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Sample records for taiwanese school-aged children

  1. Filicide-suicide ideation among Taiwanese parents with school-aged children: prevalence and associated factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Hsi-Sheng; Chen, Ji-Kang

    2014-03-01

    This study explored the prevalence of filicide-suicide ideation among Taiwanese parents with school-aged children. Multiple risk factors associated with filicide-suicide ideation were assessed, and the potential effect of traditional family values was evaluated. A random sample of 1,564 parents was recruited from 21 elementary schools in a rural area of Taiwan. Potential risk factors, including demographics, family finance, psychological maladjustment, family interaction, and cultural beliefs, were further examined using a hierarchical logistic regression. Overall, 14.6% of the respondents reported having filicide-suicide ideation during the past year. The hierarchical logistic regression analysis showed that demographic factors including age, gender, and ethnicity had no significant effect. Family finances, depression, and conflict with the respondent's spouse were positively associated with filicide-suicide ideation. Finally, the parents' beliefs in traditional family values had a positive effect on filicide-suicide ideation. In other words, filicide-suicide thoughts were more common among those who upheld a strong parental responsibility for care giving and family solidarity. This study revealed a substantial prevalence of filicide-suicide ideation among local parents and identified a number of risk factors associated with those thoughts, namely family financial status, parental depression, and conflict with one's spouse. More importantly, the results highlighted the effect of traditional family values in the process. The potential intention of filicide-suicide as mercy killing and its cultural relevance were discussed. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Risk factors for childhood obesity in elementary school-age Taiwanese children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jyu-Lin; Kennedy, Christine; Yeh, Chao-Hsing; Kools, Susan

    2005-01-01

    A cross-sectional study design was used to examine factors that contribute to high relative weight in children in Taiwan. A total sample of 331 Chinese children (ages 7 and 8) and their parents participated in the study. Parents completed questionnaires regarding demographic information, family functioning, parenting styles, physical activity, and dietary intake. Children completed physical fitness tests and questionnaires regarding physical activity, dietary intake, coping strategies, and self-esteem. The weight-for-length index was used to measure children's relative weight. The findings revealed that four variables contributed to higher weight-for-length index in boys compared with girls and explained 37.7% of the variance: high maternal body mass index, poor aerobic capacity, healthy family role functioning, and poor family affective responsiveness. Two variables were found to contribute to higher weight-for-length index in girls and explained 12.8% of the variance: high household income and high maternal body mass index. Taken together, the results indicate the importance of assessment of children's weight status, maternal weight status, and family functioning as part of routine child health care and the need for developmentally appropriate and gender-specific approaches to prevent childhood obesity.

  3. Influence of internet addiction on executive function and learning attention in Taiwanese school-aged children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, Shu-Yu; Chen, Yu-Ting; Chang, Yu-Kai; Lee, Pi-Hsia; Liu, Mei-Ju; Chen, Su-Ru

    2018-01-31

    This study aims to evaluate the executive function and learning attention in children with internet addiction (IA). Children aged 10-12 were screened by Chinese Internet Addiction Scale to compose the IA group and internet nonaddiction group. Their executive functions were evaluated by Stroop color and word test, Wisconsin card sorting test, and Wechsler digit span test. Learning attention was evaluated by Chinese concentration questionnaire. Executive function and learning attention were lower in the IA group than in the internet nonaddiction group. Executive function and learning attention are compromised by IA in children. Early interventions into the IA should be planned to maintain the normal development of executive function and learning attention in childhood. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. School-age children development

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002017.htm School-age children development To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. School-age child development describes the expected physical, emotional, ...

  5. Dust levels of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and polybrominated dibenzo-p-dioxins/furans (PBDD/Fs) in the Taiwanese elementary school classrooms: Assessment of the risk to school-age children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gou, Yan-You; Que, Danielle E; Chuang, Chun-Yu; Chao, How-Ran; Shy, Cherng-Gueih; Hsu, Yi-Chyun; Lin, Chun-Wen; Chuang, Kuo Pin; Tsai, Chih-Chung; Tayo, Lemmuel L

    2016-12-01

    Elementary school classroom dust is an important source of exposure to polybrominated dibenzo-p-dioxins/furans and diphenyl ethers (PBDD/DF/DEs) for school-age children. Our goal is thus to investigate concentrations of PBDD/DF/DEs in elementary school classroom dust to further assess the impact on school-age children via ingestion. The dust from classrooms, including both normal (NR) and computer classrooms (CR), was collected from six urban and four rural schools. Fourteen PBDEs and twelve PBDD/Fs were measured using high-resolution gas-chromatography/high-resolution mass-spectrometry. The mean levels of Σ 14 PBDEs in NR and CR dust from the urban classrooms were 370 and 2510ng/g and those whose dust from the rural classrooms were 464 and 1780ng/g. The means of ΣPBDD/Fs were 0.0401ng-WHO 2005 -TEQ/g (concentration: 4.72ng/g) in urban NR dust, 0.0636ng-WHO 2005 -TEQ/g (7.51ng/g) in urban CR dust, 0.0281ng-WHO 2005 TEQ/g (3.60ng/g) in rural NR dust, and 0.0474ng-WHO 2005 TEQ/g (6.28ng/g) in rural CR dust. The PBDEs pattern in NR dust was quite different from that in CR dust, but the PBDD/Fs patterns in NR and CR dust were similar. A linearly significant correlation coefficient (n=20, r=0.862, pschool classrooms. This study assessed the risks (daily intake and cancer and non-cancer risks) of PBDEs and PBDD/Fs for the children from the classroom dust, and the calculated risk values did not exceed the related thresholds. With regard to the exposure scenarios for school-age children in an indoor environment, the results suggest that they might ingest more dust PBDD/DF/DEs in their homes than in the schools. In conclusion, the exposure of Taiwanese elementary school children to PBDD/DF/DEs via indoor dust was with a safe range based on our findings. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Parenting School-Age Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... life. For some children, however, school may cause frustration and stress. Learning disabilities can interfere with the ... money. It may also require parental patience and tolerance as children experiment with different programs before finding ...

  7. Families with School-Age Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, Kathleen; Schneider, Barbara; Butler, Donnell

    2011-01-01

    Most working parents face a common dilemma--how to care for their children when they are not in school but the parents are at work. In this article Kathleen Christensen, Barbara Schneider, and Donnell Butler describe the predictable and unpredictable scheduling demands school-age children place on working couples and single working parents. The…

  8. Supporting Children's Transition to School Age Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dockett, Sue; Perry, Bob

    2016-01-01

    While a great deal of research has focused on children's experiences as they start school, less attention has been directed to their experiences--and those of their families and educators--as they start school age care. This paper draws from a recent research project investigating practices that promote positive transitions to school and school…

  9. HOARSENESS AMONG SCHOOL-AGE CHILDREN

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    Robert Šifrer

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available Background. The prevalence of dysphonia in schoolchildren has been reported to be from 7.1% to 23.3% and in adolescents from 0 to 80%. In Slovenia, the study on prevalence of dysphonia in schoolchildren has not been performed yet.Methods. The voice samples of 100 4th-graders and 102 8thgraders of elementary school were recorded. A lay judge and a professional assessed independently degree of hoarseness in the voice samples. One to three months after the recording, the dysphonic children were invited to an otorhinolaryngologic examination in order to find out the cause of dysphonia. All children and their parents answered the questionnaires on illnesses and vocal habits that might cause hoarseness. The prevalence of these unfavourable factors was compared between the group of children with long lasting hoarseness and the children without it.Results. At voice samples’ recording there were 34.2% dysphonic children. One to three months later, there were still 14.9% children with hoarse voice. The most frequent causes for acute dysphonia were acute respiratory infection and exacerbation of chronic laryngitis. The most frequent causes for persistent dysphonia were allergic catarrhal laryngitis, muscle tension dysphonia with or without vocal nodules and mutational voice disorder. The fast speaking rate appeared to be characteristic for children with long lasting dysphonia.Conclusions. Dysphonia in school-age children is the result of diseases of upper respiratory tract and/or functional voice disorders. Both causes of dysphonia could be successfully treated if they are detected early and the children are advised to see an otorhinolaryngologist. Adolescence is an ideal period for treatment of functional voice disorders. It is also the period when the children must decide for their future profession.

  10. Birth Order and Maladaptive Behavior in School-Aged Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carmichael, Karla D.

    Drawing on Alfred Adler's theories on the effect of birth order on maladaptive behavior in children, this study focused on the relationship between birth order and the referral to counseling of school-aged children with maladaptive disorder. School-aged children (N=217) with academic or behavioral problems, ages 5 to 18, were referred to the staff…

  11. Dietary Habits and Nutritional Status of Rural School Age Children ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Stunting was significantly (p<0.05) higher among 10-14year old children (56.1%) than 5-9 year olds (34.6%). Conclusion: There is urgent need for nutrition intervention targeted at rural school age children inEbonyi State. Keywords: School age children, dietary habits, hemoglobin levels, stunting, overweight, underweight, ...

  12. Urinary Schistosomiasis among school age children in some rural ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Urinary Schistosomiasis among school age children in some rural communities of Abia State, South Eastern Nigeria. ... Animal Research International ... The prevalence of urinary schistosomiasis in school age children in Azumini, a schistosomiasis endemic community in Ukwa East Local Government Area of Abia State ...

  13. Determinants Of Under Nutrition Among School Age Children In A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Malnutrition is a major public health concern affecting a significant number of school age children influencing their health, growth and development, and school academic performance. Objective: To establish the determinants of under nutrition among school age children between 6-12 years in a low-income ...

  14. Training optimization of swimming of school-age children

    OpenAIRE

    Hudcová, Stanislava

    2011-01-01

    Subject matter: Training optimization of swimming of school-age children Objectives: The main goal of this research work is to suggest a model of advanced swimming training lessons with school-age children. Swimming training is practised in deep swimming pool. Next goal is to create an inventory of games and game disciplines which are suitable for training in deep water. Through the analysis of specialized literature and realization of experimental education we will be able to formulate new p...

  15. TEACHING OF BACKSTROKE SWIMMING YOUNGER SCHOOL AGE CHILDREN

    OpenAIRE

    Vopálenská, Zuzana

    2011-01-01

    TEACHING OF BACKSTROKE SWIMMING YOUNGER SCHOOL AGE CHILDREN Objectives: The main objective of this thesis is to create a digital video recording of a contemporary teaching method of backstroke swimming technique with younger school age children. A group who are from 6 to 9 years old participate in the research work. Methods: In this thesis we have in the first and second phase focused on collection datas from the literature and its other processing into a methodical series of exercises. In th...

  16. intestinal helminthiasis among malnourished school age children

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Government Area to determine the prevalence rate of intestinal hjelminth infection among malnourished school children. Stool samples and finger prick blood .... in both male and female school children compared with a marked depreciation clue to the .... -rnalnutrition among India children. He submitted that control of such ...

  17. Functional outcome at school age of children born with gastroschisis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lap, Chiara C M M; Bolhuis, Sandra W; Van Braeckel, Koenraad J. A.; Reijneveld, Sijmen A.; Manten, Gwendolyn T. R.; Bos, Arend F.; Hulscher, Jan

    Objective: We aimed to determine motor, cognitive and behavioural outcomes of school aged children born with gastroschisis compared to matched controls. Study design: We compared outcomes of 16 children born with gastroschisis treated at the University Medical Center Groningen, the Netherlands,

  18. Sonographic biometry of spleen among school age children in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    EB

    among children population they studied. Thus the normal limits and percentile curves of the spleen among school age children were defined according to body weight in a Turkish population10. These differences with present study may be due to variations in race or different ethnic origins. There is no consensus on which.

  19. School-Age Children in CCDBG: 2012 Update

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, Hannah; Reeves, Rhiannon

    2014-01-01

    The Child Care and Development Block Grant (CCDBG) is the primary funding source for federal child care subsidies to low-income working families, as well as improving child care quality. CCDBG provides child care assistance to children from birth to age 13. This fact sheet highlights key information about school-age children and CCDBG. This…

  20. Head Injuries in School-Age Children Who Play Golf

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reuter-Rice, Karin; Krebs, Madelyn; Eads, Julia K.

    2016-01-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is the leading cause of death and disability in children. We conducted a prospective study, which examined injury characteristics and outcomes of school-age children of 5.0-15.0 years (N = 10) who were admitted to hospital for a TBI. This study evaluated the role of age, gender, the Glasgow Coma Scale, mechanisms and…

  1. Asymptomatic intestinal protozoa in school age children in Pategi ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Asymptomatic intestinal protozoa in school age children in Pategi, Pategi LGA of Kwara state, Nigeria. ... Results: One hundred and ninety seven (26.3%) of the samples were positive for intestinal protozoan parasite. The distribution of the parasites ... Key words: Asymptomatic, amoebiasis, giardiasis, rural area, children.

