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Sample records for taliban regime insecticide-treated

  1. Malaria control under the Taliban regime: insecticide-treated net purchasing, coverage, and usage among men and women in eastern Afghanistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Background Scaling up insecticide-treated mosquito net (ITN) coverage is a key malaria control strategy even in conflict-affected countries [1,2]. Socio-economic factors influence access to ITNs whether subsidized or provided free to users. This study examines reported ITN purchasing, coverage, and usage in eastern Afghanistan and explores women's access to health information during the Taliban regime (1996-2001). This strengthens the knowledge base on household-level health choices in complex-emergency settings. Methods Fifteen focus group discussions (FGDs) and thirty in-depth interviews were conducted with men and women from ITN-owning and non-owning households. FGDs included rank ordering, pile sorting and focused discussion of malaria knowledge and ITN purchasing. Interviews explored general health issues, prevention and treatment practices, and women's malaria knowledge and concerns. Seven key informant interviews with health-related workers and a concurrent survey of 200 ITN-owning and 214 non-owning households were used to clarify or quantify findings. Results Malaria knowledge was similar among men and women and ITN owners and non-owners. Women reported obtaining health information through a variety of sources including clinic staff, their husbands who had easier access to information, and particularly female peers. Most participants considered ITNs very desirable, though not usually household necessities. ITN owners reported more household assets than non-owners. Male ITN owners and non-owners ranked rugs and ITNs as most desired, while women ranked personal assets such as jewellery highest. While men were primarily responsible for household decision-making and purchasing, older women exerted considerable influence. Widow-led and landless households reported most difficulties purchasing ITNs. Most participants wanted to buy ITNs only if they could cover all household members. When not possible, preferential usage was given to women and children

  2. Yale's "Taliban Man" and Other Tales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fund, John

    2007-01-01

    In August 2001, the author relates his first encounter with Sayed Rahmatullah Hashimi when he visited the "Wall Street Journal." Sayed Rahmatullah Hashimi was then the ambassador at large and the deputy foreign minister for the Taliban regime of Afghanistan. Ten years before, in 1993, Rahmatullah Hashimi's people tried to blow up the…

  3. The Taliban in 2024

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Semple

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Reacting to corruption and oppression in the Kandahar of 1994, the Taliban is seen as working with Sunni clerics to foster a shariat movement for advancing economic justice and (corporal punishment. Before long, the organization began substantially rewarding joiners, arming for jihad, and resisting international forces in Afghanistan. Now, with less foreign resources to fight the Taliban, the Kabul central government has unfinished business with its still-robust challengers. In the face of recent modernization in sectors such as education and media, the author details three plausible scenarios for the Taliban to maintain its core shariat mission. One scenario is for the Taliban to re-secure (through continued force its initial goal, viz., overall state power to promote and enforce shariat across urban as well as rural areas. Another possibility projects Afghanistan as operating a dualist system of separate zones, one for the Taliban's ‘liberated territory,’ the other for the rest of Afghanistan as governed by Kabul. Achieving scenario three would be formidable: it posits that Taliban leaders may be persuaded that their armed jihad has run its course and can profitably be disconnected from the Middle East's broader Islamic conflict. Conceivably, then, through accommodations with a shariat-accepting Kabul government, Taliban might be able to win buy-in for peace from its own military and its own fighting priests with their strong ties to Afghan communities in Pakistan.

  4. 31 CFR 545.310 - The Taliban.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false The Taliban. 545.310 Section 545.310 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN... also known as the “Taleban,” “Islamic Movement of Taliban,” “the Taliban Islamic Movement,” “Talibano...

  5. The Tangled Web of Taliban and Associated Movements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Greg Smith

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Following the devastating terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001,worldwide attention became focused on the Taliban and al-Qaida forcesin Afghanistan. Prior to the attacks, many people had never heard of the Taliban or their shar'ia-law style of government. Since 2001, manysplinter groups have formed in response to the continual United Statespresence in the region. Today, the term Taliban has been used to envelop several groups such as the Tehrik-i-Taliban Pakistan (TTP, the Haqqani Network (HQN and the Tehrik-eNifaz-e-Shariat-e-Mohammadi(TNSM. These groups make up the majority of fighters along the Afghanistan-Pakistan border. Many of these groups have been historicrivals for control of the region, but have since joined a loose alliance in response to United States and Pakistani Government actions in the Federally Administered Tribal Areas (FATA. This article examines the origins and operations of the Pakistani Taliban and associated groups. Particular attention will be given as to how these groups receive funding and support from each other through state sponsors such as Pakistan's Inter-Services Intelligence (ISI agency and non-state sponsors such as al-Qaida and Wahhabi idealists in Saudi Arabia, as well as arms supplies from Iran and potentially China.

  6. Effects of time-variable exposure regimes of the insecticide chlorpyrifos on freshwater invertebrate communities in microcosms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zafar, M.I.; Wijngaarden, van R.; Roessink, I.; Brink, van den P.J.

    2011-01-01

    The present study compared the effects of different time-variable exposure regimes having the same time-weighted average (TWA) concentration of the organophosphate insecticide chlorpyrifos on freshwater invertebrate communities to enable extrapolation of effects across exposure regimes. The

  7. Is Current US Counterinsurgency Doctrine Applicable to Lebanese Hizballah and the Taliban?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-11

    Taliban, What We’ve Heard, US Embassy Islamabad, 26 January 1995. 140Gerald Bourke , “Kabul Rivals Join Forces as Taliban Strikes Hard” Guardian 27...Report on Middle East Affairs 28, no. 6 (2009):35-36. Magazines/Journals Bourke , Gerald. “Kabul Rivals Join Forces as Taliban Strikes Hard.” Guardian

  8. Willingness to pay for insecticide-treated nets in Berehet District, Amhara Region, Northern Ethiopia: implication of social marketing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aleme, Adisu; Girma, Eshetu; Fentahun, Netsanet

    2014-01-01

    Understanding the feasibility of achieving widespread coverage with Insecticide-Treated Nets has to be preceded by learning how people value the Insecticide-Treated Nets and estimating the potential demand and willingness to pay so that sustainability of the intervention can be assured. The objective of this study was to determine willingness to pay for Insecticide-Treated Nets among households in Berehet District, Northern Ethiopia. A community-based cross-sectional study was conducted using both quantitative and qualitative methods in five randomly selected Kebeles from January-February 2012. Open ended contingent valuation technique with follow-up method was used. Qualitative data were collected through focus group discussions and observation methods. Binary logistic regression was used to determine the association between dependent and independent variables. The average number of individuals per Insecticide-Treated Nets was 3.83. Nearly 68.5% persons had willingness to buy Insecticide-Treated Nets if they have access to these Nets. The median maximum price a person is willingness to pay for blue rectangular Insecticide-Treated Net was 20 ETB. People had willingness to pay 30 ETB for blue and white conical insecticide-treated nets. Working on knowledge of malaria (OR=0.68, CI (0.47, 0.98; ppay Insecticide-Treated Nets. Respondents who prefer Kebele/place/ to buy Insecticide-Treated Net for rectangular shape had a significant association with a willingness to pay for Insecticide-Treated Nets (OR=1.92, CI= 1.07-3.92). Promotions, products, price and place had significant association with willingness to pay for Insecticide-Treated Nets. Designing a social marketing strategy helps ensure sustainable supply of Insecticide-Treated Nets and proper use of Insecticide-Treated Nets.

  9. Using culture and psychology to counter the Taliban's violent narratives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aggarwal, Neil Krishan

    2017-08-01

    Scholars, politicians, and policy-makers have increasingly pointed to the role of narratives in recruiting militants and justifying violence, highlighting the need for counter-narratives that promote peace. However, few have offered concrete guidelines on how to construct counter-narratives. This exploratory study uses prototype theory from social psychology to analyse Taliban narratives written in Arabic on the historical figure Maḥmūd of Ghaznī (971-1030), who is portrayed as a figure worthy of emulation. Key themes emerge from the Taliban's narratives: potential ingroup members are defined as Sunni Muslims who are committed to jihad; deviant Muslims must become Sunnis; non-Muslims must be converted and humiliated; and Taliban leaders should emulate Maḥmūd of Ghaznī's attributes. Contrasting the Taliban's narratives of Maḥmūd of Ghaznī with the historical record reveals themes that are culled empirically around which counter-narratives could be constructed.

  10. Scepticism towards insecticide treated mosquito nets for malaria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Scepticism towards insecticide treated mosquito nets for malaria control in rural ... especially among under-five year children and pregnant women in poor rural ... through social marketing strategy for malaria control prior to the introduction of ...

  11. Understanding the Appeal of the Taliban in Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syed Manzar Abbas Zaidi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This article briefly explores the economics of the "Talibanization" of Pakistan within descriptive and contextual paradigms, while attempting to find a best solution to counter rising militancy in the context of realities facing the population on the ground. One such solution is the National Pakistani Counter Terrorism and Extremism Strategy (NACTES, designed to curb Taliban financing in Pakistan. The strategy is being drafted by National Counter Terrorism Authority (NACTA, the nascent homeland security coordination body set up by the state as the primary public organ entrusted with counterterrorism, counter-extremism, and de-radicalization efforts of the state.

  12. The effect of insecticide-treated bed net on malarial parasitaemia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AFRICAN JOURNALS ONLINE (AJOL) · Journals · Advanced Search ... nets sold by a social marketing project were used as the intervention group. ... Keywords: Insecticide-treated bed net, Effectiveness, Malaria control, South-South Nigeria.

  13. Geographic Trajectories of Al-Qaida and Taliban Terrorist Groups in Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syed Manzar Abbas Zaidi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Though Western analysts tend to mention al-Qaida and Taliban in Pakistan in the same context, the dynamics of their relationship are far more complex than a cursory examination would reveal. The context of this relationship is best understood within the overarching paradigm of militant activities of post 9/11 Taliban and al-Qaida remnants in Pakistan's tribal areas, where these groups flourish. The military struggle in Afghanistan has significantly influenced the formation of a loosely structured alQaida/Taliban "nexus" that was forged in Pakistan's Federally Administered Tribal Areas (FATA, particularly Waziristan. In order to survive the ongoing North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO military operations to flush them out, these groups rapidly devised a symbiotic strategy that characterizes al-Qaida's ability to subsume itself within the ranks of different militant organizations in Pakistan.

  14. Effective utilization period of long-lasting insecticide treated nets ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study was conducted to evaluate the bioefficacy of long-lasting insecticide treated nets (LLITNs) (PermaNet®2.0) over time and the species composition of Anopheles mosquitoes around Bahir Dar. The space spray collection method was used to determine the species composition of indoor resting Anopheles ...

  15. The Taliban: An Organizational Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-06-01

    OF PAGES 16 19a. NAME OF RESPONSIBLE PERSON a. REPORT unclassified b. ABSTRACT unclassified c . THIS PAGE unclassified Standard Form 298 (Rev...Kharoti Tokhi Taraki Kharufi Lodis Niazis Suris Nuranis Lohanis GHILZAI BITANI ZIRAK PANJPAO Barakzai Nurzais Alizais Ishaqzais Mohammadzai Achakzai...RECIPROCAL C . POOLEDB. SEQUENTIAL Cell BCell A Cell A Cell B Cell BCell A Command Command Figure 5. Forms of interdependence in the Taliban. 66 May-June

  16. Perceived Threat of Malaria and the Use of Insecticide Treated Bed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2013-12-17

    Dec 17, 2013 ... Keywords: malaria; children; insecticide treated nets; health belief model; .... including malaria, were usually handled by the only designated nurse. .... The familiar saying that “prevention is better and cheaper than cure” may ...

  17. Synthetic sex pheromone attracts the leishmaniasis vector Lutzomyia longipalpis to experimental chicken sheds treated with insecticide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brazil Reginaldo P

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Current strategies for controlling American visceral leishmaniasis (AVL have been unable to prevent the spread of the disease across Brazil. With no effective vaccine and culling of infected dogs an unpopular and unsuccessful alternative, new tools are urgently needed to manage populations of the sand fly vector, Lutzomyia longipalpis Lutz and Neiva (Diptera: Psychodidae. Here, we test two potential strategies for improving L. longipalpis control using the synthetic sand fly pheromone (±-9-methylgermacrene-B: the first in conjunction with spraying of animal houses with insecticide, the second using coloured sticky traps. Results Addition of synthetic pheromone resulted in greater numbers of male and female sand flies being caught and killed at experimental chicken sheds sprayed with insecticide, compared to pheromone-less controls. Furthermore, a ten-fold increase in the amount of sex pheromone released from test sheds increased the number of females attracted and subsequently killed. Treating sheds with insecticide alone resulted in a significant decrease in numbers of males attracted to sheds (compared to pre-spraying levels, and a near significant decrease in numbers of females. However, this effect was reversed through addition of synthetic pheromone at the time of insecticide spraying, leading to an increase in number of flies attracted post-treatment. In field trials of commercially available different coloured sticky traps, yellow traps caught more males than blue traps when placed in chicken sheds. In addition, yellow traps fitted with 10 pheromone lures caught significantly more males than pheromone-less controls. However, while female sand flies showed a preference for both blue and yellow pheromone traps sticky traps over white traps in the laboratory, neither colour caught significant numbers of females in chicken sheds, either with or without pheromone. Conclusions We conclude that synthetic pheromone could

  18. Afghan Women and the Taliban: An Exploratory Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seran de Leede

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Recent years have seen an increase in visible and sometimes even prominent roles for women in terrorist organisations. Both academics and organisations involved in counter-terrorism have paid increasing attention to he role of women not only as supporters of, but also as opponents to political violence. This Policy Brief examines the position of women in Afghanistan vis-à-vis the Taliban. Research Fellow Seran de Leede explores if Afghan women have been involved in the armed struggle of the Taliban as either active or passive supporters. She also considers the resilience women have shown towards political violence in Afghanistan and the possible role women can play in countering violent extremism in the country. Ultimately, this Policy Brief aims to contribute to a better understanding of the role of women in (countering political violence in Afghanistan.

  19. Social marketing of insecticide-treated bed net for malaria control ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: The effectiveness of the insecticide-treated bed net in reducing the morbidity and mortality associated with malaria has been proved at all levels of malaria transmission. Several models on how to achieve massive coverage have been suggested, but social marketing of the nets is highly favoured for its ...

  20. Material gain: bednets treated with insecticides improve the lives of ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2011-07-15

    ... 700 mosquito nets each day, marketed under brand names such as "Health Net" and ... Material gain: bednets treated with insecticides improve the lives of Tanzanians. July 15, 2011. Image ... The kit is one of the key elements of PSI's Social Marketing of ... The national strategy will work to change this by involving the full ...

  1. Entomological determinants of insecticide-treated bed net effectiveness in Western Myanmar

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smithuis, Frank M.; Kyaw, Moe Kyaw; Phe, U. Ohn; van der Broek, Ingrid; Katterman, Nina; Rogers, Colin; Almeida, Patrick; Kager, Piet A.; Stepniewska, Kasia; Lubell, Yoel; Simpson, Julie A.; White, Nicholas J.

    2013-01-01

    In a large cluster randomized control trial of insecticide-treated bed nets (ITN) in Western Myanmar the malaria protective effect of ITN was found to be highly variable and, in aggregate, the effect was not statistically significant. A coincident entomological investigation measured malaria vector

  2. Benefit of insecticide-treated nets, curtains and screening on vector borne diseases, excluding malaria: a systematic review and meta-analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wilson, A.L.; Dhiman, R.C.; Kitron, U.; Scott, T.W.; Berg, van den H.; Lindsay, S.W.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Insecticide-treated nets (ITNs) are one of the main interventions used for malaria control. However, these nets may also be effective against other vector borne diseases (VBDs). We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to estimate the efficacy of ITNs, insecticide-treated

  3. Use of insecticide-treated mosquito nets for children under five years ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2011-06-13

    Jun 13, 2011 ... Background: Insecticide-treated nets (ITNs) have proven to be one of the most effective means of reducing malaria morbidity and mortality in children and pregnant women. This study is carried out to determine the practice and determinants of ITN use for children under five years among care givers in an ...

  4. Islamic Extremist Organizations: "Al-Qaeda" And "Taliban" Activity in Russia and Abroad

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nina V. Volodina

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Radical Islamic extremist organizations, including "Al-Qaeda" and "Taliban" pose a threat to the national security not only in modern Russia, but also in other countries of the world. In the article author points out that Islamic extremist organizations create new radical organizations, merging, forming communications with other extremist organizations and their leaders. Acts of terrorism, responsibility for which were taken by the "Al-Qaeda" or "Taliban" are known, they are numerous: acts of terrorism organization and conduct, creation of new Islamic organizations is conducted continuously, including the territory of the Russian Federation, died Islamic leaders are succeeded by other already prepared leaders and this process is not possible to stop. It is insufficient to simple forbid, modern situation demands development of the counteraction mechanism to their activity in part that pose threat to the national security of Russia. Attention is paid to the fact that these organizations are gaining strength therefore it is necessary to start formation of new strategic tasks, using legal potential and improving national legislation of Russian Federation taking into account realities of the present. Structure and features of the "Al-Qaeda" and "Taliban" as international extremist organizations is analyzed.

  5. Control of Malaria Vector Mosquitoes by Insecticide-Treated Combinations of Window Screens and Eave Baffles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Killeen, Gerry F; Masalu, John P; Chinula, Dingani; Fotakis, Emmanouil A; Kavishe, Deogratius R; Malone, David; Okumu, Fredros

    2017-05-01

    We assessed window screens and eave baffles (WSEBs), which enable mosquitoes to enter but not exit houses, as an alternative to indoor residual spraying (IRS) for malaria vector control. WSEBs treated with water, the pyrethroid lambda-cyhalothrin, or the organophosphate pirimiphos-methyl, with and without a binding agent for increasing insecticide persistence on netting, were compared with IRS in experimental huts. Compared with IRS containing the same insecticide, WSEBs killed similar proportions of Anopheles funestus mosquitoes that were resistant to pyrethroids, carbamates and organochlorines and greater proportions of pyrethroid-resistant, early exiting An. arabiensis mosquitoes. WSEBs with pirimiphos-methyl killed greater proportions of both vectors than lambda-cyhalothrin or lambda-cyhalothrin plus pirimiphos-methyl and were equally efficacious when combined with binding agent. WSEBs required far less insecticide than IRS, and binding agents might enhance durability. WSEBs might enable affordable deployment of insecticide combinations to mitigate against physiologic insecticide resistance and improve control of behaviorally resistant, early exiting vectors.

  6. Use of insecticide-treated house screens to reduce infestations of dengue virus vectors, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manrique-Saide, Pablo; Che-Mendoza, Azael; Barrera-Perez, Mario; Guillermo-May, Guillermo; Herrera-Bojorquez, Josue; Dzul-Manzanilla, Felipe; Gutierrez-Castro, Cipriano; Lenhart, Audrey; Vazquez-Prokopec, Gonzalo; Sommerfeld, Johannes; McCall, Philip J; Kroeger, Axel; Arredondo-Jimenez, Juan I

    2015-02-01

    Dengue prevention efforts rely on control of virus vectors. We investigated use of insecticide-treated screens permanently affixed to windows and doors in Mexico and found that the screens significantly reduced infestations of Aedes aegypti mosquitoes in treated houses. Our findings demonstrate the value of this method for dengue virus vector control.

  7. Analysing the New Taliban Code of Conduct (Layeha): An Assessment of Changing Perspectives and Strategies of the Afghan Taliban

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-01

    Amir ul-Momineen)16 and his Deputy, who goes unnamed , unlike the 2009 version where Omar’s then most-trusted deputy, Mullah Abdul Ghani Berader, was...Chivers, C.J., 2011. In Eastern Afghanistan, at war with the Taliban’s shadowy rule. The New York Times, 6 Feb. Coll, S., 2004. Ghost wars: the secret...details, including instructions for authors and subscription information: http://www.tandfonline.com/loi/ccas20 Analysing the new Taliban Code of Conduct

  8. Insecticide Treated Camouflage Sceening Reduces Sand Fly Numbers in Leishmania-Endemic Regions in Kenya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Current U.S. military operations in deserts face persistent threats from sand flies that transmit human Leishmania. In this study we investigated the efficacy of artificial barriers treated with residual insecticide to potentially reduce the risk of human infection from leishmaniasis by reducing the...

  9. Afghanistan: Post-Taliban Governance, Security, and U.S. Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-11-08

    did occasionally meet foreign officials. The Taliban lost international and domestic support as it imposed strict adherence to Islamic customs in...shows since 2011. Because of the power of Islamist conservatives, alcohol is increasingly difficult to obtain in restaurants and stores, although it...districts) and influenced or operated in another 30%, and tribes and local groups with varying degrees of loyalty to the central government

  10. Comparing insecticide-treated bed net use to Plasmodium falciparum infection among schoolchildren living near Lake Victoria, Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okoyo, Collins; Mwandawiro, Charles; Kihara, Jimmy; Simiyu, Elses; Gitonga, Caroline W; Noor, Abdisalan M; Njenga, Sammy M; Snow, Robert W

    2015-12-22

    Under trial conditions insecticide-treated nets have been shown to provide significant clinical and mortality protection under a range of malaria transmission intensity conditions. There are, however, few operational impact data, notably in very intense transmission conditions. This study, reports on malaria infection among Kenyan schoolchildren living in areas of intense malaria transmission and their reported use of insecticide-treated bed nets. 5188 children in 54 schools were randomly sampled from seven counties surrounding Lake Victoria between May and June 2014. A questionnaire was administered to schoolchildren in classes 2-6 on the use of a long-lasting, insecticide-treated net (LLIN) the night before the survey and provided a single blood sample for a rapid diagnostic test for malaria infection. Analysis of the impact of insecticide-treated net use on malaria prevalence was undertaken using a multivariable, mixed effects, logistic regression at 95% confidence interval (CI), taking into account hierarchical nature of the data and results adjusted for school clusters. The overall prevalence of malaria infection was 48.7%, two-thirds (67.9%) of the children reported using LLIN, 91.3% of the children reported that their households own at least one LLIN and the household LLIN coverage was 2.5 persons per one LLIN. The prevalence of infection showed variation across the counties, with prevalence being highest in Busia (66.9%) and Homabay (51.8%) counties, and lowest in Migori County (29.6%). Generally, malaria parasite prevalence differed between age groups and gender with the highest prevalence occurring in children below 7 years (50.6%) and males (52.2%). Adjusting for county and school, there was a significant reduction in odds of malaria infection among the schoolchildren who reported LLIN use the previous night by 14 % (aOR 0.86, 95% CI 0.74-0.98, P provide protection against infection among school-aged children.

  11. Use of insecticide-treated school uniforms for prevention of dengue in schoolchildren: a cost-effectiveness analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tozan, Yesim; Ratanawong, Pitcha; Louis, Valérie R; Kittayapong, Pattamaporn; Wilder-Smith, Annelies

    2014-01-01

    Dengue-related illness is a leading cause of hospitalization and death, particularly among children. Practical, acceptable and affordable measures are urgently needed to protect this age group. Schools where children spend most of their day is proposed as an ideal setting to implement preventive strategies against day-biting Aedes mosquitoes. The use of insecticide-treated school uniforms is a promising strategy currently under investigation. Using a decision-analytic model, we evaluated the cost-effectiveness of the use of insecticide-treated school uniforms for prevention of dengue, compared with a "do-nothing" alternative, in schoolchildren from the societal perspective. We explored how the potential economic value of the intervention varied under various scenarios of intervention effectiveness and cost, as well as dengue infection risk in school-aged children, using data specific to Thailand. At an average dengue incidence rate of 5.8% per year in school-aged children, the intervention was cost-effective (ICER≤$16,440) in a variety of scenarios when the intervention cost per child was $5.3 or less and the intervention effectiveness was 50% or higher. In fact, the intervention was cost saving (ICER$16,440). Our results present the potential economic value of the use of insecticide-treated uniforms for prevention of dengue in schoolchildren in a typical dengue endemic setting and highlight the urgent need for additional research on this intervention.

  12. Afghanistan: Post-Taliban Governance, Security, and U.S. Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-15

    banks existed during Taliban era. Some limited credit card use. Some Afghan police now paid by cell phone (E-Paisa). Access to Electricity 15%-20...another policy review, taking into account the McChrystal recommendations and the marred August 20, 2009, presidential election. Some senior U.S...seen as a prelude to a broader and more complex bilateral free trade agreement, but negotiations on an FTA have not yet begun. On December 13, 2004

  13. A renaissance for botanical insecticides?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isman, Murray B

    2015-12-01

    Botanical insecticides continue to be a subject of keen interest among the international research community, reflected in the steady growth in scientific publications devoted to the subject. Until very recently though, the translation of that theory to practice, i.e. the commercialisation and adoption of new botanical insecticides in the marketplace, has seriously lagged behind. Strict regulatory regimes, long the bane of small pesticide producers, are beginning to relax some of the data requirements for 'low-risk' pesticide products, facilitating movement of more botanicals into the commercial arena. In this paper I discuss some of the jurisdictions where botanicals are increasingly finding favour, some of the newer botanical insecticides in the plant and animal health arsenal and some of the specific sectors where botanicals are most likely to compete effectively with other types of insecticidal product. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  14. Assessing insecticide hazard to bumble bees foraging on flowering weeds in treated lawns.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan L Larson

    Full Text Available Maintaining bee-friendly habitats in cities and suburbs can help conserve the vital pollination services of declining bee populations. Despite label precautions not to apply them to blooming plants, neonicotinoids and other residual systemic insecticides may be applied for preventive control of lawn insect pests when spring-flowering weeds are present. Dietary exposure to neonicotinoids adversely affects bees, but the extent of hazard from field usage is controversial. We exposed colonies of the bumble bee Bombus impatiens to turf with blooming white clover that had been treated with clothianidin, a neonicotinoid, or with chlorantraniliprole, the first anthranilic diamide labeled for use on lawns. The sprays were applied at label rate and lightly irrigated. After residues had dried, colonies were confined to forage for six days, and then moved to a non-treated rural site to openly forage and develop. Colonies exposed to clothianidin-treated weedy turf had delayed weight gain and produced no new queens whereas those exposed to chlorantraniliprole-treated plots developed normally compared with controls. Neither bumble bees nor honey bees avoided foraging on treated white clover in open plots. Nectar from clover blooms directly contaminated by spray residues contained 171±44 ppb clothianidin. Notably, neither insecticide adversely impacted bee colonies confined on the treated turf after it had been mown to remove clover blooms present at the time of treatment, and new blooms had formed. Our results validate EPA label precautionary statements not to apply neonicotinoids to blooming nectar-producing plants if bees may visit the treatment area. Whatever systemic hazard through lawn weeds they may pose appears transitory, however, and direct hazard can be mitigated by adhering to label precautions, or if blooms inadvertently are contaminated, by mowing to remove them. Chlorantraniliprole usage on lawns appears non-hazardous to bumble bees.

  15. Assessing Insecticide Hazard to Bumble Bees Foraging on Flowering Weeds in Treated Lawns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, Jonathan L.; Redmond, Carl T.; Potter, Daniel A.

    2013-01-01

    Maintaining bee-friendly habitats in cities and suburbs can help conserve the vital pollination services of declining bee populations. Despite label precautions not to apply them to blooming plants, neonicotinoids and other residual systemic insecticides may be applied for preventive control of lawn insect pests when spring-flowering weeds are present. Dietary exposure to neonicotinoids adversely affects bees, but the extent of hazard from field usage is controversial. We exposed colonies of the bumble bee Bombus impatiens to turf with blooming white clover that had been treated with clothianidin, a neonicotinoid, or with chlorantraniliprole, the first anthranilic diamide labeled for use on lawns. The sprays were applied at label rate and lightly irrigated. After residues had dried, colonies were confined to forage for six days, and then moved to a non-treated rural site to openly forage and develop. Colonies exposed to clothianidin-treated weedy turf had delayed weight gain and produced no new queens whereas those exposed to chlorantraniliprole-treated plots developed normally compared with controls. Neither bumble bees nor honey bees avoided foraging on treated white clover in open plots. Nectar from clover blooms directly contaminated by spray residues contained 171±44 ppb clothianidin. Notably, neither insecticide adversely impacted bee colonies confined on the treated turf after it had been mown to remove clover blooms present at the time of treatment, and new blooms had formed. Our results validate EPA label precautionary statements not to apply neonicotinoids to blooming nectar-producing plants if bees may visit the treatment area. Whatever systemic hazard through lawn weeds they may pose appears transitory, however, and direct hazard can be mitigated by adhering to label precautions, or if blooms inadvertently are contaminated, by mowing to remove them. Chlorantraniliprole usage on lawns appears non-hazardous to bumble bees. PMID:23776667

  16. Use of insecticide-treated school uniforms for prevention of dengue in schoolchildren: a cost-effectiveness analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yesim Tozan

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Dengue-related illness is a leading cause of hospitalization and death, particularly among children. Practical, acceptable and affordable measures are urgently needed to protect this age group. Schools where children spend most of their day is proposed as an ideal setting to implement preventive strategies against day-biting Aedes mosquitoes. The use of insecticide-treated school uniforms is a promising strategy currently under investigation. METHODS: Using a decision-analytic model, we evaluated the cost-effectiveness of the use of insecticide-treated school uniforms for prevention of dengue, compared with a "do-nothing" alternative, in schoolchildren from the societal perspective. We explored how the potential economic value of the intervention varied under various scenarios of intervention effectiveness and cost, as well as dengue infection risk in school-aged children, using data specific to Thailand. RESULTS: At an average dengue incidence rate of 5.8% per year in school-aged children, the intervention was cost-effective (ICER≤$16,440 in a variety of scenarios when the intervention cost per child was $5.3 or less and the intervention effectiveness was 50% or higher. In fact, the intervention was cost saving (ICER$16,440. CONCLUSIONS: Our results present the potential economic value of the use of insecticide-treated uniforms for prevention of dengue in schoolchildren in a typical dengue endemic setting and highlight the urgent need for additional research on this intervention.

  17. Ownership and Use of Insecticide-Treated Nets among People Living in Malaria Endemic Areas of Eastern Myanmar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aung, Tin; Wei, Chongyi; McFarland, Willi; Aung, Ye Kyaw; Khin, Hnin Su Su

    2016-01-01

    Myanmar has the highest burden of malaria in the Greater Mekong. However, there is limited information on ownership and use of insecticide-treated nets (ITNs) in areas of Myanmar most severely affected by malaria. We describe ownership and use of ITNs among people in the malaria-endemic eastern parts of Myanmar and factors associated with ITN use. A cross-sectional household survey using a multi-stage cluster design was conducted in malaria-endemic townships in eastern Myanmar during the high malaria season of August to September, 2014. An effective ITN was defined as 1) a long-lasting insecticide-treated net obtained within the past three years, or 2) any net treated with insecticide within the past year. In 4,679 households, the average number of ITNs per household was higher in rural compared to urban areas (0.6 vs. 0.4, p Myanmar in comparison to the goal of one for every two household members. Use of ITNs was low even when present. Findings are of concern given the study areas were part of enhanced efforts to reduce artemisinin-resistant malaria. Nonetheless, groups vulnerable to malaria such as individuals in rural settings, lower socio-economic households, and workers in high mosquito exposure jobs, had higher rates of ITN ownership. Malaria knowledge was linked to effective ITN use suggesting that distribution campaigns should be complemented by behavior change communications.

  18. Afghanistan: Post-Taliban Governance, Security, and U.S. Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-06

    Security Council Resolution 1193 (August 28, 1998) and 1214 (December 8, 1998) urged the Taliban to end discrimination against women . Women’s rights ...powers to compensate. Gives men and women equal rights under the law, allows for political parties as long as they are not “un-Islamic;” allows for...implement the NAPWA and all of its past commitments and laws to strengthen the rights of women and provide services to them. The major institutional

  19. Afghanistan: Post-Taliban Governance, Security, and U.S. Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-02

    years, including one on October 24, 2012, that the Taliban does not seek to regain a monopoly of power. He also was reportedly pivotal in reaching...killed 72 persons at a market in eastern Afghanistan. The other was a grenade attack on the well-guarded Kabul International Airport.22 If these...U.S. officials also attributed to the group the June 28, 2011, attack on the Intercontinental Hotel in Kabul; a September 10, 2011, truck bombing

  20. Dengue vector management using insecticide treated materials and targeted interventions on productive breeding-sites in Guatemala

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rizzo Nidia

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In view of the epidemiological expansion of dengue worldwide and the availability of new tools and strategies particularly for controlling the primary dengue vector Aedes aegypti, an intervention study was set up to test the efficacy, cost and feasibility of a combined approach of insecticide treated materials (ITMs alone and in combination with appropriate targeted interventions of the most productive vector breeding-sites. Methods The study was conducted as a cluster randomized community trial using “reduction of the vector population” as the main outcome variable. The trial had two arms: 10 intervention clusters (neighborhoods and 10 control clusters in the town of Poptun Guatemala. Activities included entomological assessments (characteristics of breeding-sites, pupal productivity, Stegomyia indices at baseline, 6 weeks after the first intervention (coverage of window and exterior doorways made of PermaNet 2.0 netting, factory treated with deltamethrin at 55 mg/m2, and of 200 L drums with similar treated material and 6 weeks after the second intervention (combination of treated materials and other suitable interventions targeting productive breeding-sites i.e larviciding with Temephos, elimination etc.. The second intervention took place 17 months after the first intervention. The insecticide residual activity and the insecticidal content were also studied at different intervals. Additionally, information about demographic characteristics, cost of the intervention, coverage of houses protected and satisfaction in the population with the interventions was collected. Results At baseline (during the dry season a variety of productive container types for Aedes pupae were identified: various container types holding >20 L, 200 L drums, washbasins and buckets (producing 83.7% of all pupae. After covering 100% of windows and exterior doorways and a small number of drums (where the commercial cover could be fixed in 970 study

  1. Dengue vector management using insecticide treated materials and targeted interventions on productive breeding-sites in Guatemala.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizzo, Nidia; Gramajo, Rodrigo; Escobar, Maria Cabrera; Arana, Byron; Kroeger, Axel; Manrique-Saide, Pablo; Petzold, Max

    2012-10-30

    In view of the epidemiological expansion of dengue worldwide and the availability of new tools and strategies particularly for controlling the primary dengue vector Aedes aegypti, an intervention study was set up to test the efficacy, cost and feasibility of a combined approach of insecticide treated materials (ITMs) alone and in combination with appropriate targeted interventions of the most productive vector breeding-sites. The study was conducted as a cluster randomized community trial using "reduction of the vector population" as the main outcome variable. The trial had two arms: 10 intervention clusters (neighborhoods) and 10 control clusters in the town of Poptun Guatemala. Activities included entomological assessments (characteristics of breeding-sites, pupal productivity, Stegomyia indices) at baseline, 6 weeks after the first intervention (coverage of window and exterior doorways made of PermaNet 2.0 netting, factory treated with deltamethrin at 55 mg/m2, and of 200 L drums with similar treated material) and 6 weeks after the second intervention (combination of treated materials and other suitable interventions targeting productive breeding-sites i.e larviciding with Temephos, elimination etc.). The second intervention took place 17 months after the first intervention. The insecticide residual activity and the insecticidal content were also studied at different intervals. Additionally, information about demographic characteristics, cost of the intervention, coverage of houses protected and satisfaction in the population with the interventions was collected. At baseline (during the dry season) a variety of productive container types for Aedes pupae were identified: various container types holding >20 L, 200 L drums, washbasins and buckets (producing 83.7% of all pupae). After covering 100% of windows and exterior doorways and a small number of drums (where the commercial cover could be fixed) in 970 study households, tropical rains occurred in the area and

  2. Financing the Taliban: The Convergence of Ungoverned Territory and Unofficial Economy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-12-11

    forensics work can in turn provide detailed information to governmental agencies posing a significant risk for the organization that desires to remain...clandestine. 47 The financial forensics capability of the formal banking system is strengthened through the reliance on policy and law designed to...Unofficial Economy Popular Support Legitimacy Reliability External Manipulation Regulation Sustain the Taliban organization while enabling growth IOT

  3. Effects of insecticide spray application on insect pest infestation and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    2010-03-15

    Mar 15, 2010 ... This study provides information on the incidence of major insect pests of cowpea as well as the minimum insecticide control intervention necessary for effectively reducing cowpea yield losses on the field. Two insecticide spray regimes (once at flowering and podding) significantly reduced insect population ...

  4. Insecticide treated curtains and residual insecticide treatment to control Aedes aegypti: An acceptability study in Santiago de Cuba.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dennis Pérez

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Within the context of a field trial conducted by the Cuban vector control program (AaCP, we assessed acceptability of insecticide-treated curtains (ITCs and residual insecticide treatment (RIT with deltamethrin by the community. We also assessed the potential influence of interviewees' risk perceptions for getting dengue and disease severity.We embedded a qualitative study using in-depth interviews in a cluster randomized trial (CRT testing the effectiveness of ITCs and RIT in Santiago de Cuba. In-depth interviews (N = 38 were conducted four and twelve months after deployment of the tools with people who accepted the tools, who stopped using them and who did not accept the tools. Data analysis was deductive. Main reasons for accepting ITCs at the start of the trial were perceived efficacy and not being harmful to health. Constraints linked to manufacturer instructions were the main reason for not using ITCs. People stopped using the ITCs due to perceived allergy, toxicity and low efficacy. Few heads of households refused RIT despite the noting reasons for rejection, such as allergy, health hazard and toxicity. Positive opinions of the vector control program influenced acceptability of both tools. However, frequent insecticide fogging as part of routine AaCP vector control actions diminished perceived efficacy of both tools and, therefore, acceptability. Fifty percent of interviewees did feel at risk for getting dengue and considered dengue a severe disease. However, this did not appear to influence acceptability of ITCs or RIT.Acceptability of ITCs and RIT was linked to acceptability of AaCP routine vector control activities. However, uptake and use were not always an indication of acceptability. Factors leading to acceptability may be best identified using qualitative methods, but more research is needed on the concept of acceptability and its measurement.

  5. Insecticide treated curtains and residual insecticide treatment to control Aedes aegypti: An acceptability study in Santiago de Cuba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez, Dennis; Van der Stuyft, Patrick; Toledo, María Eugenia; Ceballos, Enrique; Fabré, Francisco; Lefèvre, Pierre

    2018-01-01

    Within the context of a field trial conducted by the Cuban vector control program (AaCP), we assessed acceptability of insecticide-treated curtains (ITCs) and residual insecticide treatment (RIT) with deltamethrin by the community. We also assessed the potential influence of interviewees' risk perceptions for getting dengue and disease severity. We embedded a qualitative study using in-depth interviews in a cluster randomized trial (CRT) testing the effectiveness of ITCs and RIT in Santiago de Cuba. In-depth interviews (N = 38) were conducted four and twelve months after deployment of the tools with people who accepted the tools, who stopped using them and who did not accept the tools. Data analysis was deductive. Main reasons for accepting ITCs at the start of the trial were perceived efficacy and not being harmful to health. Constraints linked to manufacturer instructions were the main reason for not using ITCs. People stopped using the ITCs due to perceived allergy, toxicity and low efficacy. Few heads of households refused RIT despite the noting reasons for rejection, such as allergy, health hazard and toxicity. Positive opinions of the vector control program influenced acceptability of both tools. However, frequent insecticide fogging as part of routine AaCP vector control actions diminished perceived efficacy of both tools and, therefore, acceptability. Fifty percent of interviewees did feel at risk for getting dengue and considered dengue a severe disease. However, this did not appear to influence acceptability of ITCs or RIT. Acceptability of ITCs and RIT was linked to acceptability of AaCP routine vector control activities. However, uptake and use were not always an indication of acceptability. Factors leading to acceptability may be best identified using qualitative methods, but more research is needed on the concept of acceptability and its measurement.

  6. Effects of insecticide spray application on insect pest infestation and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Field studies were conducted during the 2008 - 2009 cropping season to determine the minimal insecticide application which can reduce cowpea yield losses on the field due to insect pest infestations in the Transkei region of South Africa. Treatments consisted of five cowpea varieties and four regimes of insecticide spray ...

  7. Taliban ähvardab kevade lähenedes veriste rünnakutega / Kaivo Kopli

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kopli, Kaivo

    2007-01-01

    Afganistanis andis Suurbritannia NATO juhitava koalitsiooniväe ISAF juhtimise üle USA-le. Taliban haaras võimu Musa Qala linnas, kus kokkuleppe kohaselt pidid korda hakkama hoidma hõimupealikud. Islamiliikumise ühe liidri mulla Hayatullah Khani sõnul ollakse alustamas sõda, võitlejaid valmistatakse ette suitsiidirünnakuteks

  8. Decrease of insecticide resistance over generations without exposure to insecticides in Nilaparvata lugens (Hemipteran: Delphacidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yajun; Dong, Biqin; Xu, Hongxing; Zheng, Xusong; Tian, Junce; Heong, Kongleun; Lu, Zhongxian

    2014-08-01

    The brown planthopper, Nilaparvata lugens (Stål), is one of the most important insect pests on paddy rice in tropical and temperate Asia. Overuse and misuse of insecticides have resulted in the development of high resistance to many different insecticides in this pest. Studies were conducted to evaluate the change of resistance level to four insecticides over 15 generations without any exposure to insecticides in brown planthopper. After 15 generations' rearing without exposure to insecticide, brown planthopper could reverse the resistance to imidacloprid, chlorpyrifos, fipronil, and fenobucarb. The range and style of resistance reversal of brown planthopper differed when treated with four different insecticides. To monitor potential changes in insect physiological responses, we measured the activity of each of the three selected enzymes, including acetylcholinesterases (AChE), general esterases (EST), and glutathione S-transferases. After multiple generations' rearing without exposure to insecticide, AChE and EST activities of brown planthopper declined with the increased generations, suggesting that the brown planthopper population adjusted activities of EST and AChE to adapt to the non-insecticide environment. These findings suggest that the reducing, temporary stop, or rotation of insecticide application could be incorporated into the brown planthopper management.

  9. Insecticides suppress natural enemies and increase pest damage in cabbage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bommarco, Riccardo; Miranda, Freddy; Bylund, Helena; Björkman, Christer

    2011-06-01

    Intensive use of pesticides is common and increasing despite a growing and historically well documented awareness of the costs and hazards. The benefits from pesticides of increased yields from sufficient pest control may be outweighed by developed resistance in pests and killing of beneficial natural enemies. Other negative effects are human health problems and lower prices because of consumers' desire to buy organic products. Few studies have examined these trade-offs in the field. Here, we demonstrate that Nicaraguan cabbage (Brassica spp.) farmers may suffer economically by using insecticides as they get more damage by the main pest diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella (L.) (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae), at the same time as they spend economic resources on insecticides. Replicated similarly sized cabbage fields cultivated in a standardized manner were either treated with insecticides according common practice or not treated with insecticides over two seasons. Fields treated with insecticides suffered, compared with nontreated fields, equal or, at least in some periods of the seasons, higher diamondback moth pest attacks. These fields also had increased leaf damage on the harvested cabbage heads. Weight and size of the heads were not affected. The farmers received the same price on the local market irrespective of insecticide use. Rates of parasitized diamondback moth were consistently lower in the treated fields. Negative effects of using insecticides against diamondback moth were found for the density of parasitoids and generalist predatory wasps, and tended to affect spiders negatively. The observed increased leaf damages in insecticide-treated fields may be a combined consequence of insecticide resistance in the pest, and of lower predation and parasitization rates from naturally occurring predators that are suppressed by the insecticide applications. The results indicate biological control as a viable and economic alternative pest management strategy

  10. Effect of insecticide-treated bed nets on house-entry by malaria mosquitoes: The flight response recorded in a semi-field study in Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spitzen, Jeroen; Koelewijn, Teun; Mukabana, W Richard; Takken, Willem

    2017-08-01

    Insecticide-treated nets are currently a major tool to reduce malaria transmission. Their level of repellency affects contact of the mosquito with the net, but may also influence the mosquito's entry into the house. The response of host-seeking malaria mosquitoes approaching the eave of an experimental house was recorded within a large screen house. We compared entry- and exit rates in relation to the presence in the house of different insecticide-treated bed nets (ITNs) with an untreated net. Mosquitoes were lured towards the house by dispensing a synthetic host-odour blend from within the net in the house. Complementary WHO bioassays revealed that the treated nets caused high knock-down- and mortality responses to the Anopheles gambiae sensu stricto strain tested. The proportion of mosquitoes that came into view of the cameras and subsequently entered the house did not differ between treated nets and the untreated net. Treated nets did not affect proportions of mosquitoes that exited the house and departed from view around the eave. However, the percentage of house-leaving and re-entering mosquitoes when an insecticide- treated net was present, was lower than in the presence of an untreated net. Our results indicated that there was no spatial repellent effect from pyrethroid-treated nets that influences house-entry at eave level. It is argued that the toxic effect of treated bed nets resulted in a reduced number of mosquitoes re-entering the house, which could thereby affect malaria transmission in neighbouring, unprotected houses. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Modeling the effects of integrating larval habitat source reduction and insecticide treated nets for malaria control.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laith Yakob

    Full Text Available Integrated vector management for malaria control has received a lot of recent interest. Attacking multiple points in the transmission cycle is hoped to act synergistically and improve upon current single-tool interventions based on the use of insecticide-treated bed nets (ITNs. In the present study, we theoretically examined the application of larval habitat source reduction with ITNs in reducing malaria transmission. We selected this type of environmental management to complement ITNs because of a potential secondary mode of action that both control strategies share. In addition to increasing vector mortality, ITNs reduce the rate at which female mosquitoes locate human hosts for blood feeding, thereby extending their gonotrophic cycle. Similarly, while reducing adult vector emergence and abundance, source reduction of larval habitats may prolong the cycle duration by extending delays in locating oviposition sites. We found, however, that source reduction of larval habitats only operates through this secondary mode of action when habitat density is below a critical threshold. Hence, we illustrate how this strategy becomes increasingly effective when larval habitats are limited. We also demonstrate that habitat source reduction is better suited to human populations of higher density and in the presence of insecticide resistance or when the insecticidal properties of ITNs are depleted.

  12. Mixture for Controlling Insecticide-Resistant Malaria Vectors

    OpenAIRE

    Pennetier, Cédric; Costantini, Carlo; Corbel, Vincent; Licciardi, Séverine; Dabire, R. K.; Lapied, B.; Chandre, Fabrice; Hougard, Jean-Marc

    2008-01-01

    The spread of resistance to pyrethroids in the major Afrotropical malaria vectors Anopheles gambiae s.s. necessitates the development of new strategies to control resistant mosquito populations. To test the efficacy of nets treated with repellent and insecticide against susceptible and insecticide-resistant An. gambiae mosquito populations, we impregnated mosquito bed nets with an insect repellent mixed with a low dose of organophosphorous insecticide and tested them in a rice-growing area ne...

  13. Posttreatment Feeding Affects Mortality of Bed Bugs (Hemiptera: Cimicidae) Exposed to Insecticides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Narinderpal; Wang, Changlu; Cooper, Richard

    2016-02-01

    Insecticide sprays and dusts are used for controlling bed bugs, Cimex lectularius L. In natural environments, bed bugs have daily access to hosts after they are exposed to insecticides. The established laboratory insecticide bioassay protocols do not provide feeding after insecticide treatments, which can result in inflated mortality compared with what would be encountered in the field. We evaluated the effect of posttreatment feeding on mortality of bed bugs treated with different insecticides. None of the insecticides tested had a significant effect on the amount of blood consumed and percent feeding. The effect of posttreatment feeding on bed bug mortality varied among different insecticides. Feeding significantly reduced mortality in bed bugs exposed to deltamethrin spray, an essential oil mixture (Bed Bug Fix) spray, and diatomaceous earth dust. Feeding increased the mean survival time for bed bugs treated with chlorfenapyr spray and a spray containing an essential oil mixture (Ecoraider), but did not affect the final mortality. First instars hatched from eggs treated with chlorfenapyr liquid spray had reduced feeding compared with nymphs hatched from nontreated eggs. Those nymphs hatched from eggs treated with chlorfenapyr liquid spray and successfully fed had reduced mortality and a higher mean survival time than those without feeding. We conclude that the availability of a bloodmeal after insecticide exposure has a significant effect on bed bug mortality. Protocols for insecticide efficacy testing should consider offering a bloodmeal to the treated bed bugs within 1 to 3 d after treatment. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  14. Use of insecticide-treated clothes for personal protection against malaria: a community trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuria Isabel W

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The study sought to determine the effect of using insecticide-treated clothes (ITCs on personal protection against malaria infection. The specific objectives were to determine the effect of using ITCs on the rate of infection with malaria parasites and the effect on indoor mosquito density. Methods This study was done in Dadaab refugee camps, North Eastern Province Kenya between April and August 2002, and involved a total of 198 participants, all refugees of Somali origin. The participants were selected through multi-stage cluster sampling. Half of the participants (treatment group had their personal clothes worn on a daily basis (Diras, Saris, Jalbaabs, Ma'awis and shirts and their bedding (sheets and blankets treated with insecticide (permethrin. The other half (comparison group had their clothes treated with placebo (plain water. Indoor mosquito density was determined from twelve households belonging to the participants; six in the treatment block and six in the comparison block. During pre-test and post-test, laboratory analysis of blood samples was done, indoor mosquito density determined and questionnaires administered. Using STATA statistical package, tests for significant difference between the two groups were conducted. Results Use of ITCs reduced both malaria infection rates and indoor mosquito density significantly. The odds of malaria infection in the intervention group were reduced by about 70 percent. The idea of using ITCs for malaria infection control was easily accepted among the refugees and they considered it beneficial. No side effects related to use of the ITCs were observed from the participants. Conclusion The use of ITCs reduces malaria infection rate and has potential as an appropriate method of malaria control. It is recommended, therefore, that this strategy be considered for use among poor communities like slum dwellers and other underprivileged communities, such as street children and refugees

  15. The development of insecticide-treated durable wall lining for malaria control: insights from rural and urban populations in Angola and Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Messenger Louisa A

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Durable lining (DL is a deltamethrin-impregnated polyethylene material, which is designed to cover domestic walls that would normally be sprayed with residual insecticide. The operational success of DL as a long-lasting insecticidal substrate will be dependent on a high level of user acceptability as households must maintain correctly installed linings on their walls for several years. Preliminary trials were undertaken to identify a material to develop into a marketable wall lining and to assess its level of acceptability among rural and urban populations. Methods In Angola (n=60, prototype DL and insecticide-treated plastic sheeting (ITPS were installed on urban house walls and ceilings, respectively, and acceptability was compared to indoor residual spraying (IRS (n=20 using a knowledge, attitude and practice (KAP questionnaire. In Nigeria (n=178, three materials (prototype DL, ITPS and insecticide-treated wall netting were distributed among rural and urban households. User opinions were gathered from focus group discussions, in-depth interviews and KAP questionnaires. Results In Angola, after two weeks, the majority of participants (98% expressed satisfaction with the products and identified the killing of insects as the materials’ principal benefits (73%. After one year, despite a loss of almost 50% of households to refugee repatriation, all 32 remaining households still asserted that they had liked the DL/ITPS in their homes and given the choice of intervention preferred DL/ITPS to IRS (94% or insecticide-treated nets (78%. In Nigeria, a dichotomy between rural and urban respondents emerged. Rural participants favoured wall adornments and accepted wall linings because of their perceived decorative value and entomological efficacy. By contrast, urban households preferred minimal wall decoration and rejected the materials based upon objections to their aesthetics and installation feasibility. Conclusions The high level

  16. The development of insecticide-treated durable wall lining for malaria control: insights from rural and urban populations in Angola and Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Durable lining (DL) is a deltamethrin-impregnated polyethylene material, which is designed to cover domestic walls that would normally be sprayed with residual insecticide. The operational success of DL as a long-lasting insecticidal substrate will be dependent on a high level of user acceptability as households must maintain correctly installed linings on their walls for several years. Preliminary trials were undertaken to identify a material to develop into a marketable wall lining and to assess its level of acceptability among rural and urban populations. Methods In Angola (n=60), prototype DL and insecticide-treated plastic sheeting (ITPS) were installed on urban house walls and ceilings, respectively, and acceptability was compared to indoor residual spraying (IRS) (n=20) using a knowledge, attitude and practice (KAP) questionnaire. In Nigeria (n=178), three materials (prototype DL, ITPS and insecticide-treated wall netting) were distributed among rural and urban households. User opinions were gathered from focus group discussions, in-depth interviews and KAP questionnaires. Results In Angola, after two weeks, the majority of participants (98%) expressed satisfaction with the products and identified the killing of insects as the materials’ principal benefits (73%). After one year, despite a loss of almost 50% of households to refugee repatriation, all 32 remaining households still asserted that they had liked the DL/ITPS in their homes and given the choice of intervention preferred DL/ITPS to IRS (94%) or insecticide-treated nets (78%). In Nigeria, a dichotomy between rural and urban respondents emerged. Rural participants favoured wall adornments and accepted wall linings because of their perceived decorative value and entomological efficacy. By contrast, urban households preferred minimal wall decoration and rejected the materials based upon objections to their aesthetics and installation feasibility. Conclusions The high level of acceptability

  17. Combining fungal biopesticides and insecticide-treated bednets to enhance malaria control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hancock, Penelope A

    2009-10-01

    In developing strategies to control malaria vectors, there is increased interest in biological methods that do not cause instant vector mortality, but have sublethal and lethal effects at different ages and stages in the mosquito life cycle. These techniques, particularly if integrated with other vector control interventions, may produce substantial reductions in malaria transmission due to the total effect of alterations to multiple life history parameters at relevant points in the life-cycle and transmission-cycle of the vector. To quantify this effect, an analytically tractable gonotrophic cycle model of mosquito-malaria interactions is developed that unites existing continuous and discrete feeding cycle approaches. As a case study, the combined use of fungal biopesticides and insecticide treated bednets (ITNs) is considered. Low values of the equilibrium EIR and human prevalence were obtained when fungal biopesticides and ITNs were combined, even for scenarios where each intervention acting alone had relatively little impact. The effect of the combined interventions on the equilibrium EIR was at least as strong as the multiplicative effect of both interventions. For scenarios representing difficult conditions for malaria control, due to high transmission intensity and widespread insecticide resistance, the effect of the combined interventions on the equilibrium EIR was greater than the multiplicative effect, as a result of synergistic interactions between the interventions. Fungal biopesticide application was found to be most effective when ITN coverage was high, producing significant reductions in equilibrium prevalence for low levels of biopesticide coverage. By incorporating biological mechanisms relevant to vectorial capacity, continuous-time vector population models can increase their applicability to integrated vector management.

  18. Entering the Black Hole: The Taliban, Terrorism, and Organised Crime

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew D. Phillips

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available 'Cooperation and imitation among crime and terror groups in recent years has given rise to a crime-terror nexus. A linear conceptualisation of a crime-terror spectrum, suggests that complete convergence of crime and terror in a failed state can give rise to a ‘black hole.’ Theoretical models of the crime-terror nexus, however, do not specify the means by which a crime-terror group enters this black hole state, yet others do not. Using the Taliban movement as a case study, this article presents a theoretical extension of black hole theory, using organisation-level characteristics to merge black hole theory with the crime-terror continuum.'

  19. Low Utilization of Insecticide-Treated Bed Net among Pregnant Women in the Middle Belt of Ghana

    OpenAIRE

    Grace Manu; Ellen Abrafi Boamah-Kaali; Lawrence Gyabaa Febir; Emmanuel Ayipah; Seth Owusu-Agyei; Kwaku Poku Asante

    2017-01-01

    Background. Malaria in pregnancy leads to low birth weight, premature birth, anaemia, and maternal and neonatal mortality. Use of insecticide-treated nets (ITNs) during pregnancy is one of the proven interventions to reduce the malaria burden. However, Ghana has not achieved its target for ITN use among pregnant women. Methods. A qualitative study was conducted in seven communities purposively selected from the middle belt of Ghana. Participants who had delivered in the six months prior to th...

  20. Impact of malaria related messages on insecticide-treated net (ITN) use for malaria prevention in Ghana

    OpenAIRE

    Owusu Adjah, Ebenezer S; Panayiotou, Andrie G

    2014-01-01

    Background: Media messages have been used in Ghana to promote insecticide-treated net (ITN)/bed net usage in an effort to impact on malaria prevention. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of such malaria-related messages delivered through electronic/print media and by volunteers/health workers on the use of ITNs by children living in a household. Methods: Data was collected from September to November of 2008 using a structured, interviewer-administered questionnaire by the Ghana St...

  1. Insecticide mixtures for mosquito net impregnation against malaria vectors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corbel V.

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available Insecticides belonging to the pyrethroid family are the only compounds currently available for the treatment of mosquito nets. Unfortunately, some malaria vector species have developed resistance to pyrethroids and the lack of alternative chemical categories is a great concern. One strategy for resistance management would be to treat mosquito nets with a mixture associating two insecticides having different modes of action. This study presents the results obtained with insecticide mixtures containing several proportions of bifenthrin (a pyrethroid insecticide and carbosulfan (a carbamate insecticide. The mixtures were sprayed on mosquito net samples and their efficacy were tested against a susceptible strain of Anopheles gambiae, the major malaria vector in Africa. A significant synergism was observed with a mixture containing 25 mg/m2 of bifenthrin (half the recommended dosage for treated nets and 6.25 mg/m2 of carbosulfan (about 2 % of the recommended dosage. The observed mortality was significantly more than expected in the absence of any interaction (80 % vs 41 % and the knock-down effect was maintained, providing an effective barrier against susceptible mosquitoes.

  2. Effectiveness of antenatal clinics to deliver intermittent preventive treatment and insecticide treated nets for the control of malaria in pregnancy in Kenya

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hill, Jenny; Dellicour, Stephanie; Bruce, Jane; Ouma, Peter; Smedley, James; Otieno, Peter; Ombock, Maurice; Kariuki, Simon; Desai, Meghna; Hamel, Mary J.; ter Kuile, Feiko O.; Webster, Jayne

    2013-01-01

    Malaria in pregnancy can have devastating consequences for mother and baby. Coverage with the WHO prevention strategy for sub-Saharan Africa of intermittent-preventive-treatment (IPTp) with two doses of sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP) and insecticide-treated-nets (ITNs) in pregnancy is low. We

  3. Effectiveness of insecticide-treated and untreated nets to prevent malaria in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Remoortel, Hans; De Buck, Emmy; Singhal, Maneesh; Vandekerckhove, Philippe; Agarwal, Satya P

    2015-08-01

    India is the most malaria-endemic country in South-East Asia, resulting in a high socio-economic burden. Insecticide-treated or untreated nets are effective interventions to prevent malaria. As part of an Indian first-aid guideline project, we aimed to investigate the magnitude of this effect in India. We searched MEDLINE, Embase and Central to systematically review Indian studies on the effectiveness of treated or untreated vs. no nets. Parasite prevalence and annual parasite incidence served as malaria outcomes. The overall effect was investigated by performing meta-analyses and calculating the pooled risk ratios (RR) and incidence rate ratios. Of 479 articles, we finally retained 16 Indian studies. Untreated nets decreased the risk of parasite prevalence compared to no nets [RR 0.69 (95% CI; 0.55, 0.87) in high-endemic areas, RR 0.49 (95% CI; 0.28, 0.84) in low-endemic areas], as was the case but more pronounced for treated nets [RR 0.35 (95% CI; 0.26, 0.47) in high-endemic areas, risk ratio 0.16 (95% CI; 0.06, 0.44) in low-endemic areas]. Incidence rate ratios showed a similar observation: a significantly reduced rate of parasites in the blood for untreated nets vs. no nets, which was more pronounced in low-endemic areas and for those who used treated nets. The average effect of treated nets (vs. no nets) on parasite prevalence was higher in Indian studies (RR 0.16-0.35) than in non-Indian studies (data derived from a Cochrane systematic review; RR 0.58-0.87). Both treated and untreated nets have a clear protective effect against malaria in the Indian context. This effect is more pronounced there than in other countries. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Selective insecticide-induced stimulation on fecundity and biochemical changes in Tryporyza incertulas (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ai-Hua; Wu, Jin-Cai; Yu, Yue-Shu; Liu, Jing-Lan; Yue, Jiang-Fei; Wang, Mei-Yue

    2005-08-01

    The use of selective insecticides in rice, Oryza sativa L., fields often causes resurgence of nontarget pest insects. This study was conducted to investigate the effect of two selective insecticides, buprofezin and imidacloprid, on Tryporyza incertulas (Walker), a nontarget pest. After larval feeding on rice plants treated with each insecticide, fecundity, ovary protein content, and titer of juvenile hormone III (JHIII) in the resulting female moths were determined with 'Xiushui 63' rice susceptible to T. incertulas and 'Zhendao 2' moderately resistant to T. incertulas. The fecundity of females developed from larvae that fed on the insecticide-treated Xiushui 63 plants was stimulated compared with that of moths from larvae that fed on rice plants that were not treated with either insecticide. There was no stimulating effect in females from larvae that fed on insecticide-treated Zhendao 2 plants. The weight of fourth instars (final instars) that fed on the insecticide-treated Xiushui 63 rice plants was significantly greater than that of control, increasing by 50.3 and 46.7% for 60 and 112.5 g (AI) ha(-1) buprofezin, and by 23.7 and 19.5% for 15 and 37.5 g (AI) ha(-1) imidacloprid treatments, respectively. Ovary protein content in adult females developed from larvae that fed on the rice treated with the high dose of buprofezin was significantly higher than that in control. For the high and low doses of imidacloprid during the second instar, and the low dose of imidacloprid during the fourth instar, JHIII titers in female adults were also significantly higher than that in control, increasing by 152.81, 90.52, and 114.19%, respectively.

  5. Scepticism towards insecticide treated mosquito nets for malaria control in a rural community in northwestern Tanzania

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nnko, Soori; Whyte, Susan Reynolds; Geissler, Wenzel

    2012-01-01

    in Mwanza region, North-Western Tanzania. The study explores reasons for scepticism and low uptake of insecticide treated mosquito nets (ITNs) that were promoted through social marketing strategy for malaria control prior to the introduction of long lasting nets (LLN). The paper breaks from traditional...... attendances. In terms of mortality, malaria is known to be responsible for more than one third of deaths among children of age below 5 years and also contributes for up to one fifth of deaths among pregnant women. This paper is based on a study conducted in a rural community along the shores of Lake Victoria...

  6. Predicting the impact of insecticide-treated bed nets on malaria transmission: the devil is in the detail

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Novak Robert J

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Insecticide-treated bed nets (ITNs, including long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs, play a primary role in global campaigns to roll back malaria in tropical Africa. Effectiveness of treated nets depends on direct impacts on individual mosquitoes including killing and excite-repellency, which vary considerably among vector species due to variations in host-seeking behaviours. While monitoring and evaluation programmes of ITNs have focuses on morbidity and all-cause mortality in humans, local entomological context receives little attention. Without knowing the dynamics of local vector species and their responses to treated nets, it is difficult to predict clinical outcomes when ITN applications are scaled up across African continent. Sound model frameworks incorporating intricate interactions between mosquitoes and treated nets are needed to develop the predictive capacity for scale-up applications of ITNs. Methods An established agent-based model was extended to incorporate the direct outcomes, e.g. killing and avoidance, of individual mosquitoes exposing to ITNs in a hypothetical village setting with 50 houses and 90 aquatic habitats. Individual mosquitoes were tracked throughout the life cycle across the landscape. Four levels of coverage, i.e. 40, 60, 80 and 100%, were applied at the household level with treated houses having only one bed net. By using Latin hypercube sampling scheme, parameters governing killing, diverting and personal protection of net users were evaluated for their relative roles in containing mosquito populations, entomological inoculation rates (EIRs and malaria incidence. Results There were substantial gaps in coverage between households and individual persons, and 100% household coverage resulted in circa 50% coverage of the population. The results show that applications of ITNs could give rise to varying impacts on population-level metrics depending on values of parameters governing interactions of

  7. Predicting the impact of insecticide-treated bed nets on malaria transmission: the devil is in the detail.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Weidong; Novak, Robert J

    2009-11-16

    Insecticide-treated bed nets (ITNs), including long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs), play a primary role in global campaigns to roll back malaria in tropical Africa. Effectiveness of treated nets depends on direct impacts on individual mosquitoes including killing and excite-repellency, which vary considerably among vector species due to variations in host-seeking behaviours. While monitoring and evaluation programmes of ITNs have focuses on morbidity and all-cause mortality in humans, local entomological context receives little attention. Without knowing the dynamics of local vector species and their responses to treated nets, it is difficult to predict clinical outcomes when ITN applications are scaled up across African continent. Sound model frameworks incorporating intricate interactions between mosquitoes and treated nets are needed to develop the predictive capacity for scale-up applications of ITNs. An established agent-based model was extended to incorporate the direct outcomes, e.g. killing and avoidance, of individual mosquitoes exposing to ITNs in a hypothetical village setting with 50 houses and 90 aquatic habitats. Individual mosquitoes were tracked throughout the life cycle across the landscape. Four levels of coverage, i.e. 40, 60, 80 and 100%, were applied at the household level with treated houses having only one bed net. By using Latin hypercube sampling scheme, parameters governing killing, diverting and personal protection of net users were evaluated for their relative roles in containing mosquito populations, entomological inoculation rates (EIRs) and malaria incidence. There were substantial gaps in coverage between households and individual persons, and 100% household coverage resulted in circa 50% coverage of the population. The results show that applications of ITNs could give rise to varying impacts on population-level metrics depending on values of parameters governing interactions of mosquitoes and treated nets at the individual level

  8. Is Apis mellifera more sensitive to insecticides than other insects?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardstone, Melissa C; Scott, Jeffrey G

    2010-11-01

    Honey bees (Apis mellifera L.) are among the most important pollinators in natural and agricultural settings. They commonly encounter insecticides, and the effects of insecticides on honey bees have been frequently noted. It has been suggested that honey bees may be (as a species) uniquely sensitive to insecticides, although no comparative toxicology study has been undertaken to examine this claim. An extensive literature review was conducted, using data in which adult insects were topically treated with insecticides. The goal of this review was to summarize insecticide toxicity data between A. mellifera and other insects to determine the relative sensitivity of honey bees to insecticides. It was found that, in general, honey bees were no more sensitive than other insect species across the 62 insecticides examined. In addition, honey bees were not more sensitive to any of the six classes of insecticides (carbamates, nicotinoids, organochlorines, organophosphates, pyrethroids and miscellaneous) examined. While honey bees can be sensitive to individual insecticides, they are not a highly sensitive species to insecticides overall, or even to specific classes of insecticides. However, all pesticides should be used in a way that minimizes honey bee exposure, so as to minimize possible declines in the number of bees and/or honey contamination. Copyright © 2010 Society of Chemical Industry.

  9. Effects of various insecticides on the development of the egg parasitoid Trichogramma dendrolimi (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takada, Y; Kawamura, S; Tanaka, T

    2001-12-01

    The toxicity of six insecticides, acephate, methomyl, ethofenprox, cartap, chlorfluazuron, and Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) was tested on different developmental stages of the egg parasitoid, Trichogramma dendrolimi (Matsumura). Each of the insecticides tested showed different degrees of toxicity to the parasitoid, Ethofenprox showed the highest toxicity and cartap showed relatively higher toxicity compared with the other insecticides. The development of the parasitoids treated with these two insecticides was normal, similar to that of the control group. Only the emergence of adult wasps from host eggs was disturbed. Emergence of the host, Mamestra brassicae larva was reduced following treatment with ethofenprox, cartap and methomyl. However, adult female wasps, which emerged from host eggs treated with the insecticides had the ability to oviposit normally.

  10. Africa's largest long-lasting insecticide-treated net producer: lessons from A to Z Textiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masum, Hassan; Shah, Ronak; Schroeder, Karl; Daar, Abdallah S; Singer, Peter A

    2010-12-13

    Field trials have demonstrated the efficacy of insecticide-treated nets, and the WHO has recently endorsed a shift toward Long-Lasting Insecticide Treated nets (LLINs) due to factors such as reduced distribution costs. However, the need for LLINs poses several challenges. Is it possible to manufacture LLINs in large quantities in the African continent, where malaria is most endemic? When production is located in low-income countries, what role is played by local funding and employment, scaling up manufacturing, and partnerships? What factors influence availability and pricing? A case study of A to Z Textiles was undertaken to answer the question of how large-scale production of LLINs can occur in a low income setting. One of the largest sources of bed nets for Africa, A to Z Textiles is Africa-based, and its Tanzanian operations have a production capacity of 30 million LLINs per year, along with full WHO recommendation for its nets. Our analysis is based on semi-structured interviews with key informants familiar with A to Z, site visits in Tanzania, and literature reviews.This paper discusses the history and current status of A to Z Textiles, identifies the factors that led to its success, and suggests policy considerations that could support similar initiatives in the future. Local funding, scaling up manufacturing, technology transfer, and partnerships all played important roles in A to Z's ascent, as did perceived benefits of local employment and capacity-building. Regulatory issues and procurement rules acted as barriers. A to Z cost-effectively manufactures high-quality LLINs where malaria is most endemic. With a production capacity of 30 million LLINs per year, and full WHOPES (WHO Pesticide Evaluation Scheme) certification, A to Z Textiles demonstrates how key health goods can be successfully produced in the low-income countries that use them. Its example may be instructive and of high interest to readers in the malaria community, especially in developing

  11. Insecticide Exposures on Commercial Aircraft: A Literature Review and Screening Level Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maddalena, Randy I.; McKone, Thomas E.

    2008-10-01

    The objective of this project was to provide initial estimates of the relationship between insecticide use on passenger aircraft and exposure levels present in the cabin environment. The work was initially divided into three tasks including 1) a review of insecticide application practices in commercial aircraft, 2) exploratory measurements of insecticide concentrations in treated aircraft and 3) screening level exposure modeling. Task 1 gathered information that is needed to assess the time-concentration history of insecticides in the airline cabin. The literature review focused on application practices, information about the cabin environment and existing measurements of exposure concentrations following treatment. Information from the airlines was not available for estimating insecticide application rates in the U.S. domestic fleet or for understanding how frequently equipment rotate into domestic routes following insecticide treatment. However, the World Health Organization (WHO) recommends several methods for treating aircraft with insecticide. Although there is evidence that these WHO guidelines may not always be followed, and that practices vary by airline, destination, and/or applicator company, the guidelines in combination with information related to other indoor environments provides a plausible basis for estimating insecticide loading rates on aircraft. The review also found that while measurements of exposure concentrations following simulated aerosol applications are available, measurements following residual treatment of aircraft or applications in domestic aircraft are lacking. Task 2 focused on developing an approach to monitor exposure concentrations in aircraft using a combination of active and passive sampling methods. An existing active sampling approach was intended to provide data immediately following treatment while a passive sampler was developed to provide wider coverage of the fleet over longer sampling periods. The passive sampler, based

  12. Cost and cost effectiveness of long-lasting insecticide-treated bed nets - a model-based analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pulkki-Brännström Anni-Maria

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The World Health Organization recommends that national malaria programmes universally distribute long-lasting insecticide-treated bed nets (LLINs. LLINs provide effective insecticide protection for at least three years while conventional nets must be retreated every 6-12 months. LLINs may also promise longer physical durability (lifespan, but at a higher unit price. No prospective data currently available is sufficient to calculate the comparative cost effectiveness of different net types. We thus constructed a model to explore the cost effectiveness of LLINs, asking how a longer lifespan affects the relative cost effectiveness of nets, and if, when and why LLINs might be preferred to conventional insecticide-treated nets. An innovation of our model is that we also considered the replenishment need i.e. loss of nets over time. Methods We modelled the choice of net over a 10-year period to facilitate the comparison of nets with different lifespan (and/or price and replenishment need over time. Our base case represents a large-scale programme which achieves high coverage and usage throughout the population by distributing either LLINs or conventional nets through existing health services, and retreats a large proportion of conventional nets regularly at low cost. We identified the determinants of bed net programme cost effectiveness and parameter values for usage rate, delivery and retreatment cost from the literature. One-way sensitivity analysis was conducted to explicitly compare the differential effect of changing parameters such as price, lifespan, usage and replenishment need. Results If conventional and long-lasting bed nets have the same physical lifespan (3 years, LLINs are more cost effective unless they are priced at more than USD 1.5 above the price of conventional nets. Because a longer lifespan brings delivery cost savings, each one year increase in lifespan can be accompanied by a USD 1 or more increase in price

  13. The impact of insecticide-treated school uniforms on dengue infections in school-aged children: study protocol for a randomised controlled trial in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilder-Smith, Annelies; Byass, Peter; Olanratmanee, Phanthip; Maskhao, Pongsri; Sringernyuang, Luechai; Logan, James G; Lindsay, Steve W; Banks, Sarah; Gubler, Duane; Louis, Valérie R; Tozan, Yesim; Kittayapong, Pattamaporn

    2012-11-15

    There is an urgent need to protect children against dengue since this age group is particularly sensitive to the disease. Since dengue vectors are active mainly during the day, a potential target for control should be schools where children spend a considerable amount of their day. School uniforms are the cultural norm in most developing countries, worn throughout the day. We hypothesise that insecticide-treated school uniforms will reduce the incidence of dengue infection in school-aged children. Our objective is to determine the impact of impregnated school uniforms on dengue incidence. A randomised controlled trial will be conducted in eastern Thailand in a group of schools with approximately 2,000 students aged 7-18 years. Pre-fabricated school uniforms will be commercially treated to ensure consistent, high-quality insecticide impregnation with permethrin. A double-blind, randomised, crossover trial at the school level will cover two dengue transmission seasons. Practical issues and plans concerning intervention implementation, evaluation, analysing and interpreting the data, and possible policy implications arising from the trial are discussed. clinicaltrial.gov. NCT01563640.

