WorldWideScience

Sample records for talauma ovata magnoliaceae

  1. First record of Glomerella cingulata causing leaf blight on Talauma ovata (Magnoliaceae) Primeiro relato de Glomerella cingulata causando queima foliar em Talauma ovata (Magnoliaceae)

    OpenAIRE

    Bruno Sérgio Vieira; Olinto Liparini Pereira; Márcio Luiz Batista; Robert Weingart Barreto

    2005-01-01

    Glomerella cingulata was found causing severe leaf blight on Talauma ovata, a common tree species in the Atlantic tropical rain forest floodplains of Southern Brazil. The disease and pathogen are described and illustrated and patogenicity is also demonstrated. This is the first report of this disease.Glomerella cingulata foi encontrado causando severa queima-foliar em Talauma ovata, uma espécie arbórea comum em florestas úmidas tropicais do Sudeste do Brasil. A doença e o patógeno foram descr...

  2. First record of Glomerella cingulata causing leaf blight on Talauma ovata (Magnoliaceae Primeiro relato de Glomerella cingulata causando queima foliar em Talauma ovata (Magnoliaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Sérgio Vieira

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Glomerella cingulata was found causing severe leaf blight on Talauma ovata, a common tree species in the Atlantic tropical rain forest floodplains of Southern Brazil. The disease and pathogen are described and illustrated and patogenicity is also demonstrated. This is the first report of this disease.Glomerella cingulata foi encontrado causando severa queima-foliar em Talauma ovata, uma espécie arbórea comum em florestas úmidas tropicais do Sudeste do Brasil. A doença e o patógeno foram descritos e ilustrados, e sua patogenicidade também foi demonstrada. Esse é o primeiro relato dessa doença.

  3. First record of Glomerella cingulata causing leaf blight on Talauma ovata (Magnoliaceae)

    OpenAIRE

    Vieira,Bruno Sérgio; Pereira,Olinto Liparini; Batista,Márcio Luiz; Barreto,Robert Weingart

    2005-01-01

    Glomerella cingulata was found causing severe leaf blight on Talauma ovata, a common tree species in the Atlantic tropical rain forest floodplains of Southern Brazil. The disease and pathogen are described and illustrated and patogenicity is also demonstrated. This is the first report of this disease.

  4. Utilização de parâmetros morfoanatômicos na análise da fitotoxidez do flúor em folhas de Magnolia ovata (A. St.-Hil. Spreng. (Magnoliaceae Use of morphoanatomic parameters in the analysis of fluoride toxicity in leaves of Magnolia ovata (A. St.-Hil. Spreng. (Magnoliaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Francisco Sant'Anna-Santos

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Com os objetivos de avaliar o grau de suscetibilidade e caracterizar as injúrias na morfoanatomia de folhas de Magnolia ovata, mudas foram submetidas à chuva simulada com flúor (10 µg.ml-1 de F- por 10 dias consecutivos. No tratamento controle, utilizou-se apenas água deionizada. Folhas foram coletadas para quantificação de flúor na matéria seca e fixadas para análises em microscopia de luz e eletrônica de varredura. As folhas apicais apresentaram pequena porcentagem de necroses intervenais e marginais em uma ou ambas as faces e maior acúmulo de flúor, em relação ao controle, quando comparadas com as folhas da porção basal. A análise micromorfológica das folhas aparentemente sadias indicou alterações nas paredes periclinais externas da epiderme e formação de concavidades, além de cristas estomáticas danificadas, erosão de ceras epicuticulares e presença de esporos e hifas de fungos. A caracterização estrutural das injúrias evidenciou retração de protoplasto das células epidérmicas, colapso das células do mesofilo e da epiderme e acúmulo de compostos fenólicos em células das regiões necrosadas. As alterações micromorfológicas das folhas ocorreram antes que sintomas fossem observados, o que comprova a importância da micromorfologia na diagnose precoce da injúria. As plantas de M. ovata apresentaram poucos sintomas visuais em resposta ao flúor, entretanto as alterações morfoanatômicas indicam que essa espécie possui potencial para ser utilizada como bioindicadora.This work aimed to evaluate the degree of susceptibility and characterize the injuries caused by fluoride in the morphoanatomy of Magnolia ovata. Seedlings were subjected to fluoride simulated rain (10 µg.ml-1 of F- during 10 consecutive days. In the control treatment, only deionized water was used. Leaves were collected for quantification of fluoride in the dry weight and fixed for light and scanning electron microscopy analyses. The

  5. New varieties of Magnolia biondii and Magnolia cylindrica (Magnoliaceae) in China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, Y.L.; Ejder, E.; Yang, J.F.; Kang, Y.X.; Ye, W.; Zhang, S.Z.

    2013-01-01

    Magnolia biondii var. purpurascens var. nov. and Magnolia cylindrica var. purpurascens var. nov. (Magnoliaceae) are described as two new varieties endemic to China. Magnolia biondii var. purpurascens is mainly restricted to forests of Shaanxi and SE Gansu provinces. It differs from the typical

  6. In vitro propagation via seeds of Capparis ovata Desf

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Unicornis

    2013-05-22

    May 22, 2013 ... High seed germination percentage (70%) was achieved on ... tages after direct sowing under field conditions. Bond. (1990) ... been applied in caper plant (C. ovata) (Soyler and Arslan,. 1999; Soyler ... Temperatures, pre-soa-.

  7. First record of Ostreopsis cfr. ovata on macroalgae in the Northern Adriatic Sea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monti, Marina; Minocci, Marco; Beran, Alfred; Ivesa, Ljiljana

    2007-01-01

    Ostreopsis ovata is an epiphytic potentially toxic dinoflagellate. It has a world-wide distribution, normally associated with other epiphytic or benthic dinoflagellates. In tropical seas O. ovata is often associated with the genera Gambierdiscus, Coolia and Prorocentrum, causing cinguatera fish poisoning. Recently, Ostreopsis spp. blooms in the Tyrrhenian and southern Adriatic Sea have been related to human health problems, such as breathing and skin irritation. Here we report the first record of Ostreopsis cfr. ovata in the Northern Adriatic Sea. O. cfr. ovata was isolated from macroalgae in two areas, the Gulf of Trieste (Italy) and close to Rovinj (Croatia). The microalga was identified by scanning electron microscopy and by fluorescence light microscopy. Size range and thecal pore structure were similar to those described for O. cfr. ovata in previous studies. Ostreopsis cfr. ovata was present on all the macroalgae collected, particularly browns and reds. The microalgal association on macroalgae was mostly composed of Ostreopsis sp., Coolia monotis and Coscinodiscus sp

  8. First record of Ostreopsis cfr. ovata on macroalgae in the Northern Adriatic Sea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Monti, Marina [Department of Biological Oceanography, National Institute of Oceanography and Applied Geophysics, Via Auguste Piccard 54, 34010 Trieste (Italy)]. E-mail: mmonti@inogs.it; Minocci, Marco [Department of Biological Oceanography, National Institute of Oceanography and Applied Geophysics, Via Auguste Piccard 54, 34010 Trieste (Italy); Beran, Alfred [Department of Biological Oceanography, National Institute of Oceanography and Applied Geophysics, Via Auguste Piccard 54, 34010 Trieste (Italy); Ivesa, Ljiljana [Ruder Boskovic Institute, Center for Marine Research, G. Paliaga 5, 52210 Rovinj (Croatia)

    2007-05-15

    Ostreopsis ovata is an epiphytic potentially toxic dinoflagellate. It has a world-wide distribution, normally associated with other epiphytic or benthic dinoflagellates. In tropical seas O. ovata is often associated with the genera Gambierdiscus, Coolia and Prorocentrum, causing cinguatera fish poisoning. Recently, Ostreopsis spp. blooms in the Tyrrhenian and southern Adriatic Sea have been related to human health problems, such as breathing and skin irritation. Here we report the first record of Ostreopsis cfr. ovata in the Northern Adriatic Sea. O. cfr. ovata was isolated from macroalgae in two areas, the Gulf of Trieste (Italy) and close to Rovinj (Croatia). The microalga was identified by scanning electron microscopy and by fluorescence light microscopy. Size range and thecal pore structure were similar to those described for O. cfr. ovata in previous studies. Ostreopsis cfr. ovata was present on all the macroalgae collected, particularly browns and reds. The microalgal association on macroalgae was mostly composed of Ostreopsis sp., Coolia monotis and Coscinodiscus sp.

  9. Plantlets from encapsulated shoot buds of Catalpa ovata G. Don

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Halina Wysokińska

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Shoot buds isolated from in vitro shoot cultures of Catalpa ovata G. Don were encapsulated using 3% sodium alginate with sucrose (3% and 50 mM calcium chloride. The morphogenic response of encapsulated buds was affected by such factors, like composition of the media and the presence of growth regulators. The highest frequency of plantlet germination from encapsulated buds (70% within 4 weeks was obtained on Woody Plant medium (WP (Lloyd and McCown 1980 containing indole-3-butyric acid (IBA (1 mg/l. The process was substantially inhibited by cold-storage (4oC of encapsulated buds. In this case, the frequency response ranged from 3% to 22% dependent on storage period (28 or 42 days and the presence of the paraffin coat covering the alginate capsules. The plantlets developed from both unstored and stored encapsulated buds of C. ovata were transplanted to soil and grew in pots to phenotypically normal plants.

  10. Ostreopsis cf. ovata dynamics in the NW Mediterranean Sea in relation to biotic and abiotic factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carnicer, Olga; Guallar, Carles; Andree, Karl B; Diogène, Jorge; Fernández-Tejedor, Margarita

    2015-11-01

    An expansion of the distribution of Ostreopsis cf. ovata, a dinoflagellate which produces palytoxin-like compounds, has been reported in recent years. Economical and social interests are affected by blooms, as they are responsible for respiratory and skin problems in humans and may cause damage to marine organisms. In order to identify the most influential environmental factors that trigger proliferations of O. cf. ovata in the area of the adjacent shallow rocky coast of the Ebro Delta (NW Mediterranean Sea) a three-year survey was performed on the metaphytic microalgae community growing on the macrophytes Jania rubens and Corallina elongata. Small-size diatoms were more abundant than dinoflagellates; O. cf. ovata was identified as the only species present from the genus. Seawater temperature was the primary driver defining the ecological niche of O. cf. ovata. Freshwater and groundwater fluxes were more pronounced in southern than in northern sites, which may have resulted in a distinct O. cf. ovata spatial distribution, with the highest records of abundance and more frequent blooms in the north. In consequence, negative correlations between the abundance of O. cf. ovata and nitrate concentrations and significant positive correlation with salinity were observed. The temporal pattern of O. cf. ovata dynamics from mid-July to early-November is probably due to the fact that this species is observed only above a certain threshold temperature of seawater. Metaphytic cells of O. cf. ovata were smaller in the northern site than in the south, possibly as a result of an increase in cell division, coinciding with higher abundance, and this could be an indicator of favorable conditions. Toxicity in planktonic cells was negatively correlated with cell abundance in the water column, achieving maximum concentrations of 25pg. PLTX eqcell(-1). Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Growth Inhibition of Sporomusa ovata by Incorporation of Benzimidazole Bases into Cobamides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mok, Kenny C.

    2013-01-01

    Phenolyl cobamides are unique members of a class of cobalt-containing cofactors that includes vitamin B12 (cobalamin). Cobamide cofactors facilitate diverse reactions in prokaryotes and eukaryotes. Phenolyl cobamides are structurally and chemically distinct from the more commonly used benzimidazolyl cobamides such as cobalamin, as the lower axial ligand is a phenolic group rather than a benzimidazole. The functional significance of this difference is not well understood. Here we show that in the bacterium Sporomusa ovata, the only organism known to synthesize phenolyl cobamides, several cobamide-dependent acetogenic metabolisms have a requirement or preference for phenolyl cobamides. The addition of benzimidazoles to S. ovata cultures results in a decrease in growth rate when grown on methanol, 3,4-dimethoxybenzoate, H2 plus CO2, or betaine. Suppression of native p-cresolyl cobamide synthesis and production of benzimidazolyl cobamides occur upon the addition of benzimidazoles, indicating that benzimidazolyl cobamides are not functionally equivalent to the phenolyl cobamide cofactors produced by S. ovata. We further show that S. ovata is capable of incorporating other phenolic compounds into cobamides that function in methanol metabolism. These results demonstrate that S. ovata can incorporate a wide range of compounds as cobamide lower ligands, despite its preference for phenolyl cobamides in the metabolism of certain energy substrates. To our knowledge, S. ovata is unique among cobamide-dependent organisms in its preferential utilization of phenolyl cobamides. PMID:23417488

  12. Ostreopsis cf. ovata dynamics in the NW Mediterranean Sea in relation to biotic and abiotic factors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carnicer, Olga [IRTA, Carretera de Poble Nou, km 5.5, 43540 Sant Carles de la Ràpita (Spain); Guallar, Carles [IRTA, Carretera de Poble Nou, km 5.5, 43540 Sant Carles de la Ràpita (Spain); IFREMER, DYNECO-PELAGOS Centre de Brest, Pointe du Diable BP70, 29280 Plouzane (France); Andree, Karl B.; Diogène, Jorge [IRTA, Carretera de Poble Nou, km 5.5, 43540 Sant Carles de la Ràpita (Spain); Fernández-Tejedor, Margarita, E-mail: margarita.fernandez@irta.cat [IRTA, Carretera de Poble Nou, km 5.5, 43540 Sant Carles de la Ràpita (Spain)

    2015-11-15

    An expansion of the distribution of Ostreopsis cf. ovata, a dinoflagellate which produces palytoxin-like compounds, has been reported in recent years. Economical and social interests are affected by blooms, as they are responsible for respiratory and skin problems in humans and may cause damage to marine organisms. In order to identify the most influential environmental factors that trigger proliferations of O. cf. ovata in the area of the adjacent shallow rocky coast of the Ebro Delta (NW Mediterranean Sea) a three-year survey was performed on the metaphytic microalgae community growing on the macrophytes Jania rubens and Corallina elongata. Small-size diatoms were more abundant than dinoflagellates; O. cf. ovata was identified as the only species present from the genus. Seawater temperature was the primary driver defining the ecological niche of O. cf. ovata. Freshwater and groundwater fluxes were more pronounced in southern than in northern sites, which may have resulted in a distinct O. cf. ovata spatial distribution, with the highest records of abundance and more frequent blooms in the north. In consequence, negative correlations between the abundance of O. cf. ovata and nitrate concentrations and significant positive correlation with salinity were observed. The temporal pattern of O. cf. ovata dynamics from mid-July to early-November is probably due to the fact that this species is observed only above a certain threshold temperature of seawater. Metaphytic cells of O. cf. ovata were smaller in the northern site than in the south, possibly as a result of an increase in cell division, coinciding with higher abundance, and this could be an indicator of favorable conditions. Toxicity in planktonic cells was negatively correlated with cell abundance in the water column, achieving maximum concentrations of 25 pg. PLTX eq cell{sup −1}. - Highlights: • Presence of a single Ostreopsis genotype in confirmed through qPCR. • Temperature confirmed as the most

  13. Effects of the toxic benthic dinoflagellate Ostreopsis cf. ovata on fertilization and early development of the sea urchin Lytechinus variegatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neves, Raquel A F; Contins, Mariana; Nascimento, Silvia M

    2018-04-01

    Blooms of the benthic dinoflagellate Ostreopsis cf. ovata have been recorded with increasing frequency, intensity and geographic distribution. This dinoflagellate produces potent toxins that may cause mortality of marine invertebrates. Adults of sea urchins are commonly affected by O. cf. ovata exposure with evidence of spines loss and high mortality during periods of high dinoflagellate abundances. Here, we report on the effects of the toxic dinoflagellate O. cf. ovata on fertilization and early development of the sea urchin Lytechinus variegatus, a key ecological herbivore. Lytechinus variegatus eggs and sperm were experimentally exposed to different concentrations of Ostreopsis cf. ovata (4, 40, 400, and 4000 cells ml -1 ) to test the hypothesis that fertilization success, embryonic and larval development of the sea urchin are negatively affected by the toxic dinoflagellate even at low abundances. Reduced fertilization, developmental failures, embryo and larval mortality, and occurrence of abnormal offspring were evident after exposure to O. cf. ovata. Fertilization decreased when gametes were exposed to high O. cf. ovata abundances (400 and 4000 cells ml -1 ), but just the exposure to the highest abundance significantly reduced fertilization success. Sea urchin early development was affected by O. cf. ovata in a dose-dependent way, high dinoflagellate abundances fully inhibited the early development of L. variegatus. Ostreopsis cf. ovata significantly increased the mortality of sea urchin eggs and embryos in the first hours of exposure (∼1-3 h), regardless of dinoflagellate abundance. Abundances of 400 and 4000 O. cf. ovata cells ml -1 induced significantly higher mortality on sea urchin initial stages in the first hours, and no egg or embryo was found in these treatments after 18 h of incubation. The early echinopluteus larva was only reached in the control and in treatments with low Ostreopsis cf. ovata abundances (4 and 40 cells ml -1 ). The

  14. Chemical Constituents from Sonneratia ovata Backer and their in vitro Cytotoxicity and Acetylcholinesterase Inhibitory Activities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nguyen, Thi Hoai Thu; Huu Viet Thong, Phamb; Nguyen, KimTuyen Phamc

    2015-01-01

    Sonneratia ovata Backer, Sonneratiaceae, is a widespread plant in mangrove forests in Vietnam, Cambodia, Thailand, Indonesia. Sonneratia ovata’s chemical composition remains mostly unknown. Therefore, we now report on the structural elucidation of three new phenolics, sonnerphenolic A (1), sonner...

  15. Isolation, characterization and investigation of Plantago ovata husk polysaccharide as superdisintegrant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawar, Harshal; Varkhade, Chhaya

    2014-08-01

    Psyllium husk (Plantago ovata, Family: Plantaginaceae) contains a high proportion of hemicellulose, composed of a xylan backbone linked with arabinose, rhamnose, and galacturonic acid units (arabinoxylans). Polysaccharide was isolated from Psyllium husk using solvent precipitation method. The isolated polysaccharide was evaluated for various physicochemical parameters. The rheological behavior of polysaccharide (1% w/v in water) was studied using Brookfield viscometer. Polysaccharide derived from the husk of P. ovata was investigated as superdisintegrant in the fast dissolving tablets. Valsartan, an antihypertensive drug, was selected as a model drug. The tablets of Valsartan were prepared separately using different concentrations (1, 2.5, 5, 7.5% w/w) of isolated Plantago ovata (P. ovata) husk polysaccharide (Natural) and crospovidone as a synthetic superdisintegrant by direct compression method. The prepared tablets were evaluated for various pre-compression and post-compression parameters. The drug excipient interactions were characterized by FTIR studies. The formulation F4 containing7.5% polysaccharide showed rapid wetting time and disintegration time as compared to formulation prepared using synthetic superdisintegrant at the same concentration level. Hence batch F4 was considered as optimized formulation. The stability studies were performed on formulation F4. The disintegration time and in vitro drug release of the optimized formulation was compared with the marketed formulation (Conventional tablets). Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Uptake of dissolved inorganic and organic nitrogen by the benthic toxic dinoflagellate Ostreopsis cf. ovata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jauzein, Cécile; Couet, Douglas; Blasco, Thierry; Lemée, Rodolphe

    2017-05-01

    Environmental factors that shape dynamics of benthic toxic blooms are largely unknown. In particular, for the toxic dinoflagellate Ostreopsis cf. ovata, the importance of the availability of nutrients and the contribution of the inorganic and organic pools to growth need to be quantified in marine coastal environments. The present study aimed at characterizing N-uptake of dissolved inorganic and organic sources by O. cf. ovata cells, using the 15 N-labelling technique. Experiments were conducted taking into account potential interactions between nutrient uptake systems as well as variations with the diel cycle. Uptake abilities of O. cf. ovata were parameterized for ammonium (NH 4 + ), nitrate (NO 3 - ) and N-urea, from the estimation of kinetic and inhibition parameters. In the range of 0 to 10μmolNL -1 , kinetic curves showed a clear preference pattern following the ranking NH 4 + >NO 3 - >N-urea, where the preferential uptake of NH 4 + relative to NO 3 - was accentuated by an inhibitory effect of NH 4 + concentration on NO 3 - uptake capabilities. Conversely, under high nutrient concentrations, the preference for NH 4 + relative to NO 3 - was largely reduced, probably because of the existence of a low-affinity high capacity inducible NO 3 - uptake system. Ability to take up nutrients in darkness could not be defined as a competitive advantage for O. cf. ovata. Species competitiveness can also be defined from nutrient uptake kinetic parameters. A strong affinity for NH 4 + was observed for O. cf. ovata cells that may partly explain the success of this toxic species during the summer season in the Bay of Villefranche-sur-mer (France). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. AFLP genome scanning reveals divergent selection in natural populations of Liriodendron chinense (Magnoliaceae along a latitudinal transect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aihong eYang

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Understanding adaptive genetic variation and its relation to environmental factors are important for understanding how plants adapt to climate change and for managing genetic resources. Genome scans for the loci exhibiting either notably high or low levels of population differentiation (outlier loci provide one means of identifying genomic regions possibly associated with convergent or divergent selection. In this study, we combined AFLP genome scan and environmental association analysis to test for signals of natural selection in natural populations of Liriodendron chinense (Chinese Tulip Tree; Magnoliaceae along a latitudinal transect. We genotyped 276 individuals from 11 populations of L. chinense using 987 AFLP markers. Two complementary methods (Dfdist and BayeScan and association analysis between AFLP loci and climate factors were applied to detect outlier loci. Our analyses recovered both neutral and potentially adaptive genetic differentiation among populations of L. chinense. We found moderate genetic diversity within populations and high genetic differentiation among populations with reduced genetic diversity towards the periphery of the species ranges. Nine AFLP marker loci showed evidence of being outliers for population differentiation for both detection methods. Of these, six were strongly associated with at least one climate factor. Temperature, precipitation and radiation were found to be three important factors influencing local adaptation of L. chinense. The outlier AFLP loci are likely not the target of natural selection, but the neighboring genes of these loci might be involved in local adaptation. Hence, these candidates should be validated by further studies.

  18. The toxic benthic dinoflagellate Ostreopsis ovata: Quantification of proliferation along the coastline of Genoa, Italy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mangialajo, L.; Bertolotto, R.; Cattaneo-Vietti, R.; Chiantore, M.; Grillo, C.; Lemee, R.; Melchiorre, N.; Moretto, P.; Povero, P.; Ruggieri, N.

    2008-01-01

    Toxic harmful algal bloom (HAB) occurrence is becoming more frequent and problematic in highly urbanized coastal zones. In summer 2005 along the urbanized Genoa coastline (Ligurian Sea, North western Mediterranean Sea), local first aid stations treated about 200 people, who all showed similar symptoms following exposure to marine aerosols. The link with proliferation of Ostreopsis ovata was made, and it highlighted for the first time, the risks that benthic HABs may represent in highly urbanised temperate areas. Subsequently, a specific monitoring plan was designed and implemented in the same area in July 2006, before the first signs of Ostreopsis proliferation were detected. Here we report on this quantification of an Ostreopsis ovata bloom in the Ligurian Sea. Cells were quantified both in the water column and in the epiphytic community on macrophytes. Our results suggest a role of sea water temperature and weather conditions in favouring bloom development

  19. PIXE analysis of trace elements in relation to chlorophyll concentration in Plantago ovata Forsk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saha, Priyanka; Sen Raychaudhuri, Sarmistha; Chakraborty, Anindita; Sudarshan, Mathummal

    2010-01-01

    Plantago ovata Forsk - an economically important medicinal plant - was analyzed for trace elements and chlorophyll in a study of the effects of gamma radiation on physiological responses of the seedlings. Proton-induced X-ray emission (PIXE) technique was used to quantify trace elements in unirradiated and gamma-irradiated plants at the seedling stage. The experiments revealed radiation-induced changes in the trace element and chlorophyll concentrations.

  20. MORPHOLOGICAL AND ANATOMICAL STUDY OF GRANULES WITH SEEDS EPIDERMIS OF PLANTAGO OVATA FORSSK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. V. Daironas

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The results of a morphological and anatomical study of granules from the epidermis of Plantago ovata seeds are presented in the article. Morphological and microscopic diagnostic signs are important for establishing the authenticity of medicinal plant material and drugs made from it.The aim is the identification of morphological and microscopic diagnostic characteristics of the seed epidermis of Plantago ovata, minimal and sufficient to establish the authenticity of the granular pieces of the plant’s epidermis.Materials and methods. The study of morphological and anatomical characteristics as well as histochemical study were conducted according to the procedures of the State Pharmacopoeia of the Russian Federation XIII edition. Microscope “Micromed-1” and digital camera MD300 Electronic Eyepiece (Jincheng were used. Photos were edited in Adobe Photoshop CS6.Results and discussion. Morphological signs of the epidermis of Plantago ovata seeds include its light yellow or pinkish-yellow color and a presence of a pigmented spot of pink or light brown color on the epidermis of the convex side of the seeds and along the seed. These signs are applicable for diagnosis and are also found in crushed raw materials. Granules are rough lumps, consisting of stuck together epidermis pieces. They are characterized by a yellowish or light brown color and the presence of a pigmented spot. The microscopic diagnostic signs include the structure of the upper and lower epidermis, the presence of cells with mucus and starch grains. The upper epidermis consists of large polygonal cells with straight thin anticlinal walls. The cells are covered with a smooth cuticle and are filled with mucus. The lower epidermis consists of elongated rectangular cells. Cells with mucus swell rapidly in the radial direction. Biometric characteristics of anatomical diagnostic signs were established.Conclusion. As the result of a morphological and anatomical study the diagnostic signs

  1. Growth of Biomphalaria glabrata populations in the presence of the ampullariid snails Pila ovata, Lanistes carinatus and Marisa cornuarietis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stryker, G A; Koech, D K; Loker, E S

    1991-06-01

    Adults of three ampullariid species were examined for their ability to affect the population growth of Biomphalaria glabrata (M line strain) under laboratory conditions in which food (lettuce) was supplied ad libitum over an eleven week interval. Lanistes carinatus and Pila ovata were obtained from Kenya, and Marisa cornuarietis originated from the Dominican Republic. The presence of either 3 or 9 L. carinatus or 3 M. cornuarietis per 40 l aquarium did not reduce the population size of B. glabrata below levels attained in control aquaria lacking ampullariids. The presence of 9 M. cornuarietis adults significantly reduced B. glabrata populations by week 10 of the experiment. Presence of 3 or 9 P. ovata per aquarium significantly reduced B. glabrata numbers below control levels starting at week four of the experiment. Aquaria with 9 P. ovata were observed to have fewer B. glabrata egg masses than control aquaria, but the number of egg masses observed was not significantly reduced in aquaria with 3 P. ovata or with 3 or 9 L. carinatus or M. cornuarietis. However, the presence of 3 or 9 adults of each ampullariid species resulted in a significant increase in the percentage of such egg masses that disappeared prior to expected hatching date and that were presumed to have been consumed. The results of his laboratory study suggest that further investigation of the role of ampullariids as biological control agents for pulmonate snails in sub-Saharan Africa should focus on P. ovata.

  2. Rapid Development of Microsatellite Markers for Plantago ovata Forsk.: Using Next Generation Sequencing and Their Cross-Species Transferability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ranbir Singh Fougat

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Isabgol (Plantago ovata Forsk. is an important medicinal plant having high pharmacological activity in its seed husk, which is substantially used in the food, beverages and packaging industries. Nevertheless, isabgol lags behind in research, particularly for genomic resources, like molecular markers, genetic maps, etc. Presently, molecular markers can be easily developed through next generation sequencing technologies, more efficiently, cost effectively and in less time than ever before. This study was framed keeping in view the need to develop molecular markers for this economically important crop by employing a microsatellite enrichment protocol using a next generation sequencing platform (ion torrent PGM™ to obtain simple sequence repeats (SSRs for Plantago ovata for the very first time. A total of 3447 contigs were assembled, which contained 249 SSRs. Thirty seven loci were randomly selected for primer development; of which, 30 loci were successfully amplified. The developed microsatellite markers showed the amplification of the expected size and cross-amplification in another six species of Plantago. The SSR markers were unable to show polymorphism within P. ovata, suggesting that low variability exists within genotypes of P. ovata. This study suggests that PGM™ sequencing is a rapid and cost-effective tool for developing SSR markers for non-model species, and the markers so-observed could be useful in the molecular breeding of P. ovata.

  3. Production of butyrate and caproate from a coculture of Sporomusa ovata and Clostridium kluyveri during MES

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ammam, Fariza; Tremblay, Pier-Luc; Faraghi Parapari, Neda

    2014-01-01

    the lack of genetic tools. S. ovata is able to produceethanol and acetate while C. kluyveri uses these two compounds as carbon source and producesbutyrate and caproate.The first step was to optimize the growth medium for S. ovata to increase ethanol production. Theeffect of trace metal ions such as SeO4...

  4. Dactylorhiza maculata, Platanthera bifolia and Listera ovata survive N application under P limitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hejcman, Michal; Schellberg, Jürgen; Pavlů, Vilém

    2010-11-01

    Increased nutrient availability is generally believed to be harmful for terrestrial orchids. However, no information is available on whether grassland orchids survive decades-long calcium (Ca), nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P) and potassium (K) application. We took advantage of sampling in one of the oldest long-term experiments in the world, the Rengen Grassland Experiment (RGE), which was established in Germany in 1941 on low-productive Violion caninae grassland, and we monitored orchids from 2005 to 2009. Dactylorhiza maculata, Platanthera bifolia and Listera ovata survived decades-long application of Ca and CaN fertilizer, but not CaN together with P. Cover of D. maculata was highest in areas of Ca treatment. The number of flowers per plant of L. ovata was significantly higher in the CaN treatment compared with the control indicating that enhanced N availability stimulated its growth. Long-term N application (NH 4NO 3 at an annual rate of 100 kg N ha -1) was not fatal to the studied orchids if not accompanied by P application. It is more likely that enhanced N availability can cause loss of studied orchids only where the availability of P in soil is high enough to enable the growth of productive species that can better compete for light on eutrophic soils.

  5. Occurrences of the toxic dinoflagellate Ostreopsis ovata in relation with environmental factors in Kerkennah Island (Southern coast of Tunisia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mounir Ben brahim

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To study the seasonal and monthly variability of the toxic dinoflagellate Ostreopsis ovata (O. ovata in relation to environmental parameters in Kerkennah Island. Methods: Three water samples replicate of one-litter were taken daily for ten consecutive days on 12 months. All sampling water was kept in the dark at ambient temperature until their microscopic observation. Environmental variables such as salinity and temperature were measured in the field concomitantly as phytoplankton sampling. Nutrients (ammonium, nitrite, nitrate, phosphate and silicate were analysed in laboratory with Auto-analyser Luebbe type. Cell identification and enumeration in water samples were performed with an inverted microscope after the sedimentation. Results: The highest abundance of O. ovata was recorded in summer. Analysis of variance showed significant difference of abundance between seasons, whereas no significant difference for month was detected. Factorial analysis ordination showed a positive correlation of Ostreopsis mainly with temperature and low correlation with nitrite and nitrate whereas the second axis (with 26.30% of variance showed that Ostreopsis was correlated with temperature and salinity. Conclusions: The maximum abundance of Ostreopsis was reached in summer when temperature was high and a low relationship between O. ovata and nutrient was detected.

  6. [New settlers comb jellies Mnemiopsis leidyi (A. Agassiz) and Beroe ovata Mayer 1912 and their influence on the pelagic ecosystem of the northeastern part of the Black Sea].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiganova, T A; Musaeva, E I; Bulgakova, Iu V; Mirzoian, Z A; MartynIuk, M L

    2003-01-01

    We analyzed the condition of pelagic ecosystem of northeastern Black Sea influenced by expansion of a new settler Beroe ovata in 1999-2001. Expansion of B. ovata considerably decreased the population of another new settler Mnemiopsis leidyi that deformed the Black Sea ecosystem for over a decade. Reduction of M. leidyi population limited its influence on the ecosystem and, consequently, we observed reestablishment of the main components of the Black Sea pelagic ecosystem--zooplankton and fish, their spawn and larvae. The relationship between annual and seasonal variability of the population and biomass of the both new settlers M. leidyi and B. ovata are discussed.

