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Sample records for tall strategies methods

  1. Tall or short? Slender or thick? A plant strategy for regulating elongation growth of roots by low concentrations of gibberellin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanimoto, Eiichi

    2012-07-01

    Since the plant hormone gibberellin (GA) was discovered as a fungal toxin that caused abnormal elongation of rice shoots, the physiological function of GA has mainly been investigated in relation to the regulation of plant height. However, an indispensable role for GA in root growth has been elucidated by using severely GA-depleted plants, either with a gene mutation in GA biosynthesis or which have been treated by an inhibitor of GA biosynthesis. The molecular sequence of GA signalling has also been studied to understand GA functions in root growth. This review addresses research progress on the physiological functions of GA in root growth. Concentration-dependent stimulation of elongation growth by GA is important for the regulation of plant height and root length. Thus the endogenous level of GA and/or the GA sensitivity of shoots and roots plays a role in determining the shoot-to-root ratio of the plant body. Since the shoot-to-root ratio is an important parameter for agricultural production, control of GA production and GA sensitivity may provide a strategy for improving agricultural productivity. The sequence of GA signal transduction has recently been unveiled, and some component molecules are suggested as candidate in planta regulatory sites and as points for the artificial manipulation of GA-mediated growth control. This paper reviews: (1) the breakthrough dose-response experiments that show that root growth is regulated by GA in a lower concentration range than is required for shoot growth; (2) research on the regulation of GA biosynthesis pathways that are known predominantly to control shoot growth; and (3) recent research on GA signalling pathways, including GA receptors, which have been suggested to participate in GA-mediated growth regulation. This provides useful information to suggest a possible strategy for the selective control of shoot and root growth, and to explain how GA plays a role in rosette and liana plants with tall or short, and slender

  2. Sensitivity analyses on natural convection in an 8:1 tall enclosure using finite-volume methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ambrosini, Walter; Forgione, N.; Ferreri, Juan C.

    2004-01-01

    Full text: The results herein presented are an extension of those obtained in previous work by the Authors in a benchmark problem dealing with flow driven by buoyancy in an 8:1 tall enclosure. A simple finite-volume model purposely set up for this application has provided the preliminary results reported. The adopted modeling technique was a direct extension of the one previously adopted by the Authors to deal with single-phase natural convection and boiling channel instabilities. This extension to two-dimensional flow is based on a finite-volume scheme using first order approximation in time and space. Despite its simplicity, results were reasonably good and detected the flow instabilities due to proper selection of cell Courant number and a semi-implicit solution algorithm. In this paper, results using the same code with different discretisations are presented in a more detailed way and are further discussed. They show proper capture of all the main characteristics of the flow, also reported by other authors and considered as 'converged' solutions. Results show that, as expected, first order explicit or semi-implicit methods can be considered reliable tools when dealing with stability problems, if properly used. Some initial results obtained using a second order upwind method are also presented for the purpose of comparison. Additionally, results obtained using a commercial code (FLUENT) are also reported. (author)

  3. A method for high-quality RNA extraction from tall fescue

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane

    2011-07-20

    Jul 20, 2011 ... but most of those methods are time-consuming (Li et al.,. 2008). Since RNA ... forage and seed (Wang and Ge, 2004; Huang et al.,. 2008). ..... Malnoy M, Reynoird JP, Mourgues F, Chevreau E, Simoneau P (2001). A method ...

  4. Tall Buildings Initiative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Initiative 2017 TBI Guidelines Version 2.03 Now Available Screen Shot 2017-10-10 at 3.05.10 PM PEER has just initiative to develop design criteria that will ensure safe and usable tall buildings following future earthquakes. Download the primary product of this initiative: Guidelines for Performance-Based Seismic Design

  5. American Hyperbole: The Tall Tale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavonetti, Linda M.; Combs, Christine M.

    1999-01-01

    Discusses the historic derivation and the format and characteristics of traditional tall tales, and modern adaptations of these stories. Describes a selection of tall tales for modern young adult readers; notes titles and authors of original tall tales and those with female heroes. Discusses the enduring appeal of traditional and modern tall…

  6. Chemical composition and nutritive value of irrigated tall fescue ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    in ruminant feeds may be in the form of simple organic compounds or inorganic compounds .... Other researchers (Blaser et al., 1969) have found that cows grazing tall fescue without ... Official methods of analysis (13th edn.). Association of.

  7. Seedling Performance Associated with Live or Herbicide Treated Tall Fescue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan J. Halvorson

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Tall fescue is an important forage grass which can host systemic fungal endophytes. The association of host grass and endophyte is known to influence herbivore behavior and host plant competition for resources. Establishing legumes into existing tall fescue sods is a desirable means to acquire nitrogen and enhance the nutritive value of forage for livestock production. Competition from existing tall fescue typically must be controlled to ensure interseeding success. We used a soil-on-agar method to determine if soil from intact, living (L, or an herbicide killed (K tall fescue sward influenced germination and seedling growth of three cultivars of tall fescue (E+, MaxQ, and E− or legumes (alfalfa, red clover, and white clover. After 30 days, seedlings were larger and present in greater numbers when grown in L soil rather than K soil. Root growth of legumes (especially white clover and tall fescue (especially MaxQ were not as vigorous in K soil as L soil. While shoot biomass was similar for all cultivars of tall fescue in L soil, MaxQ produced less herbage when grown in K soil. Our data suggest establishing legumes or fescue cultivars may not be improved by first killing the existing fescue sod and seedling performance can exhibit significant interseasonal variation, related only to soil conditions.

  8. 21 CFR 186.1557 - Tall oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Tall oil. 186.1557 Section 186.1557 Food and Drugs... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 186.1557 Tall oil. (a) Tall oil (CAS Reg. No. 8002-26-4) is essentially the sap... consists mainly of tall oil resin acids and tall oil fatty acids. (b) In accordance with § 186.1(b)(1), the...

  9. Evaluation of tall rice mutant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hakim, L.; Azam, M.A.; Miah, A.J.; Mansur, M.A.; Akanda, H.R.

    1989-01-01

    One tall mutant (Mut NS1) of rice variety Nizersail was put to multilocation on-farm trial. It showed improvement over the parent in respect of by earlier maturity and higher grain yield at all locations and thus it appears as an improved mutant of Nizersail. (author). 6 refs

  10. A strategy for evaluating pathway analysis methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Chenggang; Woo, Hyung Jun; Yu, Xueping; Oyama, Tatsuya; Wallqvist, Anders; Reifman, Jaques

    2017-10-13

    Researchers have previously developed a multitude of methods designed to identify biological pathways associated with specific clinical or experimental conditions of interest, with the aim of facilitating biological interpretation of high-throughput data. Before practically applying such pathway analysis (PA) methods, we must first evaluate their performance and reliability, using datasets where the pathways perturbed by the conditions of interest have been well characterized in advance. However, such 'ground truths' (or gold standards) are often unavailable. Furthermore, previous evaluation strategies that have focused on defining 'true answers' are unable to systematically and objectively assess PA methods under a wide range of conditions. In this work, we propose a novel strategy for evaluating PA methods independently of any gold standard, either established or assumed. The strategy involves the use of two mutually complementary metrics, recall and discrimination. Recall measures the consistency of the perturbed pathways identified by applying a particular analysis method to an original large dataset and those identified by the same method to a sub-dataset of the original dataset. In contrast, discrimination measures specificity-the degree to which the perturbed pathways identified by a particular method to a dataset from one experiment differ from those identifying by the same method to a dataset from a different experiment. We used these metrics and 24 datasets to evaluate six widely used PA methods. The results highlighted the common challenge in reliably identifying significant pathways from small datasets. Importantly, we confirmed the effectiveness of our proposed dual-metric strategy by showing that previous comparative studies corroborate the performance evaluations of the six methods obtained by our strategy. Unlike any previously proposed strategy for evaluating the performance of PA methods, our dual-metric strategy does not rely on any ground truth

  11. Megacities and tall buildings: symbiosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safarik, Daniel; Ursini, Shawn; Wood, Antony

    2018-03-01

    Anyone concerned with the development of human civilization in the 21st Century will likely have heard the term «megacity». It is - as it should be - increasingly prevalent in both mainstream and academic discussions of the great trends of our time: urbanization, rising technological and physical connectivity, increasingly polarized extremes of wealth and poverty, environmental degradation, and climate change. It is a subject as large and far-reaching as its name implies. This paper sets the scene on how megacities and the built environment are growing together, and examines the implications for those who plan, design, develop and operate tall buildings and urban infrastructure.

  12. Impact of tall buildings in environmental pollution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Hayati

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Today, tall building is a phenomenon that the world particularly large cities are facing. The tall buildings in order to exploit the land with having the negative affects in the environment create new problems including increasing congestion population, environmental pollution, reduce citizen access to fresh air and sunlight. However, regarding to population increasing and land shortage, tall buildings could not be avoided. This paper investigates the relationship of tall buildings with urban air pollution as well as the possible reducing of negative affects of tall building on environmental pollution with respect to geographical position, technicalrules, immunization, green space, direct of wind, appropriate distance to other buildings, design in terms of visibility and landscape and urban appearance were reviewed. The study showed that the tall buildings cause increasing the air pollution in large urban area due to changing in wind and its direction and also congestion of tall buildings as a pollution sources. Therefore some techniques to design the tall building must be considered to reduce the negative affects of the tall buildings on environmental pollution. Unfortunately the lack of the construction roles in term of environmental protection and also control of the rules in construction process causing the environmental pollution particularly air pollution. It is suggested that the re-evaluate of the rules with restricted control can improve the air quality in the large cities and also utilization of green spaces in floors and roofs of buildings as environmentally friendly buildings which are attempt to reduce environmental problems.

  13. The seasonal growth patterns of a Tall Grassveld sward | NFG ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The growth patterns of a Tall Grassveld sward measured with an inclined point and by clipping and weighing were determined by moisture conditions except in winter when temperature was limiting. The inclined point as a method of determining yield which might replace clipping and weighing, holds promise but is unlikely ...

  14. Computer Programme for the Dynamic Analysis of Tall Regular ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The traditional method of dynamic analysis of tall rigid frames assumes the shear frame model. Models that allow joint rotations with/without the inclusion of the column axial loads give improved results but pose much more computational difficulty. In this work a computer program Natfrequency that determines the dynamic ...

  15. Methods of Evaluating Performances for Marketing Strategies

    OpenAIRE

    Ioan Cucu

    2005-01-01

    There are specific methods for assessing and improving the effectiveness of a marketing strategy. A marketer should state in the marketing plan what a marketing strategy is supposed to accomplish. These statements should set forth performance standards, which usually are stated in terms of profits, sales, or costs. Actual performance must be measured in similar terms so that comparisons are possible. This paper describes sales analysis and cost analysis, two general ways of evaluating the act...

  16. To be or not to be "TALL"?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laron, Zvi

    2012-08-01

    Constitutional tall stature can be anticipated from neonatal length (1) and measurement at age 4 and 8 years (2). Mainly of genetic origin (3) it has been shown that tall children and parents have high normal or higher than normal serum hGH and/or IGF-I levels. (4-6). Also in a healthy adult population a significant (pgigantism" due to excessive GHR-H or hGH secretion (8, 9) and other pathological conditions leading to tall stature (3).

  17. Nonlinear behaviors of FRP-wrapped tall trees subjected to high wind loads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, J.; Yi, Z. Z.; Choi, S. G.

    2017-12-01

    This study investigated the mechanical stability of historical tall trees wrapped with fiber-reinforced polymer (FRP) laminates using finite element (FE) analysis. High wind loads are considered as external loading conditions as they are one of the major threats on the structural stability of tall old trees. There have been several traditional practices to enhance the stability of tall trees exposed to high windstorms such as tree supporters and anchorages. They, however, have been sometimes causing negative effects with their misuses as the application guidelines for those methods were not adequately studied or documented. Furthermore, the oldest known trees in the country should be protected from the damage of external surface as well as ruin of the landscape. The objective of this study was to evaluate the structural effects of FRP wraps applied to tall trees subjected to high wind loads. The anisotropic material properties of wood and FRP laminates were considered in the analysis in addition to geometrically nonlinear behaviors. This study revealed that FRP wrapping for tall trees could effectively reduce the deflections and maximum stresses of trees, which results in the enhanced stability of tall trees. The optimum geometry and thicknesses of FRP wraps proposed in this study would provide fundemental guidelines for designing and constructing the application of innovative FRP wraps on tall trees, which are structurally unstable or should be preserved nationally and historically.

  18. Application of biotechnology in genetics and breeding of tall fescue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang Xin; Ye Hongxia; Shu Xiaoli; Wu Dianxing

    2008-01-01

    Tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schred.) is an important lawn and pasture grass in agriculture, animal husbandy and lawn industry. The historical and present situations of tall fescue breeding were briefly introduced, and advances in the researches of molecular biology and germplasm enhancement by biotechnology in tall fescue were reviewed in the paper, which would provide the references for tall fescue breeding by biotechnology. (authors)

  19. Genotypic evaluation of tall fescue dihaploids by capillary electrophoresis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Recent innovations in tall fescue breeding and selection allow for the generation of dihaploid tall fescue lines. During the dihaploid generation process, two possible products can be generated. These being tall fescue hybrids generated from outcrossing and homozygous dihaploid tall fescue lines. As...

  20. TALL-HERB BOREAL FORESTS ON NORTH URAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Aleinikov

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background. One of the pressing aims of today’s natural resource management is its re-orientation to preserving and restoring ecological functions of ecosystems, among which the function of biodiversity maintenance plays an indicator role. The majority of today’s forests have not retained their natural appearance as the result of long-standing human impact. In this connection, refugia studies are becoming particularly interesting, as they give us an insight into the natural appearance of forests. Materials and methods. Studies were performed in dark conifer forests of the Pechora–Ilych reserve, in the lower reaches of the Bol’shaya Porozhnyaya River in 2013 yr. Vegetation data sampling was done at 50 temporary square plots of a fixed size (100 m2 randomly placed within a forest type. A list of plant species with species abundance was made for each forest layer. The overstorey (or tree canopy layer was denoted by the Latin letter A. The understorey layer (indicated by the letter B included tree undergrowth and tall shrubs. Ground vegetation was subdivided into the layers C and D. Layer C (field layer comprised the herbaceous species (herbs, grasses, sedges and dwarf shrubs together with low shrubs, tree and shrub seedlings. The height of the field layer was defined by the maximal height of the herbaceous species, ferns, and dwarf shrubs; the height varied from several cm to more than 200 cm in the ‘tall-herb’ forest types. Layer D (bottom layer included cryptogamic species (bryophytes and lichens. Species abundance in the each layer was usually assessed using the Braun-Blanquet cover scale (Braun-Blanquet 1928. The nomenclature used follows Cherepanov’s (1995 for vascular plants, and Ignatov & Afonina’s (1992. Results. The present article contains descriptions of unique tall-herb boreal forests of European Russia preserved in certain refugia which did not experience prolonged anthropogenic impact or any other catastrophes

  1. FDIR Strategy Validation with the B Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabatier, D.; Dellandrea, B.; Chemouil, D.

    2008-08-01

    In a formation flying satellite system, the FDIR strategy (Failure Detection, Isolation and Recovery) is paramount. When a failure occurs, satellites should be able to take appropriate reconfiguration actions to obtain the best possible results given the failure, ranging from avoiding satellite-to-satellite collision to continuing the mission without disturbance if possible. To achieve this goal, each satellite in the formation has an implemented FDIR strategy that governs how it detects failures (from tests or by deduction) and how it reacts (reconfiguration using redundant equipments, avoidance manoeuvres, etc.). The goal is to protect the satellites first and the mission as much as possible. In a project initiated by the CNES, ClearSy experiments the B Method to validate the FDIR strategies developed by Thales Alenia Space, of the inter satellite positioning and communication devices that will be used for the SIMBOL-X (2 satellite configuration) and the PEGASE (3 satellite configuration) missions and potentially for other missions afterward. These radio frequency metrology sensor devices provide satellite positioning and inter satellite communication in formation flying. This article presents the results of this experience.

  2. An Optimized and Sensitive Pharmacokinetic Quantitative Method of Investigating Gastrodin, Parishin, and Parishin B, C and E in Beagle Dog Plasma using LC-MS/MS after Intragastric Administration of Tall Gastrodia Capsules

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junqiu Liu

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Gastrodia elata Blume, called Tianma in China, has been widely used to treat headaches, convulsions and epilepsy for thousands of years. In the present study, a series of optimizations were employed to develop a rapid, sensitive, and reliable high-performance liquid chromatography-triple quadrupole mass spectrometry method, which was then used for the simultaneous determination of gastrodin, parishin, parishin B, parishin C and parishin E in beagle dog plasma after intragastric administration of tall Gastrodia capsules (Tianma brand. The chromatographic separation was achieved on a C18 column with gradient elution by using a mixture of 0.4% formic acid aqueous solution and acetonitrile as the mobile phase at a flow rate of 0.15 mL/min. A tandem mass spectrometric detection was conducted using multiple-reaction monitoring (MRM via electrospray ionization (ESI source in negative ionization mode. Samples were pre-treated by a single-step protein precipitation with methanol, and bergenin was used as internal standard (IS. Under the optimized conditions, the lower limit of quantification (LLOQ was 0.10 ng/mL for gastrodin, 0.40 ng/mL for parishin B, 0.02 ng/mL for parishin E and 0.20 ng/mL for parishin and parishin C, all of which previously were the highest levels of sensitivity. The methods were optimized for selectivity, calibration curves, accuracy and precision. Extraction recoveries, matrix effects and stability were within acceptable ranges. Pharmacokinetic parameters of the tested substances were also quantitatively determined. Finally, a possible metabolic pathway was induced based on correlations obtained from quantitative and qualitative data analysis in vivo.

  3. Design automation of load-bearing arched structures of roofs of tall buildings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulikov, Vladimir

    2018-03-01

    The article considers aspects of the possible use of arched roofs in the construction of skyscrapers. Tall buildings experience large load from various environmental factors. Skyscrapers are subject to various and complex types of deformation of its structural elements. The paper discusses issues related to the aerodynamics of various structural elements of tall buildings. The technique of solving systems of equations state method of Simpson. The article describes the optimization of geometric parameters of bearing elements of the arched roofs of skyscrapers.

  4. Generalized multiscale finite element methods: Oversampling strategies

    KAUST Repository

    Efendiev, Yalchin R.; Galvis, Juan; Li, Guanglian; Presho, Michael

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we propose oversampling strategies in the generalized multiscale finite element method (GMsFEM) framework. The GMsFEM, which has been recently introduced in Efendiev et al. (2013b) [Generalized Multiscale Finite Element Methods, J. Comput. Phys., vol. 251, pp. 116-135, 2013], allows solving multiscale parameter-dependent problems at a reduced computational cost by constructing a reduced-order representation of the solution on a coarse grid. The main idea of the method consists of (1) the construction of snapshot space, (2) the construction of the offline space, and (3) construction of the online space (the latter for parameter-dependent problems). In Efendiev et al. (2013b) [Generalized Multiscale Finite Element Methods, J. Comput. Phys., vol. 251, pp. 116-135, 2013], it was shown that the GMsFEM provides a flexible tool to solve multiscale problems with a complex input space by generating appropriate snapshot, offline, and online spaces. In this paper, we develop oversampling techniques to be used in this context (see Hou and Wu (1997) where oversampling is introduced for multiscale finite element methods). It is known (see Hou and Wu (1997)) that the oversampling can improve the accuracy of multiscale methods. In particular, the oversampling technique uses larger regions (larger than the target coarse block) in constructing local basis functions. Our motivation stems from the analysis presented in this paper, which shows that when using oversampling techniques in the construction of the snapshot space and offline space, GMsFEM will converge independent of small scales and high contrast under certain assumptions. We consider the use of a multiple eigenvalue problems to improve the convergence and discuss their relation to single spectral problems that use oversampled regions. The oversampling procedures proposed in this paper differ from those in Hou and Wu (1997). In particular, the oversampling domains are partially used in constructing local

  5. Pedestrian wind environment around tall buildings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stathopoulos, T.; Blocken, B.; Tamura, Yukio; Yoshie, Ryuichiro

    2016-01-01

    Pedestrian-level wind conditions around tall buildings are described by examining the aerodynamics of the urban environment and the various wind comfort criteria established in the wind engineering field. Experimental and, possibly, computational assessment of pedestrian-level wind conditions in the

  6. Wind profile modelling using WAsP and "tall" wind measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Floors, Rogier Ralph; Kelly, Mark C.; Troen, Ib

    2015-01-01

    extrapolations (the wind profile) this is done using the Weibull distribution and the geostrophic drag law. Wind lidar measurements obtained during the ’Tall wind’ campaign at three different sites are used to evaluate the assumptions and equations that are used in the WAsP vertical extrapolation strategy...

  7. Ajaloomuuseumi hoovil laguneb kaitsealune tall / Juhan Mellik

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Mellik, Juhan

    2010-01-01

    Ajaloomuuseumile kuuluv 19. sajandist pärit Maarjamäe suvemõisa tall on hävimisohus, sest hoone katusetalad on mädanenud. Laguneb ka Maarjamäe lossikompleksi juurde viiv trepistik. Tallinna kultuuriväärtuste ameti muinsuskaitse osakonna juhataja Boris Duboviku ja peaspetsialist Oliver Orro ning kultuuriministeeriumi riigivarabüroo juhataja Andres Nõlve arvamus

  8. Collapse of tall granular columns in fluid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Krishna; Soga, Kenichi; Delenne, Jean-Yves

    2017-06-01

    Avalanches, landslides, and debris flows are geophysical hazards, which involve rapid mass movement of granular solids, water, and air as a multi-phase system. In order to describe the mechanism of immersed granular flows, it is important to consider both the dynamics of the solid phase and the role of the ambient fluid. In the present study, the collapse of a granular column in fluid is studied using 2D LBM - DEM. The flow kinematics are compared with the dry and buoyant granular collapse to understand the influence of hydrodynamic forces and lubrication on the run-out. In the case of tall columns, the amount of material destabilised above the failure plane is larger than that of short columns. Therefore, the surface area of the mobilised mass that interacts with the surrounding fluid in tall columns is significantly higher than the short columns. This increase in the area of soil - fluid interaction results in an increase in the formation of turbulent vortices thereby altering the deposit morphology. It is observed that the vortices result in the formation of heaps that significantly affects the distribution of mass in the flow. In order to understand the behaviour of tall columns, the run-out behaviour of a dense granular column with an initial aspect ratio of 6 is studied. The collapse behaviour is analysed for different slope angles: 0°, 2.5°, 5° and 7.5°.

  9. Method of assessing severe accident management strategies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kastenberg, W.E.; Apostolakis, G.; Dhir, V.K.; Okrent, D.; Jae, M.; Lim, H.; Milici, T.; Park, H.; Swider, J.; Xing, L.; Yu, D.

    1991-01-01

    Accident management can be defined as the innovative use of existing and or alternative resources, systems, and actions to prevent or mitigate a severe accident. A significant number of probabilistic safety assessments (PSAs) have been completed that yield the principal plant vulnerabilities. These vulnerabilities can be categorized as (1) dominant sequences with respect to core-melt frequency. (2) dominant sequences with respect to various risk measures. (3) dominant threats that challenge safety functions. (4) dominant threats with respect to failure of safety systems. For each sequence/threat and each combination of strategy, there may be several options available to the operator. Each strategy/option involves phenomenological and operational considerations regarding uncertainty. These considerations include uncertainties in key phenomena, operator behavior, system availability and behavior, and available information. This paper presents a methodology for assessing severe accident management strategies given the key uncertainties delineated at two workshops held at the University of California, Los Angeles. Based on decision trees and influence diagrams, the methodology is currently being applied to two case studies: cavity flooding in a pressurized water reactor (PWR) to prevent vessel penetration or failure, and drywell flooding in a boiling water reactor to prevent vessel and/or containment failure

  10. Hydrogen solubility measurements of analyzed tall oil fractions and a solubility model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uusi-Kyyny, Petri; Pakkanen, Minna; Linnekoski, Juha; Alopaeus, Ville

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Hydrogen solubility was measured in four tall oil fractions between 373 and 597 K. • Continuous flow synthetic isothermal and isobaric method was used. • A Henry’s law model was developed for the distilled tall oil fractions. • The complex composition of the samples was analyzed and is presented. - Abstract: Knowledge of hydrogen solubility in tall oil fractions is important for designing hydrotreatment processes of these complex nonedible biobased materials. Unfortunately measurements of hydrogen solubility into these fractions are missing in the literature. This work reports hydrogen solubility measured in four tall oil fractions between 373 and 597 K and at pressures from 5 to 10 MPa. Three of the fractions were distilled tall oil fractions their resin acids contents are respectively 2, 20 and 23 in mass-%. Additionally one fraction was a crude tall oil (CTO) sample containing sterols as the main neutral fraction. Measurements were performed using a continuous flow synthetic isothermal and isobaric method based on the visual observation of the bubble point. Composition of the flow was changed step-wise for the bubble point composition determination. We assume that the tall oil fractions did not react during measurements, based on the composition analysis performed before and after the measurements. Additionally the densities of the fractions were measured at atmospheric pressure from 293.15 to 323.15 K. A Henry’s law model was developed for the distilled tall oil fractions describing the solubility with an absolute average deviation of 2.1%. Inputs of the solubility model are temperature, total pressure and the density of the oil at 323.15 K. The solubility of hydrogen in the CTO sample can be described with the developed model with an absolute average deviation of 3.4%. The solubility of hydrogen increases both with increasing pressure and/or increasing temperature. The more dense fractions of the tall oil exhibit lower hydrogen

  11. In situ phytoremediation of PAH-contaminated soil by intercropping alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) with tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb.) and associated soil microbial activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, Mingming; Fu, Dengqiang; Teng, Ying; Shen, Yuanyuan; Luo, Yongming; Li, Zhengao [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanjing (China). Key Laboratory of Soil Environment and Pollution Remediation; Christie, Peter [Agri-Food and Biosciences Institute, Belfast (United Kingdom). Agri-Environment Branch

    2011-09-15

    Purpose: A 7-month field experiment was conducted to investigate the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) remediation potential of two plant species and changes in counts of soil PAH-degrading bacteria and microbial activity. Materials and methods: Alfalfa and tall fescue were grown in monoculture and intercropped for 7 months in contaminated field soil. Soil and plant samples were analyzed for PAHs. Plant biomass, densities of PAH-degradation soil bacteria, soil microbial biomass C and N, enzyme activities, and the physiological profile of the soil microbial community were determined. Results and discussion: Average removal percentage of total PAHs in intercropping (30.5%) was significantly higher than in monoculture (19.9%) or unplanted soil (-0.6%). About 7.5% of 3-ring, 12.3% of 4-ring, and 17.2% of 5(+6)-ring PAHs were removed from the soil by alfalfa, with corresponding values of 25.1%, 10.4%, and 30.1% for tall fescue. Intercropping significantly enhanced the remediation efficiency. About 18.9% of 3-ring, 30.9% of 4-ring, and 33.4% of 5(+6)-ring PAHs were removed by the intercropping system. Higher counts of soil culturable PAH-degrading bacteria and elevated microbial biomass and enzyme activities were found after intercropping. Soil from intercropping showed significantly higher (p < 0.05) average well-color development obtained by the BIOLOG Ecoplate assay and Shannon-Weaver index compared with monoculture. Conclusions: Cropping promoted the dissipation of soil PAHs. Tall fescue gave greater removal of soil PAHs than alfalfa, and intercropping was more effective than monoculture. Intercropping of alfalfa and tall fescue may be a promising in situ bioremediation strategy for PAH-contaminated soils. (orig.)

  12. Methodical Aspects of Applying Strategy Map in an Organization

    OpenAIRE

    Piotr Markiewicz

    2013-01-01

    One of important aspects of strategic management is the instrumental aspect included in a rich set of methods and techniques used at particular stages of strategic management process. The object of interest in this study is the development of views and the implementation of strategy as an element of strategic management and instruments in the form of methods and techniques. The commonly used method in strategy implementation and measuring progress is Balanced Scorecard (BSC). The method was c...

  13. Recent progress of seismic research on tall buildings in China Mainland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Xilin; Jiang, Huanjun

    2014-08-01

    As a result of rapid economic growth and urbanization in the past two decades, many tall buildings have been constructed in China Mainland, offering researchers and practitioners an excellent opportunity for research and practice in the field of structural engineering. This paper reviews progress by researchers throughout China Mainland on the seismic research of tall buildings, focusing on three major topics that impact the seismic performance of tall buildings. These are: (1) new types of steel-concrete composite structural members such as steel-concrete composite shear walls and columns, (2) earthquake resilient shear wall structures such as shear walls with replaceable structural components, self-centering shear walls and rocking walls, and (3) performance-based seismic design, including seismic performance index, performance level and design method. The paper concludes by presenting future research needs and directions in this field.

  14. Responses of a tall building in Los Angeles, California as inferred from local and distant earthquakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çelebi, Mehmet; Hasan Ulusoy,; Nori Nakata,

    2016-01-01

    Increasing inventory of tall buildings in the United States and elsewhere may be subjected to motions generated by near and far seismic sources that cause long-period effects. Multiple sets of records that exhibited such effects were retrieved from tall buildings in Tokyo and Osaka ~ 350 km and 770 km from the epicenter of the 2011 Tohoku earthquake. In California, very few tall buildings have been instrumented. An instrumented 52-story building in downtown Los Angeles recorded seven local and distant earthquakes. Spectral and system identification methods exhibit significant low frequencies of interest (~0.17 Hz, 0.56 Hz and 1.05 Hz). These frequencies compare well with those computed by transfer functions; however, small variations are observed between the significant low frequencies for each of the seven earthquakes. The torsional and translational frequencies are very close and are coupled. Beating effect is observed in at least two of the seven earthquake data.

  15. Earthquake disaster simulation of civil infrastructures from tall buildings to urban areas

    CERN Document Server

    Lu, Xinzheng

    2017-01-01

    Based on more than 12 years of systematic investigation on earthquake disaster simulation of civil infrastructures, this book covers the major research outcomes including a number of novel computational models, high performance computing methods and realistic visualization techniques for tall buildings and urban areas, with particular emphasize on collapse prevention and mitigation in extreme earthquakes, earthquake loss evaluation and seismic resilience. Typical engineering applications to several tallest buildings in the world (e.g., the 632 m tall Shanghai Tower and the 528 m tall Z15 Tower) and selected large cities in China (the Beijing Central Business District, Xi'an City, Taiyuan City and Tangshan City) are also introduced to demonstrate the advantages of the proposed computational models and techniques. The high-fidelity computational model developed in this book has proven to be the only feasible option to date for earthquake-induced collapse simulation of supertall buildings that are higher than 50...

  16. Methodical Aspects of Applying Strategy Map in an Organization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piotr Markiewicz

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available One of important aspects of strategic management is the instrumental aspect included in a rich set of methods and techniques used at particular stages of strategic management process. The object of interest in this study is the development of views and the implementation of strategy as an element of strategic management and instruments in the form of methods and techniques. The commonly used method in strategy implementation and measuring progress is Balanced Scorecard (BSC. The method was created as a result of implementing the project “Measuring performance in the Organization of the future” of 1990, completed by a team under the supervision of David Norton (Kaplan, Norton 2002. The developed method was used first of all to evaluate performance by decomposition of a strategy into four perspectives and identification of measures of achievement. In the middle of 1990s the method was improved by enriching it, first of all, with a strategy map, in which the process of transition of intangible assets into tangible financial effects is reflected (Kaplan, Norton 2001. Strategy map enables illustration of cause and effect relationship between processes in all four perspectives and performance indicators at the level of organization. The purpose of the study being prepared is to present methodical conditions of using strategy maps in the strategy implementation process in organizations of different nature.

  17. Multiscale methods in turbulent combustion: strategies and computational challenges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Echekki, Tarek

    2009-01-01

    A principal challenge in modeling turbulent combustion flows is associated with their complex, multiscale nature. Traditional paradigms in the modeling of these flows have attempted to address this nature through different strategies, including exploiting the separation of turbulence and combustion scales and a reduced description of the composition space. The resulting moment-based methods often yield reasonable predictions of flow and reactive scalars' statistics under certain conditions. However, these methods must constantly evolve to address combustion at different regimes, modes or with dominant chemistries. In recent years, alternative multiscale strategies have emerged, which although in part inspired by the traditional approaches, also draw upon basic tools from computational science, applied mathematics and the increasing availability of powerful computational resources. This review presents a general overview of different strategies adopted for multiscale solutions of turbulent combustion flows. Within these strategies, some specific models are discussed or outlined to illustrate their capabilities and underlying assumptions. These strategies may be classified under four different classes, including (i) closure models for atomistic processes, (ii) multigrid and multiresolution strategies, (iii) flame-embedding strategies and (iv) hybrid large-eddy simulation-low-dimensional strategies. A combination of these strategies and models can potentially represent a robust alternative strategy to moment-based models; but a significant challenge remains in the development of computational frameworks for these approaches as well as their underlying theories. (topical review)

  18. Natural convection and wall radiation in tall cavities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balaji, C [Regional Engineering College, Tiruchirapalli (India). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering; Venkateshan, S P [Indian Inst. of Tech., Madras (India). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

    1996-12-01

    The problem of combined natural convection and wall radiation in tall cavities has been taken up for a detailed numerical investigation. The governing equations for fluid flow have been solved by a finite volume method and the radiation has been treated by the radiosity-irradiation method. The analysis has been specifically made for the case where the emissivity of the hot left wall is different from that of the cold right wall. For this case it was found that decoupling radiation from free convection can lead to considerable error. Correlations have been suggested for predicting both the convective as well as the radiative heat transfer rates across the cavity. (author). 7 refs., 3 figs., 3 tabs.

  19. Natural convection and wall radiation in tall cavities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balaji, C.; Venkateshan, S.P.

    1996-01-01

    The problem of combined natural convection and wall radiation in tall cavities has been taken up for a detailed numerical investigation. The governing equations for fluid flow have been solved by a finite volume method and the radiation has been treated by the radiosity-irradiation method. The analysis has been specifically made for the case where the emissivity of the hot left wall is different from that of the cold right wall. For this case it was found that decoupling radiation from free convection can lead to considerable error. Correlations have been suggested for predicting both the convective as well as the radiative heat transfer rates across the cavity. (author). 7 refs., 3 figs., 3 tabs

  20. Tall Fescue Alkaloids Bind Serotonin Receptors in Cattle

    Science.gov (United States)

    The serotonin (5HT) receptor 5HT2A is involved in the tall fescue alkaloid-induced vascular contraction in the bovine periphery. This was determined by evaluating the contractile responses of lateral saphenous veins biopsied from cattle grazing different tall fescue/endophyte combinations. The contr...

  1. TALL-FORB COMMUNITIES OF THE NORTH ALTAI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. ERMAKOV

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Classification of tall-forb vegetation of the Altai using the Braun-Blanquet approach was carried out on the basis of a wide ranging set o[ data from different altitudinal belts. Three main phytosociological types of the tall-forb communities were distinguished within the class MulgedioAconitetea, order Tmllio - Crepidetalia due to performed syntaxonomic analysis. The thermophilous tall-forb communities occurring in the subnemoral belt at altitudes of 259-700 m were included in the alliance Cacalio hastatae - Aconition septentrionalis all. nova. The montain tall-forb meadows of the dark-coniferous taiga belt (altitudes of 800-1700 m were included in the alliance Triseto sibiricae-Aconirlon septentrionalis all. prov. The moderately cryophilous subalpine tall-forb communities widespread at the upper boundary of the forest belt at altitudes of 1000-1900 m were included in the alliance Rhaponticion carthamoidis. Altaian tall-forb vegetation shows a distinct phytosociological and plant geographical unity with European subalpine communities but the closeness of the floristic relations varies in certain altitudinal groups. Most thermophilous tall-forb Siberian meadows of the alliance Cacalio-Aconition which occur at lower altitudes demonstrate strong plant geographical relations with North and Central European meadows of the Adenostyletalia. Gradual decrease of the European floristic relations in the Altaian tall-forb meadows at higher altitudes is shown.

  2. Comparison of Dynamic Characteristics of Two Instrumented Tall Buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ventura, C.; Laverick, B.; Brincker, Rune

    2003-01-01

    attention to the three-dimensional nonlinear dynamic behaviour of tall buildings, so there is a need for these types of studies. The purpose of this paper is to study the dynamic properties of two well-instrumented tall steel frame buildings in Los Angeles, California. These building are within a few blocks...

  3. Safe and Sustainable Tall Buildings - State of the Art

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mendis P.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Tall buildings are becoming very popular around the world. Asia will have most of the tall buildings in this century. Both safety and sustainability aspects are important in planning and designing these buildings. The design and construction of tall buildings present many challenges for the design team, from engineers, architect through to the builder. Although structural systems could be developed and construction solutions could be found to design and construct very tall buildings in excess of 1 km (even 1 mile, other aspects such as fire and egress, long-term movements, environmental wind and perception of motion (including damping for dynamic effects, transportation (lifts issues, sustainability, durability and maintenance will govern and may even restrict the heights. Current practices and important issues related to design of safe and sustainable design of tall buildings are discussed in this paper.

  4. Nonequilibrium relaxation method – An alternative simulation strategy

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    One well-established simulation strategy to study the thermal phases and transitions of a given microscopic model system is the so-called equilibrium method, in which one first realizes the equilibrium ensemble of a finite system and then extrapolates the results to infinite system. This equilibrium method traces over the ...

  5. Three-dimensional protein structure prediction: Methods and computational strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorn, Márcio; E Silva, Mariel Barbachan; Buriol, Luciana S; Lamb, Luis C

    2014-10-12

    A long standing problem in structural bioinformatics is to determine the three-dimensional (3-D) structure of a protein when only a sequence of amino acid residues is given. Many computational methodologies and algorithms have been proposed as a solution to the 3-D Protein Structure Prediction (3-D-PSP) problem. These methods can be divided in four main classes: (a) first principle methods without database information; (b) first principle methods with database information; (c) fold recognition and threading methods; and (d) comparative modeling methods and sequence alignment strategies. Deterministic computational techniques, optimization techniques, data mining and machine learning approaches are typically used in the construction of computational solutions for the PSP problem. Our main goal with this work is to review the methods and computational strategies that are currently used in 3-D protein prediction. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Optimum strategies for nuclear energy system development (method of synthesis)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belenky, V.Z.

    1983-01-01

    The problem of optimum long-term development of the nuclear energy system is considered. The optimum strategies (i.e. minimum total uranium consumption) for the transition phase leading to a stationary regime of development are found. For this purpose the author has elaborated a new method of solving linear problems of optimal control which can include jumps in trajectories. The method gives a possibility to fulfil a total synthesis of optimum strategies. A key characteristic of the problem is the productivity function of the nuclear energy system which connects technological system parameters with its growth rate. There are only two types of optimum strategies, according to an increasing or decreasing productivity function. Both cases are illustrated with numerical examples. (orig.) [de

  7. Maintenance of carbohydrate transport in tall trees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Savage, Jessica A.; Beecher, Sierra D.; Clerx, Laura

    2017-01-01

    Trees present a critical challenge to long-distance transport because as a tree grows in height and the transport pathway increases in length, the hydraulic resistance of the vascular tissue should increase. This has led many to question whether trees can rely on a passive transport mechanism to ...... that reduce transport resistance. As a result, the key to the long-standing mystery of how trees maintain phloem transport as they increase in size lies in the structure of the phloem and its ability to change hydraulic properties with plant height.......Trees present a critical challenge to long-distance transport because as a tree grows in height and the transport pathway increases in length, the hydraulic resistance of the vascular tissue should increase. This has led many to question whether trees can rely on a passive transport mechanism...... in the leaves of a tall tree in situ. Across nine deciduous species, we find that hydraulic resistance in the phloem scales inversely with plant height because of a shift in sieve element structure along the length of individual trees. This scaling relationship seems robust across multiple species despite large...

  8. Research on Language Learning Strategies: Methods, Findings, and Instructional Issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oxford, Rebecca; Crookall, David

    1989-01-01

    Surveys research on formal and informal second-language learning strategies, covering the effectiveness of research methods involving making lists, interviews and thinking aloud, note-taking, diaries, surveys, and training. Suggestions for future and improved research are presented. (131 references) (CB)

  9. LEGO-Method--New Strategy for Chemistry Calculation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molnar, Jozsef; Molnar-Hamvas, Livia

    2011-01-01

    The presented strategy of chemistry calculation is based on mole-concept, but it uses only one fundamental relationship of the amounts of substance as a basic panel. The name of LEGO-method comes from the famous toy of LEGO[R] because solving equations by grouping formulas is similar to that. The relations of mole and the molar amounts, as small…

  10. Strategy on review method for JENDL High Energy File

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamano, Naoki [Sumitomo Atomic Energy Industries Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1998-11-01

    Status on review method and problems for a High Energy File of Japanese Evaluated Nuclear Data Library (JENDL-HE File) has been described. Measurements on differential and integral data relevant to the review work for the JENDL-HE File have been examined from a viewpoint of data quality and applicability. In order to achieve the work effectively, strategy on development of standard review method has been discussed as well as necessity of tools to be used in the review scheme. (author)

  11. Plastiliinipoisi pilgu läbi / Pärtel Tall

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Tall, Pärtel

    2007-01-01

    Kunstnike rühmituse "Avangard" püsiinstallatsiooni ettevalmistamisest ja avamisest Tallinnas Kultuurikatlas. Tallinna Pedagoogikaülikooli kunstiõpetajana lõpetanud Pärtel Tall nukufilmide "Kõrbeorel" ja "Porgand" valmimisest, osalemisest performance'ides

  12. Tall fescue ergot alkaloids are vasoactive in equine vasculature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mares grazing endophyte-infected (Epichloë coenophiala) tall fescue (Lolium arundinaceum) typically exhibit reproductive dysfunction rather than problems associated with peripheral vasoconstriction as a primary sign of the fescue toxicosis syndrome. Research using Doppler ultrasonography demonstrate...

  13. The evaluation of retrofit measures in a tall residential building

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abraham, M.M.; McLain, H.A.

    1995-07-01

    As part of a joint demonstration effort involving the US Department of Energy (DOE), the US Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD), Boston Edison Company (BECo), and the Chelsea Housing Authority, Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) participated in the evaluation of energy and demand saving retrofits for a tall residential building located in Boston. The thirteen story all-electric building underwent window, lighting, and control renovations in December, 1992. annual energy consumption was reduced by 15% and peak demand fell by 17%. Hourly should building consumption data were available for the comparison of pre- and post- conditions and for calibration of a DOE-2.1D simulation model. The analysis found the window retrofit accounted for 90% of total energy savings and 95% of average demand savings, due to reductions in both conduction and infiltration. Benefits from lighting retrofits were low in cooling months and negligible in winter months due to the increase in the demand for electric resistance heating which was proportional to the reduction in lighting capacity. Finally, the simulation model verified that heating system controls had not been used as intended, and that the utility rate structure would not allow cost savings from the original control strategy. These results and other interesting lessons learned are presented.

  14. CREATING COMPETITIVE ORGANIZATIONAL STRATEGY USING THE FUNNEL METHOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lidija Stefanovska

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available In the highly competitive environment of the 21st century, organizations must be able to effectively change through the application of effective strategies, quickly and in a way that the competitors will be unable to imitate. Therefore, the essential question in any organization is how to achieve and maintain competitive advantage. In this regard, strategic leaders should first logically consider what will bring a substantial advantage to the organization in a long-term, and then start with the process of creating the strategy. To achieve this, researchers in the field of managerial issues offer a concept of continuous process that begins by looking at the customers pattern, through defining the competitive environment and the place of business in it and finally categorizing several strategic business conditions, as a precondition for election and creation of a competitive strategy. This process can be presented as the “funnel for selection of competitive strategy”, in whose widest part we can put the customer matrix, in the middle part we can place definitions of the business outlook of the business and the position of the organization in those perspectives. In order to implement the "Funnel method" of strategic planning teams we need accurate, timely and relevant information based on which we can bring appropriate organizational strategy. The subject of this paper is displaying the Funnel method for selection of the competitive strategy, and presentation of the situation in some of the organizations in the Pelagonija region, related to the way and the information used to create organizational strategies through the Funnel method.

  15. Effect of fruit set on fructification of coconut tall ecotypes for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    To assess the effect of coconut fruit set on the variation expression of the number of nuts yielded at the end of the fructification, a modelling approach was used. Four female parents namely Kar Kar Tall (KKT), Kappadam Tall (KPD), Sri Lanka Tall (SLT) and Vanuatu Tall (VTT) as well as four male parents known as Panama ...

  16. Metacarpal index in Marfan's syndrome and in constitutional tall stature.

    OpenAIRE

    Nelle, M; Tröger, J; Rupprath, G; Bettendorf, M

    1994-01-01

    The metacarpal index (MCI) in 54 children with constitutional tall stature was mean (SD) 8.65 (0.8) and in 55 with Marfan's syndrome 9.15 (0.9). Indices in both groups showed arachnodactyly and differed from those found in normal individuals (< 7.9). Because the MCI is a poor discriminator patients with tall stature or clinical signs of arachnodactyly should be examined for additional signs of Marfan's syndrome or other hereditary disorders of connective tissue.

  17. Tall-Building Projects Sustainability Indicator (TPSI: A New Design and Environmental Assessment Tool for Tall Buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasim Altan

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the features of Tall-building Projects Sustainability Indicator (TPSI—a “Sustainability Rating System” that specializes in tall-building projects. The system comprises two components; the “Technical Manual” in the form of a booklet and the “Calculator” in the form of an Excel tool. It can be used as a “design tool” and/or as a “checklist” to compare and to improve the sustainable performance of tall-building design schemes. At the same time, the system can be used to evaluate the sustainability of existing tall-building projects. The first version of the TPSI rating system (TPSI 2012 Version was released as an online tool (GreenLight and thoroughly examined and validated by multiple parties.

  18. A tall tower study of Missouri winds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fox, Neil I. [Department of Soil, Environmental and Atmospheric Sciences, 332 ABNR Building, University of Missouri, Columbia, MO 65211 (United States)

    2011-01-15

    This paper summarizes the results of a study of wind speeds observed at heights up to 150 m above ground level around Missouri. This is an amalgamation of four projects that allowed a total of eleven tall communication towers to be instrumented with wind observation equipment across the State of Missouri. This provided an assessment of the wind resource and the characteristics of the seasonal and diurnal cycles of wind in different areas of Missouri at the heights of utility scale wind turbines. Comparisons were also made to wind speeds predicted at these levels from a previously published wind map. The main finding was that the observed winds at each tower were smaller than those presented in the wind map. The discrepancy is most likely to be due to underestimation of the surface roughness and turbulence leading to an overestimation of near-surface wind shear. However, the wind shear, as expressed by the shear parameter was consistently greater than the 'standard' value of 1.4. The reconciliation of these two apparently contradictory findings is that the shear varies with the height at which it is measured. In wind resource assessment, wind shear is usually observed below 50 m and is tacitly assumed to be constant with height when used to extrapolate winds to higher levels. The author advocates the use of the friction velocity as a measure of shear in wind power applications in preference to the shear parameter that is usually used. This is because the shear parameter has a velocity bias that can also manifest as a bias with height or season. As wind power resource assessment is starting to use taller towers than the standard 50 m, intercomparison of site resources and extrapolation to turbine heights can be compromised if the shear parameter is used. (author)

  19. The strategy curve. A method for representing and interpreting generator bidding strategies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lucas, N.; Taylor, P.

    1995-01-01

    The pool is the novel trading arrangement at the heart of the privatized electricity market in England and Wales. This central role in the new system makes it crucial that it is seen to function efficiently. Unfortunately, it is governed by a set of complex rules, which leads to a lack of transparency, and this makes monitoring of its operation difficult. This paper seeks to provide a method for illuminating one aspect of the pool, that of generator bidding behaviour. We introduce the concept of a strategy curve, which is a concise device for representing generator bidding strategies. This curve has the appealing characteristic of directly revealing any deviation in the bid price of a genset from the costs of generating electricity. After a brief discussion about what constitutes price and cost in this context we present a number of strategy curves for different days and provide some interpretation of their form, based in part on our earlier work with game theory. (author)

  20. Communications in Financial Markets: a Strategy method Experiment

    OpenAIRE

    Brice Corgnet; Angela Sutan

    2007-01-01

    The main objective of this paper is to analyze the impact of uninformative communications on asset prices. An experimental approach allows us to control for the release of a priori uninformative messages. We introduce the release of messages in standard experimental asset markets with bubbles using a strategy method experiment. We conjecture that messages that are a priori uninformative can significantly impact the level of asset prices. Such communications may be used by boundedly rational s...

  1. Study of global stability of tall buildings with prestressed slabs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. A. Feitosa

    Full Text Available The use of prestressed concrete flat slabs in buildings has been increasing in recent years in the Brazilian market. Since the implementation of tall and slender buildings a trend in civil engineering and architecture fields, arises from the use of prestressed slabs a difficulty in ensuring the overall stability of a building without beams. In order to evaluate the efficiency of the main bracing systems used in this type of building, namely pillars in formed "U" in elevator shafts and stairs, and pillars in which the lengths are significantly larger than their widths, was elaborated a computational models of fictional buildings, which were processed and analyzed using the software CAD/TQS. From the variation of parameters such as: geometry of the pillars, thick slabs, characteristic strength of the concrete, reduceofthe coefficient of inertia for consideration of non-linearities of the physical elements, stiffness of the connections between slabs and pillars, among others, to analyze the influence of these variables on the overall stability of the building from the facing of instability parameter Gama Z, under Brazilian standard NBR 6118, in addition to performing the processing of building using the P-Delta iterative calculation method for the same purpose.

  2. The Mutual Benchmarking Method for Smes’ Competitive Strategy Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rostek Katarzyna

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Competitive advantage is a relative feature, evaluated in respect of other competing enterprises. The gaining of sustainable competitive advantage is conditioned by knowledge of own performance and the results of the competitive environment. SMEs have limited opportunities to obtain such information on their own. The method of mutual benchmarking changes this situation by introducing the collaborative network. The aim of the cooperation is to support each of the group members to achieve sustainable competitive advantage, which is the result of a conscious strategy, and not only a matter of chance. This cooperation is based on the collecting and processing of data and sharing information through a common IT platform: for example, a group of Polish SMEs was shown how to implement such a common IT solution and how to provide the information preparing within the proposed service. The whole is a complete proposal for effective support of creating a competitive strategy in SMEs.

  3. Some Convergence Strategies for the Alternating Generalized Projection Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maricarmen Andrade

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we extend the application of the alternating projection algorithm to solve the problem of finding a point in the intersection of $n$ sets ($n\\geq2$, which are not all of them convex sets. Here we term such method as alternating generalized projection (AGP method. In particular, we are interested in addressing the problem of avoiding the so-called trap points, which may prevent an algorithm to obtain a feasible solution in two or more sets not all convex. Some strategies that allow us to reach the feasible solution are established and conjectured. Finally, we present simple numerical results that illustrate the efficiency of the iterative methods considered.

  4. Economic Analysis of USN-Based Data Acquisition Systems in Tall Building Construction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyunsu Lim

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The successful construction of tall buildings requires effective construction management based on various quantitative data. The recent development of ubiquitous sensor networks (USNs enables massive amounts of data to be collected in real-time. However, the application of USN-based data acquisition systems to repetitive tasks on typical floors of tall buildings can be inefficient, because this may involve the repetitive reinstallation of sensors and the repositioning of data loggers and routers to enable continuous data transfer. To minimize this cumbersome work, a modified data acquisition method using reusable sensor nodes and mobile devices can be a useful solution. This study analyzes the economic aspects of the USN-based systems for concrete temperature monitoring by using the activity-based costing technique. The case study shows that the modified system can reduce the process cost by about 19%. It can also reduce the resource input time of management by about 55%, freeing up time for other management activities. Moreover, the cost benefits should scale up as projects increasingly require more measurement and monitoring. This study should facilitate the application of USN-based information management systems, particularly for tall building construction.

  5. Does Size Matter? Short and Tall Officers Policing the Streets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pål Lagestad

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The importance of physical characteristics is rarely addressed in the literature on professional competence and authority. In police work it is almost taken for granted that height is advantageous in police work, despite a lack of research on the topic. This study examines how height may affect police inter-actions with the public and how short and tall men and women experience the importance of their height in patrol work. Results show that being tall was perceived as beneficial in patrol work. Furthermore, the authority of short police officers is challenged more often by the public, and short female police may have a particular focus on verbal communication. Tallness will probably be perceived as beneficial in fields in which physical conflicts arises.

  6. Genome-wide SNP identification in multiple morphotypes of allohexaploid tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hand Melanie L

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs provide essential tools for the advancement of research in plant genomics, and the development of SNP resources for many species has been accelerated by the capabilities of second-generation sequencing technologies. The current study aimed to develop and use a novel bioinformatic pipeline to generate a comprehensive collection of SNP markers within the agriculturally important pasture grass tall fescue; an outbreeding allopolyploid species displaying three distinct morphotypes: Continental, Mediterranean and rhizomatous. Results A bioinformatic pipeline was developed that successfully identified SNPs within genotypes from distinct tall fescue morphotypes, following the sequencing of 414 polymerase chain reaction (PCR – generated amplicons using 454 GS FLX technology. Equivalent amplicon sets were derived from representative genotypes of each morphotype, including six Continental, five Mediterranean and one rhizomatous. A total of 8,584 and 2,292 SNPs were identified with high confidence within the Continental and Mediterranean morphotypes respectively. The success of the bioinformatic approach was demonstrated through validation (at a rate of 70% of a subset of 141 SNPs using both SNaPshot™ and GoldenGate™ assay chemistries. Furthermore, the quantitative genotyping capability of the GoldenGate™ assay revealed that approximately 30% of the putative SNPs were accessible to co-dominant scoring, despite the hexaploid genome structure. The sub-genome-specific origin of each SNP validated from Continental tall fescue was predicted using a phylogenetic approach based on comparison with orthologous sequences from predicted progenitor species. Conclusions Using the appropriate bioinformatic approach, amplicon resequencing based on 454 GS FLX technology is an effective method for the identification of polymorphic SNPs within the genomes of Continental and Mediterranean tall fescue. The

  7. Trends, Opportunities, and Challenges for Tall Wind Turbine and Tower Technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lantz, Eric; Roberts, Owen; Dykes, Katherine

    2017-06-28

    This presentation summarizes recent analysis focused on characterizing the opportunity for Tall Wind technologies generally and for tall tower technologies specifically. It seeks to illuminate and explain the concept of Tall Wind, its impact on the wind industry to date, and the potential value of Tall Wind in the future. It also explores the conditions and locations under which the impacts of Tall Wind offer the most significant potential to increase wind technology performance. In addition, it seeks to examine the status of tall tower technology as a key sub-component of Tall Wind, focusing on the potential for continued innovation in tubular steel wind turbine towers and the status and potential for a select set of alternative tall tower technologies.

  8. Managing the tall fescue-fungal endophyte symbiosis for optimum forage-animal production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alkaloids produced by the fungal endophyte (Neotyphodium coenophialum) that infects tall fescue [Lolium arundinaceum (Schreb.) Darbysh.] are a paradox to cattle production. While certain alkaloids impart tall fescue with tolerances to environmental stresses, such as moisture, heat, and herbivory, e...

  9. Rapamycin sensitizes T-ALL cells to dexamethasone-induced apoptosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mu Dezhi

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Glucocorticoid (GC resistance is frequently seen in acute lymphoblastic leukemia of T-cell lineage (T-ALL. In this study we investigate the potential and mechanism of using rapamycin to restore the sensitivity of GC-resistant T-ALL cells to dexamethasone (Dex treatment. Methods Cell proliferation was detected by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl- 2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT assay. Fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS analysis was used to analyze apoptosis and cell cycles. Western blot analysis was performed to test the expression of the downstream effector proteins of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR, the cell cycle regulatory proteins, and apoptosis associated proteins. Results 10 nM rapamycin markedly increased GC sensitivity in GC-resistant T-ALL cells and this effect was mediated, at least in part, by inhibition of mTOR signaling pathway. Cell cycle arrest was associated with modulation of G1-S phase regulators. Both rapamycin and Dex can induce up-regulation of cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK inhibitors of p21 and p27 and co-treatment of rapamycin with Dex resulted in a synergistic induction of their expressions. Rapamycin did not obviously affect the expression of cyclin A, whereas Dex induced cyclin A expression. Rapamycin prevented Dex-induced expression of cyclin A. Rapamycin had a stronger inhibition of cyclin D1 expression than Dex. Rapamycin enhanced GC-induced apoptosis and this was not achieved by modulation of glucocorticoid receptor (GR expression, but synergistically up-regulation of pro-apoptotic proteins like caspase-3, Bax, and Bim, and down-regulation of anti-apoptotic protein of Mcl-1. Conclusion Our data suggests that rapamycin can effectively reverse GC resistance in T-ALL and this effect is achieved by inducing cell cycles arrested at G0/G1 phase and activating the intrinsic apoptotic program. Therefore, combination of mTOR inhibitor rapamycin with GC containing protocol might be an attracting

  10. Lifting Wing in Constructing Tall Buildings —Aerodynamic Testing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ian Skelton

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper builds on previous research by the authors which determined the global state-of-the-art of constructing tall buildings by surveying the most active specialist tall building professionals around the globe. That research identified the effect of wind on tower cranes as a highly ranked, common critical issue in tall building construction. The research reported here presents a design for a “Lifting Wing,” a uniquely designed shroud which potentially allows the lifting of building materials by a tower crane in higher and more unstable wind conditions, thereby reducing delay on the programmed critical path of a tall building. Wind tunnel tests were undertaken to compare the aerodynamic performance of a scale model of a typical “brick-shaped” construction load (replicating a load profile most commonly lifted via a tower crane against the aerodynamic performance of the scale model of the Lifting Wing in a range of wind conditions. The data indicate that the Lifting Wing improves the aerodynamic performance by a factor of up to 50%.

  11. Wind Shear Characteristics at Central Plains Tall Towers (presentation)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwartz, M.; Elliott, D.

    2006-06-05

    The objectives of this report are: (1) Analyze wind shear characteristics at tall tower sites for diverse areas in the central plains (Texas to North Dakota)--Turbines hub heights are now 70-100 m above ground and Wind measurements at 70-100+ m have been rare. (2) Present conclusions about wind shear characteristics for prime wind energy development regions.

  12. Chemical composition and nutritive value of irrigated tall fescue ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Chemical composition and nutritive value of irrigated tall fescue pasture for dairy cows. TJ Dugmore, KP Walsh, Sally J. Morning, CI MacDonald. Abstract. No Abstract. Full Text: EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT · AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO ...

  13. Modeling Manpower and Equipment Productivity in Tall Building Construction Projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mudumbai Krishnaswamy, Parthasarathy; Rajiah, Murugasan; Vasan, Ramya

    2017-12-01

    Tall building construction projects involve two critical resources of manpower and equipment. Their usage, however, widely varies due to several factors affecting their productivity. Currently, no systematic study for estimating and increasing their productivity is available. What is prevalent is the use of empirical data, experience of similar projects and assumptions. As tall building projects are here to stay and increase, to meet the emerging demands in ever shrinking urban spaces, it is imperative to explore ways and means of scientific productivity models for basic construction activities: concrete, reinforcement, formwork, block work and plastering for the input of specific resources in a mixed environment of manpower and equipment usage. Data pertaining to 72 tall building projects in India were collected and analyzed. Then, suitable productivity estimation models were developed using multiple linear regression analysis and validated using independent field data. It is hoped that the models developed in the study will be useful for quantity surveyors, cost engineers and project managers to estimate productivity of resources in tall building projects.

  14. Notice of release of Syn1 Tall Fescue

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Agricultural Research Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture announces the release of Syn1 tall fescue [Festuca arundinacea (syn., Lolium arundinaceum Darbyshire; Schedonorus phoenix (Scop.) Holub)] (PI xxxx, PI xxxx) germplasm developed by Dr. Bryan K. Kindiger at the USDA-ARS Grazinglands Res...

  15. Fertilization of Southern Tall Grassveld of Natal: effects on botanical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The long-term effects of nitrogen, phosphate and lime on change in botanical composition and utilisation under grazing of Southern Tall Grassveld of Natal are presented. Nitrogen, phosphate, lime and type of nitrogen affected botanical composition significantly. Generally, fertilisation had the same effect on species ...

  16. Criteria for method selection and process design of a technical development strategy

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Joseph-Malherbe, S

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available delivery strategy and a testing strategy with the associated approach and methods for each strategy. For example, the testing strategy will describe the testing approach of the system development cycle and it will include methods of testing, testing...

  17. 77 FR 16974 - Special Local Regulations; Ocean State Tall Ships Festival 2012, Narragansett Bay, RI

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-23

    ...-AA08 Special Local Regulations; Ocean State Tall Ships Festival 2012, Narragansett Bay, RI AGENCY... Island, for the Ocean State Tall Ships Festival 2012. This action is necessary to provide for the safety..., during the Ocean State Tall Ships Festival on July 6-9, 2012. These temporary special local regulations...

  18. 77 FR 39395 - Special Local Regulations; Ocean State Tall Ships Festival 2012, Narragansett Bay, RI

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-03

    ...-AA08 Special Local Regulations; Ocean State Tall Ships Festival 2012, Narragansett Bay, RI AGENCY... Tall Ships Festival 2012. DATES: This rule is effective from July 6, 2012 until July 10, 2012... ``Special Local Regulations: Ocean State Tall Ships Festival 2012, Narragansett Bay, RI'' in the Federal...

  19. 21 CFR 172.862 - Oleic acid derived from tall oil fatty acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Oleic acid derived from tall oil fatty acids. 172... FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION Multipurpose Additives § 172.862 Oleic acid derived from tall oil fatty acids. The food additive oleic acid derived from tall oil fatty acids may be safely used in food and as...

  20. Genetic Relationships among Tall Coconut Palm (Cocos nucifera L. Accessions of the International Coconut Genebank for Latin America and the Caribbean (ICG-LAC, Evaluated Using Microsatellite Markers (SSRs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carina Mendes Loiola

    Full Text Available The diversity and genetic relationships among two accessions of tall coconut palms collected in Brazil and seven accessions introduced from different geographic regions of the world were analyzed using 25 microsatellite primers, 19 of which were polymorphic and detected between 4 and 10 alleles per locus, with an average of 6.57. The observed and expected heterozygosity ranged from 0.25 and 0.40 in the Rennell Islands Tall (RIT accession to 0.54 and 0.62 in the Polynesian Tall (PYT accession. The analysis of genetic structure resulted in the formation of five distinct groups. The first group was formed by the accessions Brazilian Tall-Praia do Forte (BRTPF, Brazilian Tall-Merepe (BRTMe and West African Tall (WAT; the second group consisted of Malaysian Tall (MLT; the third group of RIT; the fourth group of Vanuatu Tall (VTT; and the fifth group of Rotuman Tall (RTMT, Tonga Tall (TONT and PYT. The dendrogram based on the nearest-neighbor method detected the formation of two main groups and five subgroups, indicating that the genetic relationships of the accessions are based on their geographic regions of origin. The analyses revealed genetic relationships between the accessions collected in Brazil and the accession from Africa, and among palms from South East Asia and the South Pacific, confirming the common origin of these accessions. The information obtained in this study can guide decisions on germplasm conservation activities and the efficient selection of genetically divergent parents for use in coconut breeding programs in Brazil, which are attempting to select for disease resistance, mainly to lethal yellowing, among other characteristics.

  1. Genetic Relationships among Tall Coconut Palm (Cocos nucifera L.) Accessions of the International Coconut Genebank for Latin America and the Caribbean (ICG-LAC), Evaluated Using Microsatellite Markers (SSRs).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loiola, Carina Mendes; Azevedo, Alinne Oliveira Nunes; Diniz, Leandro E C; Aragão, Wilson Menezes; Azevedo, Carlos Diego de O; Santos, Pedro Henrique A D; Ramos, Helaine Christine C; Pereira, Messias Gonzaga; Ramos, Semíramis R Ramalho

    2016-01-01

    The diversity and genetic relationships among two accessions of tall coconut palms collected in Brazil and seven accessions introduced from different geographic regions of the world were analyzed using 25 microsatellite primers, 19 of which were polymorphic and detected between 4 and 10 alleles per locus, with an average of 6.57. The observed and expected heterozygosity ranged from 0.25 and 0.40 in the Rennell Islands Tall (RIT) accession to 0.54 and 0.62 in the Polynesian Tall (PYT) accession. The analysis of genetic structure resulted in the formation of five distinct groups. The first group was formed by the accessions Brazilian Tall-Praia do Forte (BRTPF), Brazilian Tall-Merepe (BRTMe) and West African Tall (WAT); the second group consisted of Malaysian Tall (MLT); the third group of RIT; the fourth group of Vanuatu Tall (VTT); and the fifth group of Rotuman Tall (RTMT), Tonga Tall (TONT) and PYT. The dendrogram based on the nearest-neighbor method detected the formation of two main groups and five subgroups, indicating that the genetic relationships of the accessions are based on their geographic regions of origin. The analyses revealed genetic relationships between the accessions collected in Brazil and the accession from Africa, and among palms from South East Asia and the South Pacific, confirming the common origin of these accessions. The information obtained in this study can guide decisions on germplasm conservation activities and the efficient selection of genetically divergent parents for use in coconut breeding programs in Brazil, which are attempting to select for disease resistance, mainly to lethal yellowing, among other characteristics.

