rets. rmt.: Zobel, Rein. Tallinn (Reval) keskajal : linnaehitus 13. - 14. sajandil = Tallinn (Reval) in the middle ages : town building in the 13 th - 14 th centuries. Tallinn : Eesti Entsüklopeediakirjastus, 2001. 213 lk. : ill., kaart
Rahvusvahelise elektroonilise kunsti sümpoosioni ISEA2004 klubiõhtu "Flux in Tallinn" klubis Bon Bon. Eestit esindasid Ropotator, Ars Intel Inc., Urmas Puhkan, Joel Tammik, Taavi Tulev (pseud. Wochtzchee). Klubiõhtu koordinaator Andres Lõo
Thorp, John Daniel
Stitch and hem and line and flight appears in four formats. There is this present one, which adheres to the manuscript design requirements as outlined by The Graduate School at The University of Utah; there is another which is a book six inches high by nine inches wide, printed in three colors, with text aligned to its gutter; and there is a broadside printed from the same forms of standing metal type on a single twelve-inch-high by nineteen-inch-wide page, where all spreads are registered to the same points so that all lines of all sections overlap exactly, excluding the last lines of the longest section, which are left immediately readable. The second and the third formats were produced in editions of fifty each, and copies are available to the reader through the Special Collections Library at the J. Willard Marriott Library. The text in the book you're holding is built from scans taken from the original letterpress pages, and so honors typos not caught before production during proofreading, but does not honor the final runs of production which overprint eight typos and overprint one duplicated "no." The text here stands as an uncorrected and reformatted transcript of the letterpress-printed pages, since all "characters must be clear and sharp. Smudged, indistinct, or blurred letters are not acceptable." The present format cannot ask (at least not in the same way) if the techniques and repetitive labor of hand printing can be read just as one might read any of the other more familiar small crises in a work: the line break, the influence of a culture or history on that work, anagnorisis, exegesis, etc. The present format doesn't seem to ask questions like: what happens to a love song when you can't read it or hear it? How does a line or letter make itself mean when cast in metal, stood up and pressed onto paper? Still, the present format is concerned with how a line sits on a page and how a line is like love is like highs is like sand. The text all these formats
Eesti Post andis 9. septembril 2010 välja 2011 aasta Euroopa kultuuripealinnale Tallinnale pühendatud postmargi, mis trükiti SA Tallinn 2011 ja Eesti Posti postmargi kavandamiseks korraldatud konkursi Heino Prunsvelti võidutöö "Lost in Tallinn" järgi
Full Text Available The finite segment method is used to model the line throwing rocket system. A dynamic model of line throwing rocket with flight motion based on Kane's method is presented by the kinematics description of the system and the consideration of the forces acting on the system. The experiment designed according to the parameters of the dynamic model is made. The simulation and experiment results, such as range, velocity and flight time, are compared and analyzed. The simulation results are basically agreed with the test data, which shows that the flight motion of the line throwing rocket can be predicted by the dynamic model. A theoretical model and guide for the further research on the disturbance of rope and the guidance, flight control of line throwing rocket are provided by the dynamic modeling.
Moeüritus Fashion is Back in Tallinn (FIBIT) Viru Keskuses Tallinnas. Gala-etendusel "Sinine, Must ja Valge" esitletud Anu Samarüütel-Longi, Tanel Veenre ja Arne Niidu moekollektsioonidest. Lisaks värvilised fotod
World Trade Center Tallinn AS kompleksi arhitektuursest arengust ja laiendamisest. Laienemise ideede saamiseks korraldati 2004. a. arhitektuurikonkurss. Lühidalt OÜ Kavakava, OÜ Alver Trummal Arhitektid ja Arhitektuuribüroo Raivo Puusepp ideedest
Kunagise Punase RET-i tööstuskvartali arhitektuurseks laiendamiseks korraldas WTC Tallinn AS arhitektuurikonkursi. Ülevaade OÜ Kavakava, arhitektuuribüroo Raivo Puusepp ja OÜ Alver Trummal Arhitektid ideedest ja kavanditest uue kompleksi kasutamisvõimalusteks
Ganesan, Dharmalingam; Lindvall, Mikael; Ackermann, Chris; McComas, David; Bartholomew, Maureen
This paper presents experiences of verifying architectural design rules of the NASA Core Flight Software (CFS) product line implementation. The goal of the verification is to check whether the implementation is consistent with the CFS architectural rules derived from the developer's guide. The results indicate that consistency checking helps a) identifying architecturally significant deviations that were eluded during code reviews, b) clarifying the design rules to the team, and c) assessing the overall implementation quality. Furthermore, it helps connecting business goals to architectural principles, and to the implementation. This paper is the first step in the definition of a method for analyzing and evaluating product line implementations from an architecture-centric perspective.
The present general purpose and portable Computerized Organizational Level Tester (COLT) for the flight-line maintenance of advanced weapons systems is in effect a fully functioning replica of contemporary automated test equipment architectures previously available only in laboratory test installations. The COLT's automated equipment architecture has been scaled down to a ruggedized, portable, suitcase-sized field tester for both analog and digital equipment. Tester software is designed to minimize programming effort, and possesses a real time executive kernel which transparently interfaces high level user commands with tester hardware. Automatic software-generation tools are incorporated.
Muljeid kontserdist "Warner Classics Gala" "Estonia" kontserdisaalis, kus E. Mägi, E.-S. Tüüri, V. Tormise, U. Sisaski jt. loomingut esitasid "Camerata Tallinn", NYYD Ensemble, RAM, pianist Lauri Väinmaa
Tallinna linnahalli rendilepingust Ronald S. Lauderi firmaga Tallinn Entertainment LCC. Lepingu kohaselt hakkab linnahalli arendama Tallinna linna ja ameeriklaste loodav ühisettevõte. Et USA osapool annab ettevõttele laenu, loobub Tallinn selle tagasimaksmise aastateks linnahalli tegevuse juhtimisest
Ganesan, D.; Lindvall, M.; McComas, D.; Bartholomew, M.; Slegel, S.; Medina, B.; Krikhaar, R.; Verhoef, C.; Dharmalingam, G.; Montgomery, L.P.
This paper presents an analysis of the unit testing approach developed and used by the Core Flight Software System (CFS) product line team at the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC). The goal of the analysis is to understand, review, and recommend strategies for improving the CFS' existing unit
The philosophical groundwork of Gilles Deleuze is examined for its relevance for narrative practice in therapy and conflict resolution. Deleuze builds particularly on Foucault's analytics of power as "actions upon actions" and represents power relations diagrammatically in terms of lines of power. He also conceptualizes lines of flight through which people become other. These concepts are explored in relation to a conversation with a couple about a crisis in their relationship. Tracing lines of power and lines of flight are promoted as fresh descriptions of professional practice that fit well with the goals of narrative practice.
Ilmus professor Raimo Pullati poolt välja antava linnaajalugu ja -kultuuri tutvustava sarja "Vana Tallinn" XX köide. Tšehhi Teaduste Akadeemia raamatukogus toimus Raimo Pullati poolt välja antud entsüklopeedilise suurteose "Johann Christoph Brotze. Estonica" esitlus
Zhang, Qiong; Peng, Cong; Lu, Yiming; Wang, Hao; Zhu, Kaiguang
A novel technique is developed to level airborne geophysical data using principal component analysis based on flight line difference. In the paper, flight line difference is introduced to enhance the features of levelling error for airborne electromagnetic (AEM) data and improve the correlation between pseudo tie lines. Thus we conduct levelling to the flight line difference data instead of to the original AEM data directly. Pseudo tie lines are selected distributively cross profile direction, avoiding the anomalous regions. Since the levelling errors of selective pseudo tie lines show high correlations, principal component analysis is applied to extract the local levelling errors by low-order principal components reconstruction. Furthermore, we can obtain the levelling errors of original AEM data through inverse difference after spatial interpolation. This levelling method does not need to fly tie lines and design the levelling fitting function. The effectiveness of this method is demonstrated by the levelling results of survey data, comparing with the results from tie-line levelling and flight-line correlation levelling.
Rahvusvahelisest koostööprojektist "Cities For All - Tallinn For All". Projekti viis läbi Eesti Disainerite Liit. Ilona Gurjanova organiseeritud töötubades osalesid ajavahemikus september 2010 - september 2011 järgmised kõrgkoolid: Eesti Kunstiakadeemia, Mainori Kõrgkool, Tartu Ülikooli Pärnu Kolledž, Aalto Ülikool (Soome), Saint-Étienne Higher School of Art and Design (Prantsusmaa)
In this paper I chart lines of flight in women artist's narratives. In focusing on the complex interrelations between the social milieus of education and art, what I suggest is that they should be analysed as an "assemblage" where power relations and forces of desire are constantly at play in creating conditions of possibility for women…
Ojari, Triin, 1974-
1960. a. ehitatud hotell Tallinna (arhitektid Peeter Tarvas, Toivo Kallas) ümberehitus hotelliks Grand Mercure Tallinn. Ümberehituse autor - Kalle Rõõmuse arhitektuuribüroo (I. Vainu, A. Kukke, K. Smirnov, T. Pakri). 1939. a. valminud Pirita restorani (Regati baar) ja autobusside lõppjaama hoone (arhitekt Arthur Jürvetson) - Tallinnas ainus säilinud funktsionalistliku rannaarhitektuuri näide - ümberehitus Regati Maja Ärikeskuseks. Ümberehitusprojekt valmis Laansoo Grupis, arhitektid Anne Kose, Andrus Sisask. Kommentaarid Kalle Rõõmus, Andrus Sisask.
A Line Operations Safety Audit ( LOSA ) is a voluntary safety program that collects safety data during normal airline operations and was originally...maintenance and ramp operations. This report provides a review of the use of LOSA , discusses LOSA’s essential operating characteristics, lessons learned on...the flight deck, and describes the extension of LOSA to maintenance and ramp operations. The research team developed tools for airlines and
Ganesan, Dharmalingam; Lindvall, Mikael; McComas, David; Bartholomew, Maureen; Slegel, Steve; Medina, Barbara
This paper presents an analysis of the unit testing approach developed and used by the Core Flight Software (CFS) product line team at the NASA GSFC. The goal of the analysis is to understand, review, and reconunend strategies for improving the existing unit testing infrastructure as well as to capture lessons learned and best practices that can be used by other product line teams for their unit testing. The CFS unit testing framework is designed and implemented as a set of variation points, and thus testing support is built into the product line architecture. The analysis found that the CFS unit testing approach has many practical and good solutions that are worth considering when deciding how to design the testing architecture for a product line, which are documented in this paper along with some suggested innprovennents.
Zhang, Cai-Bo; Wu, Zhang-Dong; Xu, Dong-Ping; Liu, He-Yang; Rong, Ting-Zhao; Cao, Mo-Ju
Three maize (Zea mays L.) inbred lines 08-641, RP125, and 18-599 were carried into cosmic space by recoverable satellite "Shijian 8". Some mutant lines were selected from SP4 and combinations were made according to the NC II genetic design. The materials were planted in Sichuan and Yunnan separately to analyze combining ability based on the incomplete diallel cross design. The results showed that space flight affected the combining ability of mutant lines, and the GCA value of mutant lines were different in two kinds of environmental condition. The GCA of ear length, row per ear, kernel per row, and yield per plant for the mutant line C03 showed substantial increase compared with the control 08-641; the GCA of row per ear, kernel per row, and other yield component traits for the mutant lines C01 and C04 were significantly higher than those of the control. The SCA of yield and yield components for the combinations derived from the mutant lines C06, R18, and S22 were higher than others. These results laid a material foundation for maize breeding and provided some important references for improving and utilizing the mutant lines.
Näitus "Uus Põhjamaade moeillustratsioon" Rotermanni kvartalis 18. sept.-ni. Osalejad Eestist, Soomest ja Rootsist loetletud. Näituse kujundaja Tuuli Aule. Väljapaneku loovjuhi Toomas Volkmanni selgitus. Tallinn Fashion Week'i põhiprogrammist
After initial ground-tow flights of the M2-F1 using the Pontiac as a tow vehicle, the way was clear to make air tows behind a C-47. The first air tow took place on 16 August 1963. Pilot Milt Thompson found that the M2-F1 flew well, with good control. This first flight lasted less than two minutes from tow-line release to touchdown. The descent rate was 4,000 feet per minute. The wingless, lifting body aircraft design was initially concieved as a means of landing an aircraft horizontally after atmospheric reentry. The absence of wings would make the extreme heat of re-entry less damaging to the vehicle. In 1962, Dryden management approved a program to build a lightweight, unpowered lifting body as a prototype to flight test the wingless concept. It would look like a 'flying bathtub,' and was designated the M2-F1, the 'M' referring to 'manned' and 'F' referring to 'flight' version. It featured a plywood shell placed over a tubular steel frame crafted at Dryden. Construction was completed in 1963. The first flight tests of the M2-F1 were over Rogers Dry Lake at the end of a tow rope attached to a hopped-up Pontiac convertible driven at speeds up to about 120 mph. This vehicle needed to be able to tow the M2-F1 on the Rogers Dry Lakebed adjacent to NASA's Flight Research Center (FRC) at a minimum speed of 100 miles per hour. To do that, it had to handle the 400-pound pull of the M2-F1. Walter 'Whitey' Whiteside, who was a retired Air Force maintenance officer working in the FRC's Flight Operations Division, was a dirt-bike rider and hot-rodder. Together with Boyden 'Bud' Bearce in the Procurement and Supply Branch of the FRC, Whitey acquired a Pontiac Catalina convertible with the largest engine available. He took the car to Bill Straup's renowned hot-rod shop near Long Beach for modification. With a special gearbox and racing slicks, the Pontiac could tow the 1,000-pound M2-F1 110 miles per hour in 30 seconds. It proved adequate for the roughly 400 car tows that got
Mostafa R A Nabawy
Full Text Available A novel lifting line formulation is presented for the quasi-steady aerodynamic evaluation of insect-like wings in hovering flight. The approach allows accurate estimation of aerodynamic forces from geometry and kinematic information alone and provides for the first time quantitative information on the relative contribution of induced and profile drag associated with lift production for insect-like wings in hover. The main adaptation to the existing lifting line theory is the use of an equivalent angle of attack, which enables capture of the steady non-linear aerodynamics at high angles of attack. A simple methodology to include non-ideal induced effects due to wake periodicity and effective actuator disc area within the lifting line theory is included in the model. Low Reynolds number effects as well as the edge velocity correction required to account for different wing planform shapes are incorporated through appropriate modification of the wing section lift curve slope. The model has been successfully validated against measurements from revolving wing experiments and high order computational fluid dynamics simulations. Model predicted mean lift to weight ratio results have an average error of 4% compared to values from computational fluid dynamics for eight different insect cases. Application of an unmodified linear lifting line approach leads on average to a 60% overestimation in the mean lift force required for weight support, with most of the discrepancy due to use of linear aerodynamics. It is shown that on average for the eight insects considered, the induced drag contributes 22% of the total drag based on the mean cycle values and 29% of the total drag based on the mid half-stroke values.
Intelligent Community Forum (ICF) kuulutas välja 2010. aastal Smart21 nimekirja pääsenud kogukonnad. Tallinn asub nimekirjas 7. kohal. Nimekirja jõuavad suure majandusliku ja sotsiaalse arengu läbi teinud kogukonnad. 21. mail kuulutatakse välja võitnud kogukond
Tallinna linnavalitsus ootab enne otsustamist, kas pikendada Tallinna linnahalli arendamiseks sõlmitud eellepingut Ameerika ettevõttega Tallinn Entertainment LLC, Ameerika investorite delegatsiooni visiiti Tallinna. Rahandusminister Jürgen Ligi vastusest Tallinna abilinnapea Taavi Aasa kirjale, milles oli ettepanek kaaluda võimalust anda riigi garantii linnahalli arendamise projektile
Tallinnas viibinud saksa loomemajanduse õppejõudude Bernd Hartmanni ja Jan Runge sõnul on kultuuripealinna aasta hea võimalus linnakuvandi parandamiseks. Nende arvates võiks Tallinn kultuuripealinna raames anda noortele disaineritele ja filmitegijatele loomingu eksponeerimiseks piisavalt võimalusi ning keskenduda kohaliku kultuurielu parandamisele
Tallinn Fashion Week kestab 7. novembrini. Üks moenädala korraldajaid Jaanika Terasmaa, sellest, mida moenädal pakub tavainimesele ja kui oluline on selline ettevõtmine moeloojatele, moenädala eesmärgist
Erwin, R.M.; Ogden, J.C.
The temporal patterns of feeding, resting, and reproductive behavior in colonial wading birds have been studied by a number of investigators, both on a short-term (daily) and long-term (annual) basis. In coastal marine environments, activities at colonies are influenced by tides, time of day and phase of the nesting cycle. The purpose of this paper is twofold: (1) to examine the effects of tide, time of day (physical factors), nesting phase, colony site, and species identity (biological factors) on feeding flight rates at breeding colonies and, as a result of this, (2) to evaluate the usefulness of feeding flight counts as an index of the number of nests in the colony. Earlier work suggests that the relationship between the number of individuals flying to and from the nesting colony may be quite consistent with nest numbers. Thus, by monitoring flights from remote locations, observers might obtain relatively accurate census data while minimizing time and disturbance at colonies. Recent concern for the deleterious impact of humans at waterbird colonies underscores the need to investigate alternative census methods.
Tallinna sünagoogi (Karu 16, Tallinn) sisekujundusest. Arhitektid: Lembit-Kaur Stöör ja Tõnis Kimmel, sisearhitektid: Liis Lindvere ja Raili Paling, ornamentika töötas välja Martin Lazarev (KOKO Arhitektid). Akustik: Linda Madalik. Sisearhitektidest, nende tähtsamad tööd. I-IV korruse plaan, 3 värv. välis- ja 8 sisevaadet, fotod sisearhitektidest
Tallinna Inglise kolledzhi spordihoone (Estonia pst. 10, Tallinn) sisekujundusest. Arhitektid: Lembit-Kaur Stöör ja Margus Maiste (KOKO Arhitektid), sisearhitektid: Liisi Murula (Mari OÜ), Liis Lindvere ja Raili Paling, ornamentika: Martin Lazarev (KOKO Arhitektid). Sisearhitektidest, nende tähtsamad tööd. 5 korruse plaani, 2 värv. välis- ja 11 sisevaadet, fotod sisearhitektidest
Anvelt, Kärt, 1973-
Reklaamibüroo Zavod juht Marek Reinaas annab hinnangu SA Tallinn 2011 eelarvekava turundusosale. Kommunikatsioonispetsialist Daniel Vaarik viitab võimalusele kasutada Tallinn 2011 tutvustamiseks sotsiaalvõrgustikke, nt. Facebooki ja Twitterit
Kultuuriväärtuste ameti ettevõtmisest, idekampaaniast juhuks, kui Tallinn peaks saama Euroopa kultuuripealinna tiitli aastal 2008. Artiklis ka eesti noorte filmirežissööride Hendrik Toompere jun., Marko Raadi ja Andri Luubi sõidust Inglismaale osalemaks "Tyne-Tallinn Digital Challenge" nimelises projektis
. It explores ambiguities arising from daily interactions in the shared physical landscape of the town, such as material exchanges, and the development of new technological solutions, and the simultaneous insistence on maintenance of sharp inter-group boundaries. As material culture plays a significant role......his article examines the cultural and social dynamics of a multi-ethnic medieval town. Taking the lower town of Tallinn as a case study, this paper identifies the major urban ethnic groups living in the town and discusses their co-existence, self-definition, and processes of categorization...
The research in this document focuses on the performance of a neural network-based fault tolerant system within a flight control system. This fault tolerant flight control system integrates sensor and actuator failure detection, identification, and accommodation (SFDIA and AFDIA). The SFDIA task is achieved by incorporating a main neural network (MNN) and a set of n decentralized neural networks (DNNs) for a system with n sensors assumed to be without physical redundancy. Particularly, the purpose of the MNN is to detect a wide variety of sensor failures while the purpose of the DNNs is to identify the particular sensor that has failed and accommodate for the failure. The AFDIA scheme also implements a MNN with three neural network controllers (NNCs). The function of NNCs is to regain equilibrium and to compensate for the pitching, rolling, and yawing moments induced by the failure. The NNs are trained on-line using the Extended Back-Propagation Algorithm (EBPA). Because of the on-line learning, neural estimators and controllers have the capability of adapting to changes in the aircraft dynamics and/or modeling discrepancies between the actual aircraft and its mathematical model. This factor makes neural estimators and controllers an attractive option for fault tolerant flight control system. Particular emphasis is placed in this study toward improving the performance of the SFDIA scheme in the presence of ramp-type soft failures which are hard to detect as well as achieving an efficient integration between SFDIA and AFDIA without degradation of performance in terms of false alarm rates and incorrect failure identification.
de Jong, Daphne
From the 1st of June until the 21st of August, the internship has been conducted at NASA Ames Research Center as part of the Master of Space Studies at the International Space University. The main activities consisted of doing research on UAV flight--testing and the assessing of safety with respect to Beyond--Line--Of--Sight operations. Further activities consisted of accommodating international partners and potential partners at the NASA Ames site, in order to identify mutual interest and future collaboration. Besides those activities, the report describes the planning process of the ISU Space Coast Trip to 10 different space related companies on the west--coast of California. Key words: UAS, UAV, BLOS, Ames, ISU Trip
Casaburi, A.; Zen, N.; Suzuki, K.; Ohkubo, M.; Ejrnaes, M.; Cristiano, R.; Pagano, S.
We realized a very fast and large Superconducting Strip Line Detector based on a parallel configuration of nanowires. The detector with size 200x200 μm 2 recorded a sub-nanosecond pulse width of 700 ps in FWHM (400 ps rise time and 530 ps relaxation time) for lysozyme monomers/multimers molecules accelerated at 175 keV in a Time of Flight Mass Spectrometer. This record is the best in the class of superconducting detectors and comparable with the fastest NbN superconducting single photon detector of 10x10 μm 2 . We succeeded in acquiring mass spectra as the first step for a scale-up to ∼mm pixel size for high throughput MS analysis, while keeping a fast response.
Heilbronn, L.; Iwata, Y.; Iwase, H.
A method for reducing excessive constant-fraction-discriminator walk that utilizes experimental data in the off-line analysis stage is introduced. Excessive walk is defined here as any walk that leads to an overall timing resolution that is much greater than the intrinsic timing resolution of the detection system. The method is able to reduce the contribution to the overall timing resolution from the walk to a value that is equal to or less than the intrinsic timing resolution of the detectors. Although the method is explained in the context of a neutron time-of-flight experiment, it is applicable to any data set that satisfies two conditions: (1) a measure of the signal amplitude for each event must be recorded on an event-by-event basis; and (2) there must be a distinguishable class of events present where the timing information is known a priori
Heilbronn, Lawrence; Iwata, Yoshiyuki; Iwase, H.
A method for reducing excessive constant-fraction-discriminator walk that utilizes experimental data in the off-line analysis stage is introduced. Excessive walk is defined here as any walk that leads to an overall timing resolution that is much greater than the intrinsic timing resolution of the detection system. The method is able to reduce the contribution to the overall timing resolution from the walk that is equal to or less than the intrinsic timing resolution of the detectors. Although the method is explained in the context of a neutron time-of-flight experiment, it is applicable to any data set that satisfies two conditions. (1) A measure of the signal amplitude for each event must be recorded on an event-by-event basis; and (2) There must be a distinguishable class of events present where the timing information is known a priori
Higuchi, Ken; Takeuchi, Shinsuke; Sato, Eiichi; Naruo, Yoshihiro; Inatani, Yoshifumi; Namiki, Fumiharu; Tanaka, Kohtaro; Watabe, Yoko
A cryogenic tank made of carbon fiber reinforced plastic (CFRP) shell with aluminum thin liner has been designed as a liquid hydrogen (LH2) tank for an ISAS reusable launch vehicle, and the function of it has been proven by repeated flights onboard the test vehicle called reusable vehicle testing (RVT) in October 2003. The liquid hydrogen tank has to be a pressure vessel, because the fuel of the engine of the test vehicle is supplied by fuel pressure. The pressure vessel of a combination of the outer shell of CFRP for strength element at a cryogenic temperature and the inner liner of aluminum for gas barrier has shown excellent weight merit for this purpose. Interfaces such as tank outline shape, bulk capacity, maximum expected operating pressure (MEOP), thermal insulation, pipe arrangement, and measurement of data are also designed to be ready onboard. This research has many aims, not only development of reusable cryogenic composite tank but also the demonstration of repeated operation including thermal cycle and stress cycle, familiarization with test techniques of operation of cryogenic composite tanks, and the accumulation of data for future design of tanks, vehicle structures, safety evaluation, and total operation systems.
Nestor, Siim, 1974-
Soome doom-metal ansambel Reverend Bizarre üritusel "Tallinn Doom Night vol.1" 8. dets. klubis Rockstar's. Indipoppi viljelev Rootsi duo My Darling Yoy! üritusel "Odessa Pop" 9. dets. Tallinnas klubis KuKu
Lille, Ivo, 1977-
Kontserdiagentuurist HIMusic Agency ja Tallinn Sinfoniettast räägivad dirigent R. Joost ja I. Lille. Avakontserdist Vene Kultuurikeskuses, kus oli kavas Mozarti sümfooniad 1, 10 ja 40 ning kontsertaariad bulgaaria soprani Sonya Youncheva esituses
Arvustus: Karin Hallas. Das Tallinner Mietshaus. Vom Historismus bis zum Jugendstil. In: Architektur und bildende Kunst im Baltikum um 1900. Frankfurt am Main, Berlin, Bern, Bruxelles, New York, Wien: Lang 1999. S. 173-192.
Leštšinski, Aivar, 1958-
Festivali avapäeval esitletud CD-komplektist "Läbilõige eesti koorimuusikast" ja mõtteid, et riigitelevisioonis võik olla koorimuusikat puudutav saade ning koorifestivali "Tallinn 2011" tulemused
Fritze, Mikko, 1963-
Tallinn on Euroopa 2011. a. kultuuripealinn. Intervjuu korraldava sihtasutuse tegevjuhi Mikko Fritzega. Tegevusprogrammist, ka infrastruktuuri projektidest (linnateater, Kultuurikatel, rannapromenaad, lauluväljak, linnahall) jm. SA bürool on kavatsus kolida Kultuurikatlasse
Jazziorganisatsioonist Europe Jazz Network ja selle aastakonverentsist Tallinnas ning J. Sang selle raames Von Krahli teatris toimunud Tallinn Jazz Weekendi eesti jazzmuusika showcase-festivalist lühidalt
Full Text Available In the article home languages, their qualities and use by pupils in grades 2 to 5 in Tallinn are analyzed. Two larger and more characteristic groups (Ukrainians and Belarusians and two groups with Islamic backgrounds (Azerbaijanis and Tatars were compared with the aim of analysing different language loss and preservation factors. Although Ukrainians and Belarusians form much larger ethnic groups within Estonia, they have not managed to preserve their language anywhere near as successfully as the Azerbaijanis and Tatars. Comparison of the data suggests that language preservation in Estonia and the ability to withstand Russification are most influenced by the degree of difference of the language from Russian and the religious difference from the Russian Orthodox faith (and Soviet era atheism. Home languages are characterised by their use mainly in the verbal form, with skills in the literary language generally low or even non-existent. Languages are for the most part learned informally, primarily through communication with parents and/or grandparents. The result is a supersaturated vernacular with a large degree of variation and loans from superstratum languages which falls far from the standard of the language in question.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5128/ERYa6.15
Full Text Available The Baltic Sea shipping is at a crossroads as sulphur regulation will lead to excessive cost increases from the year 2015 onwards and CO2 emission trading is planned to be implemented for the entire shipping sector within the EU area. Therefore, shipping is going to be minimized and hinterland transportation (road and rail will act as substitute. This research analyzes the situation on one of the highest volume general cargo transportation routes of Finland (operating between Helsinki, Finland and Tallinn, Estonia, including loading and unloading at seaports and short sea shipping activity in between. Based on the efficiency evaluation results, it seems that containers should be favoured over semi-trailers – containers could be carried efficiently either in container ships or even at currently favoured RoRo or RoPax ships. Our research illustrates that pure container shipping with larger container ships within the analyzed route is not entirely out of question, but lead time and hinterland operations should receive more attention. Alternatively, RoRo and RoPax ships can also do something to increase their competitiveness in environmental harm caused and diesel consumption – higher cargo loads and utilization levels are short-term key for continued dominance.
Johnson, Marcus; Jung, Jaewoo; Rios, Joseph; Mercer, Joey; Homola, Jeffrey; Prevot, Thomas; Mulfinger, Daniel; Kopardekar, Parimal
This study evaluates a traffic management concept designed to enable simultaneous operations of multiple small unmanned aircraft systems (UAS) in the national airspace system (NAS). A five-day flight-test activity is described that examined the feasibility of operating multiple UAS beyond visual line of sight (BVLOS) of their respective operators in the same airspace. Over the five-day campaign, three groups of five flight crews operated a total of eleven different aircraft. Each group participated in four flight scenarios involving five simultaneous missions. Each vehicle was operated BVLOS up to 1.5 miles from the pilot in command. Findings and recommendations are presented to support the feasibility and safety of routine BVLOS operations for small UAS.
Johnson, Marcus; Jung, Jaewoo; Rios, Joseph; Mercer, Joey; Homola, Jeffrey; Prevot, Thomas; Mulfinger, Daniel; Kopardekar, Parimal
This study evaluates a traffic management concept designed to enable simultaneous operations of multiple small unmanned aircraft systems (UAS) in the national airspace system (NAS). A five-day flight-test activity is described that examined the feasibility of operating multiple UAS beyond visual line of sight (BVLOS) of their respective operators in the same airspace. Over the five-day campaign, three groups of five flight crews operated a total of eleven different aircraft. Each group participated in four flight scenarios involving five simultaneous missions. Each vehicle was operated BVLOS up to 1.5 miles from the pilot in command. Findings and recommendations are presented to support the feasibility and safety of routine BVLOS operations for small UAS.
Mir Mustafizur Rahman
Full Text Available In an effort to minimize complex urban microclimatic variability within high-resolution (H-Res airborne thermal infrared (TIR flight-lines, we describe the Thermal Urban Road Normalization (TURN algorithm, which is based on the idea of pseudo invariant features. By assuming a homogeneous road temperature within a TIR scene, we hypothesize that any variation observed in road temperature is the effect of local microclimatic variability. To model microclimatic variability, we define a road-object class (Road, compute the within-Road temperature variability, sample it at different spatial intervals (i.e., 10, 20, 50, and 100 m then interpolate samples over each flight-line to create an object-weighted variable temperature field (a TURN-surface. The optimal TURN-surface is then subtracted from the original TIR image, essentially creating a microclimate-free scene. Results at different sampling intervals are assessed based on their: (i ability to visually and statistically reduce overall scene variability and (ii computation speed. TURN is evaluated on three non-adjacent TABI-1800 flight-lines (~182 km2 that were acquired in 2012 at night over The City of Calgary, Alberta, Canada. TURN also meets a recent GEOBIA (Geospatial Object Based Image Analysis challenge by incorporating existing GIS vector objects within the GEOBIA workflow, rather than relying exclusively on segmentation methods.
Lankots, Epp, 1976-
18. sajandil ehitatud, 2001. a. Eesti Apostlik-Õigeusu Kirikule tagastatud kirikuhoone restaureerimine. Ees on interjööride konserveerimistööd. Uuringud: Juhan Kilumets, Eva Mölder. Arhitektuurne projekt: Tõnu Parmakson, Ilmar Kannelmäe. Konstruktiivne projekt: Aleksander Danil. Teostus: J. Kilumets (Rändmeister), T. Parmakson (Frantsiskus), E. Mölder (Vana Tallinn). Ill.: 3 värv. välis- ja 3 sisevaadet
Seaver, Urmas, 1973-
Ilmunud ka: Postimees : na russkom jazõke 26. jaan. lk. 4. Tallinn ostab OÜ-lt Celsea 150 miljoni krooni eest kuus krunti Harju tänava ääres, et rajada varemete asemele sügiseks haljasala. Tallinna abilinnapea Taavi Aasa sõnul ei ole tehing linnale kahjulik, linnavolikogu Isamaaliidu fraktsioon plaani ei toeta
Arvustus: Lea Kõiv. Paul Johansen und das Stadtarchiv Reval/Tallinn. - Nordosteuropa als Geschichtsregion. Helsinki : Aue-Stiftung; Lübeck : Schmict-Röhmild, 2006. Lk. 45-59. Artiklis on kasutatud seni avalikkusele vähetuntud materjale ja osaliselt käsitletud avalikke vaidlusi, kuhu olid segatud nii Paul Johansen kui järgmine linnaarhivaar Rudolf Kenkmaa
Cats, O.; Reimal, T.; Susilo, Y.
Cities worldwide are looking for new policies to attract travelers to shift from cars to public transport. Policies focused on reducing public transport fares are aimed at improving social inclusion and leading to a modal shift. The City of Tallinn, the capital of Estonia, has recently introduced a
Laks, Tiiu, 1984-
5.-8. juunini 2010 toimuvast rahvusvahelisest festivalist Tallinn Treff. Hollandi trupi DudaPaiva lavastusest "Needus". Nukunäitleja Neville Tranteri (Austraalia-Holland) lavastusest "Punch ja Judy Afganistanis". Stef Vettersi (Belgia) etendusest "Tema kõrgeausus Ottfriedi tundmatu maailm"
15. Pimedate Ööde Filmifestivali ja Euroopa Kultuuripealinna Tallinn 2011 koostöös alguse saanud noortele animavallas tegutsevatele professionaalidele mõeldud koolitussarjast AnimaCampus, rahvusvahelise filmituru Black Market ja programmi "60 sekundit üksindust aastal Null" toetamisest
Euroopa kultuuripealinnade hindamiskomisjoni esimees räägib oma kohtumisest Tallinna linnapea Edgar Savisaare ja kultuuriministri Laine Jänesega ning sellest, et Tallinnal ja Eestil tuleb lisatoetuse saamiseks saata Euroopa Komisjonile vaid kiri, milles nad kinnitavad, et kultuuripealinna programmi jaoks on raha olemas
Aral, S O; St Lawrence, J S; Uusküla, A
It is important to describe and understand the underlying patterns and dynamics that govern sex work in societies undergoing rapid political and social changes, its heterogeneity across populations, and its evolution through time in order to inform future research, sound policy formation, and programme delivery. To describe the socioeconomic and cultural determinants, organisational structure, distinct categories, and spatial patterning of sex work in Tallinn, Estonia, and identify recent temporal changes in sex work patterns. In-depth interviews with key informants; naturalistic observations of sex work and drug use venues, geo-mapping of sex work sites, review of media, public policy, and commissioned reports, and analyses of existing data. Sex work takes place in a hierarchy of locations in Tallinn ranging from elite brothels and "love flats" to truck stops. These sites vary in terms of their public health importance and social organisation. There are full time, part time, and intermittent male and female sex workers. Among others, the taxi driver, madam and the bartender are central roles in the organisation of sex work in Tallinn. Cell phone and internet technology enable sex work to be highly dispersed and spatially mobile. Future research and programmatic service delivery or outreach efforts should respond to the changing profile of sex work in Tallinn and its implications for STD/HIV epidemiology.
Tallinn Fashion Week'i üritustest. Ülevaade eesti moekunstnike loomingu esitlustest. Näitus "Uus Eesti moejoonistus" Arhitektuuri- ja Disainigaleriis. Anu Hindi moefotonäitus "Aeg maha 3" Iida galeriis. Raamatu "Eesti moepiibel 2010" esitlus Rotermanni kvartali kohvikus Platz. Oksana Tanditi ja Filippo Caroti moefotonäitus "Butterflies" Tallinna botaanikaaias
Woods-Vedeler, Jessica A.; Knutson, Jeffrey R.; Schuster, David M.; Tyler, Erik D.
In 2007, the NASA Exploration Systems Mission Directorate (ESMD) chartered the NASA Engineering Safety Center (NESC) to demonstrate an alternate launch abort concept as risk mitigation for the Orion project's baseline "tower" design. On July 8, 2009, a full scale, passive aerodynamically stabilized Max Launch Abort System (MLAS) pad abort demonstrator was successfully launched from NASA Goddard Space Flight Center's Wallops Flight Facility. Aerodynamic close-outs were required to cover openings on the MLAS fairing to prevent aerodynamic flow-through and to maintain the MLAS OML surface shape. Two-ply duct tape covers were designed to meet these needs. The duct tape used was a high strength fiber reinforced duct tape with a rubberized adhesive that demonstrated 4.6 lb/in adhesion strength to the unpainted fiberglass fairing. Adhesion strength was observed to increase as a function of time. The covers were analyzed and experimentally tested to demonstrate their ability to maintain integrity under anticipated vehicle ascent pressure loads and to not impede firing of the drogue chute mortars. Testing included vacuum testing and a mortar fire test. Tape covers were layed-up on thin Teflon sheets to facilitate installation on the vehicle. Custom cut foam insulation board was used to fill mortar hole and separation joint cavities and provide support to the applied tape covers. Flight test results showed that the tape covers remained adhered during flight.
Full Text Available The perception of elements in a system often creates their interdependence, interconditionality, and suppression. The lines from a basic geometrical element have become the model of a reductive world based on isolation according to certain criteria such as function, structure, and social organization. Their traces are experienced in the contemporary world as fragments or ruins of a system of domination of an assumed hierarchical unity. How can one release oneself from such dependence or determinism? How can the lines become less “systematic” and forms more autonomous, and less reductive? How is a form released from modernistic determinism on the new controversial ground? How can these elements or forms of representation become forms of action in the present complex world? In this paper, the meaning of lines through the ideas of Le Corbusier, Leonidov, Picasso, and Hitchcock is presented. Spatial research was made through a series of examples arising from the projects of the architectural studio “Residential Transformations”, which was a backbone for mapping the possibilities ranging from playfulness to exactness, as tactics of transformation in the different contexts of the contemporary world.
Gu, Wan-Yi; Liu, Mei-Xian; Sun, Bao-Qing; Guo, Ming-Quan; Wu, Jian-Lin; Li, Na
Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) play a pivotal role in the biological effects, and are the potential biomarkers for some diseases. However, the structural diversity and similarity, the low concentration, and the interference of high abundant endogenous components challenge the PUFAs profiling. Herein, a novel analytical approach, off-line and on-line solid phase extraction-nano-liquid chromatography-quadrupole-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (off-line and on-line SPE-nano-LC-Q-TOF-MS), was established to monitor the PUFAs. The combination of off-line and on-line SPE removed most of impurities, and the recoveries ranged from 80.1% to 93.0% and the matrix effects were from 85.1% to 92.8%. Using this method, 51 PUFAs could be separated well and quantified with the limits of quantification between 0.006 and 2.2 pg. Finally, this developed method was applied successfully to simultaneously qualify and quantify the potential biomarkers in the allergic patients. 21 PUFAs including LTB 4, 5S-, 11S-, 15S-HETE and 15S-HEPE showed significant differences. Our study indicated that the established method has the potential to sensitively and accurately determine the PUFAs in biological samples. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Pai, Meelis, 1968-
30. maist 6. juunini toimuvast rahvusvahelisest nukuteatrifestivalist "Tallinn Treff" ning selle alafestivalist "Noor vaim" annavad ülevaate festivali peakorraldaja Meelis Pai, kusntiline juht Vahut Keller ja "Noor vaimu" juht Reeda Toots
Full Text Available The present paper demonstrates the teaching approach in programming basics course for novices: schoolchildren of different ages and schoolteachers. This programming course was developed at the Institute of Informatics at Tallinn University of Technology in Tallinn, Estonia and it based on many years experience in teaching programming for non-IT first year students. The main aim of the chosen teaching approach in the course is to raise the motivation and keep the learners’ interest in programming field on the high level. The idea of developed teaching technique is the implementation of the visual programming before a serious textual coding. Furthermore, authors suggest readers some ways and methods to overcome learners’ difficulties in the first stage in a textual coding.
Pärna, Kersti; Lang, Katrin; Raju, Kadi; Väli, Marika; McKee, Martin
To understand the phenomenon of consumption of surrogate and illegal alcohols in Tallinn, capital of Estonia. This study, conducted in Tallinn in May 2006, used rapid situation assessment. Interviews with key informants in relevant settings such as emergency departments of hospitals, accommodation for the homeless, police etc. (n = 22), with alcohol abusers (n = 33), natural observations of surrogate sale and consumption venues (n = 46), and tracking of trade data were carried out. Key informants confirmed that consumption of illegal and surrogate alcohols are widely used by alcohol abusers, a finding confirmed by the alcohol abusers. Availability of surrogates varied by area of the city, mainly sold from street kiosks. Illegally produced spirits were also easily available. Sales of surrogates appear to have increased in recent years. A range of alcohol-containing substances that appear to be easily available at low cost, and that have high concentration of ethanol or contaminants known to be toxic, were identified in Tallinn. Alcohol policies in Estonia should address the consumption and availability of these substances.
Lee, D.A.; Costanzo, D.A.; Stinton, D.P.; Carpenter, J.A.; Rainey, W.T. Jr.; Canada, D.C.; Carter, J.A.
