures. Although several species of fungi have been associated with this disease, Aspergillus spp. appear to be the most common isolated from the guttural pouches. However, it remains unclear which are the predisposing factors leading to the development of the infection. The objectives of the present study were to experimentally reproduce an infection by Aspergillus fumigatus and to follow the natural evolution of the mycosis. Eight guttural pouches from four horses were experimentally infected by endoscopy-guided intrapouch inoculation of A. fumigatus culture. Horses were monitored for clinical signs and development of fungal plaques through endoscopic examination. Mycotic lesions were observed in all the horses and a spontaneous regression was observed within 15-28 days. No development of clinical signs was noticed. In conclusion, we were able to induce the development of mycotic lesions and to observe a natural regression of these lesions without clinical signs. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The International Society for Human and Animal Mycology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  16. Playing with fire - What is influencing horse owners' decisions to not vaccinate their horses against deadly Hendra virus infection?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kailiea Arianna Goyen

    Full Text Available Hendra virus is a zoonotic paramyxovirus, which causes severe respiratory and neurological disease in horses and humans. Since 2012, the Hendra virus sub-unit G vaccine has been available for horse vaccination in Australia. Uptake of the vaccine has been limited and spill-over events of Hendra virus infection in horses continue to occur. We conducted an online, questionnaire-based cross-sectional study of 376 horse owners belonging to a variety of different equestrian clubs in Queensland, Australia, to identify risk factors for non-vaccination against Hendra virus. A total of 43.1% (N = 162 of horse owners indicated that they currently did not vaccinate against Hendra virus infection, while 56.9% (N = 214 currently vaccinated against Hendra virus infection. A total of 52 risk factors were evaluated relating to equestrian activities, horse management, perceived risk and severity of horse and human infection with Hendra virus, side effects of Hendra vaccination, other vaccinations conducted by horse owners and horse owners' attitudes towards veterinarians. The final multivariable logistics regression model identified the following risk factors associated with increased odds of non-vaccination against Hendra virus: 1 perceived low risk (compared to high of Hendra virus infection to horses (considering the horse owners' location and management practices or horse owners were unsure about the risk of infection, 2 perceived moderate severity (compared to very severe or severe of Hendra virus infection in humans, 3 horse owners non-vaccination of their pets, 4 horse owners non-vaccination against strangles disease in horses, 5 handling of more than three horses per week (compared to one horse only and 6 perceived attitude that veterinarians had a high motivation of making money from Hendra virus vaccination (compared to veterinarians having a low motivation of making money from Hendra virus vaccination. Horse owners were more likely to vaccinate against

  17. Surgical management of complete diaphyseal third metacarpal and metatarsal bone fractures: clinical outcome in 10 mature horses and 11 foals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bischofberger, A S; Fürst, A; Auer, J; Lischer, C

    2009-05-01

    Osteosynthesis of third metacarpal (McIII) and third metatarsal (MtIII) bone fractures in horses is a surgical challenge and complications surrounding the repair are common. Retrospective studies evaluating surgical repair, complications and outcome are necessary to increase knowledge and improve success of long bone fracture repair in the horse. To evaluate clinical findings, surgical repair, post operative complications and outcome of 10 mature horses and 11 foals with McIII or MtIII fractures that were treated with open reduction and internal fixation (ORIF). Medical records were reviewed and follow-up information obtained by means of radiographs and/or telephone questionnaire. Survival was achieved in 62% of the horses (3 mature/10 foals). On long-term evaluation (> 6 months) 11 horses (2 mature/9 foals) were fit for their intended activity, one mature horse had a chronic low grade lameness, and one foal was lost to follow-up because it was sold. The main fracture types were simple transverse (333%) or simple oblique (28.6%) and 71.4% of the fractures were open, 3 Type I (one mature/2 foals) and 12 type II (7 mature/5 foals). The preoperative assessment revealed inadequate emergency treatment in 10 horses (5 mature/5 foals; 47.6%). Survival rate of horses with open fractures was 12.5% (1/8) in mature and 85.7% (6/7) in foals. Post operative incisional infection (4 mature, 3 foals) was only managed successfully in 2 foals. Fracture instability related to inadequate fracture fixation technique occurred in 4 horses (all mature) and was always associated with unsuccessful outcome. Age, bodyweight and infection are strongly associated with outcome in treatment of complete McIII/MtIII fractures. Rigid fixation using plates and screws can be successful in treatment of closed or open, complete diaphyseal McIII/MtIII fractures in mature horses and foals. Instable fixation, infection and a bodyweight > 320 kg are major risk factors for unsuccessful outcome.

  18. A survey on the feeding of eventing horses during competition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunner, J; Wichert, B; Burger, D; von Peinen, K; Liesegang, A

    2012-10-01

    This study aims at the comparison of the actual feeding of horses with the recommendations from the literature, and it studies the effects of feeding and exercise on several blood metabolic parameters before and after exercise. Blood samples were collected from 25 horses during one-star eventing competitions and evaluated for blood glucose, insulin, lactate, free fatty acids and triglyceride levels. Questionnaires on the feeding practices of the horses were evaluated. The questionnaires revealed that during training, and on tournament days, horses received on average 4.3 kg of concentrate per day (min. 1.54 kg, max. 8 kg). The statistical analysis showed no significant effect of the amount of concentrate fed before exercise on the measured blood values. Oil was supplied as a supplementary energy source to 30% of the horses, but most of them only received very small quantities (0.02-0.4 l/day). Five horses (20%) had no access to salt supplements at all, and eleven horses (45%) had no access to salt on tournament days. Fifteen horses (60%) were supplied with mineral feed. Twenty-one horses (84%) had daily access to pasture during the training period. During competition, 55% of the horses received roughage ad libitum, compared with 37% during training. The majority of the horses received less roughage on days before the cross-country competition. It could not be ascertained whether feeding a large amounts of roughage had a beneficial effect on performance, because only a few horses in this study were fed with very restrictive roughage. Feeding of most of the horses was in agreement with the recommendations from the literature, except the need for sodium and chloride. The sodium and chloride need for sport horses may be overestimated in literature and needs to be re-evaluated. © 2012 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  19. International

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1997-01-01

    This rubric reports on 10 short notes about international economical facts about nuclear power: Electricite de France (EdF) and its assistance and management contracts with Eastern Europe countries (Poland, Hungary, Bulgaria); Transnuclear Inc. company (a 100% Cogema daughter company) acquired the US Vectra Technologies company; the construction of the Khumo nuclear power plant in Northern Korea plays in favour of the reconciliation between Northern and Southern Korea; the delivery of two VVER 1000 Russian reactors to China; the enforcement of the cooperation agreement between Euratom and Argentina; Japan requested for the financing of a Russian fast breeder reactor; Russia has planned to sell a floating barge-type nuclear power plant to Indonesia; the control of the Swedish reactor vessels of Sydkraft AB company committed to Tractebel (Belgium); the renewal of the nuclear cooperation agreement between Swiss and USA; the call for bids from the Turkish TEAS electric power company for the building of the Akkuyu nuclear power plant answered by three candidates: Atomic Energy of Canada Limited (AECL), Westinghouse (US) and the French-German NPI company. (J.S.)

  20. Kohtumispaigad: Tallinna kohvikute interjööre = Meeting Places : Interiors of Tallinn Cafes / Kai Lobjakas ; tõlk. Laila Põdra

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Lobjakas, Kai, 1975-

    2003-01-01

    Tallinna kohvikutest aastail 1930-2003. Vaadeldakse kohvikuid Corso/Harju, Feischner/Tallinn, Palace, Kultas/Moskva, Energia, Narva, Pärl, Pegasus, Tuluke, Szolnok, Tuljak, Vigri, Toome, Corrida, Võitlev Sõna, Robert's Coffee, Rossini, Popular. Sisekujundajad: R. Natus, V. Tomassov, K. Herman, B. Linde, J. Siirak, V. Asi, V. Tamm, L. Pärtelpoeg, N. Kultas, P. Aren, H. Karro, G. Nahkur, L. Tarvas, M. Grünberg, A. Murdmaa, M. Tammik, G. Sarv, A. Maasik, A. Nurk, R. Treu, M. Sulengo, R. Tiitus. 22 vaadet, kaart

  1. Adapting craniosacral therapy to treat horses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weronika Kanik

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Craniosacral therapy is an acknowledged therapeutic method used for treating humans. It derives from osteopathy, being a manual technique which uses a very gentle touch. It consists in balancing the fluctuation of cerebrospinal fluid by applying appropriate holds that make it possible for the patientŐs organism to release tensions which have formed in tissues. The aim of the present work was to depict the possibility to adapt the method of craniosacral therapy used in humans to the therapy of horses. Thirteen therapeutic holds proposed for the treatment of horses were described and interpreted graphically on the basis of therapy of 62 horses with different disorders. A total of 241 craniosacral therapy treatments were performed. The adaptation of presented craniosacral therapy holds to equine therapy was developed by the first author on the basis of relevant holds used in the biodynamic craniosacral therapy in humans and in own therapeutic practice. The effects of own practice and data available in literature suggest that craniosacral therapy seems to be an effective method of improving the state of health of horses suffering from different complaints that may cause major difficulties in sport, breeding or private use of the animals. The use of thermography made it possible to record the effects of therapy and some processes accompanying it, which had been impossible before.

  2. Assessment of back pain in horses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cauvin, E.

    1997-01-01

    Back pain is common in horses yet, in many cases, a definitive diagnosis remains elusive. The aim of this article is to present a systematic approach to the patient with a suspected back problem. For the present purposes, back pain is defined as pain arising from the thoracolumbar or sacral spine and associated soft tissues. Examination of the pelvis is also included

  3. Theory of the Trojan-Horse method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baur, Gerhard; Typel, Stefan

    2004-01-01

    The Trojan-Horse method is an indirect approach to determine the energy dependence of S factors of astrophysically relevant two-body reactions. This is accomplished by studying closely related three-body reactions under quasi-free scattering conditions. The basic theory of the Trojan-Horse method is developed starting from a post-from distorted wave Born approximation of the T-matrix element. In the surface approximation the cross section of the three-body reaction can be related to the S-matrix elements of the two-body reaction. The essential feature of the Trojan-Horse method is the effective suppression of the Coulomb barrier at low energies for the astrophysical reaction leading to finite cross sections at the threshold of the two-body reaction. In a modified plane wave approximation the relation between the two-body and three-body cross sections becomes very transparent. Applications of the Trojan Horse Method are discussed. It is special interest that electron screening corrections are negligible due to the high projectile energy. (author)

  4. Theory of the Trojan-Horse method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Typel, S.; Baur, G.

    2003-01-01

    The Trojan-Horse method is an indirect approach to determine the energy dependence of S factors of astrophysically relevant two-body reactions. This is accomplished by studying closely related three-body reactions under quasi-free scattering conditions. The basic theory of the Trojan-Horse method is developed starting from a post-form distorted wave Born approximation of the T-matrix element. In the surface approximation the cross-section of the three-body reaction can be related to the S-matrix elements of the two-body reaction. The essential feature of the Trojan-Horse method is the effective suppression of the Coulomb barrier at low energies for the astrophysical reaction leading to finite cross-sections at the threshold of the two-body reaction. In a modified plane wave approximation the relation between the two- and three-body cross-sections becomes very transparent. The appearing Trojan-Horse integrals are studied in detail

  5. The Trojan Horse Method in nuclear astrophysics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spitaleri, C.; Cherubini, S.; Del Zoppo, A.; Di Pietrob, A.; Figuerab, P.; Gulino, M.; Lattuadab, M.; Miljanic, Dstroke; Musumarra, A.; Pellegriti, M.G.; Pizzone, R.G.; Rolfs, C.; Romano, S.; Tudisco, S.; Tumino, A.

    2003-01-01

    The basic features of the Trojan Horse Method are discussed together with a review of recent applications, aimed to extract the bare astrophysical S(E)-factor for several two-body processes. In this framework information on electron screening potential U e was obtained from the comparison with direct experiments

  6. Designing Trojan Horses | Center for Cancer Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waging battle against cancer cells without inflicting damage on normal tissue has long been a goal for cancer treatment. A new type of drug called immunotoxins may help make this goal a reality. Much like the Greeks used a wooden horse to get soldiers inside the gates of Troy, immunotoxins use clever genetic engineering to get a lethal toxin inside cancer cells. Each

  7. Nuclear astrophysics and the Trojan Horse Method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spitaleri, C. [University of Catania, Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Catania (Italy); Laboratori Nazionali del Sud - INFN, Catania (Italy); La Cognata, M.; Pizzone, R.G. [Laboratori Nazionali del Sud - INFN, Catania (Italy); Lamia, L. [University of Catania, Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Catania (Italy); Mukhamedzhanov, A.M. [Texas A and M University, Cyclotron Institute, College Station, TX (United States)

    2016-04-15

    In this review, we discuss the new recent results of the Trojan Horse Method that is used to determine reaction rates for nuclear processes in several astrophysical scenarios. The theory behind this technique is shortly presented. This is followed by an overview of some new experiments that have been carried out using this indirect approach. (orig.)

  8. Horse breed discrimination using machine learning methods

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Burócziová, Monika; Riha, J.

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 50, č. 4 (2009), s. 375-377 ISSN 1234-1983 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50450515 Keywords : Breed discrimination * Genetics diversity * Horse breeds Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 1.324, year: 2009

  9. Grief and Horses: Putting the Pieces Together

    Science.gov (United States)

    Symington, Ashley

    2012-01-01

    The effectiveness of grief counseling may be enhanced through the utilization of equine-assisted psychotherapy (EAP). An experiential, solution-focused, and natural approach, EAP provides clients with the opportunity to discover solutions to challenges that exist within themselves. Counselors and equine specialists team with horses to provide a…

  10. Subluxation of the Carpus in Thirteen Horses

    OpenAIRE

    Bailey, J.V.; Barber, S.M.; Fretz, P.B.; Jacobs, K.A.

    1984-01-01

    The records of 13 horses of various breeds with subluxation of the radiocarpal, intercarpal or carpometacarpal joint, or combinations of these were reviewed. Subluxation was most common at the carpometacarpal joint (n = 10) and concomitant fractures of individual carpal bones or metacarpus II and IV were seen (n = 12).

  11. General anesthesia for horses with specific problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hodgson, D.S.; Dunlop, C.I.

    1990-01-01

    We have discussed anesthetic techniques, special considerations, and expected complications involved in anesthetizing horses for abdominal, orthopedic, and head and neck surgery, and myelography and have described expected physiologic dysfunction that may require changes in anesthetic technique or supportive measures. The objective is high-quality patient care and reduction in anesthesia-related morbidity and death

  12. Recent Studies on Trojan Horse Method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cherubini, S.; Spitaleri, C.; Gulino, M.

    2011-01-01

    The study of nuclear reactions that are important for the understanding of astrophysical problems received an increasing attention over the last decades. The Trojan Horse Method was proposed as a tool to overcome some of the problems connected with the measurement of cross-sections between charged particles at astrophysical energies. Here we present some recent studies on this method. (authors)

  13. A two-year participatory intervention project with owners to reduce lameness and limb abnormalities in working horses in Jaipur, India.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine E Reix

    Full Text Available Participatory methods are increasingly used in international human development, but scientific evaluation of their efficacy versus a control group is rare. Working horses support families in impoverished communities. Lameness and limb abnormalities are highly prevalent in these animals and a cause for welfare concern. We aimed to stimulate and evaluate improvements in lameness and limb abnormalities in horses whose owners took part in a 2-year participatory intervention project to reduce lameness (PI versus a control group (C in Jaipur, India.In total, 439 owners of 862 horses participated in the study. PI group owners from 21 communities were encouraged to meet regularly to discuss management and work practices influencing lameness and poor welfare and to track their own progress in improving these. Lameness examinations (41 parameters were conducted at the start of the study (Baseline, and after 1 year and 2 years. Results were compared with control horses from a further 21 communities outside the intervention. Of the 149 horses assessed on all three occasions, PI horses showed significantly (P<0.05 greater improvement than C horses in 20 parameters, most notably overall lameness score, measures of sole pain and range of movement on limb flexion. Control horses showed slight but significantly greater improvements in four parameters, including frog quality in fore and hindlimbs.This participatory intervention succeeded in improving lameness and some limb abnormalities in working horses, by encouraging changes in management and work practices which were feasible within owners' socioeconomic and environmental constraints. Demonstration of the potentially sustainable improvements achieved here should encourage further development of participatory intervention approaches to benefit humans and animals in other contexts.

  14. Effects of a Program of Adapted Therapeutic Horse-Riding in a Group of Autism Spectrum Disorder Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Gómez, Andrés; Risco, Manuel López; Rubio, Jesús Carlos; Guerrero, Eloisa; García-Peña, Inés Magdalena

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: The use of horses in therapy has a fairly long history. There are many references to the therapeutic benefits of this activity. Such therapies have been undergoing a boom internationally in recent years. However scientific research into the effective use of this activity in children with autism is still in the early stages of…

  15. Ocular findings in Quarter Horses with hereditary equine regional dermal asthenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mochal, Cathleen A; Miller, William W; Cooley, A James; Linford, Robert L; Ryan, Peter L; Rashmir-Raven, Ann M

    2010-08-01

    To compare ocular structures of Quarter Horses homozygous for hereditary equine regional dermal asthenia (HERDA) with those of Quarter Horses not affected by HERDA (control horses) and to determine the frequency of new corneal ulcers for horses with and without HERDA during a 4-year period. Cohort study of ocular structures and retrospective case series of horses with and without HERDA. The cohort portion of the study involved 10 Quarter Horses with HERDA and 10 Quarter Horses without HERDA; the retrospective case series involved 28 horses with HERDA and 291 horses without HERDA. Ophthalmic examinations, Schirmer tear tests, tonometry, corneal pachymetry, histologic examinations, and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) were performed in cohorts of Quarter Horses with and without HERDA. Records were reviewed to determine the incidence of corneal ulcers in horses with and without HERDA during a 4-year period. Corneal thickness of horses with HERDA was significantly less than that of control horses, but tear production of horses with HERDA was significantly greater than that of control horses. Results of SEM revealed zones of disorganized, haphazardly arranged collagen fibrils in corneas of horses with HERDA that were not evident in corneas of control horses. The incidence of corneal ulcers was significantly greater for horses with HERDA than for horses without HERDA during the 4-year period. Alterations in corneal thickness, arrangement of collagen fibers, and incidence of corneal ulcers indicated that abnormalities in horses with HERDA were not limited to the skin.

  16. Investment decisions in the South African saddle horse industry / Johannes Hendrik Dreyer

    OpenAIRE

    Dreyer, Johannes Hendrik

    2014-01-01

    This study originated in the phenomenon that has been observed in the South African Saddle Horse Industry of substantial investments being made over time in the absence of obvious financial or economic reward. A literature study confirmed that, internationally, investment without obvious financial and economic rewards is not unknown and at the same time it was obvious that it is a rarely studied subject. From the literature study it was also evident that this phenomenon occurs ...

  17. Evidence for the effect of serotonin receptor 1A gene (HTR1A) polymorphism on tractability in Thoroughbred horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hori, Y; Tozaki, T; Nambo, Y; Sato, F; Ishimaru, M; Inoue-Murayama, M; Fujita, K

    2016-02-01

    Tractability, or how easily animals can be trained and controlled, is an important behavioural trait for the management and training of domestic animals, but its genetic basis remains unclear. Polymorphisms in the serotonin receptor 1A gene (HTR1A) have been associated with individual variability in anxiety-related traits in several species. In this study, we examined the association between HTR1A polymorphisms and tractability in Thoroughbred horses. We assessed the tractability of 167 one-year-old horses reared at a training centre for racehorses using a questionnaire consisting of 17 items. A principal components analysis of answers contracted the data to five principal component (PC) scores. We genotyped two non-synonymous single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the horse HTR1A coding region. We found that one of the two SNPs, c.709G>A, which causes an amino acid change at the intracellular region of the receptor, was significantly associated with scores of four of five PCs in fillies (all Ps Horses carrying an A allele at c.709G>A showed lower tractability. This result provides the first evidence that a polymorphism in a serotonin-related gene may affect tractability in horses with the effect partially different depending on sex. © 2015 Stichting International Foundation for Animal Genetics.

  18. The Management of Horses during Fireworks in New Zealand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gronqvist, Gabriella; Rogers, Chris; Gee, Erica

    2016-01-01

    Simple Summary The negative effects of fireworks on companion animals have been reported, but little has been documented on the impact on horses. Horse anxiety was commonly associated with fireworks, and 26% of owners reported horse injuries as a result of fireworks. Many management strategies were seen as ineffective. The majority of horse owners were in favour of a ban on the sale of fireworks for private use. Abstract Within popular press there has been much coverage of the negative effects associated with firework and horses. The effect of fireworks has been documented in companion animals, yet no studies have investigated the negative effects, or otherwise, of fireworks on horses. This study aims to document horse responses and current management strategies to fireworks via an online survey. Of the total number of horses, 39% (1987/4765) were rated as “anxious”, 40% (1816/4765) “very anxious” and only 21% (965/4765) rated as “not anxious” around fireworks. Running (82%, 912/1107) was the most common behaviour reported, with no difference between property type (p > 0.05) or location (p > 0.05). Possibly as a consequence of the high frequency of running, 35% (384/1107) of respondents reported having horses break through fences in response to fireworks and a quarter (26%, 289/1099) reported that their horse(s) had received injuries associated with fireworks. The most common management strategy was moving their horse(s) to a paddock away from the fireworks (77%) and to stable/yard them (55%). However, approximately 30% reported these management strategies to be ineffective. Of the survey participants, 90% (996/1104) were against the sale of fireworks for private use. PMID:27005667

  19. Phagocytosis, bacterial killing, and cytokine activation of circulating blood neutrophils in horses with severe equine asthma and control horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanderstock, Johanne M; Lecours, Marie-Pier; Lavoie-Lamoureux, Annouck; Gottschalk, Marcelo; Segura, Mariela; Lavoie, Jean-Pierre; Jean, Daniel

    2018-04-01

    OBJECTIVE To evaluate in vitro phagocytosis and bactericidal activity of circulating blood neutrophils in horses with severe equine asthma and control horses and to determine whether circulating blood neutrophils in horses with severe equine asthma have an increase in expression of the proinflammatory cytokine tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α and the chemokine interleukin (IL)-8 and a decrease in expression of the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10 in response to bacteria. ANIMALS 6 horses with severe equine asthma and 6 control horses. PROCEDURES Circulating blood neutrophils were isolated from horses with severe equine asthma and control horses. Phagocytosis was evaluated by use of flow cytometry. Bactericidal activity of circulating blood neutrophils was assessed by use of Streptococcus equi and Streptococcus zooepidemicus as targets, whereas the cytokine mRNA response was assessed by use of a quantitative PCR assay. RESULTS Circulating blood neutrophils from horses with severe equine asthma had significantly lower bactericidal activity toward S zooepidemicus but not toward S equi, compared with results for control horses. Phagocytosis and mRNA expression of TNF-α, IL-8, and IL-10 were not different between groups. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINCAL RELEVANCE Impairment of bactericidal activity of circulating blood neutrophils in horses with severe equine asthma could contribute to an increased susceptibility to infections.

  20. DMPD: Lipoprotein trafficking in vascular cells. Molecular Trojan horses and cellularsaboteurs. [Dynamic Macrophage Pathway CSML Database

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 9287290 Lipoprotein trafficking in vascular cells. Molecular Trojan horses and cell...ml) Show Lipoprotein trafficking in vascular cells. Molecular Trojan horses and cellularsaboteurs. PubmedID ...9287290 Title Lipoprotein trafficking in vascular cells. Molecular Trojan horses

  1. Surgical management of proximal splint bone fractures in the horse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peterson, P.R.; Pascoe, J.R.; Wheat, J.D.

    1987-01-01

    Fractures of Metacarpal and Metatarsal II and IV (the splint bones) were treated in 283 horses over an 11 year period. In 21 cases the proximal portion of the fractured bone was stabilized with metallic implants. One or more cortical bone screws were used in 11 horses, and bone plates were applied in 11 horses. One horse received both treatments. Complications of screw fixation included bone failure, implant failure, radiographic lucency around the screws, and proliferative new bone at the ostectomy site. Only two of the horses treated with screw fixation returned to their intended use. Complications of plate fixation included partial fixation failure (backing out of screws), wound drainage, and proliferative bony response around the plate. Six of the 11 horses treated by plate fixation returned to their intended use. The authors recommend consideration of plate fixation techniques for repair of fractures in the proximal third of the splint bone

  2. Idiopathic gastroesophageal reflux disease in an adult horse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Shannon J; Johnson, Philip J; David, Andrew; Cook, Cristi Reeves

    2004-06-15

    Chronic gastroesophageal reflux disease was diagnosed in a 22-year-old female Tennessee Walking Horse that had signs of bruxism and ptyalism. Esophageal ulceration was detected via endoscopy. Compared with the damage to the proximal portions of the esophagus, the severity of the ulceration increased toward the gastroesophageal junction. Esophageal ulceration attributable to chronic gastric acid reflux is usually secondary to pyloric outflow obstruction in horses. In the horse of this report, there was no evidence of either a chronic pyloric or duodenal obstruction that could have resulted in esophageal ulceration. Esophageal ulceration in this horse was attributed to gastroesophageal reflux disease, a common condition in humans in which the underlying abnormality is functional incompetence of the gastroesophageal junction. Treatment is directed at decreasing gastric acidity and protecting the ulcerated mucosa. In the horse of this report, treatment was unsuccessful and the horse was euthanatized; a physical cause of gastroesophageal reflux disease was not identified during an extensive postmortem examination.

  3. The Evolutionary Origin and Genetic Makeup of Domestic Horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Librado, Pablo; Fages, Antoine; Gaunitz, Charleen; Leonardi, Michela; Wagner, Stefanie; Khan, Naveed; Hanghøj, Kristian; Alquraishi, Saleh A; Alfarhan, Ahmed H; Al-Rasheid, Khaled A; Der Sarkissian, Clio; Schubert, Mikkel; Orlando, Ludovic

    2016-10-01

    The horse was domesticated only 5.5 KYA, thousands of years after dogs, cattle, pigs, sheep, and goats. The horse nonetheless represents the domestic animal that most impacted human history; providing us with rapid transportation, which has considerably changed the speed and magnitude of the circulation of goods and people, as well as their cultures and diseases. By revolutionizing warfare and agriculture, horses also deeply influenced the politico-economic trajectory of human societies. Reciprocally, human activities have circled back on the recent evolution of the horse, by creating hundreds of domestic breeds through selective programs, while leading all wild populations to near extinction. Despite being tightly associated with humans, several aspects in the evolution of the domestic horse remain controversial. Here, we review recent advances in comparative genomics and paleogenomics that helped advance our understanding of the genetic foundation of domestic horses. Copyright © 2016 by the Genetics Society of America.

  4. Characterisation of the horse transcriptome from immunologically active tissues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Moreton

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The immune system of the horse has not been well studied, despite the fact that the horse displays several features such as sensitivity to bacterial lipopolysaccharide that make them in many ways a more suitable model of some human disorders than the current rodent models. The difficulty of working with large animal models has however limited characterisation of gene expression in the horse immune system with current annotations for the equine genome restricted to predictions from other mammals and the few described horse proteins. This paper outlines sequencing of 184 million transcriptome short reads from immunologically active tissues of three horses including the genome reference “Twilight”. In a comparison with the Ensembl horse genome annotation, we found 8,763 potentially novel isoforms.

  5. Investigation of inflammatory markers in horses with acute abdominal pain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pihl, Tina Holberg; Kjelgaard-Hansen, Mads; Andersen, Pia Haubro

    of colic horses in a referral hospital have not been reported earlier. Objectives Evaluation of serum and peritoneal fluid (PF) levels of serum amyloid A (SAA) and haptoglobin in horses with colic. Methods Blood and PF samples were collected from 75 colic horses at admission to a referral hospital and from...... 19 healthy control horses. SAA and haptoglobin were measured in both serum and PF. Colic cases were classified according to diagnosis, treatment and outcome based on the clinical records. Protein concentrations were compared between groups with student´s t-test and ANOVA. Results Colic horses had...... significantly higher mean concentrations of serum SAA, PF SAA and PF haptoglobin compared to controls. PF SAA was significantly higher in horses with infectious conditions compared to both simple and strangulating obstructions, where as PF haptoglobin was higher in both strangulating and infectious conditions...

  6. Object recognition and generalisation during habituation in horses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Janne Winther; Zharkikh, Tjatjana; Chovaux, Elodie

    2011-01-01

    The ability of horses to habituate to frightening stimuli greatly increases safety in the horse–human relationship. A recent experiment suggested, however, that habituation to frightening visual stimuli is relatively stimulus-specific in horses and that shape and colour are important factors...... for object generalisation (Christensen et al., 2008). In a series of experiments, we aimed to further explore the ability of horses (n = 30, 1 and 2-year-old mares) to recognise and generalise between objects during habituation. TEST horses (n = 15) were habituated to a complex object, composed of five...... simple objects of varying shape and colour, whereas CONTROL horses (n = 15) were habituated to the test arena, but not to the complex object. In the first experiment, we investigated whether TEST horses subsequently reacted less to i) simple objects that were previously part of the complex object (i...

  7. Analysis of horse genomes provides insight into the diversification and adaptive evolution of karyotype

    OpenAIRE

    Huang, J. L.; Zhao, Y. P.; Shiraigol, W.; Li, B.; Bai, D. Y.; Ye, W. X.; Daidiikhuu, D.; Yang, L. H.; Jin, Brqqg; Zhao, Q. A.; Gao, Y. H.; Wu, J.; Bao, Wydl; Li, A. A.; Zhang, Y. H. Percival

    2014-01-01

    Karyotypic diversification is more prominent in Equus species than in other mammals. Here, using next generation sequencing technology, we generated and de novo assembled quality genomes sequences for a male wild horse (Przewalski's horse) and a male domestic horse (Mongolian horse), with about 93-fold and 91-fold coverage, respectively. Portion of Y chromosome from wild horse assemblies (3 M bp) and Mongolian horse (2 M bp) were also sequenced and de novo assembled. We confirmed a Robertsoni...

  8. Analysis of horse genomes provides insight into the diversification and adaptive evolution of karyotype

    OpenAIRE

    Huang, Jinlong; Zhao, Yiping; Shiraigol, Wunierfu; Li, Bei; Bai, Dongyi; Ye, Weixing; Daidiikhuu, Dorjsuren; Yang, Lihua; Jin, Burenqiqige; Zhao, Qinan; Gao, Yahan; Wu, Jing; Bao, Wuyundalai; Li, Anaer; Zhang, Yuhong

    2014-01-01

    Karyotypic diversification is more prominent in Equus species than in other mammals. Here, using next generation sequencing technology, we generated and de novo assembled quality genomes sequences for a male wild horse (Przewalski's horse) and a male domestic horse (Mongolian horse), with about 93-fold and 91-fold coverage, respectively. Portion of Y chromosome from wild horse assemblies (3 M bp) and Mongolian horse (2 M bp) were also sequenced and de novo assembled. We confirmed a Robertsoni...

  9. A Massively Parallel Sequencing Approach Uncovers Ancient Origins and High Genetic Variability of Endangered Przewalski's Horses

    OpenAIRE

    Goto, Hiroki; Ryder, Oliver A.; Fisher, Allison R.; Schultz, Bryant; Kosakovsky Pond, Sergei L.; Nekrutenko, Anton; Makova, Kateryna D.

    2011-01-01

    The endangered Przewalski's horse is the closest relative of the domestic horse and is the only true wild horse species surviving today. The question of whether Przewalski's horse is the direct progenitor of domestic horse has been hotly debated. Studies of DNA diversity within Przewalski's horses have been sparse but are urgently needed to ensure their successful reintroduction to the wild. In an attempt to resolve the controversy surrounding the phylogenetic position and genetic diversity o...

  10. Chronic pulmonary disease - a multifacted disease complex in the horse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clarke, A.F.

    1987-01-01

    This paper reviews chronic pulmonary disease (CPD) as an insidiously developing disease capable of being manifest in many degrees. Horses may suffer mild, sub-clinical degrees of lower respiratory tract inflammation or small airway disease withouth showing symptoms at rest. This form of disease becomes manifest as poor performance when these horses take part in athletic competition. Factors relating to the aetiology, diagnosis, treatment and prevention of all degrees of small airway disease of horses are discussed. 30 refs

  11. Experimental inoculation of equine coronavirus into Japanese draft horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemoto, Manabu; Oue, Yasuhiro; Morita, Yoshinori; Kanno, Toru; Kinoshita, Yuta; Niwa, Hidekazu; Ueno, Takanori; Katayama, Yoshinari; Bannai, Hiroshi; Tsujimura, Koji; Yamanaka, Takashi; Kondo, Takashi

    2014-12-01

    Recently, outbreaks associated with equine coronavirus (ECoV) have occurred in Japan and the United States. While ECoV is likely to be pathogenic to horses, it has not been shown that experimental inoculation of horses with ECoV produces clinical signs of disease. In this study, we inoculated three Japanese draft horses with an ECoV-positive diarrheic fecal sample to confirm infection after inoculation and to investigate the clinical course and virus shedding patterns of ECoV. Virus neutralization tests showed that all three horses became infected with ECoV. Two of the three horses developed clinical signs similar to those observed during ECoV outbreaks, including fever, anorexia, and gastrointestinal dysfunction. All horses excreted a large amount of virus into their feces for more than 9 days after inoculation regardless of the presence or absence of clinical signs, which suggests that feces are an important source of ECoV infection. ECoV was also detected in nasal swabs from all horses, suggesting that respiratory transmission of ECoV may occur. Both symptomatic horses developed viremia, while the asymptomatic horse did not. White blood cell counts and serum amyloid A concentrations changed relative to the clinical condition of the inoculated horses; these may be useful markers for monitoring the clinical status of horses infected with ECoV. This is the first report of induction of clinical signs of ECoV infection in horses by experimental inoculation. These clinical and virological findings should aid further investigation of the pathogenesis of ECoV.

  12. 15 CFR 754.5 - Horses for export by sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Horses for export by sea. 754.5... CONTROLS § 754.5 Horses for export by sea. (a) License requirement. As indicated by the letters “SS” in the... No. 1 to part 774 of the EAR) a license is required for the export of horses exported by sea to all...

  13. Plasma serotonin in horses undergoing surgery for small intestinal colic

    OpenAIRE

    Torfs, Sara C; Maes, An A; Delesalle, Catherine J; Pardon, Bart; Croubels, Siska M; Deprez, Piet

    2015-01-01

    This study compared serotonin concentrations in platelet poor plasma (PPP) from healthy horses and horses with surgical small intestinal (SI) colic, and evaluated their association with postoperative ileus, strangulation and non-survival. Plasma samples (with EDTA) from 33 horses with surgical SI colic were collected at several pre- and post-operative time points. Serotonin concentrations were determined using liquid-chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. Results were compared with those fo...

  14. Common variable immunodeficiency in a horse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flaminio, M Julia B F; LaCombe, Veronique; Kohn, Catherine W; Antczak, Douglas F

    2002-11-01

    A 12-year-old Quarter Horse mare that was nonresponsive to medical treatment was evaluated for chronic respiratory disease and hepatobiliary disease. Serum immunoglobulin concentrations were measured by use of radial immunodiffusion that revealed trace to nondetectable concentrations of IgG, IgG(T), IgM, and IgA. Use of serum protein electrophoresis confirmed agammaglobulinemia by the absence of the expected peak in the gamma region. In addition, vaccination with tetanus toxoid did not result in specific immunoglobulin production. Flow cytometric analysis of blood lymphocyte subpopulations revealed the absence of B cells in blood. Immunohistochemical analysis of tissue sections revealed the absence of B lymphocytes in bone marrow and spleen, with occasional B cells in the peripheral lymph nodes. Blood lymphocyte proliferation assays revealed weak responses to pokeweed mitogen and no response to stimulation with lipopolysaccharide. Considering the age and sex of the horse, results of the immunologic tests suggested a diagnosis of common variable immunodeficiency.

  15. An ethological study of young horses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavla Šišková

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present study called “An Ethological Study of Young Horses” we focused on the behaviour of foals from their birth to separation from their mother. We observed and analysed their behaviour and daily activities, and from the achieved results we drew conclusions for practical horse breeding. We studied the following forms of behaviour of the foals: feeding behaviour (sucking, drinking, eating roughage and concentrates, gleaning, coprophagia, defecation and micturition, comfortable behaviour and mutual comfort behaviour, manifestations of relaxation (resting posture, lying down, movement manifestations, playful behaviour, stereotype behaviour, other manifestations (acoustic, olfactory etc.As a result we recommended several changes in the technology, e.g. larger stables, salt-lick out of reach of the foals, more frequent exchange of bedding, shelter for horses grazing in the open.