  7. Effects of Myrcia ovata Cambess. essential oil on planktonic growth of gastrointestinal microorganisms and biofilm formation of Enterococcus faecalis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cinthya S. Cândido

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The essential oil from the leaves of Myrcia ovata Cambess., commonly used in Brazil for the treatment of gastric illnesses, was screened for antimicrobial activity and action in the formation of microbial biofilms by Enterococcus faecalis. The oil was obtained by hydrodistillation using a clevenger-type system. Its chemical composition was analyzed using GC and GC-MS. Both MIC and MBC of the essential oil were determined by broth microdilution techniques and agar dilution method. The essential oil showed antimicrobial activity against E. faecalis, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Salmonella choleraesuis, Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pneumoniae and Candida parapsilosis. The results showed that the essential oil of M. ovata Cambess. was effective against the formation of biofilm by E. faecalis when compared with the control. Four volatile compounds, representing 92.1 % of the oil, were identified and geranial was the major component (50.4 %. At the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of the chemical composition and antimicrobial activity of the essential oil from leaves of M. ovata.

  8. Consumption of Biomphalaria glabrata egg masses and juveniles by the ampullariid snails Pila ovata, Lanistes carinatus and Marisa cornuarietis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofkin, B V; Stryker, G A; Koech, D K; Loker, E S

    1991-04-01

    Lanistes carinatus and Pila ovata from Kenya and Marisa cornuarietis from the Dominican Republic were examined for their ability to consume egg masses and juveniles of Biomphalaria glabrata (M line strain) under laboratory conditions. Adults of all three ampullariid species consumed all egg masses presented to them over a five day period of observation. Juvenile P. ovata consumed significantly more egg masses than juveniles of M. cornuarietis or L. carinatus. Both adult and juvenile ampullariids generally ate more egg masses when maintained under a temperature regime (25-32 degrees C) approximating conditions in coastal Kenya than at 13-25 degrees C which approximates the temperature regime near Nairobi, Kenya. Egg masses attached to floating 'refugia' were not attacked, apparently reflecting the difficulty experienced by ampullariids in reaching free-floating objects. Adults of each ampullariid species ate approximately 25% of all lariids in reaching free-floating objects. Adults of each ampullariid species ate approximately 25% of all 1.5 +/- 0.5 mm B. glabrata juvenile snails presented to them. P. ovata adults consumed significantly more 3.0 +/- 0.5 mm juveniles than adults of the other two species. B. glabrata egg masses and juveniles were consumed even though lettuce was continually present in experimental aquaria. Implications of these results for biological control studies in East Africa are discussed.

  9. Treatment of water turbidity and bacteria by using a coagulant extracted from Plantago ovata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bahman Ramavandi

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available A biocoagulant was successfully extracted from Plantago ovata by using an FeCl3-induced crude extract (FCE. The potential of FCE to act as a natural coagulant was tested for clarification using the turbid water of a river. Experimental tests were performed to evaluate the effects of turbidity concentration, coagulant quantity, water pH, and humic acid concentration on the coagulation of water turbidity by FCE. The maximum turbidity removal was occurred at water pH<8. At the optimum dosage of FCE, only 0.8 mg/L of dissolved organic carbon was released to the treated water. An increase in the humic acid led to the promotion of the water turbidity removal. Results demonstrated that the FCE removed more than 95.6% of all initial turbidity concentrations (50–300 NTU. High bacteriological quality was achieved in the treated water. FCE as an eco-friendly biocoagulant was revealed to be a very efficient coagulant for removing turbidity from waters.

  10. Dehydro-alpha-lapachone isolated from Catalpa ovata stems: activity against plant pathogenic fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Jun Young; Kim, Hae Young; Choi, Gyung Ja; Jang, Kyoung Soo; Lim, He Kyoung; Lim, Chi Hwan; Cho, Kwang Yun; Kim, Jin-Cheol

    2006-05-01

    The methanol extract of stems of Catalpa ovata G Don exhibits potent in vivo antifungal activity against Magnaporthe grisea (Hebert) Barr (rice blast) on rice plants, Botrytis cinerea Pers ex Fr (tomato grey mould) and Phytophthora infestans (Mont) de Bary (tomato late blight) on tomato plants, Puccinia recondita Rob ex Desm (wheat leaf rust) on wheat plants and Blumeria graminis (DC) Speer f. sp. hordei Marchal (barley powdery mildew) on barley plants. An antifungal substance was isolated and identified as dehydro-alpha-lapachone from mass and nuclear magnetic resonance spectral data. It completely inhibited the mycelial growth of B. cinerea, Colletotrichum acutatum Simmonds, Colletotrichum gloeosporioides Simmonds, M. grisea and Pythium ultimum Trow over a range of 0.4-33.3 mg litre(-1). It also controlled the development of rice blast, tomato late blight, wheat leaf rust, barley powdery mildew and red pepper anthracnose (Colletotrichum coccodes (Wallr) S Hughes). The chemical was particularly effective in suppressing red pepper anthracnose by 95% at a concentration of 125 mg litre(-1). Copyright 2006 Society of Chemical Industry.

  11. Effects of Different Fertilizer Treatments on Quantitative and Qualitative Characteristics of Isabgol (Plantago ovata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gh. Asadi

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Application of organic manures is one of the most important strategies for plant nutrition compared to chemical fertilizers, especially in organic management of medicinal plants. In order to evaluate the effects of different organic and chemical fertilizers on yield, yield components and qualitative characteristics of isabgol (Plantago ovata, a field experiment was conducted based on randomized complete block design with three replications at the Agricultural Research Station, College of Agriculture, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, during growing season of 2011-2012. Treatments included three levels of nitrogen fertilizer (25, 50 and 75 kg.ha-1, three levels of cow manure (5, 10 and 15 t.ha-1 and three levels of vermicompost (2, 4 and 6 t.ha-1 and control.The results showed that the effectof different fertilizers was significant (p≤0.05 on all studied traits except swelling rate of isabgol. The maximum amounts were observed in 6 t.ha-1 vermicompost and 15 t.ha-1 cow manure. The highest seed yield (548.4 kg.ha-1 was observed in 6 t.ha-1 vermicompost that it enhanced up to 26% compared to control. By increasing in organic fertilizers enhanced mucilage content, swelling factor and swelling content of isabgol. The maximum mucilage content and swelling factor were observed in 15 t.ha-1 (with 35.3% and 13.4 ml, respectively. Since, organic matters improved quantitative and qualitative yield of isabgol compared to chemical fertilizer, it concluded that these organic inputs could be regarded as a suitable alternative to enhance the growth and yield of medicinal plants such as isabgol especially in low input systems.

  12. Effect of tungstate on acetate and ethanol production by the electrosynthetic bacterium Sporomusa ovata

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ammam, Fariza; Tremblay, Pier-Luc; Lizak, Dawid Mariusz

    2016-01-01

    successfully converted to their corresponding alcohols 1-propanol and 1-butanol by S. ovata during gas fermentation. Increasing tungstate concentration enhanced conversion efficiency for both propionate and butyrate. Gene expression analysis suggested that tungsten-containing aldehyde ferredoxin...... oxidoreductases (AORs) and a tungsten-containing formate dehydrogenase (FDH) were involved in the improved biosynthesis of acetate, ethanol, 1-propanol, and 1-butanol. AORs and FDH contribute to the fatty acids re-assimilation pathway and the Wood-Ljungdahl pathway, respectively. This study presented here shows...

  13. Floral characteristics and pollination ecology of Manglietia ventii (Magnoliaceae, a plant species with extremely small populations (PSESP endemic to South Yunnan of China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bin Wang

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Manglietia ventii is a highly endangered plant species endemic to Yunnan province in China, where there are only five known small populations. Despite abundant flowering there is very low fruit and seed set, and very few seedlings in natural populations, indicating problems with reproduction. The causes of low fecundity in M. ventii are not known, largely because of insufficient knowledge of the species pollination ecology and breeding system. We conducted observations and pollination experiments, and analyzed floral scents to understand the pollinator–plant interactions and the role of floral scent in this relationship, as well as the species breeding system. Like the majority of Magnoliaceae, M. ventii has protogynous and nocturnal flowers that emit a strong fragrance over two consecutive evenings. There is a closing period (the pre-staminate stage during the process of anthesis of a flower, and we characterize the key flowering process as an “open-close-reopen” flowering rhythm with five distinct floral stages observed throughout the floral period of this species: pre-pistillate, pistillate, pre-staminate, staminate, and post-staminate. Flowers are in the pistillate stage during the first night of anthesis and enter the staminate stage the next night. During anthesis, floral scent emission occurs in the pistillate and staminate stages. The effective pollinators were weevils (Sitophilus sp. and beetles (Anomala sp., while the role of Rove beetles (Aleochara sp. and thrips (Thrips sp. in pollination of M. ventii appears to be minor or absent. The major chemical compounds of the floral scents were Limonene, β-Pinene, α-Pinene, 1,8-Cineole, Methyl-2-methylbutyrate, p-Cymene, Methyl-3-methyl-2-butenoate and 2-Methoxy-2-methyl-3-buten, and the relative proportions of these compounds varied between the pistillate and staminate stages. Production of these chemicals coincided with flower visitation by weevils and beetles. The results of

  14. Growth and competitive abilities of the federally endangered Lindera melissifolia and the potentially invasive Brunnichia ovata in varying densities, hydrologic regimes, and light availabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tracy S. Hawkins; Nathan Schiff; A. Dan Wilson; Theodor D. Leininger; Margaret S. Devall

    2016-01-01

    Brunnichia ovata (Walter) Shinners is a native, perennial, woody vine with the potential to become an aggressive competitor of the federally endangered shrub Lindera melissifolia (Walt.) Blume. Our study simulated habitat disturbances to hydrologic regime and light availability that may occur naturally, or through active...

  15. Experimental Paper. In vitro synthesis of mucilage in Plantago ovata Forsk affected by genotypes and culture media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Golkar Pooran

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Psyllium (Plantago ovata Forsk is medicinally used mainly for its mucilage content. Objective: In the present study, an attempt was made to improve mucilage yield under in vitro callus culture using different genotypes, explants and culture media. Methods: The effects of a range of concentrations of plant growth regulators including 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D and kinetin (Kin were evaluated on mucilage synthesis under in vitro culture using cotyledon, hypocotyl and seed explants. Fourteen genotypes originating from different geographical regions of Iran were used to evaluate their response to in vitro mucilage synthesis. Results: The highest rate of callus induction (76% and callus growth rate CGR (0.38 mm/day were induced on MS medium supplemented with 0.5 mg/l 2,4-D and 1 mg/l Kin and the hypocotyl explant. The results of analysis of variance showed significant genotypic differences for callus induction, CGR and mucilage content of callus and seeds. The mucilage content ranged from 0.38 to 0.08 (g/g DW and 0.13 to 0.042 (g/g DW for callus and seed, respectively. The superior callus induction (73%, CGR (0.45 mm/day and mucilage content of callus (0.38 g/g DW was denoted to Po1 genotype. The callus produced nearly three times more mucilage than the seeds using superior genotype (Po1. Conclusion: The results of this study revealed that high efficiency of callus culture of P. ovata using hypocotyl explant accompanied by the exploration of genetic diversity are important to improve the yield of mucilage synthesis by in vitro callus culture.

  16. Eggs for breakfast? Analysis of a probable mosasaur biting trace on the Cretaceous echinoid Echinocorys ovata Leske, 1778

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Neumann

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Fossil biting traces (praedichnia represent indirect evidence of predation and shed light on fossil predator–prey interactions and fossil food webs. Especially from echinoderm skeletons, biting traces are well known. Here, we describe the oral surface of a large Cretaceous (Maastrichtian holasteroid echinoid Echinocorys ovata Leske, 1778 from Hemmoor (northern Germany which exhibits four circular punctures arranged in a semi-circular arc. Whereas three of the punctures penetrated the skeleton, one puncture only just hit the margin of the echinoid test at the ambitus, leaving a long incision furrow in the skeleton. The punctures were not lethal to the sea urchin as is indicated by progressed skeletal regeneration and closure of the fractures. The overall appearance of the punctures suggests that they were produced during a single mechanical event, most likely by the biting action of the teeth of a large vertebrate animal. We analysed the shape and arrangement of the biting trace and conclude that it was probably produced by a marine reptile possessing a prognath tooth position, most likely by a globidensine mosasauroid. Our finding not only sheds light on mosasaur feeding behaviour and prey selection but also increases the knowledge of the food webs in the chalk sea ecosystem during the uppermost Cretaceous.

  17. Establishing the link between Ostreopsis cf.ovata blooms and human health impacts using ecology and epidemiology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magda Vila

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Blooms of the benthic dinoflagellate Ostreopsis have been related to sporadic acute respiratory symptoms and general malaise in people exposed to marine aerosols on some Mediterranean beaches. However, the direct link between recurrent Ostreopsis blooms and health problems has not been clearly established. In order to establish and elucidate the connection, we conducted a joint ecology and epidemiology study in an Ostreopsis hot spot. Throughout the bloom, which extended from the end of June until the end of October 2013, 81% of the human cohort that we studied experienced at least one Ostreopsis-related symptom. Paradoxically, the time when the effects were greatest was during a short time window in early August. This corresponded to the transition from the exponential growth to the stationary phase of the bloom. Negligible symptoms were reported from August to mid-October, during the stationary period of the proliferation, when O. cf. ovata maintained high concentrations of epiphytic cells. No clear patterns in the landward wind component were noted during the time when health effects were greatest. Our main hypothesis is that the irritants present in the aerosol are produced during a particular physiological phase of the Ostreopsis cells during the bloom.

  18. Effect of drought stress and sulphur fertilizer on quantity and quality yield of psyllium (Plantago ovata L. in Baluchestan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Mousavi nik

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Management of chemical fertilizers application is very important issues on environment and plant yield especially in arid and-semi arid region. In order to determine the effects of drought stresses and fertilizer levels on quantity and quality yields of psyllium (Plantago ovata L., a study was conducted as split plot based on randomized complete block design with four replications at the Natural Resources and Agriculture Researches Center of Balouchestan, Iran, during growing season of 2009-2010. Treatments included different irrigation regimes (three, five and eight times irrigation during the growing season as main plots and four levels of sulphur fertilizer (0, 75, 150 and 225 kg.ha-1 sulphur as sub plot. The results showed that the irrigation regimes and sulphur fertilizer had significant effects on seed and biological yield of psyllium, so the highest seed and biological yields obtained in eight times irrigation. Also, the maximum of these factors were achieved in 225 kg.ha-1 sulphur. The highest harvest index and 1000- seed weight, No. seed per spike and No. spike per plant were observed in eight times irrigation and 225 kg.ha-1 sulphur. The highest plant height was obtained in eight times irrigation and 225 kg.ha-1 sulphur and the maximum mucilage percentage and proline content were obtained in three times irrigation. The maximum mucilage yield and carbohydrate content were achieved in eight times irrigation. Among sulphur fertilizer, the highest amounts for all factors were achieved in 225 kg.ha-1 sulphur. There was positive and significant correlation between seed yield with spike No. per plant, Seed No. per spike, 1000-Seed, biological yield and mucilage yield.

  19. TWO SPECIES OF PROFUSULINELLA (P. ALJUTOVICA AND P. OVATA, EARLY MOSCOVIAN (PENNSYLVANIAN FUSULINES FROM SOUTHERN TURKEY AND SUBDIVISION OF PRIMITIVE GROUPS OF THE FAMILY FUSULINIDAE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FUMIO KOBAYASHI

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Early Moscovian (Pennsylvanian fusulines, Profusulinella aljutovica and Profusulinella ovata, from the Hadim area, southern Turkey are described systematically. They are contained in the bedded limestone (algal fusuline grainstone of the Yaricak Formation of the Aladag Unit in the Tauride Block. Morphologic analysis of these and similar species suggests: (1 Aljutovella should be synonymous with Profusulinella; (2 Ovatella, Depratina, Staffellaeformes, Aljutovella (Elongatella, Tikhonovichiella, Skelnevatella, and Priscoidella proposed in 1980’s and 1990’s are also synonymous with Profusulinella; and (3 the families Profusulinellidae and Aljutovellidae are not necessary and Profusulinella is included in the subfamily Fusulinellinae placed under the family Fusulinidae. 

  20. Colonic production of butyrate in patients with previous colonic cancer during long-term treatment with dietary fibre (Plantago ovata seeds)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordgaard, I; Hove, H; Clausen, M R

    1996-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Butyrate has antineoplastic properties against colorectal cancer cells and is the preferred oxidative substrate for colonocytes. Like acetate and propionate (short-chain fatty acids; SCFAs), butyrate is produced by colonic fermentation of dietary fibre. METHODS: Twenty patients resected...... for colorectal cancer were treated with 20 g/day of the fibre Plantago ovata seeds for 3 months, which increased the intake of fibre by 17.9 +/- 0.8 g/day, from basal levels of 19.2 +/- 1.7 g/day; 17 patients completed the study. Faecal samples were obtained on eight occasions, twice before treatment......, and monthly three times during and three time after treatment. RESULTS: One month of fibre therapy increased faecal concentrations of butyrate by 42 +/- 12% (from 13.2 +/- 1.2 to 19.3 +/- 3.0 mmol/l; P

  1. Structure and Novel Biomineralization of Mnemiopsis Leidyi and Beroe Ovata Lithocyte Concretions (lcs) as Revealed by Polarization Lc-Pol Scanning Electron Microscopy (sem) and Electron Dispersion Spectroscopy (eds)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moss, A.

    2016-02-01

    Ctenophore statocysts have multicellular statoliths borne on the tips of balancer compound cilia (Curr. Biol. 24:R951; Biol. Bull. 227:7). Lithocyte concretions (LCs) were prepared by three methods: 1) statocysts were microsurgically collected and washed w/0.2 µm filtered sea water (FSW), followed by 5 diH2O rinses in a deep well dish (DWD); 2) statocysts were treated with 50% Chlorox/FSW to release the statolith/LCs; 3) statocysts were fixed in 2.5% glutaraldehyde or 1% paraformaldehyde-2.5% glutaraldehyde in 10 mM pH 7.8 HEPES-buffered FSW, and statoliths and LCs microsurgically released. LCs for SEM were glued to stubs, C-stabilized and Pt-coated to a thickness of 8 nm and viewed at 10 kVe. LCs for EDS were applied to carbon tape on aluminum stubs and analyzed by EDS at 3 and 10 kVe. SEM and EDS were performed on a Zeiss Supra 40 VP equipped with an EDS detector controlled by INCA software (Oxford). Results were compared against compounds of known elemental composition. LCs examined by LC-POL revealed no birefringence (BR). LCs viewed by SEM were either a lumpy mass (M. leidyi) or smooth ellipsoid (B. ovata). LCs on carbon tape typically shattered and released overlapping, layered, multi-oriented crystals. EDS of LC crystals from both species collected by all methods lacked Ca, Mn and Mg. Predominant elements were Na, K, O and S in ratios suggesting that LCs contain mixed sodium/potassium sulfates. The unique composition of ctenophore statoliths may have been critical for the 600+ million years persistence of these organisms (J. exp. Biol. 218:592) including survival through multiple global extinctions and related ocean acidifications. Thanks to L. Kerr, R. Oldenbourg, S. Mehta, A. Verma, M. Tran, A. Kuzirian and S. Tamm for stimulating discussion and technical advice. EDS stds compounds were curtesy of L. Amaral-Zettler, J. Huber and K. Gribble (Bay Paul Center/MBL). Funding: AU PIL Program, NSF-EPS-1158862.

  2. Contribuciones al conocimiento de las Magnoliácea de Colombia, V

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lozano Contreras Gustavo

    1978-12-01

    Full Text Available La consecución de material adicional de Magnoliaceae del sur de Colombia permite establecer dos nuevos taxa, ubicados en los géneros Dugandiodendron y Talauma, respectivamente.Al igual que Talauma dixonii Little y Dugandiodendron striatifolium (Little G. Lozano-c., conocidas de Esmeraldas, Ecuador, las nuevas especies reciben el nombre vernáculo de "Cucharillo". Como ocurre con otras magnoliáceas, la madera de estas especies es muy apreciada, por lo cual se les explota a pesar de la prohibición vigente en cuanto a tala; más aún, las especies que se describen están en peligro de extincion yes difícil obtener material completo de las mismas.  Los "cucharillos" han sido elementos importantes en la composición de la selva pluvial macrotérmica de la región tropical occidental ubicada en el Departamento de Nariño.

  3. Are sugarcane leaf-detritus well colonized by aquatic macroinvertebrates? Detritos foliares de cana-de-açúcar são bem colonizados por macroinvertebrados aquáticos?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciene Aparecida Leite-Rossi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available AIM: The aim was to compare the kinetics of decomposition and the colonization of leaf litter of two plant species, the native Talauma ovata (pinha-do-brejo and the exotic Saccharum officinarum (sugarcane, by aquatic macroinvertebrates; METHODS: From each substrate, three recipients of colonization were taken from a stream, and the specimens identified to the lowest taxonomic level on days 7, 15, 34, 44, 61 and 75. The debris was weighed at the beginning and end of the experiment and determined their cell wall fractions; RESULTS: The coefficients of mineralization indicated higher velocity decay of organic matter refractory in T. ovata. There was no difference in taxonomic structure of macroinvertebrates, between the two substrates, but the community exhibited distinct functional feeding groups in the peak of colonization, with a greater number of shredders in T. ovata. The successive states of decomposition of the two plant detritus showed distinct macroinvertebrate densities; CONCLUSIONS: The amount and state of the plant biomass were important factors influencing the density and diversity of the macroinvertebrate fauna throughout the process of organic decomposition.OBJETIVO: O principal objetivo foi comparar a cinética de decomposição e a colonização de detritos de duas espécies de plantas: a nativa Talauma ovata (pinha-do-brejo e a exótica Saccharum officinarum (cana-de-açúcar por macroinvertebrados; MÉTODOS: Para cada substrato, três recipientes de colonização foram retirados de um riacho e os espécimes identificados até o menor nível taxonômico nos dias 7, 15, 34, 44, 61 e 75. Os detritos foram pesados no início e ao final do experimento e determinadas suas frações de parede celular; RESULTADOS: Os coeficientes de mineralização indicaram maior velocidade de decaimento da matéria orgânica refratária nos detritos de T. ovata. Os dois substratos não apresentaram diferenças na estrutura taxonômica da comunidade

  4. Are sugarcane leaf-detritus well colonized by aquatic macroinvertebrates? Detritos foliares de cana-de-açúcar são bem colonizados por macroinvertebrados aquáticos?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciene Aparecida Leite-Rossi

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available AIM: The aim was to compare the kinetics of decomposition and the colonization of leaf litter of two plant species, the native Talauma ovata (pinha-do-brejo and the exotic Saccharum officinarum (sugarcane, by aquatic macroinvertebrates; METHODS: From each substrate, three recipients of colonization were taken from a stream, and the specimens identified to the lowest taxonomic level on days 7, 15, 34, 44, 61 and 75. The debris was weighed at the beginning and end of the experiment and determined their cell wall fractions; RESULTS: The coefficients of mineralization indicated higher velocity decay of organic matter refractory in T. ovata. There was no difference in taxonomic structure of macroinvertebrates, between the two substrates, but the community exhibited distinct functional feeding groups in the peak of colonization, with a greater number of shredders in T. ovata. The successive states of decomposition of the two plant detritus showed distinct macroinvertebrate densities; CONCLUSIONS: The amount and state of the plant biomass were important factors influencing the density and diversity of the macroinvertebrate fauna throughout the process of organic decomposition.OBJETIVO: O principal objetivo foi comparar a cinética de decomposição e a colonização de detritos de duas espécies de plantas: a nativa Talauma ovata (pinha-do-brejo e a exótica Saccharum officinarum (cana-de-açúcar por macroinvertebrados; MÉTODOS: Para cada substrato, três recipientes de colonização foram retirados de um riacho e os espécimes identificados até o menor nível taxonômico nos dias 7, 15, 34, 44, 61 e 75. Os detritos foram pesados no início e ao final do experimento e determinadas suas frações de parede celular; RESULTADOS: Os coeficientes de mineralização indicaram maior velocidade de decaimento da matéria orgânica refratária nos detritos de T. ovata. Os dois substratos não apresentaram diferenças na estrutura taxonômica da comunidade

  5. Are sugarcane leaf-detritus well colonized by aquatic macroinvertebrates?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciene Aparecida Leite-Rossi

    Full Text Available AIM: The aim was to compare the kinetics of decomposition and the colonization of leaf litter of two plant species, the native Talauma ovata (pinha-do-brejo and the exotic Saccharum officinarum (sugarcane, by aquatic macroinvertebrates; METHODS: From each substrate, three recipients of colonization were taken from a stream, and the specimens identified to the lowest taxonomic level on days 7, 15, 34, 44, 61 and 75. The debris was weighed at the beginning and end of the experiment and determined their cell wall fractions; RESULTS: The coefficients of mineralization indicated higher velocity decay of organic matter refractory in T. ovata. There was no difference in taxonomic structure of macroinvertebrates, between the two substrates, but the community exhibited distinct functional feeding groups in the peak of colonization, with a greater number of shredders in T. ovata. The successive states of decomposition of the two plant detritus showed distinct macroinvertebrate densities; CONCLUSIONS: The amount and state of the plant biomass were important factors influencing the density and diversity of the macroinvertebrate fauna throughout the process of organic decomposition.

  6. Headspace Analysis of Volatile Compounds Coupled to Chemometrics in Leaves from the Magnoliaceae Family

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed A. Farag

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Headspace volatile analysis has been used for volatiles profiling in leaves of 4 Magnolia species with a total of 75 compounds were identified. Monterpene hydrocarbons dominated the volatile blend of M. calophylla (86%, M. acuminata (78%, M. virginiana (70% and M. grandiflora (47% with b -pinene and b -ocimene occurring in the largest amounts, whereas sesquiterpenes were the most abundant compounds in M. grandiflora (39%. High levels of oxygenated compounds were only found in M. virginiana volatile blend (11.4% with 2-phenylethyl alcohol as major component. Hierarchical cluster analysis performed on volatiles content revealed the close relationship between M. acuminata and M. calophylla.

  7. Creep Properties of Walikukun (Schouthenia ovata Timber Beams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Awaludin

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This study presents an evaluation of creep constants of Walikukun (Schoutheniaovata timber beams when rheological model of four solid elements, which is obtained byassembling Kelvin and Maxwell bodies in parallel configuration, was adopted. Creep behaviorobtained by this method was further discussed and compared with creep behavior developedusing phenomenological model of the previous study. Creep data of previous study was deformationmeasurement of Walikukun beams having cross-section of 15 mm by 20 mm with a clearspan of 550 mm loaded for three weeks period under two different room conditions: with andwithout Air Conditioner. Creep behavior given by both four solid elements model and phenomenological(in this case are power functions had good agreement during the period of creepmeasurement, but they give different prediction of creep factor beyond this period. The powerfunction of phenomenological model could give a reasonable creep prediction, while for the foursolid elements model a necessary modification is required to adjust its long-term creep behavior.

  8. Assessment of genetic diversity in Isabgol (Plantago ovata Forsk ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    sandeep kaswan

    improvement of this crop (Dhar et al., 2005). Therefore, it is necessary to analyze or examine the genetic diversity provided by the gene pools and then harnessed for crop improvement. The concept of molecular marker is an ideal approach for this purpose. They are reliable indicator of genetic diversity because they are ...

  9. Notes on Magnoliaceae with a revision of Pachylarnax and Elmerrillia and the Malesian species of Manglietia and Michelia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nooteboom, H.P.

    1985-01-01

    After the general chapters, mainly based on literature and dealing with wood anatomy, characters of the leaf epidermis and foliar sclereids, embryology and chromosome numbers, phytochemistry, and characters of the fruit, the generic delimitation of subfamily Magnolioideae is discussed. Paramichelia

  10. Inferring Genetic Variation and Demographic History of Michelia yunnanensis Franch. (Magnoliaceae from Chloroplast DNA Sequences and Microsatellite Markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shikang Shen

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Michelia yunnanensis Franch., is a traditional ornamental, aromatic, and medicinal shrub that endemic to Yunnan Province in southwest China. Although the species has a large distribution pattern and is abundant in Yunnan Province, the populations are dramatically declining because of overexploitation and habitat destruction. Studies on the genetic variation and demography of endemic species are necessary to develop effective conservation and management strategies. To generate such knowledge, we used 3 pairs of universal cpDNA markers and 10 pairs of microsatellite markers to assess the genetic diversity, genetic structure, and demographic history of 7 M. yunnanensis populations. We calculated a total of 88 alleles for 10 polymorphic loci and 10 haplotypes for a combined 2,089 bp of cpDNA. M. yunnanensis populations showed high genetic diversity (Ho = 0.551 for nuclear markers and Hd = 0.471 for cpDNA markers and low genetic differentiation (FST = 0.058. Geographical structure was not found among M. yunnanensis populations. Genetic distance and geographic distance were not correlated (P > 0.05, which indicated that geographic isolation is not the primary cause of the low genetic differentiation of M. yunnanensis. Additionally, M. yunnanensis populations contracted ~20,000–30,000 years ago, and no recent expansion occurred in current populations. Results indicated that the high genetic diversity of the species and within its populations holds promise for effective genetic resource management and sustainable utilization. Thus, we suggest that the conservation and management of M. yunnanensis should address exotic overexploitation and habitat destruction.

  11. The effect of ionizing radiation on Plantago ovata (Ispaghula husk) in the solid state

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Assaf, S.; Parsons, B.J.; Phillips, G.O.

    2005-01-01

    Herbal medicine derived from natural raw materials is widely used in pharmaceutical preparations. Our study concerns the radiation decontamination of ispaghula husk (IH). Due to the high polysaccharide content of IH, it gels over wide range of concentrations. During the course of IH intake by patients, it experiences different degradation conditions such as acidic, alkaline and colonic microflora. Our study was designed to mimic this behaviour by carrying out controlled degradation steps using ionizing radiation and to study the effects on the molecular weight distribution in different solvents. Gel permeation chromatography coupled on line to a multi angle laser light detector (GPC-MALLS) was used in this study. We have shown that the water-soluble extract of the IH was increased from 21% to 47% with increasing degradation of the molecular structure whereas the alkaline solubility increased from 60 to 80%). The weight average molecular weight of the soluble control polysaccharide was higher in the water extract (2.3x106) than the material extracted in alkali (1.6x106), but following degradation as a results of irradiation, the material extracted into the two systems showed similar molecular weight profiles (author)

  12. Philometra ovata (Nematoda: Philometroidea): a potential sentinel species of heavy metal accumulation

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Baruš, Vlastimil; Jarkovský, J.; Prokeš, Miroslav

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 100, č. 5 (2007), s. 929-933 ISSN 0932-0113 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA524/06/0170; GA MZe(CZ) QF3029 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60930519; CEZ:AV0Z60220518 Keywords : Nematoda * heavy metal accumulation Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 1.512, year: 2007

  13. Adaptation of the autotrophic acetogen Sporomusa ovata to methanol accelerates the conversion of CO2 to organic products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tremblay, Pier-Luc; Höglund, Daniel; Koza, Anna

    2015-01-01

    , and biochemical studies revealed that the molecular mechanisms responsible for the novel characteristics of the adapted strain were associated with the methanol oxidation pathway and the Wood-Ljungdahl pathway of acetogens along with biosynthetic pathways, cell wall components, and protein chaperones. The results...... to grow quicker autotrophically with methanol, a toxic C1 compound, as the sole substrate. Better growth on different concentrations of methanol and with H2-CO2 indicated the adapted strain had a more efficient autotrophic metabolism and a higher tolerance to solvent. The growth rate on methanol...