  2. Rational-Emotive Assessment of School-Aged Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiGiuseppe, Raymond

    1990-01-01

    Focuses on assessment of emotions and irrational beliefs in Rational-Emotive Therapy with school-aged children. Argues that, for children to understand and agree to process of disputing irrational beliefs, practitioner first assesses individual child's emotional vocabulary, his/her understanding of relationship between disturbed emotion and…

  3. Anti-typhoid agglutinins in School aged African children | Ibadin ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectives: To determine baseline antibody responses to H and O antigens of Salmonella typhi and Salmonella paratyphi (A, B and C) in school aged Nigerian children. Design: Cross-sectional study involving 175 children. Using both rapid slide and tube agglutination techniques in dilutions of sera (1:20 to 1:320), ...

  4. Antityphoid agglutinins in African School aged children with malaria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Patients and Methods: Agglutinins against H and O antigens of Salmonella typhi, Salmonella paratyphi A, B and C were determined using the Widal test in 189 school aged children(5-16 years) with malaria (males, 54.0%; females, 46.0%) and 175 apparently healthy children,(52.0% males, and 48.0%) of comparable age ...

  5. Accommodative Amplitude in School-Age Children

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    Ikaunieks Gatis

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available In children, intensive near-work affects the accommodation system of the eye. Younger children, due to anatomical parameters, read at smaller distance than older children and we can expect that the accommodation system of younger can be affected more than that of older children. We wanted to test this hypothesis. Some authors showed that the norms of amplitude of accommodation (AA developed by Hofstetter (1950 not always could be applied for children. We also wanted to verify these results. A total of 106 (age 7-15 children participated in the study. Distance visual acuity was measured for all children and only data of children with good visual acuity 1.0 or more (dec. units were analysed (73 children. Accommodative amplitude was measured before and after lessons using subjective push-up technique (with RAF Near Point Ruler. The results showed that the amplitude of accommodation reduced significantly (p < 0.05 during the day and decrease of AA was similar in different age groups (about ~0.70 D. Additional measurements are needed to verify that the observed changes in AA were associated with fatigue effect. The results showed lower accommodation values compared to average values calculated according to the Hofstetter equation (p < 0.05.

  6. VOCABULARY PROBLEMS OF THE LIGHTLY MENTALLY RETARDED SCHOOL AGED CHILDREN

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    Vesna KOSTIC

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available The main research objectives are the problems in the vocabulary of school aged, lightly mentally retarded children. Results of the research indicate which are the most important factors that have impact of the vocabulary and language competence of these persons. The research variables are: sex, IQ, chronological age and school age. Comics-like stories were used as an examination instrument in this research. Their interpretation is helpful in determining the vocabulary level of every single examine. At the end of the research some suggestions are presented, whose goal is to enrich children's vocabulary.

  7. Loneliness and subjective health complaints among school-aged children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyyra, Nelli; Välimaa, Raili; Tynjälä, Jorma

    2018-02-01

    The first aim of this study was to explore the prevalence of loneliness and subjective health complaints (SHCs) among school-aged children in Finland. The second aim was to analyse to what extent perceived loneliness explains any variance in SHCs among school-aged children. A representative sample of 5925 Finnish children and adolescents from grades 5 ( M age =11.8 years), 7 ( M age =13.8) and 9 ( M age =15.8) completed the Health Behaviour in School-aged Children (HBSC) survey. Descriptive statistics were used to examine the prevalence of health complaints and loneliness. Structural equation modelling was used to test how strongly loneliness was associated with SHCs. The prevalence of loneliness and SHCs was higher among girls and increased with age. Loneliness was a significant predictor of health complaints, especially of psychological symptoms among girls and among ninth grade students. The findings indicate that loneliness is a major risk to the health and well-being of school-aged children. The strong association between loneliness and SHCs highlights the importance of active preventive actions to reduce loneliness.

  8. PLAYING ORIGAMI ENHANCE THE CREATIVITY OF SCHOOL AGED CHILDREN

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    Yuni Sufyanti Arief

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Critical period for creativity development happened at school aged. Playing Origami is a stimulation that can be done to develop child’s creativity optimally. The aimed of this study was to analyze the effect of playing origami toward creativity development at school age in 4th grade elementary school Krian, Sidoarjo. Method: This study was used a pre experimental and purposive sampling design. The populations were children who age in the sixth until seventh age in 4th grade elementary school Krian, Sidoarjo. There were 41 respondents for this research who met the inclusion criteria. The independent variable was the playing origami while the dependent variable was creativity development of school age. Data were collected by using questionnaire and Figural Creativity test to know the creativity level before and after intervention, and then analyzed by using Wilcoxon Signed Rank Test with significance level of a£0.05. Result: The result showed that there was an effect of play origami toward the creativity development of school age with significant level (p=0.000. Discussion: It can be concluded that playing origami can develop the creativity of school aged children. Every child should be facilitated by provide a chance, supportt and activity that can improve their creativity development that can be useful for them and other people. Further study was recommended to analyze the effect of playing origami on decreasing stress hospitalization.

  9. Dynamics of Learning Motivation in Early School Age Children

    OpenAIRE

    Arkhireyeva T.V.

    2015-01-01

    The paper presents outcomes of a longitudinal study on learning motivation in children of early school age. The aim was to reveal the leading motives in first, second, third and fourth grades and to explore the dynamics of some learning motives in children over the whole period of elementary school. As it was found, the learning activity in the children was mostly motivated by social motives, among which the leading ones were the motives of selfdetermination and wellbeing. As for learning mot...

  10. School age prostitution: an issue for children's nurses?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, L

    1999-01-01

    Creating supportive environments for street working children requires children's nurses to be knowledgeable. Strengthening community action requires awareness of existing groups who currently work with child prostitutes. Nurses need to develop counselling skills to enable child prostitutes to make healthy choices. Building healthy public policies challenges nurses to mediate with politicians regarding policies which may adversely affect children. A health service, re-oriented to improve the care of school age prostitutes, necessitates collaboration with health, community and charity workers.

  11. epidemiology of streptococcus group a in school aged children in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hi-tech

    2004-06-01

    Jun 1, 2004 ... East African Medical Journal Vol. 81 No. 6 June 2004. EPIDEMIOLOGY OF STREPTOCOCCUS GROUP A IN SCHOOL AGED CHILDREN IN PEMBA. A. Braito, MD., I. Galgani, MD., The Clinic of Infectious Diseases, Department of Molecular Biology, University of Siena, Italy, M. R. Mohammed, MD.,.

  12. Nematode Parasitemia in School aged Children in Sapele, Delta ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Two hundred (200) faecal samples were collected from school aged children in four randomly selected primary schools in Sapele metropolis of Delta State, Nigeria, to determine gastrointestinal nematode parasitemia. The formal-ether concentration technique was used to analyse the specimens and data obtained revealed ...

  13. Executive Function in Very Preterm Children at Early School Age

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C.S.H. Aarnoudse-Moens (Cornelieke); D.P. Smidts (Diana); J. Oosterlaan (Jaap); H.J. Duivenvoorden (Hugo); N. Weisglas-Kuperus (Nynke)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractWe examined whether very preterm (≤30 weeks gestation) children at early school age have impairments in executive function (EF) independent of IQ and processing speed, and whether demographic and neonatal risk factors were associated with EF impairments. A consecutive sample of 50

  14. Self-Esteem of Taiwanese Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yi-Ju; Smith, Delores E.

    1997-01-01

    Assessed gender and age differences in self-esteem of Taiwanese children in grades four through six. Found that boys exceeded girls in confidence in physical abilities, but were less satisfied with their conduct; confidence in scholastic and athletic competence and global self-worth declined with age. Found that scholastic competence, physical…

  15. Salt intake and eating habits of school-aged children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohta, Yuko; Iwayama, Keiko; Suzuki, Hirotoshi; Sakata, Satoko; Hayashi, Shinichiro; Iwashima, Yoshio; Takata, Akira; Kawano, Yuhei

    2016-11-01

    Salt restriction is important for the prevention and treatment of hypertension; however, salt consumption is still high in Japan. Improvements in dietary habits, including salt reduction in childhood, may contribute to the prevention of hypertension. The aim of the present study was to investigate the salt intake of school-aged children and the relationship between their diet diary and actual salt intake. The subjects comprised 580 schoolchildren (471 elementary school pupils and 109 junior high school pupils) who wanted to evaluate their salt intake in Kuji, a northeast coastal area in Japan. We estimated salt intake using spot urine samples and a formula. Lifestyle was assessed using a questionnaire. We also evaluated the salt intake and the lifestyles of 440 parents. The estimated salt intakes of elementary school pupils, junior high school pupils and their parents were 7.1±1.5, 7.6±1.5 and 8.0±1.7 g per day, respectively. The proportion of lower-grade children who achieved the recommended salt intake was low. In the multivariate analysis, the estimated salt intake of school-aged children correlated with their age, estimated salt intake of their parents and the menu priorities of the household. The estimated salt intake of the parents was associated with female gender, obesity, age and the habitual consumption of bread and noodles. In conclusion, the estimated salt intake of school-aged children positively correlated with the estimated salt intake of their parents, and the proportion of lower-grade children who achieved the recommended salt intake was low. Guidance on salt restriction for children and their parents may reduce the salt intake of school-aged children.

  16. Factors Influencing Obesity on School-Aged Children

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    Soepardi Soedibyo

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available School-aged children of 6-12 year old in big cities have less physical activities and relax life style. Fast food and soft drink consumed contain high calorie and protein of protein and carbohydrate sources. Obesity has impact on children’s growth and development especially on psychosocial aspect. The factors that play a role in supporting the obesity occurrence in children include socio-economic condition, behavior and life style and diet. A cross sectional descriptive –analytic study was conducted on elementary school students in Jakarta, to identify factors that play roles on obesity of school-aged children. (Med J Indones 2006; 15:43-54Keywords: childhood obesity, weight shape index, body mass index

  17. Postural control of mouth breathing school aged children regarding gender.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roggia, Bruna; Correa, Bruna; Pranke, Gabriel Ivan; Facco, Rudi; Rossi, Angela Garcia

    2010-01-01

    Postural control of mouth breathing school aged children. To compare the posture and body balance of school aged children groups, with and without oral breathing considering the variable gender. The study was developed at a municipal school in the city of Santa Maria (Brazil) and received prior approval of the ethics committee of the University of Santa Maria. The study group (with oral breathing) and the control group (without oral breathing) were selected based on an anamnesis, age (between 8 and 12 years), assessment of the stomatognathic system and auditory evaluation. The final sample was composed by 51 children in the study group (20 female and 31 male) and 58 in the control group (34 female and 24 male). Both groups were submitted to a dynamic posturography (sensory organization test--SOT) and to a postural assessment in right and left lateral view. Regarding the female gender, a statistically significant difference was observed for the angle that evaluates head horizontal alignment; for the SOT III value and for all SOT mean values. As for the male gender, a significant numerical difference was observed for the knee angle, for the ankle angle, for the SOT III value, for the SOT IV value and for all SOT mean values. School aged children with oral breathing present postural alterations; females present head positing alterations and males present alterations in the position of the inferior limbs. The body balance of school aged children with oral breathing, of both genders, demonstrated to be altered when compared to children without oral breathing, especially in the presence of sensorial conflict.

  18. Sentence comprehension in post-institutionalized school-aged children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desmarais, Chantal; Roeber, Barbara J.; Smith, Mary E.; Pollak, Seth D.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose This study investigated sentence comprehension and spatial working memory abilities in a sample of internationally adopted, post-institutionalized (PI) children. We compared the performance of these PI children to an age-matched group of children living with their birth families. We hypothesized that PI children would perform below clinical threshold on tasks of sentence comprehension and that poor sentence comprehension would be associated with poor performance in working memory. Method Twenty-three PI children and 36 comparison children were administered sentence comprehension and spatial memory tasks from standardized assessments. Results Some oral sentence comprehension skills and the spatial working memory skills were weaker in the school-aged PI children than in the age-matched comparison children. A mediational analysis demonstrated that poor spatial working memory performance partially explains the sentence comprehension differences between the two groups. Conclusion These findings provide valuable information to better plan early intervention and special education for PI children. PMID:22199198

  19. The development of associate learning in school age children.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian T Harel

    Full Text Available Associate learning is fundamental to the acquisition of knowledge and plays a critical role in the everyday functioning of the developing child, though the developmental course is still unclear. This study investigated the development of visual associate learning in 125 school age children using the Continuous Paired Associate Learning task. As hypothesized, younger children made more errors than older children across all memory loads and evidenced decreased learning efficiency as memory load increased. Results suggest that age-related differences in performance largely reflect continued development of executive function in the context of relatively developed memory processes.