  16. The Trojan horse method in nuclear astrophysics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aliotta, M.; Rolfs, C.; Lattuada, M.; Pellegriti, M.G.; Pizzone, R.G.; Spitaleri, C.; Miljanic, Dj.; Typel, S.; Wolter, H.H.

    2001-01-01

    Because of the Coulomb barrier, reaction cross sections in astrophysics cannot be accessed directly at the relevant Gamow energies, unless very favourable conditions are met (e.g. LUNA--underground experiments). Theoretical extrapolations of available data are then needed to derive the astrophysical S(0)-factor. Various indirect processes have been used in order to obtain additional information on the parameters entering these extrapolations. The Trojan Horse Method is an indirect method which might help to bypass some of the problems typically encountered in direct measurements, namely the presence of the Coulomb barrier and the effect of the electron screening. However, a comparison with direct data in an appropriate energy region (e.g. around the Coulomb barrier) is crucial before extending the method to the relevant Gamow energy. Additionally, experimental and theoretical tests are needed to validate the assumptions underlying the method. The application of the Trojan Horse Method to some cases of interest is discussed

  17. Retrospective analysis of factors associated with outcome of proximal interphalangeal joint arthrodesis in 82 horses including Warmblood and Thoroughbred sport horses and Quarter Horses (1992-2014).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herthel, T D; Rick, M C; Judy, C E; Cohen, N D; Herthel, D J

    2016-09-01

    Outcomes associated with arthrodesis of the proximal interphalangeal (PIP) joint in Quarter Horses used for Western performance activities are well documented but little is known regarding outcomes for other types of horses. To identify factors associated with outcomes, including breed and activity, after arthrodesis of the PIP joint in Warmbloods, Thoroughbreds and Quarter Horses. Retrospective case series. Surgical case records of 82 Quarter Horses principally engaged in Western performance and Thoroughbred or Warmblood breeds principally engaged in showing, showjumping and dressage, with arthrodesis of the PIP joint were reviewed. Arthrodesis was performed with either 3 transarticular cortex bone screws placed in lag fashion, a dynamic compression plate (DCP) with 2 transarticular cortex bone screws placed in lag fashion, or a locking compression plate (LCP) with 2 transarticular cortex bone screws placed in lag fashion. Demographic data, clinical presentation, radiographic findings, surgical technique, post operative treatment and complications were recorded. Long-term follow-up was obtained for all 82 horses. Osteoarthritis of the PIP joint was the most common presenting condition requiring arthrodesis, which was performed with either the 3 screw technique (n = 41), DCP fixation (n = 22), or LCP fixation (n = 19). Post operatively, 23/31 (74%) Warmbloods/Thoroughbreds and 44/51 (87%) Quarter Horses achieved successful outcomes. Thirteen of 23 (57%) Warmbloods/Thoroughbreds and 24 of 38 (63%) Quarter Horses, used for athletic performance, returned to successful competition. Within this subgroup of horses engaged in high-level activity, regardless of breed type, horses undergoing hindlimb arthrodesis were significantly more likely to return to successful competition (73%; 33/45) than those with forelimb arthrodesis (25%; 4/16, P = 0.002). Arthrodesis of the PIP joint in Warmbloods/Thoroughbreds and Quarter Horses results in a favourable outcome for return to

  18. [Nordosteuropa als Geschichtsregion. Beiträge des III. Internationalen Symposiums zur deutschen Kultur und Geschichte im europäischen Nordosten vom 20.-22. September 2001 in Tallinn

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Lawaty, Andreas

    2011-01-01

    Arvustus : Nordosteuropa als Geschichtsregion. Beiträge des III. Internationalen Symposiums zur deutschen Kultur und Geschichte im europäischen Nordosten vom 20.-22. September 2001 in Tallinn. Lübeck : Verlag Schmidt-Römhild 2006. (Veröffentlihungen der Aue-Stiftung. 17)

  19. [Nordosteuropa als Geschichtsregion : Beiträge des III. Internationalen Symposiums zur Deutschen Kultur und Geschichte im Europäischen Nordosten vom 20. - 22. September 2001 in Tallinn (Estland)] / Janet Laidla

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Laidla, Janet, 1982-

    2008-01-01

    Arvustus: Nordosteuropa als Geschichtsregion : Beiträge des III. Internationalen Symposiums zur Deutschen Kultur und Geschichte im Europäischen Nordosten vom 20. - 22. September 2001 in Tallinn (Estland). (Helsinki : Aue-Stiftung ; Lübeck : Scmidt-Römhild, 2006)

  20. Endoscopic-assisted electrohydraulic shockwave lithotripsy in standing sedated horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Röcken, Michael; Fürst, Anton; Kummer, Martin; Mosel, Gesine; Tschanz, Theo; Lischer, Christoph J

    2012-07-01

    To report use of transendoscopic electrohydraulic shockwave lithotripsy for fragmentation of urinary calculi in horses. Case series. Male horses (n = 21). Fragmentation of cystic calculi (median, 6 cm diameter; range, 4-11 cm diameter) was achieved by transurethral endoscopy in standing sedated horses using an electrohydraulic shockwave fiber introduced through the biopsy channel of an endoscope. The fiber was advanced until it contacted the calculus. Repeated activation of the fiber was used to disrupt the calculus into fragments calculus removal was achieved in 20 horses (95%) with mean total surgical time of 168.6 minutes (range, 45-450). In the 20 horses with single calculi, 1-6 sessions were required to completely fragment the calculus. Except for 1 horse, in which perineal urethrotomy was eventually performed for complete fragment removal, fragments calculi were excreted via the urethra. Postoperative complications included hematuria because of severe mucosal erosion (n = 2), dysuria because of a trapped urethral fragment (2), small amount of urinary debris (1). One horse was euthanatized because of bladder rupture. Complete clearance of calculi and urinary debris was confirmed endoscopically 20 (3-45) days after the last session. Telephone follow-up (mean, 18.8 months; range, 7-24 months) revealed that horses had returned to previous activity levels without recurrence of clinical signs. Transendoscopic electrohydraulic lithotripsy appears to be an effective method for fragmentation of low-density calcium carbonate cystic calculi in male horses. Copyright 2012 by The American College of Veterinary Surgeons.

  1. Evaluation of the conformation of stallions of selected horse breeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tereza Petlachová

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the conformation of stallions of the breeds American Quarter Horse (AQH, American Paint Horse (APH, Appaloosa (Appa, the Lipizzaner horse (LH and the Old Kladruby horse (OKH. Representatives of these breeds are characterized as the descendants of horses on the base of the Arab-Berber blood. Western breeds (AQH, APH, Appa due to different environmental conditions, nutrition and the other structure under the influence of a different type of use, type of riding demands differed considerably from the original Spanish-type horses. It was measured a total of 24 body dimensions. Representatives of The American western breeds are statistically highly conclusively (P ≤ 0.01 in 23 of the 24 observed effects. To be precise, they are: smaller wither height as measured by stick, lower at the tail-set, longer neck, narrower chest, longer oblique body length, wider front pelvis length, longer pelvis bones, longer femur bones, shorter hind cannons.A statistically significant difference (P ≤ 0.05 was found in the length of the humerus, where the Old Kladruby Horse has a humerus that is longer by 2.34 cm than that of the APH. The Lipizzaner horse differs statistically highly conclusively (P ≤ 0.01 from the Appaloosa and Old Kladruby horse in the tape length of its head.

  2. Bone scintigraphy for horses; Die Skelettszintigrafie beim Pferd

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jahn, Werner [Pferdeklinik Bargteheide (Germany)

    2010-03-15

    Scintigraphy (bone scan) is being used approximately since 1980 in the horse under general anaesthesia. With the construction of custom-made overhead gantries for gamma-cameras scintigraphy found widespread entry in big equine referral hospitals for bone-scanning of the standing horse. Indications for the use of a bone scan in the horse are inflammatory alterations in the locomotor apparatus. It is primarily used for diagnosis of lameness of unknown origin, suspect of stress fracture or hairline fracture and for horses with bad riding comfort with suspected painful lesions in the spine. (orig.)

  3. Pharmacokinetics of oral terbinafine in horses and Greyhound dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, M M; Davis, E G; KuKanich, B

    2011-06-01

    The objective of the study was to assess the pharmacokinetics of terbinafine administered orally to horses and Greyhound dogs. A secondary objective was to assess terbinafine metabolites. Six healthy horses and six healthy Greyhound dogs were included in the pharmacokinetic data. The targeted dose of terbinafine was 20 and 30 mg/kg for horses and dogs, respectively. Blood was collected at predetermined intervals for the quantification of terbinafine concentrations with liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry. The half-life (geometric mean) was 8.1 and 8.6 h for horses and Greyhounds, respectively. The mean maximum plasma concentration was 0.31 and 4.01 μg/mL for horses and Greyhounds, respectively. The area under the curve (to infinity) was 1.793 h·μg/mL for horses and 17.253 h·μg/mL for Greyhounds. Adverse effects observed in one study horse included pawing at the ground, curling lips, head shaking, anxiety and circling, but these resolved spontaneously within 30 min of onset. No adverse effects were noted in the dogs. Ions consistent with carboxyterbinafine, n-desmethylterbinafine, hydroxyterbinafine and desmethylhydroxyterbinafine were identified in horse and Greyhound plasma after terbinafine administration. Further studies are needed assessing the safety and efficacy of terbinafine in horses and dogs. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  4. Exercise testing in Warmblood sport horses under field conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munsters, Carolien C B M; van Iwaarden, Alexandra; van Weeren, René; Sloet van Oldruitenborgh-Oosterbaan, Marianne M

    2014-10-01

    Regular exercise testing in Warmblood sport horses may, as in racing, potentially help to characterise fitness indices in different disciplines and at various competition levels and assist in understanding when a horse is 'fit to compete'. In this review an overview is given of the current state of the art of exercise testing in the Olympic disciplines of eventing, show jumping and dressage, and areas for further development are defined. In event horses, a simple four-step incremental exercise test measuring heart rate (HR), lactate concentration (LA) and velocity (V) is most often used. In dressage and riding horses, a wide variety of exercise tests have been developed, including incremental exercise tests, indoor riding tests and lunging tests. In show jumping, the use of a five-step incremental exercise test and exercise tests evaluating technical skills and fatigue of the horse has been reported. The velocity at a plasma LA of 4 mmol/L (VLA4) and HR recovery during submaximal exercise intensity have been shown to be the best parameters in event horses for predicting performance and impending injuries. In riding horses, the fitness level of horses is also an important determinant of injuries. Implementation of regular exercise testing and monitoring of training sessions may have important added value in the assessment of performance ability and potential future injuries in Warmblood sport horses. However, there is an urgent need to standardise methodologies and outcome parameters in order to make results comparable. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Welfare issues of horses: an overview and practical recommendations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabetta Canali

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The largest proportion of the world’s horses are still used for work in agriculture and traction, however in the western countries they are increasingly kept for recreational and social purposes, breeding, sport and competition. It is often assumed that horses enjoys better farming conditions than other species, yet they have specific needs which should be fulfilled in order to have a proper welfare. This paper will review the main welfare issues of horses and the following aspects will be considered: nutrition, housing and management, clinical problems, behaviour problems, training and riding, transportation, measuring welfare. Horses are social animals that live in groups in close contact with conspecifics. They spend most of their waking hours moving at walk, grazing and eating grass. Some of the constraints imposed on horses during the last centuries conflict to their naturally evolved behaviour. Effective and humane handling of horses positively affects many important aspects like the safety of man, the performance level and the welfare of horses. It is an essential condition for keeping horses that handlers, riders, trainers, farriers and veterinarians have proper knowledge of the behaviour of the horse in order to fulfil their natural needs and guarantee their welfare.

  6. Plasma serotonin in horses undergoing surgery for small intestinal colic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torfs, Sara C.; Maes, An A.; Delesalle, Catherine J.; Pardon, Bart; Croubels, Siska M.; Deprez, Piet

    2015-01-01

    This study compared serotonin concentrations in platelet poor plasma (PPP) from healthy horses and horses with surgical small intestinal (SI) colic, and evaluated their association with postoperative ileus, strangulation and non-survival. Plasma samples (with EDTA) from 33 horses with surgical SI colic were collected at several pre- and post-operative time points. Serotonin concentrations were determined using liquid-chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. Results were compared with those for 24 healthy control animals. The serotonin concentrations in PPP were significantly lower (P serotonin was not a suitable prognostic factor in horses with SI surgical colic. PMID:25694668

  7. The Management of Horses during Fireworks in New Zealand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriella Gronqvist

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Within popular press there has been much coverage of the negative effects associated with firework and horses. The effect of fireworks has been documented in companion animals, yet no studies have investigated the negative effects, or otherwise, of fireworks on horses. This study aims to document horse responses and current management strategies to fireworks via an online survey. Of the total number of horses, 39% (1987/4765 were rated as “anxious”, 40% (1816/4765 “very anxious” and only 21% (965/4765 rated as “not anxious” around fireworks. Running (82%, 912/1107 was the most common behaviour reported, with no difference between property type (p > 0.05 or location (p > 0.05. Possibly as a consequence of the high frequency of running, 35% (384/1107 of respondents reported having horses break through fences in response to fireworks and a quarter (26%, 289/1099 reported that their horse(s had received injuries associated with fireworks. The most common management strategy was moving their horse(s to a paddock away from the fireworks (77% and to stable/yard them (55%. However, approximately 30% reported these management strategies to be ineffective. Of the survey participants, 90% (996/1104 were against the sale of fireworks for private use.

  8. Genetic analysis of three South African horse breeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.G. Cothran

    1998-07-01

    Full Text Available Genetic variability at 7 blood-group and 10 biochemical genetic loci was examined in 3 South African horse breeds, the Nooitgedacht, Boerperd and Basuto Pony. Observed heterozygosity for these breeds was intermediate for domestic horses, with the highest heterozygosity in the Boerperd and the lowest in the Basuto Pony. The 3 breeds show greater genetic similarity to each other than to other domestic horse breeds. Compared to other breeds, the South African breeds show greater genetic similarity to breeds such as the Thoroughbred, Holstein, Trakehner and Hanovarian and also to North American breeds such as the Saddlebred, Standardbred and Morgan Horse.

  9. [Occurrence of Salmonella spp. and shigatoxin-producing escherichia coli (STEC) in horse faeces and horse meat products].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pichner, Rohtraud; Sander, Andrea; Steinrück, Hartmut; Gareis, Manfred

    2005-01-01

    In order to assess the relevance of horses as a possible reservoir of Salmonella and Shigatoxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC), 400 samples of horse faeces and 100 samples of horse meat products were examined by PCR-screening methods. Salmonella enterica was not found in any of the samples. One faeces-sample and one horse meat product were proved to be STEC positive. The STEC-strain from faecal origin belonged to the serotype 0113:H21 and had the stx 2c gene and the enterohemolysin gene. The STEC-strain isolated from a horse meat product had the serotype O87:H16 and the stx 2d gene. The results indicate a very low risk for human to get a Salmonella- or EHEC- infection from horses in Germany.

  10. Serum amyloid A and haptoglobin concentrations in serum and peritoneal fluid of healthy horses and horses with acute abdominal pain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pihl, Tina Holberg; Andersen, Pia Haubro; Kjelgaard-Hansen, Mads

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Peritoneal fluid (PF) analysis is a valuable diagnostic tool in equine medicine. Markers such as serum amyloid A (SAA) and haptoglobin (Hp) could facilitate the diagnosis of inflammatory abdominal conditions. OBJECTIVES: The objectives were to (1) establish reference intervals (RI......) for SAA and Hp in serum and PF in healthy horses, (2) compare SAA and Hp concentrations between healthy horses and horses with colic, and (3) to assess the correlation between serum and PF concentrations. METHODS: Serum amyloid A and Hp concentrations were determined by automated assays in prospectively...... enrolled healthy reference horses and horses with colic. RIs were calculated, group concentrations were compared by Student's t-test, and Pearson's correlation for serum and PF concentrations were determined. RESULTS: In healthy horses (n = 62) the measurements for SAA were below the detection limit (0...

  11. Trojan Horse Particle Invariance: An Extensive Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pizzone, R. G.; Spitaleri, C.; Sergi, M. L.; Lamia, L.; Cognata, M. La; Spartá, R.; Tumino, A.; Bertulani, C. A.; Blokhintsev, L.; Burjan, V.; Kroha, V.; Mrazek, J.; Mukhamedzhanov, A. M.

    2014-01-01

    In the last decades, the Trojan Horse method (THM) has played a crucial role for the measurement of several particle (both neutron and charged one) induced cross sections for reactions of astrophysical interest. To better understand its cornerstones and its applications to physical cases, many tests were performed to verify all its properties and the possible future perspectives. The Trojan Horse nucleus invariance proves the relatively simple approach allowed by the pole approximation and sheds light in the involved reaction mechanisms. Here we shortly review the complete work for the binary 2 H(d,p) 3 H, 6 Li(d,α) 4 He, 6 Li(p,α) 3 He, 7 Li(p,α) 4 He reactions, by using the quasi free reactions after break-ups of different nuclides. Results are compared assuming the 6 Li and 3 He break-up in the case of the d(d,p)t, 6 Li(d,α) 4 He reactions and considering the 2 H and 3 He break-up for 6 Li(p,α) 3 He, 7 Li(p,α) 4 He reactions. These results, regardless of the Trojan Horse particle or the break-up scheme, confirms the applicability of the standard description of the THM and suggests the independence of binary indirect cross section on the chosen Trojan Horse nuclei for a whole spectra of different cases. This gives a strong basis for the understanding of the quasi-free mechanism which is the foundation on which the THM lies. (author)

  12. An ethological study of young horses

    OpenAIRE

    Pavla Šišková; Iva Jiskrová; Vladimír Mikule

    2006-01-01

    In the present study called “An Ethological Study of Young Horses” we focused on the behaviour of foals from their birth to separation from their mother. We observed and analysed their behaviour and daily activities, and from the achieved results we drew conclusions for practical horse breeding. We studied the following forms of behaviour of the foals: feeding behaviour (sucking, drinking, eating roughage and concentrates, gleaning, coprophagia), defecation and micturition, comfortable behavi...

  13. Pharmacokinetics of oral terbinafine in adult horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Younkin, T J; Davis, E G; Kukanich, B

    2017-08-01

    The primary study objective was to compare the pharmacokinetics of p.o. terbinafine alone to p.o. terbinafine administered with p.o. cimetidine in healthy adult horses. The second objective was to assess the pharmacokinetics of terbinafine when administered per rectum in two different suspensions at 30 mg/kg to adult horses. Six healthy adult horses were included in this crossover study. Plasma terbinafine concentrations were quantified with liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry. The half-life (geometric mean) was 8.38 and 10.76 h, for p.o. alone and p.o. with cimetidine, respectively. The mean maximum plasma concentrations were 0.291 μg/mL at 1.54 h and 0.418 μg/mL at 1.28 h for p.o. alone and p.o. with cimetidine, respectively. Terbinafine with cimetidine had an average C MAX 44% higher and the relative F was 153% compared p.o. terbinafine alone, but was not statistically different (P > 0.05). Terbinafine was infrequently detected when administered per rectum in two different suspensions (water or olive oil). Minor adverse effects included oral irritation, fever, and colic. All resolved spontaneously. More pharmacokinetic studies are indicated assessing drug-drug interactions and using multiple dosing intervals to improve our knowledge of effective oral dosing, the potential for drug accumulation, and systemic adverse effect of terbinafine in horses. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. AHP 47: YELLOW-HEAD HORSE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sangs rgyas bkra shis སངས་རྒྱས་བཀྲ་ཤིས།

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available My family had a stallion we called Rta mgo ser 'Yellow-Head Horse'. Father and two of his brothers occasionally rode it. Father said that Yellow-Head was very wild when it was taken to join local horseraces. I didn't believe that because Yellow-Head was very gentle when Mother rode it to the local monastery and also when I rode it.

  15. SS-HORSE method for studying resonances

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blokhintsev, L. D. [Moscow State University, Skobeltsyn Institute of Nuclear Physics (Russian Federation); Mazur, A. I.; Mazur, I. A., E-mail: 008043@pnu.edu.ru [Pacific National University (Russian Federation); Savin, D. A.; Shirokov, A. M. [Moscow State University, Skobeltsyn Institute of Nuclear Physics (Russian Federation)

    2017-03-15

    A new method for analyzing resonance states based on the Harmonic-Oscillator Representation of Scattering Equations (HORSE) formalism and analytic properties of partial-wave scattering amplitudes is proposed. The method is tested by applying it to the model problem of neutral-particle scattering and can be used to study resonance states on the basis of microscopic calculations performed within various versions of the shell model.

  16. Occurrence of African horse sickness in a domestic dog without apparent ingestion of horse meat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sybrand J. van Sittert

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This is the first case of African horse sickness (AHS in a dog where there was no apparent ingestion of horse meat. Significantly, the dog was part of a colony that resides in a Good Clinical Practice and Good Laboratory Practice accredited facility where complete history, weather and feeding records are maintained. The dog died after a week-long illness despite therapy. The principal post-mortem findings were severe hydrothorax and pulmonary consolidation (red hepatisation of the lungs. Histopathology revealed severe oedema and congestion of the lungs, hyaline degeneration of the myocardium and congestion of the liver sinusoids. Immunohistochemistry detected AHS-positive staining granules in the myocardium, whilst a real-time reverse transcription quantitative Polymerase chain reaction assay of tissue samples was strongly positive for African horse sickness virus nucleic acid. Other dogs on the property showed a 43%seroconversion rate to AHS.

  17. Serum iron, ferritin, transferrin and haptoglobin concentration variations during repeated show jumping competition in horse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Assenza

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Modifications of the iron profile in athlete horses during two international three star (*** show jumping competitions performed in two consecutive weekends were evaluated. Serum iron, ferritin, transferrin, and haptoglobin were assessed in 12 well-trained Italian Saddle horses. Blood samplings were performed before the first day of competition (R1, within 10 min from the end of each competition (J1, J2 and on the day after competition (R2. The same plan was followed during the second weekend (J3, J4 and R3. One-way repeated measures analysis of variance (ANOVA was applied on obtained data, and a significant effect of exercise (P < 0.05 on all studied indices was found. These results suggest that serum iron, transferrin, ferritin and haptoglobin are responsive to intense exercise and could be considered important indicators that may give important information about the horse’s performance.

  18. Horses help to maintain CERN's forests

    CERN Multimedia

    François Briard

    2016-01-01

    On the initiative of the Office National des Forêts, France’s forestry commission, horses are helping to remove trees cut down in CERN’s forests.   The CERN site covers 625 hectares, of which around 200 are fenced sites used for CERN’s research activities. The rest of the land consists of fields rented out to farmers and about 90 hectares of forests, mainly in France and managed by the French forestry commission, the Office National des Forêts (ONF), under an agreement with CERN signed in 2010. The upkeep of CERN’s forests requires regular maintenance work, which includes thinning out seedlings, selecting the strongest saplings and harvesting mature trees. This June, the ONF has decided to involve horses in the removal of felled trees from CERN’s woods in Prévessin.  As Florent Daloz, the logger entrusted with this activity by the ONF, explains, the use of horses to haul timber completely died out i...

  19. Distortion Effects on Trojan Horse Applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pizzone, R. G.; Spitaleri, C.; La Cognata, M.; Lamia, L.; Romano, S.; Mukhamedzhanov, A. M.; Blokhintsev, L. D.; Bertulani, C. A.; Irgaziev, B. F.

    2011-01-01

    The widths of the spectator momentum distributions in several nuclei, which have been used as Trojan Horses, have been obtained as a function of the transferred momentum. Applications of Trojan Horse method will also be discussed. The study of processes relevant for astrophysics involving light nuclei has increased in the last decades due to the development of indirect methods. The present paper will also help to point out the distortion effects which arise at low energies in the study of three-body processes and will suggest some way to by-pass them in Trojan Horse Method (THM) applications. The goal of this paper is to compare the experimental momentum distribution of the spectator in the bound state a = (sx) extracted from the 2 → 3 particles (breakup, or breakup with rearrangement) reactions with the theoretical one. The theoretical momentum distribution has been calculated for the target a = (sx) using the Hulthen potential for a = d and Woods-Saxon one with the standard geometrical parameters, radius r 0 = 1.25 fm and diffuseness a = 0.65 fm, for other nuclei. (author)

  20. Tamoxifen induces apoptotic neutrophil efferocytosis in horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olave, C; Morales, N; Uberti, B; Henriquez, C; Sarmiento, J; Ortloff, A; Folch, H; Moran, G

    2018-03-01

    Macrophages and neutrophils are important cellular components in the process of acute inflammation and its subsequent resolution, and evidence increasingly suggests that they play important functions during the resolution of chronic, adaptive inflammatory processes. Exacerbated neutrophil activity can be harmful to surrounding tissues; this is important in a range of diseases, including allergic asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in humans, and equine asthma (also known as recurrent airway obstruction (RAO). Tamoxifen (TX) is a non-steroidal estrogen receptor modulator with effects on cell growth and survival. Previous studies showed that TX treatment in horses with induced acute pulmonary inflammation promoted early apoptosis of blood and BALF neutrophils, reduction of BALF neutrophils, and improvement in animals' clinical status. The aim of this study was to describe if TX induces in vitro efferocytosis of neutrophils by alveolar macrophages. Efferocytosis assay, myeloperoxidase (MPO) detection and translocation phosphatidylserine (PS) were performed on neutrophils isolated from peripheral blood samples from five healthy horses. In in vitro samples from heathy horses, TX treatment increases the phenomenon of efferocytosis of peripheral neutrophils by alveolar macrophages. Similar increases in supernatant MPO concentration and PS translocation were observed in TX-treated neutrophils, compared to control cells. In conclusion, these results confirm that tamoxifen has a direct effect on equine peripheral blood neutrophils, through stimulation of the engulfment of apoptotic neutrophils by alveolar macrophages.

  1. Australian bat lyssavirus infection in two horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinwari, Mustaghfira Wafa; Annand, Edward J; Driver, Luke; Warrilow, David; Harrower, Bruce; Allcock, Richard J N; Pukallus, Dennis; Harper, Jennifer; Bingham, John; Kung, Nina; Diallo, Ibrahim S

    2014-10-10

    In May 2013, the first cases of Australian bat lyssavirus infections in domestic animals were identified in Australia. Two horses (filly-H1 and gelding-H2) were infected with the Yellow-bellied sheathtail bat (YBST) variant of Australian bat lyssavirus (ABLV). The horses presented with neurological signs, pyrexia and progressing ataxia. Intra-cytoplasmic inclusion bodies (Negri bodies) were detected in some Purkinje neurons in haematoxylin and eosin (H&E) stained sections from the brain of one of the two infected horses (H2) by histological examination. A morphological diagnosis of sub-acute moderate non-suppurative, predominantly angiocentric, meningo-encephalomyelitis of viral aetiology was made. The presumptive diagnosis of ABLV infection was confirmed by the positive testing of the affected brain tissue from (H2) in a range of laboratory tests including fluorescent antibody test (FAT) and real-time PCR targeting the nucleocapsid (N) gene. Retrospective testing of the oral swab from (H1) in the real-time PCR also returned a positive result. The FAT and immunohistochemistry (IHC) revealed an abundance of ABLV antigen throughout the examined brain sections. ABLV was isolated from the brain (H2) and oral swab/saliva (H1) in the neuroblastoma cell line (MNA). Alignment of the genome sequence revealed a 97.7% identity with the YBST ABLV strain. Crown Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Brainstem auditory evoked potentials in horses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Almeida Nogueira da Gama

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: The brainstem auditory evoked potential (BAEP evaluates the integrity of the auditory pathways to the brainstem. The aim of this study was to evoke BAEPs in 21 clinically normal horses. The animals were sedated with detomidine hydrochloride (0.013mg.kg-1 BW. Earphones were inserted and rarefaction clicks at 90 dB and noise masking at 40 dB were used. After performing the test, the latencies of waves (I, II, III, IV, and V and interpeaks(I-III, III-V, and I-V were identified. The mean latencies of the waves were as follows: wave I, 2.4 ms; wave II, 2.24 ms; wave III, 3.61ms; wave IV, 4.61ms; and wave V, 5.49ms. The mean latencies of the interpeaks were as follows: I-III, 1.37ms; III-V, 1.88ms; and I-V, 3.26ms. This is the first study using BAEPs in horses in Brazil, and the observed latencies will be used as normative data for the interpretation of tests performed on horses with changes related to auditory system or neurologic abnormalities.

  3. Variability of albumin in blood serum as a possible reflection of evolutional influence of diluvial horses on population of native mountain horse in Serbia

    OpenAIRE

    Trailović Ružica; Savić Mila; Dimitrijević Vladimir; Jovanović Slobodan

    2013-01-01

    Native mountain horse is an autochthonous ungulata with a domicile extending to the whole mountaneous region of Serbia, south of the Sava and Danube rivers. Along with native horses of other Balkan countries it is classified as Mediterranean pony, but unlike Balkan horses such as Skiros, Pinea, Pindos, Karakachan, Bosnian mountineous horse etc., mountineous horses in Serbia neither have been morphologically described nor were of concern to the scientific co...

  4. Fracture of the medial intercondylar eminence of the tibia in horses treated by arthroscopic fragment removal (21 horses)

    OpenAIRE

    Rubio‐Martínez, L. M.; Redding, W. R.; Bladon, B.; Wilderjans, H.; Payne, R. J.; Tessier, C.; Geffroy, O.; Parker, R.; Bell, C.; Collingwood, F. A.

    2017-01-01

    Summary Background Fractures of the medial intercondylar eminence of the tibia (MICET) are scarcely reported in horses. Objectives To report the clinical and diagnostic findings, surgical treatment and outcome in a series of horses presented with MICET fracture and treated with arthroscopic fragment removal. Study design Multicentre retrospective case series. Methods Case records of horses diagnosed with MICET fractures that had undergone surgical treatment were reviewed. Follow‐up informatio...

  5. A magyar lóversenyek világa az Osztrák–Magyar Monarchiában - Horse Races in the Austro–Hungarian Empire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KÓSA, Maja

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available As the well-known proverb reads: Hungarians are born to ride horses. Our centuries-old equestrian culture had many different stages, but the time of the Austro-Hungarian Empire was a decisive epoch when the Hungarian horse breeding could prosper. In this article I discuss this era through the efforts of Count István Széchenyi and Baron Mikós Wesselényi for horse breeding. With a detailed description of the horse races I intend to highlight the versatility of this era. People of different status could reach a consensus during the turf which became an important scene of politics, economy and community life. It was the world of wealthy stable owners where the most prominent beasts of the internationally renowned horse breeding competed, where the members of the petite bourgeoisie found amusement in their bets; it meant self-denial for jockeys and fashion for ladies. Horse races simultaneously dissolved and deepened social contradictions while they involved many political and economic opportunities.

  6. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in horses and horse personnel: an investigation of several outbreaks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Duijkeren, E; Moleman, M; Sloet van Oldruitenborgh-Oosterbaan, M M; Multem, J; Troelstra, A; Fluit, A C; van Wamel, W J B; Houwers, D J; de Neeling, A J; Wagenaar, J A

    2010-02-24

    At the Veterinary Microbiological Diagnostic Center, the Netherlands, the percentage of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) isolates found in equine clinical samples increased from 0% in 2002 to 37% in 2008. MRSA of spa-type t064, belonging to MLST ST8 and spa-types t011 and t2123, both belonging to the livestock-associated MLST ST398, predominated. During an outbreak of post-surgical MRSA infections in horses at a veterinary teaching hospital in 2006/2007, MRSA isolates of spa-type t2123 were cultured from 7 horses and 4/61 personnel which indicated zoonotic transmission. After intervention the outbreak stopped. However, another outbreak occurred in 2008, where 17 equine MRSA isolates of spa-type t011 (n=12), t2123 (n=4), and t064 (n=1) were found. This time, 16/170 personnel were positive for MRSA with spa-type t011 (n=11) and t2123 (n=5). Personnel in close contact with horses were more often MRSA-positive (15/106) than those without (1/64). Screening of horses upon admission showed that 9.3% were MRSA-positive predominantly with spa-type t011. Weekly cross-sectional sampling of all hospitalized horses for 5 weeks showed that 42% of the horses were MRSA-positive at least once, again predominantly with spa-type t011, which suggests that nosocomial transmission took place. Fifty-three percent of the environmental samples were MRSA-positive, including samples from students' and staff members' rooms, and all were spa-type t011. This indicates that humans contribute to spreading the organism. Culturing of samples employing high-salt pre-enrichment performed better than a comparable method without pre-enrichment. Our results show that nosocomial transmission occurs in equine clinics and suggests that personnel play a role in the transmission. Copyright 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Differences in extracellular matrix proteins between Friesian horses with aortic rupture, unaffected Friesians and Warmblood horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ploeg, M; Gröne, A; van de Lest, C H A; Saey, V; Duchateau, L; Wolsein, P; Chiers, K; Ducatelle, R; van Weeren, P R; de Bruijn, M; Delesalle, C

    2017-09-01

    Unlike in Warmblood horses, aortic rupture is quite common in Friesian horses, in which a hereditary trait is suspected. The aortic connective tissue in affected Friesians shows histological changes such as medial necrosis, elastic fibre fragmentation, mucoid material accumulation and fibrosis with aberrant collagen morphology. However, ultrastructural examination of the collagen fibres of the mid-thoracic aorta has been inconclusive in further elucidating the pathogenesis of the disease. To assess several extracellular matrix (ECM) components biochemically in order to explore a possible underlying breed-related systemic ECM defect in Friesians with aortic rupture. Cadaver study. Tissues from affected Friesians (n = 18), unaffected Friesians (n = 10) and Warmblood horses (n = 30) were compared. Samples were taken from the thoracic aorta at the level of the rupture site, from two locations caudal to the rupture and from the deep digital flexor tendon. Total collagen content, post-translational modifications of collagen formation including lysine hydroxylation, and hydroxylysylpyridinoline (HP), lysylpyridinoline (LP) and pyrrole cross-links were analysed. Additionally, elastin cross-links, glycosaminoglycan content and matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) activity were assessed. Significantly increased MMP activity and increased LP and HP cross-linking, lysine hydroxylation and elastin cross-linking were found at the site of rupture in affected Friesians. These changes may reflect processes involved in healing and aneurysm formation. Unaffected Friesians had less lysine hydroxylation and pyrrole cross-linking within the tendons compared with Warmblood horses. No differences in the matrix of the aorta were found between normal Warmbloods and Friesian horses. Small sample size. The differences in collagen parameters in tendon tissue may reflect differences in connective tissue metabolism between Friesians and Warmblood horses. © 2017 EVJ Ltd.

  8. Analysis of breed effects on semen traits in light horse, warmblood, and draught horse breeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gottschalk, Maren; Sieme, Harald; Martinsson, Gunilla; Distl, Ottmar

    2016-05-01

    In the present study, systematic effects on semen quality traits were investigated in 381 stallions representing 22 breeds. All stallions were used for AI either at the Lower Saxon National Stud Celle or the North Rhine-Westphalian National Stud Warendorf. A total of 71,078 fresh semen reports of the years 2001 to 2014 were edited for analysis of gel-free volume, sperm concentration, total number of sperm, progressive motility, and total number of progressively motile sperm. Breed differences were studied for warmblood and light horse breeds of both national studs (model I) and for warmblood breeds and the draught horse breed Rhenish German Coldblood from the North Rhine-Westphalian National stud (model II) using mixed model procedures. The fixed effects of age class, year, and month of semen collection had significant influences on all semen traits in both analyses. A significant influence of the horse breed was found for all semen traits but gel-free volume in both statistical models. Comparing warmblood and light horse stallions of both national studs, we observed highest sperm concentrations, total numbers of sperm, and total numbers of progressively motile sperm in Anglo-Arabian stallions. The draught horse breed Rhenish German Coldblood had the highest least squares means for gel-free volume, whereas all other investigated semen traits were significantly lower in this breed compared to the warmblood stallions under study. The variance components among stallions within breeds were significant for all semen traits and accounted for 40% to 59% of the total variance. The between-breed-variance among stallions was not significant underlining the similar size of the random stallion effect in each of the horse breeds analyzed here. In conclusion, breed and stallion are accounting for a significant proportion of the variation in semen quality. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. To pace or not to pace: a pilot study of four- and five-gaited Icelandic horses homozygous for the DMRT3 'Gait Keeper' mutation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jäderkvist Fegraeus, K; Hirschberg, I; Árnason, T; Andersson, L; Velie, B D; Andersson, L S; Lindgren, G

    2017-12-01

    The Icelandic horse is a breed known mainly for its ability to perform the ambling four-beat gait 'tölt' and the lateral two-beat gait pace. The natural ability of the breed to perform these alternative gaits is highly desired by breeders. Therefore, the discovery that a nonsense mutation (C>A) in the DMRT3 gene was the main genetic factor for horses' ability to perform gaits in addition to walk, trot and canter was of great interest. Although several studies have demonstrated that homozygosity for the DMRT3 mutation is important for the ability to pace, only about 70% of the homozygous mutant (AA) Icelandic horses are reported to pace. The aim of the study was to genetically compare four- and five-gaited (i.e. horses with and without the ability to pace) AA Icelandic horses by performing a genome-wide association (GWA) analysis. All horses (n = 55) were genotyped on the 670K Axiom Equine Genotyping Array, and a GWA analysis was performed using the genabel package in r. No SNP demonstrated genome-wide significance, implying that the ability to pace goes beyond the presence of a single gene variant. Despite its limitations, the current study provides additional information regarding the genetic complexity of pacing ability in horses. However, to fully understand the genetic differences between four- and five-gaited AA horses, additional studies with larger sample materials and consistent phenotyping are needed. © 2017 Stichting International Foundation for Animal Genetics.