  14. Estudio sobre utilización y reacciones adversas de preparaciones de Plántago Ovata en oficinas de farmacia

    OpenAIRE

    Gómez Arqueros, Carlos

    2014-01-01

    Aunque no existe una definición única y consensuada, el estreñimiento consiste en la emisión difícil de heces en un número inferior a 3 veces por semana o con un intervalo superior a 48 horas entre ellas. Para poder considerar la existencia de estreñimiento, es importante tener en cuenta también que se haya producido una disminución del ritmo intestinal habitual; de hecho, en ocasiones puede ser el único indicio real del estreñimiento. La forma más común de manifestarse es un estreñimiento co...

  15. Production and functional characterisation of arabinoxylan-oligosaccharides from wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) bran and psyllium (Plantago ovata Forsk) seed husk

    OpenAIRE

    Van Craeyveld, Valerie

    2009-01-01

    Prebiotica zijn voedingscomponenten die niet geabsorbeerd of gehydrolyse erd kunnen worden door enzymen van het gastrointestinaal stelsel, maar d ie in de dikke darm selectief gefermenteerd worden door bepaalde types b acteriën die een gezondheids-bevorderend effect uitoefenen op hun gasthe er. Naast inuline en fructo-oligosachariden, de meest bestudeerde prebio tica, vormen arabinoxylan-oligosachariden (AXOS) mogelijk een nieuwe kla sse van prebiotische componenten. AXOS kunnen uit tarwezeme...

  16. Effect of organic fertilizers on quality and quantity characteristics of blond psyllium (Plantago ovata Forssk. clasping peperweed (Lepidium perfoilatum L., qodumeh Shirazi (Alyssum homolocarpum L. and dragon's head (Lalementia iberica L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Koocheki

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This experiment was carried out in experimental farm of Agricultural Faculty of Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Iran during 2010. The design was split plot with three replications. Main plots were the medicinal plant species consist of: blond psyllium (Plantago ovate Forssk., clasping peperweed (Lepidium perfoilatum L., qodumeh Shirazi (Alyssum homolocarpum L. dragon's head (Lalementia iberica L. and subplots were various organic fertilizer consist of cow manure, vermicompost (based on cow manure, coffee compost and spent mushroom compost. Results showed that medicinal plants had significant difference for number of seeds per plant, shoot dry matter, seed yield, plant height and mucilage percentage. Effect of various organic matter on all traits except for 1000-seed weight was significant. Interaction of organic fertilizers and plant was significant for dry matter. Lalementia had the most mucilage percentage (27.75% and cow manure was the best fertilizer because it had the highest amounts of dry matter (1816 kg.ha-1, seed yield (467.5 kg.ha-1, number seed per plant (550 seeds.plant-1, plant height (23.17 cm and mucilage percentage (20.75%.

  17. The contribution of embryogeny to the systematics of Polycarpi cae and Helobiae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Guignard

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The study of embryogenesis in 27 genera of Polycarpicae and Helobiae allows to determine the embryological characters of these two taxa and determine their phylogenetic bonds by comparison with other morphologic criteria. This study suggests that 'there is no direct relationship between Ranunculales and Helobiae, whereas the latter, in spite of their appearance, show some relationship with Magnoliaceae.

  18. A new species of Combretum from East Borneo

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Exell, A.W.

    1954-01-01

    Combretum kostermansii Exell, sp. nov. Frutex scandens, ramulis primo fulvo-pilosis et tomentellis demum sparse pilosis, atro-rubris. Folia opposita breviter petiolata, petiolo 1—3 mm longo, piloso, lamina chartacea, ovata vel oblongo-ovata, basi cordata, apice acuminata, 2—7 X 1.8—3.6 cm, supra

  19. A Survey of the Freshwater Mussels of the Ohio River from Greenup Locks and Dam to Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-02-06

    1823) X x Lampsilis ovata* (Say, 1817) x x Lampsilis fasciola Raf., 1820 x Epioblasma triguetra (Raf., 1820) x __ TOTALS . . . . 38 29 35 41 Summation of...Lampsilis ovata* (Say, 1817) Lainpsilis fasciola * Raf., 1820 Epioblasma triguetra* (Raf., 1820) 42 Summary of River Faunal Changes Three species and

  20. A new premna (Verbenaceae) from New Guinea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lam, H.J.

    1954-01-01

    Premna brongersmai, nov. spec. — Frutex? Ramuli teretes conspicue subdistanter lenticellati 0.3—0.5 cm crassi, internodia in specimine 7—11 cm longa. Folia coriacea subrigida, decussatim opposita glaberrima petiolata, ovata vel oblongo-ovata vel subovata vel oblongo-lanceolata, basi plus minusve

  1. Alkaloids as taxonomic markers in some species of Magnolia L. and Liriodendron L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirosław Furmanowa

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Some Magnoliaceae cultivated in Poland were investigated: Liriodendron tulipifera L. and 6 species of magnolia: Magnolia acuminata L., M. denudata Desr., M. kobus DC., M. obovata Thunb., M. salicifolia Maxim. and M. tripetala L. For alkaloid detection in the leaves thin-,layer chromatography was used. In Liriodendron tulipifera L. and in all the Magnolia species liriodenine which exhibits cytostatic activity was detected. The extract of Liriodendron tulipifera L. leaves showed, beside liriodenine other spots on the chromatogram than did the magnolias. Alkaloids can be utilized in the chemotaxonomy of Magnoliaceae as a diagnostic trait. The results of the investigations indicate a certain distinctiveness of M. acuminata L., in agreement with those obtained by way of numerical taxonomy. Most similar as regards alkaloid content in leaves are M. obovata Thunb. and M. tripetala L.

  2. The seagrasses of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Jagtap, T.G.; Komarpant, D.S.; Rodrigues, R.

    and is dominated by Cymodocea rotundata, C. serrulata, Thalassia hemprichii, Halodule uninervis, H. pinifolia, Halophila beccarii, H. ovata and H. ovalis. Distribution occurs from the intertidal zone to a maximum depth of Ca 15 m. Maximum growth and biomass occur...

  3. Natural Areas Inventory 1981 (GREAT III)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-01-01

    lanuginosa 3 Campsis radicans Carpinus caroliniana Carya cordifonnis Carya illinoensis Carya laciniosa Carya ovalis 2. Carya ovata Carya ...texana Carya toraentosa Ceanothus americanus Celastrus scandens 2, Celtis laevigata ^Celtis occidentalis Celtis tenuifolia 3 Cephalanthus

  4. Process optimization and insecticidal activity of alkaloids from the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Process optimization and insecticidal activity of alkaloids from the root bark of Catalpa ovata G. Don by response surface methodology. ... Tropical Journal of Pharmaceutical Research. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced ...

  5. Mapping of seagrass meadows from the Lakshadweep Islands (India), using aerial photographs

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Jagtap, T.G.; Inamdar, S.N.

    six major islands of Lakshadweep was estimated to be 112 ha with standing crop of ca 800 metric tonnes. The dominant seagrass species observed was Thalassia hemprichii while Cymodocea rotundata, Halophila ovata, Syringodium isoetifolium and Halodule...

  6. Freshwater Mussels (Mollusca: Bivalvia: Unionidae) of the Upper Mississippi River: Observations at Selected Sites Within the 9-Foot Navigation Channel Project for the St. Paul District, United States Army Corps of Engineers, 1977 - 1979. Volume II. Appendices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-09-10

    as caz’nata A J T R H Ligwnia recta L. subrost rat a Carunculina parva Lampsilis terea L. higginsi L. radiata siliquoidea L. ovata ventricosa Plagio ...radiata siZiquc’idea 1 1 0.?2 X L. ovata ventricosa 2 2 0. 3 Plagio Za trique tra X Arcidens con fragosus 2 2 0.3 Lasmiqona camptlcnata L. cost ata L

  7. Gustavo Lozano Contreras Bogotá, 22 de Mayo De 1938 - Bogotá, 10 de julio de 2000

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    González Garavito Favio Antonio

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available Sin duda alguna, el profesor Lozano fue uno de los mejores conocedores de la Flora de Colombia. Explorador de prácticamente todos los ecosistemas de nuestro país, colectó y estudió rigurosamente miles de plantas. Como resultado, dejó plasmado su conocimiento en varios libros y en numerosas publicaciones en revistas nacionales y extranjeras. Son notables los nuevos hallazgos y contribuciones en el conocimiento de las familias Bromeliaceae, Campanulaceae, Fagaceae, Hamamelidaceae, Juglandaceae, Magnoliaceae, Melastomataceae y Metteniusaceae, entre otras. Además, fue pionero en el estudio de la ecología de robledales y de páramos.

  8. Pickling process of capers (Capparis spp. flower buds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Özcan, Musa

    1999-04-01

    Full Text Available Middle sized (8 < x < 13 mm buds of Capparis spinosa var. spinosa and C. ovata var. canescens from June in brines containing 5,10,15 and 20% salt and from August in brines of 15% salt, and three different size (x < 8 mm, 8 < x < 13 mm, x > 13 mm buds of C. . ovata var. canescens from June in brines of 15% salt were pickled for two months fermentation. Some chemical and microbiological analyses were done in brines during fermentation. Most suitable salt concentration for lactic acid bacteria (LAB activity were 5% and partly 10%. Acidity, LAB activity, sedimentation and hardness were reduced by increasing bud size in C. ovata. Small buds of C. ovata for pickling product had advantage for colour and flavour, however, more sediment and partly softening showed disadvantage. For both species, pickling time was determined as 40 to 50 days in regard of end-product flavour and odour, brine acidity and pH, and LAB activity.

    Se encurtieron durante dos meses botones florales de tamaño medio (8 < x < 13 mm de Capparis spinosa var. spinosa y C. ovata var. canescens, los recolectados en Junio en salmueras conteniendo 5, 10, 15 y 20% de sal, y los de Agosto en salmueras de 15% de sal; y tres tamaños diferentes (x < 8 mm, 8 < x < 13 mm, X > 13 mm de C. ovata var. canescens de Junio en salmueras de 15% de sal. Se realizaron algunos análisis químicos y microbiológicos durante la fermentación. Las concentraciones de sal más adecuadas para la actividad de las bacterias del ácido láctico (LAB fueron 5% y parcialmente 10%. Acidez, actividad de LAB, sedimentación y firmeza (hardness se redujeron al incrementar el tamaño de las alcaparras de C. ovata. Los tamaños pequeños de C. ovata presentaron en el producto encurtido ventajas en color y sabor, pero desventajas por más sedimento y ablandamiento parcial. El tiempo de encurtido para ambas

  9. Bioelectrochemical reduction of carbon dioxide by pure culture at the cathode

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aryal, Nabin; Tremblay, Pier-Luc; Chen, Leifeng

    2014-01-01

    Microbial electrosynthesis (MES) is an innovative approach in which microbes use electricity toreduce carbon dioxide and produce chemical commodities. This process relies on the ability of electroautotrophic microbes to accept electron from an electrode. The concept of MES has already been...... to form robust biofilms. In preliminary results, 171.9mM ofacetate per day per m2 was produced by a previously uncharacterized strain of Sporomusa ovata which is approximatively 1.4 times better than S. ovata DSM-26621. This demonstrates that better electroautotrophic bacteria can still be uncovered...

  10. The effect of different treatments on improving seed germination ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Creating optimal conditions for germination of medicinal plants seed is essential for their cultivation. Therefore, to evaluate the effect of different treatments on seed germination of two medicinal species, Descurainia sophia and Plantago ovata collected in 2009 from Tehran Province, an experiment with a factorial ...

  11. Cytological observations in relation to the taxonomy of the Orchids of the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kliphuis, E.

    1963-01-01

    1. The Orchids in the Netherlands have been subjected to a cytological investigation. 2. The division of the genera Orchis (L.) Klinge into two new genera: Orchis (L.) Vermln. and Dactylorchis (Kl.) Vermln. (Vermeulen, 1947), could be confirmed. 3. In Listera ovata (L.) R. Br. the diploid chromosome

  12. New species in Alectryon (Sapindaceae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leenhouts, P.W.

    1987-01-01

    Descriptio typi: Arbor 11 m alta, 20 cm diam. Ramuli teretes, 4-5 mm crassi, glabrati. Folia 4-jugata; petiolus teres, ca. 7,5 cm longus, 2 mm crassus; petioluli 4-5 mm longi, supra applanati; axes foliorum pilosi, glabrati. Foliola opposita, 9,5-16 cm longa, 5-6 cm lata, ratione ca. 2-3, ovata vel

  13. Hypoglycemic and Hypolipidemic Potential of a High Fiber Diet in Healthy versus Diabetic Rabbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel Díez

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate potential hypoglycaemic and hypolipidemic effects of Plantago ovata husk included in the diet, in healthy and diabetic rabbits. We also examined the effects of this fiber in other biochemical parameters. Two groups of 18 rabbits were used. The first group was fed with standard chow and the second with chow supplemented with Plantago ovata husk (3.5 mg/kg/day. On day 14 diabetes mellitus was induced by the intravenous administration of alloxan (80 mg/kg. After an oral glucose load (3 g, glucose, insulin, and other biochemical parameters were determined on day 14 (healthy rabbits and on day 28 (diabetic rabbits. In healthy rabbits, fiber did not modify glucose or insulin levels but decreased significantly total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, atherogenic index, and glycosylated hemoglobin. In diabetic rabbits, fiber was more beneficial in mild diabetics than in severe diabetics with significant decreases in glucose levels and increases in insulin concentrations. In these animals fiber caused an important reduction in cholesterol, indicating a beneficial effect of Plantago ovata husk in diabetic rabbits. Although further studies in patients are necessary, we think that Plantago ovata husk offers interesting perspectives to be administered to patients with diabetes mellitus.

  14. Florae Malesianae precursores I. Xyridaceae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Royen, van P.

    1953-01-01

    Xyris malmei sp. nov. — Folia ensiformia, 7—30 cm longa, subfalcata, minute papillosa. Scapus 20—45 cm longus, teres vel subteres, papillatus. Bracteae ovatae ad ellipticae, obtusae, emarginatae vel retusae; bracteae basales cum nervo uno completo et nervis 4 descendentibus incompletis. Sepala

  15. Vorläufige Beschreibungen neuer papuanischer Ericaceae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smith, J.J.

    1915-01-01

    Fruticulus pusillus, 6—17 cm. altus, ramulis tenuibus, densius angulato-lepidotis. Folia minima, alterna, oblongo-ovata, utrinque obtusa, crenulata, sparse lepidota, rigide carnosa, 0.37—0.75 cm. longa, 0.2—0.3 cm. lata; petiolus lepidotus, 0.1—0.225 cm. longus. Inflorescentiae 1—2 florae, ramentis

  16. Evaluation of the acute toxicity of refined petroleum products against ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Static and static-renewal evaluation of the acute toxicity of three refined petroleum products — petrol, kerosene and diesel — against two freshwater animals, the mollusc Pila ovata and the fish Poecilia reticulata, was conducted in the laboratory. Petrol, kerosene and diesel were found to be moderately toxic to the test ...

  17. Environmental Impact Research Program. Eastern Gray Squirrel (Sciurus carolinensis). Section 4.7.1, US Army Corps of Engineers Wildlife Resources Management Manual.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-07-01

    Palmetto Sabal spp. Pawpaw Asimina triloba Pecan Carya illinoensis Persimmon Diospyros virginiana Pine Pinus app. Loblolly pine P. taeda Red mulberry...grandifotia Bitter pecan Carya aquatica Blackberry Rubus app. Black cherry Prunus serotina Blackgum Nyssa sylvatica Black walnut Jugtans nigra Blueberry...americana Hickory Carya Spp. Bitternut hickory C. cordiformis Shagbark hickory C. ovata Shellbark hickory C. Zaciniosa Hophornbeam Ostrya virginiana

  18. A Regional Guidebook for Applying the Hydrogeomorphic Approach to Assessing Wetland Functions of Forested Wetlands in the West Gulf Coastal Plain Region of Arkansas

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-08-01

    shrub species in reference standard sites, but may dominate in degraded systems Carya illinoensis Carya cordiformis Carpinus caroliniana Carya ovata...americana sedges Carex spp. ironwood Carpinus caroliniana water hickory Carya aquatica bitternut hickory Carya cordiformis pecan Carya illinoensis ...and water hickory ( Carya aquatica). Less flooded sites are often dominated by green ash, Nuttall oak (Q. nuttallii), or willow oak, and the driest

  19. Journal of Genetics | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Genetics; Volume 92; Issue 2. Molecular markers unravel intraspecific and interspecific genetic variability in Plantago ovata and some of its wild allies. Shivanjali Kotwal Manoj K. Dhar Balbir Kour Kuldeep Raj Sanjana Kaul. Research Note Volume 92 Issue 2 August 2013 pp 293-298 ...

  20. Rim of the Pacific (RIMPAC). Programmatic Environmental Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-06-01

    Honohono) E Hedyotis coriacea Leather leaf sweet ear (Kio’ele) E Melicope hawiaiensis (Alani) SOC Neraudia ovata Spotted nettle bush (Ma’aloa...taro, lotus, shrimp, and fish ponds) supplement existing habitat and provide important feeding habitat. Hawaiian ducks eat mollusks, insects , and

  1. Observations on antifertility and abortifacient herbal drugs | Shah ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Plur., Buddleja asiatica Lour, Chrysanthemum parthenium (L.) Bernh, Justacia adhatod L., Ricinus communis L., Zingiber officinale Roscol., Daucus crota L., Momordica charantia L., Plumbago zeylanica L., Sapindus mukorossi Gaertn., Plantago ovata Forssk, Tanacetum vulgare and Arctium lappa L. The most widely used ...

  2. Leaf morphophysiology of a Neotropical mistletoe is shaped by seasonal patterns of host leaf phenology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scalon, Marina Corrêa; Rossatto, Davi Rodrigo; Domingos, Fabricius Maia Chaves Bicalho; Franco, Augusto Cesar

    2016-04-01

    Several mistletoe species are able to grow and reproduce on both deciduous and evergreen hosts, suggesting a degree of plasticity in their ability to cope with differences in intrinsic host functions. The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of host phenology on mistletoe water relations and leaf gas exchange. Mistletoe Passovia ovata parasitizing evergreen (Miconia albicans) hosts and P. ovata parasitizing deciduous (Byrsonima verbascifolia) hosts were sampled in a Neotropical savanna. Photosynthetic parameters, diurnal cycles of stomatal conductance, pre-dawn and midday leaf water potential, and stomatal anatomical traits were measured during the peak of the dry and wet seasons, respectively. P. ovata showed distinct water-use strategies that were dependent on host phenology. For P. ovata parasitizing the deciduous host, water use efficiency (WUE; ratio of photosynthetic rate to transpirational water loss) was 2-fold lower in the dry season than in the wet season; in contrast, WUE was maintained at the same level during the wet and dry seasons in P. ovata parasitizing the evergreen host. Generally, mistletoe and host diurnal cycles of stomatal conductance were linked, although there were clear differences in leaf water potential, with mistletoe showing anisohydric behaviour and the host showing isohydric behaviour. Compared to mistletoes attached to evergreen hosts, those parasitizing deciduous hosts had a 1.4-fold lower stomatal density and 1.2-fold wider stomata on both leaf surfaces, suggesting that the latter suffered less intense drought stress. This is the first study to show morphophysiological differences in the same mistletoe species parasitizing hosts of different phenological groups. Our results provide evidence that phenotypical plasticity (anatomical and physiological) might be essential to favour the use of a greater range of hosts.

  3. Development of Graphene-based novel cathode material in MES system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Leifeng; Aryal, Nabin; Ammam, Fariza

    2014-01-01

    Sporomusa ovata (S.O) typically have a negative outer-surface charge. The graphene oxide (GO) is the acceptor of the electron. If the GO accept electrons from the Sporomusa ovata and the GO can be reduced to graphene. This will lead to in situ construction of a bacteria/graphene network in the cathode......It has been reported that physical contact between unique nanostructures of electrode and bacteria isimportant for microbial electrosynthesis. The higher specific surface area of cathode can increase contact interface area with bacteria and enhance electron-exchange at the electrode surface...... and RamanSpectrum to character the GO and R-GO. The density of the Sporomusa ovate on the R-GO cathode can becharactered by the confocal laser-scanning fuorescence microscopyer. Acetate is measured via high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The images of R-GO/Sporomusa ovate can be characterizedand...

  4. Diferencias en las historias de vida de dos especies de isópodos bopíridos (Isopoda: Epicaridea que parasitan al nape Neotrypaea uncinata (Milne-Edwards, 1837 (Decapoda: Thalassinidea Different life histories of two species of bopyrid isopods (Isopoda, Epicaridea, parasites of the ghost shrimp Neotrypaea uncinata (H. Milne Edwards, 1837 (Decapoda: Thalassinidea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GABRIELA MUÑOZ

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available En ambientes costeros de Concepción, Chile, se han registrado dos especies de isópodos, Ione ovata Shiino, 1964 e Ionella agassizi Bonnier, 1900, parásitos en las cámaras branquiales del nape Neotrypaea uncinata (H. Milne Edwards, 1837. La prevalencia de parasitismo sin embargo, es mucho menor en Ione ovata quien además presenta menor frecuencia de parejas cohabitando una misma branquia, aunque posee una especificidad comparativamente menor que I. agassizi. Esto sugiere que ambas especies poseen historias de vida contrastantes. Para mejorar el entendimiento de las causas de estas diferencias, en este estudio se analizan y comparan algunos rasgos de la historia de vida de los isópodos (fecundidad, tamaño de los huevos, inversión reproductiva, y capacidad de los machos para colonizar napes no parasitados. Ione agassizi tuvo una menor fecundidad, y huevos de mayor tamaño que I. ovata. Sin embargo, no hubo diferencias en la inversión reproductiva entre ambas especies, ni en su relación con el tamaño corporal del isópodo. Los machos de I. ovata poseen mayor habilidad que los de I. agassizi para colonizar nuevos napes no parasitados, ya que pudieron permanecer en nuevos hospedadores y rediferenciarse sexualmente en hembras. Se considera que sería necesario estimar la sobrevivencia durante el tiempo total de vida de estos parásitos para mejorar la interpretación de estos resultadosOn coastal habitats near Concepción city, Chile, there are two isopod species Ione ovata Shiino, 1964, and Ionella agassizi Bonnier, 1900 both occupying the gill chambers of the ghost shrimp Neotrypaea uncinata (H. Milne Edwards, 1837. However, in I. ovata, the prevalence is smaller, there is a low frequency of coupled isopods in the same gill chamber, and is less host specific than I. agassizi. These observations suggest that both isopod species have different life histories. To improve the understanding of the causes of these differences some life history

  5. Ephemeral wetland communities of Isoëto-Nano-Juncetea class – new data from south-eastern Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krawczyk Rafał

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Vegetation data (70 relevés of ephemeral wetlands collected in both permanent and temporal water basins were analyzed. Numerical classification of the data revealed two distinct subsets, the first comprised communities of Eleocharition ovatae Philippi 1968 alliance, the second combined communities dominated by Alisma lanceolatum, Isolepis supina or Elatine alsinastrum (Alisma lanceolatum group. Phytocoenoses of Eleocharition ovatae were widely distributed in the study area and developed, most frequently, on exposed bottoms of fishponds. This group could be divided into four types of communities. Patches representing Alisma lanceolatum group were found only in mid-field depressions periodically filled with water and concentrated in Volhynian Upland. In this group, two lower vegetation units were distinguished.

  6. Systematics and biology of the African genus Ferraria (Iridaceae: Irideae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Goldblatt

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Following field and herbarium investigation of the subequatorial African and mainly western southern African Ferraria Burm. ex Mill. (Iridaceae: Iridoideae, a genus of cormous geophytes, we recognize 18 species, eight more than were included in the 1979 account of the genus by M.P. de Vos. One of these, F. ovata, based on Moraea ovata Thunb. (1800, was only discovered to be a species of Ferraria in 2001, and three more are the result of our different view of De Vos’s taxonomy. In tropical Africa, F. glutinosa is recircumscribed to include only mid- to late summer-flowering plants, usually with a single basal leaf and with purple to brown flowers often marked with yellow. A second summer-flowering species, F. candelabrum, includes taller plants with several basal leaves. Spring and early summer-flowering plants lacking foliage leaves and with yellow flowers from central Africa are referred to F. spithamea or F. welwitschii respectively.

  7. Epidemiology of bovine hemoprotozoa parasites in cattle and water buffalo in Vietnam

    OpenAIRE

    WEERASOORIYA, Gayani; SIVAKUMAR, Thillaiampalam; LAN, Dinh Thi Bich; LONG, Phung Thang; TAKEMAE, Hitoshi; IGARASHI, Ikuo; INOUE, Noboru; YOKOYAMA, Naoaki

    2016-01-01

    A PCR-based survey of hemoprotozoa parasites detected Babesia bigemina, Theileria orientalis and Trypanosoma theileri among cattle and water buffalo in Vietnam, and a new Babesia sp. closely related to Babesia ovata was detected in cattle only. In addition, Theileria annulata and Trypanosoma evansi were not detected in both cattle and water buffalo. Phylogenetic analysis detected T. orientalis MPSP genotypes 3, 5, 7 and N3 in cattle and 5, 7, N1 and N2 in water buffalo. Additionally, water bu...

  8. Environmental Inventory and Analysis for Pine Bluff, Arkansas. Volume II. Appendices. Pine Bluff Metropolitan Area, Arkansas Urban Water Management Study. Revised.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-10-01

    8217! COMMON NAME : F(Iw, jv.; ABL T :0" ACANTHACEAE Justicia ovata Shallw water Water Willow Ruellia humilis Open forests; 1I fiel Wild Petunia Ruellia ...pedunculata Open woods alotiC streams- Wild Petunia Ruellia strepen6 Rich woods Wild Petunia ACERACEAE Acer negundo River banks and floodolain A Box Elder...americana Bottomlands, wet woods C French Mulberry Lippia lanceolata Wet areas, streambanks C Fog Fruit Lippia nodiflora Wet areas, streambanks C Fog

  9. Indobis and its relevance to the Gulf of Mannar Biosphere reserve

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Achuthankutty, C.T.; Kakodkar, A.; Nath, A.I.V.

    .ovata, H.beccari, H.spipulacea, Halodule uninervis, Cymodocea rotunds, C.serulata. All the 11 sea grasses of India occur here with Enhalus acoroides being endemic. The sea grass beds provide feeding grounds for the highly endangered sea-mammal Dugong... with algal communities, sea grasses, coral reefs, salt marshes and mangroves. It is one of the world's richest regions from a marine biodiversity perspective. 302 The Government of India, has established the Gulf of Mannar Biosphere Reserve, in 1989...

  10. Indian satellite IRS-P4 (OCEANSAT). Monitoring algal blooms in the Arabian Sea

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Matondkar, S.G.P.; Bhat, S.R.; Dwivedi, R.M.; Nayak, S.R.

    monotis, Prorocentrum lima on the macroalgae of artificial and natural reefs in the Northern Tyrrhenian Sea • Italy Ostreopsis ovata, Coolia monotis, Prorocentrum lima, Prorocentrum sp., Amphidinium sp. have been detected on the Tuscany coast, Tyrrhenian... Sea, on macroalgae on the artificial reefs of Marina di Massa and Versilia, and on the natural reefs of Livorno. The same dinoflagellates have been found on the islands of the Tuscany archipelago: Elba, Giannutri, Giglio [1, 2]. During these blooms...

  11. Operation and Maintenance Pools 24, 25, and 26 Mississippi and Illinois Rivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-09-01

    eight species, plus eight additional taxa identi- fied to genus only, were collected from these seven sites. Only eight species occurred at three or...occidentalis) 2 3 Shagbark hickory (Carya ovata) 2 2 Northern red oak (Quercus rubra) 2 0 Persimmon ( Diospyros virginiana) 1 3 River birch (Betula nigra) 1 2...turtles, red-eared turtles, and map turtles were commonly observed in wetland areas. Four species of water snakes ( Genus Natrix) frequently utilized

  12. The Buffalo Creek Archaeological Project. Volume 1: Background and Testing at 3MS346 and 3CG847 Mississippi and Craighead Counties, Arkansas

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-01-01

    shagbark hickory ( Carya ovata), and pecan ( Carya illinoensis ). These trees dominate the vegetation on well-drained elevated land such as tho-se areas...strongly acidic soil (Steyermark 1959:95, 120). Chinquapin (Castanea ozarkensis), black or sourgum (Nyssa sylvatica), black hickory ( Carya texana...white oak, mockernut hickory ( Carya tomentosa), black hickory, white hickory ( Carya alba), flowering dogwoo-T-,whiT𔃻eFash(Fraxinus americana

  13. Comparison of Separation of Seed Oil Triglycerides Containing Isomeric Conjugated Octadecatrienoic Acid Moieties by Reversed-Phase HPLC

    OpenAIRE

    Anh Van Nguyen; Victor Deineka; Lumila Deineka; Anh Vu Thi Ngoc

    2017-01-01

    Relative retention analysis and increment approach were applied for the comparison of triglycerides (TGs) retention of a broad set of plant seed oils with isomeric conjugated octadecatrienoic acids (CLnA) by reversed-phase HPLC for “propanol-2-acetonitrile” mobile phases and Kromasil 100-5C18 stationary phase with diode array detection (DAD) and mass spectrometric (MS) detection. The subjects of investigation were TGs of seed oils: Calendula officinalis, Catalpa ovata, Jacaranda mimosifolia, ...

  14. An Adaptive Laboratory Evolution Method to Accelerate Autotrophic Metabolism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Tian; Tremblay, Pier-Luc

    2018-01-01

    Adaptive laboratory evolution (ALE) is an approach enabling the development of novel characteristics in microbial strains via the application of a constant selection pressure. This method is also an efficient tool to acquire insights on molecular mechanisms responsible for specific phenotypes. ALE...... autotrophically and reducing CO2 into acetate more efficiently. Strains developed via this ALE method were also used to gain knowledge on the autotrophic metabolism of S. ovata as well as other acetogenic bacteria....

  15. Buffalo Metropolitan Area, New York Water Resources Management. Interim Report on Feasibility of Flood Management in Cazenovia Creek Watershed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-03-01

    Ulmus rubra slippery elm Ulmus thomasii rock elm Pinus strobus white pine Juglans cinerea. butternut Juglans nigra black walnut Carya ovata shagbark...West Seneca X : X : X Town of Elm : X X X Town of Aurora : X : Town of Boston X : Town of Colden : X : 5.i, Table 1 (cont’d) Flood Insurance Status for...grandidentata bigtooth aspen Populus deltoides eastern cottonwood Rhus typhina staghorn. sumc Betula alleghaniesis yellow birch Ulmus americana. American elm

  16. Culturing Toxic Benthic Blooms: The Fate of Natural Biofilms in a Microcosm System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca Di Pippo

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available A microcosm designed for culturing aquatic phototrophic biofilms on artificial substrata was used to perform experiments with microphytobenthos sampled during summer toxic outbreaks of Ostreopsis cf. ovata along the Middle Tyrrhenian coast. This dynamic approach aimed at exploring the unique and complex nature of O. cf. ovata bloom development in the benthic system. Epibenthic assemblages were used as inocula for co-cultures of bloom organisms on polycarbonate slides at controlled environmental conditions. Biofilm surface adhesion, growth, and spatial structure were evaluated along with shifts in composition and matrix production in a low disturbance regime, simulating source habitat. Initial adhesion and substratum colonisation appeared as stochastic processes, then community structure and physiognomy markedly changed with time. Dominance of filamentous cyanobacteria and diatoms, and dense clusters of Amphidinium cf. carterae at the mature biofilm phases, were recorded by light and confocal microscopy, whilst O. cf. ovata growth was visibly limited in the late culture phases. Life-form strategies, competitiveness for resources, and possibly allelopathic interactions shaped biofilm structure during culture growth. HPLC (High Performance Liquid Chromatography analysis of exopolysaccharidic matrix revealed variations in sugar total amounts and composition. No toxic compounds were detected in the final communities tested by LC-MS (Liquid Chromatography- Mass Spectrometry and MALDI-TOF MS (Matrix Assisted Laser Desorption Ionization Time OF Flight Mass Spectroscopy techniques.