  20. DIETARY HABITS OF SCHOOL-AGE CHILDREN IN TBILISI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mebonia, N; Trapaidze, D; Kvanchakhadze, R; Zhizhilashvili, S; Kasradze, N

    2015-11-01

    Study Goal was to determine dietary habits in school-aged children. Sampling of children was conducted in two stages. In the first stage, five schools in Nadzaladevi district of city Tbilisi were randomly selected. On the second stage the study groups from the appropriate school-aged students (10-14 years old children) were also randomly selected. All student participants filled out standardized and adopted questionnaires suggested by the American Academy of family physicians. Data were analyzed by using EpiInfo 7th version. Statistical analyses looked at correlations between criteria of unhealthy diet (such as morning without breakfast, frequent consumption of non-alcoholic beverages and fast food products) and overweight/obesity. A Body Mass Index (BMI) was calculated by using CDC tool. 175 children with ages of 10-14 years (47% boys) were included and interviewed. Half of the children noted that they love or like fast food products. 10% - visits fast food places 2-3 times a week together with a family. 11% - visits fast food places 5 times a week and even more. 34% - do not start morning with breakfast; 15% - eat only twice a day; 26% - add salt to their dishes; 58% - drink non-alcoholic beverages every day or many times during a week; 24% - are overweight; 29% suffer from obesity; 25% noted that fast food places are located near schools. Very weak correlation was found between unhealthy diet (morning without breakfast, frequent consumption of non-alcoholic beverages and fast food products) and overweight/obesity. According to study results, dietary habits of school-age children in Tbilisi is unhealthy; to improve nutritional habits is essential: (1) promote consumer (students, parents and teachers) awareness on a healthy diet, (2) educate children, adolescents and adults about nutrition and healthy dietary practices, (3) encourage to raise awareness about the salt consumption in recommended doses in children.

  1. Internet use and psychosocial health of school aged children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Işik, Betül; Ayaz Alkaya, Sultan

    2017-09-01

    This study was carried out to determine the internet use and psychosocial health of school aged children. Children in grades 4-7 and their parents were invited to participate. The study group consisted of 737 children. Data were collected using a descriptive form and Pediatric Symptom Checklist-17. Majority of children used internet, one of each five children had psychosocial problem risk. Risk of psychosocial problem was higher in males, children who have 'not working father', use internet 5 years and over, use internet for 3h and over per day. These results suggest that families should be informed about associations between internet use and psychosocial problems that measures should be taken for providing controlled internet use for children. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Executive Dysfunction in School-Age Children With ADHD

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lambek, Rikke; Tannock, Rosemary; Dalsgaard, Søren

    2011-01-01

    Objective: The study examined executive function deficits (EFD) in school-age children (7 to 14 years) with ADHD. Method: A clinical sample of children diagnosed with ADHD (n = 49) was compared to a population sample (n = 196) on eight executive function (EF) measures. Then, the prevalence of EFD...... in clinical and non-clinical children was examined at the individual level according to three methods previously applied to define EFD, and a fourth method was included to control for the effect of age on performance. Results: Children with ADHD were significantly more impaired on measures of EF than children...... without ADHD at the group level. However, only about 50% of children with ADHD were found to have EFD at the individual level, and results appeared relatively robust across methods applied to define EFD. Conclusion: As a group, children with ADHD displayed more problems on neuropsychological measures...

  3. Factors associated with resilience of school age children with cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Dong H; Yoo, Il Y

    2010-07-01

    To identify factors associated with resilience of school age children with cancer. The participants were 74 children, 10-15 years old who were diagnosed with cancer at least 6 months prior to data collection. The instruments used were; a self-reported questionnaire on resilience, Family Adaptability and Cohesion Evaluation Scale III, measurements of relationship with friends and teachers. Descriptive, Pearson correlation and multiple regression analyses were used to analyse the data. The average score for resilience was 98.49 (range: 32-128). There was no statistically significant relationship with resilience for age, gender, religion, existence of siblings, mother's age, academic performance, duration of illness or type of cancer. In bivariate analysis, family adaptability and cohesion (r= 0.535, P resilience. However, the results of multiple regression analysis showed that only family function (beta= 0.257, P resilience. School age children with cancer who reported higher family function and positive relationships with friends showed higher resiliency than their counterparts. Thus, it is important to help the families of children with cancer to enhance family function and help children to adjust to school re-entry by maintaining ties with school friends and teachers during treatment. Development of counselling programmes for parents to promote family adaptation and cohesion and educational programmes for classmates and teachers are recommended.

  4. Prevalence of Parasomnia in School aged Children in Tehran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morteza Naserbakht

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available "nObjectives: Parasomnias can create sleep disruption; in this article we assessed parasomnias in school-aged children in Tehran. "nMethods: In spring 2005, a total of 6000 sleep questionnaires were distributed to school-aged children in 5 districts of Tehran (Iran. A modified Pediatrics sleep questionnaire with 34 questions was used. "nResults: Parasomnias varied from 0.5% to 5.7% among the subjects as follows: 2.7% sleep talking, 0.5% sleepwalking, 5.7% bruxism, 2.3% enuresis, and nightmare 4%. A group of children showed parasomnias occasionally- this was 13.1% for sleep talking, 1.4% for sleepwalking, 10.6% for bruxism, 3.1% for enuresis and 18.4% for nightmares. "nConclusion: A high proportion of children starting school suffer from sleep problems. In many cases this is a temporary, developmentally related phenomenon, but in 6% of the children the disorder is more serious and may be connected with various stress factors and further behavioral disturbances.

  5. Infant Breastfeeding and Kidney Function in School-Aged Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miliku, Kozeta; Voortman, Trudy; Bakker, Hanneke; Hofman, Albert; Franco, Oscar H; Jaddoe, Vincent W V

    2015-09-01

    Early life factors may influence kidney growth and function throughout the life course. We examined the associations of breastfeeding duration and exclusivity and age at introduction of solid foods with kidney outcomes at school age. Prospective cohort study from fetal life onward. 5,043 children in the Netherlands. Infant feeding was assessed prospectively using questionnaires. In children at a median age of 6.0 years, we measured kidney volume with ultrasound, estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) from serum creatinine level, and microalbuminuria from urinary albumin and creatinine levels. 92% of all children were ever breastfed, of whom 27% were breastfed for more than 6 months and 21% were breastfed exclusively for at least 4 months. Compared with ever-breastfed children, never-breastfed children had smaller combined kidney volumes (-2.69 [95% CI, -4.83 to -0.56] cm(3)) and lower eGFRs (-2.42 [95% CI, -4.56 to -0.28] mL/min/1.73 m(2)) at school age. Among breastfed children, shorter duration of breastfeeding was associated with smaller combined kidney volume and lower microalbuminuria risk (Pkidney volume and lower eGFR (both Pkidney volume. Age at introduction of solid foods was not associated with any kidney outcome. Observational study, so causality cannot be established. Follow-up measurements were available for 76% of children. These results suggest that breastfeeding is associated with subclinical changes in kidney outcomes in childhood. Further studies are needed to explore whether early life nutrition also affects the risk of kidney disease in adulthood. Copyright © 2015 National Kidney Foundation, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Functional outcome at school age of children born with gastroschisis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lap, Chiara C M M; Bolhuis, Sandra W; Van Braeckel, Koenraad N J A; Reijneveld, Sijmen A; Manten, Gwendolyn T R; Bos, Arend F; Hulscher, Jan B F

    We aimed to determine motor, cognitive and behavioural outcomes of school aged children born with gastroschisis compared to matched controls. We compared outcomes of 16 children born with gastroschisis treated at the University Medical Center Groningen, the Netherlands, between 1999 and 2006 with 32 controls matched for gender, gestational age, birth weight, and corrected for small for gestational age (SGA) and parental socioeconomic status (SES). Intelligence, auditory-verbal memory, attention, response inhibition, visual perception, motor skills, visuomotor integration, problem behaviour and executive functioning were evaluated. Median verbal intelligence quotient and global executive functioning scores of children born with gastroschisis were poorer than of controls (95 (inter quartile range (IQR) 88-100) vs. 104 (IQR 98-113), P=0.001, and 29 (IQR 6.8-63.8) vs. 5.0 (IQR 2.8-19.8), P=0.03, respectively). Children with gastroschisis were more often classified as borderline or abnormal than controls regarding response inhibition (odds ratio (OR) 20.4; 95%-confidence interval (95%-CI); 2.4-171.5), selective visual attention (OR 40.4; 95%-CI 5.9-275.4), sustained auditory attention (OR 88.1; 95%-CI 5.8-1342.8), and fine motor skills (50% vs. 0%). Grade retention was more prevalent in gastroschisis children (OR 6.07; 95%-CI 1.42-25.9). These associations persisted after adjustment for SGA and SES. The auditory-verbal memory, visuomotor integration and behavioural problems did not significantly differ from the controls. Gastroschisis is associated with poorer verbal intelligence, and with an increased risk for poor performance on several aspects of attention, response inhibition and fine motor skills at school age. The follow-up of children born with gastroschisis deserves attention regarding these specific domains, to improve their functional outcomes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Cognitive impairment in school-aged children with early trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bücker, Joana; Kapczinski, Flavio; Post, Robert; Ceresér, Keila M; Szobot, Claudia; Yatham, Lakshmi N; Kapczinski, Natalia S; Kauer-Sant'Anna, Márcia

    2012-08-01

    Exposure to traumatic events during childhood is often associated with the development of psychiatric disorders, cognitive impairment, and poor functioning in adulthood. However, few studies have examined cognitive function, including executive function, memory, and attention, in school-aged children with early trauma compared with age- and sex-matched controls. We recruited 30 medication-naive children between 5 and 12 years of age with a history of early severe trauma from a foster care home, along with 30 age- and sex-matched controls. Psychiatric diagnoses were based on Kiddie Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia Epidemiologic Version (K-SADS-E) for Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition criteria and were confirmed with a clinical interview. The neuropsychologic battery was tailored to assess broad cognitive domains such as learning/working memory, executive function, attention, verbal/premorbid intellectual functioning, and impulsivity. There was a higher prevalence of subsyndromal symptoms in children with a history of childhood trauma, although they rarely met all of the diagnostic criteria for a disorder. Moreover, lower estimated intellectual functioning scores were associated with subsyndromal symptoms in children with a history of trauma, and they performed more poorly on the Digits Span Test of the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-III Edition, suggesting attention impairment. There is a high prevalence of subsyndromal symptoms in school-aged children with trauma and an attention impairment, which may contribute to a cumulative deficit early in cognitive development. These findings further support the need for early interventions that can prevent cognitive impairment when childhood trauma occurs. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Screening school-aged children for risk of stuttering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howell, Peter

    2013-06-01

    Howell and Davis's (2011) model that predicts whether stuttering in eight-year old children will persist or recover by teenage was adapted for screening school-aged children for risk of stuttering. Stuttering-severity scores were used to predict whether children belonged to fluent or stuttering groups. Predicted group assignments were compared for models in which severity measures were made with whole-word repetitions excluded or included. The best model for distinguishing children who stutter (CWS) from fluent children was validated across a wide range of ages. Stuttering-severity scores from CWS (222 for development, and 272 for validation, of the models) and fluent children (103 for development, and 25 for validation, of the models) were employed. Models were developed that predicted prognosis and screened CWS and fluent children. All these analyses were conducted both with whole-word repetitions excluded and included in the stuttering-severity scores. The model that screened fluent children from all CWS which excluded whole-word repetitions was validated for children across a range of ages. All models achieved around 80% specificity and sensitivity. Models in which whole-word repetitions were excluded were always better than those which included them. Validation of the screening for fluency with whole-word repetitions excluded classified 84.4% of fluent children, and 88.0% of CWS, correctly. Some of these children differed in age from those used to develop the model. Howell and Davis's risk factor model for predicting persistence/recovery can be extended to screen school-aged children for fluency. After reading this article, participants will be able to: (1) describe the difference between finding group differences and risk factor modeling in stuttering research; (2) summarize the strengths and weaknesses of stuttering severity instrument version three; (3) discuss how validation of diagnostic and screening models for fluency can be performed; (4) see how risk

  9. HEAD CIRCUMFERENCE REFERENCES FOR SCHOOL AGE CHILDREN IN WESTERN ROMANIA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chirita-Emandi, Adela; Doros, Gabriela; Simina, Iulia Jurca; Gafencu, Mihai; Puiu, Maria

    2015-01-01

    To provide head circumference references for school-aged children in western Romania, and compare them with references from other European countries. A total of 2742 children, aged 6-19 years, from Timis county, were examined by medical students, between February 2010-June 2011. Head circumference references were constructed by Cole's LMS method with LMSChartMaker software. The Romanian 3rd, 50th and 97th percentiles for head circumference were compared with recent references from Belgium and Germany. Generally, boys show significantly larger head circumference compared to girls at any age. The head circumference increments between 6 and 19 years are references from Romania to those from Germany and Belgium, we found lower median head circumference in Romanian boys and girls, that could be explained by a taller stature of boys and girls in Germany and Belgium compared to Romania.