  10. Evaluation of transfixation casting for treatment of third metacarpal, third metatarsal, and phalangeal fractures in horses: 37 cases (1994-2004).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lescun, Timothy B; McClure, Scott R; Ward, Michael P; Downs, Christopher; Wilson, David A; Adams, Stephen B; Hawkins, Jan F; Reinertson, Eric L

    2007-05-01

    To evaluate clinical findings, complications, and outcome of horses and foals with third metacarpal, third metatarsal, or phalangeal fractures that were treated with transfixation casting. Retrospective case series. Animals-29 adult horses and 8 foals with fractures of the third metacarpal or metatarsal bone or the proximal or middle phalanx. Medical records were reviewed, and follow-up information was obtained. Data were analyzed by use of logistic regression models for survival, fracture healing, return to intended use, pin loosening, pin hole lysis, and complications associated with pins. In 27 of 35 (77%) horses, the fracture healed and the horse survived, including 10 of 15 third metacarpal or metatarsal bone fractures, 11 of 12 proximal phalanx fractures, and 6 of 8 middle phalanx fractures. Four adult horses sustained a fracture through a pin hole. One horse sustained a pathologic unicortical fracture secondary to a pin hole infec-tion. Increasing body weight, fracture involving 2 joints, nondiaphyseal fracture location, and increasing duration until radiographic union were associated with horses not returning to their intended use. After adjusting for body weight, pin loosening was associated with di-aphyseal pin location, pin hole lysis was associated with number of days with a transfixation cast, and pin complications were associated with hand insertion of pins. Results indicated that transfixation casting can be successful in managing fractures distal to the carpus or tarsus in horses. This technique is most suitable for comminuted fractures of the proximal phalanx but can be used for third metacarpal, third metatarsal, or middle phalanx fractures, with or without internal fixation.

  11. Effect of ionization, bedding, and feeding on air quality in a horse stable.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegers, Esther Willemijn; Anthonisse, Milou; van Eerdenburg, Frank J C M; van den Broek, Jan; Wouters, Inge M; Westermann, Cornélie Martine

    2018-05-01

    Organic dust is associated with Equine asthma. Ionization should reduce airborne dust levels. To determine the effect of ionization of air, type of bedding, and feed on the levels of airborne dust, endotoxin, and fungal colonies in horse stables. 24 healthy University-owned horses occupied the stables. A randomized controlled cross-over study. Four units with 6 stables were equipped with an ionization installation (25 VA, 5000 Volt Direct Current). Horses were kept either on wood shavings and fed haylage (2 units), or on straw and fed dry hay (2 units). Measurements were performed with and without activated ionization, during daytime and nighttime, repeatedly over the course of a week and repeatedly during 4-6 weeks. Statistical analysis was performed using a mixed effect model with Akaike's Information Criterion for model reduction and 95% profile (log) likelihood confidence intervals (CI). Ionization did not alter concentrations of dust, endotoxin, or fungi, fewer. In the units with straw and hay, the concentration of dust, endotoxin, and fungi (difference in logarithmic mean 1.92 (95%CI 1.71-2.12); 2.86 (95%CI 2.59-3.14); 1.75 (95%CI 1.13-2.36)) were significantly higher compared to wood shavings and haylage. The installation of a negative air-ionizer in the horse stable did not reduce concentrations of dust, endotoxin, and viable fungal spores. The substantial effect of low dust bedding and feed is confirmed. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine.

  12. Characterization of equine vitamin D-binding protein, development of an assay, and assessment of plasma concentrations of the protein in healthy horses and horses with gastrointestinal disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pihl, Tina H; Jacobsen, Stine; Olsen, Dorthe T; Højrup, Peter; Grosche, Astrid; Freeman, David E; Andersen, Pia H; Houen, Gunnar

    2017-06-01

    OBJECTIVE To purify and characterize equine vitamin D-binding protein (VDBP) from equine serum and to evaluate plasma concentrations of VDBP in healthy horses and horses with gastrointestinal injury or disease. ANIMALS 13 healthy laboratory animals (8 mice and 5 rabbits), 61 healthy horses, 12 horses with experimentally induced intestinal ischemia and reperfusion (IR), and 59 horses with acute gastrointestinal diseases. PROCEDURES VDBP was purified from serum of 2 healthy horses, and recombinant equine VDBP was obtained through a commercial service. Equine VDBP was characterized by mass spectrometry. Monoclonal and polyclonal antibodies were raised against equine VDBP, and a rocket immunoelectrophoresis assay for equine VDBP was established. Plasma samples from 61 healthy horses were used to establish working VDBP reference values for study purposes. Plasma VDBP concentrations were assessed at predetermined time points in horses with IR and in horses with naturally occurring gastrointestinal diseases. RESULTS The working reference range for plasma VDBP concentration in healthy horses was 531 to 1,382 mg/L. Plasma VDBP concentrations were significantly decreased after 1 hour of ischemia in horses with IR, compared with values prior to induction of ischemia, and were significantly lower in horses with naturally occurring gastrointestinal diseases with a colic duration of < 12 hours than in healthy horses. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Plasma VDBP concentrations were significantly decreased in horses with acute gastrointestinal injury or disease. Further studies and the development of a clinically relevant assay are needed to establish the reliability of VDBP as a diagnostic and prognostic marker in horses.

  13. Rein Pilli hobusel on hüppamine sisse kodeeritud / Maarja Värv

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Värv, Maarja

    2008-01-01

    Tänavusest aastast A Big Boyga ratsutav takistussõitja Rein Pill võitis septembri alguses Venemaal kõrgetasemelise maailmakarikaetapi ning püüab saavutust korrata ka Tallinn International Horse Show'l. Lisa: Takistussõidu grand prix' rajaskeem

  14. Türklane lumises Tallinnas / Ingrid Randlaht

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Randlaht, Ingrid

    2010-01-01

    Tallinn International Horse Show'l toimunud FEI maailmakarika Kesk-Euroopa liiga finaalis võistelnud Türgi takistussõitjast Sencer Horasanist, kes lootis edasipääsu 14. aprillil 2010 Genfis toimuvale FEI maailmakarika finaal võistlusele

  15. A pilot study on the transfer of {sup 137}Cs and {sup 9}Sr to horse milk and meat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Semioshkina, N. [GSF-Institut fuer Strahlenschutz, Postfach 1129, D-85788 Neuherberg (Germany)]. E-mail: semi@gsf.de; Voigt, G. [Agency' s Laboratories - Seibersdorf, IAEA, 1400-Vienna (Austria)]. E-mail: g.voigt@iaea.org; Fesenko, S. [Agency' s Laboratories - Seibersdorf, IAEA, 1400-Vienna (Austria)]. E-mail: s.fesenko@iaea.org; Savinkov, A. [Scientific Research Agricultural Institute of the National Biotechnology Center, Ministry for Science and Higher Education of the Republic of Kazakhstan (SRAI), 480544 Gvardeiski (Kazakhstan)]. E-mail: chebotar@srai.kz; Mukusheva, M. [National Nuclear Centre of Republic of Kazakhstan, Kurchatov 490021 (Kazakhstan)]. E-mail: mukusheva@nnc.kz

    2006-07-01

    The radiological assessment of the impact of nuclear weapon's testing on the Semipalatinsk Test Site (STS) on the local population requires comprehensive site-specific information on radionuclide behaviour in the environment. However, information on radionuclide behaviour in the conditions of the STS is rather sparse and, in particular, there are no data in the literature on parameters of radionuclide transfer from feed to horse products proofed to be important contributors to the internal dose to the local population. The transfer of {sup 137}Cs and {sup 9}Sr to horse milk and meat was studied under laboratory and field conditions: in controlled experiment with three lactating horses maintained in the Kazakh Agricultural Research Institute, and in field measurements of horse products taken from horses grazing at the Semipalatinsk Test Site. The equilibrium transfer factors from feed to horse milk and meat were estimated to be 0.012 d l{sup -1} and 0.035 d kg{sup -1} for {sup 137}Cs and 0.0022 d l{sup -1} and 0.003 d kg{sup -1} for {sup 9}Sr, respectively. The biological half-lives were approximated by a sum of two exponentials amounting to 3 (85%) and 15 (15%) days for {sup 137}Cs and 3.5 (70%) and 100 (30%) days for {sup 9}Sr. The highest {sup 137}Cs transfer has been found to be to spleen, followed by lung, heart, muscles, kidneys, intestine, and finally skin and bones. For {sup 9}Sr, the maximum activity concentration was observed in bones; contamination of other tissues is rather uniform except for liver and intestine with a factor of about 2 higher than muscles.

  16. A pilot study on the transfer of 137Cs and 9Sr to horse milk and meat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Semioshkina, N.; Voigt, G.; Fesenko, S.; Savinkov, A.; Mukusheva, M.

    2006-01-01

    The radiological assessment of the impact of nuclear weapon's testing on the Semipalatinsk Test Site (STS) on the local population requires comprehensive site-specific information on radionuclide behaviour in the environment. However, information on radionuclide behaviour in the conditions of the STS is rather sparse and, in particular, there are no data in the literature on parameters of radionuclide transfer from feed to horse products proofed to be important contributors to the internal dose to the local population. The transfer of 137 Cs and 9 Sr to horse milk and meat was studied under laboratory and field conditions: in controlled experiment with three lactating horses maintained in the Kazakh Agricultural Research Institute, and in field measurements of horse products taken from horses grazing at the Semipalatinsk Test Site. The equilibrium transfer factors from feed to horse milk and meat were estimated to be 0.012 d l -1 and 0.035 d kg -1 for 137 Cs and 0.0022 d l -1 and 0.003 d kg -1 for 9 Sr, respectively. The biological half-lives were approximated by a sum of two exponentials amounting to 3 (85%) and 15 (15%) days for 137 Cs and 3.5 (70%) and 100 (30%) days for 9 Sr. The highest 137 Cs transfer has been found to be to spleen, followed by lung, heart, muscles, kidneys, intestine, and finally skin and bones. For 9 Sr, the maximum activity concentration was observed in bones; contamination of other tissues is rather uniform except for liver and intestine with a factor of about 2 higher than muscles

  17. A pilot study on the transfer of 137Cs and 90Sr to horse milk and meat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semioshkina, N; Voigt, G; Fesenko, S; Savinkov, A; Mukusheva, M

    2006-01-01

    The radiological assessment of the impact of nuclear weapon's testing on the Semipalatinsk Test Site (STS) on the local population requires comprehensive site-specific information on radionuclide behaviour in the environment. However, information on radionuclide behaviour in the conditions of the STS is rather sparse and, in particular, there are no data in the literature on parameters of radionuclide transfer from feed to horse products proofed to be important contributors to the internal dose to the local population. The transfer of 137Cs and 90Sr to horse milk and meat was studied under laboratory and field conditions: in controlled experiment with three lactating horses maintained in the Kazakh Agricultural Research Institute, and in field measurements of horse products taken from horses grazing at the Semipalatinsk Test Site. The equilibrium transfer factors from feed to horse milk and meat were estimated to be 0.012 dl(-1) and 0.035 dkg(-1) for (137)Cs and 0.0022 dl(-1) and 0.003 dkg(-1) for (90)Sr, respectively. The biological half-lives were approximated by a sum of two exponentials amounting to 3 (85%) and 15 (15%) days for 137Cs and 3.5 (70%) and 100 (30%) days for 90Sr. The highest 137Cs transfer has been found to be to spleen, followed by lung, heart, muscles, kidneys, intestine, and finally skin and bones. For90Sr, the maximum activity concentration was observed in bones; contamination of other tissues is rather uniform except for liver and intestine with a factor of about 2 higher than muscles.

  18. Veterinary problems of endurance horses in England and Wales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagy, A; Dyson, S J; Murray, J K

    2017-05-01

    Several studies have shown that a considerable proportion of horses are eliminated from endurance rides due to lameness and metabolic problems. Limited information is available on specific veterinary issues in endurance horses and there are no descriptive data on veterinary problems in a large population of endurance horses. The aim of this study was to describe veterinary problems occurring in endurance horses in England and Wales, the regions of the United Kingdom where endurance rides are organised and regulated by Endurance Great Britain (Endurance GB). A comprehensive online self-completed questionnaire was used for data collection (30th December 2015-29th February 2016) All members of Endurance GB who were the main rider of one or more endurance horses were eligible to participate. From the target population of 1209 horses, 190 questionnaires were completed by riders, resulting in a 15.7% response rate. The most common rider-reported veterinary problem was lameness, affecting 152/190 (80.0%) of endurance horses at some point during their careers and 101/190 (53.2%) of horses in the previous 12 months. Detailed information on the most recent episode of lameness was available for 147 horses. Seventy-six percent of these lameness episodes (112/147) had been initially identified by a veterinarian, but only 52% of these lameness episodes were investigated further by a veterinarian, despite the high proportion of horses affected by lameness and the proportion of horses with recurrent lameness episodes. The second most common veterinary problem was thoracolumbar region pain, followed by non-specific cough, skin disease and colic. Education of endurance riders may improve the number, quality and timing of veterinary investigations, especially for lameness and thoracolumbar region pain. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Wow! Tallinn! / Jaak Rand

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Rand, Jaak

    2006-01-01

    Jüri Sillarti mängufilm "Kuldrannake". Kunagise retrobändi kokkutulekut kujutava filmi stsenarist on Hans Luik oma näidendi "Tõe hetk" põhjal, operaator on Mait Mäekivi, produtsendid Kristian Taska ja Hans H. Luik, tootjafirmaks Taska Productions. Lisatud Jüri Sillarti filmograafia lk. 83

  20. Aaviku Housing, Tallinn

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2005-01-01

    Arhitektibüroo Emil Urbel OÜ projekteeritud Tallinna Aaviku elamurajoon märgiti ära arhitektuurikonkursil "Parim Euroopas - värv". Eestist kuulus nominente esitanud žüriisse arhitekt Markus Kaasik

  1. Spotted phenotypes in horses lost attractiveness in the Middle Ages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wutke, Saskia; Benecke, Norbert; Sandoval-Castellanos, Edson

    2016-01-01

    were influenced by humans. Our results from genotype analyses show a significant increase in spotted coats in early domestic horses (Copper Age to Iron Age). In contrast, medieval horses carried significantly fewer alleles for these phenotypes, whereas solid phenotypes (i.e., chestnut) became dominant...

  2. 36 CFR 1002.16 - Horses and pack animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Horses and pack animals. 1002... AND RECREATION § 1002.16 Horses and pack animals. The following are prohibited: (a) The use of animals other than those designated as “pack animals” for purposes of transporting equipment. (b) The use of...

  3. 36 CFR 2.16 - Horses and pack animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Horses and pack animals. 2.16... RESOURCE PROTECTION, PUBLIC USE AND RECREATION § 2.16 Horses and pack animals. The following are prohibited: (a) The use of animals other than those designated as “pack animals” for purposes of transporting...

  4. Analgesia in the horse, assessing and treating pain in equines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loon, Thijs van

    This review focuses on pain and nociception in horses and is based on the PhD thesis “Analgesia in the Horse, various approaches for assessment and treatment of pain and nociception in equines” by J.P.A.M. van Loon. Apart from a scientific review of the related literature, a multi-disciplinary

  5. Description of the Friesian Horse population of South Africa and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Data obtained from the Friesian Horse Studbook of Southern Africa and Friesian Horse Breeders\\' Society of South Africa were analyzed to describe and evaluate the population regarding inbreeding and morphological body measurements. Eight different body measurements (height at withers, height of back, height of ...

  6. Pain: Its Diagnosis and Management in the Rehabilitation of Horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daglish, Jodie; Mama, Khursheed R

    2016-04-01

    This article provides a brief overview of pain physiology and its relevance to equine patients. Objective and subjective techniques for assessing pain in the horse are described in depth. Pharmacologic and interventional pain modulation treatments are discussed with a focus on the rehabilitating horse. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Vacuum phenomenon in the metatarsophalangeal joint of a horse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Specht, T.E.; Poulos, P.W.; Metcalf, M.R.; Robertson, I.D.

    1990-01-01

    Vacuum phenomenon was induced inadvertently during radiographic examination of a metatarsophalangeal joint of a lame horse. The phenomenon was recreated in a sound horse when a metacarpophalangeal joint was radiographed in a stress-flexed position. Distraction of apposing articular surfaces may induce the vacuum phenomenon, which could result in misdiagnosis of an osteochondral defect or fracture

  8. Mitochondrial DNA genetic variations among four horse populations in Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Othman E. Othman

    2017-12-01

    It is concluded that sequence analysis of mtDNA control region is still the most informative tool for the identification of genetic biodiversity and phylogeny of different horse breeds and populations. The horse populations reared in Egypt possess low genetic diversity and all of them are belonged to Equus caballus breed.

  9. The use of relative coupling intervals in horses during walk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Emil; Pfau, Thilo

    Walking speed varies between over-ground trials and a speed-independent gait-parameter does not exist for use in horses. We introduce relative (R) lateral (L) and diagonal (D) coupling intervals (CI) and hypothesize that both are independent of walking speed. Four horses were walked over 8 Kistler...

  10. CROSSING OF HOLSTEIN HORSE BREED WITH SOME OTHER BREEDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josip Ljubešić

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available An experiment of crossing a heavier-weight semi-breed horse (Holstein with mares of Croatian Posavian type draft horse resulted in possibility of such further crossing. Attained product meets today’s market requirements: firstly as an export-meat category that meets Italian market requirements, since other markets are not well known, secondly, it can be used as a sport-tourist-recreation horse. It must be pointed out that all produced hybrids did not meet the needs of these two basic criteria. In spite of being potential slaughtery head with good utilization, each produced head can be, according to its exterial properties, used as a sporttourist animal that showed certain usable values and results proven by the experiment. The hybrids showed some hereditory draft horse properties shown on enclosed photos. In addition, exterier measures show that former knowledge on hybrids can respond the question of a horse raising on non-utilized pastures which they got used to very well. Thus these horses are able to be estimated by their body development just as our native draft Posavian type horse including possibility of using them as a sport-tourist-recreation horse.

  11. Skidding with horses to thin young stands in western Washington.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norman P. Worthington

    1957-01-01

    Increased use of commercial thinning to provide an additional source of needed raw material and to boost overall yields from forest lands has again brought horses into the northwest woods. They are particularly well adapted to skidding small logs under the light, frequent cuts typical of a thinning operation. Horses can, moreover, work at close quarters in a young...

  12. Exercise testing in Warmblood sport horses under field conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Munsters, Carolien C B M; van Iwaarden, Alexandra; van Weeren, René; Sloet van Oldruitenborgh-Oosterbaan, Marianne M

    2014-01-01

    Regular exercise testing in Warmblood sport horses may, as in racing, potentially help to characterise fitness indices in different disciplines and at various competition levels and assist in understanding when a horse is 'fit to compete'. In this review an overview is given of the current state of

  13. Rib fracture in a horse during an endurance race

    OpenAIRE

    Trigo, Pablo; Muñoz, Ana; Castejón, Francisco; Riber, Cristina; Hassel, Diana M.

    2011-01-01

    We describe a fatal case, in which a horse suffered a fall and as a consequence, rib fractures. Diagnosis was made postmortem and the horse died without showing clear signs of respiratory dysfunction. The retrospective reports of injuries can be important to reduce these traumatic events and to avoid fatalities.

  14. Physiological and behavioral responses of horses during police training

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Munsters, C.C.B.M.; Visser, E.K.; Broek, van den J.; Sloet van Oldruitenborgh-Oosterbaan, M.M.

    2013-01-01

    Mounted police horses have to cope with challenging, unpredictable situations when on duty and it is essential to gain insight into how these horses handle stress to warrant their welfare. The aim of the study was to evaluate physiological and behavioral responses of 12 (six experienced and six

  15. Rib fracture in a horse during an endurance race.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trigo, Pablo; Muñoz, Ana; Castejón, Francisco; Riber, Cristina; Hassel, Diana M

    2011-11-01

    We describe a fatal case, in which a horse suffered a fall and as a consequence, rib fractures. Diagnosis was made postmortem and the horse died without showing clear signs of respiratory dysfunction. The retrospective reports of injuries can be important to reduce these traumatic events and to avoid fatalities.

  16. Genetic diversity and bottleneck studies in the Marwari horse breed

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Genetic diversity within the Marwari breed of horses was evaluated using 26 different microsatellite pairs with 48 DNA samples from unrelated horses. This molecular characterisation was undertaken to evaluate the problem of genetic bottlenecks also, if any, in this breed. The estimated mean (± s.e.) allelic diversity was 5.9 ...

  17. Fibre content and physiochemical properties of various horse feed ingredients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brøkner, Christine; Knudsen, Knud Erik Bach; Tauson, Anne-Helene

    2010-01-01

    There is an increasing need for identifying energy dense feed ingredients based on fibre, as starch has been shown to cause health problems in sports horses (Kronfeld et al., 2005). This experiment aimed at evaluating feeds considered to be suitable for horses by use of an enzymatic-chemical diet...

  18. Thoroughbred Horse Single Nucleotide Polymorphism and Expression Database: HSDB

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joon-Ho Lee

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Genetics is important for breeding and selection of horses but there is a lack of well-established horse-related browsers or databases. In order to better understand horses, more variants and other integrated information are needed. Thus, we construct a horse genomic variants database including expression and other information. Horse Single Nucleotide Polymorphism and Expression Database (HSDB (http://snugenome2.snu.ac.kr/HSDB provides the number of unexplored genomic variants still remaining to be identified in the horse genome including rare variants by using population genome sequences of eighteen horses and RNA-seq of four horses. The identified single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs were confirmed by comparing them with SNP chip data and variants of RNA-seq, which showed a concordance level of 99.02% and 96.6%, respectively. Moreover, the database provides the genomic variants with their corresponding transcriptional profiles from the same individuals to help understand the functional aspects of these variants. The database will contribute to genetic improvement and breeding strategies of Thoroughbreds.

  19. Frequent occurrence of nonprimate hepacivirus infections in Thoroughbred breeding horses - A cross-sectional study for the occurrence of infections and potential risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reichert, Claudia; Campe, Amely; Walter, Stephanie; Pfaender, Stephanie; Welsch, Kathrin; Ruddat, Inga; Sieme, Harald; Feige, Karsten; Steinmann, Eike; Cavalleri, Jessika M V

    2017-05-01

    Recently, several new hepaciviruses have been identified of which the nonprimate hepacivirus (NPHV) - the closest relative to hepatitis C virus (HCV) discovered to date - is highly prevalent in horses. However, potential risk factors for the transmission of NPHV among horses remain still unknown. Therefore, the objective of this study was to investigate the occurrence of NPHV infections in Thoroughbreds in northern and western Germany and to identify potential risk factors associated with NPHV infections. Using a cross-sectional study design, a total of 733 serum samples from Thoroughbred broodmares and stallions from northern and western Germany were analyzed for the presence of anti-NPHV nonstructural protein 3 (NS3) antibodies and NPHV RNA using the luciferase immunoprecipitation system (LIPS) and a quantitative real-time PCR, respectively. Information regarding signalment, stud farm, breeding history and international transportation history of each horse were collected and evaluated. A frequent occurrence of NPHV was found in the study population with 453 seropositive horses (61.8%) and 134 horses (18.3%) carrying NPHV RNA. Furthermore, statistical analysis revealed that the probability of being infected decreased for horses with a transportation history with increasing age by 20% each year. For horses that stayed in Germany no association between age and infection could be observed. In conclusion, the high occurrence of NPHV infections in breeding Thoroughbreds suggests circulating NPHV infections, endemic herds or persistent shedding in these animals and revealed the association of age and international transportation as risk factor for NPHV infections. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Distribution of coat-color-associated alleles in the domestic horse population and Przewalski's horse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reissmann, Monika; Musa, Lutfi; Zakizadeh, Sonia; Ludwig, Arne

    2016-11-01

    Considering the hidden mode of inheritance of some coat-color-associated alleles, we investigated the presence/absence of coat-color-associated alleles in 1093 domestic horses of 55 breeds and 20 specimens of Przewalski's horse. For coat-color genotyping, allele specific PCR, pyrosequencing and Li-Cor analyses were conducted on 12 coat-color-associated alleles of five genes. Our data provide deep insight into the distribution of coat-color-associated alleles within breeds. We found that the alleles for the basic colorations (bay, black, and chestnut) are widely distributed and occur in nearly all breeds. Alleles leading to dilutions or patterns are rare in domestic breeds and were not found in Przewalski's horse. Higher frequencies of these alleles are only found in breeds that are selected for their expressed phenotypes (e.g., Kinsky horse, Lewitzer, Tinker). Nevertheless, our study produced strong evidence that molecular testing of the coat color is necessary for well-defined phenotyping to avoid unexpected colorations of offspring that can result in legal action.

  1. Immunohistochemical analysis of laryngeal muscles in normal horses and horses with subclinical recurrent laryngeal neuropathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhee, Hannah S; Steel, Catherine M; Derksen, Frederik J; Robinson, N Edward; Hoh, Joseph F Y

    2009-08-01

    We used immunohistochemistry to examine myosin heavy-chain (MyHC)-based fiber-type profiles of the right and left cricoarytenoideus dorsalis (CAD) and arytenoideus transversus (TrA) muscles of six horses without laryngoscopic evidence of recurrent laryngeal neuropathy (RLN). Results showed that CAD and TrA muscles have the same slow, 2a, and 2x fibers as equine limb muscles, but not the faster contracting fibers expressing extraocular and 2B MyHCs found in laryngeal muscles of small mammals. Muscles from three horses showed fiber-type grouping bilaterally in the TrA muscles, but only in the left CAD. Fiber-type grouping suggests that denervation and reinnervation of fibers had occurred, and that these horses had subclinical RLN. There was a virtual elimination of 2x fibers in these muscles, accompanied by a significant increase in the percentage of 2a and slow fibers, and hypertrophy of these fiber types. The results suggest that multiple pathophysiological mechanisms are at work in early RLN, including selective denervation and reinnervation of 2x muscle fibers, corruption of neural impulse traffic that regulates 2x and slow muscle fiber types, and compensatory hypertrophy of remaining fibers. We conclude that horses afflicted with mild RLN are able to remain subclinical by compensatory hypertrophy of surviving muscle fibers.

  2. The evolutionary origin and genetic makeup of domestic horses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sanz, Pablo Librado; Fages, Antoine Alphonse; Gaunitz, Charleen

    2016-01-01

    The horse was domesticated only 5.5 KYA, thousands of years after dogs, cattle, pigs, sheep, and goats. The horse nonetheless represents the domestic animal that most impacted human history; providing us with rapid transportation, which has considerably changed the speed and magnitude of the circ......The horse was domesticated only 5.5 KYA, thousands of years after dogs, cattle, pigs, sheep, and goats. The horse nonetheless represents the domestic animal that most impacted human history; providing us with rapid transportation, which has considerably changed the speed and magnitude...... of domestic breeds through selective programs, while leading all wild populations to near extinction. Despite being tightly associated with humans, several aspects in the evolution of the domestic horse remain controversial. Here, we review recent advances in comparative genomics and paleogenomics that helped...

  3. Acute phase response to surgery of varying intensity in horses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Stine; Nielsen, Jon Vedding; Kjelgaard-Hansen, Mads

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the postoperative inflammatory response of horses to elective surgery of varying intensity. STUDY DESIGN: Prospective longitudinal study. ANIMALS: Horses referred to 2 hospitals for either arthroscopic removal of a unilateral osteochondritic lesion in the tibiotarsal joint...... (minimal surgical trauma, n=11), correction of recurrent laryngeal neuropathy by laryngoplasty and ventriculectomy (intermediate surgical trauma, n=10) or removal of an ovarian tumor by laparotomy (major surgical trauma, n=5). METHODS: Horses had a thorough clinical examination every day. White blood cell....... RESULTS: Postoperative concentrations of SAA and fibrinogen were significantly higher in horses that had laparotomy and ovariectomy than in horses that had laryngoplasty and ventriculectomy, or arthroscopy. Iron concentrations decreased to lower levels after intermediate and major surgical trauma than...

  4. Coronavirus infections in horses in Saudi Arabia and Oman.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemida, M G; Chu, D K W; Perera, R A P M; Ko, R L W; So, R T Y; Ng, B C Y; Chan, S M S; Chu, S; Alnaeem, A A; Alhammadi, M A; Webby, R J; Poon, L L M; Balasuriya, U B R; Peiris, M

    2017-12-01

    Equine coronaviruses (ECoV) are the only coronavirus known to infect horses. So far, data on ECoV infection in horses remain limited to the USA, France and Japan and its geographic distribution is not well understood. We carried out RT-PCR on 306 nasal and 315 rectal swabs and tested 243 sera for antibodies to detect coronavirus infections in apparently healthy horses in Saudi Arabia and Oman. We document evidence of infection with ECoV and HKU23 coronavirus by RT-PCR. There was no conclusive evidence of Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus infection in horses. Serological data suggest that lineage A betacoronavirus infections are commonly infecting horses in Saudi Arabia and Oman but antibody cross-reactivities between these viruses do not permit us to use serological data alone to identify which coronaviruses are causing these infections. © 2017 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  5. Dietary change and evolution of horses in North America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mihlbachler, Matthew C; Rivals, Florent; Solounias, Nikos; Semprebon, Gina M

    2011-03-04

    The evolution of high-crowned molars among horses (Family Equidae) is thought to be an adaptation for abrasive diets associated with the spread of grasslands. The sharpness and relief of the worn cusp apices of teeth (mesowear) are a measure of dietary abrasion. We collected mesowear data for North American Equidae for the past 55.5 million years to test the association of molar height and dietary abrasion. Mesowear trends in horses are reflective of global cooling and associated vegetation changes. There is a strong correlation between mesowear and crown height in horses; however, most horse paleopopulations had highly variable amounts of dietary abrasion, suggesting that selective pressures for crown height may have been weak much of the time. However, instances of higher abrasion were observed in some paleopopulations, suggesting intervals of stronger selection for the evolution of dentitions, including the early Miocene shortly before the first appearance of Equinae, the horse subfamily in which high-crowned dentitions evolved.

  6. Acupuncture Affects Autonomic and Endocrine but Not Behavioural Responses Induced by Startle in Horses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia Dias Villas-Boas

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Startle is a fast response elicited by sudden acoustic, tactile, or visual stimuli in a variety of animals and in humans. As the magnitude of startle response can be modulated by external and internal variables, it can be a useful tool to study reaction to stress. Our study evaluated whether acupuncture can change cardiac autonomic modulation (heart rate variability; and behavioural (reactivity and endocrine (cortisol levels parameters in response to startle. Brazilian Sport horses (n=6 were subjected to a model of startle in which an umbrella was abruptly opened near the horse. Before startle, the horses were subjected to a 20-minute session of acupuncture in acupoints GV1, HT7, GV20, and BL52 (ACUP and in nonpoints (NP or left undisturbed (CTL. For analysis of the heart rate variability, ultrashort-term (64 s heart rate series were interpolated (4 Hz and divided into 256-point segments and the spectra integrated into low (LF; 0.01–0.07 Hz; index of sympathetic modulation and high (HF; 0.07–0.50 Hz; index of parasympathetic modulation frequency bands. Acupuncture (ACUP changed the sympathovagal balance with a shift towards parasympathetic modulation, reducing the prompt startle-induced increase in LF/HF and reducing cortisol levels 30 min after startle. However, acupuncture elicited no changes in behavioural parameters.

  7. Influence of the marinating type on the morphological and sensory properties of horse meat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vlahova-Vangelova, Dessislava B; Abjanova, Sholpan; Dragoev, Stefan G

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to explore the influence of acid, alkaline and water-oil marinating on morphological changes and sensory properties of horse meat (m. Longissimus dorsi). Nine samples (C - control stored in air, AL - alkaline marinated in 2% polyphosphates and 2% sodium chloride brine solution, AC - acid marinated in 2% sodium lactate and 2% sodium chloride brine solution, WO - marinated in water-oil emulsion (50/50) contained and 2% sodium chloride and SC - marinated in 2% sodium chloride brine solution) were examined. After 24 h and 48 h of marinating changes in morphology of marinated meat, pH and sensory properties of raw and roasted samples were established. It was determined that sensory properties (aroma, flavor and tenderness) after roasting were classified as follows: AL48 > AL24 > AC24 > AC48 > SC48 > SC24 > WO24 > WO48 > С. Meat tenderness in AL48, AL24, AC24 and AC48 showed better results due to stronger morphological changes in connective and muscle tissues. Alkaline solutions were more suitable for horse meat marinating compared to acid solutions and the possible reason for strong action of alkaline solutions was lower internal meat pH. Alkaline marinating should be conducted for 24 h because after 48 h the meat acquires a soft and unusually tender texture. Water-oil marinating was not appropriate for horse meat.

  8. Lice infesting horses in three agroecological zones in central Oromia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tafese, Adane; Jibat, Tariku; Aklilu, Nigatu; Zewdu, Hanna; Kumsa, Bersissa

    2014-12-01

    A cross-sectional study was conducted to determine the prevalence and species composition of lice infesting horses in three agroecological zones in seven different districts in central Oromia from November 2011 to April 2012. For this purpose, a total of 420 horses were thoroughly examined for presence of lice. Collected lice were identified to species level under a microscope. The study showed an overall prevalence of 28.8 % (121/420) lice infestation on horses. We identified two spp. of lice on horses namely, Bovicola (Werneckiella) equi and Haematopinus asini with an overall prevalence of 22.9 % (96/420) and 5.9 % (25/420), respectively. The overall prevalence of lice infestation on horses in districts was 48.3, 43.3, 33.3, 23.3, 21.7, 18.3 and 13.3 %, in Debre Brehan, Shashemene, Hawassa, Akaki, Adama, Modjo and Bishoftu, respectively. B. equi was encountered as the predominant species on horses in all districts. Higher overall prevalence of lice infestation was recorded in highland agroecology than mid and lowland agroecological zones. Similarly, our study revealed significantly higher overall prevalence of lice on saddle horses than on cart horses. In view of the findings of the present study two species of lice are responsible for health and welfare problems of horses in all the districts. Detailed epidemiological studies on the significance, prevalence and role of lice as vectors of zoonotic pathogens in different agroecological zones, breeds and management systems warrant urgent attention. Animal owners and veterinarians should consider lice control in horses as part of the ectoparasite control in other species of animals.

  9. SEROPREVALENCE OF BRUCELLOSIS IN HORSES IN AND AROUND FAISALABAD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. WADOOD, M. AHMAD, A. KHAN1, S. T. GUL1 AND N. REHMAN

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Rose Bengal Plate test (RBPT and Serum Agglutination test (SAT were used to monitor the seroprevalence of brucellosis in horses in and around Faisalabad, Pakistan. Sera were screened by RBPT and positive or doubtful sera were further processed by SAT for confirmation. The overall seroprevalence of brucellosis in horses was 20.7 and 17.7% by RBPT and SAT, respectively. Source wise seroprevalence of brucellosis was 19.8, 25.5, 2.9 and 0% in horses of Remount Area Faisalabad, Remount Area Toba Tek Singh, private and Livestock Management Department University of Agriculture Faisalabad, respectively. Sex wise seroprevalence in horses was 9.67 and 17.7% in male and female, respectively. In relation to age, seroprevalence was 12.9, 16.5, 14.8 and 20.6%, in horses of 1-5, 6-10, 11-15 and above 15 years of age, respectively. Highest seroprevalence was recorded in horses of above 15 years of age. Depending upon the body condition, the seroprevalence was 9.7, 13, and 20% in poor fair, and good body conditioned horses, respectively. Seroprevalence of brucellosis on the basis of parity was 19.2, 20.9, 18.7, 16.6, and 21.1% in 0, 1, 2, 3 and above 3 foaling females, respectively. Prevalence of brucellosis in different breeds of horses was 22.4, 17.1, 25.7 and 0.0% in Desi, Thoroughbred, Crossbred and Arabian horses, respectively. However, statistically, in relation to various factors like source, sex, body condition, parity and breed of horses, a non significant difference was observed among various groups. Statistically a significant difference (P<0.001 in seroprevalence was observed with respect to age, only.