  17. Synergistic Effects of Natural Medicinal Plant Extracts on Growth Inhibition of Carcinoma (KB) Cells under Oxidative Stress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jeong Hee; Ju, Eun Mi; Kim, Jin Kyu

    2000-01-01

    Medicinal plants with synergistic effects on growth inhibition of cancer cells under oxidative stress were screened in this study. Methanol extracts from 51 natural medicinal plants, which were reported to have anticancer effect on hepatoma, stomach cancer or colon cancers which are frequently found in Korean, were prepared and screened for their synergistic activity on growth inhibition of cancer cells under chemically-induced oxidative stress by using MTT assay. Twenty seven samples showed synergistic activity on the growth inhibition in various extent under chemically-induced oxidative stress. Among those samples, eleven samples, such as Melia azedarach, Agastache rugosa, Catalpa ovata, Prunus persica, Sinomenium acutum, Pulsatilla koreana, Oldenlandia diffiusa, Anthriscus sylvestris, Schizandra chinensis, Gleditsia sinensis, Cridium officinale, showed decrease in IC 50 values more than 50%, other 16 samples showed decrease in IC 50 values between 50-25%, compared with the value acquired when medicinal plant sample was used alone. Among those 11 samples, extract of Catalpa ovata showed the highest activity. IC 50 values were decrease to 61% and 28% when carcinoma cells were treated with Catalpa ovata extract in combination of 75 and 100 μM of hydrogen peroxide, respectively

  18. Storage quality in different brines of pickled capers (Capparis spp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Özcan, Musa

    1999-08-01

    Full Text Available Middle sized buds of Capparis spinosa L. var. spinosa and Capparis ovata Desf. var. canescens (Coss. Heywood collected from wild plants were pickled for two months. The buds after the fermentation were processed in 10% and 20% brines. Storage stability of the fermented capers was determined by physical, chemical and microbiological analysis at certain interval in 10 and 20% old or fresh brines 180 days. Storaged in 10% and 20% old or fresh brines for 180 days of pickled buds of both species maintained the product quality in all samples. Acidity was higher in old brine during storage. Lactic acid bacteria (LAB growth was observed only in 10% fresh brine, it decreased from initial and 30 days at C. ovata and C. spinosa, respectively. C. spinosa, compared with C. ovata was desirable due to low sediment and more firm texture. During storage of buds in fresh brines, sediment and off-flavour were not observed for both species. Pickled products can be stored in fresh brine long-term containing at least 10% salt concentration.

    Se encurtieron durante dos meses botones florales de tamaño intermedio de Capparis spinosa L. var. spinosa y Capparis ovata Desf. var. canescens (Coss recogidos de plantas silvestres. Las alcaparras después de la fermentación se conservaron en salmueras del 10% y 20%. Las alcaparras fermentadas fueron mantenidas durante 180 días en salmueras usadas o recién preparadas (frescas del 10 y 20%, determinándose a intervalos la estabilidad durante la conservación por análisis físicos, químicos y microbiológicos. La calidad del producto se mantuvo en todas las muestras de alcaparras fermentadas durante los 180 días, tanto en 10% como en 20% y en salmueras usadas o frescas. La acidez durante la conservación fue mayor en salmueras usadas. El crecimiento de bacterias del ácido láctico se observó sólo en salmueras frescas del 10

  19. Systematic review of complementary and alternative medicine treatments in inflammatory bowel diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langhorst, J; Wulfert, H; Lauche, R; Klose, P; Cramer, H; Dobos, G J; Korzenik, J

    2015-01-01

    We performed a systematic review for Complementary and Alternative Medicine [CAM] as defined by the National Institute of Health in Inflammatory Bowel Disease [IBD], ie Crohn's disease [CD] and ulcerative colitis [UC], with the exception of dietary and nutritional supplements, and manipulative therapies. A computerized search of databases [Cochrane Library, Pubmed/Medline, PsychINFO, and Scopus] through March 2014 was performed. We screened the reference sections of original studies and systematic reviews in English language for CAM in IBD, CD and UC. Randomized controlled trials [RCT] and controlled trials [CT] were referred and assessed using the Cochrane risk of bias tool. A total of: 26 RCT and 3 CT for herbal medicine, eg aloe-vera gel, andrographis paniculata, artemisia absinthium, barley foodstuff, boswellia serrata, cannabis, curcumin, evening primrose oil, Myrrhinil intest®, plantago ovata, silymarin, sophora, tormentil, wheatgrass-juice and wormwood; 1 RCT for trichuris suis ovata; 7 RCT for mind/body interventions such as lifestyle modification, hypnotherapy, relaxation training and mindfulness; and 2 RCT in acupuncture; were found. Risk of bias was quite heterogeneous. Best evidence was found for herbal therapy, ie plantago ovata and curcumin in UC maintenance therapy, wormwood in CD, mind/body therapy and self-intervention in UC, and acupuncture in UC and CD. Complementary and alternative therapies might be effective for the treatment of inflammatory bowel diseases; however, given the low number of trials and the heterogeneous methodological quality of trials, further in-depth research is necessary. Copyright © 2014 European Crohn’s and Colitis Organisation (ECCO). Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  20. A NEGLECTED INDIAN SPECIES OF CYPERUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. H. KERN

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Subgen. Cyperus; sect. Iriae Kunth. — Annuus. Culmi erecti, tenues, triquetri, laeves, 1—7 dm alti, 1—2 mm crassi, inferne paucifoliati. Folia culmo breviora vel aequilonga, plana, flaccida, longe acuminata, in supe- riore parte scabra, 1—5 mm lata. Anthela simplex vel subcomposita, laxa. Bracteae oblique patentes, 2—4 longissimae, foliis consimiles, anthelam valde superantes. Anthelae radii 3—9, e cladoprophyllis tubulosis ore oblique truncatis postice cuspidatis vel bidentatis basi bruneis 0.5—1.5 cm longis emergentes, inaequales, oblique patentes, graciles, compressi, laeves vel apice hispiduli, ad 16 cm longi, longiores nonnunquam apice pauci- ramosi; radioli brevissimi ab ochreolo caudato suffulti. Spicae ovatae vel oblonga-ovatae, laxae vel subdensae, 1—3 cm longae, 8—25(—30 mm latae, 5—20-spiculosae, rhachi flexuosa angulis hispida. Spiculae compressae, rectangule divaricatae vel imae subreflexae, ovatae usque ad oblongo-linea- res, 3—12 mm longae, 2—2.5 mm latae, 4—18-f lorae, basi saepe a seta su- buliformi suffultae. Rhachilla obscure brunea, recta, subexalata, internodiis 0.6—1 mm longis. Glumae membranaceae,1/3—1/2 parte imbricatae, patulae, concavae, fere orbiculatae, (1.75—2mm longae ac latae, sub apice emar- ginato mucronulatae, dorso viridi 7-nerviae, lateribus fulvae purpureo- notatae uninerviae, carina acuta arcuata superne angustissime alata, spinuloso-ciliata. Stamina 2; antherae breves, oblongae, interdum lineares; connectivum in appendicem brevem productum. Stylus fere nullus; stigmata 3, achenio multo breviora. Achenium ambitu obovatum, trique- trum, lateribus concavis, basi late stipitatum, apice mucronatum, atro- bruneum, nitidum, dense puncticulatum, 1.5 mm longum, 0.8—0.9 mm latum.

  1. Genetic and toxinological characterization of North Atlantic strains of the dinoflagellate Ostreopsis and allelopathic interactions with toxic and non-toxic species from the genera Prorocentrum, Coolia and Gambierdiscus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Portela, María; Riobó, Pilar; Franco, José Mariano; Bañuelos, Rosa Mª; Rodríguez, Francisco

    2016-12-01

    The genus Ostreopsis includes several toxic species that can develop blooms in benthic ecosystems, with potential harmful consequences for human health and marine invertebrates. Despite of this, little is known about the allelopathic interactions between these organisms and other co-occurring microalgae that exploit similar spatial and nutrient resources in benthic ecosystems. The aim of this study was to follow these interactions in cultures of two Ostreopsis ribotypes with different toxin profiles (O. cf. ovata contained ovatoxins-a, b, c and e, while only ovatoxin-d was found in O .sp. "Lanzarote-type"), mixed with species of three benthic dinoflagellate genera (Coolia, Prorocentrum and Gambierdiscus), isolated from the same area (North East Atlantic, Canary Islands). In a first experiment, the potential allelopathic effects on growth rates were followed, in mixed cultures of Coolia monotis (a non toxic species) exposed to the clarified medium and to cells of O. sp."Lanzarote-type" and O. cf. ovata. Growth delayed in C. monotis was observed specially in clarified medium, while the O. sp. "Lanzarote-type" strain attained much lower densities in mixed cultures. In a second experiment, we examined the potential effects of clarified media from O. sp."Lanzarote-type" and O. cf. ovata on the adherence capacity in two toxic species (Prorocentrum hoffmannianum and Gambierdiscus excentricus). Contrasting effects were found: a significant increase of adherence capacity in P. hoffmannianum vs attachment decline in G. excentricus, that experienced also severe deleterious effects (cell lysis). Our results suggest the existence of weak to moderate allelopathic interactions between the studied organisms, although the outcome is dependent on the species involved. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. The 1997 Excavations at the Big Eddy Site (23CE426) in Southwest Missouri

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-11-24

    Quercus spp. (red oak group) 3 12.5 Quercus spp. (indeterminate) 4 16.7 3 15.8 Carya spp. (true hickory) 9 37.5 6 31.6 Diospyros virginiana (persimmon...specimens identified to Carya spp., 89 comprise fragments of relatively thick-shelled hickory nuts such as shagbark hickory (C. ovata), mockernut hickory...relatively thin-shelled nuts, and several are from pecans (C. illinoensis ). Although not docu- mented as being present in Cedar County by Stey

  3. A new locality of orchid Orchis purpurea Huds. in Cieszyn Foothills (Czech Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beczała Tomasz

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Orchis purpurea Huds. is protected species both in the Czech Republic and Poland. In 2014 a new locality was found in Kojkovice (district Třinec in the Cieszyn Foothils near border with Poland. The only one blooming individual was observed in 2014 and 2015 but it was accompanied by other 6 orchid species, that were much more abundant, as: Orchis pallens, Orchis mascula subsp. signifera, Listera ovata, Platanthera bifolia, Cephalanthera damasonium, Neottia nidus-avis. The Kojkovice forest deserves to be protected area due to abundant occurrence of many orchids.

  4. As espécies de Coccoloba P. Browne (Polygonaceae) da Amazônia brasileira

    OpenAIRE

    Melo,Efigênia de

    2004-01-01

    O gênero Coccoloba está representado na Amazônia brasileira por 23 espécies: Coccoloba acuminata Kunth, C. arborescens (Vell.) R. A. Howard, C. ascendens Duss ex Lindau, C. brasiliensis Nees & Mart., C. charitostachya Standl., C. conduplicata Maguire, C. coronata Jacq., C. declinata (Vell.) Mart., C. densifrons Mart. ex Meisn., C. excelsa Benth., C. gentryi R. A. Howard, C. latifolia Lam., C. lehmannii Lindau, C. lucidula Benth., C. marginata Benth., C. mollis Casar., C. ovata Benth., C. ...

  5. The Species of Cocoloba P. Browne (Polygonaceae) from brasilian Amazonia

    OpenAIRE

    Melo, Efigênia de

    2004-01-01

    O gênero Coccoloba está representado na Amazônia brasileira por 23 espécies: Coccoloba acuminata Kunth, C. arborescens (Vell.) R. A. Howard, C. ascendens Duss ex Lindau, C. brasiliensis Nees & Mart., C. charitostachya Standl., C. conduplicata Maguire, C. coronata Jacq., C. declinata (Vell.) Mart., C. densifrons Mart. ex Meisn., C. excelsa Benth., C. gentryi R. A. Howard, C. latifolia Lam., C. lehmannii Lindau, C. lucidula Benth., C. marginata Benth., C. mollis Casar., C. ovata Benth., C. para...

  6. Monitoring of Federally Threatened and Endangered Species on U.S. Army Installations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-12-01

    0 0 Neonympha mitchellii francisci Saint Francis’ Satyr Insect E 1 0 0 Neraudia ovata None Plant E 1 0 0 Oncorhynchus clarki stomias Greenback...Onchorhynchus clarki henshawi Lahontian_cutthroat_trout Fish T 1 Oncorhynchus clarki stomias Greenback_Cutthroat_Trout Fish T 1 Oncorhynchus mykiss...G1 1 EN 1 Nototrichium humile E G2 2 NONE 2 Notropis topeka E G2 2 NONE 1 Oncorhynchus clarki stomias T G4T2T3 2 NONE 1 Oncorhynchus mykiss T G5 5

  7. Tracheal relaxation of five medicinal plants used in Mexico for the treatment of several diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Recillas, Amanda; Mantecón-Reyes, Paul; Castillo-España, Patricia; Villalobos-Molina, Rafael; Ibarra-Barajas, Maximiliano; Estrada-Soto, Samuel

    2014-03-01

    To assess the relaxant effect of several organic extracts obtained from Agastache mexicana (A. mexicana), Cochlospermum vitifolium (C. vitifolium), Cordia morelosana (C. morelosana), Lepechinia caulescens (L. caulescens) and Talauma mexicana (T. mexicana) used in Mexican traditional medicine for the treatment of several diseases. Extracts were obtained by maceration at room temperature using hexane, dichloromethane and methanol for each plant material. The organic extracts were evaluated ex vivo to determine their relaxant activity on the contractions induced by carbachol (cholinergic receptor agonist, 1 μ mol/L) in isolated rat tracheal rings. A total of 15 extracts were evaluated (three for each species). All test samples showed significant relaxant effect, in a concentration-dependent manner, on the contractions induced by 1 μ mol/L carbachol, with exception of extracts from C. morelosana. Active extracts were less potent than theophylline [phosphodiesterase inhibitor, EC50: (28.79±0.82) μg/mL] that was used as positive control. Concentration-response curves revealed that the extracts with more significant effects were dichloromethanic extracts of T. mexicana [Emax: (103.03±3.32)% and EC50: (159.39±3.72) μg/mL) and C. vitifolium [Emax: (106.58±2.42)% and EC50: (219.54±7.61) μg/mL]. Finally, hexanic and dichloromethanic extracts from A. mexicana were fully effective but less potent than T. mexicana and C. vitifolium. Less polar extracts obtained from A. mexicana, T. mexicana and C. vitifolium exhibited greater relaxant effect on tracheal rat rings, which allows us to suggest them as sources for the isolation of bioactive molecules with potential therapeutic value in the treatment of asthma. Copyright © 2014 Hainan Medical College. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. In vitro anti-Helicobacter pylori action of 30 Chinese herbal medicines used to treat ulcer diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yang; Xu, Chen; Zhang, Qiang; Liu, Jun Yan; Tan, Ren Xiang

    2005-04-26

    Infection by Helicobacter pylori has been ascertained to be an important etiologic impetus leading usually to chronic active gastritis and gastric ulcer with growing incidences worldwide. Utilizing as the test pathogen a standard and five clinic strains of Helicobacter pylori, the antibacterial action was assessed in vitro with ethanol extracts of 30 Chinese herbal medicines which have been frequently prescribed since ancient times for treating gastritis-like disorders. Among the 30 tested materials, the ethanol extracts of Abrus cantoniensis (Fabaceae), Saussurea lappa (Asteraceae) and Eugenia caryophyllata (Myrtaceae) were strongly inhibitory to all test strains (MICs: approximately 40 microg/ml), and Hippophae rhamnoides (Elaeagnaceae), Fritillaria thunbergii (Liliaceae), Magnolia officinalis and Schisandra chinensis (Magnoliaceae), Corydalis yanhusuo (Papaveraceae), Citrus reticulata (Rutaceae), Bupleurum chinense and Ligusticum chuanxiong (Apiaceae) substantially active with MICs close to 60.0 microg/ml. As to antibacterial actions of the aqueous extracts of the same drugs, those derived from Cassia obtusifolia (Fabaceae), Fritillaria thunbergii and Eugenia caryophyllata were remarkably inhibitory against all the six Helicobacter pylori strains (MICs: approximately 60 microg/ml). The work compared almost quantitatively the magnitude of the anti-Helicobacter pylori actions of the 30 most prescribed gastritis-treating Chinese herbal drugs, and located as well some source plants where potent anti-Helicobacter pylori phytochemicals could be characterized.

  9. Complete Chloroplast Genome Sequence of Coptis chinensis Franch. and Its Evolutionary History

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Yang; Deng, Cao; Fan, Gang; Qin, Shishang

    2017-01-01

    The Coptis chinensis Franch. is an important medicinal plant from the Ranunculales. We used next generation sequencing technology to determine the complete chloroplast genome of C. chinensis. This genome is 155,484 bp long with 38.17% GC content. Two 26,758 bp long inverted repeats separated the genome into a typical quadripartite structure. The C. chinensis chloroplast genome consists of 128 gene loci, including eight rRNA gene loci, 28 tRNA gene loci, and 92 protein-coding gene loci. Most of the SSRs in C. chinensis are poly-A/T. The numbers of mononucleotide SSRs in C. chinensis and other Ranunculaceae species are fewer than those in Berberidaceae species, while the number of dinucleotide SSRs is greater than that in the Berberidaceae. C. chinensis diverged from other Ranunculaceae species an estimated 81 million years ago (Mya). The divergence between Ranunculaceae and Berberidaceae was ~111 Mya, while the Ranunculales and Magnoliaceae shared a common ancestor during the Jurassic, ~153 Mya. Position 104 of the C. chinensis ndhG protein was identified as a positively selected site, indicating possible selection for the photosystem-chlororespiration system in C. chinensis. In summary, the complete sequencing and annotation of the C. chinensis chloroplast genome will facilitate future studies on this important medicinal species. PMID:28698879

  10. Complete Chloroplast Genome Sequence of Coptis chinensis Franch. and Its Evolutionary History

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang He

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The Coptis chinensis Franch. is an important medicinal plant from the Ranunculales. We used next generation sequencing technology to determine the complete chloroplast genome of C. chinensis. This genome is 155,484 bp long with 38.17% GC content. Two 26,758 bp long inverted repeats separated the genome into a typical quadripartite structure. The C. chinensis chloroplast genome consists of 128 gene loci, including eight rRNA gene loci, 28 tRNA gene loci, and 92 protein-coding gene loci. Most of the SSRs in C. chinensis are poly-A/T. The numbers of mononucleotide SSRs in C. chinensis and other Ranunculaceae species are fewer than those in Berberidaceae species, while the number of dinucleotide SSRs is greater than that in the Berberidaceae. C. chinensis diverged from other Ranunculaceae species an estimated 81 million years ago (Mya. The divergence between Ranunculaceae and Berberidaceae was ~111 Mya, while the Ranunculales and Magnoliaceae shared a common ancestor during the Jurassic, ~153 Mya. Position 104 of the C. chinensis ndhG protein was identified as a positively selected site, indicating possible selection for the photosystem-chlororespiration system in C. chinensis. In summary, the complete sequencing and annotation of the C. chinensis chloroplast genome will facilitate future studies on this important medicinal species.

  11. Differences in glycosyltransferase family 61 accompany variation in seed coat mucilage composition in Plantago spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phan, Jana L.; Tucker, Matthew R.; Khor, Shi Fang; Shirley, Neil; Lahnstein, Jelle; Beahan, Cherie; Bacic, Antony; Burton, Rachel A.

    2016-01-01

    Xylans are the most abundant non-cellulosic polysaccharide found in plant cell walls. A diverse range of xylan structures influence tissue function during growth and development. Despite the abundance of xylans in nature, details of the genes and biochemical pathways controlling their biosynthesis are lacking. In this study we have utilized natural variation within the Plantago genus to examine variation in heteroxylan composition and structure in seed coat mucilage. Compositional assays were combined with analysis of the glycosyltransferase family 61 (GT61) family during seed coat development, with the aim of identifying GT61 sequences participating in xylan backbone substitution. The results reveal natural variation in heteroxylan content and structure, particularly in P. ovata and P. cunninghamii, species which show a similar amount of heteroxylan but different backbone substitution profiles. Analysis of the GT61 family identified specific sequences co-expressed with IRREGULAR XYLEM 10 genes, which encode putative xylan synthases, revealing a close temporal association between xylan synthesis and substitution. Moreover, in P. ovata, several abundant GT61 sequences appear to lack orthologues in P. cunninghamii. Our results indicate that natural variation in Plantago species can be exploited to reveal novel details of seed coat development and polysaccharide biosynthetic pathways. PMID:27856710

  12. Investigation of phagotrophy in natural assemblages of the benthic dinoflagellates Ostreopsis, Prorocentrum and Coolia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliliane Vasconcelos Corrêa Almada

    Full Text Available Abstract Mixotrophy has been shown to be a common trait among dinoflagellates and its importance in the nutritional ecology of harmful algae has been hypothesized. Benthic harmful species have not been extensively investigated as their planktonic counterparts and there are major gaps in the knowledge of their nutritional strategies. In this study the occurrence of phagotrophy was investigated in natural assemblages of benthic dinoflagellates using epi-fluorescence microscopy with DAPI and LysoSensor staining. The study was conducted at five sites along the coast of Rio de Janeiro that were visited in January, August and December 2010. In total, 1659 dinoflagellate cells were observed. From these, only 0.4% of 1195 Ostreopsis cf. ovata and 2.2% of 134 Coolia spp. cells presented evidence of phagotrophy with vacuoles stained by LysoSensor or a DAPI (4',6-diamidino-2-phenylindole stained inclusion. Stained vacuoles were not registered in the 330 Prorocentrum spp. cells observed. Few O. cf. ovata cells contained round red inclusions ("red spots" that were not stained either by DAPI or LysoSensor, suggesting that these structures are not ingested prey. The results showed that phagotrophy was not a frequent nutritional strategy in benthic dinoflagellates during the study period.

  13. Potentially harmful Ostreopsis spp. in the coastal waters of Alexandria - Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. ISMAEL

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Ostreopsis spp. has been reported for the first time from the Egyptian Mediterranean waters. Macroalgal samples were collected monthly between June 2005 and December 2007, from the rocks at Abu Qir, from less than 1.5 m depth, and their associated microalgae examined. Populations of two Ostreopsis morphotypes were found to occur in this location, east of Alexandria, viz., O. cf ovata Fukuyo and Ostreopsis morph1. The Ostreopsis spp. was abundant and dominant during the summer. They were more abundant as epiphytes of the brown algae Padina sp. and Sargassum sp., less abundant on the red algae Corallina sp., Jania sp., Laurencia sp. and even less so on the green algae Ulva spp. Ostreopsis cf. ovata was also identified during the summer months on the same macroalgal species, although in a much lower abundance. Ostreopsis spp. alternated in dominance with the benthic cyanobacteria Oscillatoria spp. and the diatom Licmophora sp. Other benthic dinoflagellates recorded at low abundance included Amphidinium carterae, Gymnodinium sp. and Prorocentrum lima.

  14. Antioxidative Activities and Active Compounds of Extracts from Catalpa Plant Leaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongyu Xu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to screen the Catalpa plant with high antioxidant activity and confirm the corresponding active fractions from Catalpa ovata G. Don, C. fargesii Bur., and C. bungei C. A. Mey., total flavonoid contents and antioxidant activities of the extracts/fractions of Catalpa plant leaves were determined. The determined total flavonoid content and antioxidant activity were used as assessment criteria. Those compounds with antioxidant activity were isolated with silica gel column chromatography and ODS column chromatography. Our results showed that the total flavonoid content in C. bungei C. A. Mey. (30.07 mg/g·DW was the highest, followed by those in C. fargesii Bur. (25.55 mg/g·DW and C. ovata G. Don (24.96 mg/g·DW. According to the determination results of total flavonoid content and antioxidant activity in 3 clones of leaves of C. bungei C. A. Mey., the total flavonoid content and antioxidant activity in crude extracts from C. bungei C. A. Mey. 6 (CA6 leaves were the highest. Moreover, the results showed that the total flavonoid content and antioxidant activities of ethyl acetate (EA fraction in ethanol crude extracts in CA6 leaves were the highest, followed by n-butanol, petroleum ether (PE, and water fractions. Two flavonoid compounds with antioxidant activity were firstly isolated based on EA fraction. The two compounds were luteolin (1 and apigenin (2, respectively.

  15. Importance of consumer perceptions in fiber-enriched food products. A case study with sponge cakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarrega, Amparo; Quiles, Amparo; Morell, Pere; Fiszman, Susana; Hernando, Isabel

    2017-02-22

    Sponge cakes enriched with fiber from different sources (maltodextrin, wheat, apple, blackcurrant and a mixture of potato and Plantago ovata) were studied. Profiling of the different cakes was carried out, first using a check-all-that-apply (CATA) question then evaluating the consumers' likings using a hedonic scale. The consumers also completed a nutrition knowledge (NK) questionnaire that was used to classify them according to their NK level. The instrumental texture of the cakes was evaluated by the texture profile analysis (TPA) method. The consumers' response was not linked to their NK level, but it mainly depended on the importance they gave to the cakes' distinctive sensory characteristics. In general, liking increased for samples considered easy to chew, spongy, soft and sweet, and decreased for samples perceived as tasteless, dry or having a fruity or an odd flavor. The sponge cakes containing maltodextrin or wheat fiber, which mostly resembled a conventional cake, were the most liked in general. Those containing the other three fibers were rejected by part of the consumers, for being tasteless in the case of potato plus Plantago ovata fiber, for being dry and doughy in the case of apple fiber and for having an odd flavor in the case of blackcurrant fiber.

  16. Epidemiology of bovine hemoprotozoa parasites in cattle and water buffalo in Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weerasooriya, Gayani; Sivakumar, Thillaiampalam; Lan, Dinh Thi Bich; Long, Phung Thang; Takemae, Hitoshi; Igarashi, Ikuo; Inoue, Noboru; Yokoyama, Naoaki

    2016-09-01

    A PCR-based survey of hemoprotozoa parasites detected Babesia bigemina, Theileria orientalis and Trypanosoma theileri among cattle and water buffalo in Vietnam, and a new Babesia sp. closely related to Babesia ovata was detected in cattle only. In addition, Theileria annulata and Trypanosoma evansi were not detected in both cattle and water buffalo. Phylogenetic analysis detected T. orientalis MPSP genotypes 3, 5, 7 and N3 in cattle and 5, 7, N1 and N2 in water buffalo. Additionally, water buffalo-derived T. theileri CATL sequences clustered together with a previously reported cattle-derived sequence from Vietnam. This is the first report of a new Babesia sp. in cattle, and T. orientalis MPSP genotype 7 and T. theileri in water buffalo in Vietnam.

  17. Freestanding and flexible graphene papers as bioelectrochemical cathode for selective and efficient CO2 conversion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aryal, Nabin; Halder, Arnab; Zhang, Minwei

    2017-01-01

    During microbial electrosynthesis (MES) driven CO2 reduction, cathode plays a vital role by donating electrons to microbe. Here, we exploited the advantage of reduced graphene oxide (RGO) paper asnovel cathode material to enhance electron transfer between the cathode and microbe, which in turn...... facilitated CO2 reduction. The acetate production rate of Sporomusa ovata-driven MES reactors was 168.5 ± 22.4 mmol m−2 d−1 with RGO paper cathodes poised at −690 mV versus standard hydrogen electrode. This rate was approximately 8 fold faster than for carbon paper electrodes of the same dimension....... The current density with RGO paper cathodes of 2580 ± 540 mA m−2 was increased 7 fold compared to carbon paper cathodes. This also corresponded to a better cathodic current response on their cyclic voltammetric curves. The coulombic efficiency for the electrons conversion into acetate was 90.7 ± 9.3% with RGO...

  18. Diversity patterns and freshwater molluscs similarities in small water reservoirs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomáš Čejka

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The survey presents the molluscan fauna from six impoundment systems of two sides (NW and SE of the Small Carpathians. Altogether 25 species (15 gastropod and 10 bivalve species were identified in reservoirs and their subsystems (inflows and outlets. The number of species per site ranged from 2 to 12, the mean number of species per site was 7. The mean number of individuals per site ranged from 15 to 905 (mean 174 ind/m2. Radix auricularia, R. ovata, Gyraulus albus, Gyraulus parvus/laevis, Hippeutis complanatus and Pisidium casertanum were present in more than 50% of reservoirs. The most abundant and frequent species in the entire area and all subsystems were Pisidium casertanum, Pisidium subtruncatum and Gyraulus parvus/laevis. Faunistic similarity indices indicate moderate degree of beta diversity i.e., differentiation among the sites; good separation of sites by cluster analysis indicates a different composition among inflows/outlets and littoral molluscan faunas of reservoirs.

  19. Public health intervention linked to a toxic microalgae bloom in Mijas beach (Malaga, Spain); Intervencion en salud publica relacionada con la proliferacion de microalgas toxicas en una playa de Mijas (Malaga; Espana)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gamez de la Hoz, J.; Padilla Fortes, A.

    2012-07-01

    This paper provide an overview of the surveillance environmental efforts and risk management for the public health linked to the register of a disease outbreak related to an episode of toxic potentially and harmful microalgae, identified during the summer of 2010 in a recreational beach of a touristic municipality in the coast of Malaga (Spain). Phytoplankton analyses showed the presence of different species producers of marine biotoxins, dominating Ostreopsis cf. ovata in the followed immediately days to the communication of 39 clinical cases of people that required health cares. The risks of the toxins produced by microalgae must be taken into account in the health networks surveillance for recreational waters. This study suggests the possibility to review the actions of the public health services from Public Administration, to the light of the increasing information on episodic harmful algal blooms. (Author)

  20. Effect of NaCl salinity on the germination and seedling growth of some medicinal plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muhammad, Z; Hussain, F [University of Peshawar (Pakistan). Dept. of Botany

    2010-04-15

    Seeds of Lepidium sativum L., Linum usitatissimum L., Plantago ovata Forssk., and Trigonella foenum-graecum L. were tested in 0.05 (Control), 2.5, 5.0, 7.5, 10.0, 12.5, or 15.0 dS/m concentration of NaCl. ANOVA revealed highly significant differences for plumule growth while germination percentage, radicle growth, seedling fresh and dry weight and moisture contents showed non-significant variation under various salt concentrations. However, the differences among the species for all the parameters studied were highly significant. The findings suggest that these medicinal species might tolerate moderate levels of salinity and can be tried for cultivation on marginal salted soils. (author)

  1. Vegetative growth performance of five medicinal plants under NaCl salt stress

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muhammad, Z; Hussain, F [University of Peshawar (Pakistan). Dept. of Botany

    2010-02-15

    Seeds of Lepidium sativum L., Linum usitatissimum L., Nigella sativa L., Plantago ovata Forssk, and Trigonella foenum-graecum L. were grown in pots containing loamy soil with 0.21(Control) 5.0, 7.5, 10.0, 12.5, or 15.0 dS/m concentration of NaCl to see their salinity tolerance. Various concentrations of salt had a highly significant effect upon the survival %age, plant height, number of branches, shoot fresh and dry weight, root fresh and dry weight and root moisture contents. Number of leaves also varied significantly. However, leaf length and shoot moisture contents exhibited non-significant differences. Differences among the test species for all the parameters under consideration were also highly significant. The findings suggest that the test species are tolerant to moderate salinity i.e., 7.5 dS/m and might be tried on saline soils to obtain some biomass. (author)

  2. vegetative growth performance of five medicinal plants under NaCl salt stress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muhammad, Z.; Hussain, F.

    2010-01-01

    Seeds of Lepidium sativum L., Linum usitatissimum L., Nigella sativa L., Plantago ovata Forssk, and Trigonella foenum-graecum L. were grown in pots containing loamy soil with 0.21(Control) 5.0, 7.5, 10.0, 12.5, or 15.0 dS/m concentration of NaCl to see their salinity tolerance. Various concentrations of salt had a highly significant effect upon the survival %age, plant height, number of branches, shoot fresh and dry weight, root fresh and dry weight and root moisture contents. Number of leaves also varied significantly. However, leaf length and shoot moisture contents exhibited non-significant differences. Differences among the test species for all the parameters under consideration were also highly significant. The findings suggest that the test species are tolerant to moderate salinity i.e., 7.5 dS/m and might be tried on saline soils to obtain some biomass. (author)

  3. Effect of NaCl salinity on the germination and seedling growth of some medicinal plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muhammad, Z.; Hussain, F.