  2. Coal Field Fire Fighting - Practiced methods, strategies and tactics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wündrich, T.; Korten, A. A.; Barth, U. H.

    2009-04-01

    achieved. For an effective and efficient fire fighting optimal tactics are requiered and can be divided into four fundamental tactics to control fire hazards: - Defense (digging away the coal, so that the coal can not begin to burn; or forming a barrier, so that the fire can not reach the not burning coal), - Rescue the coal (coal mining of a not burning seam), - Attack (active and direct cooling of burning seam), - Retreat (only monitoring till self-extinction of a burning seam). The last one is used when a fire exceeds the organizational and/or technical scope of a mission. In other words, "to control a coal fire" does not automatically and in all situations mean "to extinguish a coal fire". Best-practice tactics or a combination of them can be selected for control of a particular coal fire. For the extinguishing works different extinguishing agents are available. They can be applied by different application techniques and varying distinctive operating expenses. One application method may be the drilling of boreholes from the surface or covering the surface with low permeability soils. The mainly used extinction agents for coal field fire are as followed: Water (with or without additives), Slurry, Foaming mud/slurry, Inert gases, Dry chemicals and materials and Cryogenic agents. Because of its tremendous dimension and its complexity the worldwide challenge of coal fires is absolutely unique - it can only be solved with functional application methods, best fitting strategies and tactics, organisation and research as well as the dedication of the involved fire fighters, who work under extreme individual risks on the burning coal fields.

  3. Impact of a Large San Andreas Fault Earthquake on Tall Buildings in Southern California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnan, S.; Ji, C.; Komatitsch, D.; Tromp, J.

    2004-12-01

    In 1857, an earthquake of magnitude 7.9 occurred on the San Andreas fault, starting at Parkfield and rupturing in a southeasterly direction for more than 300~km. Such a unilateral rupture produces significant directivity toward the San Fernando and Los Angeles basins. The strong shaking in the basins due to this earthquake would have had a significant long-period content (2--8~s). If such motions were to happen today, they could have a serious impact on tall buildings in Southern California. In order to study the effects of large San Andreas fault earthquakes on tall buildings in Southern California, we use the finite source of the magnitude 7.9 2001 Denali fault earthquake in Alaska and map it onto the San Andreas fault with the rupture originating at Parkfield and proceeding southward over a distance of 290~km. Using the SPECFEM3D spectral element seismic wave propagation code, we simulate a Denali-like earthquake on the San Andreas fault and compute ground motions at sites located on a grid with a 2.5--5.0~km spacing in the greater Southern California region. We subsequently analyze 3D structural models of an existing tall steel building designed in 1984 as well as one designed according to the current building code (Uniform Building Code, 1997) subjected to the computed ground motion. We use a sophisticated nonlinear building analysis program, FRAME3D, that has the ability to simulate damage in buildings due to three-component ground motion. We summarize the performance of these structural models on contour maps of carefully selected structural performance indices. This study could benefit the city in laying out emergency response strategies in the event of an earthquake on the San Andreas fault, in undertaking appropriate retrofit measures for tall buildings, and in formulating zoning regulations for new construction. In addition, the study would provide risk data associated with existing and new construction to insurance companies, real estate developers, and

  4. Probabilistic analysis of the torsional effects on the tall building resistance due to earthquake even

    Science.gov (United States)

    Králik, Juraj; Králik, Juraj

    2017-07-01

    The paper presents the results from the deterministic and probabilistic analysis of the accidental torsional effect of reinforced concrete tall buildings due to earthquake even. The core-column structural system was considered with various configurations in plane. The methodology of the seismic analysis of the building structures in Eurocode 8 and JCSS 2000 is discussed. The possibilities of the utilization the LHS method to analyze the extensive and robust tasks in FEM is presented. The influence of the various input parameters (material, geometry, soil, masses and others) is considered. The deterministic and probability analysis of the seismic resistance of the structure was calculated in the ANSYS program.

  5. Strategies for improving quality and methods for innovation services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bajić Milan

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Contemporary concepts of business of service organisations, focus their researches on measuring quality of the services and identification of mistakes. The aim of strategies is the improvement of quality. Marketing concepts shows that the constant creation of new products and the modification of characteristics on the old products, makes possible market strategy that stimulates development of activities. This paper is focusing on the improving of service using the strategies that can innovate and improve the services. Paper seeks to demonstrate one of possible observations and importance of performance, combined with blueprinting of services and benchmarking as a useful strategies for improving and innovation of services.

  6. Insight into the genetic variability analysis and cultivar identification of tall fescue by using SSR markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Kaixin; Guo, Zhihui; Zhang, Xinquan; Fan, Yan; Wu, Wendan; Li, Daxu; Peng, Yan; Huang, Linkai; Sun, Ming; Bai, Shiqie; Ma, Xiao

    2016-01-01

    Genetic diversity of 19 forage-type and 2 turf-type cultivars of tall fescue ( Festuca arundinacea Schreb.) was revealed using SSR markers in an attempt to explore the genetic relationships among them, and examine potential use of SSR markers to identify cultivars by bulked samples. A total of 227 clear band was scored with 14 SSR primers and out of which 201 (88.6 %) were found polymorphic. The percentage of polymorphic bands (PPB) per primer pair varied from 62.5 to 100 % with an average of 86.9 %. The polymorphism information content (PIC) value ranged from 0.116 to 0.347 with an average of 0.257 and the highest PIC value (0.347) was noticed for primer NFA040 followed by NFA113 (0.346) whereas the highest discriminating power (D) of 1 was shown in NFA037 and LMgSSR02-01C. A Neighbor-joining dendrogram and the principal component analysis identified six major clusters and grouped the cultivars in agreement with their breeding histories. STRUCTURE analysis divided these cultivars into 3 sub-clades which correspond to distance based groupings. These findings indicates that SSR markers by bulking strategy are a useful tool to measure genetic diversity among tall fescue cultivars and could be used to supplement morphological data for plant variety protection.

  7. Sustainable design in the contemporary architecture of tall buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gil-Mastalerczyk Joanna

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The tall buildings in Singapore - one of the main financial centers of the world - reflect the metropolitan character of the city. These buildings emphasize the importance of the center in the urban landscape. They determine and create a new landscape of the city. Objects, mainly about the function of commercial and prestigious, distinguished by the natural environment-friendly image. Through financial expenditures, they excel in the implementation of innovative solutions in the field ecology. The applied design, facade systems and functional systems are subject to the use of renewable energy sources. Promoting the idea the development of the city “inside”. Ecological aspect is the durability of the structure. Modern tall buildings have completely changed the image of the spatial part of the city-state of Singapore and contributed to enhance the individual character and highlight the specifics of the layout and position of the center (combining functions of business, commercial, recreational and residential.

  8. Analysis of Ideal Towers for Tall Wind Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dykes, Katherine L [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Damiani, Rick R [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Roberts, Joseph O [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Lantz, Eric J [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2018-01-12

    Innovation in wind turbine tower design is of significant interest for future development of wind power plants. First, wind turbine towers account for a large portion of overall capital expenditures for wind power projects. Second, for low wind-resource regions of the world, the use of low-cost tall-tower technology has the potential to open new markets for development. This study investigates the relative potential of various tower configurations in terms of mass and cost. For different market applications and hub heights, idealized tall towers are designed and compared. The results show that innovation in wind turbine controls makes reaching higher hub heights with current technology economically viable. At the same time, new technologies hold promise for reducing tower costs as these technologies mature and hub heights reach twice the current average.

  9. Analysis of Ideal Towers for Tall Wind Applications: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dykes, Katherine L [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Damiani, Rick R [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Roberts, Joseph O [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Lantz, Eric J [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2018-02-27

    Innovation in wind turbine tower design is of significant interest for future development of wind power plants. First, wind turbine towers account for a large portion of overall capital expenditures for wind power projects. Second, for low wind-resource regions of the world, the use of low-cost tall-tower technology has the potential to open new markets for development. This study investigates the relative potential of various tower configurations in terms of mass and cost. For different market applications and hub heights, idealized tall towers are designed and compared. The results show that innovation in wind turbine controls makes reaching higher hub heights with current technology economically viable. At the same time, new technologies hold promise for reducing tower costs as these technologies mature and hub heights reach twice the current average.

  10. Prediction strategies in a TV recommender system - Method and experiments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Setten, M.J.; Veenstra, M.; van Dijk, Elisabeth M.A.G.; Nijholt, Antinus; Isaísas, P.; Karmakar, N.

    2003-01-01

    Predicting the interests of a user in information is an important process in personalized information systems. In this paper, we present a way to create prediction engines that allow prediction techniques to be easily combined into prediction strategies. Prediction strategies choose one or a

  11. Evolutionary history of tall fescue morphotypes inferred from molecular phylogenetics of the Lolium-Festuca species complex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stewart Alan V

    2010-10-01

    phylogenetic analysis of the Festuca genus to include representatives of each tall fescue morphotype, and to use low copy nuclear gene-derived sequences to identify putative progenitors of the polyploid species. The demonstration of distinct tall fescue lineages has implications for both taxonomy and molecular breeding strategies, and may facilitate the generation of morphotype and/or sub-genome-specific molecular markers.

  12. Globalisation Reflected onto Architecture: Tall Buildings of Ankara-Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanju Gültekin, Ahmet

    2017-10-01

    Policy switching, radical socioeconomic changes, integration and globalisation were started in 1980s. New urban space developments have been accelerated in 1990s and provided urban space identity policies in 2000s. Luxurious shopping malls, hotels, and ultra-posh residences within the city and gated communities on city peripheries have been formed. Thus, the urban geography, urban silhouette and urban identity are being converted through tall buildings that signify the created prestige, status, and power in competition with the global capital. By the globalisation foresight the cities which have gotten ahead of the nation-state was seen. The buildings that converted into a symbolic (iconic) global product leads to an advantage in the race for attracting global investments and tourism, on behalf of the cities/urban districts. This process, which was initiated haphazardly in Turkey in the 1980s, has been on-going throughout the 1990s and especially in 2000s by means of the re-structuring of the government on a neo-liberal basis. The process is concurrently observable through the tall buildings and/or building blocks which match with urban regeneration projects, urban zoning plan revisions and fragmented zoning plans. In this study, the new global world order is evaluated by their status and architectural properties of selected tall and iconic/ultra-modern buildings in Ankara.

  13. Typological diversity of tall buildings and complexes in relation to their functional structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Generalov, Viktor P.; Generalova, Elena M.; Kalinkina, Nadezhda A.; Zhdanova, Irina V.

    2018-03-01

    The paper focuses on peculiarities of tall buildings and complexes, their typology and its formation in relation to their functional structure. The research is based on the analysis of tall buildings and complexes and identifies the following main functional elements of their formation: residential, administrative (office), hotel elements. The paper also considers the following services as «disseminated» in the space-planning structure: shops, medicine, entertainment, kids and sports facilities, etc., their location in the structure of the total bulk of the building and their impact on typological diversity. Research results include suggestions to add such concepts as «single-function tall buildings» and «mixed-use tall buildings and complexes» into the classification of tall buildings. In addition, if a single-function building or complex performs serving functions, it is proposed to add such concepts as «a residential tall building (complex) with provision of services», «an administrative (public) tall building (complex) with provision of services» into the classification of tall buildings. For mixed-use buildings and complexes the following terms are suggested: «a mixed-use tall building with provision of services», «a mixed-use tall complex with provision of services».

  14. Method for selecting FBR development strategies in the presence of uncertainty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fraley, D.W.; Burnham, J.B.

    1981-12-01

    This report describes the methods used to probabilistically analyze data related to the uranium supply the FBR's competitive dates, development strategies' time and costs, and economic benefits. It also describes the econometric methods used to calculate the economic risks of mistiming the development. Seven strategies for developing the FBR are analyzed. The various measures of a strategy's performance - timing, costs, benefits, and risks - are combined into several criteria which are used to evaluate the seven strategies. Methods are described for selecting a strategy based on a number of alternative criteria

  15. Evaluation Methods Basis of Strategy Development Effectiveness of the Enterprise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zotova, Anna S.; Kandrashina, Elena A.; Ivliev, Andrey D.; Charaeva, Marina V.

    2016-01-01

    The urgency to study the problem is caused by the necessity to make management decisions in terms of reducing goods life cycle, reducing profitability of production, increasing speed of technological progress. In this context, this article aims to identify and elaborate the tools for integrated diagnostic of strategy efficiency, taking into…

  16. Optimal management strategies in variable environments: Stochastic optimal control methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, B.K.

    1985-01-01

    Dynamic optimization was used to investigate the optimal defoliation of salt desert shrubs in north-western Utah. Management was formulated in the context of optimal stochastic control theory, with objective functions composed of discounted or time-averaged biomass yields. Climatic variability and community patterns of salt desert shrublands make the application of stochastic optimal control both feasible and necessary. A primary production model was used to simulate shrub responses and harvest yields under a variety of climatic regimes and defoliation patterns. The simulation results then were used in an optimization model to determine optimal defoliation strategies. The latter model encodes an algorithm for finite state, finite action, infinite discrete time horizon Markov decision processes. Three questions were addressed: (i) What effect do changes in weather patterns have on optimal management strategies? (ii) What effect does the discounting of future returns have? (iii) How do the optimal strategies perform relative to certain fixed defoliation strategies? An analysis was performed for the three shrub species, winterfat (Ceratoides lanata), shadscale (Atriplex confertifolia) and big sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata). In general, the results indicate substantial differences among species in optimal control strategies, which are associated with differences in physiological and morphological characteristics. Optimal policies for big sagebrush varied less with variation in climate, reserve levels and discount rates than did either shadscale or winterfat. This was attributed primarily to the overwintering of photosynthetically active tissue and to metabolic activity early in the growing season. Optimal defoliation of shadscale and winterfat generally was more responsive to differences in plant vigor and climate, reflecting the sensitivity of these species to utilization and replenishment of carbohydrate reserves. Similarities could be seen in the influence of both

  17. Pre-test analysis for identification of natural circulation instabilities in TALL-3D facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kööp, Kaspar, E-mail: kaspar@safety.sci.kth.se; Jeltsov, Marti, E-mail: marti@safety.sci.kth.se; Grishchenko, Dmitry, E-mail: dmitry@safety.sci.kth.se; Kudinov, Pavel, E-mail: pavel@safety.sci.kth.se

    2017-04-01

    Highlights: • Global optimum search method was used to identify a region of instability. • Parametric study was used for detailed investigation of system behavior modes. • The results include identification of sustained mass flow rate oscillations. • Recommendations are made for selection of optimal experimental conditions. - Abstract: TALL-3D facility is a lead-bismuth eutectic (LBE) thermal-hydraulic loop designed to provide experimental data on thermal-hydraulics phenomena for validation of stand-alone and coupled System Thermal Hydraulics (STH) and Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) codes. Pre-test analysis is crucial for proper choice of experimental conditions at which the experimental data would be most useful for code validation and benchmarking. The goal of this work is to identify these conditions at which the experiment is challenging for the STH codes yet minimizes the 3D-effects from the test section on the loop dynamics. The analysis is focused on the identification of limit cycle flow oscillations in the TALL-3D facility main heater leg using a global optimum search tool GA-NPO to find a general region in the parameter space where oscillatory behavior is expected. As a second step a grid study is conducted outlining the boundaries between different stability modes. Phenomena, simulation results and methodology for selection of the test parameters are discussed in detail and recommendations for experiments are provided.

  18. Evaluation of modal pushover-based scaling of one component of ground motion: Tall buildings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalkan, Erol; Chopra, Anil K.

    2012-01-01

    Nonlinear response history analysis (RHA) is now increasingly used for performance-based seismic design of tall buildings. Required for nonlinear RHAs is a set of ground motions selected and scaled appropriately so that analysis results would be accurate (unbiased) and efficient (having relatively small dispersion). This paper evaluates accuracy and efficiency of recently developed modal pushover–based scaling (MPS) method to scale ground motions for tall buildings. The procedure presented explicitly considers structural strength and is based on the standard intensity measure (IM) of spectral acceleration in a form convenient for evaluating existing structures or proposed designs for new structures. Based on results presented for two actual buildings (19 and 52 stories, respectively), it is demonstrated that the MPS procedure provided a highly accurate estimate of the engineering demand parameters (EDPs), accompanied by significantly reduced record-to-record variability of the responses. In addition, the MPS procedure is shown to be superior to the scaling procedure specified in the ASCE/SEI 7-05 document.

  19. Integrative Mixed Methods Data Analytic Strategies in Research on School Success in Challenging Circumstances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Eunice E.; McDougall, Douglas E.; Pollon, Dawn; Herbert, Monique; Russell, Pia

    2008-01-01

    There are both conceptual and practical challenges in dealing with data from mixed methods research studies. There is a need for discussion about various integrative strategies for mixed methods data analyses. This article illustrates integrative analytic strategies for a mixed methods study focusing on improving urban schools facing challenging…

  20. Biotechnological interventions in sugarcane improvement: strategies, methods and progress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suprasanna, P.

    2010-01-01

    Work has been conducted towards employing in vitro culture system combined with radiation induced mutagenesis in the improvement of sugarcane. Several radiation induced mutants with agronomically desirable traits were isolated and evaluated under field conditions, besides studying abiotic stress responses using biochemical, physiological and molecular tools. This article describes the developments in the in vitro culture systems and related biotechnologies that are evolving as novel strategies in the recent years for use in sugarcane improvement

  1. Tall Tales: The Simpsons deconstructing the american myth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanna Betina Götz

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to analyze the episode Tall Tales from the series The Simpsons that revisits legends of the American folklore. The TV series pays homage to both the time of the pioneers in their travels to the Far West in the nineteenth century, as well as to one of the most iconic and folk characters of the American culture from that period: the Hobo was a beggar, a figure of the American folklore during the Great Depression. It is also interesting to focus on the American imaginary in order to understand how the authors of The Simpsons perform these recreations in contemporary times

  2. Tall Buildings and Urban Habitat of the 21st Century: A Global Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mir M. Ali

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The tall building is the most dominating symbol of the cities and a human-made marvel that defies gravity by reaching to the clouds. It embodies unrelenting human aspirations to build even higher. It conjures a number of valid questions in our minds. The foremost and fundamental question that is often asked: Why tall buildings? This review paper seeks to answer the question by laying out arguments against and for tall buildings. Then, it provides a brief account of the historic and recent developments of tall buildings including their status during the current economic recession. The paper argues that as cities continue to expand horizontally, to safeguard against their reaching an eventual breaking point, the tall building as a building type is a possible solution by way of conquering vertical space through agglomeration and densification. Case studies of some recently built tall buildings are discussed to illustrate the nature of tall building development in their respective cities. The paper attempts to dispel any discernment about tall buildings as mere pieces of art and architecture by emphasizing their truly speculative, technological, sustainable, and evolving nature. It concludes by projecting a vision of tall buildings and their integration into the cities of the 21st century.

  3. Lead Accumulation by Tall Fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb. Grown on a Lead-Contaminated Soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Gilliard

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Phytoextraction is gaining acceptance as a cost-effective and environmentally friendly phytoremediation strategy for reducing toxic metal levels from contaminated soils. Cognizant of the potential of this phytoremediation technique as an alternative to expensive engineering-based remediation technologies, experiments were conducted to evaluate the suitability of some plants as phytoextraction species. From one of our preliminary studies, we found that tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb. cv. Spirit can tolerate and accumulate significant amounts of lead (Pb in its shoots when grown in Pb-amended sand. To further evaluate the suitability of tall fescue as one of the potential crop rotation species for phytoextraction, a study was conducted to determine whether the addition of ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA alone or in combination with acetic acid can further enhance the shoot uptake of Pb. Seeds were planted in 3.8 L plastic pots containing top soil, peat, and sand (4:2:1, v:v:v spiked with various levels (0,1000, 2000 mg Pb/kg dry soil of lead. At six weeks after planting, aqueous solutions (0, 5 mmol/kg dry soil of EDTA and acetic acid (5 mmol/kg dry soil were applied to the root zone, and all plants were harvested a week later. Results revealed that tall fescue was relatively tolerant to moderate levels of Pb as shown by non-significant differences in root and shoot biomass among treatments. An exception to this trend however, was the slight reduction in root and shoot biomass of plants exposed to the highest Pb level in combination with the two chelates. Root Pb concentration increased with increasing level of soil-applied Pb. Further increases in root Pb concentrations were attributed to chelate amendments. Translocation index, which is a measure of the partitioning of the metal to the shoots, was significantly enhanced with chelate addition especially when both EDTA and acetic acid were used. Chelate-induced increases in

  4. Tall Buildings and Elevators: A Review of Recent Technological Advances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kheir Al-Kodmany

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Efficient vertical mobility is a critical component of tall building development and construction. This paper investigates recent advances in elevator technology and examines their impact on tall building development. It maps out, organizes, and collates complex and scattered information on multiple aspects of elevator design, and presents them in an accessible and non-technical discourse. Importantly, the paper contextualizes recent technological innovations by examining their implementations in recent major projects including One World Trade Center in New York; Shanghai Tower in Shanghai; Burj Khalifa in Dubai; Kingdom Tower in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia; and the green retrofit project of the Empire State Building in New York. Further, the paper discusses future vertical transportation models including a vertical subway concept, a space lift, and electromagnetic levitation technology. As these new technological advancements in elevator design empower architects to create new forms and shapes of large-scale, mixed-use developments, this paper concludes by highlighting the need for interdisciplinary research in incorporating elevators in skyscrapers.

  5. Photosynthate partitioning in basal zones of tall fescue leaf blades

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allard, G.; Nelson, C.J.

    1991-01-01

    Elongating grass leaves have successive zones of cell division, cell elongation, and cell maturation in the basal portion of the blade and are a strong sink for photosynthate. Our objective was to determine dry matter (DM) deposition and partitioning in basal zones of elongating tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb.) leaf blades. Vegetative tall fescue plants were grown in continuous light (350 micromoles per square meter per second photosynthetic photon flux density) to obtain a constant spatial distribution of elongation growth with time. Content and net deposition rates of water-soluble carbohydrates (WSC) and DM along elongating leaf blades were determined. These data were compared with accumulation of 14 C in the basal zones following leaf-labeling with 14 CO 2 . Net deposition of DM was highest in the active cell elongation zone, due mainly to deposition of WSC. The maturation zone, just distal to the elongation zone, accounted for 22% of total net deposition of DM in elongating leaves. However, the spatial profile of 14 C accumulation suggested that the elongation zone and the maturation zone were sinks of equal strength. WSC-free DM accounted for 55% of the total net DM deposition in elongating leaf blades, but only 10% of incoming 14 C-photosynthate accumulated in the water-insoluble fraction (WIF ∼ WSC-free DM) after 2 hours. In the maturation zone, more WSC was used for synthesis of WSC-free DM than was imported as recent photosynthate

  6. Methods of the Development Strategy of Service Companies: Logistical Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toymentseva, Irina A.; Karpova, Natalya P.; Toymentseva, Angelina A.; Chichkina, Vera D.; Efanov, Andrey V.

    2016-01-01

    The urgency of the analyzed issue is due to lack of attention of heads of service companies to the theory and methodology of strategic management, methods and models of management decision-making in times of economic instability. The purpose of the article is to develop theoretical positions and methodical recommendations on the formation of the…

  7. Strategy to Promote Active Learning of an Advanced Research Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDermott, Hilary J.; Dovey, Terence M.

    2013-01-01

    Research methods courses aim to equip students with the knowledge and skills required for research yet seldom include practical aspects of assessment. This reflective practitioner report describes and evaluates an innovative approach to teaching and assessing advanced qualitative research methods to final-year psychology undergraduate students. An…

  8. Nonequilibrium relaxation method – An alternative simulation strategy

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    This equilibrium method traces over the standard theory of the thermal ... The purpose of this article is to give a concise review of the idea of the NER method .... using the NER functions from mixed initial configuration, that is, half of the system.

  9. Structural Health Monitoring of Tall Buildings with Numerical Integrator and Convex-Concave Hull Classification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suresh Thenozhi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available An important objective of health monitoring systems for tall buildings is to diagnose the state of the building and to evaluate its possible damage. In this paper, we use our prototype to evaluate our data-mining approach for the fault monitoring. The offset cancellation and high-pass filtering techniques are combined effectively to solve common problems in numerical integration of acceleration signals in real-time applications. The integration accuracy is improved compared with other numerical integrators. Then we introduce a novel method for support vector machine (SVM classification, called convex-concave hull. We use the Jarvis march method to decide the concave (nonconvex hull for the inseparable points. Finally the vertices of the convex-concave hull are applied for SVM training.

  10. Action methods in the classroom: creative strategies for nursing education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLaughlin, Dorcas E; Freed, Patricia E; Tadych, Rita A

    2006-01-01

    Nursing education recognizes the need for a framework of experiential learning that supports the development of professional roles. Action methods, originated by Jacob L. Moreno (1953), can be readily adapted to any nursing classroom to create the conditions under which students learn and practice professional nursing roles. While nurse faculty can learn to use action methods, they may not fully comprehend their theoretical underpinnings or may believe they are only used in therapy. This article explores Moreno's ideas related to psychodrama and sociodrama applied in classroom settings, and presents many examples and tips for classroom teachers who wish to incorporate action methods into their classes.

  11. Not all coping strategies are created equal: a mixed methods study exploring physicians' self reported coping strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wallace Jean E

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Physicians experience workplace stress and draw on different coping strategies. The primary goal of this paper is to use interview data to explore physicians' self reported coping strategies. In addition, questionnaire data is utilized to explore the degree to which the coping strategies are used and are associated with feelings of emotional exhaustion, a key symptom of burnout. Methods This mixed methods study explores factors related to physician wellness within a large health region in Western Canada. This paper focuses on the coping strategies that physicians use in response to work-related stress. The qualitative component explores physicians' self reported coping strategies through open ended interviews of 42 physicians representing diverse medical specialties and settings (91% response rate. The major themes extracted from the qualitative interviews were used to construct 12 survey items that were included in the comprehensive quantitative questionnaire. Questionnaires were sent to all eligible physicians in the health region with 1178 completed surveys (40% response rate. Questionnaire items were used to measure how often physicians draw on the various coping strategies. Feelings of burnout were also measured in the survey by 5 items from the Emotional Exhaustion subscale of the revised Maslach Burnout Inventory. Results Major themes identified from the interviews include coping strategies used at work (e.g., working through stress, talking with co-workers, taking a time out, using humor and after work (e.g., exercise, quiet time, spending time with family. Analysis of the questionnaire data showed three often used workplace coping strategies were positively correlated with feeling emotionally exhausted (i.e., keeping stress to oneself (r = .23, concentrating on what to do next (r = .16, and going on as if nothing happened (r = .07. Some less often used workplace coping strategies (e.g., taking a time out and all

  12. Alignment methods: strategies, challenges, benchmarking, and comparative overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Löytynoja, Ari

    2012-01-01

    Comparative evolutionary analyses of molecular sequences are solely based on the identities and differences detected between homologous characters. Errors in this homology statement, that is errors in the alignment of the sequences, are likely to lead to errors in the downstream analyses. Sequence alignment and phylogenetic inference are tightly connected and many popular alignment programs use the phylogeny to divide the alignment problem into smaller tasks. They then neglect the phylogenetic tree, however, and produce alignments that are not evolutionarily meaningful. The use of phylogeny-aware methods reduces the error but the resulting alignments, with evolutionarily correct representation of homology, can challenge the existing practices and methods for viewing and visualising the sequences. The inter-dependency of alignment and phylogeny can be resolved by joint estimation of the two; methods based on statistical models allow for inferring the alignment parameters from the data and correctly take into account the uncertainty of the solution but remain computationally challenging. Widely used alignment methods are based on heuristic algorithms and unlikely to find globally optimal solutions. The whole concept of one correct alignment for the sequences is questionable, however, as there typically exist vast numbers of alternative, roughly equally good alignments that should also be considered. This uncertainty is hidden by many popular alignment programs and is rarely correctly taken into account in the downstream analyses. The quest for finding and improving the alignment solution is complicated by the lack of suitable measures of alignment goodness. The difficulty of comparing alternative solutions also affects benchmarks of alignment methods and the results strongly depend on the measure used. As the effects of alignment error cannot be predicted, comparing the alignments' performance in downstream analyses is recommended.

  13. Seedling Establishment of Tall Fescue Exposed to Long-Term Starvation Stress

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pompeiano, Antonio; Damiani, C. R.; Stefanini, S.; Vernieri, S.; Reyes, T. H.; Volterrani, M.; Guglielminetti, L.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 11, č. 11 (2016), č. článku e0166131. E-ISSN 1932-6203 Institutional support: RVO:67179843 Keywords : seedling * Tall fescue * Tall fescue exposed * starvation Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 2.806, year: 2016

  14. Tall Poppies: Bullying Behaviors Faced by Australian High-Performance School-Age Athletes

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neill, Maureen; Calder, Angela; Allen, Bill

    2014-01-01

    Little is known about Australian high-performance school-age athletes' experiences as victims of the tall poppy syndrome. Tall poppies are successful individuals bullied by those who are less successful in order to "normalize them." Nineteen current or previous national or international high-performance school-age athletes were…

  15. Soil Organic Carbon Fractions Differ in Two Contrasting Tall Fescue Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    The value of tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb.) for C sequestration in addition to forage production and soil conservation is of current interest. However, studies relating to the impacts of endophyte infected (E+) and endophyte free (E-) tall fescue on soil organic matter fractions are few....

  16. Spatially organized «vertical city» as a synthesis of tall buildings and airships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gagulina, Olga; Matovnikov, Sergei

    2018-03-01

    The paper explores the compact city concept based on the «spatial» urban development principles and describes the prerequisites and possible methods to move from «horizontal» planning to «vertical» urban environments. It highlights the close connection between urban space, high-rise city landscape and conveyance options and sets out the ideas for upgrading the existing architectural and urban planning principles. It also conceptualizes the use of airships to create additional spatial connections between urban structure elements and high-rise buildings. Functional changes are considered in creating both urban environment and internal space of tall buildings, and the environmental aspects of the new spatial model are brought to light. The paper delineates the prospects for making a truly «spatial» multidimensional city space.

  17. Alternative fuel properties of tall oil fatty acid methyl ester-diesel fuel blends

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Altiparmak, D.; Keskin, A.; Koca, A. [Gazi University, Ankara (Turkey). Technical Education Faculty; Guru, M. [Gazi University, Ankara (Turkey). Engineering and Architectural Faculty

    2007-01-15

    In this experimental work, tall oil methyl ester-diesel fuel blends as alternative fuels for diesel engines were studied. Tall oil methyl ester was produced by reacting tall oil fatty acids with methyl alcohol under optimum conditions. The blends of tall oil methyl ester-diesel fuel were tested in a direct injection diesel engine at full load conditions. The effects of the new fuel blends on the engine performance and exhaust emission were tested. It was observed that the engine torque and power output with tall oil methyl ester-diesel fuel blends increased up to 6.1% and 5.9%, respectively. It was also seen that CO emissions decreased to 38.9% and NO{sub x} emissions increased up to 30% with the new fuel blends. The smoke capacity did not vary significantly. (author)

  18. Alternative fuel properties of tall oil fatty acid methyl ester-diesel fuel blends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altiparmak, Duran; Keskin, Ali; Koca, Atilla; Gürü, Metin

    2007-01-01

    In this experimental work, tall oil methyl ester-diesel fuel blends as alternative fuels for diesel engines were studied. Tall oil methyl ester was produced by reacting tall oil fatty acids with methyl alcohol under optimum conditions. The blends of tall oil methyl ester-diesel fuel were tested in a direct injection diesel engine at full load condition. The effects of the new fuel blends on the engine performance and exhaust emission were tested. It was observed that the engine torque and power output with tall oil methyl ester-diesel fuel blends increased up to 6.1% and 5.9%, respectively. It was also seen that CO emissions decreased to 38.9% and NO(x) emissions increased up to 30% with the new fuel blends. The smoke opacity did not vary significantly.

  19. Are tall trees more sensitive to prolonged drought in tropical per-humid forests?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuldt, Bernhard; Horna, Viviana; Leuschner, Christoph

    2010-05-01

    Seasonality of water flux was investigated for common tree species of a Central Sulawesi pre-montane perhumid forest located in the Lore Lindu National Park. Trees were exposed to reduced soil water levels under a rainfall exclusion experiment (Sulawesi Throughfall Displacement Experiment, STD), to simulate drought effects and to monitor species-specific short-term responses to extended water stress. Several climate scenarios predict more frequent occurrence of ENSO droughts with increasing severity induced by global warming. Detailed assessments of the ecological consequences of droughts in perhumid forests are scarce and knowledge whether and how these ecosystems are adapted to severe droughts is limited. Key research questions were: (1) how do tall rainforest trees cope with long pathways under low evaporative demand, (2) how sensitive are trees from tropical perhumid forests and how do they acclimate to drought-stress and 3) does wood density determine the drought sensitivity of perhumid forest trees? From June 2007 until October 2009 we monitored 95 trees from 8 common tree species. Half of them were located under the STD Experiment and the other half in control areas. We used the constant heated method to continuously monitor stem xylem flux density and conduct parallel measurements of xylem anatomy and hydraulic conductivity in twigs, stems and roots. After almost 22 months of experimental drought only 25% of xylem flux density reduction was observed in the experimental trees. But the reaction to water stress was species-specific and in some species xylem flux went down to 50 % compared to the individuals located at the control plots. Wood density did not correlate with any hydraulic measurement, but anatomy and hydraulic architecture observations showed a positive correlation between xylem conductivity and vessel size with tree height. These results reveal a well adapted hydraulic system of tall canopy trees allowing for highly efficient water flow under

  20. Sosiaalisen median merkitys mikroyrityksille - Case: TallFits Oy

    OpenAIRE

    Nousiainen, Ari; Koskivuori, Timo

    2011-01-01

    Tämän opinnäytetyön aiheena on sosiaalinen media mikroyritysten näkökulmasta. Työssä käsi-tellään sosiaalista mediaa ja markkinoinnissa tapahtunutta muutosta sekä niitä toimintatapoja, joita interaktiivinen mediaympäristö yrityksille ja sen asiakkaille tarjoaa. Työn tavoitteena on tuottaa tietoa sosiaalisen median hyödyistä ja haasteista mikroyrityksille ja lisätä koh-deyrityksemme TallFits Oy:n myyntiä ja löydettävyyttä. Tavoitteiden saavuttamiseksi opinnäytetyömme tarkoituksena oli tehd...

  1. The watering of tall trees--embolization and recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gouin, Henri

    2015-03-21

    We can propound a thermo-mechanical understanding of the ascent of sap to the top of tall trees thanks to a comparison between experiments associated with the cohesion-tension theory and the disjoining pressure concept for liquid thin-films. When a segment of xylem is tight-filled with crude sap, the liquid pressure can be negative although the pressure in embolized vessels remains positive. Examples are given that illustrate how embolized vessels can be refilled and why the ascent of sap is possible even in the tallest trees avoiding the problem due to cavitation. However, the maximum height of trees is limited by the stability domain of liquid thin-films. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Performance of Multilevel Coding Schemes with Different Decoding Methods and Mapping Strategies in Mobile Fading Channels

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YUAN Dongfeng; WANG Chengxiang; YAO Qi; CAO Zhigang

    2001-01-01

    Based on "capacity rule", the perfor-mance of multilevel coding (MLC) schemes with dif-ferent set partitioning strategies and decoding meth-ods in AWGN and Rayleigh fading channels is investi-gated, in which BCH codes are chosen as componentcodes and 8ASK modulation is used. Numerical re-sults indicate that MLC scheme with UP strategy canobtain optimal performance in AWGN channels andBP is the best mapping strategy for Rayleigh fadingchannels. BP strategy is of good robustness in bothkinds of channels to realize an optimum MLC system.Multistage decoding (MSD) is a sub-optimal decodingmethod of MLC for both channels. For Ungerboeckpartitioning (UP) and mixed partitioning (MP) strat-egy, MSD is strongly recommended to use for MLCsystem, while for BP strategy, PDL is suggested to useas a simple decoding method compared with MSD.

  3. Upgrading of raw tall oil soap into fuel oils and lubricants; Raakasuovan jalostus poltto- ja voiteluoeljyksi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oasmaa, A; Arpiainen, V; McKeough, P; Tapola, E; Haekkinen, R; Kuoppala, E; Koskela, K [VTT Energy, Jyvaeskylae (Finland). Energy Production Technologies

    1997-12-01

    Thermochemical processing of tall oil soap originating from various mixtures of birch and pine has been experimentally investigated. The organic matter of tall oil soap, which is a by- product of Kraft pulping, originates mainly from wood extractives. Conventional processing of tall oil soap involves acidulation with sulphuric acid to yield crude tall oil and subsequent distillation of the oil at centralised refineries. Because tall oil originating from birch wood is far less valuable than that from pine, there is an economic incentive in the Nordic countries to develop alternative conversion processes for the tall oil soap produced at pulp mills where birch is widely used as feedstock. Furthermore, thermochemical processing of tall oil soap does not introduce sulphur into the chemical recovery cycle. This would be a significant advantage in future mills employing closure of water circuits and/or sulphur-free pulping. In small-scale experiments tall oil soaps from wood mixtures with high birch content have been processed using both liquid-phase thermal treatment and pyrolysis. The liquid-phase thermal treatment at 450 deg C under a nitrogen atmosphere yielded a good-quality oil product at high yield (about 50 % of the energy content of the tall oil soap). In the atmospheric pyrolysis of birch tall oil soap a separation of inorganic and organic constituents was obtained. The energy value of the product gases was high. Both processes are promising, but the pyrolysis alternative has the greater economic potential, providing that the promising preliminary experimental results have given a true picture of the performance of the full-scale pyrolysis process. (orig.)

  4. Uppgrading of raw tall oil soap into fuel oils and lubricants; Raakasuovan jalostus poltto- ja voiteluoeljyksi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oasmaa, A.; Arpiainen, V.; McKeough, P.; Tapola, E. [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland)

    1998-12-31

    Thermochemical processing of tall oil soap originating from various mixtures of birch and pine has been experimentally investigated. The organic matter of tall oil soap, which is a by-product of kraft pulping, originates mainly from wood extractives. Conventional processing of tall oil soap involves acidulation with sulphuric acid to yield crude tall oil and subsequent distillation of the oil at centralised refineries. Because tall oil originating from birch wood is far less valuable than that from pine, there is an economic incentive in the Nordic countries to develop alternative conversion processes for the tall oil soap produced at pulp mills where birch is widely used as feedstock. Furthermore, thermochemical processing of tall oil soap does not introduce sulphur into the chemical recovery cycle. This would be a significant advantage in future mills employing closure of water circuits and/or sulphur-free pulping. In small-scale experiments tall oil soaps from wood mixtures with high birch content have been processed using both liquid-phase thermal treatment and pyrolysis. The liquid-phase thermal treatment at 450 deg C under a nitrogen atmosphere yielded a good-quality oil product at high yield (about 50% of the energy content of the tall oil soap). In the atmospheric pyrolysis of birch tall oil soap a separation of inorganic and organic constituents was obtained. The energy value of the product gases was high. Both processes are promising, but the pyrolysis alternative has the greater economic potential, providing that the promising preliminary experimental results have given a true picture of the performance of the full-scale pyrolysis process. (orig.)

  5. Biodiesel production from tall oil with synthesized Mn and Ni based additives: effects of the additives on fuel consumption and emissions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ali Keskin; Metin Guru; Duran Altiparmak [Mersin University, Mersin (Turkey). Technical Education Faculty

    2007-05-15

    In this study, biodiesel fuel and fuel additives were produced from crude tall oil that is a by-product in the pulp manufacturing by craft or sulphate pulping process. Fatty acids and resinic acids were obtained from crude tall oil by distillation method. Tall oil methyl ester (biodiesel) was produced from fatty acids. Resinic acids were reacted with NiO and MnO{sub 2} stoichiometrically for production of metallic fuel additives. Each metallic fuel additive was added at the rate of 8 {mu}mol/l and 12 {mu}mol/l to make mixtures of 60% tall oil methyl ester/40% diesel fuel (TE60) for preparing test fuels. Metallic fuel additives improved properties of biodiesel fuels, such as pour point and viscosity values. Biodiesel fuels were tested in an unmodified direct injection diesel engine at full load condition. Specific fuel consumption of biodiesel fuels increased by 6.00%, however, in comparison with TE60, it showed trend of decreasing with adding of additives. Exhaust emission profile of biodiesel fuels improved. CO emissions and smoke opacity decreased up to 64.28% and 30.91% respectively. Low NOx emission was also observed in general for the biodiesel fuels. 28 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs.

  6. Proposal of a method for formulating strategy in small and medium enterprises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luís Henrique Piovezan

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Strategy models found in the literature are usually more suitable for big companies. However, small and medium enterprises (SME also need to plan their strategies, but in such a way that considers their peculiarities. In this context, this paper presents a simple method for strategy formulation and deployment in SME. This method was developed through a sequence of cases studies, developed in small companies (10 to 500 employees. The final version of this method is a seven-step framework that considers both business environment and firm core competencies. The final aim is the alignment of business and manufacturing strategies. This framework can be considered suitable for SME, since it is simple and allows saving time and scarce available resources for strategy formulation, both important issues in this kind of enterprises. Finally, a case study is presented, encompassing the analysis of the application of the final version of the method in a small Brazilian company. Key-words: Competitive Strategy, Small Business Strategy, Manufacturing Strategy.

  7. Methods and strategies for future reactor safety goals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arndt, Steven Andrew

    -informed analyses and discussions. This dissertation examines potential approaches to updating the safety goals that include the establishment of new quantitative safety goal associated with the comparative risk of generating electricity by viable competing technologies and modifications of the goals to account for multi-plant reactor sites, and issues associated with the use of safety goals in both initial licensing and operational decision making. This research develops a new quantitative health objective that uses a comparable benefit risk metric based on the life-cycle risk of the construction, operation and decommissioning of a comparable non-nuclear electric generation facility, as well as the risks associated with mining and transportation. This dissertation also evaluates the effects of using various methods for aggregating site risk as a safety metric, as opposed to using single plant safety goals. Additionally, a number of important assumptions inherent in the current safety goals, including the effect of other potential negative societal effects such as the generation of greenhouse gases (e.g., carbon dioxide) have on the risk of electric power production and their effects on the setting of safety goals, is explored. Finally, the role risk perception should play in establishing safety goals has been explored. To complete this evaluation, a new method to analytically compare alternative technologies of generating electricity was developed, including development of a new way to evaluate risk perception, and a new method was developed for evaluating the risk at multiple units on a single site. To test these modifications to the safety goals a number of possible reactor designs and configurations were evaluated using these new proposed safety goals to determine the goals' usefulness and utility. The results of the analysis showed that the modifications provide measures that more closely evaluate the potential risk to the public from the operation of nuclear power plants than

  8. 75 FR 18451 - Safety and Security Zones; Tall Ships Challenge 2010, Great Lakes; Cleveland, OH; Bay City, MI...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-12

    ...-AA87 Safety and Security Zones; Tall Ships Challenge 2010, Great Lakes; Cleveland, OH; Bay City, MI.... SUMMARY: The Coast Guard proposes to establish temporary safety and security zones around each Tall Ship visiting the Great Lakes during the Tall Ships Challenge 2010 race series. These safety and security zones...

  9. Validation of innovative technologies and strategies for regulatory safety assessment methods: challenges and opportunities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stokes, William S; Wind, Marilyn

    2010-01-01

    Advances in science and innovative technologies are providing new opportunities to develop test methods and strategies that may improve safety assessments and reduce animal use for safety testing. These include high throughput screening and other approaches that can rapidly measure or predict various molecular, genetic, and cellular perturbations caused by test substances. Integrated testing and decision strategies that consider multiple types of information and data are also being developed. Prior to their use for regulatory decision-making, new methods and strategies must undergo appropriate validation studies to determine the extent that their use can provide equivalent or improved protection compared to existing methods and to determine the extent that reproducible results can be obtained in different laboratories. Comprehensive and optimal validation study designs are expected to expedite the validation and regulatory acceptance of new test methods and strategies that will support improved safety assessments and reduced animal use for regulatory testing.

  10. Urban Rights-of-Way as Reservoirs for Tall-Grass Prairie Plants and Butterflies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leston, Lionel; Koper, Nicola

    2016-03-01

    Urban rights-of-way may be potential reservoirs of tall-grass prairie plants and butterflies. To determine if this is true, in 2007-2008, we conducted vegetation surveys of species richness and cover, and butterfly surveys of species richness and abundance, along 52 transmission lines and four remnant prairies in Winnipeg, Manitoba. We detected many prairie plants and butterflies within transmission lines. Some unmowed and infrequently managed transmission lines had native plant species richness and total percent cover of native plants comparable to that of similar-sized remnant tall-grass prairies in the region. Although we did not find significant differences in overall native butterfly numbers or species richness between rights-of-way and remnant prairies, we found lower numbers of some prairie butterflies along frequently mowed rights-of-way than within remnant tall-grass prairies. We also observed higher butterfly species richness along sites with more native plant species. By reducing mowing and spraying and reintroducing tall-grass prairie plants, urban rights-of-way could serve as extensive reservoirs for tall-grass prairie plants and butterflies in urban landscapes. Eventually, managing urban rights-of-way as reservoirs for tall-grass prairie plants and animals could contribute to the restoration of tall-grass prairie in the North American Midwest.

  11. Urban Rights-of-Way as Reservoirs for Tall-Grass Prairie Plants and Butterflies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leston, Lionel; Koper, Nicola

    2016-03-01

    Urban rights-of-way may be potential reservoirs of tall-grass prairie plants and butterflies. To determine if this is true, in 2007-2008, we conducted vegetation surveys of species richness and cover, and butterfly surveys of species richness and abundance, along 52 transmission lines and four remnant prairies in Winnipeg, Manitoba. We detected many prairie plants and butterflies within transmission lines. Some unmowed and infrequently managed transmission lines had native plant species richness and total percent cover of native plants comparable to that of similar-sized remnant tall-grass prairies in the region. Although we did not find significant differences in overall native butterfly numbers or species richness between rights-of-way and remnant prairies, we found lower numbers of some prairie butterflies along frequently mowed rights-of-way than within remnant tall-grass prairies. We also observed higher butterfly species richness along sites with more native plant species. By reducing mowing and spraying and reintroducing tall-grass prairie plants, urban rights-of-way could serve as extensive reservoirs for tall-grass prairie plants and butterflies in urban landscapes. Eventually, managing urban rights-of-way as reservoirs for tall-grass prairie plants and animals could contribute to the restoration of tall-grass prairie in the North American Midwest.

  12. Coconut genome size determined by flow cytometry: Tall versus Dwarf types.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freitas Neto, M; Pereira, T N S; Geronimo, I G C; Azevedo, A O N; Ramos, S R R; Pereira, M G

    2016-02-11

    Coconuts (Cocos nucifera L.) are tropical palm trees that are classified into Tall and Dwarf types based on height, and both types are diploid (2n = 2x = 32 chromosomes). The reproduction mode is autogamous for Dwarf types and allogamous for Tall types. One hypothesis for the origin of the Dwarf coconut suggests that it is a Tall variant that resulted from either mutation or inbreeding, and differences in genome size between the two types would support this hypothesis. In this study, we estimated the genome sizes of 14 coconut accessions (eight Tall and six Dwarf types) using flow cytometry. Nuclei were extracted from leaf discs and stained with propidium iodide, and Pisum sativum (2C = 9.07 pg DNA) was used as an internal standard. Histograms with good resolution and low coefficients of variation (2.5 to 3.2%) were obtained. The 2C DNA content ranged from 5.72 to 5.48 pg for Tall accessions and from 5.58 to 5.52 pg for Dwarf accessions. The mean genome sizes for Tall and Dwarf specimens were 5.59 and 5.55 pg, respectively. Among all accessions, Rennel Island Tall had the highest mean DNA content (5.72 pg), whereas West African Tall had the lowest (5.48 pg). The mean coconut genome size (2C = 5.57 pg, corresponding to 2723.73 Mbp/haploid set) was classified as small. Only small differences in genome size existed among the coconut accessions, suggesting that the Dwarf type did not evolve from the Tall type.

  13. Environmental Limits of Tall Shrubs in Alaska's Arctic National Parks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swanson, David K

    2015-01-01

    We sampled shrub canopy volume (height times area) and environmental factors (soil wetness, soil depth of thaw, soil pH, mean July air temperature, and typical date of spring snow loss) on 471 plots across five National Park Service units in northern Alaska. Our goal was to determine the environments where tall shrubs thrive and use this information to predict the location of future shrub expansion. The study area covers over 80,000 km2 and has mostly tundra vegetation. Large canopy volumes were uncommon, with volumes over 0.5 m3/m2 present on just 8% of plots. Shrub canopy volumes were highest where mean July temperatures were above 10.5°C and on weakly acid to neutral soils (pH of 6 to 7) with deep summer thaw (>80 cm) and good drainage. On many sites, flooding helped maintain favorable soil conditions for shrub growth. Canopy volumes were highest where the typical snow loss date was near 20 May; these represent sites that are neither strongly wind-scoured in the winter nor late to melt from deep snowdrifts. Individual species varied widely in the canopy volumes they attained and their response to the environmental factors. Betula sp. shrubs were the most common and quite tolerant of soil acidity, cold July temperatures, and shallow thaw depths, but they did not form high-volume canopies under these conditions. Alnus viridis formed the largest canopies and was tolerant of soil acidity down to about pH 5, but required more summer warmth (over 12°C) than the other species. The Salix species varied widely from S. pulchra, tolerant of wet and moderately acid soils, to S. alaxensis, requiring well-drained soils with near neutral pH. Nearly half of the land area in ARCN has mean July temperatures of 10.5 to 12.5°C, where 2°C of warming would bring temperatures into the range needed for all of the potential tall shrub species to form large canopies. However, limitations in the other environmental factors would probably prevent the formation of large shrub canopies

  14. Environmental Limits of Tall Shrubs in Alaska's Arctic National Parks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David K Swanson

    Full Text Available We sampled shrub canopy volume (height times area and environmental factors (soil wetness, soil depth of thaw, soil pH, mean July air temperature, and typical date of spring snow loss on 471 plots across five National Park Service units in northern Alaska. Our goal was to determine the environments where tall shrubs thrive and use this information to predict the location of future shrub expansion. The study area covers over 80,000 km2 and has mostly tundra vegetation. Large canopy volumes were uncommon, with volumes over 0.5 m3/m2 present on just 8% of plots. Shrub canopy volumes were highest where mean July temperatures were above 10.5°C and on weakly acid to neutral soils (pH of 6 to 7 with deep summer thaw (>80 cm and good drainage. On many sites, flooding helped maintain favorable soil conditions for shrub growth. Canopy volumes were highest where the typical snow loss date was near 20 May; these represent sites that are neither strongly wind-scoured in the winter nor late to melt from deep snowdrifts. Individual species varied widely in the canopy volumes they attained and their response to the environmental factors. Betula sp. shrubs were the most common and quite tolerant of soil acidity, cold July temperatures, and shallow thaw depths, but they did not form high-volume canopies under these conditions. Alnus viridis formed the largest canopies and was tolerant of soil acidity down to about pH 5, but required more summer warmth (over 12°C than the other species. The Salix species varied widely from S. pulchra, tolerant of wet and moderately acid soils, to S. alaxensis, requiring well-drained soils with near neutral pH. Nearly half of the land area in ARCN has mean July temperatures of 10.5 to 12.5°C, where 2°C of warming would bring temperatures into the range needed for all of the potential tall shrub species to form large canopies. However, limitations in the other environmental factors would probably prevent the formation of large

  15. Bulls grazing Kentucky 31 tall fescue exhibit impaired growth, semen quality, and decreased semen freezing potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serum prolactin (PRL) and testosterone concentrations, body weight, body composition, semen quality, and semen freezing potential for bulls grazing the toxic tall fescue (Lolium arundinaceum [Schreb.] Darbysh. ¼ Schedonorous arundinaceum [Schreb.] Dumort.) cultivar Kentucky 31 (E+) compared with a n...

  16. Alkaloids May Not be Responsible for Endophyte Associated Reductions in Tall Fescue Decomposition Rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    1. Fungal endophyte - grass symbioses can have dramatic ecological effects, altering individual plant physiology, plant and animal community structure and function, and ecosystem processes such as litter decomposition and nutrient cycling. 2. Within the tall fescue (Schedonorus arundinaceus) - funga...

  17. Nutrition and In Vitro Digestibility of Tall Fescue for White-Tailed Deer, May Through November

    Science.gov (United States)

    G.E. Probasco; A.J. Bjugstad

    1978-01-01

    Describes a study of the nutritive quality and digestibility of ferilized and unfertilized tall fescue in spring, summer, and fall. The grass may be most valuable as food in early spring and late fall, and on unfertilized sites.

  18. 78 FR 76567 - Tall Oil, Polymer With Polyethylene Glycol and Succinic Anhydride Monopolyisobutylene Derivs...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-18

    ..., Polymer With Polyethylene Glycol and Succinic Anhydride Monopolyisobutylene Derivs.; Tolerance Exemption... an exemption from the requirement of a tolerance for residues of tall oil, polymer with polyethylene..., polymer with polyethylene glycol and succinic anhydride monopolyisobutylene derivs. on food or feed...

  19. A Simple Tall Fescue Seed Extraction and Partial Purification of Ergovaline

    Science.gov (United States)

    There are several substances present in the tall fescue/endophyte association (Lolium arundinaceum /Neotyphodium coenophialum) that have biological activity. These include the pyrrolizidine and ergot alkaloids plus peramine. Of these compounds only the ergot alkaloids have significant mammalian to...

  20. The identification of specific cDNA clones from tall and dwarf rice plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Youssefian, S.; Kamada, I.; Sano, H.

    1990-01-01

    Full text: The use of dwarfing genes in rice breeding has proceeded for several years without a clear understanding of the genetic, hormonal and physiological mechanisms involved. This issue was addressed by focussing on the isolation of specific clones from tall- and dwarf-derived cDNA libraries. The materials used include near-isogenic lines of the tall rice cultivar 'Shiokari', differing at the DGWG or 'Tanginbozu' dwarfing gene loci. Also used were tall and dwarf 'Ginbozu' rice, the latter having been induced by treatment with 5-azacytidine, a potent demethylating agent. Subtractive and differential hybridisation have, to date, identified several candidate tall- and dwarf-specific clones. Their further characterisation is currently underway. (author)

  1. A Comparative Field Monitoring of Column Shortenings in Tall Buildings Using Wireless and Wired Sensor Network Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sungho Lee

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A comparative field measurement for column shortening of tall buildings is presented in this study, with a focus on the reliability and stability of a wireless sensor network. A wireless sensor network was used for monitoring the column shortenings of a 58-story building under construction. The wireless sensor network, which was composed of sensor and master nodes, employed the ultra-high-frequency band and CDMA communication methods. To evaluate the reliability and stability of the wireless sensor network system, the column shortenings were also measured using a conventional wired monitoring system. Two vibration wire gauges were installed in each of the selected 7 columns and 3 walls. Measurements for selected columns and walls were collected for 270 days after casting of the concrete. The results measured by the wireless sensor network were compared with the results of the conventional method. The strains and column shortenings measured using both methods showed good agreement for all members. It was verified that the column shortenings of tall buildings could be monitored using the wireless sensor network system with its reliability and stability.

  2. A Biomimetic Structural Form: Developing a Paradigm to Attain Vital Sustainability in Tall Architecture

    OpenAIRE

    Osama Al-Sehail

    2017-01-01

    This paper argues for sustainability as a necessity in the evolution of tall architecture. It provides a different mode for dealing with sustainability in tall architecture, taking into consideration the speciality of its typology. To this end, the article develops a Biomimetic Structural Form as a paradigm to attain Vital Sustainability. A Biomimetic Structural Form, which is derived from the amalgamation of biomimicry as an approach for sustainability defining nature as source of knowledge ...

  3. Trials with TALL-1O4 Cells for Treatment of Metastatic Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-10-01

    Cesano, A.*, Jeglum, K. A., and Santoli, D. Adjuvant treatment of canine osteosarcoma with the human cytotoxic T cell line TALL-104. Clin. Cancer... canine malignant histiocytosis with the human MHC non-restricted cytotoxic T cell line TALL-104. Clin. Cancer Res., 3: 1789-1797, 1997. 14. Visonneau, S...Visonneau, S., Cesano, A., Jeglum, K. A., and Santoli, D. Adoptive therapy of canine metastatic mammary carcinoma with the human MHC non-restricted

  4. A burner for the combustion of spent tall oil soap

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hughes, P.M.; Wong, J.K.; Moffatt, B.; Belanger, G. [Natural Resources Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada). CANMET Energy Technology Centre; Soriano, D. [Brais Malouin and Associates, Montreal, PQ (Canada)

    2003-07-01

    Efficiency in industrial processes applies both to the form of energy involved and the many by-products resulting from the process. Tall oil soap (TOS) is a white frothy substance created during the pulping process. It contains chemicals that can be extracted for use in other industries. The processing of TOS results in a product called spent TOS. This study examined the incineration process to derive process heat from the calorific value in spent TOS. Brais Malouin and Associates (BMA) proposed that an atomizing nozzle should be used for use with this liquid in an incinerating burner. The efficiency of atomization of spent TOS with the BMA nozzle was determined by the Canada Centre for Mineral and Energy Technology (CANMET), which also characterized the combustion in a simulated boiler situation. The combustion tests were performed in the Pilot-Scale Research Boiler at the CANMET Energy Technology Centre (CETC). Pre-heating was done with a number 2 oil flame. Flame stability was determined by observing the flame through sight ports and by measuring the gas in the furnace. The experiments showed that spent TOS could successfully burn with a number 2 oil, in a proportion of 81 spent TOS to 19 oil mass ratio. As the amount of spent TOS was increased, the amount of sulphur dioxide, nitrogen oxide (NOx) and carbon monoxide decreased. The number 2 fuel oil was responsible for the sulphur dioxide in the exhaust. It is believed that the reduction in the carbon monoxide in the exhaust is attributable to the water-gas shift reaction. As the proportion of spent TOS increased, it was shown that the amount of NOx in the exhaust decreased rapidly. A bluish-green molten deposit formed in the furnace near the burner came from copper and manganese found in the ash of the spent TOS. 7 refs., 7 tabs., 16 figs.

  5. Stochastic Perron's method and elementary strategies for zero-sum differential games

    OpenAIRE

    Sîrbu, Mihai

    2013-01-01

    We develop here the Stochastic Perron Method in the framework of two-player zero-sum differential games. We consider the formulation of the game where both players play, symmetrically, feed-back strategies (as in [CR09] or [PZ12]) as opposed to the Elliott-Kalton formulation prevalent in the literature. The class of feed-back strategies we use is carefully chosen so that the state equation admits strong solutions and the technicalities involved in the Stochastic Perron Method carry through in...

  6. Analysis of Foundation of Tall R/C Chimney Incorporating Flexibility of Soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayalekshmi, B. R.; Jisha, S. V.; Shivashankar, R.

    2017-09-01

    Three dimensional Finite Element (FE) analysis was carried out for 100 and 400 m high R/C chimneys having piled annular raft and annular raft foundations considering the flexibility of soil subjected to across-wind load. Stiffness of supporting soil and foundation were varied to evaluate the significance of Soil-Structure Interaction (SSI). The integrated chimney-foundation-soil system was analysed by finite element software ANSYS based on direct method of SSI assuming linear elastic material behaviour. FE analyses were carried out for two cases of SSI namely, (1) chimney with annular raft foundation and (2) chimney with piled annular raft foundation. The responses in raft such as bending moments and settlements were evaluated for both the cases and compared to those obtained from the conventional method of analysis of annular raft foundation. It is found that the responses in raft vary considerably depending on the stiffness of the underlying soil and the stiffness of foundation. Piled raft foundations are better suited for tall chimneys to be constructed in loose or medium sand.

  7. From cat's eyes to disjoint multicellular natural convection flow in tall tilted cavities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nicolas, Alfredo, E-mail: anc@xanum.uam.mx [Depto. Matematicas, 3er Piso Ed. AT-Diego Bricio, UAM-I, 09340 Mexico D.F. (Mexico); Baez, Elsa [Depto. Matematicas Aplicadas y Sistemas, UAM-C, 01120 Mexico D.F. (Mexico); Bermudez, Blanca [Facultad de C. de la Computacion, BUAP, 72570 Puebla, Pue. (Mexico)

    2011-07-11

    Numerical results of two-dimensional natural convection problems, in air-filled tall cavities, are reported to study the change of the cat's eyes flow as some parameters vary, the aspect ratio A and the angle of inclination φ of the cavity, with the Rayleigh number Ra mostly fixed; explicitly, the range of the variation is given by 12≤A≤20 and 0{sup o}≤φ≤270{sup o}; about Ra=1.1x10{sup 4}. A novelty contribution of this work is the transition from the cat's eyes changes, as A varies, to a disjoint multicellular flow, as φ varies. These flows may be modeled by the unsteady Boussinesq approximation in stream function and vorticity variables which is solved with a fixed point iterative process applied to the nonlinear elliptic system that results after time discretization. The validation of the results relies on mesh size and time-step independence studies. -- Highlights: → Fixed point iterative method for solving symmetric linear elliptic problems. → Robust method to study effects as aspect ratio and angle of inclination vary. → Interest on the dynamics and evolution of the fluid flow and on heat transfer. → Study of transition from cat's eyes instability to a disjoint multicellular flow.

  8. Systematic derivation of an Australian standard for Tall Man lettering to distinguish similar drug names.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emmerton, Lynne; Rizk, Mariam F S; Bedford, Graham; Lalor, Daniel

    2015-02-01

    Confusion between similar drug names can cause harmful medication errors. Similar drug names can be visually differentiated using a typographical technique known as Tall Man lettering. While international conventions exist to derive Tall Man representation for drug names, there has been no national standard developed in Australia. This paper describes the derivation of a risk-based, standardized approach for use of Tall Man lettering in Australia, and known as National Tall Man Lettering. A three-stage approach was applied. An Australian list of similar drug names was systematically compiled from the literature and clinical error reports. Secondly, drug name pairs were prioritized using a risk matrix based on the likelihood of name confusion (a four-component score) vs. consensus ratings of the potential severity of the confusion by 31 expert reviewers. The mid-type Tall Man convention was then applied to derive the typography for the highest priority drug pair names. Of 250 pairs of confusable Australian drug names, comprising 341 discrete names, 35 pairs were identified by the matrix as an 'extreme' risk if confused. The mid-type Tall Man convention was successfully applied to the majority of the prioritized drugs; some adaption of the convention was required. This systematic process for identification of confusable drug names and associated risk, followed by application of a convention for Tall Man lettering, has produced a standard now endorsed for use in clinical settings in Australia. Periodic updating is recommended to accommodate new drug names and error reports. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  9. Learning and Study Strategies of Students with Traumatic Brain Injury: A Mixed Method Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bush, Erin; Hux, Karen; Zickefoose, Samantha; Simanek, Gina; Holmberg, Michelle; Henderson, Ambyr

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to explore the perceptions of four college students with severe traumatic brain injury and people associated with them regarding the use of learning skills and study strategies. The researchers employed a concurrent mixed method design using descriptive quantitative data as well as qualitative multiple case study…

  10. Initiating Self-Assessment Strategies in Novice Physiotherapy Students: A Method Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Catherine

    2013-01-01

    Student self- and peer-assessment strategies ideally are instigated early in programmes for health professionals. This study presents an innovative method of stimulating critical evaluation of clinical skills learned in the practical class setting for first year physiotherapy students. Twice in the semester (beginning and end) students assessed…

  11. New PWM method and commutation strategy for HF-link converters for fuel cells and photovoltaics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ljusev, Petar; Andersen, Michael Andreas E.

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents a new PWM method and commutation strategy for HF-link converters, which leads to safe commutation of the load current in the output bidirectional bridge. The proposed implementation is independent of the particular HF-link converter topology and bidirectional switch selection ...

  12. Use of Web Technology and Active Learning Strategies in a Quality Assessment Methods Course.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poirier, Therese I.; O'Neil, Christine K.

    2000-01-01

    The authors describe and evaluate quality assessment methods in a health care course that utilized web technology and various active learning strategies. The course was judged successful by student performance, evaluations and student assessments. The instructors were pleased with the outcomes achieved and the educational pedagogy used for this…

  13. Infestation of tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb. with Neotyphodium coenophialum and its influence on growth of chosen microorganisms in vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dariusz Pańka

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Occurrence of Neotyphodium coenophialum in tall fescue cultivars cultivated in Poland and determination an endophyte inhibition effect on mycelium growth of chosen microorganisms in vitro were investigated. Seventeen seed lots of 11 cultivars of tall fescue were examined. The endophyte mycelium was dyed with bengal rose and microscopically examined to detect N. coenophialum. Occurrence of endophyte was checked with PCR method. Influence of endophyte on growth of 15 microorganisms was established in the laboratory conditions on Petri dishes with PDA medium at 10, 20 and 30°C. Neotyphodium coenophialum occurred only in two seed lots, 'Barrocco' - 42% and Terros - 2%. Living mycelium of endophyte was isolated only from 'Barrocco'. The highest mycelium growth inhibition of Bipolaris sorokiniana, Fusarium avenaceum, F. equiseti, Microdochium nivale and Gaeumannomyces graminis by endophyte at 30°C was recorded. The highest width of growth inhibition zone (4mm was detected for the last pathogen. Mycelium growth of B. sorokiniana and M. nivale was not inhibited at 10°C, and for F. avenaceum at 10 and 20°C.