  10. Wrist loading patterns during pommel horse exercises.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markolf, K L; Shapiro, M S; Mandelbaum, B R; Teurlings, L

    1990-01-01

    Gymnastics is a sport which involves substantial periods of upper extremity support as well as frequent impacts to the wrist. Not surprisingly, wrist pain is a common finding in gymnasts. Of all events, the pommel horse is the most painful. In order to study the forces of wrist impact, a standard pommel horse was instrumented with a specially designed load cell to record the resultant force of the hand on the pommel during a series of basic skills performed by a group of seventeen elite male gymnasts. The highest mean peak forces were recorded during the front scissors and flair exercises (1.5 BW) with peaks of up to 2.0 BW for some gymnasts. The mean peak force for hip circles at the center or end of the horse was 1.1 BW. The mean overall loading rate (initial contact to first loading peak) ranged from 5.2 BWs-1 (hip circles) to 10.6 BW s-1 (flairs). However, many recordings displayed localized initial loading spikes which occurred during 'hard' landings on the pommel. When front scissors were performed in an aggressive manner, the initial loading spikes averaged 1.0 BW in magnitude (maximum 1.8 BW) with an average rise time of 8.2 ms; calculated localized loading rates averaged 129 BW s-1 (maximum 219 BW s-1). These loading parameters are comparable to those encountered at heel strike during running. These impact forces and loading rates are remarkably high for an upper extremity joint not normally exposed to weight-bearing loads, and may contribute to the pathogenesis of wrist injuries in gymnastics.

  11. Identifying potential risk situations for humans when removing horses from groups

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hartmann, Elke; Søndergaard, Eva; Keeling, Linda J.

    2012-01-01

    Removing a horse from its social group may be considered risky, both for the handler and the horse, because other horses can interfere in the catching process. The main aim of this study was to identify where and when these risk situations occur while removing a horse from its group. A potential...

  12. Bioavailability of pivampicillin and ampicillin trihydrate administered as an oral paste in horses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ensink, JM; Mol, A; Vulto, AG; Tukker, JJ

    1996-01-01

    Pivampicillin was administered as an oral paste to five healthy adult horses, and an oral paste with ampicillin trihydrate was administered to three horses, Pivampicillin was administered to both starved and fed horses, ampicillin trihydrate was administered to fed horses only, The dose of

  13. 36 CFR 222.23 - Removal of other horses and burros.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Removal of other horses and... AGRICULTURE RANGE MANAGEMENT Management of Wild Free-Roaming Horses and Burros § 222.23 Removal of other horses and burros. Horses and burros not within the definition in § 222.20(b)(13) which are introduced...

  14. 9 CFR 93.319 - Import permit and declaration for horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... horses. 93.319 Section 93.319 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE...; REQUIREMENTS FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Horses Central America and the West Indies 17 § 93.319 Import permit and declaration for horses. For all horses offered for importation from regions of...

  15. 9 CFR 93.313 - Appearance of disease among horses in quarantine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Appearance of disease among horses in...; REQUIREMENTS FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Horses § 93.313 Appearance of disease among horses in quarantine. If any contagious disease appears among horses during the quarantine period special...

  16. 9 CFR 93.316 - Horses from Canada for immediate slaughter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Horses from Canada for immediate...; REQUIREMENTS FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Horses Canada 16 § 93.316 Horses from Canada for immediate slaughter. Horses imported from Canada for immediate slaughter shall be consigned from the port of...

  17. 9 CFR 93.315 - Import permit and declaration for horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... horses. 93.315 Section 93.315 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE...; REQUIREMENTS FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Horses Canada 16 § 93.315 Import permit and declaration for horses. For all horses offered for importation from Canada, the importer or his or her agent...

  18. Influence of 4-H Horse Project Involvement on Development of Life Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, K. P.; Karr-Lilienthal, L.

    2011-01-01

    Four-H horse project members who competed in non-riding horse contests were surveyed to evaluate the influence of their horse project participation on life-skill development. Contests in which youth competed included Horse Bowl, Demonstrations, Public Speaking, and Art. Youth indicated a positive influence on both life-skill development and horse…

  19. 9 CFR 51.28 - Moving goats, sheep, and horses to be destroyed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Moving goats, sheep, and horses to be... DESTROYED BECAUSE OF BRUCELLOSIS Indemnity for Sheep, Goats, and Horses § 51.28 Moving goats, sheep, and horses to be destroyed. Goats, sheep, and horses to be destroyed because of brucellosis must be...

  20. Negative contrast peritoneography in the horse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lloyd, K.C.K.; Kerr, L.Y.; Meagher, D.M.; Baker, T.W.; Kurpershoek, C.J.

    1989-01-01

    A method of negative contrast peritoneography using CO 2 peritoneal insufflation technique was investigated in adult horses. Radiographic visualization of anatomic structures in the dorsal abdomen, including the kidneys, portions of the spleen and liver, dorsal stomach and mesenteric root region, was enhanced. Visualization of ventral abdominal structures was not enhanced. Negative contrast peritoneography allowed reduction in the radiographic technique from 140 kVp and 40 mAs before insufflation to 100 kVp and 5–10 mAs following insufflation. The technique was easily and safely performed with minimal patient discomfort and risk

  1. The Trojan Horse Method in nuclear astrophysics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spitaleri, C., E-mail: spitaleri@lns.infn.it [Universita degli Studi di Catania, Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia (Italy); Mukhamedzhanov, A. M. [Texas A and M University, Cyclotron Institute (United States); Blokhintsev, L. D. [Moscow State University, Skobeltsyn Institute of Nuclear Physics (Russian Federation); Cognata, M. La [Universita degli Studi di Catania, Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia (Italy); Pizzone, R. G.; Tumino, A. [INFN, Laboratori Nazionali del Sud (Italy)

    2011-12-15

    The study of energy production and nucleosynthesis in stars requires an increasingly precise knowledge of the nuclear reaction rates at the energies of interest. To overcome the experimental difficulties arising from the small cross sections at those energies and from the presence of the electron screening, the Trojan Horse Method has been introduced. The method provides a valid alternative path to measure unscreened low-energy cross sections of reactions between charged particles, and to retrieve information on the electron screening potential when ultra-low energy direct measurements are available.

  2. Congenital hypotrichosis in a Percheron draught horse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valentine, B A; Hedstrom, O R; Miller, W H; Scott, D W; Mathies, S

    2001-08-01

    A blue roan Percheron foal was born with poorly circumscribed patchy alopecia of the trunk and legs. Teeth and hoof development were normal. Alopecia was progressive, becoming almost complete by 1 year of age. Histopathological findings in a skin biopsy obtained at 7 months of age were consistent with severe follicular hypoplasia. Sebaceous glands, epitrichial sweat glands and arrector pilae muscles were normal. The horse is alive and otherwise well at 6 years of age, although adult stature is considered small for this breed. The clinical history and histopathological findings are most consistent with a form of congenital hypotrichosis.

  3. Osteoma of paranasal sinuses of a horse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schumacher, J.; Smith, B.L.; Morgan, S.J.

    1988-01-01

    A 2-year-old Quarter Horse gelding was examined for torticollis, facial protuberances over the frontal and maxillary sinuses, and persistent nasal discharge unresponsive to antibiotics. Radiograph revealed an osseous mass in the right paranasal sinuses. Histologic examination of the biopsied mass led to a diagnosis of osteoma. The mass was removed surgically in sections from the right frontal and maxillary sinuses through separate bone flaps, and sinuses were irrigated with saline solution for 8 days after surgery. Two weeks after surgery, radiography revealed small osseous opacities in the right paranasal sinuses. These opacities remained unchanged in radiographs obtained up to 23 months after surgery

  4. Common slavic *komońь "horse"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loma Aleksandar

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The Common Slavic name for horse *koń', with a probably older, yet geographically more limited variant *komoń', has so far no generally accepted etymology. Given the great importance of this animal in the prehistory and the early history of the Indo-European and other peoples of Eurasia, this sets a problem not only for linguists, but also for historians and archeologists. The PIE word for horse, *ekuos, attested among all other branches of IE linguistic family, originally must have been common to the Slavs, as it was to their Baltic, Iranian and German neighbors, but at a later moment - which is hard to determine precisely, although we can assign it to a time before the disintegration of Slavic linguistic unity around the middle of the first millennium A. D. - for this inherited designation the new one *ko(moń' was substituted, either as a lexical innovation made by the Slavs themselves or as a borrowing from another language. Under the entries *komoń' and *koń' of the Moscow dictionary, where their continuations in Slavic languages are respectively listed, O. N. Trubachev gives a survey of previous etymological proposals and rejects all of them in favor of his own explanations. According to him, *komoń' is a Slavic onomatopoeic creation imitative of neigh, while *koń' is a loan-word, going back to Celtic *konkos/kankos 'horse' (originally 'springer'? through an intermediate form *konk', which was presumably understood as a diminutive in -'k'' and consequently shortened. Apart from the facts that the word in question is scarcely attested in comparison with two others Celtic designations for horse, *equo- (> Olr. ech, Gall, epo- and *marka-, and that in Slavic mouth it should have been reflected as *kok'', and not as *kon'k'', the very separation of both forms, *koń' and *komoń', seems unmethodical. With more reason Gamkrelidze and Ivanov recur to the old proposal connecting *koń' via *komoń' (<**kobn-? with *kobyla and further with

  5. A challenge of veterinary public health in the European Union: human trichinellosis due to horse meat consumption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Touratier L.

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available Human trichinellosis in the European Union due to insufficiently cooked horse meat consumption has been reported in France and in Italy during the past 25 years. It occurred in several outbreaks totalling more than 3,000 patients during this period, with a low mortality and a high morbidity. Causative Trichinella species or phenotypes were determined by the International Reference Laboratory for Trichinellosis in Rome, Italy. They were: Trichinella spiralis, T. britovi and T. murelli. As the culinary habits and customs of populations cannot be changed by regulations, measures of protection of public health essentially depend on food inspection. Comprehensive studies having been conducted in the pathophysiology of Trichinella infection in horses; it was demonstrated that the localisation of larvae are quite different in horses and in pork. It resulted an instruction from the French Veterinary Service recommending that :- the sampling of muscles in horses carcasses has to be done at first in the tongue (apex, then in the diaphragm (pillars;- at least 50 g have to be sampled in each site;- examination for larvae has to be done with the digestion method.Such recommendations might be extended to other EU member countries then to the OIE Zoo-Sanitary Code.

  6. Serological survey of Rhodococcus equi infection in horses in Hokkaido.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanada, Y; Noda, H; Nagahata, H

    1992-08-01

    Serological survey of Rhodococcus equi infection in horses in Hokkaido was performed using ELISA. Of 2,879 horse sera, 318 (11.0%) gave antibody-positive (OD greater than or equal to 0.3) reactions. The antibody-positive rate of female was significantly higher (p less than 0.01) than that of male, and no statistical difference between Anglo-Arab and thoroughbred was detected in the antibody-positive rate. The maximum antibody-positive rate (27.1%) was shown at 14 years of age. The antibody-positive rates on the 160 farms were found to vary widely from 0 to 78.9%. A significant difference (p less than 0.01) in the antibody-positive rate was detected among horse farms. It was elucidated that 100 (62.5%) out of 160 horse farms had an antibody-positive horse. These results indicate that R. equi was widespread on horse farms, and the level of environmental contamination with R. equi differed among horse farms.

  7. Medieval Horse Stable; The Results of Multi Proxy Interdisciplinary Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dejmal, Miroslav; Lisá, Lenka; Fišáková Nývltová, Miriam; Bajer, Aleš; Petr, Libor; Kočár, Petr; Kočárová, Romana; Nejman, Ladislav; Rybníček, Michal; Sůvová, Zdenka; Culp, Randy; Vavrčík, Hanuš

    2014-01-01

    A multi proxy approach was applied in the reconstruction of the architecture of Medieval horse stable architecture, the maintenance practices associated with that structure as well as horse alimentation at the beginning of 13th century in Central Europe. Finally, an interpretation of the local vegetation structure along Morava River, Czech Republic is presented. The investigated stable experienced two construction phases. The infill was well preserved and its composition reflects maintenance practices. The uppermost part of the infill was composed of fresh stabling, which accumulated within a few months at the end of summer. Horses from different backgrounds were kept in the stable and this is reflected in the results of isotope analyses. Horses were fed meadow grasses as well as woody vegetation, millet, oat, and less commonly hemp, wheat and rye. Three possible explanations of stable usage are suggested. The stable was probably used on a temporary basis for horses of workers employed at the castle, courier horses and horses used in battle. PMID:24670874

  8. Technological aspects of horse meat products - A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenzo, José M; Munekata, Paulo E S; Campagnol, Paulo Cezar Bastianello; Zhu, Zhenzhou; Alpas, Hami; Barba, Francisco J; Tomasevic, Igor

    2017-12-01

    Horse meat and its products can be considered as a food with a high nutritional value. However, due to cases of economically motivated food adulteration by the intentional addition of horse meat beef products in recent years, horse meat has become a controversial issue. Consumer confidence in meat products and the meat industry has diminished, although consumers consider the differences between the food content and the label as the major issue rather than the safety and nutritional characteristics of horse meat. The elaboration of meat products from horse meat (e.g. "cecina", dry-cured loin, salami, bressaola and pâté) is also an interesting alternative to other traditional meat products such as dry-cured pork hams, pork sausages and liver pâtés. In this review, the technological aspects, safety and storage stability of meat products elaborated from horse meat will be addressed by highlighting the nutritional and sensory aspects of these meat products. We aim to improve the existing knowledge about horse meat in the view of recent scandals. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Do horses with poor welfare show `pessimistic' cognitive biases?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry, S.; Fureix, C.; Rowberry, R.; Bateson, M.; Hausberger, M.

    2017-02-01

    This field study tested the hypothesis that domestic horses living under putatively challenging-to-welfare conditions (for example involving social, spatial, feeding constraints) would present signs of poor welfare and co-occurring pessimistic judgement biases. Our subjects were 34 horses who had been housed for over 3 years in either restricted riding school situations ( e.g. kept in single boxes, with limited roughage, ridden by inexperienced riders; N = 25) or under more naturalistic conditions ( e.g. access to free-range, kept in stable social groups, leisure riding; N = 9). The horses' welfare was assessed by recording health-related, behavioural and postural indicators. Additionally, after learning a location task to discriminate a bucket containing either edible food (`positive' location) or unpalatable food (`negative' location), the horses were presented with a bucket located near the positive position, near the negative position and halfway between the positive and negative positions to assess their judgement biases. The riding school horses displayed the highest levels of behavioural and health-related problems and a pessimistic judgment bias, whereas the horses living under more naturalistic conditions displayed indications of good welfare and an optimistic bias. Moreover, pessimistic bias data strongly correlated with poor welfare data. This suggests that a lowered mood impacts a non-human species' perception of its environment and highlights cognitive biases as an appropriate tool to assess the impact of chronic living conditions on horse welfare.

  10. Do horses with poor welfare show 'pessimistic' cognitive biases?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry, S; Fureix, C; Rowberry, R; Bateson, M; Hausberger, M

    2017-02-01

    This field study tested the hypothesis that domestic horses living under putatively challenging-to-welfare conditions (for example involving social, spatial, feeding constraints) would present signs of poor welfare and co-occurring pessimistic judgement biases. Our subjects were 34 horses who had been housed for over 3 years in either restricted riding school situations (e.g. kept in single boxes, with limited roughage, ridden by inexperienced riders; N = 25) or under more naturalistic conditions (e.g. access to free-range, kept in stable social groups, leisure riding; N = 9). The horses' welfare was assessed by recording health-related, behavioural and postural indicators. Additionally, after learning a location task to discriminate a bucket containing either edible food ('positive' location) or unpalatable food ('negative' location), the horses were presented with a bucket located near the positive position, near the negative position and halfway between the positive and negative positions to assess their judgement biases. The riding school horses displayed the highest levels of behavioural and health-related problems and a pessimistic judgment bias, whereas the horses living under more naturalistic conditions displayed indications of good welfare and an optimistic bias. Moreover, pessimistic bias data strongly correlated with poor welfare data. This suggests that a lowered mood impacts a non-human species' perception of its environment and highlights cognitive biases as an appropriate tool to assess the impact of chronic living conditions on horse welfare.

  11. THE EFFECT OF PHYTOADDITIVES ON MACROELEMENTS DIGESTIBILITY OF SPORT HORSES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernislav GÁLIK

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the effect of a phytogenic additive in sport horses feed rations on faecal macroelements digestibility. The experiment was realized in Riding Centre of the Faculty of Agrobiology and Food Resources, Slovak University of Agriculture in Nitra, using 6 warm blood sport horses (geldings. The control group was fed with crimped barley, meadow hay, feed mixture and mineral premix. The experimental feed rations were supplemented with a phytogenic additive containing a blend of essential oils from origanum, anise and citrus, as well as a prebiotic rich in fructooligosaccharides. Higher digestibility of calcium (Ca (71.11% vs. 69.09% and phosphorus (P (52.74% vs. 47.55% was determined in horses fed the phytogenic additives (P>0.05. In this group of horses we found significantly (P<0.05 higher digestibility of magnesium (Mg, 64.32% in comparison with the control group (43.55%. Insignificantly differences in sodium (Na digestibility we found (75.98% in control group vs. 76.58% in experimental group. Significantly (P<0.05 higher potassium (K digestibility we found in horses fed with phytoadditives (57.11%. In horses fed without phytoadditives we detected significantly (P<0.05 lower digestibility of K (30.55%. In conclusion, we found positive effects of a phytogenic additive on macroelements faecal digestibility in sport horses.

  12. [Two horses with neurological symptoms: could this be equine botulism?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roest, H I J; de Bruijn, C M; Picavet, M T J E; Prins, B; Parmentier, D; de Zwart, G M A M; Dijkstra, Y E; van Zijderveld, F G

    2009-10-01

    Symptoms, diagnosis and therapy of equine botulism are discussed by the presentation of two detailed reports of horses with neurological symptoms and the results of laboratory investigations over the period 2003-2008 in the Netherlands. In addition a brief summary of the available literature is presented. Prevailing symptoms of botulism in horses include paralysis of the tongue, salvation, dysphagia and paresis and paralysis of the skeletal muscles, as well as signs of colic. Symptoms and prognosis vary with the amount of botulinum neurotoxin (BoNT) involved. For early clinical diagnosis of botulism thorough investigation of the facial nerves is important, for instance by the use of the 'Tongue Stress Test'. Laboratory results often remain negative, probably due to the sampling time, the high sensitivity of horses for botulinum neurotoxin or treatment with antitoxins. Most clinical cases in horses are caused by botulinum neurotoxin B (BoNT/B). For therapy to be successful antiserum needs to be administered in the earliest possible stage of the disease and this should be supported by symptomatic therapy. Botulism is a feed-related intoxication caused by either carcasses in the roughage or BoNT/B production after poor conservation of grass silage. This is the main source of botulism in horses due to the popularity of individually packed grass silage as feed for horses. As long as no vaccine is available in the Netherlands quality control of silage and haylage is strictly recommended in order to reduce the risk of botulism in horses.

  13. Fracture of the medial intercondylar eminence of the tibia in horses treated by arthroscopic fragment removal (21 horses).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubio-Martínez, L M; Redding, W R; Bladon, B; Wilderjans, H; Payne, R J; Tessier, C; Geffroy, O; Parker, R; Bell, C; Collingwood, F A

    2018-01-01

    Fractures of the medial intercondylar eminence of the tibia (MICET) are scarcely reported in horses. To report the clinical and diagnostic findings, surgical treatment and outcome in a series of horses presented with MICET fracture and treated with arthroscopic fragment removal. Multicentre retrospective case series. Case records of horses diagnosed with MICET fractures that had undergone surgical treatment were reviewed. Follow-up information was obtained from re-examination visits and/or owners. Twenty-one cases were identified at 9 equine hospitals between 2004 and 2016. A history of trauma and acute onset of lameness was reported in 12 horses. All cases underwent fracture removal via arthroscopy of the medial femorotibial joint. The cranial cruciate ligament was intact in 6 horses and damaged in 15 horses (damage was ≤25% [n = 9], 25-50% [n = 4] or ≥50% [n = 2] of the cross-sectional area). The cranial ligament of the medial meniscus was damaged in 11 horses (≤25% [n = 8], 25-50% [n = 3]). The medial meniscus was damaged in 5 horses and articular cartilage damage was identified in 14 horses (mild [n = 8], moderate [n = 6]). Follow-up information (median 14 months; 4 months-6 years) was available for 20 cases; 2 horses were sound but convalescing; 13 horses were sound and returned to their previous or expected use. Of the 4 horses with the most severe changes to the articular soft tissue structures, 2 remained lame and 2 were subjected to euthanasia because of persistent lameness. The retrospective, multicentre nature of this study and the limited number of horses are the main limitations. Fractures of the MICET are commonly associated with a traumatic event. Prompt diagnosis and early arthroscopic removal of the fracture are recommended. © 2017 The Authors. Equine Veterinary Journal published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of EVJ Ltd.

  14. Coagulation parameters following equine herpesvirus type 1 infection in horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, M E; Holz, C L; Kopec, A K; Dau, J J; Luyendyk, J P; Soboll Hussey, G

    2018-04-15

    Equine herpesvirus type 1 (EHV-1) is the cause of respiratory disease, abortion storms, and outbreaks of herpesvirus myeloencephalopathy (EHM). Infection of the spinal cord is characterised by multifocal regions of virally infected vascular endothelium, associated with vasculitis, thrombosis and haemorrhage that result in ischaemia and organ dysfunction. However, the mechanism of thrombosis in affected horses is unknown. To evaluate tissue factor (TF) procoagulant activity and thrombin-antithrombin complex (TAT) levels in horses following infection with EHV-1. In vitro and in vivo studies following experimental EHV-1 infection. Horses were infected with EHV-1 and levels of peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC)-associated TF activity; plasma and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF)-derived microvesicle (MV)-associated TF activity and TAT complexes in plasma were examined. EHV-1 infection increased PBMC TF procoagulant activity in vitro and in vivo. In infected horses, this increase was observed during the acute infection and was most marked at the onset and end of viraemia. However, no significant differences were observed between the horses that showed signs of EHM and the horses that did not develop EHM. Significant changes in MV-associated TF procoagulant activity and TAT complexes were not observed in infected horses. A small number of horses typically exhibit clinical EHM following experimental infection. The results indicate that EHV-1 infection increases PBMC-associated TF procoagulant activity in vivo and in vitro. Additional in vivo studies are needed to better understand the role of TF-dependent coagulation during EHM pathogenesis in horses. © 2018 EVJ Ltd.

  15. Technique-associated outcomes in horses following large colon resection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pezzanite, Lynn M; Hackett, Eileen S

    2017-11-01

    To compare survival and complications in horses undergoing large colon resection with either sutured end-to-end or stapled functional end-to-end anastomoses. Retrospective cohort study. Twenty-six client-owned horses with gastrointestinal disease. Retrospective data were retrieved from the medical records of 26 horses undergoing colectomy, including 14 horses with sutured end-to-end and 12 horses with stapled functional end-to-end anastomoses, between 2003 and 2016. Records were evaluated for signalment, medical and surgical treatments, and survival to hospital discharge. Long-term follow-up was obtained through owner contact. Continuous variables were compared with Mann-Whitney tests. Fisher's exact testing was used to compare survival to hospital discharge. Survival time was compared by constructing Kaplan-Meier survival curves and performing log-rank curve comparison testing. Mean age of horses undergoing colectomy was 13 years. Reason for colectomy was prophylaxis (12) or salvage (14). Mean surgical time was 169 minutes. Mean hospitalization time was 9 days, which did not differ with anastomosis type (P = .62). Nine of 12 horses undergoing stapled functional end-to-end anastomosis and 12 of 14 horses undergoing sutured end-to-end anastomosis survived to hospital discharge (P = .63). Survival time did not differ with anastomosis technique (P = .35). Short- and long-term survival outcomes are not different between sutured end-to-end or stapled functional end-to-end anastomoses in horses undergoing colectomy. © 2017 The American College of Veterinary Surgeons.

  16. Endoscopic findings of the stomach in pleasure horses in Poland

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background This study was performed to determine the prevalence of ulcers in the gastric squamous and glandular mucosa in Polish pleasure horses. Study design Medical records from gastroscopic examinations of 108 pleasure horses of different breeds were reviewed. The study population consisted of two groups; group I (n = 48) with horses that expressed mild clinical signs of gastric ulcer syndrome (EGUS) including poor appetite, slight weight loss or poor body condition, and group II (n = 60) with horses that had no signs of gastrointestinal problems. The age range was 4–10 years, including 5 males, 34 castrated males (geldings) and 69 mares. The prevalence, distribution and severity of gastric ulcers were recorded. Lesions involving the squamous mucosa and the glandular mucosa of the antrum and pylorus were graded and compared between groups. Results Significant difference was found in the presence and severity of gastric ulcers between the two groups of horses. The overall prevalence of gastric ulcers in the first group of horses (n = 48) was 59% while in the group of clinically healthy horses (n = 60) the prevalence of gastric lesion was 40% (P = 0.004). Almost 19% of horses from group I had between 6–10 lesions (EGUS score III) and nearly 19% had either >10 localized lesions or very large diffuse lesions (EGUS number score IV). The number of ulcerations in affected horses were significantly lower in group II compared to group I (P = 0.016) as 10% of horses had 6–10 lesions (EGUS number score III) and nearly 14% had either >10 localized lesions or very large diffuse lesions (EGUS number score IV). Gastroscopy revealed that nearly 32% of horses from the second group had an ulceration EGUS score ≥ II. Discussion and conclusions This study confirms that gastric ulcerations can be prevalent in apparently clinically normal pleasure horses and a complete gastroscopic examination including the examination of the pylorus is advisable

  17. The application of learning theory in horse training

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McLean, Andrew N.; Christensen, Janne Winther

    2017-01-01

    The millennia-old practices of horse training markedly predate and thus were isolated from the mid-twentieth century revelation of animal learning processes. From this standpoint, the progress made in the application and understanding of learning theory in horse training is reviewed including...... on the correct application of learning theory, and safety and welfare benefits for people and horses would follow. Finally it is also proposed that the term ‘conflict theory’ be taken up in equitation science to facilitate diagnosis of training-related behaviour disorders and thus enable the emergence...

  18. Metacarpophalangeal joint synovial pad fibrotic proliferation in 63 horses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dabareiner, R.M.; White, N.A.; Sullins, K.E.

    1996-01-01

    Medical records, radiographs, and sonograms of 63 horses with metacarpophalangeal joint synovial pad proliferation were examined retrospectively. AR horses had lameness, joint effusion, or both signs associated with one or both metacarpophalangeal joints. Bony remodeling and concavity of the distodorsal aspect of the third metacarpal bone (Mc3) just proximal to the metacarpal condyles was identified by radiography in 71 joints (93%); 24 joints (32%) had radiographic evidence of a chip fracture located at the proximal dorsal aspect of the proximal phalanx. Fifty-four joints (71%) were examined by ultrasound. The mean +- SD sagittal thickness of the synovial pad was 11.3 +- 2.8 mm. Seventy-nine percent of the horses had single joint involvement with equal distribution between the right and left forelimbs. Sixty-eight joints in 55 horses were treated by arthroscopic surgery. Sixty joints (88%) had debridement of chondral or osteochondral fragmentation from the dorsal surface of Mc3 beneath the synovial pad and 30 joints (44%) had a bone chip fracture removed from the medial or lateral proximal dorsal eminence of the proximal phalanx. Complete or partial excision of both medial and lateral synovial pads was completed in 42 joints. Only the medial synovial pad was excised or trimmed in 21 joints, and 5 joints had only the lateral pad removed. Eight joints in eight horses were treated by stall rest, administration of intra-articular medication and systemic nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. Follow-up information was obtained for 50 horses treated surgically and for eight horses treated medically. Forty-three (86%) that had surgery returned to racing; 34 (68%) raced at an equivalent or better level than before surgery. Three (38%) of the medically treated horses returned to racing; only one horse raced better than the preinjury level. Horses that returned to racing at a similar or equal level of performance were significantly younger in age than horses returning at a

  19. Differences in serum protein 2D gel electrophoresis patterns of Przewalski's (Mongolian wild horse) and thoroughbred horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barsuren, Enkhbolor; Namkhai, Bandi; Kong, Hong Sik

    2015-04-01

    The objective of this study was to assess differences in serum protein expression profiles of Przewalski's (Mongolian wild horse) and thoroughbred horses using proteome analysis. The serum proteins were separated by two-dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE) and five different gene products were identified. Proteins represented by the five spots were identified by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF) mass spectrometry (MS)/MS technology. The identities of all proteins were deduced based on their similarity to proteins in the human plasma protein database. Three proteins (a haptoglobin-2 alpha glycoprotein and two haptoglobin-2beta glycoproteins with different accession numbers) were downregulated in Przewalski's horse sera compared to thoroughbred horse sera. Moreover, two proteins (tetraspanin-18 and pM5) were upregulated in Przewalski's horses compared to thoroughbred horses. Haptoglobin-2 alpha and haptoglobin-2beta may serve as candidate molecules in future studies of inflammation, coagulation, immune modulation and pro-oxidant and antioxidant activity with consequential effects on the entire metabolism of the horse. © 2014 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  20. Flogging tired horses: Who wants whipping and who would walk away if whipping horses were withheld?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffiths, Mark D.; Ascione, Frank R.; Wilson, Bethany

    2018-01-01

    Recent studies have cast doubt on the effectiveness of whipping horses during races and this has led to questions concerning its continuing justification. Furthermore, it has been argued that whipping tired horses in racing is the most televised form of violence to animals. The present study used de-identified data from a recent independent Australian poll (n = 1,533) to characterise the 26% of respondents (113 females and 271 males) who support the whipping of racehorses and the 10% of racing enthusiasts in the sample (44 females and 63 males) who would stop watching races and betting on them if whipping were banned. Logistic regression models examining associations between age, gender, and income level of respondents demonstrated that those who support racehorse whipping are significantly more likely to be male. Among racing enthusiasts who would stop watching races and betting on them if whipping were banned, those in the lowest income bracket were over-represented. The more frequently respondents attended races or gambled on them, the more likely they were to agree that horses should be hit with a whip during the normal course of a race. These findings align with previous studies of violence among men and women but may also be attributed to male support of traditional gambling practices. Globally, racing organisations may consider the findings of the present study helpful in their deliberations on the merits of continuing the practice of whipping tired horses in the name of sport. The study might also provide important data for stakeholders who demand that it continues. PMID:29466458

  1. Flogging tired horses: Who wants whipping and who would walk away if whipping horses were withheld?

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGreevy, Paul D; Griffiths, Mark D; Ascione, Frank R; Wilson, Bethany

    2018-01-01

    Recent studies have cast doubt on the effectiveness of whipping horses during races and this has led to questions concerning its continuing justification. Furthermore, it has been argued that whipping tired horses in racing is the most televised form of violence to animals. The present study used de-identified data from a recent independent Australian poll (n = 1,533) to characterise the 26% of respondents (113 females and 271 males) who support the whipping of racehorses and the 10% of racing enthusiasts in the sample (44 females and 63 males) who would stop watching races and betting on them if whipping were banned. Logistic regression models examining associations between age, gender, and income level of respondents demonstrated that those who support racehorse whipping are significantly more likely to be male. Among racing enthusiasts who would stop watching races and betting on them if whipping were banned, those in the lowest income bracket were over-represented. The more frequently respondents attended races or gambled on them, the more likely they were to agree that horses should be hit with a whip during the normal course of a race. These findings align with previous studies of violence among men and women but may also be attributed to male support of traditional gambling practices. Globally, racing organisations may consider the findings of the present study helpful in their deliberations on the merits of continuing the practice of whipping tired horses in the name of sport. The study might also provide important data for stakeholders who demand that it continues.

  2. Flogging tired horses: Who wants whipping and who would walk away if whipping horses were withheld?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul D McGreevy

    Full Text Available Recent studies have cast doubt on the effectiveness of whipping horses during races and this has led to questions concerning its continuing justification. Furthermore, it has been argued that whipping tired horses in racing is the most televised form of violence to animals. The present study used de-identified data from a recent independent Australian poll (n = 1,533 to characterise the 26% of respondents (113 females and 271 males who support the whipping of racehorses and the 10% of racing enthusiasts in the sample (44 females and 63 males who would stop watching races and betting on them if whipping were banned. Logistic regression models examining associations between age, gender, and income level of respondents demonstrated that those who support racehorse whipping are significantly more likely to be male. Among racing enthusiasts who would stop watching races and betting on them if whipping were banned, those in the lowest income bracket were over-represented. The more frequently respondents attended races or gambled on them, the more likely they were to agree that horses should be hit with a whip during the normal course of a race. These findings align with previous studies of violence among men and women but may also be attributed to male support of traditional gambling practices. Globally, racing organisations may consider the findings of the present study helpful in their deliberations on the merits of continuing the practice of whipping tired horses in the name of sport. The study might also provide important data for stakeholders who demand that it continues.

  3. Racing performance of Standardbred trotting horses undergoing surgery of the carpal flexor sheath and age- and sex-matched control horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carmalt, James L; Johansson, Bengt C; Zetterström, Sandra M; McOnie, Rebecca C

    2017-07-01

    OBJECTIVE To determine factors affecting race speed in Swedish Standardbred horses undergoing surgery of the carpal flexor sheath (CFS), to investigate whether preoperative racing speed was associated with specific intraoperative findings and whether horses returned to racing, and to compare the performance of horses undergoing surgery of the CFS with that of age- and sex-matched control horses. ANIMALS 149 Swedish Standardbred trotters undergoing surgery of the CFS and 274 age- and sex-matched control horses. PROCEDURES Medical records of CFS horses were examined. Racing data for CFS and control horses were retrieved from official online records. Generalizing estimating equations were used to examine overall and presurgery racing speeds and the association of preoperative clinical and intraoperative findings with preoperative and postoperative speeds. Multivariable regression analysis was used to examine career earnings and number of career races. Kaplan-Meier survival analysis was used to compare career longevity between CFS and control horses. RESULTS CFS horses were significantly faster than control horses. The CFS horses that raced before surgery were slower as they approached the surgery date, but race speed increased after surgery. There were 124 of 137 (90.5%) CFS horses that raced after surgery. No intrathecal pathological findings were significantly associated with preoperative racing speed. Career longevity did not differ between CFS and control horses. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Horses undergoing surgery of the CFS had a good prognosis to return to racing after surgery. Racing careers of horses undergoing surgery of the CFS were not significantly different from racing careers of control horses.

  4. Wild Horse 69-kV transmission line environmental assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-12-01

    Hill County Electric Cooperative Inc. (Hill County) proposes to construct and operate a 69-kV transmission line from its North Gildford Substation in Montana north to the Canadian border. A vicinity project area map is enclosed as a figure. TransCanada Power Corporation (TCP), a Canadian power-marketing company, will own and construct the connecting 69-kV line from the international border to Express Pipeline's pump station at Wild Horse, Alberta. This Environmental Assessment is prepared for the Department of Energy (DOE) as lead federal agency to comply with the requirements of the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA), as part of DOE's review and approval process of the applications filed by Hill County for a DOE Presidential Permit and License to Export Electricity to a foreign country. The purpose of the proposed line is to supply electric energy to a crude oil pump station in Canada, owned by Express Pipeline Ltd. (Express). The pipeline would transport Canadian-produced oil from Hardisty, Alberta, Canada, to Caster, Wyoming. The Express Pipeline is scheduled to be constructed in 1996--97 and will supply crude oil to refineries in Wyoming and the midwest

  5. Wild Horse 69-kV transmission line environmental assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-12-01

    Hill County Electric Cooperative Inc. (Hill County) proposes to construct and operate a 69-kV transmission line from its North Gildford Substation in Montana north to the Canadian border. A vicinity project area map is enclosed as a figure. TransCanada Power Corporation (TCP), a Canadian power-marketing company, will own and construct the connecting 69-kV line from the international border to Express Pipeline`s pump station at Wild Horse, Alberta. This Environmental Assessment is prepared for the Department of Energy (DOE) as lead federal agency to comply with the requirements of the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA), as part of DOE`s review and approval process of the applications filed by Hill County for a DOE Presidential Permit and License to Export Electricity to a foreign country. The purpose of the proposed line is to supply electric energy to a crude oil pump station in Canada, owned by Express Pipeline Ltd. (Express). The pipeline would transport Canadian-produced oil from Hardisty, Alberta, Canada, to Caster, Wyoming. The Express Pipeline is scheduled to be constructed in 1996--97 and will supply crude oil to refineries in Wyoming and the midwest.