    2010-01-01

    Seeds of Lepidium sativum L., Linum usitatissimum L., Plantago ovata Forssk., and Trigonella foenum-graecum L. were tested in 0.05 (Control), 2.5, 5.0, 7.5, 10.0, 12.5, or 15.0 dS/m concentration of NaCl. ANOVA revealed highly significant differences for plumule growth while germination percentage, radicle growth, seedling fresh and dry weight and moisture contents showed non-significant variation under various salt concentrations. However, the differences among the species for all the parameters studied were highly significant. The findings suggest that these medicinal species might tolerate moderate levels of salinity and can be tried for cultivation on marginal salted soils. (author)

  4. Production of long chain alkyl esters from carbon dioxide and electricity by a two-stage bacterial process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehtinen, Tapio; Efimova, Elena; Tremblay, Pier-Luc; Santala, Suvi; Zhang, Tian; Santala, Ville

    2017-11-01

    Microbial electrosynthesis (MES) is a promising technology for the reduction of carbon dioxide into value-added multicarbon molecules. In order to broaden the product profile of MES processes, we developed a two-stage process for microbial conversion of carbon dioxide and electricity into long chain alkyl esters. In the first stage, the carbon dioxide is reduced to organic compounds, mainly acetate, in a MES process by Sporomusa ovata. In the second stage, the liquid end-products of the MES process are converted to the final product by a second microorganism, Acinetobacter baylyi in an aerobic bioprocess. In this proof-of-principle study, we demonstrate for the first time the bacterial production of long alkyl esters (wax esters) from carbon dioxide and electricity as the sole sources of carbon and energy. The process holds potential for the efficient production of carbon-neutral chemicals or biofuels. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Concentrations of heavy metals in sediment and organisms during a harmful algal bloom (HAB) at Kun Kaak Bay, Sonora, Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia-Hernandez, Jaqueline [Centro de investigacion en Alimentacion y Desarrollo AC (CIAD) Guaymas Unit, Carretera al Varadero Nal. Km 6.6, Apdo. Postal 284, CP 85480 Guaymas, Sonora (Mexico)]. E-mail: jaqueline@cascabel.ciad.mx; Garcia-Rico, Leticia [Centro de investigacion en Alimentacion y Desarrollo AC (CIAD), Carretera a la Victoria Km 0.6, Apdo. Postal 1735, CP 83000 Hermosillo, Sonora (Mexico)]. E-mail: lgarciar@cascabel.ciad.mx; Jara-Marini, Martin E. [Centro de investigacion en Alimentacion y Desarrollo AC (CIAD), Carretera a la Victoria Km 0.6, Apdo. Postal 1735, CP 83000 Hermosillo, Sonora (Mexico)]. E-mail: mjara@cascabel.ciad.mx; Barraza-Guardado, Ramon [Departamento de Investigaciones Cientificas y Tecnologicas de la Universidad de Sonora (DICTUS), Rosales y Ninos Heroes s/n Col. Centro, CP 83000 Hermosillo, Sonora (Mexico)]. E-mail: rbarraza@rtn.uson.mx; Hudson Weaver, Amy [Comunidad y Biodiversidad AC - COBI, Terminacion Bahia de Bacochibampo s/m, Fraccionamiento Lomas de Cortes, CP 85450 Guaymas, Sonora (Mexico)]. E-mail: ahw@cobi.org.mx

    2005-07-01

    In early April 2003, fishermen from Kino Bay Sonora alerted us about a massive die-off of fish and mollusks occurring at Kun Kaak Bay. Phytoplankton samples taken on 17 May 2003 reported the presence of a harmful algal bloom composed of Chatonella marina, Chatonella cf. ovata, Gymnodinium catenatum and Gymnodinium sanguineum. On 22 of May, we collected samples of water, sediment and organisms at the affected area. Physicochemical parameters and nutrients were measured in water samples from different depths. Sediment and benthic organisms were analyzed for Cd, Cu, Zn, Pb and Hg. We found concentrations of heavy metals higher than background levels for this area. Cadmium and Lead concentrations in sediment from the HAB area were up to 6x greater than background levels and Cd in mollusks was 8x greater than regulations allow. A relationship between elevated Cd and Pb concentrations in sediment and the survival of toxic dinoflagellates is suspected.

  6. Concentrations of heavy metals in sediment and organisms during a harmful algal bloom (HAB) at Kun Kaak Bay, Sonora, Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia-Hernandez, Jaqueline; Garcia-Rico, Leticia; Jara-Marini, Martin E.; Barraza-Guardado, Ramon; Hudson Weaver, Amy

    2005-01-01

    In early April 2003, fishermen from Kino Bay Sonora alerted us about a massive die-off of fish and mollusks occurring at Kun Kaak Bay. Phytoplankton samples taken on 17 May 2003 reported the presence of a harmful algal bloom composed of Chatonella marina, Chatonella cf. ovata, Gymnodinium catenatum and Gymnodinium sanguineum. On 22 of May, we collected samples of water, sediment and organisms at the affected area. Physicochemical parameters and nutrients were measured in water samples from different depths. Sediment and benthic organisms were analyzed for Cd, Cu, Zn, Pb and Hg. We found concentrations of heavy metals higher than background levels for this area. Cadmium and Lead concentrations in sediment from the HAB area were up to 6x greater than background levels and Cd in mollusks was 8x greater than regulations allow. A relationship between elevated Cd and Pb concentrations in sediment and the survival of toxic dinoflagellates is suspected

  7. Meloidogyne partityla on Pecan Isozyme Phenotypes and Other Host

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starr, J. L.; Tomaszewski, E. K.; Mundo-Ocampo, M.; Baldwin, J. G.

    1996-01-01

    Meloidogyne sp. from five pecan (Carya illinoensis) orchards in Texas were distinctive in host range and iszoyme profiles from common species of Meloidogyne but were morphologically congruent with Meloidogyne partityla Kleynhans, a species previously known only in South Africa. In addition to pecan, species of walnut (Juglans hindsii and J. regia) and hickory (C. ovata) also were hosts. No reproduction was observed on 15 other plant species from nine families, including several common hosts of other Meloidogyne spp. Three esterase phenotypes and two malate dehydrogenase phenotypes of M. partityla were identified by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Each of these isozyme phenotypes was distinct from those of the more common species M. arenaria, M. hapla, M. incognita, and M. javanica. PMID:19277175

  8. Meloidogyne partityla on Pecan Isozyme Phenotypes and Other Host.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starr, J L; Tomaszewski, E K; Mundo-Ocampo, M; Baldwin, J G

    1996-12-01

    Meloidogyne sp. from five pecan (Carya illinoensis) orchards in Texas were distinctive in host range and iszoyme profiles from common species of Meloidogyne but were morphologically congruent with Meloidogyne partityla Kleynhans, a species previously known only in South Africa. In addition to pecan, species of walnut (Juglans hindsii and J. regia) and hickory (C. ovata) also were hosts. No reproduction was observed on 15 other plant species from nine families, including several common hosts of other Meloidogyne spp. Three esterase phenotypes and two malate dehydrogenase phenotypes of M. partityla were identified by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Each of these isozyme phenotypes was distinct from those of the more common species M. arenaria, M. hapla, M. incognita, and M. javanica.

  9. Phytoplankton of the Boguchany reservoir in 2016-2017 at the stations in front of the hydroelectric dam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. V. Usoltseva

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The species structure and seasonal dynamics of the phytoplankton of the dam area of the Boguchany Reservoir were studied in the first years of operation of the hydroelectric power station in 2016-2017. Two peaks of algal bloom are noted in spring and summer. Mass species were: diatom Stephanodiscus minutulus and dinophyte Gymnodinium baicalense in spring; diatoms Asterionella formosa and Fragilaria crotonensis, blue-green Dolichospermum lemmermannii, D. flosaquae, D. flosaquae f. spiroides and Aphanizomenon flosaquae; green Sphaerocystis planctonica and dinophyte Ceratium hirundinella in summer; diatoms F. crotonensis and A. formosa, cryptophytic Rhodomonas pusilla and Cryptomonas ovata in autumn. The cryptophyte R. pusilla and the Cryptomonas species were dominated under the ice. The maximum number of phytoplankton (9 million cells in liter was recorded in the spring. According to the indixes of saprobity, the purity of water corresponded to II-III quality classes (pure and moderately polluted water.

  10. A MONOGRAPH OF THE GENUS SCHOUTENIA* Korth. (Tiliaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ROEKMOWATI ROEKMOWATI

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The genus consists of 8 species in Siam, Indochina, the Malay Peninsula, Sumatra,Borneo, Java, and the Lesser Sunda Islands. It is here divided into 2 subgenera,the monotypic Schoutevia with S. cvata Korth. and Chartacalyx with S. accres-cens (Mast. Curtis as type species. Chartacalyx is divided into 2 sections, Char-tacalyx and A disci flora with S. kuiistleri King as type spscies.Three species, S. curtisii, corneri, and kostermansii are considered new.S. hypoleuca Pierre is reduced to synonymy of S. ovata Korth. S. peregrines Craib is reduced to a subspecies of S. glomerata King. The varieties of S. accrescens (Mast. Curtis are deleted. The species is dividedinto 3 subspecies: accrescens, stellata, and borneensis. A forma lepidota is reeog-nized for subspecies accrescens.. S. buurmanii K. et V. and S. kunstleri King- are considered to be differentspecies.

  11. Concentrations of heavy metals in sediment and organisms during a harmful algal bloom (HAB) at Kun Kaak Bay, Sonora, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Hernández, Jaqueline; García-Rico, Leticia; Jara-Marini, Martin E; Barraza-Guardado, Ramón; Hudson Weaver, Amy

    2005-07-01

    In early April 2003, fishermen from Kino Bay Sonora alerted us about a massive die-off of fish and mollusks occurring at Kun Kaak Bay. Phytoplankton samples taken on 17 May 2003 reported the presence of a harmful algal bloom composed of Chatonella marina, Chatonella cf. ovata, Gymnodinium catenatum and Gymnodinium sanguineum. On 22 of May, we collected samples of water, sediment and organisms at the affected area. Physicochemical parameters and nutrients were measured in water samples from different depths. Sediment and benthic organisms were analyzed for Cd, Cu, Zn, Pb and Hg. We found concentrations of heavy metals higher than background levels for this area. Cadmium and Lead concentrations in sediment from the HAB area were up to 6x greater than background levels and Cd in mollusks was 8x greater than regulations allow. A relationship between elevated Cd and Pb concentrations in sediment and the survival of toxic dinoflagellates is suspected.

  12. Limnologic-geologic excursion in the territory of the lower Erft River

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Friedrich, G.; Thome, K.N.

    1976-01-01

    The geography and hydrology of the area of the excursion are described. There is much damage due to brown coal strip mining operations. Ground water was drained through a canal leading to the Erft River. The water in nearby springs is rich in Fe which repels plant life. The canal contains only a few blue algae (Oscillatoria splendida) and filamentous green algae (Ulothrix tenerrima) which tolerate high Fe concentrations. The Erft shore plant population includes Sparganium erectum, Potamogeton natans, P. pectinatus and Ranunculus fluitans. On flowering plants and stones, diatoms, various green algae (Cladophora glomerata, Stigeoclonium tenue, Oedogonium capillare) and the tropical red alga Compsopogon hookeri were found. The macrozoobenthos is composed mainly of snails (Bithynia tenaculata, Lumnaea ovata, Physa fontinalis, P. acuta and worms of North American origin (Dugesia tifrina, Dendrocoelum lacteum and Planaria lugubris). The Isopoda included Asellus coxalis and A. aquaticus. Leeches (Herpobdella octoculata) and insect larvae (Chironomids, Limnephilids) were also found.

  13. Enhanced microbial electrosynthesis with three-dimensional graphene functionalized cathodes fabricated via solvothermal synthesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aryal, Nabin; Halder, Arnab; Tremblay, Pier-Luc

    2016-01-01

    by 6.8 fold. It also significantly improved biofilm density and current consumption. A 2-fold increase in specific surface area of the 3D-graphene/carbon felt composite cathode explained in part the formation of more substantial biofilms compared to untreated control. Furthermore, in cyclic voltammetry...... must be implemented. Here, we report the development of a 3D-graphene functionalized carbon felt composite cathode enabling faster electron transfer to the microbial catalyst Sporomusa ovata in a MES reactor. Modification with 3D-graphene network increased the electrosynthesis rate of acetate from CO2...... analysis, 3D-graphene/carbon felt composite cathode exhibited higher current response. The results indicate that the development of a 3D-network cathode is an effective approach to improve microbe-electrode interactions leading to productive MES systems....

  14. Inhibition of urease by extracts derived from 15 Chinese medicinal herbs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Da-Hua; Liu, Yu-Wei; Liu, Wei-Wei; Gu, Zhi-Feng

    2011-07-01

    Helicobacter pylori is a major causative factor in gastritis-like disorders, and urease plays a key role in Helicobacter pylori colonizing and persisting in the mucous layer of the human stomach. In China, a variety of Chinese medicinal herbs have been prescribed to attenuate or eradicate gastritis-like disorders. However, little is known about the urease inhibition of Chinese medicinal herbs. The present study was conducted to investigate the urease inhibition activities of the ethanol and water extracts of 15 Chinese medicinal herbs. The ethanol and water extracts derived from 15 medicinal herbs, traditionally used for the treatment of gastritis-like disorders in China, were tested for urease-inhibition activity using the phenol red method. Screened at 10 µg/mL, 14 ethanol extracts and 10 water extracts showed urease inhibition. The ethanol extracts of Magnolia officinalis Rehd. et Wils. (Magnoliaceae) and Cassia obtusifolia L. (Leguminosae) possessed inhibition rates higher than 50% with IC₅₀ values of 6.5 and 12.3 µg/mL, respectively. After fractionating successively, the petroleum ether fraction of the ethanol extracts of Magnolia officinalis showed the best activity with 90.8% urease inhibition at a concentration of 10 µg/mL. The bioautography of the petroleum ether fraction indicated the existence of the urease inhibitors in the herb. The present results indicated that some Chinese medicinal herbs might treat gastritis-like disorders via the inhibition of Helicobacter pylori urease and the further possibility for discovering useful novel urease inhibitors from the Chinese medicinal herbs.

  15. The seed plant flora of the Mount Jinggangshan region, southeastern China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Wang

    Full Text Available The Mount Jinggangshan region is located between Jiangxi and Hunan provinces in southeastern China in the central section of the Luoxiao Mountains. A detailed investigation of Mount Jinggangshan region shows that the seed plant flora comprises 2,958 species in 1,003 genera and 210 families (Engler's system adjusted according to Zhengyi Wu's concept. Among them, 23 species of gymnospermae belong to 17 genera and 9 families, and 2,935 species of angiosperms are in 986 genera and 201 families. Moreover, they can also be sorted into woody plants (350 genera and 1,295 species and herbaceous plants (653 genera and 1,663 species. The dominant families are mainly Fagaceae, Lauraceae, Theaceae, Hamamelidaceae, Magnoliaceae, Ericaceae, Styracaceae, Aquifoliaceae, Elaeocarpaceae, Aceraceae, Rosaceae, Corylaceae, Daphniphyllaceae, Symplocaceae, Euphorbiaceae, Pinaceae, Taxodiaceae, Cupressaceae and Taxaceae. Ancient and relic taxa include Ginkgo biloba, Fokieniahodginsii, Amentotaxusargotaenia, Disanthuscercidifolia subsp. longipes, Hamamelismollis, Manglietiafordiana, Magnoliaofficinalis, Tsoongiodendronodorum, Fortuneariasinensis, Cyclocaryapaliurus, Eucommiaulmoides, Sargentodoxacuneata, Bretschneiderasinensis, Camptothecaacuminata, Tapisciasinensis, etc. The flora of Mount Jinggangshan region includes 79 cosmopolitan genera and 924 non-cosmopolitan genera, which are 7.88% and 92.12% of all genera. The latter includes 452 tropical genera (48.92% and 472 temperate genera (51.08%. The temperate elements include 44 genera endemic to China, accounting for 4.76% of all genera. Among 1,003 genera, 465 have only a single species and 401 are oligotypic genera (with 2-5 species. These genera account for 86.34% of all genera. The floristic analysis indicates that the flora of Mount Jinggangshan region is closely related to the flora of Mount Wuyishan region in southeastern China. The flora of Mount Jinggangshan region also contains many elements of central and

  16. Vascular Anatomy of Kiwi Fruit and its Implications for the origin of carpels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xue-Min eGuo

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Kiwi fruit is of great agricultural, botanical, and economic interest. The flower of kiwi fruit has axile placentation, which is typical for Actinidiaceae. Axile placentation is thought derived through fusion of conduplicate carpels with marginal placentation according to the traditional doctrine. Recent progress in angiosperm systematics has refuted this traditional doctrine and placed ANITA clade rather than Magnoliaceae as the basalmost clade. However, the former traditional doctrine stays in the classrooms as the only teachable theory for the origin of carpels. To test the validity of this doctrine, we performed anatomical study on kiwi fruit. Our study indicates that the placenta has a vascular system independent of that of the ovary wall, the ovules/seeds are attached to the placenta that is a continuation of floral axis enclosed by the lateral appendages that constitute the ovary wall, and there are some amphicribral bundles in the center of placenta and numerous amphicribral bundles supplying ovules/seeds in kiwi fruit. The amphicribral vascular bundles supplying the ovules/seeds are comparable to those usually seen in branches, but not comparable to those seen in leaves or their derivatives. This comparison indicates that the placenta in kiwi fruit cannot be derived from the fusion of collateral ventral bundles of conduplicate carpels, as suggested by traditional doctrine. Instead the vascular organization in placenta of kiwi suggests that the placenta is a shoot apex bearing ovules/seeds laterally. This conclusion is in line with the recently raised Unifying Theory, in which the placenta is taken as an ovule-bearing branch independent of the ovary wall (carpel in strict sense. Similar vascular organization in placenta has been seen in numerous isolated taxa besides kiwi fruit. Therefore whether such a pattern is applicable for other angiosperms is an interesting question awaiting answering.

  17. Combined community ecology and floristics, a synthetic study on the upper montane evergreen broad-leaved forests in Yunnan, southwestern China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hua Zhu; Yong Chai; Shisun Zhou; Lichun Yan; Jipu Shi; Guoping Yang

    2016-01-01

    The upper montane evergreen broad-leaved forest in Yunnan occurs mainly in the zone of persistent cloud and has a discontinuous, island-like, distribution. It is diverse, rich in endemic species, and likely to be sensitive to climate change. Six 1-ha sampling plots were established across the main distribution area of the upper montane evergreen broad-leaved forest in Yunnan. All trees with d.b.h.>1 cm in each plot were identified. Patterns of seed plant distributions were quantified at the specific, generic and family levels. The forests are dominated by the families Fagaceae, Lauraceae, Theaceae and Magnoliaceae, but are very diverse with only a few species shared between sites. Floristic similarities at the family and generic level were high, but they were low at the specific level, with species complementarity between plots. Diversity varied greatly among sites, with greater species richness and more rare species in western Yunnan than central Yunnan. The flora is dominated by tropical biogeographical elements, mainly the pantropic and the tropical Asian distributions at the family and genus levels. In contrast, at the species level, the flora is dominated by the southwest or the southeast China distributions, including Yunnan endemics. This suggests that the flora of the upper montane forest in Yunnan could have a tropical floristic origin, and has adapted to cooler temperatures with the uplift of the Himalayas. Due to great sensitivity to climate, high endemism and species complementarity, as well as the discontinuous, island-like, distribution patterns of the upper montane forest in Yunnan, the regional conservation of the forest is especially needed.

  18. Molecular diagnostics reveal spiders that exploit prey vibrational signals used in sexual communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Virant-Doberlet, Meta; King, R Andrew; Polajnar, Jernej; Symondson, William O C

    2011-05-01

    Vibrational signalling is a widespread form of animal communication and, in the form of sexual communication, has been generally regarded as inherently short-range and a private communication channel, free from eavesdropping by generalist predators. A combination of fieldwork and laboratory experiments was used to test the hypothesis that predators can intercept and exploit such signals. First, we developed and characterized PCR primers specific for leafhoppers of the genus Aphrodes and specifically for the species Aphrodes makarovi. Spiders were collected from sites where leafhoppers were present and screened with these primers to establish which spider species were significant predators of this species during the mating period of these leafhoppers. Analysis using PCR of the gut contents of tangle-web spiders, Enoplognatha ovata (Theridiidae), showed that they consume leafhoppers in the field at a greater rate when signalling adults were present than when nymphs were dominant, suggesting that the spiders were using these vibrations signals to find their prey. Playback and microcosm experiments then showed that E. ovata can use the vibrational signals of male leafhoppers as a cue during foraging and, as a result, killed significantly more male than female A. makarovi. Our results show, for the first time, that arthropod predators can exploit prey vibrational communication to obtain information about prey availability and use this information to locate and capture prey. This may be a widespread mechanism for prey location, one that is likely to be a major unrecognized driver of evolution in both predators and prey. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  19. Effects of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs on cyanobacteria and algae in laboratory strains and in natural algal assemblages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bácsi, István; B-Béres, Viktória; Kókai, Zsuzsanna; Gonda, Sándor; Novák, Zoltán; Nagy, Sándor Alex; Vasas, Gábor

    2016-05-01

    In recent years measurable concentrations of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) have been shown in the aquatic environment as a result of increasing human consumption. Effects of five frequently used non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (diclofenac, diflunisal, ibuprofen, mefenamic acid and piroxicam in 0.1 mg ml(-1) concentration) in batch cultures of cyanobacteria (Synechococcus elongatus, Microcystis aeruginosa, Cylindrospermopsis raciborskii), and eukaryotic algae (Desmodesmus communis, Haematococcus pluvialis, Cryptomonas ovata) were studied. Furthermore, the effects of the same concentrations of NSAIDs were investigated in natural algal assemblages in microcosms. According to the changes of chlorophyll-a content, unicellular cyanobacteria seemed to be more tolerant to NSAIDs than eukaryotic algae in laboratory experiments. Growth of eukaryotic algae was reduced by all drugs, the cryptomonad C. ovata was the most sensitive to NSAIDs, while the flagellated green alga H. pluvialis was more sensitive than the non-motile green alga D. communis. NSAID treatments had weaker impact in the natural assemblages dominated by cyanobacteria than in the ones dominated by eukaryotic algae, confirming the results of laboratory experiments. Diversity and number of functional groups did not change notably in cyanobacteria dominated assemblages, while they decreased significantly in eukaryotic algae dominated ones compared to controls. The results highlight that cyanobacteria (especially unicellular ones) are less sensitive to the studied, mostly hardly degradable NSAIDs, which suggest that their accumulation in water bodies may contribute to the expansion of cyanobacterial mass productions in appropriate environmental circumstances by pushing back eukaryotic algae. Thus, these contaminants require special attention during wastewater treatment and monitoring of surface waters. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Seasonal dynamic of the occurrence of the gregarines infection of Harpalus rufipes (Coleoptera, Carabidae in agroecosystem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Y. Reshetnyak

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Relationships in the “parasite-host” system are closely interrelated and occur at all levels from the molecular to behavioral and population ones. There are two models of realization of these relations. The first case is when the parasites are uniformly distributed in the host population. High extensiveness of invasion is accompanied by its low intensity. The second case is when a part of host population is infected with parasites, but the negative impact is manifested to the maximum extent. Invasion of the ground beetle Harpalus rufipes (De Geer, 1774, dwelling in sweet corn agroecosystems located in the vicinity of Dnipropetrovsk near Doslidnoe village, by several gregarines species is investigated in this study. H. rufipes is an abundant, ubiquitous species, living in extremely wide range of terrestrial ecosystems, with especially high populations inhabiting anthropogenically transformed environments. H. rufipes has a wide range of feeding. This species is distributed in the Central and Eastern Europe, and introduced to North America. Gregarines were found in the intestines of 20 individuals of H. rufipes from 190 (10.5%: Gregarina ovata Dufour, 1828, G. steini Berndt, 1902, G. amarae (Hammerschmidt, 1839 Frantzius, 1848, Clitellocephalus ophoni (Tuzet and Ormieres, 1956 Clopton, 2002, Torogregarina sphinx Clopton, 1998, Gigaductus macrospora Filipponi, 1948 and G. elongatus (Moriggi, 1943 Filipponi, 1948. There is high level of infestation of C. ophoni and G. steini. At the same time, not more than three species of the gregarines were localized in the beetle body. Seasonal dynamic of occurrence of the gregarines is as follows. Maximal indices of occurrence are found at the end of August (22.2% and minimal ones at the end of June (4.8%. The highest total number of gregarines (383 ind. is recorded at the end of August, the lowest one is fixed at the beginning of September (33 ind.. Indices of gregarine species dominance are as follows

  1. World Checklist of Opiliones species (Arachnida. Part 1: Laniatores – Travunioidea and Triaenonychoidea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriano Kury

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Comprising more than 6500 species, Opiliones is the third most diverse order of Arachnida, after the megadiverse Acari and Araneae. The database referred here is part 1 of 12 of a project containing an intended worldwide checklist of species and subspecies of Opiliones as Darwin Core archives, and it includes the superfamilies Travunioidea and Triaenonychoidea. These two superfamilies are often treated together under the denomination of Insidiatores. In this Part 1, a total of 571 species and subspecies are listed. Briggsidae and Cladonychiidae are both downgraded to subfamilies of Travuniidae. Peltonychia Roewer, 1935 is an available name and senior synonym of Hadziana Roewer, 1935 and is herein revalidated. Seven genera of Triaenonychidae described by Lawrence between 1931 and 1933 originally failed to comply ICZN rules for availability (Art. 13.3. All of them only became available when Staręga (1992 designated a type species for each. Therefore, the correct authorships of Austromontia Lawrence, 1931, Biacumontia Lawrence, 1931, Graemontia Lawrence, 1931, Larifugella Lawrence, 1933, Mensamontia Lawrence, 1931, Monomontia Lawrence, 1931 and Rostromontia Lawrence, 1931 are all Staręga, 1992. Fumontana Shear, 1977, originally referred only to subfamily Triaenonychinae (as opposed to Soerensenellinae then and not corresponding to present Triaenonychinae, not to any tribe (which in turn correspond to modern subfamilies is herein included in the subfamily Triaenonychinae. Picunchenops Maury, 1988 originally not included in any tribe of Triaenonychidae, is herein included in the subfamily Triaenonychinae. Trojanella Karaman, 2005, originally ranked as Travunioidea incertae sedis, is herein included in the Travuniidae Travuniinae. Nuncia ovata Roewer, 1915 (synonymized with Triaenonyx cockayni Hogg, 1920 by Forster (1954, but with inverted precedence is here combined as Nuncia coriacea ovata Roewer, 1915 as correct senior synonym instead of

  2. Estudos florísticos no município de Presidente Figueiredo, Amazonas, Brasil - II: famílias Myristicaceae, Siparunaceae e Monimiaceae Floristic studies in township of Presidente Figueiredo, Amazonas, Brazil - II: families Myristicaceae, Siparunaceae and Monimiaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Augusto Coelho da Silva

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available O Município de Presidente Figueiredo, do Estado do Amazonas, Brasil, foi visitado durante três anos consecutivos (1996 a 1999, com o objetivo de obter-se amostras botânicas da área para estudos do Subprojeto "Elaboração de Revisões e Monografias Taxonômicas", com a finalidade de elaborar-se a Flórula para o Município. As coleções feitas nesse período encontram-se depositadas no acervo do Herbário do INPA e as informações gerais sobre os taxa aqui estudados foram complementadas com as obtidas das coleções feitas anteriormente por outros pesquisadores. Para a família Myristicaceae Br. R. foram identificadas 23 espécies e duas variedades, distribuídas em quatro gêneros. Destes, Iryanthera Warb. e Virola Aubl. destacaram-se pela diversidade em espécies, sendo Iryanthera ulei Warb. e Virola calophylla (Spruce Warb. var. calophylla as espécies mais coletadas. A família Monimiaceae Juss. está representada apenas pelo gênero Mollinedia Ruiz & Pavón, pela espécie M. ovata Ruiz & Pavón; já a família Siparunaceae (A. DC. Schodde encontra-se representada pelo gênero Siparuna Aubl. com oito espécies, sendo S. cristata (Poepp. & Endl. A. DC. a espécie mais coletada.The Township of Presidente Figueiredo, in the State of Amazonas, Brazil, was visited for three consecutive years, from 1996 to 1999, with the aim of acquiring botanical samples from the area, in order to carry out studies on the "Taxonomic Monographies and Revisions Preparation" Subproject for the purpose of preparing a survey of the flora. Collections pertaining to the present work are deposited at INPA's herbarium and, general information on the taxa studied here were complemented with those obtained from earlier collections conducted by other researchers. Twenty three (23 species and two varieties, distributed in four genera were identified for family Myristicaceae Br. R. Of these Iryanthera Warb. and Virola Aubl. stood out on account of their species diversity

  3. Molecular Phylogeny and Dating of Forsythieae (Oleaceae) Provide Insight into the Miocene History of Eurasian Temperate Shrubs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ha, Young-Ho; Kim, Changkyun; Choi, Kyung; Kim, Joo-Hwan

    2018-01-01

    Tribe Forsythieae (Oleaceae), containing two genera ( Abeliophyllum and Forsythia ) and 13 species, is economically important plants used as ornamentals and in traditional medicine. This tribe species occur primarily in mountainous regions of Eurasia with the highest species diversity in East Asia. Here, we examine 11 complete chloroplast genome and nuclear cycloidea2 ( cyc2 ) DNA sequences of 10 Forsythia species and Abeliophyllum distichum using Illumina platform to provide the phylogeny and biogeographic history of the tribe. The chloroplast genomes of the 11 Forsythieae species are highly conserved, except for a deletion of about 400 bp in the accD - psaI region detected only in Abeliophyllum . Within Forsythieae species, analysis of repetitive sequences revealed a total of 51 repeats comprising 26 forward repeats, 22 palindromic repeats, and 3 reverse repeats. Of those, 19 repeats were common and 32 were unique to one or more Forsythieae species. Our phylogenetic analyses supported the monophyly of Forsythia and its sister group is Abeliophyllum using the concatenated dataset of 78 chloroplast genes. Within Forsythia , Forsythia likiangensis and F. giraldiana were basal lineages followed by F. europaea ; the three species are characterized by minutely serrate or entire leaf margins. The remaining species, which are distributed in East Asia, formed two major clades. One clade included F. ovata , F. velutina , and F. japonica ; they are morphologically supported by broadly ovate leaves. Another clade of F. suspensa , F. saxatilis , F. viridissima , and F. koreana characterized by lanceolate leaves (except F. suspensa which have broad ovate leaves). Although cyc2 phylogeny is largely congruent to chloroplast genome phylogeny, we find the discordance between two phylogenies in the position of F. ovata suggesting that introgression of the chloroplast genome from one species into the nuclear background of another by interspecific hybridization in East Asian

  4. Estrutura de um fragmento florestal no Engenho Humaitá, Catende, Pernambuco, Brasil Structure of a forest fragment at Humaitá sugar mill, Catende, PE, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco J. P. Guimarães