  14. Selection of the Bank Investment Strategy on the Basis of the Hierarchy Analysis Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhytar Maksym O.

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The goal of the article lies in identification of a methodical approach to selection of the investment strategy of banks on the basis of factors of its formation with the use of the hierarchy analysis method. Factors of formation of the bank’s investment strategy were identified in the result of the study. The article demonstrates that selection of the investment strategy of the bank could be efficiently realised on the basis of the hierarchy analysis method, which is the most popular under conditions of a multi-criteria assessment of the search for optimal solution of the set task. The article offers a hierarchical structure of decision making, which could be a basis of selection of the bank’s investment strategy with consideration of the institutional flexibility. The prospect of further study in this direction is development of an optimisation model of the bank’s investment portfolio with consideration of not only institutional, but also market flexibility of decision making.

  15. Wood-derived olefins by steam cracking of hydrodeoxygenated tall oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pyl, Steven P; Dijkmans, Thomas; Antonykutty, Jinto M; Reyniers, Marie-Françoise; Harlin, Ali; Van Geem, Kevin M; Marin, Guy B

    2012-12-01

    Tall oil fractions obtained from Norwegian spruce pulping were hydrodeoxygenated (HDO) at pilot scale using a commercial NiMo hydrotreating catalyst. Comprehensive two dimensional gas chromatography (GC×GC) showed that HDO of both tall oil fatty acids (TOFA) and distilled tall oil (DTO) produced highly paraffinic hydrocarbon liquids. The hydrotreated fractions also contained fatty acid methyl esters and norabietane and norabietatriene isomers. Steam cracking of HDO-TOFA in a pilot plant revealed that high light olefin yields can be obtained, with 35.4 wt.% of ethene and 18.2 wt.% of propene at a coil outlet pressure (COP) of 1.7 bara, a dilution of 0.45 kg(steam)/kg(HDO-TOFA) and a coil outlet temperature (COT) of 820 °C. A pilot plant coking experiment indicated that cracking of HDO-TOFA at a COT of 850 °C results in limited fouling in the reactor. Co-cracking of HDO tall oil fractions with a typical fossil-based naphtha showed improved selectivity to desired light olefins, further demonstrating the potential of large scale olefin production from hydrotreated tall oil fractions in conventional crackers. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Decision method for optimal selection of warehouse material handling strategies by production companies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobos, P.; Tamás, P.; Illés, B.

    2016-11-01

    Adequate establishment and operation of warehouse logistics determines the companies’ competitiveness significantly because it effects greatly the quality and the selling price of the goods that the production companies produce. In order to implement and manage an adequate warehouse system, adequate warehouse position, stock management model, warehouse technology, motivated work force committed to process improvement and material handling strategy are necessary. In practical life, companies have paid small attantion to select the warehouse strategy properly. Although it has a major influence on the production in the case of material warehouse and on smooth costumer service in the case of finished goods warehouse because this can happen with a huge loss in material handling. Due to the dynamically changing production structure, frequent reorganization of warehouse activities is needed, on what the majority of the companies react basically with no reactions. This work presents a simulation test system frames for eligible warehouse material handling strategy selection and also the decision method for selection.

  17. Robust Control Mixer Method for Reconfigurable Control Design Using Model Matching Strategy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Zhenyu; Blanke, Mogens; Verhagen, Michel

    2007-01-01

    A novel control mixer method for recon¯gurable control designs is developed. The proposed method extends the matrix-form of the conventional control mixer concept into a LTI dynamic system-form. The H_inf control technique is employed for these dynamic module designs after an augmented control...... system is constructed through a model-matching strategy. The stability, performance and robustness of the reconfigured system can be guaranteed when some conditions are satisfied. To illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed method, a robot system subjected to failures is used to demonstrate...

  18. Assessment of total evacuation systems for tall buildings

    CERN Document Server

    Ronchi, Enrico

    2014-01-01

    This SpringerBrief focuses on the use of egress models to assess the optimal strategy for total evacuation in high-rise buildings. It investigates occupant relocation and evacuation strategies involving the exit stairs, elevators, sky bridges and combinations thereof. Chapters review existing information on this topic and describe case study simulations of a multi-component exit strategy. This review provides the architectural design, regulatory and research communities with a thorough understanding of the current and emerging evacuation procedures and possible future options. A model case study simulates seven possible strategies for the total evacuation of two identical twin towers linked with two sky-bridges at different heights. The authors present the layout of the building and the available egress components including both vertical and horizontal egress components, namely stairs, occupant evacuation elevators (OEEs), service elevators, transfer floors and sky-bridges. The evacuation strategies employ a ...

  19. The Robust Control Mixer Method for Reconfigurable Control Design By Using Model Matching Strategy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Z.; Blanke, Mogens; Verhagen, M.

    2001-01-01

    This paper proposes a robust reconfigurable control synthesis method based on the combination of the control mixer method and robust H1 con- trol techniques through the model-matching strategy. The control mixer modules are extended from the conventional matrix-form into the LTI sys- tem form....... By regarding the nominal control system as the desired model, an augmented control system is constructed through the model-matching formulation, such that the current robust control techniques can be usedto synthesize these dynamical modules. One extension of this method with respect to the performance...... recovery besides the functionality recovery is also discussed under this framework. Comparing with the conventional control mixer method, the proposed method considers the recon gured system's stability, performance and robustness simultaneously. Finally, the proposed method is illustrated by a case study...

  20. Effective teaching strategies and methods of delivery for patient education: a systematic review and practice guideline recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, Audrey Jusko; Cosby, Roxanne; Boyko, Susan; Hatton-Bauer, Jane; Turnbull, Gale

    2011-03-01

    The objective of this study was to determine effective teaching strategies and methods of delivery for patient education (PE). A systematic review was conducted and reviews with or without meta-analyses, which examined teaching strategies and methods of delivery for PE, were included. Teaching strategies identified are traditional lectures, discussions, simulated games, computer technology, written material, audiovisual sources, verbal recall, demonstration, and role playing. Methods of delivery focused on how to deliver the teaching strategies. Teaching strategies that increased knowledge, decreased anxiety, and increased satisfaction included computer technology, audio and videotapes, written materials, and demonstrations. Various teaching strategies used in combination were similarly successful. Moreover, structured-, culturally appropriate- and patient-specific teachings were found to be better than ad hoc teaching or generalized teaching. Findings provide guidance for establishing provincial standards for the delivery of PE. Recommendations concerning the efficacy of the teaching strategies and delivery methods are provided.

  1. Assessment of combating-desertification strategies using the linear assignment method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan Sadeghravesh, Mohammad; Khosravi, Hassan; Ghasemian, Soudeh

    2016-04-01

    Nowadays desertification, as a global problem, affects many countries in the world, especially developing countries like Iran. With respect to increasing importance of desertification and its complexity, the necessity of attention to the optimal combating-desertification alternatives is essential. Selecting appropriate strategies according to all effective criteria to combat the desertification process can be useful in rehabilitating degraded lands and avoiding degradation in vulnerable fields. This study provides systematic and optimal strategies of combating desertification by use of a group decision-making model. To this end, the preferences of indexes were obtained through using the Delphi model, within the framework of multi-attribute decision making (MADM). Then, priorities of strategies were evaluated by using linear assignment (LA) method. According to the results, the strategies to prevent improper change of land use (A18), development and reclamation of plant cover (A23), and control overcharging of groundwater resources (A31) were identified as the most important strategies for combating desertification in this study area. Therefore, it is suggested that the aforementioned ranking results be considered in projects which control and reduce the effects of desertification and rehabilitate degraded lands.

  2. Evaluating water management strategies in watersheds by new hybrid Fuzzy Analytical Network Process (FANP) methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    RazaviToosi, S. L.; Samani, J. M. V.

    2016-03-01

    Watersheds are considered as hydrological units. Their other important aspects such as economic, social and environmental functions play crucial roles in sustainable development. The objective of this work is to develop methodologies to prioritize watersheds by considering different development strategies in environmental, social and economic sectors. This ranking could play a significant role in management to assign the most critical watersheds where by employing water management strategies, best condition changes are expected to be accomplished. Due to complex relations among different criteria, two new hybrid fuzzy ANP (Analytical Network Process) algorithms, fuzzy TOPSIS (Technique for Order Preference by Similarity to Ideal Solution) and fuzzy max-min set methods are used to provide more flexible and accurate decision model. Five watersheds in Iran named Oroomeyeh, Atrak, Sefidrood, Namak and Zayandehrood are considered as alternatives. Based on long term development goals, 38 water management strategies are defined as subcriteria in 10 clusters. The main advantage of the proposed methods is its ability to overcome uncertainty. This task is accomplished by using fuzzy numbers in all steps of the algorithms. To validate the proposed method, the final results were compared with those obtained from the ANP algorithm and the Spearman rank correlation coefficient is applied to find the similarity in the different ranking methods. Finally, the sensitivity analysis was conducted to investigate the influence of cluster weights on the final ranking.

  3. Use of a fuzzy decision-making method in evaluating severe accident management strategies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jae, M.; Moon, J.H.

    2002-01-01

    In developing severe accident management strategies, an engineering decision would be made based on the available data and information that are vague, imprecise and uncertain by nature. These sorts of vagueness and uncertainty are due to lack of knowledge for the severe accident sequences of interest. The fuzzy set theory offers a possibility of handling these sorts of data and information. In this paper, the possibility to apply the decision-making method based on fuzzy set theory to the evaluation of the accident management strategies at a nuclear power plant is scrutinized. The fuzzy decision-making method uses linguistic variables and fuzzy numbers to represent the decision-maker's subjective assessments for the decision alternatives according to the decision criteria. The fuzzy mean operator is used to aggregate the decision-maker's subjective assessments, while the total integral value method is used to rank the decision alternatives. As a case study, the proposed method is applied to evaluating the accident management strategies at a nuclear power plant

  4. A general solution strategy of modified power method for higher mode solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Peng; Lee, Hyunsuk; Lee, Deokjung

    2016-01-01

    A general solution strategy of the modified power iteration method for calculating higher eigenmodes has been developed and applied in continuous energy Monte Carlo simulation. The new approach adopts four features: 1) the eigen decomposition of transfer matrix, 2) weight cancellation for higher modes, 3) population control with higher mode weights, and 4) stabilization technique of statistical fluctuations using multi-cycle accumulations. The numerical tests of neutron transport eigenvalue problems successfully demonstrate that the new strategy can significantly accelerate the fission source convergence with stable convergence behavior while obtaining multiple higher eigenmodes at the same time. The advantages of the new strategy can be summarized as 1) the replacement of the cumbersome solution step of high order polynomial equations required by Booth's original method with the simple matrix eigen decomposition, 2) faster fission source convergence in inactive cycles, 3) more stable behaviors in both inactive and active cycles, and 4) smaller variances in active cycles. Advantages 3 and 4 can be attributed to the lower sensitivity of the new strategy to statistical fluctuations due to the multi-cycle accumulations. The application of the modified power method to continuous energy Monte Carlo simulation and the higher eigenmodes up to 4th order are reported for the first time in this paper. -- Graphical abstract: -- Highlights: •Modified power method is applied to continuous energy Monte Carlo simulation. •Transfer matrix is introduced to generalize the modified power method. •All mode based population control is applied to get the higher eigenmodes. •Statistic fluctuation can be greatly reduced using accumulated tally results. •Fission source convergence is accelerated with higher mode solutions.

  5. Ruminal tryptophan-utilizing bacteria degrade ergovaline from tall fescue seed extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harlow, B E; Goodman, J P; Lynn, B C; Flythe, M D; Ji, H; Aiken, G E

    2017-02-01

    The objectives of this study were to evaluate degradation of ergovaline in a tall fescue [ (Schreb.) Darbysh.] seed extract by rumen microbiota ex vivo and to identify specific bacteria capable of ergovaline degradation in vitro. Rumen cell suspensions were prepared by harvesting rumen fluid from fistulated wether goats ( = 3), straining, and differential centrifugation. Suspensions were dispensed into anaerobic tubes with added Trypticase with or without extract (∼10 μg kg ergovaline). Suspensions were incubated for 48 h at 39°C. Samples were collected at 0, 24, and 48 h for ergovaline analysis and enumeration of hyper-ammonia producing (HAB) and tryptophan-utilizing bacteria. Ergovaline values were analyzed by repeated measures using the mixed procedure of SAS. Enumeration data were log transformed for statistical analysis. When suspensions were incubated with extract, 11 to 15% of ergovaline disappearance was observed over 48 h ( = 0.02). After 24 h, suspensions with added extract had 10-fold less HAB than controls ( = 0.04), but treatments were similar by 48 h ( = 1.00). However, after 24 h and 48 h, suspensions with extract had 10-fold more tryptophan-utilizing bacteria ( rumen pure cultures ( JB1, B159, HD4, B, F, MD1, SR) were evaluated for the ability to degrade ergovaline in vitro. Pure culture cell suspensions were incubated as described above and samples were taken at 0 and 48 h for ergovaline analysis. Data were analyzed using the ANOVA procedure of SAS. All HAB, including the isolates, tested degraded ergovaline (54 to 75%; bacteria tested did not degrade ergovaline. The results of this study indicate which rumen bacteria may play an important role in ergovaline degradation and that microbiological strategies for controlling their activity could have ramifications for fescue toxicosis and other forms of ergotism in ruminants.

  6. Usage of methyl ester of tall oil fatty acids and resinic acids as alternative diesel fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keskin, Ali; Yasar, Abdulkadir; Guerue, Metin; Altiparmak, Duran

    2010-01-01

    In the experimental study, tall oil fatty and resinic acids were investigated as alternative diesel fuels. The fatty acids, obtained by distilling the crude tall oil, were esterified with methanol in order to obtain tall oil methyl ester (biodiesel). Blends of the methyl ester, resinic acids and diesel fuel were prepared for test fuels. Performance and emission tests of the test fuels were carried out in an unmodified direct injection diesel engine on full load conditions. The results showed that the specific fuel consumption (SFC) with the blend fuels did not show a significant change. CO emission and smoke level decreased up to 23.91% and 19.40%, respectively. In general, NO x emissions showed on trend of increasing with the blend fuels (up to 25.42%). CO 2 emissions did not vary with the blend fuels significantly.

  7. Usage of methyl ester of tall oil fatty acids and resinic acids as alternative diesel fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keskin, Ali; Yasar, Abdulkadir [Tarsus Technical Education Faculty, Mersin University, 33500 Mersin (Turkey); Guerue, Metin [Engineering and Architectural Faculty, Gazi University, 06570 Maltepe, Ankara (Turkey); Altiparmak, Duran [Technical Education Faculty, Gazi University, 06500 Ankara (Turkey)

    2010-12-15

    In the experimental study, tall oil fatty and resinic acids were investigated as alternative diesel fuels. The fatty acids, obtained by distilling the crude tall oil, were esterified with methanol in order to obtain tall oil methyl ester (biodiesel). Blends of the methyl ester, resinic acids and diesel fuel were prepared for test fuels. Performance and emission tests of the test fuels were carried out in an unmodified direct injection diesel engine on full load conditions. The results showed that the specific fuel consumption (SFC) with the blend fuels did not show a significant change. CO emission and smoke level decreased up to 23.91% and 19.40%, respectively. In general, NO{sub x} emissions showed on trend of increasing with the blend fuels (up to 25.42%). CO{sub 2} emissions did not vary with the blend fuels significantly. (author)

  8. Multi-objective Optimization Strategies Using Adjoint Method and Game Theory in Aerodynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Zhili

    2006-08-01

    There are currently three different game strategies originated in economics: (1) Cooperative games (Pareto front), (2) Competitive games (Nash game) and (3) Hierarchical games (Stackelberg game). Each game achieves different equilibria with different performance, and their players play different roles in the games. Here, we introduced game concept into aerodynamic design, and combined it with adjoint method to solve multi-criteria aerodynamic optimization problems. The performance distinction of the equilibria of these three game strategies was investigated by numerical experiments. We computed Pareto front, Nash and Stackelberg equilibria of the same optimization problem with two conflicting and hierarchical targets under different parameterizations by using the deterministic optimization method. The numerical results show clearly that all the equilibria solutions are inferior to the Pareto front. Non-dominated Pareto front solutions are obtained, however the CPU cost to capture a set of solutions makes the Pareto front an expensive tool to the designer.

  9. Increasing students’ skills in operations management classes: Cumbuca Method as teaching-learning strategy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Muniz Junior

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This paper analyses the use of the Cumbuca Method as a teaching strategy to develop reading skills in engineering students. Despite their importance, reading skills are little stimulated in engineering undergraduate courses. Teamwork, communication, organization and exposure of ideas, time management are also important skills to new employees. The Cumbuca Method was created to disseminate quality concepts among company employees, by discussing text related to a given topic of interest. This analysis is based on a qualitative approach involving a sample of 200 engineering undergraduates from Operations Management discipline at a public University in the State of Sao Paulo, Brazil. The results showed that the use of this teaching strategy inducted improvements to regular reading and debate among students.

  10. Statistical analysis with measurement error or misclassification strategy, method and application

    CERN Document Server

    Yi, Grace Y

    2017-01-01

    This monograph on measurement error and misclassification covers a broad range of problems and emphasizes unique features in modeling and analyzing problems arising from medical research and epidemiological studies. Many measurement error and misclassification problems have been addressed in various fields over the years as well as with a wide spectrum of data, including event history data (such as survival data and recurrent event data), correlated data (such as longitudinal data and clustered data), multi-state event data, and data arising from case-control studies. Statistical Analysis with Measurement Error or Misclassification: Strategy, Method and Application brings together assorted methods in a single text and provides an update of recent developments for a variety of settings. Measurement error effects and strategies of handling mismeasurement for different models are closely examined in combination with applications to specific problems. Readers with diverse backgrounds and objectives can utilize th...

  11. Development of an evaluation method for optimization of maintenance strategy in commercial plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ito, Satoshi; Shiraishi, Natsuki; Yuki, Kazuhisa; Hashizume, Hidetoshi

    2006-01-01

    In this study, a new simulation method is developed for optimization of maintenance strategy in NPP as a multiple-objective optimization problem (MOP). The result of operation is evaluated as the average of the following three measures in 3,000 trials: Cost of Electricity (COE) as economic risk, Frequency of unplanned shutdown as plant reliability, and Unavailability of Regular Service System (RSS) and Engineering Safety Features (ESF) as safety measures. The following maintenance parameters are considered to evaluate several risk in plant operation by changing maintenance strategy: planned outage cycle, surveillance cycle, major inspection cycle, and surveillance cycle depending on the value of Fussel-Vesely importance measure. By using the Decision-Making method based on AHP, there are individual tendencies depending on individual decision-maker. Therefore this study could be useful for resolving the problem of maintenance optimization as a MOP. (author)

  12. Multi-objective optimization strategies using adjoint method and game theory in aerodynamics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhili Tang

    2006-01-01

    There are currently three different game strategies originated in economics:(1) Cooperative games (Pareto front),(2)Competitive games (Nash game) and (3)Hierarchical games (Stackelberg game).Each game achieves different equilibria with different performance,and their players play different roles in the games.Here,we introduced game concept into aerodynamic design, and combined it with adjoint method to solve multicriteria aerodynamic optimization problems.The performance distinction of the equilibria of these three game strategies was investigated by numerical experiments.We computed Pareto front, Nash and Stackelberg equilibria of the same optimization problem with two conflicting and hierarchical targets under different parameterizations by using the deterministic optimization method.The numerical results show clearly that all the equilibria solutions are inferior to the Pareto front.Non-dominated Pareto front solutions are obtained,however the CPU cost to capture a set of solutions makes the Pareto front an expensive tool to the designer.

  13. Novel design methods and control strategies for oil and gas offshore power systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pierobon, Leonardo

    content), or when the thermal stresses on the working fluid should be minimized. Additionally, the controller is demonstrated to improve the dynamic flexibility of the plant compared to the reference controller designed by the gas turbine manufacturer.The model predictive control can reduce the frequency......This doctoral thesis is devoted to the research of innovative design methods and control strategies for power systems supplying future and existing oshore oil and gas facilities.The author uses these methods to address five research challenges: i) the definitionof the optimal waste heat recovery...... technology, ii) the identification of the best working fluid to design ecient, light and cost-competitive waste heat recovery units, iii) the integration of dynamic criteria in the project phase to discard infeasible designs, iv) the development of a novel control strategy to optimally operate the power...

  14. Investigating the Effectiveness of Teaching Methods Based on a Four-Step Constructivist Strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çalik, Muammer; Ayas, Alipaşa; Coll, Richard K.

    2010-02-01

    This paper reports on an investigation of the effectiveness an intervention using several different methods for teaching solution chemistry. The teaching strategy comprised a four-step approach derived from a constructivist view of learning. A sample consisting of 44 students (18 boys and 26 girls) was selected purposively from two different Grade 9 classes in the city of Trabzon, Turkey. Data collection employed a purpose-designed `solution chemistry concept test', consisting of 17 items, with the quantitative data from the survey supported by qualitative interview data. The findings suggest that using different methods embedded within the four-step constructivist-based teaching strategy enables students to refute some alternative conceptions, but does not completely eliminate student alternative conceptions for solution chemistry.

  15. Application of capability indices and control charts in the analytical method control strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliva, Alexis; Llabres Martinez, Matías

    2017-08-01

    In this study, we assessed the usefulness of control charts in combination with the process capability indices, C pm and C pk , in the control strategy of an analytical method. The traditional X-chart and moving range chart were used to monitor the analytical method over a 2-year period. The results confirmed that the analytical method is in-control and stable. Different criteria were used to establish the specifications limits (i.e. analyst requirements) for fixed method performance (i.e. method requirements). If the specification limits and control limits are equal in breadth, the method can be considered "capable" (C pm  = 1), but it does not satisfy the minimum method capability requirements proposed by Pearn and Shu (2003). Similar results were obtained using the C pk index. The method capability was also assessed as a function of method performance for fixed analyst requirements. The results indicate that the method does not meet the requirements of the analytical target approach. A real-example data of a SEC with light-scattering detection method was used as a model whereas previously published data were used to illustrate the applicability of the proposed approach. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. The power of words in financial markets: soft versus hard communication,a strategy method experiment

    OpenAIRE

    Corgnet Bruce; Angela Sutan; Arvin Aashta

    2006-01-01

    The main objective of this paper is to analyze the impact of non-informative communications on asset prices. An experimental approach allows us to control for the release of non-relevant messages. We introduce the release of messages in standard experimental asset markets with bubbles (Smith, Suchanek and Williams 1988) through a strategy method experiment. We conjecture that a priori uninformative messages can significantly impact the level of asset prices. Uninformative communications may b...

  17. Developing TOPSIS method using statistical normalization for selecting knowledge management strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amin Zadeh Sarraf

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Numerous companies are expecting their knowledge management (KM to be performed effectively in order to leverage and transform the knowledge into competitive advantages. However, here raises a critical issue of how companies can better evaluate and select a favorable KM strategy prior to a successful KM implementation. Design/methodology/approach: An extension of TOPSIS, a multi-attribute decision making (MADM technique, to a group decision environment is investigated. TOPSIS is a practical and useful technique for ranking and selection of a number of externally determined alternatives through distance measures. The entropy method is often used for assessing weights in the TOPSIS method. Entropy in information theory is a criterion uses for measuring the amount of disorder represented by a discrete probability distribution. According to decrease resistance degree of employees opposite of implementing a new strategy, it seems necessary to spot all managers’ opinion. The normal distribution considered the most prominent probability distribution in statistics is used to normalize gathered data. Findings: The results of this study show that by considering 6 criteria for alternatives Evaluation, the most appropriate KM strategy to implement  in our company was ‘‘Personalization’’. Research limitations/implications: In this research, there are some assumptions that might affect the accuracy of the approach such as normal distribution of sample and community. These assumptions can be changed in future work. Originality/value: This paper proposes an effective solution based on combined entropy and TOPSIS approach to help companies that need to evaluate and select KM strategies. In represented solution, opinions of all managers is gathered and normalized by using standard normal distribution and central limit theorem. Keywords: Knowledge management; strategy; TOPSIS; Normal distribution; entropy

  18. A general strategy toward the rational synthesis of metal tungstate nanostructures using plasma electrolytic oxidation method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang, Yanan; Liu, Baodan; Zhai, Zhaofeng; Liu, Xiaoyuan; Yang, Bing; Liu, Lusheng; Jiang, Xin

    2015-01-01

    Graphical abstract: A general strategy for the rational synthesis of tungstate nanostructure has been developed based on plasma electrolytic oxidation (PEO) technology (up). Using this method, ZnWO 4 and NiWO 4 nanostructures with controllable morphologies and superior crystallinity can be easily obtained (down), showing obvious advantage in comparison with conventional hydrothermal and sol–gel methods. - Highlights: • Plasma electrolyte oxidation (PEO) method has been used for the rational synthesis of tungstate nanostructures. • ZnWO 4 nanoplates have strong mechanical adhesion with porous TiO 2 film substrate. • The morphology and dimensional size of ZnWO 4 nanostructures can be selectively tailored by controlling the annealing temperature and growth time. • The PEO method can be widely applied to the growth of various metal oxides. - Abstract: A new method based on conventional plasma electrolytic oxidation (PEO) technology has been developed for the rational synthesis of metal tungstate nanostructures. Using this method, ZnWO 4 and NiWO 4 nanostructures with controllable morphologies (nanorods, nanosheets and microsheets) and superior crystallinity have been synthesized. It has been found that the morphology diversity of ZnWO 4 nanostructures can be selectively tailored through tuning the electrolyte concentration and annealing temperatures, showing obvious advantages in comparison to traditional hydrothermal and sol–gel methods. Precise microscopy analyses on the cross section of the PEO coating and ZnWO 4 nanostructures confirmed that the precursors initially precipitated in the PEO coating and its surface during plasma discharge process are responsible for the nucleation and subsequent growth of metal tungstate nanostructures by thermal annealing. The method developed in this work represents a general strategy toward the rational synthesis of metal oxide nanostructures and the formation mechanism of metal tungstate nanostructures fabricated by

  19. A general strategy toward the rational synthesis of metal tungstate nanostructures using plasma electrolytic oxidation method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiang, Yanan; Liu, Baodan, E-mail: baodanliu@imr.ac.cn; Zhai, Zhaofeng; Liu, Xiaoyuan; Yang, Bing; Liu, Lusheng; Jiang, Xin, E-mail: xjiang@imr.ac.cn

    2015-11-30

    Graphical abstract: A general strategy for the rational synthesis of tungstate nanostructure has been developed based on plasma electrolytic oxidation (PEO) technology (up). Using this method, ZnWO{sub 4} and NiWO{sub 4} nanostructures with controllable morphologies and superior crystallinity can be easily obtained (down), showing obvious advantage in comparison with conventional hydrothermal and sol–gel methods. - Highlights: • Plasma electrolyte oxidation (PEO) method has been used for the rational synthesis of tungstate nanostructures. • ZnWO{sub 4} nanoplates have strong mechanical adhesion with porous TiO{sub 2} film substrate. • The morphology and dimensional size of ZnWO{sub 4} nanostructures can be selectively tailored by controlling the annealing temperature and growth time. • The PEO method can be widely applied to the growth of various metal oxides. - Abstract: A new method based on conventional plasma electrolytic oxidation (PEO) technology has been developed for the rational synthesis of metal tungstate nanostructures. Using this method, ZnWO{sub 4} and NiWO{sub 4} nanostructures with controllable morphologies (nanorods, nanosheets and microsheets) and superior crystallinity have been synthesized. It has been found that the morphology diversity of ZnWO{sub 4} nanostructures can be selectively tailored through tuning the electrolyte concentration and annealing temperatures, showing obvious advantages in comparison to traditional hydrothermal and sol–gel methods. Precise microscopy analyses on the cross section of the PEO coating and ZnWO{sub 4} nanostructures confirmed that the precursors initially precipitated in the PEO coating and its surface during plasma discharge process are responsible for the nucleation and subsequent growth of metal tungstate nanostructures by thermal annealing. The method developed in this work represents a general strategy toward the rational synthesis of metal oxide nanostructures and the formation mechanism of

  20. A novel analysis strategy for HLA typing using a sequence-specific oligonucleotide probe method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Won, D I

    2017-11-01

    The technique of reverse sequence-specific oligonucleotide probes (SSOPs) is commonly used in human leukocyte antigen (HLA) typing. In the conventional method for data analysis (exact pattern matching, EPM), the larger is the number of mismatched probes, the longer the time for final typing assignment. A novel strategy, filtering and scoring (FnS), has been developed to easily assign the best-fit allele pair. In the FnS method, candidate alleles and allele pairs were filtered based on (1) subject's ethnicity, and (2) the measured partial reaction pattern with only definitely negative or positive probes. Then, the complete reaction pattern for all probes (CRPoAPs) were compared between the raw sample and expected residual allele pairs to obtain mismatch scores. To compare the FnS and EPM methods, each analysis time (minutes:seconds) for reverse SSOP HLA typing with intermediate resolution (n = 507) was measured. The analysis time with FnS method was shorter than that of the EPM method [00:21 (00:08-01:47) and 01:04 (00:15-23:45), respectively, P typing in a comprehensive and quantitative comparison between measured and expected CRPoAPs of candidate allele pairs. Therefore, this analysis strategy might be useful in a clinical setting. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. A general parallelization strategy for random path based geostatistical simulation methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mariethoz, Grégoire

    2010-07-01

    The size of simulation grids used for numerical models has increased by many orders of magnitude in the past years, and this trend is likely to continue. Efficient pixel-based geostatistical simulation algorithms have been developed, but for very large grids and complex spatial models, the computational burden remains heavy. As cluster computers become widely available, using parallel strategies is a natural step for increasing the usable grid size and the complexity of the models. These strategies must profit from of the possibilities offered by machines with a large number of processors. On such machines, the bottleneck is often the communication time between processors. We present a strategy distributing grid nodes among all available processors while minimizing communication and latency times. It consists in centralizing the simulation on a master processor that calls other slave processors as if they were functions simulating one node every time. The key is to decouple the sending and the receiving operations to avoid synchronization. Centralization allows having a conflict management system ensuring that nodes being simulated simultaneously do not interfere in terms of neighborhood. The strategy is computationally efficient and is versatile enough to be applicable to all random path based simulation methods.

  2. 77 FR 47624 - Tall Bear Group, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-09

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. ER12-2374-000] Tall Bear Group, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market- Based Rate Filing Includes Request for Blanket Section 204 Authorization This is a supplemental notice in the above-referenced proceeding, of Tall Bear...

  3. Dynamics of tall buildings under stochastic wind load: Applicability of Eurocode EN 1991-1-4 procedures 1 and 2

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steenbergen, R.D.J.M.; Vrouwenvelder, A.C.W.M.; Geurts, C.P.W.

    2009-01-01

    The new generation of tall buildings is higher and more slender than the buildings built before. Additionally, increased use is made of high-strength materials which have a higher strength yet the same stiffness properties as conventional materials. Both aspects increase the sensitivity of tall

  4. Dynamics of tall buildings under stochastic wind load: applicability of Eurocode EN 1991-1-4 procedures 1 and 2

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steenbergen, R.D.J.M.; Vrouwenvelder, A.C.W.M.; Geurts, C.P.W.; Borri, C.

    2009-01-01

    The new generation of tall buildings is higher and more slender than the buildings built before. Additionally, increased use is made of high-strength materials which have a higher strength yet the same stiffness properties as conventional materials. Both aspects increase the sensitivity of tall

  5. Alterations in serotonin receptor-induced contractility of bovine lateral saphenous vein in cattle grazing endophyte-infected tall fescue

    Science.gov (United States)

    As part of a large 2-year study documenting the physiologic impact of grazing endophyte-infected tall fescue on growing cattle, 2 experiments were conducted to characterize and evaluate the effects of grazing 2 levels of toxic endophyte-infected tall fescue pastures on vascular contractility and ser...

  6. A new power mapping method based on ordinary kriging and determination of optimal detector location strategy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peng, Xingjie; Wang, Kan; Li, Qing

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • A new power mapping method based on Ordinary Kriging (OK) is proposed. • Measurements from DayaBay Unit 1 PWR are used to verify the OK method. • The OK method performs better than the CECOR method. • An optimal neutron detector location strategy based on ordinary kriging and simulated annealing is proposed. - Abstract: The Ordinary Kriging (OK) method is presented that is designed for a core power mapping calculation of pressurized water reactors (PWRs). Measurements from DayaBay Unit 1 PWR are used to verify the accuracy of the OK method. The root mean square (RMS) reconstruction errors are kept at less than 0.35%, and the maximum reconstruction relative errors (RE) are kept at less than 1.02% for the entire operating cycle. The reconstructed assembly power distribution results show that the OK method is fit for core power distribution monitoring. The quality of power distribution obtained by the OK method is partly determined by the neutron detector locations, and the OK method is also applied to solve the optimal neutron detector location problem. The spatially averaged ordinary kriging variance (AOKV) is minimized using simulated annealing, and then, the optimal in-core neutron detector locations are obtained. The result shows that the current neutron detector location of DayaBay Unit 1 reactor is near-optimal

  7. A comparative proteomics method for multiple samples based on a 18O-reference strategy and a quantitation and identification-decoupled strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hongbin; Zhang, Yongqian; Gui, Shuqi; Zhang, Yong; Lu, Fuping; Deng, Yulin

    2017-08-15

    Comparisons across large numbers of samples are frequently necessary in quantitative proteomics. Many quantitative methods used in proteomics are based on stable isotope labeling, but most of these are only useful for comparing two samples. For up to eight samples, the iTRAQ labeling technique can be used. For greater numbers of samples, the label-free method has been used, but this method was criticized for low reproducibility and accuracy. An ingenious strategy has been introduced, comparing each sample against a 18 O-labeled reference sample that was created by pooling equal amounts of all samples. However, it is necessary to use proportion-known protein mixtures to investigate and evaluate this new strategy. Another problem for comparative proteomics of multiple samples is the poor coincidence and reproducibility in protein identification results across samples. In present study, a method combining 18 O-reference strategy and a quantitation and identification-decoupled strategy was investigated with proportion-known protein mixtures. The results obviously demonstrated that the 18 O-reference strategy had greater accuracy and reliability than other previously used comparison methods based on transferring comparison or label-free strategies. By the decoupling strategy, the quantification data acquired by LC-MS and the identification data acquired by LC-MS/MS are matched and correlated to identify differential expressed proteins, according to retention time and accurate mass. This strategy made protein identification possible for all samples using a single pooled sample, and therefore gave a good reproducibility in protein identification across multiple samples, and allowed for optimizing peptide identification separately so as to identify more proteins. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Research on Improved Control Strategy for STATCOM Based on Virtual Matrix Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Xudong

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Fast and accurate detection of reactive current is the precondition for the realization of static synchronous compensator (STATCOM reactive power compensation and harmonic suppression. Aiming at deviation and delay of the traditional reactive current detection algorithm with phase-locked loop (PLL and low-pass filter (LPF of STATCOM, a novel improved reactive current detection algorithm without PLL is proposed, in which the virtual matrix (VM is built to replace the original PLL, and improved current average value filter is used to realize the function of LPF, so as to improve the real-time performance and robustness of reactive current detection. The realization process of VM detection method is derived in this paper, and improved control strategy for STATCOM is designed based on the VM detection method. Simulation analysis of the proposed detection algorithm and control strategy is conducted in Matlab platform so as to verify the correctness and effectiveness of the control strategy. The VM detection has the advantages of simple structure, fast response and easy for digital realization, which provides reference for the improvement of reactive power compensation precision for STATCOM.

  9. Coupling Strategies Investigation of Hybrid Atomistic-Continuum Method Based on State Variable Coupling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qian Wang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Different configurations of coupling strategies influence greatly the accuracy and convergence of the simulation results in the hybrid atomistic-continuum method. This study aims to quantitatively investigate this effect and offer the guidance on how to choose the proper configuration of coupling strategies in the hybrid atomistic-continuum method. We first propose a hybrid molecular dynamics- (MD- continuum solver in LAMMPS and OpenFOAM that exchanges state variables between the atomistic region and the continuum region and evaluate different configurations of coupling strategies using the sudden start Couette flow, aiming to find the preferable configuration that delivers better accuracy and efficiency. The major findings are as follows: (1 the C→A region plays the most important role in the overlap region and the “4-layer-1” combination achieves the best precision with a fixed width of the overlap region; (2 the data exchanging operation only needs a few sampling points closer to the occasions of interactions and decreasing the coupling exchange operations can reduce the computational load with acceptable errors; (3 the nonperiodic boundary force model with a smoothing parameter of 0.1 and a finer parameter of 20 can not only achieve the minimum disturbance near the MD-continuum interface but also keep the simulation precision.

  10. Strategies for research engagement of clinicians in allied health (STRETCH): a mixed methods research protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mickan, Sharon; Wenke, Rachel; Weir, Kelly; Bialocerkowski, Andrea; Noble, Christy

    2017-09-11

    Allied health professionals (AHPs) report positive attitudes to using research evidence in clinical practice, yet often lack time, confidence and skills to use, participate in and conduct research. A range of multifaceted strategies including education, mentoring and guidance have been implemented to increase AHPs' use of and participation in research. Emerging evidence suggests that knowledge brokering activities have the potential to support research engagement, but it is not clear which knowledge brokering strategies are most effective and in what contexts they work best to support and maintain clinicians' research engagement. This protocol describes an exploratory concurrent mixed methods study that is designed to understand how allied health research fellows use knowledge brokering strategies within tailored evidence-based interventions, to facilitate research engagement by allied health clinicians. Simultaneously, a realist approach will guide a systematic process evaluation of the research fellows' pattern of use of knowledge brokering strategies within each case study to build a programme theory explaining which knowledge brokering strategies work best, in what contexts and why. Learning and behavioural theories will inform this critical explanation. An explanation of how locally tailored evidence-based interventions improve AHPs use of, participation in and leadership of research projects will be summarised and shared with all participating clinicians and within each case study. It is expected that local recommendations will be developed and shared with medical and nursing professionals in and beyond the health service, to facilitate building research capacity in a systematic and effective way. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  11. An Integrated Mixed Methods Research Design: Example of the Project Foreign Language Learning Strategies and Achievement: Analysis of Strategy Clusters and Sequences

    OpenAIRE

    Vlčková Kateřina

    2014-01-01

    The presentation focused on an so called integrated mixed method research design example on a basis of a Czech Science Foundation Project Nr. GAP407/12/0432 "Foreign Language Learning Strategies and Achievement: Analysis of Strategy Clusters and Sequences". All main integrated parts of the mixed methods research design were discussed: the aim, theoretical framework, research question, methods and validity threats. Prezentace se zaměřovala na tzv. integrovaný vícemetodový výzkumný design na...

  12. Upgrading of raw tall oil soap into fuel oils and lubricants. Final report; Raakasuovan jalostus poltto- ja voiteluoeljyksi. Loppuraportti

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oasmaa, A.; Arpiainen, V.; McKeough, P.

    1997-12-31

    Thermochemical processing of tall oil soap originating from various mixtures of birch and pine has been experimentally investigated. The organic matter of tall oil soap, which is a by- product of Kraft pulping, originated mainly from wood extractives. Conventional processing of tall oil soap involves acidification with sulfuric acid to yield crude tall oil and subsequent distillation of the oil at centralized refineries. Because tall oil originating from birch wood is far less valuable than that from pine, there is an economic incentive in the Nordic Countries to develop alternative conversion processes for the tall oil soap produced at pulp mills where birch is widely used as feedstock. Furthermore, thermochemical processing of tall oil soap does not introduce sulfur into the chemical recovery cycle. This would be a significant advantage in future mills employing closure of water circuits and/or sulfur-free pulping. In small-scale experiments tall oil soaps from wood mixtures with high birch content have been processed using both liquid-phase thermal treatment and pyrolysis. The liquid-phase thermal treatment at 450 deg C under a nitrogen atmosphere yielded a good-quality oil product at high yield (about 50 % of the energy content of the tall oil soap). Also in the atmospheric pyrolysis of birch tall oil soap a separation of inorganic and organic constituents was obtained. The energy value of the product gases was high. Both processes are promising, but the pyrolysis alternative has the greater economic potential, providing that the promising preliminary experimental results have given a true picture of the performance of the full-scale pyrolysis process Bioenergy Research Programme; 3 refs., 3 figs.

  13. Effect of management factors on tiller dynamics in tall fescue: tiller ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of plant density (row spacing/seeding rate), nitrogen (N) fertilization, cultivar choice and close-down date on tiller initiation in tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb.), managed for seed production, was examined over two years. In the first season, tiller studies were conducted on eight individual plants in each ...

  14. Coretta Scott King Award Winner Javaka Steptoe Stands Tall "In Daddy's Arms."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peck, Jackie; Hendershot, Judy

    1999-01-01

    Offers an interview with artist and author Javaka Steptoe, winner of the Coretta Scott King award for his book "In Daddy's Arms I Am Tall: African Americans Celebrating Fathers." Discusses his background in the arts, the variety of media he uses, how he begins thinking about his illustrations, his work with children's art, and aspects of his work.…

  15. Differential effects of citric acid on cadmium uptake and accumulation between tall fescue and Kentucky bluegrass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, ShuTing; Dong, Qin; Wang, ZhaoLong

    2017-11-01

    Organic acids play an important role in cadmium availability, uptake, translocation, and detoxification. A sand culture experiment was designed to investigate the effects of citric acid on Cd uptake, translocation, and accumulation in tall fescue and Kentucky bluegrass. The results showed that two grass species presented different Cd chemical forms, organic acid components and amount in roots. The dormant Cd accumulated in roots of tall fescue was the pectate- and protein- integrated form, which contributed by 84.85%. However, in Kentucky bluegrass, the pectate- and protein- integrated Cd was only contributed by 35.78%, and the higher proportion of Cd form was the water soluble Cd-organic acid complexes. In tall fescue, citric acid dramatically enhanced 2.8 fold of Cd uptake, 3 fold of root Cd accumulation, and 2.3 fold of shoot Cd accumulation. In Kentucky bluegrass, citric acid promoted Cd accumulation in roots, but significantly decreased Cd accumulation in shoots. These results suggested that the enhancements of citric acid on Cd uptake, translocation, and accumulation in tall fescue was associated with its promotion of organic acids and the water soluble Cd-organic acid complexes in roots. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Fertility of Tall Girls Treated with High-Dose Estrogen, a Dose-Response Relationship

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hendriks, A. E. J.; Drop, S. L. S.; Laven, J. S. E.; Boot, A. M.

    Context: High-dose estrogen treatment to reduce final height of tall girls increases their risk for infertility in later life. Objective: The aim was to study the effect of estrogen dose on fertility outcome of these women. Design/Setting: We conducted a retrospective cohort study of university

  17. Mäetaguse mõisa tall-tõllakuuri ümberehitamine hotelliks / Ermo Reiska

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Reiska, Ermo

    2006-01-01

    Muinsuskaitse eritingimused: A. Pantelejev. Projekt: AS Restor. Ehitaja: OÜ Vet Ehitus Grupp. Muinsuskaitseline järelevalve: OÜ Zoroaster, Aivo Raud. Tall-tõllakuuri ümberehitamisel hotelliks "Meintack" säilitati hoone ajaloolistes gabariitides, restaureeriti fassaadid, taastati endine kelpkatus ning ühendati juurdeehituse abil endise veskihoonega

  18. Relative effectiveness of sewage sludge as a nitrogen fertilizer for tall fescue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kiemnec, G.L.; Jackson, T.L.; Hemphill, D.D. Jr.; Volk, V.V.

    Sewage sludge application rates on grasses are mainly determined by N availability and concentration of toxic metals in sludge. The exact availability of N in sludge is difficult to predict. A 3-yr study was conducted to determine which sludge rates would give yields of tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea Shreb. Alta) comparable to yields obtained from inorganic N application. Sludge and NH/sub 4/NO/sub 3/ were surface applied at annual rates of 0, 110, 220, 440, and 880 (sludge only) kg N/ha. Dry matter yield of tall fescue from sludge-treated soils was 36, 56, and 50% of that on NH/sub 4/NO/sub 3/-treated soils for 1976, 1977, and 1978, respectively. Sludge was 27, 41, and 44% as effective as NH/sub 4/NO/sub 3/ as a source of available N in 1976, 1977, and 1978, respectively. Ammonium-N in the sewage sludge apparently provided most of the available N for fescue growth. Concentrations of Zn, Cd, and Cu were higher and Mn lower in tall fescue grown on sludge-treated soil with NH/sub 4/NO/sub 3/ and usually increased toward the end of the growing season. However, plant concentrations of these heavy metals never reached toxic levels at any time. Sewage sludge was an effective and safe nutrient source for tall fescue.

  19. Vasoconstriction in horses caused by endophyte-infected tall fescue seed is detected with Doppler ultrasonography

    Science.gov (United States)

    The hypotheses that endophyte (Neotyphodium coenophialum)-infected tall fescue (TF) seed causes vasoconstriction in horses in vivo and that ground seed would cause more pronounced vasoconstriction than whole seed were tested. Ten horses each received 1 of 3 treatments: endophyte-free ground (E–G; n ...

  20. Challenges of managing disease in tall orchard trees – pecan scab, a case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Managing disease in tall orchard trees presents unique issues not found in relatively shorter horticultural and agronomic crops, simply due to height. Pecan scab (caused by Fusicladium effusum [G. Winter] Seyran et al.) is used as an example of a major disease of one of the tallest orchard crops in ...

  1. Progress on the development of seismic resilient Tall CLT Buildings in the Pacific Northwest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiling Pei; Jeffrey Berman; Daniel Dolan; John van de Lindt; James Ricles; Richard Sause; Hans-Erik Blomgren; Marjan Popovski; Douglas Rammer

    2014-01-01

    As urban densification occurs in U.S. regions of high seismicity, there is a natural demand for seismically resilient tall buildings that are reliable, economically viable, and can be rapidly constructed. In urban regions on the west coast of the U.S., specifically the Pacific Northwest, there is significant interest in utilizing CLT in 8-20 story residential and...

  2. Modelling of seed yield and its components in tall fescue (Festuca ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AJL

    2011-10-03

    Oct 3, 2011 ... number spikelet -1 (Y4), seed weight (Y5), and the seed yield (Z) of tall fescue were determined in field experiments from 2003 to .... the time of fertilisation (X1), the quantity of irrigation (X2), the amount of N applied (X3), the ...... certain agronomical traits in soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.]. Afr. J. Biotechnol.

  3. LQG Control of Along-Wind Response of a Tall Building with an ATMD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ki-Pyo You

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Modern tall buildings use lighter construction materials that have high strength and less stiffness and are more flexible. Although this results in the improvement of structural safety, excessive wind-induced excitations could lead to occupant discomfort. The optimal control law of a linear quadratic Gaussian (LQG controller with an active tuned mass damper (ATMD is used for reducing the along-wind response of a tall building. ATMD consists of a second mass with optimum parameters for tuning frequency and damping ratio of the tuned mass damper (TMD, under the stationary random load, was used. A fluctuating along-wind load, acting on a tall building, was treated as a stationary Gaussian white noise and was simulated numerically, in the time domain, using the along-wind load spectra proposed by G. Solari in 1993. Using this simulated wind load, it was possible to calculate the along-wind responses of a tall building (with and without the ATMD, using an LQG controller. Comparing the RMS (root mean square response revealed that the numerically simulated along-wind responses, without ATMD, are a good approximation to the closed form response, and that the reduced responses with ATMD and LQG controller were estimated by varying the values of control design parameters.

  4. Herbivory and competition slow down invasion of a tall grass along a productivity gradient

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuijper, DPJ; Nijhoff, DJ; Bakker, JP

    2004-01-01

    Competition models including competition for light predict that small plant species preferred by herbivores will be outshaded by taller unpreferred plant species with increasing productivity. When the tall plant species is little grazed by the herbivores, it can easily invade and dominate short

  5. Effect of grazing seedhead-suppressed tall fescue pasture on the vasoactivity of serotonin receptors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Previous research has demonstrated that exposure to ergot alkaloids reduces vasoactivity of serotonin (5HT) receptors. Chemical suppression of tall fescue seedhead production is a tool to reduce the level of exposure to ergot alkaloids by a grazing animal. Therefore, the objective was to evaluate co...

  6. Climate change and Epichloë coenophiala association modify belowground fungal symbioses of tall fescue host

    Science.gov (United States)

    Human alteration of symbiont genetics among aboveground endophytic Epichloë coenophiala strains within tall fescue (Schedonorus arundinaceus) has led to widespread deployment of novel grass-endophyte combinations, yet little is known about their ecological consequences. In this study, clone pairs (e...

  7. Effects of Tall Fescue Forage Mass on Steer Ingestive Behavior and Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tall fescue [Lolium arundinaceum (Schreb.) Darbysh] is a well adapted perennial pasture species utilized across the north-south transition zone of the United States and in similar environments worldwide. This 3-yr trial evaluated the influence of three forage masses (FM) on steer and pasture respons...

  8. Choice of method - evaluation of strategies and systems for disposal of spent nuclear fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-10-01

    This report deals with the question of how the Swedish spent nuclear fuel is to be disposed of. What are the requirements? What are the alternatives? In the main chapter of the report, an evaluation is made of the KBS-3 method compared with other strategies and systems for final disposal of spent nuclear fuel. An appendix to the report presents in general terms how the KBS-3 method has developed from the end of the 1970s up to today. The report is one of a number of supporting documents for SKB's applications for construction and operation of the final repository for spent nuclear fuel. In parallel with and as a basis for the present report, SKB has prepared the reports Principer, strategier och system foer slutligt omhaendertagande av anvaent kaernbraensle ('Principles, strategies and systems for final disposal of spent nuclear fuel') /Grundfelt 2010a/, Jaemfoerelse mellan KBS-3-metoden och deponering i djupa borrhaal foer slutlig foervaring av anvaent kaernbraensle ('Comparison between the KBS-3 method and deposition in deep boreholes for final disposal of spent nuclear fuel') /Grundfelt 2010b/ and Utvecklingen av KBS-3- metoden. Genomgaang av forskningsprogram, saekerhetsanalyser, myndighetsgranskningar samt SKB:s internationella forskningssamarbete ('Development of the KBS-3 method. Review of research programmes, safety assessments, regulatory reviews and SKB's international research cooperation') /SKB 2010a/. The reports are in Swedish, but contain summaries in English. The first report is an update of the comprehensive account of alternative methods presented by SKB in 2000. The second report presents a comparison between the KBS-3 method and the Deep Boreholes concept, plus a status report on research and development in the area of Deep Boreholes. The last report describes how the KBS-3 method has been developed from the end of the 1970s up to today. It further describes how the method has been further developed and refined over the years, but also what the

  9. Choice of method - evaluation of strategies and systems for disposal of spent nuclear fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2010-10-15

    This report deals with the question of how the Swedish spent nuclear fuel is to be disposed of. What are the requirements? What are the alternatives? In the main chapter of the report, an evaluation is made of the KBS-3 method compared with other strategies and systems for final disposal of spent nuclear fuel. An appendix to the report presents in general terms how the KBS-3 method has developed from the end of the 1970s up to today. The report is one of a number of supporting documents for SKB's applications for construction and operation of the final repository for spent nuclear fuel. In parallel with and as a basis for the present report, SKB has prepared the reports Principer, strategier och system foer slutligt omhaendertagande av anvaent kaernbraensle ('Principles, strategies and systems for final disposal of spent nuclear fuel') /Grundfelt 2010a/, Jaemfoerelse mellan KBS-3-metoden och deponering i djupa borrhaal foer slutlig foervaring av anvaent kaernbraensle ('Comparison between the KBS-3 method and deposition in deep boreholes for final disposal of spent nuclear fuel') /Grundfelt 2010b/ and Utvecklingen av KBS-3- metoden. Genomgaang av forskningsprogram, saekerhetsanalyser, myndighetsgranskningar samt SKB:s internationella forskningssamarbete ('Development of the KBS-3 method. Review of research programmes, safety assessments, regulatory reviews and SKB's international research cooperation') /SKB 2010a/. The reports are in Swedish, but contain summaries in English. The first report is an update of the comprehensive account of alternative methods presented by SKB in 2000. The second report presents a comparison between the KBS-3 method and the Deep Boreholes concept, plus a status report on research and development in the area of Deep Boreholes. The last report describes how the KBS-3 method has been developed from the end of the 1970s up to today. It further describes how the method has been further developed and

  10. Applying the Taguchi method to river water pollution remediation strategy optimization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Tsung-Ming; Hsu, Nien-Sheng; Chiu, Chih-Chiang; Wang, Hsin-Ju

    2014-04-15

    Optimization methods usually obtain the travel direction of the solution by substituting the solutions into the objective function. However, if the solution space is too large, this search method may be time consuming. In order to address this problem, this study incorporated the Taguchi method into the solution space search process of the optimization method, and used the characteristics of the Taguchi method to sequence the effects of the variation of decision variables on the system. Based on the level of effect, this study determined the impact factor of decision variables and the optimal solution for the model. The integration of the Taguchi method and the solution optimization method successfully obtained the optimal solution of the optimization problem, while significantly reducing the solution computing time and enhancing the river water quality. The results suggested that the basin with the greatest water quality improvement effectiveness is the Dahan River. Under the optimal strategy of this study, the severe pollution length was reduced from 18 km to 5 km.

  11. Applying the Taguchi Method to River Water Pollution Remediation Strategy Optimization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsung-Ming Yang

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Optimization methods usually obtain the travel direction of the solution by substituting the solutions into the objective function. However, if the solution space is too large, this search method may be time consuming. In order to address this problem, this study incorporated the Taguchi method into the solution space search process of the optimization method, and used the characteristics of the Taguchi method to sequence the effects of the variation of decision variables on the system. Based on the level of effect, this study determined the impact factor of decision variables and the optimal solution for the model. The integration of the Taguchi method and the solution optimization method successfully obtained the optimal solution of the optimization problem, while significantly reducing the solution computing time and enhancing the river water quality. The results suggested that the basin with the greatest water quality improvement effectiveness is the Dahan River. Under the optimal strategy of this study, the severe pollution length was reduced from 18 km to 5 km.

  12. A novel approach for multiple mobile objects path planning: Parametrization method and conflict resolution strategy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma, Yong; Wang, Hongwei; Zamirian, M.

    2012-01-01

    We present a new approach containing two steps to determine conflict-free paths for mobile objects in two and three dimensions with moving obstacles. Firstly, the shortest path of each object is set as goal function which is subject to collision-avoidance criterion, path smoothness, and velocity and acceleration constraints. This problem is formulated as calculus of variation problem (CVP). Using parametrization method, CVP is converted to time-varying nonlinear programming problems (TNLPP) and then resolved. Secondly, move sequence of object is assigned by priority scheme; conflicts are resolved by multilevel conflict resolution strategy. Approach efficiency is confirmed by numerical examples. -- Highlights: ► Approach with parametrization method and conflict resolution strategy is proposed. ► Approach fits for multi-object paths planning in two and three dimensions. ► Single object path planning and multi-object conflict resolution are orderly used. ► Path of each object obtained with parameterization method in the first phase. ► Conflict-free paths gained by multi-object conflict resolution in the second phase.

  13. Multi-resistance strategy for viral diseases and short hairpin RNA verification method in pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jong-nam Oh

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective Foot and mouth disease (FMD and porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS are major diseases that interrupt porcine production. Because they are viral diseases, vaccinations are of only limited effectiveness in preventing outbreaks. To establish an alternative multi-resistant strategy against FMD virus (FMDV and PRRS virus (PRRSV, the present study introduced two genetic modification techniques to porcine cells. Methods First, cluster of differentiation 163 (CD163, the PRRSV viral receptor, was edited with the clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats-CRISPR-associated protein 9 technique. The CD163 gene sequences of edited cells and control cells differed. Second, short hairpin RNA (shRNAs were integrated into the cells. The shRNAs, targeting the 3D gene of FMDV and the open reading frame 7 (ORF7 gene of PRRSV, were transferred into fibroblasts. We also developed an in vitro shRNA verification method with a target gene expression vector. Results shRNA activity was confirmed in vitro with vectors that expressed the 3D and ORF7 genes in the cells. Cells containing shRNAs showed lower transcript levels than cells with only the expression vectors. The shRNAs were integrated into CD163-edited cells to combine the two techniques, and the viral genes were suppressed in these cells. Conclusion We established a multi-resistant strategy against viral diseases and an in vitro shRNA verification method.

  14. Practical implementation of optimal management strategies in conservation programmes: a mate selection method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernández, J.

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available The maintenance of genetic diversity is, from a genetic point of view, a key objective of conservation programmes. The selection of individuals contributing offspring and the decision of the mating scheme are the steps on which managers can control genetic diversity, specially on ‘ex situ’ programmes. Previous studies have shown that the optimal management strategy is to look for the parents’ contributions that yield minimum group coancestry (overall probability of identity by descent in the population and, then, to arrange mating couples following minimum pairwise coancestry. However, physiological constraints make it necessary to account for mating restrictions when deciding the contributions and, therefore, these should be implemented in a single step along with the mating plan. In the present paper, a single-step method is proposed to optimise the management of a conservation programme when restrictions on the mating scheme exist. The performance of the method is tested by computer simulation. The strategy turns out to be as efficient as the two-step method, regarding both the genetic diversity preserved and the fitness of the population.

  15. Numerical study of natural turbulent convection of nanofluids in a tall cavity heated from below

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mebrouk Ridha

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present paper a numerical study of natural turbulent convection in a tall cavity filled with nanofluids. The cavity has a heat source embedded on its bottom wall, while the left, right and top walls of the cavity are maintained at a relatively low temperature. The working fluid is a water based nanofluid having three nanoparticle types: alumina, copper and copper oxid. The influence of pertinent parameters such as Rayleigh number, the type of nanofluid and solid volume fraction of nanoparticles on the cooling performance is studied. Steady forms of twodimensional Reynolds-Averaged-Navier-Stokes equations and conservation equations of mass and energy, coupled with the Boussinesq approximation, are solved by the control volume based discretisation method employing the SIMPLE algorithm for pressure-velocity coupling. Turbulence is modeled using the standard k-ε model. The Rayleigh number, Ra, is varied from 2.491009 to 2.491011. The volume fractions of nanoparticles were varied in the interval 0≤φ≤ 6% . Stream lines, isotherms, velocity profiles and Temperature profiles are presented for various combinations of Ra, the type of nanofluid and solid volume fraction of nanoparticles. The results are reported in the form of average Nusselt number on the heated wall. It is shown that for all values of Ra, the average heat transfer rate from the heat source increases almost linearly and monotonically as the solid volume fraction increases. Finally the average heat transfer rate takes on values that decrease according to the ordering Cu, CuO and Al2O3.

  16. Gasification of tall oil soap for lime kiln fuel. Suovan kaasutus meesauunin polttoaineeksi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saviharju, K.; McKeough, P.; Pyykkoenen, M.; Oasmaa, A. (Technical Research Centre of Finland, Espoo (Finland). Lab. of Fuel and Process Technology)

    1993-01-01

    The energy delivered to a modern pulp mill in the form of material unsuitable for fibre production exceeds the energy demand of the mill by about 30 %. Purchased lime kiln fuel further increases the surplus by 5-10 %. On the other hand, acidulation of tall oil soap adds about 1-3 kg SO[sub 2] for t of pulp onto the difficult-to-manage sulphur balance of the mill. Pyrolysis or gasification of tall oil soap could alleviate both these problems. In this study, gasification of tall oil soap was investigated in laboratory experiments as well as on a 200 kW test gasifier. In the laboratory experiments tall oil soap was pyrolyzed both on a heated-grid unit and on a thermobalance at heating rates of 600 K/s and 10 K/min, respectively. The maximum temperature was 675 deg C. The amount of volatiles formed was high, about 77 %, the amount of coke and inorganic salts being 7 % and 16 %, respectively. In the 200 kW gasifier, tests were carried out with mixed soap (pine and birch) such that the gas outlet temperature was 680-690 deg C. Because of the low gasification temperature complete gasification of the char was not achieved. The heat content of the product gas, including the sensible heat, was about 5.8 MJ/m[sup 3]n, which was estimated to be sufficient for lime calcination. Typical of the product gas were high tar content (20 g/m[sup 3]n), high acetylene content, and the absence of hydrogen sulphide. Overall, the results of this study indicated that the most significant subjects for future research are the atomization properties of tall oil soap, the effects of different amounts of input sodium on the operability of the lime kiln, and the economics of the proposed gasification process

  17. Aberrant activity of NKL homeobox gene NKX3-2 in a T-ALL subset

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Corinna; Kaufmann, Maren; Zaborski, Margarete; MacLeod, Roderick A. F.; Drexler, Hans G.

    2018-01-01

    T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL) is a hematopoietic malignancy originating from T-cell progenitors in which differentiation is blocked at early stages. Physiological expression of specific NKL homeobox genes obeys a hematopoietic NKL-code implicated in the process of lymphopoiesis while in differentiated T-cells these genes are silenced. We propose that this developmental expression pattern underlies the observation that NKL homeobox genes are the most ubiquitous group of transcription factors deregulated in T-ALL, including TLX1, TLX3, NKX2-5 and NKX3-1. Here, we describe a novel member of the NKL homeobox gene subclass, NKX3-2 (BAPX1), which is aberrantly activated in 18% of pediatric T-ALL patients analyzed while being normally expressed in developing spleen. Identification of NKX3-2 expression in T-ALL cell line CCRF-CEM qualified these cells to model its deregulation and function in a leukemic context. Genomic and chromosomal analyses demonstrated normal configuration of the NKX3-2 locus at chromosome 4p15, thus excluding cytogenetic dysregulation. Comparative expression profiling analysis of NKX3-2 patient data revealed deregulated activity of BMP- and MAPK-signalling. These candidate pathways were experimentally confirmed to mediate aberrant NKX3-2 expression. We also show that homeobox gene SIX6, plus MIR17HG and GATA3 are downstream targets of NKX3-2 and plausibly contribute to the pathogenesis of this malignancy by suppressing T-cell differentiation. Finally, NKL homeobox gene NKX2-5 was activated by NKX3-2 in CCRF-CEM and by FOXG1 in PEER, representing mutually inhibitory activators of this translocated oncogene. Together, our findings reveal a novel oncogenic NKL homeobox gene subclass member which is aberrantly expressed in a large subset of T-ALL patients and participates in a deregulated gene network likely to arise in developing spleen. PMID:29746601

  18. Recent progress in the direct synthesis of hierarchical zeolites: synthetic strategies and characterization methods

    KAUST Repository

    Liu, Zhaohui

    2017-06-16

    Hierarchically structured zeolites combine the merits of microporous zeolites and mesoporous materials to offer enhanced molecular diffusion and mass transfer without compromising the inherent catalytic activities and selectivity of zeolites. This short review gives an introduction to the synthesis strategies for hierarchically structured zeolites with emphasis on the latest progress in the route of ‘direct synthesis’ using various templates. Several characterization methods that allow us to evaluate the ‘quality’ of complex porous structures are also introduced. At the end of this review, an outlook is given to discuss some critical issues and challenges regarding the development of novel hierarchically structured zeolites as well as their applications.

  19. 40 CFR 721.9672 - Amides, tall-oil fatty, N-[2-[2-hydroxyethyl)amino]ethyl], reaction products with sulfur dioxide...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Amides, tall-oil fatty, N-[2-[2... Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.9672 Amides, tall-oil fatty, N-[2-[2-hydroxyethyl... identified as amides, tall-oil fatty, N-[2-[2-hydroxyethyl)amino]ethyl], reaction products with sulfur...

  20. Administrative Stressors and Islamic Coping Strategies Among Muslim Primary Principals in Malaysia: A Mixed Method Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tahir, Lokman Mohd; Khan, Aqeel; Musah, Mohammed Borhandden; Ahmad, Roslee; Daud, Khadijah; Al-Hudawi, Shafeeq Hussain Vazhathodi; Musta'Amal, Aede Hatib; Talib, Rohaya

    2017-11-18

    Principals are school leaders who experienced stress while leading their schools towards excellence. However, principals stress experiences are always ignored and least studied. This mixed-methods study investigates primary principals' stress experiences and their Islamic coping strategies used in incapacitating the stress experiences. A total of 216 Muslim primary principals across different gender, types of schools and years of experiences as school leaders responded to the administrative stress and the Islamic coping strategies items. In addition, seven primary principals were purposefully selected and interviewed in exploring their reasons of using Islamic coping strategies for their relieving process. Results discovered that primary principals experienced fairly stress level and they perceived managing students' academic achievement was the most stressor followed by managing teachers' capabilities. Although findings revealed that no significant differences in terms primary principals' demographics; male primary principals, and experienced between 6 and 10 years and positioned in schools with least students (SLS) category have slightly higher level of stress. In terms of Islamic coping strategies used by primary principals, saying dhua to Allah, performing dhikir and reciting the Yassen are selected coping approaches employed in handling their stress. From interviews, primary principals also revealed that they used Islamic religious approaches as part of meaningful activities not just to overcoming their stress but also as part of religious approaches in remembering Allah, thinking back their past mistakes as part of the Muhasabah process. Therefore, we believed that religious approaches should be taken into consideration in principals' training as it provides peaceful and treatment in managing principals' stress issue.