  6. Use of transfixation pin casts to treat adult horses with comminuted phalangeal fractures: 20 cases (1993-2003).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joyce, Jolynn; Baxter, Gary M; Sarrafian, Tiffany L; Stashak, Ted S; Trotter, Gayle; Frisbie, Dave

    2006-09-01

    To determine the clinical applications, short and long-term survival, and complications of using transfixation pin casts for treatment of comminuted phalangeal fractures in adult horses. Retrospective case series. 20 horses. Medical records were reviewed to obtain information regarding signalment, fracture location, treatment methods, complications, and short-term survival (discharge from hospital). Long-term follow-up information was obtained via contact with owners or trainers. 12 fractures were in a hind limb, and 8 were in a forelimb. Fourteen fractures occurred in a middle phalanx, and 6 occurred in a proximal phalanx. Eleven fractures were treated with internal fixation combined with transfixation pin casts, and 9 fractures were treated with transfixation pin casts alone. Transfixation pin casts were maintained for a mean of 52 days (median, 49 days; range, 1 to 131 days). Fourteen (70%) horses were discharged from the hospital, whereas 6 (30%) were euthanized during the treatment period. Reasons for euthanasia included secondary fracture of the third metacarpal or metatarsal bone, avascularity of the distal aspect of the limb associated with an open fracture, and displacement of the fracture after transfixation pin cast removal. A significantly greater number of horses was discharged from the hospital when the transfixation pin cast was maintained for > 40 days, compared with those in which the transfixation pin cast was maintained for horses should be maintained in a transfixation pin cast for a minimum of 40 days, as this was associated with an increase in short-term survival without an increased risk of catastrophic failure.

  7. Variability of albumin in blood serum as a possible reflection of evolutional influence of diluvial horses on population of native mountain horse in Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trailović Ružica

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Native mountain horse is an autochthonous ungulata with a domicile extending to the whole mountaneous region of Serbia, south of the Sava and Danube rivers. Along with native horses of other Balkan countries it is classified as Mediterranean pony, but unlike Balkan horses such as Skiros, Pinea, Pindos, Karakachan, Bosnian mountineous horse etc., mountineous horses in Serbia neither have been morphologically described nor were of concern to the scientific community till the end of the twentieth century. Investigations of albumin polymorphism in blood serum of native mountain horse were taken within a comprehensive reserch on morphologic, physiologic and genetic structure of this autochtonous ungulata breed. On the basis of the results obtained by electrophoretic separation of albumine types in native mountaneous horse blood serum, there were determined four albumine phenotypes: AA, AB, BB and BI which are inherited by three autosomal alleles AlA, Alb, All . The appearance of All allele in native mountaneous horse population points out to diluvial forest horse impact on process of microevolution of autochtonous native mountaneous horse. Occidental- specific albumin isoforms presence indicate the necessity of thorough study of evolution position and historic influence of different ancestors, and especially occidental horses on native mountain horse population in Serbia.

  8. Phylogenetic relationships of German heavy draught horse breeds inferred from mitochondrial DNA D-loop variation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aberle, K S; Hamann, H; Drögemüller, C; Distl, O

    2007-04-01

    We analysed a 610-bp mitochondrial (mt)DNA D-loop fragment in a sample of German draught horse breeds and compared the polymorphic sites with sequences from Arabian, Hanoverian, Exmoor, Icelandic, Sorraia and Przewalski's Horses as well as with Suffolk, Shire and Belgian horses. In a total of 65 horses, 70 polymorphic sites representing 47 haplotypes were observed. The average percentage of polymorphic sites was 11.5% for the mtDNA fragment analysed. In the nine different draught horse breeds including South German, Mecklenburg, Saxon Thuringa coldblood, Rhenisch German, Schleswig Draught Horse, Black Forest Horse, Shire, Suffolk and Belgian, 61 polymorphic sites and 24 haplotypes were found. The phylogenetic analysis failed to show monophyletic groups for the draught horses. The analysis indicated that the draught horse populations investigated consist of diverse genetic groups with respect to their maternal lineage.

  9. Welfare, Quality of Life, and Euthanasia of Aged Horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGowan, Catherine M; Ireland, Joanne L

    2016-08-01

    Duration of ownership strengthens the human-horse bond, affecting decision-making about the horse's welfare, quality of life (QoL), and euthanasia. Most owners consider their geriatric horses to have good or excellent QoL; however, increasing age is negatively associated with QoL. Management factors are important. The most common reasons for euthanasia include musculoskeletal disorders or lameness, colic, and nonspecific chronic diseases. The decision to euthanize is difficult, so the advice of the veterinarian and QoL are important. This article focuses on the human-horse bond, assessment of QoL, reasons for euthanasia, and owner experiences of mortality. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Combined active-passive immunisation of horses against tetanus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liefman, C E

    1980-03-01

    The protection afforded by active, passive and combined active-passive methods of immunisation against tetanus was examined in previously unimmunised horses. Three groups of horses were injected; one with tetanus toxoid alone, one with tetanus antitoxin alone and one in which the tetanus toxoid and tetanus antitoxin were injected simultaneously. The protection afforded was determined by monitoring the levels of antitoxin achieved in the horses by each of these methods. The results obtained demonstrated the effectiveness of the combined active-passive method in affording rapid and prolonged protection and enabled the examination of some of the factors involved in active and in passive immunisation when used alone. The advantages obtained by the use of the combined active-passive method in protecting unimmunised horses suddenly placed at risk to infection are outlined.

  11. Daily variability of strongyle fecal egg counts in horses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carstensen, Helena; Larsen, Lene; Ritz, Christian

    2013-01-01

    Strongyle parasites are ubiquitous in grazing horses and constitute a potential threat to equine health. Feces were collected from six horses four times daily over a period of 5 days. Fecal egg counts (FECs) were performed to identify any diurnal rhythms in strongyle egg shedding and to quantify...... variability at the different levels: individual horses, repeated counts, repeated subsamples, different time points, and different days. No significant differences in FECs were found between the different time points (P = .11). The variables-horse, day, subsample, and egg count-accounted for a variance of 104...... subsamples and repeated egg counts on the same subsamples, whereas the variability of FECs between following days can be considered negligible. The findings of this study have implication for designing and performing field surveillance of strongyle FEC levels and applying the FEC reduction test...

  12. Acute phase proteins as diagnostic markers in horses with colic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pihl, Tina Holberg; Scheepers, Elrien; Sanz, Macarena

    and fibrinogen to differentiate between horses with infectious non-surgical colic and surgical colic. Materials & Methods:The performance of the APPs was evaluated individually and in combination with clinical examination, as wells as traditional biomarkers in blood (WCC, PCV, TPP, lactate) and peritoneal fluid...... (PF) (haemolysis, WCC, total protein).Admission data collected prospectively from 148 horses with severe colic in one hospital was used to construct multivariate logistic models to predict if a horse had an infectious non-surgical colic. The models were based on 1) clinical evaluation, 2) clinical...... and blood evaluation and 3) clinical, blood and PF evaluation. Each model was independently validated against admission data from 78 horses in another hospital.Results and Discussion:The variables included in the final ‘clinical model’ were: Lethargy, temperature increase from 38◦C, gastric reflux 5-10L...

  13. Experimental rayless goldenrod (Isocoma pluriflora) toxicosis in horses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rayless goldenrod (Isocoma pluriflora) sporadically poisons horses and other livestock in the southwestern United States. Similar to livestock poisoning by white snakeroot (Ageratina altissima) in the midwestern United States, previous research suggests that benzofuran ketones (BFK: tremetone, dehy...

  14. Effects of handling on fear reactions in young Icelandic horses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marsbøll, Anna Feldberg; Christensen, Janne Winther

    2015-01-01

    To investigate the effect of a short-term standardised handling procedure on reactions of young horses in 2 types of fear tests (including and excluding human handling). Study design An experimental study with 3-year-old Icelandic horses (n = 24). Methods Handled horses (n = 12) were trained according...... to a standardised handling procedure whereas controls (n = 12) remained untrained. Behavioural and heart rate responses in a novel object test and 2 handling fear tests (HFTs) were measured. The HFTs were conducted with both an unknown (HFT-unknown) and a known handler (HFT-known). Results There was no effect...... correlated significantly between tests. Conclusions Previous handling may affect the behavioural fear response of horses when handled by their usual handler, whereas this effect did not apply to an unknown handler. Heart rates appeared unaffected by handling and may be a more reliable indicator...

  15. The Cape horse mackerel Trachurus trachurus capensis fishery off ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    spamer

    1940s, mainly by purse-seiners operating off the. West ... near Mossel Bay to East London were carried out in ... West Coast (including Namibia) and South Coast population of horse mackerel, ..... spawning behaviour, as reported for mackerel.

  16. West Nile virus infection in horses, Indian ocean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardinale, E; Bernard, C; Lecollinet, S; Rakotoharinome, V M; Ravaomanana, J; Roger, M; Olive, M M; Meenowa, D; Jaumally, M R; Melanie, J; Héraud, J M; Zientara, S; Cêtre-Sossah, C

    2017-08-01

    The circulation of West Nile virus (WNV) in horses was investigated in the Southwest Indian ocean. In 2010, blood samples were collected from a total of 303 horses originating from Madagascar, Mauritius, Reunion and the Seychelles and tested for WNV-specific antibodies. An overall seroprevalence of 27.39% was detected in the Indian Ocean with the highest WNV antibody prevalence of 46.22% (95% CI: [37.4-55.2%]) in Madagascar. The age and origin of the horses were found to be associated with the WNV infection risk. This paper presents the first seroprevalence study investigating WN fever in horses in the Southwest Indian Ocean area and indicates a potential risk of infection for humans and animals. In order to gain a better understanding of WN transmission cycles, WNV surveillance needs to be implemented in each of the countries. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Infection of immunodeficient horses with Sarcocystis neurona does not result in neurologic disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sellon, Debra C; Knowles, Donald P; Greiner, Ellis C; Long, Maureen T; Hines, Melissa T; Hochstatter, Tressa; Tibary, Ahmed; Dame, John B

    2004-11-01

    Equine protozoal myeloencephalitis is a progressive neurologic disease of horses most commonly caused by infection with the apicomplexan parasite Sarcocystis neurona. Factors affecting neuroinvasion and neurovirulence have not been determined. We investigated the pathogenesis of infection with S. neurona in horses with severe combined immune deficiency (SCID). Two immunocompetent (IC) Arabian horses and two Arabian horses with SCID were infected orally with 5 x 10(5) sporocysts of S. neurona. Four IC horses and one SCID horse were infected intravenously (i.v.) with 5 x 10(8) merozoites of the WSU-1 isolate of S. neurona. Despite prolonged parasitemia and persistent infection of visceral tissues (skeletal muscle, cardiac muscle, lung, liver, and spleen) as demonstrated by PCR and culture, SCID horses did not develop neurologic signs after oral or i.v. infection. S. neurona was undetectable in the neuronal tissues of SCID horses by either PCR, immunohistochemistry, or culture. In contrast, although parasitemia was undetectable in orally infected IC horses and of only short duration in i.v. infected IC horses, four of six IC horses developed neurologic signs. S. neurona was detectable by PCR and/or culture of neural tissue but not visceral tissue of IC horses with neurologic disease. Infected SCID horses are unable to clear S. neurona from visceral tissues, but the infection does not result in neurologic signs; in contrast, IC horses rapidly control parasitemia and infection of visceral tissues but frequently experience neuroinvasion and exhibit clinical signs of neurologic disease.

  18. Red maple (Acer rubrum) leaf toxicosis in horses: a retrospective study of 32 cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alward, Ashley; Corriher, Candice A; Barton, Michelle H; Sellon, Debra C; Blikslager, Anthony T; Jones, Samuel L

    2006-01-01

    Ingestion of wilted red maple leaves by horses can result in severe hemolytic anemia and methemoglobinemia. Little is known about what factors influence the outcome of red maple leaf toxicosis in horses. Our hypothesis was that physical examination findings, clinicopathologic variables or therapeutic modalities may predict outcome in horses with red maple leaf toxicity. Horses with red maple leaf toxicosis presented to referral hospitals in the southeast region of the United States. A multi-institutional retrospective study was designed to identify factors that predict mortality in horses with red maple toxicosis. Thirty-two horses with red maple toxicosis were identified, 19 of which died. Twenty-nine horses presented with anemia and 24 had clinicopathologic evidence of systemic inflammation. Renal insufficiency was identified in 12/30 (41%) horses. Laminitis (9/28) and colic (13/30) also were identified in horses with red maple toxicosis, but development of these 2 conditions did not have a negative effect on short-term survival. Horses with red maple toxicosis that survived to discharge were likely to have developed pyrexia during hospitalization (P = .030). Horses that were treated with a corticosteroid had a significantly increased likelihood of death (P = .045). There was no significant relationship between initial serum hemoglobin concentration, methemoglobin concentration, or percentage methemoglobin and mortality in this horse series. This study suggests that information obtained on initial examination cannot be used to accurately predict survival in horses with red maple toxicosis, but horses that receive corticosteroids are unlikely to survive.

  19. Chronic progressive lymphoedema in draught horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Keyser, K; Janssens, S; Buys, N

    2015-05-01

    The objective of this review was to summarise and evaluate the current state of knowledge about chronic progressive lymphoedema in draught horses. Clinical signs of this multifactorial disorder are mainly restricted to the lower limbs, comprising progressively deteriorating skin, swelling and deformation. Although typical lesions were first reported at the beginning of the 20th century, chronic progressive lymphoedema was recognised as a specific syndrome only in 2003, and since then research has driven forward. Despite the high prevalence in some breeds and the serious economic impact, the pathogenesis is not fully understood, and the available treatment options remain symptomatic and noncurative. There is a need to improve diagnostic techniques and to develop selection tools. © 2014 EVJ Ltd.

  20. Auscultatory and electrocardiographic characteristics of Crioulo horses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jackson Schade

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In order to determine auscultatory and electrocardiographic characteristics of Crioulo horses, one hundred animals ranging between one and twenty-six years of age (21 stallions, nine geldings, 27 pregnant mares e 43 not pregnant mares were evaluated. The cardiac auscultation was performed during the clinical examination of the cardiovascular system, evaluating frequency, rate, normal and abnormal heart sounds (heart murmurs. The electrocardiographic examination followed the bipolar base-apex derivative system with animals at rest, by using an ECG-PC TEB equipment. The cardiac frequency, heart rate, morphology, duration, wave and complex amplitudes and interval durations were determined. The results were submitted to ANOVA and Tukey tests with an error probability of 5%. The cardiac auscultation revealed presence of functional systolic and diastolic murmur (10.00% and systolic murmur compatible with tricuspid regurgitation besides normal heart sounds S1 (100.0%, S2 (100.0%, S3 (19.0% and S4 (34.0%. The cardiac frequency obtained the average of 43.64 bpm, observing significative differences in relation to sexual and age factors and training level. The sinus rhythm was the most frequent (57.00%, followed by sinus tachycardia (38.00% and sinus arrhythmia (5.00%, being observed rhythm disturbances in 16% of tracings. The P and T waves were observed more frequently in their forms P bifida positive (95.00% and biphasic T (91.00%, being variable at tracing. There were also observed Q waves in 12.00% of the tracings. Thus, it was concluded that the auscultatory characteristics of Crioulo horses are according to the described in the literature for the species and the sexual factor, category, age factor and training level can influence some electrocardiographic parameters.

  1. Pharmacokinetics of inorganic cobalt and a vitamin B12 supplement in the Thoroughbred horse: Differentiating cobalt abuse from supplementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hillyer, L L; Ridd, Z; Fenwick, S; Hincks, P; Paine, S W

    2018-05-01

    While cobalt is an essential micronutrient for vitamin B 12 synthesis in the horse, at supraphysiological concentrations, it has been shown to enhance performance in human subjects and rats, and there is evidence that its administration in high doses to horses poses a welfare threat. Animal sport regulators currently control cobalt abuse via international race day thresholds, but this work was initiated to explore means of potentially adding to application of those thresholds since cobalt may be present in physiological concentrations. To devise a scientific basis for differentiation between presence of cobalt from bona fide supplementation and cobalt doping through the use of ratios. Six Thoroughbred horses were given 10 mL vitamin B 12 /cobalt supplement (Hemo-15 ® ; Vetoquinol, Buckingham, Buckinghamshire, UK., 1.5 mg B 12 , 7 mg cobalt gluconate = 983 μg total Co) as an i.v. bolus then an i.v. infusion (15 min) of 100 mg cobalt chloride (45.39 mg Co) 6 weeks later. Pre-and post-administration plasma and urine samples were analysed for cobalt and vitamin B 12 . Urine and plasma samples were analysed for vitamin B 12 using an immunoassay and cobalt concentrations were measured via ICP-MS. Baseline concentrations of cobalt in urine and plasma for each horse were subtracted from their cobalt concentrations post-administration for the PK analysis. Compartmental analysis was used for the determination of plasma PK parameters for cobalt using commercially available software. On administration of a vitamin B 12 /cobalt supplement, the ratio of cobalt to vitamin B 12 in plasma rapidly increased to approximately 3 and then rapidly declined below a ratio of 1 and then back to near baseline over the next week. On administration of 100 mg cobalt chloride, the ratio initially exceeded 10 in plasma and then declined with the lower 95% confidence interval remaining above a ratio of 1 for 7 days. For two horses with extended sampling, the plasma ratio remained above one for

  2. Annual Report for 2003 Wild Horse Research and Field Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ransom, Jason; Singer, Francis J.; Zeigenfuss, Linda C.

    2004-01-01

    As stated in the Wild Horse Fertility Control Field Trial Plan, the Bureau of Land Management (BLM) has an immediate need for a safe, effective contraceptive agent to assist in the management of the large number of wild horses on western rangelands. The BLM and the U.S. Geological Survey-Biological Resources Discipline (USGS/BRD) are testing the immunocontraceptive agent Porcine Zonae Pellucida (PZP) in field trials with three free-roaming herds of western wild horses. Extensive research has already been conducted on the safety, efficacy, and duration of PZP applications in both domestic and feral horses on eastern barrier islands and in some select trials I with wild horses in Nevada managed by the BLM. However, significant questions remain concerning the effects of I PZP application at the population level in the wild, as well as effects at the individual level on behavior, social structure, and harem dynamics of free-ranging animals. These questions are best answered with field trials on wild horse herds under a tight research protocol. The ultimate goal is to provide the BLM with the protocols and information necessary to begin using fertility control to regulate population growth rates in wild horse herds on a broader scale. Fertility control is intended to assist the conventional capture, removal, and adoption process as a I means of controlling excess numbers of wild horses and burros, and to greatly reduce the adoption costs and numbers of animals handled. Fertility control is not intended to totally replace the removal and adoption process.

  3. Does work affect personality? A study in horses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martine Hausberger

    Full Text Available It has been repeatedly hypothesized that job characteristics are related to changes in personality in humans, but often personality models still omit effects of life experience. Demonstrating reciprocal relationships between personality and work remains a challenge though, as in humans, many other influential factors may interfere. This study investigates this relationship by comparing the emotional reactivity of horses that differed only by their type of work. Horses are remarkable animal models to investigate this question as they share with humans working activities and their potential difficulties, such as "interpersonal" conflicts or "suppressed emotions". An earlier study showed that different types of work could be associated with different chronic behavioural disorders. Here, we hypothesised that type of work would affect horses' personality. Therefore over one hundred adult horses, differing only by their work characteristics were presented standardised behavioural tests. Subjects lived under the same conditions (same housing, same food, were of the same sex (geldings, and mostly one of two breeds, and had not been genetically selected for their current type of work. This is to our knowledge the first time that a direct relationship between type of work and personality traits has been investigated. Our results show that horses from different types of work differ not as much in their overall emotional levels as in the ways they express emotions (i.e. behavioural profile. Extremes were dressage horses, which presented the highest excitation components, and voltige horses, which were the quietest. The horses' type of work was decided by the stall managers, mostly on their jumping abilities, but unconscious choice based on individual behavioural characteristics cannot be totally excluded. Further research would require manipulating type of work. Our results nevertheless agree with reports on humans and suggest that more attention should be

  4. Evaluation of coronary band temperatures in healthy horses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosenmeier, Jesper G.; Strathe, Anders Bjerring; Andersen, Pia Haubro

    2012-01-01

    To measure coronary band temperature (CBT) in healthy horses fed high-fructan or low-carbohydrate diets and to analyze the association of CBT with diet, time of day, and ambient temperature.......To measure coronary band temperature (CBT) in healthy horses fed high-fructan or low-carbohydrate diets and to analyze the association of CBT with diet, time of day, and ambient temperature....

  5. Cardiovascular effects of pimobendan in healthy mature horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afonso, T; Giguère, S; Rapoport, G; Barton, M H; Coleman, A E

    2016-05-01

    Pimobendan is an inodilator used in dogs for the management of heart failure due to myxomatous valve disease or dilated cardiomyopathy. The lack of data regarding the effects of pimobendan in horses prevents the rational use of this drug. To determine the cardiovascular effects of pimobendan in healthy mature horses. Randomised experimental study. Five horses were fasted overnight prior to receiving i.v. pimobendan (0.25 mg/kg bwt), intragastric (i.g.) pimobendan (0.25 mg/kg bwt) or i.g. placebo with a washout period of one week between each administration. Horses were instrumented for the measurement of right ventricular (RV) minimum pressure, RV maximum pressure, RV end diastolic pressure, and maximum rate of increase and decrease in RV pressure before and 0.5, 1, 2, 4, and 8 h after drug administration. Arterial blood pressure, central venous pressure, cardiac output and heart rate were measured at the same time points. Data were expressed as a maximum percentage of change over baseline values. There were no adverse effects associated with administration of pimobendan. The percentage increase in heart rate was significantly greater for horses given pimobendan i.g. (33 ± 4%) and i.v. (36 ± 14%) than for those given a placebo (-2 ± 7%). The percentage increase in maximum rate of increase in RV pressure (35 ± 36%) and the percentage decrease in minimum pressure (47 ± 24%) and end diastolic pressure (34 ± 13%) were significantly greater in horses given pimobendan i.v. than in those given placebo. Other variables measured were not significantly different between treatment groups. Pimobendan administered i.v. has positive chronotropic and inotropic effects in healthy mature horses and warrants further investigation for the treatment of heart failure in horses. © 2015 EVJ Ltd.

  6. Does work affect personality? A study in horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hausberger, Martine; Muller, Christine; Lunel, Christophe

    2011-02-09

    It has been repeatedly hypothesized that job characteristics are related to changes in personality in humans, but often personality models still omit effects of life experience. Demonstrating reciprocal relationships between personality and work remains a challenge though, as in humans, many other influential factors may interfere. This study investigates this relationship by comparing the emotional reactivity of horses that differed only by their type of work. Horses are remarkable animal models to investigate this question as they share with humans working activities and their potential difficulties, such as "interpersonal" conflicts or "suppressed emotions". An earlier study showed that different types of work could be associated with different chronic behavioural disorders. Here, we hypothesised that type of work would affect horses' personality. Therefore over one hundred adult horses, differing only by their work characteristics were presented standardised behavioural tests. Subjects lived under the same conditions (same housing, same food), were of the same sex (geldings), and mostly one of two breeds, and had not been genetically selected for their current type of work. This is to our knowledge the first time that a direct relationship between type of work and personality traits has been investigated. Our results show that horses from different types of work differ not as much in their overall emotional levels as in the ways they express emotions (i.e. behavioural profile). Extremes were dressage horses, which presented the highest excitation components, and voltige horses, which were the quietest. The horses' type of work was decided by the stall managers, mostly on their jumping abilities, but unconscious choice based on individual behavioural characteristics cannot be totally excluded. Further research would require manipulating type of work. Our results nevertheless agree with reports on humans and suggest that more attention should be given to work

  7. The War Horse: A Bibliography of Periodical Articles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-01-01

    breeding," AMCAVJ, 55:62, Nov 1946. 10. "Artillery, Chestnut Stallion , 16 hands, 7 years old; weight, 1100 lbs.," FAJ, 1:51, Apr 1911. 11. "The...Licart. "The Barb ," CAVJ, 38:559-579, 1929. 142. McClure, Albert N. "Military horses in General and Cavalry Horses in Particular," CAVJ, 24:567-573

  8. Bacterial infection of the lower respiratory tract in 34 horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Racklyeft, D J; Love, D N

    2000-08-01

    To investigate associations between the bacteriology and aspects of history, clinical presentation, outcome and pathology of lower respiratory tract disease of 34 horses. Detailed aerobic and anaerobic bacteriological investigations were performed on clinical specimens from horses with pneumonia, lung abscessation and necrotic pneumonia with or without pleurisy in an attempt to identify those bacteria that might contribute to the initiation and progression of infection. Bacteria were cultured from 33 of the 34 horses. In ten cases, only aerobic/facultatively anaerobic isolates were cultured while aerobic/facultatively anaerobic bacteria and obligately anaerobic bacteria were isolated in the other 23 cases. Moderate to large numbers of anaerobic bacteria were isolated only when the estimated duration of illness was at least five days. Bacteria were not cultured from 12 of the pleural fluid samples but were always cultured from pulmonary samples (either transtracheal aspirates from live horses or pulmonary lesions at necropsy). Streptococcus equi subsp zooepidemicus was isolated in the three cases where only one bacterial species was cultured. In the other 30 cases, multiple species were isolated. These included most often and in greatest numbers, Streptococcus equi subsp zooepidemicus, Pasteurellaceae, Escherichia coli, anaerobic cocci, Eubacterium fossor, Bacteroides tectum, Prevotella heparinolytica, Fusobacterium spp, and pigmented members of the genera Prevotella and Porphyromonas. Aerobic/facultatively anaerobic organisms were isolated from 97% of horses, while obligately anaerobic organisms were cultured from 68% of horses. There was no association between the isolation of any specific bacterium and the outcome of disease. However, obligately anaerobic bacteria (such as anaerobic cocci, Bacteroides tectum, P heparinolytica and Fusobacterium spp) and the facultatively anaerobic species Escherichia coli, were recovered more commonly from horses that died or were

  9. Isolation of Toxoplasma gondii from horse meat in Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaapan, R M; Ghazy, A A

    2007-01-01

    Portions of heart, liver, skeletal and diaphragmatic muscles obtained from 150 slaughtered horses at Giza-Zoo abattoir were used for bioassays in mice and cats. T. gondii tachyzoites were isolated successfully from the peritoneal exudates of the inoculated mice 6-8 days post inoculation with pooled horse tissues. Whereas, T. gondii tissue cysts containing bradyzoites were detected in the impression smears of mice brain on the 45th days or more post infection. The oocysts were detected in feces of cats 3-6 days post feeding on horse tissues containing tissue cysts. The oocysts became sporulated within 3-5 days in 2.5% Potassium dichromate. A total of 79 out of 150 horse meat samples were found to be infected with an incidence rate of 52.6 %. This is the first trial for isolation of T. gondii infective stages from horses in Egypt. Moreover, this study pointed out to the high infection rate of T. gondii in horse meat which may be considered as an important source of infection to wild zoo-animals in Egypt and humans in some countries if consumed raw or insufficiently cooked.

  10. Seroprevalence of Rhodococcus equi in horses in Israel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharon Tirosh-Levy

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Rhodococcus equi is a common cause of pneumonia in foals and has extensive clinical, economic and possibly zoonotic consequences. This bacterium survives well in the environment and may be considered as normal flora of adult horses. Certain strains of this bacterium are extremely virulent in foals, and early identification and intervention is crucial for prognosis. Rhodococcus equi is endemic in many parts of the world and occasionally isolated in Israel. This study was designed to evaluate R. equi seroprevalence in adult horses in Israel to indirectly indicate the potential level of exposure of susceptible foals. Sera were collected from 144 horses during spring 2011 and from 293 horses during fall 2014, and the presence of antibodies against virulent R. equi was detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Equine seroprevalence of R. equi was found to be 7.6% in 2011 and 5.1% in 2014. Only one farm had seropositive horses in 2011, whereas several farms had seropositive horses in 2014. No significant risk factors for seropositivity were found. Rhodococcus equi appears to be endemic in Israel. This is the first survey of R. equi in Israel that provides information on the epidemiology of this important bacterium.

  11. Gasterophilus spp. infections in horses from northern and central Kazakhstan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrayev, Baltabek; Lider, Lyudmila; Bauer, Christian

    2015-01-15

    A cross-sectional survey was performed to obtain current data on the gastrointestinal myiasis of horses in the provinces of Kostanay, Akmola and Karagandy, northern and central Kazakhstan. The stomach, small intestine and rectum of 148 slaughter horses were examined for Gasterophilus spp. larvae during a 26-month study period. All horses were infected with 2nd and 3rd stage larvae (mean intensity: 803±350), and 22% of them harboured >1000 Gasterophilus spp. larvae each. Four species were identified: G. intestinalis (prevalence: 100%; mean intensity: 361±240 larvae), G. haemorrhoidalis (100%; 353±191), G. nasalis (100%; 73±36) and G. pecorum (91.2%; 18±10). Horses aged<2 years were higher infected with Gasterophilus larvae than 2-4 years old animals. Both the prevalence and extremely high intensity of Gasterophilus infections of horses in these Kazakh regions suggest respective control measurements to improve the health and performance of the animals and to increase the economic income of horse owners. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Resection and anastomosis of the descending colon in 43 horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prange, Timo; Holcombe, Susan J; Brown, Jennifer A; Dechant, Julie E; Fubini, Susan L; Embertson, Rolf M; Peroni, John; Rakestraw, Peter C; Hauptman, Joe G

    2010-08-01

    To determine (1) the short- (to hospital discharge) and long- (>6 months) term survival, (2) factors associated with short-term survival, and (3) the perioperative course for horses with resection and anastomosis of the descending colon. Multicentered case series. Horses (n=43) that had descending colon resection and anastomosis. Medical records (January 1995-June 2009) of 7 equine referral hospitals were reviewed for horses that had descending colon resection and anastomosis and were recovered from anesthesia. Retrieved data included history, results of clinical and clinicopathologic examinations, surgical findings, postsurgical treatment and complications, and short-term survival (hospital discharge). Long-term survival was defined as survival > or =6 months after hospital discharge. Of 43 horses, 36 (84%) were discharged from the hospital. Twenty-eight of 30 horses with follow-up information survived > or =6 months. No significant associations between perioperative factors and short-term survival were identified. Lesions included strangulating lipoma (n=27), postfoaling trauma (4), infarction (4), intraluminal obstruction (2), and other (6). Common postoperative complications included fever and diarrhea. During hospitalization 7 horses were euthanatized or died because of septic peritonitis (3), endotoxemia (3), and colic and ileus (1). Descending colon resection and anastomosis has a favorable prognosis for hospital discharge and survival > or =6 months. The most common cause of small colon incarceration was strangulating lipoma. Complications include postoperative fever and diarrhea but the prognosis is good after small colon resection and anastomosis.

  13. Seroprevalence of Rhodococcus equi in horses in Israel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tirosh-Levy, Sharon; Gürbilek, Sevil E; Tel, Osman Y; Keskin, Oktay; Steinman, Amir

    2017-06-26

    Rhodococcus equi is a common cause of pneumonia in foals and has extensive clinical, economic and possibly zoonotic consequences. This bacterium survives well in the environment and may be considered as normal flora of adult horses. Certain strains of this bacterium are extremely virulent in foals, and early identification and intervention is crucial for prognosis. Rhodococcus equi is endemic in many parts of the world and occasionally isolated in Israel. This study was designed to evaluate R. equi seroprevalence in adult horses in Israel to indirectly indicate the potential level of exposure of susceptible foals. Sera were collected from 144 horses during spring 2011 and from 293 horses during fall 2014, and the presence of antibodies against virulent R. equi was detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Equine seroprevalence of R. equi was found to be 7.6% in 2011 and 5.1% in 2014. Only one farm had seropositive horses in 2011, whereas several farms had seropositive horses in 2014. No significant risk factors for seropositivity were found. Rhodococcus equi appears to be endemic in Israel. This is the first survey of R. equi in Israel that provides information on the epidemiology of this important bacterium.

  14. The use of nutritional supplements in dressage and eventing horses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agar, C.; Gemmill, R.; Hollands, T.; Freeman, S. L.

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the study was to determine which types of nutritional supplements were used in dressage and eventing horses, and the reasons that owners used supplements. An online questionnaire was distributed through British Eventing and Dressage websites, to collect data on demographics of owners and their horses, supplements used and their opinion on health and performance problems. Data were evaluated using descriptive analysis, Sign and Fisher's exact tests for quantitative data, and categorisation of qualitative data. In total, 599 responses met the inclusion criteria (441 dressage and 158 eventing horse owners). Participants had 26.4 (3–60) (mean (range)) years of riding experience, owned 1.2 (0–10) horses and used 2 (0–12) supplements in their highest performing horse. The main health and performance issues identified for dressage were ‘energy/behaviour’, ‘lameness’ and ‘back and muscle problems’. The main issues for eventing were ‘stamina and fitness levels’,’ lameness’ and ‘energy/behaviour’. The main reasons for using supplements in their highest performing horse were ‘joints and mobility’, and ‘behaviour’ for dressage, and ‘electrolytes’, and ‘joints and mobility’ for eventing. Lameness and behavioural problems were significant concerns within both disciplines. There was incongruence between owners’ opinions of problems within their discipline and their reasons for using supplements. PMID:26925239

  15. Allogeneic Mesenchymal Stem Cell Treatment Induces Specific Alloantibodies in Horses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sean D. Owens

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. It is unknown whether horses that receive allogeneic mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs injections develop specific humoral immune response. Our goal was to develop and validate a flow cytometric MSC crossmatch procedure and to determine if horses that received allogeneic MSCs in a clinical setting developed measurable antibodies following MSC administration. Methods. Serum was collected from a total of 19 horses enrolled in 3 different research projects. Horses in the 3 studies all received unmatched allogeneic MSCs. Bone marrow (BM or adipose tissue derived MSCs (ad-MSCs were administered via intravenous, intra-arterial, intratendon, or intraocular routes. Anti-MSCs and anti-bovine serum albumin antibodies were detected via flow cytometry and ELISA, respectively. Results. Overall, anti-MSC antibodies were detected in 37% of the horses. The majority of horses (89% were positive for anti-bovine serum albumin (BSA antibodies prior to and after MSC injection. Finally, there was no correlation between the amount of anti-BSA antibody and the development of anti-MSC antibodies. Conclusion. Anti allo-MSC antibody development was common; however, the significance of these antibodies is unknown. There was no correlation between either the presence or absence of antibodies and the percent antibody binding to MSCs and any adverse reaction to a MSC injection.

  16. Biochemical markers of bone metabolism in draught and warmblood horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lepage, O M; Hartmann, D J; Eicher, R; Uebelhart, B; Tschudi, P; Uebelhart, D

    1998-11-01

    Concentrations of the cross-linked carboxyterminal telopeptide of type I collagen (ICTP) and osteocalcin (OC) have been determined in the serum of one hundred clinically healthy adult Draught or Warmblood horses. The correlation between these two markers has been evaluated and the influence of gender, age and type of horse described. No significant variations were observed between animals of different sex, but a significant inverse correlation (P Draught [adjusted least square mean (LSM) = 6.612 micrograms.L-1] than in Warmblood horses (adjusted LSM = 8.596 micrograms.L-1), whereas levels of ICTP were higher in Draughts (adjusted LSM = 8.035 micrograms.L-1) than in Warmbloods (adjusted LSM = 6.643 micrograms.L-1). A significant correlation (P Draught horses might reflect a higher bone remodelling level of horses submitted to regular daily work. It was concluded that ICTP and OC are influenced by the type of horse, and probably reflect a physiological difference in bone remodelling between these animals.

  17. Four loci explain 83% of size variation in the horse.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shokouh Makvandi-Nejad

    Full Text Available Horse body size varies greatly due to intense selection within each breed. American Miniatures are less than one meter tall at the withers while Shires and Percherons can exceed two meters. The genetic basis for this variation is not known. We hypothesize that the breed population structure of the horse should simplify efforts to identify genes controlling size. In support of this, here we show with genome-wide association scans (GWAS that genetic variation at just four loci can explain the great majority of horse size variation. Unlike humans, which are naturally reproducing and possess many genetic variants with weak effects on size, we show that horses, like other domestic mammals, carry just a small number of size loci with alleles of large effect. Furthermore, three of our horse size loci contain the LCORL, HMGA2 and ZFAT genes that have previously been found to control human height. The LCORL/NCAPG locus is also implicated in cattle growth and HMGA2 is associated with dog size. Extreme size diversification is a hallmark of domestication. Our results in the horse, complemented by the prior work in cattle and dog, serve to pinpoint those very few genes that have played major roles in the rapid evolution of size during domestication.