  10. Active transport among Czech school-aged children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Pavelka

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Active transport is a very important factor for increasing the level of physical activity in children, which is significant for both their health and positive physical behaviour in adult age. OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to establish the proportion of Czech children aged 11 to 15 who select active transport to and from school and, at the same time, describe socio-economic and socio-demographic factors influencing active transport to and from school among children. METHODS: To establish the socio-demographic factors affecting active transport, data of a national representative sample of 11 to 15 year-old elementary school children in the Czech Republic (n = 4,425. Research data collection was performed within an international research study called Health Behaviour in School Aged Children in June 2010. Statistical processing of the results was made using a logistic regression analysis in the statistical programme IBM SPSS v 20. RESULTS: Active transport to and from school is opted for in the Czech Republic by approximately 2/3 of children aged 11 to 15. Differences between genders are not statistically significant; most children opting for active transport are aged 11 (69%. An important factor increasing the probability of active transport as much as 16 times is whether a child's place of residence is in the same municipality as the school. Other factors influencing this choice include BMI, time spent using a computer or a privateroom in a family. A significant factor determining active transport by children is safety; safe road crossing, opportunity to leave a bicycle safely at school, no fear of being assaulted on the way or provision of school lockers where children can leave their items. CONCLUSIONS: Active transport plays an important role in increasing the overall level of physical activity in children. Promotion of active transport should focus on children who spend more time using a computer; attention should also be

  11. Multitasking During Degraded Speech Recognition in School-Age Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grieco-Calub, Tina M; Ward, Kristina M; Brehm, Laurel

    2017-01-01

    Multitasking requires individuals to allocate their cognitive resources across different tasks. The purpose of the current study was to assess school-age children's multitasking abilities during degraded speech recognition. Children (8 to 12 years old) completed a dual-task paradigm including a sentence recognition (primary) task containing speech that was either unprocessed or noise-band vocoded with 8, 6, or 4 spectral channels and a visual monitoring (secondary) task. Children's accuracy and reaction time on the visual monitoring task was quantified during the dual-task paradigm in each condition of the primary task and compared with single-task performance. Children experienced dual-task costs in the 6- and 4-channel conditions of the primary speech recognition task with decreased accuracy on the visual monitoring task relative to baseline performance. In all conditions, children's dual-task performance on the visual monitoring task was strongly predicted by their single-task (baseline) performance on the task. Results suggest that children's proficiency with the secondary task contributes to the magnitude of dual-task costs while multitasking during degraded speech recognition.

  12. Characteristics of lumbar spondylolysis in elementary school age children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakai, Toshinori; Goda, Yuichiro; Tezuka, Fumitake; Takata, Yoichiro; Higashino, Kosaku; Sato, Masahiro; Mase, Yasuyoshi; Nagamachi, Akihiro; Sairyo, Koichi

    2016-02-01

    Lumbar spondylolysis, a stress fracture of the pars interarticularis in the lumbar spine, is often precipitated by trauma, but there may be a congenital predisposition to this condition. There have been few studies on spondylolysis in young children, despite their suitability for studies on congenital defects. The aim of this study was to identify the clinical features of lumbar spondylolysis in elementary school age children in order to elucidate its pathogenesis. Thirty lumbar spondylolysis patients (23 boys, 7 girls, including a pair of twins; mean age 9.5 years, age range 5-12 years) were studied. Patient data on history of athletic activity, symptoms at first consultation, and radiological findings such as spinal level, stage of the stress fracture, and skeletal age were collected. Among the 30 patients, 27 (21 boys, 6 girls) had L5 spondylolysis (90.0 %). Only 2 patients had no history of athletic activity at the first consultation. All patients, except for 2 whose diagnosis was incidental, complained of low back pain. In the 27 patients with L5 spondylolysis, 17 (63.0 %) had terminal-stage fracture and 25 (92.6 %) had spina bifida occulta (SBO) involving the S1 lamina. Sixteen of the 27 (59.3 %) had SBO involving the affected lamina (L5) and S1 lamina. In contrast, the 3 patients with L3 or L4 spondylolysis had no evidence of SBO. With respect to skeletal age, 23 of the 27 L5 spondylolysis patients (85.2 %) were in the cartilaginous stage while the remaining 4 patients were in the apophyseal stage. Lumbar spondylolysis in elementary school age children was commonly a terminal-stage bone defect at L5, which was not necessarily related to history of athletic activity and was sometimes asymptomatic. It was often associated with SBO, indicating a possible congenital predisposition. These findings may provide further insight into the pathogenesis of lumbar spondylolysis.

  13. Dynamics of Learning Motivation in Early School Age Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arkhireyeva T.V.

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents outcomes of a longitudinal study on learning motivation in children of early school age. The aim was to reveal the leading motives in first, second, third and fourth grades and to explore the dynamics of some learning motives in children over the whole period of elementary school. As it was found, the learning activity in the children was mostly motivated by social motives, among which the leading ones were the motives of selfdetermination and wellbeing. As for learning motives, over the course of all four years the children were for the most part motivated by the content of the learning activity, and not by its process. The dynamics of certain social motives of the learning activity varied across the sample, with some going through the periods of increase and decrease and others having a oneway dynamics. The study also revealed a decrease in the motivation rooted in the learning activity itself between the second and third year; at the same time, in the second, third and fourth years the children were more motivated by the content of the learning activity than by its process

  14. Profiling oral narrative ability in young school-aged children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westerveld, Marleen F; Gillon, Gail T

    2010-06-01

    This study aimed to determine if oral narrative comprehension and production measures derived in a fictional story retelling task could be used to create a profile of strengths and weaknesses in oral narrative ability (Profile of Oral Narrative Ability: PONA) in young school-aged children. The story retelling task was field-tested with 169 typically developing children, aged between 5;0 and 7;6 years. Children listened twice to an unfamiliar story while looking at the pictures in a book. Comprehension questions were asked after the first exposure. Following the second exposure, children were asked to retell the story without the use of the pictures. Story retellings were analysed on measures of semantics, morphosyntax, verbal productivity, and narrative quality. Results indicated sensitivity for age on measures of comprehension, narrative quality, semantics, and verbal productivity, but not for morphosyntactic measures. Factor analysis indicated that oral narrative performance comprised three factors, explaining more than 80% of the variance. Two clinical case examples are presented, which show the potential of the PONA to reveal different patterns of strengths and weaknesses across the oral narrative measures. Although early evidence suggests the potential usefulness of the PONA, further research is now needed to test the validity, reliability and clinical application of this tool.

  15. Relationship between breakfast and obesity among school-aged children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocandio, A M; Ansotegui, L; Arroyo, M

    2000-08-01

    Breakfast models among children are an issue of public health concern given the association between breakfast and school performance and its potential relationship with obesity. Food intake, energy, and nutrients in the breakfast of 32 school aged children (11-years olds) and its relationship with body mass index (BMI, kg/m2) were examined. The analysis was made by means of anthropometric measurements and a record of weekly food intake using the accurate weighed amount method. The percentage of studied children with overweight/obesity reached 46.9 (weight for height > 90 percentile). The proportional calorie intake in breakfast was lower than that recommended (16.6%). The association observed between caloric percentage of breakfast regarding daily energy and BMI was not significant. Nevertheless, significant correlations were found between fruit group (Pearson r = 0.6286) and protein foods (Pearson r = -0.7653) with BMI. The amount of total lipids (34.4%) and saturated lipids (19.4% in breakfast exceed the recommendations. Further studies are necessary to confirm these data and serve as basis for the design of nutritional education programs.

  16. Modern diagnostic method of microelementosis of school age children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rasulov, S.K.

    2006-01-01

    standard sample IAEA NN and NN-1 (hair homogenate) as well as comparative method. Accuracy of analysis results of the applied method made up from 7 to 30% depended on concentration and nuclear-physical characteristics. Results and Discussion: Obtained results showed that microelemental contents in hairs and other liquids in children of school age somehow differed from that of in adults. So, contents of iron in children's hair are significantly higher (three times - 81.38±8.55 mkg/g). In erythrocytes of 22 examined sound children the contents of the iron equaled to 2964±52 mg/l, in saliva - 584 351.7 mg/l. In the study of Zn contents in blood of healthy children it was equal to 59 mkg/g, in formed elements of blood it was equal to 32.3 mkg/g which was much less than similar index in adults [3]. According to our data the contents of Zn in blood made up 39.25±4.30 mkg/g which was significantly low compared with similar index in adults (according to V.V.Nasolodin, 1987 the contents of zinc in plasma varies from 86 to 106 mkg/g). In 20 examined children the contents of Zn in erythrocytes equaled to 32.3±1.5 mkg/g. The contents of Zn in saliva of sound children of school age was 518.0±54.17 mkg/g and in urine 386±18.24 mkg/g. In practically sound school children of Zarafshan valley the contents of Zn in hair made up 182.9±6.6 mkg/g. It was established that the contents of Zn in sound school children of Zarafshan valley is in middle position amongst similar data referred in scientific articles [2]. The contents of Cu in hairs of practically sound school children in Zarafshan valley was 9.24±0.84 mkg/g which was low (two times) compared with adults. We found out that the contents of Cu in hairs of healthy school children in Zarafshan valley was lower compared with the data presented by other authors [2] and other regions respectively. A low content of Cu in hairs probably depends on the food-stuff ingredients and peculiarities of the natural condition in biogeochemical

  17. The strength and vulnerability of school-age children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svenn-Erik Mamelund

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Children between the ages of 5 and 14 appear to have a lower risk of dying than both younger and older individuals. Objective: We looked for possible factors influencing the mortality rates of school-age children in Norway during the German occupation from 1940 to 1945, i.e., at a time of poverty and moderate food shortage - and before the general use of vaccines. Methods: We used Norwegian mortality data by age and sex, during the period of 1930-1954, from the Human Mortality Database and obtained the main causes of death, as well as age-specific data from different regions of Norway, from Statistics Norway. Results: Boys and girls aged 5-14 years had lower mortality rates than any other age group below 40, even during the German occupation. However, 5-14-year-old boys as well as 5-9-year-old girls had significantly increased mortality during 1941-1945 as compared to the previous decade. Mortality as a result of diphtheria, pertussis, scarlet fever, and measles increased more than five-fold, surpassing mortality as a result of accidents, whereas mortality from these infections only doubled in adults up to 39 years. During that same period, the body weight of schoolchildren aged 8-13 years dropped slightly. Conclusions: Proper nourishment, being of the utmost importance for a functioning immune system, is key to understanding the potential vulnerability of children at any age. Our study shows how vulnerable even the most resistant children can be. Contribution: The vulnerability of children 5-14 years old may not have been properly taken into account, as was also shown in the recent upward UN revision of 5-14 age mortality in low- and middle-income countries.

  18. Dynamic drawing characteristics of preschool and younger school age children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cvetković Andrijana

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this research is to determine developmental characteristics of dynamic drawings of preschool and younger school age children. The sample consists of 90 typical developed children, aged between 6 and 9. The sample includes 47 (52.2% girls and 43 (47.8% boys from preschool institutions and elementary schools in Pirot and Belgrade. Action representation in dynamic drawings was evaluated using three types of drawings: a man who runs, a man shooting a ball and a man lifting a ball from the floor. We determined that a very small number of the respondents reaches the highest level of graphical representation of figures in motion, and that girl’s achievements are better than boy’s achievements. However, this result is on the border of statistical significance (p=0.052. Also, there is a statistically significant trend of progress to higher levels of action representation (p=0.000 with the increase in chronological age of the respondents.

  19. Language growth in Dutch school-age children with specific language impairment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zwitserlood, Rob

    2014-01-01

    In this dissertation, the results of a longitudinal study of two age-groups of Dutch-speaking children with specific language impairment (SLI) and an intervention study examining a metalinguistic approach for older school-age children with SLI are reported. Grammatical development of school-age

  20. Sleep Problems in Chinese School-Aged Children with a Parent-Reported History of ADHD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shenghui; Jin, Xinming; Yan, Chonghuai; Wu, Shenghu; Jiang, Fan; Shen, Xiaoming

    2009-01-01

    Objective: The objective was to survey the prevalence of parent-reported ADHD diagnosis and to assess its associations with sleep problems among urban school-aged children in China. Method: A random sample of 20,152 school-aged children participated in a cross-sectional survey in eight cities of China. A parent-administered questionnaire and the…

  1. INCIDENCE OF STUTTERING IN SCHOOL-AGE CHILDREN WITH DOWN SYNDROME

    OpenAIRE

    SALIHOVIĆ Nevzeta; HASANBAŠIĆ Selma; BEGIĆ Leila

    2015-01-01

    The main purpose of this study was to examine the incidence (frequency) and stuttering severity in the school-age children with Down syndrome. The sample was consisted of 37 school-age children with Down syndrome, both male and female. The study was conducted in the following institutions: Institute of Special Education and Rehabilitation for Children with Intellectual Disabilities "Mjedenica"; Centre for Education, Training and Employment of Mentally Retarded Children, Children with Autism a...

  2. Middle-School-Age Outcomes in Children with Very Low Birthweight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, H. Gerry; Klein, Nancy; Minich, Nori M.; Hack, Maureen

    2000-01-01

    Compared outcomes of middle-school-age children born at very low (less than 750-g) or low birthweights (750 to 1,499-g) and full-term. Found that the very-low-weight group fared less well at school age than the low weight and term groups on cognitive functioning, achievement, behavior, and academic performance. Those without neurosensory disorders…

  3. Assesment of standing long jump at children of primery - school age in athletic prep school

    OpenAIRE

    Klapetková, Kristýna

    2017-01-01

    Title: Assesment of standing long jump at children of primery - school age in athletic prep school Aim: Aim of this thesis was to evaluate and compare differences of movement level in standing long jump between children of primary - school age who attend athletic prep school and those who don't. Another aim was the getting to know and the application of Haywood's and Getchell's methodology for qualitative assessment of standing long jump of children. Methodology: The movement level of standin...