  1. Climate change on the Colorado River: a method to search for robust management strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keefe, R.; Fischbach, J. R.

    2010-12-01

    The Colorado River is a principal source of water for the seven Basin States, providing approximately 16.5 maf per year to users in the southwestern United States and Mexico. Though the dynamics of the river ensure Upper Basin users a reliable supply of water, the three Lower Basin states (California, Nevada, and Arizona) are in danger of delivery interruptions as Upper Basin demand increases and climate change threatens to reduce future streamflows. In light of the recent drought and uncertain effects of climate change on Colorado River flows, we evaluate the performance of a suite of policies modeled after the shortage sharing agreement adopted in December 2007 by the Department of the Interior. We build on the current literature by using a simplified model of the Lower Colorado River to consider future streamflow scenarios given climate change uncertainty. We also generate different scenarios of parametric consumptive use growth in the Upper Basin and evaluate alternate management strategies in light of these uncertainties. Uncertainty associated with climate change is represented with a multi-model ensemble from the literature, using a nearest neighbor perturbation to increase the size of the ensemble. We use Robust Decision Making to compare near-term or long-term management strategies across an ensemble of plausible future scenarios with the goal of identifying one or more approaches that are robust to alternate assumptions about the future. This method entails using search algorithms to quantitatively identify vulnerabilities that may threaten a given strategy (including the current operating policy) and characterize key tradeoffs between strategies under different scenarios.

  2. Measurement methods and strategies for non-infectious microbial components in bioaerosols at the workplace.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eduard, W

    1996-09-01

    Exposure to micro-organisms can be measured by different methods. Traditionally, viable methods and light microscopy have been used for detection of micro-organisms. Most viable methods measure micro-organisms that are able to grow in culture, and these methods are also common for the identification of micro-organisms. More recently, non-viable methods have been developed for the measurement of bioaerosol components originating from micro-organisms that are based on microscopic techniques, bioassays, immunoassays and chemical methods. These methods are important for the assessment of exposure to bioaerosols in work environments as non-infectious micro-organisms and microbial components may cause allergic and toxic reactions independent of viability. It is not clear to what extent micro-organisms should be identified because exposure-response data are limited and many different micro-organisms and microbial components may cause similar health effects. Viable methods have also been used in indoor environments for the detection of specific organisms as markers of indoor growth of micro-organisms. At present, the validity of measurement methods can only be assessed by comparative laboratory and field studies because standard materials of microbial bioaerosol components are not available. Systematic errors may occur especially when results obtained by different methods are compared. Differences between laboratories that use the same methods may also occur as quality assurance schemes of analytical methods for bioaerosol components do not exist. Measurement methods may also have poor precision, especially the viable methods. It therefore seems difficult to meet the criteria for accuracy of measurement methods of workplace exposure that have recently been adopted by the CEN. Risk assessment is limited by the lack of generally accepted reference values or guidelines for microbial bioaerosol components. The cost of measurements of exposure to microbial bioaerosol components

  3. Methods and Strategies for Overvoltage Prevention in Low Voltage Distribution Systems with PV

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hashemi Toghroljerdi, Seyedmostafa; Østergaard, Jacob

    2016-01-01

    to handle a high share of PV power. This paper provides an in-depth review of methods and strategies proposed to prevent overvoltage in LV grids with PV, and discusses the effectiveness, advantages, and disadvantages of them in detail. Based on the mathematical framework presented in the paper......, the overvoltage caused by high PV penetration is described, solutions to facilitate higher PV penetration are classified, and their effectiveness, advantages, and disadvantages are illustrated. The investigated solutions include the grid reinforcement, electrical energy storage application, reactive power...... absorption by PV inverters, application of active medium voltage to low voltage (MV/LV) transformers, active power curtailment, and demand response (DR). Coordination between voltage control units by localized, distributed, and centralized voltage control methods is compared using the voltage sensitivity...

  4. Performance, forage utilization, and ergovaline consumption by beef cows grazing endophyte fungus-infected tall fescue, endophyte fungus-free tall fescue, or orchardgrass pastures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, C W; Grigsby, K N; Aldrich, C G; Paterson, J A; Lipsey, R J; Kerley, M S; Garner, G B

    1992-05-01

    Two 120-d trials (May to September, 1988 and 1989) determined the effects of grazing tall fescue (two varieties) or orchardgrass on forage intake and performance by beef cows. Each summer, 48 cow-calf pairs grazed endophyte-infected Kentucky-31 tall fescue (KY-31), endophyte-free Mozark tall fescue (MOZARK), or Hallmark orchardgrass (OG) pastures (16 pairs/treatment). Forage OM intakes and digestibilities were determined during June and August each year. Cow and calf BW and milk production were determined every 28 d. During June of both years, OM intakes did not differ (P greater than .10) among treatments. During August of 1988, intakes were 18% lower (P less than .05) by KY-31 cows (1.6% of BW) than by MOZARK or OG cows (average 1.95% of BW); however, no differences (P greater than .10) were measured in August of 1989. Estimates of ergovaline consumption during June from KY-31 were between 4.2 (1988) and 6.0 mg/d (1989), whereas August estimates were between 1.1 (1988) and 2.8 mg/d (1989). Ergovaline in MOZARK estrusa was below detection limits, except in August of 1989. Cows that grazed KY-31 lost three times (P less than .01) more BW than cows that grazed MOZARK or OG (42 vs 9 and 13 kg, respectively). Milk production by KY-31 cows was 25% lower (P less than .01) than that by cows that grazed MOZARK or OG (6.0 vs average of 8.0 kg/d). Similarly, slower (P less than .01) calf gains were noted for KY-31 than for MOZARK or OG (.72 vs .89 and .88 kg/d, respectively). Cows grazing KY-31 experienced accelerated BW loss and reduced milk production and weaned lighter calves than did cows grazing MOZARK or OG. Decreased performance was not explained by consistently reduced forage intakes; hence, altered nutrient utilization was suspected.

  5. Costate Estimation of PMP-Based Control Strategy for PHEV Using Legendre Pseudospectral Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanbing Wei

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Costate value plays a significant role in the application of PMP-based control strategy for PHEV. It is critical for terminal SOC of battery at destination and corresponding equivalent fuel consumption. However, it is not convenient to choose the approximate costate in real driving condition. In the paper, the optimal control problem of PHEV based on PMP has been converted to nonlinear programming problem. By means of KKT condition costate can be approximated as KKT multipliers of NLP divided by the LGL weights. A kind of general costate estimation approach is proposed for predefined driving condition in this way. Dynamic model has been established in Matlab/Simulink in order to prove the effectiveness of the method. Simulation results demonstrate that the method presented in the paper can deduce the closer value of global optimal value than constant initial costate value. This approach can be used for initial costate and jump condition estimation of PMP-based control strategy for PHEV.

  6. Asthma management simulation for children: translating theory, methods, and strategies to effect behavior change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shegog, Ross; Bartholomew, L Kay; Gold, Robert S; Pierrel, Elaine; Parcel, Guy S; Sockrider, Marianna M; Czyzewski, Danita I; Fernandez, Maria E; Berlin, Nina J; Abramson, Stuart

    2006-01-01

    Translating behavioral theories, models, and strategies to guide the development and structure of computer-based health applications is well recognized, although a continued challenge for program developers. A stepped approach to translate behavioral theory in the design of simulations to teach chronic disease management to children is described. This includes the translation steps to: 1) define target behaviors and their determinants, 2) identify theoretical methods to optimize behavioral change, and 3) choose educational strategies to effectively apply these methods and combine these into a cohesive computer-based simulation for health education. Asthma is used to exemplify a chronic health management problem and a computer-based asthma management simulation (Watch, Discover, Think and Act) that has been evaluated and shown to effect asthma self-management in children is used to exemplify the application of theory to practice. Impact and outcome evaluation studies have indicated the effectiveness of these steps in providing increased rigor and accountability, suggesting their utility for educators and developers seeking to apply simulations to enhance self-management behaviors in patients.

  7. Identification of strategy parameters for particle swarm optimizer through Taguchi method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    KHOSLA Arun; KUMAR Shakti; AGGARWAL K.K.

    2006-01-01

    Particle swarm optimization (PSO), like other evolutionary algorithms is a population-based stochastic algorithm inspired from the metaphor of social interaction in birds, insects, wasps, etc. It has been used for finding promising solutions in complex search space through the interaction of particles in a swarm. It is a well recognized fact that the performance of evolutionary algorithms to a great extent depends on the choice of appropriate strategy/operating parameters like population size,crossover rate, mutation rate, crossover operator, etc. Generally, these parameters are selected through hit and trial process, which is very unsystematic and requires rigorous experimentation. This paper proposes a systematic based on Taguchi method reasoning scheme for rapidly identifying the strategy parameters for the PSO algorithm. The Taguchi method is a robust design approach using fractional factorial design to study a large number of parameters with small number of experiments. Computer simulations have been performed on two benchmark functions-Rosenbrock function and Griewank function-to validate the approach.

  8. Control strategy and experimental study on a novel defrosting method for air-source heat pump

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liang Caihua; Zhang Xiaosong; Li Xiuwei; Chen Zhenqian

    2010-01-01

    A new defrosting method - the sensible heat defrosting method, aiming at shelving the various disadvantages of the conventional reverse cycle defrosting was proposed in this paper. The mechanism and process of this method was analysed. To guarantee the reliability, the self-organizing control algorithm with self-learning function was introduced based on the cardinal fuzzy control algorithm. Moreover, the control strategy was enacted; the corresponding self-organizing fuzzy control system was developed; the Micro Controller Unit (MCU) based control unit was accomplished; and the experimental study was conducted to investigate the sample machine of air-source heat pump system. The results of the experiments showed that the self-organizing control algorithm has good control characteristic and effect. On one hand, the adverse shock from the conventional reverse cycle defrosting to the refrigeration system could be avoided through this proposed method; on the other hand, the 'oil rush' could also be eliminated. Besides, the thermal comfort could be greatly improved since the temperature fluctuation range of the supplied water is narrowed by applying this new method in practice.

  9. Using a Mixed Methods Approach to Explore Strategies, Metacognitive Awareness and the Effects of Task Design on Listening Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Bryan, Anne; Hegelheimer, Volker

    2009-01-01

    Although research in the area of listening processes and strategies is increasing, it still remains the least understood and least researched of the four skills (Vandergrift, 2007). Based on research in listening comprehension, task design and strategies, this article uses a mixed methods approach to shed light on the development of four…

  10. Identifying strategies to assist final semester nursing students to develop numeracy skills: a mixed methods study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramjan, Lucie M; Stewart, Lyn; Salamonson, Yenna; Morris, Maureen M; Armstrong, Lyn; Sanchez, Paula; Flannery, Liz

    2014-03-01

    It remains a grave concern that many nursing students within tertiary institutions continue to experience difficulties with achieving medication calculation competency. In addition, universities have a moral responsibility to prepare proficient clinicians for graduate practice. This requires risk management strategies to reduce adverse medication errors post registration. To identify strategies and potential predictors that may assist nurse academics to tailor their drug calculation teaching and assessment methods. This project builds on previous experience and explores students' perceptions of newly implemented interventions designed to increase confidence and competence in medication calculation. This mixed method study surveyed students (n=405) enrolled in their final semester of study at a large, metropolitan university in Sydney, Australia. Tailored, contextualised interventions included online practice quizzes, simulated medication calculation scenarios developed for clinical practice classes, contextualised 'pen and paper' tests, visually enhanced didactic remediation and 'hands-on' contextualised workshops. Surveys were administered to students to determine their perceptions of interventions and to identify whether these interventions assisted with calculation competence. Test scores were analysed using SPSS v. 20 for correlations between students' perceptions and actual performance. Qualitative open-ended survey questions were analysed manually and thematically. The study reinforced that nursing students preferred a 'hands-on,' contextualised approach to learning that was 'authentic' and aligned with clinical practice. Our interventions assisted with supporting students' learning and improvement of calculation confidence. Qualitative data provided further insight into students' awareness of their calculation errors and preferred learning styles. Some of the strongest predictors for numeracy skill performance included (1) being an international student, (2

  11. Perspectives and strategies of alternative methods used in the risk assessment of personal care products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quantin, P; Thélu, A; Catoire, S; Ficheux, H

    2015-11-01

    Risk assessment for personal care products requires the use of alternative methods since animal testing is now totally banned. Some of these methods are effective and have been validated by the "European Union Reference Laboratory for alternatives to animal testing"; but there is still a need for development and implementation of methods for specific endpoints. In this review, we have focused on dermal risk assessment because it is the prime route of absorption and main target organ for personal care products. Within this field, various areas must be assessed: irritation, sensitisation and toxicokinetic. Personal care product behaviour after use by the consumer and potential effects on the environment are also discussed. The purpose of this review is to show evolution and the prospects of alternative methods for safety dermal assessment. Assessment strategies must be adapted to the different chemical classes of substances studied but also to the way in which they are used. Finally, experimental and theoretical technical parameters that may impact on measured effects have been identified and discussed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  12. Control strategy of grid-connected photovoltaic generation system based on GMPPT method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhongfeng; Zhang, Xuyang; Hu, Bo; Liu, Jun; Li, Ligang; Gu, Yongqiang; Zhou, Bowen

    2018-02-01

    There are multiple local maximum power points when photovoltaic (PV) array runs under partial shading condition (PSC).However, the traditional maximum power point tracking (MPPT) algorithm might be easily trapped in local maximum power points (MPPs) and cannot find the global maximum power point (GMPP). To solve such problem, a global maximum power point tracking method (GMPPT) is improved, combined with traditional MPPT method and particle swarm optimization (PSO) algorithm. Under different operating conditions of PV cells, different tracking algorithms are used. When the environment changes, the improved PSO algorithm is adopted to realize the global optimal search, and the variable step incremental conductance (INC) method is adopted to achieve MPPT in optimal local location. Based on the simulation model of the PV grid system built in Matlab/Simulink, comparative analysis of the tracking effect of MPPT by the proposed control algorithm and the traditional MPPT method under the uniform solar condition and PSC, validate the correctness, feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed control strategy.

  13. Developing strategies to reduce the risk of hazardous materials transportation in iran using the method of fuzzy SWOT analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. S. Kheirkhah

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available An increase in hazardous materials transportation in Iran along with the industrial development and increase of resulted deadly accidents necessitate the development and implementation of some strategies to reduce these incidents. SWOT analysis is an efficient method for developing strategies, however, its structural problems, including a lack of prioritizing internal and external factors and inability to consider two sided factors reducing its performance in the situations where the number of internal and external factors affecting the risk of hazardous materials is relatively high and some factors are two sided in nature are presented in the article. Fuzzy SWOT analysis is a method the use of which helps with solving these problems and is the issue of employing an effective methodology. Also, the article compares the resulted strategies of the fuzzy method with the strategies developed following SWOT in order to show the relative supremacy of the new method.

  14. Combining AI Methods for Learning Bots in a Real-Time Strategy Game

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robin Baumgarten

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available We describe an approach for simulating human game-play in strategy games using a variety of AI techniques, including simulated annealing, decision tree learning, and case-based reasoning. We have implemented an AI-bot that uses these techniques to form a novel approach for planning fleet movements and attacks in DEFCON, a nuclear war simulation strategy game released in 2006 by Introversion Software Ltd. The AI-bot retrieves plans from a case-base of recorded games, then uses these to generate a new plan using a method based on decision tree learning. In addition, we have implemented more sophisticated control over low-level actions that enable the AI-bot to synchronize bombing runs, and used a simulated annealing approach for assigning bombing targets to planes and opponent cities to missiles. We describe how our AI-bot operates, and the experimentation we have performed in order to determine an optimal configuration for it. With this configuration, our AI-bot beats Introversion's finite state machine automated player in 76.7% of 150 matches played. We briefly introduce the notion of ability versus enjoyability and discuss initial results of a survey we conducted with human players.

  15. A strategy for improved computational efficiency of the method of anchored distributions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Over, Matthew William; Yang, Yarong; Chen, Xingyuan; Rubin, Yoram

    2013-06-01

    This paper proposes a strategy for improving the computational efficiency of model inversion using the method of anchored distributions (MAD) by "bundling" similar model parametrizations in the likelihood function. Inferring the likelihood function typically requires a large number of forward model (FM) simulations for each possible model parametrization; as a result, the process is quite expensive. To ease this prohibitive cost, we present an approximation for the likelihood function called bundling that relaxes the requirement for high quantities of FM simulations. This approximation redefines the conditional statement of the likelihood function as the probability of a set of similar model parametrizations "bundle" replicating field measurements, which we show is neither a model reduction nor a sampling approach to improving the computational efficiency of model inversion. To evaluate the effectiveness of these modifications, we compare the quality of predictions and computational cost of bundling relative to a baseline MAD inversion of 3-D flow and transport model parameters. Additionally, to aid understanding of the implementation we provide a tutorial for bundling in the form of a sample data set and script for the R statistical computing language. For our synthetic experiment, bundling achieved a 35% reduction in overall computational cost and had a limited negative impact on predicted probability distributions of the model parameters. Strategies for minimizing error in the bundling approximation, for enforcing similarity among the sets of model parametrizations, and for identifying convergence of the likelihood function are also presented.

  16. Inhibition of IGF1-R overcomes IGFBP7-induced chemotherapy resistance in T-ALL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bartram, Isabelle; Erben, Ulrike; Ortiz-Tanchez, Jutta; Blunert, Katja; Schlee, Cornelia; Neumann, Martin; Heesch, Sandra; Baldus, Claudia D.

    2015-01-01

    T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL) is a genetically heterogeneous disease with the need for treatment optimization. Previously, high expression of Insulin-like growth factor binding protein 7 (IGFBP7), a member of the IGF system, was identified as negative prognostic factor in adult T-ALL patients. Since aberrant IGFBP7 expression was observed in a variety of neoplasia and was relevant for prognosis in T-ALL, we investigated the functional role of IGFBP7 in Jurkat and Molt-4 cells as in vitro models for T-ALL. Jurkat and Molt-4 cells were stably transfected with an IGFBP7 over-expression vector or the empty vector as control. Proliferation of the cells was assessed by WST-1 assays and cell cycle status was measured by flow-cytometry after BrDU/7-AAD staining. The effect of IGFBP7 over-expression on sensitivity to cytostatic drugs was determined in AnnexinV/7-AAD assays. IGF1-R protein expression was measured by Western Blot and flow-cytometric analysis. IGF1-R associated gene expression profiles were generated from microarray gene expression data of 86 T-ALL patients from the Microarrays Innovations in Leukemia (MILE) multicenter study. IGFBP7-transfected Jurkat cells proliferated less, leading to a longer survival in a nutrient–limited environment. Both IGFBP7-transfected Jurkat and Molt-4 cells showed an arrest in the G0/G1 cell cycle phase. Furthermore, Jurkat IGFBP7-transfected cells were resistant to vincristine and asparaginase treatment. Surface expression and whole protein measurement of IGF1-R protein expression showed a reduced abundance of the receptor after IGFBP7 transfection in Jurkat cells. Interestingly, combination of the IGF1-R inhibitor NPV-AEW541 restored sensitivity to vincristine in IGFBP7-transfected cells. Additionally, IGF1-R associated GEP revealed an up-regulation of important drivers of T-ALL pathogenesis and regulators of chemo-resistance and apoptosis such as NOTCH1, BCL-2, PRKCI, and TP53. This study revealed a

  17. Agronomic Evaluation and Genetic Variation of Tunisian Tall Fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Chtourou-Ghorbel

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Nine important agronomic traits were used to assess the genetic diversity of Tunisian tall fescue and to investigate the extent of genotype X environment (GE interaction and its implications for breeding programs. These traits were studied for three consecutive years in thirty-five spontaneous populations and three cultivars. Panicle size contributed to seeds production, while the plant height at harvest and dry matter yield were selected for forage performance. Analysis of variance demonstrated that population attitude depended on the year and environmental conditions. Principal component analysis revealed significant similarities among some spontaneous populations and cultivars. The relationship between environmental conditions and agronomic traits revealed the influence of altitude, soil texture and minimum temperature on forage production, seed yield, and the architecture of plants, respectively. In addition, the local adapted ecotypes originating from Bizerte, Sidi Nsir, and Rass Rajel attained greater agronomic potentialities than control cultivars and were of considerable economic interest for the improvement of Tunisian tall fescue.

  18. Research on Integrated Analysis Method for Equipment and Tactics Based on Intervention Strategy Discussion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈超; 张迎新; 毛赤龙

    2012-01-01

    As the increase of the complexity of the information warfare,its intervention strategy needs to be designed in an integrated environment.However,the current research always breaks the internal relation between equipment and tactics,and it is difficult to meet the requirements of their integrated analysis.In this paper,the research status quo of the integrated analysis about equipment and tactics is discussed first,some shortages of the current methods are summarized then,and an evolvement mechanism of the integrated analysis for equipment and tactics is given finally.Based on these,a framework of integrated analysis is proposed.This method's effectiveness is validated by an example.

  19. Worst-case Analysis of Strategy Iteration and the Simplex Method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Thomas Dueholm

    In this dissertation we study strategy iteration (also known as policy iteration) algorithms for solving Markov decision processes (MDPs) and two-player turn-based stochastic games (2TBSGs). MDPs provide a mathematical model for sequential decision making under uncertainty. They are widely used...... to model stochastic optimization problems in various areas ranging from operations research, machine learning, artificial intelligence, economics and game theory. The class of two-player turn-based stochastic games is a natural generalization of Markov decision processes that is obtained by introducing...... in the size of the problem (the bounds have subexponential form). Utilizing a tight connection between MDPs and linear programming, it is shown that the same bounds apply to the corresponding pivoting rules for the simplex method for solving linear programs. Prior to this result no super-polynomial lower...

  20. Gamete selection for forage quality improvement in tall fescue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Within the Festuca-Lolium genome complex there is a need for modern breeding approaches that facilitate the rapid development of improved germplasm or cultivars. Traditional recurrent or mass-selection methods for population or synthetic development are labor intensive and time consuming. The use ...

  1. Integration of first-principles methods and crystallographic database searches for new ferroelectrics: Strategies and explorations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bennett, Joseph W.; Rabe, Karin M.

    2012-01-01

    In this concept paper, the development of strategies for the integration of first-principles methods with crystallographic database mining for the discovery and design of novel ferroelectric materials is discussed, drawing on the results and experience derived from exploratory investigations on three different systems: (1) the double perovskite Sr(Sb 1/2 Mn 1/2 )O 3 as a candidate semiconducting ferroelectric; (2) polar derivatives of schafarzikite MSb 2 O 4 ; and (3) ferroelectric semiconductors with formula M 2 P 2 (S,Se) 6 . A variety of avenues for further research and investigation are suggested, including automated structure type classification, low-symmetry improper ferroelectrics, and high-throughput first-principles searches for additional representatives of structural families with desirable functional properties. - Graphical abstract: Integration of first-principles methods with crystallographic database mining, for the discovery and design of novel ferroelectric materials, could potentially lead to new classes of multifunctional materials. Highlights: ► Integration of first-principles methods and database mining. ► Minor structural families with desirable functional properties. ► Survey of polar entries in the Inorganic Crystal Structural Database.

  2. Spectral methods in machine learning and new strategies for very large datasets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belabbas, Mohamed-Ali; Wolfe, Patrick J.

    2009-01-01

    Spectral methods are of fundamental importance in statistics and machine learning, because they underlie algorithms from classical principal components analysis to more recent approaches that exploit manifold structure. In most cases, the core technical problem can be reduced to computing a low-rank approximation to a positive-definite kernel. For the growing number of applications dealing with very large or high-dimensional datasets, however, the optimal approximation afforded by an exact spectral decomposition is too costly, because its complexity scales as the cube of either the number of training examples or their dimensionality. Motivated by such applications, we present here 2 new algorithms for the approximation of positive-semidefinite kernels, together with error bounds that improve on results in the literature. We approach this problem by seeking to determine, in an efficient manner, the most informative subset of our data relative to the kernel approximation task at hand. This leads to two new strategies based on the Nyström method that are directly applicable to massive datasets. The first of these—based on sampling—leads to a randomized algorithm whereupon the kernel induces a probability distribution on its set of partitions, whereas the latter approach—based on sorting—provides for the selection of a partition in a deterministic way. We detail their numerical implementation and provide simulation results for a variety of representative problems in statistical data analysis, each of which demonstrates the improved performance of our approach relative to existing methods. PMID:19129490

  3. PROFITABILITY EVALUATION METHODS – A STRATEGY FOR ROMANIAN COMPANIES TO AVOID INSOLVENCY.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SABĂU CĂTĂLIN

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Addressing economic strategies for determining the stability and financial position of the companies has become a very topical issue in recent years due to the financial crisis manifested worlwide in 2008 and which led to the start of insolvency proceedings for a considerable number of Romanian companies , which often resulted in bankruptcy for the firms concerned. Beside the international macroeconomic context, another issue that we consider essential and which led to the bankruptcy of Romanian companies is the lack of emphasis on financial analysis and diagnostic methods in determining a company's profitability and financial prospects of development in the short, medium and long term. Precisely for this reason a large number of Romanian companies fall prey to unsustainable financial commitments, often have low liquidity and the rate of equity return (ROE is below the industry average thus denoting a lack of real competitive capabilities. This article seeks to highlight the positive contribution that can be implemented in the awareness of management regarding stability and the financial position of the company wchich is evaluated in order for the managers to make the necessary arrangements in time for the recovery, efficiency and sustainable implementation of a medium and long term business plan by analyzing the concepts of capitalization and upgrading but also but also by analyzing the evaluation method based on determining the beneficiary capacity; cash flow and discounted cash flow method.

  4. Local Strategy Combined with a Wavelength Selection Method for Multivariate Calibration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haitao Chang

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available One of the essential factors influencing the prediction accuracy of multivariate calibration models is the quality of the calibration data. A local regression strategy, together with a wavelength selection approach, is proposed to build the multivariate calibration models based on partial least squares regression. The local algorithm is applied to create a calibration set of spectra similar to the spectrum of an unknown sample; the synthetic degree of grey relation coefficient is used to evaluate the similarity. A wavelength selection method based on simple-to-use interactive self-modeling mixture analysis minimizes the influence of noisy variables, and the most informative variables of the most similar samples are selected to build the multivariate calibration model based on partial least squares regression. To validate the performance of the proposed method, ultraviolet-visible absorbance spectra of mixed solutions of food coloring analytes in a concentration range of 20–200 µg/mL is measured. Experimental results show that the proposed method can not only enhance the prediction accuracy of the calibration model, but also greatly reduce its complexity.

  5. Overexpression AtNHX1 confers salt-tolerance of transgenic tall ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Saline soil is a serious problem worldwide, and it is necessary to improve the salt tolerance of plants so as to avoid the progressive deterioration of saline soil. Here we report that over-expression of AtNHX1 improves salt tolerance in transgenic tall fescue. The AtNHX1 gene driven with CaMV35S promoter was constructed ...

  6. The effect of nitrogen addition on biomass production and competition in three expansive tall grasses

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Holub, Petr; Tůma, I.; Fiala, Karel

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 170, NOV 2012 (2012), s. 211-216 ISSN 0269-7491 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA526/06/0556; GA MZe QJ1220007; GA MŠk(CZ) ED1.1.00/02.0073 Institutional support: RVO:67985939 ; RVO:67179843 Keywords : aboveground biomass * aggressivity * crowding coefficient * Nitrogen * tall grasses Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour; EF - Botanics (BU-J) Impact factor: 3.730, year: 2012

  7. Autonomous Mower vs. Rotary Mower: Effects on Turf Quality and Weed Control in Tall Fescue Lawn

    OpenAIRE

    Michel Pirchio; Marco Fontanelli; Christian Frasconi; Luisa Martelloni; Michele Raffaelli; Andrea Peruzzi; Monica Gaetani; Simone Magni; Lisa Caturegli; Marco Volterrani; Nicola Grossi

    2018-01-01

    Autonomous mowers are battery-powered machines designed for lawn mowing that require very low human labour. Autonomous mowers can increase turf quality and reduce local noise and pollution compared with gasoline-powered rotary mowers. However, very little is known about the effects of autonomous mowing on encroaching weeds. The aim of this research was to compare the effects of an autonomous mower and an ordinary gasoline-powered mower on weed development in an artificially infested tall fesc...

  8. Extraction of Phytosterols from Tall Oil Soap Using Selected Organic Solvents

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Rousková, Milena; Heyberger, Aleš; Tříska, Jan; Krtička, M.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 65, č. 6 (2011), s. 805-812 ISSN 0366-6352 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR 1QS400720504; GA MŠk(CZ) ED1.1.00/02.0073 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40720504; CEZ:AV0Z60870520 Keywords : liquid - liquid extraction * tall oil soap * phytosterols Subject RIV: CI - Industrial Chemistry, Chemical Engineering Impact factor: 1.096, year: 2011

  9. Hijacking T cell differentiation: new insights in TLX function in T-ALL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Bryan; Ntziachristos, Panagiotis; Aifantis, Iannis

    2012-04-17

    TLX1 and TLX3 are two closely-related homeobox transcriptional repressors frequently misexpressed and translocated in T cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL). In this issue of Cancer Cell, Dadi et al. provide new insights into how these factors are recruited by ETS-1 to the TCRα enhancer and actively repress differentiation. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Fatherhood in tall men treated with high-dose sex steroids during adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendriks, A E J; Boellaard, W P A; van Casteren, N J; Romijn, J C; de Jong, F H; Boot, A M; Drop, S L S

    2010-12-01

    Sex steroid treatment to reduce final height of tall boys has been available since the 1950s. In women, it has been shown to interfere with fertility. In men, no such data are available. We therefore evaluated fertility and gonadal function in tall men who did or did not receive high-dose androgen treatment in adolescence. We conducted a retrospective cohort study of 116 tall men, of whom 60 had been treated. Reproductive and gonadal function was assessed by standardized interview, semen analysis, endocrine parameters, ultrasound imaging, and fatherhood. Mean age at treatment commencement was 14.2 yr, and mean follow-up was 21.2 yr. Sixty-six men (36 treated and 30 untreated) had attempted to achieve fatherhood. The probability of conceiving their first pregnancy within 1 yr was similar in treated and untreated men (26 vs. 24; Breslow P=0.8). Eleven treated and 13 untreated men presented with a left-sided varicocele (P=0.5). Testicular volume, sperm quality, and serum LH, FSH, and inhibin B levels were comparable between treated and untreated men. However, treated men had significantly reduced serum T levels, adjusted for known confounders [mean (sd) 13.3 (1.8) vs. 15.2 (1.9) nmol/liter; P=0.005). In addition, testicular volume and serum inhibin B and FSH levels in treated men were significantly correlated with age at treatment commencement. At a mean follow-up of 21 yr after high-dose androgen treatment, we conclude that fatherhood and semen quality in tall treated men are not affected. Serum testosterone levels, however, are reduced in androgen-treated men. Future research is required to determine whether declining testosterone levels may become clinically relevant for these men as they age.

  11. Strategies and methods of development of information systems; Strategie e metodi di sviluppo dei sistemi informativi aziendali

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moretti, M; Lucchetti, M C [Rome Univ. 3, Rome (Italy). Facolta' di Economia Federico Caffe' ; Di Marco, R A [ENEA, Funzione Centrale Informatica, Sede Centrale, Rome (Italy)

    2001-07-01

    Informative system is a relevant and current subject in the modern business studies. Although, in many economics books, is often marginally presented and considered by only one point of view. In this way, many students have a fragmented and incomplete knowledge of the subject, which doesn't allow using all the potentialities of this fundamental corporate resource. The thesis gives just a little contribution to find the fragment of theory dispersed in many field of business studies. The first step was exactly finding these fragments in: strategy, organization, quality, business administration, and business management. Analysed the different definitions and all the various notions to follow up with the speech, is described the impact of I.C.T. in the different business activities. The point of view adopted has been always the Informative System. Using a different approach, the thesis analysed the various business field related with the informative system. The key word of this thesis is: Change. Change is the business structures, strategy, quality, and in the qualifications required by the personal. Following this path, the thesis focuses opportunities offered by new technologies, in many companies during the definition of business strategy. In this second part is studied a business case, ENEA. ENEA is the national department for new technologies and environment. By on-site work, meetings with the personal, reading of the internal documents, and by all the studies done in the first part, are appeared some issues exploiting the Informative System. Are also considered some possible solutions to these issues, they are conform to the theory and law, and easy to realize. The research ends with tree interesting appendix, two about some ENEA's projects and one about hosting and housing. [Italian] I sistemi informativi sono un argomento sicuramente molto rilevante ed attuale. Proprio per questa caratteristica di relativa novita', molto spesso nei libri aziendali viene posto

  12. Strategies and methods of development of information systems; Strategie e metodi di sviluppo dei sistemi informativi aziendali

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moretti, M.; Lucchetti, M.C. [Rome Univ. 3, Rome (Italy). Facolta' di Economia Federico Caffe' ; Di Marco, R.A. [ENEA, Funzione Centrale Informatica, Sede Centrale, Rome (Italy)

    2001-07-01

    Informative system is a relevant and current subject in the modern business studies. Although, in many economics books, is often marginally presented and considered by only one point of view. In this way, many students have a fragmented and incomplete knowledge of the subject, which doesn't allow using all the potentialities of this fundamental corporate resource. The thesis gives just a little contribution to find the fragment of theory dispersed in many field of business studies. The first step was exactly finding these fragments in: strategy, organization, quality, business administration, and business management. Analysed the different definitions and all the various notions to follow up with the speech, is described the impact of I.C.T. in the different business activities. The point of view adopted has been always the Informative System. Using a different approach, the thesis analysed the various business field related with the informative system. The key word of this thesis is: Change. Change is the business structures, strategy, quality, and in the qualifications required by the personal. Following this path, the thesis focuses opportunities offered by new technologies, in many companies during the definition of business strategy. In this second part is studied a business case, ENEA. ENEA is the national department for new technologies and environment. By on-site work, meetings with the personal, reading of the internal documents, and by all the studies done in the first part, are appeared some issues exploiting the Informative System. Are also considered some possible solutions to these issues, they are conform to the theory and law, and easy to realize. The research ends with tree interesting appendix, two about some ENEA's projects and one about hosting and housing. [Italian] I sistemi informativi sono un argomento sicuramente molto rilevante ed attuale. Proprio per questa caratteristica di relativa novita', molto spesso nei libri

  13. Characterization of Epichloë coenophiala within the U.S.: are all tall fescue endophytes created equal?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Carolyn; Charlton, Nikki; Takach, Johanna; Swoboda, Ginger; Trammell, Michael; Huhman, David; Hopkins, Andrew

    2014-11-01

    Tall fescue (Lolium arundinaceum) is a valuable and broadly adapted forage grass that occupies approximately 14 million hectares across the United States. A native to Europe, tall fescue was likely introduced into the U.S. around the late 1800’s. Much of the success of tall fescue can be attributed to Epichloë coenophiala (formerly Neotyphodium coenophialum) a seed borne symbiont that aids in host persistence. Epichloë species are capable of producing a range of alkaloids (ergot alkaloids, indole-diterpenes, lolines and peramine) that provide protection to the plant host from herbivory. Unfortunately, most tall fescue within the U.S., commonly referred to as KY31, harbors the endophyte E. coenophiala that causes toxicity to grazing livestock due to the production of ergot alkaloids. Molecular analyses of tall fescue endophytes have identified four independent associations, representing tall fescue with E. coenophiala, Epichloë sp. FaTG-2, Epichloë sp. FaTG-3 or Epichloë sp. FaTG-4. Each of these Epichloë species can be further distinguished based on genetic variation that equates to differences in the alkaloid gene loci. Tall fescue samples were evaluated using markers to SSR and alkaloid biosynthesis genes to determine endophyte strain variation present within continental U.S. Samples represented seed and tillers from the Suiter farm (Menifee County, KY), which is considered the originating site of KY31, as well as plant samples collected from 14 states, breeder’s seed and plant introduction lines (National Plant Germplasm System, NPGS). This study revealed two prominent E. coenophiala genotypes based on presence of alkaloid biosynthesis genes and SSR markers and provides insight into endophyte variation within continental U.S. across historical and current tall fescue samples.

  14. Evaluating Persuasion Strategies and Deep Reinforcement Learning methods for Negotiation Dialogue agents

    OpenAIRE

    Keizer, Simon; Guhe, Markus; Cuayáhuitl, Heriberto; Efstathiou, Ioannis; Engelbrecht, Klaus-Peter; Dobre, Mihai; Lascarides, Alexandra; Lemon, Oliver

    2017-01-01

    In this paper we present a comparative evaluation of various negotiation strategies within an online version of the game “Settlers of Catan”. The comparison is based on human subjects playing games against artificial game-playing agents (‘bots’) which implement different negotiation dialogue strategies, using a chat dialogue interface to negotiate trades. Our results suggest that a negotiation strategy that uses persuasion, as well as a strategy that is trained from data using Deep Reinforcem...

  15. Strategy Execution: An integrative perspective and method for the knowledge-based economy

    OpenAIRE

    Strikwerda, J.

    2017-01-01

    Within the field of business administration, in research and in the practice of business, the issue of strategy execution lacks a generally accepted paradigm. Strategy execution so far has not received the attention it should be given in view of its critical role in the performance of the firm, especially with the growth of complexity in organizations. The attention that is usually given to strategy execution in the strategy literature and especially in popular management books is, with a few...

  16. Object-Based Change Detection in Urban Areas: The Effects of Segmentation Strategy, Scale, and Feature Space on Unsupervised Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Ma

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Object-based change detection (OBCD has recently been receiving increasing attention as a result of rapid improvements in the resolution of remote sensing data. However, some OBCD issues relating to the segmentation of high-resolution images remain to be explored. For example, segmentation units derived using different segmentation strategies, segmentation scales, feature space, and change detection methods have rarely been assessed. In this study, we have tested four common unsupervised change detection methods using different segmentation strategies and a series of segmentation scale parameters on two WorldView-2 images of urban areas. We have also evaluated the effect of adding extra textural and Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI information instead of using only spectral information. Our results indicated that change detection methods performed better at a medium scale than at a fine scale where close to the pixel size. Multivariate Alteration Detection (MAD always outperformed the other methods tested, at the same confidence level. The overall accuracy appeared to benefit from using a two-date segmentation strategy rather than single-date segmentation. Adding textural and NDVI information appeared to reduce detection accuracy, but the magnitude of this reduction was not consistent across the different unsupervised methods and segmentation strategies. We conclude that a two-date segmentation strategy is useful for change detection in high-resolution imagery, but that the optimization of thresholds is critical for unsupervised change detection methods. Advanced methods need be explored that can take advantage of additional textural or other parameters.

  17. Economic evaluation of maintenance strategies for steam generator tubes using probabilistic fracture mechanics and financial method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sagisaka, Mitsuyuki; Isobe, Yoshihiro; Yoshimura, Shinobu; Yagawa, Genki

    2004-01-01

    As an application of probabilistic fracture mechanics (PFM) and a financial method, risk-benefit analyses were performed for the purpose of optimizing maintenance activities of steam generator (SG) tubes used in pressurized water reactors (PWRs). Parameters such as in-service inspection (ISI) detection accuracy, ISI interval, sampling inspection, replacement of SGs and stress corrosion cracking (SCC) allowance operation were selected for sensitivity analyses. In the analysis of the operation introducing maintenance criteria, the effect of quantitative accuracy of the inspection was also taken into account. Although the analyses were mainly conducted for SG tubes made of Inconel 600 mill anneal (MA) materials, the analyses were also performed for SCC-resistant materials with making assumptions on their crack initiation probabilities and crack propagation laws. To justify whether or not it is worth while implementing the selected maintenance strategies in terms of an economic point of view, net present value (NPV) was calculated as an index which is one of the most fundamental financial indices for decision-making based on the discounted cash flow (DCF) method. (author)

  18. Selection strategy for the most Suitable CEC method for clay barrier characterisation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dohrmann, R.; Kaufhold, S.

    2010-01-01

    competition to barium ions in smectite interlayers. The present study aims at proposing a selection strategy for CEC methods including exchangeable cation determination of different clay materials typically used in radioactive waste disposal studies. 1) If the clay/bentonite contains calcium carbonates but no gypsum several methods are available, all of them are based on a saturation of the exchange solution with calcite before the exchange experiment starts: AgTU-calcite, CoHex-calcite, and Cu-trien5xcalcite. If dolomite is present the initial calcite saturation minimizes dolomite dissolution as well (proved for AgTU-calcite). 2) If a bentonite contains carbonates and gypsum the only known successful method for determination of all exchangeable cations (including calcium) and the CEC is a combination of two separate results: i) calcite saturation of exchange solution (e.g. Cu-trien5xcalcite) and ii) quantification of gypsum with suitable mineralogical methods. Result i) is free of error caused by calcite dissolution; however it is still wrong because it contains significant amounts of Ca 2+ from gypsum dissolution. After proving that gypsum was completely dissolved during the exchange experiment result ii) was used to subtract the theoretical Ca 2+ portion of gypsum from result i). Gypsum saturation of exchange solutions was tested as not suitable owing to the high solubility of gypsum which results in high initial Ca 2+ concentrations. 3) If no such soluble minerals are present and if the pore water contains no excess electrolyte then usually any accepted CEC method can be used, however, the results should always be checked for plausibility (e.g. using mineralogical composition of the sample). Any accepted method means that methods with known systematic errors (hydrophobic interaction, dependency on layer charge density) are excluded. (authors)

  19. FEM Updating of Tall Buildings using Ambient Vibration Data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ventura, C. E.; Lord, J. F.; Turek, M.

    2005-01-01

    Ambient vibration testing is the most economical non-destructive testing method to acquire vibration data from large civil engineering structures. The purpose of this paper is to demonstrate how ambient vibration Modal Identification techniques can be effectively used with Model Updating tools...... to develop reliable finite element models of large civil engineering structures. A fifteen story and a forty-eight story reinforced concrete buildings are used as case studies for this purpose. The dynamic characteristics of interest for this study were the first few lateral and torsional natural frequencies...... the information provided in the design documentation of the building. Different parameters of the model were then modified using an automated procedure to improve the correlation between measured and calculated modal parameters. Careful attention was placed to the selection of the parameters to be modified...

  20. Creative teaching method as a learning strategy for student midwives: A qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rankin, Jean; Brown, Val

    2016-03-01

    Traditional ways of teaching in Higher Education are enhanced with adult-based approaches to learning within the curriculum. Adult-based learning enables students to take ownership of their own learning, working in independence using a holistic approach. Introducing creative activities promotes students to think in alternative ways to the traditional learning models. The study aimed to explore student midwives perceptions of a creative teaching method as a learning strategy. A qualitative design was used adopting a phenomenological approach to gain the lived experience of students within this learning culture. Purposive sampling was used to recruit student midwives (n=30). Individual interviews were conducted using semi-structured interviews with open-ended questions to gain subjective information. Data were transcribed and analyzed into useful and meaningful themes and emerging themes using Colaizzi's framework for analyzing qualitative data in a logical and systematic way. Over 500 meaningful statements were identified from the transcripts. Three key themes strongly emerged from the transcriptions. These included'meaningful learning','inspired to learn and achieve', and 'being connected'. A deep meaningful learning experience was found to be authentic in the context of theory and practice. Students were inspired to learn and achieve and positively highlighted the safe learning environment. The abilities of the facilitators were viewed positively in supporting student learning. This approach strengthened the relationships and social engagement with others in the peer group and the facilitators. On a less positive note, tensions and conflict were noted in group work and indirect negative comments about the approach from the teaching team. Incorporating creative teaching activities is a positive addition to the healthcare curriculum. Creativity is clearly an asset to the range of contemporary learning strategies. In doing so, higher education will continue to keep

  1. Monitoring rationale, strategy, issues, and methods: UMRR-EMP LTRMP fish component

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ickes, Brian S.; Sauer, Jennifer S.; Rogala, James T.

    2014-01-01

    The Long Term Resource Monitoring Program (LTRMP), an element of the multiagency partnership Upper Mississippi River Restoration-Environmental Management Program, has been monitoring fishes in the Upper Mississippi River System (UMRS) for over two decades, using scientific and highly standardized methods. Today, the LTRMP’s data assets represent one of the world’s largest and most extensive datasets on a great river. Methods and procedures used over the past two decades have been documented and have proven a key tool towards gaining data that are (a) scientifically valid, (b) comparable over time, and (c) comparable over space. These procedures manuals coordinate and standardize methods, procedures, and field behaviors in the execution of long-term monitoring, permitting the informed management and control of important sources of error actually under program control. As LTRMP databases have matured in scope and accumulated more years' worth of data, their utility in research and management in the UMRS basin has increased notably. To maximize their utility, data users need not only be aware of “how the data were collected,” as portrayed in the procedures manuals, but also “why the data were collected in the way they were, at the scales they were, and in the manner that they were.” Whereas the procedures manuals contribute information as to the “how” the data were gained, this document seeks to contribute information as to the “why.” As such, this document is intended to be a companion document to the procedures manuals. Herein, we present information on the rationale for monitoring nearly one-fifth of the entire North American freshwater fish fauna (representing the greatest freshwater fish diversity on the planet at temperate latitudes); strategies employed and their reasoning; and discussions on issues associated with the sampling design itself, data arising therefrom, and uses of those data in different contexts.

  2. The radiological quality of the environment: strategies and methods of control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gazal, Suzanne; Amiard, Jean-Claude; Chenal, Christian; Levasseur, Jacques-Edouard

    2014-01-01

    As the nature of risk, and the relation to it, have evolved, and as events such as industrial catastrophes, hazards related to climate change, or health crisis have modified the problematic of risk and its social acceptability, a strong demand for a reliable and available access to information has emerged among the civil society, as well as a demand of citizen commitment and implication in the expertise process. In this context, the implementation of local information commissions (CLIs) in December 1981 has been an answer to this demand. These structures have been more recently given a specific legal status in a law on transparency and safety in the nuclear sector. Produced by the national association of local information committees and commissions (ANCCLI), this collective publication aims at providing a comprehensive document on strategies and methods of control of the radiological quality of the environment. After a recall of the various components of the eco-sphere (atmospheric, aquatic and ground media) and of their interactions, this book proposes an overview of the various methods of radiological control of the environment (air, water, sediments, soils, fauna, flora, food supply chain, and so on). The first part addresses the detection and the quantification of radioactive contaminants in physical media (atmosphere, water, soil) and in biological organisms and products transformed by man. It details the sources of radioactive pollution and measurements to be performed. It also discusses methodological issues. It addresses the adopted approach to the control of the quality of the environment through the study of biological organisms (bio-indicators), and details available methods for the assessment of direct and indirect biological effects of exposures to low doses of external and internal irradiation. A last part presents the actors of the radiological control of the environment in France, notably the CLIs which are active at the vicinity of nuclear

  3. Qualitative, quantitative, and data mining methods for analyzing log data to characterize students' learning strategies and behaviors [discussant

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baker, Ryan S.J.d.; Gobert, Janice D.; van Joolingen, Wouter

    2010-01-01

    This symposium addresses how different classes of research methods, all based upon the use of log data from educational software, can facilitate the analysis of students’ learning strategies and behaviors. To this end, four multi-method programs of research are discussed, including the use of

  4. The Impact of Short-Sale Constraints on Asset Allocation Strategies via the Backward Markov Chain Approximation Method

    OpenAIRE

    Carl Chiarella; Chih-Ying Hsiao

    2005-01-01

    This paper considers an asset allocation strategy over a finite period under investment uncertainty and short-sale constraints as a continuous time stochastic control problem. Investment uncertainty is characterised by a stochastic interest rate and inflation risk. If there are no short-sale constraints, the optimal asset allocation strategy can be solved analytically. We consider several kinds of short-sale constraints and employ the backward Markov chain approximation method to explore the ...

  5. Coping strategies and styles of family carers of persons with enduring mental illness: a mixed methods analysis.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Kartalova-O'Doherty, Yulia

    2008-03-01

    A qualitative exploratory study investigated the experiences and needs of family carers of persons with enduring mental illness in Ireland. The current mixed-methods secondary study used content analysis and statistical procedures to identify and explore the coping strategies emerging from the original interviews. The majority of family carers reported use of active behavioural coping strategies, sometimes combined with active cognitive or avoidance strategies. The percentage of cares reporting use of active cognitive strategies was the lowest among those whose ill relative lived in their home, and the highest among those whose relative lived independently. Participants with identified active cognitive strategies often reported that their relative was employed or in training. Participants who reported use of avoidance strategies were significantly younger than participants who did not report use of such strategies. The lowest percentage of avoidance strategies was among participants whose ill relative lived independently, whereas the highest was among carers whose relative lived in their home. The findings of this study highlight the importance of a contextual approach to studying coping styles and processes. Further research questions and methodological implications are discussed.

  6. Application of best-worst method in evaluation of medical tourism development strategy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farzaneh Abouhashem Abadi

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Medical tourism industry is an international phenomenon, which most of medical tourists for some reasons such as high costs of treatment, long waiting queues, lack of insurance and lack of access to health care in the origin country, travel long distances to benefit from health care services of destination country. Given the competitive nature of this industry, most countries are designing practical and legal services and planning for their development. For this purpose, this study has been conducted to develop a strategic planning framework for development of medical tourism industry in Yazd province of Iran; because in recent years Yazd has recognized as the health pole by patients in developing countries. In sum, emphasizing on servicing, enhancing and developing specialized treatment centers, has attracted patients from center, south and east of the country as well as Middle East and Central Asia countries. The dominant approach in this study is developmental – practical and also the research method is descriptive, analytical and survey. In order to analyzing the data, the SWOT model and best-worst techniques have been used. In the following, after identifying strategic position of Yazd province in terms of medical tourism industry, the related strategies were formulated and practical results were presented.

  7. Impacts of calibration strategies and ensemble methods on ensemble flood forecasting over Lanjiang basin, Southeast China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Li; Xu, Yue-Ping

    2017-04-01

    Ensemble flood forecasting driven by numerical weather prediction products is becoming more commonly used in operational flood forecasting applications.In this study, a hydrological ensemble flood forecasting system based on Variable Infiltration Capacity (VIC) model and quantitative precipitation forecasts from TIGGE dataset is constructed for Lanjiang Basin, Southeast China. The impacts of calibration strategies and ensemble methods on the performance of the system are then evaluated.The hydrological model is optimized by parallel programmed ɛ-NSGAII multi-objective algorithm and two respectively parameterized models are determined to simulate daily flows and peak flows coupled with a modular approach.The results indicatethat the ɛ-NSGAII algorithm permits more efficient optimization and rational determination on parameter setting.It is demonstrated that the multimodel ensemble streamflow mean have better skills than the best singlemodel ensemble mean (ECMWF) and the multimodel ensembles weighted on members and skill scores outperform other multimodel ensembles. For typical flood event, it is proved that the flood can be predicted 3-4 days in advance, but the flows in rising limb can be captured with only 1-2 days ahead due to the flash feature. With respect to peak flows selected by Peaks Over Threshold approach, the ensemble means from either singlemodel or multimodels are generally underestimated as the extreme values are smoothed out by ensemble process.

  8. Method for Developing a Communication Strategy and Plan for a Nuclear or Radiological Emergency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this publication is to provide a practical resource for emergency planning in the area of public communication in the development of a radiation emergency communication plan (RECP). The term 'public communication' is defined as any activity that communicates information to the public and the media during a nuclear or radiological emergency. To avoid confusion, the term public communication has been used in this publication rather than public information, which may be used in other IAEA publications and documents to ensure consistency with the terminology used in describing the command and control system. This publication also aims to fulfil in part functions assigned to the IAEA in the Convention on Assistance in the Case of a Nuclear Accident or Radiological Emergency (Assistance Convention), as well as meeting requirements stated in IAEA Safety Standards Series No. GS-R-2, Preparedness and Response for a Nuclear or Radiological Emergency. Under Article 5(a)(11) of the Assistance Convention, one function of the IAEA is to collect and disseminate to States Parties and Member States information concerning methodologies, techniques and results of research with regard to the response to nuclear or radiological emergencies. This publication is intended to provide guidance to national and local authorities on developing an RECP which incorporates the specific functions, arrangements and capabilities that will be required for public communication during a nuclear or radiological emergency. The two main features of this publication are the template provided to develop an RECP and detailed guidance on developing a communication strategy for emergency preparedness and response to nuclear or radiological emergencies. The template is consistent with the outline of the national radiation emergency plan proposed in Method for Developing Arrangements for Response to a Nuclear or Radiological Emergency (EPR-Method 2003). This publication is part of the IAEA

  9. Strategy Execution : An integrative perspective and method for the knowledge-based economy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Strikwerda, J.

    2017-01-01

    Within the field of business administration, in research and in the practice of business, the issue of strategy execution lacks a generally accepted paradigm. Strategy execution so far has not received the attention it should be given in view of its critical role in the performance of the firm,

  10. Frequency of Applying Different Teaching Strategies and Social Teaching Methods in Primary Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivic, Sonja

    2016-01-01

    The question that every modern teacher raises in their daily work is the reflection on selecting teaching strategies and social forms of teaching. Unlike traditional teaching strategies in which knowledge transfer is mainly done by the teacher while the students are passive listeners and recipients of such knowledge, modern teaching strategies…

  11. Greenhouse gas measurements from a UK network of tall towers: technical description and first results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanley, Kieran M.; Grant, Aoife; O'Doherty, Simon; Young, Dickon; Manning, Alistair J.; Stavert, Ann R.; Spain, T. Gerard; Salameh, Peter K.; Harth, Christina M.; Simmonds, Peter G.; Sturges, William T.; Oram, David E.; Derwent, Richard G.

    2018-03-01

    A network of three tall tower measurement stations was set up in 2012 across the United Kingdom to expand measurements made at the long-term background northern hemispheric site, Mace Head, Ireland. Reliable and precise in situ greenhouse gas (GHG) analysis systems were developed and deployed at three sites in the UK with automated instrumentation measuring a suite of GHGs. The UK Deriving Emissions linked to Climate Change (UK DECC) network uses tall (165-230 m) open-lattice telecommunications towers, which provide a convenient platform for boundary layer trace gas sampling. In this paper we describe the automated measurement system and first results from the UK DECC network for CO2, CH4, N2O, SF6, CO and H2. CO2 and CH4 are measured at all of the UK DECC sites by cavity ring-down spectroscopy (CRDS) with multiple inlet heights at two of the three tall tower sites to assess for boundary layer stratification. The short-term precisions (1σ on 1 min means) of CRDS measurements at background mole fractions for January 2012 to September 2015 is sampling temperatures. Automated alerts are generated and emailed to site operators when instrumental parameters are not within defined set ranges. Automated instrument shutdowns occur for critical errors such as carrier gas flow rate deviations. Results from the network give good spatial and temporal coverage of atmospheric mixing ratios within the UK since early 2012. Results also show that all measured GHGs are increasing in mole fraction over the selected reporting period and, except for SF6, exhibit a seasonal trend. CO2 and CH4 also show strong diurnal cycles, with night-time maxima and daytime minima in mole fractions.

  12. Validation of a search strategy to identify nutrition trials in PubMed using the relative recall method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durão, Solange; Kredo, Tamara; Volmink, Jimmy

    2015-06-01

    To develop, assess, and maximize the sensitivity of a search strategy to identify diet and nutrition trials in PubMed using relative recall. We developed a search strategy to identify diet and nutrition trials in PubMed. We then constructed a gold standard reference set to validate the identified trials using the relative recall method. Relative recall was calculated by dividing the number of references from the gold standard our search strategy identified by the total number of references in the gold standard. Our gold standard comprised 298 trials, derived from 16 included systematic reviews. The initial search strategy identified 242 of 298 references, with a relative recall of 81.2% [95% confidence interval (CI): 76.3%, 85.5%]. We analyzed titles and abstracts of the 56 missed references for possible additional terms. We then modified the search strategy accordingly. The relative recall of the final search strategy was 88.6% (95% CI: 84.4%, 91.9%). We developed a search strategy to identify diet and nutrition trials in PubMed with a high relative recall (sensitivity). This could be useful for establishing a nutrition trials register to support the conduct of future research, including systematic reviews. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. The effects of emotion regulation on explicit memory depend on strategy and testing method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knight, Marisa; Ponzio, Allison

    2013-12-01

    Although previous work has shown that emotion regulation strategies can influence memory, the mechanisms through which different strategies produce different memory outcomes are not well understood. We examined how two cognitive reappraisal strategies with similar elaboration demands but diverging effects on visual attention and emotional arousal influenced explicit memory for emotional stimuli and for the strategies used to evaluate the stimuli. At encoding, participants used reappraisal to increase and decrease the personal relevance of neutral and emotional pictures. In two experiments, recall accuracy was highest for emotional pictures featured on increase trials, intermediate for emotional pictures featured on look (respond naturally) trials, and lowest for emotional pictures featured on decrease trials. This recall pattern emerged after a short delay (15 min) and persisted over a longer delay (48 hr). Memory accuracy for the strategies used to evaluate the pictures showed a different pattern: Strategy memory was better for emotional pictures featured on decrease and increase trials than for pictures featured on look trials. Our findings show that the effects of emotion regulation on memory depend both on the particular strategy engaged and the particular aspect of memory being tested.

  14. Analytical Modeling of Natural Convection in a Tall Rectangular Enclosure with Multiple Disconnected Partitions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Youngmin Bae

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available In this study, laminar natural circulation and heat transfer in a tall rectangular enclosure with disconnected vertical partitions inside were investigated. Analytical expressions were developed to predict the circulation flow rate and the average Nusselt number in a partially partitioned enclosure with isothermal side walls at different temperatures and insulated top and bottom walls. The proposed formulas are then validated against numerical results for modified Rayleigh numbers of up to 106. The impacts of the governing parameters are also examined along with a discussion of the heat transfer regimes.

  15. Heat Release Rate of an Open Kitchen Fire of Small Residential Units in Tall Buildings

    OpenAIRE

    Chow, W.K.

    2014-01-01

    Many small units of area less than 30 m2 in residential buildings over 200 m tall are equipped with open kitchens in Asia, including Hong Kong. Fire safety provisions of these kitchens are determined by performance-based design (PBD). In most PBD projects, only the spread of smoke from the kitchen on fire to the outside was commonly studied. However, a fire load survey in Hong Kong indicated large quantities of combustibles are stored in residential units. Cooking oil was found to be ignited ...

  16. Tall-building development process in downtown Maringá-PR, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Roberto Machado

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available This work describes the urbanization process taking place in the city of Maringá, in the context of the tallbuilding development at its main economic axis, the city center. This research aims to conduct an in-depth analysis of the role played by the housing industry in the development of tall buildings at downtown Maringá, the origin of the capital associated to such process, and the rationale for building them in Zone 1 (downtown. This is also analyzed considering local environmental information and infrastructural considerations involved in this process.

  17. Reverse engineering of TLX oncogenic transcriptional networks identifies RUNX1 as tumor suppressor in T-ALL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Della Gatta, Giusy; Palomero, Teresa; Perez-Garcia, Arianne; Ambesi-Impiombato, Alberto; Bansal, Mukesh; Carpenter, Zachary W; De Keersmaecker, Kim; Sole, Xavier; Xu, Luyao; Paietta, Elisabeth; Racevskis, Janis; Wiernik, Peter H; Rowe, Jacob M; Meijerink, Jules P; Califano, Andrea; Ferrando, Adolfo A

    2012-02-26

    The TLX1 and TLX3 transcription factor oncogenes have a key role in the pathogenesis of T cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL). Here we used reverse engineering of global transcriptional networks to decipher the oncogenic regulatory circuit controlled by TLX1 and TLX3. This systems biology analysis defined T cell leukemia homeobox 1 (TLX1) and TLX3 as master regulators of an oncogenic transcriptional circuit governing T-ALL. Notably, a network structure analysis of this hierarchical network identified RUNX1 as a key mediator of the T-ALL induced by TLX1 and TLX3 and predicted a tumor-suppressor role for RUNX1 in T cell transformation. Consistent with these results, we identified recurrent somatic loss-of-function mutations in RUNX1 in human T-ALL. Overall, these results place TLX1 and TLX3 at the top of an oncogenic transcriptional network controlling leukemia development, show the power of network analyses to identify key elements in the regulatory circuits governing human cancer and identify RUNX1 as a tumor-suppressor gene in T-ALL.

  18. Organizational Strategy and Business Environment Effects Based on a Computation Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reklitis, Panagiotis; Konstantopoulos, Nikolaos; Trivellas, Panagiotis

    2007-12-01

    According to many researchers of organizational theory, a great number of problems encountered by the manufacturing firms are due to their ineffectiveness to respond to significant changes of their external environment and align their competitive strategy accordingly. From this point of view, the pursuit of the appropriate generic strategy is vital for firms facing a dynamic and highly competitive environment. In the present paper, we adopt Porter's typology to operationalise organizational strategy (cost leadership, innovative and marketing differentiation, and focus) considering changes in the external business environment (dynamism, complexity and munificence). Although simulation of social events is a quite difficult task, since there are so many considerations (not all well understood) involved, in the present study we developed a dynamic system based on the conceptual framework of strategy-environment associations.

  19. Probabilistic stability and "tall" wind profiles: theory and method for use in wind resource assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kelly, Mark C.; Troen, Ib

    2016-01-01

    A model has been derived for calculating the aggregate effects of stability and the finite height of the planetary boundary layer upon the long-term mean wind profile. A practical implementation of this probabilistic extended similarity-theory model is made, including its incorporation within...... to the methodology. Results of the modeling are shown for a number of sites, with discussion of the models’ efficacy and the relative improvement shown by the new model, for situations where a user lacks local heat flux information, as well as performance of the new model using measured flux statistics. Further...... the European Wind Atlas (EWA) methodology for site-to-site application. Theoretical and practical implications of the EWA methodology are also derived and described, including unprecedented documentation of the theoretical framework encompassing vertical extrapolation, as well as some improvement...

  20. Initiative Optimization Operation Strategy and Multi-objective Energy Management Method for Combined Cooling Heating and Power

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Feng Zhao; Chenghui Zhang; Bo Sun

    2016-01-01

    This paper proposed an initiative optimization operation strategy and multi-objective energy management method for combined cooling heating and power(CCHP) with storage systems.Initially,the initiative optimization operation strategy of CCHP system in the cooling season,the heating season and the transition season was formulated.The energy management of CCHP system was optimized by the multi-objective optimization model with maximum daily energy efficiency,minimum daily carbon emissions and minimum daily operation cost based on the proposed initiative optimization operation strategy.Furthermore,the pareto optimal solution set was solved by using the niche particle swarm multi-objective optimization algorithm.Ultimately,the most satisfactory energy management scheme was obtained by using the technique for order preference by similarity to ideal solution(TOPSIS) method.A case study of CCHP system used in a hospital in the north of China validated the effectiveness of this method.The results showed that the satisfactory energy management scheme of CCHP system was obtained based on this initiative optimization operation strategy and multi-objective energy management method.The CCHP system has achieved better energy efficiency,environmental protection and economic benefits.

  1. Health monitoring system for a tall building with Fiber Bragg grating sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, D. S.; Li, H. N.; Ren, L.; Guo, D. S.; Song, G. B.

    2009-03-01

    Fiber Bragg grating (FBG) sensors demonstrate great potentials for structural health monitoring of civil structures to ensure their structural integrity, durability and reliability. The advantages of applying fiber optic sensors to a tall building include their immunity of electromagnetic interference and multiplexing ability to transfer optical signals over a long distance. In the work, FBG sensors, including strain and temperature sensors, are applied to the construction monitoring of an 18-floor tall building starting from its construction date. The main purposes of the project are: 1) monitoring the temperature evolution history within the concrete during the pouring process; 2) measuring the variations of the main column strains on the underground floor while upper 18 floors were subsequently added on; and 3) monitoring the relative displacements between two foundation blocks. The FBG sensors have been installed and interrogated continuously for more than five months. Monitoring results of temperature and strains during the period are presented in the paper. Furthermore, the lag behavior between the concrete temperature and its surrounding air temperature is investigated.