  14. Did the Taliban's opium eradication campaign cause a decline in HIV infections in Russia?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenblum, Daniel; Jones, Maggie

    2013-04-01

    We offer a new hypothesis for why HIV infections fell rapidly after 2001 in Russia: the Taliban's opium eradication campaign in Afghanistan reduced the supply of heroin, causing use to fall and, thus, transmission of HIV to fall. We present evidence of the impact of the eradication campaign on the heroin market and show that the fall in HIV infections happened simultaneously in Russia and surrounding countries soon after the eradication campaign. We also show that the decline in HIV infections only occurred in injecting drug users, while other risk groups were unaffected. Limitations to our analysis are discussed.

  15. The cost of routine Aedes aegypti control and of insecticide-treated curtain implementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baly, Alberto; Flessa, Steffen; Cote, Marilys; Thiramanus, Thirapong; Vanlerberghe, Veerle; Villegas, Elci; Jirarojwatana, Somchai; Van der Stuyft, Patrick

    2011-05-01

    Insecticide-treated curtains (ITCs) are promoted for controlling the Dengue vector Aedes aegypti. We assessed the cost of the routine Aedes control program (RACP) and the cost of ITC implementation through the RACP and health committees in Venezuela and through health volunteers in Thailand. The yearly cost of the RACP per household amounted to US$2.14 and $1.89, respectively. The ITC implementation cost over three times more, depending on the channel used. In Venezuela the RACP was the most efficient implementation-channel. It spent US$1.90 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.83; 1.97) per curtain distributed, of which 76.9% for the curtain itself. Implementation by health committees cost significantly (P = 0.02) more: US$2.32 (95% CI: 1.93; 2.61) of which 63% for the curtain. For ITC implementation to be at least as cost-effective as the RACP, at equal effectiveness and actual ITC prices, the attained curtain coverage and the adulticiding effect should last for 3 years.

  16. Mechanistic modeling of insecticide risks to breeding birds in ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Insecticide usage in the United States is ubiquitous in urban, suburban, and rural environments. In evaluating data for an insecticide registration application and for registration review, scientists at the United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) assess the fate of the insecticide and the risk the insecticide poses to the environment and non-target wildlife. At the present time, current USEPA risk assessments do not include population-level endpoints. In this paper, we present a new mechanistic model, which allows risk assessors to estimate the effects of insecticide exposure on the survival and seasonal productivity of birds known to use agricultural fields during their breeding season. The new model was created from two existing USEPA avian risk assessment models, the Terrestrial Investigation Model (TIM v.3.0) and the Markov Chain Nest Productivity model (MCnest). The integrated TIM/MCnest model has been applied to assess the relative risk of 12 insecticides used to control corn pests on a suite of 31 avian species known to use cornfields in midwestern agroecosystems. The 12 insecticides that were assessed in this study are all used to treat major pests of corn (corn root worm borer, cutworm, and armyworm). After running the integrated TIM/MCnest model, we found extensive differences in risk to birds among insecticides, with chlorpyrifos and malathion (organophosphates) generally posing the greatest risk, and bifenthrin and ë-cyhalothrin (

  17. Insecticide exposure affects DNA and antioxidant enzymes activity in honey bee species Apis florea and A. dorsata: Evidence from Punjab, Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayat, Khizar; Afzal, Muhammad; Aqueel, Muhammad Anjum; Ali, Sajjad; Saeed, Muhammad Farhan; Khan, Qaiser M; Ashfaq, Muhammad; Damalas, Christos A

    2018-04-23

    Insecticide exposure can affect honey bees in agro-ecosystems, posing behavioral stresses that can lead to population decline. In this study, insecticide incidence, DNA damage, and antioxidant enzyme activity were studied in Apis florea and A. dorsata honey bee samples collected from insecticide-treated and insecticide-free areas of Punjab, Pakistan. Seven insecticides: chlorpyrifos, dimethoate, imidacloprid, phorate, emamectin, chlorfenapyr, and acetamiprid were detected in seven samples of A. florea and five samples of A. dorsata. In total, 12 samples (22.2%) of honey bees were found positive to insecticide presence out of 54 samples. The most frequently detected insecticide was chlorpyrifos, which was found in four samples (7.4%), with a concentration ranging from 0.01 to 0.05 μg/g and an average concentration 0.03 μg/g. The comet assay or single cell gel electrophoresis assay, a simple way to measure DNA strand breaks in eukaryotic cells, was used to microscopically find damage of DNA at the level of a single cell. Comet tail lengths of DNA in A. florea and A. dorsata samples from insecticide-treated areas were significantly higher (P honey bee samples from insecticide-treated and insecticide-free areas, while glutathione S-transferase (GST) activity showed a significant reduction in response to insecticide exposure. Significant positive correlations were detected between enzyme activity and insecticide concentration in honey bee species from insecticide-treated areas compared with control groups. Toxicity from pesticide exposure at sub-lethal levels after application or from exposure to pesticide residues should not be underestimated in honey bees, as it may induce physiological impairment that can decline honey bees' health. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  18. The response of natural enemies to selective insecticides applied to soybean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varenhorst, A J; O'Neal, M E

    2012-12-01

    Natural enemies of the invasive pest Aphis glycines Matsumura can prevent its establishment and population growth. However, current A. glycines management practices include the application of broad-spectrum insecticides that affect pests and natural enemies that are present in the field at the time of application. An alternative is the use of selective insecticides that affect the targeted pest species, although having a reduced impact on the natural enemies. We tested the effects of esfenvalerate, spirotetramat, imidacloprid, and a combination of spirotetramat and imidacloprid on the natural enemies in soybean during the 2009 and 2010 field season. The natural enemy community that was tested differed significantly between 2009 and 2010 (F = 87.41; df = 1, 598; P natural enemy in 2009 was Harmonia axyridis (Pallas) (56.0%) and in 2010 was Orius insidiosus (Say) (41.0%). During 2009, the abundance of natural enemies did not vary between the broad-spectrum and selective insecticides; however, the abundance of natural enemies was reduced by all insecticide treatments when compared with the untreated control. In 2010, the selective insecticide imidacloprid had more natural enemies than the broad-spectrum insecticide. Although we did not observe a difference in the abundance of the total natural enemy community in 2009, we did observe more H. axyridis in plots treated with spirotetramat. In 2010, we observed more O. insidiosus in plots treated with imidacloprid. We suggest a couple of mechanisms to explain how the varying insecticides have different impacts on separate components of the natural enemy community.

  19. Insecticide-treated nets mass distribution campaign: benefits and lessons in Zambia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masaninga, Freddie; Mukumbuta, Nawa; Ndhlovu, Ketty; Hamainza, Busiku; Wamulume, Pauline; Chanda, Emmanuel; Banda, John; Mwanza-Ingwe, Mercy; Miller, John M; Ameneshewa, Birkinesh; Mnzava, Abraham; Kawesha-Chizema, Elizabeth

    2018-04-24

    Zambia was an early adopter of insecticide-treated nets strategy in 2001, and policy for mass distribution with long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs) in 2005. Since then, the country has implemented mass distribution supplemented with routine delivery through antenatal care and under five clinics in health facilities. The national targets of universal (100%) coverage and 80% utilization of LLINs have not been attained. Free mass LLIN distribution campaign in Zambia offers important lessons to inform future campaigns in the African region. This study reviewed LLIN free mass distribution campaign information derived from Zambia's national and World Health Organization Global Malaria Programme annual reports and strategic plans published between 2001 and 2016. In 2014, a nationwide mass distribution campaign in Zambia delivered all the 6.0 million LLINs in 6 out of 10 provinces in 4 months between June and September before the onset of the rainy season. Compared with 235,800 LLINs and 2.9 million LLINs distributed on a rolling basis in 2008 and 2013, respectively, the 2014 mass campaign, which distributed 6 million LLINs represented the largest one-time-nationwide LLIN distribution in Zambia. The province (Luapula) with highest malaria transmission, mostly with rural settings recorded 98-100% sleeping spaces in homes covered with LLINs. The percentage of households owning at least 1 LLIN increased from 50.9% in 2006 to 77.7% in 2015. The 2014 mass campaign involved a coordinated response with substantial investments into macro (central) and micro (district) level planning, capacity building, tracking and logistics management supported by a new non-health sector partnership landscape. Coordination of LLIN distribution and logistics benefited from the mobile phone technology to transmit "real time" data on commodity tracking that facilitated timely delivery to districts. Free mass distribution of LLINs policy was adopted in 2005 in Zambia. Consistently implemented

  20. Non-target toxicity of synthetic insecticides on the biological performance and population growth of Bracon hebetor Say.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muslim, Mohammad; Ansari, M Shafiq; Hasan, Fazil

    2018-05-24

    Bracon hebetor Say (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) is an important biological control agent of various species of order Lepidoptera and extensively used in biological control program worldwide. Present study evaluated the lethal and sublethal effects of insecticides on B. hebetor using demographic and population growth parameters. Doses of all the tested insecticides were within a maximum range of their recommended field dosages and adults were treated using residual glass vials method. For control experiments adults were treated with distilled water. Among the tested insecticides, the survivorship of various stages of B. hebetor was considerably prolonged on cyantraniliprole followed by chlorantraniliprole and shortest on chlorpyrifos and profenofos treated group. Total immature development time was prolonged in chlorpyrifos and profenofos treated group. Population growth parameters like intrinsic rate of natural increase (r m ), net reproductive rate (R 0 ), finite rate of increase (λ) and mean generation time (T c ) were considerably reduced in B. hebetor groups treated with chlorpyrifos and profenofos. However, B. hebetor groups treated with chlorantraniliprole and cyantraniliprole showed a little or no much difference in population growth parameters when compared with untreated group. It was also observed that chlorpyrifos and profenofos modified the sex ratio, thereby female emergence get reduced. On the basis of present findings it can be concluded that all tested insecticides caused considerable ecotoxic effects on B. hebetor compared to control. However, comparisons among the tested insecticides on the basis of IOBC criteria showed that chlorantraniliprol and cyntraniliprol was less toxic as compared to other insecticides tested on this biological control agent.

  1. Community Structure of Ammonia-Oxidizing Archaea and Ammonia-Oxidizing Bacteria in Soil Treated with the Insecticide Imidacloprid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariusz Cycoń

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this experiment was to assess the effect of imidacloprid on the community structure of ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA and ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB in soil using the denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE approach. Analysis showed that AOA and AOB community members were affected by the insecticide treatment. However, the calculation of the richness (S and the Shannon-Wiener index (H values for soil treated with the field rate (FR dosage of imidacloprid (1 mg/kg soil showed no changes in measured indices for the AOA and AOB community members. In turn, the 10*FR dosage of insecticide (10 mg/kg soil negatively affected the AOA community, which was confirmed by the decrease of the S and H values in comparison with the values obtained for the control soil. In the case of AOB community, an initial decline followed by the increase of the S and H values was obtained. Imidacloprid decreased the nitrification rate while the ammonification process was stimulated by the addition of imidacloprid. Changes in the community structure of AOA and AOB could be due to an increase in the concentration of N-NH4+, known as the most important factor which determines the contribution of these microorganisms to soil nitrification.

  2. Insecticide solvents: interference with insecticidal action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brattsten, L B; Wilkinson, C F

    1977-06-10

    Several commercial solvent mixtures commonly used as insecticide carriers in spray formulations increase by more than threefold the microsomal N-demethylation of p-chloro N-methylaniline in midgut preparations of southern army-worm (Spodoptera eridania) larvae exposed orally to the test solvents. Under laboratory conditions, the same solvent mixtures exhibit a protective action against the in vivo toxicity of the insecticide carbaryl to the larvae. The data are discussed with respect to possible solvent-insecticide interactions occurring under field conditions and, more broadly, to potential toxicological hazards of these solvents to humans.

  3. Africa's largest long-lasting insecticide-treated net producer: lessons from A to Z Textiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daar Abdallah S

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Field trials have demonstrated the efficacy of insecticide-treated nets, and the WHO has recently endorsed a shift toward Long-Lasting Insecticide Treated nets (LLINs due to factors such as reduced distribution costs. However, the need for LLINs poses several challenges. Is it possible to manufacture LLINs in large quantities in the African continent, where malaria is most endemic? When production is located in low-income countries, what role is played by local funding and employment, scaling up manufacturing, and partnerships? What factors influence availability and pricing? Discussion A case study of A to Z Textiles was undertaken to answer the question of how large-scale production of LLINs can occur in a low income setting. One of the largest sources of bed nets for Africa, A to Z Textiles is Africa-based, and its Tanzanian operations have a production capacity of 30 million LLINs per year, along with full WHO recommendation for its nets. Our analysis is based on semi-structured interviews with key informants familiar with A to Z, site visits in Tanzania, and literature reviews. This paper discusses the history and current status of A to Z Textiles, identifies the factors that led to its success, and suggests policy considerations that could support similar initiatives in the future. Local funding, scaling up manufacturing, technology transfer, and partnerships all played important roles in A to Z’s ascent, as did perceived benefits of local employment and capacity-building. Regulatory issues and procurement rules acted as barriers. A to Z cost-effectively manufactures high-quality LLINs where malaria is most endemic. Summary With a production capacity of 30 million LLINs per year, and full WHOPES (WHO Pesticide Evaluation Scheme certification, A to Z Textiles demonstrates how key health goods can be successfully produced in the low-income countries that use them. Its example may be instructive and of high interest to

  4. Experimental hut evaluation of bednets treated with an organophosphate (chlorpyrifos-methyl or a pyrethroid (lambdacyhalothrin alone and in combination against insecticide-resistant Anopheles gambiae and Culex quinquefasciatus mosquitoes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corbel Vincent

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pyrethroid resistant mosquitoes are becoming increasingly common in parts of Africa. It is important to identify alternative insecticides which, if necessary, could be used to replace or supplement the pyrethroids for use on treated nets. Certain compounds of an earlier generation of insecticides, the organophosphates may have potential as net treatments. Methods Comparative studies of chlorpyrifos-methyl (CM, an organophosphate with low mammalian toxicity, and lambdacyhalothrin (L, a pyrethroid, were conducted in experimental huts in Côte d'Ivoire, West Africa. Anopheles gambiae and Culex quinquefasciatus mosquitoes from the area are resistant to pyrethroids and organophosphates (kdr and insensitive acetylcholinesterase Ace.1R. Several treatments and application rates on intact or holed nets were evaluated, including single treatments, mixtures, and differential wall/ceiling treatments. Results and Conclusion All of the treatments were effective in reducing blood feeding from sleepers under the nets and in killing both species of mosquito, despite the presence of the kdr and Ace.1R genes at high frequency. In most cases, the effects of the various treatments did not differ significantly. Five washes of the nets in soap solution did not reduce the impact of the insecticides on A. gambiae mortality, but did lead to an increase in blood feeding. The three combinations performed no differently from the single insecticide treatments, but the low dose mixture performed encouragingly well indicating that such combinations might be used for controlling insecticide resistant mosquitoes. Mortality of mosquitoes that carried both Ace.1R and Ace.1S genes did not differ significantly from mosquitoes that carried only Ace.1S genes on any of the treated nets, indicating that the Ace.1R allele does not confer effective resistance to chlorpyrifos-methyl under the realistic conditions of an experimental hut.

  5. The impact of insecticide-treated school uniforms on dengue infections in school-aged children: study protocol for a randomised controlled trial in Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilder-Smith Annelies

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is an urgent need to protect children against dengue since this age group is particularly sensitive to the disease. Since dengue vectors are active mainly during the day, a potential target for control should be schools where children spend a considerable amount of their day. School uniforms are the cultural norm in most developing countries, worn throughout the day. We hypothesise that insecticide-treated school uniforms will reduce the incidence of dengue infection in school-aged children. Our objective is to determine the impact of impregnated school uniforms on dengue incidence. Methods A randomised controlled trial will be conducted in eastern Thailand in a group of schools with approximately 2,000 students aged 7–18 years. Pre-fabricated school uniforms will be commercially treated to ensure consistent, high-quality insecticide impregnation with permethrin. A double-blind, randomised, crossover trial at the school level will cover two dengue transmission seasons. Discussion Practical issues and plans concerning intervention implementation, evaluation, analysing and interpreting the data, and possible policy implications arising from the trial are discussed. Trial registration clinicaltrial.gov. Registration number: NCT01563640

  6. Reduced ultraviolet light transmission increases insecticide longevity in protected culture raspberry production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leach, Heather; Wise, John C; Isaacs, Rufus

    2017-12-01

    High tunnels are large protective structures used for season extension of many crops, including raspberries. These structures are often covered in plastic films to reduce and diffuse ultraviolet light transmission for pest and disease control, but this may also affect the photodegradation and efficacy of pesticides applied under these tunnels. We compared the residue levels of ten insecticides under three tunnel plastics with varying levels of UV transmission and open field conditions. Raspberry plants placed in research-scale tunnels were treated with insecticides and residues on fruit and foliage were monitored for one or two weeks in early 2015 and early and late 2016. Plastics that reduce UV transmission resulted in 50% greater residues of some insecticides compared to transparent plastics, and 60% compared to uncovered tunnels. This increased persistence of residues was evident within 1 day and remained consistently higher for up to 14 days. This pattern was demonstrated for multiple insecticides, including bifenthrin, esfenvalerate, imidacloprid, thiamethoxam, and spinosad. In contrast, the insecticide malathion degraded rapidly regardless of the plastic treatment, indicating less sensitivity to photodegradation. Bioassays using insecticide-treated leaves that were under UV-blocking plastic revealed higher mortality of the invasive fruit pest, Drosophila suzukii, compared to leaves that were uncovered. This indicates that the activity of pesticides under high tunnels covered in UV-reducing plastics may be prolonged, allowing for fewer insecticide applications and longer intervals between sprays. This information can be used to help optimize pest control in protected culture berry production. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Effect of insecticides and Plutella xylostella (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae) genotype on a predator and parasitoid and implications for the evolution of insecticide resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiaoxia; Chen, Mao; Collins, Hilda L; Onstad, David; Roush, Rick; Zhang, Qingwen; Shelton, Anthony M

    2012-04-01

    In the laboratory and in cages in the greenhouse, we evaluated the toxicity of two insecticides (lambda-cyhalothrin and spinosad) on the parasitoid, Diadegma insulare (Cresson), and the predator, Coleomegilla maculate (DeGeer), both natural enemies of the diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella (L.). Lambda-cyhalothrin was very toxic to both natural enemies. Spinosad was less toxic to C. maculata adults and larvae, and slightly toxic to D. insulare. Both natural enemies suppressed P. xylostella populations in cages with 80% spinosad-treated and 20% nontreated plants; such suppression was not seen when lambda-cyhalothrin was used. Using broccoli, Brassica oleracea L. variety italica, a common host for P. xylostella, we also studied direct and indirect effects of both natural enemies in the presence and absence of the two insecticides and to different P. xylostella genotypes: resistant to the insecticide, susceptible, or heterozygous. Neither natural enemy could distinguish host genotype if P. xylostella were feeding on nontreated plants. They could also not distinguish between larvae feeding on spinosad-treated plants and nontreated plants, but D. insulare could distinguish between larvae feeding on lambda-cyhalothrin treated and nontreated plants. Our studies suggest that lambda-cyhalothrin has direct toxicity to these two natural enemies, can affect their host foraging and acceptance of P. xylostella and consequently would not be compatible in conserving these natural enemies in a program for suppression of P. xylostella. In contrast, our studies suggest that treatment with spinosad has much less effect on these natural enemies and would allow them to help suppress populations of P. xylostella. These findings are discussed in relation to the evolution of insecticide resistance and suppression of the pest populations.

  8. Longlasting insecticidal nets for prevention of Leishmania donovani infection in India and Nepal: paired cluster randomised trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Picado, Albert; Singh, Shri Prakash; Rijal, Suman

    2010-01-01

    To test the effectiveness of large scale distribution of longlasting nets treated with insecticide in reducing the incidence of visceral leishmaniasis in India and Nepal.......To test the effectiveness of large scale distribution of longlasting nets treated with insecticide in reducing the incidence of visceral leishmaniasis in India and Nepal....

  9. The costs and effects of a nationwide insecticide-treated net programme: the case of Malawi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ortiz Juan

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Insecticide-treated nets (ITNs are a proven intervention to reduce the burden of malaria, yet there remains a debate as to the best method of ensuring they are universally utilized. This study is a cost-effectiveness analysis of an intervention in Malawi that started in 1998, in Blantyre district, before expanding nationwide. Over the 5-year period, 1.5 million ITNs were sold. Methods The costs were calculated retrospectively through analysis of expenditure data. Costs and effects were measured as cost per treated-net year (cost/TNY and cost per net distributed. Results The mean cost/TNY was calculated at $4.41, and the mean cost/ITN distributed at $2.63. It also shows evidence of economies of scale, with the cost/TNY falling from $7.69 in year one (72,196 ITN to $3.44 in year five (720,577 ITN. Cost/ITN distributed dropped from $5.04 to $1.92. Conclusion Combining targeting and social marketing has the potential of being both cost-effective and capable of achieving high levels of coverage, and it is possible that increasing returns to scale can be achieved.

  10. Multicentre studies of insecticide-treated durable wall lining in Africa and South-East Asia: entomological efficacy and household acceptability during one year of field use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Messenger Louisa A

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Indoor residual spraying (IRS is a primary method of malaria vector control, but its potential impact is constrained by several inherent limitations: spraying must be repeated when insecticide residues decay, householders can tire of the annual imposition and campaign costs are recurrent. Durable lining (DL can be considered an advanced form of long-lasting IRS where insecticide is gradually released from an aesthetically attractive wall lining material to provide vector control for several years. A multicentre trial was carried out in Equatorial Guinea, Ghana, Mali, South Africa and Vietnam to assess the feasibility, durability, bioefficacy and household acceptability of DL, compared to conventional IRS or insecticide-treated curtains (LLITCs, in a variety of operational settings. Methods This study was conducted in 220 households in traditional rural villages over 12-15 months. In all sites, rolls of DL were cut to fit house dimensions and fixed to interior wall surfaces (usually with nails and caps by trained teams. Acceptability was assessed using a standardized questionnaire covering such topics as installation, exposure reactions, entomology, indoor environment, aesthetics and durability. Bioefficacy of interventions was evaluated using WHO cone bioassay tests at regular intervals throughout the year. Results The deltamethrin DL demonstrated little to no decline in bioefficacy over 12-15 months, supported by minimal loss of insecticide content. By contrast, IRS displayed a significant decrease in bioactivity by 6 months and full loss after 12 months. The majority of participants in DL households perceived reductions in mosquito density (93% and biting (82%, but no changes in indoor temperature (83%. Among those households that wanted to retain the DL, 73% cited protective reasons, 20% expressed a desire to keep theirs for decoration and 7% valued both qualities equally. In Equatorial Guinea, when offered a choice of

  11. N-player mosquito net game: individual and social rationality in the misuse of insecticide-treated nets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honjo, Keita; Satake, Akiko

    2014-02-07

    Many governmental and non-governmental organizations have distributed insecticide-treated nets (ITNs) to malaria endemic areas, which contributed to the reduction of malaria deaths. However, some people in malaria endemic areas used ITNs for alternative purposes such as fishery and agriculture. It is unclear why people threatened by malaria misuse ITNs. Here we develop a N-player mosquito net game, and theoretically show that the misuse of ITNs might be underpinned by individual and social rationality. In the mosquito net game, each player uses ITNs for malaria prevention or alternative purposes. The proper ITN use decreases the probability of malaria infection, while the improper ITN use increases the player's labor productivity. Each player's expected payoff is influenced by other players' strategies. We found that the misuse of ITNs can be a Pareto efficient Nash equilibrium. The maximum number of players using ITNs for malaria prevention is limited by insecticidal effectiveness of ITNs and extra income from ITN misuse. Furthermore, we found that players in a low-income community are attracted to the misuse of ITNs even if the probability of malaria infection is high. Introduction of a tax on ITN misuse was shown to be effective to motivate the players to use ITNs for malaria prevention. Our results demonstrate that understanding decision making of people in malaria endemic areas is essential to design more effective malaria control programs. © 2013 Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Rice Production without Insecticide in Smallholder Farmer's Field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. P. Ali

    2017-05-01

    if the field was infested with an insect pest. Predatory insects were higher in numbers than that of insecticide treated fields. We conclude farmers' should refrain insecticide applications up to 30–40 days after transplanting to enhance higher predatory arthropod population numbers, which might check pest populations in rice fields. Our experimental results show that a proper manner of an integrated pest management (IPM cut pesticide use without any yield penalty. Results indicate the T2 management system minimizes pest damage by increasing natural enemies and can improve environmental quality.

  13. Degradation analysis of some synthetic and bio-insecticides sprayed on okra crop using HPLC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abar, M.F.; Haq, M.A.; Yasmin, N.; Khan, M.F.U.

    2012-01-01

    This study aimed to find out the degradation of three conventional and two bio-insecticides sprayed on okra crop. Imidacloprid, Endosulfan and Profenofos were selected as convectional and biosal and spinosad as bioinsecticide. The insecticides were sprayed at the rates of 49.4, 642.2, 988, 35.5 and 158 g. a. i. ha/sup -1/ respectively. The insecticide residues were analyzed in the leaf and fruit after 0, 1, 3 and 7 days using high performance liquid chromatography. First order degradation kinetics was fitted on this data and degradation rate constants and half life were calculated. Conventional insecticides were found to be more persistent in the crop (Average half life: 1.95, 2.42 and 1.57 days for imidacloprid, endosulfan and profenofos respectively) than bioinsecticides (Average half life 1.25 and 0.27 days for spinosad and biosal respectively). Residues of all tested insecticides were compared with codex and EU MRLs and found both the bio-insecticides treated crops safe for human consumption even after few hours of spray. Endosulfan and profenofos treated crops were not found to be fit for consumption even after 7 days of application. Imidacloprid being biorational (low risk) was also safe for consumption on the next day of application. (author)

  14. Log bioassay of residual effectiveness of insecticides against bark beetles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard H. Smith

    1982-01-01

    Residual effectiveness of nine insecticides applied to bark was tested against western, mountain, and Jeffrey pine beetles. Ponderosa and Jeffrey pine trees were treated and logs cut from them 2 to 13 months later, and bioassayed with the three beetles. The insecticides were sprayed at the rate of 1 gal (3.8 l) per 40- or 80-ft² (3.6 or 7.2 m²) bark surface at varying...

  15. Agricultural insecticides threaten surface waters at the global scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stehle, Sebastian; Schulz, Ralf

    2015-05-05

    Compared with nutrient levels and habitat degradation, the importance of agricultural pesticides in surface water may have been underestimated due to a lack of comprehensive quantitative analysis. Increasing pesticide contamination results in decreasing regional aquatic biodiversity, i.e., macroinvertebrate family richness is reduced by ∼30% at pesticide concentrations equaling the legally accepted regulatory threshold levels (RTLs). This study provides a comprehensive metaanalysis of 838 peer-reviewed studies (>2,500 sites in 73 countries) that evaluates, for the first time to our knowledge on a global scale, the exposure of surface waters to particularly toxic agricultural insecticides. We tested whether measured insecticide concentrations (MICs; i.e., quantified insecticide concentrations) exceed their RTLs and how risks depend on insecticide development over time and stringency of environmental regulation. Our analysis reveals that MICs occur rarely (i.e., an estimated 97.4% of analyses conducted found no MICs) and there is a complete lack of scientific monitoring data for ∼90% of global cropland. Most importantly, of the 11,300 MICs, 52.4% (5,915 cases; 68.5% of the sites) exceeded the RTL for either surface water (RTLSW) or sediments. Thus, the biological integrity of global water resources is at a substantial risk. RTLSW exceedances depend on the catchment size, sampling regime, and sampling date; are significantly higher for newer-generation insecticides (i.e., pyrethroids); and are high even in countries with stringent environmental regulations. These results suggest the need for worldwide improvements to current pesticide regulations and agricultural pesticide application practices and for intensified research efforts on the presence and effects of pesticides under real-world conditions.

  16. Reduced risk insecticides to control scale insects and protect natural enemies in the production and maintenance of urban landscape plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, Steven D

    2012-04-01

    Armored scale insects are among the most difficult to manage and economically important arthropod pests in the production and maintenance of urban landscape plants. This is because of morphological traits that protect them from contact insecticides. I compared initial and season-long control of euonymus scale, Unaspis euonymi Comstock (Hemiptera: Diaspidae), by reduced-risk insecticides (insect growth regulators [IGRs], neonicotinoids, spirotetramat) to determine if they controlled scale as well as more toxic insecticides such as the organophosphate, acephate, and pyrethroid, bifenthrin. I also evaluated how these insecticides affected natural enemy abundance on experimental plants and survival when exposed to insecticide residue. All insecticides tested reduced first generation euonymus scale abundance. In 2009, reinfestation by second generation euonymus scale was highest on plants treated with acetamiprid and granular dinotefuran. In 2010, systemic neonicotinoids and spirotetramat prevented cottony cushion scale infestation 133 d after treatment whereas scale readily infested plants treated with bifenthrin and horticultural oil. Encarsia spp. and Cybocephalus spp. abundance was related to scale abundance. These natural enemies were generally less abundant than predicted by scale abundance on granular dinotefuran treated plants and more abundant on granular thiamethoxam treated plants. Bifenthrin residue killed 90-100% of O. insidiosus and E. citrina within 24 h. My results indicate that reduced risk insecticides can provide season-long scale control with less impact on natural enemies than conventional insecticides. This could have economic and environmental benefits by reducing the number of applications necessary to protect nursery and landscape plants from scale.

  17. Insecticide control of vector-borne diseases: when is insecticide resistance a problem?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Rivero

    Full Text Available Many of the most dangerous human diseases are transmitted by insect vectors. After decades of repeated insecticide use, all of these vector species have demonstrated the capacity to evolve resistance to insecticides. Insecticide resistance is generally considered to undermine control of vector-transmitted diseases because it increases the number of vectors that survive the insecticide treatment. Disease control failure, however, need not follow from vector control failure. Here, we review evidence that insecticide resistance may have an impact on the quality of vectors and, specifically, on three key determinants of parasite transmission: vector longevity, competence, and behaviour. We argue that, in some instances, insecticide resistance is likely to result in a decrease in vector longevity, a decrease in infectiousness, or in a change in behaviour, all of which will reduce the vectorial capacity of the insect. If this effect is sufficiently large, the impact of insecticide resistance on disease management may not be as detrimental as previously thought. In other instances, however, insecticide resistance may have the opposite effect, increasing the insect's vectorial capacity, which may lead to a dramatic increase in the transmission of the disease and even to a higher prevalence than in the absence of insecticides. Either way-and there may be no simple generality-the consequence of the evolution of insecticide resistance for disease ecology deserves additional attention.

  18. Compatibility of endoparasitoid Hyposoter didymator (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae) protected stages with five selected insecticides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medina, P; Morales, J J; Budia, F; Adan, A; Del Estal, P; Viñuela, E

    2007-12-01

    Hyposoter didymator (Thunberg) (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae) is a koinobiont endoparasitoid that emerges from the parasitization of economically important noctuid pests. H. didymator also is considered one of the most important native biocontrol agents of noctuids in Spain. Side effects of five insecticides with very different modes of action (fipronil, imidacloprid, natural pyrethrins + piperonyl butoxide, pymetrozine, and triflumuron) at the maximum field recommended rate in Spain were evaluated on H. didymator parasitizing Spodoptera littoralis (Boisduval) larvae and pupae of the endoparasitoid. Parasitized larvae were topically treated or ingested treated artificial diet. Parasitoid cocoons were topically treated. Host mortality when parasitized larvae were treated, as well as further development of the parasitoid surviving (e.g., percentage of cocoons spun, adult emergence, hosts attacked, and numbered progeny) were determined. Toxicity after treatment of parasitized larvae differed depending on the mode of exposure and insecticide. Fipronil was always highly toxic; imidacloprid killed all host insects by ingestion, but it was less toxic to both host and parasitoids, when administered topically; natural pyrethrins + piperonyl butoxide and triflumuron showed differing degrees of toxicity, and pymetrozine was harmless. Parasitoid cocoons provided effective protection against all the insecticides, except fipronil.

  19. Equity and coverage of insecticide-treated bed nets in an area of intense transmission of Plasmodium falciparum in Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mtei Frank

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is no clear consensus on the most sustainable and effective distribution strategy for insecticide treated bed nets (ITNs. Tanzania has been a leader in social marketing but it is still not clear if this can result in high and equitable levels of coverage. Methods A cluster-randomized survey of ITN and bed net ownership and use was conducted in a rural area exposed to intense Plasmodium falciparum transmission in NE Tanzania where ITN distribution had been subject to routine delivery of national strategies and episodic free distribution through local clinics. Data were collected on household assets to assess equity of ITN coverage and a rapid diagnostic test for malaria (RDT was performed in all ages. Results Among 598 households in four villages the use of any or insecticidal bed nets in children less than five years of age was 71% and 54% respectively. However there was a 19.8% increase in the number of bed nets per person (p Conclusion Marked inequity persists with the poorest households still experiencing the highest risk of malaria and the lowest ITN coverage. Abolition of this inequity within the foreseeable future is likely to require mass or targeted free distribution, but risks damaging what is otherwise an effective commercial market.

  20. Insecticide-treated bed nets reduce plasma antibody levels and limit the repertoire of antibodies to Plasmodium falciparum variant surface antigens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Askjaer, N; Maxwell, C; Chambo, W

    2001-01-01

    The use of insecticide-treated bed nets (ITN) has been documented to reduce malaria morbidity and mortality in areas with endemic malaria, but concerns have been raised that ITN usage could affect the acquisition of malaria immunity. Several lines of evidence have indicated that antibodies against...... variant surface antigens (VSA) are important in the development of naturally acquired immunity to Plasmodium falciparum malaria and may thus be good indicators of immune status. We have compared the levels of VSA antibodies in plasma from children who have used ITN for 4 years to levels in plasma from...

  1. Coverage of intermittent preventive treatment and insecticide-treated nets for the control of malaria during pregnancy in sub-Saharan Africa: a synthesis and meta-analysis of national survey data, 2009-11

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Eijk, Anna Maria; Hill, Jenny; Larsen, David A.; Webster, Jayne; Steketee, Richard W.; Eisele, Thomas P.; ter Kuile, Feiko O.

    2013-01-01

    Pregnant women in malaria-endemic countries in sub-Saharan Africa are especially vulnerable to malaria. Recommended prevention strategies include intermittent preventive treatment with two doses of sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine and the use of insecticide-treated nets. However, progress with

  2. The contribution of agricultural insecticide use to increasing insecticide resistance in African malaria vectors

    OpenAIRE

    Reid, Molly C.; McKenzie, F. Ellis

    2016-01-01

    The fight against malaria is increasingly threatened by failures in vector control due to growing insecticide resistance. This review examines the recent primary research that addresses the putative relationship between agricultural insecticide use and trends in insecticide resistance. To do so, descriptive evidence offered by the new research was categorized, and additional factors that impact the relationship between agricultural insecticide use and observed insecticide resistance in malari...

  3. Scepticism towards insecticide treated mosquito nets for malaria control in rural community in north-western Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nnko, Soori E; Whyte, Susan R; Geissler, Wenzel P; Aagaard-Hansen, Jens

    2012-04-01

    Despite existence of effective tools for malaria control, malaria continues to be one of the leading killer diseases especially among under-five year children and pregnant women in poor rural populations of Sub Saharan Africa. In Tanzania Mainland the disease contributes to 39.4% of the total OPD attendances. In terms of mortality, malaria is known to be responsible for more than one third of deaths among children of age below 5 years and also contributes for up to one fifth of deaths among pregnant women. This paper is based on a study conducted in a rural community along the shores of Lake Victoria in Mwanza region, North-Western Tanzania. The study explores reasons for scepticism and low uptake of insecticide treated mosquito nets (ITNs) that were promoted through social marketing strategy for malaria control prior to the introduction of long lasting nets (LLN). The paper breaks from traditional approach that tend to study low uptake of health interventions in terms of structural practical constraints--cost, accessibility, everyday priorities--or in terms of cognition--insufficient knowledge of benefits e.g. ignorance of public health messages. This paper has shown that, the majority of people who could afford the prices of ITNs and who knew where to obtain the insecticides did not necessarily buy them. This suggests that, although people tend to report cost-related factors as a barrier against the use of ITNs, there are other critical concerns at work. Without underestimating the practical factors, our study have recommended to consider critical examinations of those other concerns that hinder optimal utilization of ITN for malaria control, and the basis for those concerns.

  4. Can Long-lasting Insecticide-treated Bednets with Holes Protect Children from Malaria?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nonaka, Daisuke; Maazou, Abani; Yamagata, Shigeo; Oumarou, Issofou; Uchida, Takako; Jg Yacouba, Honoré; Toma, Nami; Takeuchi, Rie; Kobayashi, Jun; Mizoue, Tetsuya

    2014-09-01

    Although long-lasting insecticide-treated bednets (LLINs) have been widely used for malaria control, little is known about how the condition of LLINs affects the risk of malaria infection. The objective of this cross-sectional study was to examine the association between the use of LLINs with holes and caregiver-reported malaria diagnosed in children under five years of age (U5). Data were collected in Boboye health district, Niger, in 2010. Surveyors conducted interviews and bednet inspections in 1,034 households. If a household had a U5 child, the surveyor asked the caregiver whether the child had experienced a fever episode in the past two weeks that entailed standard treatment for uncomplicated malaria at a healthcare facility. The authors analyzed the association between the use of LLINs with holes and caregiver-reported malaria episodes in U5 children using logistic regression, adjusted for possible confounders. Of the 1,165 children included in the analysis, approximately half (53.3%) used an intact LLIN while far fewer (10.6%) used a LLIN with holes. Compared to children using an intact LLIN, children using a LLIN with holes were significantly more likely to have a caregiver-reported malaria episode (8.7% vs. 17.1%; odds ratio: 2.23; 95% confidence interval: 1.24-4.01). In this study site, LLINs with holes were less protective than intact LLINs.

  5. The effect of insecticide applications to melon crop on melon aphid and its natural enemies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guerra, J.; Gonzalez, J.E.; Ceballos, J.; Checa, B.

    1999-01-01

    Melons are an important export crop for Panama and are cultivated on more than 1000 ha of land. Long growing season, extending well into January, allows several generations and build up of heavy populations of an important insect pest, Aphis gossypii, the melon aphid. Growers find it difficult to cultivate melons without several applications of insecticides. Although the insecticide applications control the aphids, they may also have adverse effects on the natural enemies of the aphid, in particular the two predatory insects Cycloneda sanguinea and Chrysoperla carnea. The purpose of this research was to evaluate the impact of insecticide applications on these insects and on the yield of melons, and to estimate residues of the applied insecticides in soil. The insecticides were applied as four different type of treatments to melon crop. The treatments were (i) three periodic applications of endosulfan (Thiodan 35EC), each at 0.52 kg a.i./ha, (ii) three applications of fenitrothion (Sumithion 50WP), each at 0.35 kg a.i./ha, (iii) two applications of fenitrothion and one of endosulfan, and (iv) grower's treatment, which included applications of six different insecticides. The effect of the insecticide applications was evaluated by estimating numbers of each of the three type of insects before and within 72 hours after the applications and estimating yield of melons. All insecticide treatments reduced the populations of Aphis gossypii, but they also reduced the numbers of the benificial insects. Endosulfan was somewhat less toxic to C. carnea than the other insecticides were, since greater number of C. carnea were recorded from the plots treated with endosulfan than the other treated plots. The best yield of melons was recorded in the plots which were sprayed with fenitrothion, followed by the plots sprayed with endosulfan. and then those with grower's insecticides. Soon after the application of endosulfan the residue in the soil was 0.2 mg/kg, but it declined to less

  6. Determinants of use of insecticide-treated nets among pregnant women in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ezire O

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Onoriode Ezire,1 Samson B Adebayo,2 Omokhudu Idogho,3 Elijah A Bamgboye,4 Ernest Nwokolo5 1Research and Evaluation Division, Society for Family Health, Abuja, 2National Agency for Food and Drug Administration and Control, Abuja, 3Enhancing Nigeria’s Response to HIV & AIDS, Abuja, 4Medical Statistics, University of Ibadan, Ibadan, 5Society for Family Health, Abuja, Nigeria Background: Malaria in pregnancy is still a major health issue in Nigeria, accounting for about 33% of cause of maternal death. Despite massive efforts to make insecticide-treated net (ITN available to pregnant women in Nigeria, the use is still low. This study was conducted to identify facilitators and inhibitors for the use of ITN/long-lasting insecticidal net (LLIN among pregnant women in Nigeria.Methods: Data were obtained from the 2011 State-Specific HIV & AIDS, Reproductive and Child Health Survey conducted in 18 states of Nigeria. The survey was a population-based study among men and women of reproductive age living in households in rural and urban areas of Nigeria. Multistage cluster sampling technique was used to select eligible respondents. The sample size per state was 960 respondents. Data were collected between October and November 2011. The analysis was done using Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS version 20.Results: A total of 11.5% of the respondents were pregnant at the time of the survey of which 73.2% lived in rural location and approximately 70% were either not educated or attained at most a primary school education. A total of 93.2% of respondents have heard of net, 82.6% were confident that they can hang or use a net, and 64.6% owned an ITN/LLIN in their household while the actual use was just 19.2%. We found education, location (urban–rural, confidence to use a net, and knowledge that the use of a net can protect a pregnant woman from malaria to be significant at 5% level. The number of nets owned per household, the length of time the net

  7. The contribution of agricultural insecticide use to increasing insecticide resistance in African malaria vectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, Molly C; McKenzie, F Ellis

    2016-02-19

    The fight against malaria is increasingly threatened by failures in vector control due to growing insecticide resistance. This review examines the recent primary research that addresses the putative relationship between agricultural insecticide use and trends in insecticide resistance. To do so, descriptive evidence offered by the new research was categorized, and additional factors that impact the relationship between agricultural insecticide use and observed insecticide resistance in malaria vectors were identified. In 23 of the 25 relevant recent publications from across Africa, higher resistance in mosquito populations was associated with agricultural insecticide use. This association appears to be affected by crop type, farm pest management strategy and urban development.

  8. Sublethal effects of some synthetic and botanical insecticides on Bemisia tabaci (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esmaeily Saeideh

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available In addition to direct mortality caused by insecticides, some biological traits of insects may also be affected by sublethal insecticide doses. In this study, we used the age-stage, two-sex life table method to evaluate the sublethal effects of the four synthetic insecticides: abamectin, imidacloprid, diazinon, and pymetrozin as well as the botanical insecticide taken from Calotropis procera (Asclepiadaceae extract, on eggs of the cotton whitefly, Bemisia tabaci (Hem.: Aleyrodidae. The lowest and highest survival rates and oviposition periods were observed in whiteflies treated by diazinon and imidacloprid, respectively. We found significant differences in the net reproductive rate (R0, the intrinsic rate of increase (r, the finite rate of increase (?, and the gross reproductive rate (GRR among different insecticides. Altogether, our results showed that pymetrozin and C. procera induced the most sublethal effects, thus they may be suitable candidates for use in integrated pest management programs of B. tabaci.

  9. Physiological selectivity and activity reduction of insecticides by rainfall to predatory wasps of Tuta absoluta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barros, Emerson C; Bacci, Leandro; Picanco, Marcelo C; Martins, Júlio C; Rosado, Jander F; Silva, Gerson A

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we carried out three bioassays with nine used insecticides in tomato crops to identify their efficiency against tomato leaf miner Tuta absoluta, the physiological selectivity and the activity reduction of insecticides by three rain regimes to predatory wasps Protonectarina sylveirae and Polybia scutellaris. We assessed the mortality caused by the recommended doses of abamectin, beta-cyfluthrin, cartap, chlorfenapyr, etofenprox, methamidophos, permethrin, phenthoate and spinosad to T. absoluta and wasps at the moment of application. In addition, we evaluated the wasp mortality due to the insecticides for 30 days on plants that did not receive rain and on plants that received 4 or 125 mm of rain. Spinosad, cartap, chlorfenapyr, phenthoate, abamectin and methamidophos caused mortality higher than 90% to T. absoluta, whereas the pyrethroids beta-cyfluthrin, etofenprox and permethrin caused mortality between 8.5% and 46.25%. At the moment of application, all the insecticides were highly toxic to the wasps, causing mortality higher than 80%. In the absence of rain, all the insecticides continued to cause high mortality to the wasps for 30 days after the application. The toxicity of spinosad and methamidophos on both wasp species; beta-cyfluthrin on P. sylveirae and chlorfenapyr and abamectin on P. scutellaris, decreased when the plants received 4 mm of rain. In contrast, the other insecticides only showed reduced toxicity on the wasps when the plants received 125 mm of rain.

  10. A short history of insecticides

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    Oberemok Volodymyr Volodymyrovych

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This review contains a brief history of the use of insecticides. The peculiarities, main advantages, and disadvantages of some modern insecticides are described. The names of the discoverers of some of the most popular insecticide preparations on the world market, are listed. The tendencies to find new insecticides to control the quantity of phytophagous insects are discussed. Special attention is paid to the perspective of creating preparations based on nucleic acids, in particular DNA insecticides. The use of insect-specific, short single-stranded DNA fragments as DNA insecticides, is paving the way in the field of “intellectual” insecticides that “think” before they act. It is worth noting, though, that in the near future, the quantity of produced insecticides will increase due to the challenges associated with food production for a rapidly growing population. It is concluded, that an agreeable interaction of scientists and manufacturers of insecticides should lead to the selection of the most optimal solutions for insect pest control, which would be safe, affordable, and effective at the same time.

  11. Genetic variation associated with increased insecticide resistance in the malaria mosquito, Anopheles coluzzii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Main, Bradley J; Everitt, Amanda; Cornel, Anthony J; Hormozdiari, Fereydoun; Lanzaro, Gregory C

    2018-04-04

    Malaria mortality rates in sub-Saharan Africa have declined significantly in recent years as a result of increased insecticide-treated bed net (ITN) usage. A major challenge to further progress is the emergence and spread of insecticide resistance alleles in the Anopheles mosquito vectors, like An. coluzzii. A non-synonymous mutation in the para voltage-gated sodium channel gene reduces pyrethroid-binding affinity, resulting in knockdown resistance (kdr). Metabolic mechanisms of insecticide resistance involving detoxification genes like cytochrome P450 genes, carboxylesterases, and glutathione S-transferases are also important. As some gene activity is tissue-specific and/or environmentally induced, gene regulatory variation may be overlooked when comparing expression from whole mosquito bodies under standard rearing conditions. We detected complex insecticide resistance in a 2014 An. coluzzii colony from southern Mali using bottle bioassays. Additional bioassays involving recombinant genotypes from a cross with a relatively susceptible 1995 An. coluzzii colony from Mali confirmed the importance of kdr and associated increased permethrin resistance to the CYP9K1 locus on the X chromosome. Significant differential expression of CYP9K1 was not observed among these colonies in Malpighian tubules. However, the P450 gene CYP6Z1 was overexpressed in resistant individuals following sublethal permethrin exposure and the carboxylesterase gene COEAE5G was constitutively overexpressed. The significant P450-related insecticide resistance observed in the 2014 An. coluzzii colony indicates that ITNs treated with the P450 inhibitor piperonyl butoxide (PBO) would be more effective in this region. The known insecticide resistance gene CYP6Z1 was differentially expressed exclusively in the context of sublethal permethrin exposure, highlighting the importance of tissue-specificity and environmental conditions in gene expression studies. The increased activity of the carboxylesterase

  12. Insecticide toxicity to Trichogramma pretiosum (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae) females and effect on descendant generation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vianna, Ulysses R; Pratissoli, Dirceu; Zanuncio, José C; Lima, Eraldo R; Brunner, Jay; Pereira, Fabrício F; Serrão, José E

    2009-02-01

    The effect of nine insecticides used in tomato production was evaluated on adults of two Trichogramma pretiosum Riley (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae) populations from Rive and Afonso Cláudio, Espírito Santo State, Brazil. The experiment was developed in an acclimatized chamber at 25 +/- 1 degrees C, 70 +/- 10% relative humidity and 14 h photophase. Eggs of Anagasta kuehniella (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae), previously immersed in insecticides solutions were offered to females of both T. pretiosum populations. Bacillus thuringiensis, lufenuron and triflumuron had lowest negative effects on parasitism and viability of individuals of these populations; however, abamectin and pyrethroids (betacyflurin 50 and 125 g/l and esfenvalerate) insecticides reduced parasitism rates. T. pretiosum emerged from A. kuehniella eggs treated with esfenvalerate but were not able to parasitize non treated eggs of this host. B. thuringiensis, lufenuron and triflumuron may be used in integrated pest management programs to control tomato pests, because they have moderated negative effect on parasitoid wasps.

  13. Modelling the impact of the long-term use of insecticide-treated bed nets on Anopheles mosquito biting time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Claudia P; Lyra, Silas P; Azevedo, Franciane; Greenhalgh, David; Massad, Eduardo

    2017-09-15

    Evidence of changing in biting and resting behaviour of the main malaria vectors has been mounting up in recent years as a result of selective pressure by the widespread and long-term use of insecticide-treated bed nets (ITNs), and indoor residual spraying. The impact of resistance behaviour on malaria intervention efficacy has important implications for the epidemiology and malaria control programmes. In this context, a theoretical framework is presented to understand the mechanisms determining the evolution of feeding behaviour under the pressure of use of ITNs. An agent-based stochastic model simulates the impact of insecticide-treated bed nets on mosquito fitness by reducing the biting rates, as well as increasing mortality rates. The model also incorporates a heritability function that provides the necessary genetic plasticity upon which natural selection would act to maximize the fitness under the pressure of the control strategy. The asymptotic equilibrium distribution of mosquito population versus biting time is shown for several daily uses of ITNs, and the expected disruptive selection on this mosquito trait is observed in the simulations. The relative fitness of strains that bite at much earlier time with respect to the wild strains, when a threshold of about 50% of ITNs coverage highlights the hypothesis of a behaviour selection. A sensitivity analysis has shown that the top three parameters that play a dominant role on the mosquito fitness are the proportion of individuals using bed nets and its effectiveness, the impact of bed nets on mosquito oviposition, and the mosquito genetic plasticity related to changing in biting time. By taking the evolutionary aspect into account, the model was able to show that the long-term use of ITNs, although representing an undisputed success in reducing malaria incidence and mortality in many affected areas, is not free of undesirable side effects. From the evolutionary point of view of the parasite virulence, it

  14. Efficacy of insecticides through contact and oral uptake towards four Agriotes wireworm species under controlled conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rozen, van K.; Huiting, H.F.; Wilhelm, R.; Heger, M.; Ester, A.

    2013-01-01

    Wireworms of Agriotes lineatus, A. obscurus, A. sputator and A. sordidus were exposed to insecticide treated soil using two different control methods. One method consisted of a spray application of insecticides at doses of 50, 100, 200, and 300 g a.i. per ha. The other method consisted of a bait

  15. Activity of the Antioxidant Defense System in a Typical Bioinsecticide-and Synthetic Insecticide-treated Cowpea Storage Beetle F. (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayodele O. Kolawole

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The non-enzymatic and enzymatic antioxidant defense systems play a major role in detoxification of pro-oxidant endobiotics and xenobiotics. The possible involvement of beetle non-enzymatic [α-tocopherol, glutathione (GSH, and ascorbic acid] and enzymatic [catalase (CAT, superoxide dismutase (SOD, peroxidase (POX, and polyphenol oxidase (PPO] antioxidant defense system on the insecticidal activity of synthetic insecticides (cypermethrin, 2,2-dicholorovinyl dimethyl phosphate, and λ-cyhalothrin and ethanolic plant extracts of Tithonia diversifolia, Cyperus rotundus, Hyptis suaveolens leaves , and Jatropha Curcas seeds was investigated. 2,2-Dicholorovinyl dimethyl phosphate (DDVP; 200 ppm, LC 50 = 13.24 ppm and T. diversifolia (20,000 ppm resulted in 100% beetle mortality at 96-hour post-treatment. The post-treatments significantly increased the beetle α-tocopherol and GSH contents. Activities of CAT, SOD, POX, and PPO were modulated by the synthetic insecticides and bioinsecticides to diminish the adverse effect of the chemical stresses. Quantitative and qualitative allelochemical compositions of bioinsecticides and chemical structure of synthetic insecticides possibly account and for modulation of their respective enzyme activities. Altogether, oxidative stress was enormous enough to cause maladaptation in insects. This study established that oxidative imbalance created could be the molecular basis of the efficacy of both insecticides and bio-insecticides. Two, there was development of functional but inadequate antioxidant defense mechanism in the beetle.

  16. Wash-resistance of pirimiphos-methyl insecticide treatments of window screens and eave baffles for killing indoor-feeding malaria vector mosquitoes: an experimental hut trial, South East of Zambia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chinula, Dingani; Sikaala, Chadwick H; Chanda-Kapata, Pascalina; Hamainza, Busiku; Zulu, Reuben; Reimer, Lisa; Chizema, Elizabeth; Kiware, Samson; Okumu, Fredros O; Killeen, Gerry

    2018-04-13

    The effectiveness of long-lasting insecticidal-treated nets (LLINs) and indoor residual spraying (IRS) for malaria control is threatened by resistance to commonly used pyrethroid insecticides. Rotations, mosaics, combinations, or mixtures of insecticides from different complementary classes are recommended by the World Health Organization (WHO) for mitigating against resistance, but many of the alternatives to pyrethroids are prohibitively expensive to apply in large national IRS campaigns. Recent evaluations of window screens and eave baffles (WSEBs) treated with pirimiphos-methyl (PM), to selectively target insecticides inside houses, demonstrated malaria vector mortality rates equivalent or superior to IRS. However, the durability of efficacy when co-applied with polyacrylate-binding agents (BA) remains to be established. This study evaluated whether WSEBs, co-treated with PM and BA have comparable wash resistance to LLINs and might therefore remain insecticidal for years rather than months. WHO-recommended wire ball assays of insecticidal efficacy were applied to polyester netting treated with or without BA plus 1 or 2 g/sq m PM. They were then tested for insecticidal efficacy using fully susceptible insectary-reared Anopheles gambiae mosquitoes, following 0, 5, 10, 15, then 20 washes as per WHO-recommended protocols for accelerated ageing of LLINs. This was followed by a small-scale field trial in experimental huts to measure malaria vector mortality achieved by polyester netting WSEBs treated with BA and 2 g/sq m PM after 0, 10 and then 20 standardized washes, alongside recently applied IRS using PM. Co-treatment with BA and either dosage of PM remained insecticidal over 20 washes in the laboratory. In experimental huts, WSEBs treated with PM plus BA consistently killed similar proportions of Anopheles arabiensis mosquitoes to PM-IRS (both consistently ≥ 94%), even after 20 washes. Co-treating WSEBs with both PM and BA results in wash

  17. A potential target for organophosphate insecticides leading to spermatotoxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Himiko; Tomizawa, Motohiro; Ito, Yuki; Abe, Keisuke; Noro, Yuki; Kamijima, Michihiro

    2013-10-16

    Organophosphate (OP) insecticides as an anticholinesterase also act on the diverse serine hydrolase targets, thereby revealing secondary or unexpected toxic effects including male reproductive toxicity. The present investigation detects a possible target molecule(s) for OP-induced spermatotoxicity (sperm deformity, underdevelopment, and reduced motility) from a chemical standpoint. The activity-based protein profiling (ABPP) approach with a phosphonofluoridate fluorescent probe pinpointed the molecular target for fenitrothion (FNT, a major OP insecticide) oxon (bioactive metabolite of FNT) in the mouse testicular membrane proteome, i.e., FNT oxon phosphorylates the fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH), which plays pivotal roles in spermatogenesis and sperm motility acquirement. Subsequently, mice were treated orally with vehicle or FNT for 10 days, and FAAH activity in testis or epididymis cauda was markedly reduced by the subacute exposure. ABPP analysis revealed that FAAH was selectively inhibited among the FNT-treated testicular membrane proteome. Accordingly, FAAH is a potential target for OP-elicited spermatotoxicity.

  18. Combined Non-Target Effects of Insecticide and High Temperature on the Parasitoid Bracon nigricans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khaled Abbes

    Full Text Available We studied the acute toxicity and the sublethal effects, on reproduction and host-killing activity, of four widely used insecticides on the generalist parasitoid Bracon nigricans (Hymenoptera: Braconidae, a natural enemy of the invasive tomato pest, Tuta absoluta (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae. Laboratory bioassays were conducted applying maximum insecticide label rates at three constant temperatures, 25, 35 and 40°C, considered as regular, high and very high, respectively. Data on female survival and offspring production were used to calculate population growth indexes as a measure of population recovery after pesticide exposure. Spinetoram caused 80% mortality at 25°C and 100% at higher temperatures, while spinosad caused 100% mortality under all temperature regimes. Cyantraniliprole was slightly toxic to B. nigricans adults in terms of acute toxicity at the three temperatures, while it did not cause any sublethal effects in egg-laying and host-killing activities. The interaction between the two tested factors (insecticide and temperature significantly influenced the number of eggs laid by the parasitoid, which was the lowest in the case of females exposed to chlorantraniliprole at 35°C. Furthermore, significantly lower B. nigricans demographic growth indexes were estimated for all the insecticides under all temperature conditions, with the exception of chlorantraniliprole at 25°C. Our findings highlight an interaction between high temperatures and insecticide exposure, which suggests a need for including natural stressors, such as temperature, in pesticide risk assessments procedures.

  19. Costs and effects of the Tanzanian national voucher scheme for insecticide-treated nets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanson Kara

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The cost-effectiveness of insecticide-treated nets (ITNs in reducing morbidity and mortality is well established. International focus has now moved on to how best to scale up coverage and what financing mechanisms might be used to achieve this. The approach in Tanzania has been to deliver a targeted subsidy for those most vulnerable to the effects of malaria while at the same time providing support to the development of the commercial ITN distribution system. In October 2004, with funds from the Global Fund to Fight AIDS Tuberculosis and Malaria, the government launched the Tanzania National Voucher Scheme (TNVS, a nationwide discounted voucher scheme for ITNs for pregnant women and their infants. This paper analyses the costs and effects of the scheme and compares it with other approaches to distribution. Methods Economic costs were estimated using the ingredients approach whereby all resources required in the delivery of the intervention (including the user contribution are quantified and valued. Effects were measured in terms of number of vouchers used (and therefore nets delivered and treated nets years. Estimates were also made for the cost per malaria case and death averted. Results and Conclusion The total financial cost of the programme represents around 5% of the Ministry of Health's total budget. The average economic cost of delivering an ITN using the voucher scheme, including the user contribution, was $7.57. The cost-effectiveness results are within the benchmarks set by other malaria prevention studies. The Government of Tanzania's approach to scaling up ITNs uses both the public and private sectors in order to achieve and sustain the level of coverage required to meet the Abuja targets. The results presented here suggest that the TNVS is a cost-effective strategy for delivering subsidized ITNs to targeted vulnerable groups.

  20. The activity of the pyrrole insecticide chlorfenapyr in mosquito bioassay: towards a more rational testing and screening of non-neurotoxic insecticides for malaria vector control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oxborough, Richard M; N'Guessan, Raphael; Jones, Rebecca; Kitau, Jovin; Ngufor, Corine; Malone, David; Mosha, Franklin W; Rowland, Mark W

    2015-03-24

    The rapid selection of pyrethroid resistance throughout sub-Saharan Africa is a serious threat to malaria vector control. Chlorfenapyr is a pyrrole insecticide which shows no cross resistance to insecticide classes normally used for vector control and is effective on mosquito nets under experimental hut conditions. Unlike neurotoxic insecticides, chlorfenapyr owes its toxicity to disruption of metabolic pathways in mitochondria that enable cellular respiration. A series of experiments explored whether standard World Health Organization (WHO) guidelines for evaluation of long-lasting insecticidal nets, developed through testing of pyrethroid insecticides, are suitable for evaluation of non-neurotoxic insecticides. The efficacy of WHO recommended cone, cylinder and tunnel tests was compared for pyrethroids and chlorfenapyr. To establish bioassay exposure times predictive of insecticide-treated net (ITN) efficacy in experimental hut trials, standard three-minute bioassays of pyrethroid and chlorfenapyr ITNs were compared with longer exposures. Mosquito behaviour and response to chlorfenapyr ITN in bioassays conducted at night were compared to day and across a range of temperatures representative of highland and lowland transmission. Standard three-minute bioassay of chlorfenapyr produced extremely low levels of mortality compared to pyrethroids. Thirty-minute day-time bioassay produced mortality closer to hut efficacy of chlorfenapyr ITN but still fell short of the WHO threshold. Overnight tunnel test with chlorfenapyr produced 100% mortality and exceeded the WHO threshold of 80%. The endogenous circadian activity rhythm of anophelines results in inactivity by day and raised metabolism and flight activity by night. A model which explains improved toxicity of chlorfenapyr ITN when tested at night, and during the day at higher ambient temperature, is that activation of chlorfenapyr and disruption of respiratory pathways is enhanced when the insect is more metabolically

  1. Insecticide-mediated apparent displacement between two invasive species of leafminer fly.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yulin Gao

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Closely related invasive species may often displace one another, but it is often difficult to determine mechanisms because of the historical nature of these events. The leafmining flies Liriomyza sativae and Liriomyza trifolii have become serious invasive agricultural pests throughout the world. Where both species have invaded the same region, one predominates over the other. Although L. sativae invaded Hainan Island of China first, it recently has been displaced by the newly invasive L. trifolii. We hypothesized that differential susceptibilities to insecticides could be causing this demographic shift. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Avermectin and cyromazine are the most commonly used insecticides to manage leafminers, with laboratory bioassays demonstrating that L. trifolii is significantly less susceptible to these key insecticides than is L. sativae. In trials where similar numbers of larvae of both species infested plants, which subsequently were treated with the insecticides, the eclosing adults were predominately L. trifolii, yet similar numbers of adults of both species eclosed from control plants. The species composition was then surveyed in two regions where L. trifolii has just begun to invade and both species are still common. In field trials, both species occurred in similar proportions before insecticide treatments began. Following applications of avermectin and cyromazine, almost all eclosing adults were L. trifolii in those treatment plots. In control plots, similar numbers of adults of the two species eclosed, lending further credence to the hypothesis that differential insecticide susceptibilities could be driving the ongoing displacement of L. sativae by L. trifolii. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our results show that differential insecticide susceptibility can lead to rapid shifts in the demographics of pest complexes. Thus, successful pest management requires the identification of pest species to understand the

  2. Volatile aldehydes are promising broad-spectrum postharvest insecticides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammond, D G; Rangel, S; Kubo, I

    2000-09-01

    A variety of naturally occurring aldehydes common in plants have been evaluated for their insecticidal activity and for phytotoxicity to postharvest fruits, vegetables, and grains. Twenty-nine compounds were initially screened for their activity against aphids on fava bean leaf disks. Application under reduced pressure (partial vacuum) for the first quarter of fumigation increased insecticidal activity severalfold. The 11 best aldehydes were assayed against aphids placed under the third leaf of whole heads of iceberg lettuce using the same two-tier reduced-pressure regime, which caused no additional detriment to the commodity over fumigation at atmospheric pressure. Phytotoxicity to naked and wrapped iceburg lettuce, green and red table grapes, lemon, grapefruit, orange, broccoli, avocado, cabbage, pinto bean, and rice at doses that killed 100% of aphids was recorded for three promising fumigants: propanal, (E)-2-pentenal, and 2-methyl-(E)-2-butenal. These three compounds have excellent potential as affordable postharvest insect control agents, killing 100% of the aphids with little or no detectable harm to a majority of the commodities tested. Preliminary assays indicate that similar doses are also effective against mealybugs, thrips, and whitefly.

  3. Frequent blood feeding enables insecticide-treated nets to reduce transmission by mosquitoes that bite predominately outdoors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Tanya L; Beebe, Nigel W; Bugoro, Hugo; Apairamo, Allan; Chow, Weng K; Cooper, Robert D; Collins, Frank H; Lobo, Neil F; Burkot, Thomas R

    2016-03-10

    The effectiveness of vector control on malaria transmission by long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs) and indoor residual spraying (IRS) depends on the vectors entering houses to blood feed and rest when people are inside houses. In the Solomon Islands, significant reductions in malaria have been achieved in the past 20 years with insecticide-treated bed nets, IRS, improved diagnosis and treatment with artemisinin combination therapies; despite the preference of the primary vector, Anopheles farauti, to feed outdoors and early in the evening and thereby avoid potential exposure to insecticides. Rational development of tools to complement LLINs and IRS by attacking vectors outdoor requires detailed knowledge of the biology and behaviours of the target species. Malaria transmission in Central Province, Solomon Islands was estimated by measuring the components comprising the entomological inoculation rate (EIR) as well as the vectorial capacity of An. farauti. In addition, the daily and seasonal biting behaviour of An. farauti, was examined and the duration of the feeding cycle was estimated with a mark-release-recapture experiment. Anopheles farauti was highly exophagic with 72% captured by human landing catches (HLC) outside of houses. Three-quarters (76%) of blood feeding on humans was estimated to occur before 21.00 h. When the hourly location of humans was considered, the proportion of exposure to mosquito bites on humans occurring indoors (πi) was only 0.130 ± 0.129. Peak densities of host seeking An. farauti occurred between October and January. The annual EIR was estimated to be 2.5 for 2012 and 33.2 for 2013. The length of the feeding cycle was 2.1 days. The short duration of the feeding cycle by this species offers an explanation for the substantial control of malaria that has been achieved in the Solomon Islands by LLINs and IRS. Anopheles farauti is primarily exophagic and early biting, with 13% of mosquitoes entering houses to feed late at night during

  4. Activity of Selected Formulated Biorational and Synthetic Insecticides Against Larvae of Helicoverpa armigera (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vivan, L M; Torres, J B; Fernandes, P L S

    2017-02-01

    This work studied 17 insecticides belonging to nucleopolyhedrovirus (NPV), Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt kurstaki and Bt aizawai), benzoylureas (insect growth regulators [IGRs]), carbamates, organophosphates, spinosyns, and diamides against larvae of Helicoverpa armigera (Hübner), invasive species in the South American continent. Larvae of different instars were fed for 7 d with untreated or insecticide-treated diets. Mortality was recorded daily for 7 d, and surviving larvae were individually weighed on the seventh day. The NPV and Bt insecticides caused 100% mortality of first-instar larvae and first-instar and second-instar larvae, respectively. However, both NPV and Bt-based products caused low mortality of third-instar larvae and did not kill older larvae. The IGR lufenuron was highly effective against all three ages of larvae tested, whereas teflubenzuron and triflumuron produced maximum 60% mortality of second-instar larvae and lower than 50% to older larvae. Thiodicarb, chlorantraniliprole, indoxacarb, chlorpyrifos, and chlorfenapyr, irrespective of tested age, caused 100% mortality of larvae, with the last two insecticides reaching 100% mortality within 2 d of feeding on the treated diet. Flubendiamide caused lower mortality but significantly affected the weight of surviving larvae, whereas neither spinosad nor methomyl produced significant mortality or affected the weight of larvae. Based on the results, the age of H. armigera larvae plays an important role in the recommendation of NPV and Bt insecticides. Furthermore, there are potential options between biological and synthetic insecticides tested against H. armigera, and recording larval size during monitoring, in addition to the infestation level, should be considered when recommending biological-based insecticides to control this pest. © The Authors 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  5. Efficacy of eco-smart insecticides against certain biological stages of jasmine moth, Palpita unionalis Hb.(Lepidoptera: Pyralidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmoud Farag Mahmoud

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The efficacy of six eco-smart insecticides, Dipel 2x 6.4% WP (Bacillus thuringensis AI, Biofly 100% WP (Beauvaria bessiana AI, Radiant 12% SC (Saccharopolyspora spinosa AI, Mectin 1.8% EC (Streptomyces avermitilis AI, Nimbecidine 0.03% EC (Azadirachtin AI and Bio-Power 50% EC (Beauvaria bessiana AI, were tested against eggs, larvae and pupae of the jasmine moth, Palpita unionalis Hb. and its parasitoid Apanteles syleptae under laboratory conditions. Data indicated that all tested insecticides had ovicidal activity against P. unionalis. Mectin was the most toxic among the tested insecticides against the egg stage, followed by Radiant or Dipel 2x, and their respective values of LC50 were 0.005 cm/l, 0.006 cm/l and 0.055 g/l. Dipel 2x was the most toxic insecticide to the 1st instar larvae of P. unionalis, whereas Mectin was the most toxic to both the 3rd and 5th instar larvae. Also, the results revealed that Mectin was the most effective against the pupal stage, followed descendingly by Radiant and Dipel 2x. The toxicity index values showed a superior efficiency of Mectin at LC50 (100% against eggs, 3rd and 5th instar larvae, and pupal stage, whereas Dipel 2x showed such superior efficiency at LC50 (100% only against 1st instar larvae. The results showed that the percents of pupation and emergence of moths were significantly different in all treatments compared to control, while deformed pupae and malformed adults were insignificantly different when fifth instar larvae were treated with the tested insecticides. Moreover, the rate of P. unionalis adult emergence from treated pupae was concentration-dependent and significant differences were found between insecticide treatments and control. Generally, Mectin, Radiant and Dipel 2x caused the highest impacts on adult emergence and malformed adults percentages. Regarding the toxicity of insecticides to the endoparasitoid A. syleptae, the treated cocoons developed to adult stages with no significant

  6. Underpinning sustainable vector control through informed insecticide resistance management.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edward K Thomsen

    Full Text Available There has been rapid scale-up of malaria vector control in the last ten years. Both of the primary control strategies, long-lasting pyrethroid treated nets and indoor residual spraying, rely on the use of a limited number of insecticides. Insecticide resistance, as measured by bioassay, has rapidly increased in prevalence and has come to the forefront as an issue that needs to be addressed to maintain the sustainability of malaria control and the drive to elimination. Zambia's programme reported high levels of resistance to the insecticides it used in 2010, and, as a result, increased its investment in resistance monitoring to support informed resistance management decisions.A country-wide survey on insecticide resistance in Zambian malaria vectors was performed using WHO bioassays to detect resistant phenotypes. Molecular techniques were used to detect target-site mutations and microarray to detect metabolic resistance mechanisms. Anopheles gambiae s.s. was resistant to pyrethroids, DDT and carbamates, with potential organophosphate resistance in one population. The resistant phenotypes were conferred by both target-site and metabolic mechanisms. Anopheles funestus s.s. was largely resistant to pyrethroids and carbamates, with potential resistance to DDT in two locations. The resistant phenotypes were conferred by elevated levels of cytochrome p450s.Currently, the Zambia National Malaria Control Centre is using these results to inform their vector control strategy. The methods employed here can serve as a template to all malaria-endemic countries striving to create a sustainable insecticide resistance management plan.

  7. Botanical Insecticides in Plant Protection

    OpenAIRE

    Grdiša, Martina; Gršić, Kristina

    2013-01-01

    Botanical insecticides are natural compounds with insecticidal properties and their use in crop protection is as old as agricultural practice. Although they have been in use for over one hundred years, the advent of synthetic insecticides has unfortunately displaced their use today. Due to fast action, low cost, easy application and efficiency against a wide range of harmful species, synthetic insecticides have become an important part of pest management in modern agricultural systems....