  4. Rating scale for backstroke technique for children in early school age

    OpenAIRE

    Vetešníková, Barbora

    2017-01-01

    Title: Rating scale for backstroke technique for children in early school age Objectives: Objective of the project is to create a rating scale for valutation of backstroke technique in early school age children. The thesis should specify a model technique for the corresponding development stage and formulate standards for backstroke technique valutation. Thereafter using the created rating scale with a group of children from a swimming school and swimming preliminary preparation (age 6-8). Ut...

  5. Pressing Tasks in the Care of Children of Preschool and School Age

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Tseytlin, I

    1960-01-01

    ...). It concerns pressing tasks of public health with regard to the care of children of pre-school and school age in order to strengthen the bond between school and life which also promotes the further...

  6. Sleep Patterns of School-Age Children with Asperger Syndrome or High-Functioning Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allik, Hiie; Larsson, Jan-Olov; Smedje, Hans

    2006-01-01

    Sleep patterns of 32 school-age children with Asperger syndrome (AS) and high-functioning autism (HFA) were compared to those of 32 typically developing age- and gender-matched children, using parent survey and one week of diary and actigraphic monitoring. Parents of children with AS/HFA more commonly reported that their children had difficulty…

  7. Speaking Rate Characteristics of Elementary-School-Aged Children Who Do and Do Not Stutter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logan, Kenneth J.; Byrd, Courtney T.; Mazzocchi, Elizabeth M.; Gillam, Ronald B.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: To compare articulation and speech rates of school-aged children who do and do not stutter across sentence priming, structured conversation, and narration tasks and to determine factors that predict children's speech and articulation rates. Method: 34 children who stutter (CWS) and 34 age- and gender-matched children who do not stutter…

  8. The development of the own-race advantage in school-age children: A morphing face paradigm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chien, Sarina Hui-Lin; Tai, Chu-Lik; Yang, Shu-Fei

    2018-01-01

    Previous studies examining the other-race effect in school-age children mostly focused on recognition memory performance. Here we investigated perceptual discriminability for Asian-like versus Caucasian-like morph faces in school-age Taiwanese children and adults. One-hundred-and-two 5- to 12-year-old children and twenty-three adults performed a sequential same/different face matching task, where they viewed an Asian- or a Caucasian-parent face followed by either the same parent face or a different morphed face (containing 15%, 30%, 45%, or 60% contribution from the other parent face) and judged if the two faces looked the same. We computed the d' as the sensitivity index for each age groups. We also analyzed the group mean rejection rates as a function of the morph level and fitted with a cumulative normal distribution function. Results showed that the adults and the oldest 11-12-year-old children exhibited a greater sensitivity (d') and a smaller discrimination threshold (μ) in the Asian-parent condition than those in the Caucasian-parent condition, indicating the presence of an own-race advantage. On the contrary, 5- to 10-year-old children showed an equal sensitivity and similar discrimination thresholds for both conditions, indicating an absence of the own-race advantage. Moreover, a gradual development in enhancing the discriminability for the Asian-parent condition was observed from age 5 to 12; however, the progression in the Caucasian-parent condition was less apparent. In sum, our findings suggest that expertise in face processing may take the entire childhood to develop, and supports the perceptual learning view of the other-race effect-the own-race advantage seen in adulthood likely reflects a result of prolonged learning specific to faces most commonly seen in one's visual environment such as own-race faces.

  9. Anemia and associated factors among school-age children in Cape ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Anemia is a problem affecting a large group of school children in sub-Saharan Africa, contributing to morbidity in this region. In Cape Verde the magnitude of anemia in school-age children is unknown. The study aimed to assess the prevalence of anemia and associated factors among children in Cape Verde. The data are ...

  10. The Effect of Age-Correction on IQ Scores among School-Aged Children Born Preterm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Rachel M.; George, Wing Man; Cole, Carolyn; Marshall, Peter; Ellison, Vanessa; Fabel, Helen

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the effect of age-correction on IQ scores among preterm school-aged children. Data from the Flinders Medical Centre Neonatal Unit Follow-up Program for 81 children aged five years and assessed with the WPPSI-III, and 177 children aged eight years and assessed with the WISC-IV, were analysed. Corrected IQ scores were…

  11. Syllable-Timed Speech Treatment for School-Age Children Who Stutter: A Phase I Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, Cheryl; O'Brian, Sue; Harrison, Elisabeth; Onslow, Mark; Packman, Ann; Menzies, Ross

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: This clinical trial determined the outcomes of a simple syllable-timed speech (STS) treatment for school-age children who stutter. Method: Participants were 10 children, ages 6-11 years, who stutter. Treatment involved training the children and their parents to use STS at near normal speech rates. The technique was practiced in the clinic…

  12. School Age Outcomes of Children Diagnosed Early and Later with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Megan Louise Erin; Vinen, Zoe; Barbaro, Josephine; Dissanayake, Cheryl

    2018-01-01

    Early diagnosis of Autism Spectrum Disorder is considered best practice, increasing access to early intervention. Yet, many children are diagnosed after 3-years. The current study investigated the school age outcomes of children who received an early and later diagnosis of ASD. The cognitive and behavioural outcomes of children diagnosed early (n…

  13. Attention-Deficit and Hyperactivity among School-Age United Arab Emirates Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khamis, Vivian

    2011-01-01

    The prevalence of ADHD was studied among 200 UAE school-age children. Variables that distinguish ADHD and non-ADHD children were examined, including child characteristics, parents' sociodemographics, socioeconomic status, family environment, and parental style of influence. Results indicated that 12.5 % of the children had ADHD symptomatology, and…

  14. Attention and Memory in School-Age Children Surviving the Terrorist Attack in Beslan, Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scrimin, Sara; Moscardino, Ughetta; Capello, Fabia; Axia, Giovanna

    2009-01-01

    Little is known about the impact of terrorism on children's cognitive functioning and school learning. The primary purpose of this study was to report on cognitive functioning among school-age children 20 months after a terrorist attack against their school. Participants included 203 directly and indirectly exposed children from Beslan and 100…

  15. Primary School Attendance and Completion among Lower Secondary School Age Children in Uganda

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moyi, Peter

    2013-01-01

    At the World Education Forum in Dakar in 2000, governments pledged to achieve education for all by 2015. However, if current enrollment trends continue, the number of out-of-school children could increase from current levels. Greater focus is needed on lower secondary school age (13-16 years) children. These children are not included estimates of…

  16. Efficacy and effectiveness of live attenuated influenza vaccine in school-age children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coelingh, Kathleen; Olajide, Ifedapo Rosemary; MacDonald, Peter; Yogev, Ram

    2015-01-01

    Evidence of high efficacy of live attenuated influenza vaccine (LAIV) from randomized controlled trials is strong for children 2-6 years of age, but fewer data exist for older school-age children. We reviewed the published data on efficacy and effectiveness of LAIV in children ≥5 years. QUOSA (Elsevier database) was searched for articles published from January 1990 to June 2014 that included 'FluMist', 'LAIV', 'CAIV', 'cold adapted influenza vaccine', 'live attenuated influenza vaccine', 'live attenuated cold adapted' or 'flu mist'. Studies evaluated included randomized controlled trials, effectiveness and indirect protection studies. This review demonstrates that LAIV has considerable efficacy and effectiveness in school-age children.

  17. Perception of speech sounds in school-age children with speech sound disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preston, Jonathan L.; Irwin, Julia R.; Turcios, Jacqueline

    2015-01-01

    Children with speech sound disorders may perceive speech differently than children with typical speech development. The nature of these speech differences is reviewed with an emphasis on assessing phoneme-specific perception for speech sounds that are produced in error. Category goodness judgment, or the ability to judge accurate and inaccurate tokens of speech sounds, plays an important role in phonological development. The software Speech Assessment and Interactive Learning System (Rvachew, 1994), which has been effectively used to assess preschoolers’ ability to perform goodness judgments, is explored for school-age children with residual speech errors (RSE). However, data suggest that this particular task may not be sensitive to perceptual differences in school-age children. The need for the development of clinical tools for assessment of speech perception in school-age children with RSE is highlighted, and clinical suggestions are provided. PMID:26458198

  18. Perception of Speech Sounds in School-Aged Children with Speech Sound Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preston, Jonathan L; Irwin, Julia R; Turcios, Jacqueline

    2015-11-01

    Children with speech sound disorders may perceive speech differently than children with typical speech development. The nature of these speech differences is reviewed with an emphasis on assessing phoneme-specific perception for speech sounds that are produced in error. Category goodness judgment, or the ability to judge accurate and inaccurate tokens of speech sounds, plays an important role in phonological development. The software Speech Assessment and Interactive Learning System, which has been effectively used to assess preschoolers' ability to perform goodness judgments, is explored for school-aged children with residual speech errors (RSEs). However, data suggest that this particular task may not be sensitive to perceptual differences in school-aged children. The need for the development of clinical tools for assessment of speech perception in school-aged children with RSE is highlighted, and clinical suggestions are provided. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  19. The effect of leukemia and its treatment on self-esteem of school-age children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullis, R L; Mullis, A K; Kerchoff, N F

    1992-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to investigate the self-esteem of school-age children with leukemia in a clinic setting and to compare it to the self-esteem of healthy children. Thirteen chronically ill children, 6 to 11 years old, who were patients at a midwestern clinic and children's hospital, and 50 school-age children without chronic illness participated in the study. Children were administered the Kinetic Family Drawing-Revised (Spinetta, McLaren, Fox, & Sparta, 1981) to measure their self-image in relation to their family. Children's self-esteem was measured by the Coopersmith Self-Esteem Inventory (SEI) (Coopersmith, 1981). The results indicated that children with leukemia did not differ in self-esteem from healthy children except on one subscale of the SEI. However, children with and without leukemia did differ on components of the self-image measure, a dimension of self-esteem. Implications of the findings are discussed.

  20. The nutritional status of school-aged children: why should we care?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Best, Cora; Neufingerl, Nicole; van Geel, Laura; van den Briel, Tina; Osendarp, Saskia

    2010-09-01

    The nutritional status of school-aged children impacts their health, cognition, and subsequently their educational achievement. The school is an opportune setting to provide health and nutrition services to disadvantaged children. Yet, school-aged children are not commonly included in health and nutrition surveys. An up-to-date overview of their nutritional status across the world is not available. To provide a summary of the recent data on the nutritional status of school-aged children in developing countries and countries in transition and identify issues of public health concern. A review of literature published from 2002 to 2009 on the nutritional status of children aged 6 to 12 years from Latin America, Africa, Asia, and the Eastern Mediterranean region was performed. Eligible studies determined the prevalence of micronutrient deficiencies or child under- and overnutrition using biochemical markers and internationally accepted growth references. A total of 369 studies from 76 different countries were included. The available data indicate that the nutritional status of school-aged children in the reviewed regions is considerably inadequate. Underweight and thinness were most prominent in populations from South-East Asia and Africa, whereas in Latin America the prevalence of underweight or thinness was generally below 10%. More than half of the studies on anemia reported moderate (> 20%) or severe (> 40%) prevalence of anemia. Prevalences of 20% to 30% were commonly reported for deficiencies of iron, iodine, zinc, and vitamin A. The prevalence of overweight was highest in Latin American countries (20% to 35%). In Africa, Asia, and the Eastern Mediterranean, the prevalence of overweight was generally below 15%. The available data indicate that malnutrition is a public health issue in school-aged children in developing countries and countries in transition. However, the available data, especially data on micronutrient status, are limited. These findings emphasize

  1. Motor skill performance of school-age children with visual impairments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Houwen, Suzanne

    2008-01-01

    This thesis focuses on the motor skill performance of school-age children with visual impairments (VI). Children with VI are at risk of poor motor skill performance, as vision guides and controls the acquisition, differentiation, and automatization of motor skills. Yet though the presence or absence

  2. Intensity of ADHD Symptoms and Subjective Feelings of Competence in School Age Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanc, Tomasz; Brzezinska, Anna Izabela

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this investigation was to assess how different levels of intensity of ADHD symptoms influence the development of the subjective feeling of competence in school age children. The sample was comprised of 62 children age 11 to 13. For the purpose of estimation of the subjective feeling of competence, The Feeling of Competence Questionnaire…

  3. School Nurse Interventions in Managing Functional Urinary Incontinence in School-Age Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivers, Charisse L.