  18. The absolute threshold of colour vision in the horse.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lina S V Roth

    Full Text Available Arrhythmic mammals are active both during day and night if they are allowed. The arrhythmic horses are in possession of one of the largest terrestrial animal eyes and the purpose of this study is to reveal whether their eye is sensitive enough to see colours at night. During the day horses are known to have dichromatic colour vision. To disclose whether they can discriminate colours in dim light a behavioural dual choice experiment was performed. We started the training and testing at daylight intensities and the horses continued to choose correctly at a high frequency down to light intensities corresponding to moonlight. One Shetland pony mare, was able to discriminate colours at 0.08 cd/m(2, while a half blood gelding, still discriminated colours at 0.02 cd/m(2. For comparison, the colour vision limit for several human subjects tested in the very same experiment was also 0.02 cd/m(2. Hence, the threshold of colour vision for the horse that performed best was similar to that of the humans. The behavioural results are in line with calculations of the sensitivity of cone vision where the horse eye and human eye again are similar. The advantage of the large eye of the horse lies not in colour vision at night, but probably instead in achromatic tasks where presumably signal summation enhances sensitivity.

  19. Residues of diflubenzuron on horse chestnut (Aesculus hippocastanum) leaves and their efficacy against the horse chestnut leafminer, Cameraria ohridella.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nejmanová, Jana; Cvacka, Josef; Hrdý, Ivan; Kuldová, Jelena; Mertelík, Josef; Muck, Alexander; Nesnerová, Petra; Svatos, Ales

    2006-03-01

    Residues of the insect growth regulator diflubenzuron were quantified on horse chestnut (Aesculus hippocastanum L.) leaves treated with a diflubenzuron 480 g litre(-1) SC, Dimilin. To analyse the samples, an analytical procedure was developed involving a simple extraction step followed by high-performance liquid chromatography on an octadecyl-modified silica column with methanol + 0.01 M ammonium acetate mobile phase. The results showed diflubenzuron to be highly stable on horse chestnut leaves; more than 4 months (127 days) after application, 38% (on average) of the insecticide still remained on/in the leaves. The data confirmed biological observations showing diflubenzuron's long-term efficacy against the horse chestnut leafminer, Cameraria ohridella Deschka and Dimić, which is the most important pest of the horse chestnut in Europe. The hypothesis of possible penetration of diflubenzuron into the leaf mass is explored and discussed.

  20. Using magnetic resonance imaging to diagnose nondisplaced fractures of the second phalanx in horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podadera, J M; Bell, R J; Dart, A J

    2010-11-01

    Two horses presented with a history of severe lameness that was localised to the area around the second phalanx (P2) of one forelimb. Radiographs of the second phalanx of both horses were unremarkable, apart from some smooth periosteal new bone production on the dorsum of P2. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed a non-displaced fracture of P2 in both horses. One horse was euthanased because of a poor prognosis for racing, but the second horse was treated conservatively and salvaged for breeding. Magnetic resonance imaging is a newer imaging modality in horses and may be useful in diagnosing cases of obscure lameness.

  1. Central tarsal bone fractures in horses not used for racing: Computed tomographic configuration and long-term outcome of lag screw fixation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunst, S; Del Chicca, F; Fürst, A E; Kuemmerle, J M

    2016-09-01

    There are no reports on the configuration of equine central tarsal bone fractures based on cross-sectional imaging and clinical and radiographic long-term outcome after internal fixation. To report clinical, radiographic and computed tomographic findings of equine central tarsal bone fractures and to evaluate the long-term outcome of internal fixation. Retrospective case series. All horses diagnosed with a central tarsal bone fracture at our institution in 2009-2013 were included. Computed tomography and internal fixation using lag screw technique was performed in all patients. Medical records and diagnostic images were reviewed retrospectively. A clinical and radiographic follow-up examination was performed at least 1 year post operatively. A central tarsal bone fracture was diagnosed in 6 horses. Five were Warmbloods used for showjumping and one was a Quarter Horse used for reining. All horses had sagittal slab fractures that began dorsally, ran in a plantar or plantaromedial direction and exited the plantar cortex at the plantar or plantaromedial indentation of the central tarsal bone. Marked sclerosis of the central tarsal bone was diagnosed in all patients. At long-term follow-up, 5/6 horses were sound and used as intended although mild osteophyte formation at the distal intertarsal joint was commonly observed. Central tarsal bone fractures in nonracehorses had a distinct configuration but radiographically subtle additional fracture lines can occur. A chronic stress related aetiology seems likely. Internal fixation of these fractures based on an accurate diagnosis of the individual fracture configuration resulted in a very good prognosis. © 2015 EVJ Ltd.

  2. Neutrophil and macrophage apoptosis in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid from healthy horses and horses with recurrent airway obstruction (RAO)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Dysregulation of apoptosis has been implicated in a range of diseases including tumors, neurodegenerative and autoimmine diseases, as well as allergic asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) in humans. Although it has a different pathophysiology, delayed apoptosis of various inflammatory cells may play a pivotal role in the development of recurrent airway obstruction (RAO) in horses. Reduction of inflammatory cell apoptosis or a dysregulation of this process could lead to chronic inflammation and tissue injury. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the rate of apoptosis and necrosis of neutrophils and macrophages in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid obtained from seven horses suffering from RAO (study group) and seven control horses. Results We demonstrated that neutrophil/macrophage apoptosis is altered in RAO-affected horses compared with the control group in the BAL fluid. We found a significant difference between the median percentage of early and late apoptosis of neutrophils between the study and control group of horses. Moreover, we found a positive correlation between the rate of apoptosis and the median percentage of macrophages in RAO-affected horses. Conclusion The findings suggest that apoptosis dysregulation may play a significant role in the pathogenesis of RAO. However, further studies are needed to clarify the role of altered apoptosis in the course of equine recurrent airway obstruction. PMID:24460911

  3. Plasticity effect of rider-horse interaction on genetic evaluations for Show Jumping discipline in sport horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartolomé, E; Menéndez-Buxadera, A; Molina, A; Valera, M

    2018-04-01

    To obtain a sport horse that excels in the highest levels of competition, breeders must take into account certain genetic and environmental factors that could influence the sport horse's performance, such as the rider-horse interaction (RHI). The main aim of this study was to describe this interaction in a genetic model by modelling it in relation to the horse's age. A total of 31,129 sport results from Spanish Sport Horses were used from a total of 1,101 animals evaluated, and these were grouped in three age levels and had been ridden by 606 different riders. Only riders who had ridden more than one horse (and vice-versa) were considered for the analyses. Five linear models with different random effects were analysed according to the covariates, the homogeneity/heterogeneity of the RHI and the relevant residual random effects. The model of best fit was then selected for the genetic evaluation of the animal. In general, models including the RHI effect (M2, M4 and M5) fitted better than the other models, and the best fit was obtained for M4 (with heterogeneous residual variance). The genetic variance increased constantly with age, whereas heritability showed a response on three intervals. This study revealed the varied evolution of the RHI with age, showing the different "plastic abilities" of this relationship. © 2018 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  4. Central tarsal bone fractures in horses not used for racing: Computed tomographic configuration and long-term outcome of lag screw fixation

    OpenAIRE

    Gunst, S; Del Chicca, Francesca; Fürst, Anton; Kuemmerle, Jan M

    2016-01-01

    REASONS FOR PERFORMING STUDY: There are no reports on the configuration of equine central tarsal bone fractures based on cross-sectional imaging and clinical and radiographic long-term outcome after internal fixation. OBJECTIVES: To report clinical, radiographic and computed tomographic findings of equine central tarsal bone fractures and to evaluate the long-term outcome of internal fixation. STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective case series. METHODS: All horses diagnosed with a central tarsa...

  5. Numerical study of Tallinn storm-water system flooding conditions using CFD simulations of multi-phase flow in a large-scale inverted siphon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, K.; Laanearu, J.; Annus, I.

    2017-10-01

    The numerical experiments are carried out for qualitative and quantitative interpretation of a multi-phase flow processes associated with malfunctioning of the Tallinn storm-water system during rain storms. The investigations are focused on the single-line inverted siphon, which is used as under-road connection of pipes of the storm-water system under interest. A multi-phase flow solver of Computational Fluid Dynamics software OpenFOAM is used for simulating the three-phase flow dynamics in the hydraulic system. The CFD simulations are performed with different inflow rates under same initial conditions. The computational results are compared essentially in two cases 1) design flow rate and 2) larger flow rate, for emptying the initially filled inverted siphon from a slurry-fluid. The larger flow-rate situations are under particular interest to detected possible flooding. In this regard, it is anticipated that the CFD solutions provide an important insight to functioning of inverted siphon under a restricted water-flow conditions at simultaneous presence of air and slurry-fluid.

  6. The effects of detomidine, romifidine or acepromazine on echocardiographic measurements and cardiac function in normal horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buhl, Rikke; Ersbøll, Annette K; Larsen, Nanna H; Eriksen, Lis; Koch, Jørgen

    2007-01-01

    To evaluate by echo- and electrocardiography the cardiac effects of sedation with detomidine hydrochloride, romifidine hydrochloride or acepromazine maleate in horses. An experimental study using a cross-over design without randomization. Eight clinically normal Standardbred trotters. Echocardiographic examinations (two-dimensional, guided M-mode and colour Doppler) were recorded on five different days. Heart rate (HR) and standard limb lead electrocardiograms were also obtained. Subsequently, horses were sedated with detomidine (0.01 mg kg(-1)), romifidine (0.04 mg kg(-1)) or acepromazine (0.1 mg kg(-1)) administered intravenously and all examinations repeated. Heart rate before treatment with the three drugs did not differ significantly (p = 0.98). Both detomidine and romifidine induced a significant decrease (p detomidine, there was a significant increase in LVIDd (left ventricular internal diameter in diastole; p = 0.034) and LVIDs (left ventricular internal diameter in systole; p detomidine and to a lesser extent romifidine at the doses given in this study has a significant effect on heart function, echocardiographic measurements of heart dimensions and the occurrence of valvular regurgitation. Although the clinical significance of these results may be minimal, the potential effects of sedative drugs should be taken into account when echocardiographic variables are interpreted in clinical cases.

  7. Diagnosis and management of cranial and caudal nuchal bursitis in four horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-López, José M; Jenei, Thomas; Chope, Kate; Bubeck, Kirstin A

    2010-10-01

    4 horses with a history of neck pain, abnormal head carriage, and related inability to perform were examined. Cranial nuchal bursitis was diagnosed in 2 horses, and caudal nuchal bursitis was diagnosed in the other 2. All 4 horses had prominent swelling in the region between the frontal bone and temporal fossa (ie, the poll) and abnormal head carriage. Ultrasonographic examination revealed fluid distention and synovial thickening of the cranial or caudal nuchal bursa in all 4 horses. Ultrasonography-guided aspiration of the affected region was performed successfully in 3 horses. Radiography revealed bony remodeling and mineralization over the dorsal aspect of the atlas in 1 horse and a radiolucency at the axis in another. Nuclear scintigraphy revealed an increase in radioisotope uptake at the level of C2 in 1 horse. Although a septic process was considered among the differential diagnoses in all horses, a septic process could only be confirmed in 1 horse. All horses were refractory to conservative management consisting of intrabursal injection of anti-inflammatory medications. Bursoscopic debridement and lavage of the affected bursae resulted in resolution of the clinical signs in all horses, and they all returned to their intended use. Cranial and caudal nuchal bursitis, of nonseptic or septic origin, should be considered as a differential diagnosis in horses with head and neck pain. Horses undergoing surgical intervention consisting of nuchal bursoscopy have the opportunity to return to their original degree of exercise.

  8. Differences in exterior conformation between primitive, Half-bred, and Thoroughbred horses: anatomic-breeding approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komosa, M; Frackowiak, H; Purzyc, H; Wojnowska, M; Gramacki, A; Gramacki, J

    2013-04-01

    The study included 249 horses belonging to 3 horse breeds. Konik horses, comprising the first group, is an example of a breed similar to the extinct Tarpan. In our study, these horses were taken to be a primitive anatomical model of the horse body. The other groups comprised the Polish Half-bred horse and Thoroughbred horse. The biometric characteristics of the horses were compared based on 24 indices. The aim of the paper was to find a reduced set of indices that can be used to determine group membership of the horses. To do this, we used statistical methods to find the most important indices that best discriminate breeds from each other. Chi-squared statistics, linear discriminant analysis, logistic regression, and 1-way ANOVA showed that the discrimination among groups of horses is connected with these 5 indices: scapula, smaller trunk (distance between tubercle of humerus and coxal tuber), greater trunk (distance between tubercle of humerus and ischial tuberosity), metacarpus circumference, and hind autopodium-smaller trunk. Thoroughbred and Half-bred horses are clearly different in exterior conformation from Konik horses. The differences between Thoroughbred and Half-bred horses are more subtle. The conformation of Thoroughbreds is jointly determined by relatively small differences in a range of features.

  9. Transmission of endoparasites in horse foals born on the same pasture on a farm in central Kentucky (1996-1999).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyons, E T; Tolliver, S C; Collins, S S; Drudge, J H

    2001-05-22

    Research carried out during the last 4 years (1996-1999) of an 11-year study of the prevalence of internal parasites naturally transmitted to horse foals born on the same pasture on a farm in central Kentucky is presented here. Horses in this herd were not treated with any antiparasitic compound for over 20 years except for a replacement stallion in 1994. A total of 22 species, including 12 species of small strongyles, were recovered in the 4-year period. Transmission patterns of all species (n=35) of endoparasites recovered are compared for the 11-year study. Some of the changes were an increase in number of Thelazia lacrymalis and Anoplocephala perfoliata and a decrease in Gasterophilus intestinalis, Parascaris equorum, and Strongylus vulgaris. Clinical problems associated with parasitism were not observed in any of the 92 foals in the long-term investigation.

  10. The refractive state of the eye in Icelandic horses with the Silver mutation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansson, Maria K; Jäderkvist Fegraeus, Kim; Lindgren, Gabriella; Ekesten, Björn

    2017-06-02

    The syndrome Multiple Congenital Ocular Anomalies (MCOA) is a congenital eye disorder in horses. Both the MCOA syndrome and the Silver coat colour in horses are caused by the same missense mutation in the premelanosome protein (PMEL) gene. Horses homozygous for the Silver mutation (TT) are affected by multiple ocular defects causing visual impairment or blindness. Horses heterozygous for the Silver mutation (CT) have less severe clinical signs, usually cysts arising from the ciliary body iris or retina temporally. It is still unknown if the vision is impaired in horses heterozygous for the Silver mutation. A recent study reported that Comtois horses carrying the Silver mutation had significantly deeper anterior chambers of the eye compared to wild-type horses. This could potentially cause refractive errors. The purpose of the present study was to investigate if Icelandic horses with the Silver mutation have refractive errors compared to wild-type horses. One hundred and fifty-two Icelandic horses were included in the study, 71 CT horses and five TT horses. All horses were genotyped for the missense mutation in PMEL. Each CT and TT horse was matched by a wild-type (CC) horse of the same age ± 1 year. Skiascopy and a brief ophthalmic examination were performed in all horses. Association between refraction and age, eye, genotype and sex was tested by linear mixed-effect model analysis. TT horses with controls were not included in the statistical analyses as they were too few. The interaction between age and genotype had a significant impact on the refractive state (P = 0.0001). CT horses older than 16 years were on average more myopic than wild-type horses of the same age. No difference in the refractive state could be observed between genotypes (CT and CC) in horses younger than 16 years. TT horses were myopic (-2 D or more) in one or both eyes regardless of age. Our results indicate that an elderly Icelandic horse (older than 16 years) carrying the Silver

  11. Genetic connections between dressage and show-jumping horses in Dutch Warmblood horses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rovere, Gabriel; Madsen, Per; Norberg, Elise

    2014-01-01

    During the last decades, the breeding practice within the Dutch Warmblood studbook (KWPN) has resulted in an increasing specialisation of horses into show-jumping (JH) and dressage (DH). The objective of this study was to describe the effect of the specialisation on the connectedness between...... and within subpopulations were analysed in three periods of time to describe changes in genetic connectedness between subpopulations. A decline in GS (0.97–0.45), GC0.5 (0.69–0.13) and r (0.018–0.014) in the recent years was observed. Both subpopulations have a common genetic pool; however...

  12. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in horses and horse personnel: An investigation of several outbreaks

    OpenAIRE

    Duijkeren, E. van; Moleman, M.; Sloet van Oldruitenborgh-Oosterbaan, M.M.; Multem, J.D.; Troelstra, A.; Fluit, A.C.; Wamel, W.J.B. van; Houwers, D.J.; Neeling, A.J. de; Wagenaar, J.A.

    2009-01-01

    At the Veterinary Microbiological Diagnostic Center, the Netherlands, the percentage of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) isolates found in equine clinical samples increased from 0% in 2002 to 37% in 2008. MRSA of spa-type t064, belonging to MLST ST8 and spa-types t011 and t2123, both belonging to the livestock-associated MLST ST398, predominated. During an outbreak of post-surgical MRSA infections in horses at a veterinary teaching hospital in2006/2007,MRSAisolates of spa-ty...

  13. Association of Factor V Secretion with Protein Kinase B Signaling in Platelets from Horses with Atypical Equine Thrombasthenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norris, J W; Pombo, M; Shirley, E; Blevins, G; Tablin, F

    2015-01-01

    Two congenital bleeding diatheses have been identified in Thoroughbred horses: Glanzmann thrombasthenia (GT) and a second, novel diathesis associated with abnormal platelet function in response to collagen and thrombin stimulation. Platelet dysfunction in horses with this second thrombasthenia results from a secretory defect. Two affected and 6 clinically normal horses. Ex vivo study. Washed platelets were examined for (1) expression of the αIIb-β3 integrin; (2) fibrinogen binding capacity in response to ADP and thrombin; (3) secretion of dense and α-granules; (4) activation of the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR)-protein kinase B (AKT) signaling pathway; and (5) cellular distribution of phosphatidylinositol-4-phosphate-3-kinase, class 2B (PIK3C2B) and SH2 containing inositol-5'-phosphatase 1 (SHIP1). Platelets from affected horses expressed normal amounts of αIIb-β3 integrin and bound fibrinogen normally in response to ADP, but bound 80% less fibrinogen in response to thrombin. α-granules only released 50% as much Factor V as control platelets, but dense granules released their contents normally. Protein kinase B (AKT) phosphorylation was reduced after thrombin activation, but mTOR Complex 2 (mTORC2) and phosphoinositide-dependent kinase 1 (PDK1) signaling were normal. SH2-containing inositol-5'-phosphatase 1 (SHIP1) did not localize to the cytoskeleton of affected platelets and was decreased overall consistent with reduced AKT phosphorylation. Defects in fibrinogen binding, granule secretion, and signal transduction are unique to this thrombasthenia, which we designate as atypical equine thrombasthenia. Copyright © The Authors. Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine.

  14. Electrophysiologic Study of a Method of Euthanasia Using Intrathecal Lidocaine Hydrochloride Administered during Intravenous Anesthesia in Horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aleman, M; Davis, E; Williams, D C; Madigan, J E; Smith, F; Guedes, A

    2015-01-01

    An intravenous (IV) overdose of pentobarbital sodium is the most commonly used method of euthanasia in veterinary medicine. However, this compound is not available in many countries or rural areas resulting in usage of alternative methods such as intrathecal lidocaine administration after IV anesthesia. Its safety and efficacy as a method of euthanasia have not been investigated in the horse. To investigate changes in mean arterial blood pressure and electrical activity of the cerebral cortex, brainstem, and heart during intrathecal administration of lidocaine. Our hypothesis was that intrathecal lidocaine affects the cerebral cortex and brainstem before affecting cardiovascular function. Eleven horses requiring euthanasia for medical reasons. Prospective observational study. Horses were anesthetized with xylazine, midazolam, and ketamine; and instrumented for recording of electroencephalogram (EEG), electrooculogram (EOG), brainstem auditory evoked response (BAER), and electrocardiogram (ECG). Physical and neurological (brainstem reflexes) variables were monitored. Mean arterial blood pressure was recorded throughout the study. Loss of cerebro-cortical electrical activity occurred up to 226 seconds after the end of the infusion of lidocaine solution. Cessation of brainstem function as evidenced by a lack of brainstem reflexes and disappearance of BAER occurred subsequently. Undetectable heart sounds, nonpalpable arterial pulse, and extremely low mean arterial blood pressure supported cardiac death; a recordable ECG was the last variable to disappear after the infusion (300-1,279 seconds). Intrathecal administration of lidocaine is an effective alternative method of euthanasia in anesthetized horses, during which brain death occurs before cardiac death. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine.

  15. Open Fracture of the Forearm Bones due to Horse Bite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Ashutosh Santoshi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Fractures have been described mainly following falling accidents in horse-related injuries. Horse bites are uncommon accidents. We present a case of open fracture of the forearm due to horse bite. Case Report: A 35-year-old male farm-worker presented to the emergency room with alleged history of horse bite to the right forearm about 2 hours prior to presentation while feeding the horse. There was deformity of the forearm with multiple puncture wounds, deep abrasions and small lacerations on the distal-third of the forearm. Copious irrigation with normal saline was done and he was administered anti-tetanus and post-exposure rabies prophylaxis. Prophylactic antibiotic therapy was commenced. Radiographs revealed fracture of radius and ulna in the mid-shaft region. He underwent emergency wound debridement, and the ulna was stabilised with an intra-medullary square nail. Seventy-two hours later, he underwent re-debridement and conversion osteosynthesis. He had an uneventful recovery and at three-month follow-up, the fractures had healed radiographically in anatomic alignment. At two-year follow-up, he is doing well, is pain free and has a normal range of motion compared to the contralateral side. Conclusion: Horse bites behave as compound fractures however rabies prophylaxis will be needed and careful observation is needed. Early radical debridement, preliminary skeletal stabilisation, re-debridement and conversion osteosynthesis to plate, and antibiotic prophylaxis were the key to the successful management of our patient. Keywords: Horse; animal bite; forearm; open fracture

  16. Candidate genes for performance in horses, including monocarboxylate transporters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inaê Cristina Regatieri

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Some horse breeds are highly selected for athletic activities. The athletic potential of each animal can be measured by its performance in sports. High athletic performance depends on the animal capacity to produce energy through aerobic and anaerobic metabolic pathways, among other factors. Transmembrane proteins called monocarboxylate transporters, mainly the isoform 1 (MCT1 and its ancillary protein CD147, can help the organism to adapt to physiological stress caused by physical exercise, transporting lactate and H+ ions. Horse breeds are selected for different purposes so we might expect differences in the amount of those proteins and in the genotypic frequencies for genes that play a significant role in the performance of the animals. The study of MCT1 and CD147 gene polymorphisms, which can affect the formation of the proteins and transport of lactate and H+, can provide enough information to be used for selection of athletic horses increasingly resistant to intense exercise. Two other candidate genes, the PDK4 and DMRT3, have been associated with athletic potential and indicated as possible markers for performance in horses. The oxidation of fatty acids is highly effective in generating ATP and is controlled by the expression of PDK4 (pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase, isozyme 4 in skeletal muscle during and after exercise. The doublesex and mab-3 related transcription factor 3 (DMRT3 gene encodes an important transcription factor in the setting of spinal cord circuits controlling movement in vertebrates and may be associated with gait performance in horses. This review describes how the monocarboxylate transporters work during physical exercise in athletic horses and the influence of polymorphisms in candidate genes for athletic performance in horses.

  17. Duration of in vivo endotoxin tolerance in horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holcombe, Susan J; Jacobs, Carrie C; Cook, Vanessa L; Gandy, Jeffery C; Hauptman, Joseph G; Sordillo, Lorraine M

    2016-05-01

    Endotoxemia models are used to study mechanisms and treatments of early sepsis. Repeated endotoxin exposures induce periods of endotoxin tolerance, characterized by diminished proinflammatory responses to lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and modulated production of proinflammatory cytokines. Repeated measure designs using equine endotoxemia models are rarely performed, despite the advantages associated with reduced variability, because the altered responsiveness would confound study results and because the duration of equine endotoxin tolerance is unknown. We determined the interval of endotoxin tolerance, in vivo, in horses based on physical, clinicopathologic, and proinflammatory gene expression responses to repeated endotoxin exposures. Six horses received 30 ng/kg LPS in saline infused over 30 min. Behavior pain scores, physical examination parameters, and blood for complete blood count and proinflammatory gene expression were obtained at predetermined intervals for 24h. Horses received a total of 3 endotoxin exposures. The first exposure was LPS 1, followed 7 days later by LPS 7 or 14-21 days later by LPS 14-21. Lipopolysaccharide exposures were allocated in a randomized, crossover design. Lipopolysaccharide produced clinical and clinicopathologic signs of endotoxemia and increased expression of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα), interleukin (IL)-6 and IL-8, PHorses exhibited evidence of endotoxin tolerance following LPS 7 but not following LPS 14-21. Horses had significantly lower pain scores, heart rates, respiratory rates and duration of fever, after LPS 7 compared to LPS 1 and LPS 14-21, Phorses after LPS 7, P=0.05. Clinical parameters and TNFα gene expression were similar or slightly increased in horses following LPS 14-21 compared to measurements made in horses following LPS 1, suggesting that endotoxin tolerance had subsided. A minimum of 3 weeks between experiments is warranted if repeated measures designs are used to assess in vivo response to endotoxin in

  18. The effect of postsurgical pain on attentional processing in horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodds, Louise; Knight, Laura; Allen, Kate; Murrell, Joanna

    2017-07-01

    To investigate the effect of postsurgical pain on the performance of horses in a novel object and auditory startle task. Prospective clinical study. Twenty horses undergoing different types of surgery and 16 control horses that did not undergo surgery. The interaction of 36 horses with novel objects and a response to an auditory stimulus were measured at two time points; the day before surgery (T1) and the day after surgery (T2) for surgical horses (G1), and at a similar time interval for control horses (G2). Pain and sedation were measured using simple descriptive scales at the time the tests were carried out. Total time or score attributed to each of the behavioural categories was compared between groups (G1 and G2) for each test and between tests (T1 and T2) for each group. The median (range) time spent interacting with novel objects was reduced in G1 from 58 (6-367) seconds in T1 to 12 (0-495) seconds in T2 (p=0.0005). In G2 the change in interaction time between T1 and T2 was not statistically significant. Median (range) total auditory score was 7 (3-12) and 10 (1-12) in G1 and G2, respectively, at T1, decreasing to 6 (0-10) in G1 after surgery and 9.5 (1-12) in G2 (p=0.0003 and p=0.94, respectively). There was a difference in total auditory score between G1 and G2 at T2 (p=0.0169), with the score being lower in G1 than G2. Postsurgical pain negatively impacts attention towards novel objects and causes a decreased responsiveness to an auditory startle test. In horses, tasks demanding attention may be useful as a biomarker of pain. Copyright © 2017 Association of Veterinary Anaesthetists and American College of Veterinary Anesthesia and Analgesia. All rights reserved.

  19. Post-anaesthetic myelomalacia in a horse : clinical communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.E. Joubert

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available This article describes a rare neurological complication of anaesthesia in a 2 year-old Clydesdale colt undergoing castration. Anaesthesia was induced with glyceryl guaiacol ether and ketamine and maintained with halothane. Following an uneventful anaesthetic of 40 minutes, the horse recovered from anaesthesia in a padded recovery stall. After approximately 70 minutes in the recovery stall, the horse attempted to stand and adopted a dog sitting position. One hundred and fifty minutes later, the horse became distressed and was sedated with xylazine. Clinical examination of the horse did not reveal any evidence of myositis or fractures. A neurological examination revealed an intact anal reflex, deep pain response in the hind legs, tail tone and voluntary movement of the hind legs was possible. The horse deteriorated neurologically over the next 24 hours and was euthanased on humane grounds. The horse was submitted for necropsy. Gross pathology was unremarkable except for a small amount of haemorrhage around the right kidney. Histopathology revealed no abnormalities in any muscle groups or peripheral nerves. Congestion and axonal swelling of the spinal cord was evident from T16 to S1. Ischaemic neurons were evident from L 1 to L 6. The most prominent lesions were at L4 and L5. A diagnosis of myelomalacia was made. This is a rare complication of anaesthesia in horses with 9 case studies appearing in the literature since 1979. This is the 1st case to be reported in South Africa. The speculated pathophysiology and risk factors for this complication are discussed.

  20. Sporadic wind wave horse-shoe patterns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Yu. Annenkov

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available The work considers three-dimensional crescent-shaped patterns often seen on water surface in natural basins and observed in wave tank experiments. The most common of these 'horse-shoe-like' patterns appear to be sporadic, i.e., emerging and disappearing spontaneously even under steady wind conditions. The paper suggests a qualitative model of these structures aimed at explaining their sporadic nature, physical mechanisms of their selection and their specific asymmetric form. First, the phenomenon of sporadic horse-shoe patterns is studied numerically using the novel algorithm of water waves simulation recently developed by the authors (Annenkov and Shrira, 1999. The simulations show that a steep gravity wave embedded into widespectrum primordial noise and subjected to small nonconservative effects typically follows the simple evolution scenario: most of the time the system can be considered as consisting of a basic wave and a single pair of oblique satellites, although the choice of this pair tends to be different at different instants. Despite the effective low-dimensionality of the multimodal system dynamics at relatively sho ' rt time spans, the role of small satellites is important: in particular, they enlarge the maxima of the developed satellites. The presence of Benjamin-Feir satellites appears to be of no qualitative importance at the timescales under consideration. The selection mechanism has been linked to the quartic resonant interactions among the oblique satellites lying in the domain of five-wave (McLean's class II instability of the basic wave: the satellites tend to push each other out of the resonance zone due to the frequency shifts caused by the quartic interactions. Since the instability domain is narrow (of order of cube of the basic wave steepness, eventually in a generic situation only a single pair survives and attains considerable amplitude. The specific front asymmetry is found to result from the interplay of quartic

  1. Effects of a calm companion on fear reactions in naive test horses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Janne Winther; Malmkvist, Jens; Nielsen, Birte Lindstrøm

    2008-01-01

    : Minimally handled (n = 36), 2-year-old stallions were used, 18 as subjects and 18 as companions. Companion horses (n = 9) were habituated to an otherwise frightening, standardised test stimulus (calm companions), whereas the rest (n = 9) of the companion horses remained nonhabituated (control companions......). During the test, unique pairs of companion and subject horses were exposed to the test stimulus while heart rate and behavioural responses were registered. Subsequently, subject horses were exposed to the stimulus on their own (post test). Results: Subject horses, paired with a calm companion horse......, showed less fear-related behaviour and lower heart rate responses compared to subject horses with control companions. Results from the post test suggest that the difference between treatment groups remained in the subsequent absence of companion horses. Conclusions and potential relevance: It appears...

  2. Acinetobacter baumannii-Infected Vascular Catheters Collected from Horses in an Equine Clinic

    OpenAIRE

    Vaneechoutte, Mario; Devriese, Luc A.; Dijkshoorn, Lenie; Lamote, Benedicte; Deprez, Piet; Verschraegen, Gerda; Haesebrouck, Freddy

    2000-01-01

    Acinetobacter baumannii was isolated from tips clipped from seven intravenous jugular catheters collected from horses in the Ghent University equine clinic. They originated from seven different horses. Three of the seven showed evidence of local infection.

  3. Visual outcome after corneal transplantation for corneal perforation and iris prolapse in 37 horses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Michala de Linde; Plummer, C. E.; Mangan, B.

    2012-01-01

    We wanted to investigate the visual outcome of horses presented with iris prolapse and treated with corneal transplantation.......We wanted to investigate the visual outcome of horses presented with iris prolapse and treated with corneal transplantation....

  4. Metabolism and hindgut ecosystem in forage fed sedentary and athletic horses

    OpenAIRE

    Muhonen, Sara

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this thesis was to study the effects of forage crude protein content and forage conservation method on metabolism and hindgut ecosystem, abrupt feed changes and exercise response. In total 22 horses, both sedentary and athletic, were used. The sedentary horses were fistulated in right ventral colon and the athletic horses were in Standardbred race training. In the sedentary horses bacterial counts, volatile fatty acid (VFA), pH and dry matter (DM) in colon content and faeces ...

  5. Demographics of Australian horses: results from an internet-based survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smyth, G B; Dagley, K

    2016-03-01

    To obtain information on the types of Australian horses, how they are kept and their activities. An invitation to participate in an opt-in, internet-based survey was sent to 7000 people who had registered an email address to receive information from the Australian Horse Industry Council Inc. There were 3377 (48%) useable responses from owners of 26,548 horses. Most horses were kept on small properties (usually 2-8 ha) in paddocks in rural areas of Queensland, New South Wales and Victoria. Most horses were female or geldings and the most common of 54 different activities was breeding. Owners reported 19,291 horses were used in different activities and 6037 (23%) horses were not kept for any stated purpose or activity. Owners used an average of 1.95 horses in 2.9 different types of activities. The most common of the 43 breeds were Thoroughbred, Australian Stock Horse and Australian Quarter Horse. Only 1% of the total numbers of Thoroughbreds and Standardbreds in this survey were used in horse racing, indicating there is a demand for these breeds in non-racing activities. Microchip was the most favoured method of horse identification and 36% favoured compulsory registration of horses. Most respondents reported owning some other animal species. There is a wide variation in horse breeds used in different activities by Australian horse owners. There are regional differences in various management systems. There needs to be considerable improvement in the collection and recording of information to improve the validity and reliability of horse industry data. © 2016 Australian Veterinary Association.

  6. The concentration of iodine in horse serum and its relationship with thyroxin concentration by geological difference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mochizuki, Mariko; Hayakawa, Noriyuki; Minowa, Fumiko; Saito, Akihiro; Ishioka, Katsumi; Ueda, Fukiko; Okubo, Kimihiro; Tazaki, Hiroyuki

    2016-04-01

    In this study, iodine and thyroxin (T4) concentrations in the serum of 69 horses were investigated. Higher iodine concentrations were obtained from the horses housed in Chiba Prefecture. In contrast, T4 concentrations of horses at Shizuoka Prefecture were higher than those of horses at Chiba Prefecture. There was a significant correlation (r = 0.643, P geological differences. It was thought that equine serum is a useful sample for monitoring.

  7. Relation between type and local of orthopedic injuries with physical activity in horses

    OpenAIRE

    Sousa,Nicole Ruas de; Luna,Stelio Pacca Loureiro; Pizzigatti,Dietrich; Martins,Mayra Teixeira Alas; Possebon,Fabio Sossai; Aguiar,Adriana Cristina Saldanha

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT: Equine sport modalities influence the prevalence and predisposition of musculoskeletal injuries in horses. This study aimed to evaluate the prevalence of location and type of orthopedic injuries of horses undergoing various physical activities. Data from 116 horses of different breeds and ages was analyzed. Physical activities included dressage, racing, polo pony, jumping, work and western performance. All horses had history of orthopedic lameness diagnosed by radiographs and/or ult...

  8. Plasma Catecholamines, Sweat Electrolytes and Physiological Responses of Exercised Normal, Partial Anhidrotic and Anhidrotic Horses

    OpenAIRE

    A. Bashir; A. Rasedee

    2009-01-01

    Problem statement: Malaysia imports horses from temperate countries to develop equine sports in the country. Several of these horses developed partial and complete anhidrosis. Approach: Normal, partial anhidrotic and anhidrotic horses were exercised to determine their sweating and physiological responses to exercise. The heart and respiratory rates, rectal temperature and blood samples were obtained before the horses were lunged at 10 km h-­1 for 1 h and at again at 15, 30, 45, 60 min and 24 ...

  9. Osteosynthesis of the first phalanx fractures in horses by means of lag screws

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bereznowski, A.; Janicki, A.M.; Sterna, J.

    1996-01-01

    Fractures of the first phalanx belong to the most frequent in horses. Three cases of surgical treatment of first phalanx fractures in horses have been presented. The cases differed by the period of time between the accident and surgical treatment. In all cases osteosynthesis by means of orthopedic screws was applied. In all horses fracture repair was successful, however, not all horses recovered fully enough to return to work. (author)

  10. Propagation of a dorsal cortical fracture of the third metacarpal bone in two horses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spurlock, G.H.

    1988-01-01

    Seemingly, propagation of a dorsal cortical fracture in the third metacarpal bone developed after continued race performance in 2 horses. Historically, both horses had intermittent lameness that had responded to nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and brief rest periods. However, lameness in both horses had increased in severity. Radiography revealed a dorsal cortical fracture of the third metacarpal bone, with propagation of the fracture plane proximally. Fractures were incomplete and healed with stall rest in both horses

  11. Blood Glucose and Insulin Concentrations after Octreotide Administration in Horses With Insulin Dysregulation

    OpenAIRE

    Frank, N.; Hermida, P.; Sanchez?Londo?o, A.; Singh, R.; Gradil, C.M.; Uricchio, C.K.

    2017-01-01

    Background Octreotide is a somatostatin analog that suppresses insulin secretion. Hypothesis We hypothesized that octreotide would suppress insulin concentrations in horses and that normal (N) horses and those with insulin dysregulation (ID) would differ significantly in their plasma glucose and insulin responses to administration of octreotide. Animals Twelve horses, N = 5, ID = 7. Methods Prospective study. An oral sugar test was performed to assign horses to N and ID groups. Octreotide (1....