The carbonization, conversion, and coating processes in the manufacture of HTGR fuel particles have been studied with the use of a time-of-flight mass spectrometer. Non-condensable effluents from these fluidized-bed processes have been monitored continuously from the beginning to the end of the process. The processes which have been monitored are these: uranium-loaded ion exchange resin carbonization, the carbothermic reduction of UO 2 to UC 2 , buffer and low temperature isotropic pyrocarbon coatings of fuel kernels, SiC coating of the kernels, and high-temperature particle annealing. Changes in concentrations of significant molecules with time and temperature have been useful in the interpretation of reaction mechanisms and optimization of process procedures
Xu, Y Y; Wang, M G; Jia, J F
Seeds of sainfoin (Onobrychis vicaefolia Scop.) were carried in the recoverable satellite 940703 and recovered from earth orbit from China in 1994. The progeny seeds were obtained by producing in field. The salt tolerant calluses were selected by screening seedling and callus on 1.5% NaCl-containing medium, reviving growth on NaCl- free medium and selecting callus on 1.2% NaCl-containing medium. The salt tolerant line callus maintained the normal ability to regenerate plant. The salt tolerant line callus exhibited cross-resistance to PEG stress. The variant appeared higher efficiency than control to accumulate proline under salt stress, however, under nonstress condition it had lower proline level than control, which suggested that the higher efficiency to synthesize proline under stress condition may be more important than higher level in tissue under nonstress condition. The mechanism of proline synthesis in the selected callus was considered to result from the alteration in gene sensitivity to water regulation at transcription level. Acrylamide gradient electrophoresis showed that new isoenzyme form with MW 175 kD and 75 kD of superoxide dismutase and esterase respectively appeared in salt torlerant callus. It was indicated that the combination of space mutagenesis with tissue culture could be used for the selection of salt tolerant sainfoin line in vitro.
Lamy, P. L.; Vivès, S.; Curdt, W.; Damé, L.; Davila, J.; Defise, J.-M.; Fineschi, S.; Heinzel, P.; Howard, Russel; Kuzin, S.; Schmutz, W.; Tsinganos, K.; Zhukov, A.
Classical externally-occulted coronagraphs are presently limited in their performances by the distance between the external occulter and the front objective. The diffraction fringe from the occulter and the vignetted pupil which degrades the spatial resolution prevent useful observations of the white light corona inside typically 2-2.5 solar radii (Rsun). Formation flying offers and elegant solution to these limitations and allows conceiving giant, externally-occulted coronagraphs using a two-component space system with the external occulter on one spacecraft and the optical instrument on the other spacecraft at a distance of hundred meters [1, 2]. Such an instrument ASPIICS (Association de Satellites Pour l'Imagerie et l'Interférométrie de la Couronne Solaire) has been selected by the European Space Agency (ESA) to fly on its PROBA-3 mission of formation flying demonstration which is presently in phase B (Fig. 1). The classical design of an externally-occulted coronagraph is adapted to the formation flying configuration allowing the detection of the very inner corona as close as 0.04 solar radii from the solar limb. By tuning the position of the occulter spacecraft, it may even be possible to reach the chromosphere and the upper part of the spicules . ASPIICS will perform (i) high spatial resolution imaging of the continuum K+F corona in photometric and polarimetric modes, (ii) high spatial resolution imaging of the E-corona in two coronal emission lines (CEL): Fe XIV and He I D3, and (iii) two-dimensional spectrophotometry of the Fe XIV emission line. ASPIICS will address the question of the coronal heating and the role of waves by characterizing propagating fluctuations (waves and turbulence) in the solar wind acceleration region and by looking for oscillations in the intensity and Doppler shift of spectral lines. The combined imaging and spectral diagnostics capabilities available with ASPIICS will allow mapping the velocity field of the corona both in the
Casaburi, A; Esposito, E; Ejrnaes, M; Cristiano, R; Suzuki, K; Ohkubo, M; Pagano, S
We present the fabrication and characterization of the latest generation of superconducting strip-line detectors (SSLD) for application in time-of-flight mass spectrometer (TOF MS) of heavy molecules. The SSLD is realized in the parallel strip-line configuration to achieve a 2 × 2 mm 2 sensitive area. The parallel SSLD is mounted in a TOF MS and tested at 4.2 K under bombardment of lysozyme molecules. The detector exhibits output pulses with rise and fall times of 500 ps and 2.3 ns respectively. We also present measurements of the time evolution during the acquisition of the singly and doubly charged monomers and singly charged dimers peaks in the mass spectrum. We argue that the observed behavior proves that parallel SSLD can perform charge state discrimination. The achievement of a 2 × 2 mm 2 sensitive area with an output pulse rise time in the region of the sub-nanosecond and a fall time of a few nanoseconds is a milestone in the development of superconducting detectors for TOF MS applications because it addresses important issues such as high mass resolution and high-throughput analysis. (paper)
Flores, Sarah L.; Chapman, Bruce D.; Tung, Waye W.; Zheng, Yang
This new interface will enable Principal Investigators (PIs), as well as UAVSAR (Uninhabited Aerial Vehicle Synthetic Aperture Radar) members to do their own flight planning and time estimation without having to request flight lines through the science coordinator. It uses an all-in-one Google Maps interface, a JPL hosted database, and PI flight requirements to design an airborne flight plan. The application will enable users to see their own flight plan being constructed interactively through a map interface, and then the flight planning software will generate all the files necessary for the flight. Afterward, the UAVSAR team can then complete the flight request, including calendaring and supplying requisite flight request files in the expected format for processing by NASA s airborne science program. Some of the main features of the interface include drawing flight lines on the map, nudging them, adding them to the current flight plan, and reordering them. The user can also search and select takeoff, landing, and intermediate airports. As the flight plan is constructed, all of its components are constantly being saved to the database, and the estimated flight times are updated. Another feature is the ability to import flight lines from previously saved flight plans. One of the main motivations was to make this Web application as simple and intuitive as possible, while also being dynamic and robust. This Web application can easily be extended to support other airborne instruments.
This thesis describes the implementation and first on-line application of a multi-reflection time-of-flight (MR-ToF) mass analyzer for high-resolution mass separation at the ISOLTRAP mass spectrometer at ISOLDE/CERN. On the one hand, the major objective was to improve ISOLTRAPs mass-measurement capabilities with respect to the ratio of delivered contaminating ions to ions of interest. On the other hand, the time necessary to purify wanted from unwanted species should be reduced as much as possible to enable access to even more exotic nuclei. The device has been set up, optimized and tested at the University of Greifswald before its move to ISOLTRAP. The achieved performance comprises mass resolving powers of up to 200000 reached at observation times of 30ms and a contamination suppression of about four orders of magnitude by use of a Bradbury-Nielsen gate. With the characteristics, it outperforms clearly the so far state-of-the-art purification method of a gas-filled Penning trap. To improve the utilization o...
Arvustus: Heinz von zur Mühlen. Paul Johansen und die Sogenannten Undeutschen in Reval/Tallinn. - Nordosteuropa als Geschichtsregion. Helsinki : Aue-Stiftung :; Lübeck : Schmidt-Römhild, 2006. lk. 103-111. Paul Johanseni lähim töökaaslane kirjeldab teose "Deutsch und Undeutsch im mittelalterlichen und frühneuzeitlichen Reval" valmimist
Alter, Hugo-Eduard, 1929-2003
Kirjastuse "Edition 49" noodigraafikaga teos võitis muusikakirjastuspreemia "Frankfurt 2000". 6.-9. juunini toimub rahvusvaheline konkurss "Noor muusik ئ Tallinn 2000", millest võtavad osa kuni 13 aastased muusikud 11-st riigist. "Klassika-Eurovisiooni" Eesti võistluse finaali võitis A.-L. Bezrodnaja, kes esindab Eestit võistluse Euroopa finaalis juunis Bergenis
Järgmise aasta riigieelarvest on projekti "Tallinn Euroopa kultuuripealinn 2011" rahastamiseks eraldatud ette nähtud summast 10 miljonit krooni vähem. Tallinna abilinnapea Kaia Jäppineni sõnul on linn palunud Brüsselilt ajapikendust riigiga kokkuleppele jõudmiseks, pikendust anti 2-3 kuud
Urban areas are of increasing relevance when it comes to sustainability: First, about half of the world’s population now lives in cities (increasing to 60% by 2030). Second, cities are nowadays responsible for levels of resource consumption and waste generation that are higher beyond their share on world population. Third, cities are more vulnerable to disruptive events that can lead to restrictions on the provision of resources and to changes on the environment caused by climate change. And fourth, because they concentrate key resources (political, social, cultural…), cities are seen as strategic scenarios where to experiment and develop solutions to cope with the prevailing sustainability challenges driven by the major social and environmental transformations. Urban agglomerations can be seen as complex innovation systems where human activities are shaped in order to transform societies towards sustainable development. For this paper, we focus on the case of an environmental innovation regarding transport policy, the implementation of the fare-free policy on public transport for all inhabitants of Tallinn, Estonia. Tallinn, with 414,000 inhabitants in 2015, is the capital of Estonia and the largest city in the country. Over the last two decades the share of public transport trips decreased dramatically. After a public opinion poll in 2012, in which over 75% of the participants voted for a fare-free public transportation system (FFPTS) in Tallinn, the new policy was implemented on 1st January 2013. From that date on inhabitants of Tallinn could use all public transport services (busses, trams, trolly-busses) operated by city-run operators for free. Later the fare-free system was implemented also on trains within Tallinn. In this paper we analyze the context, in which this policy was implemented, the main characteristics of its implementation and its actual situation. (Author)
Full Text Available Thinking about the future of educational research requires a conceptual resource that is itself both imaginative and multiple and at the same time articulates a world with those self-same characteristics. This is provided by the work of Deleuze and Guattari. Discussion of the future of research is located in a context of lifelong learning in the contemporary moment of ubiquitous electronic communication. I argue that the research process, contrary to the model of science, can be better understood as rhizomatic rather than arborescent and powered by desire rather than objectivity. Lifelong learning is a rhizome and requires a rhizomatic approach and sensibility on the part of the researcher. The hyper-connectivity of the Internet reinforces this development influencing the way research is carried out and the way its knowledge outcomes are distributed and used – a research without hierarchy and authority.
Full Text Available The distribution, morphology, fillings, and origin of buried valleys are discussed. The direction of the valleys varies from NW to NE. Within the Viru-Harju Plateau the valleys have a more or less symmetric profile, but asymmetric profiles are dominating in the pre-klint area. They are mainly filled with glacial (till, glaciofluvial (sand, gravel, and pebbles, glaciolacustrine (varved clay, and marine (fine-grained sand deposits. The Tallinn valley with its tributary valleys (Saku and Sausti and fore-klint branches (Harku, Lilleküla, and Kadriorg looks like a river system. The fore-klint branches extend over 20 km in the Gulf of Finland. They are probably tributaries of the ancient river Pra-Neva. Most likely, the formation of valleys was continuous, starting from pre-Quaternary river erosion, and was sculptured by variable processes during the ice ages and influenced by flowing water during the interglacial periods.
This thesis describes the implementation and first on-line application of a multi-reflection time-of-flight (MR-ToF) mass analyzer for high-resolution mass separation at the ISOLTRAP mass spectrometer at ISOLDE/CERN. On the one hand, the major objective was to improve ISOLTRAPs mass-measurement capabilities with respect to the ratio of delivered contaminating ions to ions of interest. On the other hand, the time necessary to purify wanted from unwanted species should be reduced as much as possible to enable access to even more exotic nuclei. The device has been set up, optimized and tested at the University of Greifswald before its move to ISOLTRAP. The achieved performance comprises mass resolving powers of up to 2 x 10 5 reached at observation times of 30 ms and a contamination suppression of about four orders of magnitude by use of a Bradbury-Nielsen gate. With the characteristics, it outperforms clearly the so far state-of-the-art purification method of a gas-filled Penning trap. To improve the utilization of the MR-ToF mass analyzer, the in-trap lift method has been developed. It simplifies the application and optimization of the device, which is a crucial time factor in an on-line experiment. The device was the first of its kind successfully applied to radioactive ion beams for a mass analysis, for a mass separation (in combination with the Bradbury-Nielsen gate) as a preparatory step for a subsequent Penning-trap mass measurement and as a high-precision mass spectrometer of its own. The later was recently used for the first mass measurement of the neutron-rich calcium isotopes 53 Ca and 54 Ca. The so-far achieved mass-resolving power of 2 x 10 5 belongs to the highest reported for time-of-flight mass analyzers at all. The first successful application of the MR-ToF system as the only mass separator at ISOLTRAP resulted in the mass measurement of 82 Zn. The new mass value has been compared to mass extrapolations of the most recent Hartree-Fock-Bogolyubov (HFB
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Kaur, K.; Laanearu, J.; Annus, I.
The numerical experiments are carried out for qualitative and quantitative interpretation of a multi-phase flow processes associated with malfunctioning of the Tallinn storm-water system during rain storms. The investigations are focused on the single-line inverted siphon, which is used as under-road connection of pipes of the storm-water system under interest. A multi-phase flow solver of Computational Fluid Dynamics software OpenFOAM is used for simulating the three-phase flow dynamics in the hydraulic system. The CFD simulations are performed with different inflow rates under same initial conditions. The computational results are compared essentially in two cases 1) design flow rate and 2) larger flow rate, for emptying the initially filled inverted siphon from a slurry-fluid. The larger flow-rate situations are under particular interest to detected possible flooding. In this regard, it is anticipated that the CFD solutions provide an important insight to functioning of inverted siphon under a restricted water-flow conditions at simultaneous presence of air and slurry-fluid.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Health impact assessments (HIA use information on exposure, baseline mortality/morbidity and exposure-response functions from epidemiological studies in order to quantify the health impacts of existing situations and/or alternative scenarios. The aim of this study was to improve HIA methods for air pollution studies in situations where exposures can be estimated using GIS with high spatial resolution and dispersion modeling approaches. Methods Tallinn was divided into 84 sections according to neighborhoods, with a total population of approx. 390 000 persons. Actual baseline rates for total mortality and hospitalization with cardiovascular and respiratory diagnosis were identified. The exposure to fine particles (PM2.5 from local emissions was defined as the modeled annual levels. The model validation and morbidity assessment were based on 2006 PM10 or PM2.5 levels at 3 monitoring stations. The exposure-response coefficients used were for total mortality 6.2% (95% CI 1.6–11% per 10 μg/m3 increase of annual mean PM2.5 concentration and for the assessment of respiratory and cardiovascular hospitalizations 1.14% (95% CI 0.62–1.67% and 0.73% (95% CI 0.47–0.93% per 10 μg/m3 increase of PM10. The direct costs related to morbidity were calculated according to hospital treatment expenses in 2005 and the cost of premature deaths using the concept of Value of Life Year (VOLY. Results The annual population-weighted-modeled exposure to locally emitted PM2.5 in Tallinn was 11.6 μg/m3. Our analysis showed that it corresponds to 296 (95% CI 76528 premature deaths resulting in 3859 (95% CI 10236636 Years of Life Lost (YLL per year. The average decrease in life-expectancy at birth per resident of Tallinn was estimated to be 0.64 (95% CI 0.17–1.10 years. While in the polluted city centre this may reach 1.17 years, in the least polluted neighborhoods it remains between 0.1 and 0.3 years. When dividing the YLL by the number of
Full Text Available Guaranteeing a high-level living environment is one of the most important preconditions to the balanced and sustainable economic and social development of the European Union. Serious environmental problems can be seen in European cities, which are the places where most of the population live and which create the highest number of jobs, economic growth and added value. The level of urbanisation in Europe was 72.7% in 2010 and the UN forecast that it will increase to 82.2% by 2050. The European Green Capital Award was created in 2006 in order to recognise cities that have contributed to the improvement of their quality of life. The cities that have won the award have started using the most innovative and efficient measures for increasing the city’s competitiveness, and are an example of how to achieve sustainable development for all cities, not just capitals. The environmental indicators of cities that have won the European Green Capital Award are high. In this article the problem is analysed using the example of Tallinn, the capital of Estonia, which strives for a place among cities with the highest quality of life in Europe. The objective of this article is to analyse the areas of the city’s environmental activities and environmental organisation in the context of increasing competitiveness. The original database used by the author in this article consists of the responses given by the governments of the cities who have already been awarded the title of European Green Capital when asked to describe the impact that applying for and achieving the title had on their cities
This project focused on investigating the potential of on-line learning 'hardware-based' neural approximators and controllers to provide fault tolerance capabilities following sensor and actuator failures...
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — SSCI proposes to develop and test the Sensor integritY Management and Prognostics Technology with On-line fault Mitigation (SYMPTOM) system. The SYMPTOM assures...
Oral presentation European Symposium on Suicide and Suicidal Behaviour. Titel: ALARM, a life saving training program for inpatient mental health care staff. Tallinn, Estland (27-30 augustus 2014) Introduction Despite precautions, suicide does happen. Sometimes patients are found while attempting
Nutt, Mart, 1962-
Arvustus: Riigikogu VII, VIII ja IX koosseis. Statistikat ja kommentaare / peatoim. Aaro Mõttus. Tallinn : Riigikogu Kantselei, Eesti Rahvusraamatukogu, 2004. - Lisatud: Ott Heinapuu tutvustav sõnum retsenseeritud väljaande kohta lk. 193. - Vt. ka: http://www.riigikogu.ee/rito/index.php?id=11357
Lightfoot, Emma; Naum, Magdalena; Kadakas, Villu
, for comparative purposes. The individuals were investigated using carbon, nitrogen and oxygen stable isotope analysis. The results indicate that while all analysed individuals consumed diets based on C3 plants and animals consuming C3 plants, some individuals also consumed small amounts of C4 plants (likely......Food encodes social and cultural values and has an important role to play in defining identities. In mixed populations, diet can be used to distinguish between ‘us’ and ‘them’. This study investigates the extent to which the inhabitants of mediaeval Tallinn, an important trading centre, used food...... millet) or seafood. C 4 plants were consumed by the urban residents buried at the Church of the Holy Spirit and one or two individuals from Sulevimägi. It is thought that millet was an imported food consumed by the middle class. Marine foods were consumed by the individuals at St Catherine’s Church...
Bergström, Ida; Elfgren, Erik
At the particle physics laboratory CERN in Geneva, Switzerland, the Neutron Time-of-Flight facility has recently started the construction of a second experimental line. The new neutron beam line will unavoidably induce radiation in both the experimental area and in nearby accessible areas. Computer simulations for the minimization of the background were carried out using the FLUKA Monte Carlo simulation package. The background radiation in the new experimental area needs to be kept to a minimum during measurements. This was studied with focus on the contributions from backscattering in the beam dump. The beam dump was originally designed for shielding the outside area using a block of iron covered in concrete. However, the backscattering was never studied in detail. In this thesis, the fluences (i.e. the flux integrated over time) of neutrons and photons were studied in the experimental area while the beam dump design was modified. An optimized design was obtained by stopping the fast neutrons in a high Z mat...
Davidson, Ron; Bosworth, John T.; Jacobson, Steven R.; Thomson, Michael Pl; Jorgensen, Charles C.
inputs with the outputs provided to instrumentation only. The IFCS was not used to control the airplane. In another stage of the flight test, the Phase I pre-trained neural network was integrated into a Phase III version of the flight control system. The Phase I pretrained neural network provided realtime stability and control derivatives to a Phase III controller that was based on a stochastic optimal feedforward and feedback technique (SOFFT). This combined Phase I/III system was operated together with the research flight-control system (RFCS) of the F-15 ACTIVE during the flight test. The RFCS enables the pilot to switch quickly from the experimental- research flight mode back to the safe conventional mode. These initial IFCS ACP flight tests were completed in April 1999. The Phase I/III flight test milestone was to demonstrate, across a range of subsonic and supersonic flight conditions, that the pre-trained neural network could be used to supply real-time aerodynamic stability and control derivatives to the closed-loop optimal SOFFT flight controller. Additional objectives attained in the flight test included (1) flight qualification of a neural-network-based control system; (2) the use of a combined neural-network/closed-loop optimal flight-control system to obtain level-one handling qualities; and (3) demonstration, through variation of control gains, that different handling qualities can be achieved by setting new target parameters. In addition, data for the Phase-II (on-line-learning) neural network were collected, during the use of stacked-frequency- sweep excitation, for post-flight analysis. Initial analysis of these data showed the potential for future flight tests that will incorporate the real-time identification and on-line learning aspects of the IFCS.
A fast and sensitive method for the simultaneous analysis of a wide range of per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances in indoor dust using on-line solid phase extraction-ultrahigh performance liquid chromatography-time-of-flight-mass spectrometry.
Padilla-Sánchez, Juan Antonio; Haug, Line Småstuen
A fast and sensitive method for simultaneous determination of 18 traditional and 6 alternative per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) using solid-liquid extraction (SLE), off-line clean-up using activated carbon and on-line solid phase extraction-ultrahigh performance liquid chromatography-time-of-flight-mass spectrometry (on-line SPE-UHPLC-TOF-MS) was developed. The extraction efficiency was studied and recoveries in range the 58-114% were obtained. Extraction and injection volumes were also optimized to 2mL and 400μL, respectively. The method was validated by spiking dust from a vacuum cleaner bag that had been found to contain low levels of the PFASs in focus. Low method detection limits (MDLs) and method quantification limits (MQLs) in the range 0.008-0.846ngg(-1) and 0.027-2.820ngg(-1) were obtained, respectively. For most of the PFASs, the accuracies were between 70 and 125% in the range from 2 to100ngg(-1) dust. Intra-day and inter-day precisions were in general well below 30%. Analysis of a Standard Reference Material (SRM 2585) showed high accordance with results obtained by other laboratories. Finally, the method was applied to seven indoor dust samples, and PFAS concentrations in the range 0.02-132ngg(-1) were found. The highest median concentrations were observed for some of the alternative PFASs, such as 6:2-diPAP (25ngg(-1)), 8:2-diPAP (49ngg(-1)), and PFOPA (23ngg(-1)), illustrating the importance of inclusion of new PFASs in the analytical methods. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Mänd, Anu, 1968-
Arvustus: Kreem, Juhan. Sketches of a Clerk. Pen-and-ink Drawings in the Margins of the Medieval Accoung Books of Reval (Tallinn). (Krems, 2006). Juhan Kreemi raamat käsitleb Tallinna rae keskaegsetes arveraamatutes leiduvaid sulejoonistusi. Autor on välja selgitanud nende, esmapilgul juhuslikena näivate joonistuste otstarbe ning püüdnud nende kaudu avada tolleaegsete linnaametnike mõttemalle
On-line process monitoring of coffee roasting by resonant laser ionisation time-of-flight mass spectrometry: bridging the gap from industrial batch roasting to flavour formation inside an individual coffee bean.
Hertz-Schünemann, R; Dorfner, R; Yeretzian, C; Streibel, T; Zimmermann, R
Resonance-enhanced multiphoton ionisation time-of-flight mass spectrometry (REMPI-TOFMS) enables the fast and sensitive on-line monitoring of volatile organic compounds (VOC) formed during coffee roasting. On the one hand, REMPI-TOFMS was applied to monitor roasting gases of an industrial roaster (1500 kg/h capacity), with the aim of determining the roast degree in real-time from the transient chemical signature of VOCs. On the other hand, a previously developed μ-probe sampling device was used to analyse roasting gases from individual coffee beans. The aim was to explore fundamental processes at the individual bean level and link these to phenomena at the batch level. The pioneering single-bean experiments were conducted in two configurations: (1) VOCs formed inside a bean were sampled in situ, i.e. via a drilled μ-hole, from the interior, using a μ-probe (inside). (2) VOCs were sampled on-line in close vicinity of a single coffee bean's surface (outside). The focus was on VOCs originating from hydrolysis and pyrolytic degradation of chlorogenic acids, like feruloyl quinic acid and caffeoyl quinic acid. The single bean experiments revealed interesting phenomena. First, differences in time-intensity profiles between inside versus outside (time shift of maximum) were observed and tentatively linked to the permeability of the bean's cell walls material. Second, sharp bursts of some VOCs were observed, while others did exhibit smooth release curves. It is believed that these reflect a direct observation of bean popping during roasting. Finally, discrimination between Coffea arabica and Coffea canephora was demonstrated based on high-mass volatile markers, exclusively present in spectra of Coffea arabica. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Jürgenson, Malle, 1961-
Sisekujundus : Laika, Belka & Strelka OÜ. Autorid Malle Jürgenson, Krista Lepland, Tea Tammelaan. Ehitus : Vindento OÜ. Keraamilised skulptuurid : OÜ Asuurkeraamika ; autorid Urmas Puhkan, Külli Kõiv, Kärt Seppel, Kadri Pärnamets, Aigi Orav. Valgustid ja nagid : Steel Line Ldt. Mööblitarnijad : Saloni AS, Inspira AS. Valmis 1988.
Raud, Irina, 1945-
4. arhitektuurinäitus "Salon International de Ĺ Architecture" toimus Milanos (28.09.91-06.10.91). Eestit esindasid arhitektid Andres Alver, Tiit Trummal, Vilen Künnapu, Ain Padrik, Jüri Okas, Marika Lõoke ja Irina Raud
Urnes, James M.; Hoy, Stephen E.; Ladage, Robert N.; Stewart, James
A flight control concept that can identify aircraft stability properties and continually optimize the aircraft flying qualities has been developed by McDonnell Aircraft Company under a contract with the NASA-Dryden Flight Research Facility. This flight concept, termed the Intelligent Flight Control System, utilizes Neural Network technology to identify the host aircraft stability and control properties during flight, and use this information to design on-line the control system feedback gains to provide continuous optimum flight response. This self-repairing capability can provide high performance flight maneuvering response throughout large flight envelopes, such as needed for the National Aerospace Plane. Moreover, achieving this response early in the vehicle's development schedule will save cost.
Lobjakas, Kai, 1975-
Tallinna kohvikutest aastail 1930-2003. Vaadeldakse kohvikuid Corso/Harju, Feischner/Tallinn, Palace, Kultas/Moskva, Energia, Narva, Pärl, Pegasus, Tuluke, Szolnok, Tuljak, Vigri, Toome, Corrida, Võitlev Sõna, Robert's Coffee, Rossini, Popular. Sisekujundajad: R. Natus, V. Tomassov, K. Herman, B. Linde, J. Siirak, V. Asi, V. Tamm, L. Pärtelpoeg, N. Kultas, P. Aren, H. Karro, G. Nahkur, L. Tarvas, M. Grünberg, A. Murdmaa, M. Tammik, G. Sarv, A. Maasik, A. Nurk, R. Treu, M. Sulengo, R. Tiitus. 22 vaadet, kaart
Marston, Mike; Sternberg, Daniel; Valkov, Steffi
This document is a flight test report from the Operational perspective for Flight Test Series 3, a subpart of the Unmanned Aircraft System (UAS) Integration in the National Airspace System (NAS) project. Flight Test Series 3 testing began on June 15, 2015, and concluded on August 12, 2015. Participants included NASA Ames Research Center, NASA Armstrong Flight Research Center, NASA Glenn Research Center, NASA Langley Research center, General Atomics Aeronautical Systems, Inc., and Honeywell. Key stakeholders analyzed their System Under Test (SUT) in two distinct configurations. Configuration 1, known as Pairwise Encounters, was subdivided into two parts: 1a, involving a low-speed UAS ownship and intruder(s), and 1b, involving a high-speed surrogate ownship and intruder. Configuration 2, known as Full Mission, involved a surrogate ownship, live intruder(s), and integrated virtual traffic. Table 1 is a summary of flights for each configuration, with data collection flights highlighted in green. Section 2 and 3 of this report give an in-depth description of the flight test period, aircraft involved, flight crew, and mission team. Overall, Flight Test 3 gathered excellent data for each SUT. We attribute this successful outcome in large part from the experience that was acquired from the ACAS Xu SS flight test flown in December 2014. Configuration 1 was a tremendous success, thanks to the training, member participation, integration/testing, and in-depth analysis of the flight points. Although Configuration 2 flights were cancelled after 3 data collection flights due to various problems, the lessons learned from this will help the UAS in the NAS project move forward successfully in future flight phases.
[Nordosteuropa als Geschichtsregion : Beiträge des III. Internationalen Symposiums zur Deutschen Kultur und Geschichte im Europäischen Nordosten vom 20. - 22. September 2001 in Tallinn (Estland)] / Janet Laidla
Laidla, Janet, 1982-
Arvustus: Nordosteuropa als Geschichtsregion : Beiträge des III. Internationalen Symposiums zur Deutschen Kultur und Geschichte im Europäischen Nordosten vom 20. - 22. September 2001 in Tallinn (Estland). (Helsinki : Aue-Stiftung ; Lübeck : Scmidt-Römhild, 2006)
Heikkinen, Anja, Ed.; Jogi, Larissa, Ed.; Jutte, Wolfgang, Ed.; Zarifis, Georgios K., Ed.
This edited volume contains the papers presented in the 2nd ESREA|ReNAdet meeting that was jointly organised with the VET & CULTURE Network in the University of Tallinn (Estonia), 9-11 November 2011. The papers that appear in the volume discuss the future (or the futures) of adult educators in respect to issues of developing their identities…
Arvustus : Nordosteuropa als Geschichtsregion. Beiträge des III. Internationalen Symposiums zur deutschen Kultur und Geschichte im europäischen Nordosten vom 20.-22. September 2001 in Tallinn. Lübeck : Verlag Schmidt-Römhild 2006. (Veröffentlihungen der Aue-Stiftung. 17)
Arhitektibüroo Emil Urbel OÜ projekteeritud Tallinna Aaviku elamurajoon märgiti ära arhitektuurikonkursil "Parim Euroopas - värv". Eestist kuulus nominente esitanud žüriisse arhitekt Markus Kaasik
Jüri Sillarti mängufilm "Kuldrannake". Kunagise retrobändi kokkutulekut kujutava filmi stsenarist on Hans Luik oma näidendi "Tõe hetk" põhjal, operaator on Mait Mäekivi, produtsendid Kristian Taska ja Hans H. Luik, tootjafirmaks Taska Productions. Lisatud Jüri Sillarti filmograafia lk. 83
Capillary isoelectric focusing of probiotic bacteria from cow's milk in tapered fused silica capillary with off-line matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry identification
Horká, Marie; Karásek, Pavel; Šalplachta, Jiří; Růžička, F.; Vykydalová, Marie; Kubesová, Anna; Dráb, V.; Roth, Michal; Šlais, Karel
Roč. 788, JUL (2013), s. 193-199 ISSN 0003-2670 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP106/12/0522; GA MV VG20102015023 Institutional support: RVO:68081715 Keywords : capillary isoelectric focusing * matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry * lactic acid bacteria Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation Impact factor: 4.517, year: 2013
The birds formation flight is studied by means oftheoretical aerodynamics, heuristic methods anddistributed systems. A simplified aerodynamic analog is presented, and calculations of drag savings and flight range are shown for sometypical cases, including the line abreast flightwith various...
Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Aircraft Simulation Division, home to the Manned Flight Simulator (MFS), provides real-time, high fidelity, hardware-in-the-loop flight simulation capabilities...
The Time-Of-Flight system of ALICE consists of 90 such modules, each containing 15 or 19 Multigap Resistive Plate Chamber (MRPC) strips. This detector is used for identification of charged particles. It measures with high precision (50 ps) the time of flight of charged particles and therefore their velocity. The curvature of the particle trajectory inside the magnetic field gives the momentum, thus the particle mass is calculated and the particle is identified The MRPC is a stack of resistive glass plates, separated from each other by nylon fishing line. The mass production of the chambers (~1600, covering a surface of 150 m2) was done at INFN Bologna, while the first prototypes were bult at CERN.
The flight test objectives are: Evaluate calculated air data system (CADS) experiment. Evaluate Honeywell SIGI (GPS/INS) under flight conditions. Flight operation control center (FOCC) site integration and flight test operations. Flight test and tune GN&C algorithms. Conduct PID maneuvers to improve the X-37 aero database. Develop computer air date system (CADS) flight data to support X-37 system design.
data recorders, and (e) line operations safety audits ( LOSA ), Each illuminates a different aspect of flight operations. Helmreich, Wilhelm, Klinect, and...Merritt, (2001) studied threats to safcty and the nature of errors in three airlines using LOSAs . Striking differences were observed among these air
Tobalske, Bret W
Power output is a unifying theme for bird flight and considerable progress has been accomplished recently in measuring muscular, metabolic and aerodynamic power in birds. The primary flight muscles of birds, the pectoralis and supracoracoideus, are designed for work and power output, with large stress (force per unit cross-sectional area) and strain (relative length change) per contraction. U-shaped curves describe how mechanical power output varies with flight speed, but the specific shapes and characteristic speeds of these curves differ according to morphology and flight style. New measures of induced, profile and parasite power should help to update existing mathematical models of flight. In turn, these improved models may serve to test behavioral and ecological processes. Unlike terrestrial locomotion that is generally characterized by discrete gaits, changes in wing kinematics and aerodynamics across flight speeds are gradual. Take-off flight performance scales with body size, but fully revealing the mechanisms responsible for this pattern awaits new study. Intermittent flight appears to reduce the power cost for flight, as some species flap-glide at slow speeds and flap-bound at fast speeds. It is vital to test the metabolic costs of intermittent flight to understand why some birds use intermittent bounds during slow flight. Maneuvering and stability are critical for flying birds, and design for maneuvering may impinge upon other aspects of flight performance. The tail contributes to lift and drag; it is also integral to maneuvering and stability. Recent studies have revealed that maneuvers are typically initiated during downstroke and involve bilateral asymmetry of force production in the pectoralis. Future study of maneuvering and stability should measure inertial and aerodynamic forces. It is critical for continued progress into the biomechanics of bird flight that experimental designs are developed in an ecological and evolutionary context.
Hedenström, Anders; Johansson, L Christoffer
Bats evolved the ability of powered flight more than 50 million years ago. The modern bat is an efficient flyer and recent research on bat flight has revealed many intriguing facts. By using particle image velocimetry to visualize wake vortices, both the magnitude and time-history of aerodynamic forces can be estimated. At most speeds the downstroke generates both lift and thrust, whereas the function of the upstroke changes with forward flight speed. At hovering and slow speed bats use a leading edge vortex to enhance the lift beyond that allowed by steady aerodynamics and an inverted wing during the upstroke to further aid weight support. The bat wing and its skeleton exhibit many features and control mechanisms that are presumed to improve flight performance. Whereas bats appear aerodynamically less efficient than birds when it comes to cruising flight, they have the edge over birds when it comes to manoeuvring. There is a direct relationship between kinematics and the aerodynamic performance, but there is still a lack of knowledge about how (and if) the bat controls the movements and shape (planform and camber) of the wing. Considering the relatively few bat species whose aerodynamic tracks have been characterized, there is scope for new discoveries and a need to study species representing more extreme positions in the bat morphospace. © 2015. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.
Helmreich, R. L.
A programme of research into the determinants of flight crew performance in commercial and military aviation is described, along with limitations and advantages associated with the conduct of research in such settings. Preliminary results indicate significant relationships among personality factors, attitudes regarding flight operations, and crew performance. The potential theoretical and applied utility of the research and directions for further research are discussed.
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Modern flight-critical systems include hundreds of thousands to millions of lines of code. The Boeing 777, for instance, includes over 2 million lines of code....
The extremely long migration flights of some birds are carried out in one hop, necessitating a substantial prior build-up of fat fuel. We summarize the basic elements of bird flight physics with a simple model, and show how the fat reserves influence flight distance, flight speed and the power expended by the bird during flight. (paper)
The extremely long migration flights of some birds are carried out in one hop, necessitating a substantial prior build-up of fat fuel. We summarize the basic elements of bird flight physics with a simple model, and show how the fat reserves influence flight distance, flight speed and the power expended by the bird during flight.
Stengle, Tom; Flores-Amaya, Felipe
This report summarizes the major activities and accomplishments carried out by the Flight Dynamics Analysis Branch (FDAB), Code 572, in support of flight projects and technology development initiatives in fiscal year 2000. The report is intended to serve as a summary of the type of support carried out by the FDAB, as well as a concise reference of key accomplishments and mission experience derived from the various mission support roles. The primary focus of the FDAB is to provide expertise in the disciplines of flight dynamics, spacecraft trajectory, attitude analysis, and attitude determination and control. The FDAB currently provides support for missions and technology development projects involving NASA, government, university, and private industry.
Stengel, Robert F.
Flight control systems can benefit by being designed to emulate functions of natural intelligence. Intelligent control functions fall in three categories: declarative, procedural, and reflexive. Declarative actions involve decision-making, providing models for system monitoring, goal planning, and system/scenario identification. Procedural actions concern skilled behavior and have parallels in guidance, navigation, and adaptation. Reflexive actions are more-or-less spontaneous and are similar to inner-loop control and estimation. Intelligent flight control systems will contain a hierarchy of expert systems, procedural algorithms, and computational neural networks, each expanding on prior functions to improve mission capability to increase the reliability and safety of flight and to ease pilot workload.
Carter, John; Stephenson, Mark
The NASA Dryden Flight Research Center has completed the initial flight test of a modified set of F/A-18 flight control computers that gives the aircraft a research control law capability. The production support flight control computers (PSFCC) provide an increased capability for flight research in the control law, handling qualities, and flight systems areas. The PSFCC feature a research flight control processor that is "piggybacked" onto the baseline F/A-18 flight control system. This research processor allows for pilot selection of research control law operation in flight. To validate flight operation, a replication of a standard F/A-18 control law was programmed into the research processor and flight-tested over a limited envelope. This paper provides a brief description of the system, summarizes the initial flight test of the PSFCC, and describes future experiments for the PSFCC.
Ren Weibo; Xu Zhu; Chen Libo; Guo Huiqin; Wang Mi; Zhao Liang
To understand the cytological effects of space flight on alfalfa seeds, dry seeds of three lines (Line 1, Line 2 and Line 4) were selected and loaded onto 'Shijian No.8' satellite for space flight. After returning to the ground, root tips of alfalfa were clipped and chromosome aberrations were observed by microscope. Data showed that space flight had two types of effect on cell mitotic: one was positive (Line 2, Line 4) and the other was negative (Line 1). Such chromosome aberrations were observed as micronucleus, chromosome bridge, fragments, lagging and so on. The frequency of aberration varied with the different materials. Conclusion was that space flight had significant effect on root tip cells, which mainly showed as the chromosome aberrations. (authors)
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The AES Core Flight Software (CFS) project purpose is to analyze applicability, and evolve and extend the reusability of the CFS system originally developed by...
Lynch, John P. (Editor)
This conference publication includes papers and abstracts presented at the Flight Mechanics Symposium held on May 18-20, 1999. Sponsored by the Guidance, Navigation and Control Center of Goddard Space Flight Center, this symposium featured technical papers on a wide range of issues related to orbit-attitude prediction, determination, and control; attitude sensor calibration; attitude determination error analysis; attitude dynamics; and orbit decay and maneuver strategy. Government, industry, and the academic community participated in the preparation and presentation of these papers.
The topics are presented in viewgraph form and include the following: adaptive structures flight experiments; enhanced resolution using active vibration suppression; Advanced Controls Technology Experiment (ACTEX); ACTEX program status; ACTEX-2; ACTEX-2 program status; modular control patch; STRV-1b Cryocooler Vibration Suppression Experiment; STRV-1b program status; Precision Optical Bench Experiment (PROBE); Clementine Spacecraft Configuration; TECHSAT all-composite spacecraft; Inexpensive Structures and Materials Flight Experiment (INFLEX); and INFLEX program status.
Smith, Scott M.; Zwart, Sara R.
Magnesium is an essential nutrient for muscle, cardiovascular, and bone health on Earth, and during space flight. We sought to evaluate magnesium status in 43 astronauts (34 male, 9 female; 47 ± 5 years old, mean ± SD) before, during, and after 4–6-month space missions. We also studied individuals participating in a ground analog of space flight (head-down-tilt bed rest; n = 27 (17 male, 10 female), 35 ± 7 years old). We evaluated serum concentration and 24-h urinary excretion of magnesium, along with estimates of tissue magnesium status from sublingual cells. Serum magnesium increased late in flight, while urinary magnesium excretion was higher over the course of 180-day space missions. Urinary magnesium increased during flight but decreased significantly at landing. Neither serum nor urinary magnesium changed during bed rest. For flight and bed rest, significant correlations existed between the area under the curve of serum and urinary magnesium and the change in total body bone mineral content. Tissue magnesium concentration was unchanged after flight and bed rest. Increased excretion of magnesium is likely partially from bone and partially from diet, but importantly, it does not come at the expense of muscle tissue stores. While further study is needed to better understand the implications of these findings for longer space exploration missions, magnesium homeostasis and tissue status seem well maintained during 4–6-month space missions. PMID:26670248
generatings lines of flith (ways out, creating weapons for resistance and creation.