  8. Pakistan's Domestic Political Developments

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kronstadt, K. A

    2005-01-01

    .... The September 2001 terrorist attacks on the United States and Musharraf's ensuing withdrawal of support for the Afghan Taliban regime, however, had the effect of greatly reducing Pakistan's international isolation...

  9. Pheromone-assisted techniques to improve the efficacy of insecticide sprays against Linepithema humile (Hymenoptera: Formicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choe, Dong-Hwan; Tsai, Kasumi; Lopez, Carlos M; Campbell, Kathleen

    2014-02-01

    Outdoor residual sprays are among the most common methods for targeting pestiferous ants in urban pest management programs. If impervious surfaces such as concrete are treated with these insecticides, the active ingredients can be washed from the surface by rain or irrigation. As a result, residual sprays with fipronil and pyrethroids are found in urban waterways and aquatic sediments. Given the amount of insecticides applied to urban settings for ant control and their possible impact on urban waterways, the development of alternative strategies is critical to decrease the overall amounts of insecticides applied, while still achieving effective control of target ant species. Herein we report a "pheromone-assisted technique" as an economically viable approach to maximize the efficacy of conventional sprays targeting the Argentine ant. By applying insecticide sprays supplemented with an attractive pheromone compound, (Z)-9-hexadecenal, Argentine ants were diverted from nearby trails and nest entrances and subsequently exposed to insecticide residues. Laboratory experiments with fipronil and bifenthrin sprays indicated that the overall kill of the insecticides on Argentine ant colonies was significantly improved (57-142% increase) by incorporating (Z)-9-hexadecenal in the insecticide sprays. This technique, once it is successfully implemented in practical pest management programs, has the potential of providing maximum control efficacy with reduced amount of insecticides applied in the environment.

  10. Comparison of susceptibility of pest Euschistus servus and predator Podisus maculiventris (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae) to selected insecticides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tillman, P Glynn; Mullinix, Benjamin G

    2004-06-01

    Susceptibility of the brown stink bug, Euschistus serous (Say), and the spined soldier bug, Podisus maculiventris (Say), to acetamiprid, cyfluthrin, dicrotophos, indoxacarb, oxamyl, and thiamethoxam, was compared in residual and oral toxicity tests. Generally, susceptibility of P. maculiventris to insecticides was significantly greater than or not significantly different from that of E. servus. Cyfluthrin and oxamyl were more toxic to the predator than to E. servus in residual and feeding tests, respectively. Dicrotophos is the only compound that exhibited both good residual and oral activity against E. servus, but even this toxicant was more toxic to the predator than to the pest in oral toxicity tests. Feeding on indoxacarb-treated food caused high mortality for both nymphs and adults of P. maculiventris. In contrast, E. servus was unaffected by feeding on food treated with this compound. Insecticide selectivity to P. maculiventris was detected only with acetamiprid for adults in residual toxicity tests and for nymphs in oral toxicity tests. Because insecticide selectivity to P. maculiventris was limited, it is extremely important to conserve P. maculiventris in cotton fields by applying these insecticides for control of brown stink bugs only when the pest reaches economic threshold.

  11. Development, oviposition, and mortality of Neoseiulus fallacis (Acari: Phytoseiidae) in response to reduced-risk insecticides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villanueva, Raul T; Walgenbach, James F

    2005-12-01

    Eight reduced-risk insecticides (acetamiprid, thiamethoxam, imidacloprid, thiacloprid, methoxyfenozide, pyriproxyfen, indoxacarb, and spinosad) and three conventional insecticides (azinphosmethyl, fenpropathrin, and esfenvalerate) were tested against Neoseiulus fallacis (Garman) (Acari: Phytoseiidae), the most abundant predacious mite in North Carolina apple (Malus spp.) orchards. To assess the effect of insecticides on development and mortality of N. fallacis immatures, 12-h-old eggs were individually placed on bean leaf disks previously dipped in insecticide solutions. Tetranychus urticae Koch (Acari: Tetranychidae) females were added as a food source. None of the reduced-risk insecticides significantly affected immature N. fallacis compared with the control; however, the pyrethroids esfenvalerate and fenpropathrin were highly toxic to immatures. To evaluate the effect of insecticides on mortality and oviposition of adult N. fallacis, 7- to 8-d-old females were confined on insecticide-treated bean leaves with Malephora crocea (Aizoaceae) pollen added as a food source. Spinosad resulted in the highest mortality, whereas azinphosmethyl, acetamiprid, fenpropathrin, and imidacloprid were moderately toxic, and mortality from esfenvalerate, indoxacarb, thiacloprid, methoxyfenozide, pyriproxyfen, and thiamethoxam did not differ significantly from the control. Oviposition was affected in a similar manner, with the exception of acetamiprid that did not affect oviposition, and thiamethoxam that reduced oviposition.

  12. Hormonal enhancement of insecticide efficacy in Tribolium castaneum: oxidative stress and metabolic aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plavšin, Ivana; Stašková, Tereza; Šerý, Michal; Smýkal, Vlastimil; Hackenberger, Branimir K; Kodrík, Dalibor

    2015-04-01

    Insect anti-stress responses, including those induced by insecticides, are controlled by adipokinetic hormones (AKHs). We examined the physiological consequences of Pyrap-AKH application on Tribolium castaneum adults (AKH-normal and AKH-deficient prepared by the RNAi technique) treated by two insecticides, pirimiphos-methyl and deltamethrin. Co-application of pirimiphos-methyl and/or deltamethrin with AKH significantly increased beetle mortality compared with application of the insecticides alone. This co-treatment was accompanied by substantial stimulation of general metabolism, as monitored by carbon dioxide production. Further, the insecticide treatment alone affected some basic markers of oxidative stress: it lowered total antioxidative capacity as well as the activity of superoxide dismutase in the beetle body; in addition, it enhanced the activity of catalase and glutathione-S-transferase. However, these discrepancies in oxidative stress markers were eliminated/reduced by co-application with Pyrap-AKH. We suggest that the elevation of metabolism, which is probably accompanied with faster turnover of toxins, might be responsible for the higher mortality that results after AKH and insecticide co-application. Changes in oxidative stress markers are probably not included in the mechanisms responsible for increased mortality. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Plant Essential Oils Synergize and Antagonize Toxicity of Different Conventional Insecticides against Myzus persicae (Hemiptera: Aphididae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faraone, Nicoletta; Hillier, N. Kirk; Cutler, G. Christopher

    2015-01-01

    Plant-derived products can play an important role in pest management programs. Essential oils from Lavandula angustifolia (lavender) and Thymus vulgaris (thyme) and their main constituents, linalool and thymol, respectively, were evaluated for insecticidal activity and synergistic action in combination with insecticides against green peach aphid, Myzus persicae (Sulzer) (Hemiptera: Aphididae). The essential oils and their main constituents exerted similar insecticidal activity when aphids were exposed by direct sprays, but were non-toxic by exposure to treated leaf discs. In synergism experiments, the toxicity of imidacloprid was synergized 16- to 20-fold by L. angustifolia and T. vulgaris essential oils, but far less synergism occurred with linalool and thymol, indicating that secondary constituents of the oils were probably responsible for the observed synergism. In contrast to results with imidacloprid, the insecticidal activity of spirotetramat was antagonized by L. angustifolia and T. vulgaris essential oils, and linalool and thymol. Our results demonstrate the potential of plant essential oils as synergists of insecticides, but show that antagonistic action against certain insecticides may occur. PMID:26010088

  14. Seven-Year Evaluation of Insecticide Tools for Emerald Ash Borer in Fraxinus pennsylvanica (Lamiales: Oleaceae) Trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bick, Emily N; Forbes, Nora J; Haugen, Christopher; Jones, Grant; Bernick, Shawn; Miller, Fredric

    2018-04-02

    Emerald ash borer (EAB), Agrilus planipennis (Fairmaire; Coleoptera: Buprestidae), is decimating ash trees (Fraxinus spp.) in North America. Combatting EAB includes the use of insecticides; however, reported insecticide efficacy varies among published studies. This study assessed the effects of season of application, insecticide active ingredient, and insecticide application rate on green ash (Fraxinus pennsylvanica Marsh.) (Lamiales: Oleaceae) canopy decline caused by EAB over a 5- to 7-yr interval. Data suggested that spring treatments were generally more effective in reducing canopy decline than fall treatments, but this difference was not statistically significant. Lowest rates of decline (<5% over 5 yr) were observed in trees treated with imidacloprid injected annually in the soil during spring (at the higher of two tested application rates; 1.12 g/cm diameter at 1.3 m height) and emamectin benzoate injected biennially into the stem. All tested insecticides (dinotefuran, emamectin benzoate, and imidacloprid) under all tested conditions significantly reduced the rate of increase of dieback.

  15. Overcoming the Obstacles to Establishing a Democratic State in Afghanistan

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Young, Dennis O

    2007-01-01

    After the Taliban regime was driven out of Afghanistan in late 2001, efforts were undertaken by the United States and other members of the international community to establish and stabilize a liberal...

  16. Toxicity of some insecticides to F1 progeny of the cotton leaf worm; Spodoptera littoralis (Boisd) gamma irradiated as parental pupae (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Shall, S.S.A.; Hazaa, M.A.M.; Alm El-Din, M.M.S.

    2006-01-01

    The response of the F1 Progeny of Cotton Leaf worm; Spodoptera littoralis Boisd, (from male irradiated as parental pupae with 0, 50, 100 and 150 Gy of gamma irradiation) to Silicron, Atabron and Catabroun were studied. The lethal concentration doses of insecticides that kill 10,50 and 90 % of population (LC 10 , LC 50 and LC 90 ); The lethal time that kill 50% of population (LT 50 ) and the Tolerance Ratio(T.R) to the different previous insecticides were employed as parameters for measuring the response of irradiated and un-irradiated progeny. The results indicated that, the dose of irradiation and time post insecticides application had a great role in alter the response of F1 progeny of S. littoralis to the different-insecticides. Also, gamma irradiation increased the toxicity of Silicron at 2 and 4 days post insecticide treatments. By time elapsing after insecticide application the irradiated larvae became virtually the same degree of susceptibility as compared to non-irradiated ones. As well, 50 Gy slightly alter the toxicity of Atabron, while population irradiated with 100 and 150 Gy showed a high level of susceptibility to Atabron at 22 and 26 days post insecticide treatments as compared to un-irradiated population. In addition, the toxicity of Catabroun increased in case of irradiated population at most of interval time post insecticide treatments as compared to un-irradiated ones. Furthermore, a Comparison was made and discussed between the susceptibility of irradiated population only, population treated with insecticides only and population treated with both insecticides and radiation by using the standard parameter LT 50

  17. Insecticide-treated net ownership and utilization and factors that influence their use in Itang, Gambella region, Ethiopia: cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Watiro AH

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Aklilu Habte Watiro,1 Worku Awoke,2 1Médecins Sans Frontières OCA (MSF Holland Ethiopia Mission, Addis Ababa, 2Department of Epidemiology, School of Public Health, College of Medicine and Health Sciences, Bahir Dar University, Bahir Dar, Ethiopia Background: Malaria remains a major public health problem in Ethiopia. Consequently, Ethiopia designed the 2011–2015, Malaria Prevention and Control Strategic Plan to fight the vector. It was discovered that most of the studies conducted on the use of insecticide-treated nets (ITNs were not in line with the strategic plan of the country. This study aimed to assess ITN ownership and utilization, and includes barriers related to its use among the target-area population at household (HH level. Materials and methods: A cross-sectional design was employed in Itang for this study. Data were collected by trained nurses through face-to-face interview and observation. A total of 845 participants were selected through multistage sampling, and the size was determined by using a single-population proportion formula. EPI Info and SPSS was used for analysis, and all necessary statistical association was computed in order to explain the outcome variable through explanatory variables of this study. Results: Among 845 HHs interviewed, 81.7% (690 had at least one ITN, while 52.3% (361 had used the ITN the night preceding the data-collection day. HH awareness of malaria prevention, number of ITNs, family size, number of family members sharing sleeping area/beds, sleeping patterns of adolescents, HH-head age, and inconvenience of using ITNs were found to be barriers to the use of ITNs in this study. Conclusion and recommendation: The study concluded that very few HHs owned ITNs and there was very low usage of ITNs. In recommendation, the regional health bureau and district health office should consider bigger nets that can accommodate family members who share the same sleeping area/bed in the area. Keywords: consistent

  18. Relative toxicity and residual activity of insecticides used in blueberry pest management: mortality of natural enemies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roubos, Craig R; Rodriguez-Saona, Cesar; Holdcraft, Robert; Mason, Keith S; Isaacs, Rufus

    2014-02-01

    A series of bioassays were conducted to determine the relative toxicities and residual activities of insecticides labeled for use in blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum L.) on natural enemies, to identify products with low toxicity or short duration effects on biological control agents. In total, 14 insecticides were evaluated using treated petri dishes and four commercially available natural enemies (Aphidius colemani Viereck, Orius insidiosus [Say], Chrysoperla rufilabris [Burmeister], and Hippodamia convergens [Guérin-Menéville]). Dishes were aged under greenhouse conditions for 0, 3, 7, or 14 d before introducing insects to test residual activity. Acute effects (combined mortality and knockdown) varied by insecticide, residue age, and natural enemy species. Broad-spectrum insecticides caused high mortality to all biocontrol agents, whereas products approved for use in organic agriculture had little effect. The reduced-risk insecticide acetamiprid consistently caused significant acute effects, even after aging for 14 d. Methoxyfenozide, novaluron, and chlorantraniliprole, which also are classified as reduced-risk insecticides, had low toxicity, and along with the organic products could be compatible with biological control. This study provides information to guide blueberry growers in their selection of insecticides. Further research will be needed to determine whether adoption of a pest management program based on the use of more selective insecticides will result in higher levels of biological control in blueberry.

  19. Efficacy of an insecticide paint against insecticide-susceptible and resistant mosquitoes - Part 1: Laboratory evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carnevale Pierre

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The main malaria vector Anopheles gambiae and the urban pest nuisance Culex quinquefasciatus are increasingly resistant to pyrethroids in many African countries. There is a need for new products and strategies. Insecticide paint Inesfly 5A IGR™, containing two organophosphates (OPs, chlorpyrifos and diazinon, and insect growth regulator (IGR, pyriproxyfen, was tested under laboratory conditions for 12 months following WHOPES Phase I procedures. Methods Mosquitoes used were laboratory strains of Cx. quinquefasciatus susceptible and resistant to OPs. The paint was applied at two different doses (1 kg/6 m2 and 1 kg/12 m2 on different commonly used surfaces: porous (cement and stucco and non-porous (softwood and hard plastic. Insecticide efficacy was studied in terms of delayed mortality using 30-minute WHO bioassay cones. IGR efficacy on fecundity, fertility and larval development was studied on OP-resistant females exposed for 30 minutes to cement treated and control surfaces. Results After treatment, delayed mortality was high (87-100% even against OP-resistant females on all surfaces except cement treated at 1 kg/12 m2. Remarkably, one year after treatment delayed mortality was 93-100% against OP-resistant females on non-porous surfaces at both doses. On cement, death rates were low 12 months after treatment regardless of the dose and the resistance status. Fecundity, fertility and adult emergence were reduced after treatment even at the lower dose (p -3. A reduction in fecundity was still observed nine months after treatment at both doses (p -3 and adult emergence was reduced at the higher dose (p -3. Conclusions High mortality rates were observed against laboratory strains of the pest mosquito Cx. quinquefasciatus susceptible and resistant to insecticides. Long-term killing remained equally important on non-porous surfaces regardless the resistance status for over 12 months. The paint's effect on fecundity, fertility and

  20. Outcome of Patients with Cholinergic Insecticide Poisoning Treated with Gastric Lavage: A Prospective Observational Cohort Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mekkattukunnel Andrews

    2014-12-01

    Conclusion: Number or timing of GL does not show any association with mortality while multiple GL had protective effect against development of late RF and IMS. Hence, GL might be beneficial in cholinergic insecticide poisoning.

  1. Exploration of Novel Botanical Insecticide Leads: Synthesis and Insecticidal Activity of β-Dihydroagarofuran Derivatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Ximei; Xi, Xin; Hu, Zhan; Wu, Wenjun; Zhang, Jiwen

    2016-02-24

    The discovery of novel leads and new mechanisms of action is of vital significance to the development of pesticides. To explore lead compounds for botanical insecticides, 77 β-dihydroagarofuran derivatives were designed and synthesized. Their structures were mainly confirmed by (1)H NMR, (13)C NMR, DEPT-135°, IR, MS, and HRMS. Their insecticidal activity was evaluated against the third-instar larvae of Mythimna separata Walker, and the results indicated that, of these derivatives, eight exhibited more promising insecticidal activity than the positive control, celangulin-V. Particularly, compounds 5.7, 6.6, and 6.7 showed LD50 values of 37.9, 85.1, and 21.1 μg/g, respectively, which were much lower than that of celangulin-V (327.6 μg/g). These results illustrated that β-dihydroagarofuran ketal derivatives can be promising lead compounds for developing novel mechanism-based and highly effective botanical insecticides. Moreover, some newly discovered structure-activity relationships are discussed, which may provide some important guidance for insecticide development.

  2. The effectiveness of non-pyrethroid insecticide-treated durable wall lining to control malaria in rural Tanzania: study protocol for a two-armed cluster randomized trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Mtove

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite considerable reductions in malaria achieved by scaling-up long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs and indoor residual spraying (IRS, maintaining sustained community protection remains operationally challenging. Increasing insecticide resistance also threatens to jeopardize the future of both strategies. Non-pyrethroid insecticide­treated wall lining (ITWL may represent an alternate or complementary control method and a potential tool to manage insecticide resistance. To date no study has demonstrated whether ITWL can reduce malaria transmission nor provide additional protection beyond the current best practice of universal coverage (UC of LLINs and prompt case management. Methods/design A two-arm cluster randomized controlled trial will be conducted in rural Tanzania to assess whether non-pyrethroid ITWL and UC of LLINs provide added protection against malaria infection in children, compared to UC of LLINs alone. Stratified randomization based on malaria prevalence will be used to select 22 village clusters per arm. All 44 clusters will receive LLINs and half will also have ITWL installed on interior house walls. Study children, aged 6 months to 11 years old, will be enrolled from each cluster and followed monthly to estimate cumulative incidence of malaria parasitaemia (primary endpoint, time to first malaria episode and prevalence of anaemia before and after intervention. Entomological inoculation rate will be estimated using indoor CDC light traps and outdoor tent traps followed by detection of Anopheles gambiae species, sporozoite infection, insecticide resistance and blood meal source. ITWL bioefficacy and durability will be monitored using WHO cone bioassays and household surveys, respectively. Social and cultural factors influencing community and household ITWL acceptability will be explored through focus-group discussions and in-depth interviews. Cost-effectiveness, compared between study arms, will be

  3. Digestive enzyme as benchmark for insecticide resistance development in Culex pipiens larvae to chemical and bacteriologic insecticides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamel, Nashwa H; Bahgat, Iman M; El Kady, Gamal A

    2013-04-01

    This work monitored changes in some digestive enzymes (trypsin and aminopeptidase) associated with the building up of resistance in Cx. pipiens larvae to two chemical insecticides (methomyl and/or malathion) and one biological insecticide (Bacillus thuringiensis-H14 or B.t H 14). The LC50 value of methomyl for both field- and the 12th generation (F12) of the selected strain was 1.789 ppm and 8.925 ppm respectively. The LC50 value of malathion for both field and the F12 of the selected strain was 0.082 ppm and 0.156 ppm respectively, and those of B.t H14 of field strain and the F12 was 2.550ppm & 2.395ppm respectively. The specific activity of trypsin enzyme in control susceptible colony was 20.806 +/- 0.452micromol/min/mg protein; but at F4 and F8 for malathion and methomyl treated larvae were 10.810 +/- 0.860 & 15.616+/-0.408 micromol/min/mg protein, respectively. Trypsin activity of F12 in treated larvae with B.t.H14 was 2.097 +/- 0.587 microiol/min/mg protein. Aminopeptidase specific activity for susceptible control larvae was 173.05 +/- 1.3111 micromol/min/mg protein. This activity decreased to 145.15 +/- 4.12, 152.497 +/- 6.775 & 102.04 +/- 3.58a micromol/min/mg protein after larval (F 12) treatment with methomyl, malathion and B.t H 14 respectively.

  4. Evaluation of the effects of repeated hand washing, sunlight, smoke and dirt on the persistence of deltamethrin on insecticide-treated nets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kayedi, M H; Lines, J D; Haghdoost, A A; Vatandoost, M H; Rassi, Y; Khamisabady, K

    2008-08-01

    Field studies were carried out in Iran to evaluate the effect of various factors (washing, sun, smoke, dust and dirt) on the residual insecticidal activity of PermaNet (a brand of long-lasting insecticidal net), and on nets conventionally treated with deltamethrin (K-O Tab), using bioassay tests. Thirty-two nets were washed five or 15 times, and eight nets were not washed at all. Nets were washed vigorously in cold tap water (17 degrees C, pH 8.9) with a detergent. Hand rubbing continued for 3min. After washing, some nets were exposed to dense smoke from a dung-hay fire for 3min and were also left exposed to the dusty wind between washes. One group of nets was exposed to the sunlight for the full 3-d interval between washes; another was exposed to sunlight for just 3h after each wash; two other groups were kept in the shade. There was a significantly greater loss of activity in nets exposed to the sun throughout the 3-d interval between washes: that is, for a total of 15 to 45 d. However, short sunlight exposure (maximum 3h between washes) during drying did not have any effect. We did not find any significant effect of exposure to dirt, dust and smoke after washing. It is concluded that the effect of sun is much smaller than that of washing, and that drying nets for a few hours in the sun is not harmful.

  5. Insecticide susceptibility of Nezara viridula (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae) and three other stink bug species composing a soybean pest complex in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeuchi, Hiroaki; Endo, Nobuyuki

    2012-06-01

    The susceptibility of the stink bug species Nezara viridula (L.), Nezara antennata Scott, Piezodorus hybneri (Gmelin), and Riptortus pedestris (F.) to insecticides was tested, establishing their 50% lethal dose (LD50) values as baseline data. Third instars and adults of the four species were treated by topical application with seven insecticides: fenitrothion, fenthion, etofenprox, silafluofen, dinotefuran, clothianidin, and ethiprole. The weight of the stink bug and weight of the insecticide applied to each bug were used as explanatory variables in the probit regression analysis. The effect of the body weight on the dose-response relationship, the proportional model, was not uniform among the tested insecticide-stink bug combinations. However, the basic model fit all combinations and could estimate LD50 values successfully. Therefore, LD50 values at the medium (average) weight estimated by the basic model were selected to describe the susceptibility of the stink bugs. The LD50 value of silafluofen for N. viridula adults, and that of silafluofen and etofenprox for N. antennata adults, was at least 2,338 ng greater than the other species exposed to each insecticide. Almost all of the LD50 values for adults were over 10 times greater than those of the same species' nymphs treated with the same insecticide. Thus monitoring of occurring species and their developmental stages is important for controlling effectively the stink bug pest complex by insecticides, especially by silafluofen or etofenprox. The estimated LD50 values can be used as baseline data to compare the susceptibility of the species collected in another year or location.

  6. Iran: Current Developments and U.S. Policy

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Katzman, Kenneth

    2003-01-01

    Even before Iran's tacit cooperation with post-9/11 U.S. efforts to defeat Afghanistan's Taliban regime, signs of moderation in Iran had stimulated the United States to try to engage Iran in official talks...

  7. Iran: Current Developments and U.S. Policy

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Katzman, Kenneth

    2002-01-01

    Even before Iran's tacit cooperation with post-September 11 U.S. efforts to defeat Afghanistan's Taliban regime, signs of moderation in Iran had stimulated the United States to try to engage Iran in official talks...

  8. Counterinsurgency in Afghanistan

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Dobbins, James

    2009-01-01

    .... American attention is now being redirected toward this region. It is not a day too soon. For the first several years after the collapse of the Taliban regime the Bush Administration ignored Afghanistan almost entirely...

  9. An Insecticide Further Enhances Experience-Dependent Increased Behavioural Responses to Sex Pheromone in a Pest Insect.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antoine Abrieux

    Full Text Available Neonicotinoid insecticides are widely used to protect plants against pest insects, and insecticide residues remaining in the environment affect both target and non-target organisms. Whereas low doses of neonicotinoids have been shown to disturb the behaviour of pollinating insects, recent studies have revealed that a low dose of the neonicotinoid clothianidin can improve behavioural and neuronal sex pheromone responses in a pest insect, the male moth Agrotis ipsilon, and thus potentially improve reproduction. As male moth behaviour depends also on its physiological state and previous experience with sensory signals, we wondered if insecticide effects would be dependent on plasticity of olfactory-guided behaviour. We investigated, using wind tunnel experiments, whether a brief pre-exposure to the sex pheromone could enhance the behavioural response to this important signal in the moth A. ipsilon at different ages (sexually immature and mature males and after different delays (2 h and 24 h, and if the insecticide clothianidin would interfere with age effects or the potential pre-exposure-effects. Brief pre-exposure to the pheromone induced an age-independent significant increase of sex pheromone responses 24 h later, whereas sex pheromone responses did not increase significantly 2 h after exposure. However, response delays were significantly shorter compared to naïve males already two hours after exposure. Oral treatment with clothianidin increased sex pheromone responses in sexually mature males, confirming previous results, but did not influence responses in young immature males. Males treated with clothianidin after pre-exposure at day 4 responded significantly more to the sex pheromone at day 5 than males treated with clothianidin only and than males pre-exposed only, revealing an additive effect of experience and the insecticide. Plasticity of sensory systems has thus to be taken into account when investigating the effects of sublethal doses

  10. An Insecticide Further Enhances Experience-Dependent Increased Behavioural Responses to Sex Pheromone in a Pest Insect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrieux, Antoine; Mhamdi, Amel; Rabhi, Kaouther K; Egon, Julie; Debernard, Stéphane; Duportets, Line; Tricoire-Leignel, Hélène; Anton, Sylvia; Gadenne, Christophe

    2016-01-01

    Neonicotinoid insecticides are widely used to protect plants against pest insects, and insecticide residues remaining in the environment affect both target and non-target organisms. Whereas low doses of neonicotinoids have been shown to disturb the behaviour of pollinating insects, recent studies have revealed that a low dose of the neonicotinoid clothianidin can improve behavioural and neuronal sex pheromone responses in a pest insect, the male moth Agrotis ipsilon, and thus potentially improve reproduction. As male moth behaviour depends also on its physiological state and previous experience with sensory signals, we wondered if insecticide effects would be dependent on plasticity of olfactory-guided behaviour. We investigated, using wind tunnel experiments, whether a brief pre-exposure to the sex pheromone could enhance the behavioural response to this important signal in the moth A. ipsilon at different ages (sexually immature and mature males) and after different delays (2 h and 24 h), and if the insecticide clothianidin would interfere with age effects or the potential pre-exposure-effects. Brief pre-exposure to the pheromone induced an age-independent significant increase of sex pheromone responses 24 h later, whereas sex pheromone responses did not increase significantly 2 h after exposure. However, response delays were significantly shorter compared to naïve males already two hours after exposure. Oral treatment with clothianidin increased sex pheromone responses in sexually mature males, confirming previous results, but did not influence responses in young immature males. Males treated with clothianidin after pre-exposure at day 4 responded significantly more to the sex pheromone at day 5 than males treated with clothianidin only and than males pre-exposed only, revealing an additive effect of experience and the insecticide. Plasticity of sensory systems has thus to be taken into account when investigating the effects of sublethal doses of insecticides

  11. Malaria in Dielmo, a Senegal village: Is its elimination possible after seven years of implementation of long-lasting insecticide-treated nets?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amélé Nyedzie Wotodjo

    Full Text Available The malaria burden has decreased significantly in recent years in Africa through the widespread use of artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT and long-lasting insecticide-treated nets (LLINs. However, the occurrence of malaria resurgences, the loss of immunity of exposed populations constitute among other factors, serious concerns about the future of malaria elimination efforts. This study investigated the evolution of malaria morbidity in Dielmo (Senegal before and after the implementation of LLINs.A longitudinal study was carried out in Dielmo over eight years, from July 2007 to July 2015. In July 2008, LLINs were offered to all villagers, and in July 2011 and August 2014 the LLINs were renewed. A survey on LLINs use was done each quarter of the year. Thick smears stained with Giemsa, a rapid diagnostic test (RDT and quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR methods were performed for all cases of fever to assess malaria clinical attacks. Malaria cases were treated with ACT since June 2006.Malaria morbidity has decreased significantly since the implementation of LLINs in Dielmo, together with ACT. However, malaria resurgences have occurred twice during the seven years of LLINs use. These resurgences occurred the first time during the third year after the introduction of LLINs (aIRR (adjusted incidence-rate ratio [95%CI] = 5.90 [3.53; 9.88] p< 0.001 and a second time during the third year after the renewal of LLINs (aIRR [95%CI] = 5.60 [3.34; 9.39] p< 0.001. Sixty-nine percent (69% of the nets tested for their long-lasting insecticidal activity remained effective after 3 years of use.Good management of malaria cases by the use of ACT as first-line treatment against malaria in addition to the use of LLINs has significantly reduced malaria in Dielmo and allowed to reach the phase of pre-elimination of the disease. However, the occurrence of malaria resurgences raised serious concerns about malaria elimination, which would require additional

  12. Survival and behavioural responses of the predatory ladybird beetle, Eriopis connexa populations susceptible and resistant to a pyrethroid insecticide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spíndola, A F; Silva-Torres, C S A; Rodrigues, A R S; Torres, J B

    2013-08-01

    The ladybird beetle, Eriopis connexa (Germar) (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae), is one of the commonest predators of aphids (Hemiptera: Aphididae) in the cotton agroecosystem and in many other row and fruit crops in Brazil, and has been introduced into other countries such as the USA for purposes of aphid control. In addition, the boll weevil, Anthonomus grandis Boheman (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) is the most serious cotton pest where it occurs, including Brazil. Controlling boll weevils and other pests such as cotton defoliators still tends to involve the intense application of insecticides to secure cotton production. The pyrethroid insecticide lambda-cyhalothrin (LCT) is commonly used, but this compound is not effective against aphids; hence, a desirable strategy would be to maintain E. connexa populations in cotton fields where LCT is applied. Using populations of E. connexa resistant (Res) and susceptible (Sus) to LCT, we compared behavioural responses on treated cotton plants and under confinement on partially and fully treated surfaces, and assessed the insects' survival on treated plants compared with that of the boll weevil. The E. connexa resistant population caged on treated plants with 15 and 75 g a.i. ha-1 exhibited ≫82% survival for both insecticide concentrations compared with ≪3% and ≪17% survival for susceptible E. connexa populations and boll weevils, respectively. The response of E. connexa Res and Sus populations when released, either on the soil or on the plant canopy, indicated avoidance towards treated plants, as measured by elapsed time to assess the plant. When compared with susceptible individuals, resistant ones took longer time to suffer insecticide knockdown, had a higher recovery rate after suffering knockdown, and spent more time in the plant canopy. Based on behavioural parameters evaluated in treated arenas, no ladybird beetles exhibited repellency. However, irritability was evident, with the susceptible population exhibiting

  13. Assessment of the insecticidal activity of afoxolaner against Aedes aegypti in dogs treated with NexGard®

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    Liebenberg Julian

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Twelve healthy dogs were studied in this parallel group, blinded, randomised, and negative controlled efficacy study. On Day -1, the 12 dogs included were ranked within sex in descending order of individual pre-treatment (Day -5 fed mosquito counts and randomly allocated by blocks of two dogs to the untreated control group or the afoxolaner-treated group. NexGard® (Merial, now part of Boehringer Ingelheim Animal Health was administered orally on Day 0 in accordance with the European label instructions. On Days 1, 7, 14, 21 and 28, all dogs were exposed for a duration of 1 hour to 50 ± 5 unfed Aedes aegypti females. After each exposure, mosquitoes were collected after 1 hour and assessed for viability during collection and at 24 ± 2 hours. The arithmetic (and geometric mean values of live fed mosquito counts at 24 hours after the exposure periods for the negative control group ranged from 33.7 (32.3 to 49.8 (49.7, indicating that this was a vigorous mosquito strain. There was no significant difference between control and treated groups in the number of live and fed mosquitoes at each 1 hour post-exposure collection time. Based on arithmetic and geometric mean values at 24 hours after each exposure, significantly fewer live fed mosquitoes were recorded in the treated group, compared to the negative control group, throughout the study (p < 0.001. The afoxolaner insecticidal efficacy against A. aegypti varied from 98% (Day 2 to 75.3% (Day 29 based on arithmetic means, and 98.7% (Day 2 to 89.8% (Day 29 based on geometric means.

  14. Evaluating the efficacy of biological and conventional insecticides with the new 'MCD bottle' bioassay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sternberg, Eleanore D; Waite, Jessica L; Thomas, Matthew B

    2014-12-16

    Control of mosquitoes requires the ability to evaluate new insecticides and to monitor resistance to existing insecticides. Monitoring tools should be flexible and low cost so that they can be deployed in remote, resource poor areas. Ideally, a bioassay should be able to simulate transient contact between mosquitoes and insecticides, and it should allow for excito-repellency and avoidance behaviour in mosquitoes. Presented here is a new bioassay, which has been designed to meet these criteria. This bioassay was developed as part of the Mosquito Contamination Device (MCD) project and, therefore, is referred to as the MCD bottle bioassay. Presented here are two experiments that serve as a proof-of-concept for the MCD bottle bioassay. The experiments used four insecticide products, ranging from fast-acting, permethrin-treated, long-lasting insecticide nets (LLINs) that are already widely used for malaria vector control, to the slower acting entomopathogenic fungus, Beauveria bassiana, that is currently being evaluated as a prospective biological insecticide. The first experiment used the MCD bottle to test the effect of four different insecticides on Anopheles stephensi with a range of exposure times (1 minute, 3 minutes, 1 hour). The second experiment is a direct comparison of the MCD bottle and World Health Organization (WHO) cone bioassay that tests a subset of the insecticides (a piece of LLIN and a piece of netting coated with B. bassiana spores) and a further reduced exposure time (5 seconds) against both An. stephensi and Anopheles gambiae. Immediate knockdown and mortality after 24 hours were assessed using logistic regression and daily survival was assessed using Cox proportional hazards models. Across both experiments, fungus performed much more consistently than the chemical insecticides but measuring the effect of fungus required monitoring of mosquito mortality over several days to a week. Qualitatively, the MCD bottle and WHO cone performed comparably

  15. Acute toxicities and sublethal effects of some conventional insecticides on Trichogramma chilonis (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, De-Sen; He, Yu-Rong; Guo, Xiang-Ling; Luo, Yong-Li

    2012-08-01

    The acute toxicity of 10 conventional insecticides to adult of Trichogramma chilonis Ishii (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae) was bioassayed by membrane method, and then their sublethal effects on the parasitoid were evaluated in the laboratory. Based on sublethal concentration (LC30) values at 8 h after treatment, we determined that adult T. chilonis were the most susceptible to chlorfenapyr, followed by fipronil, spinosad, avermectins, beta-cypermethrin, and cartap, with lethal concentration (LC)30 values of 0.3133, 0.3269, 1.5408, 3.2961, 6.1469, and 9.021 mg/liter, respectively. The field-recommended concentrations of chlorfluazuron, indoxacarb, Bacillus thuringiensis, and tebufenozide caused Cartap and spinosad also reduced longevity (8 and 7.9 d) and fecundity (110.77 and 117.2) of treated adults, but cartap enhanced the female percentage of F1 offspring (61.6%), resulting a statistical higher R0, r(m), and lambda of treated T. chilonis. In contrast, chlorfluazuron and tebufenozide increased longevity (16.4 and 15.4 d) and fecundity (248 and 256.9) of treated adults but slightly decreased the female percentage of F1 offspring (31.4 and 38.1%). Although chlorfenapyr showed no adverse influence on longevity and fecundity, it remarkably reduced the female percentage of F1 offspring (13.5%), leading to a lower R0, r(m), and lambda of treated T. chilonis. Indoxacarb, B. thuringiensis, and beta-cypermethrin had no obvious sublethal effects on the longevity and fecundity of treated adults. Based on these results, we consider B. thuringienesis, chlorfluazuron, indoxacarb, beta-cypermethrin, and tebufenozide safe to T. chilonis, suggesting that these insecticides are compatible with this parasitoid when being used in the field. However, fipronil, chlorfenapyr, spinosad, and avermectins were very harmful to T. chilonis. Timing of application of these insecticides was critical.

  16. Neonicotinoid Insecticides Alter Induced Defenses and Increase Susceptibility to Spider Mites in Distantly Related Crop Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szczepaniec, Adrianna; Raupp, Michael J.; Parker, Roy D.; Kerns, David; Eubanks, Micky D.

    2013-01-01

    Background Chemical suppression of arthropod herbivores is the most common approach to plant protection. Insecticides, however, can cause unintended, adverse consequences for non-target organisms. Previous studies focused on the effects of pesticides on target and non-target pests, predatory arthropods, and concomitant ecological disruptions. Little research, however, has focused on the direct effects of insecticides on plants. Here we demonstrate that applications of neonicotinoid insecticides, one of the most important insecticide classes worldwide, suppress expression of important plant defense genes, alter levels of phytohormones involved in plant defense, and decrease plant resistance to unsusceptible herbivores, spider mites Tetranychus urticae (Acari: Tetranychidae), in multiple, distantly related crop plants. Methodology/Principal Findings Using cotton (Gossypium hirsutum), corn (Zea mays) and tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) plants, we show that transcription of phenylalanine amonia lyase, coenzyme A ligase, trypsin protease inhibitor and chitinase are suppressed and concentrations of the phytohormone OPDA and salicylic acid were altered by neonicotinoid insecticides. Consequently, the population growth of spider mites increased from 30% to over 100% on neonicotinoid-treated plants in the greenhouse and by nearly 200% in the field experiment. Conclusions/Significance Our findings are important because applications of neonicotinoid insecticides have been associated with outbreaks of spider mites in several unrelated plant species. More importantly, this is the first study to document insecticide-mediated disruption of plant defenses and link it to increased population growth of a non-target herbivore. This study adds to growing evidence that bioactive agrochemicals can have unanticipated ecological effects and suggests that the direct effects of insecticides on plant defenses should be considered when the ecological costs of insecticides are evaluated. PMID

  17. Insecticide-induced hormesis and arthropod pest management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guedes, Raul Narciso C; Cutler, G Christopher

    2014-05-01

    Ecological backlashes such as insecticide resistance, resurgence and secondary pest outbreaks are frequent problems associated with insecticide use against arthropod pest species. The last two have been particularly important in sparking interest in the phenomenon of insecticide-induced hormesis within entomology and acarology. Hormesis describes a biphasic dose-response relationship that is characterized by a reversal of response between low and high doses of a stressor (e.g. insecticides). Although the concept of insecticide-induced hormesis often does not receive sufficient attention, or has been subject to semantic confusion, it has been reported in many arthropod pest species and natural enemies, and has been linked to pest outbreaks and potential problems with insecticide resistance. The study of hormesis remains largely neglected in entomology and acarology. Here, we examined the concept of insecticide-induced hormesis in arthropods, its functional basis and potential fitness consequences, and its importance in arthropod pest management and other areas. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  18. A Landscape View of Agricultural Insecticide Use across the Conterminous US from 1997 through 2012.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy D Meehan

    Full Text Available Simplification of agricultural landscapes is expected to have positive effects on many crop pests and negative effects on their natural enemies, potentially leading to increased pest pressure, decreased crop yield, and increased insecticide use. While many intermediate links in this causal chain have empirical support, there is mixed evidence for ultimate relationships between landscape simplification, crop yield, and insecticide use, especially at large spatial and temporal scales. We explored relationships between landscape simplification (proportion of a county in harvested cropland and insecticide use (proportion of harvested cropland treated with insecticides, using county-level data from the US Census of Agriculture and a variety of standard and spatiotemporal regression techniques. The best model indicated that insecticide use across the US has increased between 1997 and 2012, was strongly dependent on the crops grown in a county, increased with average farm income and size, and increased with annual growing degree days. After accounting for those variables, and other unidentified spatial and temporal structure in the data, there remained a statistically significant, moderate, positive relationship between insecticide use and landscape simplification. These results lend general support to the causal chain outlined above, and to the notion that a landscape perspective is useful for managing ecosystem services that are provided by mobile organisms and valuable to agriculture.

  19. Weevil x Insecticide: Does 'Personality' Matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales, Juliana A; Cardoso, Danúbia G; Della Lucia, Terezinha Maria C; Guedes, Raul Narciso C

    2013-01-01

    An insect's behavior is the expression of its integrated physiology in response to external and internal stimuli, turning insect behavior into a potential determinant of insecticide exposure. Behavioral traits may therefore influence insecticide efficacy against insects, compromising the validity of standard bioassays of insecticide activity, which are fundamentally based on lethality alone. By extension, insect 'personality' (i.e., an individual's integrated set of behavioral tendencies that is inferred from multiple empirical measures) may also be an important determinant of insecticide exposure and activity. This has yet to be considered because the behavioral studies involving insects and insecticides focus on populations rather than on individuals. Even among studies of animal 'personality', the relative contributions of individual and population variation are usually neglected. Here, we assessed behavioral traits (within the categories: activity, boldness/shyness, and exploration/avoidance) of individuals from 15 populations of the maize weevil (Sitophilus zeamais), an important stored-grain pest with serious problems of insecticide resistance, and correlated the behavioral responses with the activity of the insecticide deltamethrin. This analysis was performed at both the population and individual levels. There was significant variation in weevil 'personality' among individuals and populations, but variation among individuals within populations accounted for most of the observed variation (92.57%). This result emphasizes the importance of individual variation in behavioral and 'personality' studies. When the behavioral traits assessed were correlated with median lethal time (LT50) at the population level and with the survival time under insecticide exposure, activity traits, particularly the distance walked, significantly increased survival time. Therefore, behavioral traits are important components of insecticide efficacy, and individual variation should be

  20. Double-stranded RNA uptake through topical application, mediates silencing of five CYP4 genes and suppresses insecticide resistance in Diaphorina citri.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Killiny, Nabil; Hajeri, Subhas; Tiwari, Siddharth; Gowda, Siddarame; Stelinski, Lukasz L

    2014-01-01

    Silencing of genes through RNA interference (RNAi) in insects has gained momentum during the past few years. RNAi has been used to cause insect mortality, inhibit insect growth, increase insecticide susceptibility, and prevent the development of insecticide resistance. We investigated the efficacy of topically applied dsRNA to induce RNAi for five Cytochrome P450 genes family 4 (CYP4) in Diaphorina citri. We previously reported that these CYP4 genes are associated with the development of insecticide resistance in D. citri. We targeted five CYP4 genes that share a consensus sequence with one dsRNA construct. Quantitative PCR confirmed suppressed expression of the five CYP4 genes as a result of dsRNA topically applied to the thoracic region of D. citri when compared to the expression levels in a control group. Western blot analysis indicated a reduced signal of cytochrome P450 proteins (45 kDa) in adult D. citri treated with the dsRNA. In addition, oxidase activity and insecticide resistance were reduced for D. citri treated with dsRNA that targeted specific CYP4 genes. Mortality was significantly higher in adults treated with dsRNA than in adults treated with water. Our results indicate that topically applied dsRNA can penetrate the cuticle of D. citri and induce RNAi. These results broaden the scope of RNAi as a mechanism to manage pests by targeting a broad range of genes. The results also support the application of RNAi as a viable tool to overcome insecticide resistance development in D. citri populations. However, further research is needed to develop grower-friendly delivery systems for the application of dsRNA under field conditions. Considering the high specificity of dsRNA, this tool can also be used for management of D. citri by targeting physiologically critical genes involved in growth and development.

  1. Double-stranded RNA uptake through topical application, mediates silencing of five CYP4 genes and suppresses insecticide resistance in Diaphorina citri.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nabil Killiny

    Full Text Available Silencing of genes through RNA interference (RNAi in insects has gained momentum during the past few years. RNAi has been used to cause insect mortality, inhibit insect growth, increase insecticide susceptibility, and prevent the development of insecticide resistance. We investigated the efficacy of topically applied dsRNA to induce RNAi for five Cytochrome P450 genes family 4 (CYP4 in Diaphorina citri. We previously reported that these CYP4 genes are associated with the development of insecticide resistance in D. citri. We targeted five CYP4 genes that share a consensus sequence with one dsRNA construct. Quantitative PCR confirmed suppressed expression of the five CYP4 genes as a result of dsRNA topically applied to the thoracic region of D. citri when compared to the expression levels in a control group. Western blot analysis indicated a reduced signal of cytochrome P450 proteins (45 kDa in adult D. citri treated with the dsRNA. In addition, oxidase activity and insecticide resistance were reduced for D. citri treated with dsRNA that targeted specific CYP4 genes. Mortality was significantly higher in adults treated with dsRNA than in adults treated with water. Our results indicate that topically applied dsRNA can penetrate the cuticle of D. citri and induce RNAi. These results broaden the scope of RNAi as a mechanism to manage pests by targeting a broad range of genes. The results also support the application of RNAi as a viable tool to overcome insecticide resistance development in D. citri populations. However, further research is needed to develop grower-friendly delivery systems for the application of dsRNA under field conditions. Considering the high specificity of dsRNA, this tool can also be used for management of D. citri by targeting physiologically critical genes involved in growth and development.

  2. Antifeedant, insecticidal and growth inhibitory activities of selected plant oils on black cutworm, Agrotis ipsilon (Hufnagel (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alagarmalai Jeyasankar

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate antifeedant, insecticidal and insect growth inhibitory activities of eucalyptus oil (Eucalyptus globules and gaultheria oil (Gaultheria procumbens L. against black cutworm, Agrotis ipsilon. Methods: Antifeedant, insecticidal and growth inhibitory activities of eucalyptus oil and gaultheria oil were tested against black cutworm, A. ipsilon. Results: Significant antifeedant activity was found in eucalyptus oil (96.24% where as the highest insecticidal activity was noticed in gaultheria oil (86.92%. Percentages of deformities were highest on gaultheria oil treated larvae and percentage of adult emergence was deteriorated also by gaultheria oil. Conclusions: These plants oil has potential to serve as an alternative eco-friendly control of insect pest.

  3. Low Utilization of Insecticide-Treated Bed Net among Pregnant Women in the Middle Belt of Ghana

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    Grace Manu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Malaria in pregnancy leads to low birth weight, premature birth, anaemia, and maternal and neonatal mortality. Use of insecticide-treated nets (ITNs during pregnancy is one of the proven interventions to reduce the malaria burden. However, Ghana has not achieved its target for ITN use among pregnant women. Methods. A qualitative study was conducted in seven communities purposively selected from the middle belt of Ghana. Participants who had delivered in the six months prior to this study were selected. In all, seven focus group discussions and twenty-four in-depth interviews were conducted between June and August 2010. Results. Respondents knew of the importance of ITNs and other malaria-preventive strategies. Factors such as financial access and missed opportunities of free distribution denied some pregnant women the opportunity to own or use an ITN. Reasons for not using ITNs during pregnancy included discomfort resulting from heat, smell of the net, and difficulty in hanging the net. Participants maintained their ITNs by preventing holes in the nets, retreatment, and infrequent washing. Conclusion. Pregnant women know about the causes and prevention of malaria. However, this knowledge is not transformed into practice due to lack of access to ITNs and sleeping discomforts among other logistical constraints.

  4. Inequalities in purchase of mosquito nets and willingness to pay for insecticide-treated nets in Nigeria: Challenges for malaria control interventions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanson Kara

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective To explore the equity implications of insecticide-treated nets (ITN distribution programmes that are based on user charges. Methods A questionnaire was used to collect information on previous purchase of untreated nets and hypothetical willingness to pay (WTP for ITNs from a random sample of householders. A second survey was conducted one month later to collect information on actual purchases of ITNs. An economic status index was used for characterizing inequity. Major findings The lower economic status quintiles were less likely to have previously purchased untreated nets and also had a lower hypothetical and actual WTP for ITNs. Conclusion ITN distribution programmes need to take account of the diversity in WTP for ITNs if they are to ensure equity in access to the nets. This could form part of the overall poverty reduction strategy.

  5. Lethal and Sub-lethal Effects of Four Insecticides on the Aphidophagous Coccinellid Adalia bipunctata (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Depalo, Laura; Lanzoni, Alberto; Masetti, Antonio; Pasqualini, Edison; Burgio, Giovanni

    2017-12-05

    Conventional insecticide assays, which measure the effects of insecticide exposure on short-term mortality, overlook important traits, including persistence of toxicity or sub-lethal effects. Therefore, such approaches are especially inadequate for prediction of the overall impact of insecticides on beneficial arthropods. In this study, the side effects of four modern insecticides (chlorantraniliprole, emamectin benzoate, spinosad, and spirotetramat) on Adalia bipunctata (L.) (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) were evaluated under laboratory conditions by exposition on treated potted plants. In addition to investigation of acute toxicity and persistence of harmful activity in both larvae and adults of A. bipunctata, demographic parameters were evaluated, to provide a comprehensive picture of the nontarget effects of these products. Field doses of the four insecticides caused detrimental effects to A. bipunctata; but in different ways. Overall, spinosad showed the best toxicological profile among the products tested. Emamectin benzoate could be considered a low-risk insecticide, but had high persistence. Chlorantraniliprole exhibited lethal effects on early instar larvae and adults, along with a long-lasting activity, instead spirotetramat showed a low impact on larval and adult mortality and can be considered a short-lived insecticide. However, demographic analysis demonstrated that chlorantraniliprole and spirotetramat caused sub-lethal effects. Our findings highlight that sole assessment of mortality can lead to underestimation of the full impact of pesticides on nontarget insects. Demographic analysis was demonstrated to be a sensitive method for detection of the sub-lethal effects of insecticides on A. bipunctata, and this approach should be considered for evaluation of insecticide selectivity. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. A Comparative Study of the Persistence, Movement and Metabolism of Six Insecticides in Soils and Plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuhremann, T.W.; Lichtenstein, E.P.

    1981-01-01

    Full text: Two soil types and oat plants grown in these soils were incubated under identical environmental conditions. The insecticides used in order to increase the water solubility were 14 C-DDT, 14 C-lindane, 14 C-fonofos, 14 C-parathion, 14 C-phorate and 14 C-carbofuran. Total amounts of 14 C-residues recovered from insecticide-treated loam soils plus oats grown in these soils were similar with DDT and oarbofuran. They were also higher than those observed with the other insecticides. While most of the 14 C-DDT residues remained in the soils, most of the 14 C-carbofuran residues were recovered from oat leaves in the form of carbofuran and 3-hydroxycarbofuran. 14 C-residues of all insecticides were more persistent in loam than in sandy soil and sand-grown oats took up more 14 C-insecticide residues than loamgrown oats. The more water-soluble insecticides, 14 C-phorate and Ccarbofuran were more mobile and were metabolized to a greater extent than insecticides of lower water solubilities. Unextractable (bound) 14 C-residues in loam soil ranged from 2.8% to 29.1% of the applied doses of 14 C-DDT and 14 C-parathion, respectively. Bound 14 C-residues were lower in the sandy soil than in the loam soil, however, plant-bound 14 C-residues were higher in oats grown in the sandy soil than in loam grown oats. Insecticide metabolites recovered from soils and plants were identified and quantitated whenever possible. The oxygen analog metabolites of the organophosphorus insecticides were most abundant in the sandy soil and in oats grown therein. Data illustrate the importance of chemical structure, water solubility and soil type in predicting the comparative environmental behaviour of pesticides. (author)

  7. Selectivity assessment of two biorational insecticides, azadirachtin and pyriproxyfen, in comparison to a neonicotinoid, acetamiprid, on pupae and adults of a Neotropical strain Eretmocerus mundus Mercet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francesena, Natalia; Schneider, Marcela Inés

    2018-05-02

    Assessment of the susceptibility of natural enemies of pests to selective pesticides is relevant for a sustainable agriculture with low impact on the environment. The aim of this study was to assess the toxicity of two biorational insecticides, azadirachtin and pyriproxyfen in comparison to a neonicotinoid insecticide, acetamiprid, on pupae and adults of a Neotropical strain of Eretmocerus mundus. Adult emergence and survival were evaluated as lethal effects whereas the sublethal effects were assessed through the reproductive capacity, sex ratio, and longevity of the surviving first progeny. Adult emergence from treated pupae was reduced by all three insecticides, but azadirachtin at its maximum field recommended concentration (MFRC) proved the most toxic insecticide. The survival probability of emerged adults was reduced by the three insecticides below than 50% from 2 to 5 days after the adult emergence. Malformations in nonemerged adults from treated pupal hosts were observed at the MFRC of all three insecticides. Sublethal effects on survivors from pupal treatment could be evaluated at only the lowest azadirachtin concentration. At that concentration, though azadirachtin did not affect the reproductive capacity of females, the sex ratio and the longevity of the first progeny were disrupted. The survival of parasitoid adults after adult exposure was reduced by all three insecticides, pyriproxyfen at the MFRC being the most toxic. All insecticides at their half of MFRCs induced sublethal effects in the survivors' adults, with pyriproxyfen being the most harmful to the reproductive capacity of females. In conclusion, both biorational insecticides were toxic to E. mundus. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Malaria Vector Control Still Matters despite Insecticide Resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alout, Haoues; Labbé, Pierrick; Chandre, Fabrice; Cohuet, Anna

    2017-08-01

    Mosquito vectors' resistance to insecticides is usually considered a major threat to the recent progresses in malaria control. However, studies measuring the impact of interventions and insecticide resistance reveal inconsistencies when using entomological versus epidemiological indices. First, evaluation tests that do not reflect the susceptibility of mosquitoes when they are infectious may underestimate insecticide efficacy. Moreover, interactions between insecticide resistance and vectorial capacity reveal nonintuitive outcomes of interventions. Therefore, considering ecological interactions between vector, parasite, and environment highlights that the impact of insecticide resistance on the malaria burden is not straightforward and we suggest that vector control still matters despite insecticide resistance. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Fungal degradation of organophosphorous insecticides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bumpus, J.A. [Notre Dame Univ., IN (United States); Kakar, S.N.; Coleman, R.D. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)

    1992-07-01

    Organophosphorous insecticides are used extensively to treat a variety of pests and insects. Although as a group they are easily degraded by bacteria in the environment, a number of them have half-lives of several months. Little is known about their biodegradation by fungi. We have shown that Phanerochaete chrysosporium can substantially degrade chlorpyrifos, fonofos, and terbufos (27.5%, 12.2%, and 26.6%, respectively) during 18-day incubation in nitrogen-limited stationary cultures. The results demonstrate that the clorinated pyridinyl ring of chlorpyrifos and the phenyl ring of fonofos undergo ring cleavage during biodegradation by the fungus. The usefulness of the fungus system for bioremediation is discussed. 16 refs., 7 figs., 2 tabs.

  10. Fungal degradation of organophosphorous insecticides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bumpus, J.A. (Notre Dame Univ., IN (United States)); Kakar, S.N.; Coleman, R.D. (Argonne National Lab., IL (United States))

    1992-01-01

    Organophosphorous insecticides are used extensively to treat a variety of pests and insects. Although as a group they are easily degraded by bacteria in the environment, a number of them have half-lives of several months. Little is known about their biodegradation by fungi. We have shown that Phanerochaete chrysosporium can substantially degrade chlorpyrifos, fonofos, and terbufos (27.5%, 12.2%, and 26.6%, respectively) during 18-day incubation in nitrogen-limited stationary cultures. The results demonstrate that the clorinated pyridinyl ring of chlorpyrifos and the phenyl ring of fonofos undergo ring cleavage during biodegradation by the fungus. The usefulness of the fungus system for bioremediation is discussed. 16 refs., 7 figs., 2 tabs.

  11. Laboratory Evaluation of the Toxicity of Systemic Insecticides to Emerald Ash Borer Larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poland, Therese M; Ciaramitaro, Tina M; McCullough, Deborah G

    2016-04-01

    Emerald ash borer (Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire) (Coleoptera: Buprestidae), an invasive phloem-feeding insect native to Asia, threatens at least 16 North American ash (Fraxinus) species and has killed hundreds of millions of ash trees in landscapes and forests. We conducted laboratory bioassays to assess the relative efficacy of systemic insecticides to control emerald ash borer larvae in winter 2009 and 2010. Second- and third-instar larvae were reared on artificial diet treated with varying doses of emamectin benzoate (TREE-äge, Arborjet, Inc., Woburn, MA), imidacloprid (Imicide, J. J Mauget Co., Arcadia, CA), dinotefuran (Safari, Valent Professional Products, Walnut Creek, CA), and azadirachtin (TreeAzin, BioForest Technologies, Inc., Sault Ste. Marie, Ontario, and Azasol, Arborjet, Inc., Woburn, MA). All of the insecticides were toxic to emerald ash borer larvae, but lethal concentrations needed to kill 50% of the larvae (LC50), standardized by larval weight, varied with insecticide and time. On the earliest date with a significant fit of the probit model, LC50 values were 0.024 ppm/g at day 29 for TREE-äge, 0.015 ppm/g at day 63 for Imicide, 0.030 ppm/g at day 46 for Safari, 0.025 ppm/g at day 24 for TreeAzin, and 0.027 ppm/g at day 27 for Azasol. The median lethal time to kill 50% (LT50) of the tested larvae also varied with insecticide product and dose, and was longer for Imicide and Safari than for TREE-äge or the azadirachtin products. Insecticide efficacy in the field will depend on adult and larval mortality as well as leaf and phloem insecticide residues.

  12. Impact of environment on mosquito response to pyrethroid insecticides: facts, evidences and prospects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nkya, Theresia Estomih; Akhouayri, Idir; Kisinza, William; David, Jean-Philippe

    2013-04-01

    By transmitting major human diseases such as malaria, dengue fever and filariasis, mosquito species represent a serious threat worldwide in terms of public health, and pose a significant economic burden for the African continent and developing tropical regions. Most vector control programmes aiming at controlling life-threatening mosquitoes rely on the use of chemical insecticides, mainly belonging to the pyrethroid class. However, resistance of mosquito populations to pyrethroids is increasing at a dramatic rate, threatening the efficacy of control programmes throughout insecticide-treated areas, where mosquito-borne diseases are still prevalent. In the absence of new insecticides and efficient alternative vector control methods, resistance management strategies are therefore critical, but these require a deep understanding of adaptive mechanisms underlying resistance. Although insecticide resistance mechanisms are intensively studied in mosquitoes, such adaptation is often considered as the unique result of the selection pressure caused by insecticides used for vector control. Indeed, additional environmental parameters, such as insecticides/pesticides usage in agriculture, the presence of anthropogenic or natural xenobiotics, and biotic interactions between vectors and other organisms, may affect both the overall mosquito responses to pyrethroids and the selection of resistance mechanisms. In this context, the present work aims at updating current knowledge on pyrethroid resistance mechanisms in mosquitoes and compiling available data, often from different research fields, on the impact of the environment on mosquito response to pyrethroids. Key environmental factors, such as the presence of urban or agricultural pollutants and biotic interactions between mosquitoes and their microbiome are discussed, and research perspectives to fill in knowledge gaps are suggested. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Modeling global distribution of agricultural insecticides in surface waters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ippolito, Alessio; Kattwinkel, Mira; Rasmussen, Jes J.; Schäfer, Ralf B.; Fornaroli, Riccardo; Liess, Matthias

    2015-01-01

    Agricultural insecticides constitute a major driver of animal biodiversity loss in freshwater ecosystems. However, the global extent of their effects and the spatial extent of exposure remain largely unknown. We applied a spatially explicit model to estimate the potential for agricultural insecticide runoff into streams. Water bodies within 40% of the global land surface were at risk of insecticide runoff. We separated the influence of natural factors and variables under human control determining insecticide runoff. In the northern hemisphere, insecticide runoff presented a latitudinal gradient mainly driven by insecticide application rate; in the southern hemisphere, a combination of daily rainfall intensity, terrain slope, agricultural intensity and insecticide application rate determined the process. The model predicted the upper limit of observed insecticide exposure measured in water bodies (n = 82) in five different countries reasonably well. The study provides a global map of hotspots for insecticide contamination guiding future freshwater management and conservation efforts. - Highlights: • First global map on insecticide runoff through modelling. • Model predicts upper limit of insecticide exposure when compared to field data. • Water bodies in 40% of global land surface may be at risk of adverse effects. • Insecticide application rate, terrain slope and rainfall main drivers of exposure. - We provide the first global map on insecticide runoff to surface water predicting that water bodies in 40% of global land surface may be at risk of adverse effects

  14. Value of Neonicotinoid Insecticide Seed Treatments in Mid-South Corn (Zea mays) Production Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    North, J H; Gore, J; Catchot, A L; Stewart, S D; Lorenz, G M; Musser, F R; Cook, D R; Kerns, D L; Leonard, B R; Dodds, D M

    2018-02-09

    Neonicotinoid seed treatments are one of several effective control options used in corn, Zea mays L., production in the Mid-South for early season insect pests. An analysis was performed on 91 insecticide seed treatment trials from Arkansas, Louisiana, Mississippi, and Tennessee to determine the value of neonicotinoids in corn production systems. The analysis compared neonicotinoid insecticide treated seed plus a fungicide to seed only with the same fungicide. When analyzed by state, corn yields were significantly higher when neonicotinoid seed treatments were used compared to fungicide only treated seed in Louisiana and Mississippi. Corn seed treated with neonicotinoid seed treatments yielded 111, 1,093, 416, and 140 kg/ha, higher than fungicide only treatments for Arkansas, Louisiana, Mississippi, and Tennessee, respectively. Across all states, neonicotinoid seed treatments resulted in a 700 kg/ha advantage compared to fungicide only treated corn seed. Net returns for corn treated with neonicotinoid seed treatment were $1,446/ha compared with $1,390/ha for fungicide only treated corn seed across the Mid-South. Economic returns for neonicotinoid seed treated corn were significantly greater than fungicide-only-treated corn seed in 8 out of 14 yr. When analyzed by state, economic returns for neonicotinoid seed treatments were significantly greater than fungicide-only-treated seed in Louisiana. In some areas, dependent on year, neonicotinoid seed treatments provide significant yield and economic benefits in Mid-South corn. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  15. Modeling global distribution of agricultural insecticides in surface waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ippolito, Alessio; Kattwinkel, Mira; Rasmussen, Jes J; Schäfer, Ralf B; Fornaroli, Riccardo; Liess, Matthias

    2015-03-01

    Agricultural insecticides constitute a major driver of animal biodiversity loss in freshwater ecosystems. However, the global extent of their effects and the spatial extent of exposure remain largely unknown. We applied a spatially explicit model to estimate the potential for agricultural insecticide runoff into streams. Water bodies within 40% of the global land surface were at risk of insecticide runoff. We separated the influence of natural factors and variables under human control determining insecticide runoff. In the northern hemisphere, insecticide runoff presented a latitudinal gradient mainly driven by insecticide application rate; in the southern hemisphere, a combination of daily rainfall intensity, terrain slope, agricultural intensity and insecticide application rate determined the process. The model predicted the upper limit of observed insecticide exposure measured in water bodies (n = 82) in five different countries reasonably well. The study provides a global map of hotspots for insecticide contamination guiding future freshwater management and conservation efforts. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Acceptability and perceived side effects of insecticide indoor residual spraying under different resistance management strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodríguez Américo David

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To assess household acceptability and perceived side effects of residual indoor pyrethroid (PYR, carbamate and organophosphate insecticides sprayed by annual rotation (ROT, spatial mosaic (MOS, and a single insecticide (DDT or PYR in communities of the coastal plain of Chiapas, Mexico. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A questionnaire to assess the acceptability and perceived side effects of indoor insecticides was administered to one member of 30% of the families in eight villages of Chiapas. The association of different insecticide treatments with their responses was evaluated (Chi-square. The intensity of side effects indicated under different treatments was compared in an ordered logistic model, using a severity index as the response variable. RESULTS: Insecticide spraying as a probable cause of symptoms was identified by 2.1% of interviewees. A significantly high percentage of persons with blurred vision, dizziness, sneezing, coughing, numbness, watery eyes, and itching lived in villages under MOS and ROT and a high severity index was significantly associated with ROT treatment. Reduction of mosquito bites and cockroaches were the perceived main benefits, and most villagers that perceived no benefits lived in DDT treated villages. Most of the interviewees welcomed spraying (83.7%, but the smell and having to remove furniture from houses were the main arguments against it. CONCLUSIONS: Acceptability correlated with insecticide spray coverage, although the most frequent suggestion for improvement was to increase the understanding of the objectives of spraying in the communities. The frequency of side effects was low, but higher in localities where a combination of insecticides was applied. This is a limitation for the use of this type of resistance management strategy in public health.

  17. Evaluation of the efficacy of insecticidal coatings based on teflutrin and chlorpyrifos against Rhynchophorus ferrugineus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pugliese, Massimo; Rettori, Andrea Alberto; Martinis, Roberto; Al-Rohily, Khalid; Velate, Suresh; Moideen, Mohamed Ashraf; Al-Maashi, Ali

    2017-08-01

    The date palm (Phoenix dactylifera L.), an important economic resource for many nations worldwide, has recently been threatened by the presence of different insect pests, like the red palm weevil (RPW) Rhynchophorus ferrugineus. Two products, a glue (polyvinyl acetate) and an oil (raw linseed oil) were used as coatings and applied together with a repellent and two insecticides (teflutrin and chlorpyrifos) at different dosages on two species of palm (P. dactylifera and P. canariensis). Phytotoxic effects of the treatments were evaluated in a greenhouse on 260 potted palms (130 P. dactylifera and 130 P. canariensis) and no negative effects were observed. Afterwards, a trial lasting 400 days was carried out in a nursery located in Sicily (south Italy), treating 572 potted palm trees (286 P. dactylifera and 286 P. canariensis) with an average diameter at the base of 18-20 cm. After 400 days, 48% of the untreated palms were infested, while only 3% of date palms and 7% of Canary palms treated with insecticide at lower dosages were infested. The application of an insecticide-based coating is a good strategy to control and prevent the red palm weevil infestation, in particular on date palms. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  18. The gut microbiota of insecticide-resistant insects houses insecticide-degrading bacteria: A potential source for biotechnological exploitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Almeida, Luis Gustavo; de Moraes, Luiz Alberto Beraldo; Trigo, José Roberto; Omoto, Celso

    2017-01-01

    The exploration of new niches for microorganisms capable of degrading recalcitrant molecules is still required. We hypothesized the gut microbiota associated with insect-resistant lines carry pesticide degrading bacteria, and predicted they carry bacteria selected to degrade pesticides they were resistant to. We isolated and accessed the pesticide-degrading capacity of gut bacteria from the gut of fifth instars of Spodoptera frugiperda strains resistant to lambda-cyhalothrin, deltamethrin, chlorpyrifos ethyl, spinosad and lufenuron, using insecticide-selective media. Sixteen isolates belonging to 10 phylotypes were obtained, from which four were also associated with the susceptible strain. However, growth of gut bacteria associated with larvae from the susceptible strain was not obtained in any of the insecticide-based selective media tested. Growth of isolates was affected by the concentration of insecticides in the media, and all grew well up to 40 μg/ml. The insecticide-degrading capacity of selected isolates was assessed by GC or LC-MS/MS analyses. In conclusion, resistant strains of S. frugiperda are an excellent reservoir of insecticide-degrading bacteria with bioremediation potential. Moreover, gut-associated bacteria are subjected to the selection pressure imposed by insecticides on their hosts and may influence the metabolization of pesticides in insects. PMID:28358907

  19. The gut microbiota of insecticide-resistant insects houses insecticide-degrading bacteria: A potential source for biotechnological exploitation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Gustavo de Almeida

    Full Text Available The exploration of new niches for microorganisms capable of degrading recalcitrant molecules is still required. We hypothesized the gut microbiota associated with insect-resistant lines carry pesticide degrading bacteria, and predicted they carry bacteria selected to degrade pesticides they were resistant to. We isolated and accessed the pesticide-degrading capacity of gut bacteria from the gut of fifth instars of Spodoptera frugiperda strains resistant to lambda-cyhalothrin, deltamethrin, chlorpyrifos ethyl, spinosad and lufenuron, using insecticide-selective media. Sixteen isolates belonging to 10 phylotypes were obtained, from which four were also associated with the susceptible strain. However, growth of gut bacteria associated with larvae from the susceptible strain was not obtained in any of the insecticide-based selective media tested. Growth of isolates was affected by the concentration of insecticides in the media, and all grew well up to 40 μg/ml. The insecticide-degrading capacity of selected isolates was assessed by GC or LC-MS/MS analyses. In conclusion, resistant strains of S. frugiperda are an excellent reservoir of insecticide-degrading bacteria with bioremediation potential. Moreover, gut-associated bacteria are subjected to the selection pressure imposed by insecticides on their hosts and may influence the metabolization of pesticides in insects.

  20. Anticholinesterase insecticide retrospective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casida, John E; Durkin, Kathleen A

    2013-03-25

    The anticholinesterase (antiChE) organophosphorus (OP) and methylcarbamate (MC) insecticides have been used very effectively as contact and systemic plant protectants for seven decades. About 90 of these compounds are still in use - the largest number for any insecticide chemotype or mode of action. In both insects and mammals, AChE inhibition and acetylcholine accumulation leads to excitation and death. The cholinergic system of insects is located centrally (where it is protected from ionized OPs and MCs) but not at the neuromuscular junction. Structural differences between insect and mammalian AChE are also evident in their genomics, amino acid sequences and active site conformations. Species selectivity is determined in part by inhibitor and target site specificity. Pest population selection with OPs and MCs has resulted in a multitude of modified AChEs of altered inhibitor specificity some conferring insecticide resistance and others enhancing sensitivity. Much of the success of antiChE insecticides results from a suitable balance of bioactivation and detoxification by families of CYP450 oxidases, hydrolases, glutathione S-transferases and others. Known inhibitors for these enzymes block detoxification and enhance potency which is particularly important in resistant strains. The current market for OPs and MCs of 19% of worldwide insecticide sales is only half of that of 10 years ago for several reasons: there have been no major new compounds for 30 years; resistance has eroded their effectiveness; human toxicity problems are still encountered; the patents have expired reducing the incentive to update registration packages; alternative chemotypes or control methods have been developed. Despite this decline, they still play a major role in pest control and the increasing knowledge on their target sites and metabolism may make it possible to redesign the inhibitors for insensitive AChEs and to target new sites in the cholinergic system. The OPs and MCs are down

  1. Determinants of insecticide-treated net ownership and utilization among pregnant women in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ankomah Augustine

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Malaria during pregnancy is a major public health problem in Nigeria leading to increase in the risk of maternal mortality, low birth weight and infant mortality. This paper is aimed at highlighting key predictors of the ownership of insecticide treated nets (ITNs and its use among pregnant women in Nigeria. Methods A total of 2348 pregnant women were selected by a multi-stage probability sampling technique. Structured interview schedule was used to elicit information on socio-demographic characteristics, ITN ownership, use, knowledge, behaviour and practices. Logistic regression was used to detect predictors of two indicators: ITN ownership, and ITN use in pregnancy among those who owned ITNs. Results ITN ownership was low; only 28.8% owned ITNs. Key predictors of ITN ownership included women who knew that ITNs prevent malaria (OR = 3.85; p p = 0.003. The use of ITNs was equally low with only 7.5% of all pregnant women, and 25.7% of all pregnant women who owned ITNs sleeping under a net. The predictors of ITN use in pregnancy among women who owned ITNs (N = 677 identified by logistic regression were: urban residence (OR = 1.87; p = 0.001; knowledge that ITNs prevent malaria (OR = 2.93; p p = 0.036. Educational level was not significantly related to any of the two outcome variables. Although registration at ANC is significantly associated with ownership of a bednet (perhaps through free ITN distribution this does not translate to significant use of ITNs. Conclusions ITN use lagged well behind ITN ownership. This seems to suggest that the current mass distribution of ITNs at antenatal facilities and community levels may not necessarily lead to use unless it is accompanied by behaviour change interventions that address the community level perceptions, misconceptions and positively position ITN as an effective prevention device to prevent malaria

  2. Diagnostic Doses of Insecticides for Adult Aedes aegypti to Assess Insecticide Resistance in Cuba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez, María Magdalena; Crespo, Ariel; Hurtado, Daymi; Fuentes, Ilario; Rey, Jorge; Bisset, Juan Andrés

    2017-06-01

    The objective of this study was to determine diagnostic doses (DDs) of 5 insecticides for the Rockefeller susceptible strain of Aedes aegypti , using the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) bottle bioassay as a tool for monitoring insecticide resistance in the Cuban vector control program. The 30-min DD values determined in this study were 13.5 μg/ml, 6.5 μg/ml, 6 μg/ml, 90.0 μg/ml, and 15.0 μg/ml for cypermethrin, deltamethrin, lambda-cyhalothrin, chlorpyrifos, and propoxur, respectively. To compare the reliability of CDC bottle bioassay with the World Health Organization susceptible test, 3 insecticide-resistant strains were evaluated for deltamethrin and lambda-cyhalothrin. Results showed that the bottles can be used effectively from 21 to 25 days after treatment and reused up to 4 times, depending on the storage time. The CDC bottle bioassay is an effective tool to assess insecticide resistance in field populations of Ae. aegypti in Cuba and can be incorporated into vector management programs using the diagnostic doses determined in this study.