    2010-01-01

    Uncomplicated urinary incontinence (UI) in school-age children is a prevalent yet underrecognized problem that has remained in the shadow of other concerns commonly perceived as more prominent or urgent. There is good evidence that functional UI in children can be treated and managed effectively. When there is no structural or neurologic…

  4. Developing Physiologic Stress Profiles for School-Age Children Who Stutter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortega, Aishah Y.; Ambrose, Nicoline G.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: Physiologic reactivity profiles were generated for 9 school-age children with a history of stuttering. Utilizing salivary sampling, stress biomarkers cortisol and alpha-amylase were measured in response to normal daily stressors. Children with a history of stuttering were characterized as high or low autonomic reactors when compared to…

  5. evaluation of nutritional status among school-aged children in rural

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    Childhood malnutrition continues to be a public health problem of school-aged children in resource limited countries. .... According to The Composite Budget of the Kwahu East District. Assembly for the 2012 Fiscal Year, the ..... infection of infants and children in rural Guatemala and its impact on physical growth. Am. J. Clin.

  6. Joint-Attention and the Social Phenotype of School-Aged Children with ASD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mundy, Peter; Novotny, Stephanie; Swain-Lerro, Lindsey; McIntyre, Nancy; Zajic, Matt; Oswald, Tasha

    2017-01-01

    The validity of joint attention assessment in school-aged children with ASD is unclear (Lord, Jones, "Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry" 53(5):490-509, 2012). This study examined the feasibility and validity of a parent-report measure of joint attention related behaviors in verbal children and adolescents with ASD. Fifty-two…

  7. Effect of Hearing Loss on Peer Victimization in School-Age Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warner-Czyz, Andrea D.; Loy, Betty; Pourchot, Hannah; White, Trissan; Cokely, Elika

    2018-01-01

    Nearly one third of school-age children report being bullied, primarily enduring teasing or rumors. Children with hearing loss (HL) are at increased risk of victimization due to being "different" from the general population. This project assesses effects of auditory status on bullying by comparing incidence and type of bullying in 87…

  8. Communication Profile of Primary School-Aged Children with Foetal Growth Restriction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Partanen, Lea Aulikki; Olsén, Päivi; Mäkikallio, Kaarin; Korkalainen, Noora; Heikkinen, Hanna; Heikkinen, Minna; Yliherva, Anneli

    2017-01-01

    Foetal growth restriction is associated with problems in neurocognitive development. In the present study, prospectively collected cohorts of foetal growth restricted (FGR) and appropriate for gestational age grown (AGA) children were examined at early school-age by using the Children's Communication Checklist-2 (CCC-2) to test the hypothesis that…

  9. Developmental Trajectories of Structural and Pragmatic Language Skills in School-Aged Children with Williams Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Den Heuvel, E.; Manders, E.; Swillen, A.; Zink, I.

    2016-01-01

    Background: This study aimed to compare developmental courses of structural and pragmatic language skills in school-aged children with Williams syndrome (WS) and children with idiopathic intellectual disability (IID). Comparison of these language trajectories could highlight syndrome-specific developmental features. Method: Twelve monolingual…

  10. Reducing Listening-Related Stress in School-Aged Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rance, Gary; Chisari, Donella; Saunders, Kerryn; Rault, Jean-Loup

    2017-01-01

    High levels of stress and anxiety are common in children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). Within this study of school-aged children (20 male, 6 female) we hypothesised that functional hearing deficits (also pervasive in ASD) could be ameliorated by auditory interventions and that, as a consequence, stress levels would be reduced. The use of…

  11. Shame Solutions: How Shame Impacts School-Aged Children and What Teachers Can Do to Help

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monroe, Ann

    2009-01-01

    Though many psychologists and researchers argue over the age at which humans first experience shame, all agree that by age two children have the capacity to be shamed (Lansky and Morrison 1997). School-aged children have invariably been exposed to shame at home and receive an extra dose of it in our current school system. This essay investigates…

  12. Teaching Grammar to School-Aged Children with Specific Language Impairment Using Shape Coding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebbels, Susan

    2007-01-01

    This paper describes an approach to teaching grammar which has been designed for school-aged children with specific language impairment (SLI). The approach uses shapes, colours and arrows to make the grammatical rules of English explicit. Evidence is presented which supports the use of this approach with older children in the areas of past tense…

  13. A Twin-Study of Sleep Difficulties in School-Aged Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregory, Alice M.; Rijsdijk, Fruhling V.; Eley, Thalia C.

    2006-01-01

    This study examines frequency, overlap, and genetic and environmental influences on sleep difficulties, which are understudied in school-aged children. The Sleep Self Report and the Children's Sleep Habits Questionnaire were completed by 300 twin pairs (aged 8 years) and their parents. Child report suggested more frequent sleep problems than…

  14. School-Age Children Talk about Chess: Does Knowledge Drive Syntactic Complexity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nippold, Marilyn A.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: This study examined language productivity and syntactic complexity in school-age children in relation to their knowledge of the topic of discussion--the game of chess. Method: Children (N = 32; mean age = 10;11 [years;months]) who played chess volunteered to be interviewed by an adult examiner who had little or no experience playing…

  15. Physical Activity, Physical Fitness, and Health-Related Quality of Life in School-Aged Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Xiangli; Chang, Mei; Solmon, Melinda A.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: This study examined the association between physical activity (PA), physical fitness, and health-related quality of life (HRQOL) among school-aged children. Methods: Participants were 201 children (91 boys, 110 girls; M[subscript age] = 9.82) enrolled in one school in the southern US. Students' PA (self-reported PA, pedometer-based PA)…

  16. Adding Two School Age Children: Does It Change Quality in Family Child Care?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norris, Deborah J.; Howes, Carollee

    1997-01-01

    Randomly selected family child care homes providing minimal quality care were observed prior to, and after, enrolling two additional school age children. Results suggest that modest change in number and age range of children in family child care home providing minimally acceptable care may potentially decrease provider sensitivity and may be less…

  17. Sleep and Television and Computer Habits of Swedish School-Age Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garmy, Pernilla; Nyberg, Per; Jakobsson, Ulf

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate sleep, television and computer habits and enjoyment and feelings of tiredness in school of school-age children and adolescents in Sweden. An instrument found to be valid and reliable here was distributed to 3,011 children aged 6, 7, 10, 14, and 16 years. Those sleeping less than the median length of time…

  18. Sleep Patterns and Sleep Disruptions in School-Age Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadeh, Avi; Raviv, Amiram; Gruber, Reut

    2000-01-01

    Assessed sleep patterns, sleep disruptions, and sleepiness of second-, fourth-, and sixth-graders. Found that older children had more delayed sleep onset times and increased reported daytime sleepiness than younger; girls spent more time in sleep than boys and had increased percentage of motionless sleep; and 18 percent of children had fragmented…

  19. Assessment of School-Aged Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paynter, Jessica M.

    2015-01-01

    An increasing number of school children are diagnosed with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). These children may be referred for assessments for a variety of reasons, including to assess for intellectual impairments, eligibility for support, or to monitor progress. Characteristics of ASD, such as social communication difficulties, as well as common…

  20. The Use of Antidepressants in School-Age Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brock, Kelly; Nguyen, Bich; Liu, Nianci; Watkins, Melissa; Reutzel, Thomas

    2005-01-01

    Approximately 5% of the pediatric population suffers from depression. Children suffering from depression should be treated first with some type of psychotherapy, cognitive therapy, and/or education. Pharmacotherapy (medications) should be used only as a last resort for those children suffering from severe, chronic, or recurring depression. The…

  1. Urinary schistosomiasis in school aged children of two rural endemic communities in Edo State, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noriode, Rukeme M; Idowu, Emmanuel T; Otubanjo, Olubunmi A; Mafe, Margaret A

    2017-09-29

    Urinary schistosomiasis is endemic in many rural communities of Nigeria and school aged children are mostly affected. A cross-sectional study was carried out to assess the prevalence and intensity of urinary schistosomiasis infection among 251 school aged children in two communities of Ovia South West LGA of Edo State, Nigeria, as well as their knowledge on the control/elimination measures. Urine samples were collected and examined by microscopy using filtration technique. In addition, a questionnaire survey was conducted among school-aged children and health care providers, probing their knowledge, attitude and practices on on-going control activities. The prevalence of urinary schistosomiasis among the school-aged children was 65.3%. The prevalence was generally higher among females (68.8%) and children in the age groups 10-14 (69.9%). The intensity of infection ranged from 1 to 5044 (mean=449.8) eggs/10ml of urine with a higher proportion having heavy infections (76.8%, P<0.05). Water contact was attested by 123 (49.0%) of the children; of these 123, 74 (60.1%) were infected. The children's knowledge on urinary schistosomiasis was deficient. The high prevalences reported in these communities require integrated approach to control which essentially should incorporate the provision of safe water supply and sanitary facilities, and health education in addition to the annual mass praziquantel distribution, to reduce transmission. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  2. Loneliness among school-aged children and their parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Junttila, Niina; Vauras, Marja

    2009-06-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the existence of the intergenerational transmission of loneliness between parents and children, including an examination of its stability and of gender differences. The study consisted of an evaluation of loneliness in mothers (n= 834), fathers (n= 661) and their 10-year-old children (n= 981). Parent's self-reported loneliness was measured once, and their children's social and emotional loneliness were assessed at three time-points. The stability analysis indicated average stability in children's loneliness, especially their social loneliness. Boys were found to experience more emotional loneliness than girls. Structural equation modeling indicated no direct relationship between mothers'/fathers' loneliness and their children's loneliness. However, mothers' and fathers' loneliness reduced their daughters' peer-evaluated cooperating skills, which consequently predicted higher levels of both social and emotional loneliness.

  3. Body Composition and Cardiovascular Health in School-aged children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klakk, Heidi

    2013-01-01

    compared to children at control schools. Also composite risk score and most single risk factors for CVD changed significantly more in favour of children attending intervention schools compared to children attending control schools. Baseline adiposity was independently and positively associated to increased...... composite CVD risk score after 2 years. Adjusted for CRF this association attenuated, but stayed significant and independent. The associations were linear across the entire distribution of adiposity and CRF. Conclusion Evaluation of this natural experiment showed that six PE lessons per week significantly...

  4. DYSPRAXIA AS A PSYCHOMOTOR DISORDER OF SCHOOL AGE CHILDREN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agata Nowak

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The purpose of the study was to define the epidemiology of dyspraxia among children from 6 to10 years’ age, attending grades I-III of primary schools in Wrocław, Poland. Material: the study was conducted among pupils of primary schools in Wrocław, Poland. The studied groups included 48 girls and 52 boys. The study employed Polish version of Questionnaire for the screening assessment of dyspraxia’s occurrence among children from 5 to 15 years’ age (DCDQ-PL, as well as the Coordination Test for Children (KTK. Results. After assessing the occurrence of dyspraxia among studied children, it was found out that this disorder is present in the studied group. The prevalence of dyspraxia depends on studied children’s gender; however, it is not related to their age. The results of tests, conducted with the DCDQ-PL and the KTK are consistent and confirm the observed inter-dependencies. Conclusions. Dyspraxia is a widespread psychomotor disorder, which can be diagnosed among children in the early school years. A diagnosis of a child’s development with respect to this disorder should constitute a constant element of work for teachers and educationists dealing with children at this stage of education.

  5. Polish 2010 growth references for school-aged children and adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kułaga, Zbigniew; Litwin, Mieczysław; Tkaczyk, Marcin; Palczewska, Iwona; Zajączkowska, Małgorzata; Zwolińska, Danuta; Krynicki, Tomasz; Wasilewska, Anna; Moczulska, Anna; Morawiec-Knysak, Aurelia; Barwicka, Katarzyna; Grajda, Aneta; Gurzkowska, Beata; Napieralska, Ewelina; Pan, Huiqi

    2011-05-01

    Growth references are useful in monitoring a child's growth, which is an essential part of child care. The aim of this paper was to provide updated growth references for Polish school-aged children and adolescents and show the prevalence of overweight and obesity among them. Growth references for height, weight, and body mass index (BMI) were constructed with the lambda, mu, sigma (LMS) method using data from a recent, large, population-representative sample of school-aged children and adolescents in Poland (n = 17,573). The prevalence of overweight and obesity according to the International Obesity Taskforce definition was determined with the use of LMSGrowth software. Updated growth references for Polish school-aged children and adolescents were compared with Polish growth references from the 1980s, the Warsaw 1996-1999 reference, German, and 2000 CDC references. A positive secular trend in height was observed in children and adolescents from 7 to 15 years of age. A significant shift of the upper tail of the BMI distribution occurred, especially in Polish boys at younger ages. The prevalence of overweight or obesity was 18.7% and 14.1% in school-aged boys and girls, respectively. The presented height, weight, and BMI references are based on a current, nationally representative sample of Polish children and adolescents without known disorders affecting growth. Changes in the body size of children and adolescents over the last three decades suggest an influence of the changing economical situation on anthropometric indices.