  2. Baseline report - tall upland shrubland at the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-03-01

    Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (Site) is located on the Colorado Piedmont east of the Front Range between Boulder and Golden. At an elevation of approximately 6,000 feet, the Site contains a unique ecotonal mixture of mountain and prairie plant species, resulting from the topography and close proximity to the mountain front. The Buffer Zone surrounding the Industrial Area is one of the largest remaining undeveloped areas of its kind along the Colorado Piedmont. A number of plant communities at the Site have been identified as increasingly rare and unique by Site ecologists and the Colorado Natural Heritage Program (CNHP). These include the xeric tallgrass prairie, tall upland shrubland, wetlands, and Great Plains riparian woodland communities. Many of these communities support populations of increasingly rare animals as well, including the Preble's meadow jumping mouse, grasshopper sparrow, loggerhead shrike, Merriam's shrew, black crowned night heron, and Hops blue and Argos skipper butterflies. One of the more interesting and important plant communities at the Site is the tall upland shrubland community. It has been generally overlooked by previous Site ecological studies, probably due to its relatively small size; only 34 acres total. Although mentioned in a plant community ordination study conducted by Clark et al. and also in the Site baseline ecological study, few data were available on this plant community before the present study

  3. Baseline report - tall upland shrubland at the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (Site) is located on the Colorado Piedmont east of the Front Range between Boulder and Golden. At an elevation of approximately 6,000 feet, the Site contains a unique ecotonal mixture of mountain and prairie plant species, resulting from the topography and close proximity to the mountain front. The Buffer Zone surrounding the Industrial Area is one of the largest remaining undeveloped areas of its kind along the Colorado Piedmont. A number of plant communities at the Site have been identified as increasingly rare and unique by Site ecologists and the Colorado Natural Heritage Program (CNHP). These include the xeric tallgrass prairie, tall upland shrubland, wetlands, and Great Plains riparian woodland communities. Many of these communities support populations of increasingly rare animals as well, including the Preble`s meadow jumping mouse, grasshopper sparrow, loggerhead shrike, Merriam`s shrew, black crowned night heron, and Hops blue and Argos skipper butterflies. One of the more interesting and important plant communities at the Site is the tall upland shrubland community. It has been generally overlooked by previous Site ecological studies, probably due to its relatively small size; only 34 acres total. Although mentioned in a plant community ordination study conducted by Clark et al. and also in the Site baseline ecological study, few data were available on this plant community before the present study.

  4. Population structures of Brazilian tall coconut (Cocos nucifera L.) by microsatellite markers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Coconut palms of the Tall group were introduced to Brazil from the Cape Verde Islands in 1553. The present study sought to evaluate the genetic diversity among and within Brazilian Tall coconut populations. Samples were collected of 195 trees from 10 populations. Genetic diversity was accessed by investigating 13 simple sequence repeats (SSR) loci. This provided a total of 68 alleles, ranging from 2 to 13 alleles per locus, with an average of 5.23. The mean values of gene diversity (He ) and observed heterozygosity (Ho ) were 0.459 and 0.443, respectively. The genetic differentiation among populations was estimated at θ^P=0.1600and the estimated apparent outcrossing rate was ta = 0.92. Estimates of genetic distances between the populations varied from 0.034 to 0.390. Genetic distance and the corresponding clustering analysis indicate the formation of two groups. The first consists of the Baía Formosa, Georgino Avelino, and São José do Mipibu populations and the second consists of the Japoatã, Pacatuba, and Praia do Forte populations. The correlation matrix between genetic and geographic distances was positive and significant at a 1% probability. Taken together, our results suggest a spatial structuring of the genetic variability among the populations. Geographically closer populations exhibited greater similarities. PMID:21637579

  5. Tallness is associated with risk of testicular cancer: evidence for the nutrition hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dieckmann, K-P; Hartmann, J T; Classen, J; Lüdde, R; Diederichs, M; Pichlmeier, U

    2008-11-04

    The pathogenesis of testicular germ cell tumours (GCTs) is potentially influenced by high-energy nutrition during infancy. As adult height is a proxy for childhood nutrition, we investigated the role of nutrition in GCT pathogenesis by comparing stature of patients with healthy men. In a matched case-control study, 6415 patients with GCT were compared with healthy army conscripts (1:6 matching modus) with regard to height (cm) and body mass index (BMI; kg/m(2)). Statistical analysis involved tabulation of descriptive height measures and BMI. Conditional logistic regression models were used to quantify the association of GCT with height, with odds ratios (OR) adjusted for BMI. The literature was searched for studies on stature in GCT patients. Body size is significantly associated with risk of GCT, very tall men (>195 cm) having a GCT risk of OR=3.35 (95% confidence intervals (CI): 2.88-3.90; adjusted). Short stature is protective (OR=0.798; 95% CI: 0.68-0.93). Both histologic subgroups are associated with tallness. Of 16 previous reports, 7 were confirmative, 5 had null and 4 equivocal results. The association of stature with GCT risk accords with the nutrition hypothesis of GCT. This study expands the current view of GCT tumorigenesis by suggesting that high-calorie intake in childhood promotes GCT precursors originating in utero.

  6. Nursing students' preferences of strategies surrounding cinenurducation in a first year child growth and development courses: A mixed methods study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Jina; Steefel, Lorraine

    2016-01-01

    Use of film in the classroom (cinenurducation) promotes nursing students' motivation and understanding of concepts about child growth and development; however, consensus has not been reached regarding students' preferred strategies and what they view as effective. To identify nursing students' preferences for pedagogical strategies surrounding film use in a Child Growth and Development course. A mixed methods study encompassing a concurrent triangulation strategy was undertaken. Eighty-three students attending the first year nursing class in the fall semester 2012 at a private University in South Korea participated. Films or film clips were shown either before or after pedagogical strategies including lecture, presentation, personal essay, group report, or group discussion, followed by a questionnaire to assess student preferences and their opinions on the impact of strategies on motivation and learning. A focus group with 10 participants provided their opinions. Although the preference for the time when films were watched showed no significant difference (t=.388, p=.699), participants preferred the following pedagogical methods: watching films with a group, saying this was more effective compared to watching films alone (t=5.488, pstrategies surrounding cinenurducation helped them gain conceptual knowledge in a Child Growth and Development course. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Image-Based Method for Determining Better Walking Strategies for Hexapods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazi Mostafa

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available An intelligent walking strategy is vital for multi-legged robots possessing no a priori information of an environment when traversing across discontinuous terrain. Six-legged robots outperform other multi-legged robots in static and dynamic stability. However, hexapods require careful planning to traverse across discontinuous terrain. A hexapod walking strategy can be accomplished using a vision-based navigation system to identify the surrounding environment. This paper presents an image-based technique to achieve better walking strategies for a hexapod walking on a special terrain containing irregular, restricted regions. The properties of the restricted regions were acquired beforehand by using reliable surveillance means. Moreover, simplified forward gaits, better rotational gaits, and adaptive gait selection strategies for walking on discontinuous terrain were proposed. The hexapod can effectively switch the gait sequences and types according to the environment involved. The boundary of standing zones can be successfully labelled by applying the greyscale erosion comprising a structuring element similar in shape and size to the foot tip of the hexapod. The experimental results demonstrated that the proposed image-based technique significantly improved the walking strategies of hexapods traversing on discontinuous terrain.

  8. Development of strategies to reduce cesarean delivery rates in iran 2012-2014: A mixed methods study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Razieh Lotfi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: With the change in population policy from birth control toward encouraging birth and population growth in Iran, repeated cesarean deliveries as a main reason of cesarean section are associated with more potential adverse consequences. The aim of this research was to explore effective strategies to reduce cesarean delivery rates in Iran. Methods: A mixed methodological study was designed and implemented. First, using a qualitative approach, concepts and influencing factors of increased cesarean delivery were explored. Based on the findings of this phase of the study, a questionnaire including the proposed strategies to reduce cesarean delivery was developed. Then in a quantitative phase, the questionnaire was assessed by key informants from across the country and evaluated to obtain more effective strategies to reduce cesarean delivery. Ten participants in the qualitative study included policy makers from the Ministry of Health, obstetricians, midwives and anthropologists. In the next step, 141 participants from private and public hospitals, insurance experts, Academic Associations of Midwifery, and policy makers in Maternity Health Affairs of Ministry of Health were invited to assess and provide feedback on the strategies that work to reduce cesarean deliveries. Results: Qualitative data analysis showed four concept related to increased cesarean delivery rates including; "standardization", "education", "amending regulations", and "performance supervision". Effective strategies extracted from qualitative data were rated by participants then, using ACCEPT derived from A as attainability, C as costing, C as complication, E as effectiveness, P as popularity, and T as timing table 19 strategies were detected as priorities. Conclusions: Although developing effective strategies to reduce cesarean delivery rates is complex process because of the multi-factorial nature of increased cesarean deliveries, in this study we have achieved

  9. Height among Women is Curvilinearly Related to Life History Strategy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abraham P. Buunk

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available It was hypothesized that women of medium height would show a more secure, long-term mating pattern characterized by less jealousy, less intrasexual competition and a “slower” life history strategy. In three samples of female undergraduate students clear support was found for these hypotheses. In Study 1, among 120 participants, height was curvilinearly related to well-established measures of possessive and reactive jealousy, with women of medium height being less jealous than tall as well as short women. In Study 2, among 40 participants, height was curvilinearly related to intrasexual competition, with women of medium height being less competitive towards other women than tall as well as short women. In Study 3, among 299 participants, height was curvilinearly related to the Mini-K, a well-validated measure of “slower” life history strategy, with women of medium height having a slower life history strategy than tall as well as short women. The results suggest that women of medium height tend to follow a different mating strategy than either tall or short women. Various explanations and implications of these results are discussed.

  10. Entry-to-practice public health nursing competencies: A Delphi method and knowledge translation strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schofield, Ruth; Chircop, Andrea; Baker, Cynthia; Dietrich Leurer, Marie; Duncan, Susan; Wotton, Donalda

    2018-06-01

    Sustaining and strengthening nurses 'contributions to public and population health in the 21st century depends in part on nursing education. Clearly articulated entry-to-practice competencies will contribute to the capacity of undergraduate nursing education programs to prepare graduates to promote local, national and global population health. The Canadian Association of Schools of Nursing created the Public Health Task Force to develop consensus on core, national entry-to-practice competencies in public health nursing for undergraduate nursing students and to support these competencies with corresponding online teaching strategies. Delphi approach. Nurses with public health experience in education and practice, and representatives from other public health professional organizations across Canada. The three-phased competency development included: 1) an environmental scan; 2) an iterative process to draft competencies; and 3) a modified Delphi process to confirm the final competency framework using face to face consultations and a survey. The knowledge translation strategy involved soliciting submissions of teaching strategies for peer-review and subsequent inclusion in an interactive online resource. 242 public health educators and practitioners participated in the consensus consultation. The final document outlined five competency statements with 19 accompanying indicators. A total of 123 teaching strategies were submitted for the online resource, of which 50 were accepted as exemplary teaching strategies. This competency development process can provide guidance for the development of competencies in other countries, thus strengthening public health nursing education globally. The decision to intentionally level the competencies to entry-to-practice, as opposed to an advanced level, enhanced their application to undergraduate nursing education. The development of the additional inventory of teaching strategies created a sustainable innovative resource for public

  11. Combining AI Methods for Learning Bots in a Real-Time Strategy Game

    OpenAIRE

    Robin Baumgarten; Simon Colton; Mark Morris

    2009-01-01

    We describe an approach for simulating human game-play in strategy games using a variety of AI techniques, including simulated annealing, decision tree learning, and case-based reasoning. We have implemented an AI-bot that uses these techniques to form a novel approach for planning fleet movements and attacks in DEFCON, a nuclear war simulation strategy game released in 2006 by Introversion Software Ltd. The AI-bot retrieves plans from a case-base of recorded games, then uses these to generat...

  12. Exploring the Oral Communication Strategies Used by Turkish EFL Learners: A Mixed Methods Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demir, Yusuf; Mutlu, Gülçin; Sisman, Yavuz Selim

    2018-01-01

    This study set out with a threefold purpose: to examine (1) the oral communication strategies (CSs) employed by tertiary-level Turkish EFL learners, (2) the use of CSs based on exposure to English through audio-visual tools, university subject domain and gender differences, (3) the correlation between use of CSs and oral proficiency scores. To…

  13. A Mixed Methods Analysis of a Single-Course Strategy to Integrate Technology into PETE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyant, James D.; Jones, Emily M.; Bulger, Sean M.

    2015-01-01

    In recent years increased attention has been placed on physical education teachers' use of technology. To date little research has been disseminated regarding the strategies physical education teacher education (PETE) programs are employing to prepare preservice teacher's to use technology. The purpose of this study was to examine the influence a…

  14. A global method for calculating plant CSR ecological strategies applied across biomes world-wide

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pierce, S.; Negreiros, D.; Cerabolini, B.E.L.; Kattge, J.; Díaz, S.; Kleyer, M.; Shipley, B.; Wright, S.J.; Soudzilovskaia, N.A.; Onipchenko, V.G.; van Bodegom, P.M.; Frenette-Dussault, C.; Weiher, E.; Pinho, B.X.; Cornelissen, J.H.C.; Grime, J.P.; Thompson, K.; Hunt, R.; Wilson, P.J.; Buffa, G.; Nyakunga, O.C.; Reich, P.B.; Caccianiga, M.; Mangili, F.; Ceriani, R.M.; Luzzaro, A.; Brusa, G.; Siefert, A.; Barbosa, N.P.U.; Chapin III, F.S.; Cornwell, W.K.; Fang, Jingyun; Wilson Fernandez, G.; Garnier, E.; Le Stradic, S.; Peñuelas, J.; Melo, F.P.L.; Slaviero, A.; Tabarrelli, M.; Tampucci, D.

    2017-01-01

    Competitor, stress-tolerator, ruderal (CSR) theory is a prominent plant functional strategy scheme previously applied to local floras. Globally, the wide geographic and phylogenetic coverage of available values of leaf area (LA), leaf dry matter content (LDMC) and specific leaf area (SLA)

  15. Strategy and method for nanoporous cladding formation on silica optical fiber

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Chen, H.; Tian, F.; Liu, K.; Kaňka, Jiří; Du, H.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 41, č. 12 (2016), s. 2831-2834 ISSN 0146-9592 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GBP205/12/G118 Institutional support: RVO:67985882 Keywords : Fabrication strategies * Optical fiber fabrication * Silica Subject RIV: JA - Electronics ; Optoelectronics, Electrical Engineering Impact factor: 3.416, year: 2016

  16. A Computer Assisted Method to Track Listening Strategies in Second Language Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roussel, Stephanie

    2011-01-01

    Many studies about listening strategies are based on what learners report while listening to an oral message in the second language (Vandergrift, 2003; Graham, 2006). By recording a video of the computer screen while L2 learners (L1 French) were listening to an MP3-track in German, this study uses a novel approach and recent developments in…

  17. Multiple imputation strategies for zero-inflated cost data in economic evaluations : which method works best?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    MacNeil Vroomen, Janet; Eekhout, Iris; Dijkgraaf, Marcel G; van Hout, Hein; de Rooij, Sophia E; Heymans, Martijn W; Bosmans, Judith E

    2016-01-01

    Cost and effect data often have missing data because economic evaluations are frequently added onto clinical studies where cost data are rarely the primary outcome. The objective of this article was to investigate which multiple imputation strategy is most appropriate to use for missing

  18. Global asymptotic stability of a passive juggling strategy: A possible parts-feeding method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swanson P. J.

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we demonstrate that a passive vibration strategy can bring a one-degree-of-freedom ball to a specified periodic trajectory from all initial conditions. We draw motivation from the problem of parts feeding in sensorless assembly. We provide simulation results suggesting the relevance of our analysis to the parts feeding problem.

  19. Weight-loss strategies used by baby boomer men: a mixed methods approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, D C S; Wirth, C K; Harville, C; Efunbumi, O

    2016-04-01

    Baby Boomer men (those born in 1946-1964) are becoming obese at an earlier age compared to previous generations. The present study aimed to identify weight-loss strategies used by Baby Boomer men, to determine whether those strategies varied by weight status and to explore their dieting experiences. The study used a cross-sectional survey of 211 men and 20 in-depth interviews. Men had a mean (SD) body mass index (BMI) of 29.35 (5.07) kg m(-2), with 82% being overweight or obese. Fifty-six percent were currently trying to lose weight. Healthy weight-loss strategies included reducing portions, increasing physical activity, cutting back on fried foods, cutting back on sweets, cutting back on alcohol, using meal replacement drinks/bars and joining a weight-loss programme. Unhealthy strategies included skipping meals and using over-the-counter 'diet pills'. Men who reduced portions, skipped meals, cut back on sweets, joined a weight-loss programme and used diet pills had significantly higher BMIs than men who said they did not (P < 0.05 for all). Interviews revealed that older men struggle to lose weight, 'I've been struggling for the last 2-3 years'. 'The last time I really tried to lose weight I stayed on the diet for just a day or two'. Wives were considered essential to their weight management success. Men used a do-it-yourself weight-loss approach using both healthy and unhealthy strategies. Obese men were more likely to use unhealthy practices than overweight men. © 2015 The British Dietetic Association Ltd.

  20. Transient heat conduction in multi-layer walls: An efficient strategy for Laplace's method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maestre, Ismael R.; Cubillas, Paloma R. [Escuela Politecnica Superior de Algeciras, University of Cadiz, Algeciras (Spain); Perez-Lombard, Luis [Escuela Superior de Ingenieros, University of Seville (Spain)

    2010-04-15

    Enhancing load calculation tools into building simulation programs requires an in-depth revision and fine tuning of the load calculation assumptions prior to the addition of the HVAC system modelling routines. It is of special interest the analysis of transient heat conduction through multi-layer walls where, in order to improve the coupling between the passive elements of the building and the HVAC systems, an improvement of the time resolution in the calculation becomes critical. Several methods have been historically used, although recently Laplace's method has been displaced by the State Space method. This paper proposes a new strategy for fine time resolution on the calculation of the response factors through Laplace's method considering a comparison with the performance of the State Space method when used to calculate conduction transfer functions. Our analysis shows that in order to achieve similar accuracy with both approaches, the State Space method requires significant additional computational time. (author)

  1. TALL HERB SPRUCE FORESTS AS CLIMAX COMMUNITIES ON LOWLAND SWAMPS OF BRYANSK POLESIE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. I. Evstigneev

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Nettle grey alder forests are a dominant forest type on lowland swamps in the Bryansk Polesie. They are formed as a result of repeated cuttings in the place of tall herb spruce forests. Tall herb spruce forests are very rare communities in the vegetation cover in this area due to clear cutting, melioration and peat extraction. An assessment of the succession status of tall herb spruce forests and nettle grey alder forests was carried out in this paper. The criteria of climax state and succession state of communities, developed for Eastern European forests, were used. These criteria are based on the degree of intensity of the following signs in the community: 1 the completeness of species composition of tree synusia; 2 the ontogenetic structure of tree species cenopopulation; 3 the gap-mosaic stand structure; 4 the diversity of microsites in soil cover; 5 the completeness of species composition and ecological-coenotic diversity of vascular species. We showed that tall herb spruce forest, as opposed to black alder forest, is close to communities of the climax type. This is evidenced by the following features of cenosis: firstly, all tree species in the area that covers the Bryansk Polesie and that are able to grow on lowland swamps are represented in the spruce forest (Alnus glutinosa, Betula pubescens, Fraxinus excelsior, Padus avium, Picea abies, Salix pentandra, Sorbus aucuparia, Ulmus glabra. Secondly, a steady turnover of generations is carried out in the cenopopulations of main edificators (Picea abies and Alnus glutinosa. This is evidenced by the complete and left-sided structure of their ontogenetic spectrum. Thirdly, a system of asynchronously developing gaps (parcels, which are formed on the site of old tree falls, is formed in the community. This ensures the continuous renewal of spruce and alder populations and creates conditions for the regeneration of other tree species. Fourthly, the structure of biogenic microsites has been formed

  2. Strategies and Methods for Optimisation of Protection against Internal Exposures of Workers from Industrial Natural Sources (SMOPIE)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van der Steen, J.; Timmermans, C.W.M.; Van Weers, A.W.; Degrange, J.P.; Lefaure, C.; Shaw, P.V.

    2004-01-01

    The report provides summaries on the Work Packages 1 and 2 (see Annex 1 and 2 below) and describes the work carried out in Work Packages 3, 4 and 5. In addition it provides a summary of the main achievements of the project. The objective of Work Package 3 was to try to categorise exposure situations described in the case studies in terms of a limited number of exposure parameters relevant to the implementation of ALARA. It became clear that the characterisation criteria considered for the many different exposure situations in the industrial cases led to an important practical conclusion, namely that the preferred choice of the air sampling method (i.e. to implement ALARA) will be the same in all the industries considered. The aim of work package 4 (Review and evaluation of monitoring strategies and methods) was to review the technical capabilities and limitations of different forms of internal radiation monitoring. This included a consideration of monitoring strategies, methods and equipment, as appropriate. The review considered which types of monitoring (if any) are the most effective in terms of contributing to the optimisation of internal exposures (from inhalation) and whether further developments are needed, especially in relation to existing monitoring equipment. One of the main conclusions is: personal air sampling (PAS) is the best method for assessing occupational doses from inhalation of aerosols. The first step in any monitoring strategy should be an assessment of worker doses using this technique. The Appendices 1-4 of Annex 3 provide the detailed supporting material for Work Package 4. Work Package 5 provides recommended strategies, methods and tools for optimisation of internal exposures in industrial work activities involving natural radionuclides. It is based on the case studies as described in Work Package 2 and the analysis of these studies in Work Package 3. It also takes into account the assessment of monitoring strategies, methods and tools

  3. Development, implementation, and evaluation of a mental rehearsal strategy to improve clinical performance and reduce stress: A mixed methods study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ignacio, Jeanette; Dolmans, Diana; Scherpbier, Albert; Rethans, Jan-Joost; Lopez, Violeta; Liaw, Sok Ying

    2016-02-01

    Mental rehearsal is a form of mental training that has been used by physicians and nurses to improve performance of clinical skills, and as a vital component of stress management training. To help novice nurses deal with often stressful clinical events that require the processing of information essential to patient management, a mental rehearsal strategy was developed and implemented in a Year 3 nursing simulation program. Inherent to mental rehearsal is imagery, which facilitates cognitive and affective modification, and reduction of extraneous cognitive load. As such, it was expected that the mental rehearsal strategy would improve students' performance and reduce stress in managing deteriorating patients. The study used a mixed methods design. Eighteen Year 3 nursing students participated in the pre- and post-design study, which consisted of the development and implementation of a mental rehearsal strategy. The Rescuing A Patient In Deteriorating Situations (RAPIDS) tool was used to assess performance. Heart rates and systolic blood pressures were used to measure stress. The State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI) was used as a psychological measure of stress/anxiety. Five participants were involved in a focus group discussion that evaluated the usefulness of the mental rehearsal strategy. There was a significant improvement in performance (Pstrategy. The mental rehearsal strategy for deteriorating patient management can be valuable based on the findings on performance and based on the participants' feedback. Its role in reducing stress, however, needs further evaluation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Simulation-based method to determine climatic energy strategies of an adaptable building retrofit façade system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Capeluto, I. Guedi; Ochoa, Carlos E.

    2014-01-01

    Vast amounts of the European residential stock were built with limited consideration for energy efficiency, yet its refurbishment can help reach national energy reduction goals, decreasing environmental impact. Short-term retrofits with reduced interference to inhabitants can be achieved by upgrading facades with elements that enhance energy efficiency and user comfort. The European Union-funded Meefs Retrofitting (Multifunctional Energy Efficient Façade System) project aims to develop an adaptable mass-produced facade system for energy improvement in existing residential buildings throughout the continent. This article presents a simplified methodology to identify preferred strategies and combinations for the early design stages of such system. This was derived from studying weather characteristics of European regions and outlining climatic energy-saving strategies based on human thermal comfort. Strategies were matched with conceptual technologies like glazing, shading and insulation. The typical building stock was characterized from statistics of previous European projects. Six improvements and combinations were modelled using a simulation model, identifying and ranking preferred configurations. The methodology is summarized in a synoptic scheme identifying the energy rankings of each improvement and combination for the studied climates and façade orientations. - Highlights: • First results of EU project for new energy efficient façade retrofit system. • System consists of prefabricated elements with multiple options for flexibility. • Modular strategies were determined that adapt to different climates. • Technologies matching the strategies were identified. • Presents a method for use and application in different climates across Europe

  5. Learning methods and strategies of anatomy among medical students in two different Institutions in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Mohrej, Omar A; Al-Ayedh, Noura K; Masuadi, Emad M; Al-Kenani, Nader S

    2017-04-01

    Anatomy instructors adopt individual teaching methods and strategies to convey anatomical information to medical students for learning. Students also exhibit their own individual learning preferences. Instructional methods preferences vary between both instructors and students across different institutions. In attempt to bridge the gap between teaching methods and the students' learning preferences, this study aimed to identify students' learning methods and different strategies of studying anatomy in two different Saudi medical schools in Riyadh. A cross-sectional study, conducted in Saudi Arabia in April 2015, utilized a three-section questionnaire, which was distributed to a consecutive sample of 883 medical students to explore their methods and strategies in learning and teaching anatomy in two separate institutions in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Medical students' learning styles and preferences were found to be predominantly affected by different cultural backgrounds, gender, and level of study. Many students found it easier to understand and remember anatomy components using study aids. In addition, almost half of the students felt confident to ask their teachers questions after class. The study also showed that more than half of the students found it easier to study by concentrating on a particular part of the body rather than systems. Students' methods of learning were distributed equally between memorizing facts and learning by hands-on dissection. In addition, the study showed that two thirds of the students felt satisfied with their learning method and believed it was well suited for anatomy. There is no single teaching method which proves beneficial; instructors should be flexible in their teaching in order to optimize students' academic achievements.

  6. Assessing Storm Vulnerabilities and Resilience Strategies: A Scenario-Method for Engaging Stakeholders of Public/Private Maritime Infrastructure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, A.; Burroughs, R.

    2014-12-01

    This presentation discusses a new method to assess vulnerability and resilience strategies for stakeholders of coastal-dependent transportation infrastructure, such as seaports. Much coastal infrastructure faces increasing risk to extreme events resulting from sea level rise and tropical storms. As seen after Hurricane Sandy, natural disasters result in economic costs, damages to the environment, and negative consequences on resident's quality of life. In the coming decades, tough decisions will need to be made about investment measures to protect critical infrastructure. Coastal communities will need to weigh the costs and benefits of a new storm barrier, for example, against those of retrofitting, elevating or simply doing nothing. These decisions require understanding the priorities and concerns of stakeholders. For ports, these include shippers, insurers, tenants, and ultimate consumers of the port cargo on a local and global scale, all of whom have a stake in addressing port vulnerabilities.Decision-makers in exposed coastal areas need tools to understand stakeholders concerns and perceptions of potential resilience strategies. For ports, they need answers to: 1) How will stakeholders be affected? 2) What strategies could be implemented to build resilience? 3) How effectively would the strategies mitigate stakeholder concerns? 4) What level of time and investment would strategies require? 5) Which stakeholders could/should take responsibility? Our stakeholder-based method provides answers to questions 1-3 and forms the basis for further work to address 4 and 5.Together with an expert group, we developed a pilot study for stakeholders of Rhode Island's critical energy port, the Port of Providence. Our method uses a plausible extreme storm scenario with localized visualizations and a portfolio of potential resilience strategies. We tailor a multi-criteria decision analysis tool and, through a series of workshops, we use the storm scenario, resilience strategies

  7. Comparing of goal setting strategy with group education method to increase physical activity level: A randomized trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasrin Jiryaee

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Designing an intervention to increase physical activity is important to be based on the health care settings resources and be acceptable by the subject group. This study was designed to assess and compare the effect of the goal setting strategy with a group education method on increasing the physical activity of mothers of children aged 1 to 5. Materials and Methods: Mothers who had at least one child of 1-5 years were randomized into two groups. The effect of 1 goal-setting strategy and 2 group education method on increasing physical activity was assessed and compared 1 month and 3 months after the intervention. Also, the weight, height, body mass index (BMI, waist and hip circumference, and well-being were compared between the two groups before and after the intervention. Results: Physical activity level increased significantly after the intervention in the goal-setting group and it was significantly different between the two groups after intervention (P < 0.05. BMI, waist circumference, hip circumference, and well-being score were significantly different in the goal-setting group after the intervention. In the group education method, only the well-being score improved significantly (P < 0.05. Conclusion: Our study presented the effects of using the goal-setting strategy to boost physical activity, improving the state of well-being and decreasing BMI, waist, and hip circumference.

  8. LLNA variability: An essential ingredient for a comprehensive assessment of non-animal skin sensitization test methods and strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffmann, Sebastian

    2015-01-01

    The development of non-animal skin sensitization test methods and strategies is quickly progressing. Either individually or in combination, the predictive capacity is usually described in comparison to local lymph node assay (LLNA) results. In this process the important lesson from other endpoints, such as skin or eye irritation, to account for variability reference test results - here the LLNA - has not yet been fully acknowledged. In order to provide assessors as well as method and strategy developers with appropriate estimates, we investigated the variability of EC3 values from repeated substance testing using the publicly available NICEATM (NTP Interagency Center for the Evaluation of Alternative Toxicological Methods) LLNA database. Repeat experiments for more than 60 substances were analyzed - once taking the vehicle into account and once combining data over all vehicles. In general, variability was higher when different vehicles were used. In terms of skin sensitization potential, i.e., discriminating sensitizer from non-sensitizers, the false positive rate ranged from 14-20%, while the false negative rate was 4-5%. In terms of skin sensitization potency, the rate to assign a substance to the next higher or next lower potency class was approx.10-15%. In addition, general estimates for EC3 variability are provided that can be used for modelling purposes. With our analysis we stress the importance of considering the LLNA variability in the assessment of skin sensitization test methods and strategies and provide estimates thereof.

  9. Columbia University: Direct Reversal of Glucocorticoid Resistance by AKT inhibition in Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia (T-ALL) | Office of Cancer Genomics

    Science.gov (United States)

    The goal of this project is to identify key druggable regulators of glucocorticoid resistance in T-ALL. To this end, a reverse-engineered T-ALL context-specific regulatory interaction network was created from a phenotypically diverse T-ALL gene expression dataset, and then this network was interrogated using master regulator analysis to find drivers of glucocorticoid resistance.

  10. Effects of source and level of dietary energy supplementation on in vitro digestibility and methane production from tall fescue-based diets

    Science.gov (United States)

    There is a lack of information about the effect of different sources, levels, and the mixtures of energy supplements commonly fed to cattle grazing tall fescue. Therefore, the objective of this study was to evaluate different common energy sources for beef cattle grazing tall fescue using an in vitr...

  11. 33 CFR 165.T09-0073 - Safety and Security Zones; Tall Ships Challenge 2010; Great Lakes; Cleveland, OH; Bay City, MI...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Safety and Security Zones; Tall... GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) PORTS AND WATERWAYS SAFETY REGULATED NAVIGATION AREAS... Guard District § 165.T09-0073 Safety and Security Zones; Tall Ships Challenge 2010; Great Lakes...

  12. Exogenous Calcium Enhances the Photosystem II Photochemistry Response in Salt Stressed Tall Fescue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Guangyang; Bi, Aoyue; Amombo, Erick; Li, Huiying; Zhang, Liang; Cheng, Cheng; Hu, Tao; Fu, Jinmin

    2017-01-01

    Calcium enhances turfgrass response to salt stress. However, little is known about PSII photochemical changes when exogenous calcium was applied in salinity-stressed turfgrass. Here, we probe into the rearrangements of PSII electron transport and endogenous ion accumulation in tall fescue ( Festuca arundinacea Schreber) treated with exogenous calcium under salt stress. Three-month-old seedlings of genotype "TF133" were subjected to the control (CK), salinity (S), salinity + calcium nitrate (SC), and salinity + ethylene glycol tetraacetic acid (SE). Calcium nitrate and ethylene glycol tetraacetic acid was used as exogenous calcium donor and calcium chelating agent respectively. At the end of a 5-day duration treatment, samples in SC regime had better photochemistry performance on several parameters than salinity only. Such as the Area (equal to the plastoquinone pool size), N (number of [Formula: see text] redox turnovers until F m is reached), ψE 0 , or δRo (Efficiencdy/probability with which a PSII trapped electron is transferred from Q A to Q B or PSI acceptors), ABS/RC (Absorbed photon flux per RC). All the above suggested that calcium enhanced the electron transfer of PSII (especially beyond [Formula: see text]) and prevented reaction centers from inactivation in salt-stressed tall fescue. Furthermore, both grass shoot and root tissues generally accumulated more C, N, Ca 2+ , and K + in the SC regime than S regime. Interrelated analysis indicated that ψE 0 , δRo, ABS/RC, C, and N content in shoots was highly correlated to each other and significantly positively related to Ca 2+ and K + content in roots. Besides, high salt increased ATP6E and CAMK2 transcription level in shoot at 1 and 5 day, respectively while exogenous calcium relieved it. In root, CAMK2 level was reduced by Salinity at 5 day and exogenous calcium recovered it. These observations involved in electron transport capacity and ion accumulation assist in understanding better the protective role

  13. Exogenous Calcium Enhances the Photosystem II Photochemistry Response in Salt Stressed Tall Fescue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guangyang Wang

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Calcium enhances turfgrass response to salt stress. However, little is known about PSII photochemical changes when exogenous calcium was applied in salinity-stressed turfgrass. Here, we probe into the rearrangements of PSII electron transport and endogenous ion accumulation in tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreber treated with exogenous calcium under salt stress. Three-month-old seedlings of genotype “TF133” were subjected to the control (CK, salinity (S, salinity + calcium nitrate (SC, and salinity + ethylene glycol tetraacetic acid (SE. Calcium nitrate and ethylene glycol tetraacetic acid was used as exogenous calcium donor and calcium chelating agent respectively. At the end of a 5-day duration treatment, samples in SC regime had better photochemistry performance on several parameters than salinity only. Such as the Area (equal to the plastoquinone pool size, N (number of QA- redox turnovers until Fm is reached, ψE0, or δRo (Efficiencdy/probability with which a PSII trapped electron is transferred from QA to QB or PSI acceptors, ABS/RC (Absorbed photon flux per RC. All the above suggested that calcium enhanced the electron transfer of PSII (especially beyond QA- and prevented reaction centers from inactivation in salt-stressed tall fescue. Furthermore, both grass shoot and root tissues generally accumulated more C, N, Ca2+, and K+ in the SC regime than S regime. Interrelated analysis indicated that ψE0, δRo, ABS/RC, C, and N content in shoots was highly correlated to each other and significantly positively related to Ca2+ and K+ content in roots. Besides, high salt increased ATP6E and CAMK2 transcription level in shoot at 1 and 5 day, respectively while exogenous calcium relieved it. In root, CAMK2 level was reduced by Salinity at 5 day and exogenous calcium recovered it. These observations involved in electron transport capacity and ion accumulation assist in understanding better the protective role of exogenous calcium in tall

  14. [Health education, patient education and health promotion: educational methods and strategies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandrin, Brigitte

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to help public health actors with an interest in health promotion and health care professionals involved in therapeutic education to develop and implement an educational strategy consistent with their vision of health and health care. First, we show that the Ottawa Charter for Health Promotion and the French Charter for Popular Education share common values. Second, an examination of the career and work of Paulo Freire, of Ira Shor's pedagogical model and of the person-centered approach of Carl Rogers shows how the work of educational practitioners, researchers and theorists can help health professionals to implement a truly "health-promoting" or "therapeutic" educational strategy. The paper identifies a number of problems facing health care professionals who become involved in education without reflecting on the values underlying the pedagogical models they use.

  15. An Image Enhancement Method Using the Quantum-Behaved Particle Swarm Optimization with an Adaptive Strategy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoping Su

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Image enhancement techniques are very important to image processing, which are used to improve image quality or extract the fine details in degraded images. In this paper, two novel objective functions based on the normalized incomplete Beta transform function are proposed to evaluate the effectiveness of grayscale image enhancement and color image enhancement, respectively. Using these objective functions, the parameters of transform functions are estimated by the quantum-behaved particle swarm optimization (QPSO. We also propose an improved QPSO with an adaptive parameter control strategy. The QPSO and the AQPSO algorithms, along with genetic algorithm (GA and particle swarm optimization (PSO, are tested on several benchmark grayscale and color images. The results show that the QPSO and AQPSO perform better than GA and PSO for the enhancement of these images, and the AQPSO has some advantages over QPSO due to its adaptive parameter control strategy.

  16. A Sequence Mining Method to Predict the Bidding Strategy of Trading Agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikolaidou, Vivia; Mitkas, Pericles A.

    In this work, we describe the process used in order to predict the bidding strategy of trading agents. This was done in the context of the Reverse TAC, or CAT, game of the Trading Agent Competition. In this game, a set of trading agents, buyers or sellers, are provided by the server and they trade their goods in one of the markets operated by the competing agents. Better knowledge of the strategy of the trading agents will allow a market maker to adapt its incentives and attract more agents to its own market. Our prediction was based on the time series of the traders’ past bids, taking into account the variation of each bid compared to its history. The results proved to be of satisfactory accuracy, both in the game’s context and when compared to other existing approaches.

  17. Optimal sampling strategies to assess inulin clearance in children by the inulin single-injection method

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Rossum, Lyonne K.; Mathot, Ron A. A.; Cransberg, Karlien; Vulto, Arnold G.

    2003-01-01

    Glomerular filtration rate in patients can be determined by estimating the plasma clearance of inulin with the single-injection method. In this method, a single bolus injection of inulin is administered and several blood samples are collected. For practical and convenient application of this method

  18. Debating Curricular Strategies for Teaching Statistics and Research Methods: What Does the Current Evidence Suggest?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barron, Kenneth E.; Apple, Kevin J.

    2014-01-01

    Coursework in statistics and research methods is a core requirement in most undergraduate psychology programs. However, is there an optimal way to structure and sequence methodology courses to facilitate student learning? For example, should statistics be required before research methods, should research methods be required before statistics, or…

  19. The Box-and-Dot Method: A Simple Strategy for Counting Significant Figures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephenson, W. Kirk

    2009-01-01

    A visual method for counting significant digits is presented. This easy-to-learn (and easy-to-teach) method, designated the box-and-dot method, uses the device of "boxing" significant figures based on two simple rules, then counting the number of digits in the boxes. (Contains 4 notes.)

  20. Study of turbulent natural convection in a tall differentially heated cavity filled with either non-participating, participating grey and participating semigrey media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Capdevila, R; Perez-Segarra, C D; Lehmkuhl, O; Colomer, G

    2012-01-01

    Turbulent natural convection in a tall differentially heated cavity of aspect ratio 5:1, filled with air under a Rayleigh number based on the height of 4.5·10 10 is studied numerically. Three different situations have been analysed. In the first one, the cavity is filled with a transparent medium. In the second one, the cavity is filled with a semigrey participating mixture of air and water vapour. In the last one the cavity contains a grey participating gas. The turbulent flow is described by means of Large Eddy Simulation (LES) using symmetry-preserving discretizations. Simulations are compared with experimental data available in the literature and with Direct Numerical Simulations (DNS). Surface and gas radiation have been simulated using the Discrete Ordinates Method (DOM). The influence of radiation on fluid flow behaviour has been analysed.

  1. Workshop on acceleration of the validation and regulatory acceptance of alternative methods and implementation of testing strategies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Piersma, A. H.; Burgdorf, T.; Louekari, K.

    2018-01-01

    concerning the regulatory acceptance and implementation of alternative test methods and testing strategies, with the aim to develop feasible solutions. Classical validation of alternative methods usually involves one to one comparison with the gold standard animal study. This approach suffers from...... the reductionist nature of an alternative test as compared to the animal study as well as from the animal study being considered as the gold standard. Modern approaches combine individual alternatives into testing strategies, for which integrated and defined approaches are emerging at OECD. Furthermore, progress......-focused hazard and risk assessment of chemicals requires an open mind towards stepping away from the animal study as the gold standard and defining human biologically based regulatory requirements for human hazard and risk assessment....

  2. The Swedish strategy and method for development of a national healthcare information architecture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenälv, Jessica; Lundell, Karl-Henrik

    2012-01-01

    "We need a precise framework of regulations in order to maintain appropriate and structured health care documentation that ensures that the information maintains a sufficient level of quality to be used in treatment, in research and by the actual patient. The users shall be aided by clearly and uniformly defined terms and concepts, and there should be an information structure that clarifies what to document and how to make the information more useful. Most of all, we need to standardize the information, not just the technical systems." (eHälsa - nytta och näring, Riksdag report 2011/12:RFR5, p. 37). In 2010, the Swedish Government adopted the National e-Health - the national strategy for accessible and secure information in healthcare. The strategy is a revision and extension of the previous strategy from 2006, which was used as input for the most recent efforts to develop a national information structure utilizing business-oriented generic models. A national decision on healthcare informatics standards was made by the Swedish County Councils, which decided to follow and use EN/ISO 13606 as a standard for the development of a universally applicable information structure, including archetypes and templates. The overall aim of the Swedish strategy for development of National Healthcare Information Architecture is to achieve high level semantic interoperability for clinical content and clinical contexts. High level semantic interoperability requires consistently structured clinical data and other types of data with coherent traceability to be mapped to reference clinical models. Archetypes that are formal definitions of the clinical and demographic concepts and some administrative data were developed. Each archetype describes the information structure and content of overarching core clinical concepts. Information that is defined in archetypes should be used for different purposes. Generic clinical process model was made concrete and analyzed. For each decision

  3. Multi-frequency accelerating strategy for the contrast source inversion method of ultrasound waveform tomography using pulse data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Hongxiang; Azuma, Takashi; Qu, Xiaolei; Takagi, Shu

    2017-03-01

    In this work, we construct a multi-frequency accelerating strategy for the contrast source inversion (CSI) method using pulse data in the time domain. CSI is a frequency-domain inversion method for ultrasound waveform tomography that does not require the forward solver through the process of reconstruction. Several prior researches show that the CSI method has a good performance of convergence and accuracy in the low-center-frequency situation. In contrast, utilizing the high-center-frequency data leads to a high-resolution reconstruction but slow convergence on large numbers of grid. Our objective is to take full advantage of all low frequency components from pulse data with the high-center-frequency data measured by the diagnostic device. First we process the raw data in the frequency domain. Then multi-frequency accelerating strategy helps restart CSI in the current frequency using the last iteration result obtained from the lower frequency component. The merit of multi- frequency accelerating strategy is that computational burden decreases at the first few iterations. Because the low frequency component of dataset computes on the coarse grid with assuming a fixed number of points per wavelength. In the numerical test, the pulse data were generated by the K-wave simulator and have been processed to meet the computation of the CSI method. We investigate the performance of the multi-frequency and single-frequency reconstructions and conclude that the multi-frequency accelerating strategy significantly enhances the quality of the reconstructed image and simultaneously reduces the average computational time for any iteration step.

  4. Methods and Teaching Strategies Used by Teacher Education Faculty Members in one State University in the Philippines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amado C. Ramos

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Institutions of higher learning across the nation are responding to political, economic, social and technological pressures to be more responsive to students' needs and more concerned about how well students are prepared to assume future societal roles. This study aimed to determine the methods and teaching strategies used by the PSU – CTE faculty members of Bayambang Campus, Bayambang, Pangasinan during the first semester of the school year 2013-2014. The descriptivecorrelational method of research was employed in this study where it involved the collection of pertinent data in order to answer questions concerning the current status of the subject of the study. Majority of the faculty members are females, they are master’s degree holders, have a permanent position with an academic rank of instructor, and most of the faculty members are graduate of SUCs. They also have high attitude toward teaching; generally, the faculty members perceived themselves to be often in using teaching approaches and teaching methods; and sometimes in using teaching techniques/styles, instructional support activities, and non-formal activities; and no significant relationships exist between the faculty members’ profile variables and their level of pedagogical approaches in teaching approaches, teaching methods, teaching techniques/styles, non-formal activities and instructional support activities. Teachers should be encouraged to pursue/finish higher education, likewise they should be motivated to conduct research studies like action researches as part of their functions, particularly along their area of specialization. Teachers should be encouraged to explore and view other effective teaching strategies and find more ways to entice other students challenge themselves to create their own strategies to use in the field and to become more global in perspective. The use computer technology can be an effective teaching strategy, especially when students are given

  5. For Black men, being tall increases threat stereotyping and police stops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hester, Neil; Gray, Kurt

    2018-03-13

    Height seems beneficial for men in terms of salaries and success; however, past research on height examines only White men. For Black men, height may be more costly than beneficial, primarily signaling threat rather than competence. Three studies reveal the downsides of height in Black men. Study 1 analyzes over 1 million New York Police Department stop-and-frisk encounters and finds that tall Black men are especially likely to receive unjustified attention from police. Then, studies 2 and 3 experimentally demonstrate a causal link between perceptions of height and perceptions of threat for Black men, particularly for perceivers who endorse stereotypes that Black people are more threatening than White people. Together, these data reveal that height is sometimes a liability for Black men, particularly in contexts in which threat is salient.

  6. Comparing of goal setting strategy with group education method to increase physical activity level: A randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiryaee, Nasrin; Siadat, Zahra Dana; Zamani, Ahmadreza; Taleban, Roya

    2015-10-01

    Designing an intervention to increase physical activity is important to be based on the health care settings resources and be acceptable by the subject group. This study was designed to assess and compare the effect of the goal setting strategy with a group education method on increasing the physical activity of mothers of children aged 1 to 5. Mothers who had at least one child of 1-5 years were randomized into two groups. The effect of 1) goal-setting strategy and 2) group education method on increasing physical activity was assessed and compared 1 month and 3 months after the intervention. Also, the weight, height, body mass index (BMI), waist and hip circumference, and well-being were compared between the two groups before and after the intervention. Physical activity level increased significantly after the intervention in the goal-setting group and it was significantly different between the two groups after intervention (P goal-setting group after the intervention. In the group education method, only the well-being score improved significantly (P goal-setting strategy to boost physical activity, improving the state of well-being and decreasing BMI, waist, and hip circumference.

  7. The Effect of pH on Liquid-Liquid Extraction Efficiency of Phytosterols from Tall Soap

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Rousková, Milena; Heyberger, Aleš; Čárský, M.; Tříska, Jan; Krtička, M.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 16, č. 1 (2011), s. 17-29 ISSN 1026-9185 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40720504; CEZ:AV0Z60870520 Keywords : tall soap * phytosterols * sterols Subject RIV: CI - Industrial Chemistry, Chemical Engineering

  8. Large for Gestational Age Newborns from Mothers Without Diabetes Mellitus Tend to Become Tall and Lean Toddlers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Zegher, Francis; Pérez-Cruz, Miriam; Sebastiani, Giorgia; Díaz, Marta; López-Bermejo, Abel; Ibáñez, Lourdes

    2016-11-01

    A longitudinal study with dual x-ray absorptiometry disclosed that infants born large for gestational age from mothers without diabetes mellitus and without excessive gestational weight gain tend to be long with increased adipose tissue as newborns and tall and lean as toddlers. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Remediation of PAH-contaminated soil by the combination of tall fescue, arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus and epigeic earthworms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Yan-Fei; Lu, Mang

    2015-03-21

    A 120-day experiment was performed to investigate the effect of a multi-component bioremediation system consisting of tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea), arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus (AMF) (Glomus caledoniun L.), and epigeic earthworms (Eisenia foetida) for cleaning up polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs)-contaminated soil. Inoculation with AMF and/or earthworms increased plant yield and PAH accumulation in plants. However, PAH uptake by tall fescue accounted for a negligible portion of soil PAH removal. Mycorrhizal tall fescue significantly enhanced PAH dissipation, PAH degrader density and polyphenol oxidase activity in soil. The highest PAH dissipation (93.4%) was observed in the combination treatment: i.e., AMF+earthworms+tall fescue, in which the soil PAH concentration decreased from an initial value of 620 to 41 mg kg(-1) in 120 days. This concentration is below the threshold level required for Chinese soil PAH quality (45 mg kg(-1) dry weight) for residential use. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. The T-ALL related gene BCL11B regulates the initial stages of human T-cell differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ha, V L; Luong, A; Li, F; Casero, D; Malvar, J; Kim, Y M; Bhatia, R; Crooks, G M; Parekh, C

    2017-11-01

    The initial stages of T-cell differentiation are characterized by a progressive commitment to the T-cell lineage, a process that involves the loss of alternative (myelo-erythroid, NK, B) lineage potentials. Aberrant differentiation during these stages can result in T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL). However, the mechanisms regulating the initial stages of human T-cell differentiation are obscure. Through loss of function studies, we showed BCL11B, a transcription factor recurrently mutated T-ALL, is essential for T-lineage commitment, particularly the repression of NK and myeloid potentials, and the induction of T-lineage genes, during the initial stages of human T-cell differentiation. In gain of function studies, BCL11B inhibited growth of and induced a T-lineage transcriptional program in T-ALL cells. We found previously unknown differentiation stage-specific DNA binding of BCL11B at multiple T-lineage genes; target genes showed BCL11B-dependent expression, suggesting a transcriptional activator role for BCL11B at these genes. Transcriptional analyses revealed differences in the regulatory actions of BCL11B between human and murine thymopoiesis. Our studies show BCL11B is a key regulator of the initial stages of human T-cell differentiation and delineate the BCL11B transcriptional program, enabling the dissection of the underpinnings of normal T-cell differentiation and providing a resource for understanding dysregulations in T-ALL.

  11. The height leadership advantage in men and women: Testing evolutionary psychology predictions about the perceptions of tall leaders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blaker, N. M; Rompa, I.; Dessing, I. H.; Vriend, A. F.; Herschberg, C.; van Vugt, M.

    2013-01-01

    Research suggests that tall individuals have an advantage over short individuals in terms of status, prestige, and leadership, though it is not clear why. Applying an evolutionary psychology perspective, we predicted that taller individuals are seen as more leader-like because they are perceived as

  12. Macroecology of Australian Tall Eucalypt Forests: Baseline Data from a Continental-Scale Permanent Plot Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Sam W.; Prior, Lynda D.; Stephens, Helen C.; Bowman, David M. J. S.

    2015-01-01

    Tracking the response of forest ecosystems to climate change demands large (≥1 ha) monitoring plots that are repeatedly measured over long time frames and arranged across macro-ecological gradients. Continental scale networks of permanent forest plots have identified links between climate and carbon fluxes by monitoring trends in tree growth, mortality and recruitment. The relationship between tree growth and climate in Australia has been recently articulated through analysis of data from smaller forest plots, but conclusions were limited by (a) absence of data on recruitment and mortality, (b) exclusion of non-eucalypt species, and (c) lack of knowledge of stand age or disturbance histories. To remedy these gaps we established the Ausplots Forest Monitoring Network: a continental scale network of 48 1 ha permanent plots in highly productive tall eucalypt forests in the mature growth stage. These plots are distributed across cool temperate, Mediterranean, subtropical and tropical climates (mean annual precipitation 850 to 1900 mm per year; mean annual temperature 6 to 21°C). Aboveground carbon stocks (AGC) in these forests are dominated by eucalypts (90% of AGC) whilst non-eucalypts in the understorey dominated species diversity and tree abundance (84% of species; 60% of stems). Aboveground carbon stocks were negatively related to mean annual temperature, with forests at the warm end of the temperature range storing approximately half the amount of carbon as forests at the cool end of the temperature range. This may reflect thermal constraints on tree growth detected through other plot networks and physiological studies. Through common protocols and careful sampling design, the Ausplots Forest Monitoring Network will facilitate the integration of tall eucalypt forests into established global forest monitoring initiatives. In the context of projections of rapidly warming and drying climates in Australia, this plot network will enable detection of links between

  13. Conversion of tall oil soap and lignin into liquid fuels; Suovan ja ligniinin jalostaminen polttonesteiksi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oasmaa, A.; McKeough, P. [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland)

    1998-12-31

    The objective of the project was to evaluate the following upgrading processes for producing bio-oils for energy production: catalytic upgrading of kraft black liquor, thermal treatment of tall oil soap, and catalytic hydrotreatment of Milox-lignin. The best-quality product from black liquor was obtained by treating black liquor (20% moisture) at 420 deg C with an ammoniumheptamolybdate (AHM) catalyst under hydrogen for 60 minutes. The product was washed with water (product:water = 1:2) in order to remove the inorganics. The oil product contained 74% of the energy content of the black liquor organics. Regeneration of the AHM catalyst appears technically feasible. Raw tall oil soap cracks at 450 deg C under nitrogen into straight-chain hydrocarbons and naphthalene and phenanthrene derivatives. The best-quality oil product was obtained at a residence time of 60 - 120 minutes. This product contained no fatty acids as impurities. The process concept consists of two steps: heat treatment at 450 deg C and product separation. The energy yield of the hydrocarbon oil product is about 50%. The residue slurry (estimated energy content 20%) and gases (energy content 25%) are led to the recovery boiler. Milox lignin can be hydrotreated at 420 deg C (60 minutes) with a mixture (1:1) of sulphided NiMo- and Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3}-catalysts to a high-quality oil product (42 wt% yield of hexane solubles). The activity of catalysts decreased in order: sulphided NiMo/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}:Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3} (1:1), sulphided NiMo/zeolite, NiMo/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, ATTM (no activity). A decrease in hydrogen partial pressure yielded a lower quality product. (orig.)

  14. Reviewing the research methods literature: principles and strategies illustrated by a systematic overview of sampling in qualitative research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gentles, Stephen J; Charles, Cathy; Nicholas, David B; Ploeg, Jenny; McKibbon, K Ann

    2016-10-11

    Overviews of methods are potentially useful means to increase clarity and enhance collective understanding of specific methods topics that may be characterized by ambiguity, inconsistency, or a lack of comprehensiveness. This type of review represents a distinct literature synthesis method, although to date, its methodology remains relatively undeveloped despite several aspects that demand unique review procedures. The purpose of this paper is to initiate discussion about what a rigorous systematic approach to reviews of methods, referred to here as systematic methods overviews, might look like by providing tentative suggestions for approaching specific challenges likely to be encountered. The guidance offered here was derived from experience conducting a systematic methods overview on the topic of sampling in qualitative research. The guidance is organized into several principles that highlight specific objectives for this type of review given the common challenges that must be overcome to achieve them. Optional strategies for achieving each principle are also proposed, along with discussion of how they were successfully implemented in the overview on sampling. We describe seven paired principles and strategies that address the following aspects: delimiting the initial set of publications to consider, searching beyond standard bibliographic databases, searching without the availability of relevant metadata, selecting publications on purposeful conceptual grounds, defining concepts and other information to abstract iteratively, accounting for inconsistent terminology used to describe specific methods topics, and generating rigorous verifiable analytic interpretations. Since a broad aim in systematic methods overviews is to describe and interpret the relevant literature in qualitative terms, we suggest that iterative decision making at various stages of the review process, and a rigorous qualitative approach to analysis are necessary features of this review type

  15. Effective strategies for nurse retention in acute hospitals: a mixed method study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van den Heede, Koen; Florquin, Mieke; Bruyneel, Luk; Aiken, Linda; Diya, Luwis; Lesaffre, Emmanuel; Sermeus, Walter

    2013-02-01

    The realization of an organizational context that succeeds to retain nurses within their job is one of the most effective strategies of dealing with nursing shortages. First, to examine the impact of nursing practice environments, nurse staffing and nurse education on nurse reported intention to leave the hospital. Second, to provide understanding of which best practices in the organization of nursing care are being implemented to provide sound practice environments and to retain nurses. 3186 bedside nurses of 272 randomly selected nursing units in 56 Belgian acute hospitals were surveyed. A GEE logistic regression analysis was used to estimate the impact of organization of nursing care on nurse reported intention to leave controlling for differences in region (Walloon, Flanders, and Brussels), hospital characteristics (technology level, teaching status, and size) and nurse characteristics (experience, gender, and age). For the second objective, in-depth semi-structured interviews with the chief nursing officers of the three high and three low performing hospitals on reported intention to leave were held. 29.5% of Belgian nurses have an intention-to-leave the hospital. Patient-to-nurse staffing ratios and nurse work environments are significantly (pflat organization structure with a participative management style, structured education programs and career opportunities for nurses. This study, together with the international body of evidence, suggests that investing in improved nursing work environments is a key strategy to retain nurses. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. A novel method to value real options in health care: the case of a multicohort human papillomavirus vaccination strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Favato, Giampiero; Baio, Gianluca; Capone, Alessandro; Marcellusi, Andrea; Saverio Mennini, Francesco

    2013-07-01

    A large number of economic evaluations have already confirmed the cost-effectiveness of different human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination strategies. Standard analyses might not capture the full economic value of novel vaccination programs because the cost-effectiveness paradigm fails to take into account the value of active management. Management decisions can be seen as real options, a term used to refer to the application of option pricing theory to the valuation of investments in nonfinancial assets in which much of the value is attributable to flexibility and learning over time. The aim of this article was to discuss the potential advantages shown by using the payoff method in the valuation of the cost-effectiveness of competing HPV immunization programs. This was the first study, to the best of our knowledge, to use the payoff method to determine the real option values of 4 different HPV vaccination strategies targeting female subjects aged 12, 15, 18, and 25 years. The payoff method derives the real option value from the triangular payoff distribution of the project's net present value, which is treated as a triangular fuzzy number. To inform the real option model, cost-effectiveness data were derived from an empirically calibrated Bayesian model designed to assess the cost-effectiveness of a multicohort HPV vaccination strategy in the context of the current cervical cancer screening program in Italy. A net health benefit approach was used to calculate the expected fuzzy net present value for each of the 4 vaccination strategies evaluated. Costs per quality-adjusted life-year gained seemed to be related to the number of cohorts targeted: a single cohort of girls aged 12 years (€10,955 [95% CI, -1,021 to 28,212]) revealed the lowest cost among the 4 alternative strategies evaluated. The real option valuation challenged the cost-effectiveness dominance of a single cohort of 12-year-old girls. The simultaneous vaccination of 2 cohorts of girls aged 12 and 15

  17. Alpha test results for a Housing First eLearning strategy: the value of multiple qualitative methods for intervention design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahonen, Emily Q; Watson, Dennis P; Adams, Erin L; McGuire, Alan

    2017-01-01

    Detailed descriptions of implementation strategies are lacking, and there is a corresponding dearth of information regarding methods employed in implementation strategy development. This paper describes methods and findings related to the alpha testing of eLearning modules developed as part of the Housing First Technical Assistance and Training (HFTAT) program's development. Alpha testing is an approach for improving the quality of a product prior to beta (i.e., real world) testing with potential applications for intervention development. Ten participants in two cities tested the modules. We collected data through (1) a structured log where participants were asked to record their experiences as they worked through the modules; (2) a brief online questionnaire delivered at the end of each module; and (3) focus groups. The alpha test provided useful data related to the acceptability and feasibility of eLearning as an implementation strategy, as well as identifying a number of technical issues and bugs. Each of the qualitative methods used provided unique and valuable information. In particular, logs were the most useful for identifying technical issues, and focus groups provided high quality data regarding how the intervention could best be used as an implementation strategy. Alpha testing was a valuable step in intervention development, providing us an understanding of issues that would have been more difficult to address at a later stage of the study. As a result, we were able to improve the modules prior to pilot testing of the entire HFTAT. Researchers wishing to alpha test interventions prior to piloting should balance the unique benefits of different data collection approaches with the need to minimize burdens for themselves and participants.

  18. Strategy for the use of laboratory methods in the site investigations programme for the transport properties of the rock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Widestrand, Henrik; Byegaard, Johan; Ohlsson, Yvonne; Tullborg, Eva-Lena

    2003-06-01

    This report comprises a strategy for the handling of laboratory investigations of diffusivity and sorption characteristics within the discipline-specific programme 'Transport Properties of the Rock' in the SKB site investigations. The aim of the transport programme is to investigate the solute transport properties at a site in order to acquire data that are required for an assessment of the long-term performance and radiological safety of the deep repository. The result of the transport programme is the Transport Properties Site Descriptive Model, i.e. a description of the site-specific properties for the transport of solutes in the groundwater at a site. A strategy for the methodology, control of sampling and characterisation programme and interpretation of the results, is proposed. The basis for the laboratory investigations is a conceptual geological model based on the geological model produced in the geology programme. Major and minor types of rock and fractures are defined and characterised according to the quality of the general database and site-specific needs. The selection of samples and analyses is determined in close co-operation with the geology, hydrogeology, hydrogeochemistry and rock mechanics programmes. The result of the laboratory investigations is a retardation model, which is used as an input in the Transport Properties Site Descriptive Model. The interpretation and production of a retardation model is described and exemplified. Lastly, method-specific strategies and recommendations are given, including strategies for the selection of tracers in the experiments and for the treatment of the sampled geologic materials

  19. Dental and dental hygiene students' diagnostic accuracy in oral radiology: effect of diagnostic strategy and instructional method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baghdady, Mariam T; Carnahan, Heather; Lam, Ernest W N; Woods, Nicole N

    2014-09-01

    There has been much debate surrounding diagnostic strategies and the most appropriate training models for novices in oral radiology. It has been argued that an analytic approach, using a step-by-step analysis of the radiographic features of an abnormality, is ideal. Alternative research suggests that novices can successfully employ non-analytic reasoning. Many of these studies do not take instructional methodology into account. This study evaluated the effectiveness of non-analytic and analytic strategies in radiographic interpretation and explored the relationship between instructional methodology and diagnostic strategy. Second-year dental and dental hygiene students were taught four radiographic abnormalities using basic science instructions or a step-by-step algorithm. The students were tested on diagnostic accuracy and memory immediately after learning and one week later. A total of seventy-three students completed both immediate and delayed sessions and were included in the analysis. Students were randomly divided into two instructional conditions: one group provided a diagnostic hypothesis for the image and then identified specific features to support it, while the other group first identified features and then provided a diagnosis. Participants in the diagnosis-first condition (non-analytic reasoning) had higher diagnostic accuracy then those in the features-first condition (analytic reasoning), regardless of their learning condition. No main effect of learning condition or interaction with diagnostic strategy was observed. Educators should be mindful of the potential influence of analytic and non-analytic approaches on the effectiveness of the instructional method.

  20. Monitoring ambient ozone with a passive measurement technique method, field results and strategy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scheeren, BA; Adema, EH

    1996-01-01

    A low-cost, accurate and sensitive passive measurement method for ozone has been developed and tested. The method is based on the reaction of ozone with indigo carmine which results in colourless reaction products which are detected spectrophotometrically after exposure. Coated glass filters are

  1. How Good Are Trainers' Personal Methods Compared to Two Structured Training Strategies?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walls, Richard T.; And Others

    Training methods naturally employed by trainers were analyzed and compared to systematic structured training procedures. Trainers were observed teaching retarded subjects how to assemble a bicycle brake, roller skate, carburetor, and lawn mower engine. Trainers first taught using their own (personal) method, which was recorded in terms of types of…

  2. Time-Quality Tradeoff of Waiting Strategies for Tutors to Retrieve Relevant Teaching Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shih, Wen-Chung; Tseng, Shian-Shyong; Yang, Che-Ching; Liang, Tyne

    2011-01-01

    As more and more undergraduate students act as voluntary tutors to rural pupils after school, there is a growing need for a supporting environment to facilitate adaptive instruction. Among others, a teaching method retrieval system is intended to help tutors find relevant teaching methods for teaching a particular concept. However, teaching…

  3. Characteristics and Consequences of Adult Learning Methods and Strategies. Practical Evaluation Reports, Volume 2, Number 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trivette, Carol M.; Dunst, Carl J.; Hamby, Deborah W.; O'Herin, Chainey E.

    2009-01-01

    The effectiveness of four adult learning methods (accelerated learning, coaching, guided design, and just-in-time training) constituted the focus of this research synthesis. Findings reported in "How People Learn" (Bransford et al., 2000) were used to operationally define six adult learning method characteristics, and to code and analyze…

  4. Encouraging Reading through an Enactive Method: Strategies for Hearing Impaired Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winzer, M. A.

    The paper describes the enactive method, an alternative approach to introducing and teaching reading to young hearing impaired children. The method actively involves the child as a processor of the material rather than as a passive consumer. The approach is established for a short period of time each day until the student outgrows its original…

  5. The Alleviation of Heat Damage to Photosystem II and Enzymatic Antioxidants by Exogenous Spermidine in Tall Fescue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liang Zhang

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb is a typical cool-season grass that is widely used in turf and pasture. However, high temperature as an abiotic stress seriously affects its utilization. The objective of this study was to explore the effect of spermidine (Spd on heat stress response of tall fescue. The samples were exposed to 22°C (normal condition or 44°C (heat stress for 4 h. The results showed that exogenous Spd partially improved the quality of tall fescue leaves under normal temperature conditions. Nevertheless, after heat stress treatment, exogenous Spd significantly decreased the electrolyte leakage of tall fescue leaves. Spd also profoundly reduced the H2O2 and O2⋅- content and increased antioxidant enzymes activities. In addition, PAs can also regulate antioxidant enzymes activities including SOD, POD, and APX which could help to scavenge ROS. Moreover, application of Spd could also remarkably increase the chlorophyll content and had a positive effect on the chlorophyll α fluorescence transients under high temperature. The Spd reagent enhanced the performance of photosystem II (PSII as observed by the JIP-test. Under heat stress, the Spd profoundly improved the partial potentials at the steps of energy bifurcations (PIABS and PItotal and the quantum yields and efficiencies (φP0, δR0, φR0, and γRC. Exogenous Spd could also reduce the specific energy fluxes per QA- reducing PSII reaction center (RC (TP0/RC and ET0/RC. Additionally, exogenous Spd improved the expression level of psbA and psbB, which encoded the proteins of PSII core reaction center complex. We infer that PAs can stabilize the structure of nucleic acids and protect RNA from the degradation of ribonuclease. In brief, our study indicates that exogenous Spd enhances the heat tolerance of tall fescue by maintaining cell membrane stability, increasing antioxidant enzymes activities, improving PSII, and relevant gene expression.