  3. Transcriptome-based identification and characterization of genes commonly responding to five different insecticides in the diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Yue; Kim, Kyungmun; Kwon, Deok Ho; Jeong, In Hong; Clark, J Marshall; Lee, Si Hyeock

    2018-01-01

    When the 3rd instar larvae of the diamondback moth (DBM), Plutella xylostella, were pretreated with sublethal doses (LC 10 ) and then subsequently exposed to lethal doses (LC 50 ) of chlorantraniliprole, cypermethrin, dinotefuran, indoxacarb and spinosad via leaf dipping, their tolerance to insecticides was significantly enhanced. To identify genes that commonly respond to the treatment of different insecticides and are responsible for the tolerance enhancement, transcriptomic profiles of larvae treated with sublethal doses of the five insecticides were compared with that of untreated control. A total of 117,181 transcripts with a mean length of 662bp were generated by de novo assembly, of which 35,329 transcripts were annotated. Among them, 125, 143, 182, 215 and 149 transcripts were determined to be up-regulated whereas 67, 45, 60, 60 and 38 genes were down-regulated following treatments with chlorantraniliprole, cypermethrin, dinotefuran, indoxacarb and spinosad, respectively. Gene ontology (GO) analysis of differentially expressed genes (DEGs) revealed little differences in their GO profiles between treatments with different insecticides except for spinosad. Finally, the DEGs commonly responding to all insecticides were selected for further characterization, and some of their over-transcription levels were confirmed by quantitative PCR. The most notable examples of commonly responding over-transcribed genes were two cytochrome P450 genes (Cyp301a1 and Cyp9e2) and nine cuticular protein genes. In contrast, several genes composing the mitochondrial energy generation system were significantly down-regulated in all treated larvae. Considering the distinct structure and mode of action of the five insecticides tested, the differentially expressed genes identified in this study appear to be involved in general chemical defense at the initial stage of intoxication. Their possible roles in the tolerance/resistance development were discussed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier

  4. Determinants of Ownership and Utilization of Insecticide-Treated Bed Nets for Malaria Control in Eastern Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sibhatu Biadgilign

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Malaria remains a major cause of mortality and morbidity in the world, and particularly in sub-Saharan Africa. Objectives. The aim of this study was to determine ownership and utilization of ITNs among households with children under five in the previous night. Methods. A community based cross-sectional study was conducted in Gursum district in Eastern Ethiopia. A total of 335 households were surveyed using a pretested structured questionnaire administered though house-to-house interviews. Results. Household ownership for at least one mosquito net and use of nets were 62.4% (95% CI 57.2–67.6% and 21.5% (95% CI 17.1–25.9%, respectively. Households who received or were told about ITN in the last 6 months were three times more likely to have used it than those who were not (OR 3.25; 95% CI 1.5–7.10. Households whose heads were engaged as a farmer (adjusted OR 0.137; 95% CI: 0.04–0.50 and housewife (OR 0.26; 95% CI: 0.08–0.82 were less likely to use ITN than those of other occupations. Conclusion. The findings indicate low ITN ownership and utilization among the households. Intensive health education and community mobilization effort should be employed to increase the possession and proper utilization of insecticide treated bed nets.

  5. CADDIS Volume 2. Sources, Stressors and Responses: Insecticides - Detailed Conceptual Diagram

    Science.gov (United States)

    Introduction to the insecticides module, when to list insecticides as a candidate cause, ways to measure insecticides, simple and detailed conceptual diagrams for insecticides, insecticides module references and literature reviews.

  6. CADDIS Volume 2. Sources, Stressors and Responses: Insecticides - Simple Conceptual Diagram

    Science.gov (United States)

    Introduction to the insecticides module, when to list insecticides as a candidate cause, ways to measure insecticides, simple and detailed conceptual diagrams for insecticides, insecticides module references and literature reviews.

  7. Insecticide exposure and farm history in relation to risk of lymphomas and leukemias in the Women's Health Initiative observational study cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schinasi, Leah H; De Roos, Anneclaire J; Ray, Roberta M; Edlefsen, Kerstin L; Parks, Christine G; Howard, Barbara V; Meliker, Jaymie R; Bonner, Matthew R; Wallace, Robert B; LaCroix, Andrea Z

    2015-11-01

    Relationships of farm history and insecticide exposure at home or work with lymphohematopoietic (LH) neoplasm risk were investigated in a large prospective cohort of US women. In questionnaires, women self-reported history living or working on a farm, personally mixing or applying insecticides, insecticide application in the home or workplace by a commercial service, and treating pets with insecticides. Relationships with non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL), chronic lymphocytic leukemia/small lymphocytic lymphoma (CLL/SLL), diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL), follicular lymphoma, plasma cell neoplasms, and myeloid leukemia were investigated using Cox proportional hazard models. Age and farming history were explored as effect modifiers. The analysis included 76,493 women and 822 NHL cases. Women who ever lived or worked on a farm had 1.12 times the risk of NHL (95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.95-1.32) compared to those who did not. Women who reported that a commercial service ever applied insecticides in their immediate surroundings had 65% higher risk of CLL/SLL (95% CI = 1.15-2.38). Women aged less than 65 years who ever applied insecticides had 87% higher risk of DLBCL (95% CI = 1.13-3.09). Insecticide exposures may contribute to risk of CLL/SLL and DLBCL. Future studies should examine relationships of LH subtypes with specific types of household insecticides. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Different delivery mechanisms for insecticide-treated nets in rural Burkina Faso: a provider's perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beiersmann, Claudia; De Allegri, Manuela; Tiendrebéogo, Justin; Yé, Maurice; Jahn, Albrecht; Mueller, Olaf

    2010-12-04

    Insecticide-treated nets (ITNs) have been confirmed to be a very effective tool in malaria control. Two different delivery strategies for roll-out of ITN programmes have been the focus of debate in the last years: free distribution and distribution through commercial marketing systems. They are now seen as complementary rather than opponent. Acceptance of these programmes by the community and involved providers is an important aspect influencing their sustainability. This paper looks at how providers perceived, understood and accepted two interventions involving two different delivery strategies (subsidized sales supported by social marketing and free distribution to pregnant women attending antenatal care services). The interventions took place in one province of north-western Burkina Faso in 2006 in the frame of a large randomized controlled ITN intervention study. For this descriptive qualitative study data were collected through focus group discussions and individual interviews. A total of four focus group discussions and eleven individual interviews have been conducted with the providers of the study interventions. The free distribution intervention was well accepted and perceived as running well. The health care staff had a positive and beneficial view of the intervention and did not feel overwhelmed by the additional workload. The social marketing intervention was also seen as positive by the rural shopkeepers. However, working in market economy, shopkeepers feared the risk of unsold ITNs, due to the low demand and capacity to pay for the product in the community. The combination of ITN free distribution and social marketing was in general well accepted by the different providers. However, low purchasing power of clients and the resulting financial insecurities of shopkeepers remain a challenge to ITN social marketing in rural SSA.

  9. An Operational Framework for Insecticide Resistance Management Planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chanda, Emmanuel; Thomsen, Edward K; Musapa, Mulenga; Kamuliwo, Mulakwa; Brogdon, William G; Norris, Douglas E; Masaninga, Freddie; Wirtz, Robert; Sikaala, Chadwick H; Muleba, Mbanga; Craig, Allen; Govere, John M; Ranson, Hilary; Hemingway, Janet; Seyoum, Aklilu; Macdonald, Michael B; Coleman, Michael

    2016-05-01

    Arthropod vectors transmit organisms that cause many emerging and reemerging diseases, and their control is reliant mainly on the use of chemical insecticides. Only a few classes of insecticides are available for public health use, and the increased spread of insecticide resistance is a major threat to sustainable disease control. The primary strategy for mitigating the detrimental effects of insecticide resistance is the development of an insecticide resistance management plan. However, few examples exist to show how to implement such plans programmatically. We describe the formulation and implementation of a resistance management plan for mosquito vectors of human disease in Zambia. We also discuss challenges, steps taken to address the challenges, and directions for the future.

  10. Insecticide susceptibility status of human biting mosquitoes in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: There has been a rapid emergence in insecticide resistance among mosquito population to commonly used public health insecticides. This situation presents a challenge to chemicals that are currently used to control mosquitoes in sub-Saharan African. Furthermore, there is limited information on insecticide ...

  11. Insecticide Resistance and Metabolic Mechanisms Involved in Larval and Adult Stages of Aedes aegypti Insecticide-Resistant Reference Strains from Cuba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bisset, Juan Andrés; Rodríguez, María Magdalena; French, Leydis; Severson, David W; Gutiérrez, Gladys; Hurtado, Daymi; Fuentes, Ilario

    2014-12-01

    Studies were conducted to compare levels of insecticide resistance and to determine the metabolic resistance mechanisms in larval and adult stages of Aedes aegypti from Cuba. Three insecticide-resistant reference strains of Ae. aegypti from Cuba were examined. These strains were derived from a Santiago de Cuba strain isolated in 1997; it was previously subjected to a strong selection for resistance to temephos (SAN-F6), deltamethrin (SAN-F12), and propoxur (SAN-F13) and routinely maintained in the laboratory under selection pressure up to the present time, when the study was carried out. In addition, an insecticide-susceptible strain was used for comparison. The insecticide resistance in larvae and adults was determined using standard World Health Organization methodologies. Insecticide resistance mechanisms were determined by biochemical assays. The esterases (α EST and β EST) and mixed function oxidase (MFO) activities were significantly higher in adults than in the larvae of the three resistant strains studied. The association of resistance level with the biochemical mechanism for each insecticide was established for each stage. The observed differences between larval and adult stages of Ae. aegypti in their levels of insecticide resistance and the biochemical mechanisms involved should be included as part of monitoring and surveillance activities in Ae. aegypti vector control programs.

  12. Insecticide Mixtures Could Enhance the Toxicity of Insecticides in a Resistant Dairy Population of Musca domestica L

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Hafiz Azhar Ali; Akram, Waseem; Shad, Sarfraz Ali; Lee, Jong-Jin

    2013-01-01

    House flies, Musca domestica L., are important pests of dairy operations worldwide, with the ability to adapt wide range of environmental conditions. There are a number of insecticides used for their management, but development of resistance is a serious problem. Insecticide mixtures could enhance the toxicity of insecticides in resistant insect pests, thus resulting as a potential resistance management tool. The toxicity of bifenthrin, cypermethrin, deltamethrin, chlorpyrifos, profenofos, emamectin benzoate and fipronil were assessed separately, and in mixtures against house flies. A field-collected population was significantly resistant to all the insecticides under investigation when compared with a laboratory susceptible strain. Most of the insecticide mixtures like one pyrethroid with other compounds evaluated under two conditions (1∶1-“A” and LC50: LC50-“B”) significantly increased the toxicity of pyrethroids in the field population. Under both conditions, the combination indices of pyrethroids with other compounds, in most of the cases, were significantly below 1, suggesting synergism. The enzyme inhibitors, PBO and DEF, when used in combination with insecticides against the resistant population, toxicities of bifenthrin, cypermethrin, deltamethrin and emamectin were significantly increased, suggesting esterase and monooxygenase based resistance mechanism. The toxicities of bifenthrin, cypermethrin and deltamethrin in the resistant population of house flies could be enhanced by the combination with chlorpyrifos, profenofos, emamectin and fipronil. The findings of the present study might have practical significance for resistance management in house flies. PMID:23613758

  13. Conifer flavonoid compounds inhibit detoxification enzymes and synergize insecticides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhiling; Zhao, Zhong; Cheng, Xiaofei; Liu, Suqi; Wei, Qin; Scott, Ian M

    2016-02-01

    Detoxification by glutathione S-transferases (GSTs) and esterases are important mechanisms associated with insecticide resistance. Discovery of novel GST and esterase inhibitors from phytochemicals could provide potential new insecticide synergists. Conifer tree species contain flavonoids, such as taxifolin, that inhibit in vitro GST activity. The objectives were to test the relative effectiveness of taxifolin as an enzyme inhibitor and as an insecticide synergist in combination with the organophosphorous insecticide, Guthion (50% azinphos-methyl), and the botanical insecticide, pyrethrum, using an insecticide-resistant Colorado potato beetle (CPB) Leptinotarsa decemlineata (Say) strain. Both taxifolin and its isomer, quercetin, increased the mortality of 1(st) instar CPB larvae after 48h when combined with Guthion, but not pyrethrum. Taxifolin had greater in vitro esterase inhibition compared with the commonly used esterase inhibitor, S, S, S-tributyl phosphorotrithioate (DEF). An in vivo esterase and GST inhibition effect after ingestion of taxifolin was measured, however DEF caused a greater suppression of esterase activity. This study demonstrated that flavonoid compounds have both in vitro and in vivo esterase inhibition, which is likely responsible for the insecticide synergism observed in insecticide-resistant CPB. Crown Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Relative efficacy of some insecticides against the sucking insect pest complex of cotton

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asif, M.U.; Muhammad, R.; Tofique, M.

    2016-01-01

    The comparative efficacy of some conventional and neonicotinoid insecticides for the management of sucking insect pests of cotton (whitefly, jassid and thrips) was determined. Six insecticides viz., Confidor 200 SL (imidacloprid) at the rate acre /sup -1/, Karate 1.5 EC (lambda cyhalothrin) at the rate 330 ml acre /sup -1/, Nockout 25 SP (nitenpyram) at the rate 100 gm acre /sup -1/, Polytrin-C 44 EC (profenofos+cypermethrin) at the rate 600 ml acre /sup -1/, Talstar 10 EC (bifenthrin) at the rate 250 ml acre /sup -1/ and Advantage 20 EC (carbosulfan) at the rate of 1000 ml acre /sup -1/ were sprayed twice in order to ascertain the reduction of the pests population on Sadori variety of cotton sown at experimental area of Nuclear Institute of Agriculture, Tandojam. All the tested insecticides caused significant reduction of whitefly, jassid and thrips at 24 hours, 72 hours and even 7 days after application. Imidacloprid followed by the nitenpyram proved to be most effective for bringing about a significant reduction in the populations of whitefly and thrips. Nitenpyram had the highest percentage reduction (73.80%) against jassid at 7th day after application but that was nonsignificantly different from imidacloprid(63.49%). Whereas, the conventional insecticides i.e. lambda cyhalothrin, profenofos+cypermethrin, bifenthrin and carbosulfan showed 57.93%, 52.38%, 47.61% and 42.06% reduction, respectively. Maximum extrapolated yield (2.99 tons ha /sup -1/) was also obtained in imidacloprid treated plots followed by nitenpyram (2.66 tons ha /sup -1/). Thus, these two insecticides were most effective for the sucking pests and in increasing seed cotton yield as compared to the conventional ones. (author)

  15. Residual Acute Toxicity of Some Modern Insecticides Toward Two Mirid Predators of Tomato Pests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wanumen, Andrea C; Carvalho, Geraldo A; Medina, Pilar; Viñuela, Elisa; Adán, Ángeles

    2016-03-31

    The successful integration of chemical and biological control strategies for crop pests depends on a thorough evaluation of the effects of pesticides on the natural enemies of pests. A case-by-case review is difficult to achieve because of the many combinations of pests, natural enemies, and crops that need to be tested. Within this framework, we tested and compared seven insecticides representative of four different modes of action (MoAs) groups on closely related predators (Miridae): flubendiamide, spirotetramat, metaflumizone, and sulfoxaflor onNesidiocoris tenuisReuter and flubendiamide, spiromesifen, indoxacarb, and imidacloprid onMacrolophus basicornis(Stal). We follow the standardized methodology of the International Organization for Biological Control, a sequential testing exposure scheme. The lethal effect of each insecticide was evaluated in adults after three days of contact with treated surfaces in the laboratory, extended laboratory, and semifield tests (inert substrate, tomato leaves, and tomato plant as the treated surface, respectively). Flubendiamide, spiromesifen, and spirotetramat were classified as harmless (class 1), metaflumizone was slightly harmful (class 2) but persistent, indoxacarb was harmless (class 1), and sulfoxaflor and imidacloprid were toxic (class 4) and exhibited a long residual activity. Our results suggest similarities in the acute toxicities of insecticides from the same MoA group on related species of natural enemies. © The Authors 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  16. Radioligand Recognition of Insecticide Targets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casida, John E

    2018-04-04

    Insecticide radioligands allow the direct recognition and analysis of the targets and mechanisms of toxic action critical to effective and safe pest control. These radioligands are either the insecticides themselves or analogs that bind at the same or coupled sites. Preferred radioligands and their targets, often in both insects and mammals, are trioxabicyclooctanes for the γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) receptor, avermectin for the glutamate receptor, imidacloprid for the nicotinic receptor, ryanodine and chlorantraniliprole for the ryanodine receptor, and rotenone or pyridaben for NADH + ubiquinone oxidoreductase. Pyrethroids and other Na + channel modulator insecticides are generally poor radioligands due to lipophilicity and high nonspecific binding. For target site validation, the structure-activity relationships competing with the radioligand in the binding assays should be the same as that for insecticidal activity or toxicity except for rapidly detoxified or proinsecticide analogs. Once the radioligand assay is validated for relevance, it will often help define target site modifications on selection of resistant pest strains, selectivity between insects and mammals, and interaction with antidotes and other chemicals at modulator sites. Binding assays also serve for receptor isolation and photoaffinity labeling to characterize the interactions involved.

  17. Botanical insecticides inspired by plant-herbivore chemical interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miresmailli, Saber; Isman, Murray B

    2014-01-01

    Plants have evolved a plethora of secondary chemicals to protect themselves against herbivores and pathogens, some of which have been used historically for pest management. The extraction methods used by industry render many phytochemicals ineffective as insecticides despite their bioactivity in the natural context. In this review, we examine how plants use their secondary chemicals in nature and compare this with how they are used as insecticides to understand why the efficacy of botanical insecticides can be so variable. If the commercial production of botanical insecticides is to become a viable pest management option, factors such as production cost, resource availability, and extraction and formulation techniques need be considered alongside innovative application technologies to ensure consistent efficacy of botanical insecticides. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Degradation of Insecticides in Poultry Manure: Determining the Insecticidal Treatment Interval for Managing House Fly (Diptera: Muscidae) Populations in Poultry Farms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ong, Song-Quan; Ab Majid, Abdul Hafiz; Ahmad, Hamdan

    2016-04-01

    It is crucial to understand the degradation pattern of insecticides when designing a sustainable control program for the house fly, Musca domestica (L.), on poultry farms. The aim of this study was to determine the half-life and degradation rates of cyromazine, chlorpyrifos, and cypermethrin by spiking these insecticides into poultry manure, and then quantitatively analyzing the insecticide residue using ultra-performance liquid chromatography. The insecticides were later tested in the field in order to study the appropriate insecticidal treatment intervals. Bio-assays on manure samples were later tested at 3, 7, 10, and 15 d for bio-efficacy on susceptible house fly larvae. Degradation analysis demonstrated that cyromazine has the shortest half-life (3.01 d) compared with chlorpyrifos (4.36 d) and cypermethrin (3.75 d). Cyromazine also had a significantly greater degradation rate compared with chlorpyrifos and cypermethrin. For the field insecticidal treatment interval study, 10 d was the interval that had been determined for cyromazine due to its significantly lower residue; for ChCy (a mixture of chlorpyrifos and cypermethrin), the suggested interval was 7 d. Future work should focus on the effects of insecticide metabolites on targeted pests and the poultry manure environment.

  19. The Effect of Early Mosquito Insecticides Exposure on Spraque Dawley Rat Testis: A Histopathological Feature Towards Malignancy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Indah Winarni, Tri; Auzan Aziman, Milzam; Abshar Andar, Anindyo; Pawitra, Ika

    2017-02-01

    The incidence of health problems associated with endocrine-disruption have increased. Many studies suggesting that endocrine disruptor chemicals (EDC) do contribute to cancer through estrogen-related receptors. Many chemicals have EDCs properties including insecticides. Early life exposure to EDCs can increased the risk of testicular cancer have been reported in the last decade. This study was aimed to determine the effect of insecticides exposure on histopathological tumor cell development of germ and Leydig cell. True experiment research design with posttest only control group design was applied. Sprague Dawley (SD) rat (n = 25) were randomly divided into 5 groups (control group, 25 mg β estradiol 3-benzoate, spiral mosquito coil repellent, 3 ml of liquid mosquito repellent, and 4 ml of liquid mosquito repellent). The exposure were administered for 20 days started at aged 3 days. At the age of 100 days (older adult), testis was stained using Hematoxyllin Eosin (HE) and histological features predicting malignancy were observed. The number of tumor cell development in both testicular germ cells and Leydig cells significantly increased in all treated group compared to those of control and the changes towards malignancy were also observed in all treated group. Exposure to mosquito insecticides causes significant changes in testicular germ and Leydig cell histological features that leads to malignancy.

  20. Mass distribution of free insecticide-treated nets do not interfere with continuous net distribution in Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eze, Ikenna C; Kramer, Karen; Msengwa, Amina; Mandike, Renata; Lengeler, Christian

    2014-05-27

    To protect the most vulnerable groups from malaria (pregnant women and infants) the Tanzanian Government introduced a subsidy (voucher) scheme in 2004, on the basis of a public-private partnership. These vouchers are provided to pregnant women at their first antenatal care visit and mothers of infants at first vaccination. The vouchers are redeemed at registered retailers for a long-lasting insecticidal net against the payment of a modest top-up price. The present work analysed a large body of data from the Tanzanian National Voucher Scheme, focusing on interactions with concurrent mass distribution campaigns of free nets. In an ecologic study involving all regions of Tanzania, voucher redemption data for the period 2007-2011, as well as data on potential determinants of voucher redemption were analysed. The four outcome variables were: pregnant woman and infant voucher redemption rates, use of treated bed nets by all household members and by under- five children. Each of the outcomes was regressed with selected determinants, using a generalized estimating equation model and accounting for regional data clustering. There was a consistent improvement in voucher redemption rates over the selected time period, with rates >80% in 2011. The major determinants of redemption rates were the top-up price paid by the voucher beneficiary, the retailer- clinic ratio, and socio-economic status. Improved redemption rates after 2009 were most likely due to reduced top-up prices (following a change in policy). Redemption rates were not affected by two major free net distribution campaigns. During this period, there was a consistent improvement in net use across all the regions, with rates of up to 75% in 2011. The key components of the National Treated Nets Programme (NATNETS) seem to work harmoniously, leading to a high level of net use in the entire population. This calls for the continuation of this effort in Tanzania and for emulation by other countries with endemic malaria.

  1. Use of insecticide-treated mosquito nets for children under five years in an urban area of Lagos State, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okafor, I P; Odeyemi, K A

    2012-01-01

    Insecticide-treated nets (ITNs) have proven to be one of the most effective means of reducing malaria morbidity and mortality in children and pregnant women. This study is carried out to determine the practice and determinants of ITN use for children under five years among care givers in an urban area of Lagos State. A community-based, cross sectional study was carried out in Lagos State in April 2007 among three hundred and forty (340) care givers primarily responsible for child care at home. They were selected by a multi-stage sampling method using a pre-tested, interviewer-administered, structured questionnaire. ITN use rate for under-fives was high (61.8%) and this was significantly determined by care giver's marital status (P level of care giver and occupation of head of the household were not significant determinants. There is need for health campaigns on ITNs targeted at unmarried care givers of young children. In addition, we also recommend social marketing of modern family planning methods to reduce family size, thereby increasing chances of ITN use among children less than five years to reduce malaria burden.

  2. Different delivery mechanisms for insecticide-treated nets in rural Burkina Faso: a provider's perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jahn Albrecht

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Insecticide-treated nets (ITNs have been confirmed to be a very effective tool in malaria control. Two different delivery strategies for roll-out of ITN programmes have been the focus of debate in the last years: free distribution and distribution through commercial marketing systems. They are now seen as complementary rather than opponent. Acceptance of these programmes by the community and involved providers is an important aspect influencing their sustainability. This paper looks at how providers perceived, understood and accepted two interventions involving two different delivery strategies (subsidized sales supported by social marketing and free distribution to pregnant women attending antenatal care services. Methods The interventions took place in one province of north-western Burkina Faso in 2006 in the frame of a large randomized controlled ITN intervention study. For this descriptive qualitative study data were collected through focus group discussions and individual interviews. A total of four focus group discussions and eleven individual interviews have been conducted with the providers of the study interventions. Results The free distribution intervention was well accepted and perceived as running well. The health care staff had a positive and beneficial view of the intervention and did not feel overwhelmed by the additional workload. The social marketing intervention was also seen as positive by the rural shopkeepers. However, working in market economy, shopkeepers feared the risk of unsold ITNs, due to the low demand and capacity to pay for the product in the community. Conclusion The combination of ITN free distribution and social marketing was in general well accepted by the different providers. However, low purchasing power of clients and the resulting financial insecurities of shopkeepers remain a challenge to ITN social marketing in rural SSA.

  3. Preventing childhood malaria in Africa by protecting adults from mosquitoes with insecticide-treated nets.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerry F Killeen

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Malaria prevention in Africa merits particular attention as the world strives toward a better life for the poorest. Insecticide-treated nets (ITNs represent a practical means to prevent malaria in Africa, so scaling up coverage to at least 80% of young children and pregnant women by 2010 is integral to the Millennium Development Goals (MDG. Targeting individual protection to vulnerable groups is an accepted priority, but community-level impacts of broader population coverage are largely ignored even though they may be just as important. We therefore estimated coverage thresholds for entire populations at which individual- and community-level protection are equivalent, representing rational targets for ITN coverage beyond vulnerable groups.Using field-parameterized malaria transmission models, we show that high (80% use but exclusively targeted coverage of young children and pregnant women (representing <20% of the population will deliver limited protection and equity for these vulnerable groups. In contrast, relatively modest coverage (35%-65% use, with this threshold depending on ecological scenario and net quality of all adults and children, rather than just vulnerable groups, can achieve equitable community-wide benefits equivalent to or greater than personal protection.Coverage of entire populations will be required to accomplish large reductions of the malaria burden in Africa. While coverage of vulnerable groups should still be prioritized, the equitable and communal benefits of wide-scale ITN use by older children and adults should be explicitly promoted and evaluated by national malaria control programmes. ITN use by the majority of entire populations could protect all children in such communities, even those not actually covered by achieving existing personal protection targets of the MDG, Roll Back Malaria Partnership, or the US President's Malaria Initiative.

  4. Insecticide-treated nets for the prevention of malaria in pregnancy: a systematic review of randomised controlled trials.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carol Gamble

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Protection from malaria with insecticide-treated bednets (ITNs during pregnancy is widely advocated, but evidence of benefit has been inconsistent. We undertook a systematic review of randomised trials. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Three cluster-randomised and two individually randomised trials met the inclusion criteria; four from Africa (n = 6,418 and one from Thailand (n = 223. In Africa, ITNs compared to no nets increased mean birth weight by 55 g (95% confidence interval [CI] 21-88, reduced low birth weight by 23% (relative risk [RR] 0.77, 95% CI 0.61-0.98, and reduced miscarriages/stillbirths by 33% (RR 0.67, 0.47-0.97 in the first few pregnancies. Placental parasitaemia was reduced by 23% in all gravidae (RR 0.77, 0.66-0.90. The effects were apparent in the cluster-randomised trials and the one individually randomised trial in Africa. The trial in Thailand, which randomised individuals to ITNs or untreated nets, showed reductions in anaemia and fetal loss in all gravidae, but not reductions in clinical malaria or low birth weight. CONCLUSIONS: ITNs used throughout pregnancy or from mid-pregnancy onwards have a beneficial impact on pregnancy outcome in malaria-endemic Africa in the first few pregnancies. The potential impact of ITNs in pregnant women and their newborns in malaria regions outside Africa requires further research.

  5. Insecticide mixtures could enhance the toxicity of insecticides in a resistant dairy population of Musca domestica L [corrected].

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hafiz Azhar Ali Khan

    Full Text Available House flies, Musca domestica L., are important pests of dairy operations worldwide, with the ability to adapt wide range of environmental conditions. There are a number of insecticides used for their management, but development of resistance is a serious problem. Insecticide mixtures could enhance the toxicity of insecticides in resistant insect pests, thus resulting as a potential resistance management tool. The toxicity of bifenthrin, cypermethrin, deltamethrin, chlorpyrifos, profenofos, emamectin benzoate and fipronil were assessed separately, and in mixtures against house flies. A field-collected population was significantly resistant to all the insecticides under investigation when compared with a laboratory susceptible strain. Most of the insecticide mixtures like one pyrethroid with other compounds evaluated under two conditions (1∶1-"A" and LC50: LC50-"B" significantly increased the toxicity of pyrethroids in the field population. Under both conditions, the combination indices of pyrethroids with other compounds, in most of the cases, were significantly below 1, suggesting synergism. The enzyme inhibitors, PBO and DEF, when used in combination with insecticides against the resistant population, toxicities of bifenthrin, cypermethrin, deltamethrin and emamectin were significantly increased, suggesting esterase and monooxygenase based resistance mechanism. The toxicities of bifenthrin, cypermethrin and deltamethrin in the resistant population of house flies could be enhanced by the combination with chlorpyrifos, profenofos, emamectin and fipronil. The findings of the present study might have practical significance for resistance management in house flies.

  6. Increased proportions of outdoor feeding among residual malaria vector populations following increased use of insecticide-treated nets in rural Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azizi Salum

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Insecticide-treated nets (ITNs and indoor residual spraying (IRS represent the front-line tools for malaria vector control globally, but are optimally effective where the majority of baseline transmission occurs indoors. In the surveyed area of rural southern Tanzania, bed net use steadily increased over the last decade, reducing malaria transmission intensity by 94%. Methods Starting before bed nets were introduced (1997, and then after two milestones of net use had been reached-75% community-wide use of untreated nets (2004 and then 47% use of ITNs (2009-hourly biting rates of malaria vectors from the Anopheles gambiae complex and Anopheles funestus group were surveyed. Results In 1997, An. gambiae s.l. and An. funestus mosquitoes exhibited a tendency to bite humans inside houses late at night. For An. gambiae s.l., by 2009, nocturnal activity was less (p = 0.0018. At this time, the sibling species composition of the complex had shifted from predominantly An. gambiae s.s. to predominantly An. arabiensis. For An. funestus, by 2009, nocturnal activity was less (p = 0.0054 as well as the proportion biting indoors (p An. funestus s.s. remained the predominant species within this group. As a consequence of these altered feeding patterns, the proportion (mean ± standard error of human contact with mosquitoes (bites per person per night occurring indoors dropped from 0.99 ± 0.002 in 1997 to 0.82 ± 0.008 in 2009 for the An. gambiae complex (p = 0.0143 and from 1.00 ± An. funestus complex (p = 0.0004 over the same time period. Conclusions High usage of ITNs can dramatically alter African vector populations so that intense, predominantly indoor transmission is replaced by greatly lowered residual transmission, a greater proportion of which occurs outdoors. Regardless of the underlying mechanism, the residual, self-sustaining transmission will respond poorly to further insecticidal measures within houses. Additional vector control

  7. Theoretical impact of insecticide-impregnated school uniforms on dengue incidence in Thai children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massad, Eduardo; Amaku, Marcos; Coutinho, Francisco Antonio Bezerra; Kittayapong, Pattamaporn; Wilder-Smith, Annelies

    2013-03-28

    Children carry the main burden of morbidity and mortality caused by dengue. Children spend a considerable amount of their day at school; hence strategies that reduce human-mosquito contact to protect against the day-biting habits of Aedes mosquitoes at schools, such as insecticide-impregnated uniforms, could be an effective prevention strategy. We used mathematical models to calculate the risk of dengue infection based on force of infection taking into account the estimated proportion of mosquito bites that occur in school and the proportion of school time that children wear the impregnated uniforms. The use of insecticide-impregnated uniforms has efficacy varying from around 6% in the most pessimistic estimations, to 55% in the most optimistic scenarios simulated. Reducing contact between mosquito bites and human hosts via insecticide-treated uniforms during school time is theoretically effective in reducing dengue incidence and may be a valuable additional tool for dengue control in school-aged children. The efficacy of this strategy, however, is dependent on the compliance of the target population in terms of proper and consistent wearing of uniforms and, perhaps more importantly, the proportion of bites inflicted by the Aedes population during school time.

  8. Insecticide exposure and farm history in relation to risk of lymphomas and leukemias in the Women’s Health Initiative (WHI) observational study cohort

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schinasi, L; De Roos, AJ; Ray, RM; Edlefsen, KL; Parks, CG; Howard, BV; Meliker; Bonner, MR; Wallace, RB; LaCroix, AZ

    2017-01-01

    Purpose Relationships of farm history and insecticide exposure at home or work with lymphohematopoietic (LH) neoplasm risk were investigated in a large prospective cohort of United States women. Methods In questionnaires, women self-reported history living or working on a farm, personally mixing or applying insecticides, insecticide application in the home or workplace by a commercial service, and treating pets with insecticides. Relationships with non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL), chronic lymphocytic leukemia/small lymphocytic lymphoma (CLL/SLL), diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL), follicular lymphoma, plasma cell neoplasms, and myeloid leukemia were investigated using Cox proportional hazard models. Age and farming history were explored as effect modifiers. Results The analysis included 76,493 women and 822 NHL cases. Women who ever lived or worked on a farm had 1.12 times the risk of NHL (95% CI: 0.95–1.32) compared to those who did not. Women who reported that a commercial service ever applied insecticides in their immediate surroundings had 65% higher risk of CLL/SLL (95% CI: 1.15–2.38). Women younger than 65 who ever applied insecticides had 87% higher risk of DLBCL (95% CI: 1.13–3.09). Conclusions Insecticide exposures may contribute to risk of CLL/SLL and DLBCL. Future studies should examine relationships of LH subtypes with specific types of household insecticides. PMID:26365305

  9. Microbes as interesting source of novel insecticides: A review ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... strains with good insecticidal properties can be identified, evaluated and utilized for pest control. This paper reviews the insecticidal properties of microbes and their potential utility in pest management. Keywords: Microbes, insecticides, metabolites, pest management. African Journal of Biotechnology, Vol 13(26) 2582- ...

  10. Ecdysone Agonist: New Insecticides with Novel Mode of Action

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Andi Trisyono

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available Development of insect resistance to insecticide has been the major driving force for the development of new insecticides. Awareness and demand from public for more environmentally friendly insecticides have contributed in shifting the trend from using broad spectrum to selective insecticides. As a result, scientists have looked for new target sites beyond the nervous system. Insect growth regulators (IGRs are more selective insecticides than conventional insecticides, and ecdysone agonists are the newest IGRs being commercialized, e.g. tebufenozide, methoxyfenozide, and halofenozide. Ecdysone agonists bind to the ecdysteroid receptors, and they act similarly to the molting hormone 20-hydroxyecdysone. The binding provides larvae or nymphs with a signal to enter a premature and lethal molting cycle. In addition, the ecdysone agonists cause a reduction in the number of eggs laid by female insects. The ecdysone agonists are being developed as selective biorational insecticides. Tebufenozide and methoxyfenozide are used to control lepidopteran insect pests, whereas halofenozide is being used to control coleopteran insect pests. Their selectivity is due to differences in the binding affinity between these compounds to the receptors in insects from different orders. The selectivity of these compounds makes them candidates to be used in combinations with other control strategies to develop integrated pest management programs in agricultural ecosystems. Key words: new insecticides, selectivity, ecdysone agonists

  11. Insecticidal and repellent effects of tea tree and andiroba oils on flies associated with livestock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klauck, V; Pazinato, R; Stefani, L M; Santos, R C; Vaucher, R A; Baldissera, M D; Raffin, R; Boligon, A; Athayde, M; Baretta, D; Machado, G; DA Silva, A S

    2014-08-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the insecticidal and repellent effects of tea tree, Melaleuca alternifolia (Myrtales: Myrtaceae), and andiroba, Carapa guianensis (Sapindales: Meliaceae), essential oils on two species of fly. For in vitro studies, free-living adult flies were captured and reared in the laboratory. To evaluate the insecticidal effects of the oils, adult flies of Haematobia irritans (L.) and Musca domestica L. (both: Diptera: Muscidae) were separated by species in test cages (n = 10 per group), and subsequently tested with oils at concentrations of 1.0% and 5.0% using a negative control to validate the test. Both oils showed insecticidal activity. Tea tree oil at a concentration of 5.0% was able to kill M. domestica with 100.0% efficacy after 12 h of exposure. However, the effectiveness of andiroba oil at a concentration of 5.0% was only 67.0%. The insecticidal efficacy (100.0%) of both oils against H. irritans was observed at both concentrations for up to 4 h. The repellency effects of the oils at concentrations of 5.0% were tested in vivo on Holstein cows naturally infested by H. irritans. Both oils demonstrated repellency at 24 h, when the numbers of flies on cows treated with tea tree and andiroba oil were 61.6% and 57.7%, respectively, lower than the number of flies on control animals. It is possible to conclude that these essential oils have insecticidal and repellent effects against the species of fly used in this study. © 2014 The Royal Entomological Society.

  12. Effects of a new molt-inducing insecticide, tebufenozide, on zooplankton communities in lake enclosures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreutzweiser, D P; Thomas, D R

    1995-10-01

    : A potent ecdysone agonist, tebufenozide, has recently been developed as a molt-inducing insecticide to control defoliating lepidopterans. As part of continuing research efforts to assess the effectiveness and environmental safety of this material for insect pest management in Canadian forests, tebufenozide (RH-5992-2F) was applied to large lake enclosures and the effects on zooplankton communities were evaluated. There were significant treatment effects at all test concentrations (0.07-0.66 mg L(-1) tebufenozide). Concentration-dependent reductions in the abundance of cladocerans indicated that there were direct toxic effects of tebufenozide on this group of macrozooplankton. There were no indications of direct toxic effects on copepods. Significant increases in abundance of rotifers in treated enclosures at the three higher test concentrations were coincident with reductions in cladocerans and indicated secondary effects of the insecticide on the abundance of microzooplankton. There were no significant differences among treated and control enclosures in chlorophyll a concentrations, indicating that tebufenozide did not have direct effects on phytoplankton biomass, nor did the alterations in the zooplankton communities of treated enclosures have measurable secondary effects on phytoplankton biomass. Daytime dissolved oxygen concentrations were significantly higher in treated enclosures than in controls, indicating that the perturbation to biotic communities of some treated enclosures was sufficient to induce measurable changes in system-level functional attributes. Recovery of zooplankton communities in the enclosures occurred within 1-2 months at 0.07 and 0.13 mg l(-1) and by the following summer (12-13 months) at 0.33 and 0.66 mg l(-1).

  13. Insecticide Resistance Reducing Effectiveness of Malaria Control

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    Malaria prevention is increasingly insecticide based. Dr. John Gimnig, an entomologist with the Division of Parasitic Diseases, CDC, discusses evidence that mosquito resistance to insecticides, which is measured in the laboratory, could compromise malaria prevention in the field.

  14. Role of cytochrome P450s in insecticide resistance: impact on the control of mosquito-borne diseases and use of insecticides on Earth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    David, Jean-Philippe; Ismail, Hanafy Mahmoud; Chandor-Proust, Alexia; Paine, Mark John Ingraham

    2013-02-19

    The fight against diseases spread by mosquitoes and other insects has enormous environmental, economic and social consequences. Chemical insecticides remain the first line of defence but the control of diseases, especially malaria and dengue fever, is being increasingly undermined by insecticide resistance. Mosquitoes have a large repertoire of P450s (over 100 genes). By pinpointing the key enzymes associated with insecticide resistance we can begin to develop new tools to aid the implementation of control interventions and reduce their environmental impact on Earth. Recent technological advances are helping us to build a functional profile of the P450 determinants of insecticide metabolic resistance in mosquitoes. Alongside, the cross-responses of mosquito P450s to insecticides and pollutants are also being investigated. Such research will provide the means to produce diagnostic tools for early detection of P450s linked to resistance. It will also enable the design of new insecticides with optimized efficacy in different environments.

  15. Efficacy of Systemic Insecticides for Control of the Invasive Goldspotted Oak Borer (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) in California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coleman, Tom W; Smith, Sheri L; Jones, Michael I; Graves, Andrew D; Strom, Brian L

    2017-10-01

    From 2009 to 2013, we tested four systemic insecticide formulations and five application methods against the invasive goldspotted oak borer, Agrilus auroguttatus Schaeffer (Coleoptera: Buprestidae), in California. The insecticides were evaluated in three experiments: 1) 2009 remedial applications of emamectin benzoate (stem-injection) and imidacloprid (stem-injection and soil-injection); 2) 2009-2012 emamectin benzoate and imidacloprid initially applied at different times during the dormant season with varying injection technologies; and 3) 2013 dinotefuran applied to several tree diameter size classes. Adult leaf-feeding bioassays were used to assess the impact of systemic treatments against A. auroguttatus, whereas enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays determined the quantity of the active ingredient of insecticide residues in foliage. Imidacloprid (experiment 1) persisted at elevated levels in foliage of coast live oak, Quercus agrifolia Née, for 1.5 yr following stem injections. Stem injections of emamectin benzoate (experiment 2) sometimes significantly decreased survival in adults fed foliage from treated Q. agrifolia, and both the emamectin benzoate and imidacloprid treatments reduced adult feeding in some trials. Imidacloprid residues in Q. agrifolia and California black oak, Quercus kelloggii Newb., foliage remained at elevated levels (>10 µg/g) ∼2 yr postapplication. In 2013 (experiment 3), dinotefuran residues were highest in foliage collections 2 wk postapplication and greatest in smaller diameter oaks, but insecticide treatment had no effect on survival or frass production by adults fed foliage from treated trees. Systemic injections of emamectin benzoate and imidacloprid applied during the dormant season to uninfested or lightly infested oaks can reduce adult A. auroguttatus survival and maturation feeding. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America 2017. This work is written by (a) US Government employee

  16. Larval application of sodium channel homologous dsRNA restores pyrethroid insecticide susceptibility in a resistant adult mosquito population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bona, Ana Caroline Dalla; Chitolina, Rodrigo Faitta; Fermino, Marise Lopes; de Castro Poncio, Lisiane; Weiss, Avital; Lima, José Bento Pereira; Paldi, Nitzan; Bernardes, Emerson Soares; Henen, Jonathan; Maori, Eyal

    2016-07-14

    Mosquitoes host and pass on to humans a variety of disease-causing pathogens such as infectious viruses and other parasitic microorganisms. The emergence and spread of insecticide resistance is threatening the effectiveness of current control measures for common mosquito vector borne diseases, such as malaria, dengue and Zika. Therefore, the emerging resistance to the widely used pyrethroid insecticides is an alarming problem for public health. Herein we demonstrated the use of RNA interference (RNAi) to increase susceptibility of adult mosquitoes to a widely used pyrethroid insecticide. Experiments were performed on a field-collected pyrethroid resistant strain of Ae. aegypti (Rio de Janeiro; RJ). Larvae from the resistant Ae. aegypti population were soaked with double-stranded RNAs (dsRNAs) that correspond either to voltage-gate sodium channel (VGSC), P-glycoprotein, or P450 detoxification genes and reared to adulthood. Adult mortality rates in the presence of various Deltamethrin pyrethroid concentrations were used to assess mosquito insecticide susceptibility. We characterized the RJ Ae. aegypti strain with regard to its level of resistance to a pyrethroid insecticide and found that it was approximately 6 times more resistant to Deltamethrin compared to the laboratory Rockefeller strain. The RJ strain displayed a higher frequency of Val1016Ile and Phe1534Cys substitutions of the VGSC gene. The resistant strain also displayed a higher basal expression level of VGSC compared to the Rockefeller strain. When dsRNA-treated mosquitoes were subjected to a standard pyrethroid contact bioassay, only dsRNA targeting VGSC increased the adult mortality of the pyrethroid resistant strain. The dsRNA treatment proved effective in increasing adult mosquito susceptibility over a range of pyrethroid concentrations and these results were associated with dsRNA-specific small interfering RNAs in treated adults, and the corresponding specific down regulation of VGSC gene expression

  17. Effect of selected insecticides on SF9 insect cell line

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saleh, M.; Rahmo, A.; Hajjar, J.

    2013-01-01

    The toxic effect of three insecticides: dimethoate (organophosphate insecticide), acetamiprid (neonicotinoid insecticide) and deltamethrin (pyrethroid insecticide) were evaluated in vitro on cultured Sf9 cell line. Cell growth inhibition was measured by the 3- (4,5- dimethylthiazol - 2-yl) - 2,5 - diphenyl tetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. Regression Analysis was used to estimate the 20% inhibition of cells growth (IC 20). The IC 20 values obtained for deltamethrin, acetamipridand dimethoate were: 46.8, 61.6 and 68.9 μM, respectively. The proportion of phagocytic cells was positively correlated with the applied concentrations of the insecticides. (author)

  18. Decreased proportions of indoor feeding and endophily in Anopheles gambiae s.l. populations following the indoor residual spraying and insecticide-treated net interventions in Benin (West Africa).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padonou, Gil Germain; Gbedjissi, Ghelus; Yadouleton, Anges; Azondekon, Roseric; Razack, Ossé; Oussou, Olivier; Gnanguenon, Virgile; Rock, Aikpon; Sezonlin, Michel; Akogbeto, Martin

    2012-11-14

    In many parts of Africa as in Benin, the main strategies of vector control are based on the scaling-up of Long Lasting Insecticide Treated Nets (LLITNs) and indoor residual spraying (IRS). The need to understand the biological implications of IRS in large scale and full coverage of LLITNs is paramount. It is in this context that the present study was conducted. It aims to evaluate the effect of a large scale IRS using a non-pyrethroid insecticide and full coverage of deltamethrin treated nets on the behavior of An. gambiae s.l. in the intervention areas compared to untreated areas used as controls. Mosquitoes were collected using human landing catches, pyrethrum spray catches and window exit traps to assess reduction of entry rate, endophily rate, endophagy rate and overall mortality rate in natural populations of An. gambiae s.l. before IRS and LLITNs intervention (2007) and after in 2008 and 2010. In the IRS arm, endophily rate was 67.13% before intervention and 4.5% after intervention, whereas in the control arm it was stable at 51.67% (P > 0 .05). In the LLITN arm endophily rates also decreased after intervention. After the IRS, no gravid mosquitoes were collected from all treated localities, but LLITN performance was not that spectacular. The proportion of mosquitoes biting indoors in the IRS arm decreased from 67.09% before intervention to 42.85% after intervention, compared to a low but significant decrease (71.31% to 57. 46%) in the LLITN arm.The use of vector control tools and behavior of the host would be the main factors that modify the behavior of taking a human blood meal observed on An. gambiae s.l. inside human dwellings. The impact on the behavior of An. gambiae s.l. observed with the bendiocarb used in IRS was highly effective compared with the free distribution of LLITNs in terms of mortality and the decrease of proportions of indoor feeding. Despite this efficacy, there is a need for complementary tools and research of alternative strategy

  19. Decreased proportions of indoor feeding and endophily in Anopheles gambiae s.l. populations following the indoor residual spraying and insecticide-treated net interventions in Benin (West Africa

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    Padonou Gil

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In many parts of Africa as in Benin, the main strategies of vector control are based on the scaling-up of Long Lasting Insecticide Treated Nets (LLITNs and indoor residual spraying (IRS. The need to understand the biological implications of IRS in large scale and full coverage of LLITNs is paramount. It is in this context that the present study was conducted. It aims to evaluate the effect of a large scale IRS using a non-pyrethroid insecticide and full coverage of deltamethrin treated nets on the behavior of An. gambiae s.l. in the intervention areas compared to untreated areas used as controls. Methods Mosquitoes were collected using human landing catches, pyrethrum spray catches and window exit traps to assess reduction of entry rate, endophily rate, endophagy rate and overall mortality rate in natural populations of An. gambiae s.l. before IRS and LLITNs intervention (2007 and after in 2008 and 2010. Results In the IRS arm, endophily rate was 67.13% before intervention and 4.5% after intervention, whereas in the control arm it was stable at 51.67% (P > 0 .05. In the LLITN arm endophily rates also decreased after intervention. After the IRS, no gravid mosquitoes were collected from all treated localities, but LLITN performance was not that spectacular. The proportion of mosquitoes biting indoors in the IRS arm decreased from 67.09% before intervention to 42.85% after intervention, compared to a low but significant decrease (71.31% to 57. 46% in the LLITN arm. The use of vector control tools and behavior of the host would be the main factors that modify the behavior of taking a human blood meal observed on An. gambiae s.l. inside human dwellings. Conclusion The impact on the behavior of An. gambiae s.l. observed with the bendiocarb used in IRS was highly effective compared with the free distribution of LLITNs in terms of mortality and the decrease of proportions of indoor feeding. Despite this efficacy, there is a need

  20. Knowledge of malaria influences the use of insecticide treated nets but not intermittent presumptive treatment by pregnant women in Tanzania

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    Nganda Rhoida Y

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To reduce the intolerable burden of malaria in pregnancy, the Ministry of Health in Tanzania has recently adopted a policy of intermittent presumptive treatment for pregnant women using sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine (IPTp-SP. In addition, there is strong national commitment to increase distribution of insecticide treated nets (ITNs among pregnant women. This study explores the determinants of uptake for both ITNs and IPTp-SP by pregnant women and the role that individual knowledge and socio-economic status has to play for each. Methods 293 women were recruited post-partum at Kibaha District Hospital on the East African coast. The haemoglobin level of each woman was measured and a questionnaire administered. Results Use of both interventions was associated with a reduced risk of severe anaemia (Hb Conclusion Individual knowledge of malaria was an important factor for ITN uptake, but not for IPTp-SP use, which was reliant on delivery of information by MCH systems. When both these interventions were used, severe anaemia postpartum was reduced by 69% compared to use of neither, thus providing evidence of effectiveness of these interventions when used in combination.

  1. Mortality responses in bracon hebetor (say) (braconidae: hymenoptera) against some new chemistry and conventional insecticides under laboratory conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, R.R.; Ashfaq, M.; Ahmed, S.; Sahi, S.T.

    2009-01-01

    Toxicity of some new chemistry and conventional insecticides, at different dose rates recommended for field use against Spodoptera litura, and 10% above and below the recommended dose were determined against the adults of a larval parasitoid, Bracon hebetor (Say). Amongst the conventional insecticides, profenofos (Curacron 50EC), chlorpyrifos (Lorsban 40EC), methomyl (Lannate 40SP) and thiodicarb (Larvin 80DP) were selected, while from the new chemistry insecticides, lufenuron (Match 5EC), abamectin (Agrimec 1.8EC), emamectin benzoate (Proclaim 1.9EC), spinosad (Tracer 24SC), indoxacarb (Steward 15EC) and methoxyfenozide (Runner 24SC) were used. The higher dose rate of chlorpyrifos gave 100% mortality in the test insect after 24 hours of application, while at lower and recommended dose rates 100% mortality was recorded after 36 hours of application. Similarly, 100% mortality was also recorded in the adults treated with higher doses of profenofos, recommended and higher dose rate of methomyl and the higher dose rate of thiodicarb after 36hours of application. Mean while, insecticide treatments with emamectin benzoate, abamectin, spinosad, indoxacarb and methoxyfenozide, at different doses, were ranked slightly harmful to harmful after 48 hours of their application. (author)

  2. Trifluoromethylphenyl amides as novel insecticides and fungicides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Because of increased resistance to insecticides in arthropods, it is necessary to identify new chemicals that may have novel modes of action. Following an extensive literature search for compounds with insecticidal and mosquito repellent activity, we have designed and synthesized a set of 20 trifluo...

  3. Efficacy of the organic-certified insecticide Diatect II against the boll weevil (Anthonomus grandis) in cotton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sappington, Thomas W

    2002-10-01

    The efficacy of the organic insecticide Diatect II against boll weevil (Anthonomus grandis Boheman) in cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L) in the Lower Rio Grande Valley of Texas were assessed in small-plot field trials and greenhouse cage tests using azinphos-methyl treatments as a standard for comparison. Plastic sheets were placed in the furrows of the treated plots to retrieve boll weevils which dropped from the plants after being killed by the insecticides. Samples of live weevils taken by a tractor-mounted vacuum sampler revealed a modest, but significant, reduction in boll weevil populations in Diatect II plots. However, samples of dead weevils indicated that this reduction was due to movement of weevils out of the plots rather than to mortality. This interpretation is supported by greenhouse cage studies, where mortality in Diatect II treated cages was no greater than that in untreated control cages. The effects of insecticide treatments in small plots can be confounded easily and quickly by interplot movement of target insects. Although the relative effects of various compounds can usually be assessed by sampling the populations in plots soon after treatment, the best measure of efficacy is obtained by directly sampling insects that have died in the plot. This parameter is insulated from the effects of interplot movement, unless the toxicant is slow to immobilize the target insect. Taken together, our results indicate little efficacy by Diatect II against boll weevil under our test conditions.

  4. An insecticidal toxin from Nephila clavata spider venom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Lin; Fang, Mingqian; Chen, Mengrou; Zhou, Chunling; Ombati, Rose; Hakim, Md Abdul; Mo, Guoxiang; Lai, Ren; Yan, Xiuwen; Wang, Yumin; Yang, Shilong

    2017-07-01

    Spiders are the most successful insect predators given that they use their venom containing insecticidal peptides as biochemical weapons for preying. Due to the high specificity and potency of peptidic toxins, discoveries of insecticidal toxins from spider venom have provided an opportunity to obtain natural compounds for agricultural applications without affecting human health. In this study, a novel insecticidal toxin (μ-NPTX-Nc1a) was identified and characterized from the venom of Nephila clavata. Its primary sequence is GCNPDCTGIQCGWPRCPGGQNPVMDKCVSCCPFCPPKSAQG which was determined by automated Edman degradation, cDNA cloning, and MS/MS analysis. BLAST search indicated that Nc1a shows no similarity with known peptides or proteins, indicating that Nc1a belongs to a novel family of insecticidal peptide. Nc1a displayed inhibitory effects on Na V and K V channels in cockroach dorsal unpaired median neurons. The median lethal dose (LD50) of Nc1a on cockroach was 573 ng/g. Herein, a study that identifies a novel insecticidal toxin, which can be a potential candidate and/or template for the development of bioinsecticides, is presented.

  5. Insecticide-driven patterns of genetic variation in the dengue vector Aedes aegypti in Martinique Island.

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    Sébastien Marcombe

    Full Text Available Effective vector control is currently challenged worldwide by the evolution of resistance to all classes of chemical insecticides in mosquitoes. In Martinique, populations of the dengue vector Aedes aegypti have been intensively treated with temephos and deltamethrin insecticides over the last fifty years, resulting in heterogeneous levels of resistance across the island. Resistance spreading depends on standing genetic variation, selection intensity and gene flow among populations. To determine gene flow intensity, we first investigated neutral patterns of genetic variability in sixteen populations representative of the many environments found in Martinique and experiencing various levels of insecticide pressure, using 6 microsatellites. Allelic richness was lower in populations resistant to deltamethrin, and consanguinity was higher in populations resistant to temephos, consistent with a negative effect of insecticide pressure on neutral genetic diversity. The global genetic differentiation was low, suggesting high gene flow among populations, but significant structure was found, with a pattern of isolation-by-distance at the global scale. Then, we investigated adaptive patterns of divergence in six out of the 16 populations using 319 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs. Five SNP outliers displaying levels of genetic differentiation out of neutral expectations were detected, including the kdr-V1016I mutation in the voltage-gated sodium channel gene. Association tests revealed a total of seven SNPs associated with deltamethrin resistance. Six other SNPs were associated with temephos resistance, including two non-synonymous substitutions in an alkaline phosphatase and in a sulfotransferase respectively. Altogether, both neutral and adaptive patterns of genetic variation in mosquito populations appear to be largely driven by insecticide pressure in Martinique.

  6. Theoretical impact of insecticide-impregnated school uniforms on dengue incidence in Thai children

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    Eduardo Massad

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Children carry the main burden of morbidity and mortality caused by dengue. Children spend a considerable amount of their day at school; hence strategies that reduce human–mosquito contact to protect against the day-biting habits of Aedes mosquitoes at schools, such as insecticide-impregnated uniforms, could be an effective prevention strategy. Methodology: We used mathematical models to calculate the risk of dengue infection based on force of infection taking into account the estimated proportion of mosquito bites that occur in school and the proportion of school time that children wear the impregnated uniforms. Principal findings: The use of insecticide-impregnated uniforms has efficacy varying from around 6% in the most pessimistic estimations, to 55% in the most optimistic scenarios simulated. Conclusions: Reducing contact between mosquito bites and human hosts via insecticide-treated uniforms during school time is theoretically effective in reducing dengue incidence and may be a valuable additional tool for dengue control in school-aged children. The efficacy of this strategy, however, is dependent on the compliance of the target population in terms of proper and consistent wearing of uniforms and, perhaps more importantly, the proportion of bites inflicted by the Aedes population during school time.

  7. Sensitivity of Bemisia Tabaci (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) to Several New Insecticides in China: Effects of Insecticide Type and Whitefly Species, Strain, and Stage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Wen; Liu, Yang; Wang, Shaoli; Wu, Qingjun; Pan, Huipeng; Yang, Xin; Guo, Litao; Zhang, Youjun

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Whitefly biotypes B and Q are the two most damaging members of the Bemisia tabaci (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) species complex. Control of B. tabaci (and especially of Q) has been impaired by resistance to commonly used insecticides. To find new insecticides for B. tabaci management in China, we investigated the sensitivity of eggs, larvae, and adults of laboratory strains of B and Q (named Lab-B and Lab-Q) and field strains of Q to several insecticides. For eggs, larvae, and adults of B. tabaci and for six insecticides (cyantraniliprole, chlorantraniliprole, pyriproxyfen, buprofezin, acetamiprid, and thiamethoxam), LC 50 values were higher for Lab-Q than for Lab-B; avermectin LC 50 values, however, were low for adults of both Lab-Q and Lab-B. Based on the laboratory results, insecticides were selected to test against eggs, larvae, and adults of four field strains of B. tabaci Q. Although the field strains differed in their sensitivity to the insecticides, the eggs and larvae of all strains were highly sensitive to cyantraniliprole, and the adults of all strains were highly sensitive to avermectin. The eggs, larvae, and adults of B. tabaci Q were generally more resistant than those of B. tabaci B to the tested insecticides. B. tabaci Q eggs and larvae were sensitive to cyantraniliprole and pyriproxyfen, whereas B. tabaci Q adults were sensitive to avermectin. Field trials should be conducted with cyantraniliprole, pyriproxyfen, and avermectin for control of B. tabaci Q and B in China. PMID:25434040

  8. Insecticide applications to soil contribute to the development of Burkholderia mediating insecticide resistance in stinkbugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tago, Kanako; Kikuchi, Yoshitomo; Nakaoka, Sinji; Katsuyama, Chie; Hayatsu, Masahito

    2015-07-01

    Some soil Burkholderia strains are capable of degrading the organophosphorus insecticide, fenitrothion, and establish symbiosis with stinkbugs, making the host insects fenitrothion-resistant. However, the ecology of the symbiotic degrading Burkholderia adapting to fenitrothion in the free-living environment is unknown. We hypothesized that fenitrothion applications affect the dynamics of fenitrothion-degrading Burkholderia, thereby controlling the transmission of symbiotic degrading Burkholderia from the soil to stinkbugs. We investigated changes in the density and diversity of culturable Burkholderia (i.e. symbiotic and nonsymbiotic fenitrothion degraders and nondegraders) in fenitrothion-treated soil using microcosms. During the incubation with five applications of pesticide, the density of the degraders increased from less than the detection limit to around 10(6)/g of soil. The number of dominant species among the degraders declined with the increasing density of degraders; eventually, one species predominated. This process can be explained according to the competitive exclusion principle using V(max) and K(m) values for fenitrothion metabolism by the degraders. We performed a phylogenetic analysis of representative strains isolated from the microcosms and evaluated their ability to establish symbiosis with the stinkbug Riptortus pedestris. The strains that established symbiosis with R. pedestris were assigned to a cluster including symbionts commonly isolated from stinkbugs. The strains outside the cluster could not necessarily associate with the host. The degraders in the cluster predominated during the initial phase of degrader dynamics in the soil. Therefore, only a few applications of fenitrothion could allow symbiotic degraders to associate with their hosts and may cause the emergence of symbiont-mediated insecticide resistance. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Community cooperatives and insecticide-treated materials for malaria control: a new experience in Latin America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kroeger, Axel; Aviñna, Ana; Ordoñnez-Gonzalez, José; Escandon, Celia

    2002-11-15

    Insecticide-treated materials (ITMs) are effective in substantially reducing the burden of malaria and other vector-borne diseases; but how can high coverage rates of ITMs be achieved and maintained? In south Mexico and on the Pacific and Atlantic coasts of Colombia 14 community-based cooperatives offering three different kinds of ITM services (sale of impregnation services; sale of impregnated nets; production of nets and sale of impregnated nets) were formed and supervised by a national health service (IMSS-SOLIDARIDAD, Mexico) and by an academic institution (the Colombian Institute of Tropical Medicine) along with local district health services. The objectives of this research were to analyse the processes and results of this approach and to identify the favourable and limiting factors. The methods used for data collection and analysis were group discussions, individual and semi-structured interviews with users and non-users of ITMs, individual in-depth interviews with cooperative members and supervisors, checks of sales book and observation of impregnation services. Coverage with unimpregnated nets was above 50% in all study areas. The fastest increase of ITM coverage was achieved through the exclusive sale of impregnation services. Low-cost social marketing techniques were used to increase demand. The large-scale production of nets in two cooperatives was only possible with the aid of an international NGO which ordered impregnated bednets for their target group. A number of favourable and limiting factors relating to the success of ITM cooperatives were identified. Of particular importance for the more successful Mexican cooperatives were: a) support by health services, b) smaller size, c) lesser desire for quick returns and d) lower ITM unit costs. ITM community cooperatives supported and supervised by the health services have good potential in the Latin American context for achieving and maintaining high impregnation rates.

  10. Community cooperatives and insecticide-treated materials for malaria control: a new experience in Latin America

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    Ordoñnez-Gonzalez José

    2002-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background and objectives Insecticide-treated materials (ITMs are effective in substantially reducing the burden of malaria and other vector-borne diseases; but how can high coverage rates of ITMs be achieved and maintained? In south Mexico and on the Pacific and Atlantic coasts of Colombia 14 community-based cooperatives offering three different kinds of ITM services (sale of impregnation services; sale of impregnated nets; production of nets and sale of impregnated nets were formed and supervised by a national health service (IMSS-SOLIDARIDAD, Mexico and by an academic institution (the Colombian Institute of Tropical Medicine along with local district health services. The objectives of this research were to analyse the processes and results of this approach and to identify the favourable and limiting factors. Methods The methods used for data collection and analysis were group discussions, individual and semi-structured interviews with users and non-users of ITMs, individual in-depth interviews with cooperative members and supervisors, checks of sales book and observation of impregnation services. Results Coverage with unimpregnated nets was above 50% in all study areas. The fastest increase of ITM coverage was achieved through the exclusive sale of impregnation services. Low-cost social marketing techniques were used to increase demand. The large-scale production of nets in two cooperatives was only possible with the aid of an international NGO which ordered impregnated bednets for their target group. A number of favourable and limiting factors relating to the success of ITM cooperatives were identified. Of particular importance for the more successful Mexican cooperatives were: a support by health services, b smaller size, c lesser desire for quick returns and d lower ITM unit costs. Conclusions ITM community cooperatives supported and supervised by the health services have good potential in the Latin American context for achieving

  11. Protective effect and economic impact of insecticide application methods on barley

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    Alfred Stoetzer

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to evaluate the protective effect of different forms of insecticide application on the transmission of yellow dwarf disease in barley cultivars, as well as to determine the production costs and the net profit of these managements. The experiments were carried out during 2011 and 2012 growing seasons, using the following managements at main plots: T1, seed treatment with insecticide (ST + insecticide on shoots at 15-day interval; T2, just ST; T3, insecticide applied on shoots, when aphid control level (CL was reached; T4, without insecticide; and T5, ST + insecticide on shoots when CL was reached. Different barley cultivars - BRS Cauê, BRS Brau and MN 6021 - were arranged in the subplots. Insecticides lambda cyhalothrin (pyrethroid and thiamethoxam (neonicotinoid were used. There were differences on yellow dwarf disease index in both seasons for the different treatments, while damage to grain yield was influenced by year and aphid population. Production costs and net profit were different among treatments. Seed treatment with insecticide is sufficient to reduce the transmission of yellow dwarf disease in years with low aphid population pressure, while in years with larger populations, the application of insecticide on shoots is also required.

  12. Unified flow regime predictions at earth gravity and microgravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crowley, C.J.

    1990-01-01

    This paper illustrates the mechanistic models developed to predict flow regime transitions at earth gravity for various pipe inclinations can be successfully applied to existing microgravity flow regime data from several experiments. There is a tendency in the literature for flow regime comparisons in several inclination ranges and at various gravity (acceleration) levels to be treated by separate models, resulting in a proliferation of models for the prediction of flow regimes. One set of mechanistic models can be used to model the transitions between stratified, slug, bubbly, and annular flow regimes in pipes for all acceleration vectors and magnitudes from earth gravity to microgravity

  13. A COMPARATIVE CLINICAL STUDY OF DHAKA AND PRITCHARD REGIME IN THE ECLAMPSIA MANAGEMENT

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    Sunanda Bai

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION : The safety and efficacy of low dose Magnesium Sulphate regime in the management of Antepartum / Intrapartum / Postpartum eclampsia patients. METHODS : This study was conducted at Bowring and Ladycurzon Hospital in the Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology BMCRI Bengaluru during the period of April 2013 to April 2014 100 eclampsia patients including antepartum eclampsia, intrapartum eclampsia, post - partum eclampsia were included for the purpose of this study. Magnesium Sulphate was used for the management of eclampsia. 50 eclamptic patients were treated with Pritchard regimen and other 50 with Dhaka regimen. Hypertension is treated with antihypertensive drugs. A detailed history, examination was done. In the present study 25 patients were below 20 years. In the study group 26 patients were between 28 to 37 weeks. 18 were more than 37 weeks. 6 patients were below 28 weeks. In patients treated under Pritchard regimen 44 were admitted in conscious state. Under Dhaka regimen 44 were conscious. In Dhaka regimen 28 patients had systolic BP above 161 mm Hg, under Pritchard 22 had systolic BP above 161 mm Hg. 18 Patients under Dhaka regimen had more than 110 mm Hg diastolic BP. In Pritchard regime 19 patients had diastolic BP more than 110 mm Hg. In patients treated with Dhaka regimen 26 underwent LSCS / Hysterectomy . In patients treated with Pritchard 26 were underwent LSCS. In Dhaka regimen 2 patients had abruption, 1 had HELLP and 5 had pulmonary edema. One patient developed occipital lobe infarct. In Pritchard regime 2 had abruption. 1 patient had HELLP and 2 had pulmonary edema. Out of the 100 patients, 98 were discharged from the hospital without any sequlae. 2 patients died due to complication of eclampsia. 10 perinatal death in Dhaka regime, 13 perinatal death in Pritchard regime. RESULTS : This present study compared the efficacy of low dose MgSO 4 with standard Pritchard regime. This study showed that recurrence of fits

  14. SELECTIVITY OF INSECTICIDES USED IN PEACH FARMING TO LARVAE OF Chrysoperla externa (NEUROPTERA: CHRYSOPIDAE IN SEMI-FIELD CONDITIONS

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    RODOLFO VARGAS CASTILHOS

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The selectivity of five insecticides, regularly used in peach farming, was assessed for larvae of the predator Chrysoperla externa (Hagen (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae by means of bioassay in semi-field conditions. The bioassay was based on the counting of captured larvae after release in peach trees treated with the insecticides (% of active ingredient in spray liquid: deltamethrin (0.001, fenthion (0.050, phosmet (0.100, lufenuron (0.005 and malathion (0.200. Bait-cards with eggs of Anagasta kuehniella (Zeller (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae were used to capture larvae from treated plants; five of them were fixed in plant canopy and five others left on the soil around stem. A protective barrier made up of galvanized steel sheet was used for each plant to avoid loss of larvae. The number of larvae feeding on the bait-cards was measured for four days. According to the number of captured larvae, each insecticide effect was estimated and classified into toxicity categories as stated by the International Organization for Biological and Integratec Control of Noxious Animals and Plants (IOBC. Based on observations, the insect growth regulator lufenuron was harmless, while the neurotoxins deltamethrin and malathion were slightly harmful; and lastly, fenthion and phosmet were moderately harmful to C. externa larvae in semi-field conditions. Thus, lufenuron should be recommended for integrated pest management, since it would preserve this predator species in peach orchards.

  15. Toxicity and Residual Activity of Insecticides Against Tamarixia triozae (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae), a Parasitoid of Bactericera cockerelli (Hemiptera: Triozidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luna-Cruz, Alfonso; Rodríguez-Leyva, Esteban; Lomeli-Flores, J Refugio; Ortega-Arenas, Laura D; Bautista-Martínez, Néstor; Pineda, Samuel

    2015-10-01

    Bactericera cockerelli (Sulc) (Hemiptera: Triozidae) is one of the most economically important pests of potato, tomato, and peppers in Central America, Mexico, the United States, and New Zealand. Its control is based on the use of insecticides; however, recently, the potential of the eulophid parasitoid Tamarixia triozae (Burks) (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) for population regulation has been studied. Because T. triozae is likely to be exposed to insecticides on crops, the objective of this study was to explore the compatibility of eight insecticides with this parasitoid. The toxicity and residual activity (persistence) of spirotetramat, spiromesifen, beta-cyfluthrin, pymetrozine, azadirachtin, imidacloprid, abamectin, and spinosad against T. triozae adults were assessed using a method based on the residual contact activity of each insecticide on tomato leaf discs collected from treated plants growing under greenhouse conditions. All eight insecticides were toxic to T. triozae. Following the classification of the International Organization of Biological Control, the most toxic were abamectin and spinosad, which could be placed in toxicity categories 3 and 4, respectively. The least toxic were azadirachtin, pymetrozine, spirotetramat, spiromesifen, imidacloprid, and beta-cyfluthrin, which could be placed in toxicity category 2. In terms of persistence, by day 5, 6, 9, 11, 13, 24, and 41 after application, spirotetramat, azadirachtin, spiromesifen, pymetrozine, imidacloprid, beta-cyfluthrin, abamectin, and spinosad could be considered harmless, that is, placed in toxicity category 1 (<25% mortality of adults). The toxicity and residual activity of some of these insecticides allow them to be considered within integrated pest management programs that include T. triozae. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  16. Sensitivity of Bemisia tabaci (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) to several new insecticides in China: effects of insecticide type and whitefly species, strain, and stage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Wen; Liu, Yang; Wang, Shaoli; Wu, Qingjun; Pan, Huipeng; Yang, Xin; Guo, Litao; Zhang, Youjun

    2014-01-01

    Whitefly biotypes B and Q are the two most damaging members of the Bemisia tabaci (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) species complex. Control of B. tabaci (and especially of Q) has been impaired by resistance to commonly used insecticides. To find new insecticides for B. tabaci management in China, we investigated the sensitivity of eggs, larvae, and adults of laboratory strains of B and Q (named Lab-B and Lab-Q) and field strains of Q to several insecticides. For eggs, larvae, and adults of B. tabaci and for six insecticides (cyantraniliprole, chlorantraniliprole, pyriproxyfen, buprofezin, acetamiprid, and thiamethoxam), LC50 values were higher for Lab-Q than for Lab-B; avermectin LC50 values, however, were low for adults of both Lab-Q and Lab-B. Based on the laboratory results, insecticides were selected to test against eggs, larvae, and adults of four field strains of B. tabaci Q. Although the field strains differed in their sensitivity to the insecticides, the eggs and larvae of all strains were highly sensitive to cyantraniliprole, and the adults of all strains were highly sensitive to avermectin. The eggs, larvae, and adults of B. tabaci Q were generally more resistant than those of B. tabaci B to the tested insecticides. B. tabaci Q eggs and larvae were sensitive to cyantraniliprole and pyriproxyfen, whereas B. tabaci Q adults were sensitive to avermectin. Field trials should be conducted with cyantraniliprole, pyriproxyfen, and avermectin for control of B. tabaci Q and B in China. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Entomological Society of America.