  12. Horse Palace photovoltaic pilot project findings report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2009-06-15

    This paper provided details of a solar photovoltaic (PV) feasibility study conducted as part of the Toronto Exhibition Place's 2010 energy self-sufficiency plan. The 100 kw plant was installed on the roof of the Horse Palace, and when first installed represented the largest urban PV array in Canada. The study was conducted to compare the performance of technology alternatives under otherwise common environmental and operating conditions, to build capacity to operate large roof-mounted PV systems in Toronto, and to gain experience with Ontario's renewable energy standard offer program (RESOP). The initial year of monitoring identified complications with inverters and monitoring equipment, shading issues, and problems with data collection and management. Interconnecting the project with the electricity grid to sell the produced power was a complicated and lengthy procedure. A problem with the baseline performance modeling that was used to assess the project was also identified. In 2008, the project produced 96,724 kWh. Simple payback for the project was estimated at 16.7 years. The plant is now participating in the RESOP and receiving monthly payments. 14 figs., 2 appendices.

  13. Synovial hemangioma in an adult horse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holzhausen, Lars; Nowak, Michael; Junginger, Johannes; Puff, Christina

    2012-03-01

    A 15-year-old gelding presented with a progressive lameness of the left forelimb of 2.5 months duration. Clinically, a dilation of the deep flexor tendon sheath with a firm elastic consistency and a pronounced tenderness was noted. Ultrasonically, a marked swelling of the flexor tendon sheath with an irregular density of the mesotendineum was observed. The white, firm material forming a nodular distension of the flexor tendon sheath with a diameter of approximately 1 cm was excised and sent for histopathological examination. Biopsies of the deep flexor tendon and corresponding tendon sheath were sent for histopathological evaluation. Histologically, the mass consisted of clefts and numerous anastomosing vascular channels extending between the collagen fibers of the deep flexor tendon. These capillary-like spaces were lined by neoplastic cells that were flattened to polygonal and contained few erythrocytes. There was 0 to 1 mitotic figure per 10 high power fields (400×). Immunohistochemically, the neoplastic cells stained positive for vimentin and factor VIII-related antigen. Adjacent to the neoplastic endothelial cells located pericytes expressed α-smooth muscle actin antigen. Based on the histopathological and immunohistochemical features, synovial hemangioma was diagnosed. One year after surgery, the horse has shown no lameness.

  14. [The horse as an aid in therapy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barolin, G S; Samborski, R

    1991-01-01

    Physiotherapy on the back of the moved horse has two important dimensions: 1) The somatotropic effect regards mainly spasticity, ataxia, the vertebral column, the basis of the pelvis and the skin. 2) A general psychotherapeutic and psychohygienic effect is created by joy, change and new impetus in rehabilitation and by the emotional contact with the "comrade animal". Or unit was the first to introduce hippotherapy with adults in Austria. There is specially good experience with the spastic atactic component in multiple sclerosis. However other diagnosis as well showed good profit, such as stroke, etc. Some good effects in cephalaea patients indicate transition to riding as a medical pedagogic instrument with further transitions to psychosomatic patients. We want to proceed in this direction. Well organized hippotherapy is cheaper than the hydrotherapy (being current almost everywhere. Therefore opposition against the valuable hippotherapy by reasons of economics should be ruled out. Today's medicine goes farther and farther away from natural possibilities (slogan: "overtechnologized"). We see in hippotherapy an important counterweight in the sense of a valuable methodology towards holistic therapy especially in rehabilitation.

  15. GENETIC DIVERSITY IN CZECH HAFLINGER HORSES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luboš Vostrý

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The Haflinger as a small moutain horse breed originated from the South Tyrol district as a cross of Alpen Mountain breeds with Araber. This breed was expanding to Czech Republic during the last 25 years. The aim of this study was to analyse genetic diversity within the population using microsatellite markers. A total of 95 alleles have been detected. The highest frequency 88.18% showed allele 101 (HTG 6. The heterosigosity varied from 0.25 (HTG 6 to 0.84 (VHL 20, genetic diversity reached 0.6–0.8. The heterozygosity of the whole population studied is FIS= -0.013. The average effective number of allele per locus was 2.93 with standard deviation 1.54, with minimal and maximal level 1.30 and 7.83, respectively. Average polymorphism information content per locus was 0.608 with standard derivation 0.146, with minimal and maximal level 0.208 and 0.824, respectively. The results showed that breeding program of Czech Haflinger is optimal, including optimized mating strategies. The diversity of the population Czech Haflinger, based on a small number of microsatellites, seems to be sufficient.

  16. Primordial nucleosynthesis revisited via Trojan Horse Results

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    Pizzone R.G.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Big Bang Nucleosynthesis (BBN requires several nuclear physics inputs and nuclear reaction rates. An up-to-date compilation of direct cross sections of d(d,pt, d(d,n3He and 3He(d,p4He reactions is given, being these ones among the most uncertain bare-nucleus cross sections. An intense experimental effort has been carried on in the last decade to apply the Trojan Horse Method (THM to study reactions of relevance for the BBN and measure their astrophysical S(E-factor. The reaction rates and the relative error for the four reactions of interest are then numerically calculated in the temperature ranges of relevance for BBN (0.01

  17. Serum lipid and lipoprotein patterns of Iranian horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asadi, F; Asadian, P; Shahriari, A; Pourkabir, M; Kazemi, A

    2011-12-01

    Patterns of serum biochemical parameters vary among horse breeds. The objective of the present study was to compare serum lipoproteins of Iranian Caspian ponies with those of other horses (Arabs and Thoroughbreds) in the Iranian region. Serum lipoprotein values were determined by agar-agarose gel electrophoresis and measured by scan densitometry. Moreover, serum triglyceride and cholesterol concentrations were determined and the results were analysed by one-way analysis of variance. Serum triglyceride and cholesterol values were 1.13 +/- 0.23 and 2.38 +/- 0.18 mmol/l in Caspian ponies, 1.96 +/- 0.49 and 1.92 +/- 0.25 mmol/l in Arab horses and 1.38 +/- 0.26 and 2.17 +/- 0.53 mmol/l in Thoroughbred horses. The relative percentages of alpha- (72.63 +/- 17.76%) and beta-lipoproteins (29.10 +/- 5.49%) in serum electrophoretic tracings from Caspian ponies were not significantly different from those of other horses (p > 0.05). The lipoprotein phenotype in Caspian ponies may be useful for evaluating metabolic diseases.

  18. Review: Feeding conserved forage to horses: recent advances and recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, P A; Ellis, A D; Fradinho, M J; Jansson, A; Julliand, V; Luthersson, N; Santos, A S; Vervuert, I

    2017-06-01

    The horse is a non-ruminant herbivore adapted to eating plant-fibre or forage-based diets. Some horses are stabled for most or the majority of the day with limited or no access to fresh pasture and are fed preserved forage typically as hay or haylage and sometimes silage. This raises questions with respect to the quality and suitability of these preserved forages (considering production, nutritional content, digestibility as well as hygiene) and required quantities. Especially for performance horses, forage is often replaced with energy dense feedstuffs which can result in a reduction in the proportion of the diet that is forage based. This may adversely affect the health, welfare, behaviour and even performance of the horse. In the past 20 years a large body of research work has contributed to a better and deeper understanding of equine forage needs and the physiological and behavioural consequences if these are not met. Recent nutrient requirement systems have incorporated some, but not all, of this new knowledge into their recommendations. This review paper amalgamates recommendations based on the latest understanding in forage feeding for horses, defining forage types and preservation methods, hygienic quality, feed intake behaviour, typical nutrient composition, digestion and digestibility as well as health and performance implications. Based on this, consensual applied recommendations for feeding preserved forages are provided.

  19. Is there evidence of learned helplessness in horses?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Carol; Goodwin, Deborah; Heleski, Camie; Randle, Hayley; Waran, Natalie

    2008-01-01

    Learned helplessness is a psychological condition whereby individuals learn that they have no control over unpleasant or harmful conditions, that their actions are futile, and that they are helpless. In a series of experiments in which dogs were exposed to inescapable shocks, this lack of control subsequently interfered with the ability to learn an avoidance task. There is evidence that both neural adaptations and behavioral despair occur in response to uncontrollable aversive experiences in rodents, although this has yet to be demonstrated in other species such as horses. However, certain traditional methods of horse training and some behavioral modification techniques--it has been suggested--may involve aversive conditions over which the horse has little or no control. When training and management procedures are repeatedly unpleasant for the horse and there is no clear association between behavior and outcome, this is likely to interfere with learning and performance-in addition to compromising welfare. This article reviews published literature and anecdotal evidence to explore the possibility that the phenomenon, learned helplessness, occurs in the horse.

  20. PERFORMANCE OF COLD-BLOODED HORSES IN SLOVAKIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JURAJ MLYNEK

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Horse breeding program is based on an assessment of their exterior, and is largely influenced by the performance. The objective of the work was to analyze the performance characteristics of cold-blooded horses in Slovakia using test of performance characteristics through carriage race. By evaluating the higher forms of utility control we concluded that scores in individual disciplines were very balanced during 2005-2008, which was due to a steady track of the horses involved and the carriagers. By increasing the number of new horses and new competitors in 2009 the average value of scores marked substantial deterioration, but this cannot be seen as degradation of performance of studied horses. By analysis of the factors affecting the score we found out, that gender as the only factor, did not have any significant impact on the studied disciplines of utility control. Carriager and the year of competition were amongst the factors mostly influencing the score. As the most successful line, whose representatives were most frequently and best ranked on the carriage races, we can choose the line of Bayard de Heredia. Its seven representatives participated in the period 2005-2011 altogether for 141-times and their average ranking ranged from 2.2 to 5.4.

  1. Anthelmintics efficacy against intestinal strongyles in horses of Sardinia, Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Sanna

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Intestinal strongyles (IS are the most important parasites of equids, due to their high prevalence worldwide, pathogenicity and the spread of drug-resistant populations. Despite the large number of horses bred in Sardinia Island, Italy, no data are available on the efficacy of anthelmintic compounds in the control of horse strongylosis. Therefore the aim of the present study was to evaluate the efficacy of five commercial anthelmintic formulations containing fenbendazole (FBZ, pyrantel (PYR, moxidectin (MOX and two ivermectin formulations (IVM1 and IVM2 against IS in Sardinia by performing a fecal egg count reduction test (FECRT and investigating the egg reappearance period (ERP after treatment. In total, 74 horses from 7 farms were examined. Coprocultures performed for individual fecal samples collected at the day of the treatment revealed that cyathostomins were the predominant parasitic species (98.6%. The FECR for all horses belonging to the treatment groups after two weeks was ≥95% with a 95% C.I. >90%. The expected ERP did not decrease in any of the treatment group as FECR values 90% for the entire duration of the trial until D150. The results of the present survey indicate that drug-resistant cyathostomin populations are not present in the examined horse population, contrariwise to what observed in other Italian and European regions. The reasons and implications of these results are discussed.

  2. Genetic parameters for chronic progressive lymphedema in Belgian Draught Horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Keyser, K; Janssens, S; Peeters, L M; Foqué, N; Gasthuys, F; Oosterlinck, M; Buys, N

    2014-12-01

    Genetic parameters for chronic progressive lymphedema (CPL)-associated traits in Belgian Draught Horses were estimated, using a multitrait animal model. Clinical scores of CPL in the four limbs/horse (CPLclin ), skinfold thickness and hair samples (hair diameter) were studied. Due to CPLclin uncertainty in younger horses (progressive CPL character), a restricted data set (D_3+) was formed, excluding records from horses under 3 years from the complete data set (D_full). Age, gender, coat colour and limb hair pigmentation were included as fixed, permanent environment and date of recording as random effects. Higher CPLclin certainty (D_3+) increased heritability coefficients of, and genetic correlations between traits, with CPLclin heritabilities (SE) for the respective data sets: 0.11 (0.06) and 0.26 (0.05). A large proportion of the CPLclin variance was attributed to the permanent environmental effect in D_full, but less in D_3+. Date of recording explained a proportion of variance from 0.09 ± 0.03 to 0.61 ± 0.08. Additive genetic correlations between CPLclin and both skinfold thickness and hair diameter showed the latter two traits cannot be used as a direct diagnostic aid for CPL. Due to the relatively low heritability of CPLclin , selection should focus on estimated breeding values (from repeated clinical examinations) to reduce CPL occurrence in the Belgian Draught Horse. © 2014 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  3. Quantitative heartbeat coupling measures in human-horse interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanata, Antonio; Guidi, Andrea; Valenza, Gaetano; Baragli, Paolo; Scilingo, Enzo Pasquale

    2016-08-01

    We present a study focused on a quantitative estimation of a human-horse dynamic interaction. A set of measures based on magnitude and phase coupling between heartbeat dynamics of both humans and horses in three different conditions is reported: no interaction, visual/olfactory interaction and grooming. Specifically, Magnitude Squared Coherence (MSC), Mean Phase Coherence (MPC) and Dynamic Time Warping (DTW) have been used as estimators of the amount of coupling between human and horse through the analysis of their heart rate variability (HRV) time series in a group of eleven human subjects, and one horse. The rationale behind this study is that the interaction of two complex biological systems go towards a coupling process whose dynamical evolution is modulated by the kind and time duration of the interaction itself. We achieved a congruent and consistent statistical significant difference for all of the three indices. Moreover, a Nearest Mean Classifier was able to recognize the three classes of interaction with an accuracy greater than 70%. Although preliminary, these encouraging results allow a discrimination of three distinct phases in a real human-animal interaction opening to the characterization of the empirically proven relationship between human and horse.

  4. Botulism (type A in a horse - case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sevim Kasap

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the case of a six year-old, male, thoroughbred horse with clinical signs of inappetence, weakness, and incoordination when walking. Clinical examination showed that the horse staggered and leaned to the left side. Feedstuff was present inside and around its mouth. Salivation was increased and there was no reflex at the palpebrae and tongue. The horse had difficulty swallowing and the tone of its tail was reduced. Botulism was diagnosed based on the clinical signs. Antibiotic (ceftiofur and fluid-electrolyte treatment was commenced. Next day, neostigmin was added to the horse’s treatment, and it became recumbent. The horse’s palpebral, tongue and tail reflexes returned partially after neostigmine methylsulphate treatment on the same day and it stood up on day four. However, it could not swallow anything during the whole week, so after getting permission from the owner, the horse was euthanized on day 10. Samples of the colonic content and blood serum were sent by courier to the laboratory for toxin neutralization, however, botulinum neurotoxins could not be detected. After that, serum samples from days 6 and 10 were sent to another laboratory for testing for botulinum neurotoxin antibodies by ELISA. Specific antibodies against botulinum neurotoxin type A were measured, indicating a previous, immuno-relevant contact with the toxin. This seroconversion for type A supports the clinical botulism diagnosis. Type A botulism is rarely seen in Europe and has been detected in a horse in Turkey for the first time.

  5. Ultrasound features of arytenoid chondritis in Thoroughbred horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrett, K S; Embertson, R M; Woodie, J B; Cheetham, J

    2013-09-01

    Laryngeal ultrasonography can provide valuable information when considering a diagnosis of arytenoid chondritis, but specific ultrasonographic parameters have not been defined. To compare ultrasonographic findings of the arytenoid cartilages in horses with endoscopically diagnosed arytenoid chondritis with ultrasonographic findings of the arytenoid cartilages in normal horses. Ultrasound images of the larynx were obtained at the level of the arytenoid cartilages in horses with endoscopically diagnosed arytenoid chondritis and horses with normal arytenoid cartilage structure and function. Information obtained from the ultrasound examination included arytenoid cartilage cross-sectional area, arytenoid cartilage echogenicity and arytenoid cartilage shape. Comparisons were performed between affected and unaffected arytenoid cartilages. For horses with multiple examinations, relationships between time point and arytenoid cartilage cross-sectional area were determined. Chondritic arytenoid cartilages were significantly larger and had abnormal shape and echogenicity when compared with normal arytenoid cartilages (Phorses with multiple examinations, no significant changes were identified in arytenoid cartilage size over time. Chondritic arytenoid cartilages are increased in size and have abnormal echogenicity and contour in comparison with normal arytenoid cartilages when assessed using laryngeal ultrasonography. Once enlarged, the cartilage does not appear to return to normal size after the infection and/or inflammation has resolved. Ultrasonography is a valuable diagnostic modality when investigating cases of possible arytenoid chondritis or abnormal arytenoid cartilage movement. It has additional benefit in determining the extent of disease when medial masses are present on the surface of arytenoid cartilages, aiding in surgical decision making. © 2012 EVJ Ltd.

  6. Hungry Horse mitigation: Aquatic modeling of the selective withdrawal system -- Hungry Horse Dam, Montana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marotz, B.L.; Althen, C.; Gustafson, D.

    1994-04-01

    Hungry Horse Dam presently releases frigid water from the bottom of the reservoir all year long. Cold water effects insect production and fish growth downstream. Rapid temperature changes of up to 8.3 C (14 F) have been measured in the Flathead River downstream of the South Fork confluence, controlled by dam discharges. Thermal effects from Hungry Horse Dam are detectable for over 64 Km downstream to Flathead Lake. The installation of a selective withdrawal structure on each of the dam's discharge penstocks was determined to be the most cost-effective means to provide constant, permanent temperature control without impacting power production and flexibility in dam operation. The thermal model presented herein revealed that fish growth potential in the river would increase two to five times through selective withdrawal, temperature control. Temperature control is possible over the entire range of turbine discharge capacity, with very little effect on power production. Findings indicate that angling would improve through higher catch rates and larger fish. Temperature control will solve the most serious impact to river health. However, flow fluctuations will continue to effect insect production and usable fishery habitat in the Flathead River. A natural thermal regime combined with moderated flow fluctuation would further enhance riverine food production, trout growth and recreation potential

  7. Ocular dimensions, corneal thickness, and corneal curvature in quarter horses with hereditary equine regional dermal asthenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badial, Peres R; Cisneros-Àlvarez, Luis Emiliano; Brandão, Cláudia Valéria S; Ranzani, José Joaquim T; Tomaz, Mayana A R V; Machado, Vania M; Borges, Alexandre S

    2015-09-01

    The aim of this study was to compare ocular dimensions, corneal curvature, and corneal thickness between horses affected with hereditary equine regional dermal asthenia (HERDA) and unaffected horses. Five HERDA-affected quarter horses and five healthy control quarter horses were used. Schirmer's tear test, tonometry, and corneal diameter measurements were performed in both eyes of all horses prior to ophthalmologic examinations. Ultrasonic pachymetry was performed to measure the central, temporal, nasal, dorsal, and ventral corneal thicknesses in all horses. B-mode ultrasound scanning was performed on both eyes of each horse to determine the dimensions of the ocular structures and to calculate the corneal curvature. Each corneal region examined in this study was thinner in the affected group compared with the healthy control group. However, significant differences in corneal thickness were only observed for the central and dorsal regions. HERDA-affected horses exhibited significant increases in corneal curvature and corneal diameter compared with unaffected animals. The ophthalmologic examinations revealed mild corneal opacity in one eye of one affected horse and in both eyes of three affected horses. No significant between-group differences were observed for Schirmer's tear test, intraocular pressure, or ocular dimensions. Hereditary equine regional dermal asthenia-affected horses exhibit decreased corneal thickness in several regions of the cornea, increased corneal curvature, increased corneal diameter, and mild corneal opacity. Additional research is required to determine whether the increased corneal curvature significantly impacts the visual accuracy of horses with HERDA. © 2014 American College of Veterinary Ophthalmologists.

  8. Shedding consistency of strongyle-type eggs in dutch boarding horses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dopfer, D.D.V.; Kerssens, C.M.; Meijer, Y.G.M.; Boersema, J.H.; Eysker, M.

    2004-01-01

    Faeces of 484 horses were sampled twice with an interval of 6 weeks while anthelmintic therapy was halted. Faecal eggs counts revealed that 267 (55.2%) horses had consistently low numbers of eggs per gram faeces (EPG) (EPG <100 or = 100), 155 (32.0%) horses had consistently high EPGs (EPG >

  9. Identification of factors associated with the development of insect bite hypersensitivity in horses in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boom, van den R.; Ducro, B.J.; Sloet van Oldruitenborgh-Oosterbaan, M.M.

    2008-01-01

    An Internet-based questionnaire among horse owners was carried out to identify factors affecting the incidence of insect bite hypersensitivity (IBHI) among horses in the Netherlands. Information was obtained for 794 horses of various breeds, but the breed distribution was not representative for the

  10. 36 CFR 261.23 - Wild free-roaming horses and burros.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Wild free-roaming horses and... AGRICULTURE PROHIBITIONS General Prohibitions § 261.23 Wild free-roaming horses and burros. The following are prohibited: (a) Removing or attempting to remove a wild free-roaming horse or burro from the National Forest...

  11. 9 CFR 11.40 - Prohibitions and requirements concerning persons involved in transportation of certain horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... concerning persons involved in transportation of certain horses. 11.40 Section 11.40 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ANIMAL WELFARE HORSE... certain horses. (a) Each person who ships, transports, or otherwise moves, or delivers or receives for...

  12. 9 CFR 93.305 - Declaration and other documents for horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... horses. 93.305 Section 93.305 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE...; REQUIREMENTS FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Horses § 93.305 Declaration and other documents for horses. (a) The certificates, declarations, and affidavits required by the regulations in this...

  13. 19 CFR 148.32 - Vehicles, aircraft, boats, teams and saddle horses taken abroad.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Vehicles, aircraft, boats, teams and saddle horses... for Returning Residents § 148.32 Vehicles, aircraft, boats, teams and saddle horses taken abroad. (a) Admission free of duty. Automobiles and other vehicles, aircraft, boats, teams and saddle horses, together...

  14. 76 FR 20569 - Horse Protection Act; Petition for Amendments to Regulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-13

    ... of Cruelty to Animals, the American Horse Protection Association, Inc., Friends of Sound Horses, Inc... DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service 9 CFR Part 11 [Docket No. APHIS-2011-0006] Horse Protection Act; Petition for Amendments to Regulations AGENCY: Animal and Plant...

  15. Effects of hyperflexion on acute stress responses in ridden dressage horses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Christensen, J.W.; Beekmans, M; van Dalum, M; van Dierendonck, M.C.

    2014-01-01

    The effects of hyperflexion on the welfare of dressage horses have been debated. This study aimed to investigate acute stress responses of dressage horses ridden in three different Head-and-Neck-positions (HNPs). Fifteen dressage horses were ridden by their usual rider in a standardised 10-min

  16. Complete Genome Sequences of Getah Virus Strains Isolated from Horses in 2016 in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemoto, Manabu; Bannai, Hiroshi; Ochi, Akihiro; Niwa, Hidekazu; Murakami, Satoshi; Tsujimura, Koji; Yamanaka, Takashi; Kokado, Hiroshi; Kondo, Takashi

    2017-08-03

    Getah virus is mosquito-borne and causes disease in horses and pigs. We sequenced and analyzed the complete genomes of three strains isolated from horses in Ibaraki Prefecture, eastern Japan, in 2016. They were almost identical to the genomes of strains recently isolated from horses, pigs, and mosquitoes in Japan. Copyright © 2017 Nemoto et al.

  17. There are two species of horse mackerel in Angolan waters, the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    denise

    Genetic variability of the Kunene horse mackerel Trachurus trecae and the Cape horse mackerel Trachurus tra- ... distribution of allele frequencies between Kunene horse mackerel from the Benguela region of Angola indicated that this species consist ..... Speciation and evolution of marine fishes studied by elec- trophoretic ...

  18. A Scheme for Evaluating Feral Horse Management Strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. L. Eberhardt

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Context. Feral horses are an increasing problem in many countries and are popular with the public, making management difficult. Aims. To develop a scheme useful in planning management strategies. Methods. A model is developed and applied to four different feral horse herds, three of which have been quite accurately counted over the years. Key Results. The selected model has been tested on a variety of data sets, with emphasis on the four sets of feral horse data. An alternative, nonparametric model is used to check the selected parametric approach. Conclusions. A density-dependent response was observed in all 4 herds, even though only 8 observations were available in each case. Consistency in the model fits suggests that small starting herds can be used to test various management techniques. Implications. Management methods can be tested on actual, confined populations.

  19. Radiographic appearance of the navicular bone in sound horses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaser-Hotz, B.; Ueltschi, G.

    1992-01-01

    Radiographs of the navicular bone in 523 sound horses were reviewed. Detailed evaluation criteria were used. The incidence of radiographic changes and variations in normal horses were recorded. Results were tested for right-left limb difference and for age relationship. Variation in shape and bone structure was commonly seen in the navicular bone. Radiographic changes with an incidence of less than 2% included flexor cortex defects and calcification on the flexor surface. Fragments at the distal navicular bone border, calcification in the impar ligament and enthesiophytes at the proximal border were radiographic findings with an incidence of 2% to 10%. Abnormal canals at the distal border were found in 11% horses. Elongation of the lateral proximal extremity was commonly found. The mean width of the flexor cortex was 3.6 mm

  20. Acylcarnitines profile best predicts survival in horses with atypical myopathy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    François Boemer

    Full Text Available Equine atypical myopathy (AM is caused by hypoglycin A intoxication and is characterized by a high fatality rate. Predictive estimation of survival in AM horses is necessary to prevent unnecessary suffering of animals that are unlikely to survive and to focus supportive therapy on horses with a possible favourable prognosis of survival. We hypothesized that outcome may be predicted early in the course of disease based on the assumption that the acylcarnitine profile reflects the derangement of muscle energetics. We developed a statistical model to prognosticate the risk of death of diseased animals and found that estimation of outcome may be drawn from three acylcarnitines (C2, C10:2 and C18 -carnitines with a high sensitivity and specificity. The calculation of the prognosis of survival makes it possible to distinguish the horses that will survive from those that will die despite severe signs of acute rhabdomyolysis in both groups.

  1. Acylcarnitines profile best predicts survival in horses with atypical myopathy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Detilleux, Johann; Cello, Christophe; Amory, Hélène; Marcillaud-Pitel, Christel; Richard, Eric; van Galen, Gaby; van Loon, Gunther; Lefère, Laurence; Votion, Dominique-Marie

    2017-01-01

    Equine atypical myopathy (AM) is caused by hypoglycin A intoxication and is characterized by a high fatality rate. Predictive estimation of survival in AM horses is necessary to prevent unnecessary suffering of animals that are unlikely to survive and to focus supportive therapy on horses with a possible favourable prognosis of survival. We hypothesized that outcome may be predicted early in the course of disease based on the assumption that the acylcarnitine profile reflects the derangement of muscle energetics. We developed a statistical model to prognosticate the risk of death of diseased animals and found that estimation of outcome may be drawn from three acylcarnitines (C2, C10:2 and C18 -carnitines) with a high sensitivity and specificity. The calculation of the prognosis of survival makes it possible to distinguish the horses that will survive from those that will die despite severe signs of acute rhabdomyolysis in both groups. PMID:28846683

  2. The Ventasso Horse: genetic characterization by microsatellites markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Blasi

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The genetic structure of Ventasso Horse (VH was investigated using 12 microsatellites. The analyses were carried out on 117 VH individuals and the results were compared with those obtained analysing 11 other breeds reared in Italy. All microsatellites were polymorphic in VH and in the other breeds. A total of 124 alleles (from 6 to 19 alleles per microsatellite were detected. Average heterozygosity was 0.743 in VH and ranged from 0.613 to 0.759 in the other breeds. The mean FST value had an average value of 0.0932. Genetic distances were calculated using Nei’s standard genetic distance (Ds. The smallest Ds values were found between VH and Anglo-Arab, Thoroughbred, Maremmano and Lipizzan horse breeds. Phylogenetic trees constructed using neighbour-joining method showed two clear separate clusters: the first includes Bardigiano, Haflinger and Italian Heavy Draught Horse, the second contains the other 9 breeds.

  3. GC/MS confirmatory method for etorphine in horse urine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bonnaire, Y.; Plou, P. (Laboratoire de la Federation Nationale des Societes de Courses, Chatenay-Malabry (France)); Pages, N.; Boudene, C. (Universite de Paris XI (France)); Jouany, J.M. (Universite de Rouen (France))

    A highly sensitive procedure for GC/MS determine of etorphine in horse urine is described. This assay provides both specificity and reliability and is particularly well suited for the confirmation of radioimmunoassay screening procedures usually used for etorphine. After solvent extraction and purifications, the etorphine is characterized as a pentafluoroacetic derivative (PFAA) by using mass fragmentography. The detection limit is O.1 ng/mLin urine; the coefficient of variation of the estimations is 10.9%. The procedure has been validated after on-field administration of 5 to 90 {mu}g of etorphine to five thoroughbred horses of 5 to 90 {mu}g of etorphine to five thoroughbred horses (10 to 180 ng/kg).

  4. GC/MS confirmatory method for etorphine in horse urine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonnaire, Y.; Plou, P.; Pages, N.; Boudene, C.; Jouany, J.M.

    1989-01-01

    A highly sensitive procedure for GC/MS determine of etorphine in horse urine is described. This assay provides both specificity and reliability and is particularly well suited for the confirmation of radioimmunoassay screening procedures usually used for etorphine. After solvent extraction and purifications, the etorphine is characterized as a pentafluoroacetic derivative (PFAA) by using mass fragmentography. The detection limit is O.1 ng/mLin urine; the coefficient of variation of the estimations is 10.9%. The procedure has been validated after on-field administration of 5 to 90 μg of etorphine to five thoroughbred horses of 5 to 90 μg of etorphine to five thoroughbred horses (10 to 180 ng/kg)

  5. DMRT3 is associated with gait type in Mangalarga Marchador horses, but does not control gait ability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, L; Staiger, E A; Brooks, S A

    2015-04-01

    The Mangalarga Marchador (MM) is a Brazilian horse breed known for a uniquely smooth gait. A recent publication described a mutation in the DMRT3 gene that the authors claim controls the ability to perform lateral patterned gaits (Andersson et al. 2012). We tested 81 MM samples for the DMRT3 mutation using extracted DNA from hair bulbs using a novel RFLP. Horses were phenotypically categorized by their gait type (batida or picada), as recorded by the Brazilian Mangalarga Marchador Breeders Association (ABCCMM). Statistical analysis using the plink toolset (Purcell, 2007) revealed significant association between gait type and the DMRT3 mutation (P = 2.3e-22). Deviation from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium suggests that selective pressure for gait type is altering allele frequencies in this breed (P = 1.00e-5). These results indicate that this polymorphism may be useful for genotype-assisted selection for gait type within this breed. As both batida and picada MM horses can perform lateral gaits, the DMRT3 mutation is not the only locus responsible for the lateral gait pattern. © 2015 Stichting International Foundation for Animal Genetics.

  6. FREQUENCY OF CHROMOSOMAL ABERRATIONS AND MICRONUCLEI IN HORSE LYMPHOCYTES FOLLOWING IN VITRO EXPOSURE TO LOW DOSE IONISING RADIATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dunja Rukavina

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Ionising radiation is known to cause chromosomal instability, which is observed as increased frequency of chromosomal aberration and micronuclei. These are listed as reliable criteria in biological dosimetry. Numerous experiments conducted on both animal and plant models demonstrated that increase in radiation dosage is followed by increased mutation frequency, and that mutations occur even at the lowest exposure. We used horse blood in vitro irradiated by low doses of ionizing radiation. Cultivation of peripheral blood lymphocytes and micronucleus test were used as biomarkers of genetic damage. The observed aberrations were recorded and classified in accordance with the International System of Cytogenetic Nomenclature. Micronuclei were identified on the basis of criteria proposed by Fenech et al. (8. Analysis of chromosomal aberration showed increased frequency of aberrations in blood cultures exposed to 0,1 Gy and 0,2 Gy compared to the controls. Microscopic analysis of chromosomal damage in in vitro micronucleus test revealed that the applied radiation dose induced micronuclei while no binucleated cells with micronuclei were found in lymphocytes that were not irradiated. In this paper we analysed the influence of low dose ionising radiation on frequency of chromosomal aberration and micronuclei in horse lymphocytes following in vitro exposure to X-rays (0,1 Gy and 0,2 Gy. Key words: chromosomal aberrations, micronuclei, ionising radiation, horse lymphocytes

  7. A massively parallel sequencing approach uncovers ancient origins and high genetic variability of endangered Przewalski's horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goto, Hiroki; Ryder, Oliver A; Fisher, Allison R; Schultz, Bryant; Kosakovsky Pond, Sergei L; Nekrutenko, Anton; Makova, Kateryna D

    2011-01-01

    The endangered Przewalski's horse is the closest relative of the domestic horse and is the only true wild horse species surviving today. The question of whether Przewalski's horse is the direct progenitor of domestic horse has been hotly debated. Studies of DNA diversity within Przewalski's horses have been sparse but are urgently needed to ensure their successful reintroduction to the wild. In an attempt to resolve the controversy surrounding the phylogenetic position and genetic diversity of Przewalski's horses, we used massively parallel sequencing technology to decipher the complete mitochondrial and partial nuclear genomes for all four surviving maternal lineages of Przewalski's horses. Unlike single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) typing usually affected by ascertainment bias, the present method is expected to be largely unbiased. Three mitochondrial haplotypes were discovered-two similar ones, haplotypes I/II, and one substantially divergent from the other two, haplotype III. Haplotypes I/II versus III did not cluster together on a phylogenetic tree, rejecting the monophyly of Przewalski's horse maternal lineages, and were estimated to split 0.117-0.186 Ma, significantly preceding horse domestication. In the phylogeny based on autosomal sequences, Przewalski's horses formed a monophyletic clade, separate from the Thoroughbred domestic horse lineage. Our results suggest that Przewalski's horses have ancient origins and are not the direct progenitors of domestic horses. The analysis of the vast amount of sequence data presented here suggests that Przewalski's and domestic horse lineages diverged at least 0.117 Ma but since then have retained ancestral genetic polymorphism and/or experienced gene flow.

  8. Genome-wide detection of copy number variations among diverse horse breeds by array CGH.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Wang

    Full Text Available Recent studies have found that copy number variations (CNVs are widespread in human and animal genomes. CNVs are a significant source of genetic variation, and have been shown to be associated with phenotypic diversity. However, the effect of CNVs on genetic variation in horses is not well understood. In the present study, CNVs in 6 different breeds of mare horses, Mongolia horse, Abaga horse, Hequ horse and Kazakh horse (all plateau breeds and Debao pony and Thoroughbred, were determined using aCGH. In total, seven hundred CNVs were identified ranging in size from 6.1 Kb to 0.57 Mb across all autosomes, with an average size of 43.08 Kb and a median size of 15.11 Kb. By merging overlapping CNVs, we found a total of three hundred and fifty-three CNV regions (CNVRs. The length of the CNVRs ranged from 6.1 Kb to 1.45 Mb with average and median sizes of 38.49 Kb and 13.1 Kb. Collectively, 13.59 Mb of copy number variation was identified among the horses investigated and accounted for approximately 0.61% of the horse genome sequence. Five hundred and eighteen annotated genes were affected by CNVs, which corresponded to about 2.26% of all horse genes. Through the gene ontology (GO, genetic pathway analysis and comparison of CNV genes among different breeds, we found evidence that CNVs involving 7 genes may be related to the adaptation to severe environment of these plateau horses. This study is the first report of copy number variations in Chinese horses, which indicates that CNVs are ubiquitous in the horse genome and influence many biological processes of the horse. These results will be helpful not only in mapping the horse whole-genome CNVs, but also to further research for the adaption to the high altitude severe environment for plateau horses.

  9. Economic benefit of fertility control in wild horse populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartholow, J.

    2007-01-01

    I projected costs for several contraceptive treatments that could be used by the Bureau of Land Management (BLM) to manage 4 wild horse (Equus caballus) populations. Potential management alternatives included existing roundup and selective removal methods combined with contraceptives of different duration and effectiveness. I projected costs for a 20-year economic life using the WinEquus?? wild horse population model and state-by-state cost estimates reflecting BLM's operational expenses. Findings revealed that 1) currently available 2-year contraceptives in most situations are capable of reducing variable operating costs by 15%, 2) experimental 3-year contraceptives may be capable of reducing costs by 18%, and 3) combining contraceptives with modest changes to herd sex ratio (e.g., 55-60% M) could trim costs by 30%. Predicted savings can increase when contraception is applied in conjunction with a removal policy that targets horses aged 0-4 years instead of 0-5 years. However, reductions in herd size result in greater variation in annual operating expenses. Because the horse program's variable operating costs make up about half of the total program costs (which include other fixed costs), contraceptive application and management can only reduce total costs by 14%, saving about $6.1 million per year. None of the contraceptive options I examined eliminated the need for long-term holding facilities over the 20-year period simulated, but the number of horses held may be reduced by about 17% with contraceptive treatment. Cost estimates were most sensitive to the oldest age adoptable and per-day holding costs. The BLM will experience significant cost savings as carefully designed contraceptive programs become widespread in the wild horse herds it manages.