  6. Prevalence and pattern of executive dysfunction in school age children with congenital heart disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanz, Jacqueline H; Berl, Madison M; Armour, Anna C; Wang, Jichuan; Cheng, Yao I; Donofrio, Mary T

    2017-03-01

    Executive function, a set of cognitive skills important to social and academic outcomes, is a specific area of cognitive weakness in children with congenital heart disease (CHD). We evaluated the prevalence and profile of executive dysfunction in a heterogeneous sample of school aged children with CHD, examined whether children with executive dysfunction are receiving school services and support, and identified risk factors for executive dysfunction at school age. Ninety-one school aged patients completed questionnaires, including the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function (BRIEF) and a medical history questionnaire. An age- and gender- matched control sample was drawn from a normative database. Children with CHD had a higher rate of parent reported executive dysfunction (OR = 4.37, P  .05). Gender, premature birth (≤37 weeks), and CHD with aortic obstruction were predictive of executive dysfunction, especially for behavior regulation skills. School aged children with CHD have an increased prevalence of executive dysfunction, especially problems with working memory and flexibility, and are underserved by the school system. The increased risk for executive dysfunction in those with CHD and prematurity or CHD with aortic obstruction suggests an etiology of delayed brain development in the fetal and neonatal periods, while male gender may increase susceptibility to brain injury. This study highlights the need for regular neurodevelopmental follow up in children with CHD, and a need to better understand mechanisms that contribute to adverse neurodevelopmental outcomes. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Media Use in School-Aged Children and Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-11-01

    This policy statement focuses on children and adolescents 5 through 18 years of age. Research suggests both benefits and risks of media use for the health of children and teenagers. Benefits include exposure to new ideas and knowledge acquisition, increased opportunities for social contact and support, and new opportunities to access health-promotion messages and information. Risks include negative health effects on weight and sleep; exposure to inaccurate, inappropriate, or unsafe content and contacts; and compromised privacy and confidentiality. Parents face challenges in monitoring their children's and their own media use and in serving as positive role models. In this new era, evidence regarding healthy media use does not support a one-size-fits-all approach. Parents and pediatricians can work together to develop a Family Media Use Plan (www.healthychildren.org/MediaUsePlan) that considers their children's developmental stages to individualize an appropriate balance for media time and consistent rules about media use, to mentor their children, to set boundaries for accessing content and displaying personal information, and to implement open family communication about media. Copyright © 2016 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  8. Motor sequencing strategies in school-aged children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    David, K S

    1985-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to gain further insight into the normal development of praxis in children and to identify some of the learning strategies used by children during a motor-sequencing task. I analyzed the errors made by kindergarten and third-grade children during a motor-sequencing task and their reported memory strategies. I studied the following three groups of children: kindergarteners who could not learn the motor-sequencing task, kindergarteners who did learn the task, and third graders. The groups were significantly different with respect to age, their ability to perform a cognitive sequencing task, the number of perseverations made during the motor task, and the time required to perform a correctly recalled motor sequence. The kindergarteners tended to use kinesthetic coding for recall, and third graders more often used verbal rehearsal. The notion that motor sequencing develops along an orderly continuum with increasing age was supported. The results suggest that when teaching children motor-sequencing tasks, learning is enhanced by using verbal rehearsal of relevant movement labels.

  9. Determinants of under nutrition among school age children in a Nairobi peri-urban slum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chesire, E J; Orago, A S S; Oteba, L P; Echoka, E

    2008-10-01

    Malnutrition is a major public health concern affecting a significant number of school age children influencing their health, growth and development, and school academic performance. To establish the determinants of under nutrition among school age children between 6-12 years in a low-income urban community. A cross-sectional descriptive study. Kawangware peri-urban slum, Nairobi, Kenya. Three hundred and eighty four school children aged 6-12 years. A total of 4.5% were wasted, 14.9% underweight and 30.2% stunted. The children who were over nine years of age were more underweight (72.4%, p = 0.000) and stunted (77.2%, p = 0.000) than those below eight years. The girls were more wasted (29.1%, p = 0.013) than the boys (18.2%), whereas the boys were more stunted (65.7%, p = 0.003) than the girls (50.7%). The other variables found to have had significant association with the nutritional status of the children were: monthly household income (p = 0.008), food prices (p = 0.012), morbidity trends (p = 0.045), mode of treatment (p = 0.036) and school attendance (p = 0.044). The findings of this study show evidently that there is under nutrition among school age children, with stunting being the most prevalent. The Ministry of Education and Ministry of Health therefore need to develop policies which can alleviate under nutrition among school age children. We also recommend that awareness be created among the school age children, parents and teachers, on the dietary requirements of both boys and girls.

  10. [Influence of pedagogy on vigilance in school age children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaczyk-Martin, C; Nuttens, M C; Hautekeete, M; Salomez, J L; Lequien, P

    1990-01-01

    The relationship between vigilance and pedagogy was studied in 3 middle classes of primary school (children aged between 8 and 9 yrs). Three different types of pedagogy, belonging to 3 major pedagogic currents were evaluated: the pedagogy of Maria Montessori, the traditional one and the so-called "open" pedagogy. The vigilance of children was tested with the psychometric test of Zazzo. The rate of performance of the test was significantly different according to the nature of pedagogy after adjustment of the only 2 confusing factors between the 3 schools: the age of the children and the degree of the mother. This difference was in favor of the pedagogy of Maria Montessori compared with the 2 others. It was observed on the results to the tests but also on learning.

  11. Factor structure of functional state of primary school age children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davidenko O.V.

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The examination of primary school children to determine the ranking of significant factors that determine the structure of their functional state depending on the level of physical health. It is shown that the main factor in the structure of the functional state of younger schoolchildren in low-and lower-middle level of physical fitness is selected morpho-functional status, which characterizes the functions of the body at rest. For children with average or above average level of physical fitness is a leading factor in physical fitness of schoolchildren.

  12. The experience of parents implementing authoritarian parenting for their school-age children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benga Olla, Marice; Catharina Daulima, Novy Helena; Eka Putri, Yossie Susanti

    2018-02-01

    To explore families' experiences who use an authoritarian parenting style in caring for school-age children. This was a qualitative study employing a phenomenological approach. The sampling method was to interview parents of school-age children living in the Central Maluku district in Indonesia. The findings of this study generated the following themes: (1) parents strictly controlled their children to achieve the parental values and expectations, (2) children failed to meet the parental values and expectations, and (3) problems experienced by the children were the results of the parenting style. This study suggested nursing professionals provide adequate information for parents with respect to parenting styles that may facilitate the optimal growth and development of the children. Future studies pertinent to cultural factors associated with authoritarian parenting were also suggested to better understand the cultural context of this parenting style. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  13. Occupational Therapy for School-Aged Children in India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asher, Asha; Jatar, Anuradha; Bijlani, Jyothika

    2015-01-01

    Occupational therapists exploring international opportunities should understand how the profession is practiced globally. This paper describes the framework under which occupational therapy services can be accessed by families of children with disabilities in urban India. Background information about the country, its health care, and occupational…

  14. Epidemiology of streptococcus group A in school aged children in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    According to the epidemiology of group A streptococci and to the environmental and underlying factors which predispose to late group A streptococci sequelae, we suggest to consider antibiotic treatment for children presenting with sore throat with fever and swollen cervical lymphonodes without cough or coryza.

  15. Developmental Coordination Disorder in School-Age Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Gordon Millichap

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The prevalence of developmental coordination disorder (DCD in children, at 7 years of age, in a large UK birth cohort was determined using DSM-IV criteria, in a study at the University of Bristol, UK; and Utrecht University, Netherlands.

  16. Communication Attitudes of Japanese School-Age Children Who Stutter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawai, Norimune; Healey, E. Charles; Nagasawa, Taiko; Vanryckeghem, Martine

    2012-01-01

    Past research with the Communication Attitude Test (CAT) has shown it to be a valid and reliable instrument for assessing speech-associated attitude of children who stutter (CWS). However, in Japan, the CAT has not been used extensively to examine the communication attitude of CWS. The purpose of this study was to determine if a Japanese version…

  17. The advertising literacy of primary school aged children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Opree, S.J.; Rozendaal, E.

    2015-01-01

    Cohort studies have revealed that today’s children are watching more television than ever before (Rideout, Foehr, & Roberts, 2010). An average child will spend two hours per day in front of the television screen (SKO, 2012). Most of this time is spend watching shows on commercial channels like

  18. Emergent Bilingualism and Working Memory Development in School Aged Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Laura Birke; Macizo, Pedro; Duñabeitia, Jon Andoni; Saldaña, David; Carreiras, Manuel; Fuentes, Luis J.; Bajo, M. Teresa

    2016-01-01

    The present research explores working memory (WM) development in monolingual as well as emergent bilingual children immersed in an L2 at school. Evidence from recent years suggests that bilingualism may boost domain-general executive control, but impair nonexecutive linguistic processing. Both are relevant for verbal WM, but different paradigms…

  19. Epilepsy in School-Aged Children: More than Just Seizures?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reilly, Colin; Ballantine, Rebecca

    2011-01-01

    Epilepsy is the most common neurological disorder in childhood and can have a significant impact on a child's schooling. Children with epilepsy may have special educational needs due to having learning disability, specific learning difficulties, specific cognitive deficits or having symptoms associated with ASD, ADHD, depression or anxiety. These…

  20. Prevalence and Pattern of Executive Dysfunction in School Age Children with Congenital Heart Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanz, Jacqueline H.; Berl, Madison M.; Armour, Anna C.; Wang, Jichuan; Cheng, Yao I.; Donofrio, Mary T.

    2016-01-01

    Objective Executive Function, a set of cognitive skills important to social and academic outcomes, is a specific area of cognitive weakness in children with congenital heart disease (CHD). We evaluated the prevalence and profile of executive dysfunction in a heterogeneous sample of school aged children with CHD, examined whether children with executive dysfunction are receiving school services and support, and identified risk factors for executive dysfunction at school age. Design 91 school aged patients completed questionnaires, including the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function (BRIEF) and a medical history questionnaire. An age and gender matched control sample was drawn from a normativedatabase. Results CHD patients had a higher rate of parent reported executive dysfunction (OR=4.37, p0.05). Gender, premature birth (≤37 weeks), and CHD with aortic obstruction were predictive of executive dysfunction, especially for behavior regulation skills. Conclusions School aged children with CHD have an increased prevalence of executive dysfunction, especially problems with working memory and flexibility, and are underserved by the school system. The increased risk for executive dysfunction in those with CHD and prematurity or CHD with aortic obstruction suggests an etiology of delayed brain development in the fetal and neonatal periods, while male gender may increase susceptibility to brain injury. This study highlights the need for regular neurodevelopmental follow up in children with CHD, and a need to better understand mechanisms that contribute to adverse neurodevelopmental outcomes. PMID:27863079

  1. Prospective thinking and decision making in primary school age children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lombardi, Elisabetta; Di Dio, Cinzia; Castelli, Ilaria; Massaro, Davide; Marchetti, Antonella

    2017-06-01

    In this study, we seek to widen our understanding of the developmental processes underlying bargaining behaviour in children addressing the concept of prospective thinking. We argue that the emergence of the capacity to think prospectively about future outcomes or behaviours in response to current actions is a required precedent to strategic decision making. To test this idea, we compared 6, 8 and 10 years old children's performance on three tasks: the ultimatum game assessing fairness/inequality aversion, the marshmallow task, an intertemporal choice task evaluating the ability to delay gratification, and the dictator game assessing altruism. The children's socio-demographic and cognitive variables were also evaluated. We hypothesized that development of strategic thinking in the ultimatum game is related to an increased ability to delay gratification - given that both tasks require looking at prospective benefits - and, crucially, not to altruism, which benefits from immediate selfless reward. Our results confirmed our hypothesis suggesting that increased strategic planning with age would also stem from the development of competencies like prospective thinking.

  2. Growth and Body Composition of School-Aged Children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalskov, Stine-Mathilde

    of this thesis was to identify factors influencing or associated with growth and body composition of 8-11 year old children. Four specific research questions were specified: 1.) Does a school meal intervention based on the New Nordic Diet (NND) influence height, body mass index (BMI) z-score, waist circumference...... period in 8-11-year-olds? 4.) Are there seasonal variations in changes in height, body weight (BW), BMI, FMI and FFMI of 8-11-year-olds? In the school year 2011-2012 we carried out a large randomized, controlled cross-over study among third and fourth graders in 9 Danish schools. Children were provided...... school meals based on a NND for three months and for another three months they ate packed lunch brought from home (control). At baseline, between the two dietary periods, and after the last dietary period children went through a number of investigations. In paper I we showed that ad libitum school meals...

  3. Epidemiology of intestinal nematodes in school-age children of the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: The urban slums, poorly disposed garbage and inadequate toilet facilities in many homes, coupled with the high temperatures, rainfall and humidity that characterise the Kumba urban area, favour the development and transmission of helminth parasites in the area. School-age children are particularly at risk of ...

  4. Predicting who will have asthma at school age among preschool children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Savenije, Olga E. M.; Kerkhof, Marjan; Koppelman, Gerard H.; Postma, Dirkje S.

    It is difficult to distinguish at preschool age whether a wheezing child will or will not have asthma at school age. A prediction rule for asthma in preschool children might help to determine a prognosis and to study improvements in treatment and prevention. This review discusses (1) the development

  5. Visual search in school-aged children with unilateral brain lesions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Netelenbos, J.B.; de Rooij, L.