The modified BQM-34 Firebee II drone with Aeroelastic Research Wing (ARW-1), a supercritical airfoil, during a 1980 research flight. The remotely-piloted vehicle, which was air launched from NASA's NB-52B mothership, participated in the Drones for Aerodynamic and Structural Testing (DAST) program which ran from 1977 to 1983. The DAST 1 aircraft (Serial #72-1557), pictured, crashed on 12 June 1980 after its right wing ripped off during a test flight near Cuddeback Dry Lake, California. The crash occurred on the modified drone's third free flight. These are the image contact sheets for each image resolution of the NASA Dryden Drones for Aerodynamic and Structural Testing (DAST) Photo Gallery. From 1977 to 1983, the Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, (under two different names) conducted the DAST Program as a high-risk flight experiment using a ground-controlled, pilotless aircraft. Described by NASA engineers as a 'wind tunnel in the sky,' the DAST was a specially modified Teledyne-Ryan BQM-34E/F Firebee II supersonic target drone that was flown to validate theoretical predictions under actual flight conditions in a joint project with the Langley Research Center, Hampton, Virginia. The DAST Program merged advances in electronic remote control systems with advances in airplane design. Drones (remotely controlled, missile-like vehicles initially developed to serve as gunnery targets) had been deployed successfully during the Vietnamese conflict as reconnaissance aircraft. After the war, the energy crisis of the 1970s led NASA to seek new ways to cut fuel use and improve airplane efficiency. The DAST Program's drones provided an economical, fuel-conscious method for conducting in-flight experiments from a remote ground site. DAST explored the technology required to build wing structures with less than normal stiffness. This was done because stiffness requires structural weight but ensures freedom from flutter-an uncontrolled, divergent oscillation of
Full Text Available Unlike airplanes birds must have either flapping or oscillating wings (the hummingbird. Only such wings can produce both lift and thrust – two sine qua non attributes of flying.The bird wings have several possibilities how to obtain the same functions as airplane wings. All are realized by the system of flight feathers. Birds have also the capabilities of adjusting the shape of the wing according to what the immediate flight situation demands, as well as of responding almost immediately to conditions the flow environment dictates, such as wind gusts, object avoidance, target tracking, etc. In bird aerodynamics also the tail plays an important role. To fly, wings impart downward momentum to the surrounding air and obtain lift by reaction. How this is achieved under various flight situations (cruise flight, hovering, landing, etc., and what the role is of the wing-generated vortices in producing lift and thrust is discussed.The issue of studying bird flight experimentally from in vivo or in vitro experiments is also briefly discussed.
The photograph depicts the X-37 neutral buoyancy simulator mockup at Dryden Flight Research Center. The X-37 experimental launch vehicle is roughly 27.5 feet (8.3 meters) long and 15 feet (4.5 meters) in wingspan. Its experiment bay is 7 feet (2.1 meters) long and 4 feet (1.2 meters) in diameter. Designed to operate in both the orbital and reentry phases of flight, the X-37 will increase both safety and reliabiltiy, while reducing launch costs from $10,000 per pound to $1000 per pound. Managed by Marshall Space Flight Center and built by the boeing Company, the X-37 is scheduled to fly two orbital missions in 2002/2003 to test the reusable launch vehicle technologies.
A field survey of metal binding to metallothionein and other cytosolic ligands in liver of eels using an on-line isotope dilution method in combination with size exclusion (SE) high pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) coupled to Inductively Coupled Plasma time-of-flight Mass Spectrometry (ICP-TOFMS).
Van Campenhout, Karen; Goenaga Infante, Heidi; Goemans, Geert; Belpaire, Claude; Adams, Freddy; Blust, Ronny; Bervoets, Lieven
The effect of metal exposure on the accumulation and cytosolic speciation of metals in livers of wild populations of European eel with special emphasis on metallothioneins (MT) was studied. Four sampling sites in Flanders showing different degrees of heavy metal contamination were selected for this purpose. An on-line isotope dilution method in combination with size exclusion (SE) high pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) coupled to Inductively Coupled Plasma time-of-flight Mass Spectrometry (ICP-TOFMS) was used to study the cytosolic speciation of the metals. The distribution of the metals Cd, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn among cytosolic fractions displayed strong differences. The cytosolic concentration of Cd, Ni and Pb increased proportionally with the total liver levels. However, the cytosolic concentrations of Cu and Zn only increased above a certain liver tissue threshold level. Cd, Cu and Zn, but not Pb and Ni, were largely associated with the MT pool in correspondence with the environmental exposure and liver tissue concentrations. Most of the Pb and Ni and a considerable fraction of Cu and Zn, but not Cd, were associated to High Molecular Weight (HMW) fractions. The relative importance of the Cu and Zn in the HMW fraction decreased with increasing contamination levels while the MT pool became progressively more important. The close relationship between the cytosolic metal load and the total MT levels or the metals bound on the MT pool indicates that the metals, rather than other stress factors, are the major factor determining MT induction.
Larsen, Ole Næsbye; Andersen, Bent Bach; Kropp, Wibke
In a pilot experiment a European Robin, Erithacus rubecula, expressing migratory restlessness with a stable orientation, was video filmed in the dark with an infrared camera and its directional migratory activity was recorded. The flight overhead of migrating conspecifics uttering nocturnal...... flight calls was simulated by sequential computer controlled activation of five loudspeakers placed in a linear array perpendicular to the bird's migration course. The bird responded to this stimulation by changing its migratory course in the direction of that of the ‘flying conspecifics' but after about...
Lynch, John P. (Editor)
This conference publication includes papers and abstracts presented at the Flight Mechanics Symposium held on June 19-21, 2001. Sponsored by the Guidance, Navigation and Control Center of Goddard Space Flight Center, this symposium featured technical papers on a wide range of issues related to attitude/orbit determination, prediction and control; attitude simulation; attitude sensor calibration; theoretical foundation of attitude computation; dynamics model improvements; autonomous navigation; constellation design and formation flying; estimation theory and computational techniques; Earth environment mission analysis and design; and, spacecraft re-entry mission design and operations.
. The High Line project has been carried out as part of an open conversion strategy. The result is a remarkable urban architectural project, which works as a catalyst for the urban development of Western Manhattan. The greater project includes the restoration and reuse of many old industrial buildings......At just over 10 meters above street level, the High Line extends three kilometers through three districts of Southwestern Manhattan in New York. It consists of simple steel construction, and previously served as an elevated rail line connection between Penn Station on 34th Street and the many...... in close proximity to the park bridge and new projects being added to fit the context. The outcome is a conglomeration of non-contemporary urban activities along the High Line, where mechanical workshops, small wholesale stores. etc. mix with new exclusive residential buildings, eminent cafés...
Waser Jürgen; Fuchs Raphael; Ribicic Hrvoje; Schindler Benjamin; Blöschl Günther; Gröller Eduard
In this paper we present World Lines as a novel interactive visualization that provides complete control over multiple heterogeneous simulation runs. In many application areas decisions can only be made by exploring alternative scenarios. The goal of the suggested approach is to support users in this decision making process. In this setting the data domain is extended to a set of alternative worlds where only one outcome will actually happen. World Lines integrate simulation visualization and...
Loftin, Charles E.; Hudson, Sandra M.
The purpose of this NASA Technical Standard is to provide the technical requirements for the NPR 8715.5, Range Flight Safety Program, in regards to protection of the public, the NASA workforce, and property as it pertains to risk analysis, Flight Safety Systems (FSS), and range flight operations. This standard is approved for use by NASA Headquarters and NASA Centers, including Component Facilities and Technical and Service Support Centers, and may be cited in contract, program, and other Agency documents as a technical requirement. This standard may also apply to the Jet Propulsion Laboratory or to other contractors, grant recipients, or parties to agreements to the extent specified or referenced in their contracts, grants, or agreements, when these organizations conduct or participate in missions that involve range flight operations as defined by NPR 87220.127.116.11.2 In this standard, all mandatory actions (i.e., requirements) are denoted by statements containing the term “shall.”1.3 TailoringTailoring of this standard for application to a specific program or project shall be formally documented as part of program or project requirements and approved by the responsible Technical Authority in accordance with NPR 8715.3, NASA General Safety Program Requirements.
Walls, Donna M. (Editor)
This conference publication includes papers and abstracts presented at the Flight Mechanics Symposium. This symposium featured technical papers on a wide range of issues related to orbit-attitude prediction, determination, and control; attitude sensor calibration; attitude determination error analysis; attitude dynamics; and orbit decay and maneuver strategy. Government, industry, and the academic community participated in the preparation and presentation of these papers.
Schkolnik, Gerard S.; Cobleigh, Brent
NASA's Strategic Plan for the Aerospace Technology Enterprise includes ambitious objectives focused on affordable air travel, reduced emissions, and expanded aviation-system capacity. NASA Dryden Flight Research Center, in cooperation with NASA Ames Research Center, the Boeing Company, and the University of California, Los Angeles, has embarked on an autonomous-formation-flight project that promises to make significant strides towards these goals. For millions of years, birds have taken advantage of the aerodynamic benefit of flying in formation. The traditional "V" formation flown by many species of birds (including gulls, pelicans, and geese) enables each of the trailing birds to fly in the upwash flow field that exists just outboard of the bird immediately ahead in the formation. The result for each trailing bird is a decrease in induced drag and thus a reduction in the energy needed to maintain a given speed. Hence, for migratory birds, formation flight extends the range of the system of birds over the range of birds flying solo. The Autonomous Formation Flight (AFF) Project is seeking to extend this symbiotic relationship to aircraft.
Álvarez-Velasco, Rodrigo; Masjuan, Jaime; DeFelipe, Alicia; Corral, Iñigo; Estévez-Fraga, Carlos; Crespo, Leticia; Alonso-Cánovas, Araceli
Stroke on board aircraft has been reported in retrospective case series, mainly focusing on economy class stroke syndrome. Data on the actual incidence, pathogenesis, and prognosis of stroke in commercial flights are lacking. A prospective registry was designed to include all consecutive patients referred from an international airport (40 million passengers a year) to our hospital with a diagnosis of ischemic stroke or transient ischemic attack and onset of symptoms during a flight or immediately after landing. Forty-four patients (32 ischemic strokes and 12 transient ischemic attacks) were included over a 76-month period (January 2008 to April 2014). The estimated incidence of stroke was 1 stroke in 35 000 flights. Pathogeneses of stroke or transient ischemic attack were atherothrombotic in 16 (36%), economy class stroke syndrome in 8 (18%), cardioembolic in 7 (16%), arterial dissection in 4 (9%), lacunar stroke in 4 (9%), and undetermined in 5 (12%) patients. Carotid stenosis >70% was found in 12 (27%) of the patients. Overall prognosis was good, and thrombolysis was applied in 44% of the cases. The most common reason for not treating patients who had experienced stroke onset midflight was the delay in reaching the hospital. Only 1 patient with symptom onset during the flight prompted a flight diversion. We found a low incidence of stroke in the setting of air travel. Economy class stroke syndrome and arterial dissection were well represented in our sample. However, the main pathogenesis was atherothrombosis with a high proportion of patients with high carotid stenosis. © 2016 American Heart Association, Inc.
Full Text Available "In an article on montage written for Cahiers du cinéma, Jean-Luc Godard made an observation that has been quoted many times in many contexts:If direction is a look, montage is a heartbeat…what one seeks to foresee in space, the other seeks in time….Cutting on a look is…to bring out the soul under the spirit, the passion behind the intrigue, to make the heart prevail over the intelligence by destroying the notion of space in favor of that of time. This passage appeared in 1956, almost three decades before Gilles Deleuze published Cinema 1: The Movement-Image and Cinema 2: The Time-Image in 1983 and 1985, respectively. Yet despite the distance between those dates, the young critic’s remark anticipates key aspects of the philosopher’s film-theoretical stance. The need to displace the notional bias toward space with a conception of time as a concrete and dynamic force is the single most vital element in the thinking of Henri Bergson, whose ideas about this subject – ramified into such areas as affect, memory, perception, language, and the ontological properties of mind itself – play indispensable roles in Deleuze’s writings on cinema and allied areas of immanence, multiplicity, and difference..."
This article explores the potential of heterotopia as a way to prompt us to think differently about children's art-making. Foucault uses the term to describe a space of difference. As something that is not easily located within a system of representation, a heterotopia is not amenable to interpretation. It is this resistance to interpretation that…
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — NASA's Ultra Long Duration Balloon (ULDB) program will soon make flights lasting up to 100 days. Some flights may generate high data rates and retrieving this data...
The bisphosphonate study is a collaborative effort between the NASA and JAXA space agencies to investigate the potential for antiresorptive drugs to mitigate bone changes associated with long-duration spaceflight. Elevated bone resorption is a hallmark of human spaceflight and bed rest (common zero-G analog). We tested whether an antiresorptive drug in combination with in-flight exercise would ameliorate bone loss and hypercalcuria during longduration spaceflight. Measurements include DXA, QCT, pQCT, and urine and blood biomarkers. We have completed analysis of 7 crewmembers treated with alendronate during flight and the immediate postflight (R+week) data collection in 5 of 10 controls without treatment. Both groups used the advanced resistive exercise device (ARED) during their missions. We previously reported the pre/postflight results of crew taking alendronate during flight (Osteoporosis Int. 24:2105-2114, 2013). The purpose of this report is to present the 12-month follow-up data in the treated astronauts and to compare these results with preliminary data from untreated crewmembers exercising with ARED (ARED control) or without ARED (Pre-ARED control). Results: the table presents DXA and QCT BMD expressed as percentage change from preflight in the control astronauts (18 Pre-ARED and the current 5 ARED-1-year data not yet available) and the 7 treated subjects. As shown previously the combination of exercise plus antiresorptive is effective in preventing bone loss during flight. Bone measures for treated subjects, 1 year after return from space remain at or near baseline values. Except in one region, the treated group maintained or gained bone 1 year after flight. Biomarker data are not currently available for either control group and therefore not presented. However, data from other studies with or without ARED show elevated bone resorption and urinary Ca excretion while bisphosphonate treated subjects show decreases during flight. Comparing the two control
He, Gang; Feyereisen, Thea; Wyatt, Sandy
This paper describes display concepts and flight tests evaluations of flight management system (FMS) flight plan integration into Honeywell's synthetic vision (SV) integrated primary flight display systems (IPFD). The prototype IPFD displays consist of primary flight symbology overlay with flight path information and flight director guidance cues on the SV external 3D background scenes. The IPFD conformal perspective-view background displays include terrain and obstacle scenes generated with Honeywell's enhanced ground proximity warning system (EGPWS) databases, runway displays generated with commercial FMS databases, and 3D flight plan information coming directly from on-board FMS systems. The flight plan display concepts include 3D waypoint representations with altitude constraints, terrain tracing curves and vectors based on airframe performances, and required navigation performance (RNP) data. The considerations for providing flight crews with intuitive views of complex approach procedures with minimal display clutter are discussed. The flight test data on-board Honeywell Citation Sovereign aircraft and pilot feedback are summarized with the emphasis on the test results involving approaches into terrainchallenged air fields with complex FMS approach procedures.
conditions affecting automatic reversion to the Class II ( cafe MRI) feature. Table C-4 shows the MRI evaluation flights in the form of the MRI weapon...range data and delta values. 28 .^i^^i^i.^.^^,. *»■ " ,II"III"I1J "’ >*H*,II|1 ■ NWC TP 595A AIRCRAFT RANGE OF NWC The aircraft ranges of
The Neural Flight Control System (NFCS) was developed to address the need for control systems that can be produced and tested at lower cost, easily adapted to prototype vehicles and for flight systems that can accommodate damaged control surfaces or changes to aircraft stability and control characteristics resulting from failures or accidents. NFCS utilizes on a neural network-based flight control algorithm which automatically compensates for a broad spectrum of unanticipated damage or failures of an aircraft in flight. Pilot stick and rudder pedal inputs are fed into a reference model which produces pitch, roll and yaw rate commands. The reference model frequencies and gains can be set to provide handling quality characteristics suitable for the aircraft of interest. The rate commands are used in conjunction with estimates of the aircraft s stability and control (S&C) derivatives by a simplified Dynamic Inverse controller to produce virtual elevator, aileron and rudder commands. These virtual surface deflection commands are optimally distributed across the aircraft s available control surfaces using linear programming theory. Sensor data is compared with the reference model rate commands to produce an error signal. A Proportional/Integral (PI) error controller "winds up" on the error signal and adds an augmented command to the reference model output with the effect of zeroing the error signal. In order to provide more consistent handling qualities for the pilot, neural networks learn the behavior of the error controller and add in the augmented command before the integrator winds up. In the case of damage sufficient to affect the handling qualities of the aircraft, an Adaptive Critic is utilized to reduce the reference model frequencies and gains to stay within a flyable envelope of the aircraft.
The flight software (FSW) math library is a collection of reusable math components that provides typical math utilities required by spacecraft flight software. These utilities are intended to increase flight software quality reusability and maintainability by providing a set of consistent, well-documented, and tested math utilities. This library only has dependencies on ANSI C, so it is easily ported. Prior to this library, each mission typically created its own math utilities using ideas/code from previous missions. Part of the reason for this is that math libraries can be written with different strategies in areas like error handling, parameters orders, naming conventions, etc. Changing the utilities for each mission introduces risks and costs. The obvious risks and costs are that the utilities must be coded and revalidated. The hidden risks and costs arise in miscommunication between engineers. These utilities must be understood by both the flight software engineers and other subsystem engineers (primarily guidance navigation and control). The FSW math library is part of a larger goal to produce a library of reusable Guidance Navigation and Control (GN&C) FSW components. A GN&C FSW library cannot be created unless a standardized math basis is created. This library solves the standardization problem by defining a common feature set and establishing policies for the library s design. This allows the libraries to be maintained with the same strategy used in its initial development, which supports a library of reusable GN&C FSW components. The FSW math library is written for an embedded software environment in C. This places restrictions on the language features that can be used by the library. Another advantage of the FSW math library is that it can be used in the FSW as well as other environments like the GN&C analyst s simulators. This helps communication between the teams because they can use the same utilities with the same feature set and syntax.
Gullett, C. C.
The health maintenance program for commercial flight crew personnel includes diet, weight control, and exercise to prevent heart disease development and disability grounding. The very high correlation between hypertension and overweight in cardiovascular diseases significantly influences the prognosis for a coronary prone individual and results in a high rejection rate of active military pilots applying for civilian jobs. In addition to physical fitness the major items stressed in pilot selection are: emotional maturity, glucose tolerance, and family health history.
approximately 1700 and dips at around 0500. Conversely, melatonin levels, which are inversely- related to alertness (Arendt, Deacon, English, Hampton...Seattle to Helsinki) on the salivary melatonin and cortisol levels in 35 female flight atten- dants has shown that the resynchronization rate of these...in both summer and winter. Salivary melatonin and cortisol levels were measured at two-hour intervals for five days before, during, and after the 4
Blanchard, Robert C.; Carter, Matthew L.; Kirsch, Michael
Analysis was done on IR data collected by DFRC on May 8, 2002. This includes the generation of a movie to initially examine the IR flight data. The production of the movie was challenged by the volume of data that needed to be processed, namely 40,500 images with each image (256 x 252) containing over 264 million points (pixel depth 4096). It was also observed during the initial analysis that the RTD surface coating has a different emissivity than the surroundings. This fact added unexpected complexity in obtaining a correlation between RTD data and IR data. A scheme was devised to generate IR data near the RTD location which is not affected by the surface coating This scheme is valid as long as the surface temperature as measured does not change too much over a few pixel distances from the RTD location. After obtaining IR data near the RTD location, it is possible to make a direct comparison with the temperature as measured during the flight after adjusting for the camera s auto scaling. The IR data seems to correlate well to the flight temperature data at three of the four RID locations. The maximum count intensity occurs closely to the maximum temperature as measured during flight. At one location (RTD #3), there is poor correlation and this must be investigated before any further progress is possible. However, with successful comparisons at three locations, it seems there is great potential to be able to find a calibration curve for the data. Moreover, as such it will be possible to measure temperature directly from the IR data in the near future.
Ribak, Gal; Barkan, Shay; Soroker, Victoria
Predicting the dispersal of pest insects is important for pest management schemes. Flight-mills provide a simple way to evaluate the flight potential of insects, but there are several complications in relating tethered-flight to natural flight. We used high-speed video to evaluate the effect of flight-mill design on flight of the red palm weevil (Rynchophorous ferruginneus) in four variants of a flight-mill. Two variants had the rotating radial arm pivoted on the main shaft of the rotation axis, allowing freedom to elevate the arm as the insect applied lift force. Two other variants had the pivot point fixed, restricting the radial arm to horizontal motion. Beetles were tethered with their lateral axis horizontal or rotated by 40°, as in a banked turn. Flight-mill type did not affect flight speed or wing-beat frequency, but did affect flapping kinematics. The wingtip internal to the circular trajectory was always moved faster relative to air, suggesting that the beetles were attempting to steer in the opposite direction to the curved trajectory forced by the flight-mill. However, banked beetles had lower flapping asymmetry, generated higher lift forces and lost more of their body mass per time and distance flown during prolonged flight compared to beetles flying level. The results indicate, that flapping asymmetry and low lift can be rectified by tethering the beetle in a banked orientation, but the flight still does not correspond directly to free-flight. This should be recognized and taken into account when designing flight-mills and interoperating their data.
Jorgensen, C. C.; Mah, R. W.; Ross, J.; Lu, Henry, Jr. (Technical Monitor)
NASA Ames Research Center has an ongoing program in neural network control technology targeted toward real time flight demonstrations using a modified F-15 which permits direct inner loop control of actuators, rapid switching between alternative control designs, and substitutable processors. An important part of this program is the ACTIVE flight project which is examining the feasibility of using neural networks in the design, control, and system identification of new aircraft prototypes. This paper discusses two research applications initiated with this objective in mind: utilization of neural networks for wind tunnel aircraft model identification and rapid learning algorithms for on line reconfiguration and control. The first application involves the identification of aerodynamic flight characteristics from analysis of wind tunnel test data. This identification is important in the early stages of aircraft design because complete specification of control architecture's may not be possible even though concept models at varying scales are available for aerodynamic wind tunnel testing. Testing of this type is often a long and expensive process involving measurement of aircraft lift, drag, and moment of inertia at varying angles of attack and control surface configurations. This information in turn can be used in the design of the flight control systems by applying the derived lookup tables to generate piece wise linearized controllers. Thus, reduced costs in tunnel test times and the rapid transfer of wind tunnel insights into prototype controllers becomes an important factor in more efficient generation and testing of new flight systems. NASA Ames Research Center is successfully applying modular neural networks as one way of anticipating small scale aircraft model performances prior to testing, thus reducing the number of in tunnel test hours and potentially, the number of intermediate scaled models required for estimation of surface flow effects.
... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Flight instruction; Simulated instrument flight and certain flight tests. 91.109 Section 91.109 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION... throwover control wheel in place of fixed, dual controls of the elevator and ailerons when— (1) The...
2008. aasta Londoni disainifestivali raames projekteeris arhitekt David Adjaye ameerika tulbipuust paviljoni "Sclera". Arhitekti vastused küsimustele ehitise kohta. Otsustati toetada kultuuripealinna projekti "Puitarhitektuur ja -disain" konkurssi ja eksponeerimist. Paremad lahendused teostatakse ja tuuakse publikuni Tallinna mereäärsel alal
22. juulil avatakse Rotermanni soolalaos rahvusvaheline Põhja- Euroopa kaasaegse kunsti näitus "Kohtumispaik". Eesti kuraator on Hanno Soans, nimetatud ka kuraatoreid teistest maadest. Osalejatest on esile toodud Laura Stasiulyte, Miklos Gaal ja Sandis Konrads, nimetatud veel 13 osaleja nimed. Projekti autor ja mänedžer on rootsi kunstnik Truls Olin
Voore, Maiki, 1983-
Tallinna Ülikoolis esitleti projekti Tallinna Virtuaalne Ülikool, mille eesmärk on teha internetikeskkonnas kättesaadavaks avalike loengute salvestusi, vestlusi õppejõududega ning seminaride, suvekoolide ja konverentside materjale. Tallinna Ülikooli rektori Rein Raua ja projekti tutvustanud Tarmo Jüristo arvamused Tallinna Virtuaalse Ülikooli projekti kohta
Rekonstrueeritud Tallinna Teletorn Kloostrimetsa tee 58a, valminud 2012. Eesti kultuurkapitali aastapreemia 2012. Arhitekt David Basiladze. Rekonstrueerimise projekti arhitektid Raivo Kotov, Andrus Kõresaar, Indrek Mikk, Margit Aule, Jaanus Männik, Lea Laidra, Karis Kahr (KOKO Arhitektid). Sisearhitektid Liis Lindvere, Raili Paling, Margit Argus (KOKO Arhitektid). Konstruktor Neoprojekt
Ojari, Triin, 1974-
Tallinnasse aastatel 2005-2013 ehitatud 21 hoonet, rajatist (Sünagoog, Kumu Kunstimuuseum, Tallinna Tehnikaülikooli raamatukogu, Balti Filmi- ja Meediakool, Rotermanni kvartal, Vabaduse väljak, Telliskivi Loomelinnak, renoveeritud Lennusadama angaarid, erinevad büroohooned, korterelamud ja eramud)
Tallinnas Veerenni 24C asuva Tallinna Loomeinkubaatori sisekujundusest. Sisearhitektid: Raul Tiitus ja Tarmo Piirmets (Pink OÜ). Sisegraafika: Kaarel Vahtramäe (Velvet). Pink OÜ tähtsamate tööde loetelu
Karu, Jakob, pseud., 1966-
Itaalia arhitektuuri- ja disainiajakirjas "Abitare" tutvustati Kolumbia narkopealinnas Medellinis tehtud uuendusi. Sotsiaalse keskkonna analüüsist. Tallinna linnaplaneerimine kui ärihuvide kaardistamine
Tallinna Linnavalitsuse stipendiumist Tallinna Ülikooli ja Estonian Business School'i üliõpilastele. TLÜ: Triin Lauri, Birgy Lorenz, Margit Kaldmäe, Maria Smorževskihh-Smirnova, Karmen Jürisson, Irina Krotova, Külli Külaots, Triinu Maandi ja Rene Mäe; EBS: Laura Roosmaa, Maarja Murumägi ja Kätlin Pulk
Many types of paper documentation are employed on the flight-deck. They range from a simple checklist card to a bulky Aircraft Flight Manual (AFM). Some of these documentations have typographical and graphical deficiencies; yet, many cockpit tasks such as conducting checklists, way-point entry, limitations and performance calculations, and many more, require the use of these documents. Moreover, during emergency and abnormal situations, the flight crews' effectiveness in combating the situation is highly dependent on such documentation; accessing and reading procedures has a significant impact on flight safety. Although flight-deck documentation are an important (and sometimes critical) form of display in the modern cockpit, there is a dearth of information on how to effectively design these displays. The object of this report is to provide a summary of the available literature regarding the design and typographical aspects of printed matter. The report attempts 'to bridge' the gap between basic research about typography, and the kind of information needed by designers of flight-deck documentation. The report focuses on typographical factors such as type-faces, character height, use of lower- and upper-case characters, line length, and spacing. Some graphical aspects such as layout, color coding, fonts, and character contrast are also discussed. In addition, several aspects of cockpit reading conditions such as glare, angular alignment, and paper quality are addressed. Finally, a list of recommendations for the graphical design of flight-deck documentation is provided.
Carton, E.P.; Diederen, A.M.
The angle between the line-of-fire and the rotation axis of a projectile is called the yaw angle. For fin and spin stabilized projectiles the yaw angle changes continuously during flight. Normally the yaw of a projectile is measured by orthogonal flash imaging of the projectile. However, this method
... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Flight equipment depreciation and residual... § 399.42 Flight equipment depreciation and residual values. For rate-making purposes, for air carriers... depreciation will be based on the conventional straight-line method of accrual, employing the service lives and...
Blettner, Maria [Mainz Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Medizinische Biometrie, Epidemiologie und Informatik (IMBEI); Boehm, Theresia; Eberbach, Frieder [Vereinigung Cockpit e.V. Main Airport Center (MAC), Frankfurt (Germany). AG Strahlenschutz; Bottollier-Depois, Jean-Francois [Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire (IRSN), Fontenay-aux-Roses (France); Clairand, Isabelle; Huet, Christelle [Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire (IRSN), Fontenay-aux-Roses (France). Ionizing Radiation Dosimetry Lab.; Frasch, Gerhard [Bundesamt fuer Strahlenschutz, Oberschleissheim/Neuherberg (Germany). Beruflicher Strahlenschutz und Strahlenschutzregister; Hammer, Ga el P. [Laboratoire National de Sante E.P., Dudelange (Luxembourg). Registre Morphologique des Tumeurs; Mares, Vladimir; Ruehm, Werner [Helmholtz Zentrum Muenchen Deutsches Forschungszentrum fuer Gesundheit und Umwelt GmbH, Neuherberg (Germany); Voelkle, Hansruedi [Fribourg Univ. (Switzerland). Physikdept.
Extend and effects of radiation doses occuring during flights are treated under various aspects. Part of them are, in the first line, radiation exposure of the flying staff and the results of epidemiologic studies regarding the health consequences, as well as aspects of practical radiation protection for the flying staff. Computer programs for dose calculation on flights round off the theme. (orig.)
Full Text Available This project uses Newton’s Second Law of Motion, Euler’s method, basic physics, and basic calculus to model the flight path of a rocket. From this, one can find the height and velocity at any point from launch to the maximum altitude, or apogee. This can then be compared to the actual values to see if the method of estimation is a plausible. The rocket used for this project is modeled after Bullistic-1 which was launched by the Society of Aeronautics and Rocketry at the University of South Florida.
Full Text Available Güneli Gün’s memoir piece truly combines the excitement of the young traveler with the humor of the mature narrator. Born in Izmir, Turkey, she breaks her engagement to a young but conservative Turkish architect and overcomes her father’s concerns to eventually study at Hollins College, Virginia. Addressing topics such as breaking out of a traditional society, being torn between the home country and the imagined new home, and finding comfort in the arts, “Flight to America” compellingly reflects Güneli Gün’s mastery as a storyteller.
This report documents the generation of an outbound Earth to Moon transfer preliminary database consisting of four cases calculated twice a day for a 19 year period. The database was desired as the first step in order for NASA to rapidly generate Earth to Moon trajectories for the Constellation Program using the Mission Assessment Post Processor. The completed database was created running a flight trajectory and optimization program, called Copernicus, in batch mode with the use of newly created Matlab functions. The database is accurate and has high data resolution. The techniques and scripts developed to generate the trajectory information will also be directly used in generating a comprehensive database.
Arteaga, Ricardo; Dandachy, Mike
The testing and demonstrations are necessary for both parties to further development and certification of the technology in three key areas; flights beyond line of sight, collision avoidance, and autonomous operations.
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Flight-critical systems rely on an ever increasing amount of softwarethe Boe- ing 777 contains over 2 million lines of code. Most of this code is written in the C...
Etherington, Timothy J.; Kramer, Lynda J.; Bailey, Randall E.; Kennedey, Kellie D.
Accident statistics cite the flight crew as a causal factor in over 60% of large transport fatal accidents. Yet a well-trained and well-qualified crew is acknowledged as the critical center point of aircraft systems safety and an integral component of the entire commercial aviation system. A human-in-the-loop test was conducted using a Level D certified Boeing 737-800 simulator to evaluate the pilot's contribution to safety-of-flight during routine air carrier flight operations and in response to system failures. To quantify the human's contribution, crew complement was used as an independent variable in a between-subjects design. This paper details the crew's actions and responses while dealing with an in-flight airspeed failure. Accident statistics often cite flight crew error (Baker, 2001) as the primary contributor in accidents and incidents in transport category aircraft. However, the Air Line Pilots Association (2011) suggests "a well-trained and well-qualified pilot is acknowledged as the critical center point of the aircraft systems safety and an integral safety component of the entire commercial aviation system." This is generally acknowledged but cannot be verified because little or no quantitative data exists on how or how many accidents/incidents are averted by crew actions. Anecdotal evidence suggest crews handle failures on a daily basis and Aviation Safety Action Program data generally supports this assertion, even if the data is not released to the public. However without hard evidence, the contribution and means by which pilots achieve safety of flight is difficult to define. Thus, ways to improve the human ability to contribute or overcome deficiencies are ill-defined.
Full Text Available In this work, serial production lines with finished goods buffers operating in the pull regime are considered. The machines are assumed to obey Bernoulli reliability model. The problem of satisfying customers demand is addressed. The level of demand satisfaction is quantified by the due-time performance (DTP, which is defined as the probability to ship to the customer a required number of parts during a fixed time interval. Within this scenario, the definitions of DTP bottlenecks are introduced and a method for their identification is developed.
This book deals with line facilities. The contents of this book are outline line of wire telecommunication ; development of line, classification of section of line and theory of transmission of line, cable line ; structure of line, line of cable in town, line out of town, domestic cable and other lines, Optical communication ; line of optical cable, transmission method, measurement of optical communication and cable of the sea bottom, Equipment of telecommunication line ; telecommunication line facilities and telecommunication of public works, construction of cable line and maintenance and Regulation of line equipment ; regulation on technique, construction and maintenance.
Cook, William B.; Brunt, Kelly M.; De Marco, Eugenia L.; Reed, Daniel L.; Neumann, Thomas A.; Markus, Thorsten
In March and April 2012, NASA conducted an airborne lidar campaign based out of Keflavik, Iceland, in support of Ice, Cloud, and land Elevation Satellite-2 (ICESat-2) algorithm development. The survey targeted the Greenland Ice Sheet, Iceland ice caps, and sea ice in the Arctic Ocean during the winter season. Ultimately, the mission, MABEL Iceland 2012, including checkout and transit flights, conducted 14 science flights, for a total of over 80 flight hours over glaciers, icefields, and sea ice.
Hibbard, Kenneth E.; Mason, Lee S.; Ndu, Obi; Smith, Clayton; Withrow, James P.
Flight (S2F) initiative with the objective of developing a 100-500 We Stirling generator system. Additionally, a different approach is being devised for this initiative to avoid pitfalls of the past, and apply lessons learned from the recent ASRG experience. Two key aspects of this initiative are a Stirling System Technology Maturation Effort, and a Surrogate Mission Team (SMT) intended to provide clear mission pull and requirements context. The S2F project seeks to lead directly into a DOE flight system development of a new SRG. This paper will detail the proposed S2F initiative, and provide specifics on the key efforts designed to pave a forward path for bringing Stirling technology to flight.
Davies, P.; Liddle, Doug; Paffett, John; Sweeting, Martin; Curiel, A.; Sun, Wei; Eves, Stuart
In order to achieve an "economy of scale" with respect to payload capacity the major trend in telecommunications satellites is for larger and larger platforms. With these large platforms the level of integration between platform and payload is increasing leading to longer delivery schedules. The typical lifecycle for procurement of these large telecommunications satellites is now 3-6 years depending on the level of non-recurring engineering needed. Surrey Satellite Technology Ltd (SSTL) has designed a low-cost platform aimed at telecommunications and navigation applications. SSTL's Geostationary Minisatellite Platform (GMP) is a new entrant addressing the lower end of the market with payloads up to 250kg requiring less than 1.5 kW power. The British National Space Centre through the MOSAIC Small Satellite Initiative supported the development of GMP. The main design goals for GMP are low-cost for the complete mission including launch and operations and a platform allowing flexible payload accommodation. GMP is specifically designed to allow rapid development and deployment with schedules typically between 1 and 2 years from contract signature to flight readiness. GMP achieves these aims by a modular design where the level of integration between the platform and payload is low. The modular design decomposes the satellite into three major components - the propulsion bay, the avionics bay and the payload module. Both the propulsion and avionics bays are reusable, largely unchanged, and independent of the payload configuration. Such a design means that SSTL or a 3rd party manufacturer can manufacture the payload in parallel to the platform with integration taking place quite late in the schedule. In July 2003 SSTL signed a contract for ESA's first Galileo navigation satellite known as GSTBV2/A. The satellite is based on GMP and ESA plan to launch it into a MEO orbit late in 2005. The second flight of GMP is likely to be in 2006 carrying a geostationary payload
James G. Worner
Full Text Available James Worner is an Australian-based writer and scholar currently pursuing a PhD at the University of Technology Sydney. His research seeks to expose masculinities lost in the shadow of Australia’s Anzac hegemony while exploring new opportunities for contemporary historiography. He is the recipient of the Doctoral Scholarship in Historical Consciousness at the university’s Australian Centre of Public History and will be hosted by the University of Bologna during 2017 on a doctoral research writing scholarship. ‘Parallel Lines’ is one of a collection of stories, The Shapes of Us, exploring liminal spaces of modern life: class, gender, sexuality, race, religion and education. It looks at lives, like lines, that do not meet but which travel in proximity, simultaneously attracted and repelled. James’ short stories have been published in various journals and anthologies.
Reminiscent of the lifting body research flights conducted more than 30 years earlier, NASA's B-52 mothership lifts off carrying a new generation of lifting body research vehicle--the X-38. The X-38 was designed to help develop an emergency crew return vehicle for the International Space Station. NASA B-52, Tail Number 008, is an air launch carrier aircraft, 'mothership,' as well as a research aircraft platform that has been used on a variety of research projects. The aircraft, a 'B' model built in 1952 and first flown on June 11, 1955, is the oldest B-52 in flying status and has been used on some of the most significant research projects in aerospace history. Some of the significant projects supported by B-52 008 include the X-15, the lifting bodies, HiMAT (highly maneuverable aircraft technology), Pegasus, validation of parachute systems developed for the space shuttle program (solid-rocket-booster recovery system and the orbiter drag chute system), and the X-38. The B-52 served as the launch vehicle on 106 X-15 flights and flew a total of 159 captive-carry and launch missions in support of that program from June 1959 to October 1968. Information gained from the highly successful X-15 program contributed to the Mercury, Gemini, and Apollo human spaceflight programs as well as space shuttle development. Between 1966 and 1975, the B-52 served as the launch aircraft for 127 of the 144 wingless lifting body flights. In the 1970s and 1980s, the B-52 was the launch aircraft for several aircraft at what is now the Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, to study spin-stall, high-angle-of attack, and maneuvering characteristics. These included the 3/8-scale F-15/spin research vehicle (SRV), the HiMAT (Highly Maneuverable Aircraft Technology) research vehicle, and the DAST (drones for aerodynamic and structural testing). The aircraft supported the development of parachute recovery systems used to recover the space shuttle solid rocket booster casings. It also
Caffrey, Michael Paul [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Nelson, Anthony [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Salazar, Anthony [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Roussel - Dupre, Diane [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Katko, Kim [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Palmer, Joseph [ISE-3; Robinson, Scott [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Wirthlin, Michael [BRIGHAM YOUNG UNIV; Howes, William [BRIGHAM YOUNG UNIV; Richins, Daniel [BRIGHAM YOUNG UNIV
The Cibola Flight Experiment (CFE) is an experimental small satellite carrying a reconfigurable processing instrument developed at the Los Alamos National Laboratory that demonstrates the feasibility of using FPGA-based high-performance computing for sensor processing in the space environment. The CFE satellite was launched on March 8, 2007 in low-earth orbit and has operated extremely well since its deployment. The nine Xilinx Virtex FPGAs used in the payload have been used for several high-throughput sensor processing applications and for single-event upset (SEU) monitoring and mitigation. This paper will describe the CFE system and summarize its operational results. In addition, this paper will describe the results from several SEU detection circuits that were performed on the spacecraft.
Rysdyk, Rolf Theoduor
Research under supervision of Dr. Calise and Dr. Prasad at the Georgia Institute of Technology, School of Aerospace Engineering. has demonstrated the applicability of an adaptive controller architecture. The architecture successfully combines model inversion control with adaptive neural network (NN) compensation to cancel the inversion error. The tiltrotor aircraft provides a specifically interesting control design challenge. The tiltrotor aircraft is capable of converting from stable responsive fixed wing flight to unstable sluggish hover in helicopter configuration. It is desirable to provide the pilot with consistency in handling qualities through a conversion from fixed wing flight to hover. The linear model inversion architecture was adapted by providing frequency separation in the command filter and the error-dynamics, while not exiting the actuator modes. This design of the architecture provides for a model following setup with guaranteed performance. This in turn allowed for convenient implementation of guaranteed handling qualities. A rigorous proof of boundedness is presented making use of compact sets and the LaSalle-Yoshizawa theorem. The analysis allows for the addition of the e-modification which guarantees boundedness of the NN weights in the absence of persistent excitation. The controller is demonstrated on the Generic Tiltrotor Simulator of Bell-Textron and NASA Ames R.C. The model inversion implementation is robustified with respect to unmodeled input dynamics, by adding dynamic nonlinear damping. A proof of boundedness of signals in the system is included. The effectiveness of the robustification is also demonstrated on the XV-15 tiltrotor. The SHL Perceptron NN provides a more powerful application, based on the universal approximation property of this type of NN. The SHL NN based architecture is also robustified with the dynamic nonlinear damping. A proof of boundedness extends the SHL NN augmentation with robustness to unmodeled actuator
Wouters, J.M.; Vieira, D.J.; Wollnik, H.
This report is the second in a series of progress reports describing the design and construction of the time-of-flight isochronous (TOFI) spectrometer and its associated secondary beam line. TOFI, which is being constructed jointly by INC and MP Divisions, is designed to measure in a systematic fashion the ground-state masses of the light neutron-rich nuclei with A<70 that lie far from the valley of β stability. In the past year the authors ordered all the long-lead items necessary for construction of the spectrometer and installed the first half of the secondary beam line. Furthermore, a major portion of the control system for both the spectrometer and beam line was designed and installed. This annual report briefly summarizes the current status of the spectrometer and describes in some detail the design and installation of the first half of the transport line. For a summary of the scientific goals and overall design of the TOFI spectrometer, see the 1983 Progress at LAMPF report
Tofalli, Niki; Loizia, Pantelitsa; Zorpas, Antonis A
We assume that during flights the amount of waste that is produced is limited. However, daily, approximately 8000 commercial airplanes fly above Europe's airspace while at the same time, more than 17,000 commercial flights exist in the entire world. Using primary data from airlines, which use the Larnaca's International Airport (LIA) in Cyprus, we have tried to understand why wastes are produced during a typical flight such as food waste, paper, and plastics, as well as how passengers affect the production of those wastes. The compositional analysis took place on 27 flights of 4 different airlines which used LIA as final destination. The evaluation indicated that the passenger's habits and ethics, and the policy of each airline produced different kinds of waste during the flights and especially food waste (FW). Furthermore, it was observed that the only waste management strategy that exists in place in the airport is the collection and the transportation of all those wastes from aircrafts and from the airport in the central unit for further treatment. Hence, this research indicated extremely difficulties to implement any specific waste minimization, or prevention practice or other sorting methods during the flights due to the limited time of the most flights (less than 3 h), the limited available space within the aircrafts, and the strictly safety roles that exist during the flights.