  10. Common occurrence of Cryptosporidium hominis in horses and donkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jian, Fuchun; Liu, Aiqin; Wang, Rongjun; Zhang, Sumei; Qi, Meng; Zhao, Wei; Shi, Yadong; Wang, Jianling; Wei, Jiujian; Zhang, Longxian; Xiao, Lihua

    2016-09-01

    Extensive genetic variation is observed within the genus Cryptosporidium and the distribution of Cryptosporidium species/genotypes in humans and animals appears to vary by geography and host species. To better understand the genetic diversity of Cryptosporidium spp. in horses and donkeys, we characterized five horse-derived and 82 donkey-derived Cryptosporidium isolates from five provinces or autonomous regions (Sichuan, Gansu, Henan, Inner Mongolia and Shandong) in China at the species/genotype and subtype levels. Three Cryptosporidium species/genotypes were identified based on the analysis of the SSU rRNA gene, including Cryptosporidium parvum (n=22), the Cryptosporidium horse genotype (n=4), and Cryptosporidium hominis (n=61). The identification of C. hominis was confirmed by sequence analysis of the HSP70 and actin genes. Subtyping using sequence analysis of the 60kDa glycoprotein gene identified 21 C. parvum isolates as subtype IIdA19G1, the four horse genotype isolates as subtypes VIaA15G4 (n=2) and VIaA11G3 (n=2), and the 61 C. hominis isolates as IkA16G1 (n=59) and IkA16 (n=2). The common finding of C. hominis reaffirms the heterogeneity of Cryptosporidium spp. in horses and donkeys and is possibly a reflection of endemic transmission of C. hominis in these animals. Data of the study suggest that horses and donkeys as companion animals may potentially transmit Cryptosporidium infections to humans. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Genome-wide SNP association-based localization of a dwarfism gene in Friesian dwarf horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orr, N; Back, W; Gu, J; Leegwater, P; Govindarajan, P; Conroy, J; Ducro, B; Van Arendonk, J A M; MacHugh, D E; Ennis, S; Hill, E W; Brama, P A J

    2010-12-01

    The recent completion of the horse genome and commercial availability of an equine SNP genotyping array has facilitated the mapping of disease genes. We report putative localization of the gene responsible for dwarfism, a trait in Friesian horses that is thought to have a recessive mode of inheritance, to a 2-MB region of chromosome 14 using just 10 affected animals and 10 controls. We successfully genotyped 34,429 SNPs that were tested for association with dwarfism using chi-square tests. The most significant SNP in our study, BIEC2-239376 (P(2df)=4.54 × 10(-5), P(rec)=7.74 × 10(-6)), is located close to a gene implicated in human dwarfism. Fine-mapping and resequencing analyses did not aid in further localization of the causative variant, and replication of our findings in independent sample sets will be necessary to confirm these results. © 2010 The Authors, Journal compilation © 2010 Stichting International Foundation for Animal Genetics.

  12. Fixation of supraglenoid tubercle fractures using distal femoral locking plates in three Warmblood horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frei, Sina; Fürst, Anton E; Sacks, Murielle; Bischofberger, Andrea S

    2016-05-18

    Three horses that were presented with supraglenoid tubercle fractures were treated with open reduction and internal fixation using distal femoral locking plates (DFLP). Placing the DFLP caudal to the scapular spine in order to preserve the suprascapular nerve led to a stable fixation, however, it resulted in infraspinatus muscle atrophy and mild scapulohumeral joint instability (case 1). Placing the DFLP cranial to the scapular spine and under the suprascapular nerve resulted in a stable fixation, however, it resulted in severe atrophy of the supraspinatus and infraspinatus muscles and scapulohumeral joint instability (case 2). Placing the DFLP cranial to the scapular spine and slightly overbending it at the suprascapular nerve passage site resulted in the best outcome (case 3). Only a mild degree of supraspinatus and infraspinatus muscle atrophy was apparent, which resolved quickly and with no effect on scapulohumeral joint stability. In all cases, fixation of supraglenoid tubercle fractures using DFLP in slightly different techniques led to stable fixations with good long-term outcome. One case suffered from a mild incisional infection and plates were removed in two horses. Placement of the DFLP cranial to the scapular spine and slightly overbending it at the suprascapular nerve passage prevented major nerve damage. Further cases investigating the degree of muscle atrophy following the use of the DFLP placed in the above-described technique are justified to improve patient outcome.

  13. Metabolic studies of oxyguno in horses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wong, April S.Y.; Ho, Emmie N.M.; Wan, Terence S.M.; Lam, Kenneth K.H.; Stewart, Brian D.

    2015-01-01

    Oxyguno (4-chloro-17α-methyl-17β-hydroxy-androst-4-ene-3,11-dione) is a synthetic oral anabolic androgenic steroid commercially available without a prescription. Manufacturers of oxyguno claim that its anabolic effect in metabolic enhancement exceeds that of the classic anabolic steroid testosterone by seven times, but its androgenic side-effects are only twelve percent of testosterone. Like other anabolic androgenic steroids, oxyguno is prohibited in equine sports. The metabolism of oxyguno in either human or horse has not been reported and therefore little is known about its metabolic fate. This paper describes the in vitro and in vivo metabolic studies of oxyguno in racehorses with an objective to identify the most appropriate target metabolites for detecting oxyguno administration. In vitro studies of oxyguno were performed using horse liver microsomes. Metabolites in the incubation mixtures were isolated by liquid–liquid extraction and analysed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry in the EI mode after trimethylsilylation. In vitro metabolites identified include the stereoisomers of 4-chloro-17α-methyl-androst-4-ene-3-keto-11,17β-diol (M1a & M1b); 20-hydroxy-oxyguno (M2); and 4-chloro-17α-methyl-androst-4-ene-3-keto-11,17β,20-triol (M3). These novel metabolites were resulted from hydroxylation at C20, and/or reduction of the keto group at C11. For the in vivo studies, two geldings were each administered orally with a total dose of 210 mg oxyguno (52.5 mg twice daily for 2 days). Pre- and post-administration urine and blood samples were collected for analysis. The parent drug oxyguno was detected in both urine and blood, while numerous novel metabolites were detected in urine. The stereoisomers (M1a & M1b) observed in the in vitro studies were also detected in post-administration urine samples. Three other metabolites (M4 - M6) were detected. M4, 4-chloro-17α-methyl-androstane-11-keto-3,17β-diol, was resulted from reductions of the olefin

  14. Metabolic studies of oxyguno in horses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wong, April S.Y., E-mail: april.sy.wong-rl@hkjc.org.hk [Racing Laboratory, The Hong Kong Jockey Club, Sha Tin Racecourse, Sha Tin, N.T., Hong Kong (China); Ho, Emmie N.M. [Racing Laboratory, The Hong Kong Jockey Club, Sha Tin Racecourse, Sha Tin, N.T., Hong Kong (China); Wan, Terence S.M., E-mail: terence.sm.wan@hkjc.org.hk [Racing Laboratory, The Hong Kong Jockey Club, Sha Tin Racecourse, Sha Tin, N.T., Hong Kong (China); Lam, Kenneth K.H.; Stewart, Brian D. [Veterinary Regulation & International Liaison, The Hong Kong Jockey Club, Sha Tin Racecourse, Sha Tin, N.T, Hong Kong (China)

    2015-09-03

    Oxyguno (4-chloro-17α-methyl-17β-hydroxy-androst-4-ene-3,11-dione) is a synthetic oral anabolic androgenic steroid commercially available without a prescription. Manufacturers of oxyguno claim that its anabolic effect in metabolic enhancement exceeds that of the classic anabolic steroid testosterone by seven times, but its androgenic side-effects are only twelve percent of testosterone. Like other anabolic androgenic steroids, oxyguno is prohibited in equine sports. The metabolism of oxyguno in either human or horse has not been reported and therefore little is known about its metabolic fate. This paper describes the in vitro and in vivo metabolic studies of oxyguno in racehorses with an objective to identify the most appropriate target metabolites for detecting oxyguno administration. In vitro studies of oxyguno were performed using horse liver microsomes. Metabolites in the incubation mixtures were isolated by liquid–liquid extraction and analysed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry in the EI mode after trimethylsilylation. In vitro metabolites identified include the stereoisomers of 4-chloro-17α-methyl-androst-4-ene-3-keto-11,17β-diol (M1a & M1b); 20-hydroxy-oxyguno (M2); and 4-chloro-17α-methyl-androst-4-ene-3-keto-11,17β,20-triol (M3). These novel metabolites were resulted from hydroxylation at C20, and/or reduction of the keto group at C11. For the in vivo studies, two geldings were each administered orally with a total dose of 210 mg oxyguno (52.5 mg twice daily for 2 days). Pre- and post-administration urine and blood samples were collected for analysis. The parent drug oxyguno was detected in both urine and blood, while numerous novel metabolites were detected in urine. The stereoisomers (M1a & M1b) observed in the in vitro studies were also detected in post-administration urine samples. Three other metabolites (M4 - M6) were detected. M4, 4-chloro-17α-methyl-androstane-11-keto-3,17β-diol, was resulted from reductions of the olefin

  15. Integrated control of Strongylus vulgaris infection in horses using ivermectin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunsmore, J D

    1985-05-01

    An attempt was made to control or eliminate Strongylus vulgaris from a closed group of three horses at pasture near Perth, Western Australia, by dosing with ivermectin on four occasions during the time of year when it was believed that environmental conditions would eliminate all the non-parasitic stages of that species. At necropsy, five months after the last dose of anthelmintic and after continually grazing the same pastures, no S vulgaris or arterial lesions were found in those horses and S edentatus, Draschia megastoma and Habronema species were also almost completely eliminated.

  16. Influence of horse stable environment on human airways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elfman, Lena; Riihimäki, Miia; Pringle, John; Wålinder, Robert

    2009-05-25

    Many people spend considerable amount of time each day in equine stable environments either as employees in the care and training of horses or in leisure activity. However, there are few studies available on how the stable environment affects human airways. This study examined in one horse stable qualitative differences in indoor air during winter and late summer conditions and assessed whether air quality was associated with clinically detectable respiratory signs or alterations to selected biomarkers of inflammation and lung function in stable personnel. The horse stable environment and stable-workers (n = 13) in one stable were investigated three times; first in the winter, second in the interjacent late summer and the third time in the following winter stabling period. The stable measurements included levels of ammonia, hydrogen sulphide, total and respirable dust, airborne horse allergen, microorganisms, endotoxin and glucan. The stable-workers completed a questionnaire on respiratory symptoms, underwent nasal lavage with subsequent analysis of inflammation markers, and performed repeated measurements of pulmonary function. Measurements in the horse stable showed low organic dust levels and high horse allergen levels. Increased viable level of fungi in the air indicated a growing source in the stable. Air particle load as well as 1,3-beta-glucan was higher at the two winter time-points, whereas endotoxin levels were higher at the summer time-point. Two stable-workers showed signs of bronchial obstruction with increased PEF-variability, increased inflammation biomarkers relating to reported allergy, cold or smoking and reported partly work-related symptoms. Furthermore, two other stable-workers reported work-related airway symptoms, of which one had doctor's diagnosed asthma which was well treated. Biomarkers involved in the development of airway diseases have been studied in relation to environmental exposure levels in equine stables. Respirable dust and 1

  17. Radiologic evaluation of the horse relevant to purchase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poulos, P.W. Jr.

    1992-01-01

    Adequate radiographic evaluation of the horse relevant to purchase examination requires the successful integration of technique, interpretation, and reporting. A thorough knowledge of lameness and disease can be masked by incorrect interpretation resulting from poor-quality films or an incomplete examination. Thus, care must be taken to produce an adequate number of high-quality films on which to base a report, which allows you to describe changes that are present. This information, coupled with your physical examination, other laboratory data, and the knowledge of the expressed use of the horse will allow you to advise prospective owners on the decision that they will ultimately make

  18. Influence of horse stable environment on human airways

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pringle John

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many people spend considerable amount of time each day in equine stable environments either as employees in the care and training of horses or in leisure activity. However, there are few studies available on how the stable environment affects human airways. This study examined in one horse stable qualitative differences in indoor air during winter and late summer conditions and assessed whether air quality was associated with clinically detectable respiratory signs or alterations to selected biomarkers of inflammation and lung function in stable personnel. Methods The horse stable environment and stable-workers (n = 13 in one stable were investigated three times; first in the winter, second in the interjacent late summer and the third time in the following winter stabling period. The stable measurements included levels of ammonia, hydrogen sulphide, total and respirable dust, airborne horse allergen, microorganisms, endotoxin and glucan. The stable-workers completed a questionnaire on respiratory symptoms, underwent nasal lavage with subsequent analysis of inflammation markers, and performed repeated measurements of pulmonary function. Results Measurements in the horse stable showed low organic dust levels and high horse allergen levels. Increased viable level of fungi in the air indicated a growing source in the stable. Air particle load as well as 1,3-β-glucan was higher at the two winter time-points, whereas endotoxin levels were higher at the summer time-point. Two stable-workers showed signs of bronchial obstruction with increased PEF-variability, increased inflammation biomarkers relating to reported allergy, cold or smoking and reported partly work-related symptoms. Furthermore, two other stable-workers reported work-related airway symptoms, of which one had doctor's diagnosed asthma which was well treated. Conclusion Biomarkers involved in the development of airway diseases have been studied in relation to

  19. Lead poisoning of industrial origin in the horse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghergariu, S.; Kadar, L.; Boehm, B.; Grindeanu, I.; Teucean, M.

    1978-01-01

    In an industrial area polluted by fumes from a lead processing plant, the following symptoms were observed in horses: anemia, leanness, wind sucking at inspiration due to laryngeal paralysis, running at the nostrils due to pharyngeal paralysis (2 horses), intense dyspnea, latent asphyxia and incoordinate locomotion. A high rate of contamination of the hay, by lead (hay 837 +/- 714 ppm/dry; pasture grass 919 +/- 455 ppm/dry) was demonstrated. In the tissues of a slaughtered filly impregnation was found to be mild for lead, excessively high for cadmium.

  20. Results Obtained in Training Romanian Sport Horses for Jumping Competitions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flavia Luminiţa Bochiş

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available A number of 29 equines, Romanian Sport Horse stallions, were taken as green horses, break into the saddle, andteach into basic training while later train as jumpers over three years. The obstacle courses results had been obtainedin our country, in Hungary and in Serbia. There were courses jumped in the national championship, somedemonstrations organized in Romania or in the two foreign countries, or periodically test pattern courses run on theown arena. The best results, respectively more than 50% obstacle courses with no fault points over 3 years, were runby five stallions, and the same percent for 2 seasons, was reached by nine stallions.

  1. Axial sesamoiditis in the horse: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christelle Le Roux

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Axial sesamoiditis or osteitis of the proximal sesamoid bones (PSBs in the horse is described as a rare condition. The cause remains unknown and speculative, with vascular, infectious, and traumatic aetiologies implicated. It is specifically associated with injury of the palmar or plantar ligament (PL, also known as the intersesamoidean ligament. Imaging findings are generally rewarding and radiological changes are typical, if not pathognomonic, for the condition. Lesions consist of bone lysis at the apical to mid-body axial margins of the PSBs, with variable degrees of joint effusion. Radiographic technique warrants careful attention to make a diagnosis, and exposure factors may need to be adjusted. Perineural, intra-articular and intra-thecal anaesthesia does not seem to provide consistent improvement of lameness in these cases, with literature reporting inconsistent findings. Ultrasonographic findings include digital flexor sheath effusion, loss of the normal fibre structure of the PL at its attachment to the PSBs, abnormal echogenicity or change in thickness of the PL, and irregular hyperechoic cortical margins of the axial margins of the PSBs. Scintigraphy, computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging, although not necessary to make a diagnosis, may add valuable information regarding the location and extent of lesions. The prognosis remains guarded to poor for return to athletic function. The focus of this paper is a comprehensive review of the proposed aetiopathogenesis of the condition, the prognosis, and a summary of the literature findings with focus on the notable diagnostic imaging features, including radiography, ultrasonography, scintigraphy, computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging.

  2. Deletion of 2.7 kb near HOXD3 in an Arabian horse with occipitoatlantoaxial malformation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bordbari, M H; Penedo, M C T; Aleman, M; Valberg, S J; Mickelson, J; Finno, C J

    2017-06-01

    In the horse, the term occipitoatlantoaxial malformation (OAAM) is used to describe a developmental defect in which the first cervical vertebra (atlas) resembles the base of the skull (occiput) and the second cervical vertebra (axis) resembles the atlas. Affected individuals demonstrate an abnormal posture and varying degrees of ataxia. The homeobox (HOX) gene cluster is involved in the development of both the axial and appendicular skeleton. Hoxd3-null mice demonstrate a strikingly similar phenotype to Arabian foals with OAAM. Whole-genome sequencing was performed in an OAAM-affected horse (OAAM1) and seven unaffected Arabian horses. Visual inspection of the raw reads within the region of HOXD3 identified a 2.7-kb deletion located 4.4 kb downstream of the end of HOXD4 and 8.2 kb upstream of the start of HOXD3. A genotyping assay revealed that both parents of OAAM1 were heterozygous for the deletion. Additional genotyping identified two of 162 heterozygote Arabians, and the deletion was not present in 371 horses of other breeds. Comparative genomics studies have revealed that this region is highly conserved across species and that the entire genomic region between Hoxd4 and Hoxd3 is transcribed in mice. Two additional Arabian foals diagnosed with OAAM (OAAM 2 and 3) were genotyped and did not have the 2.7-kb deletion. Closer examination of the phenotype in these cases revealed notable variation. OAAM3 also had facial malformations and a patent ductus arteriosus, and the actual malformation at the craniocervical junction differed. Genetic heterogeneity may exist across the HOXD locus in Arabian foals with OAAM. © 2017 Stichting International Foundation for Animal Genetics.

  3. Differences in the electrocardiographic QT interval of various breeds of athletic horses during rest and exercise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Philip Juul; Karlsson, Madeleine; Madsen, Mette Flethøj

    2016-01-01

    is influenced to some extent by heart rate, age, body weight (BW), sex, autonomic tone, and environment. In horses, there is substantial inter-breed variation in size and training, and the aims of this study were therefore to determine the best model describing the QT to RR relationship in breeds of various...... athletic horses and to test for differences in the QT interval. ANIMALS: Ten Icelandic horses, 10 Arabian horses, 10 Thoroughbreds, 10 Standardbreds, six Coldblood trotters, 10 Warmbloods (dressage) and 10 Warmbloods (show jumping). All horses were geldings. METHODS: QT intervals were measured from resting...

  4. A note on the heritability of reactivity assessed at field tests for Danish Warmblood horses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rothmann, Janne; Christensen, Ole F.; Søndergaard, Eva

    2014-01-01

    Temperament traits in horses, especially reactivity, are an important trait in relation to human–horse accidents and the welfare of the horses. However, so far, temperament is often not included in many horse breeding programs. Most of the behavioral genetic studies in horses have been based on i......, a high standard error was untainted. Nevertheless, results suggested a genetic variation of reactivity when assessed at field tests, but further research is needed before reactivity can be incorporated as a selection criteria into a breeding program....

  5. Acute kidney injury mediated by oxidative stress in Egyptian horses with exertional rhabdomyolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    el-Ashker, Maged R

    2011-06-01

    The present study was carried out to evaluate the role of oxidative stress in the pathophysiologic process of acute renal failure associated with exertional rhabdomyolysis (ER) in Egyptian horses. ER was tentatively diagnosed in 31 Baladi horses based on case history, physical examination findings and confirmed by elevation of plasma creatine kinase (CK) and urine myoglobin concentrations. According to severity of the condition, the diseased horses were categorized into two main groups; the first group included 18 horses with minimal clinical signs and plasma CK 100 000 IU/L). It was found that plasma creatol (CTL) was positively correlated (p Baladi horses with severe rhabdomyolysis.

  6. Nuchal crest avulsion fracture in 2 horses : a cause of headshaking : clinical communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Voigt

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available The medical records of 2 Thoroughbred horses that developed headshaking after blunt trauma to the occipital region are reviewed. The history, signalment, clinical signs, diagnostic methods, diagnosis and treatment were recorded in each case. Both horses displayed headshaking, while one horse repeatedly lifted its upper lip and pawed excessively at the ground. In both horses, diagnostic imaging of the occipital region revealed avulsion fragments of the nuchal crest and a nuchal desmitis in association with hyperfibrinogenaemia. The presence of an avulsion fragment of the nuchal crest with associated nuchal desmitis should be considered in horses presenting with headshaking and may respond favourably to conservative therapy.

  7. A Nordic survey of management practices and owners' attitudes towards keeping horses in groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartmann, E; Bøe, K E; Christensen, J W; Hyyppä, S; Jansson, H; Jørgensen, G H M; Ladewig, J; Mejdell, C M; Norling, Y; Rundgren, M; Särkijärvi, S; Søndergaard, E; Keeling, L J

    2015-09-01

    Keeping horses in groups is widely recommended but limited information is available about how this is implemented in practice. The aim of this survey was to describe how horses are kept in the Nordic countries in relation to sex, age, breed, and equestrian discipline and to assess owners' attitudes toward keeping horses in groups. Horse owners in Denmark, Finland, Norway, and Sweden were approached using a web-based questionnaire, which was translated into 4 languages and distributed online via equestrian forums, organizations, and social media. The number of respondents was 3,229, taking care of 17,248 horses. Only 8% of horses were never kept in groups, 47% were permanently grouped for 24 h/d, and 45% were stabled singly but grouped during turnout. Yearlings were most often permanently kept in groups (75%), mares and geldings more commonly during parts of the day (50 and 51%, respectively), and stallions were often kept alone (38%). Icelandic horses were more likely to be permanently kept in groups (36%) than warmbloods (16%) and ponies (15%). Twice as many competition horses (51%) were never grouped compared with horses used for breeding (20%) or leisure purposes (15%). The majority of respondents (86%) strongly agreed that group housing benefits horse welfare and that it is important for horses to have the company of conspecifics (92%). Nevertheless, not all horses were kept in groups, showing that attitudes toward group housing may not necessarily reflect current management. The risk of injury was a concern of many respondents (45%), as was introducing unfamiliar horses into already established groups (40%) and challenges in relation to feeding in groups (44%). Safety of people (23%) and difficulties handling group-kept horses (19%) were regarded as less problematic. Results suggest that the majority of horses have the possibility to freely interact with other horses, either as fulltime members of a group during 24 h/d or during turnout. Future research should

  8. The efficacy of fenbendazole on horse strongyle infestation from Bazosul nou

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morariu S.,

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available In the last few years horse strongyles became very important because they are harmful and prejudicious for horses and horse owners. The large number of strongyle species and the possibility of apparition ofbenzimidazole compounds resistance phenomenon were on the basis of this study. After administration of 10% fenbendazole (Panacur to randomic selected horses from Bazosul Nou, the efficacy of the anthelmintic by classical method FECRT and supplementary, by Borgsteede and Presidente relations, was calculated. The anthelmintic efficacy was over 99% by the mean of all three methods. The faeces examination from treated horses revealed the presence of 19 species of strongyles.

  9. Complete validation of a unique digestion assay to detect Trichinella larvae in horse meat demonstrates the reliability of this assay for meeting food safety and trade requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forbes, L B; Hill, D E; Parker, S; Tessaro, S V; Gamble, H R; Gajadhar, A A

    2008-03-01

    A tissue digestion assay using a double separatory funnel procedure for the detection of Trichinella larvae in horse meat was validated for application in food safety programs and trade. The assay consisted of a pepsin-HCl digestion step to release larvae from muscle tissue and two sequential sedimentation steps in separatory funnels to recover and concentrate larvae for detection with a stereomicroscope. With defined critical control points, the assay was conducted within a quality assurance system compliant with International Organization for Standardization-International Electrotechnical Commission (ISO/IEC) 17025 guidelines. Samples used in the validation were obtained from horses experimentally infected with Trichinella spiralis to obtain a range of muscle larvae densities. One-, 5-, and 10-g samples of infected tissue were combined with 99, 95, and 90 g, respectively, of known negative horse tissue to create a 100-g sample for testing. Samples of 5 and 10 g were more likely to be positive than were 1-g samples when larval densities were less than three larvae per gram (lpg). This difference is important because ingested meat with 1 lpg is considered the threshold for clinical disease in humans. Using a 5-g sample size, all samples containing 1.3 to 2 lpg were detected, and 60 to 100% of samples with infected horse meat containing 0.1 to 0.7 lpg were detected. In this study, the double separatory funnel digestion assay was efficient and reliable for its intended use in food safety and trade. This procedure is the only digestion assay for Trichinella in horse meat that has been validated as consistent and effective at critical levels of sensitivity.

  10. Karyotypic relationships among Equus grevyi, Equus burchelli and domestic horse defined using horse chromosome arm-specific probes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musilova, P; Kubickova, S; Zrnova, E; Horin, P; Vahala, J; Rubes, J

    2007-01-01

    Using laser microdissection we prepared a set of horse chromosome arm-specific probes. Most of the probes were generated from horse chromosomes, some of them were derived from Equus zebra hartmannae. The set of probes were hybridized onto E. grevyi chromosomes in order to establish a genome-wide chromosomal correspondence between this zebra and horse. The use of arm-specific probes provided us with more information on the mutual arrangement of the genomes than we could obtain by means of whole-chromosome paints generated by flow sorting, even if we used reciprocal painting with probe sets from both species. By comparison of our results and results of comparative mapping in E. burchelli, we also established the chromosomal correspondence between E. grevyi and E. burchelli, providing evidence for a very close karyotypic relationship between these two zebra species. Establishment of the comparative map for E. grevyi contributes to the knowledge of the karyotypic phylogeny in the Equidae family.

  11. Target Group Segmentation in the Horse Buyers' Market against the Background of Equestrian Experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gille, Claudia; Kayser, Maike; Spiller, Achim

    2010-01-01

    Whereas in former times horses were reserved primarily for people involved in agriculture, elite equestrians or the military, nowadays equestrian sport has become an activity for people with a wide variety of backgrounds. However, as more and more people become involved with equestrian sport today, the knowledge concerning animal husbandry in general is diminishing due to an alienation from agricultural themes in modern societies. As a consequence, this development affects both riding ability and the appraisal of horses, especially with respect to the purchase of horses. In order to analyse which factors influence purchase decisions in the horse market in conjunction with equestrian experience, 739 horse riders were surveyed on their purchase behaviour in this study. Using cluster analysis, a typology was generated that provides a differentiated picture of the preferences of the various rider groups. Three clusters were distinguished: the "amateurs", the "experienced" and the "experts". Taking personal horse riding proficiency into account, it could be concluded that especially the "amateur" group required objective criteria for the evaluation of a horse they are considering purchasing. Alongside "measureable" qualities, such as previous showing success or the level of training of the horse, also other attributes such as the simple handling of the horse should be taken into consideration. As particularly the "amateur" group in equestrian sport is increasing in numbers, it is therefore advisable when preparing a horse for sale to align oneself to the needs of this customer segment in order to ensure an effective and targeted marketing of horses.

  12. Fractures of the third trochanter in horses: 8 cases (2000-2012).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertoni, Lélia; Seignour, Maeva; de Mira, Monica C; Coudry, Virginie; Audigie, Fabrice; Denoix, Jean-Marie

    2013-07-15

    To determine history; clinical, radiographic, ultrasonographic, and scintigraphic features; management; and outcome associated with third trochanter fractures in horses. Retrospective case series. 8 horses. Records from 2000 to 2012 were reviewed, and signalment, case history, severity and duration of lameness, results of physical and lameness examinations, imaging findings, management, and outcome were evaluated. All horses had a history of acute onset of severe lameness. Four of the 8 horses had localizing physical signs of fracture. No specific gait characteristics were identified. Ultrasonographically, there was a single bony fragment displaced cranially in 7 of 8 horses and multiple bony fragments in 1. Concurrent gluteus superficialis muscle enthesopathy was identified in 7 horses. A standing craniolateral-caudomedial 25° oblique radiographic view was obtained in 3 horses to document the lesion and revealed in all 3 horses a simple complete longitudinal fracture between the midlevel and the base of the third trochanter. Nuclear scintigraphy was used to identify the affected area of the limb for further examination in 2 horses. Follow-up revealed that fractures healed with a fibrous union, with persistence of cranial displacement of the fragment. Lameness resolved after nonsurgical management for all horses. Fracture of the third trochanter should be considered as a cause of hind limb lameness in horses when the proximal portion of the limb is affected. Diagnosis can easily be made with ultrasonography, but nuclear scintigraphy may help in identifying the lesion. Prognosis for return to athletic activity is good after an appropriate period of rest and restricted exercise.

  13. Nuclear scintigraphic evaluation of third metacarpal and metatarsal bone fractures in three horses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Markel, M.D.; Snyder, J.R.; Hornof, W.J.; Meagher, D.M.

    1987-01-01

    Nuclear scintigraphy was used to evaluate healing of third metacarpal bone (MC III) fractures in 2 horses (horses 1 and 2) and a third metatarsal bone fracture in 1 horse (horse 3) after stabilization of each fracture with 2 broad dynamic compression plates. In horse 1, the fracture had uniform uptake of 99mTc methylene diphosphonate on days 1, 15, and 30 after surgery. The fracture healed, and the horse was discharged from the clinic on day 52. In horse 2, a 6-cm photopenic region (ie, area of low radioactivity) was seen over the diaphysis of MC III on day 3. The region persisted and became more distinct by day 32. The diaphysis of MC III sequestered, and horse 2 was euthanatized on day 44. In horse 3, vascularity was seen bridging the fracture on day 5, with a 3-cm photopenic region over the dorsal diaphysis of the third metatarsal bone. By days 18 and 32, uptake of 99mTc methylene diphosphonate in the region had increased, indicating vascularization of the site. the fracture healed, and horse 3 was discharged from the clinic on day 47. Our findings indicated that serial nuclear scintigraphy can be used to evaluate fracture vascularization after surgery in horses

  14. Changes in heart rate and heart rate variability as a function of age in Thoroughbred horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohmura, Hajime; Jones, James H

    2017-01-01

    We investigated changes in heart rate (HR) and HR variability as a function of age in newborn foals to old Thoroughbred horses. Experiments were performed on a total of 83 healthy and clinically normal Thoroughbred horses. Resting HR decreased with age from birth. The relationship between age and HR fit the equation Y=48.2X -0.129 (R 2 =0.705); the relationship between age and HR for horses 0-7 years old fit the equation Y=44.1X -0.179 (R 2 =0.882). Seven-day-old horses had the highest HR values (106 ± 10.3 beat/min). The low frequency (LF) and high frequency (HF) powers increased with age in newborn to old horses. These changes in HR and HR variability appear to result from the effects of ageing. Three- to seven-year-old race horses had the lowest HR values (32.9 ± 3.5 beat/min) and the highest LF and HF powers except for the HF powers in the oldest horses. Race training may have contributed to these changes. Horses of ages greater than 25 years old had the highest HF powers and the lowest LF/HF ratios. In individual horses, 8 of the 15 horses over 25 years old had LF/HF ratios of less than 1.0; their HR variability appears to be unique, and they may have a different autonomic balance than horses of younger age.

  15. Multiplexed LC-MS/MS analysis of horse plasma proteins to study doping in sport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barton, Chris; Beck, Paul; Kay, Richard; Teale, Phil; Roberts, Jane

    2009-06-01

    The development of protein biomarkers for the indirect detection of doping in horse is a potential solution to doping threats such as gene and protein doping. A method for biomarker candidate discovery in horse plasma is presented using targeted analysis of proteotypic peptides from horse proteins. These peptides were first identified in a novel list of the abundant proteins in horse plasma. To monitor these peptides, an LC-MS/MS method using multiple reaction monitoring was developed to study the quantity of 49 proteins in horse plasma in a single run. The method was optimised and validated, and then applied to a population of race-horses to study protein variance within a population. The method was finally applied to longitudinal time courses of horse plasma collected after administration of an anabolic steroid to demonstrate utility for hypothesis-driven discovery of doping biomarker candidates.

  16. Toxoplasma gondii in horse meat intended for human consumption in Romania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paştiu, Anamaria Ioana; Györke, Adriana; Kalmár, Zsuzsa; Bolfă, Pompei; Rosenthal, Benjamin Martin; Oltean, Miruna; Villena, Isabelle; Spînu, Marina; Cozma, Vasile

    2015-09-15

    The prevalence of Toxoplasma gondii, an economically important zoonotic protozoan, was investigated in horses slaughtered for export and human consumption in the North of Romania. Pairs of samples, sera and heart tissues, were collected from 82 slaughtered horses. Examination of horse sera by ELISA at a dilution of 1:10, and by modified agglutination test (MAT) at a dilution of 1:6, revealed that 32 (39%) and 31(37.8%) horses, respectively, had antibodies against T. gondii. Using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis, T. gondii DNA was not found in any heart sample collected from horses. By bioassay in mice, we obtained viable isolates of T. gondii from two of ten horses determined to be strongly positive by serological assay/ELISA. The prevalence estimated in horses highlighted the potential risk for human contamination by consumption of raw or undercooked meat. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Grouping horses according to gender-Effects on aggression, spacing and injuries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meisfjord Jørgensen, Grete Helen; Borsheim, Linn; Mejdell, Cecilie Marie

    2009-01-01

    Many horse owners tend to group horses according to gender, in an attempt to reduce aggressive interactions and the risk of injuries. The aim of our experiment was to test the effects of such gender separation on injuries, social interactions and individual distance in domestic horses. A total...... of 66 horses were recruited from 4 different farms in Norway and Denmark and divided into six batches. Within each batch, horses were allotted into one mare group, one gelding group and one mixed gender group, with most groups consisting of three or four animals. After 4-6 weeks of acclimatisation......, a trained observer recorded all social interactions using direct, continuous observation 1 h in the morning and 1 h in the afternoon for three consecutive days. Recordings of the nearest neighbour of each horse were performed using instantaneous sampling every 10 min. The horses were inspected for injuries...

  18. Is shade for horses a comfort resource or a minimum requirement?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holcomb, K E

    2017-09-01

    Shade or shelter as protection from extremes of weather is required for horses at agricultural research and teaching facilities and is recommended or required by many states, professional organizations, and industry groups. The focus of this paper is the recent research on the responses of horses to hot, sunny weather, which has begun to provide scientific evidence that characterizes how and when shade is used and any benefits shade confers on horses. These behavioral and physiological findings support provision of shade as a resource for thermal comfort and the expression of normal behavior that should be included as a standard of best care practices for healthy adult horses living in the environmental conditions reviewed, rather than an absolute minimum care requirement. Additional research is required for horses living under other environmental conditions, for very young or old horses, horses in very poor body condition, or those with compromised health to determine if their responses to hot, sunny weather differ from those presented here.

  19. Curr ent Status of the Przewalski’s Horse Populations Reintroduced to Mongolia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amarkhuu Enkhtur

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available In 1992 the reintroduction program of the Przewalski’s horses in Mongolia was initiated, and totally 84 individuals of Przewalski’s horses were brought to the Hustai National Park between 1992 and 2000. At the same time another reintroduction program of the Przewalski’s horses was started, and 87 individuals were released in the Ta hiin T al (Bijiin Gol area in the semi-desert ecosystem of Southwestern Mongolia. Recently , in the Khomyn Tal ar ea of We s tern Mongolia transferred 24 individuals of Przewalski’s horses from zoos (the reintroduction program was started in 2004. All captive Przewalski’s horses were released into the wild (in 1994 in Hustai, and 1996 in Tah iin T al, and the populations of horses are gradually increasing in both sites. In this work, the results of analyses on the population dynamics of Przewalski’ s horses, reintroduced in these two sites are discussed.

  20. Conservative Management of Unilateral Fractures of the Mandibular Rami in Horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jansson, Nicolai

    2016-11-01

    To report the outcome of conservative management of unilateral fractures of the mandibular rami in horses. Retrospective case series. 24 client-owned horses with unilateral mandibular fractures METHODS: Medical records (January 2000-January 2014) of horses with unilateral mandibular ramus fractures were retrieved. Only conservatively managed horses with follow-up information were included. Follow-up information on clinical outcome was retrieved from the medical records (n=11) or obtained by telephone interviews with the owners or trainers (n=13). Twenty-three horses (96%) returned to their previous or intended use and had no clinically evident masticatory or fracture healing-related problems at the time of follow-up. The owner of 1 horse (4%) reported it had tooth loosening, feed impaction, and masticatory problems. Conservative management of unilateral fractures of the mandibular rami is a treatment option in horses. © Copyright 2016 by The American College of Veterinary Surgeons.