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se, neste trabalho, a estrutura de um fragmento florestal antropizado denominado Mata das Galinhas, Engenho Humaitá, Catende, Pernambuco, e se utilizaram, para avaliar a composição florística e a estrutura fitossociológica, 14 parcelas de 10 x 25 m a fim de amostrar os indivíduos arbóreos com circunferência a 1,30 m do solo (CAP ≥ 10 cm. Foram estimados, então, densidade, frequência e dominância e valor de importância (VI e o índice de Shannon, além de registrados 438 indivíduos pertencentes a 63 espécies, 45 gêneros e 29 famílias. As famílias de maior importância foram Mimosaceae, Moraceae, Anacardiaceae e Lecythidaceae e as espécies com maiores valores de VI, foram Brosimum discolor, Parkia pendula, Eschweilera ovata, Thyrsodium spruceanum, Tapirira guianensis, Protium heptaphyllum, Casearia arborea, Helicostylis tomentosa, Dialium guianense, Schefflera morototoni, Himatanthus phagedaenicus e Cupania racemosa. Quando observado isoladamente, conclui-se que o fragmento estudado possui pouca relevância; entretanto, se considerado conjuntamente com outros fragmentos da área, sua diversidade é significativa o que justificaria esforços para sua conservação e manejo.The structure of a forest fragment, known as "Mata das Galinhas" at Humaitá sugar mill, Catende, Pernambuco, Brazil was evaluated. To evaluate the floristic composition and the phytosociological structure under anthropic action 14 plots of 10 x 25 m were used to sample the arboreal individuals with circumference at breast height (CBH ≥ 10 cm. The density, frequency, and dominance, the importance value (IV and the Shannon's index were calculated. A total of 438 individuals distributed into 63 species, 45 genera and 29 families were recorded. The families of larger importance in the study were Mimosaceae, Moraceae, Anacardiaceae and Lecythidaceae. The species with larger values of IV were Brosimum discolor, Parkia pendula, Eschweilera ovata

  5. Molecular Phylogeny and Dating of Forsythieae (Oleaceae Provide Insight into the Miocene History of Eurasian Temperate Shrubs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young-Ho Ha

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Tribe Forsythieae (Oleaceae, containing two genera (Abeliophyllum and Forsythia and 13 species, is economically important plants used as ornamentals and in traditional medicine. This tribe species occur primarily in mountainous regions of Eurasia with the highest species diversity in East Asia. Here, we examine 11 complete chloroplast genome and nuclear cycloidea2 (cyc2 DNA sequences of 10 Forsythia species and Abeliophyllum distichum using Illumina platform to provide the phylogeny and biogeographic history of the tribe. The chloroplast genomes of the 11 Forsythieae species are highly conserved, except for a deletion of about 400 bp in the accD–psaI region detected only in Abeliophyllum. Within Forsythieae species, analysis of repetitive sequences revealed a total of 51 repeats comprising 26 forward repeats, 22 palindromic repeats, and 3 reverse repeats. Of those, 19 repeats were common and 32 were unique to one or more Forsythieae species. Our phylogenetic analyses supported the monophyly of Forsythia and its sister group is Abeliophyllum using the concatenated dataset of 78 chloroplast genes. Within Forsythia, Forsythia likiangensis and F. giraldiana were basal lineages followed by F. europaea; the three species are characterized by minutely serrate or entire leaf margins. The remaining species, which are distributed in East Asia, formed two major clades. One clade included F. ovata, F. velutina, and F. japonica; they are morphologically supported by broadly ovate leaves. Another clade of F. suspensa, F. saxatilis, F. viridissima, and F. koreana characterized by lanceolate leaves (except F. suspensa which have broad ovate leaves. Although cyc2 phylogeny is largely congruent to chloroplast genome phylogeny, we find the discordance between two phylogenies in the position of F. ovata suggesting that introgression of the chloroplast genome from one species into the nuclear background of another by interspecific hybridization in East Asian

  6. Distribution patterns of the subtropical evergreen broad-leaved forests of southwestern China, as compared with those of the eastern Chinese subtropical regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tang, C. Q.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes the geographic distribution patterns of the subtropical evergreen broad-leaved forests of southwestern China, and compares with other subtropical regions in the east of China in terms of forest types, pertinent species, and spatial distribution along latitudinal, longitudinal and altitudinal gradients. In general, for both the western and the eastern subtropical regions, the evergreen broad-leaved forests are dominated by species of Castanopsis, Lithocarpus, Cyclobalanopsis (Fagaceae, Machilus, Cinnamomum (Lauraceae, Schima (Theaceae, Manglietia, and Michelia, (Magnoliaceae, while in southwestern China there are more diverse forest types including semi-humid, monsoon, mid-montane moist and humid evergreen broad-leaved forests, but only monsoon and humid forests in the east. The Yunnan area has more varied species of Lithocarpus or Cyclobalanopsis or Castanopsis as dominants than does eastern China, where the chief dominant genus is Castanopsis. The upper limits of the evergreen broad-leaved forests are mainly 2400–2800 m in western Yunnan and western Sichuan, much higher than in eastern China (600–1500, but 2500 m in Taiwan. Also discussed are the environmental effects on plant diversity of the evergreen broad-leaved forest ecosystems exemplified by Yunnan and Taiwan.En este trabajo se analiza los patrones de distribución geográfica de los bosques subtropicales perennifolios de hoja ancha del suroeste de china, y se comparan con los de otras regiones subtropicales del este de China en términos de tipología de bosque, especies relevantes, y distribución espacial a lo largo de un gradiente latitudinal, longitudinal y altitudinal. De manera general, los bosques perennifolios de hoja ancha de la regiones subtropicales tanto orientales como occidentales presentan dominancia de especies de Castanopsis, Lithocarpus, Cyclobalanopsis (Fagaceae, Machilus, Cinnamomum (Lauraceae, Schima (Theaceae, Manglietia y Michelia

  7. (Per)chlorate reduction by an acetogenic bacterium, Sporomusa sp., isolated from an underground gas storage.

    KAUST Repository

    Balk, Melike; Mehboob, Farrakh; van Gelder, Antonie H; Rijpstra, W Irene C; Damsté , Jaap S Sinninghe; Stams, Alfons J M

    2010-01-01

    A mesophilic bacterium, strain An4, was isolated from an underground gas storage reservoir with methanol as substrate and perchlorate as electron acceptor. Cells were Gram-negative, spore-forming, straight to curved rods, 0.5-0.8 microm in diameter, and 2-8 microm in length, growing as single cells or in pairs. The cells grew optimally at 37 degrees C, and the pH optimum was around 7. Strain An4 converted various alcohols, organic acids, fructose, acetoin, and H(2)/CO(2) to acetate, usually as the only product. Succinate was decarboxylated to propionate. The isolate was able to respire with (per)chlorate, nitrate, and CO(2). The G+C content of the DNA was 42.6 mol%. Based on the 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, strain An4 was most closely related to Sporomusa ovata (98% similarity). The bacterium reduced perchlorate and chlorate completely to chloride. Key enzymes, perchlorate reductase and chlorite dismutase, were detected in cell-free extracts.

  8. (Per)chlorate reduction by an acetogenic bacterium, Sporomusa sp., isolated from an underground gas storage.

    KAUST Repository

    Balk, Melike

    2010-08-03

    A mesophilic bacterium, strain An4, was isolated from an underground gas storage reservoir with methanol as substrate and perchlorate as electron acceptor. Cells were Gram-negative, spore-forming, straight to curved rods, 0.5-0.8 microm in diameter, and 2-8 microm in length, growing as single cells or in pairs. The cells grew optimally at 37 degrees C, and the pH optimum was around 7. Strain An4 converted various alcohols, organic acids, fructose, acetoin, and H(2)/CO(2) to acetate, usually as the only product. Succinate was decarboxylated to propionate. The isolate was able to respire with (per)chlorate, nitrate, and CO(2). The G+C content of the DNA was 42.6 mol%. Based on the 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, strain An4 was most closely related to Sporomusa ovata (98% similarity). The bacterium reduced perchlorate and chlorate completely to chloride. Key enzymes, perchlorate reductase and chlorite dismutase, were detected in cell-free extracts.

  9. Medicinal and ethnoveterinary remedies of hunters in Trinidad

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georges Karla

    2001-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Ethnomedicines are used by hunters for themselves and their hunting dogs in Trinidad. Plants are used for snakebites, scorpion stings, for injuries and mange of dogs and to facilitate hunting success. Results Plants used include Piper hispidum, Pithecelobium unguis-cati, Bauhinia excisa, Bauhinia cumanensis, Cecropia peltata, Aframomum melegueta, Aristolochia rugosa, Aristolochia trilobata, Jatropha curcas, Jatropha gossypifolia, Nicotiana tabacum, Vernonia scorpioides, Petiveria alliacea, Renealmia alpinia, Justicia secunda, Phyllanthus urinaria,Phyllanthus niruri,Momordica charantia, Xiphidium caeruleum, Ottonia ovata, Lepianthes peltata, Capsicum frutescens, Costus scaber, Dendropanax arboreus, Siparuma guianensis, Syngonium podophyllum, Monstera dubia, Solanum species, Eclipta prostrata, Spiranthes acaulis, Croton gossypifolius, Barleria lupulina, Cola nitida, Acrocomia ierensis (tentative ID. Conclusion Plant use is based on odour, and plant morphological characteristics and is embedded in a complex cultural context based on indigenous Amerindian beliefs. It is suggested that the medicinal plants exerted a physiological action on the hunter or his dog. Some of the plants mentioned contain chemicals that may explain the ethnomedicinal and ethnoveterinary use. For instance some of the plants influence the immune system or are effective against internal and external parasites. Plant baths may contribute to the health and well being of the hunting dogs.

  10. Controlling factors of harmful microalgae distribution in water column, biofilm and sediment in shellfish production area (South of Sfax, Gulf of Gabes) from southern Tunisia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loukil-Baklouti, Amira; Feki-Sahnoun, Wafa; Hamza, Asma; Abdennadher, Moufida; Mahfoudhi, Mabrouka; Bouain, Abderrahmen; Jarboui, Othman

    2018-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the spatio-temporal distribution of harmful microalgae coupled with environmental factors in the most important area for natural stocks of the grooved carpet shell Ruditapes decussatus in southern Tunisia. Sampling was performed monthly from May 2010 to April 2011 in five stations through the Tunisian National Monitoring Stations Network of Phytoplankton and Phycotoxins along the southern coasts of Sfax (Gulf of Gabes). The presence of harmful microalgae species was explored in three compartments: water column, biofilm and sediment. Our results revealed fourteen species were identified belonging to dinoflagellates and diatoms with higher densities during the summer period. The co-inertia plot analysis exhibited that the seasonal fluctuations of these species were controlled by the temperature as well as the nutrients (particularly nitrogenous). Ternary diagrams showed that biofilm was the most colonized compartment by toxic benthic dinoflagellates species, namely Amphidinium carterae, Prorocentrum rathymum, Prorocentrum concavum, Prorocentrum lima, Ostreopsis cf. ovata and Coolia monotis. In addition, these species were recorded simultaneously in the water column and the sediment, a fact that could be explained by the resuspension of these benthic dinoflagellates from the biofilm by hydrodynamics. The data suggest that harmful microalgae could be the source of toxins in the studied stations, which provide support to the implication of these results on the future sampling strategy of harmful microalgae in shellfish collecting areas in Tunisia.

  11. Hostplant suitability and defensive chemistry of the Catalpa sphinx, Ceratomia catalpae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowers, M Deane

    2003-10-01

    The growth and survival of the Catalpa sphinx, Ceratomia catalpae (Sphingidae), were measured on five different species of Catalpa: C. bignonioides, C. bungeii, C. fargeseii, C. ovata, and C. speciosa. Larval growth varied significantly among these host plant species; however, survival did not differ. Quantification of the iridoid glycoside content of larvae, pupae, adults, larval frass, and leaves of the larval host plant, C. bignonioides, by gas chromatography showed that leaves contained both catalpol and catalposide; larvae, pupae, and frass contained only catalpol; and the adults contained no detectable iridoid glycosides. Amounts were highest in the larvae and declined in the pupal stage. Very small amounts of catalpol were detected in adults of the parasitoid, Cotesia congregata, and in the silken cocoons. The hemolymph in which the parasitoid larvae grew contained over 50% dry weight catalpol. Larvae of C. catalpae often regurgitate when disturbed. This may serve as a defense against predators. A comparison of the growth of larvae pinched with forceps to induce regurgitation with those that were not so treated showed that larvae that were pinched, and usually regurgitated, grew significantly more slowly than those that were not.

  12. Kinetics and mechanism of thermal degradation of pentose- and hexose-based carbohydrate polymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akbar, Jamshed; Iqbal, Mohammad S; Massey, Shazma; Masih, Rashid

    2012-10-15

    This work aims at study of thermal degradation kinetics and mechanism of pentose- and hexose-based carbohydrate polymers isolated from Plantago ovata (PO), Salvia aegyptiaca (SA) and Ocimum basilicum (OB). The analysis was performed by isoconversional method. The materials exhibited mainly two-stage degradation. The weight loss at ambient-115°C characterized by low activation energy corresponds to loss of moisture. The kinetic triplets consisting of E, A and g(α) model of the materials were determined. The major degradation stage represents a loss of high boiling volatile components. This stage is exothermic in nature. Above 340°C complete degradation takes place leaving a residue of 10-15%. The master plots of g(α) function clearly differentiated the degradation mechanism of hexose-based OB and SA polymers and pentose-based PO polymer. The pentose-based carbohydrate polymer showed D(4) type and the hexose-based polymers showed A(4) type degradation mechanism. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Two propanediol utilization-like proteins of Moorella thermoacetica with phosphotransacetylase activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breitkopf, Ronja; Uhlig, Ronny; Drenckhan, Tina; Fischer, Ralf-Jörg

    2016-09-01

    Moorella thermoacetica is one of the model acetogenic bacteria for the resolution of the Wood-Ljungdahl (acetyl-CoA) pathway in which CO2 is autotrophically assimilated yielding acetyl-CoA as central intermediate. Its further conversion into acetate relies on subsequent phosphotransacetylase (PTA) and acetate kinase reactions. However, the genome of M. thermoacetica contains no pta homologous gene. It has been speculated that the moth_0864 and moth_1181 gene products sharing similarities with an evolutionarily distinct phosphotransacylase involved in 1,2-propanediol utilization (PDUL) of Salmonella enterica act as PTAs in M. thermoacetica. Here, we demonstrate specific PTA activities with acetyl-CoA as substrate of 9.05 and 2.03 U/mg for the recombinant enzymes PDUL1 (Moth_1181) and PDUL2 (Moth_0864), respectively. Both showed maximal activity at 65 °C and pH 7.6. Native proteins (90 kDa) are homotetramers composed of four subunits with apparent molecular masses of about 23 kDa. Thus, one or both PDULs of M. thermoacetica might act as PTAs in vivo catalyzing the penultimate step of the Wood-Ljungdahl pathway toward the formation of acetate. In silico analysis underlined that up to now beside of M. thermoacetica, only Sporomusa ovata contains only PDUL like class(III)-PTAs but no other phosphotransacetylases or phosphotransbutyrylases (PTBs).

  14. Biotic and environmental stress induces nitration and changes in structure and function of the sea urchin major yolk protein toposome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castellano, Immacolata; Migliaccio, Oriana; Ferraro, Giarita; Maffioli, Elisa; Marasco, Daniela; Merlino, Antonello; Zingone, Adriana; Tedeschi, Gabriella; Palumbo, Anna

    2018-03-15

    The major yolk protein toposome plays crucial roles during gametogenesis and development of sea urchins. We previously found that nitration of toposome increases in the gonads of a Paracentrotus lividus population living in a marine protected area affected by toxic blooms of Ostreospsis cf. ovata, compared to control populations. This modification is associated with ovatoxin accumulation, high levels of nitric oxide in the gonads, and a remarkable impairment of progeny development. However, nothing is known about the environmental-mediated-regulation of the structure and biological function of toposome. Here, we characterize through wide-ranging biochemical and structural analyses the nitrated toposome of sea urchins exposed to the bloom, and subsequently detoxified. The increased number of nitrated tyrosines in toposome of sea urchins collected during algal bloom induced structural changes and improvement of the Ca 2+ -binding affinity of the protein. After 3 months' detoxification, ovatoxin was undetectable, and the number of nitric oxide-modified tyrosines was reduced. However, the nitration of specific residues was irreversible and occurred also in embryos treated with metals, used as a proxy of environmental pollutants. The structural and functional changes of toposome caused by nitration under adverse environmental conditions may be related to the defective development of sea urchins' progeny.

  15. Antarctic glossopterid diversity on a local scale: the presence of multiple megasporophyll genera, Upper Permian, Mt. Achernar, Transantarctic Mountains, Antarctica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryberg, Patricia E; Taylor, Edith L; Taylor, Thomas N

    2012-09-01

    The glossopterids are a group of plants that thrived during a time of global warming similar to what is happening on the Earth today as well as the transition from archaic plant groups to the ancestors of modern groups. The diversity of the glossopterid clade is based on the megasporangiate structures assigned to the group, because the vegetative and pollen-bearing structures vary little. The presence of numerous reproductive genera from a single Upper Permian locality in the central Transantarctic Mountains provides important data on local glossopterid diversity in Antarctica. Impression/compression fossils were imaged with a Leica 5000C digital camera on a dissecting microscope or a Fujifilm FinePix S1pro digital camera. Two megasporangiate taxa are described: Scutum leiophyllum, which represents the first confirmed record of the genus in Antarctica, and Lidgettoniopsis ramulus, a new morphology consisting of a pinnate structure with oppositely attached megasporophylls. Plumsteadia ovata specimens indicate that this genus can be larger than previously recorded and illustrate the vegetative surface with a distinct midrib. The presence of a laminar, multiovulate structure and a pinnate structure at the same site indicates that local-level glossopterid diversity in Antarctica is greater than previously hypothesized. The discovery of a new megasporophyll morphology in Antarctica (confirming the presence of three distinctive morphologies on the continent) shows that Antarctic glossopterid heterogeneity is on a par with other Gondwanan continents. The diversity of the Antarctic landscape reveals that high polar latitudes can sustain a diverse ecosystem during times of global warming.

  16. New insights on the species-specific allelopathic interactions between macrophytes and marine HAB dinoflagellates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hela Ben Gharbia

    Full Text Available Macrophytes are known to release allelochemicals that have the ability to inhibit the proliferation of their competitors. Here, we investigated the effects of the fresh leaves of two magnoliophytes (Zostera noltei and Cymodocea nodosa and thalli of the macroalgae Ulva rigida on three HAB-forming benthic dinoflagellates (Ostreopsis cf. ovata, Prorocentrum lima, and Coolia monotis. The effects of C. nodosa and U. rigida were also tested against the neurotoxic planktonic dinoflagellate Alexandrium pacificum Litaker sp. nov (former Alexandrium catenella. Co-culture experiments were conducted under controlled laboratory conditions and potential allelopathic effects of the macrophytes on the growth, photosynthesis and toxin production of the targeted dinoflagellates were evaluated. Results showed that U. rigida had the strongest algicidal effect and that the planktonic A. pacificum was the most vulnerable species. Benthic dinoflagellates seemed more tolerant to potential allelochemicals produced by macrophytes. Depending on the dinoflagellate/macrophyte pairs and the weight of leaves/thalli tested, the studied physiological processes were moderately to heavily altered. Our results suggest that the allelopathic activity of the macrophytes could influence the development of HAB species.

  17. New insights on the species-specific allelopathic interactions between macrophytes and marine HAB dinoflagellates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben Gharbia, Hela; Kéfi-Daly Yahia, Ons; Cecchi, Philippe; Masseret, Estelle; Amzil, Zouher; Herve, Fabienne; Rovillon, Georges; Nouri, Habiba; M'Rabet, Charaf; Couet, Douglas; Zmerli Triki, Habiba; Laabir, Mohamed

    2017-01-01

    Macrophytes are known to release allelochemicals that have the ability to inhibit the proliferation of their competitors. Here, we investigated the effects of the fresh leaves of two magnoliophytes (Zostera noltei and Cymodocea nodosa) and thalli of the macroalgae Ulva rigida on three HAB-forming benthic dinoflagellates (Ostreopsis cf. ovata, Prorocentrum lima, and Coolia monotis). The effects of C. nodosa and U. rigida were also tested against the neurotoxic planktonic dinoflagellate Alexandrium pacificum Litaker sp. nov (former Alexandrium catenella). Co-culture experiments were conducted under controlled laboratory conditions and potential allelopathic effects of the macrophytes on the growth, photosynthesis and toxin production of the targeted dinoflagellates were evaluated. Results showed that U. rigida had the strongest algicidal effect and that the planktonic A. pacificum was the most vulnerable species. Benthic dinoflagellates seemed more tolerant to potential allelochemicals produced by macrophytes. Depending on the dinoflagellate/macrophyte pairs and the weight of leaves/thalli tested, the studied physiological processes were moderately to heavily altered. Our results suggest that the allelopathic activity of the macrophytes could influence the development of HAB species.

  18. Ethnoveterinary medicines used to treat endoparasites and stomach problems in pigs and pets in British Columbia, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lans, Cheryl; Turner, Nancy; Khan, Tonya; Brauer, Gerhard

    2007-09-30

    This paper documents the medicinal plants used to treat endoparasites and stomach problems in dogs, cats and pigs in British Columbia, Canada. Ethnoveterinary data was collected over a 6-month period in 2003. The majority of the information on pets came from 2 naturopaths, 10 herbalists, 5 dog trainers, breeders and pet shop owners, 9 holistic veterinarians and 6 of 27 organic farmers. Two pig farmers joined the study in the final stages. The following plants were used as anthelmintics: Artemisia cina O. Berg and C.F. Schmidt, Artemisia vulgaris L., Artemisia annua, Calendula officinalis L., Echinacea purpurea (L.) Moench (all Asteraceae), Mentha piperita L. and Salvia officinalis L. (Lamiaceae) (Allium sativum L. (Alliaceae), Cucurbita pepo L. (Cucurbitaceae), Eugenia caryophyllata Thunb (Myrtaceae), Gentiana lutea L. (Gentianaceae), Hydrastis canadensis L. (Ranunculaceae), Juglans nigra L. (Juglandaceae), Olea europaea L. (Oleaceae) and Ruta graveolens L. (Rutaceae)). Stomach problems were treated with: Achillea millefolium L. (Asteraceae), Aloe vera (L.) Burm. f. (Asphodelaceae), Elytrigia repens (L.) Desv. ex Nevski (Poaceae), Frangula purshiana (DC.) Cooper (Rhamnaceae), Juniperus communis L. (Cupressaceae), Melissa officinalis L. and M. piperita L. (Lamiaceae), Petroselinum crispum L. (Apiaceae), Plantago major L. and Plantago ovata Forssk. (Plantaginaceae) Rumex crispus L. and Rumex obtusifolius L. (Polygonaceae), Ulmus fulva Michx. (Ulmaceae) and Zingiber officinalis Roscoe (Zingiberaceae). There is insufficient information available to assess the anthelmintic efficacies of C. officinalis, Salvia officinalis, Eugenia caryophyllata and O. europaea; the other plants have mid- to high-level validity for their ethnoveterinary uses.

  19. Alamethicin Suppresses Methanogenesis and Promotes Acetogenesis in Bioelectrochemical Systems

    KAUST Repository

    Zhu, Xiuping; Siegert, Michael; Yates, Matthew D.; Logan, Bruce E.

    2015-01-01

    Microbial electrosynthesis (MES) systems with mixed cultures often generate a variety of gaseous and soluble chemicals. Methane is the primary end product in mixed-culture MES because it is the thermodynamically most favorable reduction product of CO2. Here, we show that the peptaibol alamethicin selectively suppressed the growth of methanogens in mixed-culture MES systems, resulting in a shift of the solution and cathode communities to an acetate-producing system dominated by Sporomusa, a known acetogenic genus in MES systems. Archaea in the methane-producing control were dominated by Methanobrevibacter species, but no Archaea were detected in the alamethicin-treated reactors. No methane was detected in the mixed-culture reactors treated with alamethicin over 10 cycles (∼ 3 days each). Instead, acetate was produced at an average rate of 115 nmol ml(-1) day(-1), similar to the rate reported previously for pure cultures of Sporomusa ovata on biocathodes. Mixed-culture control reactors without alamethicin generated methane at nearly 100% coulombic recovery, and no acetate was detected. These results show that alamethicin is effective for the suppression of methanogen growth in MES systems and that its use enables the production of industrially relevant organic compounds by the inhibition of methanogenesis.

  20. Possibilities of cultivating ornamental trees and shrubs under conditions of air pollution with oxides of sulfur

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bialobok, S.; Bartkowiak, S.; Rachwal, L.

    1974-01-01

    The field work conducted has shown that high concentrations of SO/sub 2/ in the air can be withstood by the following trees and shrubs. Trees: Acer campestris, A. platanoides, Ailanthus altissima, Aesculus hippocastanum, Morus alba, Platanus acerifolia, Pinus strobur, P. nigra, Populus Berolinensis, P. candicans, P. Hybr. 27, P. Marilandica, P. simonii, P. Serotina, Quercus robus, Robinia pseudoacacia. Shrubs: Caragana arborescens, Crataegus oxyacantha, C. monogyna, Cerasus mehaleb, Forsythia/most of the species and varieties/, Ligustrum vulgare, Philadelphus coronaria, Ptelea trifoliata, Sambucus nigra, Salix caprea, Sorbaria sorbifolia, Sorbus aucuparia, Taxus baccata. For the selection of trees and shrubs in the laboratory, high concentrations of SO/sub 2/ were used (60-150 ppm for a period of 10 minutes). Experiments were conducted on cut shrubs kept in the gas chambers. In order to estimate the degree of their injury, they were transferred to a shaded greenhouse. A concentration of 65 ppm of SO/sub 2/ could be withstood by the following Forsythias: Forsythia intermedia Primulina, F. Densiflora, F. Spectabilis, F. giraldina, F. suspensa, F. koreana, F. ovata, F. japonica and Hippophae rhamnoides. A concentration of 130 ppm could be withstood only by F. intermedia Vitelina. A similarly high concentration of SO/sub 2/ could be withstood by shoots and leaves of Ailanthus girladii Duclouxii and by Platanus acerifolia. From among the lilacs Syringa pekinensis and S. amurensis proved resistant to high concentrations of SO/sub 2/.

  1. Assessment of harmful algal species using different approaches: the case study of the Sardinian coasts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.T. Satta

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The presence and distribution of harmful algal species were investigated along the coasts of Sardinia in the summer of 2012. Fourteen potentially noxious taxa were identified at 74 beaches. The majority of the recovered taxa were potentially toxic and/or high biomass producers. Alexandrium taylorii, Gymnodinium instriatum, and Ostreopsis cf. ovata were the most frequent and abundant taxa, although Barrufeta bravensis reached the highest density (4.4 × 106 cells L−1. Barrufeta bravensis, A. taylorii, and G. instriatum were responsible for intense water discoloration at two of the beaches sampled. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR analyses supported the identification of several taxa and decisively identified B. bravensis. PCR assays increased the information available on the species distributions. The locations studied were heterogeneous in their prevailing environmental conditions and their morphodynamic profiles. Statistical analyses indicated that the distributions of harmful algal species correlated with gravel and medium-fine sand substrata. These data provide substantial knowledge on the distributions of harmful algal species on beaches, which have been poorly studied on a global scale. The apparent relationship between noxious species and grain size suggests that vegetative cells may be recruited from cyst beds in beach sediments.

  2. Methylomusa anaerophila gen. nov., sp. nov., an anaerobic methanol-utilizing bacterium isolated from a microbial fuel cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amano, Nanako; Yamamuro, Ayaka; Miyahara, Morio; Kouzuma, Atsushi; Abe, Takashi; Watanabe, Kazuya

    2018-04-01

    Abacterial strain, designated MMFC1 T , was isolated from a methanol-fed microbial fuel cell that had been inoculated with sludge obtained from a wastewater-treatmentfacility in a chemical plant. The strain grows by fermenting methanol to produce acetate under anaerobic conditions, while homoacetogenic growth is not observed. MMFC1 T also grows on pyruvate and lactate but not on sugars and other organic acids. Cells are curved rods and motile, have peritrichous flagella, and form endospores. The genome sequence of strain MMFC1 T supports the physiological data. Phylogenetic analysis based on the 16S rRNA gene sequence shows that strain MMFC1 T is affiliated with the family Sporomusaceae, while the closest relative is Sporomusa ovata with nucleotide-sequencesimilarity of 93.5 %. Major fatty acids are iso-C13 : 0 3-OH, C16 : 1ω9 and iso-C17 : 0. On the basis of its physiological, genomic and phylogenetic features, a novel genus and species are proposed to accommodate strain MMFC1 T , with the name Methylomusa anaerophila gen. nov., sp. nov. The type strain of Methylomusa anaerophila is MMFC1 T (=JCM 31821 T = KCTC 15592 T ).

  3. Alamethicin Suppresses Methanogenesis and Promotes Acetogenesis in Bioelectrochemical Systems

    KAUST Repository

    Zhu, Xiuping

    2015-03-27

    Microbial electrosynthesis (MES) systems with mixed cultures often generate a variety of gaseous and soluble chemicals. Methane is the primary end product in mixed-culture MES because it is the thermodynamically most favorable reduction product of CO2. Here, we show that the peptaibol alamethicin selectively suppressed the growth of methanogens in mixed-culture MES systems, resulting in a shift of the solution and cathode communities to an acetate-producing system dominated by Sporomusa, a known acetogenic genus in MES systems. Archaea in the methane-producing control were dominated by Methanobrevibacter species, but no Archaea were detected in the alamethicin-treated reactors. No methane was detected in the mixed-culture reactors treated with alamethicin over 10 cycles (∼ 3 days each). Instead, acetate was produced at an average rate of 115 nmol ml(-1) day(-1), similar to the rate reported previously for pure cultures of Sporomusa ovata on biocathodes. Mixed-culture control reactors without alamethicin generated methane at nearly 100% coulombic recovery, and no acetate was detected. These results show that alamethicin is effective for the suppression of methanogen growth in MES systems and that its use enables the production of industrially relevant organic compounds by the inhibition of methanogenesis.

  4. A survey for gregarines (Protozoa: Apicomplexa) in arthropods in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Criado-Fornelio, A; Verdú-Expósito, C; Martin-Pérez, T; Heredero-Bermejo, I; Pérez-Serrano, J; Guàrdia-Valle, L; Panisello-Panisello, M

    2017-01-01

    Gregarines thrive in the digestive tract of arthropods and may be deleterious to their hosts, especially when present in high densities. The impact of parasites on these invertebrates may affect both the ecosystem equilibrium and human economic activities. However, information available on gregarines in Spain is limited. Therefore, a microscopic study on prevalence of gregarine infection in 560 insects and crustaceans was undertaken in Madrid and Tarragona.Gregarina ormierei (78 % prevalence), Stylocephalus gigas (56 %), Oocephalus hispanus (13 %) and Actinocephalus permagnus (only one infected out of six beetles examined) were found in coleopteran hosts. Gregarina ovata and G. chelidurellae showed moderate frequency of infection (35 %) in dermapterans. An undescribed Gregarina sp. (76 % prevalence) was observed for the first time in freshwater decapod crustaceans. Interestingly, G. ormierei showed a noticeable phenotypic dimorphism, which justifies its redescription based on modern taxonomic criteria. Sequences of the 18S rRNA gene could be obtained only in the presence of highly prevalent gregarines. G. ormierei and Gregarina sp. were related (85 and 94 % identity by BLASTN, respectively) to G. basiconstrictonea and G. cloptoni, respectively, whereas S. gigas was closely related to both Xiphocephalus ellisi and S. giganteus (>97 % identity). Phylogenetic trees based on ribosomal sequences unequivocally grouped these new isolates either with the Gregarinidae (G. ormierei and Gregarina sp.) or the Stylocephalidae (S. gigas).

  5. Removal of chemical oxygen demand from textile wastewater using a natural coagulant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramavandi, Bahman [Bushehr University of Medical Sciences, Bushehr (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Farjadfard, Sima [Islamic Azad University, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2014-01-15

    A biomaterial was successfully synthesized from Plantago ovata by using an FeCl{sub 3}-induced crude extract (FCE). The potential of FCE to act as a natural coagulant was tested for the pretreatment of real textile wastewater. Tests were performed to evaluate the effects of FCE quantity, salt concentration, and wastewater pH on chemical oxygen demand (COD) reduction during a coagulation/flocculation process. Experimental results indicated that the wastewater could be effectively treated by using a coagulation/flocculation process, where the BOD{sub 5}/COD ratio of the effluent was improved to 0.48. A low coagulant dose, 1.5mg/L, achieved a high COD removal percentage, 89%, at operational conditions of neutral pH and room temperature. The experimental data revealed that the maximum COD removal occurred at water pH<8. Increasing the salt promoted the COD removal. The settling and filterability characteristics of the sludge were also studied. Scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive spectroscopy studies were conducted to determine the sludge structure and composition, respectively. Overall, FCE as an eco-friendly biomaterial was revealed to be a very efficient coagulant and a promising option for the removal of COD from wastewaters.