Tang, Liang; Roemer, Michael; Ge, Jianhua; Crassidis, Agamemnon; Prasad, J. V. R.; Belcastro, Christine
This paper reports the latest development of several techniques for adaptive flight envelope estimation and protection system for aircraft under damage upset conditions. Through the integration of advanced fault detection algorithms, real-time system identification of the damage/faulted aircraft and flight envelop estimation, real-time decision support can be executed autonomously for improving damage tolerance and flight recoverability. Particularly, a bank of adaptive nonlinear fault detection and isolation estimators were developed for flight control actuator faults; a real-time system identification method was developed for assessing the dynamics and performance limitation of impaired aircraft; online learning neural networks were used to approximate selected aircraft dynamics which were then inverted to estimate command margins. As off-line training of network weights is not required, the method has the advantage of adapting to varying flight conditions and different vehicle configurations. The key benefit of the envelope estimation and protection system is that it allows the aircraft to fly close to its limit boundary by constantly updating the controller command limits during flight. The developed techniques were demonstrated on NASA s Generic Transport Model (GTM) simulation environments with simulated actuator faults. Simulation results and remarks on future work are presented.
... 49 Transportation 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Flight training. 1552.3 Section 1552.3..., DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY CIVIL AVIATION SECURITY FLIGHT SCHOOLS Flight Training for Aliens and Other Designated Individuals § 1552.3 Flight training. This section describes the procedures a flight school must...
Mcquillen, John; Brown, Dan; Hussey, Sam; Zoldak, John
The Intravenous Fluid Generation (IVGEN) Experiment was a technology demonstration experiment that purified ISS potable water, mixed it with salt, and transferred it through a sterilizing filter. On-orbit performance was verified as appropriate and two 1.5 l bags of normal saline solution were returned to earth for post-flight testing by a FDA certified laboratory for compliance with United States Pharmacopiea (USP) standards. Salt concentration deviated from required values and an analysis identified probable causes. Current efforts are focused on Total Organic Content (TOC) testing, and shelf life.The Intravenous Fluid Generation (IVGEN) Experiment demonstrated the purification of ISS potable water, the mixing of the purified water with sodium chloride, and sterilization of the solution via membrane filtration. On-orbit performance was monitored where feasible and two 1.5-liter bags of normal saline solution were returned to earth for post-flight testing by a FDA-registered laboratory for compliance with United States Pharmacopeia (USP)standards . Current efforts have been focused on challenge testing with identified  impurities (total organic-carbon), and shelf life testing. The challenge testing flowed known concentrations of contaminants through the IVGEN deionizing cartridge and membrane filters to test their effectiveness. One finding was that the filters and DI-resin themselves contribute to the contaminant load during initial startup, suggesting that the first 100 ml of fluid be discarded. Shelf life testing is ongoing and involves periodic testing of stored DI cartridges and membrane filters that are capped and sealed in hermetic packages. The testing is conducted at six month intervals measuring conductivity and endotoxins in the effluent. Currently, the packaging technique has been successfully demonstrated for one year of storage testing. The USP standards specifies that the TOC be conducted at point of generation as opposed to point of
Maalouf, M.; Vogin, G.; Foray, N.; Maalouf; Vogin, G.
A space flight is submitted to 3 main sources of radiation: -) cosmic radiation (4 protons/cm 2 /s and 10000 times less for the heaviest particles), -) solar radiation (10 8 protons/cm 2 /s in the solar wind), -) the Van Allen belt around the earth: the magnetosphere traps particles and at an altitude of 500 km the proton flux can reach 100 protons/cm 2 /s. If we take into account all the spatial missions performed since 1960, we get an average dose of 400 μGray per day with an average dose rate of 0.28 μGray/mn. A significant risk of radiation-induced cancer is expected for missions whose duration is over 250 days.The cataract appears to be the most likely non-cancerous health hazard due to the exposition to comic radiation. Its risk appears to have been under-estimated, particularly for doses over 8 mGray. Some studies on astronauts have shown for some a very strong predisposition for radio-induced cancers: during the reparation phase of DNA breaking due to irradiation, multiple new damages are added by the cells themselves that behave abnormally. (A.C.)
Full Text Available Earwig wings are highly foldable structures that lack internal muscles. The behaviour and shape changes of the wings during flight are yet unknown. We assume that they meet a great structural challenge to control the occurring deformations and prevent the wing from collapsing. At the folding structures especially, the wing could easily yield to the pressure. Detailed microscopy studies reveal adaptions in the structure and material which are not relevant for folding purposes. The wing is parted into two structurally different areas with, for example, a different trend or stiffness of the wing veins. The storage of stiff or more flexible material shows critical areas which undergo great changes or stress during flight. We verified this with high-speed video recordings. These reveal the extent of the occurring deformations and their locations, and support our assumptions. The video recordings reveal a dynamical change of a concave flexion line. In the static unfolded state, this flexion line blocks a folding line, so that the wing stays unfolded. However, during flight it extends and blocks a second critical folding line and prevents the wing from collapsing. With these results, more insight in passive wing control, especially within high foldable structures, is gained.
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The IceBridge Mission Flight Reports data set contains flight reports from NASA Operation IceBridge Greenland, Arctic, Antarctic, and Alaska missions. Flight reports...
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — In this SBIR project, a new Morphing Flight Control Surface (MFCS) will be developed. The distinction of the research effort is that the SenAnTech team will employ...
Full Text Available We use a potential flow solver to investigate the aerodynamic aspects of flapping flights in enclosed spaces. The enclosure effects are simulated by the method of images. Our study complements previous aerodynamic analyses which considered only the near-ground flight. The present results show that flying in the proximity of an enclosure affects the aerodynamic performance of flapping wings in terms of lift and thrust generation and power consumption. It leads to higher flight efficiency and more than 5% increase of the generation of lift and thrust.
We use a potential flow solver to investigate the aerodynamic aspects of flapping flights in enclosed spaces. The enclosure effects are simulated by the method of images. Our study complements previous aerodynamic analyses which considered only the near-ground flight. The present results show that flying in the proximity of an enclosure affects the aerodynamic performance of flapping wings in terms of lift and thrust generation and power consumption. It leads to higher flight efficiency and more than 5% increase of the generation of lift and thrust.
Ratvasky, Thomas P.; Blankenship, Kurt; Rieke, William; Brinker, David J.
NASA is developing and validating technology to incorporate aircraft icing effects into a flight training device concept demonstrator. Flight simulation models of a DHC-6 Twin Otter were developed from wind tunnel data using a subscale, complete aircraft model with and without simulated ice, and from previously acquired flight data. The validation of the simulation models required additional aircraft response time histories of the airplane configured with simulated ice similar to the subscale model testing. Therefore, a flight test was conducted using the NASA Twin Otter Icing Research Aircraft. Over 500 maneuvers of various types were conducted in this flight test. The validation data consisted of aircraft state parameters, pilot inputs, propulsion, weight, center of gravity, and moments of inertia with the airplane configured with different amounts of simulated ice. Emphasis was made to acquire data at wing stall and tailplane stall since these events are of primary interest to model accurately in the flight training device. Analyses of several datasets are described regarding wing and tailplane stall. Key findings from these analyses are that the simulated wing ice shapes significantly reduced the C , max, while the simulated tail ice caused elevator control force anomalies and tailplane stall when flaps were deflected 30 deg or greater. This effectively reduced the safe operating margins between iced wing and iced tail stall as flap deflection and thrust were increased. This flight test demonstrated that the critical aspects to be modeled in the icing effects flight training device include: iced wing and tail stall speeds, flap and thrust effects, control forces, and control effectiveness.
Cho, Sanghee; Ahn, Sangtae; Li Quanzheng; Leahy, Richard M [Signal and Image Processing Institute, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA 90089 (United States)], E-mail: email@example.com
We investigate the analytical properties of time-of-flight (TOF) positron emission tomography (PET) sinograms, where the data are modeled as line integrals weighted by a spatially invariant TOF kernel. First, we investigate the Fourier transform properties of 2D TOF data and extend the 'bow-tie' property of the 2D Radon transform to the time-of-flight case. Second, we describe a new exact Fourier rebinning method, TOF-FOREX, based on the Fourier transform in the time-of-flight variable. We then combine TOF-FOREX rebinning with a direct extension of the projection slice theorem to TOF data, to perform fast 3D TOF PET image reconstruction. Finally, we illustrate these properties using simulated data.
Cho, Sanghee; Ahn, Sangtae; Li, Quanzheng; Leahy, Richard M.
We investigate the analytical properties of time-of-flight (TOF) positron emission tomography (PET) sinograms, where the data are modeled as line integrals weighted by a spatially invariant TOF kernel. First, we investigate the Fourier transform properties of 2D TOF data and extend the 'bow-tie' property of the 2D Radon transform to the time-of-flight case. Second, we describe a new exact Fourier rebinning method, TOF-FOREX, based on the Fourier transform in the time-of-flight variable. We then combine TOF-FOREX rebinning with a direct extension of the projection slice theorem to TOF data, to perform fast 3D TOF PET image reconstruction. Finally, we illustrate these properties using simulated data.
Cho, Sanghee; Ahn, Sangtae; Li Quanzheng; Leahy, Richard M
We investigate the analytical properties of time-of-flight (TOF) positron emission tomography (PET) sinograms, where the data are modeled as line integrals weighted by a spatially invariant TOF kernel. First, we investigate the Fourier transform properties of 2D TOF data and extend the 'bow-tie' property of the 2D Radon transform to the time-of-flight case. Second, we describe a new exact Fourier rebinning method, TOF-FOREX, based on the Fourier transform in the time-of-flight variable. We then combine TOF-FOREX rebinning with a direct extension of the projection slice theorem to TOF data, to perform fast 3D TOF PET image reconstruction. Finally, we illustrate these properties using simulated data
This paper is the first part of the two-part exposition, addressing performance and dynamic stability of birds. The aerodynamic model underlying the entire study is presented in this part. It exploits the simplicity of the lifting line approximation to furnish the forces and moments acting on a single wing in closed analytical forms. The accuracy of the model is corroborated by comparison with numerical simulations based on the vortex lattice method. Performance is studied both in tethered (as on a sting in a wind tunnel) and in free flights. Wing twist is identified as the main parameter affecting the flight performance-at high speeds, it improves efficiency, the rate of climb and the maximal level speed; at low speeds, it allows flying slower. It is demonstrated that, under most circumstances, the difference in performance between tethered and free flights is small.
McDonald, Kenneth Fox
Methods and apparatus are provided for fabricating and constructing solid dielectric "Coiled Transmission Line" pulse generators in radial or axial coiled geometries. The pour and cure fabrication process enables a wide variety of geometries and form factors. The volume between the conductors is filled with liquid blends of monomers, polymers, oligomers, and/or cross-linkers and dielectric powders; and then cured to form high field strength and high dielectric constant solid dielectric transmission lines that intrinsically produce ideal rectangular high voltage pulses when charged and switched into matched impedance loads. Voltage levels may be increased by Marx and/or Blumlein principles incorporating spark gap or, preferentially, solid state switches (such as optically triggered thyristors) which produce reliable, high repetition rate operation. Moreover, these Marxed pulse generators can be DC charged and do not require additional pulse forming circuitry, pulse forming lines, transformers, or an a high voltage spark gap output switch. The apparatus accommodates a wide range of voltages, impedances, pulse durations, pulse repetition rates, and duty cycles. The resulting mobile or flight platform friendly cylindrical geometric configuration is much more compact, light-weight, and robust than conventional linear geometries, or pulse generators constructed from conventional components. Installing additional circuitry may accommodate optional pulse shape improvements. The Coiled Transmission Lines can also be connected in parallel to decrease the impedance, or in series to increase the pulse length.
Two X-31 Enhanced Fighter Maneuverability (EFM) demonstrators were flown at the Rockwell International facility, Palmdale, California, and the NASA Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, to obtain data that may apply to the design of highly-maneuverable next-generation fighters. The program had its first flight on October 11, 1990, in Palmdale; it ended in June 1995. The X-31 program demonstrated the value of thrust vectoring (directing engine exhaust flow) coupled with advanced flight control systems, to provide controlled flight during close-in air combat at very high angles of attack. The result of this increased maneuverability is an aircraft with a significant advantage over conventional fighters. 'Angle-of-attack' (alpha) is an engineering term to describe the angle of an aircraft body and wings relative to its actual flight path. During maneuvers, pilots often fly at extreme angles of attack -- with the nose pitched up while the aircraft continues in its original direction. This can lead to loss of control and result in the loss of the aircraft, pilot or both. Three thrust-vectoring paddles made of graphite epoxy mounted on the exhaust nozzle of the X-31 aircraft directed the exhaust flow to provide control in pitch (up and down) and yaw (right and left) to improve control. The paddles can sustain heat of up to 1,500 degrees centigrade for extended periods of time. In addition the X-31 aircraft were configured with movable forward canards and fixed aft strakes. The canards were small wing-like structures set on the wing line between the nose and the leading edge of the wing. The strakes were set on the same line between the trailing edge of the wing and the engine exhaust. Both supplied additional control in tight maneuvering situations. The X-31 research program produced technical data at high angles of attack. This information is giving engineers and aircraft designers a better understanding of aerodynamics, effectiveness of flight controls
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This SBIR Phase I project will develop the Flight System Monitor which will use non-intrusive electrical monitoring (NEMO). The electronic system health of...
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This dataset contains the records of all the flights in the Northern California TRACON. The data was provided by the aircraft noise abatement office...
Muylaert, J; Walpot, L; Ottens, H; Cipollini, F
...) Microaerothermodynamics, and 5) Blackout. Special attention is given to the design of the flight measurement sensors themselves, their integration into the TPS as well as to the measurement of the free stream parameters during re-entry using an Air...
Full Text Available Motivated by the idea of multiplexed model predictive control (MMPC, this paper introduces a new framework for unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs formation flight and coordination. Formulated using MMPC approach, the whole centralized formation flight system is considered as a linear periodic system with control inputs of each UAV subsystem as its periodic inputs. Divided into decentralized subsystems, the whole formation flight system is guaranteed stable if proper terminal cost and terminal constraints are added to each decentralized MPC formulation of the UAV subsystem. The decentralized robust MPC formulation for each UAV subsystem with bounded input disturbances and model uncertainties is also presented. Furthermore, an obstacle avoidance control scheme for any shape and size of obstacles, including the nonapriorily known ones, is integrated under the unified MPC framework. The results from simulations demonstrate that the proposed framework can successfully achieve robust collision-free formation flights.
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The following zip files contain individual flight recorded data in Matlab file format. There are 186 parameters each with a data structure that contains the...
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The following zip files contain individual flight recorded data in Matlab file format. There are 186 parameters each with a data structure that contains the...
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The following zip files contain individual flight recorded data in Matlab file format. There are 186 parameters each with a data structure that contains the...
De Croon, G.C.H.E.; De Wagter, C.; Remes, B.D.W.; Ruijsink, H.M.
A challenging problem in artificial intelligence is to achieve vision-based autonomous indoor flight with Micro Air Vehicles. Approaches to this problem currently do not make use of image appearance features, because these features generally are computationally expensive. In this article, we deliver a proof-ofconcept that appearance features can be extracted computationally efficient enough to be used for autonomous flight. In particular, we present a novel height control algorithm that uses ...
Schock, Richard W.
The purpose of the Solar Array Flight Dynamic Experiment (SAFDE) is to demonstrate the feasibility of on-orbit measurement and ground processing of large space structures' dynamic characteristics. Test definition or verification provides the dynamic characteristic accuracy required for control systems use. An illumination/measurement system was developed to fly on space shuttle flight STS-41D. The system was designed to dynamically evaluate a large solar array called the Solar Array Flight Experiment (SAFE) that had been scheduled for this flight. The SAFDE system consisted of a set of laser diode illuminators, retroreflective targets, an intelligent star tracker receiver and the associated equipment to power, condition, and record the results. In six tests on STS-41D, data was successfully acquired from 18 retroreflector targets and ground processed, post flight, to define the solar array's dynamic characteristic. The flight experiment proved the viability of on-orbit test definition of large space structures dynamic characteristics. Future large space structures controllability should be greatly enhanced by this capability.
Wang, Z. Jane
Why do animals move the way they do? Bacteria, insects, birds, and fish share with us the necessity to move so as to live. Although each organism follows its own evolutionary course, it also obeys a set of common laws. At the very least, the movement of animals, like that of planets, is governed by Newton's law: All things fall. On Earth, most things fall in air or water, and their motions are thus subject to the laws of hydrodynamics. Through trial and error, animals have found ways to interact with fluid so they can float, drift, swim, sail, glide, soar, and fly. This elementary struggle to escape the fate of falling shapes the development of motors, sensors, and mind. Perhaps we can deduce parts of their neural computations by understanding what animals must do so as not to fall. Here I discuss recent developments along this line of inquiry in the case of insect flight. Asking how often a fly must sense its orientation in order to balance in air has shed new light on the role of motor neurons and steering muscles responsible for flight stability.
This study investigates a hybrid adaptive flight control method as a design possibility for a flight control system that can enable an effective adaptation strategy to deal with off-nominal flight conditions. The hybrid adaptive control blends both direct and indirect adaptive control in a model inversion flight control architecture. The blending of both direct and indirect adaptive control provides a much more flexible and effective adaptive flight control architecture than that with either direct or indirect adaptive control alone. The indirect adaptive control is used to update the model inversion controller by an on-line parameter estimation of uncertain plant dynamics based on two methods. The first parameter estimation method is an indirect adaptive law based on the Lyapunov theory, and the second method is a recursive least-squares indirect adaptive law. The model inversion controller is therefore made to adapt to changes in the plant dynamics due to uncertainty. As a result, the modeling error is reduced that directly leads to a decrease in the tracking error. In conjunction with the indirect adaptive control that updates the model inversion controller, a direct adaptive control is implemented as an augmented command to further reduce any residual tracking error that is not entirely eliminated by the indirect adaptive control.
Offermann, Jan Tuzlic
EVADES output. As mentioned above, GEnEVADOSE makes extensive use of ROOT version 6, the data analysis framework developed at the European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN), and the code is written to the C++11 standard (as are the other projects). My second project is the Automated Mission Reference Exposure Utility (AMREU).Unlike GEnEVADOSE, AMREU is a combination of three frameworks written in both Python and C++, also making use of ROOT (and PyROOT). Run as a combination of daily and weekly cron jobs, these macros query the SRAG database system to determine the active ISS missions, and query minute-by-minute radiation dose information from ISS-TEPC (Tissue Equivalent Proportional Counter), one of the radiation detectors onboard the ISS. Using this information, AMREU creates a corrected data set of daily radiation doses, addressing situations where TEPC may be offline or locked up by correcting doses for days with less than 95% live time (the total amount time the instrument acquires data) by averaging the past 7 days. As not all errors may be automatically detectable, AMREU also allows for manual corrections, checking an updated plaintext file each time it runs. With the corrected data, AMREU generates cumulative dose plots for each mission, and uses a Python script to generate a flight note file (.docx format) containing these plots, as well as information sections to be filled in and modified by the space weather environment officers with information specific to the week. AMREU is set up to run without requiring any user input, and it automatically archives old flight notes and information files for missions that are no longer active. My other projects involve cleaning up a large data set from the Charged Particle Directional Spectrometer (CPDS), joining together many different data sets in order to clean up information in SRAG SQL databases, and developing other automated utilities for displaying information on active solar regions, that may be used by the
Grashilin, V.A.; Ofengenden, R.G.
Time coder for slow neutron time-of-flight spectrometer is described. The time coder is of modular structure, is performed in the CAMAC standard and operates on line with DVK-2 computer. The main coder units include supporting generator, timers, time-to-digital converter, memory unit and crate controller. Method for measuring background symmetrically to the effect is proposed for a more correct background accounting. 4 refs.; 1 fig
Jie Chen; Cun Bao Ma; Dong Song
The stability analysis method based on region of attraction is proposed for the hypersonic flight vehicles’ flight control verification in this article. Current practice for hypersonic flight vehicles’ flight control verification is largely dependent on linear theoretical analysis and nonlinear simulation research. This problem can be improved by the nonlinear stability analysis of flight control system. Firstly, the hypersonic flight vehicles’ flight dynamic model is simplified and fitted by...
Srinivasan, Mandyam V.
How do flying birds respond to changing environments? The behaviour of budgerigars, Melopsittacus undulatus, was filmed as they flew through a tapered tunnel. Unlike flying insects—which vary their speed progressively and continuously by holding constant the optic flow induced by the walls—the birds showed a tendency to fly at only two distinct, fixed speeds. They switched between a high speed in the wider section of the tunnel, and a low speed in the narrower section. The transition between the two speeds was abrupt, and anticipatory. The high speed was close to the energy-efficient, outdoor cruising speed for these birds, while the low speed was approximately half this value. This is the first observation of the existence of two distinct, preferred flight speeds in birds. A dual-speed flight strategy may be beneficial for birds that fly in varying environments, with the high speed set at an energy-efficient value for flight through open spaces, and the low speed suited to safe manoeuvring in a cluttered environment. The constancy of flight speed within each regime enables the distances of obstacles and landmarks to be directly calibrated in terms of optic flow, thus facilitating simple and efficient guidance of flight through changing environments. PMID:27330173
NASA 991, an F-14 Navy Tomcat designated the F-14 (1X), is seen here in banked flight over the desert on a research flight at NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California. The F-14 was used at Dryden between 1979 and 1985 in extensive high-angle-of-attack and spin-control-and-recovery tests. The NASA/Navy program, which included 212 total flights, acheived considerable improvement in the F-14 high-angle-of-attack flying qualities, improved departure and spin resistance, and contributed to substantial improvements in reducing 'wing rock,' (i.e., tilting from one side to another), at high angles of attack. The Navy had been experiencing inadvertant spin entries caused by the F-14's aileron rudder interconnect. The NASA/Navy/Grumman team developed and tested 4 different configurations of the aileron rudder interconnect to address the spin problem. These problems prompted the Navy to ask the manufacturer, Grumman, and NASA to investigate the issue. NASA 991 had numerous special additions for high-angle-of-attack and spin-recovery research. These included a battery-powered auxiliary power unit, a flight test nose boom, and a special spin recovery system, consisting of forward mounted, hydraulically actuated canards and an emergency spin chute. NASA's F-14 was first flown by NASA research pilots, but was later flown by Grumman, and by Navy test pilots from Patuxent River Naval Air Station (NAS). The Navy test flights with the spin research vehicle constituted the first program that incorporated air combat maneuvering in its test flights at Dryden. The Navy brought F-14s from Point Mugu and Miramar NAS in San Diego to test the new spin control laws in combat situations. Although the new control laws proved valuable, the Navy did not incorporate them into production F-14s until the F-14D, nearly 15 years later.
van den Dool, T. C.; Gielesen, W.; Kamphues, F.; Loix, N.; Kooijman, P. P.; de Vries, C.; van Weers, H.; Fleury, K.; Stockman, Y.; Velsink, G.; Benoit, J.; Poupinet, A.; Sève, F.
TNO, in cooperation with Micromega-Dynamics, SRON, Dutch Space and CSL, has designed a compact breadboard cryogenic delay line (figure 1) for use in future space interferometry missions. The work is performed under ESA contract 17.747/03 in preparation for the DARWIN mission. The breadboard (BB) delay line is representative of a flight mechanism. The delay line has a single stage voice coil actuator for Optical Path Difference (OPD) control, driving a twomirror cat's eye. Magnetic bearings provide frictionless and wear free operation with zero-hysteresis. The design of the BB delay line has been completed. The development test program, including operation at 100 K has been completed. The verification test programme is currently being carried out and will include functional testing at 40 K.
Signal, T Leigh; Gander, Philippa H; van den Berg, Margo J; Graeber, R Curtis
To assess the amount and quality of sleep that flight crew are able to obtain during flight, and identify factors that influence the sleep obtained. Flight crew operating flights between Everett, WA, USA and Asia had their sleep recorded polysomnographically for 1 night in a layover hotel and during a 7-h in-flight rest opportunity on flights averaging 15.7 h. Layover hotel and in-flight crew rest facilities onboard the Boeing 777-200ER aircraft. Twenty-one male flight crew (11 Captains, mean age 48 yr and 10 First Officers, mean age 35 yr). N/A. Sleep was recorded using actigraphy during the entire tour of duty, and polysomnographically in a layover hotel and during the flight. Mixed model analysis of covariance was used to determine the factors affecting in-flight sleep. In-flight sleep was less efficient (70% vs. 88%), with more nonrapid eye movement Stage 1/Stage 2 and more frequent awakenings per h (7.7/h vs. 4.6/h) than sleep in the layover hotel. In-flight sleep included very little slow wave sleep (median 0.5%). Less time was spent trying to sleep and less sleep was obtained when sleep opportunities occurred during the first half of the flight. Multivariate analyses suggest age is the most consistent factor affecting in-flight sleep duration and quality. This study confirms that even during long sleep opportunities, in-flight sleep is of poorer quality than sleep on the ground. With longer flight times, the quality and recuperative value of in-flight sleep is increasingly important for flight safety. Because the age limit for flight crew is being challenged, the consequences of age adversely affecting sleep quantity and quality need to be evaluated.
Johnston, Smith L.
This document establishes the policy and procedures for the HSP and is authorized through the Director, Johnson Space Center (JSC). This document delineates the medical operations requirements for the HSP. The HSP goals are accomplished through an awareness campaign and procedures such as limiting access to flight crewmembers, medical screening, and controlling flight crewmember activities. NASA's Human Space Flight Program uses strategic risk mitigation to achieve mission success while protecting crew health and safety. Infectious diseases can compromise crew health and mission success, especially in the immediate preflight period. The primary purpose of the Flight Crew Health Stabilization Program (HSP) is to mitigate the risk of occurrence of infectious disease among astronaut flight crews in the immediate preflight period. Infectious diseases are contracted through direct person-to-person contact, and through contact with infectious material in the environment. The HSP establishes several controls to minimize crew exposure to infectious agents. The HSP provides a quarantine environment for the crew that minimizes contact with potentially infectious material. The HSP also limits the number of individuals who come in close contact with the crew. The infection-carrying potential of these primary contacts (PCs) is minimized by educating them in ways to avoid infections and avoiding contact with the crew if they are or may be sick. The transmission of some infectious diseases can be greatly curtailed by vaccinations. PCs are strongly encouraged to maintain updated vaccinations.
Seanor, Brad A.
The contribution of this research effort was to show that a reliable RPV could be built, tested, and successfully used for flight testing and parameter estimation purposes, in an academic setting. This was a fundamental step towards the creation of an automated Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV). This research project was divided into four phases. Phase one involved the construction, development, and initial flight of a Remotely Piloted Vehicle (RPV), the West Virginia University (WVU) Boeing 777 (B777) aircraft. This phase included the creation of an onboard instrumentation system to provide aircraft flight data. The objective of the second phase was to estimate the longitudinal and lateral-directional stability and control derivatives from actual flight data for the B777 model. This involved performing and recording flight test maneuvers used for analysis of the longitudinal and lateral-directional estimates. Flight maneuvers included control surface doublets produced by the elevator, aileron, and rudder controls. A parameter estimation program known as pEst, developed at NASA Dryden Flight Research Center (DFRC), was used to compute the off-line estimates of parameters from collected flight data. This estimation software uses the Maximum Likelihood (ML) method with a Newton-Raphson (NR) minimization algorithm. The mathematical model used a traditional static and dynamic derivative buildup. Phase three focused on comparing a linear model obtained from the phase two ML estimates, with linear models obtained from a (i) Batch Least Squares Technique (BLS) and (ii) a technique from the Matlab system identification toolbox. Historically, aircraft parameter estimation has been performed off-line using recorded flight data from specifically designed maneuvers. In recent years, several on-line parameter identification techniques have been evaluated for real-time on-line applications. Along this research line, a novel contribution of this work was to compare the off-line
This 18-second movie clip shows the NASA Dryden Lockheed C-140 JetStar in flight with its pylon-mounted air-turbine-drive system used to gather information on the acoustic characteristics of subscale advanced design propellers. Data was gathered through 28 flush-mounted microphones on the skin of the aircraft. From 1976 to 1987 the NASA Lewis Research Center, Cleveland, Ohio -- today known as the Glenn Research Center -- engaged in research and development of an advanced turboprop concept in partnership with Hamilton Standard, Windsor Locks, Connecticut, the largest manufacturer of propellers in the United States. The Advanced Turboprop Project took its impetus from the energy crisis of the early 1970's and sought to produce swept propeller blades that would increase efficiency and reduce noise. As the project progressed, Pratt & Whitney, Allison Gas Turbine Division of General Motors, General Electric, Gulfstream, Rohr Industries, Boeing, Lockheed, and McDonnell Douglas, among others, also took part. NASA Lewis did the much of the ground research and marshaled the resources of these and other members of the aeronautical community. The team came to include the NASA Ames Research Center, Langley Research Center, and the Ames-Dryden Flight Research Facility (before and after that time, the Dryden Flight Research Center). Together, they brought the propeller to the flight research stage, and the team that worked on the project won the coveted Collier Trophy for its efforts in 1987. To test the acoustics of the propeller the team developed, it mounted propeller models on a C-140 JetStar aircraft fuselage at NASA Dryden. The JetStar was modified with the installation of an air-turbine-drive system. The drive motor, with a test propeller, was mounted on a pylon atop the JetStar. The JetStar was equipped with an array of 28 microphones flush-mounted in the fuselage of the aircraft beneath the propeller. Microphones mounted on the wings and on an accompanying Learjet chase
Butler, G. F.; Duke, E. L.
As part of a US/UK cooperative aeronautical research pragram, a joint activity between the Dryden Flight Research Facility of the NASA Ames Research Center (Ames-Dryden) and the Royal Aerospace Establishment (RAE) on Knowledge Based Systems was established. Under the agreement, a Flight Status Monitor Knowledge base developed at Ames-Dryden was implemented using the real-time IKBS toolkit, MUSE, which was developed in the UK under RAE sponsorship. The Flight Status Monitor is designed to provide on-line aid to the flight test engineer in the interpretation of system health and status by storing expert knowledge of system behavior in an easily accessible form. The background to the cooperation is described and the details of the Flight Status Monitor, the MUSE implementation are presented.
This dissertation describes the design, development, and flight testing of a Neural Network (NN) based Fault Tolerant Flight Control System (FTFCS) with the ability to accommodate for actuator failures. The goal of this research was to demonstrate the ability of a specific set of control laws to maintain aircraft handling qualities in the presence of failures in the actuator channels. In this study, two-failure scenarios have been investigated: aileron failure (locking of the right aileron at a trim position) and elevator failure (locking of the right elevator at a trim position). A fleet of WVU YF-22 research aircraft test-beds were manufactured and instrumented for developing and testing of flight control software. An on-board payload with a PC-104 format computer system, sensors, and custom made circuit boards were designed and developed for these aircraft test-beds. The fault tolerant flight control systems for this study were designed to recover the aircraft with damaged actuators. On-board real-time data acquisition and control software was developed to achieve the Actuator Failure Accommodation (AFA) flight demonstration. For the purposes of this research, control laws were required to be adaptive to changing aircraft dynamics during a failure scenario. On-line learning NNs---with their non-linearity and learning abilities---were used in the design of the on-board aircraft control scheme. The on-line training reduced the criticality of an extensive on-line Parameter IDentification (PID) during the failure and gives an on-board flight controller the capability to adjust to maintain the best possible flight performance during an unexpected failure. This document will outline and describe the design and building of the flight controller, aircraft test-beds, on-board payload systems, and software in detail. Flight test results will be presented and documented to demonstrate the performance of a NN based FTFCS under failure conditions.
Sergeev, I N; Rhoten, W B; Carney, M D
Exposure of the body to microgravity during space flight causes a series of well-documented changes in Ca2+ metabolism, yet the cellular and molecular mechanisms leading to these changes are poorly understood. Calbindins, vitamin D-dependent Ca2+ binding proteins, are believed to have a significant role in maintaining cellular Ca2+ homeostasis. In this study, we used biochemical and immunocytochemical approaches to analyze the expression of calbindin-D28k and calbindin-D9k in kidneys, small intestine, and pancreas of rats flown for 9 d aboard the space shuttle. The effects of microgravity on calbindins in rats from space were compared with synchronous Animal Enclosure Module controls, modeled weightlessness animals (tail suspension), and their controls. Exposure to microgravity resulted in a significant and sustained decrease in calbindin-D28k content in the kidney and calbindin-D9k in the small intestine of flight animals, as measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Modeled weightlessness animals exhibited a similar decrease in calbindins by ELISA. Immunocytochemistry (ICC) in combination with quantitative computer image analysis was used to measure in situ the expression of calbindins in the kidney and the small intestine, and the expression of insulin in pancreas. There was a large decrease of immunoreactivity in renal distal tubular cell-associated calbindin-D28k and in intestinal absorptive cell-associated calbindin-D9k of space flight and modeled weightlessness animals compared with matched controls. No consistent difference in pancreatic insulin immunoreactivity between space flight, modeled weightlessness, and controls was observed. Regression analysis of results obtained by quantitative ICC and ELISA for space flight, modeled weightlessness animals, and their controls demonstrated a significant correlation. These findings after a short-term exposure to microgravity or modeled weightlessness suggest that a decreased expression of calbindins
Consideration is given to the development of an experimental program to study heat transfer, energy storage, fluid movement, and void location under microgravity. Plans for experimental flight packages containing Thermal Energy Storage (TES) material applicable for advanced solar heat receivers are discussed. Candidate materials for TES include fluoride salts, salt eutectics, silicides, and metals. The development of a three-dimensional computer program to describe TES material behavior undergoing melting and freezing under microgravity is also discussed. The TES experiment concept and plans for ground and flight tests are outlined.
Miller, J. E.; Berger, E. L.; Bohl, W. E.; Christiansen, E. L.; Davis, B. A.; Deighton, K. D.; Enriquez, P. A.; Garcia, M. A.; Hyde, J. L.; Oliveras, O. M.
The principal mechanism for developing orbital debris environment models, is to make observations of larger pieces of debris in the range of several centimeters and greater using radar and optical techniques. For particles that are smaller than this threshold, breakup and migration models of particles to returned surfaces in lower orbit are relied upon to quantify the flux. This reliance on models to derive spatial densities of particles that are of critical importance to spacecraft make the unique nature of the EFT-1's return surface a valuable metric. To this end detailed post-flight inspections have been performed of the returned EFT-1 backshell, and the inspections identified six candidate impact sites that were not present during the pre-flight inspections. This paper describes the post-flight analysis efforts to characterize the EFT-1 mission craters. This effort included ground based testing to understand small particle impact craters in the thermal protection material, the pre- and post-flight inspection, the crater analysis using optical, X-ray computed tomography (CT) and scanning electron microscope (SEM) techniques, and numerical simulations.
Aizawa, Otohiko; Kanda, Keiji
A ''pseudo-statistical'' chopper was manufactured and used for the experiments on neutron transmission and scattering. The characteristics of the chopper and the experimental results are discussed in comparison with those in the time-of-flight technique using a conventional chopper. Which of the two methods is superior depends on the form of the time-of-flight distribution to be measured. Pseudo-statistical pulsing may be especially advantageous for scattering experiments with single or a few-line time-of-flight spectrum. (auth.)
Shen, Xiaoyun; Wan, Di; Ma, Lan; He, Yuncheng
A virtual reality flight procedure vision system is introduced in this paper. The digital flight map database is established based on the Geographic Information System (GIS) and high definitions satellite remote sensing photos. The flight approaching area database is established through computer 3D modeling system and GIS. The area texture is generated from the remote sensing photos and aerial photographs in various level of detail. According to the flight approaching procedure, the flight navigation information is linked to the database. The flight approaching area vision can be dynamic displayed according to the designed flight procedure. The flight approaching area images are rendered in 2 channels, one for left eye images and the others for right eye images. Through the polarized stereoscopic projection system, the pilots and aircrew can get the vivid 3D vision of the flight destination approaching area. Take the use of this system in pilots preflight preparation procedure, the aircrew can get more vivid information along the flight destination approaching area. This system can improve the aviator's self-confidence before he carries out the flight mission, accordingly, the flight safety is improved. This system is also useful in validate the visual flight procedure design, and it helps to the flight procedure design.
A long, slender wing and a pusher propeller at the rear characterize the Perseus B remotely piloted research aircraft, seen here during a test flight in June 1998. Perseus B is a remotely piloted aircraft developed as a design-performance testbed under NASA's Environmental Research Aircraft and Sensor Technology (ERAST) project. Perseus is one of several flight vehicles involved in the ERAST project. A piston engine, propeller-powered aircraft, Perseus was designed and built by Aurora Flight Sciences Corporation, Manassas, Virginia. The objectives of Perseus B's ERAST flight tests have been to reach and maintain horizontal flight above altitudes of 60,000 feet and demonstrate the capability to fly missions lasting from 8 to 24 hours, depending on payload and altitude requirements. The Perseus B aircraft established an unofficial altitude record for a single-engine, propeller-driven, remotely piloted aircraft on June 27, 1998. It reached an altitude of 60,280 feet. In 1999, several modifications were made to the Perseus aircraft including engine, avionics, and flight-control-system improvements. These improvements were evaluated in a series of operational readiness and test missions at the Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California. Perseus is a high-wing monoplane with a conventional tail design. Its narrow, straight, high-aspect-ratio wing is mounted atop the fuselage. The aircraft is pusher-designed with the propeller mounted in the rear. This design allows for interchangeable scientific-instrument payloads to be placed in the forward fuselage. The design also allows for unobstructed airflow to the sensors and other devices mounted in the payload compartment. The Perseus B that underwent test and development in 1999 was the third generation of the Perseus design, which began with the Perseus Proof-Of-Concept aircraft. Perseus was initially developed as part of NASA's Small High-Altitude Science Aircraft (SHASA) program, which later evolved into the ERAST
Bogdanovich I. A.
Full Text Available Bipedalism as a preadaptive stage for bird’s flight is considered. We attribute the formation of full bipedalism in bird ancestors with pelvic limbs transition from segmental to parasagittal position. This transition was fast enough. We can assume that the pectoral limbs freed from the support remained while laterally spaced and gave set of transformations with different degrees of reduction. Thus morphologically “winglike” version of the thoracic limbs could appear. Parasagittal pelvic limbs allowed birds ancestors fast and maneuverable running, while the movements of free and highly movable thoracic limbs (feathered unrelated to flight provided dynamic stability of the animal. In addition, their fluttering movements facilitate hopping from one branch to another and the descent from the trees. On the bottom branches protobirds could jump with perching just by the pelvic anisodactyl limbs, not by thoracic as had supposed earlier. Active interaction of the primary simple feathers with air as well as its protective function could become an impetus for their transformation into differentiated structures. Unlike gliding (as preadaptive stage for active flight bipedalism with free feathered forelimbs provides per se parallel development of two autonomous enough locomotor systems of birds (flight and terrestrial locomotion and extensive adaptive radiation of representatives of the class.
De Leon, Nelson; De Leon, Matthew N.
We develop a two-dimensional flight simulator for lightweight (less than 10 g) indoor planes. The simulator consists of four coupled time differential equations describing the plane CG, plane pitch and motor. The equations are integrated numerically with appropriate parameters and initial conditions for two planes: (1) Science Olympiad and (2)…
Reginald Tucker reads an abridged version of the EID perspective Bat Flight and Zoonotic Viruses. Created: 5/30/2014 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID). Date Released: 6/2/2014.
One day out of the great wilderness of the water there came an albatross. Circling the ship on .... and mathematicians. Conventional aerodynamic ... suspended in air has inspired over a dozen aerodynamic models. GENERAL I ARTICLE scaling concepts fail to explain subtle features of bird flight, as debated by over fifty ...
De Croon, G.C.H.E.; De Wagter, C.; Remes, B.D.W.; Ruijsink, H.M.
A challenging problem in artificial intelligence is to achieve vision-based autonomous indoor flight with Micro Air Vehicles. Approaches to this problem currently do not make use of image appearance features, because these features generally are computationally expensive. In this article, we deliver
Charged particles in the intermediate momentum range are identified in ALICE by the Time Of Flight (TOF) detector. The time measurement with the TOF, in conjunction with the momentum and track length measured by the tracking detector, is used to calculate the particle mass.
business opportunities for universities, laboratories and corpo- rations. Modern scientists seem to be getting increasingly ob- sessed with seasonal and sensational .... around SHAR and the Nelapattu Sanctuary, Professor Dhawan distilled the essence of bird flight for the expert and the neo- phyte alike. The sheer biometric ...
Mallon, Julie M.; Bildstein, Keith L.; Katzner, Todd E.