  17. Is the Combination of Insecticide and Mating Disruption Synergistic or Additive in Lightbrown Apple Moth, Epiphyas postvittana?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suckling, David M; Baker, Greg; Salehi, Latif; Woods, Bill

    2016-01-01

    Pest suppression from combinations of tactics is fundamental to pest management and eradication. Interactions may occur among tactical combinations and affect suppression. The best case is synergistic, where suppression from a combination is greater than the sum of effects from single tactics (AB > A+B). We explored how mating disruption and insecticide interacted at field scale, additively or synergistically. Use of a pheromone delivery formulation (SPLAT™) as either a mating disruption treatment (i.e. a two-component pheromone alone) or as a lure and kill treatment (i.e. the two-component pheromone plus a permethrin insecticide) was compared for efficacy against the lightbrown apple moth Epiphyas postvittana. Next, four point-source densities of the SPLAT™ formulations were compared for communication disruption. Finally, the mating disruption and lure and kill treatments were applied with a broadcast insecticide. Population assessment used virgin female traps and synthetic pheromone in replicated 9-ha vineyard plots compared with untreated controls and insecticide-treated plots, to investigate interactions. Lure and kill and mating disruption provided equivalent suppression; no additional benefit accrued from including permethrin with the pheromone suggesting lack of contact. The highest point-source density tested (625/ha) was most effective. The insect growth regulator methoxyfenoxide applied by broadcast application lowered pest prevalence by 70% for the first ten weeks compared to pre-trial. Pheromone addition suppressed the pest further by an estimated 92.5%, for overall suppression of 97.7% from the treatment combination of insecticide plus mating disruption. This was close to that expected for an additive model of interactivity between insecticide and mating disruption (AB = A+B) estimated from plots with single tactics as 98% suppression in a combination. The results indicate the need to examine other tactical combinations to achieve the potential

  18. Insecticide resistance in Anopheles gambiae from south-western Chad, Central Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Etang Josiane

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Indoor residual spraying and insecticide-treated nets (ITN are essential components of malaria vector control in Africa. Pyrethroids are the only recommended compounds for nets treatment because they are fast-acting insecticides with low mammalian toxicity. However, there is growing concern that pyrethroid resistance may threaten the sustainability of ITN scaling-up programmes. Here, insecticide susceptibility was investigated in Anopheles gambiae sensu lato from an area of large scale ITN distribution programme in south-western Chad. Methods Susceptibility to 4% DDT, 0.05% deltamethrin, 0.75% permethrin, 0.1% bendiocarb and 5% malathion was assessed using the WHO standard procedures for adult mosquitoes. Tests were carried out with two to four days-old, non-engorged female mosquitoes. The An. gambiae Kisumu strain was used as a reference. Knockdown effect was recorded every 5 min and mortality scored 24 h after exposure. Mosquitoes were identified to species and molecular form by PCR-RFLP and genotypes at the kdr locus were determined in surviving specimens by Hot Oligonucleotide Ligation Assay (HOLA. Results During this survey, full susceptibility to malathion was recorded in all samples. Reduced susceptibility to bendiocarb (mortality rate of 96.1% was found in one sample out of nine assayed. Increased tolerance to pyrethroids was detected in most samples (8/9 with mortality rates ranging from 70.2 to 96.6% for deltamethrin and from 26.7 to 96.3% for permethrin. Pyrethroid tolerance was not associated with a significant increase of knock-down times. Anopheles arabiensis was the predominant species of the An. gambiae complex in the study area, representing 75 to 100% of the samples. Screening for kdr mutations detected the L1014F mutation in 88.6% (N = 35 of surviving An. gambiae sensu stricto S form mosquitoes. All surviving An. arabiensis (N = 49 and M form An. gambiae s.s. (N = 1 carried the susceptible allele

  19. Insecticides promote viral outbreaks by altering herbivore competition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Huipeng; Preisser, Evan L; Chu, Dong; Wang, Shaoli; Wu, Qingjun; Carriére, Yves; Zhou, Xuguo; Zhang, Youjun

    2015-09-01

    While the management of biological invasions is often characterized by a series of single-specieg decisions, invasive species exist within larger food webs. These biotic interactions can alter the impact of control/eradication programs and may cause suppression efforts to inadvertently facilitate invasion spread and impact. We document the rapid replacement of the invasive Bemisia Middle East-Asia Minor I (MEAM1) cryptic biotype by the cryptic Mediterranean (MED) biotype throughout China and demonstrate that MED is more tolerant of insecticides and a better vector of tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV) than MEAMJ. While MEAM1 usually excludes MED under natural conditions, insecticide application reverses the MEAM1-MED competitive hierarchy and allows MED to exclude MEAMI. The insecticide-mediated success of MED has led to TYLCV outbreaks throughout China. Our work strongly supports the hypothesis that insecticide use in China reverses the MEAMl-MED competitive hierarchy and allows MED to displace MEAM1 in managed landscapes. By promoting the dominance of a Bemisia species that is a competent viral vector, insecticides thus increase the spread and impact of TYLCV in heterogeneous agroecosystems.

  20. Novel and viable acetylcholinesterase target site for developing effective and environmentally safe insecticides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pang, Yuan-Ping; Brimijoin, Stephen; Ragsdale, David W; Zhu, Kun Yan; Suranyi, Robert

    2012-04-01

    Insect pests are responsible for human suffering and financial losses worldwide. New and environmentally safe insecticides are urgently needed to cope with these serious problems. Resistance to current insecticides has resulted in a resurgence of insect pests, and growing concerns about insecticide toxicity to humans discourage the use of insecticides for pest control. The small market for insecticides has hampered insecticide development; however, advances in genomics and structural genomics offer new opportunities to develop insecticides that are less dependent on the insecticide market. This review summarizes the literature data that support the hypothesis that an insect-specific cysteine residue located at the opening of the acetylcholinesterase active site is a promising target site for developing new insecticides with reduced off-target toxicity and low propensity for insect resistance. These data are used to discuss the differences between targeting the insect-specific cysteine residue and targeting the ubiquitous catalytic serine residue of acetylcholinesterase from the perspective of reducing off-target toxicity and insect resistance. Also discussed is the prospect of developing cysteine-targeting anticholinesterases as effective and environmentally safe insecticides for control of disease vectors, crop damage, and residential insect pests within the financial confines of the present insecticide market.

  1. 2 Assessmen of the Efficiency of Insecticide

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    malaria vectors and nuisance in West Africa – a-part. 2. Field evaluation. Malar J. 9: 341. Mosqueira B., Duchon S., Chandre F., Hougard, J. M., Carnevale P. and Mas-Coma S. (2010). Efficacy of an insecticide paint against insecticide- susceptible and resistant mosquitoes – b- Part 1: Laboratory evaluation. Malar J. 9: 340.

  2. Insecticide Resistance Reducing Effectiveness of Malaria Control

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2007-01-24

    Malaria prevention is increasingly insecticide based. Dr. John Gimnig, an entomologist with the Division of Parasitic Diseases, CDC, discusses evidence that mosquito resistance to insecticides, which is measured in the laboratory, could compromise malaria prevention in the field.  Created: 1/24/2007 by Emerging Infectious Diseases.   Date Released: 3/13/2007.

  3. Degradation of Organophosphorus and Pyrethroid Insecticides in Beverages: Implications for Risk Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samantha A. Radford

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Since urinary insecticide metabolites are commonly used as biomarkers of exposure, it is important that we quantify whether insecticides degrade in food and beverages in order to better perform risk assessment. This study was designed to quantify degradation of organophosphorus and pyrethroid insecticides in beverages. Purified water, white grape juice, orange juice, and red wine were fortified with 500 ng/mL diazinon, malathion, chlorpyrifos, permethrin, cyfluthrin, cypermethrin, and deltamethrin, and aliquots were extracted several times over a 15-day storage period at 2.5 °C. Overall, statistically significant loss of at least one insecticide was observed in each matrix, and at least five out of seven insecticides demonstrated a statistically significant loss in all matrices except orange juice. An investigation of an alternative mechanism of insecticide loss—adsorption onto the glass surface of the storage jars—was carried out, which indicated that this mechanism of loss is insignificant. Results of this work suggest that insecticides degrade in these beverages, and this degradation may lead to pre-existing insecticide degradates in the beverages, suggesting that caution should be exercised when using urinary insecticide metabolites to assess exposure and risk.

  4. Biological efficacy of the ecotoxically favourable insecticides and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    2011-05-30

    May 30, 2011 ... different, studies done in natural conditions should be favored. Key words: Insecticides ... insecticide was applied on synthetic or natural food of the target insect ..... Pozsgay M, Fast P, Kaplan H, Carey PR (1987). The effect of ...

  5. Behavioral and electroantennogram responses of plum curculio, Conotrachelus nenuphar, to selected noxious plant extracts and insecticides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gӧkçe, A; Stelinski, L L; Nortman, D R; Bryan, W W; Whalon, M E

    2014-01-01

    Behavioral and electroantennogram responses of plum curculio, Conotrachelus nenuphar (Herbst) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), adults were tested for several methanolic plant extracts and organically approved insecticides. Plant extracts were evaluated for their potential as antifeedants or oviposition deterrents. These extract responses were also compared to those elicited by the non-neurotoxic, organic irritant-insecticide kaolin clay. Both sexes of plum curculio exhibited antennal response as measured by electroantennogram, which ranged from 0.2 to 1.1 mV, to plant extracts and the organic irritant/insecticide, with the greatest response to the extract of rough cocklebur, Xanthium strumarium L. (1.1 mV). No choice tests were conducted to compare feeding and oviposition by plum curculio on untreated apples or on apples treated with one of the extracts or the insecticide. The insecticide pyrethrum and extracts of X. strumarium and greater burdock, Arctium lappa L., significantly reduced feeding. Also, pyrethrum, A. lappa, Humulus lupulus L. (common hop), X. strumarium, and Verbascum songaricum Schrenk extracts completely inhibited egg deposition. In no-choice assays, the effects of kaolin clay with incorporated plant extracts on plum curculio feeding and oviposition were monitored as complementary tests. A. lappa-kaolin, H. lupulus-kaolin, and X. strumarium-kaolin mixtures significantly reduced the feeding of plum curculio compared to the control or kaolin clay alone. Each of the plant extract-kaolin mixtures evaluated, with the exception of Bifora radians Bieberstein (wild bishop), completely inhibited plum curculio oviposition as compared to controls. This is an open access paper. We use the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 license that permits unrestricted use, provided that the paper is properly attributed.

  6. Induced tolerance from a sublethal insecticide leads to cross-tolerance to other insecticides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hua, Jessica; Jones, Devin K; Relyea, Rick A

    2014-04-01

    As global pesticide use increases, the ability to rapidly respond to pesticides by increasing tolerance has important implications for the persistence of nontarget organisms. A recent study of larval amphibians discovered that increased tolerance can be induced by an early exposure to low concentrations of a pesticide. Since natural systems are often exposed to a variety of pesticides that vary in mode of action, we need to know whether the induction of increased tolerance to one pesticide confers increased tolerance to other pesticides. Using larval wood frogs (Lithobates sylvaticus), we investigated whether induction of increased tolerance to the insecticide carbaryl (AChE-inhibitor) can induce increased tolerance to other insecticides that have the same mode of action (chlorpyrifos, malathion) or a different mode of action (Na(+)channel-interfering insecticides; permethrin, cypermethrin). We found that embryonic exposure to sublethal concentrations of carbaryl induced higher tolerance to carbaryl and increased cross-tolerance to malathion and cypermethrin but not to chlorpyrifos or permethrin. In one case, the embryonic exposure to carbaryl induced tolerance in a nonlinear pattern (hormesis). These results demonstrate that that the newly discovered phenomenon of induced tolerance also provides induced cross-tolerance that is not restricted to pesticides with the same mode of action.

  7. Decaleside: a new class of natural insecticide targeting tarsal gustatory sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajashekar, Yallappa; Rao, Lingamallu J. M.; Shivanandappa, Thimmappa

    2012-10-01

    Natural sources for novel insecticide molecules hold promise in view of their eco-friendly nature, selectivity, and mammalian safety. Recent progress in understanding the biology of insect olfaction and taste offers new strategies for developing selective pest control agents. We have isolated two natural insecticidal molecules from edible roots of Decalepis hamiltonii named Decalesides I and II, which are novel trisaccharides, highly toxic to household insect pests and stored-product insects. We have experimentally shown that insecticidal activity requires contact with tarsi on the legs but is not toxic orally. The insecticidal activity of molecules is lost by hydrolysis, and various sugars modify toxic response, showing that the insecticidal activity is via gustatory sites on the tarsi. Selective toxicity to insects by virtue of their gustatory site of action and the mammalian safety of the new insecticides is inherent in their chemical structure with 1-4 or 1-1 α linkage that is easily hydrolyzed by digestive enzymes of mammals. Decalesides represent a new chemical class of natural insecticides with a unique mode of action targeting tarsal chemosensory/gustatory system of insects.

  8. Impact of some selected insecticides application on soil microbial respiration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latif, M A; Razzaque, M A; Rahman, M M

    2008-08-15

    The aim of present study was to investigate the impact of selected insecticides used for controlling brinjal shoot and fruit borer on soil microorganisms and to find out the insecticides or nontoxic to soil microorganism the impact of nine selected insecticides on soil microbial respiration was studied in the laboratory. After injection of different insecticides solutions, the soil was incubated in the laboratory at room temperature for 32 days. The amount of CO2 evolved due to soil microbial respiration was determined at 2, 4, 8, 16, 24 and 32 days of incubation. Flubendiamide, nimbicidine, lambda-cyhalothrin, abamectin and thiodicarb had stimulatory effect on microbial respiration during the initial period of incubation. Chlorpyriphos, cartap and carbosulfan had inhibitory effect on microbial respiration and cypermethrin had no remarkable effect during the early stage of incubation. The negative effect of chlorpyriphos, cartap and carbosulfan was temporary, which was disappeared after 4 days of insecticides application. No effect of the selected insecticides on soil microorganisms was observed after 24 or 32 days of incubation.

  9. Effectiveness and profitability of insecticide formulations used for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    To identify optimal pest control with lower economic risks to farmers, we investigated the effectiveness and profitability of different insecticides and insecticide formulations against bean fly (Ophiomyia spp.) and bean flower thrips (Megalurothrips sjostedtii). Two separate experiments were conducted during 2009 to 2012.

  10. Impact of reduced-risk insecticides on soybean aphid and associated natural enemies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohnesorg, Wayne J; Johnson, Kevin D; O'Neal, Matthew E

    2009-10-01

    Insect predators in North America suppress Aphis glycines Matsumura (Hemiptera: Aphididae) populations; however, insecticides are required when populations reach economically damaging levels. Currently, insecticides used to manage A. glycines are broad-spectrum (pyrethroids and organophosphates), and probably reduce beneficial insect abundance in soybean, Glycine max (L.) Merr. Our goal was to determine whether insecticides considered reduced-risk by the Environmental Protection Agency could protect soybean yield from A. glycines herbivory while having a limited impact on the aphid's natural enemies. We compared three insecticides (imidacloprid, thiamethoxam, and pymetrozine,) to a broad-spectrum insecticide (lamda-cyhalothrin) and an untreated control using two application methods. We applied neonicotinoid insecticides to seeds (imidacloprid and thiamethoxam) as well as foliage (imidacloprid); pymetrozine and lamda-cyhalothrin were applied only to foliage. Foliage-applied insecticides had lower A. glycines populations and higher yields than the seed-applied insecticides. Among foliage-applied insecticides, pymetrozine and imidacloprid had an intermediate level of A. glycines population and yield protection compared with lamda-cyhalothrin and the untreated control. We monitored natural enemies with yellow sticky cards, sweep-nets, and direct observation. Before foliar insecticides were applied (i.e., before aphid populations developed) seed treatments had no observable effect on the abundance of natural enemies. After foliar insecticides were applied, differences in natural enemy abundance were observed when sampled with sweep-nets and direct observation but not with yellow sticky cards. Based on the first two sampling methods, pymetrozine and the foliage-applied imidacloprid had intermediate abundances of natural enemies compared with the untreated control and lamda-cyhalothrin.

  11. Long-lasting insecticide-treated house screens and targeted treatment of productive breeding-sites for dengue vector control in Acapulco, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Che-Mendoza, Azael; Guillermo-May, Guillermo; Herrera-Bojórquez, Josué; Barrera-Pérez, Mario; Dzul-Manzanilla, Felipe; Gutierrez-Castro, Cipriano; Arredondo-Jiménez, Juan I; Sánchez-Tejeda, Gustavo; Vazquez-Prokopec, Gonzalo; Ranson, Hilary; Lenhart, Audrey; Sommerfeld, Johannes; McCall, Philip J; Kroeger, Axel; Manrique-Saide, Pablo

    2015-02-01

    Long-lasting insecticidal net screens (LLIS) fitted to domestic windows and doors in combination with targeted treatment (TT) of the most productive Aedes aegypti breeding sites were evaluated for their impact on dengue vector indices in a cluster-randomised trial in Mexico between 2011 and 2013. Sequentially over 2 years, LLIS and TT were deployed in 10 treatment clusters (100 houses/cluster) and followed up over 24 months. Cross-sectional surveys quantified infestations of adult mosquitoes, immature stages at baseline (pre-intervention) and in four post-intervention samples at 6-monthly intervals. Identical surveys were carried out in 10 control clusters that received no treatment. LLIS clusters had significantly lower infestations compared to control clusters at 5 and 12 months after installation, as measured by adult (male and female) and pupal-based vector indices. After addition of TT to the intervention houses in intervention clusters, indices remained significantly lower in the treated clusters until 18 (immature and adult stage indices) and 24 months (adult indices only) post-intervention. These safe, simple affordable vector control tools were well-accepted by study participants and are potentially suitable in many regions at risk from dengue worldwide. © The author 2015. The World Health Organization has granted Oxford University Press permission for the reproduction of this article.

  12. Efficacy of insecticide residues on adult Halyomorpha halys (Stål) (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) mortality and injury in apple and peach orchards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leskey, Tracy C; Short, Brent D; Lee, Doo-Hyung

    2014-07-01

    The primary threat from Halyomorpha halys (Stål) (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) originates from populations continuously dispersing from and among wild and cultivated hosts, so many individuals may not be directly sprayed with insecticides. Limited information exists regarding field-based residual activity of insecticides for management of H. halys in tree fruit. Thus, we conducted field-based bioassays in apple and peach orchards to evaluate residual activity of insecticides commonly applied against H. halys. Adults used in these trials were collected from wild and cultivated hosts less than one week prior to testing to more accurately reflect the susceptibility of wild H. halys populations in the field throughout the season. Significantly higher mortality rates of Halyomorpha halys were observed early in the growing season, when overwintered adults were prevalent, compared with populations present later in the growing season that included new generation adults. Significantly higher mortality was recorded for adults exposed to fresh insecticide applications compared with three- and seven-day old residues. Typically, the addition of an adjuvant did not enhance efficacy or residual activity of insecticides. Significantly fewer injury sites were recorded on apples treated with dinotefuran and fenpropathrin compared with the untreated apples for all residue ages. Overwintered Halyomorpha halys populations are easier to kill with insecticide applications than the first and second generation which are present in the field during the mid- to late-season. Residual activity of nearly all insecticides decreased significantly three days after application and adjuvants generally did not increase residual activity. These factors should be considered in developing season-long programs for management of this invasive species in tree fruit. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  13. Role of cytochrome P450s in insecticide resistance: impact on the control of mosquito-borne diseases and use of insecticides on Earth

    OpenAIRE

    David, Jean-Philippe; Ismail, Hanafy Mahmoud; Chandor-Proust, Alexia; Paine, Mark John Ingraham

    2013-01-01

    The fight against diseases spread by mosquitoes and other insects has enormous environmental, economic and social consequences. Chemical insecticides remain the first line of defence but the control of diseases, especially malaria and dengue fever, is being increasingly undermined by insecticide resistance. Mosquitoes have a large repertoire of P450s (over 100 genes). By pinpointing the key enzymes associated with insecticide resistance we can begin to develop new tools to aid the implementat...

  14. Insecticide Exposure in Parkinsonism

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bloomquist, Jeffrey

    2002-01-01

    Behavioral, neurochemical, and immunocytochemical studies characterized the possible role of insecticide exposure in the etiology of Parkinson's disease as it may relate to Gulf War Syndrome. Chlorpyrifos (CP) and permethrin (PM...

  15. Insecticide Exposure in Parkinsonism

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bloomquist, Jeffrey

    2001-01-01

    Behavioral, neurochemical, and immunocytochemical studies characterized the possible role of insecticide exposure in the etiology of Parkinson's disease as it may relate to Gulf War Syndrome. Chlorpyrifos (CP) and permethrin (PM...

  16. The Effect of Mass Media Campaign on the Use of Insecticide-Treated Bed Nets among Pregnant Women in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Ankomah

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Malaria during pregnancy is a major public health problem in Nigeria especially in malaria-endemic areas. It increases the risk of low birth weight and child/maternal morbidity/mortality. This paper addresses the impact of radio campaigns on the use of insecticide-treated bed nets among pregnant women in Nigeria. Methods. A total of 2,348 pregnant women were interviewed during the survey across 21 of Nigeria’s 36 states. Respondents were selected through a multistage sampling technique. Analysis was based on multivariate logistic regression. Results. Respondents who knew that sleeping under ITN prevents malaria were 3.2 times more likely to sleep under net (OR: 3.15; 95% CI: 2.28 to 4.33; P<0.0001. Those who listened to radio are also about 1.6 times more likely to use ITN (OR: 1.56; 95% CI: 1.07 to 2.28; P=0.020, while respondents who had heard of a specific sponsored radio campaign on ITN are 1.53 times more likely to use a bed net (P=0.019. Conclusion. Pregnant women who listened to mass media campaigns were more likely to adopt strategies to protect themselves from malaria. Therefore, behavior change communication messages that are aimed at promoting net use and antenatal attendance are necessary in combating malaria.

  17. Insecticidal and Nematicidal Activities of Novel Mimosine Derivatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Binh Cao Quan Nguyen

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Mimosine, a non-protein amino acid, is found in several tropical and subtropical plants, which has high value for medicine and agricultural chemicals. Here, in continuation of works aimed to development of natural product-based pesticidal agents, we present the first significant findings for insecticidal and nematicidal activities of novel mimosine derivatives. Interestingly, mimosinol and deuterated mimosinol (D-mimosinol from mimosine had strong insecticidal activity which could be a result of tyrosinase inhibition (IC50 = 31.4 and 46.1 μM, respectively. Of synthesized phosphoramidothionate derivatives from two these amino alcohols, two compounds (1a and 1b showed high insecticidal activity (LD50 = 0.5 and 0.7 μg/insect, respectively with 50%–60% mortality at 50 μg/mL which may be attributed to acetylcholinesterase inhibition. Compounds 1a and 1b also had strong nematicidal activity with IC50 = 31.8 and 50.2 μM, respectively. Our results suggest that the length of the alkyl chain and the functional group at the C5-position of phosphoramidothionates derived from mimosinol and d-mimosinol are essential for the insecticidal and nematicidal activities. These results reveal an unexplored scaffold as new insecticide and nematicide.

  18. Gut Microbiota Mediate Insecticide Resistance in the Diamondback Moth, Plutella xylostella (L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Xiaofeng; Sun, Botong; Gurr, Geoff M; Vasseur, Liette; Xue, Minqian; You, Minsheng

    2018-01-01

    The development of insecticide resistance in insect pests is a worldwide concern and elucidating the underlying mechanisms is critical for effective crop protection. Recent studies have indicated potential links between insect gut microbiota and insecticide resistance and these may apply to the diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella (L.), a globally and economically important pest of cruciferous crops. We isolated Enterococcus sp. (Firmicutes), Enterobacter sp. (Proteobacteria), and Serratia sp. (Proteobacteria) from the guts of P. xylostella and analyzed the effects on, and underlying mechanisms of insecticide resistance. Enterococcus sp. enhanced resistance to the widely used insecticide, chlorpyrifos, in P. xylostella , while in contrast, Serratia sp. decreased resistance and Enterobacter sp. and all strains of heat-killed bacteria had no effect. Importantly, the direct degradation of chlorpyrifos in vitro was consistent among the three strains of bacteria. We found that Enterococcus sp., vitamin C, and acetylsalicylic acid enhanced insecticide resistance in P. xylostella and had similar effects on expression of P. xylostella antimicrobial peptides. Expression of cecropin was down-regulated by the two compounds, while gloverin was up-regulated. Bacteria that were not associated with insecticide resistance induced contrasting gene expression profiles to Enterococcus sp. and the compounds. Our studies confirmed that gut bacteria play an important role in P. xylostella insecticide resistance, but the main mechanism is not direct detoxification of insecticides by gut bacteria. We also suggest that the influence of gut bacteria on insecticide resistance may depend on effects on the immune system. Our work advances understanding of the evolution of insecticide resistance in this key pest and highlights directions for research into insecticide resistance in other insect pest species.

  19. Gut Microbiota Mediate Insecticide Resistance in the Diamondback Moth, Plutella xylostella (L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaofeng Xia

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The development of insecticide resistance in insect pests is a worldwide concern and elucidating the underlying mechanisms is critical for effective crop protection. Recent studies have indicated potential links between insect gut microbiota and insecticide resistance and these may apply to the diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella (L., a globally and economically important pest of cruciferous crops. We isolated Enterococcus sp. (Firmicutes, Enterobacter sp. (Proteobacteria, and Serratia sp. (Proteobacteria from the guts of P. xylostella and analyzed the effects on, and underlying mechanisms of insecticide resistance. Enterococcus sp. enhanced resistance to the widely used insecticide, chlorpyrifos, in P. xylostella, while in contrast, Serratia sp. decreased resistance and Enterobacter sp. and all strains of heat-killed bacteria had no effect. Importantly, the direct degradation of chlorpyrifos in vitro was consistent among the three strains of bacteria. We found that Enterococcus sp., vitamin C, and acetylsalicylic acid enhanced insecticide resistance in P. xylostella and had similar effects on expression of P. xylostella antimicrobial peptides. Expression of cecropin was down-regulated by the two compounds, while gloverin was up-regulated. Bacteria that were not associated with insecticide resistance induced contrasting gene expression profiles to Enterococcus sp. and the compounds. Our studies confirmed that gut bacteria play an important role in P. xylostella insecticide resistance, but the main mechanism is not direct detoxification of insecticides by gut bacteria. We also suggest that the influence of gut bacteria on insecticide resistance may depend on effects on the immune system. Our work advances understanding of the evolution of insecticide resistance in this key pest and highlights directions for research into insecticide resistance in other insect pest species.

  20. Flow regime classification in air-magnetic fluid two-phase flow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuwahara, T; De Vuyst, F; Yamaguchi, H

    2008-05-21

    A new experimental/numerical technique of classification of flow regimes (flow patterns) in air-magnetic fluid two-phase flow is proposed in the present paper. The proposed technique utilizes the electromagnetic induction to obtain time-series signals of the electromotive force, allowing us to make a non-contact measurement. Firstly, an experiment is carried out to obtain the time-series signals in a vertical upward air-magnetic fluid two-phase flow. The signals obtained are first treated using two kinds of wavelet transforms. The data sets treated are then used as input vectors for an artificial neural network (ANN) with supervised training. In the present study, flow regimes are classified into bubbly, slug, churn and annular flows, which are generally the main flow regimes. To validate the flow regimes, a visualization experiment is also performed with a glycerin solution that has roughly the same physical properties, i.e., kinetic viscosity and surface tension, as a magnetic fluid used in the present study. The flow regimes from the visualization are used as targets in an ANN and also used in the estimation of the accuracy of the present method. As a result, ANNs using radial basis functions are shown to be the most appropriate for the present classification of flow regimes, leading to small classification errors.

  1. Expression of melanin and insecticidal protein from Rhodotorula ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Both the salmon/red melanin and the insecticidal producing genes of Rhodotorula glutinis was successfully expressed in Escherichia coli using plasmid pZErO-1. This work suggests that in Rhodotorula species melanin and insecticidal toxin are co-expressed and therefore possibly co-evolved. Keywords: Rhodotorula ...

  2. Type 'A' and 'B' recovery revisited: The role of field-edge habitats for Collembola and macroarthropod community recovery after insecticide treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frampton, Geoff K.; Gould, Philip J.L.; Brink, Paul J. van den; Hendy, Eleanor

    2007-01-01

    Previous work has identified two patterns of arthropod recovery after insecticide applications to arable crops: dispersal-mediated recolonisation from untreated areas (Type A) and recolonisation within treated areas assisted by reduced predation (Type B). In this study, connectivity between field-edge habitats was manipulated using barriers to investigate whether a crop edge and adjacent hedgerow influence recolonisation of an insecticide-treated crop by surface-active Collembola and other arthropods. Collembola recovery patterns differed among closely-related taxa. Epigeic collembolan and macroarthropod communities were more diverse and abundant, and rates of artificial prey predation were higher, in sprayed crop areas connected to both hedgerow and unsprayed crop edge than in sprayed areas connected to the unsprayed edge alone. These findings indicate that effectiveness of unsprayed crop edges as sources of field recolonisation may depend on adjoining field margin habitats. An assumption in risk assessment that unsprayed crop edges assist population recovery within treated areas is not supported. - Collembola recolonisation differs among species; effectiveness of unsprayed crop edges as sources of arthropod recolonisation may depend on adjacent habitat

  3. Metaflumizone is a novel sodium channel blocker insecticide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salgado, V L; Hayashi, J H

    2007-12-15

    Metaflumizone is a novel semicarbazone insecticide, derived chemically from the pyrazoline sodium channel blocker insecticides (SCBIs) discovered at Philips-Duphar in the early 1970s, but with greatly improved mammalian safety. This paper describes studies confirming that the insecticidal action of metaflumizone is due to the state-dependent blockage of sodium channels. Larvae of the moth Spodoptera eridania injected with metaflumizone became paralyzed, concomitant with blockage of all nerve activity. Furthermore, tonic firing of abdominal stretch receptor organs from Spodoptera frugiperda was blocked by metaflumizone applied in the bath, consistent with the block of voltage-dependent sodium channels. Studies on native sodium channels, in primary-cultured neurons isolated from the CNS of the larvae of the moth Manduca sexta and on Para/TipE sodium channels heterologously expressed in Xenopus (African clawed frog) oocytes, confirmed that metaflumizone blocks sodium channels by binding selectively to the slow-inactivated state, which is characteristic of the SCBIs. The results confirm that metaflumizone is a novel sodium channel blocker insecticide.

  4. Insecticide Exposure in Parkinsonism

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bloomquist, Jeffrey

    2003-01-01

    Behavioral, neurochemical, and immunocytochemical studies are characterizing the possible role of insecticide exposure in the etiology of Parkinson's disease as it may relate to Gulf War Syndrome. Chlorpyrifos (CP) and/or permethrin (PM...

  5. Insecticides and Biological Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furness, G. O.

    1972-01-01

    Use of insecticides has been questioned due to their harmful effects on edible items. Biological control of insects along with other effective practices for checking spread of parasites on crops are discussed. (PS)

  6. Malaria in pregnant women in an area with sustained high coverage of insecticide-treated bed nets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mshinda Hassan

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Since 2000, the World Health Organization has recommended a package of interventions to prevent malaria during pregnancy and its sequelae that includes the promotion of insecticide-treated bed nets (ITNs, intermittent preventive treatment in pregnancy (IPTp, and effective case management of malarial illness. It is recommended that pregnant women in malaria-endemic areas receive at least two doses of sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine in the second and third trimesters of pregnancy. This study assessed the prevalence of placental malaria at delivery in women during 1st or 2nd pregnancy, who did not receive intermittent preventive treatment for malaria (IPTp in a malaria-endemic area with high bed net coverage. Methods A hospital-based cross-sectional study was done in Ifakara, Tanzania, where bed net coverage is high. Primi- and secundigravid women, who presented to the labour ward and who reported not using IPTp were included in the study. Self-report data were collected by questionnaire; whereas neonatal birth weight and placenta parasitaemia were measured directly at the time of delivery. Results Overall, 413 pregnant women were enrolled of which 91% reported to have slept under a bed net at home the previous night, 43% reported history of fever and 62% were primigravid. Malaria parasites were detected in 8% of the placenta samples; the geometric mean (95%CI placental parasite density was 3,457 (1,060–11,271 parasites/μl in primigravid women and 2,178 (881–5,383 parasites/μl in secundigravid women. Fifteen percent of newborns weighed Conclusion The observed incidence of LBW and prevalence of placental parasitaemia at delivery suggests that malaria remains a problem in pregnancy in this area with high bed net coverage when eligible women do not receive IPTp. Delivery of IPTp should be emphasized at all levels of implementation to achieve maximum community coverage.

  7. Ecotoxicity of binary mixtures of Microcystis aeruginosa and insecticides to Daphnia pulex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asselman, J.; Janssen, C.R.; Smagghe, G.; De Schamphelaere, K.A.C.

    2014-01-01

    In aquatic ecosystems, mixtures of chemical and natural stressors can occur which may significantly complicate risk assessment approaches. Here, we show that effects of binary combinations of four different insecticides and Microcystis aeruginosa, a toxic cyanobacteria, on Daphnia pulex exhibited distinct interaction patterns. Combinations with chlorpyrifos and tetradifon caused non-interactive effects, tebufenpyrad caused an antagonistic interaction and fenoyxcarb yielded patterns that depended on the reference model used (i.e. synergistic with independent action, additive with concentration addition). Our results demonstrate that interactive effects cannot be generalised across different insecticides, not even for those targeting the same biological pathway (i.e. tebufenpyrad and tetradifon both target oxidative phosphorylation). Also, the concentration addition reference model provided conservative predictions of effects in all investigated combinations for risk assessment. These predictions could, in absence of a full mechanistic understanding, provide a meaningful solution for managing water quality in systems impacted by both insecticides and cyanobacterial blooms. - Highlights:: • 2 of 4 insecticide-Microcystis combinations showed no interactive effect on Daphnia. • One insecticide showed antagonistic deviation patterns. • For one other insecticide the results depended on the reference model used. • Interactive effects between insecticides and Microcystis cannot be generalized. • The concentration addition model provides conservative estimates of mixture effects. - Interactive effects between insecticides and cyanobacterial stressors cannot be generalized, not even for insecticides with closely related known modes of action

  8. Characterization of Spodoptera litura (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) Takeout Genes and Their Differential Responses to Insecticides and Sex Pheromone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ling; Jiang, Yanyun

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Spodoptera litura (S. litura) is one of the most serious agricultural insect pests worldwide. Takeout (TO) is involved in a variety of physiological and biochemical pathways and performs various biological functions. We characterized 18 S. litura TO genes and investigated their differential responses to insecticides and sex pheromones. All predicted TO proteins have two Cysteines that are unique to the N-terminal of the TO family proteins and contain four highly conserved Prolines, two Glycines, and one Tyrosine. The expression levels of seven TO genes in the male antennae were higher than those in the female antennae, although the expression levels of 10 TO genes in the female were higher than those in the male. We investigated the effects of the sex pheromone and three insecticides, that is, chlorpyrifos (Ch), emamectin benzoate (EB), and fipronil (Fi), on the expression levels of the TO genes in the antennae. The results showed that the insecticides and sex pheromone affect the expression levels of the TO genes. One day after the treatment, the expression levels of SlTO15 and SlTO4 were significantly induced by the Ch/EB treatment. Two days after the S. litura moths were treated with Fi, the expression of SlTO4 was significantly induced (28.35-fold). The expression of SlTO10 changed significantly after the Ch and EB treatment, although the expression of SlTO12 and SlTO15 was inhibited by the three insecticides after two days of treatment. Our results lay a foundation for studying the role of TO genes in the interaction between insecticides and sex pheromone. PMID:28973484

  9. Field and Laboratory Evaluations of Insecticides for Southern Pine Beetle Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felton L. Hastings; Jack E. Coster; [Editors

    1981-01-01

    Reports results of laboratory screenings and field studies of insecticides for use against the southern pine beetle. Preventive as webas remedial efficacywere observed, along with phytotoxicity to pine and understory hardwood species, effects of insecticides on soil microbial and mesofaunal populations, and degradation of insecticides by selected soil microbes.

  10. 3 Insecticide Use Practice

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    500,000 metric tonnes in the 1964/1965 season. Problems ... insecticides on the open market. ... effective in the management of insect pests of cocoa. .... Effectiveness and profitability of pest ... Youth in Agriculture; Programme Policy, Strategy.

  11. Host-seeking activity of a Tanzanian population of Anopheles arabiensis at an insecticide treated bed net.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Josephine E A; Angarita Jaimes, Natalia C; Gleave, Katherine; Mashauri, Fabian; Abe, Mayumi; Martine, Jackline; Towers, Catherine E; Towers, David; McCall, Philip J

    2017-07-04

    Understanding how mosquitoes respond to long lasting insecticide treated nets (LLINs) is fundamental to sustaining the effectiveness of this essential control tool. We report on studies with a tracking system to investigate behaviour of wild anophelines at an LLIN, in an experimental hut at a rural site in Mwanza, Tanzania. Groups of adult female mosquitoes (n = 10 per replicate) reared from larvae of a local population, identified as predominantly (95%) Anopheles arabiensis, were released in the hut. An infrared video tracking system recorded flight and net contact activity over 1 h as the mosquitoes attempted to reach a supine human volunteer within a bed net (either a deltamethrin-treated LLIN or an untreated control net). A range of activities, including flight path, position in relation to the bed net and duration of net contact, were quantified and compared between treatments. The total time that female An. arabiensis spent in flight around LLINs was significantly lower than at untreated nets [F(1,10) = 9.26, p = 0.012], primarily due to a substantial reduction in the time mosquitoes spent in persistent 'bouncing' flight [F(1,10) = 18.48, p = 0.002]. Most activity occurred at the net roof but significantly less so with LLINs (56.8% of total) than untreated nets [85.0%; Χ 2 (15) = 234.69, p Activity levels at the bed net directly above the host torso were significantly higher with untreated nets (74.2%) than LLINs [38.4%; Χ 2 (15) = 33.54, p = 0.004]. 'Visiting' and 'bouncing' rates were highest above the volunteer's chest in untreated nets (39.9 and 50.4%, respectively) and LLINs [29.9 and 42.4%; Χ 2 (13) = 89.91, p activity over 60 min was significantly more rapid for LLINs [F(1,10) = 6.81, p = 0.026], reiterating an 'attract and kill' rather than a repellent mode of action. The study has demonstrated the potential for detailed investigations of behaviour of wild mosquito populations under field conditions. The results validate

  12. Biological alterations and self-reported symptoms among insecticides-exposed workers in Burkina Faso.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toe, Adama M; Ilboudo, Sylvain; Ouedraogo, Moustapha; Guissou, Pierre I

    2012-03-01

    Occupationally exposed workers, farm workers and plant protection agents in the Sahel region of Burkina Faso were interviewed to assess adverse health effects of insecticides. The subjects were also examined for changes in both hematological and biochemical parameters. The prevalence of liver and kidney dysfunction was found to be quite high among insecticide applicators, especially among plant protection agents. The prevalence of biochemical alterations seems to be correlated to the frequency of insecticide use. However, no significant differences were found between the hematological parameters among farm workers and plant protection agents. The hematological parameters of all the insecticide applicators were normal. The great majority of insecticide applicators (85%) reported symptoms related to insecticide exposure. The use of insecticides in the agriculture of Burkina Faso is threatening to human health.

  13. Effectiveness and Cost of Insecticide-Treated Bed Nets and Indoor Residual Spraying for the Control of Cutaneous Leishmaniasis: A Cluster-Randomized Control Trial in Morocco

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faraj, Chafika; Yukich, Joshua; Adlaoui, El Bachir; Wahabi, Rachid; Mnzava, Abraham Peter; Kaddaf, Mustapha; El Idrissi, Abderrahmane Laamrani; Ameur, Btissam; Kleinschmidt, Immo

    2016-01-01

    Cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) remains an important public health problem in Morocco. A cluster-randomized trial was conducted with the following three study arms: 1) long-lasting insecticide-treated nets (LLINs) plus standard of care environmental management (SoC-EM), 2) indoor residual spraying (IRS) with α-cypermethrin plus SoC-EM, and 3) SoC-EM alone. Incidence of new CL cases by passive and active case detection, sandfly abundance, and cost and cost-effectiveness was compared between study arms over 5 years. Incidence of CL and sandfly abundance were significantly lower in the IRS arm compared with SoC-EM (CL incidence rate ratio = 0.32, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.15–0.69, P = 0.005 and sandfly abundance ratio = 0.39, 95% CI = 0.18–0.85, P = 0.022). Reductions in the LLIN arm of the study were not significant, possibly due to poor compliance. IRS was effective and more cost-effective for the prevention of CL in Morocco. PMID:26811431

  14. Towards a Casa Segura: A Consumer Product Study of the Effect of Insecticide-Treated Curtains on Aedes aegypti and Dengue Virus Infections in the Home

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loroño-Pino, María Alba; García-Rejón, Julián E.; Machain-Williams, Carlos; Gomez-Carro, Salvador; Nuñez-Ayala, Guadalupe; del Rosario Nájera-Vázquez, Maria; Losoya, Arturo; Aguilar, Lyla; Saavedra-Rodriguez, Karla; Lozano-Fuentes, Saul; Beaty, Meaghan K.; Black, William C.; Keefe, Thomas J.; Eisen, Lars; Beaty, Barry J.

    2013-01-01

    The home, or domicile, is the principal environment for transmission of dengue virus (DENV) between humans and mosquito vectors. Community-wide distribution of insecticide-treated curtains (ITCs), mimicking vector control program-driven interventions, has shown promise to reduce DENV infections. We conducted a Casa Segura consumer product intervention study in Mérida, Mexico to determine the potential to reduce intradomicillary DENV transmission through ITC use in individual homes. Dengue virus infections in mosquitoes and in humans were reduced in homes with ITCs in one of two study subareas. Overall, ITCs reduced intradomicillary DENV transmission; ITC homes were significantly less likely to experience multiple DENV infections in humans than NTC homes. Dengue virus–infected Aedes aegypti females were reduced within the ITC homes where curtain use was highest. Some homes yielded up to nine infected Ae. aegypti females. This study provides insights regarding best practices for Casa Segura interventions to protect homes from intradomicillary DENV transmission. PMID:23732254

  15. Quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) for insecticides: development of predictive in vivo insecticide activity models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naik, P K; Singh, T; Singh, H

    2009-07-01

    Quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) analyses were performed independently on data sets belonging to two groups of insecticides, namely the organophosphates and carbamates. Several types of descriptors including topological, spatial, thermodynamic, information content, lead likeness and E-state indices were used to derive quantitative relationships between insecticide activities and structural properties of chemicals. A systematic search approach based on missing value, zero value, simple correlation and multi-collinearity tests as well as the use of a genetic algorithm allowed the optimal selection of the descriptors used to generate the models. The QSAR models developed for both organophosphate and carbamate groups revealed good predictability with r(2) values of 0.949 and 0.838 as well as [image omitted] values of 0.890 and 0.765, respectively. In addition, a linear correlation was observed between the predicted and experimental LD(50) values for the test set data with r(2) of 0.871 and 0.788 for both the organophosphate and carbamate groups, indicating that the prediction accuracy of the QSAR models was acceptable. The models were also tested successfully from external validation criteria. QSAR models developed in this study should help further design of novel potent insecticides.

  16. Effect of the Insecticide Dinotefuran on the Ultrastructure of the Flight Muscle of Female Sogatella furcifera (Hemiptera: Delphacidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, M G; Jiang, C X; Mao, M; Liu, C; Li, Q; Wang, X G; Yang, Q F; Wang, H J

    2017-04-01

    Sogatella furcifera Horváth (Hemiptera: Delphacidae), is a major migratory pest of rice crops in Asia. The ultrastructure of the flight muscle directly affects the flight ability of insects. The ultrastructure of the flight muscle of some insects can be affected by insecticides. However, the ultrastructure of the flight muscle of S. furcifera and the effect of insecticides on the flight muscle of S. furcifera are not well understood. The present study was conducted to determine the effect of the insecticide dinotefuran on the ultrastructure of the flight muscle of S. furcifera females. In this study, the cross-sectional area and the diameter of the myofibril cross-sections of dinotefuran-treated S. furcifera females increased with the number of days after emergence (DAE), and they were higher than in untreated females. The sarcomere length of myofibrils increased with the number of DAE, and it differed from that of the untreated females. On the first day after emergence, the higher the concentration of dinotefuran, the smaller was the extent of decrease. On the third day after emergence, the higher the concentration of dinotefuran, the larger was the extent of enhancement. For the percentage of mitochondria, those of LC10 and LC20 dinotefuran-treated S. furcifera females increased with the number of DAE and were higher than in untreated females. LC10 dinotefuran-treated S. furcifera females exhibited the largest increase. Thus, our results suggest that the flight ability of S. furcifera increased with time. Some concentrations of dinotefuran can enhance the flight capacity of S. furcifera. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. Ecotoxicological study of insecticide effects on arthropods in common bean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Barros, Emerson Cristi; Ventura, Hudson Vaner; Gontijo, Pablo Costa; Pereira, Renata Ramos; Picanço, Marcelo Coutinho

    2015-01-01

    Arthropods are an important group of macroorganisms that work to maintain ecosystem health. Despite the agricultural benefits of chemical control against arthropod pests, insecticides can cause environmental damage. We examined the effects of one and two applications of the insecticides chlorfenapyr (0.18 liters a.i. ha-1) and methamidophos (0.45 liters a.i. ha-1), both independently and in combination, on arthropods in plots of common bean. The experiment was repeated for two growing seasons. Principal response curve, richness estimator, and Shannon-Wiener diversity index analyses were performed. The insecticides generally affected the frequency, richness, diversity, and relative abundance of the arthropods. In addition, the arthropods did not experience recovery after the insecticide applications. The results suggest that the insecticide impacts were sufficiently drastic to eliminate many taxa from the studied common bean plots. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Entomological Society of America.

  18. Evaluation of the Insecticidal Efficacy of Wild Type and Recombinant Baculoviruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popham, Holly J R; Ellersieck, Mark R; Li, Huarong; Bonning, Bryony C

    2016-01-01

    A considerable amount of work has been undertaken to genetically enhance the efficacy of baculovirus insecticides. Following construction of a genetically altered baculovirus, laboratory bioassays are used to quantify various parameters of insecticidal activity such as the median lethal concentration (or dose) required to kill 50 % of infected larvae (LC50 or LD50), median survival of larvae infected (ST50), and feeding damage incurred by infected larvae. In this chapter, protocols are described for a variety of bioassays and the corresponding data analyses for assessment of the insecticidal activity of baculovirus insecticides.

  19. Guide to testing insecticides on coniferous forest defoliators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carroll B Jr. Williams; David A. Sharpnack; Liz Maxwell; Patrick J. Shea; Mark D. McGregor

    1985-01-01

    This report provides a guide to techniques for designing field tests of candidate insecticides, and for carrying out pilot tests and control projects. It describes experimental designs for testing hypotheses, and for sampling trees to estimate insect population densities and percent reduction after treatments. Directions for applying insecticides by aircraft and for...

  20. Insecticide resistance, control failure likelihood and the First Law of Geography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guedes, Raul Narciso C

    2017-03-01

    Insecticide resistance is a broadly recognized ecological backlash resulting from insecticide use and is widely reported among arthropod pest species with well-recognized underlying mechanisms and consequences. Nonetheless, insecticide resistance is the subject of evolving conceptual views that introduces a different concept useful if recognized in its own right - the risk or likelihood of control failure. Here we suggest an experimental approach to assess the likelihood of control failure of an insecticide allowing for consistent decision-making regarding management of insecticide resistance. We also challenge the current emphasis on limited spatial sampling of arthropod populations for resistance diagnosis in favor of comprehensive spatial sampling. This necessarily requires larger population sampling - aiming to use spatial analysis in area-wide surveys - to recognize focal points of insecticide resistance and/or control failure that will better direct management efforts. The continuous geographical scale of such surveys will depend on the arthropod pest species, the pattern of insecticide use and many other potential factors. Regardless, distance dependence among sampling sites should still hold, following the maxim that the closer two things are, the more they resemble each other, which is the basis of Tobler's First Law of Geography. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  1. Ownership and use of insecticide-treated nets during pregnancy in sub-Saharan Africa: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Megha; Brown, Graham; Rogerson, Stephen J

    2013-08-01

    Over the past decade, significant gains have been made in the implementation of malaria prevention measures in pregnancy in sub-Saharan Africa, including the distribution of insecticide-treated nets (ITNs). These have been shown to cause a reduction in the incidence of malaria and its consequences such as maternal anaemia, stillbirths and intrauterine growth restriction. Currently most nations in Africa have policies for distributing ITNs to pregnant women through various mechanisms, however coverage remains well below the targets. This review summarizes recent evidence regarding the correlation between ownership and use of ITNs and the determinants of both, in pregnancy in sub-Saharan Africa, and reviews interventions directed at improving coverage. A review of the literature using Pubmed, CINAHL and scanning of reference lists was conducted in October 2012 and 59 articles were selected for final review. The research obtained was a mixture of national and district level surveys, and a narrative synthesis of the data was undertaken. Ownership of ITNs varied from as low as 3% to greater than 80%, and the main determinants were found to be education level, knowledge of malaria, community involvement, socio-economic status and parity, although the significance of each varied between the different settings and studies reviewed. In more than half the settings where data were available, the combination of lack of availability and lack of use of an available net meant that less than half of all pregnancies received the recommended intervention. Supply and cost remain major barriers to achieving optimal coverage, but the additional important contributor to reduced efficiency of intervention was the clear discrepancy between ownership and use, with available ITN use below 60% in several settings. Cited reasons for not using an ITN, where one was available, included discomfort, problems with hanging up nets and lack of space, low awareness of need, and seasonal variations in

  2. Design, Synthesis and Insecticidal Activity of Novel Phenylurea Derivatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jialong Sun

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available A series of novel phenylurea derivatives were designed and synthesized according to the method of active groups linkage and the principle of aromatic groups bioisosterism in this study. The structures of the novel phenylurea derivatives were confirmed based on ESI-MS, IR and 1H-NMR spectral data. All of the compounds were evaluated for the insecticidal activity against the third instars larvae of Spodoptera exigua Hiibner, Plutella xyllostella Linnaeus, Helicoverpa armigera Hubner and Pieris rapae Linne respectively, at the concentration of 10 mg/L. The results showed that all of the derivatives displayed strong insecticidal activity. Most of the compounds presented higher insecticidal activity against S. exigua than the reference compounds tebufenozide, chlorbenzuron and metaflumizone. Among the synthesized compounds, 3b, 3d, 3f, 4b and 4g displayed broad spectrum insecticidal activity.

  3. Insect P450 inhibitors and insecticides: challenges and opportunities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feyereisen, René

    2015-06-01

    P450 enzymes are encoded by a large number of genes in insects, often over a hundred. They play important roles in insecticide metabolism and resistance, and growing numbers of P450 enzymes are now known to catalyse important physiological reactions, such as hormone metabolism or cuticular hydrocarbon synthesis. Ways to inhibit P450 enzymes specifically or less specifically are well understood, as P450 inhibitors are found as drugs, as fungicides, as plant growth regulators and as insecticide synergists. Yet there are no P450 inhibitors as insecticides on the market. As new modes of action are constantly needed to support insecticide resistance management, P450 inhibitors should be considered because of their high potential for insect selectivity, their well-known mechanisms of action and the increasing ease of rational design and testing. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  4. Public-private delivery of insecticide-treated nets: a voucher scheme in Volta Region, Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taylor Ian

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Coverage of vulnerable groups with insecticide-treated nets (ITNs in Ghana, as in the majority of countries of sub-Saharan Africa is currently low. A voucher scheme was introduced in Volta Region as a possible sustainable delivery system for increasing this coverage through scale-up to other regions. Successful scale-up of public health interventions depends upon optimal delivery processes but operational research for delivery processes in large-scale implementation has been inadequate. Methods A simple tool was developed to monitor numbers of vouchers given to each health facility, numbers issued to pregnant women by the health staff, and numbers redeemed by the distributors back to the management agent. Three rounds of interviews were undertaken with health facility staff, retailers and pregnant women who had attended antenatal clinic (ANC. Results During the one year pilot 25,926 vouchers were issued to eligible women from clinics, which equates to 50.7% of the 51,658 ANC registrants during this time period. Of the vouchers issued 66.7% were redeemed by distributors back to the management agent. Initially, non-issuing of vouchers to pregnant women was mainly due to eligibility criteria imposed by the midwives; later in the year it was due to decisions of the pregnant women, and supply constraints. These in turn were heavily influenced by factors external to the programme: current household ownership of nets, competing ITN delivery strategies, and competition for the limited number of ITNs available in the country from major urban areas of other regions. Conclusion Both issuing and redemption of vouchers should be monitored as factors assumed to influence voucher redemption had an influence on issuing, and vice versa. More evidence is needed on how specific contextual factors influence the success of voucher schemes and other models of delivery of ITNs. Such an evidence base will facilitate optimal strategic decision making

  5. Implications of insecticide resistance for malaria vector control with long-lasting insecticidal nets: a WHO-coordinated, prospective, international, observational cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleinschmidt, Immo; Bradley, John; Knox, Tessa Bellamy; Mnzava, Abraham Peter; Kafy, Hmooda Toto; Mbogo, Charles; Ismail, Bashir Adam; Bigoga, Jude D; Adechoubou, Alioun; Raghavendra, Kamaraju; Cook, Jackie; Malik, Elfatih M; Nkuni, Zinga José; Macdonald, Michael; Bayoh, Nabie; Ochomo, Eric; Fondjo, Etienne; Awono-Ambene, Herman Parfait; Etang, Josiane; Akogbeto, Martin; Bhatt, Rajendra M; Chourasia, Mehul Kumar; Swain, Dipak K; Kinyari, Teresa; Subramaniam, Krishanthi; Massougbodji, Achille; Okê-Sopoh, Mariam; Ogouyemi-Hounto, Aurore; Kouambeng, Celestin; Abdin, Mujahid Sheikhedin; West, Philippa; Elmardi, Khalid; Cornelie, Sylvie; Corbel, Vincent; Valecha, Neena; Mathenge, Evan; Kamau, Luna; Lines, Jonathan; Donnelly, Martin James

    2018-04-09

    Scale-up of insecticide-based interventions has averted more than 500 million malaria cases since 2000. Increasing insecticide resistance could herald a rebound in disease and mortality. We aimed to investigate whether insecticide resistance was associated with loss of effectiveness of long-lasting insecticidal nets and increased malaria disease burden. This WHO-coordinated, prospective, observational cohort study was done at 279 clusters (villages or groups of villages in which phenotypic resistance was measurable) in Benin, Cameroon, India, Kenya, and Sudan. Pyrethroid long-lasting insecticidal nets were the principal form of malaria vector control in all study areas; in Sudan this approach was supplemented by indoor residual spraying. Cohorts of children from randomly selected households in each cluster were recruited and followed up by community health workers to measure incidence of clinical malaria and prevalence of infection. Mosquitoes were assessed for susceptibility to pyrethroids using the standard WHO bioassay test. Country-specific results were combined using meta-analysis. Between June 2, 2012, and Nov 4, 2016, 40 000 children were enrolled and assessed for clinical incidence during 1·4 million follow-up visits. 80 000 mosquitoes were assessed for insecticide resistance. Long-lasting insecticidal net users had lower infection prevalence (adjusted odds ratio [OR] 0·63, 95% CI 0·51-0·78) and disease incidence (adjusted rate ratio [RR] 0·62, 0·41-0·94) than did non-users across a range of resistance levels. We found no evidence of an association between insecticide resistance and infection prevalence (adjusted OR 0·86, 0·70-1·06) or incidence (adjusted RR 0·89, 0·72-1·10). Users of nets, although significantly better protected than non-users, were nevertheless subject to high malaria infection risk (ranging from an average incidence in net users of 0·023, [95% CI 0·016-0·033] per person-year in India, to 0·80 [0·65-0·97] per person

  6. Synthesis and Insecticidal Activities of New Ester-Derivatives of Celangulin-V

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenjun Wu

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available In order to develop new biorational pesticides, ten new 6-substituted ester derivatives of Celangulin-V were designed and synthesized. The structures of the new derivatives were confirmed by IR, 1H-NMR, 13C-NMR and ESI-MS spectral analysis. Insecticidal activities of these compounds were tested against the third-instar larvae of Mythimna separata. Two derivatives (1.1, 1.2 showed higher insecticidal activities than Celangulin-V, with mortality of 75.0% and 83.3%, respectively. While four compounds (1.3, 1.4, 1.7, 1.8 denoted lower insecticidal activities, the others (1.5, 1.6, 1.9, 1.10 revealed no activities at a concentration of 10 mg.mL−1. The results suggest that C-6 substitutions of Celangulin-V are very important in determining the insecticidal activities of its ester-derivatives. That the acetyl (1.1 and propionyl (1.2 derivatives possessed much higher insecticidal activities than Celangulin-V itself supported the view that Celangulin-V has the potential to be a lead structure of semi-synthetic green insecticides.

  7. Malaria transmission in Bissau, Guinea-Bissau between 1995 and 2012

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ursing, Johan; Rombo, Lars; Rodrigues, Amabelia

    2014-01-01

    of insecticide treated bed nets (ITN) amongst children chloroquine treatment regime was routinely used until artemisinin based combination therapy (ACT) was introduced in 2008. Long lasting insecticide treated bed nets (LLIN) were distributed in 2011. By 2012 there was 1 net...... (1995-2012) were considered incident cases. The mean annual malaria incidence per thousand children in 1995-1997, 1999-2003, 2007, 2011, 2012 were as follows; age use...... per 2 people and 97% usage. All-cause mortality decreased from post-war peaks in 1999 until 2012 in all age groups and was not negatively affected by malaria resurgence. CONCLUSION: The cause of decreasing malaria incidence (1995-2007) was probably multifactorial and coincident with the use...

  8. Azobenzene Modified Imidacloprid Derivatives as Photoswitchable Insecticides: Steering Molecular Activity in a Controllable Manner

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Zhiping; Shi, Lina; Jiang, Danping; Cheng, Jiagao; Shao, Xusheng; Li, Zhong

    2015-10-01

    Incorporating the photoisomerizable azobenzene into imidacloprid produced a photoswitchable insecticidal molecule as the first neonicotinoid example of remote control insecticide performance with spatiotemporal resolution. The designed photoswitchable insecticides showed distinguishable activity against Musca both in vivo and in vitro upon irradiation. Molecular docking study further suggested the binding difference of the two photoisomers. The generation of these photomediated insecticides provides novel insight into the insecticidal activity facilitating further investigation on the functions of insect nicotinic acetylcholine receptors and opens a novel way to control and study insect behavior on insecticide poisoning using light.

  9. Characterizing the insecticide resistance of Anopheles gambiae in Mali.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cisse, Moussa B M; Keita, Chitan; Dicko, Abdourhamane; Dengela, Dereje; Coleman, Jane; Lucas, Bradford; Mihigo, Jules; Sadou, Aboubacar; Belemvire, Allison; George, Kristen; Fornadel, Christen; Beach, Raymond

    2015-08-22

    The impact of indoor residual spraying (IRS) and long-lasting insecticide nets (LLINs), key components of the national malaria control strategy of Mali, is threatened by vector insecticide resistance. The objective of this study was to assess the level of insecticide resistance in Anopheles gambiae sensu lato populations from Mali against four classes of insecticide recommended for IRS: organochlorines (OCs), pyrethroids (PYs), carbamates (CAs) and organophosphates (OPs). Characterization of resistance was done in 13 sites across southern Mali and assessed presence and distribution of physiological mechanisms that included target-site modifications: knockdown resistance (kdr) and altered acetycholinesterase (AChE), and/or metabolic mechanisms: elevated esterases, glutathione S-transferases (GSTs), and monooxygenases. The World Health Organization (WHO) tube test was used to determine phenotypic resistance of An. gambiae s.l. to: dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) (OC), deltamethrin (PY), lambda-cyhalothrin (PY), bendiocarb (CA), and fenitrothion (OP). Identification of sibling species and presence of the ace-1 (R) and Leu-Phe kdr, resistance-associated mutations, were determined using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) technology. Biochemical assays were conducted to detect increased activity of GSTs, oxidases and esterases. Populations tested showed high levels of resistance to DDT in all 13 sites, as well as increased resistance to deltamethrin and lambda-cyhalothrin in 12 out of 13 sites. Resistance to fenitrothion and bendiocarb was detected in 1 and 4 out of 13 sites, respectively. Anopheles coluzzii, An. gambiae sensu stricto and Anopheles arabiensis were identified with high allelic frequencies of kdr in all sites where each of the species were found (13, 12 and 10 sites, respectively). Relatively low allelic frequencies of ace-1 (R) were detected in four sites where this assessment was conducted. Evidence of elevated insecticide metabolism, based on oxidase

  10. Probabilistic risk assessment of insecticide concentrations in agricultural surface waters: a critical appraisal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stehle, Sebastian; Knäbel, Anja; Schulz, Ralf

    2013-08-01

    Due to the specific modes of action and application patterns of agricultural insecticides, the insecticide exposure of agricultural surface waters is characterized by infrequent and short-term insecticide concentration peaks of high ecotoxicological relevance with implications for both monitoring and risk assessment. Here, we apply several fixed-interval strategies and an event-based sampling strategy to two generalized and two realistic insecticide exposure patterns for typical agricultural streams derived from FOCUS exposure modeling using Monte Carlo simulations. Sampling based on regular intervals was found to be inadequate for the detection of transient insecticide concentrations, whereas event-triggered sampling successfully detected all exposure incidences at substantially lower analytical costs. Our study proves that probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) concepts in their present forms are not appropriate for a thorough evaluation of insecticide exposure. Despite claims that the PRA approach uses all available data to assess exposure and enhances risk assessment realism, we demonstrate that this concept is severely biased by the amount of insecticide concentrations below detection limits and therefore by the sampling designs. Moreover, actual insecticide exposure is of almost no relevance for PRA threshold level exceedance frequencies and consequential risk assessment outcomes. Therefore, we propose a concept that features a field-relevant ecological risk analysis of agricultural insecticide surface water exposure. Our study quantifies for the first time the environmental and economic consequences of inappropriate monitoring and risk assessment concepts used for the evaluation of short-term peak surface water pollutants such as insecticides.

  11. Transport processes in magnetically confined plasmas in the nonlinear regime.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonnino, Giorgio

    2006-06-01

    A field theory approach to transport phenomena in magnetically confined plasmas is presented. The thermodynamic field theory (TFT), previously developed for treating the generic thermodynamic system out of equilibrium, is applied to plasmas physics. Transport phenomena are treated here as the effect of the field linking the thermodynamic forces with their conjugate flows combined with statistical mechanics. In particular, the Classical and the Pfirsch-Schluter regimes are analyzed by solving the thermodynamic field equations of the TFT in the weak-field approximation. We found that, the TFT does not correct the expressions of the ionic heat fluxes evaluated by the neoclassical theory in these two regimes. On the other hand, the fluxes of matter and electronic energy (heat flow) is further enhanced in the nonlinear Classical and Pfirsch-Schluter regimes. These results seem to be in line with the experimental observations. The complete set of the electronic and ionic transport equations in the nonlinear Banana regime, is also reported. A paper showing the comparison between our theoretic results and the experimental observations in the JET machine is currently in preparation.

  12. Evaluation of systemic neonicotinoid insecticides for the management of the Asian citrus psyllid Diaphorina citri on containerized citrus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrne, Frank J; Daugherty, Matthew P; Grafton-Cardwell, Elizabeth E; Bethke, James A; Morse, Joseph G

    2017-03-01

    Studies were conducted to evaluate uptake and retention of three systemic neonicotinoid insecticides, dinotefuran, imidacloprid and thiamethoxam, in potted citrus nursery plants treated at standard label rates. Infestation of these plants placed at a field site with moderate levels of Asian citrus psyllid (ACP) was monitored for 14 weeks following treatments, and insecticide residues in leaf tissue were quantified using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Bioassays were conducted using leaves harvested on various dates post-treatment to compare the efficacies of residues against adult ACP. Residues of the three neonicotinoids were detected in leaf tissues within 1 week after treatment. Peak concentrations established at 1 week for imidacloprid and dinotefuran and at 2 weeks for thiamethoxam. Imidacloprid and thiamethoxam outperformed the control and dinotefuran treatments at protecting trees from infestations by ACP eggs and nymphs. For a given insecticide concentration in leaf tissue, thiamethoxam induced the highest mortality of the three insecticides, and dinotefuran was the least toxic. If the time needed to achieve effective thresholds of a systemic neonicotinoid is known, treatments at production facilities could be scheduled that would minimize unnecessary post-treatment holding periods and ensure maximum retention of effective concentrations after the plants have shipped to retail outlets. The rapid uptake of the insecticides and retention at effective concentrations in containerized citrus suggest that the current 30 day post-treatment shipping restriction from production facilities to retail outlets outside of quarantine could be shortened to 14 days. Thiamethoxam should be added to the list of approved nursery treatments. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  13. The impact of insecticides to local honey bee colony Apis cerana indica in laboratory condition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putra, Ramadhani E.; Permana, Agus D.; Nuriyah, Syayidah

    2014-03-01

    Heavy use of insecticides considered as one of common practice at local farming systems. Even though many Indonesian researchers had stated the possible detrimental effect of insecticide on agriculture environment and biodiversity, researches on this subject had been neglected. Therefore, our purpose in this research is observing the impact of insecticides usage by farmer to non target organisme like local honey bee (Apis cerana indica), which commonly kept in area near agriculture system. This research consisted of field observations out at Ciburial, Dago Pakar, Bandung and laboratory tests at School of Life Sciences and Technology, Institut Teknologi Bandung. The field observations recorded visited agriculture corps and types of pollen carried by bees to the nest while laboratory test recorderd the effect of common insecticide to mortality and behavior of honey bees. Three types of insecticides used in this research were insecticides A with active agent Chlorantraniliprol 50 g/l, insecticide B with active agent Profenofos 500 g/l, and insecticides C with active agent Chlorantraniliprol 100 g/l and λ-cyhalotrin 50g/l. The results show that during one week visit, wild flower, Wedelia montana, visited by most honey bees with average visit 60 honey bees followed by corn, Zea mays, with 21 honey bees. The most pollen carried by foragers was Wedelia montana, Calliandra callothyrsus, and Zea mays. Preference test show that honeybees tend move to flowers without insecticides as the preference to insecticides A was 12.5%, insecticides B was 0%, and insecticides was C 4.2%. Mortality test showed that insecticides A has LD50 value 0.01 μg/μl, insecticide B 0.31 μg/μl, and insecticides C 0.09 μg/μl which much lower than suggested dosage recommended by insecticides producer. This research conclude that the use of insecticide could lower the pollination service provide by honey bee due to low visitation rate to flowers and mortality of foraging bees.

  14. The impact of pyrethroid resistance on the efficacy of insecticide-treated bed nets against African anopheline mosquitoes: systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clare Strode

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Pyrethroid insecticide-treated bed nets (ITNs help contribute to reducing malaria deaths in Africa, but their efficacy is threatened by insecticide resistance in some malaria mosquito vectors. We therefore assessed the evidence that resistance is attenuating the effect of ITNs on entomological outcomes.We included laboratory and field studies of African malaria vectors that measured resistance at the time of the study and used World Health Organization-recommended impregnation regimens. We reported mosquito mortality, blood feeding, induced exophily (premature exit of mosquitoes from the hut, deterrence, time to 50% or 95% knock-down, and percentage knock-down at 60 min. Publications were searched from 1 January 1980 to 31 December 2013 using MEDLINE, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, Science Citation Index Expanded, Social Sciences Citation Index, African Index Medicus, and CAB Abstracts. We stratified studies into three levels of insecticide resistance, and ITNs were compared with untreated bed nets (UTNs using the risk difference (RD. Heterogeneity was explored visually and statistically. Included were 36 laboratory and 24 field studies, reported in 25 records. Studies tested and reported resistance inconsistently. Based on the meta-analytic results, the difference in mosquito mortality risk for ITNs compared to UTNs was lower in higher resistance categories. However, mortality risk was significantly higher for ITNs compared to UTNs regardless of resistance. For cone tests: low resistance, risk difference (RD 0.86 (95% CI 0.72 to 1.01; moderate resistance, RD 0.71 (95% CI 0.53 to 0.88; high resistance, RD 0.56 (95% CI 0.17 to 0.95. For tunnel tests: low resistance, RD 0.74 (95% CI 0.61 to 0.87; moderate resistance, RD 0.50 (95% CI 0.40 to 0.60; high resistance, RD 0.39 (95% CI 0.24 to 0.54. For hut studies: low resistance, RD 0.56 (95% CI 0.43 to 0.68; moderate resistance, RD 0.39 (95% CI 0.16 to 0.61; high resistance, RD 0

  15. Insights from agriculture for the management of insecticide resistance in disease vectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sternberg, Eleanore D; Thomas, Matthew B

    2018-04-01

    Key to contemporary management of diseases such as malaria, dengue, and filariasis is control of the insect vectors responsible for transmission. Insecticide-based interventions have contributed to declines in disease burdens in many areas, but this progress could be threatened by the emergence of insecticide resistance in vector populations. Insecticide resistance is likewise a major concern in agriculture, where insect pests can cause substantial yield losses. Here, we explore overlaps between understanding and managing insecticide resistance in agriculture and in public health. We have used the Global Plan for Insecticide Resistance Management in malaria vectors, developed under the auspices of the World Health Organization Global Malaria Program, as a framework for this exploration because it serves as one of the few cohesive documents for managing a global insecticide resistance crisis. Generally, this comparison highlights some fundamental differences between insect control in agriculture and in public health. Moreover, we emphasize that the success of insecticide resistance management strategies is strongly dependent on the biological specifics of each system. We suggest that the biological, operational, and regulatory differences between agriculture and public health limit the wholesale transfer of knowledge and practices from one system to the other. Nonetheless, there are some valuable insights from agriculture that could assist in advancing the existing Global Plan for Insecticide Resistance Management framework.

  16. Insecticide use in hybrid onion seed production affects pre- and postpollination processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillespie, Sandra; Long, Rachael; Seitz, Nicola; Williams, Neal

    2014-02-01

    Research on threats to pollination service in agro-ecosystems has focused primarily on the negative impacts of land use change and agricultural practices such as insecticide use on pollinator populations. Insecticide use could also affect the pollination process, through nonlethal impacts on pollinator attraction and postpollination processes such as pollen viability or pollen tube growth. Hybrid onion seed (Allium cepa L., Alliaceae) is an important pollinator-dependent crop that has suffered yield declines in California, concurrent with increased insecticide use. Field studies suggest that insecticide use reduces pollination service in this system. We conducted a field experiment manipulating insecticide use to examine the impacts of insecticides on 1) pollinator attraction, 2) pollen/stigma interactions, and 3) seed set and seed quality. Select insecticides had negative impacts on pollinator attraction and pollen/stigma interactions, with certain products dramatically reducing pollen germination and pollen tube growth. Decreased pollen germination was not associated with reduced seed set; however, reduced pollinator attraction was associated with lower seed set and seed quality, for one of the two female lines examined. Our results highlight the importance of pesticide effects on the pollination process. Overuse may lead to yield reductions through impacts on pollinator behavior and postpollination processes. Overall, in hybrid onion seed production, moderation in insecticide use is advised when controlling onion thrips, Thrips tabaci, on commercial fields.