  6. The Alleviation of Heat Damage to Photosystem II and Enzymatic Antioxidants by Exogenous Spermidine in Tall Fescue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Liang; Hu, Tao; Amombo, Erick; Wang, Guangyang; Xie, Yan; Fu, Jinmin

    2017-01-01

    Tall fescue ( Festuca arundinacea Schreb) is a typical cool-season grass that is widely used in turf and pasture. However, high temperature as an abiotic stress seriously affects its utilization. The objective of this study was to explore the effect of spermidine (Spd) on heat stress response of tall fescue. The samples were exposed to 22°C (normal condition) or 44°C (heat stress) for 4 h. The results showed that exogenous Spd partially improved the quality of tall fescue leaves under normal temperature conditions. Nevertheless, after heat stress treatment, exogenous Spd significantly decreased the electrolyte leakage of tall fescue leaves. Spd also profoundly reduced the H 2 O 2 and O 2 ⋅- content and increased antioxidant enzymes activities. In addition, PAs can also regulate antioxidant enzymes activities including SOD, POD, and APX which could help to scavenge ROS. Moreover, application of Spd could also remarkably increase the chlorophyll content and had a positive effect on the chlorophyll α fluorescence transients under high temperature. The Spd reagent enhanced the performance of photosystem II (PSII) as observed by the JIP-test. Under heat stress, the Spd profoundly improved the partial potentials at the steps of energy bifurcations (PI ABS and PI total ) and the quantum yields and efficiencies (φP 0 , δR 0 , φR 0 , and γRC). Exogenous Spd could also reduce the specific energy fluxes per Q A - reducing PSII reaction center (RC) (TP 0 /RC and ET 0 /RC). Additionally, exogenous Spd improved the expression level of psbA and psbB , which encoded the proteins of PSII core reaction center complex. We infer that PAs can stabilize the structure of nucleic acids and protect RNA from the degradation of ribonuclease. In brief, our study indicates that exogenous Spd enhances the heat tolerance of tall fescue by maintaining cell membrane stability, increasing antioxidant enzymes activities, improving PSII, and relevant gene expression.

  7. Goethe's anxieties, depressive episodes and (self-)therapeutic strategies: a contribution to method integration in psychotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holm-Hadulla, Rainer M

    2013-01-01

    In psychiatry and psychotherapy, abstract scientific principles need to be exemplified by narrative case reports to gain practical precision. Goethe was one of the most creative writers, productive scientists, and effective statesmen that ever lived. His descriptions of feelings, emotions, and mental states related to anxieties, depressive episodes, dysthymia, and creativity are unique in their phenomenological precision and richness. His life and work can thus serve as an excellent example enhancing our understanding of the relationship between anxiety, depression and creativity. Furthermore, he described (self-)therapeutic strategies that reinforce and refine modern views. Goethe's self-assessments in his works and letters, and the descriptions by others are analyzed under the perspective of current psychiatric classification. His therapeutic techniques and recommendations are compared with cognitive-behavioral, psychodynamic, and existential psychotherapy to amplify modern concepts of psychotherapy. From a scientific perspective, several distinctive depressive episodes can be diagnosed in Goethe's life. They were characterized by extended depressive moods, lack of drive, and loss of interest and self-esteem combined with social retreat. Goethe displayed diffuse and phobic anxieties as well as dysthymia. His (self-)therapeutic strategies were: (a) the systematic use of helping alliances, (b) behavioral techniques, (c) cognitive reflection on meanings and beliefs, (d) psychodynamic and psychoanalytic remembering, repeating, and working through, and (e) existential striving for self-actualization, social commitment, meaning, and creativity. In Goethe's life, creative incubation, illumination, and elaboration appear to have been associated with psychic instability and dysthymia, sometimes with depressive episodes in a clinical sense. On the one hand, his creative work was triggered by anxieties, dysthymia, and depressive moods. On the other hand, his creativity

  8. Developing cluster strategy of apples dodol SMEs by integration K-means clustering and analytical hierarchy process method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mustaniroh, S. A.; Effendi, U.; Silalahi, R. L. R.; Sari, T.; Ala, M.

    2018-03-01

    The purposes of this research were to determine the grouping of apples dodol small and medium enterprises (SMEs) in Batu City and to determine an appropriate development strategy for each cluster. The methods used for clustering SMEs was k-means. The Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP) approach was then applied to determine the development strategy priority for each cluster. The variables used in grouping include production capacity per month, length of operation, investment value, average sales revenue per month, amount of SMEs assets, and the number of workers. Several factors were considered in AHP include industry cluster, government, as well as related and supporting industries. Data was collected using the methods of questionaire and interviews. SMEs respondents were selected among SMEs appels dodol in Batu City using purposive sampling. The result showed that two clusters were formed from five apples dodol SMEs. The 1stcluster of apples dodol SMEs, classified as small enterprises, included SME A, SME C, and SME D. The 2ndcluster of SMEs apples dodol, classified as medium enterprises, consisted of SME B and SME E. The AHP results indicated that the priority development strategy for the 1stcluster of apples dodol SMEs was improving quality and the product standardisation, while for the 2nd cluster was increasing the marketing access.

  9. THE FREQUENT USE OF TEACHING STRATEGIES/METHODS AMONG TEACHERS ACCORDING TO THE TEACHER CANDIDATES OBSERVATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mukaddes SAKALLI

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to show the frequent use of teaching stratergies/methods amongteachers which has been observed by teacher candidates currently undergoing their own field/area teaching program.This study undertakes the general research model and the tools used to obtain the necessary data are personalinformation form and a questionaire. “Teachers frequent use of teaching methods/stratergies” to obtain necessarydata a 4 likert scale type of questionaire has been used. The scale developed on behalf of the researcher involves 35teaching methods/stratergies.The data obtained through 71 quetionaires where evaluated from 4 (always and 1(none as points and has been evaluated through the SPSS package program. In addition, the resultsof the data havebeen analysed through the following techniques: percentage (%, average (X and standard deviation (SS.According to the observations made by the teacher candidates the following teaching methods/stratergies wereundertaken by the teachers according to thier teaching field: lecturing, question-answer method were always used,homework, practice in the classroom, problem solving, showing and practicing methods were frequently used,project work, anaylsing example situations, debates, similarity, computer based education, observing privatetutorials, eduational games, cooperative learning, brainstroming, field trips and reflecting/miroring situations,group/team work, experiment, role play, micro-learning technique, statement, speech,meeting, display, drama,conference, formal debates, sempozium, seminar, panel, umbrella technique, forum and opposite panel

  10. Fuzzy-logic based strategy for validation of multiplex methods: example with qualitative GMO assays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellocchi, Gianni; Bertholet, Vincent; Hamels, Sandrine; Moens, W; Remacle, José; Van den Eede, Guy

    2010-02-01

    This paper illustrates the advantages that a fuzzy-based aggregation method could bring into the validation of a multiplex method for GMO detection (DualChip GMO kit, Eppendorf). Guidelines for validation of chemical, bio-chemical, pharmaceutical and genetic methods have been developed and ad hoc validation statistics are available and routinely used, for in-house and inter-laboratory testing, and decision-making. Fuzzy logic allows summarising the information obtained by independent validation statistics into one synthetic indicator of overall method performance. The microarray technology, introduced for simultaneous identification of multiple GMOs, poses specific validation issues (patterns of performance for a variety of GMOs at different concentrations). A fuzzy-based indicator for overall evaluation is illustrated in this paper, and applied to validation data for different genetically modified elements. Remarks were drawn on the analytical results. The fuzzy-logic based rules were shown to be applicable to improve interpretation of results and facilitate overall evaluation of the multiplex method.

  11. A Parallel Strategy for High-speed Interpolation of CNC Using Data Space Constraint Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuan-qiang Yang

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available A high-speed interpolation scheme using parallel computing is proposed in this paper. The interpolation method is divided into two tasks, namely, the rough task executing in PC and the fine task in the I/O card. During the interpolation procedure, the double buffers are constructed to exchange the interpolation data between the two tasks. Then, the data space constraint method is adapted to ensure the reliable and continuous data communication between the two buffers. Therefore, the proposed scheme can be realized in the common distribution of the operation systems without real-time performance. The high-speed and high-precision motion control can be achieved as well. Finally, an experiment is conducted on the self-developed CNC platform, the test results are shown to verify the proposed method.

  12. Possibilities of Utilizing the Method of Analytical Hierarchy Process Within the Strategy of Corporate Social Business

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drieniková, Katarína; Hrdinová, Gabriela; Naňo, Tomáš; Sakál, Peter

    2010-01-01

    The paper deals with the analysis of the theory of corporate social responsibility, risk management and the exact method of analytic hierarchic process that is used in the decision-making processes. The Chapters 2 and 3 focus on presentation of the experience with the application of the method in formulating the stakeholders' strategic goals within the Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) and simultaneously its utilization in minimizing the environmental risks. The major benefit of this paper is the application of Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP).

  13. Search Strategy of Detector Position For Neutron Source Multiplication Method by Using Detected-Neutron Multiplication Factor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Endo, Tomohiro

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, an alternative definition of a neutron multiplication factor, detected-neutron multiplication factor kdet, is produced for the neutron source multiplication method..(NSM). By using kdet, a search strategy of appropriate detector position for NSM is also proposed. The NSM is one of the practical subcritical measurement techniques, i.e., the NSM does not require any special equipment other than a stationary external neutron source and an ordinary neutron detector. Additionally, the NSM method is based on steady-state analysis, so that this technique is very suitable for quasi real-time measurement. It is noted that the correction factors play important roles in order to accurately estimate subcriticality from the measured neutron count rates. The present paper aims to clarify how to correct the subcriticality measured by the NSM method, the physical meaning of the correction factors, and how to reduce the impact of correction factors by setting a neutron detector at an appropriate detector position

  14. Mixed methods research in tobacco control with youth and young adults: A methodological review of current strategies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Craig S Fryer

    Full Text Available Tobacco use among young people is a complex and serious global dilemma that demands innovative and diverse research approaches. The purpose of this methodological review was to examine the current use of mixed methods research in tobacco control with youth and young adult populations and to develop practical recommendations for tobacco control researchers interested in this methodology.Using PubMed, we searched five peer-reviewed journals that publish tobacco control empirical literature for the use of mixed methods research to study young populations, age 12-25 years. Our team analyzed the features of each article in terms of tobacco control topic, population, youth engagement strategies, and several essential elements of mixed methods research.We identified 23 mixed methods studies published by authors from five different countries reported between 2004 and 2015. These 23 articles examined various topics that included tobacco use behavior, tobacco marketing and branding, and cessation among youth and young adults. The most common mixed methods approach was variations of the concurrent design in which the qualitative and quantitative strands were administered at the same time and given equal priority. This review documented several innovative applications of mixed methods research as well as challenges in the reporting of the complex research designs.The use of mixed methods research in tobacco control has great potential for advancing the understanding of complex behavioral and sociocultural issues for all groups, especially youth and young adults.

  15. Mixed methods research in tobacco control with youth and young adults: A methodological review of current strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fryer, Craig S; Seaman, Elizabeth L; Clark, Rachael S; Plano Clark, Vicki L

    2017-01-01

    Tobacco use among young people is a complex and serious global dilemma that demands innovative and diverse research approaches. The purpose of this methodological review was to examine the current use of mixed methods research in tobacco control with youth and young adult populations and to develop practical recommendations for tobacco control researchers interested in this methodology. Using PubMed, we searched five peer-reviewed journals that publish tobacco control empirical literature for the use of mixed methods research to study young populations, age 12-25 years. Our team analyzed the features of each article in terms of tobacco control topic, population, youth engagement strategies, and several essential elements of mixed methods research. We identified 23 mixed methods studies published by authors from five different countries reported between 2004 and 2015. These 23 articles examined various topics that included tobacco use behavior, tobacco marketing and branding, and cessation among youth and young adults. The most common mixed methods approach was variations of the concurrent design in which the qualitative and quantitative strands were administered at the same time and given equal priority. This review documented several innovative applications of mixed methods research as well as challenges in the reporting of the complex research designs. The use of mixed methods research in tobacco control has great potential for advancing the understanding of complex behavioral and sociocultural issues for all groups, especially youth and young adults.

  16. A method for state-of-charge estimation of Li-ion batteries based on multi-model switching strategy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Yujie; Zhang, Chenbin; Chen, Zonghai

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Build a multi-model switching SOC estimate method for Li-ion batteries. • Build an improved interpretative structural modeling method for model switching. • The feedback strategy of bus delay is applied to improve the real-time performance. • The EKF method is used for SOC estimation to improve the estimated accuracy. - Abstract: The accurate state-of-charge (SOC) estimation and real-time performance are critical evaluation indexes for Li-ion battery management systems (BMS). High accuracy algorithms often take long program execution time (PET) in the resource-constrained embedded application systems, which will undoubtedly lead to the decrease of the time slots of other processes, thereby reduce the overall performance of BMS. Considering the resource optimization and the computational load balance, this paper proposes a multi-model switching SOC estimation method for Li-ion batteries. Four typical battery models are employed to build a close-loop SOC estimation system. The extended Kalman filter (EKF) method is employed to eliminate the effect of the current noise and improve the accuracy of SOC. The experiments under dynamic current conditions are conducted to verify the accuracy and real-time performance of the proposed method. The experimental results indicate that accurate estimation results and reasonable PET can be obtained by the proposed method

  17. Transcriptional activation of prostate specific homeobox gene NKX3-1 in subsets of T-cell lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan Nagel

    Full Text Available Homeobox genes encode transcription factors impacting key developmental processes including embryogenesis, organogenesis, and cell differentiation. Reflecting their tight transcriptional control, homeobox genes are often embedded in large non-coding, cis-regulatory regions, containing tissue specific elements. In T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL homeobox genes are frequently deregulated by chromosomal aberrations, notably translocations adding T-cell specific activatory elements. NKX3-1 is a prostate specific homeobox gene activated in T-ALL patients expressing oncogenic TAL1 or displaying immature T-cell characteristics. After investigating regulation of NKX3-1 in primary cells and cell lines, we report its ectopic expression in T-ALL cells independent of chromosomal rearrangements. Using siRNAs and expression profiling, we exploited NKX3-1 positive T-ALL cell lines as tools to investigate aberrant activatory mechanisms. Our data confirmed NKX3-1 activation by TAL1/GATA3/LMO and identified LYL1 as an alternative activator in immature T-ALL cells devoid of GATA3. Moreover, we showed that NKX3-1 is directly activated by early T-cell homeodomain factor MSX2. These activators were regulated by MLL and/or by IL7-, BMP4- and IGF2-signalling. Finally, we demonstrated homeobox gene SIX6 as a direct leukemic target of NKX3-1 in T-ALL. In conclusion, we identified three major mechanisms of NKX3-1 regulation in T-ALL cell lines which are represented by activators TAL1, LYL1 and MSX2, corresponding to particular T-ALL subtypes described in patients. These results may contribute to the understanding of leukemic transcriptional networks underlying disturbed T-cell differentiation in T-ALL.

  18. Molecular characterisation and interpretation of genetic diversity within globally distributed germplasm collections of tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb.) and meadow fescue (F. pratensis Huds.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hand, Melanie L; Cogan, Noel O I; Forster, John W

    2012-04-01

    Allohexaploid tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb. syn. Lolium arundinaceum [Schreb.] Darbysh.) is an agriculturally important grass cultivated for pasture and turf world-wide. Genetic improvement of tall fescue could benefit from the use of non-domesticated germplasm to diversify breeding populations through the incorporation of novel and superior allele content. However, such potential germplasm must first be characterised, as three major morphotypes (Continental, Mediterranean and rhizomatous) with varying degrees of hybrid interfertility are commonly described within this species. As hexaploid tall fescue is also a member of a polyploid species complex that contains tetraploid, octoploid and decaploid taxa, it is also possible that germplasm collections may have inadvertently sampled some of these sub-species. In this study, 1,040 accessions from the publicly available United States Department of Agriculture tall fescue and meadow fescue germplasm collections were investigated. Sequence of the chloroplast genome-located matK gene and the nuclear ribosomal DNA internal transcribed spacer (rDNA ITS) permitted attribution of accessions to the three previously known morphotypes and also revealed the presence of tall fescue sub-species of varying ploidy levels, as well as other closely related species. The majority of accessions were, however, identified as Continental hexaploid tall fescue. Analysis using 34 simple sequence repeat markers was able to further investigate the level of genetic diversity within each hexaploid tall fescue morphotype group. At least two genetically distinct sub-groups of Continental hexaploid tall fescue were identified which are probably associated with palaeogeographic range expansion of this morphotype. This work has comprehensively characterised a large and complex germplasm collection and has identified genetically diverse accessions which may potentially contribute valuable alleles at agronomic loci for tall fescue cultivar

  19. Participatory Training Evaluation Method (PATEM) as a Collaborative Evaluation Capacity Building Strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuzmin, Alexey

    2012-01-01

    This article describes Participatory Training Evaluation Method (PATEM) of measuring participants' reaction to the training. PATEM provides rich information; allows to document evaluation findings; becomes organic part of the training that helps participants process their experience individually and as a group; makes sense to participants; is an…

  20. A Multi-Objective Method to Align Human Resource Allocation with University Strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouillard, Philippe

    2016-01-01

    Universities are currently under considerable pressure to reach their stakeholders' expectations. Management tools that use strategic plans, key performance indicators and quality assurance methods are increasingly deployed. This paper aims to demonstrate how resource allocation can be aligned with institutional strategic plans with a very simple…

  1. Strategy for identification & characterization of Bartonella henselae with conventional & molecular methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kavita Diddi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background & objectives: Bartonella henselae is a fastidious gram-negative bacterium usually causing self limiting infections in immunocompetent individuals but often causes potentially life threatening infection, such as bacillary angiomatosis in immunocompromised patients. Both diagnosis of infections and research into molecular mechanisms of pathogenesis have been hindered by lack of appropriate and reliable diagnostic techniques. We undertook this study to standardize methods to characterize B. henselae in clinical samples to diagnose Bartonella infection correctly. Methods: B. henselae ATCC 49882 strain was procured from American type culture collection, USA. This strain was revived and maintained in the laboratory, and identification and characterization of this strain was done by conventional and molecular techniques, which included culture on various media, staining by different methods including electron microscopy, biochemical analysis by conventional methods and API, polymerase chain reaction (PCR for amplification of citrate synthase gene followed by restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP. Results: This organism was biochemically inert due to slow growth and generated unique identification code with API. The amplification of the citrate-synthase gene with primers yielded a 381 bp product followed by specific RFLP profile for B. henselae. Interpretation & conclusions: Bartonella is fastidious and fragile organism and should be handled carefully. Extra effort and careful observation are required to isolate and characterize this organism.

  2. The minisequencing method: a simple strategy for genetic screening of MEN 2 families

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Domingues Rita

    2002-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2 is an autosomal dominant disorder. MEN 2A is characterized by medullary thyroid carcinoma, pheochromocytoma and hyperparathyroidism; MEN 2B by medullary thyroid carcinoma, pheochromocytoma and characteristic stigmata. Activating germline mutations of the RET proto oncogene are responsible for this hereditary syndrome. Codon 634 mutations are the most common mutations occurring in MEN 2A families whereas a specific mutation at codon 918 is observed in the great majority of MEN 2B families. Analysis of these codons will provide a final diagnosis in the great majority of affected families making unnecessary further studies. To specifically study the codons 634 and 918 we used a minisequencing method as an alternative method to complete sequencing. Results Using this mutation detection method we were able to reproduce in all cases, representative of 7 families, the information previously obtained by direct sequencing of PCR products. Depending on the number of primers used in the minisequencing reaction, we were able to interrogate either only one nucleotide of the target codon or the three nucleotides simultaneously. Conclusions This technique appears as a simple, rapid and efficient method for genetic screening of MEN 2 families. It can be utilized to seek for unknown mutations at specific codons or to screen for previously identified mutations and is therefore of interest to study index cases or individuals at risk. Results suggest that complete sequencing is unnecessary.

  3. Self-Assessment Methods in Writing Instruction: A Conceptual Framework, Successful Practices and Essential Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Kristen

    2014-01-01

    Student writing achievement is essential to lifelong learner success, but supporting writing can be challenging for teachers. Several large-scale analyses of publications on writing have called for further study of instructional methods, as the current literature does not sufficiently address the need to support best teaching practices.…

  4. Scalable smoothing strategies for a geometric multigrid method for the immersed boundary equations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhalla, Amneet Pal Singh [Univ. of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC (United States); Knepley, Matthew G. [Rice Univ., Houston, TX (United States); Adams, Mark F. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Guy, Robert D. [Univ. of California, Davis, CA (United States); Griffith, Boyce E. [Univ. of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC (United States)

    2016-12-20

    The immersed boundary (IB) method is a widely used approach to simulating fluid-structure interaction (FSI). Although explicit versions of the IB method can suffer from severe time step size restrictions, these methods remain popular because of their simplicity and generality. In prior work (Guy et al., Adv Comput Math, 2015), some of us developed a geometric multigrid preconditioner for a stable semi-implicit IB method under Stokes flow conditions; however, this solver methodology used a Vanka-type smoother that presented limited opportunities for parallelization. This work extends this Stokes-IB solver methodology by developing smoothing techniques that are suitable for parallel implementation. Specifically, we demonstrate that an additive version of the Vanka smoother can yield an effective multigrid preconditioner for the Stokes-IB equations, and we introduce an efficient Schur complement-based smoother that is also shown to be effective for the Stokes-IB equations. We investigate the performance of these solvers for a broad range of material stiffnesses, both for Stokes flows and flows at nonzero Reynolds numbers, and for thick and thin structural models. We show here that linear solver performance degrades with increasing Reynolds number and material stiffness, especially for thin interface cases. Nonetheless, the proposed approaches promise to yield effective solution algorithms, especially at lower Reynolds numbers and at modest-to-high elastic stiffnesses.

  5. Campaign Strategies and Voter Approval of School Referenda: A Mixed Methods Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Paul A.; Ingle, William Kyle

    2009-01-01

    Drawing from state administrative data and surveys of superintendents in Ohio, this mixed methods study examined factors associated with voters' approval of local school levies. Utilizing binomial logistic regression, this study found that new levies and poverty rates were significantly associated with a decrease in the likelihood of passage.…

  6. Investigating Learning with an Interactive Tutorial: A Mixed-Methods Strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Villiers, M. R.; Becker, Daphne

    2017-01-01

    From the perspective of parallel mixed-methods research, this paper describes interactivity research that employed usability-testing technology to analyse cognitive learning processes; personal learning styles and times; and errors-and-recovery of learners using an interactive e-learning tutorial called "Relations." "Relations"…

  7. Teachers and Learners’ Perceptions of Applying Translation as a Method, Strategy, or Technique in an Iranian EFL Setting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Mollaei

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available It has been found that translation is an efficient means to teach/learn grammar, syntax, and lexis of a foreign language. Meanwhile, translation is good for beginners who do not still enjoy the critical level of proficiency in their target language for expression.  This study was conducted to examine the teachers and learners’ perceptions of employing translation in the foreign language classroom; i.e., the effects, merits, demerits, limitations, as well as its use as a method, strategy or technique. Both quantitative and qualitative methods were used to collect and analyze the data from graduate and undergraduate learners (n=56 and teachers (n=44, male and female, who responded to two questionnaires. Additionally, only the teachers were interviewed to gain richer insight into their perceptions and attitudes. According to the results of independent samples t-test, there was no significant difference between teachers and learners’ attitude to applying translation as a method, strategy, or technique in learning a foreign language.  Based on the interview results, some teachers believed that employing translation in the foreign language context was helpful but not constantly. They claimed that translation was only effective in teaching vocabulary and grammar apart from leaners’ proficiency level as it can clarify meaning. But some other teachers noted that mother tongue would interfere with learning foreign language; they considered translation as a time-consuming activity through which students cannot capture the exact meaning.

  8. Experiments on natural circulation of lead-bismuth in the TALL test facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma, W.M.; Karbojian, A.; Sehgal, B.R.

    2005-01-01

    Full text of publication follows: Lead-bismuth eutectic (LBE) is a potential candidate coolant for next generation liquid metal reactors due to its favorable properties such as being chemical inert and low melting point, in comparison with sodium and lead considered as coolants in FBRs. Having a high atomic number of LBE allows it be well suited as a spallation target for accelerator-driven systems (ADS) which have been proposed for the transmutation of nuclear waste. Due to its strong buoyancy, the LBE-cooled system should also have significant natural circulation, which is desirable for so-called Generation IV nuclear reactors, which like to employ passive safety and reliability. But so far, very little experimental data have been published on the natural circulation thermal-hydraulics of LBE-cooled systems. Motivated by the increasing interest in LBE-cooled fast reactors and ADS, a test facility called Thermal-hydraulic ADS Lead-bismuth Loop (TALL) was designed and constructed at KTH to investigate the thermalhydraulic characteristics of liquid LBE. The facility consists of a primary loop (LBE loop) and a secondary loop (oil loop). The LBE loop consists of sump tank, core tank, expansion tank, heat exchanger, EM pump, EM flowmeter, electric heaters and instrumentation. The heating of LBE in the core tank and its cooling in the heat exchanger allows natural convection flows as should occur in the prototypic vessel. Recently, our experimental study on natural circulation was performed on the TALL test facility. This paper will present the experimental results and analysis. The facility is of 6.8 m height which is comparable to the full height of the LBE heat exchange circuit in the ANSALDO ADS reactor vessel design, and has been scaled for prototypic (power/volume) ratio to represent the main components. Their LBE volume, flow velocity and heating rates correspond to one tube of the heat exchanger design chosen. During the experiments, the main adjustable

  9. Normalization Methods and Selection Strategies for Reference Materials in Stable Isotope Analyses - Review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skrzypek, G.; Sadler, R.; Paul, D.; Forizs, I.

    2011-01-01

    A stable isotope analyst has to make a number of important decisions regarding how to best determine the 'true' stable isotope composition of analysed samples in reference to an international scale. It has to be decided which reference materials should be used, the number of reference materials and how many repetitions of each standard is most appropriate for a desired level of precision, and what normalization procedure should be selected. In this paper we summarise what is known about propagation of uncertainties associated with normalization procedures and propagation of uncertainties associated with reference materials used as anchors for the determination of 'true' values for δ''1''3C and δ''1''8O. Normalization methods Several normalization methods transforming the 'raw' value obtained from mass spectrometers to one of the internationally recognized scales has been developed. However, as summarised by Paul et al. different normalization transforms alone may lead to inconsistencies between laboratories. The most common normalization procedures are: single-point anchoring (versus working gas and certified reference standard), modified single-point normalization, linear shift between the measured and the true isotopic composition of two certified reference standards, two-point and multipoint linear normalization methods. The accuracy of these various normalization methods has been compared by using analytical laboratory data by Paul et al., with the single-point and normalization versus tank calibrations resulting in the largest normalization errors, and that also exceed the analytical uncertainty recommended for δ 13 C. The normalization error depends greatly on the relative differences between the stable isotope composition of the reference material and the sample. On the other hand, the normalization methods using two or more certified reference standards produces a smaller normalization error, if the reference materials are bracketing the whole range of

  10. SENSITIVITY ANALYSIS as a methodical approach to the development of design strategies for environmentally sustainable buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Hanne Tine Ring

    . The research methodology applied in the project combines a literature study of descriptions of methodical approaches and built examples with a sensitivity analysis and a qualitative interview with two designers from a best practice example of a practice that has achieved environmentally sustainable...... architecture, such as: ecological, green, bio-climatic, sustainable, passive, low-energy and environmental architecture. This PhD project sets out to gain a better understanding of environmentally sustainable architecture and the methodical approaches applied in the development of this type of architecture...... an increase in scientific and political awareness, which has lead to an escalation in the number of research publications in the field, as well as, legislative demands for the energy consumption of buildings. The publications in the field refer to many different approaches to environmentally sustainable...

  11. Life-Cycle Monitoring of Long-Span PSC Box Girder Bridges through Distributed Sensor Network: Strategies, Methods, and Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zheheng Chen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Structural health monitoring (SHM has attracted much attention in recent years, which enables early warnings of structural failure, condition assessments, and rational maintenance/repair strategies. In the context of bridges, many long-span steel bridges in China have been installed with the SHM systems; however, the applications of the SHM in prestressed concrete (PSC bridges are still rather limited. On the other hand, the PSC box girder bridges are extensively used in highway and railway systems and premature damage of these bridges is often reported, resulting in considerable maintenance and/or replacement costs. First, this paper presents a state-of-art review on the SHM of long-span PSC bridges. Monitoring strategies, methods, and previous applications for these bridges are summarized and discussed. In order to well capture the behavior of the bridge during its whole life and to maximize the use of sensors, a life-cycle monitoring strategy is proposed, in which the sensor layout is determined according to requirements for construction monitoring, completion test, and in-service monitoring. A case study is made on a three-span PSC box girder bridge in China. The system configuration, sensor layout, and data communications, and so forth, are presented. The up-to-date monitored structural responses are analyzed and compared with the design values.

  12. Environmental Limits of Tall Shrubs in Alaska’s Arctic National Parks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swanson, David K.

    2015-01-01

    We sampled shrub canopy volume (height times area) and environmental factors (soil wetness, soil depth of thaw, soil pH, mean July air temperature, and typical date of spring snow loss) on 471 plots across five National Park Service units in northern Alaska. Our goal was to determine the environments where tall shrubs thrive and use this information to predict the location of future shrub expansion. The study area covers over 80,000 km2 and has mostly tundra vegetation. Large canopy volumes were uncommon, with volumes over 0.5 m3/m2 present on just 8% of plots. Shrub canopy volumes were highest where mean July temperatures were above 10.5°C and on weakly acid to neutral soils (pH of 6 to 7) with deep summer thaw (>80 cm) and good drainage. On many sites, flooding helped maintain favorable soil conditions for shrub growth. Canopy volumes were highest where the typical snow loss date was near 20 May; these represent sites that are neither strongly wind-scoured in the winter nor late to melt from deep snowdrifts. Individual species varied widely in the canopy volumes they attained and their response to the environmental factors. Betula sp. shrubs were the most common and quite tolerant of soil acidity, cold July temperatures, and shallow thaw depths, but they did not form high-volume canopies under these conditions. Alnus viridis formed the largest canopies and was tolerant of soil acidity down to about pH 5, but required more summer warmth (over 12°C) than the other species. The Salix species varied widely from S. pulchra, tolerant of wet and moderately acid soils, to S. alaxensis, requiring well-drained soils with near neutral pH. Nearly half of the land area in ARCN has mean July temperatures of 10.5 to 12.5°C, where 2°C of warming would bring temperatures into the range needed for all of the potential tall shrub species to form large canopies. However, limitations in the other environmental factors would probably prevent the formation of large shrub canopies

  13. A method to simulate motor control strategies to recover from perturbations: application to a stumble recovery during gait.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forner-Cordero, Arturo; Ackermann, Marko; de Lima Freitas, Mateus

    2011-01-01

    Perturbations during human gait such as a trip or a slip can result in a fall, especially among frail populations such as the elderly. In order to recover from a trip or a stumble during gait, humans perform different types of recovery strategies. It is very useful to uncover the mechanisms of the recovery to improve training methods for populations at risk of falling. Moreover, human recovery strategies could be applied to implement controllers for bipedal robot walker, as an application of biomimetic design. A biomechanical model of the response to a trip during gait might uncover the control mechanisms underlying the different recovery strategies and the adaptation of the responses found during the execution of successive perturbation trials. This paper introduces a model of stumble in the multibody system framework. This model is used to assess different feedforward strategies to recover from a trip. First of all, normal gait patterns for the musculoskeletal system model are obtained by solving an optimal control problem. Secondly, the reference gait is perturbed by the application of forces on the swinging foot in different ways: as an instantaneous inelastic collision of the foot with an obstacle, as an impulsive horizontal force or using a force curve measured experimentally during gait perturbation experiments. The influence of the type of perturbation, the timing of the collision with respect to the gait cycle, as well as of the coefficient of restitution was investigated previously. Finally, in order to test the effects of different muscle excitation levels on the initial phases of the recovery response, several muscle excitations were added to selected muscles of the legs, thus providing a simulation of the recovery reactions. These results pave the way for future analysis and modeling of the control mechanisms of gait.

  14. Methods, strategies and technologies used to conduct a scoping literature review of collaboration between primary care and public health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valaitis, Ruta; Martin-Misener, Ruth; Wong, Sabrina T; MacDonald, Marjorie; Meagher-Stewart, Donna; Austin, Patricia; Kaczorowski, Janusz; O-Mara, Linda; Savage, Rachel

    2012-07-01

    This paper describes the methods, strategies and technologies used to conduct a scoping literature review examining primary care (PC) and public health (PH) collaboration. It presents challenges encountered as well as recommendations and 'lessons learned' from conducting the review with a large geographically distributed team comprised of researchers and decision-makers using an integrated knowledge translation approach. Scoping studies comprehensively map literature in a specific area guided by general research questions. This methodology is especially useful in researching complex topics. Thus, their popularity is growing. Stakeholder consultations are an important strategy to enhance study results. Therefore, information about how best to involve stakeholders throughout the process is necessary to improve quality and uptake of reviews. This review followed Arksey and O'Malley's five stages: identifying research questions; identifying relevant studies; study selection; charting the data; and collating, summarizing and reporting results. Technological tools and strategies included: citation management software (Reference Manager®), qualitative data analysis software (NVivo 8), web conferencing (Elluminate Live!) and a PH portal (eHealthOntario), teleconferences, email and face-to-face meetings. Of 6125 papers identified, 114 were retained as relevant. Most papers originated in the United Kingdom (38%), the United States (34%) and Canada (19%). Of 80 papers that reported on specific collaborations, most were descriptive reports (51.3%). Research studies represented 34 papers: 31% were program evaluations, 9% were literature reviews and 9% were discussion papers. Key strategies to ensure rigor in conducting a scoping literature review while engaging a large geographically dispersed team are presented for each stage. The use of enabling technologies was essential to managing the process. Leadership in championing the use of technologies and a clear governance

  15. Strategy for the use of laboratory methods in the site investigations programme for the transport properties of the rock

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Widestrand, Henrik; Byegaard, Johan [Geosigma AB, Kungaelv (Sweden); Ohlsson, Yvonne [SWECO VIAK AB, Stockholm (Sweden); Tullborg, Eva-Lena [Terralogica AB, Graabo (Sweden)

    2003-06-01

    This report comprises a strategy for the handling of laboratory investigations of diffusivity and sorption characteristics within the discipline-specific programme 'Transport Properties of the Rock' in the SKB site investigations. The aim of the transport programme is to investigate the solute transport properties at a site in order to acquire data that are required for an assessment of the long-term performance and radiological safety of the deep repository. The result of the transport programme is the Transport Properties Site Descriptive Model, i.e. a description of the site-specific properties for the transport of solutes in the groundwater at a site. A strategy for the methodology, control of sampling and characterisation programme and interpretation of the results, is proposed. The basis for the laboratory investigations is a conceptual geological model based on the geological model produced in the geology programme. Major and minor types of rock and fractures are defined and characterised according to the quality of the general database and site-specific needs. The selection of samples and analyses is determined in close co-operation with the geology, hydrogeology, hydrogeochemistry and rock mechanics programmes. The result of the laboratory investigations is a retardation model, which is used as an input in the Transport Properties Site Descriptive Model. The interpretation and production of a retardation model is described and exemplified. Lastly, method-specific strategies and recommendations are given, including strategies for the selection of tracers in the experiments and for the treatment of the sampled geologic materials.

  16. Final report: mathematical method for quantifying the effectiveness of management strategies.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Covan, John Morgan; Sena-Henderson, Lisa; Robinett, Rush D. III (.; ); Brewer, Jeffrey D.; Roginski, Robert J.; Cooper, James Arlin

    2005-10-01

    strategic management decisions, and measuring the results. The approach also evaluates the inherent uncertainties, and allows for tracking dynamics for early response and assessing developing trends. The model development is based on how factors combine and influence other factors in real time and over extended time periods. Potential strategies for improvement can be simulated and measured. Input information can be determined by quantification of qualitative information in a structured derivation process. This has proved to be a promising new approach for research and development applied to personnel performance and risk management.

  17. Geochemical Methods of Inference the Thermoregulatory Strategies in Middle Triassic Marine Reptiles - A Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surmik, Dawid; Pelc, Andrzej

    2012-01-01

    The oxygen stable isotopes investigation to elucidate thermoregulatory strategies in Middle Triassic basal sauropterygians is currently ongoing at University of Silesia and University of Maria Curie-Skłodowska. The results of similar studies on Late Mesozoic marine reptiles indicate that some of fully aquatic reptiles like plesiosaurs or ichthyosaurs could be warm-blooded animals. Our investigation is an important part of the aim of the research project "The Marine and Terrestrial reptiles in the Middle Triassic environmental background of Southern Poland" to solve the thermoregulation issue in basal marine reptiles and show how, and when did homoiothermy evolve in Sauropterygia.. Homeothermy and gigantothermy were important physiological adaptations which allowed sauropterygian ancestors to leave the shores and conquer the open seas and oceans. Badania nad paleofizjologią kopalnych kręgowców ostatnimi laty stały się niezwykle modne. Polegają one na kompilacji danych uzyskanych wieloma komplementarnymi metodami z zakresu fizjologii (badania współczesnych form, zgodnie z zasadą aktualizmu) i geochemii izotopowej. Szczególnie interesujące stały się kwestie gospodarki termicznej u gadów kopalnych, które silnie dyskutowane są w kręgach badaczy dinozaurów (Reid, 1997; Ruben i in., 1996). Badania na izotopach stabilnych tlenu szkliwa zębowego przeprowadzone na obligatoryjnie morskich gadach okresu jurajskiego i kredowego (Bernard i in., 2010; zob. także Motani, 2010) wskazują, że ichtiozaury i plezjozaury późniejszego mezozoiku mogły być zwierzętami stałocieplnymi. Brak obecnie jednoznacznych danych dotyczących gospodarki termicznej bazalnych przedstawicieli gadów morskich z triasu, choć przyjmuje się, że te zamieszkujące nadbrzeżne i marginalne strefy mórz zwierzęta były gadami zmiennocieplnymi (pojkilotermicznymi), podobnie jak współczesny legwan morski, czy też smok z Komodo. Czy przejście z pojkilo- do homojotermii by

  18. Systems and methods for providing power to a load based upon a control strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perisic, Milun; Kajouke, Lateef A; Ransom, Ray M

    2013-12-24

    Systems and methods are provided for an electrical system. The electrical system includes a load, an interface configured to receive a voltage from a voltage source, and a controller configured to receive the voltage from the voltage source through the interface and to provide a voltage and current to the load. Wherein, when the controller is in a constant voltage mode, the controller provides a constant voltage to the load, when the controller is in a constant current mode, the controller provides a constant current to the load, and when the controller is in a constant power mode, the controller provides a constant power to the load.

  19. A study of different approaches for multi-scale sensitivity analysis of the TALL-3D experiment using thermal-hydraulic computer codes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geffray, Clotaire; Macian-Juan, Rafael

    2014-01-01

    In the context of the FP7 European THINS Project, complex thermal-hydraulic phenomena relevant for the Generation IV of nuclear reactors are investigated. KTH (Sweden) built the TALL-3D facility to investigate the transition from forced to natural circulation of the Lead-Bismuth Eutectic (LBE) in a pool connected to a 3-leg primary circuit with two heaters and a heat exchanger. The simulation of such 3D phenomena is a challenging task. GRS (Germany) developed the coupling between the Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) code ANSYS CFX and the System Analysis code ATHLET. Such coupled codes combine the advantages of CFD, which allow a fine resolution of 3D phenomena, and of System Analysis codes, which are fast running. TUM (Germany) is responsible for the Uncertainty and Sensitivity Analysis of the coupled ATHLET-CFX model in the THINS Project. The influence of modeling uncertainty on simulation results needs to be assessed to characterize and to improve the model and, eventually, to assess its performance against experimental data. TUM has developed a computational framework capable of propagating model input uncertainty through coupled codes. This framework can also be used to apply different approaches for the assessment of the influence of the uncertain input parameters on the model output (Sensitivity Analysis). The work reported in this paper focuses on three methods for the assessment of the sensitivity of the results to the modeling uncertainty. The first method (Morris) allows for the computation of the Elementary Effects resulting from the input parameters. This method is widely used to perform Screening Analysis. The second method (Spearman's rank correlation) relies on regression-based non-parametric measures. This method is suitable if the relation between the input and the output variables is at least monotonic, with the advantage of a low computational cost. The last method (Sobol') computes so-called total effect indices which account for

  20. Quick Link Selection Method by Using Pricing Strategy Based on User Equilibrium for Implementing an Effective Urban Travel Demand Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahriar Afandizadeh Zargari

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a two-stage model of optimization as a quick method to choose the best potential links for implementing urban travel demand management (UTDM strategy like road pricing. The model is optimized by minimizing the hidden cost of congestion based on user equilibrium (MHCCUE. It forecasts the exact amount of flows and tolls for links in user equilibrium condition to determine the hidden cost for each link to optimize the link selection based on the network congestion priority. The results show that not only the amount of total cost is decreased, but also the number of selected links for pricing is reduced as compared with the previous toll minimization methods. Moreover, as this model just uses the traffic assignment data for calculation, it could be considered as a quick and optimum solution for choosing the potential links.

  1. Are value of information methods ready for prime time? An application to alternative treatment strategies for NSTEMI patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kent, Seamus; Briggs, Andrew; Eckermann, Simon; Berry, Colin

    2013-10-01

    The use of value of information methods to inform trial design has been widely advocated but there have been few empirical applications of these methods and there is little evidence they are widely used in decision making. This study considers the usefulness of value of information models in the context of a real clinical decision problem relating to alternative diagnostic strategies for patients with a recent non-ST elevated myocardial infarction. A pretrial economic model is constructed to consider the cost-effectiveness of two competing strategies: coronary angiography alone or in conjunction with fractional flow reserve measurement. A closed-form solution to the expected benefits of information is used with optimal sample size estimated for a range of models reflecting increasingly realistic assumptions and alternative decision contexts. Fractional flow reserve measurement is expected to be cost-effective with an incremental cost-effectiveness ratio of GBP 1,621, however, there is considerable uncertainty in this estimate and consequently a large expected value to reducing this uncertainty via a trial. The recommended sample size is strongly affected by the reality of the assumptions of the expected value of information (EVI) model and the decision context. Value of information models can provide a simple and flexible approach to clinical trial design and are more consistent with the constraints and objectives of the healthcare system than traditional frequentist approaches. However, the variation in sample size estimates demonstrates that it is essential that appropriate model parameters and decision contexts are used in their application.

  2. Research on B Cell Algorithm for Learning to Rank Method Based on Parallel Strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Yuling; Zhang, Hongxian

    2016-01-01

    For the purposes of information retrieval, users must find highly relevant documents from within a system (and often a quite large one comprised of many individual documents) based on input query. Ranking the documents according to their relevance within the system to meet user needs is a challenging endeavor, and a hot research topic-there already exist several rank-learning methods based on machine learning techniques which can generate ranking functions automatically. This paper proposes a parallel B cell algorithm, RankBCA, for rank learning which utilizes a clonal selection mechanism based on biological immunity. The novel algorithm is compared with traditional rank-learning algorithms through experimentation and shown to outperform the others in respect to accuracy, learning time, and convergence rate; taken together, the experimental results show that the proposed algorithm indeed effectively and rapidly identifies optimal ranking functions.

  3. Novel strategy to implement active-space coupled-cluster methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rolik, Zoltán; Kállay, Mihály

    2018-03-01

    A new approach is presented for the efficient implementation of coupled-cluster (CC) methods including higher excitations based on a molecular orbital space partitioned into active and inactive orbitals. In the new framework, the string representation of amplitudes and intermediates is used as long as it is beneficial, but the contractions are evaluated as matrix products. Using a new diagrammatic technique, the CC equations are represented in a compact form due to the string notations we introduced. As an application of these ideas, a new automated implementation of the single-reference-based multi-reference CC equations is presented for arbitrary excitation levels. The new program can be considered as an improvement over the previous implementations in many respects; e.g., diagram contributions are evaluated by efficient vectorized subroutines. Timings for test calculations for various complete active-space problems are presented. As an application of the new code, the weak interactions in the Be dimer were studied.

  4. Design method of a power management strategy for variable battery capacities range-extended electric vehicles to improve energy efficiency and cost-effectiveness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Du, Jiuyu; Chen, Jingfu; Song, Ziyou; Gao, Mingming; Ouyang, Minggao

    2017-01-01

    Energy management strategy and battery capacity are the primary factors for the energy efficiency of range-extended electric buses (REEBs). To improve the energy efficiency of REEBs developed by Tsinghua University, an optimal design method of global optimization-based strategy is investigated. It is real-time and adaptive to variable traction battery capacities of series REEBs. For simulation, the physical model of REEB and key components are established. The optimal strategy is first extracted by the power split ratio (PSR) from REEB simulation result with dynamic program (DP) algorithm. The power distribution map is obtained by series simulations for variable battery capacity options. The control law for developing optimal strategy are achieved by cluster regression for power distribution data. To verify the effect of the proposed energy management strategy, characteristics of powertrain, energy efficiency, operating cost, and computing time are ultimately analyzed. Simulation results show that the energy efficiency of the global optimization-based strategy presented in this paper is similar to that of the DP strategy. Therefore, the overall energy efficiency can be significantly improved compared with that of the CDCS strategy, and operating costs can be substantially reduced. The feasibility of candidate control strategies is thereby assessed via the employment of variable parameters. - Highlights: • Analysis method of powertrain energy efficiency and power distribution is proposed. • The power distribution rules of strategy with variable battery capacities are achieved. • The parametric method of proposed PSR-RB strategy is presented. • The energy efficiency of powertrain is analysis by flow analysis method. • The energy management strategy is global optimization-based and real-time.

  5. Cross-validation and Peeling Strategies for Survival Bump Hunting using Recursive Peeling Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dazard, Jean-Eudes; Choe, Michael; LeBlanc, Michael; Rao, J. Sunil

    2015-01-01

    We introduce a framework to build a survival/risk bump hunting model with a censored time-to-event response. Our Survival Bump Hunting (SBH) method is based on a recursive peeling procedure that uses a specific survival peeling criterion derived from non/semi-parametric statistics such as the hazards-ratio, the log-rank test or the Nelson--Aalen estimator. To optimize the tuning parameter of the model and validate it, we introduce an objective function based on survival or prediction-error statistics, such as the log-rank test and the concordance error rate. We also describe two alternative cross-validation techniques adapted to the joint task of decision-rule making by recursive peeling and survival estimation. Numerical analyses show the importance of replicated cross-validation and the differences between criteria and techniques in both low and high-dimensional settings. Although several non-parametric survival models exist, none addresses the problem of directly identifying local extrema. We show how SBH efficiently estimates extreme survival/risk subgroups unlike other models. This provides an insight into the behavior of commonly used models and suggests alternatives to be adopted in practice. Finally, our SBH framework was applied to a clinical dataset. In it, we identified subsets of patients characterized by clinical and demographic covariates with a distinct extreme survival outcome, for which tailored medical interventions could be made. An R package PRIMsrc (Patient Rule Induction Method in Survival, Regression and Classification settings) is available on CRAN (Comprehensive R Archive Network) and GitHub. PMID:27034730

  6. Temporal patterns of foliar ozone symptoms on tall milkweed (Asclepias exaltata L.) in Great Smoky Mountains National Park.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chappelka, A H; Somers, G L; Renfro, J R

    2007-10-01

    Incidence and severity of ozone-induced foliar symptoms on tall milkweed (Asclepias exaltata L.) along selected trails in Great Smoky Mountains National Park (GRSM) were determined by two surveys/season conducted from 1992 through 1996. Overall incidence was 73%, and was 84%, 44%, 90%, 58%, and 82% for 1992-1996, respectively for the same clusters. Average incidence was 61% and 84% for the 1st and 2nd surveys, respectively. Seasonal comparisons showed two distinct injury groupings regarding incidence and severity of injury: 1992, 1994 and 1996 (high injury); 1993 and 1995 (low injury). No discernible patterns were observed between symptomatic and asymptomatic plants regarding height, herbivory or flowering. Regression analyses indicated no differentiation in foliar symptoms regarding topographic position, aspect, slope or elevation over the 5-year study period. Our findings indicate other micro-site or genetic factors may control ozone sensitivity of tall milkweed in GRSM.

  7. Association Analysis of Simple Sequence Repeat (SSR Markers with Agronomic Traits in Tall Fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb..

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanhong Lou

    Full Text Available Tall fescue is widely used in temperate regions throughout the world as a dominant forage grass as well as a turfgrass, in pastoral and turf industry. However, the utilization of tall fescue was limited because of its leaf roughness, poor regeneration ability and poor stress resistance. New cultivars were desirable in modern pastoral industries exceed the potential of existing cultivars. Therefore, well understanding the agronomic traits and describing germplasms would help to overcome these constraints, and morphological evaluation of tall fescue germplasm is the key component in selecting rational parents for hybridization breeding. However, describing the morphological traits of tall fescue germplasm is costly and time-consuming. Fortunately, biotechnology approaches can supplement conventional breeding efforts for tall fescue improvement. Association mapping, as a powerful approach to identify association between agronomic traits and molecular markers has been widely used for enhancing the utilization, conservation and management of the tall fescue germplasms. Therefore, in the present research, 115 tall fescue accessions from different origins (25 accessions are cultivars; 31 accessions from America; 32 accessions from European; 7 accessions from Africa; 20 accessions from Asia, were evaluated for agronomic traits and genetic diversity with 90 simple sequence repeat (SSR markers. The panel displayed significant variation in spike count per plant (SCP and spike weight (SW. However, BCS performed the lowest CV among all the observed agronomic traits. Three subpopulations were identified within the collections but no obvious relative kinship (K was found. The GLM model was used to describe the association between SSR and agronomic traits. Fifty-one SSR markers associated with agronomic traits were observed. Twelve single-associated markers were associated with PH; six single-associated markers were associated with BCS; eight single

  8. Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy used to detect endophyte-mediated accumulation of metals by tall fescue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, Madhavi Z.; Stewart, Arthur J.; Gwinn, Kimberley D.; Waller, John C.

    2010-05-01

    Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) was used to determine the impact of endophyte (Neotyphodium sp.) infection on elemental composition of tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea). Leaf material from endophyte-infected (E+) and endophyte-free (E-) tall fescue populations in established plots was examined. Leaf-tissue digestates were also tested for metals, by inductively coupled plasma (ICP) mass spectrometry (MS). Seven of eleven metals (Ca, Mg, Fe, Mn, Cu, Ni, and Zn) were measured by both techniques at concentrations great enough for a reliable comparison. Mg, Zn, and Cd, a toxic metal that can be present in forage, were readily detected by LIBS, even though Cd concentrations in the plants were below levels typically achieved using ICP MS detection. Implications of these results for research on forage analysis and phytoremediation are discussed.

  9. Big and tall: Does a height premium dwarf an obesity penalty in the labor market?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Wang-Sheng

    2017-11-01

    Previous studies have shown that both height and weight are associated with wages. However, some gaps in our understanding of the relationship between body size and wages remain. For example, given a height premium and an obesity penalty, due to forces working in opposite directions, the current literature is unable to provide clear answers to questions such as whether a tall obese woman or a short healthy weight woman would earn a higher wage premium. Using Australian data and iso-contour wage curves derived from a semi-parametric wage regression model, this paper illustrates the complex nature of the relationship between height, weight and wages and how the nature of these differences depends on gender and age. As adult height is fixed, a key focus of the paper is illustrating for various height ranges whether there are any wage benefits in the labor market to increasing or decreasing one's weight. For individuals aged 25-54 as a whole, I find that there are strong effects of weight reduction at lower ends of the height distribution for females (between 1.50-1.70m) but not for males (men (>1.85m), a wage premium is found for being overweight. For relatively taller women (>1.72m), no penalty for being overweight is discernible. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Tree diversity and community characteristics in Talle Wildlife Sanctuary, Arunachal Pradesh, Eastern Himalaya, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gyati Yam

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out in a temperate forest for enumeration of floristic diversity and community characteristics analysis of the Talle Wildlife Sanctuary. A random sampling approach was adopted. Altogether, 63 species were recorded from the sampled area (0.2 ha. Family dominance results showed that Lauraceae was the most dominant followed by Fagaceae. Seventy percent of species showed low frequency distribution and species having higher frequency classes were almost absent or represented by only a few species. Dominance distribution of species resulted in a log normal distribution pattern which further signifies that the forest community was heterogeneous in nature. Species Prediction and Diversity Estimation analysis categorized 80% of the species as a rare species group and 20% as abundant species group. Estimation of coefficient of variation showed that rare species have equal detection possibilities in the sampled area. Distribution of basal cover in different girth classes indicates a reverse trend to that of stand density. The results of this study show that the forest community composition is highly clustered and loosely colonized in nature.

  11. Fabrication process for tall, sharp, hollow, high aspect ratio polymer microneedles on a platform

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ceyssens, Frederik; Chaudhri, Buddhadev Paul; Van Hoof, Chris; Puers, Robert

    2013-01-01

    This paper reports on a new lithographic process for fabricating arrays of tall, high aspect ratio (defined as height/wall thickness), hollow, polymer microneedles on a platform. The microneedles feature a high sharpness (down to 3 µm tip radius) and aspect ratio (>65) which is a factor 2 and 4 better than the state of the art, respectively. The maximum achievable needle shaft length is over 1 mm. The improved performance was obtained by using an anisotropically patterned silicon substrate covered with an antireflective layer as mold for the needle tip and an optimized SU-8 lithographic process. Furthermore, a platform containing liquid feedthroughs holding an arbitrary number of needles out of plane can be manufactured with only one additional process step. The high aspect ratio microneedles undergo failure at the critical load of around 230 mN in the case of 1 mm long hollow needles with triangular cross section and a base of 175 µm. Penetration into human skin is demonstrated as well. (paper)

  12. A model for backscattering characteristics of tall prairie grass canopies at microwave frequencies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bakhtiari, S.; Zoughi, R.

    1991-01-01

    We have developed a discrete microwave scattering model, describing the radar backscattering coefficient from two treatments (burned and unburned) of tall prairie grass canopies at VV (electric field vector of the transmitted and received signals are vertically oriented) and HH (electric field vector of the transmitted and received signals and horizontally oriented) polarizations, based on the physical, biophysical, and geometrical characteristics of such canopies. Grass blades are modeled as thin and finite dielectric ellipsoids with arbitrary orientations. Scattering by an individual grass blade is formulated using a generalization of the Rayleigh—Gans approximation with a quasistatic solution for the expansion of the interior field. By associating, with each grass blade, various appropriate distribution functions, the relative orientation, location, height, cross section, and permittivity of each grass blade is taken into account. This makes for a more realistic overall description of the canopy. Kirchhoff's surface scattering is used to model the backscatter from the soil surface. An incoherent summation of the effect of grass blades and soil surface is adopted to obtain the total canopy backscattering coefficient, taking into account the attenuation experienced by the signal as it travels through the canopy. The results of this model are given for 1.5, 5, and 10 GHz (L-, C-, and X-band). Although for the shorter wavelengths (X-band) the Rayleigh—Gans criteria is not totally satisfied, nevertheless, the limited available measured X-band data compare relatively well with the results of this model both quantitatively and qualitatively. (author)

  13. Constraints on Nitrous Oxide emissions within the US Corn Belt using tall tower observations and an Eulerian Modeling Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Z.; Griffis, T. J.; Lee, X.; Fu, C.; Dlugokencky, E. J.; Andrews, A. E.

    2017-12-01

    Mitigation of nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions requires a sound understanding of N2O production processes and a robust estimate of N2O budgets. It is critical to understand how emissions vary spatially and temporally, and how they are likely to change given future climate and land management decisions. To address these challenges we have coupled two models including WRF-Chem version 3.8.1 and CLM-GBC-CROP version 4.5 to simulate retrospective and future N2O emissions for the US Corn Belt. Using 7 years (2010-2016) of N2O mixing ratio data from 6 tall tower sites within the US Midwest, we ran the coupled model at a spatial resolution of 0.125o× 0.125o and tested and optimized the simulation of N2O emissions at hourly, seasonal, and inter-annual timescales. Our preliminary results indicate:1) The simulated tall tower mixing ratios for 6 tall towers were all significantly higher than the observations in the growing seasons, indicating a high bias of N2O emissions when using the default N2O production mechanisms in CLM. 2) Following the optimization of N2O production in CLM, the simulated tall tower mixing ratios were strongly correlated with the KCMP and WBI towers, and had moderate correlation with the BAO tower. Overall, the absolute biases in mixing ratios were relatively small. Our next step is to examine 7 years of simulations to assess the spatiotemporal variations of direct and indirect emissions within the US Corn Belt to help identify potential N2O hotspots and hot moments.

  14. Alterations in serotonin receptor-induced contractility of bovine lateral saphenous vein in cattle grazing endophyte-infected tall fescue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klotz, J L; Brown, K R; Xue, Y; Matthews, J C; Boling, J A; Burris, W R; Bush, L P; Strickland, J R

    2012-02-01

    As part of a 2-yr study documenting the physiologic impact of grazing endophyte-infected tall fescue on growing cattle, 2 experiments were conducted to characterize and evaluate effects of grazing 2 levels of toxic endophyte-infected tall fescue pastures on vascular contractility and serotonin receptors. Experiment 1 examined vasoconstrictive activities of 5-hydroxytryptamine (5HT), α-methylserotonin (ME5HT; a 5HT(2) receptor agonist), d-lysergic acid (LSA), and ergovaline (ERV) on lateral saphenous veins collected from steers immediately removed from a high-endophyte-infected tall fescue pasture (HE) or a low-endophyte-infected mixed-grass (LE) pasture. Using the same pastures, Exp. 2 evaluated effects of grazing 2 levels of toxic endophyte-infected tall fescue on vasoconstrictive activities of (±)-1-(2,5-dimethoxy-4-iodophenyl)-2-aminopropane hydrochloride (DOI), BW 723C86 (BW7), CGS-12066A (CGS), and 5-carboxamidotryptamine hemiethanolate maleate (5CT), agonists for 5HT(2A),( 2B), 5HT(1B), and 5HT(7) receptors, respectively. One-half of the steers in Exp. 2 were slaughtered immediately after removal from pasture, and the other one-half were fed finishing diets for >91 d before slaughter. For Exp. 1, maximal contractile intensities were greater (P 91 d. Experiment 1 demonstrated that grazing of HE pastures for 89 to 105 d induces functional alterations in blood vessels, as evidenced by reduced contractile capacity and altered serotonergic receptor activity. Experiment 2 demonstrated that grazing HE pastures alters vascular responses, which may be mediated through altered serotonin receptor activities, and these alterations may be ameliorated by the removal of ergot alkaloid exposure as demonstrated by the absence of differences in finished steers.

  15. Isostatic lines’ study to optimize steel space grid envelope structures for tall buildings according to their solicitations

    OpenAIRE

    Señís López, Roger

    2013-01-01

    Based on the first study completed with wind tunnel tests, the aim of this paper is to define a second methodology for the optimization of steel space grid envelope structures for tall buildings according to their isostatic lines according to their solicitations. It is by means of the comparison NatHaz online database and numerical simulation research of wind flow repercussion in buildings, through Computational Fluid Dynamics (CDF), that we can understand and analyse the grid ...

  16. Linkage Maps of a Mediterranean × Continental Tall Fescue Population and their Comparative Analysis with Other Poaceae Species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryan Dierking

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Temperate grasses belonging to the complex are important throughout the world in pasture and grassland agriculture. Tall fescue ( Schreb. is the predominant species in the United States, covering approximately 15 million ha. Tall fescue has distinctive morphotypes, two of which are Continental (summer active and Mediterranean (summer semidormant. This is the first report of a linkage map created for Mediterranean tall fescue, while updating the Continental map with additional simple sequence repeat and sequence-tagged site markers. Additionally, this is the first time that diversity arrays technology (DArT markers were used in the construction of a tall fescue map. The male parent (Continental, R43-64, map consisted of 594 markers arranged in 22 linkage groups (LGs and covered a total of 1577 cM. The female parent (Mediterranean, 103-2, map was shorter (1258 cM and consisted of only 208 markers arranged in 29 LGs. Marker densities for R43-64 and 103-2 were 2.65 and 6.08 cM per marker, respectively. When compared with the other Poaceae species, meadow fescue ( Huds., annual ryegrass ( Lam., perennial ryegrass ( L., (L. Beauv., and barley ( L., a total of 171 and 98 orthologous or homologous sequences, identified by DArT analysis, were identified in R43-64 and 103-2, respectively. By using genomic in situ hybridization, we aimed to identify potential progenitors of both morphotypes. However, no clear conclusion on genomic constitution was reached. These maps will aid in the search for quantitative trait loci of various traits as well as help define and distinguish genetic differences between the two morphotypes.

  17. Mitigating the negative impacts of tall wind turbines on bats: Vertical activity profiles and relationships to wind speed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wellig, Sascha D; Nusslé, Sébastien; Miltner, Daniela; Kohle, Oliver; Glaizot, Olivier; Braunisch, Veronika; Obrist, Martin K; Arlettaz, Raphaël

    2018-01-01

    Wind turbines represent a source of hazard for bats, especially through collision with rotor blades. With increasing technical development, tall turbines (rotor-swept zone 50-150 m above ground level) are becoming widespread, yet we lack quantitative information about species active at these heights, which impedes proposing targeted mitigation recommendations for bat-friendly turbine operation. We investigated vertical activity profiles of a bat assemblage, and their relationships to wind speed, within a major valley of the European Alps where tall wind turbines are being deployed. To monitor bat activity we installed automatic recorders at sequentially increasing heights from ground level up to 65 m, with the goal to determine species-specific vertical activity profiles and to link them to wind speed. Bat call sequences were analysed with an automatic algorithm, paying particular attention to mouse-eared bats (Myotis myotis and Myotis blythii) and the European free-tailed bat (Tadarida teniotis), three locally rare species. The most often recorded bats were the Common pipistrelle (Pipistrellus pipistrellus) and Savi's pipistrelle (Hypsugo savii). Mouse-eared bats were rarely recorded, and mostly just above ground, appearing out of risk of collision. T. teniotis had a more evenly distributed vertical activity profile, often being active at rotor level, but its activity at that height ceased above 5 ms-1 wind speed. Overall bat activity in the rotor-swept zone declined with increasing wind speed, dropping below 5% above 5.4 ms-1. Collision risk could be drastically reduced if nocturnal operation of tall wind turbines would be restricted to wind speeds above 5 ms-1. Such measure should be implemented year-round because T. teniotis remains active in winter. This operational restriction is likely to cause only small energy production losses at these tall wind turbines, although further analyses are needed to assess these losses precisely.

  18. Cutaneous Permeation and Penetration of Sunscreens: Formulation Strategies and In Vitro Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Tampucci

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Sunscreens are the most common products used for skin protection against the harmful effects of ultraviolet radiation. However, as frequent application is recommended, the use of large amount of sunscreens could reflect in possible systemic absorption and since these preparations are often applied on large skin areas, even low penetration rates can cause a significant amount of sunscreen to enter the body. An ideal sunscreen should have a high substantivity and should neither penetrate the viable epidermis, the dermis and the systemic circulation, nor in hair follicle. The research of methods to assess the degree of penetration of solar filters into the skin is nowadays even more important than in the past, due to the widespread use of nanomaterials and the new discoveries in cosmetic formulation technology. In the present paper, different in vitro studies, published in the last five years, have been reviewed, in order to focus the attention on the different methodological approaches employed to effectively assess the skin permeation and retention of sunscreens.

  19. Lipid Based Formulations of Biopharmaceutics Classification System (BCS Class II Drugs: Strategy, Formulations, Methods and Saturation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Šoltýsová I.

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Active ingredients in pharmaceuticals differ by their physico-chemical properties and their bioavailability therefore varies. The most frequently used and most convenient way of administration of medicines is oral, however many drugs are little soluble in water. Thus they are not sufficiently effective and suitable for such administration. For this reason a system of lipid based formulations (LBF was developed. Series of formulations were prepared and tested in water and biorelevant media. On the basis of selection criteria, there were selected formulations with the best emulsification potential, good dispersion in the environment and physical stability. Samples of structurally different drugs included in the Class II of the Biopharmaceutics classification system (BCS were obtained, namely Griseofulvin, Glibenclamide, Carbamazepine, Haloperidol, Itraconazol, Triclosan, Praziquantel and Rifaximin, for testing of maximal saturation in formulations prepared from commercially available excipients. Methods were developed for preparation of formulations, observation of emulsification and its description, determination of maximum solubility of drug samples in the respective formulation and subsequent analysis. Saturation of formulations with drugs showed that formulations 80 % XA and 20 % Xh, 35 % XF and 65 % Xh were best able to dissolve the drugs which supports the hypothesis that it is desirable to identify limited series of formulations which could be generally applied for this purpose.