Birds use atmospheric updrafts to subsidize soaring flight. We observed highly variable soaring flight by Black Vultures (Coragyps atratus) and Turkey Vultures (Cathartes aura) in Virginia, USA, that was inconsistent with published descriptions of terrestrial avian flight. Birds engaging in this behavior regularly deviated vertically and horizontally from linear flight paths. We observed the soaring flight behavior of these 2 species to understand why they soar in this manner and when this behavior occurs. Vultures used this type of soaring mainly at low altitudes (birds because it permits continuous subsidized flight when other types of updraft are not available.
Signal, T. Leigh; Gander, Philippa H.; van den Berg, Margo J.; Graeber, R. Curtis
Study Objectives: To assess the amount and quality of sleep that flight crew are able to obtain during flight, and identify factors that influence the sleep obtained. Design: Flight crew operating flights between Everett, WA, USA and Asia had their sleep recorded polysomnographically for 1 night in a layover hotel and during a 7-h in-flight rest opportunity on flights averaging 15.7 h. Setting: Layover hotel and in-flight crew rest facilities onboard the Boeing 777-200ER aircraft. Participants: Twenty-one male flight crew (11 Captains, mean age 48 yr and 10 First Officers, mean age 35 yr). Interventions: N/A. Measurements and Results: Sleep was recorded using actigraphy during the entire tour of duty, and polysomnographically in a layover hotel and during the flight. Mixed model analysis of covariance was used to determine the factors affecting in-flight sleep. In-flight sleep was less efficient (70% vs. 88%), with more nonrapid eye movement Stage 1/Stage 2 and more frequent awakenings per h (7.7/h vs. 4.6/h) than sleep in the layover hotel. In-flight sleep included very little slow wave sleep (median 0.5%). Less time was spent trying to sleep and less sleep was obtained when sleep opportunities occurred during the first half of the flight. Multivariate analyses suggest age is the most consistent factor affecting in-flight sleep duration and quality. Conclusions: This study confirms that even during long sleep opportunities, in-flight sleep is of poorer quality than sleep on the ground. With longer flight times, the quality and recuperative value of in-flight sleep is increasingly important for flight safety. Because the age limit for flight crew is being challenged, the consequences of age adversely affecting sleep quantity and quality need to be evaluated. Citation: Signal TL; Gander PH; van den Berg MJ; Graeber RC. In-flight sleep of flight crew during a 7-hour rest break: implications for research and flight safety. SLEEP 2013;36(1):109–115. PMID:23288977
Jang, Hak Sin; Kim, Sin Yeong
This book is about cable line engineering. It is comprised of nine chapters, which deals with summary of cable communication such as way, process of cable communication and optical communication, Line constant of transmission on primary constant, reflection and crosstalk, communication cable line of types like flat cable, coaxial cable and loaded cable, Install of communication line with types and facility of aerial line, construction method of communication line facility, Measurement of communication line, Carrier communication of summary, PCM communication with Introduction, regeneration relay system sampling and quantization and Electric communication service and general information network with mobile communication technique and satellite communication system.
Altshuler, Douglas L
Hummingbirds, with their impressive flight ability and competitive aerial contests, make ideal candidates for applying a mechanistic approach to studying community structure. Because flight costs are influenced by abiotic factors that change systematically with altitude, elevational gradients provide natural experiments for hummingbird flight ecology. Prior attempts relied on wing disc loading (WDL) as a morphological surrogate for flight performance, but recent analyses indicate this variable does not influence either territorial behavior or competitive ability. Aerodynamic power, by contrast, can be derived from direct measurements of performance and, like WDL, declines across elevations. Here, I demonstrate for a diverse community of Andean hummingbirds that burst aerodynamic power is associated with territorial behavior. Along a second elevational gradient in Colorado, I tested for correlated changes in aerodynamic power and competitive ability in two territorial hummingbirds. This behavioral analysis revealed that short-winged Selasphorus rufus males are dominant over long-winged Selasphorus platycercus males at low elevations but that the roles are reversed at higher elevations. Several lines of evidence support the hypothesis that the burst rather than sustained aerodynamic performance mediates competitive ability at high elevation. A minimum value for burst power may be required for successful competition, but other maneuverability features gain importance when all competitors have sufficient muscle power, as occurs at low elevations.
watt a*Ong tto manv I’loltant aspects of the systems the Aeronautic: Syotviek Div~tiiti Pianageo under his leaderhip and guidance. He played a r0a4cr...method while Reference 10 shows implicit model-following designs. In either case, the cqua- tions of notion of an "ideal model" having Level I flying...SYSTEM WITH IMPLICIT PREFILTER 0 FLIGHT CONDITION: 239/20 (M=) 0 LINE CODE MODEL 000000000 TEST DATA w Sao- -0.0 \\ 0. O6B TIME (CT I .e,, (4 - .58
Niewoehner, Kevin R.; Carter, John (Technical Monitor)
The research accomplishments for the cooperative agreement 'Online Learning Flight Control for Intelligent Flight Control Systems (IFCS)' include the following: (1) previous IFC program data collection and analysis; (2) IFC program support site (configured IFC systems support network, configured Tornado/VxWorks OS development system, made Configuration and Documentation Management Systems Internet accessible); (3) Airborne Research Test Systems (ARTS) II Hardware (developed hardware requirements specification, developing environmental testing requirements, hardware design, and hardware design development); (4) ARTS II software development laboratory unit (procurement of lab style hardware, configured lab style hardware, and designed interface module equivalent to ARTS II faceplate); (5) program support documentation (developed software development plan, configuration management plan, and software verification and validation plan); (6) LWR algorithm analysis (performed timing and profiling on algorithm); (7) pre-trained neural network analysis; (8) Dynamic Cell Structures (DCS) Neural Network Analysis (performing timing and profiling on algorithm); and (9) conducted technical interchange and quarterly meetings to define IFC research goals.
Aslanidis, Nektarios; Christiansen, Charlotte
This paper investigates flight-to-safety from stocks to bonds in seven European markets. We use quantile regressions to identify flight-to-safety episodes. The simple risk-return trade-off on the stock markets is negative which is caused by flight-to-safety episodes: During normal periods, the risk......-return trade-off is positive and during flight-to-safety episodes it is negative. The effects of flight-to-safety episodes on the risk-return trade-off are qualitatively similar for own country flight-to-safety episodes, for flight from own country stock market to the US bond market, and for US flight...
Bosworth, John T.
This viewgraph presentation gives a detailed description of the F-15 aircraft, flight tests, aircraft performance and overall advanced neural network based flight control technologies for aerospace systems designs.
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Core Flight System Satellite Starter Kit (cFS Kit) will allow a small satellite or CubeSat developer to rapidly develop, deploy, test, and operate flight...
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Experimental in-flight evaluations have demonstrated that the concept of formation flight can reduce fuel consumption of trailing aircraft by 10 percent. Armstrong...
Nelson, W. E., Jr.
The evolution of fighter aircraft flight control technology is briefly surveyed. Systems engineering, battle damage considerations for adaptive flutter suppression, in-flight simulation, and artificial intelligence are briefly discussed.
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The GRIP Flight Tracks and Animations dataset includes both KML files and animation files. The KML files use Google Earth to show the flight tracks on a map. The...
Department of Transportation — The Flight Activity and Crew Tracking System (FACTS) is a Web-based application that provides an overall management and tracking tool of FAA Airmen performing Flight...
Hodges, W. Todd; Walker, Gregory W.
A rotary wing, unmanned air vehicle (UAV) is being developed as a research tool at the NASA Langley Research Center by the U.S. Army and NASA. This development program is intended to provide the rotorcraft research community an intermediate step between rotorcraft wind tunnel testing and full scale manned flight testing. The technologies under development for this vehicle are: adaptive electronic flight control systems incorporating artificial intelligence (AI) techniques, small-light weight sophisticated sensors, advanced telepresence-telerobotics systems and rotary wing UAV operational procedures. This paper briefly describes the system's requirements and the techniques used to integrate the various technologies to meet these requirements. The paper also discusses the status of the development effort. In addition to the original aeromechanics research mission, the technology development effort has generated a great deal of interest in the UAV community for related spin-off applications, as briefly described at the end of the paper. In some cases the technologies under development in the free flight program are critical to the ability to perform some applications.
Karmali, Faisal; Shelhamer, Mark
Flying a parabolic trajectory in an aircraft is one of the few ways to create freefall on Earth, which is important for astronaut training and scientific research. Here we review the physics underlying parabolic flight, explain the resulting flight dynamics, and describe several counterintuitive findings, which we corroborate using experimental data. Typically, the aircraft flies parabolic arcs that produce approximately 25 s of freefall (0 g) followed by 40 s of enhanced force (1.8 g), repeated 30-60 times. Although passengers perceive gravity to be zero, in actuality acceleration, and not gravity, has changed, and thus we caution against the terms "microgravity" and "zero gravity." Despite the aircraft trajectory including large (45°) pitch-up and pitch-down attitudes, the occupants experience a net force perpendicular to the floor of the aircraft. This is because the aircraft generates appropriate lift and thrust to produce the desired vertical and longitudinal accelerations, respectively, although we measured moderate (0.2 g) aft-ward accelerations during certain parts of these trajectories. Aircraft pitch rotation (average 3°/s) is barely detectable by the vestibular system, but could influence some physics experiments. Investigators should consider such details in the planning, analysis, and interpretation of parabolic-flight experiments.
Daso, Endwell O. (Inventor); Pritchett, II, Victor E. (Inventor); Wang, Ten-See (Inventor); Farr, Rebecca Ann (Inventor)
The upstream flowfield of a vehicle traveling in supersonic or hypersonic atmospheric flight is actively controlled using attribute(s) experienced by the vehicle. Sensed attribute(s) include pressure along the vehicle's outer mold line, temperature along the vehicle's outer mold line, heat flux along the vehicle's outer mold line, and/or local acceleration response of the vehicle. A non-heated, non-plasma-producing gas is injected into an upstream flowfield of the vehicle from at least one surface location along the vehicle's outer mold line. The pressure of the gas so-injected is adjusted based on the attribute(s) so-sensed.
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... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Flight safety. 417.107 Section 417.107... TRANSPORTATION LICENSING LAUNCH SAFETY Launch Safety Responsibilities § 417.107 Flight safety. (a) Flight safety... safety system that satisfies subpart D of this part as follows, unless § 417.125 applies. (1) In the...
... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Flight safety. 415.115 Section 415.115... TRANSPORTATION LICENSING LAUNCH LICENSE Safety Review and Approval for Launch of an Expendable Launch Vehicle From a Non-Federal Launch Site § 415.115 Flight safety. (a) Flight safety analysis. An applicant's...
... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Flight rules. 437.39 Section 437.39 Aeronautics and Space COMMERCIAL SPACE TRANSPORTATION, FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... Documentation § 437.39 Flight rules. An applicant must provide flight rules as required by § 437.71. ...
This booklet, one in a series on aviation careers, outlines the career opportunities of airline flight attendants. General information about airline hiring policies for flight attendants are discussed, and the following information about the flight attendant job classification is provided: nature of the work, working conditions, where the jobs…
Hurst, J. E.
Consumables analyses are presented for the high pressure gas storage oxygen (O2), and hydrogen (H2) reactant systems for orbiter vehicle 101 approach and landing tests, for two flights, free flight 1 and free flight 6 are given. The consumables analyses are based on average power data. The required system and mission data updates were made in order to perform the analyses, notably the thermal environment profiles of the reactant storage cylinders and the power profile for the Electrical power subsystem. No mission-dependent environment profiles were provided; therefore, nominal free flight mission profile was used to generate environment profiles for free flights 1 and 6.
The emergence of current high-interest mission involving aeromaneuvering hypersonic flight has given rise to the corresponding need for preliminary design and performance analyses of such vehicles. This need in turn has motivated efforts to develop simplified analytical and computational methods for parametric analysis of maneuvering hypersonic flight under conditions appropriate to the mission involved. The effort included a review of different formulations of the general equations of motion, their associated coordinate frames, various simplifications of the equations, and previously achieved analytical solutions. This study sought to both extend previous solution methods and to develop new ones. In addition, evaluation of the literature and developing a systematic perspective on the knowledge it represents proved to be a major portion of the effort.
Neuroplasticity refers to the ability of neurons to alter some functional property in response to alterations in input. Most of the inputs received by the brain and thus the neurons are coming from the overall sensory system. The lack of gravity during space flight or even the reduction of gravity during the planned Mars missions are and will change these inputs. The often observed "loop swimming" of some aquatic species is under discussion to be based on sensory input changes as well as the observed motion sickness of astronauts and cosmonauts. Several reports are published regarding these changes being based on alterations of general neurophysiological parameters. In this paper a summing-up of recent results obtained in the last years during space flight missions will be presented. Beside data obtained from astronauts and cosmonauts, main focus of this paper will be on animal model system data.
Walker, R.; Gupta, N.
Recent extensions to optimal control theory applied to meaningful linear models with sufficiently flexible software tools provide powerful techniques for designing flight test trajectory controllers (FTTCs). This report describes the principal steps for systematic development of flight trajectory controllers, which can be summarized as planning, modeling, designing, and validating a trajectory controller. The techniques have been kept as general as possible and should apply to a wide range of problems where quantities must be computed and displayed to a pilot to improve pilot effectiveness and to reduce workload and fatigue. To illustrate the approach, a detailed trajectory guidance law is developed and demonstrated for the F-15 aircraft flying the zoom-and-pushover maneuver.
The flight time of an ion in an inhomogeneous, oscillatory electric field (IOFE) is an m/e-dependent property of this field and is independent of the initial position and velocity. The d.c. component of the equation of motion for an ion in the IOFE describes a harmonic oscillation of constant period. When ions oscillate for many periods with one species overtaking another the motion may no longer be truly periodic although the resulting period or 'quasi-period' still remains independent of the initial conditions. This period or 'quasi-period' is used in the time-of-flight mass spectrometer described. The principle of operation is also described and both analytical and experimental results are reported. (B.D.)
greater than the earliest simu- lators. Motion capability has been restored becaise a great deal of evidence bolstered by virtually unanimous pilot...March, 1970, Pip ,r No. 70-347. 10. Ganzler, Bruce C. Virtual image display for flight simulation. NASA Technical Memorandum, NASA TM X-2327, July...studies can be conducted. e. John Dusterberry, Asistant Chief, Simulation Sciences Division, presented remarks on "State-of-the-Art in Visual
strains at the base of antennae, similar to halteres in Diptera . We are investigating various aspects of these phenomena in greater detail to understand...coordination in the soldier fly, Hermetia illucens (Tanvi Deora): One of the key sensory inputs for flight stability in Diptera comes from the haltere...as they land on visual objects that we provide them. This assay relies on the fact that houseflies are attracted to strong contrast visual cues when
realisation of such aircraft has remained elusive. One of the major challenges has been the development of a control system that is capable of flying...Baird E, Srinivasan M, Zhang S, Lamont R & Cowling A. 2006 Lecture Notes in Artificial Intelligence (eds S Nolfi et al.), 4095 40 4 Srinivasan M...AFRL-AFOSR-UK-TR-2016-0038 Flight Control in Complex Environments Emily Baird LUNDS UNIVERSITET Final Report 10/24/2016 DISTRIBUTION A: Distribution
Lareau, Andre G.
Recon/Optical, Inc. (ROI) has pioneered the electro-optical (E-O) framing generation of sensors with the CA-260, a KS-87 form/fit camera with a wafer-scale focal plane array (FPA) containing a patented, on-chip, forward motion compensation (FMC) architecture. The technology has now matured to the state where production E-O framing cameras are form/fit replacing their former film counterparts. During this interim production phase, flight demonstrations and tests are continuing to prove that E-O framing produces high-quality imagery, is robust to various platforms and mission tactics, interoperable with existing and planned C3I architectures, affordable and available, and meets the war-fighters needs. This paper discusses flight test results of the CA-260 E-O framing sensor flown in the F-14A TARPS during September 1994. This demonstration provided some unique imagery permitting a comparison of low-light level, in-flight FMC-on versus FMC-off performance. A first-level comparison of the resulting imagery based upon predicted FMC performance and post- processing numerical analysis is presented. The results indicae that the patented FMC architecture performed as predicted, and that for low-light conditions resulting in limited SNR images, on-chip FMC can provide a significant image quality improvement over post- processing alternatives.
This research effort describes the design and simulation of a distributed Neural Network (NN) based fault tolerant flight control scheme and the interface of the scheme within a simulation/visualization environment. The goal of the fault tolerant flight control scheme is to recover an aircraft from failures to its sensors or actuators. A commercially available simulation package, Aviator Visual Design Simulator (AVDS), was used for the purpose of simulation and visualization of the aircraft dynamics and the performance of the control schemes. For the purpose of the sensor failure detection, identification and accommodation (SFDIA) task, it is assumed that the pitch, roll and yaw rate gyros onboard are without physical redundancy. The task is accomplished through the use of a Main Neural Network (MNN) and a set of three De-Centralized Neural Networks (DNNs), providing analytical redundancy for the pitch, roll and yaw gyros. The purpose of the MNN is to detect a sensor failure while the purpose of the DNNs is to identify the failed sensor and then to provide failure accommodation. The actuator failure detection, identification and accommodation (AFDIA) scheme also features the MNN, for detection of actuator failures, along with three Neural Network Controllers (NNCs) for providing the compensating control surface deflections to neutralize the failure induced pitching, rolling and yawing moments. All NNs continue to train on-line, in addition to an offline trained baseline network structure, using the Extended Back-Propagation Algorithm (EBPA), with the flight data provided by the AVDS simulation package. The above mentioned adaptive flight control schemes have been traditionally implemented sequentially on a single computer. This research addresses the implementation of these fault tolerant flight control schemes on parallel and distributed computer architectures, using Berkeley Software Distribution (BSD) sockets and Message Passing Interface (MPI) for inter
Pavlock, Kate Maureen; Less, James L.; Larson, David Nils
The National Aeronautics and Space Administration's Dryden Flight Research Center completed flight testing of adaptive controls research on a full-scale F-18 testbed. The testbed served as a full-scale vehicle to test and validate adaptive flight control research addressing technical challenges involved with reducing risk to enable safe flight in the presence of adverse conditions such as structural damage or control surface failures. This paper describes the research interface architecture, risk mitigations, flight test approach and lessons learned of adaptive controls research.
Mciver, Duncan E.; Morrell, Frederick R.
The current status and plans of the U.S. National Aero-Space Plane (NASP) program are reviewed. The goal of the program is to develop technology for single stage, hypersonic vehicles which use airbreathing propulsion to fly directly to orbit. The program features an X-30 flight research vehicle to explore altitude-speed regimes not amenable to ground testing. The decision to build the X-30 is now scheduled for 1993, with the first flight in the late 1990's. The flight mechanics, controls, flight management, and flight test considerations for the X-30 are discussed.
Chen, D. C.
Features and applications of the script-based flight monitor SECURE are described. Implemented on an on-board computer, SECURE treats a flight as a regular sequence of contexts (situations) defined in a knowledge base with a hierarchical structure for successively more finely delineated flight phases, i.e., takeoff, cruise and landing. SECURE provides normalcy references for flight monitoring and allows context identification, which allows the presentation of checklists. An implementation of SECURE, written in MACLISP, on a DC-10 flight simulator is described.
Vermont Center for Geographic Information — (Link to Metadata) The ELTRN layer depicts electric transmission line corridors in Vermont. Various methods have been used to digitize features. The data layer...
Strang, Karl Axel
In the late eighteenth century, humans discovered the first pterosaur fossil remains and have been fascinated by their existence ever since. Pterosaurs exploited their membrane wings in a sophisticated manner for flight control and propulsion, and were likely the most efficient and effective flyers ever to inhabit our planet. The flapping gait is a complex combination of motions that sustains and propels an animal in the air. Because pterosaurs were so large with wingspans up to eleven meters, if they could have sustained flapping flight, they would have had to achieve high propulsive efficiencies. Identifying the wing motions that contribute the most to propulsive efficiency is key to understanding pterosaur flight, and therefore to shedding light on flapping flight in general and the design of efficient ornithopters. This study is based on published results for a very well-preserved specimen of Coloborhynchus robustus, for which the joints are well-known and thoroughly described in the literature. Simplifying assumptions are made to estimate the characteristics that can not be inferred directly from the fossil remains. For a given animal, maximizing efficiency is equivalent to minimizing power at a given thrust and speed. We therefore aim at finding the flapping gait, that is the joint motions, that minimize the required flapping power. The power is computed from the aerodynamic forces created during a given wing motion. We develop an unsteady three-dimensional code based on the vortex-lattice method, which correlates well with published results for unsteady motions of rectangular wings. In the aerodynamic model, the rigid pterosaur wing is defined by the position of the bones. In the aeroelastic model, we add the flexibility of the bones and of the wing membrane. The nonlinear structural behavior of the membrane is reduced to a linear modal decomposition, assuming small deflections about the reference wing geometry. The reference wing geometry is computed for
Krarup Andersen, Cecil
This work evaluates the lining history of the Danish Golden Age collection of canvas paintings from the nineteenths century at SMK, The National Gallery of Denmark, and seeks to understand the moisture sensitivity of the paintings before and after lining. This is done by chemical analysis...... and tensile testing samples from the tacking edges as well as lined mock-up samples. The ability of the different lining techniques to support canvas paintings is evaluated in terms of their initial stretching and during fluctuations of relative humidity. Six different combinations of lining adhesives...... and textiles were examined. These included the adhesives Beva 371, Plextol D360, wax-resin, and glue-paste. The lining textiles were linen and polyester sailcloth. A naturally aged canvas painting and a modern painting were lined using these materials and methods. Testing of the lined paintings included uni...
Morelli, Eugene A.
Novel flight test maneuvers for efficient aerodynamic modeling were developed and demonstrated in flight. Orthogonal optimized multi-sine inputs were applied to aircraft control surfaces to excite aircraft dynamic response in all six degrees of freedom simultaneously while keeping the aircraft close to chosen reference flight conditions. Each maneuver was designed for a specific modeling task that cannot be adequately or efficiently accomplished using conventional flight test maneuvers. All of the new maneuvers were first described and explained, then demonstrated on a subscale jet transport aircraft in flight. Real-time and post-flight modeling results obtained using equation-error parameter estimation in the frequency domain were used to show the effectiveness and efficiency of the new maneuvers, as well as the quality of the aerodynamic models that can be identified from the resultant flight data.
Miller, Joshua E.
Orbital debris in the millimeter size range can pose a hazard to current and planned spacecraft due to the high relative impact speeds in Earth orbit. Fortunately, orbital debris has a relatively short life at lower altitudes due to atmospheric effects; however, at higher altitudes orbital debris can survive much longer and has resulted in a band of high flux around 700 to 1,500 km above the surface of the Earth. While large orbital debris objects are tracked via ground based observation, little information can be gathered about small particles except by returned surfaces, which until the Orion Exploration Flight Test number one (EFT-1), has only been possible for lower altitudes (400 to 500 km). The EFT-1 crew module backshell, which used a porous, ceramic tile system with surface coatings, has been inspected post-flight for potential micrometeoroid and orbital debris (MMOD) damage. This paper describes the pre- and post-flight activities of inspection, identification and analysis of six candidate MMOD impact craters from the EFT-1 mission.
This brief abstract reviews the development of the current day approach to human system risk management for space flight and the development of the critical components of this process over the past few years. The human system risk management process now provides a comprehensive assessment of each human system risk by design reference mission (DRM) and is evaluated not only for mission success but also for long-term health impacts for the astronauts. The discipline of bioastronautics is the study of the biological and medical effects of space flight on humans. In 1997, the Space Life Sciences Directorate (SLSD) initiated the Bioastronautics Roadmap (Roadmap) as the "Critical Path Roadmap", and in 1998 participation in the roadmap was expanded to include the National Space Biomedical Research Institute (NSBRI) and the external community. A total of 55 risks and 250 questions were identified and prioritized and in 2000, the Roadmap was base-lined and put under configuration control. The Roadmap took into account several major advisory committee reviews including the Institute of Medicine (IOM) "Safe Passage: Astronaut care for Exploration Missions", 2001. Subsequently, three collaborating organizations at NASA HQ (Chief Health and Medical Officer, Office of Space Flight and Office of Biological & Physical Research), published the Bioastronautics Strategy in 2003, that identified the human as a "critical subsystem of space flight" and noted that "tolerance limits and safe operating bands must be established" to enable human space flight. These offices also requested a review by the IOM of the Roadmap and that review was published in October 2005 as "A Risk Reduction Strategy for Human Exploration of Space: A Review of NASA's Bioastronautics Roadmap", that noted several strengths and weaknesses of the Roadmap and made several recommendations. In parallel with the development of the Roadmap, the Office of the Chief Health and Medical Officer (OCHMO) began a process in
Krarup Andersen, Cecil
and tensile testing samples from the tacking edges as well as lined mock-up samples. The ability of the different lining techniques to support canvas paintings is evaluated in terms of their initial stretching and during fluctuations of relative humidity. Six different combinations of lining adhesives...
Totah, Joseph J.
The objective of this paper is to present results from the evaluation of a direct adaptive tracking controller. The control architecture employs both pre-trained and an on-line neural networks to represent the non-linear aircraft dynamics in the model inversion portion of the controller. The aircraft model used for this evaluation is representative of the F-15 Advanced Control Technology for Integrated Vehicles (ACTIVE) aircraft. The controller was evaluated for three cases: (1) nominal conditions; (2) loss of control power; and (3) loss of control power in the presence of atmospheric turbulence. The results were compared with the existing F-15 ACTIVE conventional mode controller in all cases. The results indicate extremely desirable airframe stabilization characteristics for case (1) that do not degrade significantly for case (2) or (3) as does the conventional mode controller. It was concluded that this controller exhibits both stable and robust adaptive characteristics when subjected to mild and extreme loss of control power conditions. Integration of this neural adaptive flight controller into the full non-linear six degree-of-freedom F-15 ACTIVE simulation is recommended for evaluation in a real-time high fidelity piloted simulation environment.
in 12 groups of three. CONTROL SERVO PROCESSOR PROCESSOR EhSV ACT.• ~INTERNAL , A Wm1R INC A, CHANNEL A1-12 MIL-STD-1553 B BUS A A C1.12 j CHANNEL 11...line operation in channels where applicable) a Servo modeling and comparison to actual electrohydraulic servovalve ( EHSV ) e Control n transmission and...AFWAL-TR-83-3041 A A STUDY OF DIGITALLY CONTROLLED FLIGHT CONTROL ACTUATION HOWARD H. BELMONT HR TEXTRON INC. 25200 WEST RYE CANYON ROAD VALENCIA
Webb, Evan; Day, John H. (Technical Monitor)
NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) is adapting current data networking technologies to fly on future spaceflight missions. The benefits of using commercially based networking standards and protocols have been widely discussed and are expected to include reduction in overall mission cost, shortened integration and test (I&T) schedules, increased operations flexibility, and hardware and software upgradeability/scalability with developments ongoing in the commercial world. The networking effort is a comprehensive one encompassing missions ranging from small University Explorer (UNEX) class spacecraft to large observatories such as the Next Generation Space Telescope (NGST). Mission aspects such as flight hardware and software, ground station hardware and software, operations, RF communications, and security (physical and electronic) are all being addressed to ensure a complete end-to-end system solution. One of the current networking development efforts at GSFC is the SpaceLAN (Spacecraft Local Area Network) project, development of a space-qualifiable Ethernet network. To this end we have purchased an IEEE 802.3-compatible 10/100/1000 Media Access Control (MAC) layer Intellectual Property (IP) core and are designing a network node interface (NNI) and associated network components such as a switch. These systems will ultimately allow the replacement of the typical MIL-STD-1553/1773 and custom interfaces that inhabit most spacecraft. In this paper we will describe our current Ethernet NNI development along with a novel new space qualified physical layer that will be used in place of the standard interfaces. We will outline our plans for development of space qualified network components that will allow future spacecraft to operate in significant radiation environments while using a single onboard network for reliable commanding and data transfer. There will be a brief discussion of some issues surrounding system implications of a flight Ethernet. Finally, we will
The space-flight ionizing radiation (IR) environment is dominated by very high-kinetic energy-charged particles with relatively smaller contributions from X-rays and gamma rays. The Earth's surface IR environment is not dominated by the natural radioisotope decay processes. Dr. Steven Koontz's lecture will provide a solid foundation in the basic engineering physics of space radiation environments, beginning with the space radiation environment on the International Space Station and moving outward through the Van Allen belts to cislunar space. The benefits and limitations of radiation shielding materials will also be summarized.
On this seventh day of the STS-72 mission, the flight crew, Cmdr. Brian Duffy, Pilot Brent W. Jett, and Mission Specialists Leroy Chiao, Daniel T. Barry, Winston E. Scott, and Koichi Wakata (NASDA), awakened to music from the Walt Disney movie, 'Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs.' Chiao and Scott performed the second spacewalk of the mission where they tested equipment and work platforms that will be used in building the planned International Space Station. This spacewalk was almost seven hours long. Wakata conducted an interview with and answered questions from six graders from a Japanese school in Houston, Texas.
A Vought F-8A Crusader was selected by NASA as the testbed aircraft (designated TF-8A) to install an experimental Supercritical Wing in place of the conventional wing. The unique design of the Supercritical Wing (SCW) reduces the effect of shock waves on the upper surface near Mach 1, which in turn reduces drag. In this photograph a Vought F-8A Crusader is shown being used as a flying testbed for an experimental Supercritical Wing airfoil. The smooth fairing of the fiberglass glove with the wing is illustrated in this view. This is the configuration of the F-8 SCW aircraft late in the program. The SCW team fitted the fuselage with bulges fore and aft of the wings. This was similar to the proposed shape of a near-sonic airliner. Both the SCW airfoil and the bulged-fuselage design were optimal for cruise at Mach 0.98. Dr. Whitcomb (designer of the SCW) had previously spent about four years working on supersonic transport designs. He concluded that these were impractical due to their high operating costs. The high drag at speeds above Mach 1 resulted in greatly increased costs. Following the fuel-price rises caused by the October 1973 oil embargo, airlines lost interest in near-sonic transports. Rather, they wanted a design that would have lower fuel consumption. Dr. Whitcomb developed a modified supercritical-wing shape that provided higher lift-to-drag ratios at the same speeds. He did this by using thicker airfoil sections and a reduced wing sweepback. This resulted in an increased aspect ratio without an increase in wing weight. In the three decades since the F-8 SCW flew, the use of such airfoils has become common. The F-8 Supercritical Wing was a flight research project designed to test a new wing concept designed by Dr. Richard Whitcomb, chief of the Transonic Aerodynamics Branch, Langley Research Center, Hampton, Virginia. Compared to a conventional wing, the supercritical wing (SCW) is flatter on the top and rounder on the bottom with a downward curve at the
Gantmakher, F R; Dryden, H L
International Series of Monographs on Aeronautics and Astronautics, Division VII, Volume 5: The Flight of Uncontrolled Rockets focuses on external ballistics of uncontrolled rockets. The book first discusses the equations of motion of rockets. The rocket as a system of changing composition; application of solidification principle to rockets; rotational motion of rockets; and equations of motion of the center of mass of rockets are described. The text looks at the calculation of trajectory of rockets and the fundamentals of rocket dispersion. The selection further focuses on the dispersion of f
Falconer, David A.; Jordan, Studart D.; Davila, Joseph M.; Thomas, Roger J.; Andretta, Vincenzo; Brosius, Jeffrey W.; Hara, Hirosha
A comparison of Skylab results with observations of the strong EUV lines of Fe XVI at 335 A and 361 A from the Goddard Solar EUV Rocket Telescope and Spectrograph (SERTS) flight of 1989 suggests that these lines, and perhaps others observed with SERTS, might offer good proxies for estimating the total coronal flux over important wavelength ranges. In this paper, we compare SERTS observations from a later, 1993 flight with simultaneous cospatial Yohkoh soft X-ray observations to test this suggestion over the energy range of the Soft X-ray Telescope (SXT) on Yohkoh. Both polynomial and power-law fits are obtained, and errors are estimated, for the SERTS lines of Fe XVI 335 A and 361 A, Fe XV 284 A and 417 A, and Mg IX 368 A. It is found that the power-law fits best cover the full range of solar conditions from quiet Sun through active region, though not surprisingly the 'cooler' Mg IX 368 A line proves to be a poor proxy. The quadratic polynomial fits yield fair agreement over a large range for all but the Mg IX line, but the linear fits fail conspicuously when extrapolated into the quiet Sun regime. The implications of this work for the He 11 304 A line formation problem are briefly considered. The paper concludes with a discussion of the value of these iron lines observed with SERTS for estimating stellar coronal fluxes, as observed for example with the EUVE satellite.
Pechner, Adam Daniel
With recent design improvement in fixed wing aircraft, there has been a considerable interest in the design of robust flight control systems to compensate for the inherent instability necessary to achieve desired performance. Such systems are designed for maximum available retention of stability and performance in the presence of significant vehicle damage or system failure. The rotorcraft industry has shown similar interest in adopting these reconfigurable flight control schemes specifically because of their ability to reject disturbance inputs and provide a significant amount of robustness for all but the most catastrophic of situations. The research summarized herein focuses on the extension of the pseudo-sliding mode control design procedure interpreted in the frequency domain. Application of the technique is employed and simulated on two well known helicopters, a simplified model of a hovering Sikorsky S-61 and the military's Black Hawk UH-60A also produced by Sikorsky. The Sikorsky helicopter model details are readily available and was chosen because it can be limited to pitch and roll motion reducing the number of degrees of freedom and yet contains two degrees of freedom, which is the minimum requirement in proving the validity of the pseudo-sliding control technique. The full order model of a hovering Black Hawk system was included both as a comparison to the S-61 helicopter design system and as a means to demonstrate the scaleability and effectiveness of the control technique on sophisticated systems where design robustness is of critical concern.
On this sixth day of the STS-79 mission, the flight crew, Cmdr. William F. Readdy, Pilot Terrence W. Wilcutt, Mission Specialists, Thomas D. Akers, Shannon Lucid, Jay Apt, and Carl E. Walz, continue activities aboard Atlantis/Mir as the nine astronauts and cosmonauts work in their second full day of docked operations. The continuing transfer of logistical supplies and scientific hardware can be seen proceeding smoothly. Apt and Walz once again worked with the Active Rack Isolation System experiment to replace a broken pushrod. With that complete, Apt monitors the ARIS experiment as Readdy and Korzun fire small maneuvering jets on their spacecraft to test the ability of ARIS to damp out any disturbances created by the firings. Walz also is continuing his work with the Mechanics of Granular Materials experiment in Atlantis' double Spacehab module. The astronauts used the large format IMAX camera to conduct a photographic survey of Mir from the Shuttle's flight deck windows while Akers shot IMAX movie scenes of Readdy, Wilcutt, and Korzun in the Spektr module.
Taylor, A. B.
Results of a flight evaluation of winglets on a DC-10 Series 10 aircraft are presented. For sensitive areas of comparison, effects of winglets were determined back-to-back with and without winglets. Basic and reduced-span winglet configurations were tested. After initial encounter with low-speed buffet, a number of acceptable configurations were developed. For maximum drag reduction at both cruise and low speeds, lower winglets were required, having leading edge devices on upper and lower winglets for the latter regime. The cruise benefits were enhanced by adding outboard aileron droop to the reduced-span winglet aircraft. Winglets had no significant impact on stall speeds, high-speed buffet boundary, and stability and control. Flutter test results agreed with predictions and ground vibration data. Flight loads measurement, provided in a concurrent program, also agreed with predictions. It was estimated that a production version of the aircraft, using the reduced-span winglet and aileron droop, would yield a 3-percent reduction in fuel burned with capacity payload. This range was 2% greater than with winglets. A 5% reduction in takeoff distance at maximum takeoff weight would also result.
The manifest success of birds in flight over small and large distances, in confined quarters and also in gusty conditions has inspired admiration, investigation and sometimes imitation from the earthbound human. Birds occupy a range of scales (2 g - 12 kg in mass, and 0.05 - 3 m in wingspan) that overlaps certain micro air vehicle (MAV) designs and there is interest in whether some bird-like properties (flapping wings, deformable feathers, movable tails) might be useful or even necessary for successful MAVs. A bird with 5 cm mean chord flying at 8 m/s has a nominal Reynolds number of 2 - 3 x 10^4. This is an extremely inconvenient range for design, operation and analysis of lifting surfaces, even in steady motion, because their properties are very sensitive to boundary layer separation. The moderate- to high-amplitude flapping motions, together with the complex surface geometry and mechanical properties of the wings themselves lead to yet further challenges. This talk will review some of the theoretical and practical approaches towards understanding and analyzing the aerodynamics of various types of bird flight, including some recent research results that suggest that this effort is far from complete.
Kenney, P. Sean; Croom, Mark A.
A report discusses using the Aerial Regional- scale Environmental Survey (ARES) light airplane as an observation platform on Mars in order to gather data. It would have to survive insertion into the atmosphere, fly long enough to meet science objectives, and provide a stable platform. The feasibility of such a platform was tested using the Langley Standard Real- Time Simulation in C++. The unique features of LaSRS++ are: full, six-degrees- of-freedom flight simulation that can be used to evaluate the performance of the aircraft in the Martian environment; capability of flight analysis from start to finish; support of Monte Carlo analysis of aircraft performance; and accepting initial conditions from POST results for the entry and deployment of the entry body. Starting with a general aviation model, the design was tweaked to maintain a stable aircraft under expected Martian conditions. Outer mold lines were adjusted based on experience with the Martian atmosphere. Flight control was modified from a vertical acceleration control law to an angle-of-attack control law. Navigation was modified from a vertical acceleration control system to an alpha control system. In general, a pattern of starting with simple models with well-understood behaviors was selected and modified during testing.
Full Text Available The ballistics equations for spherical pellets in free flight are simplified through appropriate scaling of the pellet velocity and pellet distance. Two different drag coefficient curves are averaged to yield a single curve applicable to shot pellets and round balls. The resulting S-shaped drag coefficient curve is approximated by three straight-line segments. The scaled ballistics equations are then solved exactly and simple formulas are found for the velocity and flight time with respect to trajectory distance. The formulas are applicable to spherical shot pellets and round balls of any composition under any atmospheric conditions. The formulas are amenable to quick and easy computation and may also serve as an aid in understanding and comparing black-box ballistics calculators. For shotshell ballistics, an important assumption in the present investigation is that the pellets are moving as single, free spheres and not as a dense cloud or in a shot column, in particular, the pellets are not interacting during flight. Therefore, the formulas are most appropriate for single round balls, for large shot sizes, and for pellets of small shot size fired from open chokes. The formulas are clear and accessible, and can be implemented by military or law enforcement personnel as well as hunters and shooters. This work differs from previous investigations in that accurate ballistics formulas are derived for spherical projectiles of shotguns and muzzleloaders using realistic drag coefficients.
Detrick, Matt; Kwak, Seung-Keon; Yoon, Hwan-Sik
A novel Morphing Flight Control Surface (MFCS) system has been developed. The distinction of this research effort is that the SenAnTech team has incorporated our innovative Highly Deformable Mechanism (HDM) into our MFCS. The feasibility of this novel technology for deformable wing structures, such as airfoil shaping, warping or twisting with a flexure-based high displacement PZT actuator has been demonstrated via computational simulations such as Finite Element Analysis (FEA) and Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD). CFD was implemented to verify the accuracy of the complex potential flow theory for this application. Then, complex potential flow theory, kinematics, geometry, and static force analysis were incorporated into a multidisciplinary GUI simulation tool. This tool has been used to aid the design of the MFCS. The results show that we can achieve up to five degrees of wing twisting with our proposed system, while using minimal volume within the wing and adding little weight.
Grodzinski, Uri; Spiegel, Orr; Korine, Carmi; Holderied, Marc W
1. Understanding the causes and consequences of animal flight speed has long been a challenge in biology. Aerodynamic theory is used to predict the most economical flight speeds, minimizing energy expenditure either per distance (maximal range speed, Vmr) or per time (minimal power speed, Vmp). When foraging in flight, flight speed also affects prey encounter and energy intake rates. According to optimal flight speed theory, such effects may shift the energetically optimal foraging speed to above Vmp. 2. Therefore, we predicted that if energetic considerations indeed have a substantial effect on flight speed of aerial-hawking bats, they will use high speed (close to Vmr) to commute from their daily roost to the foraging sites, while a slower speed (but still above Vmp) will be preferred during foraging. To test these predictions, echolocation calls of commuting and foraging Pipistrellus kuhlii were recorded and their flight tracks were reconstructed using an acoustic flight path tracking system. 3. Confirming our qualitative prediction, commuting flight was found to be significantly faster than foraging flight (9.3 vs. 6.7 m s(-1)), even when controlling for its lower tortuosity. 4. In order to examine our quantitative prediction, we compared observed flight speeds with Vmp and Vmr values generated for the study population using two alternative aerodynamic models, based on mass and wing morphology variables measured from bats we captured while commuting. The Vmp and Vmr values generated by one of the models were much lower than our measured flight speed. According to the other model used, however, measured foraging flight was faster than Vmp and commuting flight slightly slower than Vmr, which is in agreement with the predictions of optimal flight speed theory. 5. Thus, the second aerodynamic model we used seems to be a reasonable predictor of the different flight speeds used by the bats while foraging and while commuting. This supports the hypothesis that bats fly
Pavlock, Kate Maureen; Less, James L.; Larson, David Nils
The National Aeronautics and Space Administration s Dryden Flight Research Center completed flight testing of adaptive controls research on a full-scale F-18 testbed. The validation of adaptive controls has the potential to enhance safety in the presence of adverse conditions such as structural damage or control surface failures. This paper describes the research interface architecture, risk mitigations, flight test approach and lessons learned of adaptive controls research.