  17. Factors Influencing the Usage of Insecticide Treated Mosquito Nets ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: Malaria in Sudan is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality. ... treated mosquito nets (ITNs) for prevention of malaria among pregnant women. ... on malaria causes, 103 (99%) had good knowledge on malaria complications and ... and accessibility to ITNs were significantly associated with current usage of ITNs.

  18. Efficacy of mosquito nets treated with a pyrethroid-organophosphorous mixture against Kdr- and Kdr+ malaria vectors (Anopheles gambiae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darriet F.

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available In order to prevent the resistance of Anopheles gambiae s.l. to pyrethroids from spreading too quickly and to lengthen the effectiveness of insecticide impregnated mosquito nets, it has recently been suggested to use mixtures of insecticides that have different modes of action. This study presents the results obtained with tulle mosquito nets treated with bifenthrin (a pyrethroid] and chlorpyrifos-methyl (an organophosphorous both separately and in mixture on two strains of An. gambiae, one sensitive to all insecticides, and the other resistant to pyrethroids. The values of KDt50 and KDt95 and the mortality induced with the mixture of bifenthrin (25 mg/m2 and chlorpyrifos-methyl (4.5 mg/m2 show a significant synergistic effect on the strain of An. gambiae susceptible to insecticides. However, the tested combination does not induce any synergistic effect on the VKPR strain selected with permethrin, but only enhances the effectiveness of the two insecticides taken separately.

  19. Potential of contact insecticides to control Xyleborus glabratus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), a vector of laurel wilt disease in avocados.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrillo, Daniel; Crane, Jonathan H; Peña, Jorge E

    2013-12-01

    Xyleborus glabratus Eichhoff (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae) is an invasive ambrosia beetle that vectors laurel wilt, a new disease that threatens avocado and other species in the Lauraceae Family. The lethal concentrations (LC50 & 90) of nine commercial insecticides to X. glabratus were determined by using a bolt-dip bioassay. Different formulations of bifenthrin, permethrin, fenpropathrin, z-cypermethrin + bifenthrin, 1-cyhalothrin + thiamethoxam, malathion, chlorpyrifos, carbaryl, and methomyl were tested. Four concentrations of each insecticide were tested (0.5, 0.1, 0.03, and 0.01 of the label rate) and with water as a control. Beetles were exposed to treated bolts and mortality registered 48 h later. After 2 wk, bolts were destructively sampled to determine the number of beetles that constructed galleries and were alive inside the wood. Probit analysis was used to determine the LC50 & 90. Six pesticides were applied directly to the trunk and limbs of avocado trees in a commercial grove. Limbs of treated trees were cut weekly after the application and exposed to X. glabratus to determine the number of beetles boring into the logs. The toxicity of pesticides to X. glabratus was greatly reduced 2 wk after application. Among the tested pesticides, malathion and z-cypermethrin + bifenthrin provided the best suppression of X. glabratus. Among the insecticides registered for use in avocado, fenpropathrin and malathion were the most effective in protecting trees from attack by X. glabratus. Other pesticides that are currently not registered for use in avocados could be useful for managing this ambrosia beetle.

  20. Modes of Action, Resistance and Toxicity of Insecticides Targeting Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ihara, Makoto; Buckingham, Steven D; Matsuda, Kazuhiko; Sattelle, David B

    2017-01-01

    Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) of insects play a key role in fast excitatory neurotransmission. Several classes of insecticides target insect nAChRs, which are composed of subunit members of a family of multiple subunit encoding genes. Alternative splicing and RNA A-to-I editing can add further to receptor diversity. Native and recombinant receptors have been explored as sites of insecticide action using radioligands, electrophysiology and site-directed mutagenesis. We have reviewed the properties of native and recombinant insect nAChRs, the challenges of functional recombinant insect nAChR expression, nAChR interactions with ligands acting at orthosteric and allosteric sites and in particular their interactions with insecticides. Actions on insect nAChRs of cartap, neonicotinoids, spinosyns, sulfoxamines, butenolides and mesoionic insecticides are reviewed and current knowledge of their modes of action are addressed. Mutations that add to our understanding of insecticide action and those leading to resistance are discussed. Co-crystallisation of neonicotinoids with the acetylcholine binding protein (AChBP), a surrogate for the nAChR ligand binding domain, has proved instructive. Toxicity issues relating to insecticides targeting nAChRs are also considered. An overview of insecticide classes targeting insect nAChRs has enhanced our understanding of these important receptors and their insecticide binding sites. However, the subunit composition of native nAChRs remains poorly understood and functional expression still presents difficulties. These topics together with improved understanding of the precise sites of insecticide actions on insect nAChRs will be the subject of future research. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  1. Human exposure to anopheline mosquitoes occurs primarily indoors, even for users of insecticide-treated nets in Luangwa Valley, South-east Zambia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyoum Aklilu

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Current front line malaria vector control methods such as indoor residual spraying (IRS and long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs, rely upon the preference of many primary vectors to feed and/or rest inside human habitations where they can be targeted with domestically-applied insecticidal products. We studied the human biting behaviour of the malaria vector Anopheles funestus Giles and the potential malaria vector Anopheles quadriannulatus Theobald in Luangwa valley, south-east Zambia. Methods Mosquitoes were collected by human landing catch in blocks of houses with either combined use of deltamethrin-based IRS and LLINs or LLINs alone. Human behaviour data were collected to estimate how much exposure to mosquito bites indoors and outdoors occurred at various times of the night for LLIN users and non-users. Results Anopheles funestus and An. quadriannulatus did not show preference to bite either indoors or outdoors: the proportions [95% confidence interval] caught indoors were 0.586 [0.303, 0.821] and 0.624 [0.324, 0.852], respectively. However, the overwhelming majority of both species were caught at times when most people are indoors. The proportion of mosquitoes caught at a time when most people are indoors were 0.981 [0.881, 0.997] and 0.897 [0.731, 0.965], respectively, so the proportion of human exposure to both species occuring indoors was high for individuals lacking LLINs (An. funestus: 0.983 and An. quadriannulatus: 0.970, respectively. While LLIN users were better protected, more than half of their exposure was nevertheless estimated to occur indoors (An. funestus: 0.570 and An. quadriannulatus: 0.584. Conclusions The proportion of human exposure to both An. funestus and An. quadriannulatus occuring indoors was high in the area and hence both species might be responsive to further peri-domestic measures if these mosquitoes are susceptible to insecticidal products.

  2. Gender and willingness to pay for insecticides treated bed nets in a poor rural area in Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mujinja, P G M; Makwaya, C K; Sauerborn, R

    2004-12-01

    To examine socio-economic and malaria related differences between males and females that may cause gender differences in willingness to pay (WTP) for insecticide treated bed nets in a poor rural area. A two-week-interval (test re-test) cross-sectional study. Kisarawe District in coastal Tanzania. Two hundred and fifty one males and two hundred dollars females were interviewed. Females had about 50% of the males' income. The monthly average income was about US dollars 10.50 for females and US dollars 20.20 for males. The proportion of respondents willing to pay for an ITN, for both males and females, declined as the ITN prices increased (Pdifference between men and women, between both rounds were not statistically significant (p>0.05). Male respondents reported a higher mean number of own underfives living in the household compared to women, the difference was not statistically significant (P>0.8). Willingness to pay for ITN was found to be independent of having an under five child with recent history of malaria. Among both males and females, there was an association between a recent experience with malaria episode and WTP, p=0.05 and p=0.02 respectively. Among females, the proportion of those willing to pay for another person, at the lowest ITN price, was significantly higher in those with under five children in their households than in those with no underfives. This was not the case among the male respondents as the association was not statistically significant. Contrary to expectations were was no statistically significant difference in WTP for an ITN between females and males. Further studies that link willingness and ability to pay are required in rural poor population, such studies may be valuable inputs to government policy on and planning of ITN interventions in the public and private sector.

  3. Development of Environment-Friendly Insecticides Based on Enantioselectivity: Bifenthrin as a Case.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Yi; Zhou, Peixue; Zhang, Quan

    2017-01-01

    Chiral insecticides significantly contribute to the environmental pollutions recently. As the development of industry and agriculture, increasing number of chiral insecticides are to be introduced into the market. However, their enantioselective toxicology to ecosystem still remains uncertain. In this review, we embarked on a structured search of bibliographic databases for peer-reviewed articles regarding the enantioselective effects of bifenthrin, a typical chiral insecticide, on both target and non-target species. With this enantioselective property of chiral insecticides, they often exhibit adverse effects on non-target species enantioselectively. Specifically, the enantioselective effects of bifenthrin on target and non-target organisms were discussed. In target species, R-bifenthrin exerts more significant activities in deinsectization, compared with S-bifenthrin. On the other hand, Sbifenthrin is more toxic to non-target species than R-bifenthrin, which suggests that the application of sole enantiomer is more efficient and environment-friendly than that of racemate. This review confirms the choice of environment-friendly insecticides from the perspective of the enantioselectivity of chiral insecticides. To make insecticides more efficient to target species and less toxic to non-target species, further research should be done to investigated the potential effects of targetactive enantiomers on non-target organisms as well as the enantioselective fate of enantiomers in multiple environmental matrix.

  4. Insecticide Resistance in Eggs and First Instars of the Bed Bug, Cimex lectularius (Hemiptera: Cimicidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brittany E. Campbell

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Two strains of the common bed bug, Cimex lectularius L., eggs and first instars collected from pyrethroid-resistant adults were evaluated for insecticide resistance and compared to a susceptible strain. Dose-response bioassays were conducted using two insecticide formulations (Temprid: imidacloprid/β-cyfluthrin, and Transport: acetamiprid/ bifenthrin. The lethal concentration (LC50 for the two resistant egg strains exposed to imidacloprid/β-cyfluthrin ranged from 3 to 5-fold higher than susceptible strain eggs. Resistant strain eggs dipped into formulations of acetamiprid/bifenthrin had LC50 values which were significantly greater (39 to 1,080-fold than susceptible strain eggs. Similar to eggs, resistant strain first instars exposed to residual applications of imidacloprid/β-cyfluthrin had LC50 values ranging from 121 to 493-fold greater than susceptible strain first instars. When resistant strain first instars were treated with acetamiprid/bifenthrin, they had LC50 values that were 99 to >1,900-fold greater than susceptible strain first instars. To determine differences between egg and first instar resistance, stage resistance ratios (SRR were compared between the two stages. There was little difference between the egg and first instar stages, indicated by small SRR values ranging from 1.1 to 10.0. This study suggests that insecticide resistance is expressed early during bed bug development.

  5. Identification and cloning of two insecticidal protein genes from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) is the most widely applied type of microbial pesticide due to its high specificity and environmental safety. The activity of Bt is largely attributed to the insecticidal crystal protein encoded by the cry genes. Different insecticidal crystal proteins of Bt have different bioactivity against distinct agricultural ...

  6. Susceptibility of natural enemies of pests of agriculture to commonly applied insecticides in Honduras

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bustamante, M.; Sabillon, A.; Velasquez, C.; Ordonez, J.; Baquedano, F.

    1999-01-01

    Insecticides are commonly used by Honduran farmers to control pest insects in agricultural crops such as corn, melons and tomatoes. However, the insecticides have the potential for toxicity to the natural enemies of the pest insects also. Therefore, efforts are being made to identify insecticides which, when used within the Inegerated Pest Management (IPM) programme, are selectively more toxic to the pest insects than their natural enemies. A number of selected chemical insecticides and a biological insecticide (NPV) were tested in three different tests to determine toxicity to two beneficial insects: Telenomus remus Nixon (Hymenoptera: Scelionidae) and Chrysoperla carnea Steph. (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae). All insecticides were toxic to T. remus which suffered high mortality. There was no significant difference in mortality of the insect due to the method of exposure to the insecticides. There were some differences in the toxicity of the insecticides to C. carnea, and abamectin, bifenthrin, cypermethrin, diafenthiuron, imidacloprid and fenpropathrin were relatively less toxic and could be used in IPM for the control of pest insects. (author)

  7. Climate change, agricultural insecticide exposure, and risk for freshwater communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kattwinkel, Mira; Kühne, Jan-Valentin; Foit, Kaarina; Liess, Matthias

    2011-09-01

    Climate change exerts direct effects on ecosystems but has additional indirect effects due to changes in agricultural practice. These include the increased use of pesticides, changes in the areas that are cultivated, and changes in the crops cultivated. It is well known that pesticides, and in particular insecticides, affect aquatic ecosystems adversely. To implement effective mitigation measures it is necessary to identify areas that are affected currently and those that will be affected in the future. As a consequence, we predicted potential exposure to insecticide (insecticide runoff potential, RP) under current conditions (1990) and under a model scenario of future climate and land use (2090) using a spatially explicit model on a continental scale, with a focus on Europe. Space-for-time substitution was used to predict future levels of insecticide application, intensity of agricultural land use, and cultivated crops. To assess the indirect effects of climate change, evaluation of the risk of insecticide exposure was based on a trait-based, climate-insensitive indicator system (SPEAR, SPEcies At Risk). To this end, RP and landscape characteristics that are relevant for the recovery of affected populations were combined to estimate the ecological risk (ER) of insecticides for freshwater communities. We predicted a strong increase in the application of, and aquatic exposure to, insecticides under the future scenario, especially in central and northern Europe. This, in turn, will result in a severe increase in ER in these regions. Hence, the proportion of stream sites adjacent to arable land that do not meet the requirements for good ecological status as defined by the EU Water Framework Directive will increase (from 33% to 39% for the EU-25 countries), in particular in the Scandinavian and Baltic countries (from 6% to 19%). Such spatially explicit mapping of risk enables the planning of adaptation and mitigation strategies including vegetated buffer strips and

  8. Mass spectrometric analyses of organophosphate insecticide oxon protein adducts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Charles M; Prins, John M; George, Kathleen M

    2010-01-01

    Organophosphate (OP) insecticides continue to be used to control insect pests. Acute and chronic exposures to OP insecticides have been documented to cause adverse health effects, but few OP-adducted proteins have been correlated with these illnesses at the molecular level. Our aim was to review the literature covering the current state of the art in mass spectrometry (MS) used to identify OP protein biomarkers. We identified general and specific research reports related to OP insecticides, OP toxicity, OP structure, and protein MS by searching PubMed and Chemical Abstracts for articles published before December 2008. A number of OP-based insecticides share common structural elements that result in predictable OP-protein adducts. The resultant OP-protein adducts show an increase in molecular mass that can be identified by MS and correlated with the OP agent. Customized OP-containing probes have also been used to tag and identify protein targets that can be identified by MS. MS is a useful and emerging tool for the identification of proteins that are modified by activated organophosphate insecticides. MS can characterize the structure of the OP adduct and also the specific amino acid residue that forms the key bond with the OP. Each protein that is modified in a unique way by an OP represents a unique molecular biomarker that with further research can lead to new correlations with exposure.

  9. Does multigenerational exposure to hormetic concentrations of imidacloprid precondition aphids for increased insecticide tolerance?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rix, Rachel R; Cutler, G Christopher

    2018-02-01

    Hormetic preconditioning, whereby exposure to mild stress primes an organism to better tolerate subsequent stress, is well documented. It is unknown if exposure to hormetic concentrations of insecticide can trans-generationally prime insects to better tolerate insecticide exposure, or whether exposure to hormetic concentrations of insecticide can induce mutations in genes responsible for insecticide resistance. Using the aphid Myzus persicae (Sulzer) and the insecticide imidacloprid as a model, we examined if exposure to mildly toxic and hormetic concentrations of imidacloprid reduced aphid susceptibility to insecticides across four generations, and whether such exposures induced mutations in the imidacloprid binding site in post-synaptic nicotinic acetylcholine receptors. Chronic, multigenerational exposure of aphids to hormetic concentrations of imidacloprid primed offspring to better survive exposure to certain concentrations of imidacloprid, but not exposure to spirotetramat, an insecticide with a different mode of action. Exposure to hormetic and mildly toxic concentrations of imidacloprid did not result in mutations in any of the examined nicotinic acetylcholine receptor subunits. Our findings demonstrate that exposure to hormetic concentrations of insecticide can prime insects to better withstand subsequent chemical stress, but this is dependent upon the insecticide exposure scenario, and may be subtle over generations. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  10. Insecticide susceptibility of Anopheles mosquitoes changes in response to variations in the larval environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owusu, Henry F; Chitnis, Nakul; Müller, Pie

    2017-06-16

    Insecticide resistance threatens the success achieved through vector control in reducing the burden of malaria. An understanding of insecticide resistance mechanisms would help to develop novel tools and strategies to restore the efficacy of insecticides. Although we have substantially improved our understanding of the genetic basis of insecticide resistance over the last decade, we still know little of how environmental variations influence the mosquito phenotype. Here, we measured how variations in larval rearing conditions change the insecticide susceptibility phenotype of adult Anopheles mosquitoes. Anopheles gambiae and A. stephensi larvae were bred under different combinations of temperature, population density and nutrition, and the emerging adults were exposed to permethrin. Mosquitoes bred under different conditions showed considerable changes in mortality rates and body weight, with nutrition being the major factor. Weight is a strong predictor of insecticide susceptibility and bigger mosquitoes are more likely to survive insecticide treatment. The changes can be substantial, such that the same mosquito colony may be considered fully susceptible or highly resistant when judged by World Health Organization discriminatory concentrations. The results shown here emphasise the importance of the environmental background in developing insecticide resistance phenotypes, and caution for the interpretation of data generated by insecticide susceptibility assays.

  11. Limonene--A Natural Insecticide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beatty, Joseph H.

    1986-01-01

    Describes a high school chemistry student's research project in which limonene was isolated from the oil of lemons and oranges. Outlines the students' tests on the use of this chemical as an insecticide. Discusses possible extensions of the exercises based on questions generated by the students. (TW)

  12. Organophosphate insecticide poisoning of Canada geese in the Texas panhandle

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, D.H.; Mitchell, C.A.; Wynn, L.D.; Flickinger, Edward L.; Kolbe, E.J.

    1982-01-01

    Sixteen hundred waterfowl, mostly Canada Geese, died near Etter, Texas, in late January 1981 from anticholinesterase poisoning. Winter wheat in the area of the die-off had been treated with organophosphate insecticides to control greenbugs. Cholinesterase (ChE) levels in brains of a sample of geese found dead were 75% below normal, enough to account for death (Ludke et al. 1975). The gastrointestinal (G I) tracts of geese found dead were packed with winter wheat; gas chromatography techniques identified parathion and methyl parathion in the GI tract contents. Residues of both chemicals were confirmed by mass spectrometry. We recommend that less toxic materials, such as malathion, be used on grain crops when waterfowl are in the vicinity of treatment.

  13. Country-level operational implementation of the Global Plan for Insecticide Resistance Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemingway, Janet; Vontas, John; Poupardin, Rodolphe; Raman, Jaishree; Lines, Jo; Schwabe, Chris; Matias, Abrahan; Kleinschmidt, Immo

    2013-06-04

    Malaria control is reliant on the use of long-lasting pyrethroid-impregnated nets and/or indoor residual spraying (IRS) of insecticide. The rapid selection and spread of operationally significant pyrethroid resistance in African malaria vectors threatens our ability to sustain malaria control. Establishing whether resistance is operationally significant is technically challenging. Routine monitoring by bioassay is inadequate, and there are limited data linking resistance selection with changes in disease transmission. The default is to switch insecticides when resistance is detected, but limited insecticide options and resistance to multiple insecticides in numerous locations make this approach unsustainable. Detailed analysis of the resistance situation in Anopheles gambiae on Bioko Island after pyrethroid resistance was detected in this species in 2004, and the IRS program switched to carbamate bendiocarb, has now been undertaken. The pyrethroid resistance selected is a target-site knock-down resistance kdr-form, on a background of generally elevated metabolic activity, compared with insecticide-susceptible A. gambiae, but the major cytochrome P450-based metabolic pyrethroid resistance mechanisms are not present. The available evidence from bioassays and infection data suggests that the pyrethroid resistance mechanisms in Bioko malaria vectors are not operationally significant, and on this basis, a different, long-lasting pyrethroid formulation is now being reintroduced for IRS in a rotational insecticide resistance management program. This will allow control efforts to be sustained in a cost-effective manner while reducing the selection pressure for resistance to nonpyrethroid insecticides. The methods used provide a template for evidence-based insecticide resistance management by malaria control programs.

  14. DIRProt: a computational approach for discriminating insecticide resistant proteins from non-resistant proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meher, Prabina Kumar; Sahu, Tanmaya Kumar; Banchariya, Anjali; Rao, Atmakuri Ramakrishna

    2017-03-24

    Insecticide resistance is a major challenge for the control program of insect pests in the fields of crop protection, human and animal health etc. Resistance to different insecticides is conferred by the proteins encoded from certain class of genes of the insects. To distinguish the insecticide resistant proteins from non-resistant proteins, no computational tool is available till date. Thus, development of such a computational tool will be helpful in predicting the insecticide resistant proteins, which can be targeted for developing appropriate insecticides. Five different sets of feature viz., amino acid composition (AAC), di-peptide composition (DPC), pseudo amino acid composition (PAAC), composition-transition-distribution (CTD) and auto-correlation function (ACF) were used to map the protein sequences into numeric feature vectors. The encoded numeric vectors were then used as input in support vector machine (SVM) for classification of insecticide resistant and non-resistant proteins. Higher accuracies were obtained under RBF kernel than that of other kernels. Further, accuracies were observed to be higher for DPC feature set as compared to others. The proposed approach achieved an overall accuracy of >90% in discriminating resistant from non-resistant proteins. Further, the two classes of resistant proteins i.e., detoxification-based and target-based were discriminated from non-resistant proteins with >95% accuracy. Besides, >95% accuracy was also observed for discrimination of proteins involved in detoxification- and target-based resistance mechanisms. The proposed approach not only outperformed Blastp, PSI-Blast and Delta-Blast algorithms, but also achieved >92% accuracy while assessed using an independent dataset of 75 insecticide resistant proteins. This paper presents the first computational approach for discriminating the insecticide resistant proteins from non-resistant proteins. Based on the proposed approach, an online prediction server DIRProt has

  15. Interactions of transgenic Bacillus thuringiensis insecticidal crops with spiders (Araneae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genetically modified crops expressing insecticidal proteins from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) have dramatically increased in acreage since their introduction in the mid-1990’s. Although the insecticidal mechanisms of Bt target specific pests, concerns persist regarding direct and indirect effects on...

  16. The use of insecticides to control insect pests

    OpenAIRE

    M Wojciechowska; P Stepnowski; M Gołębiowski

    2016-01-01

    Pesticides are used as plants protection products. Among those, insecticides serve as agents to control insects. When incorrectly applied, however these substances may negatively affect people's health and natural environment. Administration routes of insecticides depend on many factors and vary from spraying to fertilizers. These different methods influence how insects prey and how pests develop. Additionally, too frequent use of the same chemicals can lead to development of resi...

  17. Optimal Cotton Insecticide Application Termination Timing: A Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffin, T W; Zapata, S D

    2016-08-01

    The concept of insecticide termination timing is generally accepted among cotton (Gossypium hirsutum) researchers; however, exact timings are often disputed. Specifically, there is uncertainty regarding the last economic insecticide application to control fruit-feeding pests including tarnished plant bug (Lygus lineolaris (Palisot de Beauvois)), boll weevil (Anthonomus grandis), bollworm (Helicoverpa zea), tobacco budworm (Heliothis virescens), and cotton fleahopper (Pseudatomoscelis seriatus). A systematic review of prior studies was conducted within a meta-analytic framework. Nine publicly available articles were amalgamated to develop an optimal timing principle. These prior studies reported 53 independent multiple means comparison field experiments for a total of 247 trial observations. Stochastic plateau theory integrated with econometric meta-analysis methodology was applied to the meta-database to determine the shape of the functional form of both the agronomic optimal insecticide termination timing and corresponding yield potential. Results indicated that current university insecticide termination timing recommendations are later than overall estimated timing suggested. The estimated 159 heat units (HU) after the fifth position above white flower (NAWF5) was found to be statistically different than the 194 HU termination used as the status quo recommended termination timing. Insecticides applied after 159 HU may have been applied in excess, resulting in unnecessary economic and environmental costs. Empirical results also suggested that extending the insecticide termination time by one unit resulted in a cotton lint yield increase of 0.27 kilograms per hectare up to the timing where the plateau began. Based on economic analyses, profit-maximizing producers may cease application as soon as 124 HU after NAWF5. These results provided insights useful to improve production systems by applying inputs only when benefits were expected to be in excess of the

  18. Effect of transmission reduction by insecticide-treated bednets (ITNs on antimalarial drug resistance in western Kenya.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica Shah

    Full Text Available Despite the clear public health benefit of insecticide-treated bednets (ITNs, the impact of malaria transmission-reduction by vector control on the spread of drug resistance is not well understood. In the present study, the effect of sustained transmission reduction by ITNs on the prevalence of Plasmodium falciparum gene mutations associated with resistance to the antimalarial drugs sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP and chloroquine (CQ in children under the age of five years was investigated during an ITN trial in Asembo area, western Kenya. During the ITN trial, the national first line antimalarial treatment changed from CQ to SP. Smear-positive samples collected from cross sectional surveys prior to ITN introduction (baseline, n = 250 and five years post-ITN intervention (year 5 survey, n = 242 were genotyped for single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs at dhfr-51, 59, 108, 164 and dhps-437, 540 (SP resistance, and pfcrt-76 and pfmdr1-86 (CQ resistance. The association between the drug resistance mutations and epidemiological variables was evaluated. There were significant increases in the prevalence of SP dhps mutations and the dhfr/dhps quintuple mutant, and a significant reduction in the proportion of mixed infections detected at dhfr-51, 59 and dhps-437, 540 SNPs from baseline to the year 5 survey. There was no change in the high prevalence of pfcrt-76 and pfmdr1-86 mutations. Multivariable regression analysis further showed that current antifolate use and year of survey were significantly associated with more SP drug resistance mutations. These results suggest that increased antifolate drug use due to drug policy change likely led to the high prevalence of SP mutations 5 years post-ITN intervention and reduced transmission had no apparent effect on the existing high prevalence of CQ mutations. There is no evidence from the current study that sustained transmission reduction by ITNs reduces the prevalence of genes associated with malaria

  19. Significant decline in lymphatic filariasis associated with nationwide scale-up of insecticide-treated nets in Zambia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Nsakashalo-Senkwe

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Lymphatic filariasis (LF is a mosquito-borne disease, broadly endemic in Zambia, and is targeted for elimination by mass drug administration (MDA of albendazole and diethylcarbamazine citrate (DEC to at-risk populations. Anopheline mosquitoes are primary vectors of LF in Africa, and it is possible that the significant scale-up of malaria vector control over the past decade may have also impacted LF transmission, and contributed to a decrease in prevalence in Zambia. We therefore aimed to examine the putative association between decreasing LF prevalence and increasing coverage of insecticide-treated mosquito nets (ITNs for malaria vector control, by comparing LF mapping data collected between 2003–2005 and 2009–2011 to LF sentinel site prevalence data collected between 2012 and 2014, before any anti-LF MDA was started. The coverage of ITNs for malaria was quantified and compared for each site in relation to the dynamics of LF. We found a significant decrease in LF prevalence from the years 2003–2005 (11.5% CI95 6.6; 16.4 to 2012–2014 (0.6% CI95 0.03; 1.1; at the same time, there was a significant scale-up of ITNs across the country from 0.2% (CI95 0.0; 0.3 to 76.1% (CI95 71.4; 80.7 respectively. The creation and comparison of two linear models demonstrated that the geographical and temporal variation in ITN coverage was a better predictor of LF prevalence than year alone. Whilst a causal relationship between LF prevalence and ITN coverage cannot be proved, we propose that the scale-up of ITNs has helped to control Anopheles mosquito populations, which have in turn impacted on LF transmission significantly before the scale-up of MDA. This putative synergy with vector control has helped to put Zambia on track to meet national and global goals of LF elimination by 2020.

  20. Molecular Descriptors Family on Structure Activity Relationships 2. Insecticidal Activity of Neonicotinoid Compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sorana BOLBOACĂ

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The neonicotinoids are the newest major class of insecticides modeled after the basic nicotine molecule having improved insecticide activity and generally low toxicity. The insecticidal activities of neonicotinoids were previous studied using 3D and standard partial least squares regression models. The paper describes the ability of the MDF SAR methodology in prediction of insecticidal activities of neonicotinoid compounds. The best MDF SAR bi-varied model was validated on training and test sets and its ability on prediction of insecticidal activity was compared with previous reported models. Even if the MDF SAR methodology is complex and time consuming the results worth the effort because they are statistical significant better then previous reported results.

  1. Qualitative evaluation of same insecticides sold in Kinshasa and users behavior survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basilua, K.; Essassi El, M.; Himmi, O.; Said Gmouh; Watsenga, T.

    2009-01-01

    Malaria is a serious public health problem in the tropical countries and particularly into Kinshasa. Anopheles gambiae sl. is the mean vector of this illness. The use of impregnated bednets is the national strategy; the chemical insecticides are used too in figthing the malaria vectors. The survey carried out on 144 households randomly selected in Kinshasa have showed that 61,1% are favourable with using bednets insecticide impregnated and 96,5% of these households use too chemical insecticides, meanly the pyrethroids one (90,5%) and the organophosphates (9,5%). Mass spectrometer analysis revealed that 87,5% of identified insecticides, essentially pyrethroinids have tetramethrine as active substance; the dichlorvos is the only one to be detected as organophosphate and that in some insecticides, the detected molecules are not avowed or different from those avowed or different from those avowed by the manufacturer.

  2. Neurotoxicology of insecticides and pheromones

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Narahashi, Toshio

    1979-01-01

    The purpose of this symposium was to provide a forum where a variety of scientists who were interested in the interactions of insecticides and pheromones with the nervous system got together to exchange their views...

  3. Insecticide Usage and Chemical Contamination Assessment in Asiatic Pennywort

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bumroongsook, S.

    2017-07-01

    The insecticide usage in commercially grown asiatic pennywort plantations in Nakhonpatum and Nonthaburi province, Thailand was surveyed during January-June, 2016. The results showed that asiatic pennywort cuttworms was leaf destructive and caused the most damge to the production. The growers used organophosphate insecticides to control the caterpillars the most, followed by pyrethoid, abamectin, carbamate and organochlorine, respectively. The chemical contaminants of pennywort from 9 fresh markets in Bangkok was monitored, the result indicated that lead was not detected in the samples. The amount of arsenic was less than 0.075 mg / kg. The insecticide residue measurement of dicofol, chlorpyrifos and methidathion was 0.98, 2.84 and 0.46 mg / kg, respectively.

  4. Cost of intensive routine control and incremental cost of insecticide-treated curtain deployment in a setting with low Aedes aegypti infestation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Baly

    Full Text Available Abstract: INTRODUCTION Information regarding the cost of implementing insecticide-treated curtains (ITCs is scarce. Therefore, we evaluated the ITC implementation cost, in addition to the costs of intensive conventional routine activities of the Aedes control program in the city of Guantanamo, Cuba. METHODS A cost-analysis study was conducted from the perspective of the Aedes control program, nested in an ITC effectiveness trial, during 2009-2010. Data for this study were obtained from bookkeeping records and activity registers of the Provincial Aedes Control Programme Unit and the account records of the ITC trial. RESULTS The annual cost of the routine Aedes control program activities was US$16.80 per household (p.h. Among 3,015 households, 6,714 ITCs were distributed. The total average cost per ITC distributed was US$3.42, and 74.3% of this cost was attributed to the cost of purchasing the ITCs. The annualized costs p.h. of ITC implementation was US$3.80. The additional annualized cost for deploying ITCs represented 19% and 48.4% of the total cost of the routine Aedes control and adult-stage Aedes control programs, respectively. The trial did not lead to further reductions in the already relatively low Aedes infestation levels. CONCLUSIONS At current curtain prices, ITC deployment can hardly be considered an efficient option in Guantanamo and other comparable environments.

  5. Cost of intensive routine control and incremental cost of insecticide-treated curtain deployment in a setting with low Aedes aegypti infestation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baly, Alberto; Toledo, Maria Eugenia; Lambert, Isora; Benítez, Elizabeth; Rodriguez, Karina; Rodriguez, Esther; Vanlerberghe, Veerle; Stuyft, Patrick Van der

    2016-01-01

    Information regarding the cost of implementing insecticide-treated curtains (ITCs) is scarce. Therefore, we evaluated the ITC implementation cost, in addition to the costs of intensive conventional routine activities of the Aedes control program in the city of Guantanamo, Cuba. A cost-analysis study was conducted from the perspective of the Aedes control program, nested in an ITC effectiveness trial, during 2009-2010. Data for this study were obtained from bookkeeping records and activity registers of the Provincial Aedes Control Programme Unit and the account records of the ITC trial. The annual cost of the routine Aedes control program activities was US$16.80 per household (p.h). Among 3,015 households, 6,714 ITCs were distributed. The total average cost per ITC distributed was US$3.42, and 74.3% of this cost was attributed to the cost of purchasing the ITCs. The annualized costs p.h. of ITC implementation was US$3.80. The additional annualized cost for deploying ITCs represented 19% and 48.4% of the total cost of the routine Aedes control and adult-stage Aedes control programs, respectively. The trial did not lead to further reductions in the already relatively low Aedes infestation levels. At current curtain prices, ITC deployment can hardly be considered an efficient option in Guantanamo and other comparable environments.

  6. Current Perspectives on Plague Vector Control in Madagascar: Susceptibility Status of Xenopsylla cheopis to 12 Insecticides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miarinjara, Adélaïde; Boyer, Sébastien

    2016-02-01

    Plague is a rodent disease transmissible to humans by infected flea bites, and Madagascar is one of the countries with the highest plague incidence in the world. This study reports the susceptibility of the main plague vector Xenopsylla cheopis to 12 different insecticides belonging to 4 insecticide families (carbamates, organophosphates, pyrethroids and organochlorines). Eight populations from different geographical regions of Madagascar previously resistant to deltamethrin were tested with a World Health Organization standard bioassay. Insecticide susceptibility varied amongst populations, but all of them were resistant to six insecticides belonging to pyrethroid and carbamate insecticides (alphacypermethrin, lambdacyhalothrin, etofenprox, deltamethrin, bendiocarb and propoxur). Only one insecticide (dieldrin) was an efficient pulicide for all flea populations. Cross resistances were suspected. This study proposes at least three alternative insecticides (malathion, fenitrothion and cyfluthrin) to replace deltamethrin during plague epidemic responses, but the most efficient insecticide may be different for each population studied. We highlight the importance of continuous insecticide susceptibility surveillance in the areas of high plague risk in Madagascar.

  7. Enhanced protection against malaria by indoor residual spraying in addition to insecticide treated nets: is it dependent on transmission intensity or net usage?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philippa A West

    Full Text Available Insecticide treated nets (ITNs and indoor residual spraying (IRS are effective vector control tools that protect against malaria. There is conflicting evidence regarding whether using ITNs and IRS in combination provides additional benefit over using either of these methods alone. This study investigated factors that may modify the effect of the combined use of IRS and ITNs compared to using ITNs alone on malaria infection prevalence.Secondary analysis was carried out on data from a cluster randomised trial in north-west Tanzania. 50 clusters received ITNs from a universal coverage campaign; of these 25 were randomly allocated to additionally receive two rounds of IRS in 2012. In cross-sectional household surveys children 0.5-14 years old were tested for Plasmodium falciparum infections (PfPR two, six and ten months after the first IRS round.IRS protected those sleeping under nets (OR = 0.38, 95%CI 0.26-0.57 and those who did not (OR = 0.43, 95%CI 0.29-0.63. The protective effect of IRS was not modified by community level ITN use (ITN use = 50%, OR = 0.46, 95%CI 0.28-0.74. The additional protection from IRS was similar in low (<10% PfPR, OR = 0.38, 95%CI 0.19-0.75 and high transmission areas (≥10% PfPR, OR = 0.34, 95%CI 0.18-0.67. ITN use was protective at the individual-level regardless of whether the village had been sprayed (OR = 0.83, 95%CI 0.70-0.98. Living in a sprayed village was protective regardless of whether the individual slept under an ITN last night (OR = 0.41, 95%CI 0.29-0.58.Implementing IRS in addition to ITNs was beneficial for individuals from villages with a wide range of transmission intensities and net utilisation levels. Net users received additional protection from IRS. ITNs were providing some individual protection, even in this area with high levels of pyrethroid insecticide resistance. These results demonstrate that there is a supplementary benefit of IRS even when ITNs are effective.ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01697852.

  8. The global status of insect resistance to neonicotinoid insecticides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bass, Chris; Denholm, Ian; Williamson, Martin S; Nauen, Ralf

    2015-06-01

    The first neonicotinoid insecticide, imidacloprid, was launched in 1991. Today this class of insecticides comprises at least seven major compounds with a market share of more than 25% of total global insecticide sales. Neonicotinoid insecticides are highly selective agonists of insect nicotinic acetylcholine receptors and provide farmers with invaluable, highly effective tools against some of the world's most destructive crop pests. These include sucking pests such as aphids, whiteflies, and planthoppers, and also some coleopteran, dipteran and lepidopteran species. Although many insect species are still successfully controlled by neonicotinoids, their popularity has imposed a mounting selection pressure for resistance, and in several species resistance has now reached levels that compromise the efficacy of these insecticides. Research to understand the molecular basis of neonicotinoid resistance has revealed both target-site and metabolic mechanisms conferring resistance. For target-site resistance, field-evolved mutations have only been characterized in two aphid species. Metabolic resistance appears much more common, with the enhanced expression of one or more cytochrome P450s frequently reported in resistant strains. Despite the current scale of resistance, neonicotinoids remain a major component of many pest control programmes, and resistance management strategies, based on mode of action rotation, are of crucial importance in preventing resistance becoming more widespread. In this review we summarize the current status of neonicotinoid resistance, the biochemical and molecular mechanisms involved, and the implications for resistance management. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Type 'A' and 'B' recovery revisited: The role of field-edge habitats for Collembola and macroarthropod community recovery after insecticide treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frampton, Geoff K. [Ecology and Evolutionary Biology Group, School of Biological Sciences, University of Southampton, Bassett Crescent East, Southampton SO16 7PX (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: gkf@soton.ac.uk; Gould, Philip J.L. [Ecology and Evolutionary Biology Group, School of Biological Sciences, University of Southampton, Bassett Crescent East, Southampton SO16 7PX (United Kingdom); Brink, Paul J. van den [Alterra, Wageningen University and Research Centre, P.O. Box 47, 6700 AA Wageningen (Netherlands); Department of Aquatic Ecology and Water Quality Management, Wageningen University, Wageningen University and Research Centre, Wageningen (Netherlands); Hendy, Eleanor [Ecology and Evolutionary Biology Group, School of Biological Sciences, University of Southampton, Bassett Crescent East, Southampton SO16 7PX (United Kingdom)

    2007-02-15

    Previous work has identified two patterns of arthropod recovery after insecticide applications to arable crops: dispersal-mediated recolonisation from untreated areas (Type A) and recolonisation within treated areas assisted by reduced predation (Type B). In this study, connectivity between field-edge habitats was manipulated using barriers to investigate whether a crop edge and adjacent hedgerow influence recolonisation of an insecticide-treated crop by surface-active Collembola and other arthropods. Collembola recovery patterns differed among closely-related taxa. Epigeic collembolan and macroarthropod communities were more diverse and abundant, and rates of artificial prey predation were higher, in sprayed crop areas connected to both hedgerow and unsprayed crop edge than in sprayed areas connected to the unsprayed edge alone. These findings indicate that effectiveness of unsprayed crop edges as sources of field recolonisation may depend on adjoining field margin habitats. An assumption in risk assessment that unsprayed crop edges assist population recovery within treated areas is not supported. - Collembola recolonisation differs among species; effectiveness of unsprayed crop edges as sources of arthropod recolonisation may depend on adjacent habitat.

  10. Plant compounds insecticide activity against Coleoptera pests of stored products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moreira, Marcio Dionizio; Picanco, Marcelo Coutinho; Guedes, Raul Narciso Carvalho; Campos, Mateus Ribeiro de; Silva, Gerson Adriano; Martins, Julio Claudio [Universidade Federal de Vicosa (UFV), MG (Brazil). Dept. de Biologia Animal; br, picanco@ufv; br, guedes@ufv; br, mateusc3@yahoo com; br, agronomiasilva@yahoo com

    2007-07-15

    The objective of this work was to screen plants with insecticide activity, in order to isolate, identify and assess the bioactivity of insecticide compounds present in these plants, against Coleoptera pests of stored products: Oryzaephilus surinamensis L. (Silvanidae), Rhyzopertha dominica F. (Bostrichidae) and Sitophilus zeamais Mots. (Curculionidae). The plant species used were: basil (Ocimum selloi Benth.), rue (Ruta graveolens L.), lion's ear (Leonotis nepetifolia (L.) R.Br.), jimson weed (Datura stramonium L.), baleeira herb (Cordia verbenacea L.), mint (Mentha piperita L.), wild balsam apple (Mormodica charantia L.), and billy goat weed or mentrasto (Ageratum conyzoides L.). The insecticide activity of hexane and ethanol extracts from those plants on R. dominica was evaluated. Among them, only hexane extract of A. conyzoides showed insecticide activity; the hexane extract of this species was successively fractionated by silica gel column chromatography, for isolation and purification of the active compounds. Compounds 5,6,7,8,3',4',5'-heptamethoxyflavone; 5,6,7,8,3'-pentamethoxy-4',5'-methilenedioxyflavone and coumarin were identified. However, only coumarin showed insecticide activity against three insect pests (LD{sub 50} from 2.72 to 39.71 mg g{sup -1} a.i.). The increasing order of insects susceptibility to coumarin was R. dominica, S. zeamais and O. surinamensis. (author)

  11. Plant compounds insecticide activity against Coleoptera pests of stored products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moreira, Marcio Dionizio; Picanco, Marcelo Coutinho; Guedes, Raul Narciso Carvalho; Campos, Mateus Ribeiro de; Silva, Gerson Adriano; Martins, Julio Claudio; julioufv@yahoo.com.br

    2007-01-01

    The objective of this work was to screen plants with insecticide activity, in order to isolate, identify and assess the bioactivity of insecticide compounds present in these plants, against Coleoptera pests of stored products: Oryzaephilus surinamensis L. (Silvanidae), Rhyzopertha dominica F. (Bostrichidae) and Sitophilus zeamais Mots. (Curculionidae). The plant species used were: basil (Ocimum selloi Benth.), rue (Ruta graveolens L.), lion's ear (Leonotis nepetifolia (L.) R.Br.), jimson weed (Datura stramonium L.), baleeira herb (Cordia verbenacea L.), mint (Mentha piperita L.), wild balsam apple (Mormodica charantia L.), and billy goat weed or mentrasto (Ageratum conyzoides L.). The insecticide activity of hexane and ethanol extracts from those plants on R. dominica was evaluated. Among them, only hexane extract of A. conyzoides showed insecticide activity; the hexane extract of this species was successively fractionated by silica gel column chromatography, for isolation and purification of the active compounds. Compounds 5,6,7,8,3',4',5'-heptamethoxyflavone; 5,6,7,8,3'-pentamethoxy-4',5'-methilenedioxyflavone and coumarin were identified. However, only coumarin showed insecticide activity against three insect pests (LD 50 from 2.72 to 39.71 mg g -1 a.i.). The increasing order of insects susceptibility to coumarin was R. dominica, S. zeamais and O. surinamensis. (author)

  12. Investigation of insecticide-resistance status of Cydia pomonella in Chinese populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, X-Q; Zhang, Y-L

    2015-06-01

    The codling moth Cydia pomonella (L.) is an economically important fruit pest and it has been directly targeted by insecticides worldwide. Serious resistance to insecticides has been reported in many countries. As one of the most serious invasive pest, the codling moth has populated several areas in China. However, resistance to insecticides has not been reported in China. We investigated the insecticide-resistance status of four field populations from Northwestern China by applying bioassays, enzyme activities, and mutation detections. Diagnostic concentrations of lambda-cyhalothrin, chlorpyrifos-ethyl, carbaryl, and imidacloprid were determined and used in bioassays. Field populations were less susceptible to chlorpyrifos-ethyl and carbaryl than laboratory strain. Insensitive populations displayed an elevated glutathione S-transferases (GSTs) activity. Reduced carboxylesterase (CarE) activity was observed in some insecticide insensitive populations and reduced acetylcholinesterase activity was observed only in the Wuw population. The cytochrome P450 polysubstrate monooxygenases activities in four field populations were not found to be different from susceptible strains. Neither the known-resistance mutation F399V in the acetylcholinesterase (AChE) gene, ace1, nor mutations in CarE gene CpCE-1 were found in adult individuals from our field populations. Native-PAGE revealed that various CarE isozymes and AChE insensitivity were occurring among Chinese populations. Our results indicate that codling moth populations from Northwestern China were insensitivity to chlorpyrifos-ethyl and carbaryl. Increased GST activity was responsible for insecticides insensitivity. Decreased CarE activity, as well as the presence of CarE and AChE polymorphisms might also be involved in insecticides insensitivity. New management strategies for managing this pest are discussed.

  13. POTENTIATION OF COPAÍBA OIL-RESIN WITH SYNTHETIC INSECTICIDES TO CONTROL OF FALL ARMYWORM

    OpenAIRE

    ALMEIDA, WALDIANE ARAÚJO DE; SILVA, IGOR HONORATO LEDUÍNO DA; SANTOS, ANA CLÁUDIA VIEIRA DOS; BARROS JÚNIOR, AURÉLIO PAES; SOUSA, ADALBERTO HIPÓLITO DE

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT The control of Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. SMITH) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) has been carried out mainly with pyrethroids and organophosphates insecticides. The continuous and indiscriminate use of synthetic insecticides, for decades, has led to the selection of resistant populations and has caused concerns for human health and the environment. An alternative is the use of botanical insecticides, including through the mixtures with synthetic insecticides. This study aimed to investiga...

  14. Status of insecticide resistance in high-risk malaria provinces in Afghanistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Mushtaq; Buhler, Cyril; Pignatelli, Patricia; Ranson, Hilary; Nahzat, Sami Mohammad; Naseem, Mohammad; Sabawoon, Muhammad Farooq; Siddiqi, Abdul Majeed; Vink, Martijn

    2016-02-18

    Insecticide resistance seriously threatens the efficacy of vector control interventions in malaria endemic countries. In Afghanistan, the status of insecticide resistance is largely unknown while distribution of long-lasting insecticidal nets has intensified in recent years. The main objective of this study was thus to measure the level of resistance to four classes of insecticides in provinces with medium to high risk of malaria transmission. Adult female mosquitoes were reared from larvae successively collected in the provinces of Nangarhar, Kunar, Badakhshan, Ghazni and Laghman from August to October 2014. WHO insecticide susceptibility tests were performed with DDT (4 %), malathion (5 %), bendiocarb (0.1 %), permethrin (0.75 %) and deltamethrin (0.05 %). In addition, the presence of kdr mutations was investigated in deltamethrin resistant and susceptible Anopheles stephensi mosquitoes collected in the eastern provinces of Nangarhar and Kunar. Analyses of mortality rates revealed emerging resistance against all four classes of insecticides in the provinces located east and south of the Hindu Kush mountain range. Resistance is observed in both An. stephensi and Anopheles culicifacies, the two dominant malaria vectors in these provinces. Anopheles superpictus in the northern province of Badakhshan shows a different pattern of susceptibility with suspected resistance observed only for deltamethrin and bendiocarb. Genotype analysis of knock down resistance (kdr) mutations at the voltage-gated channel gene from An. stephensi mosquitoes shows the presence of the known resistant alleles L1014S and L1014F. However, a significant fraction of deltamethrin-resistant mosquitoes were homozygous for the 1014L wild type allele indicating that other mechanisms must be considered to account for the observed pyrethroid resistance. This study confirms the importance of monitoring insecticide resistance for the development of an integrated vector management in Afghanistan. The

  15. Cytochrome P450s--Their expression, regulation, and role in insecticide resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Nannan; Li, Ming; Gong, Youhui; Liu, Feng; Li, Ting

    2015-05-01

    P450s are known to be critical for the detoxification and/or activation of xenobiotics such as drugs and pesticides and overexpression of P450 genes can significantly affect the disposition of xenobiotics in the tissues of organisms, altering their pharmacological/toxicological effects. In insects, P450s play an important role in detoxifying exogenous compounds such as insecticides and plant toxins and their overexpression can result in increased levels of P450 proteins and P450 activities. This has been associated with enhanced metabolic detoxification of insecticides and has been implicated in the development of insecticide resistance in insects. Multiple P450 genes have been found to be co-overexpressed in individual insect species via several constitutive overexpression and induction mechanisms, which in turn are co-responsible for high levels of insecticide resistance. Many studies have also demonstrated that the transcriptional overexpression of P450 genes in resistant insects is regulated by trans and/or cis regulatory genes/factors. Taken together, these earlier findings suggest not only that insecticide resistance is conferred via multi-resistance P450 genes, but also that it is mediated through the interaction of regulatory genes/factors and resistance genes. This chapter reviews our current understanding of how the molecular mechanisms of P450 interaction/gene regulation govern the development of insecticide resistance in insects and our progress along the road to a comprehensive characterization of P450 detoxification-mediated insecticide resistance. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Improvement of Some Biochemical Activities of Rats Treated with The Organophosphorus Insecticide Cytrolane Using Soyabean

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdel-Fattah, A.M.; Elmahdy, A.A.

    2005-01-01

    This Study aims to evaluate the role of soyabean diet in improvement of some biochemical activities of female rats received daily oral dose 0.89 mg/kg (1/10 LD 50 )of cytrolane as organophosphorus insecticide on some biochemical activities in female rats for ten consecutive days. Prior pesticide administration, female rats received soyabean at dose 58 g/kg body weight for 2 and 4 weeks. Under the effect of cytrolane administration, the results showed significant increase in serum triglycerides, total cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol and CPK mean levels. Total serum protein and progesterone levels were significantly decreased compared to the control. On the other hand, by the administration of soyabean prior cytrolane, it reduced considerably the changes produced by cytrolane on levels of serum cholesterol, triglyceride, HDL-cholesterol which decreased more or less compared to control, total protein level was within normal value. Also, serum progesterone concentration increased. Therefore, soyabean administration accelerated the normalization and improvement processes of the altered lipid profiles, protein and progesterone hormone

  17. Substances inertes et plantes à effet insecticide utilisées dans la ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Les insecticides naturels tels que les plantes à effet insecticide et les substances inertes (sable, cendre, terres à diatomées,…) méritent d'être valorisées afin de réduire l'utilisation des insecticides chimiques et protéger l'environnement. Ce travail basé sur une revue documentaire fouillée et actualisée vise à faire la genèse ...

  18. Induction of P450 genes in Nilaparvata lugens and Sogatella furcifera by two neonicotinoid insecticides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yuan-Xue; Yu, Na; Zhang, Jian-Hua; Zhang, Yi-Xi; Liu, Ze-Wen

    2018-06-01

    Nilaparvata lugens and Sogatella furcifera are two primary planthoppers on rice throughout Asian countries and areas. Neonicotinoid insecticides, such as imidacloprid (IMI), have been extensively used to control rice planthoppers and IMI resistance consequently occurred with an important mechanism from the over-expression of P450 genes. The induction of P450 genes by IMI may increase the ability to metabolize this insecticide in planthoppers and increase the resistance risk. In this study, the induction of P450 genes was compared in S. furcifera treated with IMI and nitromethyleneimidazole (NMI), in two planthopper species by IMI lethal dose that kills 85% of the population (LD 85 ), and in N. lugens among three IMI doses (LD 15 , LD 50 and LD 85 ). When IMI and NMI at the LD 85 dose were applied to S. furcifera, the expression changes in most P450 genes were similar, including the up-regulation of nine genes and down-regulation of three genes. In terms of the expression changes in 12 homologous P450 genes between N. lugens and S. furcifera treated with IMI at the LD 85 dose, 10 genes had very similar patterns, such as up-regulation in seven genes, down-regulation in one gene and no significant changes in two genes. When three different IMI doses were applied to N. lugens, the changes in P450 gene expression were much different, such as up-regulation in four genes at all doses and dose-dependent regulation of the other nine genes. For example, CYP6AY1 could be induced by all IMI doses, while CYP6ER1 was only up-regulated by the LD 50 dose, although both genes were reported important in IMI resistance. In conclusion, P450 genes in two planthopper species showed similar regulation patterns in responding to IMI, and the two neonicotinoid insecticides had similar effects on P450 gene expression, although the regulation was often dose-dependent. © 2017 Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  19. Insecticide resistance status of Aedes aegypti (L.) from Colombia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fonseca-González, Idalyd; Quiñones, Martha L; Lenhart, Audrey; Brogdon, William G

    2011-04-01

    To evaluate the insecticide susceptibility status of Aedes aegypti (L.) in Colombia, and as part of the National Network of Insecticide Resistance Surveillance, 12 mosquito populations were assessed for resistance to pyrethroids, organophosphates and DDT. Bioassays were performed using WHO and CDC methodologies. The underlying resistance mechanisms were investigated through biochemical assays and RT-PCR. All mosquito populations were susceptible to malathion, deltamethrin and cyfluthrin, and highly resistant to DDT and etofenprox. Resistance to lambda-cyhalothrin, permethrin and fenitrothion ranged from moderate to high in some populations from Chocó and Putumayo states. In Antioquia state, the Santa Fe population was resistant to fenitrothion. Biochemical assays showed high levels of both cytochrome P450 monooxygenases (CYP) and non-specific esterases (NSE) in some of the fenitrothion- and pyrethroid-resistant populations. All populations showed high levels of glutathione-S-transferase (GST) activity. GSTe2 gene was found overexpressed in DDT-resistant populations compared with Rockefeller susceptible strain. Differences in insecticide resistance status were observed between insecticides and localities. Although the biochemical assay results suggest that CYP and NSE could play an important role in the pyrethroid and fenitrothion resistance detected, other mechanisms remain to be investigated, including knockdown resistance. Resistance to DDT was high in all populations, and GST activity is probably the main enzymatic mechanism associated with this resistance. The results of this study provide baseline data on insecticide resistance in Colombian A. aegypti populations, and will allow comparison of changes in susceptibility status in this vector over time. Copyright © 2011 Society of Chemical Industry.

  20. Expression, Delivery and Function of Insecticidal Proteins Expressed by Recombinant Baculoviruses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kroemer, Jeremy A.; Bonning, Bryony C.; Harrison, Robert L.

    2015-01-01

    Since the development of methods for inserting and expressing genes in baculoviruses, a line of research has focused on developing recombinant baculoviruses that express insecticidal peptides and proteins. These recombinant viruses have been engineered with the goal of improving their pesticidal potential by shortening the time required for infection to kill or incapacitate insect pests and reducing the quantity of crop damage as a consequence. A wide variety of neurotoxic peptides, proteins that regulate insect physiology, degradative enzymes, and other potentially insecticidal proteins have been evaluated for their capacity to reduce the survival time of baculovirus-infected lepidopteran host larvae. Researchers have investigated the factors involved in the efficient expression and delivery of baculovirus-encoded insecticidal peptides and proteins, with much effort dedicated to identifying ideal promoters for driving transcription and signal peptides that mediate secretion of the expressed target protein. Other factors, particularly translational efficiency of transcripts derived from recombinant insecticidal genes and post-translational folding and processing of insecticidal proteins, remain relatively unexplored. The discovery of RNA interference as a gene-specific regulation mechanism offers a new approach for improvement of baculovirus biopesticidal efficacy through genetic modification. PMID:25609310

  1. Insecticide resistance and resistance mechanisms in bed bugs, Cimex spp. (Hemiptera: Cimicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dang, Kai; Doggett, Stephen L; Veera Singham, G; Lee, Chow-Yang

    2017-06-29

    The worldwide resurgence of bed bugs [both Cimex lectularius L. and Cimex hemipterus (F.)] over the past two decades is believed in large part to be due to the development of insecticide resistance. The transcriptomic and genomic studies since 2010, as well as morphological, biochemical and behavioral studies, have helped insecticide resistance research on bed bugs. Multiple resistance mechanisms, including penetration resistance through thickening or remodelling of the cuticle, metabolic resistance by increased activities of detoxification enzymes (e.g. cytochrome P450 monooxygenases and esterases), and knockdown resistance by kdr mutations, have been experimentally identified as conferring insecticide resistance in bed bugs. Other candidate resistance mechanisms, including behavioral resistance, some types of physiological resistance (e.g. increasing activities of esterases by point mutations, glutathione S-transferase, target site insensitivity including altered AChEs, GABA receptor insensitivity and altered nAChRs), symbiont-mediated resistance and other potential, yet undiscovered mechanisms may exist. This article reviews recent studies of resistance mechanisms and the genes governing insecticide resistance, potential candidate resistance mechanisms, and methods of monitoring insecticide resistance in bed bugs. This article provides an insight into the knowledge essential for the development of both insecticide resistance management (IRM) and integrated pest management (IPM) strategies for successful bed bug management.

  2. Genetics, Synergists, and Age Affect Insecticide Sensitivity of the Honey Bee, Apis mellifera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rinkevich, Frank D.; Margotta, Joseph W.; Pittman, Jean M.; Danka, Robert G.; Tarver, Matthew R.; Ottea, James A.; Healy, Kristen B.

    2015-01-01

    The number of honey bee colonies in the United States has declined to half of its peak level in the 1940s, and colonies lost over the winter have reached levels that are becoming economically unstable. While the causes of these losses are numerous and the interaction between them is very complex, the role of insecticides has garnered much attention. As a result, there is a need to better understand the risk of insecticides to bees, leading to more studies on both toxicity and exposure. While much research has been conducted on insecticides and bees, there have been very limited studies to elucidate the role that bee genotype and age has on the toxicity of these insecticides. The goal of this study was to determine if there are differences in insecticide sensitivity between honey bees of different genetic backgrounds (Carniolan, Italian, and Russian stocks) and assess if insecticide sensitivity varies with age. We found that Italian bees were the most sensitive of these stocks to insecticides, but variation was largely dependent on the class of insecticide tested. There were almost no differences in organophosphate bioassays between honey bee stocks (bees aged, the sensitivity to phenothrin significantly decreased, but the sensitivity to naled significantly increased. These results demonstrate the variation arising from the genetic background and physiological transitions in honey bees as they age. This information can be used to determine risk assessment, as well as establishing baseline data for future comparisons to explain the variation in toxicity differences for honey bees reported in the literature. PMID:26431171

  3. Correlation between carboxylesterase alleles and insecticide resistance in Culex pipiens complex from China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Yangyang

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In China, large amounts of chemical insecticides are applied in fields or indoors every year, directly or indirectly bringing selection pressure on vector mosquitoes. Culex pipiens complex has evolved to be resistant to all types of chemical insecticides, especially organophosphates, through carboxylesterases. Six resistant carboxylesterase alleles (Ester were recorded previously and sometimes co-existed in one field population, representing a complex situation for the evolution of Ester genes. Results In order to explore the evolutionary scenario, we analyzed the data from an historical record in 2003 and a recent investigation on five Culex pipiens pallens populations sampled from north China in 2010. Insecticide bioassays showed that these five populations had high resistance to pyrethroids, medium resistance to organophosphates, and low resistance to carbamates. Six types of Ester alleles, EsterB1, Ester2, Ester8, Ester9, EsterB10, and Ester11 were identified, and the overall pattern of their frequencies in geographic distribution was consistent with the report seven years prior to this study. Statistical correlation analysis indicated that Ester8 and Ester9 positively correlated with resistance to four insecticides, and EsterB10 to one insecticide. The occurrences of these three alleles were positively correlated, while the occurrence of EsterB1 was negatively correlated with Ester8, indicating an allelic competition. Conclusion Our analysis suggests that one insecticide can select multiple Ester alleles and one Ester allele can work on multiple insecticides. The evolutionary scenario of carboxylesterases under insecticide selection is possibly "one to many".

  4. FAO/IAEA Consultants Group Meeting on The Potential for Tsetse Flies to Develop Resistance to Insecticides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    Chemical insecticides are playing an increasingly important role in control of tsetse flies (Glossina spp), vectors of human and animal trypanosomiasis in large regions of Africa. Although insecticide resistance has not yet been reported in tsetse, there is no cause for complacency regarding its occurrence in the future. As new reports of insecticide resistance in other disease vectors and agronomic pests continue to accumulate at a rapid rate, it is increasingly clear that no comprehensive approach to tsetse control can afford to ignore the potential resistance problem, as the loss of insecticides from the limited set of options for control would be disastrous. it is likely that one or more of the pyrethroid resistance mechanisms already known from several other species of Diptera will manifest itself in tsetse, in response to the increased selection engendered by the wider adoption of deltamethrin-treated targets in tsetse control at the local level and in eradication efforts. Also, selection for behavioural avoidance of traps and targets could result in decreased control efficiency, although the mechanisms that might cause such behavioural resistance are poorly understood at present. There is thus an increasingly urgent need for information on the potential for resistance development in tsetse, on accurate and feasible methods for detection, monitoring, and characterization of resistance, on properties of resistant strains, and on appropriate tactics for resistance prevention and management. Because of the extraordinary difficulties in rearing posed by tsetse life history, it is essential that these research efforts get underway immediately. The Consultants Group on the Possibility of Development of Insecticide Resistance in Tsetse has accordingly prepared this report with a consideration of the present state of knowledge, a discussion of the essential elements of a resistance research program, and specific recommendations. A summary of the recommendations in

  5. FAO/IAEA Consultants Group Meeting on The Potential for Tsetse Flies to Develop Resistance to Insecticides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1993-07-01

    Chemical insecticides are playing an increasingly important role in control of tsetse flies (Glossina spp), vectors of human and animal trypanosomiasis in large regions of Africa. Although insecticide resistance has not yet been reported in tsetse, there is no cause for complacency regarding its occurrence in the future. As new reports of insecticide resistance in other disease vectors and agronomic pests continue to accumulate at a rapid rate, it is increasingly clear that no comprehensive approach to tsetse control can afford to ignore the potential resistance problem, as the loss of insecticides from the limited set of options for control would be disastrous. it is likely that one or more of the pyrethroid resistance mechanisms already known from several other species of Diptera will manifest itself in tsetse, in response to the increased selection engendered by the wider adoption of deltamethrin-treated targets in tsetse control at the local level and in eradication efforts. Also, selection for behavioural avoidance of traps and targets could result in decreased control efficiency, although the mechanisms that might cause such behavioural resistance are poorly understood at present. There is thus an increasingly urgent need for information on the potential for resistance development in tsetse, on accurate and feasible methods for detection, monitoring, and characterization of resistance, on properties of resistant strains, and on appropriate tactics for resistance prevention and management. Because of the extraordinary difficulties in rearing posed by tsetse life history, it is essential that these research efforts get underway immediately. The Consultants Group on the Possibility of Development of Insecticide Resistance in Tsetse has accordingly prepared this report with a consideration of the present state of knowledge, a discussion of the essential elements of a resistance research program, and specific recommendations. A summary of the recommendations in

  6. An elaborated feeding cycle model for reductions in vectorial capacity of night-biting mosquitoes by insecticide-treated nets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Menach, Arnaud; Takala, Shannon; McKenzie, F Ellis; Perisse, Andre; Harris, Anthony; Flahault, Antoine; Smith, David L

    2007-01-25

    Insecticide Treated Nets (ITNs) are an important tool for malaria control. ITNs are effective because they work on several parts of the mosquito feeding cycle, including both adult killing and repelling effects. Using an elaborated description of the classic feeding cycle model, simple formulas have been derived to describe how ITNs change mosquito behaviour and the intensity of malaria transmission, as summarized by vectorial capacity and EIR. The predicted changes are illustrated as a function of the frequency of ITN use for four different vector populations using parameter estimates from the literature. The model demonstrates that ITNs simultaneously reduce mosquitoes' lifespans, lengthen the feeding cycle, and by discouraging human biting divert more bites onto non-human hosts. ITNs can substantially reduce vectorial capacity through small changes to all of these quantities. The total reductions in vectorial capacity differ, moreover, depending on baseline behavior in the absence of ITNs. Reductions in lifespan and vectorial capacity are strongest for vector species with high baseline survival. Anthropophilic and zoophilic species are affected differently by ITNs; the feeding cycle is lengthened more for anthrophilic species, and the proportion of bites that are diverted onto non-human hosts is higher for zoophilic species. This model suggests that the efficacy of ITNs should be measured as a total reduction in transmission intensity, and that the quantitative effects will differ by species and by transmission intensity. At very high rates of ITN use, ITNs can generate large reductions in transmission intensity that could provide very large reductions in transmission intensity, and effective malaria control in some areas, especially when used in combination with other control measures. At high EIR, ITNs will probably not substantially reduce the parasite rate, but when transmission intensity is low, reductions in vectorial capacity combine with reductions in

  7. First report of the infection of insecticide-resistant malaria vector mosquitoes with an entomopathogenic fungus under field conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background Insecticide-resistant mosquitoes are compromising the ability of current mosquito control tools to control malaria vectors. A proposed new approach for mosquito control is to use entomopathogenic fungi. These fungi have been shown to be lethal to both insecticide-susceptible and insecticide-resistant mosquitoes under laboratory conditions. The goal of this study was to see whether entomopathogenic fungi could be used to infect insecticide-resistant malaria vectors under field conditions, and to see whether the virulence and viability of the fungal conidia decreased after exposure to ambient African field conditions. Methods This study used the fungus Beauveria bassiana to infect the insecticide-resistant malaria vector Anopheles gambiae s.s (Diptera: Culicidae) VKPER laboratory colony strain. Fungal conidia were applied to polyester netting and kept under West African field conditions for varying periods of time. The virulence of the fungal-treated netting was tested 1, 3 and 5 days after net application by exposing An. gambiae s.s. VKPER mosquitoes in WHO cone bioassays carried out under field conditions. In addition, the viability of B. bassiana conidia was measured after up to 20 days exposure to field conditions. Results The results show that B. bassiana infection caused significantly increased mortality with the daily risk of dying being increased by 2.5× for the fungus-exposed mosquitoes compared to the control mosquitoes. However, the virulence of the B. bassiana conidia decreased with increasing time spent exposed to the field conditions, the older the treatment on the net, the lower the fungus-induced mortality rate. This is likely to be due to the climate because laboratory trials found no such decline within the same trial time period. Conidial viability also decreased with increasing exposure to the net and natural abiotic environmental conditions. After 20 days field exposure the conidial viability was 30%, but the viability of control

  8. Organochlorine insecticide poisoning in Golden Langurs Trachypithecus geei

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.C. Pathak

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Organochlorine insecticide poisoning was recorded in three Golden Langurs (Trachypithecus geei in Chakrashila Wildlife Sanctuary (CWS in Kokrajhar district of Assam during the month of December, 2008. The poisoning was due to prolonged ingestion of rubber plant leaves sprayed with the insecticide in a rubber plantation adjacent to the sanctuary. Though no specific gross lesions were observed, histopathologically, centilobular hepatic necrosis, mild renal degeneration, necrotic enteritis, pulmonary congestion and neuronal degeneration were recorded in all three animals.

  9. Plant compounds insecticide activity against Coleoptera pests of stored products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moreira, Marcio Dionizio; Picanco, Marcelo Coutinho; Guedes, Raul Narciso Carvalho; Campos, Mateus Ribeiro de; Silva, Gerson Adriano; Martins, Julio Claudio [Universidade Federal de Vicosa (UFV), MG (Brazil). Dept. de Biologia Animal]. E-mail: marcio.dionizio@gmail.com; picanco@ufv.br; guedes@ufv.br; mateusc3@yahoo.com.br; agronomiasilva@yahoo.com.br

    2007-07-15

    The objective of this work was to screen plants with insecticide activity, in order to isolate, identify and assess the bioactivity of insecticide compounds present in these plants, against Coleoptera pests of stored products: Oryzaephilus surinamensis L. (Silvanidae), Rhyzopertha dominica F. (Bostrichidae) and Sitophilus zeamais Mots. (Curculionidae). The plant species used were: basil (Ocimum selloi Benth.), rue (Ruta graveolens L.), lion's ear (Leonotis nepetifolia (L.) R.Br.), jimson weed (Datura stramonium L.), baleeira herb (Cordia verbenacea L.), mint (Mentha piperita L.), wild balsam apple (Mormodica charantia L.), and billy goat weed or mentrasto (Ageratum conyzoides L.). The insecticide activity of hexane and ethanol extracts from those plants on R. dominica was evaluated. Among them, only hexane extract of A. conyzoides showed insecticide activity; the hexane extract of this species was successively fractionated by silica gel column chromatography, for isolation and purification of the active compounds. Compounds 5,6,7,8,3',4',5'-heptamethoxyflavone; 5,6,7,8,3'-pentamethoxy-4',5'-methilenedioxyflavone and coumarin were identified. However, only coumarin showed insecticide activity against three insect pests (LD{sub 50} from 2.72 to 39.71 mg g{sup -1} a.i.). The increasing order of insects susceptibility to coumarin was R. dominica, S. zeamais and O. surinamensis. (author)

  10. Household use of insecticide consumer products in a dengue-endemic area in México.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loroño-Pino, María Alba; Chan-Dzul, Yamili N; Zapata-Gil, Rocio; Carrillo-Solís, Claudia; Uitz-Mena, Ana; García-Rejón, Julián E; Keefe, Thomas J; Beaty, Barry J; Eisen, Lars

    2014-10-01

    To evaluate the household use of insecticide consumer products to kill mosquitoes and other insect pests, as well as the expenditures for using these products, in a dengue-endemic area of México. A questionnaire was administered to 441 households in Mérida City and other communities in Yucatán to assess household use of insecticide consumer products. A total of 86.6% of surveyed households took action to kill insect pests with consumer products. The most commonly used product types were insecticide aerosol spray cans (73.6%), electric plug-in insecticide emitters (37.4%) and mosquito coils (28.3%). Mosquitoes were targeted by 89.7% of households using insecticide aerosol spray cans and >99% of households using electric plug-in insecticide emitters or mosquito coils. Products were used daily or every 2 days in most of the households for insecticide aerosol spray cans (61.4%), electric plug-in insecticide emitters (76.2%) and mosquito coils (82.1%). For all products used to kill insect pests, the median annual estimated expenditure per household that took action was 408 Mexican pesos ($MXN), which corresponded to approximately 31 $US. These numbers are suggestive of an annual market in excess of 75 million $MXN (>5.7 million $US) for Mérida City alone. Mosquitoes threaten human health and are major nuisances in homes in the study area in México. Households were found to have taken vigorous action to kill mosquitoes and other insect pests and spent substantial amounts of money on insecticide consumer products. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Permethrin induction of multiple cytochrome P450 genes in insecticide resistant mosquitoes, Culex quinquefasciatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Youhui; Li, Ting; Zhang, Lee; Gao, Xiwu; Liu, Nannan

    2013-01-01

    The expression of some insect P450 genes can be induced by both exogenous and endogenous compounds and there is evidence to suggest that multiple constitutively overexpressed P450 genes are co-responsible for the development of resistance to permethrin in resistant mosquitoes. This study characterized the permethrin induction profiles of P450 genes known to be constitutively overexpressed in resistant mosquitoes, Culex quinquefasciatus. The gene expression in 7 of the 19 P450 genes CYP325K3v1, CYP4D42v2, CYP9J45, (CYP) CPIJ000926, CYP325G4, CYP4C38, CYP4H40 in the HAmCqG8 strain, increased more than 2-fold after exposure to permethrin at an LC50 concentration (10 ppm) compared to their acetone treated counterpart; no significant differences in the expression of these P450 genes in susceptible S-Lab mosquitoes were observed after permethrin treatment. Eleven of the fourteen P450 genes overexpressed in the MAmCqG6 strain, CYP9M10, CYP6Z12, CYP9J33, CYP9J43, CYP9J34, CYP306A1, CYP6Z15, CYP9J45, CYPPAL1, CYP4C52v1, CYP9J39, were also induced more than doubled after exposure to an LC50 (0.7 ppm) dose of permethrin. No significant induction in P450 gene expression was observed in the susceptible S-Lab mosquitoes after permethrin treatment except for CYP6Z15 and CYP9J39, suggesting that permethrin induction of these two P450 genes are common to both susceptible and resistant mosquitoes while the induction of the others are specific to insecticide resistant mosquitoes. These results demonstrate that multiple P450 genes are co-up-regulated in insecticide resistant mosquitoes through both constitutive overexpression and induction mechanisms, providing additional support for their involvement in the detoxification of insecticides and the development of insecticide resistance.