  20. Green Chemistry: Strategy in Essential Oils Sustainability by Development of Insecticide Using Docking Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warsito; Utomo, EP; Ulfa, SM; Kholila, BN; Nindyasiwi, P.

    2018-01-01

    Sustainable agricultural applications in green chemistry was associated with the development of insecticide production based on secondary metabolites, such as essential oils. This research used In Silico modeling for insecticide formulation based on essential oils. The insecticidal formula was made on the basis of the Ki value of multiple docking results between the major components of essential oils as ligand with Spodotera litura receptor (2DJC) studied using Autodock Tools software. Insecticide formula activity test was done by contact method of toxic and leaf contact with essential oils concentration at level 0% - 1%. The results of the in silico study showed that the inhibition constants (Ki) of citronellal and anethol ligands combination were 1.6 mM however of citronellal and eugenol as ligands were 1.75 mM and formulated rasio (v/v), respectively 5 : 1 and 4 : 1. In addition, in vitro activity of insecticide formula with the ratio of 5: 1 possess LC50 value 0.10% (toxic contact) and 0.35% (leaf contact). While the formula with a ratio of 4: 1 possess LC50 value 0.05% (toxic contacts) and 0.31% (leaf contact).

  1. Study of wind-induced vibrations in tall buildings with tuned mass dampers taking into account vortices effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Momtaz, Ali Ajilian; Abdollahian, Mohamadreza Akhavan; Farshidianfar, Anooshiravan

    2017-12-01

    In recent years, construction of tall buildings has been of great interest. Use of lightweight materials in such structures reduces stiffness and damping, making the building more influenced by wind loads. Moreover, tall buildings of more than 30 to 40 stories, depending on the geographical location, the wind effects are more influential than earthquakes. In addition, the complexity of the effects of wind flow on the structure due to the interaction of the fluid flow and solid body results in serious damages to the structure by eliminating them. Considering the importance of the issue, the present study investigates the phenomenon of wind-induced vibration on high-rise buildings, taking into account the effects of vortices created by the fluid flow and the control of this phenomenon. To this end, the governing equations of the structure, the fluid flow and the tuned mass damper (TMD) are first introduced, and their coefficient values are extracted according to the characteristics of ACT skyscraper in Japan. Then, these three coupled equations are solved using a program coded in MATLAB. After validation of the results, the effects of wind loads are analyzed and considered with regard to the effects of vortices and the use of TMD, and are compared with the results of the state where no vortices are considered. Generally, the results of this study point out the significance of vibrations caused by vortices in construction of engineering structures as well as the appropriate performance of a TMD in reducing oscillations in tall buildings.

  2. Temporal patterns of foliar ozone symptoms on tall milkweed (Asclepias exaltata L.) in Great Smoky Mountains National Park

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chappelka, A.H.; Somers, G.L.; Renfro, J.R.

    2007-01-01

    Incidence and severity of ozone-induced foliar symptoms on tall milkweed (Asclepias exaltata L.) along selected trails in Great Smoky Mountains National Park (GRSM) were determined by two surveys/season conducted from 1992 through 1996. Overall incidence was 73%, and was 84%, 44%, 90%, 58%, and 82% for 1992-1996, respectively for the same clusters. Average incidence was 61% and 84% for the 1st and 2nd surveys, respectively. Seasonal comparisons showed two distinct injury groupings regarding incidence and severity of injury: 1992, 1994 and 1996 (high injury); 1993 and 1995 (low injury). No discernible patterns were observed between symptomatic and asymptomatic plants regarding height, herbivory or flowering. Regression analyses indicated no differentiation in foliar symptoms regarding topographic position, aspect, slope or elevation over the 5-year study period. Our findings indicate other micro-site or genetic factors may control ozone sensitivity of tall milkweed in GRSM. - Ground-level ozone has the potential to cause deleterious effects to tall milkweed growing in Great Smoky Mountains National Park

  3. Gaschromatographic and mass spectroscopic investigations of tall oil rosin acids and diterpenioc compounds and modified diterpene acids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mayr, M.

    1984-12-01

    Diterpene resin acids are important constituents of the coniferous wood. The composition of these nonvolatile extractives have been studied by a number of investigations; both naturally occurring resins (oleoresin) and distillation products of the alkaline sulfate pulping process (tall oil) were analyzed. These mixtures find important uses in chemical intermediates, paper sizes, ester gums, coatings and numerous other applications. Owing to the more ameliorate physical properties a major part of tall oil resin acids is chemically modified and is used in intermediate chemicals. Such modifications are the disproportionation in the presence of certain catalysts and the formation of Diels-Alder adducts. The present study was undertaken to obtain detailed information of the overall composition of diterpenoid compounds and to achieve a separation of the complex natural and tall oil mixtures using high resolution glass capillary columns. Furthermore, one objective was to characterize the identified diterpene compounds and Diels-Alder adducts by relative retention values. Additionally the presence of some major adduct components in the modified samples was checked by comparison with pure specimens, independently synthesized or purified by crystallization and the mechanism of the Diels-Alder reaction was investigated. A compilation of the mass spectra of the substances detected in the different samples closes this work. (Author)

  4. Temporal patterns of foliar ozone symptoms on tall milkweed (Asclepias exaltata L.) in Great Smoky Mountains National Park

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chappelka, A.H. [School of Forestry and Wildlife Sciences, Auburn University, Auburn, AL 36849 (United States)], E-mail: chappah@auburn.edu; Somers, G.L. [School of Forestry and Wildlife Sciences, Auburn University, Auburn, AL 36849 (United States); Renfro, J.R. [USDI National Park Service, Resource Management and Science Division, Great Smoky Mountains National Park, Gatlinburg, TN 37738 (United States)

    2007-10-15

    Incidence and severity of ozone-induced foliar symptoms on tall milkweed (Asclepias exaltata L.) along selected trails in Great Smoky Mountains National Park (GRSM) were determined by two surveys/season conducted from 1992 through 1996. Overall incidence was 73%, and was 84%, 44%, 90%, 58%, and 82% for 1992-1996, respectively for the same clusters. Average incidence was 61% and 84% for the 1st and 2nd surveys, respectively. Seasonal comparisons showed two distinct injury groupings regarding incidence and severity of injury: 1992, 1994 and 1996 (high injury); 1993 and 1995 (low injury). No discernible patterns were observed between symptomatic and asymptomatic plants regarding height, herbivory or flowering. Regression analyses indicated no differentiation in foliar symptoms regarding topographic position, aspect, slope or elevation over the 5-year study period. Our findings indicate other micro-site or genetic factors may control ozone sensitivity of tall milkweed in GRSM. - Ground-level ozone has the potential to cause deleterious effects to tall milkweed growing in Great Smoky Mountains National Park.

  5. Survey of ABC transporter and metallothionein genes expressions in tall fescue inoculated with Funneliformis intraradices under Nickel toxicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massomeh Rafiei-Demneh

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In plants, there are complex network of transport, chelation, and sequestration processes that functions in maintaining concentrations of essential metal ions in different cellular compartments, thus minimizing the damage caused by entry of non-essential metal ions into the cytosol. In the presence of toxic ones, arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM fungi are able to alleviate metal toxicity in the plant. In this study the effect of an arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi Funneliformis intraradices on growth, Nickel tolerance, and ABC transporter and metallothionein expression in leaves and roots of tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea plants cultivated in Ni polluted soil were evaluated. The fungi infected (M+ and uninfected (M- fescue plants were cultivated in soil under different Ni concentrations (0, 30, 90 and 180 ppm for 3 months. Results demonstrated the positive effect of fungi colonization on the increase in growth and reduction in Ni uptake (90 and 180 ppm and Ni translocation from roots to shoot of tall fescue under Ni stress. The results also demonstrated that the level of ABC transporterand metallothionein transcripts accumulation in roots was considerably higher for both M- and M+ plants compared to the control. Also, M+ plants showed less ABC and MET expression compared to the M- plants. These results demonstrated the importance of mycorrhizal colonization of F. intraradices in reduction of Ni transport from root to shoot of tall fescue which alleviates Ni-induced stress.

  6. Preliminary studies on allelopatic effect of some woody plants on seed germination of rye-grass and tall fescue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arouiee, H; Nazdar, T; Mousavi, A

    2010-11-01

    In order to investigation of allelopathic effects of some ornamental trees on seed germination of rye-grass (Lolium prenne) and tall fescue (Festuca arundinaceae), this experiment was conducted in a randomized complete block design with 3 replicates at the laboratory of Horticultural Sciences Department of Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, during 2008. In this research, we studied the effect of aqueous and hydro-alcoholic extracts of Afghanistan pine (Pinus eldarica), arizona cypress (Cupressus arizonica), black locust (Robinia psedue acacia) and box elder (Acer negundo) leaves that prepared in 1:5 ratio on seed germination percent and rate for two grasses. The results showed that all extracts decreased statistically seed germination in compared to control treatment. The highest germination percentage and germination rate of tested grass detected in control treatment. Hydro-alcoholic extracts of all woody plants (15, 30%) were completely inhibited seed germination of rye-grass and tall fescue. Also aqueous extract of arizona cypress was completely inhibited seed germination of tall fescue and had more inhibitory activity than other aqueous extracts on rye-grass. Between aqueous extracts, the highest and lowest seed germination of rye-grass was found in Afghanistan pine and arizona cypress, respectively.

  7. Improved forage digestibility of tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea) by transgenic down-regulation of cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Lei; Auh, Chung-Kyoon; Dowling, Paul; Bell, Jeremey; Chen, Fang; Hopkins, Andrew; Dixon, Richard A; Wang, Zeng-Yu

    2003-11-01

    Lignification of cell walls during plant development has been identified as the major factor limiting forage digestibility and concomitantly animal productivity. cDNA sequences encoding a key lignin biosynthetic enzyme, cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase (CAD), were cloned from the widely grown monocotyledonous forage species tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb.). Recombinant tall fescue CAD expressed in E. coli exhibited the highest V(max)/K(m) values when coniferaldehyde and sinapaldehyde were used as substrates. Transgenic tall fescue plants carrying either sense or antisense CAD gene constructs were obtained by microprojectile bombardment of single genotype-derived embryogenic suspension cells. Severely reduced levels of mRNA transcripts and significantly reduced CAD enzymatic activities were found in two transgenic plants carrying sense and antisense CAD transgenes, respectively. These CAD down-regulated transgenic lines had significantly decreased lignin content and altered ratios of syringyl (S) to guaiacyl (G), G to p-hydroxyphenyl (H) and S to H units. No significant changes in cellulose, hemicellulose, neutral sugar composition, p-coumaric acid and ferulic acid levels were observed in the transgenic plants. Increases of in vitro dry matter digestibility of 7.2-9.5% were achieved in the CAD down-regulated lines, thus providing a novel germplasm to be used for the development of grass cultivars with improved forage quality.

  8. The SOBANE risk management strategy and the Déparis method for the participatory screening of the risks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malchaire, J B

    2004-08-01

    The first section of the document describes a risk-prevention strategy, called SOBANE, in four levels: screening, observation, analysis and expertise. The aim is to make risk prevention faster, more cost effective, and more effective in coordinating the contributions of the workers themselves, their management, the internal and external occupational health (OH) practitioners and the experts. These four levels are: screening, where the risk factors are detected by the workers and their management, and obvious solutions are implemented; observation, where the remaining problems are studied in more detail, one by one, and the reasons and the solutions are discussed in detail; analysis, where, when necessary, an OH practitioner is called upon to carry out appropriate measurements to develop specific solutions; expertise, where, in very sophisticated and rare cases, the assistance of an expert is called upon to solve a particular problem. The method for the participatory screening of the risks (in French: Dépistage Participatif des Risques), Déparis, is proposed for the first level screening of the SOBANE strategy. The work situation is systematically reviewed and all the aspects conditioning the easiness, the effectiveness and the satisfaction at work are discussed, in search of practical prevention measures. The points to be studied more in detail at level 2, observation, are identified. The method is carried out during a meeting of key workers and technical staff. The method proves to be simple, sparing in time and means and playing a significant role in the development of a dynamic plan of risk management and of a culture of dialogue in the company.

  9. Strategies for Solving Potential Problems Associated with Laboratory Diffusion and Batch Experiments - Part 1: An Overview of Conventional Test Methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, M.; Takeda, M.; Nakajima, H.

    2006-01-01

    Laboratory diffusion testing as well as batch experiments are well established and widely adopted techniques for characterizing the diffusive and adsorptive properties of geological, geotechnical, and synthetic materials in both scientific and applied fields, including geological disposal of radioactive waste. Although several types of diffusion test, such as the through- diffusion test, in-diffusion test, out-diffusion test, and column test, are currently available, different methods may have different advantages and disadvantages. In addition, traditional methods may have limitations, such as the need for relatively long test times, cumbersome test procedures, and the possibility of errors due to differences between analytical assumptions and actual test conditions. Furthermore, traditional batch experiments using mineral powders are known to overestimate the sorption coefficient. In part 1 of this report, we present a brief overview of laboratory diffusion and batch experiments. The advantages, disadvantages, limitations, and/or potential problems associated with individual tests were compared and summarized. This comprehensive report will provide practical references for reviewing the results obtained from relevant experiments, especially from the viewpoint of regulation. To solve and/or eliminate the potential problems associated with conventional methods, and to obtain the diffusion coefficient and rock capacity factor from a laboratory test both rapidly and accurately, part 2 of this study discusses possible strategies involving the development of rigorous solutions to some relevant test methods, and sensitivity analyses for the related tests that may be helpful to judge the accuracy of the two parameters to be determined from individual tests. (authors)

  10. Genotype x environment interactions in Angus, Brahman, and reciprocal cross cows and their calves grazing common bermudagrass and endophyte-infected tall fescue pastures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, M A; Brown, A H; Jackson, W G; Miesner, J R

    1997-04-01

    Reproductive and preweaning data on 233 Angus (A), Brahman (B), and reciprocal-cross cows (AB, BA) and 455 two- and three-breed cross calves managed on common bermudagrass or endophyte-infected tall fescue were used to evaluate the interaction of forage type with individual and maternal heterosis and maternal and grandmaternal breed effects. Cows were born from 1988 to 1991 and calves from 15 Polled Hereford sires were born from 1991 to 1994. Heterosis for calving rate was similar and important on both forages (P < .01), but maternal effects were small on each forage. Maternal heterosis for birth weight differed between common bermudagrass and tall fescue (P < .10) and grandmaternal effects were evident on bermudagrass (P < .05) but not tall fescue. Forage effects were generally substantial for 205-d weight, weaning hip height, and weaning weight:height ratio (P < .01), and maternal heterosis for these traits was larger on tall fescue than on common bermudagrass (P < .01). Grandmaternal effects were in favor of Angus for 205-d weight, hip height, and weight:height ratio on common bermudagrass (P < .05) but not on tall fescue. Heterosis for 205-d weight per cow exposed was substantial on both forages (P < .01) and was numerically larger on tall fescue than on bermudagrass, but maternal effects were not significant. These results suggest more advantage for Brahman-cross cows over purebreds on endophyte-infected tall fescue than a similar comparison on common bermudagrass. They also suggest an advantage for Angus in grandmaternal effects on bermudagrass but not tall fescue.

  11. A real-time traffic control method for the intersection with pre-signals under the phase swap sorting strategy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yiming Bie

    Full Text Available To deal with the conflicts between left-turn and through traffic streams and increase the discharge capacity, this paper addresses the pre-signal which is implemented at a signalized intersection. Such an intersection with pre-signal is termed as a tandem intersection. For the tandem intersection, phase swap sorting strategy is deemed as the most effective phasing scheme in view of some exclusive merits, such as easier compliance of drivers, and shorter sorting area. However, a major limitation of the phase swap sorting strategy is not considered in previous studies: if one or more vehicle is left at the sorting area after the signal light turns to red, the capacity of the approach would be dramatically dropped. Besides, previous signal control studies deal with a fixed timing plan that is not adaptive with the fluctuation of traffic flows. Therefore, to cope with these two gaps, this paper firstly takes an in-depth analysis of the traffic flow operations at the tandem intersection. Secondly, three groups of loop detectors are placed to obtain the real-time vehicle information for adaptive signalization. The lane selection behavior in the sorting area is considered to set the green time for intersection signals. With the objective of minimizing the vehicle delay, the signal control parameters are then optimized based on a dynamic programming method. Finally, numerical experiments show that average vehicle delay and maximum queue length can be reduced under all scenarios.

  12. Infertility, Psychological Distress, and Coping Strategies among Women in Mali, West Africa: A Mixed-Methods Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hess, Rosanna F; Ross, Ratchneewan; GilillandJr, John L

    2018-03-01

    Relatively little is known about infertility and its consequences in Mali, West Africa where the context and culture are different from those of previously studied settings. This study therefore aimed to specifically examine infertility induced psychological distress and coping strategies among women in Mali. A convergent mixed-methods design-correlational cross-sectional and qualitative descriptive-guided the study. Fifty-eight infertile Malian women participated: 52 completed the Psychological Evaluation Test specific for infertility and a question on general health status, and 26 were interviewed in-depth. Over 20% scored above the cut-off point for psychological distress, and 48% described their general health as poor. There was no significant difference between women with primary vs. secondary infertility. The study found that infertile women lived with marital tensions, criticism from relatives, and stigmatization from the community. They experienced sadness, loneliness, and social deprivation. Coping strategies included traditional and biomedical treatments, religious faith and practices, and self-isolation. Health care professionals should provide holistic care for infertile women to meet their physical, spiritual, psychological, and social needs.

  13. Method development and strategy for the characterization of complexly faulted and fractured rhyolitic tuffs, Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karasaki, K. [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States); Galloway, D. [Geological Survey, Sacramento, CA (United States)

    1991-06-01

    The planned high-level nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, would exist in unsaturated, fractured welded tuff. One possible contaminant pathway to the accessible environment is transport by groundwater infiltrating to the water table and flowing through the saturated zone. Therefore, an effort to characterize the hydrology of the saturated zone is being undertaken in parallel with that of the unsaturated zone. As a part of the saturated zone investigation, there wells-UE-25c{number_sign}1, UE-25c{number_sign}2, and UE-25c{number_sign}3 (hereafter called the c-holes)-were drilled to study hydraulic and transport properties of rock formations underlying the planned waste repository. The location of the c-holes is such that the formations penetrated in the unsaturated zone occur at similar depths and with similar thicknesses as at the planned repository site. In characterizing a highly heterogeneous flow system, several issues emerge. (1) The characterization strategy should allow for the virtual impossibility to enumerate and characterize all heterogeneities. (2) The methodology to characterize the heterogeneous flow system at the scale of the well tests needs to be established. (3) Tools need to be developed for scaling up the information obtained at the well-test scale to the larger scale of the site. In the present paper, the characterization strategy and the methods under development are discussed with the focus on the design and analysis of the field experiments at the c-holes.

  14. A real-time traffic control method for the intersection with pre-signals under the phase swap sorting strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bie, Yiming; Liu, Zhiyuan; Wang, Yinhai

    2017-01-01

    To deal with the conflicts between left-turn and through traffic streams and increase the discharge capacity, this paper addresses the pre-signal which is implemented at a signalized intersection. Such an intersection with pre-signal is termed as a tandem intersection. For the tandem intersection, phase swap sorting strategy is deemed as the most effective phasing scheme in view of some exclusive merits, such as easier compliance of drivers, and shorter sorting area. However, a major limitation of the phase swap sorting strategy is not considered in previous studies: if one or more vehicle is left at the sorting area after the signal light turns to red, the capacity of the approach would be dramatically dropped. Besides, previous signal control studies deal with a fixed timing plan that is not adaptive with the fluctuation of traffic flows. Therefore, to cope with these two gaps, this paper firstly takes an in-depth analysis of the traffic flow operations at the tandem intersection. Secondly, three groups of loop detectors are placed to obtain the real-time vehicle information for adaptive signalization. The lane selection behavior in the sorting area is considered to set the green time for intersection signals. With the objective of minimizing the vehicle delay, the signal control parameters are then optimized based on a dynamic programming method. Finally, numerical experiments show that average vehicle delay and maximum queue length can be reduced under all scenarios.

  15. State of the art in non-animal approaches for skin sensitization testing: from individual test methods towards testing strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ezendam, Janine; Braakhuis, Hedwig M; Vandebriel, Rob J

    2016-12-01

    The hazard assessment of skin sensitizers relies mainly on animal testing, but much progress is made in the development, validation and regulatory acceptance and implementation of non-animal predictive approaches. In this review, we provide an update on the available computational tools and animal-free test methods for the prediction of skin sensitization hazard. These individual test methods address mostly one mechanistic step of the process of skin sensitization induction. The adverse outcome pathway (AOP) for skin sensitization describes the key events (KEs) that lead to skin sensitization. In our review, we have clustered the available test methods according to the KE they inform: the molecular initiating event (MIE/KE1)-protein binding, KE2-keratinocyte activation, KE3-dendritic cell activation and KE4-T cell activation and proliferation. In recent years, most progress has been made in the development and validation of in vitro assays that address KE2 and KE3. No standardized in vitro assays for T cell activation are available; thus, KE4 cannot be measured in vitro. Three non-animal test methods, addressing either the MIE, KE2 or KE3, are accepted as OECD test guidelines, and this has accelerated the development of integrated or defined approaches for testing and assessment (e.g. testing strategies). The majority of these approaches are mechanism-based, since they combine results from multiple test methods and/or computational tools that address different KEs of the AOP to estimate skin sensitization potential and sometimes potency. Other approaches are based on statistical tools. Until now, eleven different testing strategies have been published, the majority using the same individual information sources. Our review shows that some of the defined approaches to testing and assessment are able to accurately predict skin sensitization hazard, sometimes even more accurate than the currently used animal test. A few defined approaches are developed to provide an

  16. Development of a health education intervention strategy using an implementation research method to control taeniasis and cysticercosis in Burkina Faso.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngowi, Helena; Ozbolt, Ivan; Millogo, Athanase; Dermauw, Veronique; Somé, Télesphore; Spicer, Paul; Jervis, Lori L; Ganaba, Rasmané; Gabriel, Sarah; Dorny, Pierre; Carabin, Hélène

    2017-06-01

    Taeniasis and cysticercosis are two diseases caused by Taenia solium, a parasite transmitted between humans and pigs, leading to considerable economic loss and disabilities. Transmission of the parasite is linked to environmental and behavioural factors such as inadequate sanitation and hygiene, poor pig management, and consumption of infected pork. This study used implementation research method to design a health education intervention strategy for reducing T. solium infections in Burkina Faso, a country endemic for the parasite. Eighteen group discussions were conducted with 8-18 participants each in three villages. In addition, structured interviews were conducted among 4 777 participants and 2 244 pig owners, who were selected through cluster random sampling in 60 villages of three provinces of Burkina Faso. Both approaches assessed knowledge and practices related to T. solium. The information obtained was used to develop a community-adapted health education intervention strategy to control taeniasis and cysticercosis in Burkina Faso. The group discussions revealed that participants had a poor quality of life due to the diseases as well as inadequate access to latrines, safe water, and healthcare services. In addition, it was found that pig production was an important economic activity, especially for women. Furthermore, financial and knowledge constraints were important limitations to improved pig management and latrine construction. The survey data also showed that open defecation and drinking unboiled water were common behaviours, enhanced by a lack of knowledge regarding the transmission of the parasite, perceived financial barriers to the implementation of control measures, lack of public sensitization, as well as a lack of self-efficacy towards control of the parasite. Nevertheless, the perceived financial benefits of controlling porcine cysticercosis could be emphasized by an education program that discourages open defecation and encourages drinking safe

  17. Building Integrated Active Flow Control: Improving the Aerodynamic Performance of Tall Buildings Using Fluid-Based Aerodynamic Modification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menicovich, David

    By 2050 an estimated 9 billion people will inhabit planet earth and almost all the growth in the next 40 years will be in urban areas putting tremendous pressure on creating sustainable cities. The rapid increase in population, rise in land value and decrease in plot sizes in cities around the world positions tall or more importantly slender buildings as the best suited building typology to address the increasingly critical demand for space in this pressing urbanization trend. However, the majority of new tall building urban developments have not followed principles of environmental and/or sustainable design and incentives to innovate, both technological and economic, are urgently required. The biggest climatic challenge to the design, construction and performance of tall buildings is wind sensitivity. This challenge is further emphasized seeing two market driven trends: on one hand as urban population grows, land value rises while plot sizes decrease; on the other, more cost effective modular construction techniques are introducing much lighter tall building structures. The combination of the two suggests a potential increase in the slenderness ratio of tall buildings (typically less than 6:1 but stretching to 20:1 in the near future) where not-so-tall but much lighter buildings will be the bulk of new construction in densely populated cities, providing affordable housing in the face of fast urbanization but also introducing wind sensitivity which was previously the problem of a very limited number of super tall buildings to a much larger number of buildings and communities. The proposed research aims to investigate a novel approach to the interaction between tall buildings and their environment. Through this approach the research proposes a new relationship between buildings and the flows around, through and inside them, where buildings could adapt to better control and manage the air flow around them, and consequently produce significant opportunities to reduce

  18. The Open Method of Co-ordination and the Analysis of Mutual Learning Processes of the European Employment Strategy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nedergaard, Peter

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to address two normative and interlinked methodological and theoretical questions concerning the Open Method of Coordination (OMC): First, what is the most appropriate approach to learning in the analyses of the processes of the European Employment Strategy (EES......)? Second, how should mutual learning processes be diffused among the Member States in order to be efficient? In answering these two questions the paper draws on a social constructivist approach to learning thereby contributing to the debate about learning in the political science literature. At the same...... time, based on the literature and participatory observations, it is concluded that the learning effects of the EES are probably somewhat larger than what is normally suggested, but that successful diffusion still depends on a variety of contextual factors. At the end of the paper a path for empirical...

  19. Study on Maritime Logistics Warehousing Center Model and Precision Marketing Strategy Optimization Based on Fuzzy Method and Neural Network Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao Kefeng

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The bulk commodity, different with the retail goods, has a uniqueness in the location selection, the chosen of transportation program and the decision objectives. How to make optimal decisions in the facility location, requirement distribution, shipping methods and the route selection and establish an effective distribution system to reduce the cost has become a burning issue for the e-commerce logistics, which is worthy to be deeply and systematically solved. In this paper, Logistics warehousing center model and precision marketing strategy optimization based on fuzzy method and neural network model is proposed to solve this problem. In addition, we have designed principles of the fuzzy method and neural network model to solve the proposed model because of its complexity. Finally, we have solved numerous examples to compare the results of lingo and Matlab, we use Matlab and lingo just to check the result and to illustrate the numerical example, we can find from the result, the multi-objective model increases logistics costs and improves the efficiency of distribution time.

  20. Lay explanatory models of depression and preferred coping strategies among Somali refugees in Norway. A mixed method study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valeria Markova

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Refugees are at high risk for mental health problems due to trauma in their pasts and to acculturation stress as they settle in a new country. To develop efficient health services to meet the needs of refugees from various regions, an understanding of how they make sense of and prefer to cope with mental health problems is warranted. This study aims to investigate lay explanatory models of depression and preferred coping strategies among Somali refugees in Norway.Methods. The study used a mixed-method design with a vignette describing a moderately depressed person based on ICD-10 criteria. Firstly, a survey study was performed among Somali refugees (n = 101. Respondents were asked to provide advice to the vignette character, completing the Cross-Cultural Depression Coping Inventory and the General Help-Seeking Questionnaire. Secondly, focus group interviews (n = 10 were done separately with males and females to examine the relationship between the explanatory models of depression and preferred coping strategies.Results. The participants showed a strong preference for coping with depression by religious practices and reliance on family, friends, and their ethnic/religious community rather than seeking professional treatment from public health services (e.g., medical doctors, psychologists. Depressive symptoms were conceptualized as a problem related to cognition (thinking too much and emotion (sadness, but not with biological mechanisms, and were thought to result from spiritual possessions, stress from social isolation, and/or past trauma. Independent of time in exile, the participants showed a strong identification with their ethnic origin and associated values. As participants emphasized the need to obey and follow the viewpoint of elders, fathers, and spiritual leaders, these authorities seemed to be gatekeepers for access to mental health services. Conclusion. The results highlight that mental health programs for Somali refugees

  1. Balance sheet method assessment for nitrogen fertilization in winter wheat: II. alternative strategies using the CropSyst simulation model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Corbellini

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available It is important, both for farmer profit and for the environment, to correctly dose fertilizer nitrogen (N for winter wheat growth. Balance-sheet methods are often used to calculate the recommended dose of N fertilizer. Other methods are based on the dynamic simulation of cropping systems. Aim of the work was to evaluate the balance-sheet method set up by the Region Emilia-Romagna (DPI, by comparing it with the cropping systems simulation model CropSyst (CS, and with an approach based on fixed supplies of N (T. A 3-year trial was structured as a series of N fertility regimes at 3 sites (Papiano di Marsciano, Ravenna, San Pancrazio. The N-regimes were generated at each site-year as separate trials in which 3 N rates were applied: N1 (DPI, N2 (DPI+50 kg ha-1 N at spike initiation, N3 (DPI + 50 kg ha-1 N at early booting. Above ground biomass and soil data (NO3-N and water were sampled and used to calibrate CS. Doses of fertilizer N were calculated by both DPI and CS for winter wheat included in three typical rotations for Central and Northern Italy. Both these methods and method T were simulated at each site over 50 years, by using daily generated weather data. The long-term simulation allowed evaluating such alternative fertilization strategies. DPI and CS estimated comparable crop yields and N leached amounts, and both resulted better than T. Minor risk of leaching emerged for all N doses. The N2 and N3 rates allowed slightly higher crop yields than N1.

  2. 振冲碎石桩加固高层建筑粉砂土地基实例分析%Case Study on Improving Silty Sand Foundation of Tall Building by Vibro-replacement Stone Column

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢新宇; 应宏伟; 夏建中

    2001-01-01

    In this paper, the case studies of two tall buildings built on silty sand improved by vibro-replacement stone column in Hangzhou are reported. The design and computation method for vibro-replacement stone column composite foundation are introduced. Based on field testing results,the construction techniques of vibro-replacement stone column and the appraisement of improvement effect are discussed. It is the first time that the vibro-replacement stone column method has been successfully applied to improve silty sand foundation of tall building in Hangzhou.%本文介绍杭州两座高层建筑物采用振冲碎石桩加固粉砂土地基的工程实例。结合有关现场测试成果,探讨了高层建筑振冲碎石桩地基设计计算、振冲碎石桩施工控制和加固效果评价等有关问题。为振冲碎石桩在同类地基中的推广应用提供一些成功经验。

  3. Small vertebral cross-sectional area and tall intervertebral disc in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ponrartana, Skorn; Fisher, Carissa L.; Aggabao, Patricia C.; Chavez, Thomas A.; Broom, Alexander M.; Wren, Tishya A.L.; Skaggs, David L.; Gilsanz, Vicente

    2016-01-01

    When compared to boys, girls have smaller vertebral cross-sectional area, which conveys a greater spinal flexibility, and a higher prevalence of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis. To test the hypothesis that small vertebral cross-sectional area and tall intervertebral disc height are structural characteristics of patients with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis. Using multiplanar imaging techniques, measures of vertebral cross-sectional area, vertebral height and intervertebral disc height in the lumbar spine were obtained in 35 pairs of girls and 11 pairs of boys with and without adolescent idiopathic scoliosis of the thoracic spine matched for age, height and weight. Compared to adolescents without spinal deformity, girls and boys with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis had, on average, 9.8% (6.68 ± 0.81 vs. 7.40 ± 0.99 cm 2 ; P = 0.0007) and 13.9% (8.22 ± 0.84 vs. 9.55 ± 1.61 cm 2 ; P = 0.009) smaller vertebral cross-sectional dimensions, respectively. Additionally, patients with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis had significantly greater values for intervertebral disc heights (9.06 ± 0.85 vs. 7.31 ± 0.62 mm and 9.09 ± 0.87 vs. 7.61 ± 1.00 mm for girls and boys respectively; both P ≤ 0.011). Multiple regression analysis indicated that the presence of scoliosis was negatively associated with vertebral cross-sectional area and positively with intervertebral disc height, independent of sex, age and body mass index. We provide new evidence that girls and boys with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis have significantly smaller vertebral cross-sectional area and taller intervertebral disc heights - two major structural determinants that influence trunk flexibility. With appropriate validation, these findings may have implications for the identification of children at the highest risk for developing scoliosis. (orig.)

  4. Small vertebral cross-sectional area and tall intervertebral disc in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ponrartana, Skorn; Fisher, Carissa L.; Aggabao, Patricia C. [Keck School of Medicine, University of Southern California, Department of Radiology, Children' s Hospital Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Chavez, Thomas A. [Keck School of Medicine, University of Southern California, Department of Pediatrics, Children' s Hospital Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Broom, Alexander M.; Wren, Tishya A.L.; Skaggs, David L. [Keck School of Medicine, University of Southern California, Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Children' s Hospital Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Gilsanz, Vicente [Keck School of Medicine, University of Southern California, Department of Radiology, Children' s Hospital Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Keck School of Medicine, University of Southern California, Department of Pediatrics, Children' s Hospital Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Keck School of Medicine, University of Southern California, Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Children' s Hospital Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA (United States)

    2016-09-15

    When compared to boys, girls have smaller vertebral cross-sectional area, which conveys a greater spinal flexibility, and a higher prevalence of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis. To test the hypothesis that small vertebral cross-sectional area and tall intervertebral disc height are structural characteristics of patients with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis. Using multiplanar imaging techniques, measures of vertebral cross-sectional area, vertebral height and intervertebral disc height in the lumbar spine were obtained in 35 pairs of girls and 11 pairs of boys with and without adolescent idiopathic scoliosis of the thoracic spine matched for age, height and weight. Compared to adolescents without spinal deformity, girls and boys with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis had, on average, 9.8% (6.68 ± 0.81 vs. 7.40 ± 0.99 cm{sup 2}; P = 0.0007) and 13.9% (8.22 ± 0.84 vs. 9.55 ± 1.61 cm{sup 2}; P = 0.009) smaller vertebral cross-sectional dimensions, respectively. Additionally, patients with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis had significantly greater values for intervertebral disc heights (9.06 ± 0.85 vs. 7.31 ± 0.62 mm and 9.09 ± 0.87 vs. 7.61 ± 1.00 mm for girls and boys respectively; both P ≤ 0.011). Multiple regression analysis indicated that the presence of scoliosis was negatively associated with vertebral cross-sectional area and positively with intervertebral disc height, independent of sex, age and body mass index. We provide new evidence that girls and boys with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis have significantly smaller vertebral cross-sectional area and taller intervertebral disc heights - two major structural determinants that influence trunk flexibility. With appropriate validation, these findings may have implications for the identification of children at the highest risk for developing scoliosis. (orig.)

  5. Measurements of greenhouse gases at Beromünster tall-tower station in Switzerland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayalneh Berhanu, Tesfaye; Satar, Ece; Schanda, Rudiger; Nyfeler, Peter; Moret, Hanspeter; Brunner, Dominik; Oney, Brian; Leuenberger, Markus

    2016-06-01

    In order to constrain the regional flux of greenhouse gases, an automated measurement system was built on an old radio tower at Beromünster, Switzerland. The measurement system has been running since November 2012 as part of the Swiss greenhouse gases monitoring network (CarboCount-CH), which is composed of four measurement sites across the country. The Beromünster tall tower has five sampling lines with inlets at 12.5, 44.6, 71.5, 131.6, and 212.5 m above ground level, and it is equipped with a Picarro cavity ring-down spectrometer (CRDS) analyzer (G-2401), which continuously measures CO, CO2, CH4, and H2O. Sensors for detection of wind speed and direction, air temperature, barometric pressure, and humidity have also been installed at each height level. We have observed a non-negligible temperature effect in the calibration measurements, which was found to be dependent on the type of cylinder (steel or aluminum) as well as trace gas species (strongest for CO). From a target gas of known mixing ratio that has been measured once a day, we have calculated a long-term reproducibility of 2.79 ppb, 0.05 ppm, and 0.29 ppb for CO, CO2, and CH4, respectively, over 19 months of measurements. The values obtained for CO2 and CH4 are compliant with the WMO recommendations, while the value calculated for CO is higher than the recommendation. Since the installation of an air-conditioning system recently at the measurement cabin, we have acquired better temperature stability of the measurement system, but no significant improvement was observed in the measurement precision inferred from the target gas measurements. Therefore, it seems that the observed higher variation in CO measurements is associated with the instrumental noise, compatible with the precision provided by the manufacturer.

  6. Supplemental protein and energy for beef cows consuming endophyte-infected tall fescue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forcherio, J C; Catlett, G E; Paterson, J A; Kerley, M S; Ellersieck, M R

    1995-11-01

    Effects of energy and protein supplementation of endophyte (Acremonium coenophialum)-infected (E+) and noninfected (E-) tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb.) on forage intake, digestibility, N flow to the small intestine, and cow-calf productivity was evaluated in two experiments. In Exp. 1, 10 ruminally and duodenally cannulated steers were fed either E- or E+ hay with four supplements or E- or E+ hay unsupplemented. Four supplements formulated with either cracked corn or soybean hulls with 100 or 200 g/d of ruminally undegraded intake protein (UIP) were compared. Levels of UIP were varied by adding soybean meal or blood meal. Hay OM intake was not affected (P > .20) by source of energy of level of UIP; however, intake of E- was greater (P .20) microbial efficiencies. In Exp. 2, 30 cows (average initial BW 459 +/- 26 kg) and their calves (average initial BW 74 +/- 5 kg and 74 +/- 5 d of age) grazed an 8.1-ha E+ pasture from late May to late July. Cows were individually fed supplements used in Exp. 1 each day. Cows that received cracked corn lost .10 kg/d when fed 100 g/d of UIP but gained .33 kg/d when fed 200 g/d. Cows fed soybean hulls and 100 g/d of UIP gained .07 kg/d, whereas cows provided 200 g/d lost .10 kg/d. Calves nursing cows supplemented with 100 g/d of UIP gained more (P milk consumption and slightly greater (P forage intake than calves nursing cows supplemented with 200 g/d of UIP.

  7. Tall Tower Wind Energy Monitoring and Numerical Model Validation in Northern Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koracin, D. [Desert Research Inst. (DRI), Las Vegas, NV (United States); Kaplan, M. [Desert Research Inst. (DRI), Las Vegas, NV (United States); Smith, C. [Desert Research Inst. (DRI), Las Vegas, NV (United States); McCurdy, G. [Desert Research Inst. (DRI), Las Vegas, NV (United States); Wolf, A. [Desert Research Inst. (DRI), Las Vegas, NV (United States); McCord, T. [Desert Research Inst. (DRI), Las Vegas, NV (United States); King, K. [Desert Research Inst. (DRI), Las Vegas, NV (United States); Belu, R. [Drexel Univ., Philadelphia, PA (United States); Horvath, K. [Croatian Meteorological and Hydrological Service, Zagreb (Croatia)

    2015-10-01

    The main objectives of this project were to conduct a tall-tower and sodar field campaign in complex terrain, investigate wind properties relevant to wind energy assessment, and evaluate high-resolution models with fixed and adaptive grid structures. Two 60-m towers at Virginia Peak ridges near Washoe Valley, Nevada, were instrumented with cup and vane anemometers as well as sonic anemometers, and an acoustic sounder (hereafter sodar) was installed near one of the towers. The towers were located 2,700 m apart with a vertical distance of 140 m elevation between their bases. Each tower had a downhill exposure of rolling complex terrain, with the nearby valley floor 3,200 m to the west and 800 m below the summit. Cup anemometers were installed at both towers at 20, 40, and 60 m, wind vanes at 20 and 60 m, and sonic anemometers at 20 and 60 m. The sodar measurements were nominally provided every 10 m in vertical distance from 40 to 200 m with the quality of the data generally decreasing with height. Surface air temperature, atmospheric pressure, and radiation measurements were conducted at 1.5 m AGL at both of the towers. Although the plan was to conduct a 1-year period of data collection, we extended the period (October 5, 2012 through February 24, 2014) to cover for possible data loss from instrument or communication problems. We also present a preliminary analysis of the towers and sodar data, including a detailed inventory of available and missing data as well as outliers. The analysis additionally includes calculation of the Weibull parameters, turbulence intensity, and initial computation of wind power density at various heights.

  8. Casuística de pacientes com queixa principal de alta estatura atendidos em serviço de referência em Salvador, Bahia Analysis of patients with chief complaint of tall stature seen at a referral hospital in Salvador, Bahia, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Crésio Alves

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Descrever uma casuística de pacientes atendidos em serviço de referência em endocrinologia pediátrica com queixa principal de alta estatura. MÉTODOS: Revisão de prontuários de 1.980 pacientes atendidos no período de janeiro de 2003 a janeiro de 2007, incluindo apenas os indivíduos cuja queixa principal, na primeira consulta, fosse sua alta estatura. RESULTADOS: Foram encontrados 16 pacientes (0,8% do total de primeiras consultas. Destes, 12 preenchiam critérios diagnósticos de alta estatura (escore Z do indicador estatura para idade-ZE/I>2. Sete (58% eram do sexo masculino. A idade em primeira consulta variou entre 3 anos e 4 meses e 13 anos e 3 meses. O ZE/I variou de 2,18 a 5,99 e a altura-alvo, de -1,10 a 1,24. Em relação às causas da alta estatura, concluiu-se que: sete pacientes (58% tinham alta estatura familiar; dois (17% idiopática e três (25% sofriam de causas patológicas (síndrome de Marfan em um e adenoma hipofisário em dois deles. Nos quatro demais, o ZE/I variou de 1,86 a 1,98, não preenchendo critérios para alta estatura. Nestes, a etiologia do crescimento excessivo foi idiopática em dois, familiar em um e causado pela síndrome de Weaver em outro. CONCLUSÕES: A distribuição das etiologias de pacientes avaliados com a queixa de alta estatura está de acordo com a literatura, que relata ser familiar a principal causa. Embora alta estatura seja uma queixa principal pouco freqüente no consultório de endocrinologia pediátrica, a investigação deve ser cuidadosa a fim de se afastarem causas patológicas, que constituíram 25% dos casos.OBJECTIVE: To describe patients followed at a referral service in pediatric endocrinology with the chief complaint of tall stature. METHODS: Chart review of 1,980 patients evaluated from January 2003 to January 2007, being selected only individuals whose main complaint in the first consultation was tall stature. RESULTS: 16 patients were selected (0.8% and 12 of them

  9. Investigating Self-Regulated Study Strategies among Postsecondary Students with and without Dyslexia: A Diary Method Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreassen, Rune; Jensen, Magne S.; Bråten, Ivar

    2017-01-01

    We investigated the use of self-regulated study strategies among undergraduates with dyslexia by means of extensive web-based diary data, comparing their strategy use to that of matched students without dyslexia who completed the diary in the same period. Additionally, we examined the perceived benefits of using the recorded strategies in both…

  10. Evaluation of medium-range ensemble flood forecasting based on calibration strategies and ensemble methods in Lanjiang Basin, Southeast China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Li; Gao, Chao; Xuan, Weidong; Xu, Yue-Ping

    2017-11-01

    Ensemble flood forecasts by hydrological models using numerical weather prediction products as forcing data are becoming more commonly used in operational flood forecasting applications. In this study, a hydrological ensemble flood forecasting system comprised of an automatically calibrated Variable Infiltration Capacity model and quantitative precipitation forecasts from TIGGE dataset is constructed for Lanjiang Basin, Southeast China. The impacts of calibration strategies and ensemble methods on the performance of the system are then evaluated. The hydrological model is optimized by the parallel programmed ε-NSGA II multi-objective algorithm. According to the solutions by ε-NSGA II, two differently parameterized models are determined to simulate daily flows and peak flows at each of the three hydrological stations. Then a simple yet effective modular approach is proposed to combine these daily and peak flows at the same station into one composite series. Five ensemble methods and various evaluation metrics are adopted. The results show that ε-NSGA II can provide an objective determination on parameter estimation, and the parallel program permits a more efficient simulation. It is also demonstrated that the forecasts from ECMWF have more favorable skill scores than other Ensemble Prediction Systems. The multimodel ensembles have advantages over all the single model ensembles and the multimodel methods weighted on members and skill scores outperform other methods. Furthermore, the overall performance at three stations can be satisfactory up to ten days, however the hydrological errors can degrade the skill score by approximately 2 days, and the influence persists until a lead time of 10 days with a weakening trend. With respect to peak flows selected by the Peaks Over Threshold approach, the ensemble means from single models or multimodels are generally underestimated, indicating that the ensemble mean can bring overall improvement in forecasting of flows. For

  11. THE PROPOSED METHODOLOGIES FOR THE SIX SIGMA METHOD AND TQM STRATEGY AS WELL AS THEIR APPLICATION IN PRACTICE IN MACEDONIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeta Mitreva

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the proposed methodologies for the Six Sigma method and the TQM strategy as well as their application in practice in Macedonia. Although the philosophy of the total quality management (TQM is deeply involved in many industries and business areas of European and other countries it is insufficiently known and present in our country and other developing countries. The same applies to the Six Sigma approach of reducing the dispersion of a process and it is present in a small fraction in Macedonian companies. The results of the implementation have shown that the application of the Six Sigma approach does not refer to the number of defects per million opportunities but to the systematic and systemic lowering of the dispersion process. The operation and effect of the implementation of the six sigma method engages experts that receive a salary depending on the success of the Six Sigma program. On other hand the results of the application of the TQM methodology within the Macedonian companies will depend on the commitment of all employees and their motivation.

  12. Development of a higher-order finite volume method for simulation of thermal oil recovery process using moving mesh strategy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahmadi, M. [Heriot Watt Univ., Edinburgh (United Kingdom)

    2008-10-15

    This paper described a project in which a higher order up-winding scheme was used to solve mass/energy conservation equations for simulating steam flood processes in an oil reservoir. Thermal recovery processes are among the most complex because they require a detailed accounting of thermal energy and chemical reaction kinetics. The numerical simulation of thermal recovery processes involves localized phenomena such as saturation and temperatures fronts due to hyperbolic features of governing conservation laws. A second order accurate FV method that was improved by a moving mesh strategy was used to adjust for moving coordinates on a finely gridded domain. The Finite volume method was used and the problem of steam injection was then tested using derived solution frameworks on both mixed and moving coordinates. The benefits of using a higher-order Godunov solver instead of lower-order ones were qualified. This second order correction resulted in better resolution on moving features. Preferences of higher-order solvers over lower-order ones in terms of shock capturing is under further investigation. It was concluded that although this simulation study was limited to steam flooding processes, the newly presented approach may be suitable to other enhanced oil recovery processes such as VAPEX, SAGD and in situ combustion processes. 23 refs., 28 figs.

  13. Review on Seismic Rehabilitation of a 56-Story RC Tall Building having Shear Wall System Based on A Nonlinear Dynamic Performance Evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Epackachi, S.; Esmaili, O.; Mirghaderi, S. R.; Taheri, A. A.

    2008-01-01

    Tehran tower is a 56 story reinforced concrete tall building consisting of three wings with identical plan dimensions each approximately 48 meters by 22 meters. The three wings are at 120 degree from each other and have no expansions/seismic Joints. This paper contains the consideration of the retrofitting of the Tehran tower based on the findings of an exhaustive investigation of the nonlinear performance evaluation efforts. It has tried to show the procedure followed, methodologies utilized, and the results obtained for life-safety and collapse-prevention evaluation of the building. More over the weak zones of the structure due to analysis results are introduced and appropriate retrofit technique for satisfaction related life-safety and collapse-prevention criteria is presented. Actually in this project to improve the local behavior of coupling panels which are located regularly in main walls and definitely have been recognized as the most vulnerable structural elements, making use of steel plates which are connected to concrete members by chemical anchors has been used as the best retrofitting method for this case. Therefore in the final section of this paper it has been tried to explain the professional practical method utilized to perform the mentioned retrofitting project

  14. Methods and strategy for modeling daily global solar radiation with measured meteorological data - A case study in Nanchang station, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Guofeng; Liu, Yaolin; Wang, Tiejun

    2007-01-01

    Solar radiation is a primary driver for many physical, chemical and biological processes on the earth's surface, and complete and accurate solar radiation data at a specific region are quite indispensable to the solar energy related researches. This study, with Nanchang station, China, as a case study, aimed to calibrate existing models and develop new models for estimating missing global solar radiation data using commonly measured meteorological data and to propose a strategy for selecting the optimal models under different situations of available meteorological data. Using daily global radiation, sunshine hours, temperature, total precipitation and dew point data covering the years from 1994 to 2005, we calibrated or developed and evaluated seven existing models and two new models. Validation criteria included intercept, slope, coefficient of determination, mean bias error and root mean square error. The best result (R 2 = 0.93) was derived from Chen model 2, which uses sunshine hours and temperature as predictors. The Bahel model, which only uses sunshine hours, was almost as good, explaining 92% of the solar radiation variance. Temperature based models (Bristow and Campbell, Allen, Hargreaves and Chen 1 models) provided less accurate results, of which the best one (R 2 = 0.69) is the Bristow and Campbell model. The temperature based models were improved by adding other variables (daily mean total precipitation and mean dew point). Two such models could explain 77% (Wu model 1) and 80% (Wu model 2) of the solar radiation variance. We, thus, propose a strategy for selecting an optimal method for calculating missing daily values of global solar radiation: (1) when sunshine hour and temperature data are available, use Chen model 2; (2) when only sunshine hour data are available, use Bahel model; (3) when temperature, total precipitation and dew point data are available but not sunshine hours, use Wu model 2; (4) when only temperature and total precipitation are

  15. Synthesis strategy: building a culturally sensitive mid-range theory of risk perception using literary, quantitative, and qualitative methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siaki, Leilani A; Loescher, Lois J; Trego, Lori L

    2013-03-01

    This article presents a discussion of development of a mid-range theory of risk perception. Unhealthy behaviours contribute to the development of health inequalities worldwide. The link between perceived risk and successful health behaviour change is inconclusive, particularly in vulnerable populations. This may be attributed to inattention to culture. The synthesis strategy of theory building guided the process using three methods: (1) a systematic review of literature published between 2000-2011 targeting perceived risk in vulnerable populations; (2) qualitative and (3) quantitative data from a study of Samoan Pacific Islanders at high risk of cardiovascular disease and diabetes. Main concepts of this theory include risk attention, appraisal processes, cognition, and affect. Overarching these concepts is health-world view: cultural ways of knowing, beliefs, values, images, and ideas. This theory proposes the following: (1) risk attention varies based on knowledge of the health risk in the context of health-world views; (2) risk appraisals are influenced by affect, health-world views, cultural customs, and protocols that intersect with the health risk; (3) strength of cultural beliefs, values, and images (cultural identity) mediate risk attention and risk appraisal influencing the likelihood that persons will engage in health-promoting behaviours that may contradict cultural customs/protocols. Interventions guided by a culturally sensitive mid-range theory may improve behaviour-related health inequalities in vulnerable populations. The synthesis strategy is an intensive process for developing a culturally sensitive mid-range theory. Testing of the theory will ascertain its usefulness for reducing health inequalities in vulnerable groups. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  16. Influence of 7,8-methylenedioxylycoctonine-type alkaloids on the toxic effects associated with ingestion of tall larkspur (Delphinium spp) in cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welch, Kevin D; Green, Benedict T; Gardner, Dale R; Cook, Daniel; Pfister, James A; Stegelmeier, Bryan L; Panter, Kip E; Davis, T Zane

    2010-04-01

    To determine the contribution of 7,8-methylenedioxylycoctonine (MDL)-type alkaloids to the toxic effects of tall larkspur (Delphinium spp) consumption in cattle. Sixteen 2-year-old Angus steers. Plant material from 3 populations of tall larkspur that contained different concentration ratios of MDL-type-to-N-(methylsuccinimido) anthranoyllycoctonine (MSAL)-type alkaloids was collected, dried, and finely ground. For each plant population, a dose of ground plant material that would elicit similar clinical signs of toxicosis in cattle after oral administration was determined on the basis of the plants' MSAL-type alkaloid concentration. Cattle were treated via oral gavage with single doses of ground plant material from each of the 3 populations of tall larkspur; each animal underwent 1 to 3 single-dose treatments (> or = 21-day interval between treatments). Heart rate was recorded immediately before (baseline) and 24 hours after each larkspur treatment. Tall larkspur populations with a lower MDL-type-to-MSAL-type alkaloid concentration ratio required a greater amount of MSAL-type alkaloids to cause the expected clinical signs of toxicosis (including increased heart rate) in cattle. Results indicated that the typically less toxic MDL-type alkaloids contributed in a significant manner to the toxic effects of tall larkspur in steers. Consequently, both the concentration of MSAL-type alkaloids and the total concentration of MSAL- and MDL-type alkaloids should be determined when assessing the relative toxicity of tall larkspur populations. These results provide valuable information to determine the risk of toxicosis in cattle grazing on tall larkspur-infested rangelands.

  17. Strategies and methods to study female-specific cardiovascular health and disease: a guide for clinical scientists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouyang, Pamela; Wenger, Nanette K; Taylor, Doris; Rich-Edwards, Janet W; Steiner, Meir; Shaw, Leslee J; Berga, Sarah L; Miller, Virginia M; Merz, Noel Bairey

    2016-01-01

    In 2001, the Institute of Medicine's (IOM) report, "Exploring the Biological Contributions to Human Health: Does Sex Matter?" advocated for better understanding of the differences in human diseases between the sexes, with translation of these differences into clinical practice. Sex differences are well documented in the prevalence of cardiovascular (CV) risk factors, the clinical manifestation and incidence of cardiovascular disease (CVD), and the impact of risk factors on outcomes. There are also physiologic and psychosocial factors unique to women that may affect CVD risk, such as issues related to reproduction. The Society for Women's Health Research (SWHR) CV Network compiled an inventory of sex-specific strategies and methods for the study of women and CV health and disease across the lifespan. References for methods and strategy details are provided to gather and evaluate this information. Some items comprise robust measures; others are in development. To address female-specific CV health and disease in population, physiology, and clinical trial research, data should be collected on reproductive history, psychosocial variables, and other factors that disproportionately affect CVD in women. Variables related to reproductive health include the following: age of menarche, menstrual cycle regularity, hormone levels, oral contraceptive use, pregnancy history/complications, polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) components, menopause age, and use and type of menopausal hormone therapy. Other factors that differentially affect women's CV risk include diabetes mellitus, autoimmune inflammatory disease, and autonomic vasomotor control. Sex differences in aging as well as psychosocial variables such as depression and stress should also be considered. Women are frequently not included/enrolled in mixed-sex CVD studies; when they are included, information on these variables is generally not collected. These omissions limit the ability to determine the role of sex

  18. Exogenous Application of Citric Acid Ameliorates the Adverse Effect of Heat Stress in Tall Fescue (Lolium arundinaceum)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Longxing; Zhang, Zhifei; Xiang, Zuoxiang; Yang, Zhijian

    2016-01-01

    Citric acid may be involved in plant response to high temperature. The objective of this study was to investigate whether exogenous citric acid could improve heat tolerance in a cool-season turfgrass species, tall fescue (Lolium arundinaceum), and to determine the physiological mechanisms of citric acid effects on heat stress tolerance. The grasses were subjected to four citric acid levels (0, 0.2, 2, and 20 mM) and two temperature levels (25/20 and 35/30 ± 0.5°C, day/night) treatments in growth chambers. Heat stress increased an electrolyte leakage (EL) and malonaldehyde (MDA) content, while reduced plant growth, chlorophyll (Chl) content, photochemical efficiency (Fv/Fm), root activity and antioxidant enzyme activities (superoxide dismutase, SOD; catalase, CAT; peroxidase, POD). External citric acid alleviated the detrimental effects of heat stress on tall fescue, which was evidenced by decreased EL and MDA content, and improved plant growth under stress conditions. Additionally, the reduction in Chl content, Fv/Fm, SOD, POD, CAT and root activity were ameliorated in citric acid treated plants under heat stressed conditions. High temperature induced the expression of heat shock protein (HSP) genes, which exhibited greater expression levels after citric acid treatment under heat stress. These results suggest that exogenous citric acid application may alleviate growth and physiological damage caused by high temperature. In addition, the exogenously applied citric acid might be responsible for maintaining membrane stability, root activity, and activation of antioxidant response and HSP genes which could contribute to the protective roles of citric acid in tall fescue responses to heat stress. PMID:26925085

  19. Exogenous Application of Citric Acid Ameliorates the Adverse Effect of Heat Stress in Tall Fescue (Lolium arundinaceum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Longxing; Zhang, Zhifei; Xiang, Zuoxiang; Yang, Zhijian

    2016-01-01

    Citric acid may be involved in plant response to high temperature. The objective of this study was to investigate whether exogenous citric acid could improve heat tolerance in a cool-season turfgrass species, tall fescue (Lolium arundinaceum), and to determine the physiological mechanisms of citric acid effects on heat stress tolerance. The grasses were subjected to four citric acid levels (0, 0.2, 2, and 20 mM) and two temperature levels (25/20 and 35/30 ± 0.5°C, day/night) treatments in growth chambers. Heat stress increased an electrolyte leakage (EL) and malonaldehyde (MDA) content, while reduced plant growth, chlorophyll (Chl) content, photochemical efficiency (Fv/Fm), root activity and antioxidant enzyme activities (superoxide dismutase, SOD; catalase, CAT; peroxidase, POD). External citric acid alleviated the detrimental effects of heat stress on tall fescue, which was evidenced by decreased EL and MDA content, and improved plant growth under stress conditions. Additionally, the reduction in Chl content, Fv/Fm, SOD, POD, CAT and root activity were ameliorated in citric acid treated plants under heat stressed conditions. High temperature induced the expression of heat shock protein (HSP) genes, which exhibited greater expression levels after citric acid treatment under heat stress. These results suggest that exogenous citric acid application may alleviate growth and physiological damage caused by high temperature. In addition, the exogenously applied citric acid might be responsible for maintaining membrane stability, root activity, and activation of antioxidant response and HSP genes which could contribute to the protective roles of citric acid in tall fescue responses to heat stress.

  20. Exogenous Application of Citric Acid Ameliorates the Adverse Effect of Heat Stress in Tall Fescue (Festuca arundinacea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Longxing eHu

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Citric acid may be involved in plant response to high temperature. The objective of this study was to investigate whether exogenous citric acid could improve heat tolerance in a cool‐season turfgrass species, tall fescue (Lolium arundinaceum, and to determine the physiological mechanisms of citric acid effects on heat stress tolerance. The grasses were subjected to four citric acid levels (0, 0.2, 2 and 20 mM and two temperature levels (25/20 and 35/30 ± 0.5 ̊C, day/night treatments in growth chambers. Heat stress increased an electrolyte leakage (EL and malonaldehyde (MDA content, while reduced plant growth, chlorophyll (Chl content, photochemical efficiency (Fv/Fm, root activity and antioxidant enzyme activities (superoxide dismutase, SOD; catalase, CAT; peroxidase, POD. External citric acid alleviated the detrimental effects of heat stress on tall fescue, which was evidenced by decreased EL and MDA content, and improved plant growth under stress conditions. Additionally, the reduction in Chl content, Fv/Fm, SOD, POD, CAT and root activity were ameliorated in citric acid treated plants under heat stressed conditions. High temperature induced the expression of heat shock protein (HSP genes, which exhibited greater expression levels after citric acid treatment under heat stress. These results suggest that exogenous citric acid application may alleviate growth and physiological damage caused by high temperature. In addition, the exogenously applied citric acid might be responsible for maintaining membrane stability, root activity, and activation of antioxidant response and HSP genes which could contribute to the protective roles of citric acid in tall fescue responses to heat stress.

  1. Tall shrub expansion facilitated by patterned ground in the northwest Siberian Low Arctic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frost, G. V.; Epstein, H. E.; Walker, D. A.; Matyshak, G.; Ermokhina, K.

    2011-12-01

    We integrated field observations with a time-series of satellite imagery to identify key biophysical attributes associated with tall shrub expansion and increased vegetation productivity within a forest-tundra ecotone near Kharp, northwest Siberia. Comparison of high-resolution Corona and QuickBird satellite photography indicates that alder (Alnus fruticosa) cover increased by ~10% since 1968. Additionally, areas of sharply increasing productivity detected using a Landsat TM/ETM+ time-series for 1985-2009 are consistently co-located with expanding shrub stands. Field observations made in 2011 revealed that most of the shrub expansion has occurred in areas of patterned ground in which abundant mineral-dominated microsites ("circles") have been maintained by cryogenic disturbance. In order to test whether shrub expansion was facilitated by circles, we established a series of transects according to categories of alder stand age and circle density. Along the transects, we mapped the location of alders and circles, measured soil organic depth and leaf area index (LAI), and characterized plant communities. In recent expansion areas, young alders occur almost exclusively on silt-rich circles that lack vegetation and surface organic matter. Alder abundance and LAI increased with the total area occupied by exposed circles. Analyses using spatial statistics indicate that young alders tend to occur in evenly-spaced groups that mirror the spacing of circles. This distribution pattern persists in older alder stands, especially where circles are large and widely-spaced. Stands on closely-spaced circles quickly develop dense canopies and low species-diversity. Based on ground- and satellite-based observations, we conclude that the abundance of mineral-dominated circles at Kharp has facilitated rapid alder expansion and associated alterations in plant community structure, composition, and productivity. Physical processes in areas of patterned ground promote continuous, rather than

  2. Landscape-level terrestrial methane flux observed from a very tall tower

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desai, Ankur R.; Xu, Ke; Tian, Hanqin; Weishampel, Peter; Thom, Jonthan; Baumann, Daniel D.; Andrews, Arlyn E.; Cook, Bruce D.; King, Jennifer Y.; Kolka, Randall

    2015-01-01

    Simulating the magnitude and variability of terrestrial methane sources and sinks poses a challenge to ecosystem models because the biophysical and biogeochemical processes that lead to methane emissions from terrestrial and freshwater ecosystems are, by their nature, episodic and spatially disjunct. As a consequence, model predictions of regional methane emissions based on field campaigns from short eddy covariance towers or static chambers have large uncertainties, because measurements focused on a particular known source of methane emission will be biased compared to regional estimates with regards to magnitude, spatial scale, or frequency of these emissions. Given the relatively large importance of predicting future terrestrial methane fluxes for constraining future atmospheric methane growth rates, a clear need exists to reduce spatiotemporal uncertainties. In 2010, an Ameriflux tower (US-PFa) near Park Falls, WI, USA, was instrumented with closed-path methane flux measurements at 122 m above ground in a mixed wetland–upland landscape representative of the Great Lakes region. Two years of flux observations revealed an average annual methane (CH4) efflux of 785 ± 75 mg CCH4 m−2 yr−1, compared to a mean CO2 sink of −80 g CCO2 m−2 yr−1, a ratio of 1% in magnitude on a mole basis. Interannual variability in methane flux was 30% of the mean flux and driven by suppression of methane emissions during dry conditions in late summer 2012. Though relatively small, the magnitude of the methane source from the very tall tower measurements was mostly within the range previously measured using static chambers at nearby wetlands, but larger than a simple scaling of those fluxes to the tower footprint. Seasonal patterns in methane fluxes were similar to those simulated in the Dynamic Land Ecosystem Model (DLEM), but magnitude depends on model parameterization and input data, especially regarding wetland extent. The model was unable to simulate short

  3. Optimum distribution between autumn-applied and spring-applied nitrogen in seed production of tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb.)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gislum, René; Deleuran, Lise Christina; Kristensen, Kristian

    2012-01-01

    The effect of different autumn and spring nitrogen (N) application rates on plant establishment, plant development, and seed yield were tested in a field experiment using tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb.). Results clearly showed that the optimum distribution of N between autumn and spring...... to achieve the highest seed yield and economical benefit was dependent on the choice of cover crops and location. The economically optimum N application rate was in the range from 44 to 73 kg ha−1 in autumn and 94 to 157 kg ha−1 in spring. The results are discussed in relation to Danish N regulations...... and plant establishment and development....