Hartman, Kathy R. (Editor)
This conference publication includes 41 papers and abstracts presented at the Flight Mechanics/ Estimation Theory Symposium on May 16-18, 1995. Sponsored by the Flight Dynamics Division of Goddard Space Flight Center, this symposium featured technical papers on a wide range of issues related to orbit-attitude prediction, determination, and control; attitude sensor calibration; attitude determination error analysis; attitude dynamics; and orbit decay and maneuver strategy. Government, industry, and the academic community participated in the preparation and presentation of these papers.
Greatorex, Scott (Editor)
This conference publication includes 34 papers and abstracts presented at the Flight Mechanics/ Estimation Theory Symposium on May 14-16, 1996. Sponsored by the Flight Dynamics Division of Goddard Space Flight Center, this symposium featured technical papers on a wide range of issues related to orbit-attitude prediction, determination, and control; attitude sensor calibration; attitude determination error analysis; attitude dynamics; and orbit decay and maneuver strategy. Government, industry, and the academic community participated in the preparation and presentation of these papers.
Theodore, Colin R.
This presentation will touch topics, including but not limited to, the objectives and challenges of flight dynamics and controls that deal with the pilot and the cockpit's technology, the flight dynamics and controls discipline tasks, and the full envelope of flight dynamics modeling. In addition, the LCTR 7x10-ft wind tunnel test will also be included along with the optimal trajectories for noise abatement and its investigations on handling quality. Furthermore, previous experiments and their complying results will also be discussed.
Smith, B. P.; Dutta, S.
The Adaptable Deployable Entry and Placement Technology (ADEPT) project will be conducting the first flight test of ADEPT, titled Sounding Rocket One (SR-1), in just two months. The need for this flight test stems from the fact that ADEPT's supersonic dynamic stability has not yet been characterized. The SR-1 flight test will provide critical data describing the flight mechanics of ADEPT in ballistic flight. These data will feed decision making on future ADEPT mission designs. This presentation will describe the SR-1 scientific data products, possible flight test outcomes, and the implications of those outcomes on future ADEPT development. In addition, this presentation will describe free-flight ground testing performed in advance of the flight test. A subsonic flight dynamics test conducted at the Vertical Spin Tunnel located at NASA Langley Research Center provided subsonic flight dynamics data at high and low altitudes for multiple center of mass (CoM) locations. A ballistic range test at the Hypervelocity Free Flight Aerodynamics Facility (HFFAF) located at NASA Ames Research Center provided supersonic flight dynamics data at low supersonic Mach numbers. Execution and outcomes of these tests will be discussed. Finally, a hypothesized trajectory estimate for the SR-1 flight will be presented.
Forest, Greg; Apyan, Alex; Hillin, Andrew
Outline the process that takes new hires with zero knowledge all the way to the point of completing missions in Flight Operations. Audience members should be able to outline the attributes of a flight controller and instructor, outline the training flow for flight controllers and instructors, and identify how the flight controller and instructor attributes are necessary to ensure operational excellence in mission prep and execution. Identify how the simulation environment is used to develop crisis management, communication, teamwork, and leadership skills for SGT employees beyond what can be provided by classroom training.
Data analysis is a process of inspecting, cleaning, transforming, and modeling data to highlight useful information and suggest conclusions. Accurate timestamps and a timeline of vehicle events are needed to analyze flight data. By moving the timekeeping to the flight processor, there is no longer a need for a redundant time source. If each flight processor is initially synchronized to GPS, they can freewheel and maintain a fairly accurate time throughout the flight with no additional GPS time messages received. How ever, additional GPS time messages will ensure an even greater accuracy. When a timestamp is required, a gettime function is called that immediately reads the time-base register.
Lindpere, Piret, 1963-
1923. a. valminud koolihoone renoveerimine ja juurdeehitus.Vana ja uut maja ühendab klaaskatusega läbi korruste paiknev aatrium. Projekteerija: Raul Järg, AS Kommunaalprojekt. Autor Raul Järg. Sisekujundaja Toomas Korb (Pink). Konstruktsioonid: AS Kommunaalprojekt, OÜ Civen. Projekt 2002, valmis 2003. Uue osa I ja II korruse plaan, 7 vaadet
Hadad, Y.; Cohen, E.; Kaminer, I.; Elitzur, A. C.
Faraday introduced electric field lines as a powerful tool for understanding the electric force, and these field lines are still used today in classrooms and textbooks teaching the basics of electromagnetism within the electrostatic limit. However, despite attempts at generalizing this concept beyond the electrostatic limit, such a fully relativistic field line theory still appears to be missing. In this work, we propose such a theory and define covariant electromagnetic field lines that naturally extend electric field lines to relativistic systems and general electromagnetic fields. We derive a closed-form formula for the field lines curvature in the vicinity of a charge, and show that it is related to the world line of the charge. This demonstrates how the kinematics of a charge can be derived from the geometry of the electromagnetic field lines. Such a theory may also provide new tools in modeling and analyzing electromagnetic phenomena, and may entail new insights regarding long-standing problems such as radiation-reaction and self-force. In particular, the electromagnetic field lines curvature has the attractive property of being non-singular everywhere, thus eliminating all self-field singularities without using renormalization techniques.
Woolford, Barbara J.; Mount, Frances
After forty years of experience with human space flight (Table 1), the current emphasis is on the design of space vehicles, habitats, and missions to ensure mission success. What lessons have we learned that will affect the design of spacecraft for future space exploration, leading up to exploring Mars? This chapter addresses this issue in four sections: Anthropometry and Biomechanics; Environmental Factors; Habitability and Architecture; and Crew Personal Sustenance. This introductory section introduces factors unique to space flight. A unique consideration for design of a habitable volume in a space vehicle is the lack of gravity during a space flight, referred to as microgravity. This affects all aspects of life, and drives special features in the habitat, equipment, tools, and procedures. The difference in gravity during a space mission requires designing for posture and motion differences. In Earth s gravity, or even with partial gravity, orientation is not a variable because the direction in which gravity acts defines up and down. In a microgravity environment the working position is arbitrary; there is no gravity cue. Orientation is defined primarily through visual cues. The orientation within a particular crew station or work area is referred to as local vertical, and should be consistent within a module to increase crew productivity. Equipment was intentionally arranged in various orientations in one module on Skylab to assess the efficiency in use of space versus the effects of inconsistent layout. The effects of that arrangement were confusion on entering the module, time spent in re-orientation, and conflicts in crew space requirements when multiple crew members were in the module. Design of a space vehicle is constrained by the three major mission drivers: mass, volume and power. Each of these factors drives the cost of a mission. Mass and volume determine the size of the launch vehicle directly; they can limit consumables such as air, water, and
The systems experience gained from 17 years of DC-10 operation was used during the design of the MD-11 to automate system operation and reduce crew workload. All functions, from preflight to shutdown at the termination of flight, require little input from the crew. The MD-11 aircraft systems are monitored for proper operation by the Aircraft Systems Controllers (ASC). In most cases, system reconfiguration as a result of a malfunction is automated. Manual input is required for irreversible actions such as engine shutdown, fuel dump, fire agent discharge, or Integrated Drive Generator (IDG) disconnect. During normal operations, when the cockpit is configured for flight, all annunciators on the overhead panel will be extinguished. This Dark Cockpit immediately confirms to the crew that the panels are correctly configured and that no abnormalities are present. Primary systems annunciations are shown in text on the Alert Area of the Engine and Alert Display (EAD). This eliminates the need to scan the overhead. The MD-11 aircraft systems can be manually controlled from the overhead area of the cockpit. The center portion of the overhead panel is composed of the primary aircraft systems panels, which include FUEL, AIR, Electrical (ELEC) and Hydraulic (HYD) systems, which are easily accessible from both flight crew positions. Each Aircraft Systems Controller (ASC) has two automatic channels and a manual mode. All rectangular lights are annunciators. All square lights are combined switches and annunciators called switch/lights. Red switch/lights on the overhead (Level 3 alerts) are for conditions requiring immediate crew action. Amber (Level 2 or Level 1 alerts) indicates a fault or switch out of position requiring awareness or crew interaction. Overhead switches used in normal operating conditions will illuminate blue when in use (Level 0 alerts) such as WING ANTI-ICE - ON. An overhead switch/light with BLACK LETTERING on an amber or red background indicates a system
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Flight Summaries and Flight Tracks Imagery dataset for MC3E provides processed summaries from University of North Dakota including sonde maps, a radar animation,...
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The GPM Ground Validation Flight Summaries and Flight Tracks Imagery MC3E dataset for the Midlatitude Continental Convective Clouds Experiment (MC3E) provides...
Full Text Available This project will describe the physics of a common Frisbee in flight. The aerodynamic forces acting on the Frisbee are lift and drag, with lift being explained by Bernoulli‘s equation and drag by the Prandtl relationship. Using V. R. Morrison‘s model for the 2-dimensional trajectory of a Frisbee, equations for the x- and y- components of the Frisbee‘s motion were written in Microsoft Excel and the path of the Frisbee was illustrated. Variables such as angle of attack, area, and attack velocity were altered to see their effect on the Frisbee‘s path and to speculate on ways to achieve maximum distance and height.
O'Shea, Thomas J.; Cryan, Paul M.; Cunningham, Andrew A.; Fooks, Anthony R.; Hayman, David T.S.; Luis, Angela D.; Peel, Alison J.; Plowright, Raina K.; Wood, James L.N.
Bats are sources of high viral diversity and high-profile zoonotic viruses worldwide. Although apparently not pathogenic in their reservoir hosts, some viruses from bats severely affect other mammals, including humans. Examples include severe acute respiratory syndrome coronaviruses, Ebola and Marburg viruses, and Nipah and Hendra viruses. Factors underlying high viral diversity in bats are the subject of speculation. We hypothesize that flight, a factor common to all bats but to no other mammals, provides an intensive selective force for coexistence with viral parasites through a daily cycle that elevates metabolism and body temperature analogous to the febrile response in other mammals. On an evolutionary scale, this host–virus interaction might have resulted in the large diversity of zoonotic viruses in bats, possibly through bat viruses adapting to be more tolerant of the fever response and less virulent to their natural hosts.
Charles, John B.; Bungo, Michael W.; Mulvagh, Sharon L.
Observations on American and Soviet astronauts have documented the association of changes in cardiovascular function during orthostasis with space flight. A basic understanding of the cardiovascular changes occurring in astronauts requires the determination of cardiac output and total peripheral vascular resistance as a minimum. In 1982, we selected ultrasound echocardiography as our means of acquiring this information. Ultrasound offers a quick, non-invasive and accurate means of determining stroke volume which, when combined with the blood pressure and heart rate measurements of the stand test, allows calculation of changes in peripheral vascular resistance, the body's major response to orthostatic stress. The history of echocardiography in the Space Shuttle Program is discussed and the results are briefly presented.
Fukami, Koji; Higashino, Shin-Ichiro; Sakurai, Akira
This paper presents the concept of dynamic wind tunnel testing using captive flight method, in which the airplane is supported by three elastic lines mainly in the vertical direction, and given oscillatory motions by an external actuator. This experimental method is designed for the aerodynamic parameter estimation. Longitudinal and lateral dynamic tests are carried out sweeping driving frequency, and every mode except surging motion, of which damping is weak, was excited. Aerodynamic parameters estimated from flight data showed good accordance with reference data. This experimental method has the advantages of the experimental simplicity, quite small aerodynamic interference, stable flight and the capability of the excitation of motion necessary for the estimation.
Tobiska, W. K.
Space weather's effects upon the near-Earth environment are due to dynamic changes in the energy transfer processes from the Sun's photons, particles, and fields. Of the domains that are affected by space weather, the coupling between the solar and galactic high-energy particles, the magnetosphere, and atmospheric regions can significantly affect humans and our technology as a result of radiation exposure. Space Environment Technologies (SET) has been conducting space weather observations of the atmospheric radiation environment at aviation altitudes that will eventually be transitioned into air traffic management operations. The Automated Radiation Measurements for Aerospace Safety (ARMAS) system and Upper-atmospheric Space and Earth Weather eXperiment (USEWX) both are providing dose rate measurements. Both activities are under the ARMAS goal of providing the "weather" of the radiation environment to improve aircraft crew and passenger safety. Over 5-dozen ARMAS and USEWX flights have successfully demonstrated the operation of a micro dosimeter on commercial aviation altitude aircraft that captures the real-time radiation environment resulting from Galactic Cosmic Rays and Solar Energetic Particles. The real-time radiation exposure is computed as an effective dose rate (body-averaged over the radiative-sensitive organs and tissues in units of microsieverts per hour); total ionizing dose is captured on the aircraft, downlinked in real-time, processed on the ground into effective dose rates, compared with NASA's Langley Research Center (LaRC) most recent Nowcast of Atmospheric Ionizing Radiation System (NAIRAS) global radiation climatology model runs, and then made available to end users via the web and smart phone apps. Flight altitudes now exceed 60,000 ft. and extend above commercial aviation altitudes into the stratosphere. In this presentation we describe recent ARMAS and USEWX results.
De Boever, P.
The main goal of manned exploration is to achieve a prolonged stay in space, for example in an orbital station (such as the International Space Station (ISS)) or in planetary bases on the Moon and/or Mars. It goes without saying that such missions can only be realized when the astronaut's health and well-being is secured. In this respect, the characterization of the microbiological contamination on board spacecraft and orbital stations and the influence of cosmic radiation and microgravity are of paramount importance. Microbial contamination may originate from different sources and includes the initial contamination of space flight materials during manufacturing and assembly, the delivery of supplies to the orbital station, the supplies themselves, secondary contamination during the lifetime of the orbital station, the crew and any other biological material on board e.g. animals, plants, micro-organisms used in scientific experiments. Although most microorganisms do not threaten human health, it has been reported that in a confined environment, such as a space cabin, microorganisms may produce adverse effects on the optimal performance of the space crew and the integrity of the spacecraft or habitat. These effects range from infections, allergies, and toxicities to degradation of air and water supplies. Biodegradation of critical materials may result in system failure and this may jeopardize the crew. The research aims at monitoring the biological airborne and surface contamination during manned space flight. The ISS has been selected as primary test bed for this study. The majority of the investigations are being done by the Russian Institute of Biomedical Problems (IBMP), which is responsible for monitoring the biological contamination in the habitable compartments of the ISS for safety and hygienic reasons. Within the frame of a collaboration between IBMP and the European Space Agency (ESA), SCK-CEN is able to participate in the analyses
Williams-Hayes, Peggy S.
The NASA F-15 Intelligent Flight Control System project team developed a series of flight control concepts designed to demonstrate neural network-based adaptive controller benefits, with the objective to develop and flight-test control systems using neural network technology to optimize aircraft performance under nominal conditions and stabilize the aircraft under failure conditions. This report presents flight-test results for an adaptive controller using stability and control derivative values from an online learning neural network. A dynamic cell structure neural network is used in conjunction with a real-time parameter identification algorithm to estimate aerodynamic stability and control derivative increments to baseline aerodynamic derivatives in flight. This open-loop flight test set was performed in preparation for a future phase in which the learning neural network and parameter identification algorithm output would provide the flight controller with aerodynamic stability and control derivative updates in near real time. Two flight maneuvers are analyzed - pitch frequency sweep and automated flight-test maneuver designed to optimally excite the parameter identification algorithm in all axes. Frequency responses generated from flight data are compared to those obtained from nonlinear simulation runs. Flight data examination shows that addition of flight-identified aerodynamic derivative increments into the simulation improved aircraft pitch handling qualities.
...-0780; Amdt. No. 61-131] RIN 2120-AK23 Certified Flight Instructor Flight Reviews; Recent Pilot in Command Experience; Airmen Online Services; Confirmation of Effective Date AGENCY: Federal Aviation...-calendar month flight review requirements. This rule also clarifies that the generally applicable recent...
...-0780; Amdt. No. 61-131] RIN 2120-AK23 Certified Flight Instructor Flight Reviews; Recent Pilot in Command Experience; Airmen Online Services AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION... review requirements. This rule also clarifies that the generally applicable recent flight experience...
Duke, E. L.; Brumbaugh, R. W.; Hewett, M. D.; Tartt, D. M.
Described here are the capabilities and evolution of a flight-test engineer's workstation (called TEST PLAN) from an automated flight-test management system. The concept and capabilities of the automated flight-test management system are explored and discussed to illustrate the value of advanced system prototyping and evolutionary software development.
... Tripoli (HLLL) Flight Information Region (FIR) AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), Department... the Tripoli (HLLL) Flight Information Region (FIR) by all U.S. air carriers; U.S. commercial operators...) Flight Information Region (FIR). (a) Applicability. This section applies to the following persons: (1...
Fuster-López, Laura; Andersen, Cecil Krarup; Bouillon, Nicolas
processes of lined canvas paintings. The impact of cyclic relative humidity on the biological and physical stability of the laminate structure is reported. Carefully constructed mock-ups, simulating lined canvas paintings, were used to examine the effect of pest infestation, mould growth, mechanical damage...
Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — Minnesota county boundaries derived from a combination of 1:24,000 scale PLS lines, 1:100,000 scale TIGER, 1:100,000 scale DLG, and 1:24,000 scale hydrography lines....
Whitfield, Clifford A.
A multi-objective technique for Unmanned Air Vehicle (UAV) path and trajectory autonomy generation, through task allocation and sensor fusion has been developed. The Dual-Optimal Path-Planning (D-O.P-P.) Technique generates on-line adaptive flight paths for UAVs based on available flight windows and environmental influenced objectives. The environmental influenced optimal condition, known as the driver' determines the condition, within a downstream virtual window of possible vehicle destinations and orientation built from the UAV kinematics. The intermittent results are pursued by a dynamic optimization technique to determine the flight path. This sequential optimization technique is a multi-objective optimization procedure consisting of two goals, without requiring additional information to combine the conflicting objectives into a single-objective. An example case-study and additional applications are developed and the results are discussed; including the application to the field of Solar Regenerative (SR) High Altitude Long Endurance (HALE) UAV flight. Harnessing solar energy has recently been adapted for use on high altitude UAV platforms. An aircraft that uses solar panels and powered by the sun during the day and through the night by SR systems, in principle could sustain flight for weeks or months. The requirements and limitations of solar powered flight were determined. The SR-HALE UAV platform geometry and flight characteristics were selected from an existing aircraft that has demonstrated the capability for sustained flight through flight tests. The goals were to maintain continual Situational Awareness (SA) over a case-study selected Area of Interest (AOI) and existing UAV power and surveillance systems. This was done for still wind and constant wind conditions at altitude along with variations in latitude. The characteristics of solar flux and the dependence on the surface location and orientation were established along with fixed flight maneuvers for
Urnes, James M., Sr.; Cushing, John; Bond, William E.; Nunes, Steve
Fly-by-Light control systems offer higher performance for fighter and transport aircraft, with efficient fiber optic data transmission, electric control surface actuation, and multi-channel high capacity centralized processing combining to provide maximum aircraft flight control system handling qualities and safety. The key to efficient support for these vehicles is timely and accurate fault diagnostics of all control system components. These diagnostic tests are best conducted during flight when all facts relating to the failure are present. The resulting data can be used by the ground crew for efficient repair and turnaround of the aircraft, saving time and money in support costs. These difficult to diagnose (Cannot Duplicate) fault indications average 40 - 50% of maintenance activities on today's fighter and transport aircraft, adding significantly to fleet support cost. Fiber optic data transmission can support a wealth of data for fault monitoring; the most efficient method of fault diagnostics is accurate modeling of the component response under normal and failed conditions for use in comparison with the actual component flight data. Neural Network hardware processors offer an efficient and cost-effective method to install fault diagnostics in flight systems, permitting on-board diagnostic modeling of very complex subsystems. Task 2C of the ARPA FLASH program is a design demonstration of this diagnostics approach, using the very high speed computation of the Adaptive Solutions Neural Network processor to monitor an advanced Electrohydrostatic control surface actuator linked through a AS-1773A fiber optic bus. This paper describes the design approach and projected performance of this on-line diagnostics system.
Kekelidze, Eteri, 1944-
Tallinnas Vene Romansi Klubis sündis lasteooper - Boriss Kisseljovi "Printsess Alicia", mille aluseks on Charles Dickensi "Jõulumuinasjutt". Lavastaja Olga Bunder, esitasid lapsed erinevatest Tallinna koolidest. Esietendus Salme Kultuurimajas 10. dets
Äriklassihotellide ketti Hilton kuuluv hotell Tallinnas. Arhitektuurse lahenduse autor Meelis Press. Interjööri kujundasid Soome büroo dSign Vertti Kivi & Co ja Allianss Arhitektid. Hotelli tube ja üldalasid kaunistavad Katrin Karu ja Maria Simsoni maalid
Lühidalt hoone arhitektuurist, interjöörist, tehnilisest varustatusest. Peaprojekteerija: EA Reng AS. Arhitektuur: Studio Bartoli (Itaalia). Ehituse peatöövõtt: Merko Ehitus AS. Projekt 1997, hoone valmis 1999. 2 illustratsiooni: sisevaade, välisvaade. Arhitektuuribüroo Reng. Arhtiektuuristuudio Studio Bartoli Itaalias. Ehitusettevõte Merko Ehitus
Naine Tallinna toponüümikas, folklooris, ajaloos ja materiaalsetes mälestusmärkides tänapäeval. Naise skulptuurseid kujutisi Tallinnas: A. Weizenbergi "Linda" Lindamäel, A. Adamsoni Russalka, A. Volzi egiptlannad Pikk 18 fassaadil, laternahoidjad linnavalitsuse hoonel, "Naine vaagnaga" Tornide väljakul, M. Mikofi "Nõmme ema" ja "Hämarik" Viru keskuse juures, "Mustamäe kaunitar" Parditiigis, Viru hotelli juurest eemaldatud "Merineiu", naisefiguur Shnelli tiigi ääres
Koos Tartu naiskoori Laulikud kontserdiga avati nahaköitekunsti näitus "Assisi Franciscuse "Päikeselaul" ehk "Ülemlaul loojale"", mis on osa 2002. a. Itaalias Assisis ja Macaretas toimunud II rahvusvahelisest raamatuköitekunsti näituskonkursist. Eestist pääses 100 medaliga autasustatud meistri hulka Urve Kolde, Kaia Lukats, Tiina Piisang ja Esta Voss. 200 äramärgitud töö hulgas on 18 eesti autori tööd
Valentin Judashkini uuest kõrgmoekollektsioonist "Deco" sügis-talveks 2003-2004. Tallinnas demonstreeriti kollektsiooni 19. detsembril Sakala keskuses. Illustreeritud 14 värvifotoga Viktor Vesterinenilt
2010. aastal peaks käiku minema kiirtrammiliin Tallinnas, Prantsusmaa konsultatsioonifirma Systra poolt välja töötatud Tallinna ühistranspordi optimeerimise projekt haarab kogu linna transpordiskeemi
Peale ümberehitust avatud rahvusvahelisse hotelliketti "Accor" kuuluvast hotellist Tallinnas. Projekteerija Arhitektuuribüroo Kalle Rõõmus. Sisekujundaja Eero Jürgenson, ARS Interjöörprojekt. Valgustid klubis "Eiffel" kavandas Tõnis Vellama. Firma "Thulema" valmistatud esindusruumide mööblist. Kommenteerivad Eero Jürgenson, Allan Kompus, Kalle Rõõmus ja Marek Antoniak. 3 illustratsiooni
Kõresaar, Andrus, 1975-
Renoveeritud Teletornist. Ekspositsiooni autorid: Andrus Kõresaar, Liis Lindvere, Raili Paling, sisearhitektid: Liis Lindvere, Raili Paling, Margit Argus (KOKO Arhitektid). Arhitekti ja ESLi aastapreemiate žürii liikme Raivo Puusepa arvamus
Projekteerija: Arhitektuuribüroo Künnapu & Padrik AS. Arhitekt Vilen Künnapu; kaasa töötanud Urmas Luure. Sisekujundus Argo ja Katrin Vaikla, A. ja K. Vaikla Design. Projekt 1994, valmis 1998. Hoone on 6-korruseline Tartu mnt. pool ja 4-korruseline Tartu mnt. ja Pronksi t. nurgal. Heleda toonitud klaasiga, alumiiniumkassettidega kaetud hoone. Kommunikatsioonitorud tagafassaadil. Interjööris jätkub klaasi ja metalli kokkumäng
Šank, Ester, 1956-
Tallinna volikogu esinduse kohtumisest Peterburi kolleegidega, ka kontserdist Georg Otsa mälestuseks 8. nov. Peterburi endise Väikese Ooperi- ja Balletiteatri, nüüd Mihhailovski-nim. teatri saalis (õhtujuhiks Arne Mikk)
Lindpere, Piret, 1963-
Arhitektid Indrek Peil, Siiri Vallner, kaasa töötas Tomomi Hayashi. Sisekujundus: Indrek Peil, Siiri Vallner, Tomomi Hayashi, Toomas Kuslap. Arvamus: Jaak Huimerind, Andres Kurg. 5 välis- ja 2 sisevaadet
Boris Pilar organiseerib vene kunsti näitusi Tallinnas. 1. mail 2006 on kavas avada Tallinna Õpetajate Majas ikoonide ja tuntud vene maalikunstnike tööde näitus Pihkva muuseumi kogudest ja 2007. aastal näitab oma kunstivarasid Tallinnas Jaroslavli kunstimuuseum
Pihkva koolkonna ikoonide ja 19.-20. saj. tuntud vene maalikunstnike tööde näituse "Maailma kunstiaarded Tallinnas" avamisest Tallinna Õpetajate Majas. Tööd on Pihkva muuseumi kogudest. Näituse korraldajad on Boris Pilar ja Jevgeni Rogov
Skandinaavias, Poolas ja vähesel määral ka Baltimaades tegutsev Softcom Customer Care plaanib Eestis rajada telefoniteenuste keskuse. Telefoniteenuseid pakkuvad firmad Eestis, Hilton Reservations Worldwide ja SAS Group Tallinna tütarfirmad
Ilmunud ka: Molodjozh Estonii, 8. mai 2007, lk. 4; Postimees : na russkom jazõke, 9. mai 2007, lk. 9. Euroopa Nõukogu peasekretär mõistab hukka vandalismi ja rüüstamise Tallinna ja Moskva tänavatel Teise maailmasõja mälestusmärgi teisaldamise pärast ning ütleb, et on aeg käituda väärikalt nii teineteise kui mineviku suhtes, kuigi see võib olla vastuoluline
Vallner, Siiri, 1972-
Rahvusvahelisest disainivõistlusest Tallinna Moodul, mille eesmärk oli leida tänavamööbli süsteem, kus erinevad elemendid (kioskid, telefoniputkad, istepingid, bussiootepaviljonid, reklaamialused jne.) on seotud kontseptuaalselt ühtseks tervikuks. Osalejatest, võidutöödest. Preemiad: I - Clayton Welham, Martin Yong, London, II - Samson Adjei, Harry Dobbs, Greg Epps, London, III - Carmelo Baglivo, Luca Galofaro, Rooma. Eripreemiad (2)
Michelson, Tarmo, 1975-
Ideekavandite võistluse võitjad: 1. preemia Angela Orgusaare skulptuur "Urban Egg", 2. preemia Lembit Palmi skulptuur "399" ja 3. preemia Leida Ilo töö "Majakas". Skulptuur püstitatakse Hoiupanga lähedale.
Visser, H.G.; Lopes dos Santos, Bruno F.; Verhagen, C.M.A.
This paper describes the development of an optimization-based cooperative planning system for the efficient routing and scheduling of flight formations. This study considers the use of formation flight as a means to reduce the overall fuel consumption of civil aviation in long-haul operations. It
Aviator and future physicist Pernilla Craig visits CERN and is hosted by the Geneva Flight Club. Web pioneer Robert Cailliau helps in the preparations, flight instructor Aline Cosmetatos takes the co-pilot seat, and ATLAS outreach coordinator Steven Goldfarb serves cocktails from the back seat.
This viewgraph presentation describes the F-15 Intelligent Flight Control System (IFCS). The goals of this project include: 1) Demonstrate revolutionary control approaches that can efficiently optimize aircraft performance in both normal and failure conditions; and 2) Demonstrate advance neural network-based flight control technology for new aerospace systems designs.
The Lewis Research Center's cryogenic fluid management program flight concept definition is presented in viewgraph form. Diagrams are given of the cryogenic fluid management subpallet and its configuration with the Delta launch vehicle. Information is given in outline form on feasibility studies, requirements definition, and flight experiments design.
Digital autopilot systems were first used on commercial airplanes in the late 1970s. The A-320 airplane was the first air transport airplane with a fly-by-wire primary flight control system. On the 767-X (777) airplane Boeing will install all fly-by-wire flight controls. Activities related to safety, industry status and program phases are discussed.
Closeup view of the chimpanzee 'Ham', the live test subject for Mercury-Redstone 2 test flight being fed an apple. This photo was taken after his successful recovery from the Atlantic. Note he is still strapped into his special flight couch.
... altitude, in lieu of the 1 hour of flight training required in paragraph (a) of this section. (c) Except as... flight training and 1 hour of ground training. The review must include: (1) A review of the current... of ground training specified in paragraph (a) of this section. (g) A student pilot need not...
... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Flight training. 141.79 Section 141.79... OTHER CERTIFICATED AGENCIES PILOT SCHOOLS Operating Rules § 141.79 Flight training. (a) No person other... ratings and the minimum qualifications specified in the approved training course outline may give a...
Marston, Michael L.
These flight test cards will be made available to stakeholders who participated in FT3. NASA entered into the relationship with our stakeholders, including the FAA, to develop requirements that will lead to routine flights of unmanned aircraft systems flying in the national airspace system.
Oklahoma State Dept. of Education, Oklahoma City.
Following discussions of Oklahoma aerospace history and the history of flight, interdisciplinary aerospace activities are presented. Each activity includes title, concept fostered, purpose, list of materials needed, and procedure(s). Topics include planets, the solar system, rockets, airplanes, air travel, space exploration, principles of flight,…
Meysam Kazemi Asfe
Full Text Available Flight interruption is one of the most important issues in today’s airline industry. Every year, most airlines spend significant amount of money to compensate flight delays. Therefore, it is important to detect important factors influencing on flight delays. This paper presents an empirical investigation to determine important factors on this issue. The study also asks some decision makers to make pairwise comparison and ranks various factors using the art of analytical hierarchy process. The study determines that technical defects and delayed entry were among the most important factors to blame for flight delays. In addition, announcing the postponement, replacement aircraft and path replacement are among the most important decisions facing managers in the aviation industry during the disruption of the flight.
... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Flight engineer courses. 63.43 Section 63...) AIRMEN CERTIFICATION: FLIGHT CREWMEMBERS OTHER THAN PILOTS Flight Engineers § 63.43 Flight engineer courses. An applicant for approval of a flight engineer course must submit a letter to the Administrator...
Paranjape, Aditya A.; Dorothy, Michael R.; Chung, Soon-Jo; Lee, Ki-D.
This paper reviews the flight mechanics and control of birds and bird-size aircraft. It is intended to fill a niche in the current survey literature which focuses primarily on the aerodynamics, flight dynamics and control of insect scale flight. We review the flight mechanics from first principles and summarize some recent results on the stability and control of birds and bird-scale aircraft. Birds spend a considerable portion of their flight in the gliding (i.e., non-flapping) phase. Therefo...
This research set out to investigate flight control of aircraft which has sustained damage in regular flight control effectors, due to jammed control surfaces or complete loss of hydraulic power. It is recognized that in such an extremely difficult situation unconventional measures may need to be taken to regain control and stability of the aircraft. Propulsion controlled aircraft (PCA) concept, initiated at the NASA Dryden Flight Research Center. represents a ground-breaking effort in this direction. In this approach, the engine is used as the only flight control effector in the rare event of complete loss of normal flight control system. Studies and flight testing conducted at NASA Dryden have confirmed the feasibility of the PCA concept. During the course of this research (March 98, 1997 to November 30, 1997), a comparative study has been done using the full nonlinear model of an F-18 aircraft. Linear controllers and nonlinear controllers based on a nonlinear predictive control method have been designed for normal flight control system and propulsion controlled aircraft. For the healthy aircraft with normal flight control, the study shows that an appropriately designed linear controller can perform as well as a nonlinear controller. On the other hand. when the normal flight control is lost and the engine is the only available means of flight control, a nonlinear PCA controller can significantly increase the size of the recoverable region in which the stability of the unstable aircraft can be attained by using only thrust modulation. The findings and controller design methods have been summarized in an invited paper entitled.
Freshney, R Ian
Cultured cell lines have become an extremely valuable resource, both in academic research and in industrial biotechnology. However, their value is frequently compromised by misidentification and undetected microbial contamination. As detailed elsewhere in this volume, the technology, both simple and sophisticated, is available to remedy the problems of misidentification and contamination, given the will to apply it. Combined with proper records of the origin and history of the cell line, assays for authentication and contamination contribute to the provenance of the cell line. Detailed records should start from the initiation or receipt of the cell line, and should incorporate data on the donor as well as the tissue from which the cell line was derived, should continue with details of maintenance, and include any accidental as well as deliberate deviations from normal maintenance. Records should also contain details of authentication and regular checks for contamination. With this information, preferably stored in a database, and suitable backed up, the provenance of the cell line so created makes the cell line a much more valuable resource, fit for validation in industrial applications and more likely to provide reproducible experimental results when disseminated for research in other laboratories.
Chen, Min; Chen, Peng; Ye, Hui; Yuan, Ruiling; Wang, Xiaowei; Xu, Jin
The oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel) (Diptera: Tephritidae), is considered a major economic threat in many regions worldwide. To better comprehend flight capacity of B. dorsalis and its physiological basis, a computer-monitored flight mill was used to study flight capacity of B. dorsalis adult females of various ages, and the changes of its flight muscle ultrastructures were studied by transmission electron microscopy. The flight capacity (both speed and distance) changed significantly with age of B. dorsalis female adults, peaking at about 15 d; the myofibril diameter of the flight muscle of test insects at 15-d old was the longest, up to 1.56 µm, the sarcomere length at 15-d old was the shortest, averaging at 1.37 µm, volume content of mitochondria of flight muscle at 15-d old reached the peak, it was 32.64%. This study provides the important scientific data for better revealing long-distance movement mechanism of B. dorsalis. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Entomological Society of America.
Full Text Available The stability analysis method based on region of attraction is proposed for the hypersonic flight vehicles’ flight control verification in this article. Current practice for hypersonic flight vehicles’ flight control verification is largely dependent on linear theoretical analysis and nonlinear simulation research. This problem can be improved by the nonlinear stability analysis of flight control system. Firstly, the hypersonic flight vehicles’ flight dynamic model is simplified and fitted by polynomial equation. And then the region of attraction estimation method based on V–s iteration is presented to complete the stability analysis. Finally, with the controller law, the closed-loop system stability is analyzed to verify the effectiveness of the proposed method.
This new book concentrates on the mechanical aspects of distribution wood pole lines, including live line working, environmental influences, climate change and international standards. Other topics include statutory requirements, safety, profiling, traditional and probabilistic design, weather loads, bare and covered conductors, different types of overhead systems, conductor choice, construction and maintenance. A section has also been devoted to the topic of lightning, which is one of the major sources of faults on overhead lines. The book focuses on the effects of this problem and the strate
Laughter, Sean; Cox, David
The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Airborne Subscale Transport Aircraft Research (AirSTAR) Unmanned Aerial System (UAS) is a facility developed to study the flight dynamics of vehicles in emergency conditions, in support of aviation safety research. The system was upgraded to have its operational range significantly expanded, going beyond the line of sight of a ground-based pilot. A redesign of the airborne flight hardware was undertaken, as well as significant changes to the software base, in order to provide appropriate autonomous behavior in response to a number of potential failures and hazards. Ground hardware and system monitors were also upgraded to include redundant communication links, including ADS-B based position displays and an independent flight termination system. The design included both custom and commercially available avionics, combined to allow flexibility in flight experiment design while still benefiting from tested configurations in reversionary flight modes. A similar hierarchy was employed in the software architecture, to allow research codes to be tested, with a fallback to more thoroughly validated flight controls. As a remotely piloted facility, ground systems were also developed to ensure the flight modes and system state were communicated to ground operations personnel in real-time. Presented in this paper is a general overview of the concept of operations for beyond visual range flight, and a detailed review of the airborne hardware and software design. This discussion is held in the context of the safety and procedural requirements that drove many of the design decisions for the AirSTAR UAS Beyond Visual Range capability.
... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Flight engineer certificate issued on basis of a foreign flight engineer license. 63.42 Section 63.42 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION... PILOTS Flight Engineers § 63.42 Flight engineer certificate issued on basis of a foreign flight engineer...
A new neutron beam line (n_TOF EAR - 2) is being built at CERN within the n_TOF facility. Compared to the existing 185 meters long time - of - flight beam line, the new one (which will operate in parallel) will feature a shorter flight of 20 meters, providing a 2 7 times more intense neutron flux extending from thermal to 300 MeV. The scientific program is now bein g discussed and the first detailed proposals will be refereed by February 2014. This contribution is devoted to present and discuss the expected performance of the facility, briefly, and the details of some of the first measureme nts foreseen for 2014 and 2015.
Jorgensen, Charles C.
Neural networks are being developed at NASA Ames Research Center to permit real-time adaptive control of time varying nonlinear systems, enhance the fault-tolerance of mission hardware, and permit online system reconfiguration. In general, the problem of controlling time varying nonlinear systems with unknown structures has not been solved. Adaptive neural control techniques show considerable promise and are being applied to technical challenges including automated docking of spacecraft, dynamic balancing of the space station centrifuge, online reconfiguration of damaged aircraft, and reducing cost of new air and spacecraft designs. Our experiences have shown that neural network algorithms solved certain problems that conventional control methods have been unable to effectively address. These include damage mitigation in nonlinear reconfiguration flight control, early performance estimation of new aircraft designs, compensation for damaged planetary mission hardware by using redundant manipulator capability, and space sensor platform stabilization. This presentation explored these developments in the context of neural network control theory. The discussion began with an overview of why neural control has proven attractive for NASA application domains. The more important issues in control system development were then discussed with references to significant technical advances in the literature. Examples of how these methods have been applied were given, followed by projections of emerging application needs and directions.
An overview of Flight STS-93 is presented. The primary objective of the STS-93 mission was to deploy the Advanced X-Ray Astrophysics Facility (AXAF), also known as the Chandra X-ray Observatory. The mission flew on the Columbia Shuttle, on July 22, 1999. This facility is the most sophisticated X-ray observatory ever built. Other payloads on STS-93 were: (1) the Midcourse Space Experiment (MSX), (2) Shuttle Ionospheric Modification with Pulsed Local Exhaust (SIMPLEX), (3) Southwest Ultraviolet Imaging System (SWUIS), (4) Gelation of Sols: Applied Microgravity Research (GOSAMR), Space Tissue Loss-B (STL-B), (5) Light Weight Flexible Solar Array Hinge (LFSAH), (6) Cell Culture Module (CCM), and (7) the Shuttle Amateur Radio Experiment-II (SAREX-II), (8) EarthKam, (9) Plant Growth Investigations in Microgravity (PGIM), (10) Commercial Generic Bioprocessing Apparatus (CGBA), (11) Micro-Electrical Mechanical System (MEMS), and (12) the Biological Research in Canisters (BRIC). The crew was: Eileen M. Collins, Mission Commander, the first female shuttle commander; Jeffrey S. Ashby, Pilot; Steven A. Hawley , Mission Specialist; Catherine G. Coleman, Mission Specialist; Michel Tognini (CNES), Mission Specialist. The video contains views of life aboard the space shuttle. This mission featured both a night launching and a night landing at the Kennedy Space Center.
Marston, Michael Lawrence
The desire and ability to fly Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS) in the National Airspace System (NAS) is of increasing urgency. The application of unmanned aircraft to perform national security, defense, scientific, and emergency management are driving the critical need for less restrictive access by UAS to the NAS. UAS represent a new capability that will provide a variety of services in the government (public) and commercial (civil) aviation sectors. The growth of this potential industry has not yet been realized due to the lack of a common understanding of what is required to safely operate UAS in the NAS. NASA's UAS Integration into the NAS Project is conducting research in the areas of Separation Assurance/Sense and Avoid Interoperability, Human Systems Integration (HSI), and Communication to support reducing the barriers of UAS access to the NAS. This research is broken into two research themes namely, UAS Integration and Test Infrastructure. UAS Integration focuses on airspace integration procedures and performance standards to enable UAS integration in the air transportation system, covering Sense and Avoid (SAA) performance standards, command and control performance standards, and human systems integration. The focus of Test Infrastructure is to enable development and validation of airspace integration procedures and performance standards, including the integrated test and evaluation. In support of the integrated test and evaluation efforts, the Project will develop an adaptable, scalable, and schedulable relevant test environment capable of evaluating concepts and technologies for unmanned aircraft systems to safely operate in the NAS. To accomplish this task, the Project will conduct a series of Human-in-the-Loop and Flight Test activities that integrate key concepts, technologies and/or procedures in a relevant air traffic environment. Each of the integrated events will build on the technical achievements, fidelity and complexity of the previous tests and
Anderson, S. P.; Celik, Levent
Roč. 157, May (2015), s. 517-526 ISSN 0022-0531 Institutional support: RVO:67985998 Keywords : product line design * product differentiation * second-degree price discrimination Subject RIV: AH - Economics Impact factor: 1.097, year: 2015
Rubillo, James M.