  12. Efficacy, Safety and Cost of Insecticide Treated Wall Lining, Insecticide Treated Bed Nets and Indoor Wall Wash with Lime for Visceral Leishmaniasis Vector Control in the Indian Sub-continent: A Multi-country Cluster Randomized Controlled Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Pradeep; Ghosh, Debashis; Priyanka, Jyoti; Matlashewski, Greg; Kroeger, Axel; Upfill-Brown, Alexander

    2016-01-01

    Background We investigated the efficacy, safety and cost of lime wash of household walls plus treatment of sand fly breeding places with bleach (i.e. environmental management or EM), insecticide impregnated durable wall lining (DWL), and bed net impregnation with slow release insecticide (ITN) for sand fly control in the Indian sub-continent. Methods This multi-country cluster randomized controlled trial had 24 clusters in each three sites with eight clusters per high, medium or low sand fly density stratum. Every cluster included 45–50 households. Five households from each cluster were randomly selected for entomological measurements including sand fly density and mortality at one, three, nine and twelve months post intervention. Household interviews were conducted for socioeconomic information and intervention acceptability assessment. Cost for each intervention was calculated. There was a control group without intervention. Findings Sand fly mortality [mean and 95%CI] ranged from 84% (81%-87%) at one month to 74% (71%-78%) at 12 months for DWL, 75% (71%-79%) at one month to 49% (43%-55%) at twelve months for ITN, and 44% (34%-53%) at one month to 22% (14%-29%) at twelve months for EM. Adjusted intervention effect on sand fly density measured by incidence rate ratio ranged from 0.28 (0.23–0.34) at one month to 0.62 (0.51–0.75) at 12 months for DWL; 0.72 (0.62–0.85) at one month to 1.02 (0.86–1.22) at 12 months for ITN; and 0.89 (0.76–1.03) at one months to 1.49 (1.26–1.74) at 12 months for EM. Household acceptance of EM was 74% compared to 94% for both DWL and ITN. Operational cost per household in USD was about 5, 8, and 2 for EM, DWL and ITN, respectively. Minimal adverse reactions were reported for EM and ITN while 36% of households with DWL reported transient itching. Interpretation DWL is the most effective, durable and acceptable control method followed by ITN. The Visceral Leishmaniasis (VL) Elimination Program in the Indian sub

  13. Insecticidal Properties of a Highly Potent Wax Isolated from Dolichandra cynanchoides Cham

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgina Díaz Napal

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Bioassay-guided fractionation of an ethanolic extract of the aerial parts of Dolichandra cynanchoides Cham. (Bignoniaceae led to the isolation of a natural wax with anti-insect activity against Spodoptera frugiperda (Noctuidae and Epilachna paenulata (Coleptera. The compound was identified spectroscopically as an ester of a C27 fatty acid and a C25 alcohol, pentacosyl heptacosanoate (1. The effective doses of 1 for 50% feeding inhibition (ED50 of S. frugiperda and E. paenulata were 0.82 and 8.53 µg/cm2, respectively, in a choice test, while azadirachtin showed ED50 of 0.10 and 0.59 µg/cm2, respectively. In a no-choice test, both insects refused to feed on leaves treated with 1 at doses of 0.1 µg/cm2 or greater inhibiting larval growth and dramatically reducing survival. The lethal doses 50 (LD50 of 1 were 0.39 and 0.68 µg/cm2 for S. frugiperda and E. paenulata, respectively. These results indicate that 1 has potential for development as botanical insecticides. Similar esters might be obtainable in large quantities as many edible crops produce wax esters that are discarded during food processing. Research on these materials could lead to the detection of similar waxes with insecticidal activity.

  14. Forty years of erratic insecticide resistance evolution in the mosquito Culex pipiens.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierrick Labbé

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available One view of adaptation is that it proceeds by the slow and steady accumulation of beneficial mutations with small effects. It is difficult to test this model, since in most cases the genetic basis of adaptation can only be studied a posteriori with traits that have evolved for a long period of time through an unknown sequence of steps. In this paper, we show how ace-1, a gene involved in resistance to organophosphorous insecticide in the mosquito Culex pipiens, has evolved during 40 years of an insecticide control program. Initially, a major resistance allele with strong deleterious side effects spread through the population. Later, a duplication combining a susceptible and a resistance ace-1 allele began to spread but did not replace the original resistance allele, as it is sublethal when homozygous. Last, a second duplication, (also sublethal when homozygous began to spread because heterozygotes for the two duplications do not exhibit deleterious pleiotropic effects. Double overdominance now maintains these four alleles across treated and nontreated areas. Thus, ace-1 evolution does not proceed via the steady accumulation of beneficial mutations. Instead, resistance evolution has been an erratic combination of mutation, positive selection, and the rearrangement of existing variation leading to complex genetic architecture.

  15. Evolution of insecticide resistance in non-target black flies (Diptera: Simuliidae from Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Mónica Montagna

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Black flies, a non-target species of the insecticides used in fruit production, represent a severe medical and veterinary problem. Large increases in the level of resistance to the pyrethroids fenvalerate (more than 355-fold and deltamethrin (162-fold and a small increase in resistance to the organophosphate azinphos methyl (2-fold were observed between 1996-2008 in black fly larvae under insecticide pressure. Eventually, no change or a slight variation in insecticide resistance was followed by a subsequent increase in resistance. The evolution of pesticide resistance in a field population is a complex and stepwise process that is influenced by several factors, the most significant of which is the insecticide selection pressure, such as the dose and frequency of application. The variation in insecticide susceptibility within a black fly population in the productive area may be related to changes in fruit-pest control. The frequency of individuals with esterase activities higher than the maximum value determined in the susceptible population increased consistently over the sampling period. However, the insecticide resistance was not attributed to glutathione S-transferase activity. In conclusion, esterase activity in black flies from the productive area is one mechanism underlying the high levels of resistance to pyrethroids, which have been recently used infrequently. These enzymes may be reselected by currently used pesticides and enhance the resistance to these insecticides.

  16. Evolution of insecticide resistance in non-target black flies (Diptera: Simuliidae) from Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montagna, Cristina Mónica; Gauna, Lidia Ester; D'Angelo, Ana Pechen de; Anguiano, Olga Liliana

    2012-06-01

    Black flies, a non-target species of the insecticides used in fruit production, represent a severe medical and veterinary problem. Large increases in the level of resistance to the pyrethroids fenvalerate (more than 355-fold) and deltamethrin (162-fold) and a small increase in resistance to the organophosphate azinphos methyl (2-fold) were observed between 1996-2008 in black fly larvae under insecticide pressure. Eventually, no change or a slight variation in insecticide resistance was followed by a subsequent increase in resistance. The evolution of pesticide resistance in a field population is a complex and stepwise process that is influenced by several factors, the most significant of which is the insecticide selection pressure, such as the dose and frequency of application. The variation in insecticide susceptibility within a black fly population in the productive area may be related to changes in fruit-pest control. The frequency of individuals with esterase activities higher than the maximum value determined in the susceptible population increased consistently over the sampling period. However, the insecticide resistance was not attributed to glutathione S-transferase activity. In conclusion, esterase activity in black flies from the productive area is one mechanism underlying the high levels of resistance to pyrethroids, which have been recently used infrequently. These enzymes may be reselected by currently used pesticides and enhance the resistance to these insecticides.

  17. Socio-economic inequity in demand for insecticide-treated nets, in-door residual house spraying, larviciding and fogging in Sudan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa Sara

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In order to optimally prioritize and use public and private budgets for equitable malaria vector control, there is a need to determine the level and determinants of consumer demand for different vector control tools. Objectives To determine the demand from people of different socio-economic groups for indoor residual house-spraying (IRHS, insecticide-treated nets (ITNs, larviciding with chemicals (LWC, and space spraying/fogging (SS and the disease control implications of the result. Methods Ratings and levels of willingness-to-pay (WTP for the vector control tools were determined using a random cross-sectional sample of 720 householdes drawn from two states. WTP was elicited using the bidding game. An asset-based socio-economic status (SES index was used to explore whether WTP was related to SES of the respondents. Results IRHS received the highest proportion of highest preferred rating (41.0% followed by ITNs (23.1%. However, ITNs had the highest mean WTP followed by IRHS, while LWC had the least. The regression analysis showed that SES was positively and statistically significantly related to WTP across the four vector control tools and that the respondents' rating of IRHS and ITNs significantly explained their levels of WTP for the two tools. Conclusion People were willing to pay for all the vector-control tools, but the demand for the vector control tools was related to the SES of the respondents. Hence, it is vital that there are public policies and financing mechanisms to ensure equitable provision and utilisation of vector control tools, as well as protecting the poor from cost-sharing arrangements.

  18. Use of Insecticide-Treated Mosquito Net among Pregnant Women and Guardians of Children under Five in the Democratic Republic of the Congo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph N. Inungu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Insecticide-treated mosquito nets (ITNs are one of the most effective tools for preventing malaria in sub-Saharan Africa. Objective. This study examined knowledge, attitude, and practice on the use of ITNs in the prevention of malaria among pregnant women and guardians of children under five in the Democratic Republic of the Congo. Methods. A total of 5,138 pregnant women and guardians of children under five were interviewed. Results. The majority of participants (>80% knew the signs and symptoms of malaria; 81.6% reported having an ITN in the household, but 78.4% reported using it the night before the interview. Only 71.4% of pregnant women used ITN the night compared to 68.2% of children under five. In the Logistic Regression model, women who believed that it is normal to use ITNs were 1.9 times more likely to use it than those who did not (OR: 1.930; women who were confident in their abilities to use ITNs were 1.9 times more likely than those who were not confident (OR: 1.915; and women who had a good attitude towards ITNs were also more likely to use ITNs compared to those who did not (OR: 1.529. Conclusion. New and innovative evidence-based behavior change interventions are needed to increase the utilization of ITNs among vulnerable groups.

  19. Insecticide resistance in vector Chagas disease: evolution, mechanisms and management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mougabure-Cueto, Gastón; Picollo, María Inés

    2015-09-01

    Chagas disease is a chronic parasitic infection restricted to America. The disease is caused by the protozoa Trypanosoma cruzi, which is transmitted to human through the feces of infected triatomine insects. Because no treatment is available for the chronic forms of the disease, vector chemical control represents the best way to reduce the incidence of the disease. Chemical control has been based principally on spraying dwellings with insecticide formulations and led to the reduction of triatomine distribution and consequent interruption of disease transmission in several areas from endemic region. However, in the last decade it has been repeatedly reported the presence triatomnes, mainly Triatoma infestans, after spraying with pyrethroid insecticides, which was associated to evolution to insecticide resistance. In this paper the evolution of insecticide resistance in triatomines is reviewed. The insecticide resistance was detected in 1970s in Rhodnius prolixus and 1990s in R. prolixus and T. infestans, but not until the 2000s resistance to pyrthroids in T. infestans associated to control failures was described in Argentina and Bolivia. The main resistance mechanisms (i.e. enhanced metabolism, altered site of action and reduced penetration) were described in the T. infestans resistant to pyrethrods. Different resistant profiles were demonstrated suggesting independent origin of the different resistant foci of Argentina and Bolivia. The deltamethrin resistance in T. infestans was showed to be controlled by semi-dominant, autosomally inherited factors. Reproductive and developmental costs were also demonstrated for the resistant T. infestans. A discussion about resistance and tolerance concepts and the persistence of T. infestans in Gran Chaco region are presented. In addition, theoretical concepts related to toxicological, evolutionary and ecological aspects of insecticide resistance are discussed in order to understand the particular scenario of pyrethroid

  20. Identification of insecticide residues with a conducting-polymer electronic nose

    Science.gov (United States)

    A.D. Wilson

    2014-01-01

    The identification of insecticide residues on crop foliage is needed to make periodic pest management decisions. Electronic-nose (e-nose) methods were developed and tested as a means of acquiring rapid identifications of insecticide residue types at relatively low cost by detection of headspace volatiles released from inert surfaces in vitro. Detection methods were...

  1. Influence on sensitivity to insecticides: a case study of a settled area ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    monitoring for successful alternative insecticides. There are currently two ... behaviour or modification avoid landing on insecticide .... aquarium fish food18. When they .... National Statistical Office (NSO) Malawi Government 1998 Census. 16.

  2. Contemporary status of insecticide resistance in the major Aedes vectors of arboviruses infecting humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moyes, Catherine L; Vontas, John; Martins, Ademir J; Ng, Lee Ching; Koou, Sin Ying; Dusfour, Isabelle; Raghavendra, Kamaraju; Pinto, João; Corbel, Vincent; David, Jean-Philippe; Weetman, David

    2017-07-01

    Both Aedes aegytpi and Ae. albopictus are major vectors of 5 important arboviruses (namely chikungunya virus, dengue virus, Rift Valley fever virus, yellow fever virus, and Zika virus), making these mosquitoes an important factor in the worldwide burden of infectious disease. Vector control using insecticides coupled with larval source reduction is critical to control the transmission of these viruses to humans but is threatened by the emergence of insecticide resistance. Here, we review the available evidence for the geographical distribution of insecticide resistance in these 2 major vectors worldwide and map the data collated for the 4 main classes of neurotoxic insecticide (carbamates, organochlorines, organophosphates, and pyrethroids). Emerging resistance to all 4 of these insecticide classes has been detected in the Americas, Africa, and Asia. Target-site mutations and increased insecticide detoxification have both been linked to resistance in Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus but more work is required to further elucidate metabolic mechanisms and develop robust diagnostic assays. Geographical distributions are provided for the mechanisms that have been shown to be important to date. Estimating insecticide resistance in unsampled locations is hampered by a lack of standardisation in the diagnostic tools used and by a lack of data in a number of regions for both resistance phenotypes and genotypes. The need for increased sampling using standard methods is critical to tackle the issue of emerging insecticide resistance threatening human health. Specifically, diagnostic doses and well-characterised susceptible strains are needed for the full range of insecticides used to control Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus to standardise measurement of the resistant phenotype, and calibrated diagnostic assays are needed for the major mechanisms of resistance.

  3. Contemporary status of insecticide resistance in the major Aedes vectors of arboviruses infecting humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vontas, John; Martins, Ademir J.; Ng, Lee Ching; Koou, Sin Ying; Dusfour, Isabelle; Raghavendra, Kamaraju; Pinto, João; Corbel, Vincent; David, Jean-Philippe; Weetman, David

    2017-01-01

    Both Aedes aegytpi and Ae. albopictus are major vectors of 5 important arboviruses (namely chikungunya virus, dengue virus, Rift Valley fever virus, yellow fever virus, and Zika virus), making these mosquitoes an important factor in the worldwide burden of infectious disease. Vector control using insecticides coupled with larval source reduction is critical to control the transmission of these viruses to humans but is threatened by the emergence of insecticide resistance. Here, we review the available evidence for the geographical distribution of insecticide resistance in these 2 major vectors worldwide and map the data collated for the 4 main classes of neurotoxic insecticide (carbamates, organochlorines, organophosphates, and pyrethroids). Emerging resistance to all 4 of these insecticide classes has been detected in the Americas, Africa, and Asia. Target-site mutations and increased insecticide detoxification have both been linked to resistance in Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus but more work is required to further elucidate metabolic mechanisms and develop robust diagnostic assays. Geographical distributions are provided for the mechanisms that have been shown to be important to date. Estimating insecticide resistance in unsampled locations is hampered by a lack of standardisation in the diagnostic tools used and by a lack of data in a number of regions for both resistance phenotypes and genotypes. The need for increased sampling using standard methods is critical to tackle the issue of emerging insecticide resistance threatening human health. Specifically, diagnostic doses and well-characterised susceptible strains are needed for the full range of insecticides used to control Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus to standardise measurement of the resistant phenotype, and calibrated diagnostic assays are needed for the major mechanisms of resistance. PMID:28727779

  4. Contemporary status of insecticide resistance in the major Aedes vectors of arboviruses infecting humans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine L Moyes

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Both Aedes aegytpi and Ae. albopictus are major vectors of 5 important arboviruses (namely chikungunya virus, dengue virus, Rift Valley fever virus, yellow fever virus, and Zika virus, making these mosquitoes an important factor in the worldwide burden of infectious disease. Vector control using insecticides coupled with larval source reduction is critical to control the transmission of these viruses to humans but is threatened by the emergence of insecticide resistance. Here, we review the available evidence for the geographical distribution of insecticide resistance in these 2 major vectors worldwide and map the data collated for the 4 main classes of neurotoxic insecticide (carbamates, organochlorines, organophosphates, and pyrethroids. Emerging resistance to all 4 of these insecticide classes has been detected in the Americas, Africa, and Asia. Target-site mutations and increased insecticide detoxification have both been linked to resistance in Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus but more work is required to further elucidate metabolic mechanisms and develop robust diagnostic assays. Geographical distributions are provided for the mechanisms that have been shown to be important to date. Estimating insecticide resistance in unsampled locations is hampered by a lack of standardisation in the diagnostic tools used and by a lack of data in a number of regions for both resistance phenotypes and genotypes. The need for increased sampling using standard methods is critical to tackle the issue of emerging insecticide resistance threatening human health. Specifically, diagnostic doses and well-characterised susceptible strains are needed for the full range of insecticides used to control Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus to standardise measurement of the resistant phenotype, and calibrated diagnostic assays are needed for the major mechanisms of resistance.

  5. Household use of insecticide consumer products in a dengue endemic area in México

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loroño-Pino, María Alba; Chan-Dzul, Yamili N.; Zapata-Gil, Rocio; Carrillo-Solís, Claudia; Uitz-Mena, Ana; García-Rejón, Julián E.; Keefe, Thomas J.; Beaty, Barry J.; Eisen, Lars

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To evaluate household use of insecticide consumer products to kill mosquitoes and other insect pests, as well as the expenditures for using these products, in a dengue endemic area in México. Methods A questionnaire was administered to 441 households in Mérida City or other communities in Yucatán State to assess household use of insecticide consumer products. Results Most (86.6%) households took action to kill insect pests with consumer products. Among those households, the most commonly used product types were insecticide aerosol spray cans (73.6%), electric plug-in insecticide emitters (37.4%), and mosquito coils (28.3%). Mosquitoes were targeted by 89.7% of households using insecticide aerosol spray cans and >99% of households using electric plug-in insecticide emitters or mosquito coils. During the part of the year when a given product type was used, the frequency of use was daily or every 2 days in most of the households for insecticide aerosol spray cans (61.4%), electric plug-in insecticide emitters (76.2%), and mosquito coils (82.1%). For all products used to kill insect pests, the median annual estimated expenditure per household that took action was 408 Mexican pesos ($MXN), which corresponded to ∼31 $U.S. These numbers are suggestive of an annual market in excess of 75 million $MXN (>5.7 million $U.S.) for Mérida City alone. Conclusion Mosquitoes threaten human health and are major nuisances in homes in the study area in México. Households were found to have taken vigorous action to kill mosquitoes and other insect pests and spent substantial amounts of money on insecticide consumer products. PMID:25040259

  6. The evolution of insecticide resistance in the peach potato aphid, Myzus persicae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bass, Chris; Puinean, Alin M; Zimmer, Christoph T; Denholm, Ian; Field, Linda M; Foster, Stephen P; Gutbrod, Oliver; Nauen, Ralf; Slater, Russell; Williamson, Martin S

    2014-08-01

    The peach potato aphid, Myzus persicae is a globally distributed crop pest with a host range of over 400 species including many economically important crop plants. The intensive use of insecticides to control this species over many years has led to populations that are now resistant to several classes of insecticide. Work spanning over 40 years has shown that M. persicae has a remarkable ability to evolve mechanisms that avoid or overcome the toxic effect of insecticides with at least seven independent mechanisms of resistance described in this species to date. The array of novel resistance mechanisms, including several 'first examples', that have evolved in this species represents an important case study for the evolution of insecticide resistance and also rapid adaptive change in insects more generally. In this review we summarise the biochemical and molecular mechanisms underlying resistance in M. persicae and the insights study of this topic has provided on how resistance evolves, the selectivity of insecticides, and the link between resistance and host plant adaptation. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  7. Combining the essential oil of Piper aduncum L. with commercial insecticides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murilo Fazolin

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The use of synergists is important to minimize the amount of chemical insecticide required for insect control. Their use may contribute to reducing environmental contamination and preserving beneficial insects. The aim of this study was to evaluate the synergy and uniformity of the response of Spodoptera frugiperda (Noctuidae larvae to doses of an essential oil of an Amazon chemotype, Piper aduncum (Piperaceae, when combinationed with the following commercial insecticides: cypermethrin, zeta-cypermethrin, permethrin and esfenvarelate, compared to piperonyl butoxide (PBO. Through the relationship between CL50 and DL50 of insecticides taken separately and their synergistic combinations with the essential oil and PBO, synergism factors (SF were obtained for comparison with each other. With residual contact, there was a significant enhancement of commercial insecticides formulated with cypermethrin (SF = 73.03, zeta-cypermethrin (SF = 16.51 and permethrin (SF = 8.46-17.22, when combined with the P. aduncum essential oil; in turn, with topical application, there was only an observed significant enhancement for zeta-cypermethrin (SF = 0.40-4.26, permethrin (SF = 2.10-4.79 and esfenvarelate (SF = 3.80 insecticides when combined with the essential oil. With the exception of esfenvarelate, the other synergistic combinations showed homogeneous responses for topical application and residual contact for at least one synergistic combination with P. aduncum essential oil. The significance of the SF values from combining P. aduncum essential oil with cypermethrin, zeta-cypermethrin, permethrin and esfenvarelate insecticides may indicate that this essential oil is an alternative option to PBO.

  8. Antifeedant and insecticidal activity of Polygonum persicaria extracts on Nomophila indistinctalis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luisa Quesada-Romero

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Context: Vegetal extracts represent an alternative to control against agricultural pests that have become resistant to pesticides. Using natural products is considered to be more friendly to the environment and safe. Aims: To determine the insecticidal and antifeedant activity of Polygonum persicaria extracts of two differents populations in Chile (Valparaiso and Curico against Nomophila indistinctalis larvae. Methods: Insecticide Resistance Action Committee (IRAC susceptibility test was used to evaluate the insecticidal activity of the extracts at concentrations of 100, 250, 500 and 1000 mg/L; against first instar larvae of Nomophila indistinctalis. The antifeedant activity was evaluated to determine the percentage of consumption in third instar larvae on treatment. Results: When comparing the control and the treatment groups in the antifeedant activity assay, significant differences (p<0.05 were observed after 90 minutes of exposure. With respect to the insecticidal activity, all extracts showed significant effects at the applied concentrations compared to the negative control. Moreover, the dichloromethane extracts of Curico and Valparaiso at concentrations greater than 500 mg/L showed a similar insecticidal activity as compared to the commercial formulation Neem. Conclusions: This work presents for the first time the results of the anti-feeding and insecticide activity of ethanol, methanol, and dichloromethane extracts from Polygonum persicaria on Nomophila indistinctalis. The results show that the extracts of this species can be used as an alternative for biological control. In addition, the results obtained allow a bioguided fractionation for the identification of secondary metabolites present in these extracts.

  9. Design, Synthesis and Insecticidal Activities of Novel Phenyl Substituted Isoxazolecarboxamides

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Peng-fei; ZHANG Ji-feng; YAN Tao; XIONG Li-xia; LI Zheng-ming

    2012-01-01

    Thirteen novel phenyl substituted isoxazolecarboxamides were synthesized,and their structures were characterized by 1H NMR,elementary analysis and high-resolution mass spectrometry(HRMS) techniques.Their evaluated insecticidal activities against oriental armyworm(Mythimna separata) indicate that the phcnyl substituted isoxazolecarboxamides exhibited moderate insecticidal activities,among which compounds 9c and 9k showed comparatively higher activities.

  10. Metabolic control of the insecticides safety use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.I. Solomenko

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The results of the conducted research affirm that the phosphororganic insecticides utilization can lead to the break in the nitrogen metabolism, breaking the protein formation, reducing the protein molecules renewal, causing the amino acid and amides accumulation in the active state. It has been revealed that the translocation and transformation of the insecticides under consideration are more closely connected with the changes of insoluble protein fraction. The stagnation point of the Phosphamide and Kaunter impact on the plant has been determined. And only the use of the preparation in optimal norms can influence stimulatingly the course of the process under consideration.

  11. What Do We Know about Hybrid Regimes after Two Decades of Scholarship?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariam Mufti

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available In two decades of scholarship on hybrid regimes two significant advancements have been made. First, scholars have emphasized that the hybrid regimes that emerged in the post-Cold War era should not be treated as diminished sub-types of democracy, and second, regime type is a multi-dimensional concept. This review essay further contends that losing the lexicon of hybridity and focusing on a single dimension of regime type—flawed electoral competition—has prevented an examination of extra-electoral factors that are necessary for understanding how regimes are differently hybrid, why there is such immense variation in the outcome of elections and why these regimes are constantly in flux. Therefore, a key recommendation emerging from this review of the scholarship is that to achieve a more thorough, multi-dimensional assessment of hybrid regimes, further research ought to be driven by nested research designs in which qualitative and quantitative approaches can be used to advance mid-range theory building.

  12. Insecticide resistance in the western flower thrips, Frankliniella occidentalis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Sten Erik

    of acetylcholinesterase, the target site enzyme for methiocarb. The results from bioassays with synergists included indicated involvement of cytochrome P450- monooxygenases and esterases in methiocarb resistance in the most resistant populations. Selection with methiocarb on one of the populations to increase the level......The western flower thrips, Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande) is a serious pest on a wide range of crops throughout the world. In Denmark F. occidentalis is a pest in greenhouses. F. occidentalis is difficult to control with insecticides because of its thigmokinetic behaviour and resistance...... to insecticides. Since F. occidentulis spread to become a worldwide pest in 1980’es, resistance to a number of different insecticides has been shown in many populations of F. occidentalis. This flower thrips has the potential of fast development of resistance owing to the short generation time, high fecundity...

  13. Effects of persistent insecticides on beneficial soil arthropod in conventional fields compared to organic fields, puducherry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anbarashan, Padmavathy; Gopalswamy, Poyyamoli

    2013-07-15

    The usage of synthetic fertilizers/insecticides in conventional farming has dramatically increased over the past decades. The aim of the study was to compare the effects of bio-pesticides and insecticides/pesticides on selected beneficial non targeted arthropods. Orders Collembola, Arachinida/Opiliones, Oribatida and Coleoptera were the main groups of arthropods found in the organic fields and Coleoptera, Oribatida, Gamasida and Collembola in conventional fields. Pesticides/insecticides had a significant effect on non-targeted arthropods order- Collembola, Arachinida/Opiliones, Hymenoptera and Thysonoptera were suppressed after pesticides/insecticides spraying. Bio-insecticides in organic fields had a non-significant effect on non targeted species and they started to increase in abundance after 7 days of spraying, whereas insecticide treatment in conventional fields had a significant long-term effect on non targeted arthropods and short term effect on pests/insects, it started to increase after 21 days of the spraying. These results indicate that insecticide treatment kept non targeted arthropods at low abundance. In conclusion, organic farming does not significantly affected the beneficial-non targeted arthropods biodiversity, whereas preventive insecticide application in conventional fields had significant negative effects on beneficial non targeted arthropods. Therefore, conventional farmers should restrict insecticide applications, unless pest densities reach the thresholds and more desirably can switch to organic farming practices.

  14. Defence activation in strawberry and pine- Epigenetic changes in treated plants

    OpenAIRE

    Komajda, Ludwika

    2016-01-01

    Strawberry plants (Fragaria x ananassa) and Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) represent species, withinagriculture and forestry respectively, that are traditionally protected by utilization of pesticidesincluding neurotoxic insecticides. More environmentally friendly protection strategies are thereforehighly desirable. Treating plants with specific metabolites naturally occurring in their tissues might alterepigenetic mechanisms, which in turn may strengthen plants self-defense against diseases a...

  15. Toxicity of some insecticides to the haemocytes of giant honeybee, Apis dorsata F. under laboratory conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nighat Perveen

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Quantitative studies concerning total and differential haemocyte counts and abnormalities were performed under laboratory conditions for larvae, pupae and adults collected from a wild Apis dorsata colony. Haemolymph samples were observed immediately, thirty and sixty minutes after field recommended concentration exposure of five different insecticides. Total haemocyte counts were significantly higher for larvae and pupae but less for adult bees, however, differential haemocyte counts insignificantly different. Exposure of insecticides showed variable response for tested insecticides with immediate increased change with ethofenprox, diafenthiuron and imidacloprid but decreased for all tested insecticides after sixty minutes. For differential haemocyte counts, plasmatocytes and granulocytes increased with exposure of insecticides. Immune response of haemocytes against insecticides showed different degrees of abnormalities like agglutination, denucleation and cell shape distortion. Such studies may help in possible identification of insect defense mechanisms against their exposure to external hazards for instance insecticide exposure.

  16. Toxicity of insecticides to the sweetpotato whitefly (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) and its natural enemies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacci, Leandro; Crespo, André L B; Galvan, Tederson L; Pereira, Eliseu J G; Picanço, Marcelo C; Silva, Gerson A; Chediak, Mateus

    2007-07-01

    Efficient chemical control is achieved when insecticides are active against insect pests and safe to natural enemies. In this study, the toxicity of 17 insecticides to the sweetpotato whitefly, Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius), and the selectivity of seven insecticides to natural enemies of this insect pest were evaluated. To determine the insecticide toxicity, B. tabaci adults were exposed to abamectin, acephate, acetamiprid, cartap, imidacloprid, malathion, methamidophos, bifenthrin, cypermethrin, deltamethrin, esfenvalerate, fenitrothion, fenpropathrin, fenthion, phenthoate, permethrin and trichlorphon at 50 and 100% of the field rate (FR), and to water (untreated control). To determine the insecticide selectivity, adults of Encarsia sp., Acanthinus sp., Discodon sp. and Lasiochilus sp. were exposed to abamectin, acephate, acetamiprid, cartap, imidacloprid, malathion and methamidophos at 50 and 100% FR, and to water. Groups of each insect species were exposed to kale leaves preimmersed in each treatment under laboratory conditions. Mortality of exposed individuals was recorded 24 h after treatment. Cartap and imidacloprid at 50 and 100% FR and abamectin and acetamiprid at 100% FR showed insecticidal activity to B. tabaci adults. Abamectin at 50 and 100% FR was the least insecticidal compound to the natural enemies Acanthinus sp., Discodon sp. and Lasiochilus sp. The present results suggest that abamectin at 100% FR may decrease B. tabaci field populations but can still be harmless to predators. Implications of these results within an integrated pest management context are discussed. Copyright (c) 2007 Society of Chemical Industry.

  17. Turmeric powder and its derivatives from Curcuma longa rhizomes: Insecticidal effects on cabbage looper and the role of synergists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Souza Tavares, Wagner; Akhtar, Yasmin; Gonçalves, Gabriel Luiz Padoan; Zanuncio, José Cola; Isman, Murray B

    2016-11-02

    Curcuma longa has well-known insecticidal and repellent effects on insect pests, but its impact on Trichoplusia ni is unknown. In this study, the compound ar-turmerone, extracted and purified from C. longa rhizomes, was identified, and its insecticidal effects, along with turmeric powder, curcuminoid pigments and crude essential oil were evaluated against this important agricultural pest. The role of natural (sesamol and piperonal) and synthetic [piperonyl butoxide (PBO)] synergists under laboratory and greenhouse conditions were also evaluated. The concentration of ar-turmerone in C. longa rhizomes harvested was 0.32% (dwt). Turmeric powder and its derivatives caused 10-20% mortality in third instar T. ni at a very low dose (10 μg/larva). Addition of PBO increased toxicity of turmeric powder and its derivatives (90-97% mortality) in most binary combinations (5 μg of turmeric powder or its derivatives +5 μg of PBO), but neither piperonal nor sesamol were active as synergists. The compound ar-turmerone alone and the combination with PBO reduced larval weight on treated Brassica oleracea in the laboratory and in greenhouse experiments, compared with the negative control. The compound ar-turmerone could be used as a low cost botanical insecticide for integrated management of cabbage looper in vegetable production.

  18. Turmeric powder and its derivatives from Curcuma longa rhizomes: Insecticidal effects on cabbage looper and the role of synergists

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Souza Tavares, Wagner; Akhtar, Yasmin; Gonçalves, Gabriel Luiz Padoan; Zanuncio, José Cola; Isman, Murray B.

    2016-01-01

    Curcuma longa has well-known insecticidal and repellent effects on insect pests, but its impact on Trichoplusia ni is unknown. In this study, the compound ar-turmerone, extracted and purified from C. longa rhizomes, was identified, and its insecticidal effects, along with turmeric powder, curcuminoid pigments and crude essential oil were evaluated against this important agricultural pest. The role of natural (sesamol and piperonal) and synthetic [piperonyl butoxide (PBO)] synergists under laboratory and greenhouse conditions were also evaluated. The concentration of ar-turmerone in C. longa rhizomes harvested was 0.32% (dwt). Turmeric powder and its derivatives caused 10–20% mortality in third instar T. ni at a very low dose (10 μg/larva). Addition of PBO increased toxicity of turmeric powder and its derivatives (90–97% mortality) in most binary combinations (5 μg of turmeric powder or its derivatives +5 μg of PBO), but neither piperonal nor sesamol were active as synergists. The compound ar-turmerone alone and the combination with PBO reduced larval weight on treated Brassica oleracea in the laboratory and in greenhouse experiments, compared with the negative control. The compound ar-turmerone could be used as a low cost botanical insecticide for integrated management of cabbage looper in vegetable production. PMID:27804972

  19. A population-based assessment of women's mental health and attitudes toward women's human rights in Afghanistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amowitz, Lynn L; Heisler, Michele; Iacopino, Vincent

    2003-01-01

    To assess the health status of Afghan women and attitudes of these women and their male relatives during the period of Taliban rule toward women's rights and community development needs in Afghanistan. In household residences in two regions in Afghanistan (one Taliban controlled and the other not under the Taliban) and a refugee camp and repatriation center in Pakistan, structured interviews were conducted among a random sample of women and men exposed to Taliban policy and women living in a non-Taliban controlled area (724 Afghan women and 553 male relatives). Major depression was far more prevalent among women exposed to Taliban policies (73%-78%) than among women living in a non-Taliban controlled area (28%). Sixty-five percent of women living in a Taliban-controlled area and 73% of women in Pakistan exposed to Taliban policies expressed suicidal ideation at the time of the study, compared with 18% of those in a non-Taliban controlled area. More than 90% of both women and men expressed support for equal work and educational opportunities, free expression, protection of women's rights, participation of women in government, and the inclusion of women's human rights concerns in peace talks. A majority of both women and men believed that guaranteeing civil and political rights (69%) and meeting basic needs (90%) were important for the health and development of their communities. In Afghanistan under the Taliban, policies restricting women's rights were not the product of years of tradition or of social and economic deprivation. Instead, they were man-made policies as easily and swiftly revoked as they were instituted. Depression rates among women in Afghanistan, especially in Taliban-controlled areas, were extraordinarily high. Current efforts to rebuild Afghanistan must address these high rates of depression and other mental health problems to ensure women's full participation in development.

  20. Increasing coverage and decreasing inequity in insecticide-treated bed net use among rural Kenyan children.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdisalan M Noor

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Inexpensive and efficacious interventions that avert childhood deaths in sub-Saharan Africa have failed to reach effective coverage, especially among the poorest rural sectors. One particular example is insecticide-treated bed nets (ITNs. In this study, we present repeat observations of ITN coverage among rural Kenyan homesteads exposed at different times to a range of delivery models, and assess changes in coverage across socioeconomic groups.We undertook a study of annual changes in ITN coverage among a cohort of 3,700 children aged 0-4 y in four districts of Kenya (Bondo, Greater Kisii, Kwale, and Makueni annually between 2004 and 2006. Cross-sectional surveys of ITN coverage were undertaken coincidentally with the incremental availability of commercial sector nets (2004, the introduction of heavily subsidized nets through clinics (2005, and the introduction of free mass distributed ITNs (2006. The changing prevalence of ITN coverage was examined with special reference to the degree of equity in each delivery approach. ITN coverage was only 7.1% in 2004 when the predominant source of nets was the commercial retail sector. By the end of 2005, following the expansion of heavily subsidized clinic distribution system, ITN coverage rose to 23.5%. In 2006 a large-scale mass distribution of ITNs was mounted providing nets free of charge to children, resulting in a dramatic increase in ITN coverage to 67.3%. With each subsequent survey socioeconomic inequity in net coverage sequentially decreased: 2004 (most poor [2.9%] versus least poor [15.6%]; concentration index 0.281; 2005 (most poor [17.5%] versus least poor [37.9%]; concentration index 0.131, and 2006 with near-perfect equality (most poor [66.3%] versus least poor [66.6%]; concentration index 0.000. The free mass distribution method achieved highest coverage among the poorest children, the highly subsidised clinic nets programme was marginally in favour of the least poor, and the commercial

  1. Determination of insecticides malathion and lambda-cyhalothrin residues in zucchini by gas chromatography

    OpenAIRE

    Lofty, Hayam M.; Abd El-Aleem, Abd El-Aziz A.; Monir, Hany H.

    2013-01-01

    A sensitive gas chromatographic method has been developed for the determination of malathion and lambda-cyhalothrin (λ-cyhalothrin) insecticide residues in zucchini. The developed method consists of extraction with acetone, purification and partitioning with methylene chloride, column chromatographic clean-up, and finally capillary gas chromatographic determination of the insecticides. The recoveries of method were greater than 90% and limit of determination was 0.001 ppm for both insecticide...

  2. Efficacy of insecticides in fruit borer control and residues on sugar apple fruit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro da Silva Oliveira

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Bahia is the Brazilian state with the largest production of sugar apple fruits (Annona squamosa L., and fruit borer (Cerconota anonella, Sepp. 1830 is a key crop pest. Insecticides are the main strategy for pest control even though there are no pesticides registered for this crop. This study aimed to assess the efficacy of insecticides to control fruit borer and determine the levels of insecticide residues in sugar apple fruits aiming at requesting the extension of authorization to use insecticide products in this crop. The experiment was conducted in an eight-year-old irrigated orchard (2 × 4 m located in Anagé, Bahia, Brazil. The experimental design was a randomized block design with 10 treatments (three insecticides with three doses and a control with water and 5 replications. Each plot was composed of four plants but only the two central ones were assessed. Insecticides and doses (g a.i. 100 L−1 water were Bacillus thuringiensis: 0.8, 1.7, and 2.5; triflumuron: 2.4, 3.6, and 4.8; and imidacloprid: 4.0, 10.0, and 16.0. Nine sprayings were carried out at fortnightly intervals with a costal sprayer with constant pressure, JA-2 nozzle, and with jet directed to the fruits. Ten assessments were performed in order to observe fruit borer presence in 30 previously marked fruits per plot. Imidacloprid, at the highest studied dose, was the only effective treatment. Analyses of imidacloprid residues, at 21 and 30 days after the highest dose application, indicated levels higher than the maximum limit allowed. Insecticides under the conditions tested do not meet the norms for requesting the extension of authorization to use insecticides for citrus in sugar apple fruits.

  3. Chrysodeixis chalcites nucleopolyhedrovirus (ChchNPV): Natural occurrence and efficacy as a biological insecticide on young banana plants in greenhouse and open-field conditions on the Canary Islands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuentes, Ernesto Gabriel; Hernández-Suárez, Estrella; Simón, Oihane; Williams, Trevor; Caballero, Primitivo

    2017-01-01

    Chrysodeixis chalcites, an important pest of banana crops on the Canary Islands, is usually controlled by chemical insecticides. The present study aimed to evaluate the efficacy of the most prevalent isolate of the Chrysodeixis chalcites nucleopolyhedrovirus (ChchNPV, Baculoviridae) as a biological insecticide. Overall the prevalence of ChchNPV infection in C. chalcites populations was 2.3% (103 infected larvae out of 4,438 sampled), but varied from 0-4.8% on Tenerife and was usually low (0-2%) on the other islands. On Tenerife, infected larvae were present at 11 out of 17 plantations sampled. The prevalence of infection in larvae on bananas grown under greenhouse structures was significantly higher (3%) than in open-field sites (1.4%). The ChchNPV-TF1 isolate was the most abundant and widespread of four genetic variants of the virus. Application of 1.0x109 viral occlusion bodies (OBs)/l of ChchNPV-TF1 significantly reduced C. chalcites foliar damage in young banana plants as did commonly used pesticides, both in greenhouse and open-field sites. The insecticidal efficacy of ChchNPV-TF1 was similar to that of indoxacarb and a Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt)-based insecticide in one year of trials and similar to Bt in the following year of trails in greenhouse and field crops. However, larvae collected at different time intervals following virus treatments and reared in the laboratory experienced 2-7 fold more mortality than insects from conventional insecticide treatments. This suggests that the acquisition of lethal dose occurred over an extended period (up to 7 days) compared to a brief peak in larvae on plants treated with conventional insecticides. These results should prove useful for the registration of a ChchNPV-based insecticide for integrated management of this pest in banana crops on the Canary Islands.

  4. Chrysodeixis chalcites nucleopolyhedrovirus (ChchNPV: Natural occurrence and efficacy as a biological insecticide on young banana plants in greenhouse and open-field conditions on the Canary Islands.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ernesto Gabriel Fuentes

    Full Text Available Chrysodeixis chalcites, an important pest of banana crops on the Canary Islands, is usually controlled by chemical insecticides. The present study aimed to evaluate the efficacy of the most prevalent isolate of the Chrysodeixis chalcites nucleopolyhedrovirus (ChchNPV, Baculoviridae as a biological insecticide. Overall the prevalence of ChchNPV infection in C. chalcites populations was 2.3% (103 infected larvae out of 4,438 sampled, but varied from 0-4.8% on Tenerife and was usually low (0-2% on the other islands. On Tenerife, infected larvae were present at 11 out of 17 plantations sampled. The prevalence of infection in larvae on bananas grown under greenhouse structures was significantly higher (3% than in open-field sites (1.4%. The ChchNPV-TF1 isolate was the most abundant and widespread of four genetic variants of the virus. Application of 1.0x109 viral occlusion bodies (OBs/l of ChchNPV-TF1 significantly reduced C. chalcites foliar damage in young banana plants as did commonly used pesticides, both in greenhouse and open-field sites. The insecticidal efficacy of ChchNPV-TF1 was similar to that of indoxacarb and a Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt-based insecticide in one year of trials and similar to Bt in the following year of trails in greenhouse and field crops. However, larvae collected at different time intervals following virus treatments and reared in the laboratory experienced 2-7 fold more mortality than insects from conventional insecticide treatments. This suggests that the acquisition of lethal dose occurred over an extended period (up to 7 days compared to a brief peak in larvae on plants treated with conventional insecticides. These results should prove useful for the registration of a ChchNPV-based insecticide for integrated management of this pest in banana crops on the Canary Islands.

  5. Managing fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), with Bt maize and insecticides in southern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burtet, Leonardo M; Bernardi, Oderlei; Melo, Adriano A; Pes, Maiquel P; Strahl, Thiago T; Guedes, Jerson Vc

    2017-12-01

    Maize plants expressing insecticidal proteins of Bacillus thuringiensis are valuable options for managing fall armyworm (FAW), Spodoptera frugiperda, in Brazil. However, control failures were reported, and therefore insecticides have been used to control this species. Based on these, we evaluated the use of Bt maize and its integration with insecticides against FAW in southern Brazil. Early-planted Agrisure TL, Herculex, Optimum Intrasect and non-Bt maize plants were severely damaged by FAW and required up to three insecticidal sprays. In contrast, YieldGard VT Pro, YieldGard VT Pro 3, PowerCore, Agrisure Viptera and Agrisure Viptera 3 showed little damage and did not require insecticides. Late-planted Bt maize plants showed significant damage by FAW and required up to four sprays, with the exceptions of Agrisure Viptera and Agrisure Viptera 3. Exalt (first and second sprays); Lannate + Premio (first spray) and Avatar (second spray); and Karate + Match (first spray) and Ampligo (second spray) were the most effective insecticides against FAW larvae in Bt and non-Bt maize. Maize plants expressing Cry proteins exhibited FAW control failures in southern Brazil, necessitating insecticidal sprays. In contrast, Bt maize containing the Vip3Aa20 protein remained effective against FAW. However, regardless of the insecticide used against FAW surviving on Bt maize, grain yields were similar. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  6. Neonicotinoid insecticides can serve as inadvertent insect contraceptives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villamar-Bouza, Laura; Bruckner, Selina; Chantawannakul, Panuwan; Gauthier, Laurent; Khongphinitbunjong, Kitiphong; Retschnig, Gina; Troxler, Aline; Vidondo, Beatriz; Neumann, Peter; Williams, Geoffrey R.

    2016-01-01

    There is clear evidence for sublethal effects of neonicotinoid insecticides on non-target ecosystem service-providing insects. However, their possible impact on male insect reproduction is currently unknown, despite the key role of sex. Here, we show that two neonicotinoids (4.5 ppb thiamethoxam and 1.5 ppb clothianidin) significantly reduce the reproductive capacity of male honeybees (drones), Apis mellifera. Drones were obtained from colonies exposed to the neonicotinoid insecticides or controls, and subsequently maintained in laboratory cages until they reached sexual maturity. While no significant effects were observed for male teneral (newly emerged adult) body mass and sperm quantity, the data clearly showed reduced drone lifespan, as well as reduced sperm viability (percentage living versus dead) and living sperm quantity by 39%. Our results demonstrate for the first time that neonicotinoid insecticides can negatively affect male insect reproductive capacity, and provide a possible mechanistic explanation for managed honeybee queen failure and wild insect pollinator decline. The widespread prophylactic use of neonicotinoids may have previously overlooked inadvertent contraceptive effects on non-target insects, thereby limiting conservation efforts. PMID:27466446

  7. Dermal insecticide residues from birds inhabiting an orchard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vyas, N.B.; Spann, J.W.; Hulse, C.S.; Gentry, S.; Borges, S.L.

    2007-01-01

    The US Environmental Protection Agency conducts risk assessments of insecticide applications to wild birds using a model that is limited to the dietary route of exposure. However, free-flying birds are also exposed to insecticides via the inhalation and dermal routes. We measured azinphos-methyl residues on the skin plus feathers and the feet of brown-headed cowbirds (Molothrus ater) in order to quantify dermal exposure to songbirds that entered and inhabited an apple (Malus x domestica) orchard following an insecticide application. Exposure to azinphos-methyl was measured by sampling birds from an aviary that was built around an apple tree. Birds sampled at 36 h and 7-day post-application were placed in the aviary within 1 h after the application whereas birds exposed for 3 days were released into the aviary 4-day post-application. Residues on vegetation and soil were also measured. Azinphos-methyl residues were detected from the skin plus feathers and the feet from all exposure periods. Our results underscore the importance of incorporating dermal exposure into avian pesticide risk assessments.

  8. Differences between organophosphorus insecticides in human self-poisoning: a prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eddleston, Michael; Eyer, Peter; Worek, Franz; Mohamed, Fahim; Senarathna, Lalith; von Meyer, Ludwig; Juszczak, Edmund; Hittarage, Ariyasena; Azhar, Shifa; Dissanayake, Wasantha; Sheriff, M H Rezvi; Szinicz, Ladislaus; Dawson, Andrew H; Buckley, Nick A

    Although more than 100 organophosphorus insecticides exist, organophosphorus poisoning is usually regarded as a single entity, distinguished only by the compound's lethal dose in animals. We aimed to determine whether the three most common organophosphorus insecticides used for self-poisoning in Sri Lanka differ in the clinical features and severity of poisoning they cause. We prospectively studied 802 patients with chlorpyrifos, dimethoate, or fenthion self-poisoning admitted to three hospitals. Blood cholinesterase activity and insecticide concentration were measured to determine the compound and the patients' response to insecticide and therapy. We recorded clinical outcomes for each patient. Compared with chlorpyrifos (35 of 439, 8.0%), the proportion dying was significantly higher with dimethoate (61 of 264, 23.1%, odds ratio [OR] 3.5, 95% CI 2.2-5.4) or fenthion (16 of 99, 16.2%, OR 2.2, 1.2-4.2), as was the proportion requiring endotracheal intubation (66 of 439 for chlorpyrifos, 15.0%; 93 of 264 for dimethoate, 35.2%, OR 3.1, 2.1-4.4; 31 of 99 for fenthion, 31.3%, 2.6, 1.6-4.2). Dimethoate-poisoned patients died sooner than those ingesting other pesticides and often from hypotensive shock. Fenthion poisoning initially caused few symptoms but many patients subsequently required intubation. Acetylcholinesterase inhibited by fenthion or dimethoate responded poorly to pralidoxime treatment compared with chlorpyrifos-inhibited acetylcholinesterase. Organophosphorus insecticide poisoning is not a single entity, with substantial variability in clinical course, response to oximes, and outcome. Animal toxicity does not predict human toxicity since, although chlorpyrifos is generally the most toxic in rats, it is least toxic in people. Each organophosphorus insecticide should be considered as an individual poison and, consequently, patients might benefit from management protocols developed for particular organophosphorus insecticides.

  9. Concentration-mortality responses of Myzus persicae and natural enemies to selected insecticides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacci, Leandro; Rosado, Jander F; Picanço, Marcelo C; Pereira, Eliseu J G; Silva, Gerson A; Martins, Júlio C

    2012-01-01

    The toxicity of six insecticides was determined for the peach-potato aphid, Myzus persicae (Hemiptera: Aphididae), and some of its natural enemies - the predatory beetles Cycloneda sanguinea (Coccinellidae) and Acanthinus sp. (Anthicidae), and the wasp parasitoid Diaeretiella rapae (Aphidiidae). Natural enemies from these groups are important natural biological control agents in a number of agroecosystems, and insecticides potentially safe to these non-target organisms should be identified using standardized tests. Thus, concentration-mortality bioassays were carried out with both the aphid and its natural enemies to assess the toxicity and selectivity of acephate, deltamethrin, dimethoate, methamidophos, methyl parathion, and pirimicarb. The latter insecticide was highly selective to all natural enemies tested, and its LC(90) for M. persicae was 14-fold lower than the field rate recommended for control of the aphid in brassica crops. Methyl parathion also showed selectivity to C. sanguinea and Acanthinus sp., but not to D. rapae. Acephate was the least potent insecticide against M. persicae and was equally or more toxic to the natural enemies relative to the aphid. Pirimicarb and methyl parathion were efficient against M. persicae and selective in favor of two of the natural enemies tested. Acanthinus sp. and C. sanguinea were more tolerant to the insecticides than was the parasitoid D. rapae. This study shows that there are selective insecticides that may be compatible with conservation of natural enemies in brassica crops, which is important practical information to improve integrated pest management systems in these crops.

  10. Influence of Pyrethroid Insecticides on Sodium and Calcium Influx in Neocortical Neurons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pyrethroid insecticides bind to voltage-gated sodium channels and modify their gating kinetics, thereby disrupting neuronal function. Using murine neocortical neurons in primary culture, we have compared the ability of 11 structurally diverse pyrethroid insecticides to evoke Na+ ...

  11. Consequences of co-applying insecticides and fungicides for managing Thrips tabaci (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) on onion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nault, Brian A; Hsu, Cynthia L; Hoepting, Christine A

    2013-07-01

    Insecticides and fungicides are commonly co-applied in a tank mix to protect onions from onion thrips, Thrips tabaci Lindeman, and foliar pathogens. Co-applications reduce production costs, but past research shows that an insecticide's performance can be reduced when co-applied with a fungicide. An evaluation was made of the effects of co-applying spinetoram, abamectin and spirotetramat with commonly used fungicides, with and without the addition of a penetrating surfactant, on onion thrips control in onion fields. Co-applications of insecticides with chlorothalonil fungicides reduced thrips control by 25-48% compared with control levels provided by the insecticides alone in three of five trials. Inclusion of a penetrating surfactant at recommended rates with the insecticide and chlorothalonil fungicide did not consistently overcome this problem. Co-applications of insecticides with other fungicides did not interfere with thrips control. Co-applications of pesticides targeting multiple organisms should be examined closely to ensure that control of each organism is not compromised. To manage onion thrips in onion most effectively, insecticides should be applied with a penetrating surfactant, and should be applied separately from chlorothalonil fungicides. © 2012 Society of Chemical Industry.

  12. Influence of insecticidal plant materials used during storage on sensory attributes and instrumental hardness of dry edible beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunkel, F V; Serugendo, A; Breene, W M; Sriharan, S

    1995-07-01

    Three plant products with known insecticidal properties, a dry extract of flowers of Chrysanthemum cinerariaefolium (Trevir.) Vis. produced in Rwanda, an ethanol extract of seeds of neem, Azadirachta indica A. Juss, and crushed leaves of Tetradenia riparia Hochst Codd, a traditional Rwandan medicine, were mixed with beans, Phaseolus vulgaris L., for storage protection. These plant-protected beans were compared with "off the shelf' beans that were being sold to consumers by the Rwandan National Agricultural Products Marketing Organization (OPROVIA). A trained sensory panel determined that beans treated with neem and C. cinerariaefolium were as acceptable after 8 months storage as those being sold throughout Rwanda by the marketing organization. Beans marketed by this organization were all treated with the standard insecticide application in Rwanda, 0.01% weight/weight pirimiphos methyl in a powder formulation. Instrumental hardness (% hard-to-cook/mean gram force) after 20 months of storage was acceptable for beans stored with neem or with C. cinerariaefolium or with the conventional government application of pirimiphos methyl. Use of either neem or C. cinerariaefolium for storage protection should not affect consumer acceptance of dry beans.

  13. Design, Synthesis, and Insecticidal Activity of Some Novel Diacylhydrazine and Acylhydrazone Derivatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jialong Sun

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In this study a series of diacylhydrazine and acylhydrazone derivatives were designed and synthesized according to the method of active group combination and the principles of aromatic group bioisosterism. The structures of the novel derivatives were determined on the basis on 1H-NMR, IR and ESI-MS spectral data. All of the compounds were evaluated for their in vivo insecticidal activity against the third instar larvae of Spodoptera exigua Hiibner, Helicoverpa armigera Hubner, Plutella xyllostella Linnaeus and Pieris rapae Linne, respectively, at a concentration of 10 mg/L. The results showed that all of the derivatives displayed high insecticidal activity. Most of the compounds presented higher insecticidal activity against S. exigua than the reference compounds tebufenozide, metaflumizone and tolfenpyrad, and approximately identical insecticidal activity against H. armigera, P. xyllostella and P. rapae as the references metaflumizone and tolfenpyrad.

  14. Resistance: a threat to the insecticidal crystal proteins of Bacillus thuringiensis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leah S. Bauer

    1995-01-01

    Insecticidal crystal proteins (also known as d-endotoxins) synthesized by the bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis Berliner (Bt) are the active ingredient of various environmentally friendly insecticides that are 1) highly compatible with natural enemies and other nontarget organisms due to narrow host specificity, 2) harmless to vertebrates, 3) biodegradable in the...

  15. Environmental safety to decomposer invertebrates of azadirachtin (neem) as a systemic insecticide in trees to control emerald ash borer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreutzweiser, David; Thompson, Dean; Grimalt, Susana; Chartrand, Derek; Good, Kevin; Scarr, Taylor

    2011-09-01

    The non-target effects of an azadirachtin-based systemic insecticide used for control of wood-boring insect pests in trees were assessed on litter-dwelling earthworms, leaf-shredding aquatic insects, and microbial communities in terrestrial and aquatic microcosms. The insecticide was injected into the trunks of ash trees at a rate of 0.2 gazadirachtin cm(-1) tree diameter in early summer. At the time of senescence, foliar concentrations in most (65%) leaves where at or below detection (azadirachtin) and the average concentration among leaves overall at senescence was 0.19 mg kg(-1). Leaves from the azadirachtin-treated trees at senescence were added to microcosms and responses by test organisms were compared to those in microcosms containing leaves from non-treated ash trees (controls). No significant reductions were detected among earthworm survival, leaf consumption rates, growth rates, or cocoon production, aquatic insect survival and leaf consumption rates, and among terrestrial and aquatic microbial decomposition of leaf material in comparison to controls. In a further set of microcosm tests containing leaves from intentional high-dose trees, the only significant, adverse effect detected was a reduction in microbial decomposition of leaf material, and only at the highest test concentration (∼6 mg kg(-1)). Results indicated no significant adverse effects on litter-dwelling earthworms or leaf-shredding aquatic insects at concentrations up to at least 30 × the expected field concentrations at operational rates, and at 6 × expected field concentrations for adverse effects on microbial decomposition. We conclude that when azadirachtin is used as a systemic insecticide in trees for control of insect pests such as the invasive wood-boring beetle, emerald ash borer, resultant foliar concentrations in senescent leaf material are likely to pose little risk of harm to decomposer invertebrates. Crown Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Mechanistic modeling of insecticide risks to breeding birds in North American agroecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Insecticide usage in the United States is ubiquitous in urban, suburban, and rural environments. In evaluating data for an insecticide registration application and for registration review, scientists at the United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) assess the fate of ...

  17. [Susceptibility of natural populations of dengue vector to insecticides in Colombia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santacoloma, Liliana; Chaves, Bernardo; Brochero, Helena Luisa

    2012-09-01

    Physiological resistance of natural population of Aedes aegypti to insecticides contribute to the decreased efficacy of chemical control as a main control strategy during dengue outbreaks. The susceptibility status of Ae. aegypti was assessed for the carbamate propoxur, the adulticide malathion and the larvicide temephos on 13 natural populations of Ae. aegypti immature forms were taken from 8 Colombian localities. These included the following: Bucaramanga (1), Sabana de Torres (2), Girardot (2), La Mesa (2), Villavicencio (2), Puerto López (2), San José del Guaviare (1) and Florencia (1). Susceptibility tests mainly consisted of the standardized bioassay outlined by WHO (1981) and CDC bottles (1998). Colorimetric tests were undertaken to determine enzyme levels possibly responsible for the reduction of susceptibility to organophosphate and carbamate insecticides. All specimens demonstrated susceptibility to malathion and propoxur insecticides. Four of the 13 populations revealed susceptibility to the temephos larvicide. Seven of 11 populations showed a limited increase in values for nonspecific esterase enzymes. The Bucaramanga population was the only one which showed an increase in the cytochrome P450 monooxygenases enzymes. Neither population was found with modified acetilcolinesterase. The widespread susceptibility to organophosphates used as adulticides indicated that malathion, the most used insecticide in Colombia, remains effective in interrupting the transmission of dengue. Physiological resistance to insecticides occurring in communities of a single township proved to be a localized phenomenon.

  18. Organochlorine insecticide poisoning in Golden Langurs Trachypithecus geei

    OpenAIRE

    D.C. Pathak

    2011-01-01

    Organochlorine insecticide poisoning was recorded in three Golden Langurs (Trachypithecus geei) in Chakrashila Wildlife Sanctuary (CWS) in Kokrajhar district of Assam during the month of December, 2008. The poisoning was due to prolonged ingestion of rubber plant leaves sprayed with the insecticide in a rubber plantation adjacent to the sanctuary. Though no specific gross lesions were observed, histopathologically, centilobular hepatic necrosis, mild renal degeneration, necrotic enteritis, pu...

  19. From intervention to impact: modelling the potential mortality impact achievable by different long-lasting, insecticide-treated net delivery strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Okell Lucy C

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The current target of universal access to long-lasting, insecticide-treated nets (LLIN is 80% coverage to reduce malaria deaths by 75% by 2015. So far, campaigns have been the main channel for large-scale delivery of LLINs, however the World Health Organization has recommended that equal priority should be given to delivery via routine antenatal care (ANC and immunization systems (EPI to target pregnant women and children from birth. These various channels of LLIN delivery are targeted to children of different ages. Since risk of mortality varies with child age and LLIN effectiveness declines with net age, it was hypothesized that the age at which a child receives a new LLIN, and therefore the delivery channel, is important in optimizing the health impact of a net. Methods A simple dynamic mathematical model was developed of delivery and impact of LLINs among children under five years of age and their household members, incorporating data on age-specific malaria death rates, net use by household structure, and net efficacy over time. Results The presented analysis finds that supplementing a universal mass campaign with extra ANC delivery would achieve a 1.4 times higher mortality reduction than campaign delivery alone, reflecting that children born in the years between campaigns would otherwise have access to old nets or no nets at an age of high risk. The relative advantage of supplementary ANC delivery is still present though smaller if malaria transmission levels are lower or if there is a strong mass effect achieved by mass campaigns. Conclusion These results indicate that LLIN delivery policies must take into account the age of greatest malaria risk. Emphasis should be placed on supporting routine delivery of LLINs to young children as well as campaigns.

  20. Synergistic Combinations of a Pyrethroid Insecticide and an Emulsifiable Oil Formulation of Beauveria bassiana to Overcome Insecticide Resistance in Listronotus maculicollis (Coleoptera: Curculionidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Shaohui; Kostromytska, Olga S; Koppenhöfer, Albrecht M

    2017-08-01

    The annual bluegrass weevil, Listronotus maculicollis (Kirby), is a major pest of golf course turf in eastern North America and has become particularly problematic owing to widespread development of insecticide resistance. As an alternative option to manage resistant adult L. maculicollis, we explored combinations of the pyrethroid insecticide bifenthrin with an emulsifiable oil formulation of the entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana strain GHA (Bb ES). Combinations synergistically enhanced mortality in both insecticide-susceptible and insecticide-resistant L. maculicollis adults in the laboratory when bifenthrin was used at LC50s for each population. To determine the component behind the synergism, technical spores of B. bassiana GHA and the emulsifiable oil carrier in the fungal formulation were tested separately or in combination with bifenthrin. In both separate and combined applications, the emulsifiable oil carrier was responsible for high mortality within 3 d after treatment and interacted synergistically with bifenthrin, whereas fungus-induced mortality started later. Strong synergism was also observed in three field experiments with a relatively resistant L. maculicollis population. Combinations of Bb ES and bifenthrin hold promise as an effective L. maculicollis management tool, particularly of pyrethroid-resistant populations. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  1. Comparison of the Insecticidal Characteristics of Commercially Available Plant Essential Oils Against Aedes aegypti and Anopheles gambiae (Diptera: Culicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norris, Edmund J; Gross, Aaron D; Dunphy, Brendan M; Bessette, Steven; Bartholomay, Lyric; Coats, Joel R

    2015-09-01

    Aedes aegypti and Anopheles gambiae are two mosquito species that represent significant threats to global public health as vectors of Dengue virus and malaria parasites, respectively. Although mosquito populations have been effectively controlled through the use of synthetic insecticides, the emergence of widespread insecticide-resistance in wild mosquito populations is a strong motivation to explore new insecticidal chemistries. For these studies, Ae. aegypti and An. gambiae were treated with commercially available plant essential oils via topical application. The relative toxicity of each essential oil was determined, as measured by the 24-h LD(50) and percentage knockdown at 1 h, as compared with a variety of synthetic pyrethroids. For Ae. aegypti, the most toxic essential oil (patchouli oil) was ∼1,700-times less toxic than the least toxic synthetic pyrethroid, bifenthrin. For An. gambiae, the most toxic essential oil (patchouli oil) was ∼685-times less toxic than the least toxic synthetic pyrethroid. A wide variety of toxicities were observed among the essential oils screened. Also, plant essential oils were analyzed via gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) to identify the major components in each of the samples screened in this study. While the toxicities of these plant essential oils were demonstrated to be lower than those of the synthetic pyrethroids tested, the large amount of GC/MS data and bioactivity data for each essential oil presented in this study will serve as a valuable resource for future studies exploring the insecticidal quality of plant essential oils. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  2. Pest insect olfaction in an insecticide-contaminated environment: info-disruption or hormesis effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tricoire-Leignel, Hélène; Thany, Steeve Hervé; Gadenne, Christophe; Anton, Sylvia

    2012-01-01

    Most animals, including pest insects, live in an "odor world" and depend strongly on chemical stimuli to get information on their biotic and abiotic environment. Although integrated pest management strategies including the use of insect growth regulators (IGRs) are increasingly developed, most insect pest treatments rely on neurotoxic chemicals. These molecules are known to disrupt synaptic transmission, affecting therefore sensory systems. The wide-spread use of neurotoxic insecticides and the growing use of IGRs result in residual accumulation of low concentrations in the environment. These insecticide residues could act as an "info-disruptor" by modifying the chemical communication system, and therefore decrease chances of reproduction in target insects. However, residues can also induce a non-expected hormesis effect by enhancing reproduction abilities. Low insecticide doses might thus induce adaptive processes in the olfactory pathway of target insects, favoring the development of resistance. The effect of sublethal doses of insecticides has mainly been studied in beneficial insects such as honeybees. We review here what is known on the effects of sublethal doses of insecticides on the olfactory system of insect pests.

  3. Pest insect olfaction in an insecticide-contaminated environment : info-disruption or hormesis effect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hélène eTricoire-Leignel

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Most animals, including pest insects, live in an odour world and depend strongly on chemical stimuli to get information on their biotic and abiotic environment. Although integrated pest management strategies including the use of insect growth regulators (IGRs are increasingly developed, most insect pest treatments rely on neurotoxic chemicals. These molecules are known to disrupt synaptic transmission, affecting therefore sensory systems. The wide-spread use of neurotoxic insecticides and the growing use of IGRs result in residual accumulation of low concentrations in the environment. These insecticide residues could act as an info-disruptor by modifying the chemical communication system, and therefore decrease chances of reproduction in target insects. However, residues can also induce a non-expected hormesis effect by enhancing reproduction abilities. Low insecticide doses might thus induce adaptive processes in the olfactory pathway of target insects, favouring the development of resistance. The effect of sublethal doses of insecticides has mainly been studied in beneficial insects such as honeybees. We review here what is known on the effects of sublethal doses of insecticides on the olfactory system of insect pests.

  4. Blended Refuge and Insect Resistance Management for Insecticidal Corn

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crespo, Andre L B; Pan, Zaiqi; Crain, Philip R; Thompson, Stephen D; Pilcher, Clinton D; Sethi, Amit

    2018-01-01

    Abstract In this review, we evaluate the intentional mixing or blending of insecticidal seed with refuge seed for managing resistance by insects to insecticidal corn (Zea mays). We first describe the pest biology and farming practices that will contribute to weighing trade-offs between using block refuges and blended refuges. Case studies are presented to demonstrate how the trade-offs will differ in different systems. We compare biological aspects of several abstract models to guide the reader through the history of modeling, which has played a key role in the promotion or denigration of blending in various scientific debates about insect resistance management for insecticidal crops. We conclude that the use of blended refuge should be considered on a case-by-case basis after evaluation of insect biology, environment, and farmer behavior. For Diabrotica virgifera virgifera, Ostrinia nubilalis, and Helicoverpa zea in the United States, blended refuge provides similar, if not longer, delays in the evolution of resistance compared to separate block refuges. PMID:29220481

  5. Comparative cost analysis of insecticide-treated net delivery strategies: sales supported by social marketing and free distribution through antenatal care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Allegri, Manuela; Marschall, Paul; Flessa, Steffen; Tiendrebéogo, Justin; Kouyaté, Bocar; Jahn, Albrecht; Müller, Olaf

    2010-01-01

    Insecticide-treated nets (ITNs) are effective in substantially reducing malaria transmission. Still, ITN coverage in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) remains extremely low. Policy makers are concerned with identifying the most suitable delivery mechanism to achieve rapid yet sustainable increases in ITN coverage. Little is known, however, on the comparative costs of alternative ITN distribution strategies. This paper aimed to fill this gap in knowledge by developing such a comparative cost analysis, looking at the cost per ITN distributed for two alternative interventions: subsidized sales supported by social marketing and free distribution to pregnant women through antenatal care (ANC). The study was conducted in rural Burkina Faso, where the two interventions were carried out alongside one another in 2006/07. Cost information was collected prospectively to derive both a financial analysis adopting a provider's perspective and an economic analysis adopting a societal perspective. The average financial cost per ITN distributed was US$8.08 and US$7.21 for sales supported by social marketing and free distribution through ANC, respectively. The average economic cost per ITN distributed was US$4.81 for both interventions. Contrary to common belief, costs did not differ substantially between the two interventions. Due to the district's ability to rely fully on the use of existing resources, financial costs associated with free ITN distribution through ANC were in fact even lower than those associated with the social marketing campaign. This represents an encouraging finding for SSA governments and points to the possibility to invest in programmes to favour free ITN distribution through existing health facilities. Given restricted budgets, however, free distribution programmes are unlikely to be feasible.

  6. Screening Test for Detection of Leptinotarsa decemlineata (Say Sensitivity to Insecticides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dušanka Inđić

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In 2009, the sensitivity of 15 field populations of Colorado potato beetle (Leptinotarsadecemlineata Say. - CPB was assessed to chlorpyrifos, cypermethrin, thiamethoxam and fipronil,four insecticides which are mostly used for its control in Serbia. Screening test that allows rapidassessment of sensitivity of overwintered adults to insecticides was performed. Insecticideswere applied at label rates, and two, five and 10 fold higher rates by soaking method (5 sec.Mortality was assessed after 72h. From 15 monitored populations of CPB, two were sensitiveto label rate of chlorpyrifos, one was slightly resistant, 11 were resistant and one populationwas highly resistant. Concerning cypermethrin, two populations were sensitive, two slightlyresistant, five were resistant and six highly resistant. Highly sensitive to thiamethoxam labelrate were 12 populations, while three were sensitive. In the case of fipronil applied at label rate,two populations were highly sensitive, six sensitive, one slightly resistant and six were resistant.The application of insecticides at higher rates (2, 5 and 10 fold, that is justified only in bioassays,provided a rapid insight into sensitivity of field populations of CPB to insecticides.

  7. Spiroindolines identify the vesicular acetylcholine transporter as a novel target for insecticide action.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ann Sluder

    Full Text Available The efficacy of all major insecticide classes continues to be eroded by the development of resistance mediated, in part, by selection of alleles encoding insecticide insensitive target proteins. The discovery of new insecticide classes acting at novel protein binding sites is therefore important for the continued protection of the food supply from insect predators, and of human and animal health from insect borne disease. Here we describe a novel class of insecticides (Spiroindolines encompassing molecules that combine excellent activity against major agricultural pest species with low mammalian toxicity. We confidently assign the vesicular acetylcholine transporter as the molecular target of Spiroindolines through the combination of molecular genetics in model organisms with a pharmacological approach in insect tissues. The vesicular acetylcholine transporter can now be added to the list of validated insecticide targets in the acetylcholine signalling pathway and we anticipate that this will lead to the discovery of novel molecules useful in sustaining agriculture. In addition to their potential as insecticides and nematocides, Spiroindolines represent the only other class of chemical ligands for the vesicular acetylcholine transporter since those based on the discovery of vesamicol over 40 years ago, and as such, have potential to provide more selective tools for PET imaging in the diagnosis of neurodegenerative disease. They also provide novel biochemical tools for studies of the function of this protein family.

  8. ASGDB: a specialised genomic resource for interpreting Anopheles sinensis insecticide resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Dan; Xu, Yang; Zhang, Cheng; Hu, Meng-Xue; Huang, Yun; Sun, Yan; Ma, Lei; Shen, Bo; Zhu, Chang-Liang

    2018-01-10

    Anopheles sinensis is an important malaria vector in Southeast Asia. The widespread emergence of insecticide resistance in this mosquito species poses a serious threat to the efficacy of malaria control measures, particularly in China. Recently, the whole-genome sequencing and de novo assembly of An. sinensis (China strain) has been finished. A series of insecticide-resistant studies in An. sinensis have also been reported. There is a growing need to integrate these valuable data to provide a comprehensive database for further studies on insecticide-resistant management of An. sinensis. A bioinformatics database named An. sinensis genome database (ASGDB) was built. In addition to being a searchable database of published An. sinensis genome sequences and annotation, ASGDB provides in-depth analytical platforms for further understanding of the genomic and genetic data, including visualization of genomic data, orthologous relationship analysis, GO analysis, pathway analysis, expression analysis and resistance-related gene analysis. Moreover, ASGDB provides a panoramic view of insecticide resistance studies in An. sinensis in China. In total, 551 insecticide-resistant phenotypic and genotypic reports on An. sinensis distributed in Chinese malaria-endemic areas since the mid-1980s have been collected, manually edited in the same format and integrated into OpenLayers map-based interface, which allows the international community to assess and exploit the high volume of scattered data much easier. The database has been given the URL: http://www.asgdb.org /. ASGDB was built to help users mine data from the genome sequence of An. sinensis easily and effectively, especially with its advantages in insecticide resistance surveillance and control.