  4. Expansion of deciduous tall shrubs but not evergreen dwarf shrubs inhibited by reindeer in Scandes mountain range.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vowles, Tage; Gunnarsson, Bengt; Molau, Ulf; Hickler, Thomas; Klemedtsson, Leif; Björk, Robert G

    2017-11-01

    One of the most palpable effects of warming in Arctic ecosystems is shrub expansion above the tree line. However, previous studies have found that reindeer can influence plant community responses to warming and inhibit shrubification of the tundra.We revisited grazed (ambient) and ungrazed study plots (exclosures), at the southern as well as the northern limits of the Swedish alpine region, to study long-term grazing effects and vegetation changes in response to increasing temperatures between 1995 and 2011, in two vegetation types (shrub heath and mountain birch forest).In the field layer at the shrub heath sites, evergreen dwarf shrubs had increased in cover from 26% to 49% but were unaffected by grazing. Deciduous dwarf and tall shrubs also showed significant, though smaller, increases over time. At the birch forest sites, the increase was similar for evergreen dwarf shrubs (20-48%) but deciduous tall shrubs did not show the same consistent increase over time as in the shrub heath.The cover and height of the shrub layer were significantly greater in exclosures at the shrub heath sites, but no significant treatment effects were found on species richness or diversity.July soil temperatures and growing season thawing degree days (TDD) were higher in exclosures at all but one site, and there was a significant negative correlation between mean shrub layer height and soil TDD at the shrub heath sites. Synthesis . This study shows that shrub expansion is occurring rapidly in the Scandes mountain range, both above and below the tree line. Tall, deciduous shrubs had benefitted significantly from grazing exclosure, both in terms of cover and height, which in turn lowered summer soil temperatures. However, the overriding vegetation shift across our sites was the striking increase in evergreen dwarf shrubs, which were not influenced by grazing. As the effects of an increase in evergreen dwarf shrubs and more recalcitrant plant litter may to some degree counteract some of

  5. Solid dispersions, part II: new strategies in manufacturing methods for dissolution rate enhancement of poorly water-soluble drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bikiaris, Dimitrios N

    2011-12-01

    The absorption of poorly water-soluble drugs, when presented in the crystalline state to the gastrointestinal tract, is typically dissolution rate-limited, and according to BCS these drugs belong mainly to class II. Both dissolution kinetics and solubility are particle size dependent. Nowadays, various techniques are available to the pharmaceutical industry for dissolution rate enhancement of such drugs. Among such techniques, nanosuspensions and drug formulation in solid dispersions are those with the highest interest. This review discusses strategies undertaken over the last 10 years, which have been applied for the dissolution enhancement of poorly water-soluble drugs; such processes include melt mixing, electrospinning, microwave irradiation and the use of inorganic nanoparticles. Many problems in this field still need to be solved, mainly the use of toxic solvents, and for this reason the use of innovative new procedures and materials will increase over the coming years. Melt mixing remains extremely promising for the preparation of SDs and will probably become the most used method in the future for the preparation of solid drug dispersions.

  6. Method development and strategy for the characterization of complexly faulted and fractured rhyolitic tuffs, Yucca Mountain, Nevada, USA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karasaki, K.; Galloway, D.

    1990-10-01

    Field experimental and analytical methods development is underway to define the hydraulic and transport properties of a thick saturated zone that underlies the planned high-level nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. The characterization strategy for the highly heterogeneous hydrology is that of hypothesis testing and confidence building. Three test wells, the UE-25c-holes, have been drilled and preliminary data have been collected. Hydro-mechanical analyses indicate formation fluid at depth is hydraulically connected to the water table. Preliminary hydraulic tests indicate highly localized, fracture-controlled transmissivity. Cross-hole seismic tomography is planned to assess the inter-borehole structure of fractures and faults. Multi-level cross-hole hydraulic interference and tracer tests are planned using up to 5 packed-off zones in each of the c-holes to assess the hydraulic conductivity and transport structure in a crude tomographic fashion. An equivalent discontinuum model conditioned with the observed hydraulic measurements will be applied to interpret the hydraulic test responses. As an approach to the scale problem the tests will be designed and analyzed to examine the hypothesis that the flow system may be represented by fractal geometry. 12 refs., 4 figs

  7. The dual specificity PI3K/mTOR inhibitor PKI-587 displays efficacy against T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gazi, Mohiuddin; Moharram, Sausan A; Marhäll, Alissa; Kazi, Julhash U

    2017-04-28

    Although significant improvements have been made in the treatment of acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL), there is a substantial subset of high-risk T-cell ALL (T-ALL) patients with relatively poor prognosis. Like in other leukemia types, alterations of the PI3K/mTOR pathway are predominant in ALL which is also responsible for treatment failure and relapse. In this study, we show that relapsed T-ALL patients display an enrichment of the PI3K/mTOR pathway. Using a panel of inhibitors targeting multiple components of the PI3K/mTOR pathway, we observed that the dual-specific PI3K/mTOR inhibitor PKI-587 was the most selective inhibitor for T-ALL cells dependent on the PI3K/mTOR pathway. Furthermore, we observed that PKI-587 blocked proliferation and colony formation of T-ALL cell lines. Additionally, PKI-587 selectively abrogated PI3K/mTOR signaling without affecting MAPK signaling both in in vitro and in vivo. Inhibition of the PI3K/mTOR pathway using PKI-587 delayed tumor progression, reduced tumor load and enhanced the survival rate in immune-deficient mouse xenograft models without inducing weight loss in the inhibitor treated mice. This preclinical study shows beneficial effects of PKI-587 on T-ALL that warrants further investigation in the clinical setting. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Waste fatty acid addition to black liquor to decrease tall oil soap solubility and increase skimming efficiency in kraft mills pulping mountain pine beetle-infested wood

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uloth, V.; Guy, E. [FPInnovations, Prince George, BC (Canada). PAPRICAN Div.; Shewchuk, D. [Cariboo Pulp and Paper, Quesnel, BC (Canada); Van Heek, R. [Aker Kvaerner, Vancouver, BC (Canada)

    2009-07-01

    This paper presented the results of tests conducted to determine if the addition of waste fatty acids from vegetable oil processing might decrease tall oil soap solubility in pine-beetle impacted wood from British Columbia (BC). The soap recovery and tall oil production at BC mills has fallen by 30 to 40 percent in recent years due to the pulping of high proportions of grey-stage beetle-impacted wood. Full-scale mill tests were conducted over a 4-day period. The study showed that the addition of tall oil fatty acids or waste fatty acids from vegetable oil processing could decrease tall oil soap solubility and increase the soup skimming efficiency in mills pulping a large percentage of grey stage beetle-infested wood. The addition of fatty acids increased tall oil soap skimming efficiency from 50.2 percent in the baseline tests to 71.8 percent based on the total soap available, and from 76.7 percent in the baseline tests to 87.5 percent based on insoluble soap only. The economic analyses indicated that waste fatty acid addition could be economical when natural gas and oil prices are high. 4 tabs., 9 figs.

  9. Synergistic Cytotoxic Effect of L-Asparaginase Combined with Decitabine as a Demethylating Agent in Pediatric T-ALL, with Specific Epigenetic Signature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salvatore Serravalle

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available T-Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia (T-ALL remains a subgroup of pediatric ALL, with a lower response to standard chemotherapy. Some recent studies established the fundamental role of epigenetic aberrations such as DNA hypermethylation, to influence patients’ outcome and response to chemotherapy. Moreover, L-asparaginase is an important chemotherapeutic agent for treatment of ALL and resistance to this drug has been linked to ASNS expression, which can be silenced through methylation. Therefore, we tested whether the sensitivity of T-ALL cell lines towards L-asparaginase is correlated to the epigenetic status of ASNS gene and whether the sensitivity can be modified by concurrent demethylating treatment. Hence we treated different T-ALL cell lines with L-asparaginase and correlated different responses to the treatment with ASNS expression. Then we demonstrated that the ASNS expression was dependent on the methylation status of the promoter. Finally we showed that, despite the demethylating effect on the ASNS gene expression, the combined treatment with the demethylating agent Decitabine could synergistically improve the L-asparaginase sensitivity in those T-ALL cell lines characterized by hypermethylation of the ASNS gene. In conclusion, this preclinical study identified an unexpected synergistic activity of L-asparaginase and Decitabine in the subgroup of T-ALL with low ASNS expression due to hypermethylation of the ASNS promoter, while it did not restore sensitivity in the resistant cell lines characterized by higher ASNS expression.

  10. Defining an appropriate leucoreduction strategy by serial assessment of cytokine levels in platelet concentrates prepared by different methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daljit Kaur

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Different methods of platelet concentrate preparations leave behind certain number of residual leukocytes, accounting for most of the febrile nonhemolytic transfusion reactions, especially in multitransfused patients. Various inflammatory cytokines, such as tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α, interleukin-1β (IL-1β, and IL-6 are generated during storage and have been implicated for these adverse effects. We have studied the levels of these cytokines and their correlation with leucocyte contents in platelet concentrates prepared by three different methods. Study Design and Methods: Five pools of platelet rich plasma platelet concentrates (PRP-PC and buffy-coat platelet concentrates (BC-PC each were prepared and divided into two halves. One half of the pool was leucofiltered (LF, whereas the other half was stored as such. Ten apheresis units were also included in the study. All the platelet concentrates were assessed for leucocyte load and cytokine content (IL-1β, IL-6, and TNF-α on different days of storage (0, 3, and 5 using Nageotte chamber and commercially available immunoassays respectively. Results: There was a statistically significant rise in cytokine levels (IL-1β, IL-6, and TNF-α in nonleucofiltered (NLF random donor platelet concentrates (RDPs (PRP-PC and BC-PC during storage (day 3 and 5 whereas LF RDP concentrates (PRP-PC and BC-PC and apheresis platelet concentrates (AP-PC did not show any significant rise in cytokine levels (on day 3 and 5 over the baseline values at day 0. Conclusion: This data suggests that although AP-PCs are superior to PRP-PC (NLF and BC-PC (NLF in terms of in vitro quality control parameters and cytokine generation during storage, BC-PC mode of platelet preparation followed by leucofiltration is the best method to store platelets and minimise the cytokine accumulation. This strategy is best suited for transfusion in multitransfused hematooncologic patients, who cannot afford

  11. Skin sensitisation: the Colipa strategy for developing and evaluating non-animal test methods for risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maxwell, Gavin; Aeby, Pierre; Ashikaga, Takao; Bessou-Touya, Sandrine; Diembeck, Walter; Gerberick, Frank; Kern, Petra; Marrec-Fairley, Monique; Ovigne, Jean-Marc; Sakaguchi, Hitoshi; Schroeder, Klaus; Tailhardat, Magali; Teissier, Silvia; Winkler, Petra

    2011-01-01

    Allergic contact dermatitis is a delayed-type hypersensitivity reaction induced by small reactive chemicals (haptens). Currently, the sensitising potential and potency of new chemicals is usually characterised using data generated via animal studies, such as the local lymph node assay (LLNA). There are, however, increasing public and political concerns regarding the use of animals for the testing of new chemicals. Consequently, the development of in vitro, in chemico or in silico models for predicting the sensitising potential and/or potency of new chemicals is receiving widespread interest. The Colipa Skin Tolerance task force currently collaborates with and/or funds several academic research groups to expand our understanding of the molecular and cellular events occurring during the acquisition of skin sensitisation. Knowledge gained from this research is being used to support the development and evaluation of novel alternative approaches for the identification and characterisation of skin sensitizing chemicals. At present three non-animal test methods (Direct Peptide Reactivity Assay (DPRA), Myeloid U937 Skin Sensitisation Test (MUSST) and human Cell Line Activation Test (hCLAT)) have been evaluated in Colipa interlaboratory ring trials for their potential to predict skin sensitisation potential and were recently submitted to ECVAM for formal pre-validation. Data from all three test methods will now be used to support the study and development of testing strategy approaches for skin sensitiser potency prediction. This publication represents the current viewpoint of the cosmetics industry on the feasibility of replacing the need for animal test data for informing skin sensitisation risk assessment decisions.

  12. Tall towers for large wind turbines. Report from Vindforsk project V-342

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Engstroem, Staffan; Lyrner, Tomas; Hassanzadeh, Manouchehr; Stalin, Thomas; Johansson, John

    2010-07-15

    The general rule of thumb has been to furnish a wind turbine with a tower as tall as the turbine diameter, with deviations downwards for high wind speed sites. In this report the statement is questioned, with special emphasis for wind turbines sited in forests. The aim of this project was to propose and calculate candidate types of tall towers for on-shore wind turbines in the 3 - 5 MW range, with special reference to siting in forests with a representative wind shear. During the project this scope has been more precisely defined to study 3 and 5 MW wind turbines with hub heights of 80 - 175 meters featuring the following tower solutions: 1. Steel shell tower designed in a conventional way with flanges and both longitudinal and transverse welds. 2. Steel shell tower with bolted friction joints only. 3. Concrete tower with pretensioned steel tendons. 4. Hybrid tower with a lower concrete part and an upper part built as a conventional steel shell. 5. Lattice tower. 6. Wooden tower. During the execution of the project the design of a total of 42 towers was outlined and calculated. Today the welded steel shell tower dominates the wind turbine market. Larger turbines and higher hub heights result in larger optimal tower base diameters. For the road transportation there are limitations due to bridges and other obstacles. In Sweden the limit for transports with special permits in general maximizes the diameter to 4,5 metres. To some extent it is still technically possible to build towers with a less than optimal diameter, but due to the high mass and the large wall thickness they tend to be uneconomical in comparison with other alternatives above a hub height of roughly 100 metres. In this report welded steel shell towers were outlined for 3 MW turbines up to a hub height of 150 metres whereas the limit for the 5 MW towers was 100 metres. When diameter restrictions tend to make welded towers uneconomical, the next logical choice is steel shell towers with bolted friction

  13. The Effect of Instructional Strategies on Math Anxiety and Achievement: A Mixed Methods Study of Preservice Elementary Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenzen, Janelle K.

    2017-01-01

    This study addressed how different instructional strategies affected preservice elementary teachers' levels of math anxiety and their achievement in a math content course while considering descriptions of their experiences in the course in relation to their math anxiety and achievement. The instructional strategies used were traditional teaching…

  14. Genomic and metabolic characterisation of alkaloid biosynthesis by asexual Epichloë fungal endophytes of tall fescue pasture grasses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekanayake, Piyumi N; Kaur, Jatinder; Tian, Pei; Rochfort, Simone J; Guthridge, Kathryn M; Sawbridge, Timothy I; Spangenberg, German C; Forster, John W

    2017-06-01

    Symbiotic associations between tall fescue grasses and asexual Epichloë fungal endophytes exhibit biosynthesis of alkaloid compounds causing both beneficial and detrimental effects. Candidate novel endophytes with favourable chemotypic profiles have been identified in germplasm collections by screening for genetic diversity, followed by metabolite profile analysis in endogenous genetic backgrounds. A subset of candidates was subjected to genome survey sequencing to detect the presence or absence and structural status of known genes for biosynthesis of the major alkaloid classes. The capacity to produce specific metabolites was directly predictable from metabolic data. In addition, study of duplicated gene structure in heteroploid genomic constitutions provided further evidence for the origin of such endophytes. Selected strains were inoculated into meristem-derived callus cultures from specific tall fescue genotypes to perform isogenic comparisons of alkaloid profile in different host backgrounds, revealing evidence for host-specific quantitative control of metabolite production, consistent with previous studies. Certain strains were capable of both inoculation and formation of longer-term associations with a nonhost species, perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.). Discovery and primary characterisation of novel endophytes by DNA analysis, followed by confirmatory metabolic studies, offers improvements of speed and efficiency and hence accelerated deployment in pasture grass improvement programs.

  15. Water transport through tall trees: A vertically-explicit, analytical model of xylem hydraulic conductance in stems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Couvreur, Valentin; Ledder, Glenn; Manzoni, Stefano; Way, Danielle A; Muller, Erik B; Russo, Sabrina E

    2018-05-08

    Trees grow by vertically extending their stems, so accurate stem hydraulic models are fundamental to understanding the hydraulic challenges faced by tall trees. Using a literature survey, we showed that many tree species exhibit continuous vertical variation in hydraulic traits. To examine the effects of this variation on hydraulic function, we developed a spatially-explicit, analytical water transport model for stems. Our model allows Huber ratio, stem-saturated conductivity, pressure at 50% loss of conductivity, leaf area, and transpiration rate to vary continuously along the hydraulic path. Predictions from our model differ from a matric flux potential model parameterized with uniform traits. Analyses show that cavitation is a whole-stem emergent property resulting from nonlinear pressure-conductivity feedbacks that, with gravity, cause impaired water transport to accumulate along the path. Because of the compounding effects of vertical trait variation on hydraulic function, growing proportionally more sapwood and building tapered xylem with height, as well as reducing xylem vulnerability only at branch tips while maintaining transport capacity at the stem base, can compensate for these effects. We therefore conclude that the adaptive significance of vertical variation in stem hydraulic traits is to allow trees to grow tall and tolerate operating near their hydraulic limits. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  16. Physical and biological responses to an alternative removal strategy of a moderate-sized dam in Washington, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shannon Claeson; B. Coffin

    2015-01-01

    Dam removal is an increasingly practised river restoration technique, and ecological responses vary with watershed, dam and reservoir properties, and removal strategies. Moderate-sized dams, like Hemlock Dam (7.9m tall and 56m wide), are large enough that removal effects could be significant, but small enough that mitigation may be possible through a modified dam...

  17. Analytical strategies for phosphoproteomics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thingholm, Tine E; Jensen, Ole N; Larsen, Martin R

    2009-01-01

    sensitive and specific strategies. Today, most phosphoproteomic studies are conducted by mass spectrometric strategies in combination with phospho-specific enrichment methods. This review presents an overview of different analytical strategies for the characterization of phosphoproteins. Emphasis...

  18. An efficient strategy based on an individualized selection of registration methods. Application to the coregistration of MR and SPECT images in neuro-oncology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tacchella, Jean-Marc; Lefort, Muriel; Habert, Marie-Odile; Yeni, Nathanaëlle; Kas, Aurélie; Frouin, Frédérique; Roullot, Elodie; Cohen, Mike-Ely; Guillevin, Rémy; Petrirena, Grégorio; Delattre, Jean-Yves

    2014-01-01

    An efficient registration strategy is described that aims to help solve delicate medical imaging registration problems. It consists of running several registration methods for each dataset and selecting the best one for each specific dataset, according to an evaluation criterion. Finally, the quality of the registration results, obtained with the best method, is visually scored by an expert as excellent, correct or poor. The strategy was applied to coregister Technetium-99m Sestamibi SPECT and MRI data in the framework of a follow-up protocol in patients with high grade gliomas receiving antiangiogenic therapy. To adapt the strategy to this clinical context, a robust semi-automatic evaluation criterion based on the physiological uptake of the Sestamibi tracer was defined. A panel of eighteen multimodal registration algorithms issued from BrainVisa, SPM or AIR software environments was systematically applied to the clinical database composed of sixty-two datasets. According to the expert visual validation, this new strategy provides 85% excellent registrations, 12% correct ones and only 3% poor ones. These results compare favorably to the ones obtained by the globally most efficient registration method over the whole database, for which only 61% of excellent registration results have been reported. Thus the registration strategy in its current implementation proves to be suitable for clinical application. (paper)

  19. Pricing methods and strategies in the cruise line industry : A case study on Carnival Corporation's premium and luxury brands

    OpenAIRE

    Bengtsson, Ruby

    2014-01-01

    This research paper investigates the factors affecting pricing strategies and models within the cruise line industry. The kind of pricing models that can contribute to the development of pricing strategies and processes within the industry is also being investigated. The first and the latter are both this research’ purposes and are important topic for both academic and managerial perspective. The paper uses Carnival Corporation’s two distinct brands, the premium Holland America Line and the u...

  20. Design of a testing strategy using non-animal based test methods: lessons learnt from the ACuteTox project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopp-Schneider, Annette; Prieto, Pilar; Kinsner-Ovaskainen, Agnieszka; Stanzel, Sven

    2013-06-01

    In the framework of toxicology, a testing strategy can be viewed as a series of steps which are taken to come to a final prediction about a characteristic of a compound under study. The testing strategy is performed as a single-step procedure, usually called a test battery, using simultaneously all information collected on different endpoints, or as tiered approach in which a decision tree is followed. Design of a testing strategy involves statistical considerations, such as the development of a statistical prediction model. During the EU FP6 ACuteTox project, several prediction models were proposed on the basis of statistical classification algorithms which we illustrate here. The final choice of testing strategies was not based on statistical considerations alone. However, without thorough statistical evaluations a testing strategy cannot be identified. We present here a number of observations made from the statistical viewpoint which relate to the development of testing strategies. The points we make were derived from problems we had to deal with during the evaluation of this large research project. A central issue during the development of a prediction model is the danger of overfitting. Procedures are presented to deal with this challenge. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Development and testing of an implementation strategy for a complex housing intervention: protocol for a mixed methods study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Dennis P; Young, Jeani; Ahonen, Emily; Xu, Huiping; Henderson, Macey; Shuman, Valery; Tolliver, Randi

    2014-10-17

    There is currently a lack of scientifically designed and tested implementation strategies. Such strategies are particularly important for highly complex interventions that require coordination between multiple parts to be successful. This paper presents a protocol for the development and testing of an implementation strategy for a complex intervention known as the Housing First model (HFM). Housing First is an evidence-based practice for chronically homeless individuals demonstrated to significantly improve a number of outcomes. Drawing on practices demonstrated to be useful in implementation and e-learning theory, our team is currently adapting a face-to-face implementation strategy so that it can be delivered over a distance. Research activities will be divided between Chicago and Central Indiana, two areas with significantly different barriers to HFM implementation. Ten housing providers (five from Chicago and five from Indiana) will be recruited to conduct an alpha test of each of four e-learning modules as they are developed. Providers will be requested to keep a detailed log of their experience completing the modules and participate in one of two focus groups. After refining the modules based on alpha test results, we will test the strategy among a sample of four housing organizations (two from Chicago and two from Indiana). We will collect and analyze both qualitative and quantitative data from administration and staff. Measures of interest include causal factors affecting implementation, training outcomes, and implementation outcomes. This project is an important first step in the development of an evidence-based implementation strategy to increase scalability and impact of the HFM. The project also has strong potential to increase limited scientific knowledge regarding implementation strategies in general.

  2. Safety strategy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schultheiss, G.F.

    1980-01-01

    The basis for safety strategy in nuclear industry and especially nuclear power plants is the prevention of radioactivity release inside or outside of the technical installation. Therefore either technical or administrative measures are combined to a general strategy concept. This introduction will explain in more detail the following topics: - basic principles of safety - lines of assurance (LOA) - defense in depth - deterministic and probabilistic methods. This presentation is seen as an introduction to the more detailed discussion following in this course, nevertheless some selected examples will be used to illustrate the aspects of safety strategy development although they might be repeated later on. (orig.)

  3. A strategy to the development of a human error analysis method for accident management in nuclear power plants using industrial accident dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Yong Hee; Kim, Jae Whan; Jung, Won Dae; Ha, Jae Ju

    1998-06-01

    This technical report describes the early progress of he establishment of a human error analysis method as a part of a human reliability analysis(HRA) method for the assessment of the human error potential in a given accident management strategy. At first, we review the shortages and limitations of the existing HRA methods through an example application. In order to enhance the bias to the quantitative aspect of the HRA method, we focused to the qualitative aspect, i.e., human error analysis(HEA), during the proposition of a strategy to the new method. For the establishment of a new HEA method, we discuss the basic theories and approaches to the human error in industry, and propose three basic requirements that should be maintained as pre-requisites for HEA method in practice. Finally, we test IAD(Industrial Accident Dynamics) which has been widely utilized in industrial fields, in order to know whether IAD can be so easily modified and extended to the nuclear power plant applications. We try to apply IAD to the same example case and develop new taxonomy of the performance shaping factors in accident management and their influence matrix, which could enhance the IAD method as an HEA method. (author). 33 refs., 17 tabs., 20 figs

  4. GC-MS quantification of suspected volatile allergens in fragrances. 2. Data treatment strategies and method performances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bassereau, Maud; Chaintreau, Alain; Duperrex, Stéphanie; Joulain, Daniel; Leijs, Hans; Loesing, Gerd; Owen, Neil; Sherlock, Alan; Schippa, Christine; Thorel, Pierre-Jean; Vey, Matthias

    2007-01-10

    The performances of the GC-MS determination of suspected allergens in fragrance concentrates have been investigated. The limit of quantification was experimentally determined (10 mg/L), and the variability was investigated for three different data treatment strategies: (1) two columns and three quantification ions; (2) two columns and one quantification ion; and (3) one column and three quantification ions. The first strategy best minimizes the risk of determination bias due to coelutions. This risk was evaluated by calculating the probability of coeluting a suspected allergen with perfume constituents exhibiting ions in common. For hydroxycitronellal, when using a two-column strategy, this may statistically occur more than once every 36 analyses for one ion or once every 144 analyses for three ions in common.

  5. Ranking the strategies for Indian medical tourism sector through the integration of SWOT analysis and TOPSIS method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajmera, Puneeta

    2017-10-09

    Purpose Organizations have to evaluate their internal and external environments in this highly competitive world. Strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats (SWOT) analysis is a very useful technique which analyzes the strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats of an organization for taking strategic decisions and it also provides a foundation for the formulation of strategies. But the drawback of SWOT analysis is that it does not quantify the importance of individual factors affecting the organization and the individual factors are described in brief without weighing them. Because of this reason, SWOT analysis can be integrated with any multiple attribute decision-making (MADM) technique like the technique for order preference by similarity to ideal solution (TOPSIS), analytical hierarchy process, etc., to evaluate the best alternative among the available strategic alternatives. The paper aims to discuss these issues. Design/methodology/approach In this study, SWOT analysis is integrated with a multicriteria decision-making technique called TOPSIS to rank different strategies for Indian medical tourism in order of priority. Findings SO strategy (providing best facilitation and care to the medical tourists at par to developed countries) is the best strategy which matches with the four elements of S, W, O and T of SWOT matrix and 35 strategic indicators. Practical implications This paper proposes a solution based on a combined SWOT analysis and TOPSIS approach to help the organizations to evaluate and select strategies. Originality/value Creating a new technology or administering a new strategy always has some degree of resistance by employees. To minimize resistance, the author has used TOPSIS as it involves group thinking, requiring every manager of the organization to analyze and evaluate different alternatives and average measure of each parameter in final decision matrix.

  6. An innovative cross-sectoral method for implementation of trade-off adaptation strategy assessment under climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsao, Jung-Hsuan; Tung, Ching-Pin; Liu, Tzu-Ming

    2014-05-01

    Climate change will increase sharp risks to the water and food supply in coming decades. Although impact assessment and adaptation evaluation has been discussed a lot in recent years, the importance of adaptation implement should not be ignored. In Taiwan, and elsewhere, fallow is an option of adaptation strategy under climate change. Fallow would improve the water scarcity of domestic use, but the food security might be threatened. The trade-off effects of adaptation actions are just like the side effects of medicine which cannot be avoided. Thus, managing water resources with an integrated approach will be urgent. This study aims to establish a cross-sectoral framework for implementation the trade-off adaptation strategy. Not only fallow, but also other trade-off strategy like increasing the percentage of national grain self-sufficiency would be analyzed by a rational decision process. The recent percentage of grain self-sufficiency in Taiwan is around 32, which was decreasing from 53 thirty years ago. Yet, the goal of increasing grain self-sufficiency means much more water must be used in agriculture. In that way, domestic users may face the water shortage situation. Considering the conflicts between water supply and food security, the concepts from integrative negotiation are appropriate to apply. The implementation of trade-off adaptation strategies needs to start by quantifying the utility of water supply and food security were be quantified. Next, each side's bottom line can be found by BATNA (Best Alternative to a Negotiated Agreement) and ZOPA (Zone of Possible Agreement). ZOPA provides the entire possible outcomes, and BATNA ensures the efficiency of adaptation actions by moving along with Pareto frontier. Therefore, the optimal percentage of fallow and grain self-sufficiency can be determined. Furthermore, BATNA also provides the pathway step by step which can be a guideline of adaptation strategies. This framework allows analysts and stakeholder to

  7. Investigating bang for your training buck: a randomized controlled trial comparing three methods of training clinicians in two core strategies of dialectical behavior therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimeff, Linda A; Harned, Melanie S; Woodcock, Eric A; Skutch, Julie M; Koerner, Kelly; Linehan, Marsha M

    2015-05-01

    The present study examined the efficacy of online training (OLT), instructor-led training (ILT), and a treatment manual (TM) in training mental health clinicians in two core strategies of Dialectical Behavior Therapy (DBT): chain analysis and validation. A randomized controlled trial compared OLT, ILT, and TM among clinicians naïve to DBT (N=172) who were assessed at baseline, post-training, and 30, 60, and 90 days following training. Primary outcomes included satisfaction, self-efficacy, motivation, knowledge, clinical proficiency, and clinical use. Overall, ILT outperformed OLT and TM in satisfaction, self-efficacy, and motivation, whereas OLT was the most effective method for increasing knowledge. The conditions did not differ in observer-rated clinical proficiency or self-reported clinical use, which both increased to moderate levels after training. In addition, ILT was particularly effective at improving motivation to use chain analysis, whereas OLT was particularly effective at increasing knowledge of validation strategies. These findings suggest that these types of brief, didactic trainings may be effective methods of increasing knowledge of new treatment strategies, but may not be sufficient to enable clinicians to achieve a high level of clinical use or proficiency. Additional research examining the possible advantages of matching training methods to types of treatment strategies may help to determine a tailored, more effective approach to training clinicians in empirically supported treatments. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  8. Measurements of greenhouse gases and related tracers at Bialystok tall tower station in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. E. Popa

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Quasi-continuous, in-situ measurements of atmospheric CO2, O2/N2, CH4, CO, N2O, and SF6 have been performed since August 2005 at the tall tower station near Bialystok, in Eastern Poland, from five heights up to 300 m. Besides the in-situ measurements, flask samples are filled approximately weekly and measured at Max-Planck Institute for Biogeochemistry for the same species and, in addition, for H2, Ar/N2 and the stable isotopes 13C and 18O in CO2. The in-situ measurement system was built based on commercially available analysers: a LiCor 7000 for CO2, a Sable Systems "Oxzilla" FC-2 for O2, and an Agilent 6890 gas chromatograph for CH4, CO, N2O and SF6. The system was optimized to run continuously with very little maintenance and to fulfill the precision requirements of the CHIOTTO project. The O2/N2 measurements in particular required special attention in terms of technical setup and quality assurance. The evaluation of the performance after more than three years of operation gave overall satisfactory results, proving that this setup is suitable for long term remote operation with little maintenance. The precision achieved for all species is within or close to the project requirements. The comparison between the in-situ and flask sample results, used to verify the accuracy of the in-situ measurements, showed no significant difference for CO2, O2/N2, CH4 and N2O, and a very small difference for SF6. The same comparison however revealed a statistically significant difference for CO, of about 6.5 ppb, for which the cause could not be fully explained.

    From more than three years of data, the main features at Bialystok have been characterized in terms of variability, trends, and

  9. Seasonal development of ozone-induced foliar injury on tall milkweed (Asclepias exaltata) in Great Smoky Mountains National Park.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza, Lara; Neufeld, Howard S; Chappelka, Arthur H; Burkey, Kent O; Davison, Alan W

    2006-05-01

    The goals of this study were to document the development of ozone-induced foliar injury, on a leaf-by-leaf basis, and to develop ozone exposure relationships for leaf cohorts and individual tall milkweeds (Asclepias exaltata L.) in Great Smoky Mountains National Park. Plants were classified as either ozone-sensitive or insensitive based on the amount of foliar injury. Sensitive plants developed injury earlier in the season and to a greater extent than insensitive plants. Older leaf cohorts were more likely to belong to high injury classes by the end of each of the two growing seasons. In addition, leaf loss was more likely for older cohorts (2000) and lower leaf positions (2001) than younger cohorts and upper leaves, respectively. Most leaves abscised without prior ozone-like stippling or chlorosis. Failure to take this into account can result in underestimation of the effects of ozone on these plants.

  10. Wind potential data analysis based on on-site measurements with tall meteorological masts installed in northern Bulgaria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Terziev, A.; Genovski, I.; Petrov, P.; Valchev, V.

    2010-01-01

    The current work has studied the possibility of correlation between wind data collected with tall meteorological masts in Northern Bulgaria. The processed data were collected for the same time period. The analysis is based on daily wind data. The correlation was made taking into consideration the following factors: the height of carried wind measurements, the prevailing wind direction, and the surface roughness of the relief. The analysis of the distance effect between meteorological masts is also considered. The possibility of modeling the wind velocity field for the area limited by the meteorological mast locations is examined. For this purpose for wind speed velocity field description is used triangulation with linear interpolation between the data. Data interpolation was made based on compulsory condition for relative flatness of the terrain. (authors)

  11. Impact of tall cell variant histology on predicting relapse and changing the management of papillary thyroid carcinoma patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunalp, Bengul; Okuyucu, Kursat; Ince, Semra; Ayan, Aslı; Alagoz, Engin

    2017-01-01

    There has been much discussion recently about the risk category of tall cell variant (TVC) histology and its effects on the management of papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC). We, therefore, undertook a retrospective study to compare stage-matched risk factors and recurrence rates between classical PTC (cPTC) patients and patients with TCV histology. A total of 3128 well-differentiated thyroid carcinoma patients who were treated and followed-up for more than 5 years in our clinic from 1995 to 2016 were included in this study. There were 2783 PTC (89%) patients, 1113 (40%) of them were cPTC and 56 (2%) of them were TCV patients. In all stages, the stage-matched incidence of extrathyroidal extension (ETE), lymphovascular invasion and initial lymph node metastases were significantly higher in TCV patients than in cPTC patients (Papproach and closer follow-up than classical patients.

  12. When growing tall is not an option : contrasting shade avoidance responses in two wild Geranium species

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gommers, C.M.M.

    2016-01-01

    Plants can deal with shade in different ways. Sun-adapted species express a set of growth traits to reach for light; the so-called shade avoidance syndrome (SAS). However, shade-tolerant species from the forest understory are not able to outgrow surrounding trees and adopt a tolerance strategy

  13. Utilization of tall goldenrod by the tarnished plant bug (Hemiptera: Miridae) in the production of overwintering adults and as a possible winter food source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarnished plant bug, Lygus lineolaris (Palisot de Beauvois), nymphs and adults were collected from tall goldenrod, Solidago canadensis L. var. scabra Torr. and Gray, in Washington County, MS during October and November 2008 and 2009. Adults were dissected to determine their reproductive status in o...

  14. Influence of harvest managements on biomass nutrient concentrations and removal rates of festulolium and tall fescue from a poorly drained nutrient-rich fen peatland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kandel, Tanka; Elsgaard, Lars; Lærke, Poul Erik

    2017-01-01

    This study was designed to show the effects of harvest time and frequency on biomass nutrient concentrations (total ash, N, P, K, Ca, Mg, Fe, Mn, Cu and Zn) as well as total nutrient removal potential by festulolium and tall fescue cultivated on a nutrient-rich fen peatland. The harvest managemen...

  15. The Physiological, Morphological and Bio-Chemical Comparison of the Current Grass Shiraz City’s Green Space withTall Fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Zadehbagheri

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available One of the main problems of Shiraz city’s green space is the change of color and visual quality of turf during cold months. Therefore, we aimed to evaluate tall fescue in order to find if it is suitable for replacement. This experiment was in the form of complete random blocks and it was done during two consecutive years. Each treatment had 4 repetitions. Data were analyzed using SPSS software, version 16.0, and the means were compared using t or LSD tests at a significance level of 5%. The results showed that tall fescue was superior to normal sport grass in cold months with respect to its chlorophyll, catalase, protein, prolin, and soluble sugar content, as well as its visual quality and root depth. Prolin fluctuations in tall fescue were very high which showed that these types of grass can increase the plant’s prolin content under stress. Therefore, there is a fivefold increase in the prolin content of the grass in cold months (cold tension compared to the beginning of spring (best condition for growth. However, this change does not exist in sport grass. Based on the obtained results we can conclude that tall fescue can resist environmental tension, especially coldness, using different mechanisms, and is a good substitute for normal sport grass.

  16. Acute exposure to ergot alkaloids from endophyte-infected tall fescue does not alter absorptive or barrier function of the isolated ruminal epithelium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ergot alkaloids in endophyte-infected (Neotyphodium coenophialum) tall fescue (Lolium arundinaceum) have been shown to cause a reduction in blood flow to the rumen epithelium as well as a decrease in VFA absorption from the washed rumen of steers. Previous data also indicates that incubating an extr...

  17. Isolation of Burkholderia cepacia JB12 from lead- and cadmium-contaminated soil and its potential in promoting phytoremediation with tall fescue and red clover.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Zhong Min; Sha, Wei; Zhang, Yan Fu; Zhao, Jing; Ji, Hongyang

    2013-07-01

    Phytoremediation combined with suitable microorganisms and biodegradable chelating agents can be a means of reclaiming lands contaminated by toxic heavy metals. We investigated the ability of a lead- and cadmium-resistant bacterial strain (JB12) and the biodegradable chelator ethylenediamine-N,N'-disuccinic acid (EDDS) to improve absorption of these metals from soil by tall fescue and red clover. Strain JB12 was isolated from contaminated soil samples, analysed for lead and cadmium resistance, and identified as Burkholderia cepacia. Tall fescue and red clover were grown in pots to which we added JB12, (S,S)-EDDS, combined JB12 and EDDS, or water only. Compared with untreated plants, the biomass of plants treated with JB12 was significantly increased. Concentrations of lead and cadmium in JB12-treated plants increased significantly, with few exceptions. Plants treated with EDDS responded variably, but in those treated with combined EDDS and JB12, heavy metal concentrations increased significantly in tall fescue and in the aboveground parts of red clover. We conclude that JB12 is resistant to lead and cadmium. Its application to the soil improved the net uptake of these heavy metals by experimental plants. The potential for viable phytoremediation of lead- and cadmium-polluted soils with tall fescue and red clover combined with JB12 was further enhanced by the addition of EDDS.

  18. How planting configuration influences plant secondary metabolites and total N in tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb.), alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) and birdsfoot trefoil (Lotus corniculatus L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theories suggest that incorporating alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.; Alf) or birdsfoot trefoil (Lotus corniculatus L.; BFT) into endophyte-infected tall fescue (Festuca arundinaceas Schreb.; E+TF) pasturelands may improve livestock production. We investigated how planting configuration might influence p...

  19. Looking back in time: conducting a cohort study of the long-term effects of treatment of adolescent tall girls with synthetic hormones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruinsma Fiona J

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective Public health research is an endeavour that often involves multiple relationships, far-reaching collaborations, divergent expectations and various outcomes. Using the Tall Girls Study as a case study, this paper will present and discuss a number of methodological, ethical and legal challenges that have implications for other public health research. Approach The Tall Girls Study was the first study to examine the long-term health and psychosocial effects of oestrogen treatment for tall stature. Results In undertaking this study the research team overcame many hurdles: in maintaining collaboration with treating clinicians and with the women they had treated as girls - groups with opposing points of view and different expectations; using private practice medical records to trace women who had been patients up to forty years earlier; and exploring potential legal issues arising from the collection of data related to treatment. Conclusion While faced with complex challenges, the Tall Girls Study demonstrated that forward planning, ongoing dialogue between all stakeholders, transparency of processes, and the strict adherence to group-developed protocols were keys to maintaining rigour while undertaking pragmatic research. Implications Public health research often occurs within political and social contexts that need to be considered in the planning and conduct of studies. The quality and acceptability of research findings is enhanced when stakeholders are engaged in all aspects of the research process.

  20. Antagonism of lateral saphenous vein serotonin receptors from steers grazing endophyte-free, wild-type, or novel endophyte-infected tall fescue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pharmacologic profiling of 5-hydroxytryptamine (5HT) receptors of bovine lateral saphenous vein has shown that cattle grazing endophyte-infected (Neotyphodium coenophialum) tall fescue (Lolium arundinaceum) have altered responses to ergovaline (ERV), 5HT, 5HT2A and 5HT7 agonists. To determine if 5HT...

  1. Removing traffic emissions from CO2 time series measured at a tall tower using mobile measurements and transport modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Andres; Rella, Chris W.; Göckede, Mathias; Hanson, Chad; Yang, Zhenlin; Law, Beverly E.

    2014-11-01

    In recent years, measurements of atmospheric carbon dioxide with high precision and accuracy have become increasingly important for climate change research, in particular to inform terrestrial biosphere models. Anthropogenic carbon dioxide emissions from fossil fuel burning have long been recognized to contribute a significant portion of the carbon dioxide in the atmosphere. Here, we present an approach to remove the traffic related carbon dioxide emissions from mole fractions measured at a tall tower by using the corresponding carbon monoxide measurements in combination with footprint analyses and transport modeling. This technique improves the suitability of the CO2 data to be used in inverse modeling approaches of atmosphere-biosphere exchange that do not account for non-biotic portions of CO2. In our study region in Oregon, road traffic emissions are the biggest source of anthropogenic carbon dioxide and carbon monoxide. A three-day mobile campaign covering 1700 km of roads in northwestern Oregon was performed during summer of 2012 using a laser-based Cavity Ring-Down Spectrometer. The mobile measurements incorporated different roads including main highways, urban streets, and back-roads, largely within the typical footprint of a tall CO/CO2 observation tower in Oregon's Willamette Valley. For the first time, traffic related CO:CO2 emission ratios were measured directly at the sources during an on-road campaign under a variety of different driving conditions. An average emission ratio of 7.43 (±1.80) ppb CO per ppm CO2 was obtained for the study region and applied to separate the traffic related portion of CO2 from the mole fraction time series. The road traffic related portion of the CO2 mole fractions measured at the tower site reached maximum values ranging from 9.8 to 12 ppm, depending on the height above the surface, during summer 2012.

  2. Conversion of tall oil soap and lignin into liquid fuels II; Suovan ja ligniinin jalostaminen polttonesteiksi II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oasmaa, A.; McKeough, P. [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland)

    1995-11-01

    The objective of the project was to evaluate the following upgrading processes for producing bio-oils for energy production: catalytic upgrading of kraft black liquor, thermal treatment of tall oil soap, and catalytic hydrotreatment of Milox-lignin. The best-quality product from black liquor was obtained by treating black liquor (20 % moisture) at 420 deg C with an ammoniumheptamolybdate (AHM) catalyst under hydrogen for 60 minutes.The product was washed with water (product:water = 1:2) in order to remove the inorganics. The oil product contained 74 % of the energy content of the black liquor organics. Regeneration of the AHM catalyst appears technically feasible. Raw tall oil soap cracks at 450 degr. C under nitrogen into straight-chain hydrocarbons and naphthalene and phenanthrene derivatives. The best-quality oil product was obtained at a residence time of 60 - 120 minutes. This product contained no fatty acids as impurities. The process concept consists of two steps: heat treatment at 450 degr. C and product separation. The energy yield of the hydrocarbon oil product is about 50 %. The residue slurry (estimated energy content 20 %) and gases (energy content 25 %) are led to the recovery boiler. Milox lignin can be hydrotreated at 420 deg C (60 minutes) with a mixture (1:1) of sulphided NiMo- and Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3}-catalysts to a high-quality oil product (42 wt% yield of hexane solubles). The activity of catalysts decreased in order: sulphided NiMo/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}:Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3} (1:1), sulphided NiMo/zeolite, NiMo/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, ATTM (no activity). A decrease in hydrogen partial pressure yielded a lower quality product. (author)

  3. Quality of life, coping strategies, social support and self-efficacy in women after acute myocardial infarction: a mixed methods approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuochi, G; Foà, C

    2018-03-01

    Quality of life, coping strategies, social support and self-efficacy are important psychosocial variables strongly affecting the experience of acute myocardial infarction (AMI) in women. To gain a more in-depth understanding of how coping strategies, self-efficacy, quality of life and social support shape women's adjustment to AMI. Mixed methods study. Quantitative data were collected through a standardised questionnaire on coping strategies, self-efficacy, quality of life and social support. Qualitative data stemmed from 57 semistructured interviews conducted with post-AMI female patients on related topics. Quantitative data were analysed with unpaired two-sample t-tests on the means, comparing women who experienced AMI (N = 77) with a control group of women who did not have AMI (N = 173), and pairwise correlations on the AMI sample. Qualitative data were grouped into coding families and analysed through thematic content analysis. Qualitative and quantitative results were then integrated, for different age groups. Quantitative results indicated statistically significant differences between women who experienced AMI and the control group: the former showed lower self-perceived health, perceived social support and social support coping, but greater self-efficacy, use of acceptance, avoidance and religious coping. Pairwise correlations showed that avoidance coping strategy was negatively correlated with quality of life, while the opposite was true for problem-oriented coping, perceived social support and self-efficacy. Qualitative results extended and confirmed quantitative results, except for coping strategies: avoidance coping seemed more present than reported in the standardised measures. Mixed methods provide understanding of the importance of social support, self-efficacy and less avoidant coping strategies to women's adjustment to AMI. Women need support from health professionals with knowledge of these topics, to facilitate their adaptation to AMI. © 2017

  4. Self-management toolkit and delivery strategy for end-of-life pain: the mixed-methods feasibility study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Michael I; Mulvey, Matthew R; Campling, Natasha; Latter, Sue; Richardson, Alison; Bekker, Hilary; Blenkinsopp, Alison; Carder, Paul; Closs, Jose; Farrin, Amanda; Flemming, Kate; Gallagher, Jean; Meads, David; Morley, Stephen; O'Dwyer, John; Wright-Hughes, Alexandra; Hartley, Suzanne

    2017-12-01

    Pain affects most people approaching the end of life and can be severe for some. Opioid analgesia is effective, but evidence is needed about how best to support patients in managing these medicines. To develop a self-management support toolkit (SMST) and delivery strategy and to test the feasibility of evaluating this intervention in a future definitive trial. Phase I - evidence synthesis and qualitative interviews with patients and carers. Phase II - qualitative semistructured focus groups and interviews with patients, carers and specialist palliative care health professionals. Phase III - multicentre mixed-methods single-arm pre-post observational feasibility study. Phase I - six patients and carers. Phase II - 15 patients, four carers and 19 professionals. Phase III - 19 patients recruited to intervention that experienced pain, living at home and were treated with strong opioid analgesia. Process evaluation interviews with 13 patients, seven carers and 11 study nurses. Self-Management of Analgesia and Related Treatments at the end of life (SMART) intervention comprising a SMST and a four-step educational delivery approach by clinical nurse specialists in palliative care over 6 weeks. Recruitment rate, treatment fidelity, treatment acceptability, patient-reported outcomes (such as scores on the Brief Pain Inventory, Self-Efficacy for Managing Chronic Disease Scale, Edmonton Symptom Assessment Scale, EuroQol-5 Dimensions, Satisfaction with Information about Medicines Scale, and feasibility of collecting data on health-care resource use for economic evaluation). Phase I - key themes on supported self-management were identified from evidence synthesis and qualitative interviews. Phase II - the SMST was developed and refined. The delivery approach was nested within a nurse-patient consultation. Phase III - intervention was delivered to 17 (89%) patients, follow-up data at 6 weeks were available on 15 patients. Overall, the intervention was viewed as acceptable and

  5. Prevalence of pathogenetic MC4R mutations in Italian children with early Onset obesity, tall stature and familial history of obesity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Crinò Antonino

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Melanocortin-4-receptor (MC4R mutations represent the most frequent genetic cause of non-syndromic early onset obesity. Children carrying MC4R mutations seem to show a particular phenotype characterized by early onset, severe obesity and high stature. To verify whether MC4R mutations are associated with this particular phenotype in the Italian pediatric population, we decided to screen the MC4R gene in a group of obese children selected on the basis of their phenotype. Methods To perform this study, a multicentric approach was designed. Particularly, to be enrolled in the study subjects needed to meet the following criteria: Body mass index ≥ 3 deviation scores according to age and sex, familiar history of obesity (at least one parent obese, obesity onset before the 10 years old, height ≥ 2 deviation scores. The coding region of MC4R gene was screened in 240 obese children (mean age 8.3 ± 3.1, mean BMI 30.8 ± 5.4 and in 200 controls (mean age 8.1 ± 2.8; mean BMI 14.2 ± 2.5. Results Three mutations have been found in five obese children. The S127L (C380T, found in three unrelated children, had been described and functionally characterized previously. The Q307X (C919T and the Y332H (T994C mutations were found in two patients. Functional studies showed that only Q307X impaired protein function. Conclusion The low prevalence of MC4R mutations (1.6% in this group of obese children selected according to the obesity degree, the tall stature and the family history of obesity was similar to the prevalence observed in previous screenings performed in obese adults and in not phenotypically selected obese children.

  6. Sphingosine-1-Phosphate Induces Dose-Dependent Chemotaxis or Fugetaxis of T-ALL Blasts through S1P1 Activation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messias, Carolina V.; Santana-Van-Vliet, Eliane; Lemos, Julia P.; Moreira, Otacilio C.; Cotta-de-Almeida, Vinicius; Savino, Wilson; Mendes-da-Cruz, Daniella Arêas

    2016-01-01

    Sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) is a bioactive sphingolipid involved in several physiological processes including cell migration and differentiation. S1P signaling is mediated through five G protein-coupled receptors (S1P1-S1P5). S1P1 is crucial to the exit of T-lymphocytes from the thymus and peripheral lymphoid organs through a gradient of S1P. We have previously observed that T-ALL and T-LBL blasts express S1P1. Herein we analyzed the role of S1P receptors in the migratory pattern of human T-cell neoplastic blasts. S1P-triggered cell migration was directly related to S1P1 expression. T-ALL blasts expressing low levels of S1P1 mRNA (HPB-ALL) did not migrate toward S1P, whereas those expressing higher levels of S1P1 (MOLT-4, JURKAT and CEM) did migrate. The S1P ligand induced T-ALL cells chemotaxis in concentrations up to 500 nM and induced fugetaxis in higher concentrations (1000–10000 nM) through interactions with S1P1. When S1P1 was specifically blocked by the W146 compound, S1P-induced migration at lower concentrations was reduced, whereas higher concentrations induced cell migration. Furthermore, we observed that S1P/S1P1 interactions induced ERK and AKT phosphorylation, and modulation of Rac1 activity. Responding T-ALL blasts also expressed S1P3 mRNA but blockage of this receptor did not modify migratory responses. Our results indicate that S1P is involved in the migration of T-ALL/LBL blasts, which is dependent on S1P1 expression. Moreover, S1P concentrations in the given microenvironment might induce dose-dependent chemotaxis or fugetaxis of T-ALL blasts. PMID:26824863

  7. Sphingosine-1-Phosphate Induces Dose-Dependent Chemotaxis or Fugetaxis of T-ALL Blasts through S1P1 Activation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina V Messias

    Full Text Available Sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P is a bioactive sphingolipid involved in several physiological processes including cell migration and differentiation. S1P signaling is mediated through five G protein-coupled receptors (S1P1-S1P5. S1P1 is crucial to the exit of T-lymphocytes from the thymus and peripheral lymphoid organs through a gradient of S1P. We have previously observed that T-ALL and T-LBL blasts express S1P1. Herein we analyzed the role of S1P receptors in the migratory pattern of human T-cell neoplastic blasts. S1P-triggered cell migration was directly related to S1P1 expression. T-ALL blasts expressing low levels of S1P1 mRNA (HPB-ALL did not migrate toward S1P, whereas those expressing higher levels of S1P1 (MOLT-4, JURKAT and CEM did migrate. The S1P ligand induced T-ALL cells chemotaxis in concentrations up to 500 nM and induced fugetaxis in higher concentrations (1000-10000 nM through interactions with S1P1. When S1P1 was specifically blocked by the W146 compound, S1P-induced migration at lower concentrations was reduced, whereas higher concentrations induced cell migration. Furthermore, we observed that S1P/S1P1 interactions induced ERK and AKT phosphorylation, and modulation of Rac1 activity. Responding T-ALL blasts also expressed S1P3 mRNA but blockage of this receptor did not modify migratory responses. Our results indicate that S1P is involved in the migration of T-ALL/LBL blasts, which is dependent on S1P1 expression. Moreover, S1P concentrations in the given microenvironment might induce dose-dependent chemotaxis or fugetaxis of T-ALL blasts.

  8. Life-Cycle Monitoring of Long-Span PSC Box Girder Bridges through Distributed Sensor Network: Strategies, Methods, and Applications

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Zheheng; Guo, Tong; Yan, Shengyou

    2015-01-01

    Structural health monitoring (SHM) has attracted much attention in recent years, which enables early warnings of structural failure, condition assessments, and rational maintenance/repair strategies. In the context of bridges, many long-span steel bridges in China have been installed with the SHM systems; however, the applications of the SHM in prestressed concrete (PSC) bridges are still rather limited. On the other hand, the PSC box girder bridges are extensively used in highway and railway...

  9. Development and Demonstration of a Method to Evaluate Bio-Sampling Strategies Using Building Simulation and Sample Planning Software

    OpenAIRE

    Dols, W. Stuart; Persily, Andrew K.; Morrow, Jayne B.; Matzke, Brett D.; Sego, Landon H.; Nuffer, Lisa L.; Pulsipher, Brent A.

    2010-01-01

    In an effort to validate and demonstrate response and recovery sampling approaches and technologies, the U.S. Department of Homeland Security (DHS), along with several other agencies, have simulated a biothreat agent release within a facility at Idaho National Laboratory (INL) on two separate occasions in the fall of 2007 and the fall of 2008. Because these events constitute only two realizations of many possible scenarios, increased understanding of sampling strategies can be obtained by vir...

  10. Development and beyond: Strategy for long-term maintenance of an online laser diffraction particle size method in a spray drying manufacturing process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medendorp, Joseph; Bric, John; Connelly, Greg; Tolton, Kelly; Warman, Martin

    2015-08-10

    The purpose of this manuscript is to present the intended use and long-term maintenance strategy of an online laser diffraction particle size method used for process control in a spray drying process. A Malvern Insitec was used for online particle size measurements and a Malvern Mastersizer was used for offline particle size measurements. The two methods were developed in parallel with the Mastersizer serving as the reference method. Despite extensive method development across a range of particle sizes, the two instruments demonstrated different sensitivities to material and process changes over the product lifecycle. This paper will describe the procedure used to ensure consistent alignment of the two methods, thus allowing for continued use of online real-time laser diffraction as a surrogate for the offline system over the product lifecycle. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Human resources for health strategies adopted by providers in resource-limited settings to sustain long-term delivery of ART: a mixed-methods study from Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakumumpa, Henry; Taiwo, Modupe Oladunni; Muganzi, Alex; Ssengooba, Freddie

    2016-10-19

    Human resources for health (HRH) constraints are a major barrier to the sustainability of antiretroviral therapy (ART) scale-up programs in Sub-Saharan Africa. Many prior approaches to HRH constraints have taken a top-down trend of generalized global strategies and policy guidelines. The objective of the study was to examine the human resources for health strategies adopted by front-line providers in Uganda to sustain ART delivery beyond the initial ART scale-up phase between 2004 and 2009. A two-phase mixed-methods approach was adopted. In the first phase, a survey of a nationally representative sample of health facilities (n = 195) across Uganda was conducted. The second phase involved in-depth interviews (n = 36) with ART clinic managers and staff of 6 of the 195 health facilities purposively selected from the first study phase. Quantitative data was analysed based on descriptive statistics, and qualitative data was analysed by coding and thematic analysis. The identified strategies were categorized into five themes: (1) providing monetary and non-monetary incentives to health workers on busy ART clinic days; (2) workload reduction through spacing ART clinic appointments; (3) adopting training workshops in ART management as a motivation strategy for health workers; (4) adopting non-physician-centred staffing models; and (5) devising ART program leadership styles that enhanced health worker commitment. Facility-level strategies for responding to HRH constraints are feasible and can contribute to efforts to increase country ownership of HIV programs in resource-limited settings. Consideration of the human resources for health strategies identified in the study by ART program planners and managers could enhance the long-term sustainment of ART programs by providers in resource-limited settings.

  12. Development and Demonstration of a Method to Evaluate Bio-Sampling Strategies Using Building Simulation and Sample Planning Software.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dols, W Stuart; Persily, Andrew K; Morrow, Jayne B; Matzke, Brett D; Sego, Landon H; Nuffer, Lisa L; Pulsipher, Brent A

    2010-01-01

    In an effort to validate and demonstrate response and recovery sampling approaches and technologies, the U.S. Department of Homeland Security (DHS), along with several other agencies, have simulated a biothreat agent release within a facility at Idaho National Laboratory (INL) on two separate occasions in the fall of 2007 and the fall of 2008. Because these events constitute only two realizations of many possible scenarios, increased understanding of sampling strategies can be obtained by virtually examining a wide variety of release and dispersion scenarios using computer simulations. This research effort demonstrates the use of two software tools, CONTAM, developed by the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), and Visual Sample Plan (VSP), developed by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). The CONTAM modeling software was used to virtually contaminate a model of the INL test building under various release and dissemination scenarios as well as a range of building design and operation parameters. The results of these CONTAM simulations were then used to investigate the relevance and performance of various sampling strategies using VSP. One of the fundamental outcomes of this project was the demonstration of how CONTAM and VSP can be used together to effectively develop sampling plans to support the various stages of response to an airborne chemical, biological, radiological, or nuclear event. Following such an event (or prior to an event), incident details and the conceptual site model could be used to create an ensemble of CONTAM simulations which model contaminant dispersion within a building. These predictions could then be used to identify priority area zones within the building and then sampling designs and strategies could be developed based on those zones.

  13. EVALUATION OF THE USER STRATEGY ON 2D AND 3D CITY MAPS BASED ON NOVEL SCANPATH COMPARISON METHOD AND GRAPH VISUALIZATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Dolezalova

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper is dealing with scanpath comparison of eye-tracking data recorded during case study focused on the evaluation of 2D and 3D city maps. The experiment contained screenshots from three map portals. Two types of maps were used - standard map and 3D visualization. Respondents’ task was to find particular point symbol on the map as fast as possible. Scanpath comparison is one group of the eye-tracking data analyses methods used for revealing the strategy of the respondents. In cartographic studies, the most commonly used application for scanpath comparison is eyePatterns that output is hierarchical clustering and a tree graph representing the relationships between analysed sequences. During an analysis of the algorithm generating a tree graph, it was found that the outputs do not correspond to the reality. We proceeded to the creation of a new tool called ScanGraph. This tool uses visualization of cliques in simple graphs and is freely available at www.eyetracking.upol.cz/scangraph. Results of the study proved the functionality of the tool and its suitability for analyses of different strategies of map readers. Based on the results of the tool, similar scanpaths were selected, and groups of respondents with similar strategies were identified. With this knowledge, it is possible to analyse the relationship between belonging to the group with similar strategy and data gathered from the questionnaire (age, sex, cartographic knowledge, etc. or type of stimuli (2D, 3D map.

  14. Evaluation of the User Strategy on 2d and 3d City Maps Based on Novel Scanpath Comparison Method and Graph Visualization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolezalova, J.; Popelka, S.

    2016-06-01

    The paper is dealing with scanpath comparison of eye-tracking data recorded during case study focused on the evaluation of 2D and 3D city maps. The experiment contained screenshots from three map portals. Two types of maps were used - standard map and 3D visualization. Respondents' task was to find particular point symbol on the map as fast as possible. Scanpath comparison is one group of the eye-tracking data analyses methods used for revealing the strategy of the respondents. In cartographic studies, the most commonly used application for scanpath comparison is eyePatterns that output is hierarchical clustering and a tree graph representing the relationships between analysed sequences. During an analysis of the algorithm generating a tree graph, it was found that the outputs do not correspond to the reality. We proceeded to the creation of a new tool called ScanGraph. This tool uses visualization of cliques in simple graphs and is freely available at www.eyetracking.upol.cz/scangraph. Results of the study proved the functionality of the tool and its suitability for analyses of different strategies of map readers. Based on the results of the tool, similar scanpaths were selected, and groups of respondents with similar strategies were identified. With this knowledge, it is possible to analyse the relationship between belonging to the group with similar strategy and data gathered from the questionnaire (age, sex, cartographic knowledge, etc.) or type of stimuli (2D, 3D map).

  15. Design of Position Estimation Strategy of Sensorless Interior PMSM at Standstill Using Minimum Voltage Vector Injection Method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, Xuan; Huang, Shoudao; Liu, Xiao

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents a new initial rotor position estimation method for an interior permanent magnet synchronous motor. The proposed method includes two steps: firstly, the minimum voltage vectors are injected to estimate the rotor position. Secondly, in order to identify the magnet polarity...

  16. Points of Convergence in Music Education: The Use of Data Labels as a Strategy for Mixed Methods Integration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzpatrick, Kate R.

    2016-01-01

    Although the mixing of quantitative and qualitative data is an essential component of mixed methods research, the process of integrating both types of data in meaningful ways can be challenging. The purpose of this article is to describe the use of data labels in mixed methods research as a technique for the integration of qualitative and…

  17. Tall tower landscape scale N2O flux measurements in a Danish agricultural and urban, coastal area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrom, Andreas; Lequy, Émeline; Loubet, Benjamin; Pilegaard, Kim; Ambus, Per

    2015-04-01

    Both technical and natural processes emit the greenhouse gas nitrous oxide (N2O) into the atmosphere. The abundant use of nitrogen (N) as fertiliser increases the concentration of reactive nitrogen (Nr) in the atmosphere, the hydrosphere and in the biosphere, i.e. in terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems. Surplus Nr is distributed across linkages to other spheres until most of it is emitted to the atmosphere as NO, N2O or N2. A complete estimate of the effects from human activities on N2O emissions must therefore include all emissions, the direct emissions and the indirect emissions that happen in interlinked spheres. For this it is necessary to assess the fluxes at least at the landscape scale. The episodic nature and the large spatial variability make it difficult to estimate the direct and indirect emissions in a landscape. Modelling requires not only to include the highly variable microbial processes in the ecosystems that produce N2O but as well the accurate simulation of lateral Nr fluxes and their effects on N2O fluxes in places remote from the primary Nr sources. In this context tall tower N2O flux measurements are particularly useful as they integrate over larger areas and can be run, continuously without disturbing the fluxes. On the other hand these measurements can be difficult to interpret due to difficulties to measure the small concentration fluctuations in the atmosphere at small flux rates and to accurately attribute the measured flux at the tower to the area that generates the flux, i.e. the source area. The Technical University of Denmark (DTU) has established eddy covariance N2O flux measurements on a 125 m tall tower at its Risø Campus as part of the EU research infrastructure project the 'Integrated non-CO2 Greenhouse gas Observing System' (InGOS). The eddy covariance system consisted of a N2O/CO quantum cascade laser, Los Gatos, Mountain View, CA, USA and a 3D sonic anemometer (USA-1), Metek, Elmshorn, Germany. The Risø peninsula lies at the

  18. Low muscle mass--tall and obese children a special genre of obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ralt, Dina

    2007-01-01

    The prevalence of over-weight and obesity has increased markedly in the last two decades and vast international resources have been directed toward researching these issues. Obesity would appear to be a problem that is easy to resolve: just eat less and move more. However, this very common condition has turned out to be extremely troublesome, and in some cases even insolvable. A perspective is presented here suggesting that some of the insoluble cases of obesity are the result of an inborn condition of a very low muscle mass. The interplay between less muscle and more fat tissue is discussed from physiological and environmental perspectives with an emphasis on the early years of childhood. It is proposed that these interactions lead to bodily economic decisions sliding between thrift or prodigal strategies. The thrift strategy results not only in obesity and less physical activity but also in other maladies which the body is unable to manage. What leads to obesity (less muscle, more fat) in the medial population will result in morbid obesity when the children are short of muscle tissue from the start. Attempts to lessen the consequences of low muscle mass, which might be very difficult at adulthood, can be more fruitful if initiated at childhood. Early recognition of the ailment is thus crucial. Based on studies demonstrating a 'rivalry' between muscle build-up and height growth at childhood, it is postulated that among the both taller and more obese children the percentage of children with lower muscle mass will be significant. A survey of the height and BMI (Body Mass Index) of Israeli fifth graders supports this postulation. A special, body/muscle-building gymnastics program for children is suggested as a potential early intervention to partially prevent this type of almost irreversible ill progress of obesity.

  19. A method for evaluating cognitively informed micro-targeted campaign strategies: An agent-based model proof of principle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madsen, Jens Koed; Pilditch, Toby D

    2018-01-01

    In political campaigns, perceived candidate credibility influences the persuasiveness of messages. In campaigns aiming to influence people's beliefs, micro-targeted campaigns (MTCs) that target specific voters using their psychological profile have become increasingly prevalent. It remains open how effective MTCs are, notably in comparison to population-targeted campaign strategies. Using an agent-based model, the paper applies recent insights from cognitive models of persuasion, extending them to the societal level in a novel framework for exploring political campaigning. The paper provides an initial treatment of the complex dynamics of population level political campaigning in a psychologically informed manner. Model simulations show that MTCs can take advantage of the psychology of the electorate by targeting voters favourable disposed towards the candidate. Relative to broad campaigning, MTCs allow for efficient and adaptive management of complex campaigns. Findings show that disliked MTC candidates can beat liked population-targeting candidates, pointing to societal questions concerning campaign regulations.

  20. Re-cycling social housing.Tools, methods, design strategies for innovating Social Housing processes and intervention models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massimo Perriccioli

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The sustainable renewal of social housing can only be tackled nowadays with the help of design strategies which are able to deal with and coordinate three key issues: the transformation of housing requisites, the deployment of new operational and financial models for carrying out interventions, and the optimization of energy and material resources. The Social Housing cluster was set up a few months ago in the SITdA to coordinate multi-disciplinary research projects exploring the economic, social and environmental feasibility of experimental interventions designed to upgrade the existing built heritage in the light of the most recent energy standards, while at the same time responding to the new housing requisites emerging in the various regional contexts throughout Italy.