  6. Development of enhanced radioprotectors - Biochemical and molecular genetical approaches on the radioprotective mechanism of natural products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jeong Hee; Lee, Eun Ju; Hong, Jung A [Kyunghee University, Seoul (Korea)

    2000-04-01

    To identify radio-protective agent candidate among medicinal plants and to elucidate the mechanism of action of the candidate material by using modern biochemical and molecular biological methods, we screened radio-protective activity among 48 medicinal plants. Seven samples showed above 20% protective activities against oxidative cell damage: Euryale ferox, Glycyrrhiza uralensis, Salvia miltiorrhiza, Eucomia ulmoides, Paeonia suffruticosa, Spirodela polyrrhiza, and Nelumbo nucifera. We also screened for oxidative stress sensitizing activity among other 51 medicinal plants. Among those samples, 11 samples showed good sensitizing effect; Melia azedarach, Agastache rugosa, Catalpa ovata, Prunus persica, Sinomenium acutum, Pulsatilla koreana, Oldenlandia diffusa, Anthriscus sylvestris, Schizandra chinensis, Gleditsia sinensis, and Cridium officinale. We also reported the radio-protective effect of DTT. The treatment of DTT increased cell survival after gamma-irradiation, decreased in the frequencies of micronucleus, and reduction in DNA fragmentation and apoptotic cells. Induction of apoptosis after UV-C irradiation was revealed by the changes in the relative cell death, increase in the relative amount of apoptotic cells, and the induction of DNA fragmentation. 165 refs., 9 figs., 8 tabs. (Author)

  7. Molecular cloning, characterization and antigenicity of Babesia sp. BQ1 (Lintan) (Babesia cf. motasi) apical membrane antigen-1 (AMA-1).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Qingli; Liu, Zhijie; Yang, Jifei; Guan, Guiquan; Pan, Yuping; Luo, Jianxun; Yin, Hong

    2017-04-01

    Apical membrane antigen-1 (AMA-1) has been described as a potential vaccine candidate in apicomplexan parasites. Here we characterize the ama-1 gene. The full-length ama-1 gene of Babesia sp. BQ1 (Lintan) (BLTAMA-1) is 1785 bp, which contains an open reading frame (ORF) encoding a 65-kDa protein of 594 amino acid residues; by definition, the 5' UTR precedes the first methionine of the ORF. Phylogenetic analysis based on AMA-1 amino acid sequences clearly separated Piroplasmida from other Apicomplexa parasites. The Babesia sp. BQ1 (Lintan) AMA-1 sequence is most closely associated with that of B. ovata and B. bigemina, with high bootstrap value. A recombinant protein encoding a conserved region and containing ectodomains I and II of BLTAMA-1 was constructed. BLTrAMA-1-DI/DII proteins were tested for reactivity with sera from sheep infected by Babesia sp. BQ1 (Lintan). In Western-blot analysis, native Babesia sp. BQ1 (Lintan) AMA-1 proteins were recognized by antibodies raised in rabbits against BLTrAMA-1 in vitro. The results of this study are discussed in terms of gene characterization, taxonomy and antigenicity.

  8. A PCR method targeting internal transcribed spacers: the simultaneous detection of Babesia bigemina and Babesia bovis in cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Junlong; Guan, Guiquan; Liu, Aihong; Li, Youquan; Yin, Hong; Luo, Jianxun

    2014-03-01

    In this study, two pairs of oligonucleotide primers were designed according to the nucleotide sequence of the internal transcribed spacers (ITSs) of Babesia bigemina and B. bovis isolates from China. The primers were used in a multiplex PCR to detect parasite DNA in blood samples from cattle. There was no cross reactions with B. ovata, B. major, B. sp. Kashi, Theileria annulata, T. sergenti, T. sinensis or normal bovine DNA. The sensitivity of multiplex PCR assay was 1 pg and 10 pg DNA for B. bigemina and B. bovis, respectively. A total of 260 field blood samples collected from cattle in five provinces of China were analyzed by multiplex PCR and light microscopy. PCR testing revealed that 7.3% (19/260) and 5.8% (15/260) of cattle were positive for B. bigemina and B. bovis and 1.2% (3/260) of cattle were co-infected with B. bigemina and B. bovis. Using light microscopy, 2.3% (6/260) and 1.5% (4/260) of cattle were infected by B. bigemina and B. bovis, respectively, and no co-infection was found. The results showed that the multiplex PCR developed in the present study could be an alternative diagnostic tool for the detection of B. bovis and B. bigemina infection in cattle.

  9. Seed dispersal in six species of terrestrial orchids in Biebrza National Park (NE Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilia Brzosko

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Knowledge about seed dispersal is required to explain problems in ecology, phylogeography, and conservation biology. Even though seed dispersal is a fundamental mechanism to understand problems at different levels of biological organization (individual, population, species, landscape, it remains one of the least recognized processes. Similar to other groups of plants, very little is known regarding patterns and distances of seed dispersal in orchids. Orchid seeds are generally assumed to be widely dispersed by wind because of their small size and low weight. Between 2006 and 2008, we conducted a field study of the distances at which orchid seeds are dispersed, and determined factors affecting dispersal. Investigations included 13 populations of six terrestrial orchid species – Cypripedium calceolus, Cephalanthera rubra, Epipactis helleborine, Goodyera repens, Neottia ovata, and Platanthera bifolia. To evaluate seed dispersal in orchid populations, 8.5-cm Petri dishes (traps with self-adhesive paper were placed along transects, starting from a group of fruiting plants, which were considered to be the dispersal source. Seeds of the investigated orchid species were dispersed over relatively short distances. There were statistically significant negative correlations between seed density and distance from the fruiting plants. Seeds of species with taller fruiting shoots were dispersed farther than those with shorter ones (R = 0.68, p < 0.05. We discuss the causes and consequences of the dispersal patterns of orchid seeds.

  10. Medicinal and ethnoveterinary remedies of hunters in Trinidad.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lans, C; Harper, T; Georges, K; Bridgewater, E

    2001-01-01

    Ethnomedicines are used by hunters for themselves and their hunting dogs in Trinidad. Plants are used for snakebites, scorpion stings, for injuries and mange of dogs and to facilitate hunting success. Plants used include Piper hispidum, Pithecelobium unguis-cati, Bauhinia excisa, Bauhinia cumanensis, Cecropia peltata, Aframomum melegueta, Aristolochia rugosa, Aristolochia trilobata, Jatropha curcas, Jatropha gossypifolia, Nicotiana tabacum, Vernonia scorpioides, Petiveria alliacea, Renealmia alpinia, Justicia secunda, Phyllanthus urinaria,Phyllanthus niruri,Momordica charantia, Xiphidium caeruleum, Ottonia ovata, Lepianthes peltata, Capsicum frutescens, Costus scaber, Dendropanax arboreus, Siparuma guianensis, Syngonium podophyllum, Monstera dubia, Solanum species, Eclipta prostrata, Spiranthes acaulis, Croton gossypifolius, Barleria lupulina, Cola nitida, Acrocomia ierensis (tentative ID). Plant use is based on odour, and plant morphological characteristics and is embedded in a complex cultural context based on indigenous Amerindian beliefs. It is suggested that the medicinal plants exerted a physiological action on the hunter or his dog. Some of the plants mentioned contain chemicals that may explain the ethnomedicinal and ethnoveterinary use. For instance some of the plants influence the immune system or are effective against internal and external parasites. Plant baths may contribute to the health and well being of the hunting dogs.

  11. Drug-Herb Interactions in the Elderly Patient with IBD: a Growing Concern.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Haider; Kim, Marina; Leung, Galen; Green, Jesse A; Katz, Seymour

    2017-12-01

    Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), which includes conditions such as Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis, is becoming more prevalent with the elderly being the fastest growing group. Parallel to this, there is an increasing interest in the use of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM). Nearly half of patients with IBD have used CAM at one time. The elderly patients, however, are burdened by comorbid conditions, polypharmacy, and altered functional status. With increasing use of complementary and alternative medicine in our elderly patients with IBD, it is vital for the provider to provide counsel on drug-herb potential interactions. CAM includes herbal products, diet, dietary supplements, acupuncture, and prayer. In this paper, we will review common CAM, specifically herbs, that are used in patients with IBD including the herb background, suggested use, evidence in IBD, and most importantly, potential interactions with IBD medications used in elderly patients. Most important evidence-based adverse events and drug-herb interactions are summarized. The herbs discussed include Triticum aestivum (wheat grass), Andrographis paniculata (chiretta), Boswellia serrata, tormentil, bilberry, curcumin (turmeric), Plantago ovata (blond psyllium), Oenothera biennis (evening primrose oil), germinated barley foodstuff, an herbal preparation of myrrh, chamomile and coffee extract, chios mastic gum, wormwood (absinthe, thujone), Cannabis sativa (marijuana, THC), tripterygium wilfordii (thunder god vine), Ulmus rubra (slippery elm bark), trigonella foenugraecum (fenugreek), Dioscorea mexicana (wild yam), Harpagophytum procumbens (devil's claw), ginger, cinnamon, licorice, and peppermint.

  12. Seasonal reproductive development of Lampsilis cardium, Amblema plicata plicata, and Potamilus alatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holland Bartels, L. E.; Kammer, T.W.

    1989-01-01

    Adult specimens of three species of freshwater mussels common to the upper Mississippi River were examined histologically to determine seasonal patterns of development in gametogenesis and release of glochidia. Full maturation of gonadal materials in Lampsilis cardium (formerly L. ovata ventricosa), a long-term breeder, occurred when ambient river temperatures reached 24 degree to 26 degree C, between late July and early August. By mid-August, glochidia were present in the marsupia. Glochidia were released from late May through mid-June of the following year once water temperatures reached 20 degree C. The long-term breeder Potamilus alatus demonstrated full gonadal maturation earlier than seen in L. cardium with reproduction completed by late July (26 degree C). Glochidia of P. alatus were released over a period similar to that observed for L. cardium, late May through early July of the following year. Fully mature Amblema plicata plicata, a short-term breeder, were collected from late May through early July (18 degree to 21 degree C). (DBO).

  13. Estrutura fitossociológica do componente arbóreo de um fragmento de Floresta Ombrófila Densa na mata sul de Pernambuco, nordeste do Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Felix Costa

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This work aimed to describe physiognomy and structure of a Dense Ombrophyllous Forest fragment located in Catende, Pernambuco. All trees with DAP (breast height diameter ≥ 4.77 cm were measured in 40 10 x 25 m plots, systematically installed in five transects. A total of 1049 individuals were observed, distributed in 91 species, 64 genera and 37 botanical families. Mimosaceae and Lauraceae were the families with higher species number, while Anacardiaceae and Moraceae had the highest individuals numbers. Shannon index (H´ was 3.83 nats/ind. Total basal area, height and diameter (average and maximum were 23.59 m²/ha, 13.57 m (± 7.13, 45 m, 13.20 cm (± 10.60 and 127.32 cm, respectively. The species with higher importance values were Tapirira guianensis Aubl., Dialium guianense (Aubl. Sandwith, Helicostylis tomentosa (Poepp. & Endl. Rusby, Thyrsodium spruceanum Benth., Plathymenia foliolosa Benth., Brosimum discolor Schott, Parkia pendula (Willd. Benth. ex Walp., Schefflera morototoni (Aubl. Maguire, Steyerm. & Frodin, Eschweilera ovata (Cambess. Miers and Cecropia palmata Willd. Diametric distribution had an inverted-J-like curve, predicted for a forest unequal in ages in a secondary succession stage.

  14. Experimental Assessment of the Effects of Temperature and Food Availability on Particle Mixing by the Bivalve Abra alba Using New Image Analysis Techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernard, Guillaume; Duchêne, Jean-Claude; Romero-Ramirez, Alicia; Lecroart, Pascal; Maire, Olivier; Ciutat, Aurélie; Deflandre, Bruno; Grémare, Antoine

    2016-01-01

    The effects of temperature and food addition on particle mixing in the deposit-feeding bivalve Abra alba were assessed using an experimental approach allowing for the tracking of individual fluorescent particle (luminophore) displacements. This allowed for the computations of vertical profiles of a set of parameters describing particle mixing. The frequency of luminophore displacements (jumps) was assessed through the measurement of both waiting times (i.e., the time lapses between two consecutive jumps of the same luminophore) and normalized numbers of jumps (i.e., the numbers of jumps detected in a given area divided by the number of luminophores in this area). Jump characteristics included the direction, duration and length of each jump. Particle tracking biodiffusion coefficients (Db) were also computed. Data originated from 32 experiments carried out under 4 combinations of 2 temperature (Te) and 2 food addition (Fo) levels. For each of these treatments, parameters were computed for 5 experimental durations (Ed). The effects of Se, Fo and Ed were assessed using PERmutational Multivariate ANalyses Of VAriance (PERMANOVAs) carried out on vertical depth profiles of each particle mixing parameter. Inversed waiting times significantly decreased with Ed whereas the normalized number of jumps did not, thereby suggesting that it constitutes a better proxy of jump frequency when assessing particle mixing based on the measure of individual particle displacements. Particle mixing was low during autumn temperature experiments and not affected by Fo, which was attributed to the dominant effect of low temperature. Conversely, particle mixing was high during summer temperature experiments and transitory inhibited by food addition. This last result is coherent with the functional responses (both in terms of activity and particle mixing) already measured for individual of the closely related clam A. ovata originating from temperate populations. It also partly resulted from a

  15. Novel calcified gum Arabic porous nano-composite scaffold for bone tissue regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadavi, M; Hasannia, S; Faghihi, Sh; Mashayekhi, F; Zadeh, H H; Mostofi, S B

    2017-07-08

    The aim of this study was to investigate the biomechanical and biological properties of a nanocomposite scaffold containing both mineral and polysaccharide constituents. Hydroxyapatite nanoparticles (n-HA) was synthesized from dead abra ovata shells using wet chemical methods and was used in different ratios in concert with gum Arabic, a branched plant polysaccharide. N-HA/gum nanocomposite was fabricated with freeze-drying process and characterized by FTIR and SEM for chemical structure and morphology. Porosity was estimated using liquid substitution method. The scaffold mechanical properties were evaluated by compressive test measurement. Osteogenic differentiation was assessed using alkaline phosphatase production and biomineralization was evaluated using Alizarin red assay. Results demonstrated that the hydroxyapatite/gum Arabic nanocomposite had favorable biocompatibility and a similar structure to natural bone matrix. Porous nanocomposite possessed macropore networks with a porosity 87-93% and mean pore size ranging between 164 and 230 μm. The gum/HA with a ratio of 50% w/w HA had the highest compressive modulus of ∼75.3 MPa Pa (MPa) and the ultimate compressive stress of ∼16.6 MPa. C2C12 cells cultured on a scaffold with higher percentage (40 and 50 w/w) of HA demonstrated increased ALP levels and calcium deposition. The data from the present study demonstrated significant changes to the biomechanical properties and osteoconductivity of the nanocomposite scaffold by modulating its mineral content. Nanocomposite scaffolds containing gum and n-HA of 40-50% exhibited highest mechanical properties, as well as supported increased biomineralization. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. An Overview of Herbal Products and Secondary Metabolites Used for Management of Type Two Diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ota, Ajda; Ulrih, Nataša P

    2017-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus is a common effect of uncontrolled high blood sugar and it is associated with long-term damage, dysfunction, and failure of various organs. In the adult population, the global prevalence of diabetes has nearly doubled since 1980. Without effective prevention and management programs, the continuing significant rise in diabetes will have grave consequences on the health and lifespan of the world population, and also on the world economy. Supplements can be used to correct nutritional deficiencies or to maintain an adequate intake of certain nutrients. These are often used as treatments for diabetes, sometimes because they have lower costs, or are more accessible or "natural" compared to prescribed medications. Several vitamins, minerals, botanicals, and secondary metabolites have been reported to elicit beneficial effects in hypoglycemic actions in vivo and in vitro ; however, the data remain conflicting. Many pharmaceuticals commonly used today are structurally derived from natural compounds from traditional medicinal plants. Botanicals that are most frequently used to help manage blood glucose include: bitter melon ( Momordica charantia ), fenugreek ( Trigonella foenum graecum ), gurmar ( Gymnema sylvestre ), ivy gourd ( Coccinia indica ), nopal ( Opuntia spp.), ginseng, Russian tarragon ( Artemisia dracunculus ), cinnamon ( Cinnamomum cassia ), psyllium ( Plantago ovata ), and garlic ( Allium sativum ). In majority of the herbal products and secondary metabolites used in treating diabetes, the mechanisms of action involve regulation of insulin signaling pathways, translocation of GLUT-4 receptor and/or activation the PPARγ. Several flavonoids inhibit glucose absorption by inhibiting intestinal α-amylase and α-glucosidase. In-depth studies to validate the efficacies and safeties of extracts of these traditional medicinal plants are needed, and large, well designed, clinical studies need to be carried out before the use of such preparations can

  17. Efficacy and safety of laxatives for chronic constipation in long-term care settings: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alsalimy, N; Madi, L; Awaisu, A

    2018-06-09

    Constipation is a common disorder among long-term care (LTC) patients due to several factors. However, there are no systematic reviews investigating the use of laxatives for chronic constipation in LTC settings. This study aims to explore the safety and efficacy of laxatives in LTC patients. A systematic review of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) describing the efficacy and safety of laxatives for chronic constipation in LTC patients was conducted using the following databases and search engines: MEDLINE, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, ScienceDirect, ProQuest and Google Scholar. Two of the investigators independently performed the searches, and the data were extracted using a standardized data abstraction tool. Seven RCTs involving 444 patients were included in the review. These studies included senna (with or without fibre, ie Plantago ovata), lactulose, sodium picosulphate, docusate sodium, docusate calcium, isotonic and hypotonic polyethylene glycol and Chinese herbal medicine. Senna and lactulose were the most studied laxatives in LTC patients, and senna was found to be superior to or as effective as other laxatives. Generally, the frequency and severity of adverse drug reactions (ADRs) were similar between the arms of the studies, and no serious ADRs were reported. Considering the short duration of the trials, the lack of trials including newer laxatives and the low quality of some of the included trials, the long-term efficacy and safety of these laxatives are not conclusive. There is a need to conduct more robust RCTs that include newer agents to evaluate long-term outcomes. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. New taxa, including three new genera show uniqueness of Neotropical Nepticulidae (Lepidoptera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erik van Nieukerken

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available After finding distinct clades in a molecular phylogeny for Nepticulidae that could not be placed in any known genera and discovering clear apomorphic characters that define these clades, as well as a number of Neotropical species that could be placed in known genera but were undescribed, three new genera and nine new species are here described from the Neotropics: Stigmella gallicola van Nieukerken & Nishida, sp. n. reared from galls on Hampea appendiculata (Malvaceae in Costa Rica, representing the first example of a gall making Stigmella; S. schinivora van Nieukerken, sp. n. reared from leafmines on Schinus terebinthifolia (Anacardiaceae in Argentina, Misiones; S. costaricensis van Nieukerken & Nishida, sp. n. and S. intronia van Nieukerken & Nishida, sp. n. each from a single specimen collected the same night in Costa Rica, Parque Nacional Chirripó; S. molinensis van Nieukerken & Snyers, sp. n. reared from leafmines on Salix humboldtiana, Peru, Lima, the first Neotropical species of the Stigmella salicis group sensu stricto; Ozadelpha van Nieukerken, gen. n. with type species O. conostegiae van Nieukerken & Nishida, sp. n., reared from leafmines on Conostegia oerstediana (Melastomataceae from Costa Rica; Neotrifurcula van Nieukerken, gen. n. with type species N. gielisorum van Nieukerken, sp. n. from Chile; Hesperolyra van Nieukerken, gen. n.. with type species Fomoria diskusi Puplesis & Robinson, 2000; Hesperolyra saopaulensis van Nieukerken, sp. n., reared from an unidentified Myrtaceae, Sao Paulo, Brasil; and Acalyptris janzeni van Nieukerken & Nishida, sp. n. from Costa Rica, Guanacaste. Five new combinations are made: Ozadelpha ovata (Puplesis & Robinson, 2000, comb. n. and Ozadelpha guajavae (Puplesis & Diškus, 2002, comb. n., Hesperolyra diskusi (Puplesis & Robinson, 2000, comb. n., Hesperolyra molybditis (Zeller, 1877, comb. n. and Hesperolyra repanda (Puplesis & Diškus, 2002, comb. n. Three specimens are briefly described, but

  19. New taxa, including three new genera show uniqueness of Neotropical Nepticulidae (Lepidoptera)

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Nieukerken, Erik J.; Doorenweerd, Camiel; Nishida, Kenji; Snyers, Chris

    2016-01-01

    Abstract After finding distinct clades in a molecular phylogeny for Nepticulidae that could not be placed in any known genera and discovering clear apomorphic characters that define these clades, as well as a number of Neotropical species that could be placed in known genera but were undescribed, three new genera and nine new species are here described from the Neotropics: Stigmella gallicola van Nieukerken & Nishida, sp. n. reared from galls on Hampea appendiculata (Malvaceae) in Costa Rica, representing the first example of a gall making Stigmella; Stigmella schinivora van Nieukerken, sp. n. reared from leafmines on Schinus terebinthifolia (Anacardiaceae) in Argentina, Misiones; Stigmella costaricensis van Nieukerken & Nishida, sp. n. and Stigmella intronia van Nieukerken & Nishida, sp. n. each from a single specimen collected the same night in Costa Rica, Parque Nacional Chirripó; Stigmella molinensis van Nieukerken & Snyers, sp. n. reared from leafmines on Salix humboldtiana, Peru, Lima, the first Neotropical species of the Stigmella salicis group sensu stricto; Ozadelpha van Nieukerken, gen. n. with type species Ozadelpha conostegiae van Nieukerken & Nishida, sp. n., reared from leafmines on Conostegia oerstediana (Melastomataceae) from Costa Rica; Neotrifurcula van Nieukerken, gen. n. with type species Neotrifurcula gielisorum van Nieukerken, sp. n. from Chile; Hesperolyra van Nieukerken, gen. n.. with type species Fomoria diskusi Puplesis & Robinson, 2000; Hesperolyra saopaulensis van Nieukerken, sp. n., reared from an unidentified Myrtaceae, Sao Paulo, Brasil; and Acalyptris janzeni van Nieukerken & Nishida, sp. n. from Costa Rica, Guanacaste. Five new combinations are made: Ozadelpha ovata (Puplesis & Robinson, 2000), comb. n. and Ozadelpha guajavae (Puplesis & Diškus, 2002), comb. n., Hesperolyra diskusi (Puplesis & Robinson, 2000), comb. n., Hesperolyra molybditis (Zeller, 1877), comb. n. and Hesperolyra repanda (Puplesis & Diškus, 2002), comb. n

  20. Survival and development of Lymantria monacha (Lepidoptera: Lymantriidae) on North American and introduced Eurasian tree species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keena, M A

    2003-02-01

    Lymantria monacha (L.) (Lepidoptera: Lymantriidae), the nun moth, is a Eurasian pest of conifers that has potential for accidental introduction into North America. To project the potential host range of this insect if introduced into North America, survival and development of L. monacha on 26 North American and eight introduced Eurasian tree species were examined. Seven conifer species (Abies concolor, Picea abies, P. glauca, P. pungens, Pinus sylvestris with male cones, P. menziesii variety glance, and Tsuga canadensis) and six broadleaf species (Betula populifolia, Malus x domestica, Prunus serotiaa, Quercus lobata, Q. rubra, and Q. velutina) were suitable for L. monacha survival and development. Eleven of the host species tested were rated as intermediate in suitability, four conifer species (Larix occidentalis, P. nigra, P. ponderosa, P. strobus, and Pseudotsuga menziesii variety menziesii) and six broadleaf species (Carpinus caroliniana, Carya ovata, Fagus grandifolia, Populus grandidentata, Q. alba, and Tilia cordata) and the remaining 10 species tested were rated as poor (Acer rubrum, A. platanoidies, A. saccharum, F. americana, Juniperus virginiana, Larix kaempferi, Liriodendron tulipfera, Morus alba, P. taeda, and P. deltoides). The phenological state of the trees had a major impact on establishment, survival, and development of L. monacha on many of the tree species tested. Several of the deciduous tree species that are suitable for L. monacha also are suitable for L. dispar (L.) and L. mathura Moore. Establishment of L. monacha in North America would be catastrophic because of the large number of economically important tree species on which it can survive and develop, and the ability of mated females to fly and colonize new areas.

  1. Isolation of acetogenic bacteria that induce biocorrosion by utilizing metallic iron as the sole electron donor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, Souichiro; Yumoto, Isao; Kamagata, Yoichi

    2015-01-01

    Corrosion of iron occurring under anoxic conditions, which is termed microbiologically influenced corrosion (MIC) or biocorrosion, is mostly caused by microbial activities. Microbial activity that enhances corrosion via uptake of electrons from metallic iron [Fe(0)] has been regarded as one of the major causative factors. In addition to sulfate-reducing bacteria and methanogenic archaea in marine environments, acetogenic bacteria in freshwater environments have recently been suggested to cause MIC under anoxic conditions. However, no microorganisms that perform acetogenesis-dependent MIC have been isolated or had their MIC-inducing mechanisms characterized. Here, we enriched and isolated acetogenic bacteria that induce iron corrosion by utilizing Fe(0) as the sole electron donor under freshwater, sulfate-free, and anoxic conditions. The enriched communities produced significantly larger amounts of Fe(II) than the abiotic controls and produced acetate coupled with Fe(0) oxidation prior to CH4 production. Microbial community analysis revealed that Sporomusa sp. and Desulfovibrio sp. dominated in the enrichments. Strain GT1, which is closely related to the acetogen Sporomusa sphaeroides, was eventually isolated from the enrichment. Strain GT1 grew acetogenetically with Fe(0) as the sole electron donor and enhanced iron corrosion, which is the first demonstration of MIC mediated by a pure culture of an acetogen. Other well-known acetogenic bacteria, including Sporomusa ovata and Acetobacterium spp., did not grow well on Fe(0). These results indicate that very few species of acetogens have specific mechanisms to efficiently utilize cathodic electrons derived from Fe(0) oxidation and induce iron corrosion. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  2. Stable isotope evidence for dietary overlap between alien and native gastropods in coastal lakes of northern KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelson A F Miranda

    Full Text Available Tarebia granifera (Lamarck, 1822 is originally from South-East Asia, but has been introduced and become invasive in many tropical and subtropical parts of the world. In South Africa, T. granifera is rapidly invading an increasing number of coastal lakes and estuaries, often reaching very high population densities and dominating shallow water benthic invertebrate assemblages. An assessment of the feeding dynamics of T. granifera has raised questions about potential ecological impacts, specifically in terms of its dietary overlap with native gastropods.A stable isotope mixing model was used together with gut content analysis to estimate the diet of T. granifera and native gastropod populations in three different coastal lakes. Population density, available biomass of food and salinity were measured along transects placed over T. granifera patches. An index of isotopic (stable isotopes dietary overlap (IDO, % aided in interpreting interactions between gastropods. The diet of T. granifera was variable, including contributions from microphytobenthos, filamentous algae (Cladophora sp., detritus and sedimentary organic matter. IDO was significant (>60% between T. granifera and each of the following gastropods: Haminoea natalensis (Krauss, 1848, Bulinus natalensis (Küster, 1841 and Melanoides tuberculata (Müller, 1774. However, food did not appear to be limiting. Salinity influenced gastropod spatial overlap. Tarebia granifera may only displace native gastropods, such as Assiminea cf. ovata (Krauss, 1848, under salinity conditions below 20. Ecosystem-level impacts are also discussed.The generalist diet of T. granifera may certainly contribute to its successful establishment. However, although competition for resources may take place under certain salinity conditions and if food is limiting, there appear to be other mechanisms at work, through which T. granifera displaces native gastropods. Complementary stable isotope and gut content analysis can

  3. Comparison of Separation of Seed Oil Triglycerides Containing Isomeric Conjugated Octadecatrienoic Acid Moieties by Reversed-Phase HPLC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anh Van Nguyen

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Relative retention analysis and increment approach were applied for the comparison of triglycerides (TGs retention of a broad set of plant seed oils with isomeric conjugated octadecatrienoic acids (CLnA by reversed-phase HPLC for “propanol-2-acetonitrile” mobile phases and Kromasil 100-5C18 stationary phase with diode array detection (DAD and mass spectrometric (MS detection. The subjects of investigation were TGs of seed oils: Calendula officinalis, Catalpa ovata, Jacaranda mimosifolia, Centranthus ruber, Momordica charantia, Trichosanthes anguina, Punica granatum, Thladiantha dubia, Valeriana officinalis, and Vernicia montana. It was found that a sequence of elution of TGs of the same types is the same without any inversions for full range of mobile phase compositions: punicic (C18:39Z11E13Z < jacaric (C18:38Z10E12Z < catalpic (C18:39E11E13Z < α-eleostearic (C18:39Z11E13E < calendic (C18:38E10E12Z < β-eleostearic (C18:39E11E13E < all-E calendic (C18:38E10E12E acids. TGs and fatty acid compositions were calculated for all oil samples. Regularities of solute retentions as a function of isomeric conjugated octadecatrienoic acid moiety structure are discussed. Thus, it was proven that it is possible to differentiate TGs of complex composition with moieties of all natural CLnA by retention control accomplished by electronic spectra comparison, even though there are only three types of electronic-vibration spectra for seven isomeric CLnA.

  4. Estudo da regeneração natural de espécies arbóreas em fragmento de Floresta Ombrófila Densa, Mata das Galinhas, no município de Catende, zona da mata sul de Pernambuco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wegliane Campelo da Silva

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The study was developed in the fragment situated in the Catende is – PE city (Mata das Galinhas – 8º69’06”S e 35º69’08” W, in mesoregion of the pernambucana forest, more necessarily in the humid forest is microregion, at 142 km of the capital. The area is vegetacion is Humid Forest. The relief varies wavy to very wavy, with 199 m altitude. The soil is classified as red latisols dystrophic and red nitosols associated to latisols. The present work aims to study and evaluated the total natural regeneration of arboreal species in the forest fragment and to verify the diversity and structure of the species in the same one. For estimate the natural regeneration, were made systematically 16 subunits (samples with 5 x 5 m. These subunits were inserted in the middle samples (10 x 25 m before used to evaluate the community arboreal phytossociology, with 50 meters between the ones. The regeneration study (CAP 3 m. Besides, the samply sufficient and diversity were calculated. In fragment was observed 31 botanical families and 60 arboreal species inside 194 individuals. 42 had been identified in level of species, 4 in sort level, 2 in family level and 2 are not identify. Ten species obtained bigest values for total natural regeneration of the samples population (RNT and contribute with 53,78% of the total percentage, how is descript following way: Brosimum discolor Schott (9,98%, Protium heptaphyllum (Aubl. Marchand (9,19%, Eschweilera ovata (Cambess. Miers (8,01%, Thyrsodium spruceanum Benth. (7,0%, Dialium guianense (Aubl. Sandwith (5,44%, Erythroxylum squamatum Sw. (3,32%, Cupania revoluta Rolfe (3,16%, Sorocea hilarii Gaudich.