Euler's discovery about the centroid of a triangle trisecting the line segment joining its circumference to its orthocenter is discussed. An activity that will help students review fundamental concepts is included. (MNS)
Kansas Data Access and Support Center — This data set is a digital representation of the EletcircTransmission lines for the State of Kansas as maintained by the Kansas Corporation Commission. Data is...
Department of Veterans Affairs — The caring responders at the Veterans Crisis Line are specially trained and experienced in helping Veterans of all ages and circumstances. Some of the responders are...
Department of Homeland Security — Transmission Lines are the system of structures, wires, insulators and associated hardware that carry electric energy from one point to another in an electric power...
Trevino, Luis C.; Crumbley, Tim
The slide presentation examines the Marshall Space Flight Center Flight Software Branch, including software development projects, mission critical space flight software development, software technical insight, advanced software development technologies, and continuous improvement in the software development processes and methods.
Vinh, N. X.; Busemann, A.; Culp, R. D.
The book treats hypersonic flight trajectories and atmospheric entry flight mechanics in light of their importance for space shuttle entry. Following a review of the structures of planetary atmospheres and aerodynamic forces, equations are derived for flight over a spherical planet, and the performance of long-range hypervelocity vehicles in extra-atmospheric flight is analyzed. Consideration is then given to vehicle trajectories in the powered and atmospheric reentry phases of flight, and several first-order solutions are derived for various planetary entry situations. The second-order theory of Loh for entry trajectories is presented along with the classical theories of Yaroshevskii and Chapman for entry into planetary atmospheres, and the thermal problems encountered in hypersonic flight are analyzed. A unified theory for entry into planetary atmospheres is then introduced which allows the performance of a general type of lifting vehicle to be studied, and applied to the analysis of orbit contraction due to atmospheric drag, flight with lift modulation and lateral maneuvers.
Feriyanto, Nur; Saleh, Chairul; Fauzi, Achmad; Rachman Dzakiyullah, Nur; Riza Iwaputra, Kahfi
Economic development effects use of air transportation since the business process in every aspect was increased. Many people these days was prefer using airplane because it can save time and money. This situation also effects flight routes, many airlines offer new routes to deal with competition. Managing flight routes is one of the problems that must be faced in order to find the efficient and effective routes. This paper investigates the best routes based on flight performance by determining the amount of block fuel for the Jakarta-Denpasar flight route. Moreover, in this work compares a two kinds of aircraft and tracks by calculating flight distance, flight time and block fuel. The result shows Jakarta-Denpasar in the Track II has effective and efficient block fuel that can be performed by Airbus 320-200 aircraft. This study can contribute to practice in making an effective decision, especially helping executive management of company due to selecting appropriate aircraft and the track in the flight plan based on the block fuel consumption for business operation.
Mahmood, A.; Andrews, D. M.; Mccluskey, E. J.
An executable assertion is a logical statement about the variables or a block of code. If there is no error during execution, the assertion statement results in a true value. Executable assertions can be used for dynamic testing of software. They can be employed for validation during the design phase, and exception and error detection during the operation phase. The present investigation is concerned with the problem of writing executable assertions, taking into account the use of assertions for testing flight software. They can be employed for validation during the design phase, and for exception handling and error detection during the operation phase The digital flight control system and the flight control software are discussed. The considered system provides autopilot and flight director modes of operation for automatic and manual control of the aircraft during all phases of flight. Attention is given to techniques for writing and using assertions to test flight software, an experimental setup to test flight software, and language features to support efficient use of assertions.
The Nasca Lines are located in the Pampa region of Peru, the desolate plain of the Peruvian coast 400 km south of Lima. The Lines were first spotted when commercial airlines began flying across the Peruvian desert in the 1920's. Passengers reported seeing 'primitive landing strips' on the ground below. The Lines were made by removing the iron-oxide coated pebbles which cover the surface of the desert. When the gravel is removed, they contrast with the light color underneath. In this way the lines were drawn as furrows of a lighter color. On the pampa, south of the Nasca Lines, archaeologists have now uncovered the lost city of the line-builders, Cahuachi. It was built nearly two thousand years ago and was mysteriously abandoned 500 years later. This ASTER sub-image covers an area of 14 x 18 km, was acquired on December 22, 2000, and is located at 14.7 degrees south latitude and 75.1 degrees west longitude. The U.S. science team is located at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Science Mission Directorate.
The study contained herein presents a design for a Flight Path Recovery System (FPPS) for use in the NURE Program which will be more accurate than systems presently used, provide position location data in digital form suitable for automatic data processing, and provide for flight path recovery in a more economic and operationally suitable manner. The design is based upon the use of presently available hardware and technoloy, and presents little, it any, development risk. In addition, a Flight Test Plan designed to test the FPRS design concept is presented
The study contained herein presents a design for a Flight Path Recovery System (FPPS) for use in the NURE Program which will be more accurate than systems presently used, provide position location data in digital form suitable for automatic data processing, and provide for flight path recovery in a more economic and operationally suitable manner. The design is based upon the use of presently available hardware and technoloy, and presents little, it any, development risk. In addition, a Flight Test Plan designed to test the FPRS design concept is presented.
Stengle, Thomas (Editor)
This conference publication includes 32 papers and abstracts presented at the Flight Mechanics/Estimation Theory Symposium on May 22-25, 1990. Sponsored by the Flight Dynamics Division of Goddard Space Flight Center, this symposium features technical papers on a wide range of issues related to orbit-attitude prediction, determination and control; attitude sensor calibration; attitude determination error analysis; attitude dynamics; and orbit decay and maneuver strategy. Government, industry, and the academic community participated in the preparation and presentation of these papers.
Stengle, Thomas H. (Editor)
This conference publication includes 40 papers and abstracts presented at the Flight Mechanics/Estimation Theory Symposium on May 5-7, 1992. Sponsored by the Flight Dynamics Division of Goddard Space Flight Center, this symposium featured technical papers on a wide range of issues related to orbit-attitude prediction, determination, and control; attitude sensor calibration; attitude determination error analysis; attitude dynamics; and orbit decay and maneuver strategy. Government, industry, and the academic community participated in the preparation and presentation of these papers.
Stengle, Thomas (Editor)
This conference publication includes 28 papers and abstracts presented at the Flight Mechanics/Estimation Theory Symposium on May 10 to 11, 1988. Sponsored by the Flight Dynamics Division of Goddard Space Flight Center, this symposium features technical papers on a wide range of issue related to orbit-attitude prediction, determination and control; attitude sensor calibration; attitude determination error analysis; attitude dynamics; and orbit decay and maneuver strategy. Government, industry, and the academic community participated in the preparation and presentation of these papers.
Hartman, Kathy R. (Editor)
This conference publication includes 41 papers and abstracts presented at the Flight Mechanics/Estimation Theory Symposium on May 17-19, 1994. Sponsored by the Flight Dynamics Division of Goddard Space Flight Center, this symposium featured technical papers on a wide range of issues related to orbit-attitude prediction, determination and control; attitude sensor calibration; attitude determination error analysis; attitude dynamics; and orbit decay and maneuver strategy. Government, industry, and the academic community participated in the preparation and presentation of these papers.
Huebner, Lawrence D.; Richards, James S.; Brunty, Joseph A.; Smith, R. Marshall; Trombetta, Dominic R.
NASA. s Constellation Program will take a significant step toward completion of the Ares I crew launch vehicle with the flight test of Ares I-X and completion of the Ares I-X post-flight evaluation. The Ares I-X flight test vehicle is an ascent development flight test that will acquire flight data early enough to impact the design and development of the Ares I. As the primary customer for flight data from the Ares I-X mission, Ares I has been the major driver in the definition of the Development Flight Instrumentation (DFI). This paper focuses on the DFI development process and the plans for post-flight evaluation of the resulting data to impact the Ares I design. Efforts for determining the DFI for Ares I-X began in the fall of 2005, and significant effort to refine and implement the Ares I-X DFI has been expended since that time. This paper will present a perspective in the development and implementation of the DFI. Emphasis will be placed on the process by which the list was established and changes were made to that list due to imposed constraints. The paper will also discuss the plans for the analysis of the DFI data following the flight and a summary of flight evaluation tasks to be performed in support of tools and models validation for design and development.
Shalkhauser, Kurt A.; Ishac, Joseph A.; Iannicca, Dennis C.; Bretmersky, Steven C.; Smith, Albert E.
This report provides an overview and results from the unmanned aircraft (UA) Control and Non-Payload Communications (CNPC) Generation 5 prototype radio validation flight test campaign. The radios used in the test campaign were developed under cooperative agreement NNC11AA01A between the NASA Glenn Research Center and Rockwell Collins, Inc., of Cedar Rapids, Iowa. Measurement results are presented for flight tests over hilly terrain, open water, and urban landscape, utilizing radio sets installed into a NASA aircraft and ground stations. Signal strength and frame loss measurement data are analyzed relative to time and aircraft position, specifically addressing the impact of line-of-sight terrain obstructions on CNPC data flow. Both the radio and flight test system are described.
The review is made of the data published on neutron-correlation time-of-flight spectrometers. The operating principle of a correlation neutron time-of-flight spectrometer implies that the neutron beam serving as an input signal is modulated by an inadvertent law, and time spectrum is found by the way of measuring the mutually correlating function of the input signal and the output signal of the neutron detector. The correlation method is grounded in brief, and the specific features of the neutron-beam choppers, pulse analyzers and time encoders used in the correlation spectrometers are given. Also considered are the main functions of the computers operating in line with the spectrometers. As compared with the ordinary time-of-flight spectrometers, the neutron-correlation ones are more effective, which explains their wide application in nuclear spectrometry
This paper summarizes investigations conducted on different orthostatic intolerance protection garments. This paper emphasizes on the engineering and operational aspects of the project. The current Shuttle pneumatic Anti-G Suit or AGS at 25 mmHg (0.5 psi) and customized medical mechanical compressive garments (20-30 mmHg) were tested on human subjects. The test process is presented. The preliminary results conclude that mechanical compressive garments can ameliorate orthostatic hypotension in hypovolemic subjects. A mechanical compressive garment is light, small and works without external pressure gas source; however the current garment design does not provide an adjustment to compensate for the loss of mass and size in the lower torso during long term space missions. It is also difficult to don. Compression garments that do not include an abdominal component are less effective countermeasures than garments which do. An early investigation conducted by the Human Adaptation and Countermeasures Division at Johnson Space Center (JSC) has shown there is no significant difference between the protection function of the AGS (at 77 mmHg or 1.5 psi) and the Russian anti-g suit, Kentavr (at 25 mmHg or 0.5 psi). Although both garments successfully countered hypovolemia-induced orthostatic intolerance, the Kentavr provided protection by using lower levels of compression pressure. This more recent study with a lower AGS pressure shows that pressures at 20-30 mmHg is acceptable but protection function is not as effective as higher pressure. In addition, a questionnaire survey with flight crewmembers who used both AGS and Kentavr during different missions was also performed.
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Two novel flight control actuation concepts for UAV applications are proposed for research and development, both of which incorporate shape memory alloy (SMA) wires...
Copley, J.R.D.; Udovic, T.J.
The time-of-flight technique is employed in two of the instruments at the NIST Cold Neutron Research Facility (CNRF). A pulsed monochromatic beam strikes the sample, and the energies of scattered neutrons are determined from their times-of-flight to an array of detectors. The time-of-flight method may be used in a variety of types of experiments such as studies of vibrational and magnetic excitations, tunneling spectroscopy, and quasielastic scattering studies of diffusional behavior; several examples of experiments are discussed. The authors also present brief descriptions of the CNRF time-of-flight instruments, including their modi operandi and some of their more pertinent parameters and performance characteristics
California Department of Resources — North-south flight paths of radio-tagged female northern pintails were monitored in a section of Highway 152 near Los Banos, California during 4 and 11 November and...
Schmidt, Larry; Slack, Kelley; O'Keefe, William; Huning, Therese; Sipes, Walter; Holland, Albert
This slide presentation reviews the International Space Station (ISS) Operations space flight resource management, which was adapted to the ISS from the shuttle processes. It covers crew training and behavior elements.
The paper analyzes the "value proposition" for government-funded human space flight, a vexing question that persistently dogs efforts to justify its $10(exp 10)/year expense in the U.S. The original Mercury/Gemini/Apollo value proposition is not valid today. Neither was it the value proposition actually promoted by von Braun, which the post-Apollo 80% of human space flight history has persistently attempted to fulfill. Divergent potential objectives for human space flight are captured in four strategic options - Explore Mars; accelerate Space Passenger Travel; enable Space Power for Earth; and Settle the Moon - which are then analyzed for their Purpose, societal Myth, Legacy benefits, core Needs, and result as measured by the number and type of humans they would fly in space. This simple framework is proposed as a way to support productive dialogue with public and other stakeholders, to determine a sustainable value proposition for human space flight.
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The proposed SBIR project will develop OZ, an innovative primary flight display for aircraft. The OZ display, designed from "first principles" of vision science,...
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — SSC experimentally modified an autonomous operations flexible system suite developed for a ground application for a flight system under development by JSC. The...
This document provides an overview of Electronic Flight Bag (EFB) hardware and software capabilities, including portable electronic devices (PEDs) used as EFBs, as of July 2015. This document updates and replaces the Volpe Centers previous EFB ind...
This document provides an overview of Electronic Flight Bag (EFB) systems and capabilities, as of June 2010. This document updates and replaces the April 2007 EFB Industry Review (Yeh and Chandra, 2007). As with the previous industry survey, the focu...
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Two novel flight control actuation concepts for UAV applications are proposed for prototype development, both of which incorporate shape memory alloy (SMA) wires as...
...). The Aviation Applied Technology Directorate (AATD) was contracted to mount the HELLAS sensor on the nose of a UH-60L Blackhawk helicopter and to conduct flight tests to evaluate the HELLAS obstacle detection sensor...
.... The present study is part of that effort. Its goal is to determine the incidence, severity, and association of Sopite Syndrome characteristics in a population of Student Naval Flight Officers (SNFOs...
Schmitzer, C.; Kloesch, W.
The equipment consists of a radiation detecting instrument, a flight prospection probe and a portable PC. It is aimed at detection of ground radiation sources from a flying airplane, e.g. in case of radiation accident. 3 figs
Stengle, Thomas (Editor)
Numerous topics in flight mechanics and estimation were discussed. Satellite attitude control, quaternion estimation, orbit and attitude determination, spacecraft maneuvers, spacecraft navigation, gyroscope calibration, spacecraft rendevous, and atmospheric drag model calculations for spacecraft lifetime prediction are among the topics covered.
Mahesh, J. K.; Konar, A. F.; Ward, M. D.
A summary of the development, use, and documentation of the interactive software (DIGIKON IV) for flight control system analyses is presented. A list of recommendations for future development is also included.
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Two novel flight control actuation concepts for UAV applications are proposed for research and development, both of which incorporate shape memory alloy (SMA) wires...
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Flight Deck i-Glasses is a color, stereoscopic 3-D display mounted on consumer style eye glass frames that will enhance operator performance and multi-modal...
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The purpose of this project is to create an Integrated Development Environment (IDE) for the Core Flight System (CFS) software to reduce the time it takes to...
Maliska, Heather; Estrada, Ramon; Euteneuer, Eric; Gong, Chester; Arthur, Keith
This presentation gives insight into a joint flight testing effort that included participation from NASA, Honeywell, and General Atomics. The presentation includes roles and responsibilities, test flow, and encounter requirements and summary.
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — eSky will develop specific crew state metrics based on the timeliness, tempo and accuracy of pilot inputs required by the H-mode Flight Control System (HFCS)....
Recent United States Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) wake turbulence research conducted at the John A. Volpe National Transportation Systems Center (The Volpe Center) has continued to monitor the representative localizer Flight Technical Error ...
Bocanegra Evans, Humberto; Allen, James J.; Balakumar, B. J.
A scaled robotic hummingbird model was used to perform a flow analysis of hovering flight at a range of Reynolds numbers (1,750hummingbird hovers (Re 3600), which suggests that hummingbirds hover in a highly efficient manner.
Md Shahid Ayub
The quest for Malaysian meteoric water line began in 1981 when environmental isotope hydrology was introduced. In the 1980, and with the establishment of three stations at Pengkalan Chepa, Kepala Batas and Kuah, the Malaysian Meteoric Water Line acquired then was δD = 8δ 18 O + 12.68. With the addition of another four stations, by the end of 1990s, the Malaysian Meteoric Water Line for the decade was established as δD = 8 δ 18 O + 11.76. Taking the overall result between 1980 and mid 2000s the Malaysian Meteoric Water Line was established as δD = 8 δ 18 O + 13.255 and the weighted mean precipitation is (-7.64, -46.74). In establishing this meteoric water line it was observed that the higher altitude station manifested poorer stable isotopes content as compared to lower altitude station. It was also observed that as the amount of rain increased, the stable isotopes content would decrease and vice versa. The effect is reversed when the amount is due to monsoon rains and tropical storms. (Author)
Costa, Guillermo J.; Arteaga, Ricardo A.
A preliminary survey of existing separation assurance and collision avoidance advancements, technologies, and efforts has been conducted in order to develop a concept of operations for flight testing autonomous separation assurance at Dryden Flight Research Center. This effort was part of the Unmanned Aerial Systems in the National Airspace System project. The survey focused primarily on separation assurance projects validated through flight testing (including lessons learned), however current forays into the field were also examined. Comparisons between current Dryden flight and range assets were conducted using House of Quality matrices in order to allow project management to make determinations regarding asset utilization for future flight tests. This was conducted in order to establish a body of knowledge of the current collision avoidance landscape, and thus focus Dryden s efforts more effectively towards the providing of assets and test ranges for future flight testing within this research field.
Lightweight flexible aircraft may be the future of aviation, but a major problem is their susceptibility to flutter-uncontrollable vibrations that can destroy wings. Armstrong Flight Research Center awarded SBIR funding to Minneapolis, Minnesota-based MUSYN Inc. to develop software that helps program flight controllers to suppress flutter. The technology is now available for aircraft manufacturers and other industries that use equipment with automated controls.
Busemann, A.; Vinh, N. X.; Culp, R. D.
The effects of aerodynamic forces on trajectories at orbital speeds are discussed in terms of atmospheric models. The assumptions for the model are spherical symmetry, nonrotating, and an exponential atmosphere. The equations of flight, and the performance in extra-atmospheric flight are discussed along with the return to the atmosphere, and the entry. Solutions of the exact equations using directly matched asymptotic expansions are presented.
Suarez, R K; Lighton, J R; Brown, G S; Mathieu-Costello, O
Respiration rates of muscle mitochondria in flying hummingbirds range from 7 to 10 ml of O2 per cm3 of mitochondria per min, which is about 2 times higher than the range obtained in the locomotory muscles of mammals running at their maximum aerobic capacities (VO2max). Capillary volume density is higher in hummingbird flight muscles than in mammalian skeletal muscles. Mitochondria occupy approximately 35% of fiber volume in hummingbird flight muscles and cluster beneath the sarcolemmal membra...
This paper reviews the state-of-the art in comprehensive performance codes for fixed-wing aircraft. The importance of system analysis in flight performance is discussed. The paper highlights the role of aerodynamics, propulsion, flight mechanics, aeroacoustics, flight operation, numerical optimisation, stochastic methods and numerical analysis. The latter discipline is used to investigate the sensitivities of the sub-systems to uncertainties in critical state parameters or functional parameters. The paper discusses critically the data used for performance analysis, and the areas where progress is required. Comprehensive analysis codes can be used for mission fuel planning, envelope exploration, competition analysis, a wide variety of environmental studies, marketing analysis, aircraft certification and conceptual aircraft design. A comprehensive program that uses the multi-disciplinary approach for transport aircraft is presented. The model includes a geometry deck, a separate engine input deck with the main parameters, a database of engine performance from an independent simulation, and an operational deck. The comprehensive code has modules for deriving the geometry from bitmap files, an aerodynamics model for all flight conditions, a flight mechanics model for flight envelopes and mission analysis, an aircraft noise model and engine emissions. The model is validated at different levels. Validation of the aerodynamic model is done against the scale models DLR-F4 and F6. A general model analysis and flight envelope exploration are shown for the Boeing B-777-300 with GE-90 turbofan engines with intermediate passenger capacity (394 passengers in 2 classes). Validation of the flight model is done by sensitivity analysis on the wetted area (or profile drag), on the specific air range, the brake-release gross weight and the aircraft noise. A variety of results is shown, including specific air range charts, take-off weight-altitude charts, payload-range performance
Pictured is an artist's conception of the X-37 Demonstrator ascending left upright. As part of the Pathfinder Program, the X-37 flight experiment demonstrates advanced space transportation technologies through the use of flight experiments. These vehicles supported the Agency's goal of dramatically reducing the cost of access to space in attempt to define the future of space transportation. The X-37 program was discontinued in 2003.
García-Villalba, Rocío; León, Carlos; Dinelli, Giovanni; Segura-Carretero, Antonio; Fernández-Gutierrez, Alberto; García-Cañas, Virginia; Cifuentes, Alejandro
In this work, capillary electrophoresis–time-of-flight mass spectrometry (CE–TOF-MS) is proposed to identify and quantify the main metabolites found in transgenic soybean and its corresponding non-transgenic parental line both grown under identical conditions. The procedure includes optimization of metabolites extraction, separation by CE, on-line electrospray-TOF-MS analysis and data evaluation. A large number of extraction procedures and background electrolytes are tested in order to obtain...
Cook, Anthony M.
In recent years, important advances were made in technology both for ground-based and in-flight simulators. There was equally a broadening of the use of flight simulators for research, development, and training purposes. An up-to-date description of the state-of-the-art of technology and engineering was provided for both ground-based and in-flight simulators and their respective roles were placed in context within the aerospace scene.
Taylor, Terry L.
Approach and Lending Test Vehicle (ALTV) reduces risk to the X-37 orbital vehicle (OV) flight program by: Testing a subset of OV technologies in a critical portion of the flight envelope. Validating the calculated air data system (CADS) performance/subsonic aerodynamic database. Demonstrating OV approach and landing trajectory. Expending the operational flight envelope of the OV-enabling more landing opportunities for orbital missions.
Leon P A M Claessens
Full Text Available Pterosaurs, enigmatic extinct Mesozoic reptiles, were the first vertebrates to achieve true flapping flight. Various lines of evidence provide strong support for highly efficient wing design, control, and flight capabilities. However, little is known of the pulmonary system that powered flight in pterosaurs. We investigated the structure and function of the pterosaurian breathing apparatus through a broad scale comparative study of respiratory structure and function in living and extinct archosaurs, using computer-assisted tomographic (CT scanning of pterosaur and bird skeletal remains, cineradiographic (X-ray film studies of the skeletal breathing pump in extant birds and alligators, and study of skeletal structure in historic fossil specimens. In this report we present various lines of skeletal evidence that indicate that pterosaurs had a highly effective flow-through respiratory system, capable of sustaining powered flight, predating the appearance of an analogous breathing system in birds by approximately seventy million years. Convergent evolution of gigantism in several Cretaceous pterosaur lineages was made possible through body density reduction by expansion of the pulmonary air sac system throughout the trunk and the distal limb girdle skeleton, highlighting the importance of respiratory adaptations in pterosaur evolution, and the dramatic effect of the release of physical constraints on morphological diversification and evolutionary radiation.
Kaneshige, John; Gundy-Burlet, Karen; Norvig, Peter (Technical Monitor)
This paper describes an integrated neural flight and propulsion control system. which uses a neural network based approach for applying alternate sources of control power in the presence of damage or failures. Under normal operating conditions, the system utilizes conventional flight control surfaces. Neural networks are used to provide consistent handling qualities across flight conditions and for different aircraft configurations. Under damage or failure conditions, the system may utilize unconventional flight control surface allocations, along with integrated propulsion control, when additional control power is necessary for achieving desired flight control performance. In this case, neural networks are used to adapt to changes in aircraft dynamics and control allocation schemes. Of significant importance here is the fact that this system can operate without emergency or backup flight control mode operations. An additional advantage is that this system can utilize, but does not require, fault detection and isolation information or explicit parameter identification. Piloted simulation studies were performed on a commercial transport aircraft simulator. Subjects included both NASA test pilots and commercial airline crews. Results demonstrate the potential for improving handing qualities and significantly increasing survivability rates under various simulated failure conditions.
Falker, Jay; Keys, Andrew; Fraticelli, Jose Molina; Capo-Iugo, Pedro; Peeples, Steven
Single core flight computer boards have been designed, developed, and tested (DD&T) to be flown in small satellites for the last few years. In this project, a prototype flight computer will be designed as a distributed multi-core system containing four microprocessors running code in parallel. This flight computer will be capable of performing multiple computationally intensive tasks such as processing digital and/or analog data, controlling actuator systems, managing cameras, operating robotic manipulators and transmitting/receiving from/to a ground station. In addition, this flight computer will be designed to be fault tolerant by creating both a robust physical hardware connection and by using a software voting scheme to determine the processor's performance. This voting scheme will leverage on the work done for the Space Launch System (SLS) flight software. The prototype flight computer will be constructed with Commercial Off-The-Shelf (COTS) components which are estimated to survive for two years in a low-Earth orbit.
Bachelder, Ed; Klyde, David
The feasibility of using Fused Reality-based simulation technology to enhance flight test capabilities has been investigated. In terms of relevancy to piloted evaluation, there remains no substitute for actual flight tests, even when considering the fidelity and effectiveness of modern ground-based simulators. In addition to real-world cueing (vestibular, visual, aural, environmental, etc.), flight tests provide subtle but key intangibles that cannot be duplicated in a ground-based simulator. There is, however, a cost to be paid for the benefits of flight in terms of budget, mission complexity, and safety, including the need for ground and control-room personnel, additional aircraft, etc. A Fused Reality(tm) (FR) Flight system was developed that allows a virtual environment to be integrated with the test aircraft so that tasks such as aerial refueling, formation flying, or approach and landing can be accomplished without additional aircraft resources or the risk of operating in close proximity to the ground or other aircraft. Furthermore, the dynamic motions of the simulated objects can be directly correlated with the responses of the test aircraft. The FR Flight system will allow real-time observation of, and manual interaction with, the cockpit environment that serves as a frame for the virtual out-the-window scene.
Wouters, J.M.; Vieira, D.J.; Butler, G.W.; Wollnik, H.; Kraus, R.H. Jr.; Vaziri, K.
A new type of time-of-flight recoil spectrometer designed to measure the masses of neutron-rich light nuclei has recently been completed at LAMPF. The spectrometer relies on an isochronous design that directly correlates an ion's time-of-flight through the spectrometer with its mass-to-charge ratio. Additional measurements of the ion's velocity and energy enable the charge state of the recoil to be uniquely defined and thus permit precision mass measurements given sufficient statistics. The performance of the spectrometer has been investigated in both-off line (using alpha sources) and on-line tests. The design resolution of ΔM/M=1/2000 (fwhm) has been achieved. Initial performance results of the spectrometer are described with emphasis placed on the techniques used to achieve the overall high mass resolution and large solid angle/momentum acceptance. (orig.)
Shibata, Y.; Iguchi, T.; Uritani, Akira; Kawarabayashi, Jun; Hoek, Magnus; Nishitani, T.; Morioka, A.
We have developed a 2.45 MeV neutron Double Crystal Time-of-Flight (DC-TOF) spectrometer for Deuterium plasmas in JT-60U. The DC-TOF neutron spectrometer consists of two fast plastic scintillators (BC-408 made by Bicron, 50 cm 2 and 1800 cm 2 , thickness 2 cm), located on constant TOF spheres. The constant TOF spheres have a radius of 1 m which gives a neutron flight length of 1.64 m and a TOF of 92 ns for 2.45 MeV neutrons. The calculated spectrometer efficiency and resolution are 2.8x10 -2 cm 2 and 100 keV, respectively. The energy resolution corresponds to a time resolution of 2.0 ns. The spectrometer has been installed in the basement of JT-60U, 10 m away from the plasma center with vertical line-of-sight. Neutron energy spectra have been obtained when the neutron yield from the plasma is ∼10 15 neutrons/s. (author)
This research is an effort to understand current method and to propose an advanced method for Damage Tolerance Analysis (DTA) for the purpose of monitoring the aircraft service life. As one of tasks in the DTA, the current indirect Individual Aircraft Tracking (IAT) method for the F-16C/D Block 32 does not properly represent changes in flight usage severity affecting structural fatigue life. Therefore, an advanced aircraft service life monitoring method based on flight-by-flight load spectra is proposed and recommended for IAT program to track consumed fatigue life as an alternative to the current method which is based on the crack severity index (CSI) value. Damage Tolerance is one of aircraft design philosophies to ensure that aging aircrafts satisfy structural reliability in terms of fatigue failures throughout their service periods. IAT program, one of the most important tasks of DTA, is able to track potential structural crack growth at critical areas in the major airframe structural components of individual aircraft. The F-16C/D aircraft is equipped with a flight data recorder to monitor flight usage and provide the data to support structural load analysis. However, limited memory of flight data recorder allows user to monitor individual aircraft fatigue usage in terms of only the vertical inertia (NzW) data for calculating Crack Severity Index (CSI) value which defines the relative maneuver severity. Current IAT method for the F-16C/D Block 32 based on CSI value calculated from NzW is shown to be not accurate enough to monitor individual aircraft fatigue usage due to several problems. The proposed advanced aircraft service life monitoring method based on flight-by-flight load spectra is recommended as an improved method for the F-16C/D Block 32 aircraft. Flight-by-flight load spectra was generated from downloaded Crash Survival Flight Data Recorder (CSFDR) data by calculating loads for each time hack in selected flight data utilizing loads equations. From
... COMPENSATION OR HIRE: CERTIFICATION AND OPERATIONS OPERATING REQUIREMENTS: DOMESTIC, FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL... instructor (simulator) must accomplish the following— (1) Fly at least two flight segments as a required...
Sprayed concrete, or shotcrete, was invented in the 1920s for preserving dinosaur skeletons and was used underground initially in coalmines for the preservation and fine proofing of timber supports. Its use as a support lining in rock tunnelling was developed in the 1950s and 60s. The article surveys equipment available from major manufacturers and suppliers of concrete spraying equipment (Aliva, Cifa, GIA, Industri, Ingersoll Rand, etc.), specialist cement and additive manufacturers (Castle, Cement, Moria Carbotech). manufacturers of lattice girders and fibre reinforcement, and manufacturers of instrumentation for tunnel linings. 5 tabs., 9 photos.
Kulin, G. V.; Frank, A. I.; Goryunov, S. V.; Geltenbort, P.; Jentschel, M.; Bushuev, V. A.; Lauss, B.; Schmidt-Wellenburg, Ph.; Panzarella, A.; Fuchs, Y.
The report presents the first experience of using a time-of-flight Fourier spectrometer of ultracold neutrons (UCN). The description of the spectrometer design and first results of its testing are presented. The results of the first experiments show that the spectrometer may be used for obtaining UCN energy spectra in the energy range of 60÷200 neV with a resolution of about 5 neV. The application of TOF Fourier spectrometry technique allowed us to obtain the energy spectra from the diffraction of monochromatic ultracold neutrons on a moving grating. Lines of 0, +1 and +2 diffraction orders were simultaneously recorded, which had previously been impossible to be done by other methods. These results have made it possible to make a comparison with the recent theoretical calculations based on the dynamical theory of neutron diffraction on a moving phase grating.
Petrov, V.M.; Kovalev, E.E.; Sakovich, V.A.
Radiation hazard for cosmonauts and necessary protective measures are considered. The radiation is either permanent, such as in the inner terrestrial radiation belts, or temporary, such as in the fluctuating outer belts, from solar flares, or from cosmic ray showers. An effective level of 33 rem is offered as a justified risk dose, based on U.S.S.R. and international safety standards. Estimated radiation levels are provided for a one year spaceflight, noting that exposures to 50 rem doses should be more than one month apart. Increased orbital inclination, lengthy flight duration, and higher orbits all lead to increased radiation risks, and shielding with aluminum to 5 g/sq cm is recommended, along with a radiation shelter for long term workers on space stations. The calculated permissible dose rates are designed to bring the probabilities of death due to tumors caused by radiation in line with hazards faced in other occupations, such as test pilots.
Arteaga, Ricardo; Dandachy, Mike; Truong, Hong; Aruljothi, Arun; Vedantam, Mihir; Epperson, Kraettli; McCartney, Reed
Researchers at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration Armstrong Flight Research Center in Edwards, California and Vigilant Aerospace Systems collaborated for the flight-test demonstration of an Automatic Dependent Surveillance-Broadcast based collision avoidance technology on a small unmanned aircraft system equipped with the uAvionix Automatic Dependent Surveillance-Broadcast transponder. The purpose of the testing was to demonstrate that National Aeronautics and Space Administration / Vigilant software and algorithms, commercialized as the FlightHorizon UAS"TM", are compatible with uAvionix hardware systems and the DJI Phantom 4 small unmanned aircraft system. The testing and demonstrations were necessary for both parties to further develop and certify the technology in three key areas: flights beyond visual line of sight, collision avoidance, and autonomous operations. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration and Vigilant Aerospace Systems have developed and successfully flight-tested an Automatic Dependent Surveillance-Broadcast Detect and Avoid system on the Phantom 4 small unmanned aircraft system. The Automatic Dependent Surveillance-Broadcast Detect and Avoid system architecture is especially suited for small unmanned aircraft systems because it integrates: 1) miniaturized Automatic Dependent Surveillance-Broadcast hardware; 2) radio data-link communications; 3) software algorithms for real-time Automatic Dependent Surveillance-Broadcast data integration, conflict detection, and alerting; and 4) a synthetic vision display using a fully-integrated National Aeronautics and Space Administration geobrowser for three dimensional graphical representations for ownship and air traffic situational awareness. The flight-test objectives were to evaluate the performance of Automatic Dependent Surveillance-Broadcast Detect and Avoid collision avoidance technology as installed on two small unmanned aircraft systems. In December 2016, four flight tests
Xie Lin; Niu Yingze; Luo Yi
The seed of rapeseed (Brassica napus L.) was carried by satellite 'Shijian 8'. The cytological effects of space mutation on the root-tip cells was studied in SP 1 generation. The results showed that the mitotic index, rate of chromosome aberration and rate of micronuclei were obviously increased in most of treated materials compared with the control, which indicated that true cytological mutations were induced by space flight. The mutagenic effects were observed higher in the maintainer lines than in the male sterile lines. (authors)
Two BQM-34 Firebee II drones were modified with supercritical airfoils, called the Aeroelastic Research Wing (ARW), for the Drones for Aerodynamic and Structural Testing (DAST) program, which ran from 1977 to 1983. In this view of DAST-1 (Serial # 72-1557), taken on June 12, 1980, severe wingtip flutter is visible. Moments later, the right wing failed catastrophically and the vehicle crashed near Cuddeback Dry Lake. Before the drone was lost, it had made two captive and two free flights. Its first free flight, on October 2, 1979, was cut short by an uplink receiver failure. The drone was caught in midair by an HH-3 helicopter. The second free flight, on March 12, 1980, was successful, ending in a midair recovery. The third free flight, made on June 12, was to expand the flutter envelope. All of these missions launched from the NASA B-52. From 1977 to 1983, the Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, (under two different names) conducted the DAST Program as a high-risk flight experiment using a ground-controlled, pilotless aircraft. Described by NASA engineers as a 'wind tunnel in the sky,' the DAST was a specially modified Teledyne-Ryan BQM-34E/F Firebee II supersonic target drone that was flown to validate theoretical predictions under actual flight conditions in a joint project with the Langley Research Center, Hampton, Virginia. The DAST Program merged advances in electronic remote control systems with advances in airplane design. Drones (remotely controlled, missile-like vehicles initially developed to serve as gunnery targets) had been deployed successfully during the Vietnamese conflict as reconnaissance aircraft. After the war, the energy crisis of the 1970s led NASA to seek new ways to cut fuel use and improve airplane efficiency. The DAST Program's drones provided an economical, fuel-conscious method for conducting in-flight experiments from a remote ground site. DAST explored the technology required to build wing structures with less than
DAST-2, a modified BQM-34 Firebee II drone, undergoes calibration in a hangar at the NASA Dryden Flight Research Center. After the crash of the first DAST vehicle, project personnel fitted a second Firebee II (serial # 72-1558) with the rebuilt ARW-1 (ARW-1R) wing. The DAST-2 made a captive flight aboard the B-52 on October 29, 1982, followed by a free flight on November 3, 1982. During January and February of 1983, three launch attempts from the B-52 had to be aborted due to various problems. Following this, the project changed the launch aircraft to a DC-130A. Two captive flights occurred in May 1983. The first launch attempt from the DC-130 took place on June 1, 1983. The mothership released the DAST-2, but the recovery system immediately fired without being commanded. The parachute then disconnected from the vehicle, and the DAST-2 crashed into a farm field near Harper Dry Lake. Wags called this the 'Alfalfa Field Impact Test.' These are the image contact sheets for each image resolution of the NASA Dryden Drones for Aerodynamic and Structural Testing (DAST) Photo Gallery. From 1977 to 1983, the Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, (under two different names) conducted the DAST Program as a high-risk flight experiment using a ground-controlled, pilotless aircraft. Described by NASA engineers as a 'wind tunnel in the sky,' the DAST was a specially modified Teledyne-Ryan BQM-34E/F Firebee II supersonic target drone that was flown to validate theoretical predictions under actual flight conditions in a joint project with the Langley Research Center, Hampton, Virginia. The DAST Program merged advances in electronic remote control systems with advances in airplane design. Drones (remotely controlled, missile-like vehicles initially developed to serve as gunnery targets) had been deployed successfully during the Vietnamese conflict as reconnaissance aircraft. After the war, the energy crisis of the 1970s led NASA to seek new ways to cut fuel use and
Town of Chapel Hill, North Carolina — Chapel Hill Bike Map Lines from KMZ file.This data came from the wiki comment board for the public, not an “official map” showing the Town of Chapel Hill's plans or...
Anderson, S. P.; Celik, Levent
Roč. 157, May (2015), s. 517-526 ISSN 0022-0531 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA15-22540S Institutional support: PRVOUK-P23 Keywords : product line design * product differentiation * second-degree price discrimination Subject RIV: AH - Economics Impact factor: 1.097, year: 2015
Parada Puig, J.E.; Basten, Robertus Johannes Ida
Defective capital assets may be quickly restored to their operational condition by replacing the item that has failed. The item that is replaced is called the Line Replaceable Unit (LRU), and the so-called LRU definition problem is the problem of deciding on which item to replace upon each type of
Nye, David Edwin
A social history of the assembly line, invented in 1913. Both praised as a boon to consumers and as a curse for workers, it has been satirized, imitated, and celebrated for 100 years. It has inspired fiction, comedy, cafeteria layouts, and suburban housing. It transformed industrial labor...
Muñoz-Marin, Ana Maria; Lassen, Astrid Heidemann; Poulsen, Søren Bolvig
This publication is based on the Master thesis “User-driven ecoinnovation process: Towards the implementation of the Green product line at JELD-WEN” written by Ana Maria Muñoz-Marin as her Graduation Project for the MSc. Global Innovation Management degree. The company-based experiment was carried...
Holm, Isak Winkel
of judgement that distinguishes between the inside and outside of a political community, between citizens and zombies. Second, the chapter focuses on the rhetorics applied to draw the line between rights-bearers and the rightless. ‘Prophetic’ speech, echoing the language of the Old Testament prophets, is vital...
Antiprotons, decelerated in LEAR to a momentum of 100 MeV/c (kinetic energy of 5.3 MeV), were delivered to the experiments in an "Ultra-Slow Extraction", dispensing some 1E9 antiprotons over times counted in hours. Beam-splitters and a multitude of beam-lines allowed several users to be supplied simultaneously.
A brief review is given of more than a decade of work involving measurement of the strength of the K line of calcium in A-type stars. The effects of interstellar reddening are reexamined, and an improved estimate for the range in calcium abundance among field stars is obtained. (Auth.)
J. Flik; B.M.S. van Praag (Bernard)
textabstractIn this paper we will deal with definitions of subjective poverty lines. To measure a poverty threshold value in terms of household income, which separates the poor from the non-poor, we take into account the opinions of all people in society. Three subjective methods will be discussed
Aliberti, J. A.
Safety restraint protects people and property if a high-pressure fitting fails. As long as pressure line remains attached at the fitting, clamp exerts essentially no force on hose. If fitting fails, force of fluid leaving free end of hose causes the cam on the clamp to compress hose with a positive locking action.
Full Text Available he study investigates the interrelationships between different on-line and off-line measures for assessing metacognition. The participants were 47 fifth grade elementary students. Metacognition was assessed through two off-line and two on-line measures. The off-line measures consisted of a teacher rating scale and a self-report questionnaire. The on-line measures were thinking aloud protocols and accuracy ratings of text comprehension. The results showed positive significant correlation between data from two off-line measures and negative significant correlation between data from two on-line measures. The off-line metacognitive measures had non-significant correlations with all on-line measures. Principal Component Analysis, performed on four metacognitive measures, yielded a two-factor solution and this two-factor solution accounted for 71.5 % of the sample variance. The data from two off-line measures loaded on the first component with a variance proportion of 38.6 % and the data from two on-line measures loaded on the second component with a variance proportion of 32.9%. The findings of the study showed that metacognitive processes form a complex structure that needs to be assessed using various methods. However, in the multi-method studies, using on-line and off-line measures together will be appropriate rather than using only on-line measures or only off-line measures.
... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Flight engineer requirements. 125.265... Requirements § 125.265 Flight engineer requirements. (a) No person may operate an airplane for which a flight engineer is required by the type certification requirements without a flight crewmember holding a current...
Vinh, N. X.; Bletsos, N. A.; Culp, R. D.; Busemann, A.
A set of dimensionless variables is introduced to derive the equations for flight with lift and bank modulation inside a planetary atmosphere in a Newtonian gravitational field. Flight subject to constraints on state variables is discussed and a general approach is presented. Two examples are analyzed in detail: flight at constant speed, and flight at constant sinking speed.
Enns, Russell James
This dissertation introduces a new rotorcraft flight control methodology based on a relatively new form of neural control, neural dynamic programming (NDP). NDP is an on-line learning control scheme that is in its infancy and has only been applied to simple systems, such as those possessing a single control and a handful of states. This dissertation builds on the existing NDP concept to provide a comprehensive control system framework that can perform well as a learning controller for more realistic and practical systems of higher dimension such as helicopters. To accommodate such complex systems, the dissertation introduces the concept of a trim network that is seamlessly integrated into the NDP control structure and is also trained using this structure. This is the first time that neural networks have been applied to the helicopter control problem as a direct form of control without using other controller methodologies to augment the neural controller and without using order reducing simplifications such as axes decoupling. The dissertation focuses on providing a viable alternative helicopter control system design approach rather than providing extensive comparisons among various available controllers. As such, results showing the system's ability to stabilize the helicopter and to perform command tracking, without explicit comparison to other methods, are presented. In this research, design robustness was addressed by performing simulations under various disturbance conditions. All designs were tested using FLYRT, a sophisticated, industrial-scale, nonlinear, validated model of the Apache helicopter. Though illustrated for helicopters, the NDP control system framework should be applicable to general purpose multi-input multi-output (MIMO) control. In addition, this dissertation tackles the helicopter reconfigurable flight control problem, finding control solutions when the aircraft, and in particular its control actuators, are damaged. Such solutions have
Williams-Hayes, Peggy S.
The NASA F-15 Intelligent Flight Control System project team has developed a series of flight control concepts designed to demonstrate the benefits of a neural network-based adaptive controller. The objective of the team was to develop and flight-test control systems that use neural network technology, to optimize the performance of the aircraft under nominal conditions, and to stabilize the aircraft under failure conditions. Failure conditions include locked or failed control surfaces as well as unforeseen damage that might occur to the aircraft in flight. The Intelligent Flight Control System team is currently in the process of implementing a second generation control scheme, collectively known as Generation 2 or Gen 2, for flight testing on the NASA F-15 aircraft. This report describes the Gen 2 system as implemented by the team for flight test evaluation. Simulation results are shown which describe the experiment to be performed in flight and highlight the ways in which the Gen 2 system meets the defined objectives.
..., set of aircraft, or aircraft type simulated, as applicable; and (2) Each curriculum or training course in which the flight simulator or flight training device is used, if that curriculum or course is used... section must include— (1) The set of aircraft, or type aircraft; (2) If applicable, the particular...
Weisshaar, T. A.; Schmidt, D. K.
Several examples are presented in which flutter involving interaction between flight mechanics modes and elastic wind bending occurs for a forward swept wing flight vehicle. These results show the basic mechanism by which the instability occurs and form the basis for attempts to actively control such a vehicle.
..., and training aids. 141.41 Section 141.41 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION... aids. An applicant for a pilot school certificate or a provisional pilot school certificate must show that its flight simulators, flight training devices, training aids, and equipment meet the following...
Prepared ca. 1995. This paper describes Air-MIDAS, a model of pilot performance in interaction with varied levels of automation in flight management operations. The model was used to predict the performance of a two person flight crew responding to c...
A mathematical model of the Boeing 720B aircraft and autopilot has been derived. The model is representative of the 720B aircraft for continuous flight within a flight envelope defined by a Mach number of .4 at 20,000 feet altitude in a cruise config...
Hokeness, Mark Merrill
Aviation researchers estimate airline companies will require nearly 500,000 pilots in the next 20 years. The role of a Certified Flight Instructor (CFI) is to move student pilots to professional pilots with training typically conducted in one-on-one student and instructor sessions. The knowledge of aviation, professionalism as a teacher, and the CFI’s interpersonal skills can directly affect the successes and advancement of a student pilot. A new and emerging assessment of people skills is known as emotional intelligence (EI). The EI of the CFI can and will affect a flight students’ learning experiences. With knowledge of emotional intelligence and its effect on flight training, student pilot dropouts from aviation may be reduced, thus helping to ensure an adequate supply of pilots. Without pilots, the growth of the commercial aviation industry will be restricted. This mixed method research study established the correlation between a CFI’s measured EI levels and the advancement of flight students. The elements contributing to a CFI’s EI level were not found to be teaching or flight-related experiences, suggesting other life factors are drawn upon by the CFI and are reflected in their emotional intelligence levels presented to flight students. Students respond positively to CFIs with higher levels of emotional intelligence. Awareness of EI skills by both the CFI and flight student contribute to flight student successes and advancement.
Amidan, Brett G. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Venzin, Alexander M. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Bramer, Lisa M. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)
This paper discusses the process of identifying factors that influence the contamination level of a given decision area and then determining the likelihood that the area remains unacceptable. This process is referred to as lines of evidence. These lines of evidence then serve as inputs for the stratified compliance sampling (SCS) method, which requires a decision area to be divided into strata based upon contamination expectations. This is done in order to focus sampling efforts more within stratum where contamination is more likely and to use the domain knowledge about these likelihoods of the stratum remaining unacceptable to buy down the number of samples necessary, if possible. Two different building scenarios were considered as an example (see Table 3.1). SME expertise was elicited concerning four lines of evidence factors (see Table 3.2): 1) amount of contamination that was seen before decontamination, 2) post-decontamination air sampling information, 3) the applied decontaminant information, and 4) the surface material. Statistical experimental design and logistic regression modelling were used to help determine the likelihood that example stratum remained unacceptable for a given example scenario. The number of samples necessary for clearance was calculated by applying the SCS method to the example scenario, using the estimated likelihood of each stratum remaining unacceptable as was determined using the lines of evidence approach. The commonly used simple random sampling (SRS) method was also used to calculate the number of samples necessary for clearance for comparison purposes. The lines of evidence with SCS approach resulted in a 19% to 43% reduction in total number of samples necessary for clearance (see Table 3.6). The reduction depended upon the building scenario, as well as the level of percent clean criteria. A sensitivity analysis was also performed showing how changing the estimated likelihoods of stratum remaining unacceptable affect the number
Ng, Hok K.; Morando, Alex; Grabbe, Shon
Airspace capacity reduction due to convective weather impedes air traffic flows and causes traffic congestion. This study presents an algorithm that reroutes flights in the presence of winds, enroute convective weather, and congested airspace based on stochastic dynamic programming. A stochastic disturbance model incorporates into the reroute design process the capacity uncertainty. A trajectory-based airspace demand model is employed for calculating current and future airspace demand. The optimal routes minimize the total expected traveling time, weather incursion, and induced congestion costs. They are compared to weather-avoidance routes calculated using deterministic dynamic programming. The stochastic reroutes have smaller deviation probability than the deterministic counterpart when both reroutes have similar total flight distance. The stochastic rerouting algorithm takes into account all convective weather fields with all severity levels while the deterministic algorithm only accounts for convective weather systems exceeding a specified level of severity. When the stochastic reroutes are compared to the actual flight routes, they have similar total flight time, and both have about 1% of travel time crossing congested enroute sectors on average. The actual flight routes induce slightly less traffic congestion than the stochastic reroutes but intercept more severe convective weather.
Hueschen, R. M.
Five flight tests of the Digital Automated Landing System (DIALS) were conducted on the Advanced Transport Operating Systems (ATOPS) Transportation Research Vehicle (TSRV) -- a modified Boeing 737 aircraft for advanced controls and displays research. These flight tests were conducted at NASA's Wallops Flight Center using the microwave landing system (MLS) installation on runway 22. This report describes the flight software equations of the DIALS which was designed using modern control theory direct-digital design methods and employed a constant gain Kalman filter. Selected flight test performance data is presented for localizer (runway centerline) capture and track at various intercept angles, for glideslope capture and track of 3, 4.5, and 5 degree glideslopes, for the decrab maneuver, and for the flare maneuver. Data is also presented to illustrate the system performance in the presence of cross, gust, and shear winds. The mean and standard deviation of the peak position errors for localizer capture were, respectively, 24 feet and 26 feet. For mild wind conditions, glideslope and localizer tracking position errors did not exceed, respectively, 5 and 20 feet. For gusty wind conditions (8 to 10 knots), these errors were, respectively, 10 and 30 feet. Ten hands off automatic lands were performed. The standard deviation of the touchdown position and velocity errors from the mean values were, respectively, 244 feet and 0.7 feet/sec.
Madero, Magdalena; Monares, Enrique; Domínguez, Aurelio Méndez; Ayus, Juan Carlos
Acute symptomatic hyponatremia after thiazide diuretic initiation is a medical emergency. Here we describe the case of a flight attendant who developed acute hyponatremia during a flight and the potential risk factors for developing this condition. A 57-year-old flight attendant with history of essential hypertension was recently started on a thiazide diuretic. As she did routinely when working, she increased her water intake during a flight from London to Mexico City. She complained of nausea and headache during the flight. Upon arrival, she developed severe disorientation and presented to the hospital emergency room (ER) with a Glasgow scale of 12, hypoxia, and a generalized tonic clonic seizure. Her laboratory results on arrival were consistent with severe hyponatremia (serum Na 116 mEql/L) and severe cerebral edema by CT scan. She was treated with hypertonic saline, with complete resolution of the neurologic symptoms. We describe high water intake and hypoxia related to decreased partial pressure of oxygen in the cabin as the two main risk factors for thiazide-induced acute hyponatremia in this case.
NASA's X-37 Approach and Landing Test Vehicle is installed is a structural facility at Boeing's Huntington Beach, California plant. Tests, completed in July, were conducted to verify the structural integrity of the vehicle in preparation for atmospheric flight tests. Atmospheric flight tests of the Approach and Landing Test Vehicle are scheduled for 2004 and flight tests of the Orbital Vehicle are scheduled for 2006. The X-37 experimental launch vehicle is roughly 27.5 feet (8.3 meters) long and 15 feet (4.5 meters) in wingspan. It's experiment bay is 7 feet (2.1 meters) long and 4 feet (1.2 meters) in diameter. Designed to operate in both the orbital and reentry phases of flight, the X-37 will increase both safety and reliability, while reducing launch costs from $10,000 per pound to $1,000.00 per pound. The X-37 program is managed by the Marshall Space Flight Center and built by the Boeing Company.
Myers, T. T.; Johnston, D. E.; Mcruer, D.
The suitability of existing and proposed flying quality and flight control system criteria for application to the space shuttle orbiter during atmospheric flight phases was assessed. An orbiter experiment for flying qualities and flight control system design criteria is discussed. Orbiter longitudinal and lateral-directional flying characteristics, flight control system lag and time delay considerations, and flight control manipulator characteristics are included. Data obtained from conventional aircraft may be inappropriate for application to the shuttle orbiter.
Williams, Daniel M.; Consiglio, Maria C.; Murdoch, Jennifer L.; Adams, Catherine H.
This paper provides an analysis of Flight Technical Error (FTE) from recent SATS experiments, called the Higher Volume Operations (HVO) Simulation and Flight experiments, which NASA conducted to determine pilot acceptability of the HVO concept for normal operating conditions. Reported are FTE results from simulation and flight experiment data indicating the SATS HVO concept is viable and acceptable to low-time instrument rated pilots when compared with today s system (baseline). Described is the comparative FTE analysis of lateral, vertical, and airspeed deviations from the baseline and SATS HVO experimental flight procedures. Based on FTE analysis, all evaluation subjects, low-time instrument-rated pilots, flew the HVO procedures safely and proficiently in comparison to today s system. In all cases, the results of the flight experiment validated the results of the simulation experiment and confirm the utility of the simulation platform for comparative Human in the Loop (HITL) studies of SATS HVO and Baseline operations.
Tartt, David M.; Hewett, Marle D.; Duke, Eugene L.; Cooper, James A.; Brumbaugh, Randal W.
The Automated Flight Test Management System (ATMS) is being developed as part of the NASA Aircraft Automation Program. This program focuses on the application of interdisciplinary state-of-the-art technology in artificial intelligence, control theory, and systems methodology to problems of operating and flight testing high-performance aircraft. The development of a Flight Test Engineer's Workstation (FTEWS) is presented, with a detailed description of the system, technical details, and future planned developments. The goal of the FTEWS is to provide flight test engineers and project officers with an automated computer environment for planning, scheduling, and performing flight test programs. The FTEWS system is an outgrowth of the development of ATMS and is an implementation of a component of ATMS on SUN workstations.
Duke, E. L.; Regenie, V. A.; Deets, D. A.
The Dryden Flight Research Facility of the NASA Ames Research Facility of the NASA Ames Research Center is developing a rapid prototyping facility for flight research in flight systems concepts that are based on artificial intelligence (AI). The facility will include real-time high-fidelity aircraft simulators, conventional and symbolic processors, and a high-performance research aircraft specially modified to accept commands from the ground-based AI computers. This facility is being developed as part of the NASA-DARPA automated wingman program. This document discusses the need for flight research and for a national flight research facility for the rapid prototyping of AI-based avionics systems and the NASA response to those needs.
This paper is a methodological ethnography aiming to highlight the difficulties in using conventional methods in connection with an explorative philosophy: Deleuze and Guattari's. Taking an empirical point of departure in conversations about the future with students in upper secondary school, the struggle to find a scientifically valid label…
Duschinsky, Robbie; Greco, Monica; Solomon, Judith
Research on attachment is widely regarded in sociology and feminist scholarship as politically conservative - oriented by a concern to police families, pathologize mothers and emphasize psychological at the expense of socio-economic factors. These critiques have presented attachment theory as constructing biological imperatives to naturalize contingent, social demands. We propose that a more effective critique of the politically conservative uses of attachment theory is offered by engaging with the 'attachment system' at the level of ontology. In developing this argument we draw on Deleuze and Guattari, making use of the common language of ethology which links their ideas to that of attachment theory. The attachment system can and has been reified into an image of the infant returning to their caregiver as an image of familial sufficiency. This has offered ammunition for discourses and institutions which isolate women from health, social and political resources. Yet Deleuze and Guattari can help attachment theory and research to be recognized as a powerful ally for progressive politics, for reflection on the movement of human individuation, and for arguing for the meaningful resourcing of those who care for someone else.
Brushless Electric Motor ) 1 $199.99 $199.99 Propeller (APC 19x10E) 1 $12.99 $12.99 Anti Spark (50 Ohm resistor) 1 $0.00 $0.00 Arming Switch 1 $12.99...1 Sig Rascal 110 http://www.sigplanes.com/SIG-Rascal-110-EG-ARF_p_232.html 2 Servo comes with air vehicle 3 Motor (HimaxHC6332-230 Brushless ...computer by controlling the motor and servos. Control signals for the servo and motor are generated through the Proportion-Integral-Derivative (PID
Muraoka, K.; Funabiki, K.; Tanaka, K.; Nakamura, M.; Terui, Y. [National Aerospace Laboratory, Tokyo (Japan)
A line operational simulator having capability to reproduce flight environment in an automated cockpit has been developed. This simulator is intended for studying human factors which attract attention in fourth generation aircraft. The simulator was fabricated by adding to the existing flight simulators such functions as an airframe mounted system required for flight operation, an automatic operation system, glass cockpit meters and navigation aiding facilities. The following evaluation results were obtained as a result of performing flight simulations: one flight has made the crews skillful in working with a general-use aircraft model and interfaces; summarized comments by the pilots provide general evaluation that this simulator is capable of basic line operation using an automated cockpit; a mouse was used more frequently than a touch panel as an input device for the display; high evaluation was given on workability of the autopilot flight mode control unit; and an indication was given that the amount of information about details of the airframe system configuration is insufficient. 16 refs., 54 figs., 21 tabs.
Draw the Line! International Conference, Copenhagen 2008 Papers, proceedings and recommendations is the second publication of the international three year long project "Understanding Puzzles in the Gendered European Map" (UPGEM), which is financed by the European Commission. In this publication we...... present proceedings from the UPGEM conference "Draw the Line!" in Copenhagen May 2008. The proceedings include contributions by UPGEM researchers, conference speeches by other researchers, politicians and gender equality officers in which they relate their work and research with the research done in UPGEM....... The UPGEM research has previously been published in national reports from each of the partner countries (Denmark, Estonia, Finland, Italy and Poland). In these individual national reports of universities as workplaces for male and female researchers we discuss scientific cultures in physics embedded...
The general Method of Lines (MOL) procedure provides a flexible format for the solution of all the major classes of partial differential equations (PDEs) and is particularly well suited to evolutionary, nonlinear wave PDEs. Despite its utility, however, there are relatively few texts that explore it at a more advanced level and reflect the method''s current state of development.Written by distinguished researchers in the field, Adaptive Method of Lines reflects the diversity of techniques and applications related to the MOL. Most of its chapters focus on a particular application but also provide a discussion of underlying philosophy and technique. Particular attention is paid to the concept of both temporal and spatial adaptivity in solving time-dependent PDEs. Many important ideas and methods are introduced, including moving grids and grid refinement, static and dynamic gridding, the equidistribution principle and the concept of a monitor function, the minimization of a functional, and the moving finite elem...
Bone, W.H.; Schmidt, W.W.
A method is presented for forming refractory liners in cylindrical reaction vessels used for the reductlon of uranium tetrafluoride to metallic uranium. A preliminary form, having positioning lugs attached thereto, is inserted into the reaction vessel and the refractory powder, usually CaO, is put in the annular space between the form and the inner wall of the reaction vessel. A jolting table is used to compact this charge of liner material ln place, and after thls has been done, the preliminary form is removed and the flnal form or plug is lnserted without disturbing the partially completed lining. The remainder of the lining charge is then introduced and compacted by jolting, after which the form is removed.
Nuttall, K.R.; Gardner, P.R.
Westinghouse Hanford Company is developing a desk-top simulation based training program on the operation of the Remote Mechanical C (RMC) Line process in the Plutonium Finishing Plant on the Hanford site, Richland, Washington. Simulations display aod contioually update current values of system parameters on computer graphics of RMC line equipment. Students are able to operate a variety of controllers to maintain proper system status. Programmed faults, selectable by the course instructor, can be used to test student responses to off-normal events. Prior to operation of the simulation, students are given computer-based tutorials on the function, processes, operation, and error conditions associated with individual components. By including the capability of operating each individual component - valves, heaters, agitators, etc. - the computer-based training (CBT) lessons become an interactive training manual. From one perspective RMC represents one step in the diffusion of the well-known and well-documented simulator training activities for nuclear reactor operators to other training programs, equally critical, perhaps, but less well scrutinized in the past. Because of the slowly responding nature of the actual process, RMC can retain many of the capabilities of practice and testing in a simulated work environment while avoiding the cost of a full scale simulator and the exposure and waste developed by practice runs of the RMC line. From another perspective RMC suggests training advances even beyond the most faithful simulators. For example, by integrating CBT lessons with the simulation, RMC permits students to focus in on specific processes occurring inside chosen components. In effect, the interactive training manual is available on-line with the simulation itself. Cost are also discussed
Full Text Available Stark-broadened lines of the hydrogen Brackett series are computed for the conditions of stellar atmospheres and circumstellar envelopes. The computation is performed within the Model Microfield Method, which includes the ion dynamic effects and makes the bridge between the impact limit at low density and the static limit at high density and in the line wings. The computation gives the area normalized line shape, from the line core up to the static line wings.
Rynne, T J
Many hospital administrators and boards of directors, having overcome their initial opposition to advertising and hired a marketing professional, are wondering why their marketing programs have not accomplished all that they had hoped. The answer lies in their perception of who is responsible for marketing. Marketing is not a specialty separate from the disciplines of management--it is a basic management skill. Its goal is to satisfy the customer by providing products and services that meet the customer's needs, wants, and preferences. Line managers must understand the hospital's customers and make the critical day-to-day differences in satisfying them. They are the hospital's front-line marketers, and the marketing department's role is to support them in this function. The marketing department should develop the line managers' marketing skills by furnishing them with the appropriate tools: formats, models, examples, and instructions. In addition, the marketing staff should provide such specialized services as marketing research, ad agency management, and development of communications.
Full Text Available Manned space flight has been the great human and technological adventure of the past half-century. By putting people into places and situations unprecedented in history, it has stirred the imagination while expanding and redefining the human experience. However, space exploration obliges men to confront a hostile environment of cosmic radiation, microgravity, isolation and changes in the magnetic field. Any space traveler is therefore submitted to relevant health threats. In the twenty-first century, human space flight will continue, but it will change in the ways that science and technology have changed on Earth: it will become more networked, more global, and more oriented toward primary objectives. A new international human space flight policy can help achieve these objectives by clarifying the rationales, the ethics of acceptable risk, the role of remote presence, and the need for balance between funding and ambition to justify the risk of human lives.
Wessling, Francis C.; Lundquist, Charles A.; Maybee, George W.
Consort 1 was the first low gravity materials processing payload to be launched by a commercially licensed rocket in the U.S.A. It carried six experiments which operated as planned during approx. 7 min of suborbital, low gravity flight (10 -5g) and were returned in excellent condition to the investigators within 4h of launch. Nearly 150 physical samples supported by measurements and photographs made during the flight were obtained for analysis. In addition to the experimental data returned, the success of Consort 1 demonstrated the ability of industry, working with university centers and government agencies, to rapidly prepare and launch payloads. A brief description of the rocket flight and payload configuration is given. Experiment objectives and methods are described and preliminary results and conclusions are presented.
Motter, Mark A.
A broad overview of current adaptive flight control research efforts at NASA is presented, as well as some more detailed discussion of selected specific approaches. The stated objective of the Integrated Resilient Aircraft Control Project, one of NASA s Aviation Safety programs, is to advance the state-of-the-art of adaptive controls as a design option to provide enhanced stability and maneuverability margins for safe landing in the presence of adverse conditions such as actuator or sensor failures. Under this project, a number of adaptive control approaches are being pursued, including neural networks and multiple models. Validation of all the adaptive control approaches will use not only traditional methods such as simulation, wind tunnel testing and manned flight tests, but will be augmented with recently developed capabilities in unmanned flight testing.
Smith, R. F.; Stanton, K.; Stoop, D.; Brown, D.; Janusz, W.; King, P.
To assess the effects of space flight on cardiac electrical properties, vectorcardiograms were taken on the 9 Skylab astronauts during the flights of 28, 59, and 84 days. The Frank lead system was used and observations were made at rest; during 25%, 50% and 75% of maximum exercise; during a short pulse of exercise (150 watts, 2 minutes); and after exercise. Data from 131 in-flight tests were analyzed by computer and compared to preflight and postflight values. Statistically significant increase in QRS vector magnitude (six of nine crewmen); T vector magnitude (five of nine crewmen); and resting PR interval duration (six of nine crewmen) occurred. During exercise the PR interval did not differ from preflight. Exercise heart rates inflight were the same as preflight, but increased in the immediate postflight period. With the exception of the arrhythmias, no deleterious vectorcardiographic changes were observed during the Skylab missions.
“Compound Control Methodology for Flight Vehicles” focuses on new control methods for flight vehicles. In this monograph the concept of compound control is introduced. It is demonstrated that both Sliding Mode Control (SMC) and Active Disturbance Rejection Control (ADRC) have their own advantages and limitations, i.e., chattering of SMC and the observability of extended state observer (ESO), respectively. It is shown that compound control combines their advantages and improves the performance of the closed-loop systems. The book is self-contained, providing sufficient mathematical foundations for understanding the contents of each chapter. It will be of significant interest to scientists and engineers engaged in the field of flight vehicle control.
This report summarizes the major activities and accomplishments carried out by the Flight Dynamics Analysis Branch (FDAB), Code 595, in support of flight projects and technology development initiatives in Fiscal Year (FY) 2005. The report is intended to serve as a summary of the type of support carried out by the FDAB, as well as a concise reference of key accomplishments and mission experience derived from the various mission support roles. The primary focus of the FDAB is to provide expertise in the disciplines of flight dynamics including spacecraft navigation (autonomous and ground based); spacecraft trajectory design and maneuver planning; attitude analysis; attitude determination and sensor calibration; and attitude control subsystem (ACS) analysis and design. The FDAB currently provides support for missions and technology development projects involving NASA, other government agencies, academia, and private industry.
Kara L. Marshall
Full Text Available Flight maneuvers require rapid sensory integration to generate adaptive motor output. Bats achieve remarkable agility with modified forelimbs that serve as airfoils while retaining capacity for object manipulation. Wing sensory inputs provide behaviorally relevant information to guide flight; however, components of wing sensory-motor circuits have not been analyzed. Here, we elucidate the organization of wing innervation in an insectivore, the big brown bat, Eptesicus fuscus. We demonstrate that wing sensory innervation differs from other vertebrate forelimbs, revealing a peripheral basis for the atypical topographic organization reported for bat somatosensory nuclei. Furthermore, the wing is innervated by an unusual complement of sensory neurons poised to report airflow and touch. Finally, we report that cortical neurons encode tactile and airflow inputs with sparse activity patterns. Together, our findings identify neural substrates of somatosensation in the bat wing and imply that evolutionary pressures giving rise to mammalian flight led to unusual sensorimotor projections.
Yu Zhi-Gang [China Flight Test Establishment, Xian (China)
In this paper, the author points that just considering the accuracy of aerodynamic characteristics is not enough to define flight simulation fidelity. According to his experience, the definition of fidelity ought to be based on the analysis of pilot-aircraft controlling loop. Both the controlling loops in real flight and in simulation are introduced here. Comparing the two loops, it is find that a certain degree of infidelity is unavoidable for an aircraft simulator, so that some compromises have to be made between the need and possibility. Some definitions of fidelity, Open Loop fidelity and Close Loop fidelity, White Box fidelity and Black Box fidelity, Original fidelity and Final fidelity, and the approaches of verifying and improving flight simulation fidelity are also described.
This book represents the Flight Operations Manual for a reusable microsatellite platform – the “Future Low-cost Platform” (FLP), developed at the University of Stuttgart, Germany. It provides a basic insight on the onboard software functions, the core data handling system and on the power, communications, attitude control and thermal subsystem of the platform. Onboard failure detection, isolation and recovery functions are treated in detail. The platform is suited for satellites in the 50-150 kg class and is baseline of the microsatellite “Flying Laptop” from the University. The book covers the essential information for ground operators to controls an FLP-based satellite applying international command and control standards (CCSDS and ECSS PUS). Furthermore it provides an overview on the Flight Control Center in Stuttgart and on the link to the German Space Agency DLR Ground Station which is used for early mission phases. Flight procedure and mission planning chapters complement the book. .
Gilpatrick, J.D.; Carter, H.; Plum, M.; Power, J.F.; Rose, C.R.; Shurter, R.B.
Several members of the Accelerator and Operations Technology (AOT) division beam-diagnostics team performed time-of-flight (TOF) beam-energy measurements in line D of the Los Alamos Meson Physics Facility (LAMPF) using developmental beam time. These measurements provided information for a final design of an on-line beam energy measurement. The following paper discusses these measurements and how they apply to the final beam energy measurement design
Floyd, R.; Harrison, J.; Macek, R.; Sanders, G.
Hardware and software have been developed for precision on-line measurement and fitting of secondary beam line phase space parameters. A system consisting of three MWPC planes for measuring particle trajectories, in coincidence with a time-of-flight telescope and a range telescope for particle identification, has been interfaced to a computer. Software has been developed for on-line track reconstruction, application of experimental cuts, and fitting of two-dimensional phase space ellipses for each particle species. The measured distributions have been found to agree well with the predictions of the Monte Carlo program DECAY TURTLE. The fitted phase space ellipses are a useful input to optimization routines, such as TRANSPORT, used to search for superior tunes. Application of this system to the LAMPF Stopped Muon Channel is described
Wasiolek, Piotr T. [National Security Technologies, LLC
Airborne gamma spectrometry is one of the primary techniques used to define the extent of ground contamination after a radiological incident. Its usefulness was demonstrated extensively during the response to the Fukushima NPP accident in March-May 2011. To map ground contamination, a set of scintillation detectors is mounted on an airborne platform (airplane or helicopter) and flown over contaminated areas. The acquisition system collects spectral information together with the aircraft position and altitude every second. To provide useful information to decision makers, the count data, expressed in counts per second (cps), need to be converted to a terrestrial component of the exposure rate at 1 meter (m) above ground, or surface activity of the isotopes of concern. This is done using conversion coefficients derived from calibration flights. During a large-scale radiological event, multiple flights may be necessary and may require use of assets from different agencies. However, because production of a single, consistent map product depicting the ground contamination is the primary goal, it is critical to establish a common calibration line very early into the event. Such a line should be flown periodically in order to normalize data collected from different aerial acquisition systems and that are potentially flown at different flight altitudes and speeds. In order to verify and validate individual aerial systems, the calibration line needs to be characterized in terms of ground truth measurements This is especially important if the contamination is due to short-lived radionuclides. The process of establishing such a line, as well as necessary ground truth measurements, is described in this document.
On Aug. 30, 1995, a the McDonnell Douglas MD-11 transport aircraft landed equipped with a computer-assisted engine control system that has the potential to increase flight safety. In landings at NASA Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, on August 29 and 30, the aircraft demonstrated software used in the aircraft's flight control computer that essentially landed the MD-11 without a need for the pilot to manipulate the flight controls significantly. In partnership with McDonnell Douglas Aerospace (MDA), with Pratt & Whitney and Honeywell helping to design the software, NASA developed this propulsion-controlled aircraft (PCA) system following a series of incidents in which hydraulic failures resulted in the loss of flight controls. This new system enables a pilot to operate and land the aircraft safely when its normal, hydraulically-activated control surfaces are disabled. This August 29, 1995, photo shows the MD-11 team. Back row, left to right: Tim Dingen, MDA pilot; John Miller, MD-11 Chief pilot (MDA); Wayne Anselmo, MD-11 Flight Test Engineer (MDA); Gordon Fullerton, PCA Project pilot; Bill Burcham, PCA Chief Engineer; Rudey Duran, PCA Controls Engineer (MDA); John Feather, PCA Controls Engineer (MDA); Daryl Townsend, Crew Chief; Henry Hernandez, aircraft mechanic; Bob Baron, PCA Project Manager; Don Hermann, aircraft mechanic; Jerry Cousins, aircraft mechanic; Eric Petersen, PCA Manager (Honeywell); Trindel Maine, PCA Data Engineer; Jeff Kahler, PCA Software Engineer (Honeywell); Steve Goldthorpe, PCA Controls Engineer (MDA). Front row, left to right: Teresa Hass, Senior Project Management Analyst; Hollie Allingham (Aguilera), Senior Project Management Analyst; Taher Zeglum, PCA Data Engineer (MDA); Drew Pappas, PCA Project Manager (MDA); John Burken, PCA Control Engineer.
Maris, John M.; Haynes, Mark A.; Wing, David J.; Burke, Kelly A.; Henderson, Jeff; Woods, Sharon E.
NASA's Traffic Aware Planner (TAP) is a cockpit decision support tool that has the potential to achieve significant fuel and time savings when it is embedded in the data-rich Next Generation Air Transportation System (NextGen) airspace. To address a key step towards the operational deployment of TAP and the NASA concept of Traffic Aware Strategic Aircrew Requests (TASAR), a system evaluation was conducted in a representative flight environment in November, 2013. Numerous challenges were overcome to achieve this goal, including the porting of the foundational Autonomous Operations Planner (AOP) software from its original simulation-based, avionics-embedded environment to an Electronic Flight Bag (EFB) platform. A flight-test aircraft was modified to host the EFB, the TAP application, an Automatic Dependent Surveillance Broadcast (ADS-B) processor, and a satellite broadband datalink. Nine Evaluation Pilots conducted 26 hours of TAP assessments using four route profiles in the complex eastern and north-eastern United States airspace. Extensive avionics and video data were collected, supplemented by comprehensive inflight and post-flight questionnaires. TAP was verified to function properly in the live avionics and ADS-B environment, characterized by recorded data dropouts, latency, and ADS-B message fluctuations. Twelve TAP-generated optimization requests were submitted to ATC, of which nine were approved, and all of which resulted in fuel and/or time savings. Analysis of subjective workload data indicated that pilot interaction with TAP during flight operations did not induce additional cognitive loading. Additionally, analyses of post-flight questionnaire data showed that the pilots perceived TAP to be useful, understandable, intuitive, and easy to use. All program objectives were met, and the next phase of TAP development and evaluations with partner airlines is in planning for 2015.
Hickey, Christopher J.; Loveall, James B.; Orr, James K.; Klausman, Andrew L.
The initial goals of the Space Shuttle Program required that the avionics and software systems blaze new trails in advancing avionics system technology. Many of the requirements placed on avionics and software were accomplished for the first time on this program. Examples include comprehensive digital fly-by-wire technology, use of a digital databus for flight critical functions, fail operational/fail safe requirements, complex automated redundancy management, and the use of a high-order software language for flight software development. In order to meet the operational and safety goals of the program, the Space Shuttle software had to be extremely high quality, reliable, robust, reconfigurable and maintainable. To achieve this, the software development team evolved a software process focused on continuous process improvement and defect elimination that consistently produced highly predictable and top quality results, providing software managers the confidence needed to sign each Certificate of Flight Readiness (COFR). This process, which has been appraised at Capability Maturity Model (CMM)/Capability Maturity Model Integration (CMMI) Level 5, has resulted in one of the lowest software defect rates in the industry. This paper will present an overview of the evolution of the Primary Avionics Software System (PASS) project and processes over thirty years, an argument for strong statistical control of software processes with examples, an overview of the success story for identifying and driving out errors before flight, a case study of the few significant software issues and how they were either identified before flight or slipped through the process onto a flight vehicle, and identification of the valuable lessons learned over the life of the project.
"Alpha, Golf, November, Echo, Zulu." "Sierra, Alpha, Golf, Echo, Sierra." "Lima, Hotel, Yankee." It looks like some strange word game, but the combinations of words above actually communicate the first three points of a flight plan from Albany, New York to Florence, South Carolina. Spoken by air traffic controllers and pilots, the aviation industry s standard International Civil Aviation Organization phonetic alphabet uses words to represent letters. The first letter of each word in the series is combined to spell waypoints, or reference points, used in flight navigation. The first waypoint above is AGNEZ (alpha for A, golf for G, etc.). The second is SAGES, and the third is LHY. For pilots of general aviation aircraft, the traditional method of entering the letters of each waypoint into a GPS device is a time-consuming process. For each of the 16 waypoints required for the complete flight plan from Albany to Florence, the pilot uses a knob to scroll through each letter of the alphabet. It takes approximately 5 minutes of the pilot s focused attention to complete this particular plan. Entering such a long flight plan into a GPS can pose a safety hazard because it can take the pilot s attention from other critical tasks like scanning gauges or avoiding other aircraft. For more than five decades, NASA has supported research and development in aviation safety, including through its Vehicle Systems Safety Technology (VSST) program, which works to advance safer and more capable flight decks (cockpits) in aircraft. Randy Bailey, a lead aerospace engineer in the VSST program at Langley Research Center, says the technology in cockpits is directly related to flight safety. For example, "GPS navigation systems are wonderful as far as improving a pilot s ability to navigate, but if you can find ways to reduce the draw of the pilot s attention into the cockpit while using the GPS, it could potentially improve safety," he says.
Palmisano, Kevin; Visca, Hannah; Caves, Louis; Wilkinson, Corey; McClow, Hannah; Padalino, Stephen; Forrest, Chad; Katz, Joe; Sangster, Craig; Regan, Sean
Neutron scintillator diagnostics for ICF can be characterized using the neutron time-of-flight (nTOF) line on Geneseo's 1.7 MV Tandem Pelletron Accelerator. Neutron signals can be differentiated from gamma signals by employing a coincidence method called the associated particle technique (APT). In this measurement, a 2.1 MeV beam of deuterons incident on a deuterated polyethylene target produces neutrons via the d(d,n)3He reaction. A BC-412 plastic scintillator, placed at a scattering angle of 152º, detects 1.76 MeV neutrons in coincidence with the 2.56 MeV 3He ions at an associated angle of 10º. The APT is used to identify the 1.76 MeV neutron while the nTOF line determines its energy. By gating only mono-energetic neutrons, the instrument response function of the scintillator can be determined free from background scattered neutrons and gamma rays. Funded in part by a Grant from the DOE, through the Laboratory for Laser Energetics.
Huang, Adam; Folk, Chris; Ho, Chih-Ming; Liu, Z.; Chu, Wesley W.; Xu, Yong; Tai, Yu-Chong
By using distributed arrays of micro-actuators as effectors, micro-sensors to detect the optimal actuation location, and microelectronics to provide close loop feedback decisions, a low power control system has been developed for controlling a UAV. Implementing the Microsensors, Microactuators, and Microelectronics leads to what is known as a M3 (M-cubic) system. This project involves demonstrating the concept of using small actuators (approximately micron-millimeter scale) to provide large control forces for a large-scale system (approximately meter scale) through natural flow amplification phenomenon. This is theorized by using fluid separation phenomenon, vortex evolution, and vortex symmetry on a delta wing aircraft. By using MEMS actuators to control leading edge vortex separation and growth, a desired aerodynamic force can be produced about the aircraft for flight control. Consequently, a MEMS shear stress sensor array was developed for detecting the leading edge separation line where leading edge vortex flow separation occurs. By knowing the leading edge separation line, a closely coupled micro actuation from the effectors can cause the required separation that leads to vortex control. A robust and flexible balloon type actuator was developed using pneumatic pressure as the actuation force. Recently, efforts have started to address the most elusive problem of amplified distributed control (ADC) through data mining algorithms. Preliminary data mining results are promising and this part of the research is ongoing. All wind tunnel data used the baseline 56.5 degree(s) sweepback delta wing with root chord of 31.75 cm.
Smith, Scott M.; Uchakin, Peter N.; Tobin, Brian W.
Conducting research during actual or simulated weightlessness is a challenging endeavor, where even the simplest activities may present significant challenges. This article reviews some of the potential obstacles associated with performing research during space flight and offers brief descriptions of current and previous space research platforms and ground-based analogs, including those for human, animal, and cell-based research. This review is intended to highlight the main issues of space flight research analogs and leave the specifics for each physiologic system for the other papers in this section.
Mccluskey, E. J.; Andrews, D. M.
The research to develop a testing methodology for flight software is described. An experiment was conducted in using assertions to dynamically test digital flight control software. The experiment showed that 87% of typical errors introduced into the program would be detected by assertions. Detailed analysis of the test data showed that the number of assertions needed to detect those errors could be reduced to a minimal set. The analysis also revealed that the most effective assertions tested program parameters that provided greater indirect (collateral) testing of other parameters. In addition, a prototype watchdog task system was built to evaluate the effectiveness of executing assertions in parallel by using the multitasking features of Ada.
Lind, Rick; Brenner, Marty; Freudinger, Lawrence C.
Wavelets present a method for signal processing that may be useful for analyzing responses of dynamical systems. This paper describes several wavelet-based tools that have been developed to improve the efficiency of flight flutter testing. One of the tools uses correlation filtering to identify properties of several modes throughout a flight test for envelope expansion. Another tool uses features in time-frequency representations of responses to characterize nonlinearities in the system dynamics. A third tool uses modulus and phase information from a wavelet transform to estimate modal parameters that can be used to update a linear model and reduce conservatism in robust stability margins.
Agre, Natalie; Zhang, Jun; Ristroph, Leif
Classical aerodynamic theory predicts that a steadily-moving wing experiences fluid forces proportional to the square of its speed. For bird and insect flight, however, there is currently no model for how drag is affected by flapping motions of the wings. By considering simple wings driven to oscillate while progressing through the air, we discover that flapping significantly changes the magnitude of drag and fundamentally alters its scaling with speed. These measurements motivate a new aerodynamic force law that could help to understand the free-flight dynamics, control, and stability of insects and flapping-wing robots.
The present evaluation of VTOL airframe/powerplant integration configurations combining high forward flight speed with safe and efficient vertical flight identifies six configurations that can be matched with one of three powerplant types: turboshafts, convertible-driveshaft lift fans, and gas-drive lift fans. The airframes configurations are (1) tilt-rotor, (2) folded tilt-rotor, (3) tilt-wing, (4) rotor wing/disk wing, (5) lift fan, and (6) variable-diameter rotor. Attention is given to the lift-fan VTOL configuration. The evaluation of these configurations has been conducted by both a joint NASA/DARPA program and the NASA High Speed Rotorcraft program. 7 refs.
At the high altitudes, airline flight passengers can be exposed to some levels of cosmic radiation. The purpose of this study was to quantify this radiation exposure. Cosmic radiation was measured during 5 flights using a personal dosimeter (PDM-102, Aloka). Cosmic radiation equivalent dose rates ranged from 0.7 to 1.43 microsieverts per hour, the average rate was 1.08. For the passenger who travels only occasionally, the cosmic radiation levels are well below occupational limits, and the risks are extremely small. (author)