  9. Impact of neonicotinoid insecticides on natural enemies in greenhouse and interiorscape environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cloyd, Raymond A; Bethke, James A

    2011-01-01

    The neonicotinoid insecticides imidacloprid, acetamiprid, dinotefuran, thiamethoxam and clothianidin are commonly used in greenhouses and/or interiorscapes (plant interiorscapes and conservatories) to manage a wide range of plant-feeding insects such as aphids, mealybugs and whiteflies. However, these systemic insecticides may also be harmful to natural enemies, including predators and parasitoids. Predatory insects and mites may be adversely affected by neonicotinoid systemic insecticides when they: (1) feed on pollen, nectar or plant tissue contaminated with the active ingredient; (2) consume the active ingredient of neonicotinoid insecticides while ingesting plant fluids; (3) feed on hosts (prey) that have consumed leaves contaminated with the active ingredient. Parasitoids may be affected negatively by neonicotinoid insecticides because foliar, drench or granular applications may decrease host population levels so that there are not enough hosts to attack and thus sustain parasitoid populations. Furthermore, host quality may be unacceptable for egg laying by parasitoid females. In addition, female parasitoids that host feed may inadvertently ingest a lethal concentration of the active ingredient or a sublethal dose that inhibits foraging or egg laying. There are, however, issues that require further consideration, such as: the types of plant and flower that accumulate active ingredients, and the concentrations in which they are accumulated; the influence of flower age on the level of exposure of natural enemies to the active ingredient; the effect of neonicotinoid metabolites produced within the plant. As such, the application of neonicotinoid insecticides in conjunction with natural enemies in protected culture and interiorscape environments needs further investigation. Copyright © 2010 Society of Chemical Industry.

  10. Subsidized sales of insecticide-treated nets in Afghan refugee camps demonstrate the feasibility of a transition from humanitarian aid towards sustainability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kolaczinski Jan H

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Introducing sustainability and self-reliance is essential in chronic humanitarian emergencies before financial assistance is phased out. In Pakistan-based Afghan refugee camps, this was attempted through shifting from indoor residual spraying (IRS to the subsidized sale of insecticide-treated nets (ITNs for prevention of malaria and anthroponotic cutaneous leishmaniasis (ACL. Here we outline the strategy and document the progress to provide guidance for replication of similar approaches in other chronic refugee situations. Methods The operational monitoring data presented were collected through: (i two surveys of knowledge, attitude and practice (KAP; (ii routine sales reporting of health-care providers; (iii records completed during field visits; and (iv registers used during annual re-treatment campaigns. Results From 2000 until 2003, subsidized ITN sales expanded from 17 to 44 camps. Based on 2003 sales records, maximum coverage from subsidized sales exceeded 50% in 13 camps and 20% in an additional 14 camps. Free annual treatment campaigns showed that many refugees were in possession of non-programme nets, which were either locally-made or had leaked from an ITN programme in Afghanistan. Estimated re-treatment coverage of sold and existing nets through annual campaigns exceeded 43% in all camps and was above 70% in the majority. Conclusion Subsidized sales of ITNs have effectively introduced the components of sustainability and self-reliance to the prevention of malaria and ACL in Afghan refugee camps. Similar approaches should be investigated in other chronic refugee situations to discourage expectations of continuing humanitarian donations that cannot be fulfilled.

  11. Plant compounds insecticide activity against Coleoptera pests of stored products

    OpenAIRE

    MOREIRA, M.D.; PICANÇO, M.C.; BARBOSA, L.C. de A.; GUEDES, R.N.C.; CAMPOS, M.R. de; SILVA, G.A.; MARTINS, J.C.

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this work was to screen plants with insecticide activity, in order to isolate, identify and assess the bioactivity of insecticide compounds present in these plants, against Coleoptera pests of stored products: Oryzaephilus surinamensis L. (Silvanidae), Rhyzopertha dominica F. (Bostrichidae) and Sitophilus zeamais Mots. (Curculionidae). The plant species used were: basil (Ocimum selloi Benth.), rue (Ruta graveolens L.), lion's ear (Leonotis nepetifolia (L.) R.Br.), jimson weed...

  12. Efficacy of a long-lasting bifenthrin-treated net against horticultural pests and its compatibility with the predatory mite Amblyseius swirskii and the parasitic wasp Eretmocerus mundus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández, Maria Del Mar; Colomer, Ignacio; Medina, Pilar; Fereres, Alberto; Del Estal, Pedro; Viñuela, Elisa

    2017-08-01

    Insecticide-treated nets (ITNs) have been investigated recently for their use in agriculture. Depending on the insecticide, the hole size and the way they are produced, these nets can target different pests and therefore they could be interesting options for use in integrated pest management (IPM). As the information on their compatibility with beneficial fauna is practically negligible, in this work we have tested the compatibility of an experimental bifenthrin long-lasting insecticide-treated net (LLITN) with Amblyseius swirskii and Eretmocerus mundus, important natural enemies of whiteflies and thrips, under laboratory, semi-field and commercial greenhouse conditions. In the laboratory, the treated net was very deleterious to adults of both natural enemies, after 72 h exposure. However, in choice tests with Y-tubes, both natural enemies were neither attracted nor repelled by the treated net and no short-term mortality was detected in individuals that had crossed it. No deleterious effects on the E. mundus beneficial capacity were detected in semi-field trials. In field trials, the LLITN proved to be compatible with A. swirskii while decreasing pest densities. Bifenthrin LLITN studied could be a valuable method for reducing pest population infestations in IPM programmes while being compatible with biocontrol agents. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  13. Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometric Analysis and Insecticidal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    HP

    Original Research Article. Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometric Analysis and ... into a natural fumigant/insecticide for the control of stored product insects. Keywords: Mallotus ..... stability as well as reduce cost. ACKNOWLEDGEMENT.

  14. Environmental risk assessment of registered insecticides in Iran using Environmental Impact Quotient (EIQ index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Moinoddini

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In the last decades, pesticides have been used extensively, in order to control pests and plant diseases, but negative impacts of pesticides caused several environmental problems and put human health in danger. In order to decrease environmental hazards of pesticide, risk of pesticide application should be measured briefly and precisely. In this study environmental impacts of registered insecticides in Iran which applied in 2001-2002, 2003-2004, 2004-2005, are considered using environmental impact quotient (EIQ index. Results showed that among considered insecticides, Imidacloprid, Fipronil and Tiodicarb, potentially (EIQ were the most hazardous insecticides, respectively. Taking rate of application and active ingredient of insecticide in to account, environmental impact (practical toxicity per cultivated hectare (EIQ Field of each provinces were investigated. In this regard, among different province of Iran, Kerman, Mazandaran and Golestan were in danger more than the others, respectively. Besides, considering the amount of agricultural production in provinces, environmental impact per ton of production were calculated for each provinces which three northern provinces of Mazandaran, Golestan and Guilan, respectively endure the most environmental impact per ton of production. Eventually based on environmental impact quotient, results demonstrated that majority of environmental impacts of insecticide in Iran were due to inadequate knowledge and also overuse of a few number of insecticides. Therefore, by improving knowledge about environmental impact of pesticides and also developing environmental friendly and ecological based methods, negative environmental impacts of insecticides will be reduced significantly.

  15. Calcium uptake by sarcoplasmic reticulum in the presence of organophosphorus insecticide methyl-parathion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blasiak, J.

    1995-01-01

    Using an isotope labelling technique it has been shown that an organophosphorus insecticide methyl parathion (0,0-diethyl 0-4-nitrophenyl phosphorothionate) depressed calcium uptake by sarcoplasmic reticulum isolated from rabbit hind leg muscle. The effect was significant for insecticide concentrations of 50 and 100 μM and was dose-dependent. The insecticide exerted a more pronounced effect on calcium uptake in the presence of ATP in the reticulum environment than in the absence of ATP. The inhibitory action of methyl parathion on Ca 2+ accumulation by sarcoplasmic reticulum can cause a rise in myoplasmic free Ca 2+ , the essential prerequisite for contracture activation. Because methyl parathion, as well as other organophosphorus insecticides, is primarily neurotoxic, evidence of non-specific effect could be important for assessing its environmental safety. (author). 20 refs, 2 figs

  16. Aedes aegypti resistance development to commonly used insecticides in Jakarta, Indonesia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Penny Humaidah Hamid

    Full Text Available Aedes aegypti is the primary vector of various relevant arthropod-borne viral infectious diseases worldwide. The mosquito control is still mainly performed by using insecticides but their effectiveness is increasingly questioned nowadays. We here conducted a study on Ae. aegypti resistance development towards several commonly used insecticides in the capital city of Jakarta, Indonesia. In order to achieve this goal, Ae. aegypti eggs from Jakarta were collected with ovitraps and hatched in the insectary of the Gadjah Mada University, Indonesia. The F0 generations were used for WHO resistance tests and knockdown resistance (kdr assays. Presented results clearly showed that there was resistance development of Ae. aegypti populations to the here tested pyrethroid insecticides (i. e. permethrin. Observed mortalities were less than 90% with highest resistance against 0.75% permethrin concentrations. Furthermore, a significant association of V1016G gene mutations with resistance phenotypes to 0.75% permethrin was observed. Nevertheless, the F1534C mutation did not show a significant correlation to resistance development. In conclusion, our results show that populations of Ae. aegypti mosquitoes within the city of Jakarta have developed resistance against several routinely used pyrethroid insecticides in local performed control programs. Thus, the regular verification/assessment of resistance development status will hopefully help in the future to assist local public health authorities in their mosquito control programs by recommending and managing the rotation of different routinely used insecticides with diverse effector mechanisms in order to delay Ae. aegypti resistance development.

  17. Insecticidal activity and expression of cytochrome P450 family 4 genes in Aedes albopictus after exposure to pyrethroid mosquito coils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avicor, Silas W; Wajidi, Mustafa F F; El-Garj, Fatma M A; Jaal, Zairi; Yahaya, Zary S

    2014-10-01

    Mosquito coils are insecticides commonly used for protection against mosquitoes due to their toxic effects on mosquito populations. These effects on mosquitoes could induce the expression of metabolic enzymes in exposed populations as a counteractive measure. Cytochrome P450 family 4 (CYP4) are metabolic enzymes associated with a wide range of biological activities including insecticide resistance. In this study, the efficacies of three commercial mosquito coils with different pyrethroid active ingredients were assessed and their potential to induce the expression of CYP4 genes in Aedes albopictus analyzed by real-time quantitative PCR. Coils containing 0.3 % D-allethrin and 0.005 % metofluthrin exacted profound toxic effects on Ae. albopictus, inducing high mortalities (≥90 %) compared to the 0.2 % D-allethrin reference coil. CYP4H42 and CYP4H43 expressions were significantly higher in 0.3 % D-allethrin treated mosquitoes compared to the other treated populations. Short-term (KT50) exposure to mosquito coils induced significantly higher expression of both genes in 0.005 % metofluthrin exposed mosquitoes. These results suggest the evaluated products provided better protection than the reference coil; however, they also induced the expression of metabolic genes which could impact negatively on personal protection against mosquito.

  18. Effects of irrigation levels on interactions among Lygus hesperus (Hemiptera: Miridae), insecticides, and predators in cotton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asiimwe, Peter; Naranjo, Steven E; Ellsworth, Peter C

    2014-04-01

    Variation in plant quality and natural enemy abundance plays an important role in insect population dynamics. In manipulative field studies, we evaluated the impact of varying irrigation levels and insecticide type on densities of Lygus hesperus Knight and the arthropod predator community in cotton. Three watering levels were established via irrigations timed according to three levels of percent soil water depletion (SWD): 20, 40, or 60, where 40% SWD is considered standard grower practice, 60% represents a deficit condition likely to impose plant productivity losses, and 20% represents surplus conditions with likely consequences on excessive vegetative plant production. The two key L. hesperus insecticides used were the broad-spectrum insecticide acephate and the selective insecticide flonicamid, along with an untreated check. We hypothesized that densities of L. hesperus and its associated predators would be elevated at higher irrigation levels and that insecticides would differentially impact L. hesperus and predator dynamics depending on their selectivity. L. hesperus were more abundant at the higher irrigation level (20% SWD) but the predator densities were unaffected by irrigation levels. Both L. hesperus and its predators were affected by the selectivity of the insecticide with highest L. hesperus densities and lowest predator abundance where the broad spectrum insecticide (acephate) was used. There were no direct interactions between irrigation level and insecticides, indicating that insecticide effects on L. hesperus and its predators were not influenced by the irrigation levels used here. The implications of these findings on the overall ecology of insect-plant dynamics and yield in cotton are discussed.

  19. Flow regimes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kh'yuitt, G.

    1980-01-01

    An introduction into the problem of two-phase flows is presented. Flow regimes arizing in two-phase flows are described, and classification of these regimes is given. Structures of vertical and horizontal two-phase flows and a method of their identification using regime maps are considered. The limits of this method application are discussed. The flooding phenomena and phenomena of direction change (flow reversal) of the flow and interrelation of these phenomena as well as transitions from slug regime to churn one and from churn one to annular one in vertical flows are described. Problems of phase transitions and equilibrium are discussed. Flow regimes in tubes where evaporating liquid is running, are described [ru

  20. Flupyradifurone: a brief profile of a new butenolide insecticide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nauen, Ralf; Jeschke, Peter; Velten, Robert; Beck, Michael E; Ebbinghaus-Kintscher, Ulrich; Thielert, Wolfgang; Wölfel, Katharina; Haas, Matthias; Kunz, Klaus; Raupach, Georg

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND The development and commercialisation of new chemical classes of insecticides for efficient crop protection measures against destructive invertebrate pests is of utmost importance to overcome resistance issues and to secure sustainable crop yields. Flupyradifurone introduced here is the first representative of the novel butenolide class of insecticides active against various sucking pests and showing an excellent safety profile. RESULTS The discovery of flupyradifurone was inspired by the butenolide scaffold in naturally occurring stemofoline. Flupyradifurone acts reversibly as an agonist on insect nicotinic acetylcholine receptors but is structurally different from known agonists, as shown by chemical similarity analysis. It shows a fast action on a broad range of sucking pests, as demonstrated in laboratory bioassays, and exhibits excellent field efficacy on a number of crops with different application methods, including foliar, soil, seed treatment and drip irrigation. It is readily taken up by plants and translocated in the xylem, as demonstrated by phosphor imaging analysis. Flupyradifurone is active on resistant pests, including cotton whiteflies, and is not metabolised by recombinantly expressed CYP6CM1, a cytochrome P450 conferring metabolic resistance to neonicotinoids and pymetrozine. CONCLUSION The novel butenolide insecticide flupyradifurone shows unique properties and will become a new tool for integrated pest management around the globe, as demonstrated by its insecticidal, ecotoxicological and safety profile. © 2014 The Authors. Pest Management Science published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Society of Chemical Industry. PMID:25351824

  1. Assessing Insecticide Susceptibility of Laboratory Lutzomyia longipalpis and Phlebotomus papatasi Sand Flies (Diptera: Psychodidae: Phlebotominae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denlinger, David S; Lozano-Fuentes, Saul; Lawyer, Phillip G; Black, William C; Bernhardt, Scott A

    2015-09-01

    Chemical insecticides are effective for controlling Lutzomyia and Phlebotomus sand fly (Diptera: Psychodidae) vectors of Leishmania parasites. However, repeated use of certain insecticides has led to tolerance and resistance. The objective of this study was to determine lethal concentrations (LCs) and lethal exposure times (LTs) to assess levels of susceptibility of laboratory Lutzomyia longipalpis (Lutz and Nieva) and Phlebotomus papatasi (Scopoli) to 10 insecticides using a modified version of the World Health Organization (WHO) exposure kit assay and Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) bottle bioassay. Sand flies were exposed to insecticides coated on the interior of 0.5-gallon and 1,000-ml glass bottles. Following exposure, the flies were allowed to recover for 24 h, after which mortality was recorded. From dose-response survival curves for L. longipalpis and P. papatasi generated with the QCal software, LCs causing 50, 90, and 95% mortality were determined for each insecticide. The LCs and LTs from this study will be useful as baseline reference points for future studies using the CDC bottle bioassays to assess insecticide susceptibility of sand fly populations in the field. There is a need for a larger repository of sand fly insecticide susceptibility data from the CDC bottle bioassays, including a range of LCs and LTs for more sand fly species with more insecticides. Such a repository would be a valuable tool for vector management. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  2. Pyrethrum flowers and pyrethroid insecticides.

    OpenAIRE

    Casida, J E

    1980-01-01

    The natural pyrethrins from the daisy-like flower, Tanacetum or Chrysanthemum cinerariifolium, are nonpersistent insecticides of low toxicity to mammals. Synthetic analogs or pyrethroids, evolved from the natural compounds by successive isosteric modifications, are more potent and stable and are the newest important class of crop protection chemicals. They retain many of the favorable properties of the pyrethrins.

  3. Insecticidal activity of Trichilia claussenii (Meliaceae) fruits against Spodoptera frugiperda

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nebo, Liliane; Matos, Andrea Pereira; Vieira, Paulo Cezar; Fernandes, Joao Batista; Silva, Maria Fatima das Gracas Fernandes da; Rodrigues, Ricardo Ribeiro

    2010-01-01

    An evaluation of the insecticidal activity of the fruits extracts of Trichilia claussenii was carried out and the methanol extract revealed to have strong insecticidal activity. The fractionation of methanol extract of T. claussenii seeds bioassay-guided against Spodoptera frugiperda has led to the identification of the ω-phenylalkyl and alkenyl fatty acids as active compounds in this extract. The structures of the compounds were proposed by spectroscopic analysis and comparison with literature data. (author)

  4. Effect of permethrin-treated bed nets on the spatial distribution of malaria vectors in western Kenya

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gimnig, John E.; Kolczak, Margarette S.; Hightower, Allen W.; Vulule, John M.; Schoute, Erik; Kamau, Luna; Phillips-Howard, Penelope A.; ter Kuile, Feiko O.; Nahlen, Bernard L.; Hawley, William A.

    2003-01-01

    The effect of insecticide (permethrin)-treated bed nets (ITNs) on the spatial distribution of malaria vectors in neighboring villages lacking ITNs was studied during a randomized controlled trial of ITNs in western Kenya. There was a trend of decreased abundance of Anopheles gambiae with decreasing

  5. Impact of planting dates and insecticide strategies for managing crucifer flea beetles (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) in spring-planted canola.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knodel, Janet J; Olson, Denise L; Hanson, Bryan K; Henson, Robert A

    2008-06-01

    Integration of cultural practices, such as planting date with insecticide-based strategies, was investigated to determine best management strategy for flea beetles (Phyllotreta spp.) (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) in canola (Brassica napus L.). We studied the effect of two spring planting dates of B. napus and different insecticide-based management strategies on the feeding injury caused by fleabeetles in North Dakota during 2002-2003. Adult beetle peak emergence usually coincided with the emergence of the early planted canola, and this resulted in greater feeding injury in the early planted canola than later planted canola. Use of late-planted canola may have limited potential for cultural control of flea beetle, because late-planted canola is at risk for yield loss due to heat stress during flowering. Flea beetle injury ratings declined when 1) the high rate of insecticide seed treatment plus a foliar insecticide applied 21 d after planting was used, 2) the high rate of insecticide seed treatment only was used, or 3) two foliar insecticide sprays were applied. These insecticide strategies provided better protection than the low rates of insecticide seed treatments or a single foliar spray, especially in areas with moderate-to-high flea beetle populations. The foliar spray on top of the seed treatment controlled later-emerging flea beetles as the seed treatment residual was diminishing and the crop became vulnerable to feeding injury. The best insecticide strategy for management of flea beetle was the high rate of insecticide seed treatment plus a foliar insecticide applied at 21 d after planting, regardless of planting date.

  6. Insecticidal activity of neem oil against Gyropsylla spegazziniana (Hemiptera: Psyllidae nymphs on Paraguay tea seedlings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. Formentini

    Full Text Available Abstract Gyropsylla spegazziniana (Paraguay tea ampul is one of the most important pests of Paraguay tea plants, and prohibition of synthetic insecticide use for control of this pest has led to the search for alternative methods. This laboratory study aimed to compare different control strategies for G. spegazziniana, utilizing a commercial neem seed oil product. Paraguay tea seedlings were treated with neem oil solution both pre- and post-infestation with 5th instar nymphs. The systemic action of neem oil was also evaluated by treating plant soil with the neem oil solution, followed by transfer of the insects to plants 24 h post-treatment. Spray treatments were effective against the pest, especially post-infestation (80% mortality, demonstrating the potential of neem oil for control of the Paraguay tea ampul. No significant effects were observed with respect to systemic activity.

  7. Pollution Of Insecticide Residues In PPTN Pasar Jumat Area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Syahrir, Ulfa T.; Chairul, Sofnie M.

    2000-01-01

    Measurement of insecticide residue pollution from some organochlorin and organo-phosphat in soil and water samples were carried out 1999-2000 periode. The aim of the measurement was to get information about impact of laboratorium activity on insecticide contents in PPTN PASAR JUMAT. Gas chromatograph with electron capture and flame ionization detector were used to measure the pesticide content. Result of the measurement in PPTN area showed that organo-chlorin were alpha BHC, endosulfan band DDT and organo-phosphat were klorphyriphos and malation and were lower than tolerance level

  8. Sterility and mating competitiveness of male ceratitis capitata as affected by gamma radiation and di methane insecticide. Vol. 4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wakid, A M; Fadel, A M; El-Akhdar, E A [Radiobiology Department, Nuclear Research Center, Atomic Energy Authority, Cairo (Egypt); Helmy, N M [Entomology Department, Faculty of Science, Zagazig University, Benha, (Egypt)

    1996-03-01

    In the present work, the effects of pupal gamma-irradiation (50, 70, 90 Gy), or adult treatment with dimethoate insecticide (0.93 ppm) on the male sterility and mating competitiveness of the medfly, ceratitis capitata (Wied.) were studied. Results indicated that treatment of the adult medfly with dimethoate had no clear effect on male fertility whether this male mated with treated or normal females. However, gamma irradiation drastically decreased hatch ability of eggs laid by normal or treated (dimethoate) females, when mated with irradiated males all gamma doses. This reduction in egg hatch ability increased increased with increasing gamma dose. Irradiated females did not lay eggs at any of the gamma doses used. At all mating combinations, the male mating competitiveness was decreased especially when irradiated males were confined with treated males for mating with normal or treated females. Results are indicated and discussed in the text. 4 figs.

  9. Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometric Analysis and Insecticidal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tropical Journal of Pharmaceutical Research ... apelta aerial parts was analyzed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometric (GC/MS) to determine its composition. ... into a natural fumigant/insecticide for the control of stored product insects.

  10. Biochemical parameters of Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith) treated with citronella oil (Cymbopogon winterianus Jowitt ex Bor) and its influence on reproduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Cristiane Thalita Dos Santos; Wanderley-Teixeira, Valéria; Cunha, Franklin Magliano da; Oliveira, José Vargas de; Dutra, Kamilla de Andrade; Navarro, Daniela Maria do Amaral Ferraz; Teixeira, Álvaro Aguiar Coelho

    2016-05-01

    Spodoptera frugiperda is the principal corn pest in Brazil. Searches for new control methods that minimize the adverse effects of synthetic insecticides have initiated a resurgence of the use of botanical insecticides. Citronella oil (a product of Cymbopogon winterianus) is an effective repellent and insecticide. Thus, biochemical profile changes in oil-treated larvae and its influence on reproduction were assessed. Corn leaves dipped in a 50mg/mL concentration were offered to third instar larvae for 24h and assessed in sixth instar to estimate protein, lipid, sugar, and glycogen levels. Adult testes and ovarioles were collected for histological and histochemical analysis 24h after emergence. Number of eggs and hatching rate were also measured. Oil-treated larvae showed an increase in glycogen and a decrease in protein, lipid, and totals sugar content. Control testes exhibited connective tissue lining and cysts with abundant spermatozoids. However, intense peripheral vacuolation and neutral carbohydrates reduction occurred in oil-treated individuals. Control ovarioles showed normal morphologic characteristics. On the other hand, oil-treatment ovarioles showed follicular cell stratification and removal, reduced nurse cell development, reduced yolk quantity, a thinner conjunctiva sheath, and a reduction in proteins and neutral carbohydrates. Eggs derived from oil-treated pairs were unviable. Therefore, sub-lethal doses of citronella oil alters the biochemical profile of S. frugiperda larvae, causing damage to their reproductive histophysiology and results in diminished reproduction or reproductive failure. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  11. Can universal insecticide-treated net campaigns achieve equity in coverage and use? the case of northern Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ye Yazoume

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Insecticide-treated nets (ITNs are effective tools for malaria prevention and can significantly reduce severe disease and mortality due to malaria, especially among children under five in endemic areas. However, ITN coverage and use remain low and inequitable among different socio-economic groups in sub-Saharan Africa, particularly in Nigeria. Several strategies have been proposed to increase coverage and use and reduce inequity in Nigeria, including free distribution campaigns recently conducted by the Nigerian federal government. Using data from the first post-campaign survey, the authors investigated the effect of the mass free distribution campaigns in achieving equity in household ownership and use of ITNs. Methods A post-campaign survey was undertaken in November 2009 in northern Nigeria to assess the effect of the campaigns in addressing equity across different socio-economic groups. The survey included 987 households randomly selected from 60 clusters in Kano state. Using logistic regression and the Lorenz concentration curve and index, the authors assessed equity in ITN coverage and use. Results ITN ownership coverage increased from 10% before the campaigns to 70%-a more than fivefold increase. The campaigns reduced the ownership coverage gap by 75%, effectively reaching parity among wealth quintiles (Concentration index 0.02, 95% CI (-0.02 ; 0.05 versus 0.21 95%CI (0.08 ; 0.34 before the campaigns. ITN use (individuals reporting having slept under an ITN the night before the survey visit among individuals from households owning at least one ITN, was 53.1% with no statistically significant difference between the lowest, second, third and fourth wealth quintiles and the highest wealth quintile (lowest: odds ratio (OR 0.87, 95% confidence interval (CI (0.67 ; 1.13; second: OR 0.85, 95% CI (0.66 ; 1.24; third: OR 1.10 95% CI (0.86 ; 1.4 and fourth OR 0.91 95% CI (0.72 ; 1.15. Conclusion The campaign had a significant

  12. The Effectiveness of Lemongrass, Garlic, and Tree Marigold as Botanical Insecticides in Controlling of Cocoa Mirid,Helopeltis antonii

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Endang Sulistyowati

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Control of cocoa mirid, Helopeltis antoniiso far uses chemicalinsecticides as the main alternative. Therefore, it is necessary to find out the environment friendly control techniques. Lemongrass, garlic, and tree marigold have been known as an efectiveness botanical insecticides for horticulture. A research with aim to study the effectiveness of lemongrass (Cymbopogon nardus, garlic (Allium sativum and tree marigold (Tithonia diversifoliafor controlling H. antoniihave been carried out in cocoa plantation at Kaliwining experimental garden of Indonesian Coffee and Cocoa Research Institute. The research was arranged in split plot design in three replication, with the main plot infestation time of H. antoniiand sub-plot kind of botanical insecticides. Concentration of botanical insecticides used in this study was 5% and applied on 12 cm cocoa pod in length by using knapsack sprayer. Infestation of H. antonii nymphes were conducted before and after insecticide applications. Observation was conducted on the mortality and the lesion of H. antonii. The results of orthogonal contrast test on feeding activity based on the number of lesion and percentage of mortality of H. antoniishowed that there were significantly different between insecticide treatment and control, between chemical insecticide and botanical insecticides, but there was no significant different on kind of botanical insecticides. The lowest number of lesion due to H. antonii was shown by chemical insecticide with an average 34.0, followed by garlic and lemongrass botanical insecticide with number of lesion were 51.2 and 64.7 respectively, whereas the number of lesion in the control reached 84.2. The highest percentage mortality of H. antoniiwas shown by chemical insecticide with active ingredient teta-cypermethrin at 84.3%, followed by garlic, lemon grass and tree marigold botanical insecticide were 65.8%; 65.0%; and 63.8% respectively and significantly different with control by 8

  13. Gas Chromaotography-Mass Spectrometry Analysis of Insecticidal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Insecticidal Essential Oil Derived from Chinese Ainsliaea fragrans Champ ex Benth ... Methods: The essential oil of A. fragrans aerial parts was obtained by hydrodistillation and analyzed by ..... toxicity than the crude oil. Caryophyllene showed.

  14. Influence on sensitivity to insecticides: a case study of a settled area ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The close proximity of Liwonde National Park to Liwonde town creates a unique situation of a large human population adjacent to a natural undisturbed animal reserve. The closeness of the two ecosystems has an impact on biology of mosquitoes of the area, such as susceptibility to insecticides. Susceptibility to insecticide ...

  15. Susceptibility to chemical insecticides of two Brazilian populations of the visceral leishmaniasis vector Lutzomyia longipalpis (Diptera: Psychodidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, B; Barros, V C; de Souza, S F; Barros, S S; Teodoro, L P; Soares, Z R; Gontijo, N F; Reithinger, R

    2009-10-01

    To investigate the insecticide susceptibility of two geographically separated Lutzomyia longipalpis populations (Lapinha and Montes Claros) with different histories of insecticide exposure (i.e. no exposure and repeated exposure, respectively). (i) Bioassay monitoring of sand fly survival over time when exposed to a range of insecticides; and (ii) analysis of the level of insecticide detoxification enzymes in individual sand flies caught at both study sites. Insecticides tested were the organophosphates malathion and fenitrothion and the pyrethroids lambda-cyhalothrin, permethrin and deltamethrin. Survival analyses showed that whilst there was no overall significant difference in susceptibility of both populations to organophosphates, Lapinha sand flies were significantly more susceptible to pyrethroids than those from Montes Claros. Multiple regression analyses also showed that insecticide susceptibility in both locations varied with sand fly sex. The relative susceptibilities of the two sand fly populations to tested insecticides were also compared. Thus, Montes Claros sand flies were most susceptible to malathion, followed by fenitrothion, deltamethrin and permethrin. Those from Lapinha were most susceptible to lambda-cyhalothrin, followed by malathion, permethrin, deltamethrin and fenitrothion. Biochemical analyses demonstrated that Montes Claros sand flies had significantly lower insecticide detoxification enzyme activity than Lapinha sand flies. Our results are the first record of significantly reduced susceptibility to the insecticides used in control of wild populations of Lu. longipalpis. They demonstrate the importance of evaluating chemicals against this species by conventional bioassay and microplate assays before and during spraying programmes.

  16. Irrigation runoff insecticide pollution of rivers in the Imperial Valley, California (USA)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vlaming, V. de [Aquatic Toxicology Laboratory, VM: APC, 1321 Haring Hall, University of California, Davis, CA 95616 (United States)]. E-mail: vldevlaming@ucdavis.edu; DiGiorgio, C. [Department of Water Resources, P.O. Box 942836, Sacramento, CA 94236 (United States); Fong, S. [Aquatic Toxicology Laboratory, VM: APC, 1321 Haring Hall, University of California, Davis, CA 95616 (United States); Deanovic, L.A. [Aquatic Toxicology Laboratory, VM: APC, 1321 Haring Hall, University of California, Davis, CA 95616 (United States); Paz Carpio-Obeso, M. de la [Colorado River Basin Region Water Quality Control Board, 73-720 Fred Waring Drive, Suite 100, Palm Desert, CA 92260 (United States); Miller, J.L. [AQUA-Science, 17 Arboretum Drive, Davis, CA 95616 (United States); Miller, M.J. [AQUA-Science, 17 Arboretum Drive, Davis, CA 95616 (United States); Richard, N.J. [Division of Water Quality, State Water Resources Control Board, 1001 I Street, Sacramento, CA 95814 (United States)

    2004-11-01

    The Alamo and New Rivers located in the Imperial Valley, California receive large volumes of irrigation runoff and discharge into the ecologically sensitive Salton Sea. Between 1993 and 2002 we conducted a series of studies to assess water quality using three aquatic species: a cladoceran (Ceriodaphnia dubia), a mysid (Neomysis mercedis), and a larval fish (Pimephales promelas). Although no mortality was observed with the P. promelas, high-level toxicity to the invertebrate species was documented in samples from both rivers during many months of each year. Toxicity identifications and chemical analyses identified the organophosphorus insecticides (OP), chlorpyrifos and diazinon, as the cause of C. dubia toxicity. The extent of the C. dubia mortality was highly correlated with quantities of these OPs applied in the river watersheds. C. dubia mortality occurred during more months of our 2001/2002 study than in the 1990s investigations. During 2001/2002, the extensive C. dubia mortality observed in New River samples was caused by OP insecticide pollution that originated from Mexico. Mortality to N. mercedis in New River samples was likely caused by contaminants other than OP insecticides. Our studies document OP insecticide-caused pollution of the Alamo River over a 10-year period and provide the necessary information for remediation efforts. - Capsule: Organophosphorous insecticides in runoff water from the USA and Mexico have impacted rivers in the Imperial Valley, California.

  17. Irrigation runoff insecticide pollution of rivers in the Imperial Valley, California (USA)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vlaming, V. de; DiGiorgio, C.; Fong, S.; Deanovic, L.A.; Paz Carpio-Obeso, M. de la; Miller, J.L.; Miller, M.J.; Richard, N.J.

    2004-01-01

    The Alamo and New Rivers located in the Imperial Valley, California receive large volumes of irrigation runoff and discharge into the ecologically sensitive Salton Sea. Between 1993 and 2002 we conducted a series of studies to assess water quality using three aquatic species: a cladoceran (Ceriodaphnia dubia), a mysid (Neomysis mercedis), and a larval fish (Pimephales promelas). Although no mortality was observed with the P. promelas, high-level toxicity to the invertebrate species was documented in samples from both rivers during many months of each year. Toxicity identifications and chemical analyses identified the organophosphorus insecticides (OP), chlorpyrifos and diazinon, as the cause of C. dubia toxicity. The extent of the C. dubia mortality was highly correlated with quantities of these OPs applied in the river watersheds. C. dubia mortality occurred during more months of our 2001/2002 study than in the 1990s investigations. During 2001/2002, the extensive C. dubia mortality observed in New River samples was caused by OP insecticide pollution that originated from Mexico. Mortality to N. mercedis in New River samples was likely caused by contaminants other than OP insecticides. Our studies document OP insecticide-caused pollution of the Alamo River over a 10-year period and provide the necessary information for remediation efforts. - Capsule: Organophosphorous insecticides in runoff water from the USA and Mexico have impacted rivers in the Imperial Valley, California

  18. Mode of Action of the Natural Insecticide, Decaleside Involves Sodium Pump Inhibition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajashekar, Yallappa; Shivanandappa, Thimmappa

    2017-01-01

    Decalesides are a new class of natural insecticides which are toxic to insects by contact via the tarsal gustatory chemosensilla. The symptoms of their toxicity to insects and the rapid knockdown effect suggest neurotoxic action, but the precise mode of action and the molecular targets for decaleside action are not known. We have presented experimental evidence for the involvement of sodium pump inhibition in the insecticidal action of decaleside in the cockroach and housefly. The knockdown effect of decaleside is concomitant with the in vivo inhibition of Na+, K+ -ATPase in the head and thorax. The lack of insecticidal action by experimental ablation of tarsi or blocking the tarsal sites with paraffin correlated with lack of inhibition of Na+- K+ ATPase in vivo. Maltotriose, a trisaccharide, partially rescued the toxic action of decaleside as well as inhibition of the enzyme, suggesting the possible involvement of gustatory sugar receptors. In vitro studies with crude insect enzyme preparation and purified porcine Na+, K+ -ATPase showed that decaleside competitively inhibited the enzyme involving the ATP binding site. Our study shows that the insecticidal action of decaleside via the tarsal gustatory sites is causally linked to the inhibition of sodium pump which represents a unique mode of action. The precise target(s) for decaleside in the tarsal chemosensilla and the pathway linked to inhibition of sodium pump and the insecticidal action remain to be understood.

  19. Radiation fixation of vinyl chloride in an insecticide aerosol container

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kagiya, V.T.; Takemoto, K.

    1975-01-01

    Recently, a large quantity of vinyl chloride has been used as spraying additive for insecticide aerosols. Since January 1974 when the Food and Drug Administration of the United States of America announced that vinyl chloride causes liver cancer, it has been forbidden in Japan and the United States of America to market insecticide aerosol containers containing vinyl chloride. In Japan, following a government order, about 20 million insecticide aerosol containers have been collected and put into storage. A report is given on the radiation fixation of vinyl chloride as polyvinylchloride powder by gamma-ray-induced polymerization in the aerosol container. Insecticide aerosol containers containing vinyl chloride were irradiated by gamma rays from 60 Co at room temperature. Vinyl chloride polymerized to form powdered polymer in the container. Polymerization conversion increased with the irradiation dose, and after 10 Mrad irradiation, vinyl chloride was not found in the sprayed gas. This establishes that vinyl chloride can be fixed by gamma-ray irradiation in the aerosol container. To accelerate the reaction rate, the effect of various additives on the reaction was investigated. It was found that halogenated hydrocarbons, such as chloroform and carbon tetrachloride, accelerated the initiation of the polymerization, and that a vinyl monomer such as vinyl acetate accelerated the reaction rate due to the promotion of the initiation and the high reactivity of the polyvinylacetate radical to vinyl chloride. Consequently, the required irradiation dose for the fixation of vinyl chloride was decreased to less than 5 Mrad by the addition of various kinds of additives. Following the request of the Ministry of Public Welfare, various technical problems for large-scale treatment are being studied with the co-operation of the Federation of Insecticide Aerosols. (author)

  20. Tri-trophic insecticidal effects of African plants against cabbage pests.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blankson W Amoabeng

    Full Text Available Botanical insecticides are increasingly attracting research attention as they offer novel modes of action that may provide effective control of pests that have already developed resistance to conventional insecticides. They potentially offer cost-effective pest control to smallholder farmers in developing countries if highly active extracts can be prepared simply from readily available plants. Field cage and open field experiments were conducted to evaluate the insecticidal potential of nine common Ghanaian plants: goat weed, Ageratum conyzoides (Asteraceae, Siam weed, Chromolaena odorata (Asteraceae, Cinderella weed, Synedrella nodiflora (Asteraceae, chili pepper, Capsicum frutescens (Solanaceae, tobacco, Nicotiana tabacum (Solanaceae cassia, Cassia sophera (Leguminosae, physic nut, Jatropha curcas (Euphorbiaceae, castor oil plant, Ricinus communis (Euphorbiaceae and basil, Ocimum gratissimum (Lamiaceae. In field cage experiments, simple detergent and water extracts of all botanical treatments gave control of cabbage aphid, Brevicoryne brassicae and diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella, equivalent to the synthetic insecticide Attack® (emamectin benzoate and superior to water or detergent solution. In open field experiments in the major and minor rainy seasons using a sub-set of plant extracts (A. conyzoides, C. odorata, S. nodiflora, N. tabacum and R. communis, all controlled B. brassicae and P. xylostella more effectively than water control and comparably with or better than Attack®. Botanical and water control treatments were more benign to third trophic level predators than Attack®. Effects cascaded to the first trophic level with all botanical treatments giving cabbage head weights, comparable to Attack® in the minor season. In the major season, R. communis and A conyzoides treatment gave lower head yields than Attack® but the remaining botanicals were equivalent or superior to this synthetic insecticide. Simply-prepared extracts from

  1. Tri-trophic insecticidal effects of African plants against cabbage pests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amoabeng, Blankson W; Gurr, Geoff M; Gitau, Catherine W; Nicol, Helen I; Munyakazi, Louis; Stevenson, Phil C

    2013-01-01

    Botanical insecticides are increasingly attracting research attention as they offer novel modes of action that may provide effective control of pests that have already developed resistance to conventional insecticides. They potentially offer cost-effective pest control to smallholder farmers in developing countries if highly active extracts can be prepared simply from readily available plants. Field cage and open field experiments were conducted to evaluate the insecticidal potential of nine common Ghanaian plants: goat weed, Ageratum conyzoides (Asteraceae), Siam weed, Chromolaena odorata (Asteraceae), Cinderella weed, Synedrella nodiflora (Asteraceae), chili pepper, Capsicum frutescens (Solanaceae), tobacco, Nicotiana tabacum (Solanaceae) cassia, Cassia sophera (Leguminosae), physic nut, Jatropha curcas (Euphorbiaceae), castor oil plant, Ricinus communis (Euphorbiaceae) and basil, Ocimum gratissimum (Lamiaceae). In field cage experiments, simple detergent and water extracts of all botanical treatments gave control of cabbage aphid, Brevicoryne brassicae and diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella, equivalent to the synthetic insecticide Attack® (emamectin benzoate) and superior to water or detergent solution. In open field experiments in the major and minor rainy seasons using a sub-set of plant extracts (A. conyzoides, C. odorata, S. nodiflora, N. tabacum and R. communis), all controlled B. brassicae and P. xylostella more effectively than water control and comparably with or better than Attack®. Botanical and water control treatments were more benign to third trophic level predators than Attack®. Effects cascaded to the first trophic level with all botanical treatments giving cabbage head weights, comparable to Attack® in the minor season. In the major season, R. communis and A conyzoides treatment gave lower head yields than Attack® but the remaining botanicals were equivalent or superior to this synthetic insecticide. Simply-prepared extracts from readily

  2. Tri-Trophic Insecticidal Effects of African Plants against Cabbage Pests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amoabeng, Blankson W.; Gurr, Geoff M.; Gitau, Catherine W.; Nicol, Helen I.; Stevenson, Phil C.

    2013-01-01

    Botanical insecticides are increasingly attracting research attention as they offer novel modes of action that may provide effective control of pests that have already developed resistance to conventional insecticides. They potentially offer cost-effective pest control to smallholder farmers in developing countries if highly active extracts can be prepared simply from readily available plants. Field cage and open field experiments were conducted to evaluate the insecticidal potential of nine common Ghanaian plants: goat weed, Ageratum conyzoides (Asteraceae), Siam weed, Chromolaena odorata (Asteraceae), Cinderella weed, Synedrella nodiflora (Asteraceae), chili pepper, Capsicum frutescens (Solanaceae), tobacco, Nicotiana tabacum (Solanaceae) cassia, Cassia sophera (Leguminosae), physic nut, Jatropha curcas (Euphorbiaceae), castor oil plant, Ricinus communis (Euphorbiaceae) and basil, Ocimum gratissimum (Lamiaceae). In field cage experiments, simple detergent and water extracts of all botanical treatments gave control of cabbage aphid, Brevicoryne brassicae and diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella, equivalent to the synthetic insecticide Attack® (emamectin benzoate) and superior to water or detergent solution. In open field experiments in the major and minor rainy seasons using a sub-set of plant extracts (A. conyzoides, C. odorata, S. nodiflora, N. tabacum and R. communis), all controlled B. brassicae and P. xylostella more effectively than water control and comparably with or better than Attack®. Botanical and water control treatments were more benign to third trophic level predators than Attack®. Effects cascaded to the first trophic level with all botanical treatments giving cabbage head weights, comparable to Attack® in the minor season. In the major season, R. communis and A conyzoides treatment gave lower head yields than Attack® but the remaining botanicals were equivalent or superior to this synthetic insecticide. Simply-prepared extracts from readily

  3. Using Next-Generation Sequencing to Detect Differential Expression Genes in Bradysia odoriphaga after Exposure to Insecticides

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    Haoliang Chen

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Bradysia odoriphaga (Diptera: Sciaridae is the most important pest of Chinese chive. Insecticides are used widely and frequently to control B. odoriphaga in China. However, the performance of the insecticides chlorpyrifos and clothianidin in controlling the Chinese chive maggot is quite different. Using next generation sequencing technology, different expression unigenes (DEUs in B. odoriphaga were detected after treatment with chlorpyrifos and clothianidin for 6 and 48 h in comparison with control. The number of DEUs ranged between 703 and 1161 after insecticide treatment. In these DEUs, 370–863 unigenes can be classified into 41–46 categories of gene ontology (GO, and 354–658 DEUs can be mapped into 987–1623 Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG pathways. The expressions of DEUs related to insecticide-metabolism-related genes were analyzed. The cytochrome P450-like unigene group was the largest group in DEUs. Most glutathione S-transferase-like unigenes were down-regulated and most sodium channel-like unigenes were up-regulated after insecticide treatment. Finally, 14 insecticide-metabolism-related unigenes were chosen to confirm the relative expression in each treatment by quantitative Real Time Polymerase Chain Reaction (qRT-PCR. The results of qRT-PCR and RNA Sequencing (RNA-Seq are fairly well-established. Our results demonstrate that a next-generation sequencing tool facilitates the identification of insecticide-metabolism-related genes and the illustration of the insecticide mechanisms of chlorpyrifos and clothianidin.

  4. Mesoionic Pyrido[1,2-a]pyrimidinone Insecticides: From Discovery to Triflumezopyrim and Dicloromezotiaz.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wenming

    2017-09-19

    One of the greatest global challenges is to feed the ever-increasing world population. The agrochemical tools growers currently utilize are also under continuous pressure, due to a number of factors that contribute to the loss of existing products. Mesoionic pyrido[1,2-a]pyrimidinones are an unusual yet very intriguing class of compounds. Known for several decades, this class of compounds had not been systemically studied until we started our insecticide discovery program. This Account provides an overview of the efforts on mesoionic pyrido[1,2-a]pyridinone insecticide discovery, beginning from the initial high throughput screen (HTS) discovery to ultimate identification of triflumezopyrim (4, DuPont Pyraxalt) and dicloromezotiaz (5) for commercialization as novel insecticides. Mesoionic pyrido[1,2-a]pyrimidinones with a n-propyl group at the 1-position, such as compound 1, were initially isolated as undesired byproducts from reactions for a fungicide discovery program at DuPont Crop Protection. Such compounds showed interesting insecticidal activity in a follow-up screen and against an expanded insect species list. The area became an insecticide hit for exploration and then a lead area for optimization. At the lead optimization stage, variations at three regions of compound 1, i.e., side-chain (n-propyl group), substituents on the 3-phenyl group, and substitutions on the pyrido- moiety, were explored with many analogues prepared and evaluated. Breakthrough discoveries included replacing the n-propyl group with a 2,2,2-trifluoroethyl group to generate compound 2, and then with a 2-chlorothiazol-5-ylmethyl group to form compound 3. 3 possesses potent insecticidal activity not only against a group of hopper species, including corn planthopper (Peregrinus maidis (Ashmead), CPH) and potato leafhopper (Empoasca fabae (Harris), PLH), as well as two key rice hopper species, namely, brown planthopper (Nilaparvata lugens (Stål), BPH) and rice green leafhopper (Nephotettix

  5. Comparative analysis of response to selection with three insecticides in the dengue mosquito Aedes aegypti using mRNA sequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    David, Jean-Philippe; Faucon, Frédéric; Chandor-Proust, Alexia; Poupardin, Rodolphe; Riaz, Muhammad Asam; Bonin, Aurélie; Navratil, Vincent; Reynaud, Stéphane

    2014-03-05

    Mosquito control programmes using chemical insecticides are increasingly threatened by the development of resistance. Such resistance can be the consequence of changes in proteins targeted by insecticides (target site mediated resistance), increased insecticide biodegradation (metabolic resistance), altered transport, sequestration or other mechanisms. As opposed to target site resistance, other mechanisms are far from being fully understood. Indeed, insecticide selection often affects a large number of genes and various biological processes can hypothetically confer resistance. In this context, the aim of the present study was to use RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) for comparing transcription level and polymorphism variations associated with adaptation to chemical insecticides in the mosquito Aedes aegypti. Biological materials consisted of a parental susceptible strain together with three child strains selected across multiple generations with three insecticides from different classes: the pyrethroid permethrin, the neonicotinoid imidacloprid and the carbamate propoxur. After ten generations, insecticide-selected strains showed elevated resistance levels to the insecticides used for selection. RNA-seq data allowed detecting over 13,000 transcripts, of which 413 were differentially transcribed in insecticide-selected strains as compared to the susceptible strain. Among them, a significant enrichment of transcripts encoding cuticle proteins, transporters and enzymes was observed. Polymorphism analysis revealed over 2500 SNPs showing > 50% allele frequency variations in insecticide-selected strains as compared to the susceptible strain, affecting over 1000 transcripts. Comparing gene transcription and polymorphism patterns revealed marked differences among strains. While imidacloprid selection was linked to the over transcription of many genes, permethrin selection was rather linked to polymorphism variations. Focusing on detoxification enzymes revealed that permethrin

  6. Plant Materials as an Appropriate Replacement for Reducing Environmental Risk of using Chemical Insecticides (Case Study: Colorado Potato Beetle

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    Akram taghizadeh sarokolaei

    2017-10-01

    pest in a completely randomized block design with four replications under field conditions was done. Mortalities were recorded at 1, 3, 5, 7, 9, 11, 13 and 15 days after spraying insecticides and essential oils. The control plants were treated with water. Data analysis was done in SPSS16 software and the mean of the data was compared with Turkeys' test. Results and discussion Result showed that in this study thiamethoxam had greatest effect on fourth instar larvae of Colorado potato beetle. In 15 cc a.i./ha of thiamethoxam in the environment after 15 days 95 % mortality happen . Imidacloprid and diniteforane after 15 days have 68 and 73.6 percent mortality respectively. Imidacloprid and thiamethoxam are two most common Colorado potato beetle insecticides that are used by farmers. Diniteforane is not so common insecticides in country. Also investigated showed that essential oil of S. khuzistanica had greatest effect on fourth instar larvae of Colorado potato beetle. In 15 cc a.i./ha of S. khuzistanica in the environment after 15 days 90.2 % mortality happen . O. basilicum and M. spicata after 15 days have 48 and 46 percent mortality respectively. Data showed that essential oils are highly selective and because of their effect (actopamin receptor usually have no adverse effect on mammals. These compounds in contrast to synthetic carbamates, organophosphouros, and pyretroid that have adverse effect on the environment and people are safe for the environment. Conclusion Therefore, using plant material is effective step for reducing environmental risk of chemical insecticides that used for agricultural crop in country. In order to reduce the environmental hazards caused by the use of chemical pesticides, we can say: 1- Limit the use of chemical pesticides. 2. Use plant materials that are safe for humans and creatures. 3. Promote and educate the use of these compounds among farmers. Acknowledgment Thereby researcher thanks and appreciated from the Faculty of Agricultural

  7. Chloride channels as tools for developing selective insecticides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloomquist, Jeffrey R

    2003-12-01

    Ligand-gated chloride channels underlie inhibition in excitable membranes and are proven target sites for insecticides. The gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA(1)) receptor/chloride ionophore complex is the primary site of action for a number of currently used insecticides, such as lindane, endosulfan, and fipronil. These compounds act as antagonists by stabilizing nonconducting conformations of the chloride channel. Blockage of the GABA-gated chloride channel reduces neuronal inhibition, which leads to hyperexcitation of the central nervous system, convulsions, and death. We recently investigated the mode of action of the silphinenes, plant-derived natural compounds that structurally resemble picrotoxinin. These materials antagonize the action of GABA on insect neurons and block GABA-mediated chloride uptake into mouse brain synaptoneurosomes in a noncompetitive manner. In mammals, avermectins have a blocking action on the GABA-gated chloride channel consistent with a coarse tremor, whereas at longer times and higher concentrations, activation of the channel suppresses neuronal activity. Invertebrates display ataxia, paralysis, and death as the predominant signs of poisoning, with a glutamate-gated chloride channel playing a major role. Additional target sites for the avermectins or other chloride channel-directed compounds might include receptors gated by histamine, serotonin, or acetylcholine.The voltage-sensitive chloride channels form another large gene family of chloride channels. Voltage-dependent chloride channels are involved in a number of physiological processes including: maintenance of electrical excitability, chloride ion secretion and resorption, intravesicular acidification, and cell volume regulation. A subset of these channels is affected by convulsants and insecticides in mammals, although the role they play in acute lethality in insects is unclear. Given the wide range of functions that they mediate, these channels are also potential targets for

  8. Effects of the amphibian chytrid fungus and four insecticides on Pacific treefrogs (Pseudacris regilla)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleinhez, Peter; Boone, Michelle D.; Fellers, Gary

    2012-01-01

    Chemical contamination may influence host-pathogen interactions, which has implications for amphibian population declines. We examined the effects of four insecticides alone or as a mixture on development and metamorphosis of Pacific Treefrogs (Pseudacris regilla) in the presence or absence of the amphibian chytrid fungus (Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis [Bd]). Bd exposure had a negative impact on tadpole activity, survival to metamorphosis, time to metamorphosis, and time of tail absorption (with a marginally negative effect on mass at metamorphosis); however, no individuals tested positive for Bd at metamorphosis. The presence of sublethal concentrations of insecticides alone or in a mixture did not impact Pacific Treefrog activity as tadpoles, survival to metamorphosis, or time and size to metamorphosis. Insecticide exposure did not influence the effect of Bd exposure. Our study did not support our prediction that effects of Bd would be greater in the presence of expected environmental concentrations of insecticide(s), but it did show that Bd had negative effects on responses at metamorphosis that could reduce the quality of juveniles recruited into the population.

  9. Susceptibility of Anopheles gambiae to insecticides used for malaria vector control in Rwanda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hakizimana, Emmanuel; Karema, Corine; Munyakanage, Dunia; Iranzi, Gad; Githure, John; Tongren, Jon Eric; Takken, Willem; Binagwaho, Agnes; Koenraadt, Constantianus J M

    2016-12-01

    The widespread emergence of resistance to pyrethroids is a major threat to the gains made in malaria control. To monitor the presence and possible emergence of resistance against a variety of insecticides used for malaria control in Rwanda, nationwide insecticide resistance surveys were conducted in 2011 and 2013. Larvae of Anopheles gambiae sensu lato mosquitoes were collected in 12 sentinel sites throughout Rwanda. These were reared to adults and analysed for knock-down and mortality using WHO insecticide test papers with standard diagnostic doses of the recommended insecticides. A sub-sample of tested specimens was analysed for the presence of knockdown resistance (kdr) mutations. A total of 14,311 mosquitoes were tested and from a sample of 1406 specimens, 1165 (82.9%) were identified as Anopheles arabiensis and 241 (17.1%) as Anopheles gambiae sensu stricto. Mortality results indicated a significant increase in resistance to lambda-cyhalothrin from 2011 to 2013 in 83% of the sites, permethrin in 25% of the sites, deltamethrin in 25% of the sites and DDT in 50% of the sites. Mosquitoes from 83% of the sites showed full susceptibility to bendiocarb and 17% of sites were suspected to harbour resistance that requires further confirmation. No resistance was observed to fenitrothion in all study sites during the entire survey. The kdr genotype results in An. gambiae s.s. showed that 67 (50%) possessed susceptibility (SS) alleles, while 35 (26.1%) and 32 (23.9%) mosquitoes had heterozygous (RS) and homozygous (RR) alleles, respectively. Of the 591 An. arabiensis genotyped, 425 (71.9%) possessed homozygous (SS) alleles while 158 (26.7%) and 8 (1.4%) had heterozygous (RS) and homozygous (RR) alleles, respectively. Metabolic resistance involving oxidase enzymes was also detected using the synergist PBO. This is the first nationwide study of insecticide resistance in malaria vectors in Rwanda. It shows the gradual increase of insecticide resistance to pyrethroids (lambda

  10. Susceptibility of pest Nezara viridula (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae) and parasitoid Trichopoda pennipes (Diptera: Tachinidae) to selected insecticides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tillman, P Glynn

    2006-06-01

    Susceptibility of the southern green stink bug, Nezara viridula (L.) (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae), and its endoparasitoid Trichopoda pennipes (F.) (Diptera: Tachinidae) to acetamiprid, cyfluthrin, dicrotophos, indoxacarb, oxamyl, and thiamethoxam was compared in residual and oral toxicity tests. In the residual toxicity test, cyfluthrin, dicrotophos, and oxamyl were highly toxic to N. viridula. Thiamethoxam was moderately toxic to these insects. Each of the four insecticides was highly toxic to T. pennipes after prolonged tarsal contact with dried residues of these chemicals. In the oral toxicity test, where N. viridula fed on food covered with insecticide residues, none of the insecticides were toxic to adults of this stink bug, but acetamiprid, dicrotophos, and thiamethoxam were moderately toxic to the nymphs. In the oral toxicity test, where N. viridula fed on a gel-food containing insecticides, cyfluthrin, dicrotophos, oxamyl, and thiamethoxam were highly toxic to this stink bug. In an oral toxicity test using contaminated sugar water, all of the insecticides were highly toxic to T. pennipes. Because insecticides were as toxic, or more toxic, to T. pennipes than to N. viridula, it is extremely important to conserve this parasitoid by applying these insecticides for control of southern green stink bugs only when the pest reaches economic threshold.

  11. Environmental insecticide residues from tsetse fly control measures in Uganda

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sserunjoji-Sebalija, J.

    1976-01-01

    Up to June 1974 areas in Uganda totalling 8600km 2 have been successfully reclaimed from tsetse fly infestation by ground spray of 3% dieldrin water emulsions. A search for equally effective but less persistent and toxic compounds against tsetse flies has been unsuccessful. Fourteen insecticide formulations have been tested for their persistence on tree bark surfaces and, therefore, their availability and toxicity to the target tsetse flies. Only those compounds with a high immediate insecticidal activity (some higher than dieldrin) like endosulfan, Chlorfenvinphos and propoxur could merit further consideration in tsetse control. While some were toxic to tsetse as fresh deposits, they lacked sufficient persistence. A study of the environmental implication from the continued use of the highly persistent and toxic dieldrin has provided useful data on residues likely to be found both in terrestrial and aquatic fauna and flora. These are generally low. Moreover, there is evidence of degradation in some fish species (Protopterus aethiopicus and Clarias). Also, dilution factors and adsorption involving the muddy nature of water run-off, etc., and controlled burning of grasses after tsetse eradication would tend to inactivate the residual insecticide and protect aquatic systems. The general findings have indicated less risk than anticipated of the environmental contamination from tsetse control by application of persistent and toxic insecticides. (author)

  12. Implications of bio-efficacy and persistence of insecticides when indoor residual spraying and long-lasting insecticide nets are combined for malaria prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okumu, Fredros O; Chipwaza, Beatrice; Madumla, Edith P; Mbeyela, Edgar; Lingamba, Geoffrey; Moore, Jason; Ntamatungro, Alex J; Kavishe, Deo R; Moore, Sarah J

    2012-11-19

    Bio-efficacy and residual activity of insecticides used for indoor residual spraying (IRS) and long-lasting insecticide nets (LLINs) were assessed against laboratory-reared and wild populations of the malaria vector, Anopheles arabiensis in south eastern Tanzania. Implications of the findings are examined in the context of potential synergies and redundancies where IRS and LLINs are combined. Bioassays were conducted monthly for six months on three LLIN types (Olyset® PermaNet 2.0®,and Icon Life®) and three IRS treatments (2 g/m2 pirimiphos-methyl, 2 g/m2 DDT and 0.03 g/m2 lambda-cyhalothrin, sprayed on mud walls and palm ceilings of experimental huts). Tests used susceptible laboratory-reared An. arabiensis exposed in cones (nets and IRS) or wire balls (nets only). Susceptibility of wild populations was assessed using WHO diagnostic concentrations and PCR for knock-down resistance (kdr) genes. IRS treatments killed ≥ 85% of mosquitoes exposed on palm ceilings and ≥ 90% of those exposed on mud walls, but up to 50% of this toxicity decayed within 1-3 months, except for DDT. By 6th month, only 7.5%, 42.5% and 30.0% of mosquitoes died when exposed to ceilings sprayed with pirimiphos-methyl, DDT or lambda-cyhalothrin respectively, while 12.5%, 36.0% and 27.5% died after exposure to mud walls sprayed with the same insecticides. In wire-ball assays, mortality decreased from 98.1% in 1st month to 92.6% in 6th month in tests on PermaNet 2.0®, from 100% to 61.1% on Icon Life® and from 93.2% to 33.3% on Olyset® nets. In cone bioassays, mortality reduced from 92.8% in 1st month to 83.3% in 6th month on PermaNet 2.0®, from 96.9% to 43.80% on Icon Life® and from 85.6% to 14.6% on Olyset®. Wild An. arabiensis were 100% susceptible to DDT, 95.8% to deltamethrin, 90.2% to lambda cyhalothrin and 95.2% susceptible to permethrin. No kdr gene mutations were detected. In bioassays where sufficient contact with treated surfaces is assured, LLINs and IRS kill high

  13. The control and protection of cotton plants using natural insecticides against the colonization by Aphis gossypii Glover (Hemiptera: Aphididae - doi: 10.4025/actasciagron.v35i2.15764

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ezio Santos Pinto

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The cotton aphid, Aphis gossypii Glover (Hemiptera: Aphididae, is a key pest of cotton, irrespective of the use of conventional or organic management. In organic systems, however, the use of synthetic insecticides is not allowed, increasing the difficulty of controlling this pest. This work evaluated aphid control and the ability of products to prevent aphid infestation using natural insecticides compared to a standard synthetic insecticide. The control trial was conducted with four products [Beauveria bassiana (Boveril®, neem oil (Neemseto®, and cotton seed oil compared to thiamethoxam (Actara®], and untreated plants served as the control group. The trial testing the efficacy of these products in preventing aphid infestation was conducted using the same products, excluding Boveril®. The evaluations were conducted 72 and 120h post-treatment for the efficacy and the protection against colonization trials, respectively. The aphid control by cotton seed oil, Neemseto®, and thiamethoxam was similar, with 100% control being achieved on the thiamethoxam-treated plants. Regarding the plant protection against aphid colonization, the insecticide thiamethoxam exhibited a better performance compared to the other tested products with steady results over the evaluation period. The natural products exhibited variable results with low protection against plant colonization throughout the evaluation period.

  14. Synergistic potential of dillapiole-rich essential oil with synthetic pyrethroid insecticides against fall armyworm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murilo Fazolin

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: The objective of this study was to evaluate the synergy and response homogeneity of the Spodoptera frugiperda larvae population to the Piper aduncum essential oil in combination with pyrethroid insecticides (alpha-cypermethrin, beta-cypermethrin, fenpropathrin, and gamma-cyhalothrin compared to piperonylbutoxide (PBO as positive control. Synergism (SF comparisons were obtained using lethal concentration (LC50 and lethal dose (LD50 ratios of insecticides individually and in their respective synergistic combinations with essential oil and PBO. Dose/concentration-mortality slope curves were used to establish relative toxicity increase promoted by synergism. They also determined homogeneity response. Residual contact revealed significant potentiation for commercial insecticides formulated with beta-cypermethrin (SF=9.05-0.5 and fenpropathrin (SF=34.05-49.77 when combined with the P. aduncum essential oil. For topical contact, significant potentiation occurred only for alpha-cypermethrin (SF=7.55-3.68, fenpropathrin (SF=3.37-1.21, and gamma-cyhalothrin (SF=5.79-10.48 insecticides when combined with essential oil. With the exception of fenpropathrin and gamma-cyhalothrin, insecticides synergistic combinations presented homogeneous response by topical as well as residual contact at least with essential oil. The SF significance values ​​of the P. aduncum essential oil combined with alpha-cypermethrin, beta-cypermethrin, fenpropathrin, and gamma-cyhalothrin insecticides indicated potential for this oil to be used as an alternative to PBO.

  15. Occurrence and potential toxicity of pyrethroids and other insecticides in bed sediments of urban streams in central Texas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hintzen, Emily P. [Department of Environmental Studies, Baylor University, Waco, TX 76798 (United States); Lydy, Michael J. [Fisheries and Illinois Aquaculture Center, and Department of Zoology, Southern Illinois University, Carbondale, IL 62091 (United States); Belden, Jason B. [Department of Zoology, Oklahoma State University, 430 Life Science West, Stillwater, OK 74078 (United States)], E-mail: jbelden@okstate.edu

    2009-01-15

    Despite heavy insecticide usage in urban areas, only a few studies have investigated the impact of current-use insecticides on benthic invertebrates in urban streams. The objective of this study was to measure the presence and concentration of current-use pesticides in sediments of residential streams in central Texas. Additionally, toxicity of these sediments to Hyalella azteca was evaluated. Sediment samples were collected from several sites in urban streams over the course of a year, of which, 66% had greater than one toxic unit (TU) of insecticide. Bifenthrin was the greatest contributor accounting for 65% of the TUs, and sediment toxicity to H. azteca correlated with the magnitude of total insecticides and bifenthrin TUs. The results of this study further raise concerns over the environmental consequences posed by many current-use insecticides, especially pyrethroids, in urban settings. - This study examined the presence of insecticides in Texas stream sediments as a model for evaluating the potential impact of urban insecticide use in the Southern United States.

  16. Occurrence and potential toxicity of pyrethroids and other insecticides in bed sediments of urban streams in central Texas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hintzen, Emily P.; Lydy, Michael J.; Belden, Jason B.

    2009-01-01

    Despite heavy insecticide usage in urban areas, only a few studies have investigated the impact of current-use insecticides on benthic invertebrates in urban streams. The objective of this study was to measure the presence and concentration of current-use pesticides in sediments of residential streams in central Texas. Additionally, toxicity of these sediments to Hyalella azteca was evaluated. Sediment samples were collected from several sites in urban streams over the course of a year, of which, 66% had greater than one toxic unit (TU) of insecticide. Bifenthrin was the greatest contributor accounting for 65% of the TUs, and sediment toxicity to H. azteca correlated with the magnitude of total insecticides and bifenthrin TUs. The results of this study further raise concerns over the environmental consequences posed by many current-use insecticides, especially pyrethroids, in urban settings. - This study examined the presence of insecticides in Texas stream sediments as a model for evaluating the potential impact of urban insecticide use in the Southern United States

  17. A critical review of neonicotinoid insecticides for developmental neurotoxicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheets, Larry P.; Li, Abby A.; Minnema, Daniel J.; Collier, Richard H.; Creek, Moire R.; Peffer, Richard C.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract A comprehensive review of published and previously unpublished studies was performed to evaluate the neonicotinoid insecticides for evidence of developmental neurotoxicity (DNT). These insecticides have favorable safety profiles, due to their preferential affinity for nicotinic receptor (nAChR) subtypes in insects, poor penetration of the mammalian blood–brain barrier, and low application rates. Nevertheless, examination of this issue is warranted, due to their insecticidal mode of action and potential exposure with agricultural and residential uses. This review identified in vitro, in vivo, and epidemiology studies in the literature and studies performed in rats in accordance with GLP standards and EPA guidelines with imidacloprid, acetamiprid, thiacloprid, clothianidin, thiamethoxam, and dinotefuran, which are all the neonicotinoids currently registered in major markets. For the guideline-based studies, treatment was administered via the diet or gavage to primiparous female rats at three dose levels, plus a vehicle control (≥20/dose level), from gestation day 0 or 6 to lactation day 21. F1 males and females were evaluated using measures of motor activity, acoustic startle response, cognition, brain morphometry, and neuropathology. The principal effects in F1 animals were associated with decreased body weight (delayed sexual maturation, decreased brain weight, and morphometric measurements) and acute toxicity (decreased activity during exposure) at high doses, without neuropathology or impaired cognition. No common effects were identified among the neonicotinoids that were consistent with DNT or the neurodevelopmental effects associated with nicotine. Findings at high doses were associated with evidence of systemic toxicity, which indicates that these insecticides do not selectively affect the developing nervous system. PMID:26513508

  18. A critical review of neonicotinoid insecticides for developmental neurotoxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheets, Larry P; Li, Abby A; Minnema, Daniel J; Collier, Richard H; Creek, Moire R; Peffer, Richard C

    2016-02-01

    A comprehensive review of published and previously unpublished studies was performed to evaluate the neonicotinoid insecticides for evidence of developmental neurotoxicity (DNT). These insecticides have favorable safety profiles, due to their preferential affinity for nicotinic receptor (nAChR) subtypes in insects, poor penetration of the mammalian blood-brain barrier, and low application rates. Nevertheless, examination of this issue is warranted, due to their insecticidal mode of action and potential exposure with agricultural and residential uses. This review identified in vitro, in vivo, and epidemiology studies in the literature and studies performed in rats in accordance with GLP standards and EPA guidelines with imidacloprid, acetamiprid, thiacloprid, clothianidin, thiamethoxam, and dinotefuran, which are all the neonicotinoids currently registered in major markets. For the guideline-based studies, treatment was administered via the diet or gavage to primiparous female rats at three dose levels, plus a vehicle control (≥20/dose level), from gestation day 0 or 6 to lactation day 21. F1 males and females were evaluated using measures of motor activity, acoustic startle response, cognition, brain morphometry, and neuropathology. The principal effects in F1 animals were associated with decreased body weight (delayed sexual maturation, decreased brain weight, and morphometric measurements) and acute toxicity (decreased activity during exposure) at high doses, without neuropathology or impaired cognition. No common effects were identified among the neonicotinoids that were consistent with DNT or the neurodevelopmental effects associated with nicotine. Findings at high doses were associated with evidence of systemic toxicity, which indicates that these insecticides do not selectively affect the developing nervous system.

  19. A whole transcriptomal linkage analysis of gene co-regulation in insecticide resistant house flies, Musca domestica

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Ming; Reid, William R; Zhang, Lee

    2013-01-01

    autosomes, especially between autosomes 2 and 5, suggesting that signaling transduction cascades controlled by GPCRs, protein kinase/phosphates and proteases may be involved in the regulation of resistance P450 gene regulation. Conclusion Taken together, our findings suggested that not only is insecticide......Background Studies suggest that not only is insecticide resistance conferred via multiple gene up-regulation, but it is mediated through the interaction of regulatory factors. However, no regulatory factors in insecticide resistance have yet been identified, and there has been no examination...... of the regulatory interaction of resistance genes. Our current study generated the first reference transcriptome from the adult house fly and conducted a whole transcriptome analysis for the multiple insecticide resistant strain ALHF (wild-type) and two insecticide susceptible strains: aabys (with morphological...

  20. Health Effects of Long-Term Exposure to Insecticide-Treated Mosquito Nets in the Control of Malaria in Endemic Regions, Revised

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ebere C. Anyanwu

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The endemicity of malaria in tropical areas of the world persists, especially in countries south of Saharan Africa. The efforts and concerns invested by the World Health Organization and other health agencies to eradicate malaria are commendable. However, in spite of all these efforts, the loss in economic and human resources continues. In a previous report, the long-term health effects of insecticide-impregnated bednet (IIBN use were highlighted with the expectation of attracting serious thoughts and further research on the issue. This present paper is an update on that expectation. Results from a comprehensive literature search show that not much work has been done on the effects of long-term exposure to IIBNs in combating malarial infection. The efficacy of IIBNs is not in question. What is in question is whether long-term exposure to IIBNs have any health effects. The aims and outcomes of the research found in the literature on the subject to date seem to support only the efficacy of the temporal use of plain bednets, but not the use of IIBNs, and do not tell much about the long-term effects of IIBN exposure. All pesticides are toxic by nature and present risks of adverse effects. While there is agreement that IIBNs can be effective in reducing malarial morbidity and mortality under field trials, a number of factors relating to their long-term-exposure health effects have yet to be determined. Further reliable research projects are recommended urgently. However, some of the anticipated behavioral effects caused by insecticidal use will be avoided by the use of untreated nets instead.

  1. Implications of the western Kenya permethrin-treated bed net study for policy, program implementation, and future research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hawley, William A.; ter Kuile, Feiko O.; Steketee, Richard S.; Nahlen, Bernard L.; Terlouw, Dianne J.; Gimnig, John E.; Shi, Ya Ping; Vulule, John M.; Alaii, Jane A.; Hightower, Allen W.; Kolczak, Margarette S.; Kariuki, Simon K.; Phillips-Howard, Penelope A.

    2003-01-01

    The fifth, and probably last, large-scale, group-randomized, controlled trial of insecticide (permethrin)-treated bed nets (ITNs) showed that ITNs are efficacious in reducing all-cause post-neonatal mortality in an area of intense, perennial malaria transmission. The trial helped to define pregnant