  5. In vitro assay for the anti-Brucella activity of medicinal plants against tetracycline-resistant Brucella melitensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motamedi, Hossein; Darabpour, Esmaeil; Gholipour, Mahnaz; Seyyed Nejad, Seyyed Mansour

    2010-07-01

    Brucellosis, a zoonosis caused by four species of brucella, has a high morbidity. Brucella melitensis is the main causative agent of brucellosis in both human and small ruminants. As an alternative to conventional antibiotics, medicinal plants are valuable resources for new agents against antibiotic-resistant strains. The aim of this study was to investigate the usage of native plants for brucellosis treatment. For this purpose, the anti-brucella activities of ethanolic and methanolic extracts of Salvia sclarea, Oliveria decumbens, Ferulago angulata, Vitex pseudo-negundo, Teucrium polium, Plantago ovata, Cordia myxa, and Crocus sativus were assessed. The activity against a resistant Br. melitensis strain was determined by disc diffusion method at various concentrations from 50-400 mg/ml. Antibiotic discs were also used as a control. Among the evaluated herbs, six plant (Salvia sclarea, Oliveria decumbens, Ferulago angulata, Vitex pseudo-negundo, Teucrium polium, and Crocus sativus) showed anti-brucella activity. Oliveria decumbens was chosen as the most effective plant for further studies. A tested isolate exhibited resistance to tetracycline, nafcillin, oxacillin, methicillin, and colistin. Minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimal bactericidal concentration (MBC) values for Oliveria decumbens against resistant Br. melitensis were the same (5 mg/ml), and for gentamicin they were both 2 mg/ml. Time-kill kinetics for a methanolic extract of Oliveria decumbens was 7 h whereas for an ethanolic extract it was 28 h. Also, Oliveria decumbens extracts showed a synergistic effect in combination with doxycycline and tetracycline. In general, the similar values of MIC and MBC for Oliveria decumbens suggest that these extracts could act as bactericidal agents against Br. melitensis. In addition to Oliveria decumbens, Crocus sativus and Salvia sclarea also had good anti-brucella activity and these should be considered for further study.

  6. In vitro assay for the anti-brucella activity of medicinal plants against tetracycline-resistant Brucella melitensis *

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motamedi, Hossein; Darabpour, Esmaeil; Gholipour, Mahnaz; Seyyed Nejad, Seyyed Mansour

    2010-01-01

    Brucellosis, a zoonosis caused by four species of brucella, has a high morbidity. Brucella melitensis is the main causative agent of brucellosis in both human and small ruminants. As an alternative to conventional antibiotics, medicinal plants are valuable resources for new agents against antibiotic-resistant strains. The aim of this study was to investigate the usage of native plants for brucellosis treatment. For this purpose, the anti-brucella activities of ethanolic and methanolic extracts of Salvia sclarea, Oliveria decumbens, Ferulago angulata, Vitex pseudo-negundo, Teucrium polium, Plantago ovata, Cordia myxa, and Crocus sativus were assessed. The activity against a resistant Br. melitensis strain was determined by disc diffusion method at various concentrations from 50–400 mg/ml. Antibiotic discs were also used as a control. Among the evaluated herbs, six plant (Salvia sclarea, Oliveria decumbens, Ferulago angulata, Vitex pseudo-negundo, Teucrium polium, and Crocus sativus) showed anti-brucella activity. Oliveria decumbens was chosen as the most effective plant for further studies. A tested isolate exhibited resistance to tetracycline, nafcillin, oxacillin, methicillin, and colistin. Minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimal bactericidal concentration (MBC) values for Oliveria decumbens against resistant Br. melitensis were the same (5 mg/ml), and for gentamicin they were both 2 mg/ml. Time-kill kinetics for a methanolic extract of Oliveria decumbens was 7 h whereas for an ethanolic extract it was 28 h. Also, Oliveria decumbens extracts showed a synergistic effect in combination with doxycycline and tetracycline. In general, the similar values of MIC and MBC for Oliveria decumbens suggest that these extracts could act as bactericidal agents against Br. melitensis. In addition to Oliveria decumbens, Crocus sativus and Salvia sclarea also had good anti-brucella activity and these should be considered for further study. PMID:20593515

  7. Ethnopharmacological survey of medicinal plants practiced by traditional healers and herbalists for treatment of some urological diseases in the West Bank/Palestine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaradat, Nidal Amin; Zaid, Abdel Naser; Al-Ramahi, Rowa; Alqub, Malik A; Hussein, Fatima; Hamdan, Zakaria; Mustafa, Mahmoud; Qneibi, Mohammad; Ali, Iyad

    2017-05-08

    Throughout history, every civilization in the world used plants or their derivatives for treatment or prevention of diseases. In Palestine as in many other countries, herbal medicines are broadly used in the treatment of wide range of diseases including urological diseases. The main objective of this research is to study the use of herbal remedies by herbalists and traditional healers for treatment of various urological diseases in the West Bank regions of Palestine and to assess their efficacy and safety through the literature review of the most cited plants. The study included a survey part, plant identification and a review study. The first part was a cross-sectional descriptive study. Face to face questionnaires were distributed to 150 traditional healers and herbalist in all regions of the West Bank of Palestine. The literature review part was to assess the most cited plants for their efficacy and toxicity. One hundred forty four herbalists and traditional healers accepted to participate in this study which was conducted between March and April, 2016. The results showed that 57 plant species belonging to 30 families were used by herbalists and traditional healers for treatment of various urinary tract diseases in Palestine. Of these, Apiaceae family was the most prevalent. Paronychia argentea, Plantago ovata, Punica granatum, Taraxacum syriacum, Morus alba and Foeniculum vulgare were the most commonly used plant species in the treatment of kidney stones, while Capsella bursa-pastoris, Ammi visnaga and Ammi majus were the most recommended species for treatment of urinary tract infections and Portulaca oleracea used for renal failure. In addition Curcuma longa and Crocus sativus were used for enuresis while Juglans regia, Quercus infectoria, Sambucus ebulus and Zea mays were used for treatment symptoms of benign prostate hyperplasia. Fruits were the most common parts used, and a decoction was the most commonly used method of preparation. Through literature

  8. Oxidative stress induced by palytoxin in human keratinocytes is mediated by a H+-dependent mitochondrial pathway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pelin, Marco; Ponti, Cristina; Sosa, Silvio; Gibellini, Davide; Florio, Chiara; Tubaro, Aurelia

    2013-01-01

    In the last decades, massive blooms of palytoxin (PLTX)-producing Ostreopsis cf. ovata have been observed along Mediterranean coasts, usually associated to human respiratory and cutaneous problems. At the molecular level, PLTX induces a massive intracellular Na + influx due to the transformation of Na + /K + ATPase in a cationic channel. Recently, we have demonstrated that Na + overload is the crucial step in mediating overproduction of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and cell death in human HaCaT keratinocytes, tentatively explaining PLTX-induced skin irritant effects. In the present study the molecular mechanisms of ROS production induced by PLTX-mediated Na + intracellular overload have been investigated. In HaCaT cells, PLTX exposure caused accumulation of superoxide anion, but not of nitric oxide or peroxynitrite/hydroxyl radicals. Even if RT-PCR and western blot analysis revealed an early NOX-2 and iNOS gene and protein over-expressions, their active involvement seemed to be only partial since selective inhibitors did not completely reduce O 2 − production. A significant role of other enzymes (COX-1, COX-2, XO) was not evidenced. Nigericin, that counteracts Na + -mediated H + -imbalance, dissipating ΔpH across mitochondrial inner membrane, and the uncouplers DNP significantly reduced O 2 − production. These inhibitions were synergistic when co-exposed with complex-I inhibitor rotenone. These results suggest a novel mechanism of O 2 − production induced by PLTX-mediated ionic imbalance. Indeed, the H + intracellular overload that follows PLTX-induced intracellular Na + accumulation, could enhance ΔpH across mitochondrial inner membrane, that seems to be the driving force for O 2 − production by reversing mitochondrial electron transport. Highlights: ► PLTX induces superoxide (O 2 − ) production by reversing mitochondrial transport chain. ► The mechanism of O 2 − production is dependent on PLTX-induced ionic imbalance. ► The results led to the

  9. An Overview of Herbal Products and Secondary Metabolites Used for Management of Type Two Diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ajda Ota

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Diabetes mellitus is a common effect of uncontrolled high blood sugar and it is associated with long-term damage, dysfunction, and failure of various organs. In the adult population, the global prevalence of diabetes has nearly doubled since 1980. Without effective prevention and management programs, the continuing significant rise in diabetes will have grave consequences on the health and lifespan of the world population, and also on the world economy. Supplements can be used to correct nutritional deficiencies or to maintain an adequate intake of certain nutrients. These are often used as treatments for diabetes, sometimes because they have lower costs, or are more accessible or “natural” compared to prescribed medications. Several vitamins, minerals, botanicals, and secondary metabolites have been reported to elicit beneficial effects in hypoglycemic actions in vivo and in vitro; however, the data remain conflicting. Many pharmaceuticals commonly used today are structurally derived from natural compounds from traditional medicinal plants. Botanicals that are most frequently used to help manage blood glucose include: bitter melon (Momordica charantia, fenugreek (Trigonella foenum graecum, gurmar (Gymnema sylvestre, ivy gourd (Coccinia indica, nopal (Opuntia spp., ginseng, Russian tarragon (Artemisia dracunculus, cinnamon (Cinnamomum cassia, psyllium (Plantago ovata, and garlic (Allium sativum. In majority of the herbal products and secondary metabolites used in treating diabetes, the mechanisms of action involve regulation of insulin signaling pathways, translocation of GLUT-4 receptor and/or activation the PPARγ. Several flavonoids inhibit glucose absorption by inhibiting intestinal α-amylase and α-glucosidase. In-depth studies to validate the efficacies and safeties of extracts of these traditional medicinal plants are needed, and large, well designed, clinical studies need to be carried out before the use of such preparations can be

  10. SNP Discovery for mapping alien introgressions in wheat

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Monitoring alien introgressions in crop plants is difficult due to the lack of genetic and molecular mapping information on the wild crop relatives. The tertiary gene pool of wheat is a very important source of genetic variability for wheat improvement against biotic and abiotic stresses. By exploring the 5Mg short arm (5MgS) of Aegilops geniculata, we can apply chromosome genomics for the discovery of SNP markers and their use for monitoring alien introgressions in wheat (Triticum aestivum L). Results The short arm of chromosome 5Mg of Ae. geniculata Roth (syn. Ae. ovata L.; 2n = 4x = 28, UgUgMgMg) was flow-sorted from a wheat line in which it is maintained as a telocentric chromosome. DNA of the sorted arm was amplified and sequenced using an Illumina Hiseq 2000 with ~45x coverage. The sequence data was used for SNP discovery against wheat homoeologous group-5 assemblies. A total of 2,178 unique, 5MgS-specific SNPs were discovered. Randomly selected samples of 59 5MgS-specific SNPs were tested (44 by KASPar assay and 15 by Sanger sequencing) and 84% were validated. Of the selected SNPs, 97% mapped to a chromosome 5Mg addition to wheat (the source of t5MgS), and 94% to 5Mg introgressed from a different accession of Ae. geniculata substituting for chromosome 5D of wheat. The validated SNPs also identified chromosome segments of 5MgS origin in a set of T5D-5Mg translocation lines; eight SNPs (25%) mapped to TA5601 [T5DL · 5DS-5MgS(0.75)] and three (8%) to TA5602 [T5DL · 5DS-5MgS (0.95)]. SNPs (gsnp_5ms83 and gsnp_5ms94), tagging chromosome T5DL · 5DS-5MgS(0.95) with the smallest introgression carrying resistance to leaf rust (Lr57) and stripe rust (Yr40), were validated in two released germplasm lines with Lr57 and Yr40 genes. Conclusion This approach should be widely applicable for the identification of species/genome-specific SNPs. The development of a large number of SNP markers will facilitate the precise introgression and

  11. Biodiversity census of Lake St Lucia, iSimangaliso Wetland Park (South Africa: Gastropod molluscs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renzo Perissinotto

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The recent dry phase experienced by the St Lucia estuarine system has led to unprecedented desiccation and hypersaline conditions through most of its surface area. This has changed only recently, at the end of 2011, with the onset of a new wet phase that has already caused a major shift to oligo- and mesohaline conditions. The estuary mouth, however, remains closed to the ocean, making the weak connection recently established between the St Lucia and the Mfolozi estuaries the only conveyance for marine recruitment. As a result, only 10 indigenous and two alien aquatic gastropod species are currently found living in the St Lucia estuarine lake. This is out of a total of 37 species recorded within the system since the earliest survey undertaken in 1924, half of which have not been reported in the literature before. The tick shell, Nassarius kraussianus, which was consistently found in large abundance prior to the recent dry phase, appears to have temporarily disappeared from the system, probably as a result of the extinction of Zostera marine grasses inside the lake. Population explosions of the bubble shell Haminoea natalensis, with its distinct egg masses, were recorded seasonally until 2009, but the species has subsequently not been observed again. A molecular DNA analysis of the various populations previously reported as belonging to the same assimineid species, variably referred to as Assiminea capensis, A. ovata, or A. bifasciata, has revealed that the St Lucia assemblage actually comprises two very distinct taxa, A. cf. capensis and a species provisionally referred to here as “A.” aff. capensis or simply Assimineidae sp. In the mangroves, the climbing whelk Cerithidea decollata is still found in numbers, while ellobiids such as Cassidula labrella, Melampus semiaratus and M. parvulus are present in low abundances and all previously recorded littorinids have disappeared. A number of alien freshwater species have colonized areas of the

  12. Biodiversity census of Lake St Lucia, iSimangaliso Wetland Park (South Africa): Gastropod molluscs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perissinotto, Renzo; Miranda, Nelson A F; Raw, Jacqueline L; Peer, Nasreen

    2014-01-01

    The recent dry phase experienced by the St Lucia estuarine system has led to unprecedented desiccation and hypersaline conditions through most of its surface area. This has changed only recently, at the end of 2011, with the onset of a new wet phase that has already caused a major shift to oligo- and mesohaline conditions. The estuary mouth, however, remains closed to the ocean, making the weak connection recently established between the St Lucia and the Mfolozi estuaries the only conveyance for marine recruitment. As a result, only 10 indigenous and two alien aquatic gastropod species are currently found living in the St Lucia estuarine lake. This is out of a total of 37 species recorded within the system since the earliest survey undertaken in 1924, half of which have not been reported in the literature before. The tick shell, Nassarius kraussianus, which was consistently found in large abundance prior to the recent dry phase, appears to have temporarily disappeared from the system, probably as a result of the extinction of Zostera marine grasses inside the lake. Population explosions of the bubble shell Haminoea natalensis, with its distinct egg masses, were recorded seasonally until 2009, but the species has subsequently not been observed again. A molecular DNA analysis of the various populations previously reported as belonging to the same assimineid species, variably referred to as Assiminea capensis, A. ovata, or A. bifasciata, has revealed that the St Lucia assemblage actually comprises two very distinct taxa, A. cf. capensis and a species provisionally referred to here as "A." aff. capensis or simply Assimineidae sp. In the mangroves, the climbing whelk Cerithidea decollata is still found in numbers, while ellobiids such as Cassidula labrella, Melampus semiaratus and M. parvulus are present in low abundances and all previously recorded littorinids have disappeared. A number of alien freshwater species have colonized areas of the system that have remained

  13. A remarkable new family of Jurassic insects (Neuroptera with primitive wing venation and its phylogenetic position in Neuropterida.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiang Yang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Lacewings (insect order Neuroptera, known in the fossil record since the Early Permian, were most diverse in the Mesozoic. A dramatic variety of forms ranged in that time from large butterfly-like Kalligrammatidae to minute two-winged Dipteromantispidae. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We describe the intriguing new neuropteran family Parakseneuridae fam. nov. with three new genera and 15 new species from the Middle Jurassic of Daohugou (Inner Mongolia, China and the Early/Middle Jurassic of Sai-Sagul (Kyrgyzstan: Parakseneura undula gen. et sp. nov., P. albomacula gen. et sp. nov., P. curvivenis gen. et sp. nov., P. nigromacula gen. et sp. nov., P. nigrolinea gen. et sp. nov., P. albadelta gen. et sp. nov., P. cavomaculata gen. et sp. nov., P. inflata gen. et sp. nov., P. metallica gen. et sp. nov., P. emarginata gen. et sp. nov., P. directa gen. et sp. nov., Pseudorapisma jurassicum gen. et sp. nov., P. angustipenne gen. et sp. nov., P. maculatum gen. et sp. nov. (Daohugou; Shuraboneura ovata gen. et sp. nov. (Sai-Sagul. The family comprises large neuropterans with most primitive wing venation in the order indicated by the presence of ScA and AA1+2, and the dichotomous branching of MP, CuA, CuP, AA3+4, AP1+2. The phylogenetic position of Parakseneuridae was investigated using a phylogenetic analysis of morphological scoring for 33 families of extinct and extant Neuropterida combined with DNA sequence data for representatives of all extant families. Parakseneuridae were recovered in a clade with Osmylopsychopidae, Prohemerobiidae, and Ithonidae. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The presence of the presumed AA1+2 in wings of Parakseneuridae is a unique plesiomorphic condition hitherto unknown in Neuropterida, the clade comprising Neuroptera, Megaloptera, Raphidioptera. The relative uncertainty of phylogenetic position of Parakseneuridae and the majority of other families of Neuroptera reflects deficient paleontological data, especially from critical

  14. Natural occurring radionuclide 210Po in the components of the Black Sea ecosystem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lazorenko, G. G.; Polikarpov, G. G.

    2006-01-01

    The interest to study of the behavior of naturally occurring radionuclide 2 10Po in marine ecosystem was caused by its main contribution to the doses of irradiation to hydrobionts. This work presents own data of 2 10Po concentrations determined in water, bottom sediments and hydrobionts of the Black Sea in 1998-2004. 2 10Po concentrations in water varied from 0.58 to 1.02 Bqxm - 3. Their range in bottom sediments from shelf zone and open part of the Black Sea was 11.5-496.5 Bqxkg - 1 dry weight with maximum in the North-West region. The range of 2 10Po concentrations in bottom sediments from the Eastern part of the Black Sea was 4.5-220 Bqxkg-1 dry weight. Concentration factors (CF) of 2 10Po in bottom sediments reached 10 4 -10 5 . 2 10Po concentrations in the Black Sea hydrobionts are reported and compared with published data in the same taxa. The range of 2 10Po concentrations in the Black Sea mesozooplankton was 1.7-3.5 Bqxkg - 1 wet weight. It was 1.9-2.9 Bqxkg - 1 wet weight in the representative species of macro plankton community, namely the ctenophore Beroe ovata. 2 10Po concentrations in the Black Sea fishes depend on their belonging to different ecological groups and decrease from pelagic species to demersal and bottom ones. 2 10Po concentrations in the Black Sea mollusks excluding small species Nana nerithea were on the highest levels determined in hydrobionts inhabiting in this region. Concentration factors of this radionuclide, estimated on a wet weight basis, reached values of 1.5x10 3 for macrophytes, 4x10 3 for total zooplankton, 10 3 -10 4 for the entire fishes, depending on their ecological groups affiliation and (3.0-6.7) x10 4 for mollusks. So, the ability of the Black Sea hydrobionts to accumulate natural radionuclide 2 10Po is comparable with that of similar species from others marine and oceanic areas

  15. SNP Discovery for mapping alien introgressions in wheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiwari, Vijay K; Wang, Shichen; Sehgal, Sunish; Vrána, Jan; Friebe, Bernd; Kubaláková, Marie; Chhuneja, Praveen; Doležel, Jaroslav; Akhunov, Eduard; Kalia, Bhanu; Sabir, Jamal; Gill, Bikram S

    2014-04-10

    Monitoring alien introgressions in crop plants is difficult due to the lack of genetic and molecular mapping information on the wild crop relatives. The tertiary gene pool of wheat is a very important source of genetic variability for wheat improvement against biotic and abiotic stresses. By exploring the 5Mg short arm (5MgS) of Aegilops geniculata, we can apply chromosome genomics for the discovery of SNP markers and their use for monitoring alien introgressions in wheat (Triticum aestivum L). The short arm of chromosome 5Mg of Ae. geniculata Roth (syn. Ae. ovata L.; 2n = 4x = 28, UgUgMgMg) was flow-sorted from a wheat line in which it is maintained as a telocentric chromosome. DNA of the sorted arm was amplified and sequenced using an Illumina Hiseq 2000 with ~45x coverage. The sequence data was used for SNP discovery against wheat homoeologous group-5 assemblies. A total of 2,178 unique, 5MgS-specific SNPs were discovered. Randomly selected samples of 59 5MgS-specific SNPs were tested (44 by KASPar assay and 15 by Sanger sequencing) and 84% were validated. Of the selected SNPs, 97% mapped to a chromosome 5Mg addition to wheat (the source of t5MgS), and 94% to 5Mg introgressed from a different accession of Ae. geniculata substituting for chromosome 5D of wheat. The validated SNPs also identified chromosome segments of 5MgS origin in a set of T5D-5Mg translocation lines; eight SNPs (25%) mapped to TA5601 [T5DL · 5DS-5MgS(0.75)] and three (8%) to TA5602 [T5DL · 5DS-5MgS (0.95)]. SNPs (gsnp_5ms83 and gsnp_5ms94), tagging chromosome T5DL · 5DS-5MgS(0.95) with the smallest introgression carrying resistance to leaf rust (Lr57) and stripe rust (Yr40), were validated in two released germplasm lines with Lr57 and Yr40 genes. This approach should be widely applicable for the identification of species/genome-specific SNPs. The development of a large number of SNP markers will facilitate the precise introgression and monitoring of alien segments in crop

  16. Oxidative stress induced by palytoxin in human keratinocytes is mediated by a H{sup +}-dependent mitochondrial pathway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pelin, Marco, E-mail: marco.pelin@phd.units.it [Department of Life Science, University of Trieste, Via L. Giorgieri 7/9, 34127 Trieste (Italy); Ponti, Cristina, E-mail: cponti@units.it [Department of Life Science, University of Trieste, Via L. Giorgieri 7/9, 34127 Trieste (Italy); Sosa, Silvio, E-mail: silvio.sosa@econ.units.it [Department of Life Science, University of Trieste, Via L. Giorgieri 7/9, 34127 Trieste (Italy); Gibellini, Davide, E-mail: davide.gibellini@unibo.it [Department of Haematology and Oncological Sciences, University of Bologna, Via Massarenti 9, 40138 Bologna (Italy); Florio, Chiara, E-mail: florioc@units.it [Department of Life Science, University of Trieste, Via L. Giorgieri 7/9, 34127 Trieste (Italy); Tubaro, Aurelia, E-mail: tubaro@units.it [Department of Life Science, University of Trieste, Via L. Giorgieri 7/9, 34127 Trieste (Italy)

    2013-01-01

    In the last decades, massive blooms of palytoxin (PLTX)-producing Ostreopsis cf. ovata have been observed along Mediterranean coasts, usually associated to human respiratory and cutaneous problems. At the molecular level, PLTX induces a massive intracellular Na{sup +} influx due to the transformation of Na{sup +}/K{sup +} ATPase in a cationic channel. Recently, we have demonstrated that Na{sup +} overload is the crucial step in mediating overproduction of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and cell death in human HaCaT keratinocytes, tentatively explaining PLTX-induced skin irritant effects. In the present study the molecular mechanisms of ROS production induced by PLTX-mediated Na{sup +} intracellular overload have been investigated. In HaCaT cells, PLTX exposure caused accumulation of superoxide anion, but not of nitric oxide or peroxynitrite/hydroxyl radicals. Even if RT-PCR and western blot analysis revealed an early NOX-2 and iNOS gene and protein over-expressions, their active involvement seemed to be only partial since selective inhibitors did not completely reduce O{sub 2}{sup −} production. A significant role of other enzymes (COX-1, COX-2, XO) was not evidenced. Nigericin, that counteracts Na{sup +}-mediated H{sup +}-imbalance, dissipating ΔpH across mitochondrial inner membrane, and the uncouplers DNP significantly reduced O{sub 2}{sup −} production. These inhibitions were synergistic when co-exposed with complex-I inhibitor rotenone. These results suggest a novel mechanism of O{sub 2}{sup −} production induced by PLTX-mediated ionic imbalance. Indeed, the H{sup +} intracellular overload that follows PLTX-induced intracellular Na{sup +} accumulation, could enhance ΔpH across mitochondrial inner membrane, that seems to be the driving force for O{sub 2}{sup −} production by reversing mitochondrial electron transport. Highlights: ► PLTX induces superoxide (O{sub 2}{sup −}) production by reversing mitochondrial transport chain. ► The mechanism of

  17. Hydrology, vegetation, and soils of four north Florida River flood plains with an evaluation of state and federal wetland determinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Light, H.M.; Darst, M.R.; MacLaughlin, M.T.; Sprecher, S.W.

    1993-01-01

    available. In this study, plots were located near long-term gaging stations, thus wetland determinations based on plant and soil characteristics could be evaluated at sites where long-term hydrologic conditions were known. Inconsistencies among hydrology, vegetation, and soil determinations were greatest on levee communities of the Ochlockonee and Aucilla River flood plains. Duration of average annual longest flood was almost 2 weeks for both plots. The wetland species list currently used (1991) by the State lacks many ground-cover species common to forested flood plains of north Florida rivers. There were 102 ground-cover species considered upland plants by the State that were present on the nine annually flooded plots of this study. Among them were 34 species that grew in areas continuously flooded for an average of 5 weeks or more each year. Common flood-plain species considered upland plants by the State were: Hypoxis leptocarpa (yellow star-grass), and two woody vines, Brunnichia ovata (ladies' eardrops) and Campsis radicans (trumpet-creeper), which were common in areas flooded continuously for 6 to 9 weeks a year; Sebastiania fruticosa (Sebastian-bush), Chasmanthium laxum (spikegrass), and Panicum dichotomum (panic grass), which typically grew in areas flooded an average of 2 to 3 weeks or more per year; Vitis rotundifolia (muscadine) and Toxicodendron radicans (poison-ivy), usually occurring in areas flooded an average of 1 to 2 weeks a year; and Quercus virginiana (live oak) present most often in areas flooded approximately 1 week a year. Federal wetland regulations (1989) limited wetland jurisdiction to only those areas that are inundated or saturated during the growing season. However, year-round hydrologic records were chosen in this report to describe the influence of hydrology on vegetation, because saturation, inundation, or flowing water can have a variety of both beneficial and adverse effects on flood-plain vegetation at any time of the

  18. Gastropoda-Bivalvia Fauna And Neogene-Quaternary Stratigraphy of the Southwest of Dardanelles (Çanakkale-NWAnatolia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapan, Sevinç; Kabasakal, Sinem

    2016-04-01

    Brusina, Pisidium amnicum (Müller), species have been determined from the mudstone, claystone, carbonated sandstone lithologies. These fauna are characteristic for the Dasic basin in Late Pliocene (Romanian). Also, Avimactra karabugasica (Andrussow), Avimactra ososkovi (Andrussow), Avimactra subcaspia (Andrussow), Avimactra venjukovi (Andrussow). Dreissena (Dreissena) polymorpha (Pallas), Dreissena rostriformis Deshayes species have been determined from the upper level of the section composed of carbonated sandstone lithology. These fauna are characteristic for the Caspic basin in the Late Pliocene (Aktschaglian). In the Treenean and Monastrian times, the marine fauna (Gibbula (Adriaria) albida (Gmelin), Gibbula (Tunulus) umblicaris (Linneaus), Hydrobia (Hydrobia) acuta (Draparnaud), Alvania (Alvania) reticulata (Montagu), Turritella (Turritella) tricarinata (Brocchi), Pirenella conica (Blainville), Bittium (Bittium) reticulatum (Da Costa), Thericium (Thericium) vulgatum (Brugiere), Radix (Radix) peregra (Müller) are belonging to the Gastropoda and Mytilaster lineatus (Gmelin in Linneaus), Ostrea edulis Linneaus, Ostrea lamellosa Linneaus, Paphia (Polititapes) senescens (Coc.), Timoclea ovata (Pennant), Corbula (Varicorbula) gibba (Olivi)) have been observed. In the Pontian, the Basin has been low salinity and semi-marine conditions. In the Lower Romanian, the Basin was developed as brackish water character feeding by fresh water. Late Lower Romanian=Lower Kujalnikien, Basin was became more brackish character by increasing salinity. During the Upper Kujalnikien=Upper Romanian, feeding by freshwater was increased. The youngest sequence of the basin is Treenean-Monastrian terraces sedimented by increasing sea level. These marine fauna indicate that there was a connection between Black Sea and Mediterranean in that time. Key words: Neogene, Gastropoda-Bivalvia, Romanian, Dasic, Caspic.

  19. Effects of Vermi-compost Fertilizer Application and Foliar Spraying on Yield and Yield Component of Isabgol (Plantago ovate L. Medicinal Plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asghar Rahimi

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Vermi-compost is the ability of some species of earthworms to consume and break down a wide range of organic residues such as sewage sludge, animal wastes, crop residues and industrial refuse. Vermi-composts are usually more stable than their parent materials with increased availability of nutrients and improved physicochemical and microbiological properties. Aerial compost tea contains high populations of live microorganism consisting of rhizobactria, trichoderma and pseudomonas species which increase the growth and yield of the plant. Acid humic is the main humic substance and the important ingredient of soil organic matter (humus which causes increase of yield and quality of crop. The aim of this research is evaluating the effect of vermi-compost and foliar application of compost tea and acid humic on yield, yield component and mucilage content of isabgol. Vermiwash as the extract of vermi-compost is liquid organic fertilizer obtained from unit of vermiculture and vermi-compost as drainage. It is used as a foliar spraying on the leaf. Vermiwash stimulate and increase the yield of crop products and foliar application of vermiwash can be caused of plant resistance to different factors and can prevent leaf necrosis. Material and Methods In order to study the effect of vermi-compost and foliar application of tea compost and acid humic on growth indices of isabgol (Plantago ovata, an experiment was conducted as a factorial based on complete randomized design with three replications in agricultural research farm at Vali-e-Asr University of Rafsanjan. Treatments were included application of vermi-compost (0 (control, 4, 8, 12 and 16 t.ha-1 and 3 levels of foliar application (distilled water as control, acid humic and compost tea. Samples for evaluating of yield, yield components and mucilage content were taken from 1 m2 area of each treatment. Tea compost solution prepared using mix of vermi-compost, acid humic, yeast and alga extract

  20. Estudo da regeneração natural de espécies arbóreas em fragmento de Floresta Ombrófila Densa, Mata das Galinhas, no município de Catende, zona da mata sul de Pernambuco.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wegliane Campelo da Silva

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available O estudo foi desenvolvido no fragmento denominado Mata das Galinhas, situado no município de Catende - PE, na mesorregião da mata pernambucana, mais precisamente na microrregião da mata úmida, a 142 Km da capital, nas coordenadas 8º69'06"S e 35º69'08" W, com altitude média de 199m. O relevo varia, predominantemente, de ondulado a forte ondulado. Os solos predominantes são classificados como latossolo vermelho distrófico e nitossolo vermelho associado ao latossolo. A vegetação é de Floresta Ombrófila Densa. Neste estudo, objetivou-se avaliar a regeneração natural de espécies arbóreas no fragmento florestal e verificar a diversidade e a estrutura das espécies no mesmo. Para a estimativa da regeneração natural das espécies arbóreas, foram locadas, de forma sistemática, 16 subparcelas de 25 m² (5 x 5 m, no centro de 16 unidades amostrais permanentes de 250 m2 (10,0 x 25,0 m, para o estudo da fitossociologia da comunidade arbórea adulta, com um distanciamento de 50 m entre si. O nível de inclusão foi de CAP < 15 cm, e a medição de altura (h foi dividida em classes, em que a classe 1 contemplou indivíduos com 1,0 < h < 2,0 m, a classe 2 com indivíduos 2,0 < h < 3,0 m e a classe, 3 indivíduos com h > 3,0 m. Foram realizados os cálculos da suficiência amostral e da diversidade. No fragmento, foram amostrados 194 indivíduos, pertencentes a 31 famílias botânicas e a 60 espécies arbóreas. Destas, 42 foram identificadas em nível de espécie; 4,em nível de gênero; 2, em nível de família; e 2, indeterminadas. As dez espécies com maiores valores para regeneração natural Total da População Amostrada (RNT representaram 53,78%, estando assim distribuídas: Brosimum discolor Schott (9,98%, Protium heptaphyllum (Aubl. Marchand (9,19%, Eschweilera ovata (Cambess. Miers (8,01%, Thyrsodium spruceanum Benth. (7,0%, Dialium guianense (Aubl. Sandwith (5,44%, Erythroxylum squamatum Sw. (3,32%, Cupania revoluta Rolfe (3