    2004-01-01

    In this preliminary study, visual search for targets within and beyond the initial field of view was investigated in seven school-aged children (five females, two males; mean age at testing 8 years 10 months, SD 1 year 3 months; range 6 to 10 years) with various acquired, postnatal, focal brain

  6. Evaluation of nutritional status among school-aged children in rural ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Anthropometric indices of heights and weights were obtained from 411 school- aged children, (5-12 years old) in 5 villages (Asakraka, Awiseasu, Miaso, Oframase and Oworobong) during June 2012. Anthropometric parameters and influences that contributed to nutritional status (environmental, health facilities, availability ...

  7. Cognitive Motor Coordination Training Improves Mental Rotation Performance in Primary School-Aged Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pietsch, Stefanie; Böttcher, Caroline; Jansen, Petra

    2017-01-01

    The long-term physical activity in specific sport activities can change the quality of mental rotation performance. This study investigates the influence of "Life Kinetik"--a motion program with tasks of cognition and motor coordination--on mental rotation performance of 44 primary school-aged children. While the experimental group…

  8. Development of morphosyntactic accuracy and grammatical complexity in dutch school-age children with SLI

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zwitserlood, Rob; van Weerdenburg, Marjolijn; Verhoeven, Ludo; Wijnen, Frank|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/074417258

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to identify the development of morphosyntactic accuracy and grammatical complexity in Dutch school-age children with specific language impairment (SLI). Method: Morphosyntactic accuracy, the use of dummy auxiliaries, and complex syntax were assessed using a

  9. Development of morphosyntactic accuracy and grammatical complexity in Dutch school-age children with SLI

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zwitserlood, R.L.M.; Weerdenburg, M.W.C. van; Verhoeven, L.T.W.; Wijnen, F.N.K.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to identify the development of morphosyntactic accuracy and grammatical complexity in Dutch school-age children with specific language impairment (SLI). Method: Morphosyntactic accuracy, the use of dummy auxiliaries, and complex syntax were assessed using a

  10. The Evaluation of a Personal Narrative Language Intervention for School-Age Children with Down Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finestack, Lizbeth; O'Brien, Katy H.; Hyppa-Martin, Jolene; Lyrek, Kristen A.

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of an intervention focused on improving personal narrative skills of school-age children with Down syndrome (DS) using an approach involving visual supports. Four females with DS, ages 10 through 15 years, participated in this multiple baseline across participants single-subject…

  11. Functional Impairments at School Age of Children With Necrotizing Enterocolitis or Spontaneous Intestinal Perforation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roze, Elise; Ta, B.D.; van der Ree, Meike H.; Tanis, Jozien C.; van Braeckel, Koenraad N. J. A.; Hulscher, Jan B. F.; Bos, Arend F.

    2011-01-01

    We aimed to determine motor, cognitive, and behavioral outcome at school age of children who had either necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) or spontaneous intestinal perforation (SIP). This case-control study included infants with NEC Bell's stage IIA onward, infants with SIP, and matched controls

  12. Functional impairments at school age of preterm born children with late-onset sepsis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Ree, Meike; Tanis, Jozien C.; Van Braeckel, Koenraad N. J. A.; Bos, Arend F.; Roze, Elise

    2011-01-01

    Background: Late-onset sepsis is a relatively common complication particularly of preterm birth that affects approximately a quarter of very low birth weight infants. Aim: We aimed to determine the motor, cognitive, and behavioural outcome at school age of preterm children with late-onset sepsis

  13. The Early Motor Repertoire of Children Born Preterm Is Associated With Intelligence at School Age

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bruggink, Janneke L. M.; Van Braeckel, Koenraad N.; Bos, Arend F.

    OBJECTIVE: The goal was to determine whether the quality of general movements (GMs) for preterm children had predictive value for cognitive development at school age. METHODS: In this prospective cohort study, 60 preterm infants (gestational age, median: 30.0 weeks [range: 25-33 weeks]; birth

  14. Patterns of Parental Rearing Styles and Child Behaviour Problems among Portuguese School-Aged Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Ana I. F.; Canavarro, Cristina; Cardoso, Margarida F.; Mendonca, Denisa

    2009-01-01

    The majority of studies investigating the effects of parental behaviour on the child's adjustment have a dimensional approach. We identified the existence of various patterns in parental rearing styles and analysed the relationship between different parenting patterns and behavioural problems in a group of school-aged children. A longitudinal,…

  15. Working with Homeless School-Aged Children: Barriers to School Social Work Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groton, Danielle; Teasley, Martell L.; Canfield, James P.

    2013-01-01

    With the needs and challenges of adolescent homelessness on the rise, the McKinney-Vento Homeless Assistance Act (MVA) was crafted as a public policy initiative aimed at facilitating access to schools for this population. While school social workers are the designated personnel for practice with homeless school-aged children, we know little about…

  16. Differential effects of sleep disordered breathing on polysomnographic characteristics in preschool and school aged children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walter, Lisa M; Nixon, Gillian M; Davey, Margot J; Anderson, Vicki; Trinder, John; Walker, Adrian; Horne, Rosemary S C

    2012-08-01

    Childhood sleep disordered breathing (SDB) peaks in the preschool years. We aimed to compare the effects of SDB on polysomnographic characteristics between preschool and school aged children. One hundred and fifty-two preschool (3-5 y) and 105 school-aged (7-12 y) children, referred for assessment of SDB, plus controls (39, 3-5 y and 34, 7-12 y) with no history of snoring underwent overnight polysomnography. Subjects were grouped by their obstructive apnea hypopnea index (AHI) into those with primary snoring, mild obstructive sleep apnea (OSA), and moderate/severe OSA. The effects of SDB severity on sleep architecture and respiratory characteristics were compared between the age cohorts using quantile regression. There was an average reduction in median sleep efficiency of 3.5% (p=0.004) and an average increase in median WASO of 2% (p=0.08) between the age cohorts across the severity groups, with sleep efficiency falling and WASO increasing with increasing SDB severity in the school-aged, but not the preschool, cohort. There was an average difference in median central AHI of 0.6 events/h (ptimes throughout the night than do school aged children with a comparable severity of SDB, but experience more central apneas. This may have implications for the outcomes and treatment of SDB in children of different ages. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Iodine Status of School-Aged Children in Urue Offong/Oruko Local ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: This study was designed to determine the prevalence of iodine deficiency of school aged children in Urue Offong Oruko local government area of Akwa Ibom State using recommended quantifiable indicators. Subject and Methods: A community-based, cross-sectional study was conducted among 1800 school ...

  18. Sensory processing difficulties in school-age children born very preterm: An exploratory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bröring, Tinka; Königs, Marsh; Oostrom, Kim J; Lafeber, Harrie N; Brugman, Anniek; Oosterlaan, Jaap

    2018-02-01

    Very preterm birth has a detrimental impact on the developing brain, including widespread white matter brain abnormalities that threaten efficient sensory processing. Yet, sensory processing difficulties in very preterm children are scarcely studied, especially at school age. To investigate somatosensory registration, multisensory integration and sensory modulation. 57 very preterm school-age children (mean age=9.2years) were compared to 56 gender and age matched full-term children. Group differences on somatosensory registration tasks (Registration of Light Touch, Sensory Discrimination of Touch, Position Sense, Graphestesia), a computerized multisensory integration task, and the parent-reported Sensory Profile were investigated using t-tests and Mann-Whitney U tests. In comparison to full-term children, very preterm children are less accurate on somatosensory registration tasks, including Registration of Light Touch (d=0.34), Position Sense (d=0.31) and Graphestesia (d=0.42) and show more sensory modulation difficulties (d=0.41), including both behavioral hyporesponsivity (d=0.52) and hyperresponsivity (d=0.56) to sensory stimuli. Tactile discrimination and multisensory integration efficiency were not affected in very preterm children. Aspects of sensory processing were only modestly related. Very preterm children show sensory processing difficulties regarding somatosensory registration and sensory modulation, and preserved multisensory (audio-visual) integration. Follow-up care for very preterm children should involve screening of sensory processing difficulties at least up to school age. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Selected executive functions in children with ADHD in early school age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aneta Rita Borkowska

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The study was aimed at finding out whether at the early school age the effectiveness of executive functions distinguishes children with ADHD from those of the control group. Besides, the aim was to check to what extent the use of diagnostic methods evaluating executive functions in children at the early school age is justified. The analysis comprised cognitive flexibility, sustained attention, interference control and planning ability. Those methods of neuropsychological evaluation were used which are mostly applied to characterize executive functions: Wisconsin Card Sorting Test, interference task based on the Stroop Interference Test, and tests of verbal fluency and Tower of London. The examined group consisted of 50 children aged 7-10: 25 children with hyperactivity of combined type and 25 children of the control group. Each group consisted of 23 boys and 2 girls. The average age in the criterial group was 8 years and 10 months (SD=10 months, whereas in the control group – 8 years and 6 months (SD=11 months. According to the obtained results, children with ADHD at early school age do not exhibit a wide spectrum of executive functions deficits, which is probably associated with immaturity of executive processes in all children of that age. The findings comprised only difficulties in inhibition of response, monitoring of activity, and ability of executive attention to intentional guidance of the mental effort depending on the task’s requirements. In investigations of children with ADHD at early school age the use of neuropsychological tests and trials designed for evaluation of executive functions is justified only in limited degree. They do not significantly distinguish between children with ADHD and children without this disorder, therefore the results may be mainly of descriptive, and not explanatory, value.

  20. Domain-Specific Impulsivity in School-Age Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsukayama, Eli; Duckworth, Angela Lee; Kim, Betty

    2013-01-01

    Impulsivity is a salient individual difference in children with well-established predictive validity for life outcomes. The current investigation proposes that impulsive behaviors vary systematically by domain. In a series of studies with ethnically and socioeconomically diverse samples of middle school students, we find that schoolwork-related and interpersonal-related impulsivity, as observed by teachers, parents, and the students themselves, are distinct, moderately correlated behavioral tendencies. Each demonstrates differentiated relationships with dimensions of childhood temperament, Big Five personality factors, and outcomes, such as sociometric popularity, report card grades, and classroom conduct. Implications for theoretical conceptions of impulsivity as well as for practical applications (e.g., domain-specific interventions) are discussed. PMID:24118714

  1. Growth and Body Composition of School-Aged Children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalskov, Stine-Mathilde

    of contemporary Danish children. We did find the “classical” height velocity peak during spring, but unlike many earlier studies this was coincident with peaks in BW, BMI and FFMI velocities. Seasonal variation in physical activity may explain seasonal variations in BW and body composition velocities. Taken......Growth and body composition in childhood are influenced by many factors. Some of these are modifiable e.g. dietary intake, while others may be less easy to influence. The hormonal regulation of growth and body composition during childhood is complex and the interrelationship between the numerous...... growth or remodeling. Seasonal variations in growth and changes in body composition, if present, are of interest when trying to understand the regulation of growth. They may also be important to be aware of when assessing growth and body composition during shorter periods of time. The overall aim...

  2. Cultural and age differences of three groups of Taiwanese young children's creativity and drawing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Mei-Hue; Dzeng, Annie

    2013-06-01

    This study investigated the cultural and age effects on children's overall creativity and drawing. 1,055 children ages 6 to 8 from three groups--urban and rural Taiwanese children and Taiwanese children of immigrant mothers, all in public schools--were given a creativity test, a people-drawing test, and a free-drawing test. The results showed that the older Taiwanese children scored higher than the young Taiwanese children on people-drawing and free-drawing, but not overall creativity. Drawing and creativity scores increased in accordance with age. In the six-year-old group, a group difference was found only on the scale of people-drawing. Urban Taiwanese children in the eight-year-old group scored higher than the other two groups of children on creativity and free-drawing. Results are discussed in terms of educational opportunities.

  3. Correlation analysis of electronic products with myopia in preschool and school aged children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li-Li Sun

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To explore the influence of electronic products on myopia in preschool and school aged children, and the development regularities of myopia, to formulate reasonable guidelines for using eyes healthily, and lay a solid foundation for the prevention and control work. METHODS: This retrospective analysis enrolled 900 3~12 years old children from outpatients department, and all of them were established individualized archives, recording: uncorrected visual acuity, optometry, slit lamp, ophthalmoscopy, strabismus inspection results; recording eye usage condition on TVs, computers, mobile phones, iPad, homework, extra-curricular books. Statistical analyze the refractive status of each age group, the use of electronic products of different age groups and their correlation with refractive status. RESULTS: The number of preschool children with normal uncorrected visual acuity was more than that of early school-age children, and the difference was statistically significant(PP>0.05; the number of children aged 7~12(early school aged childrenwith myopia was more than that of children aged 3~6(preschool childrenand the difference was statistically significant(PCONCLUSION: For preschool children, it is necessary to conduct early screening, health guidance, the establishment of personalized medical records and one-to-one personalized guidance; it is also needed to avoid the arduous learning task with the stacking usage of eyes, to fight for myopia and to control the development of myopia. Therefore, to reduce the use of electronic products has become a topic worthy of further study.

  4. Prevalence of parent-reported immediate hypersensitivity food allergy in Chilean school-aged children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoyos-Bachiloglu, R; Ivanovic-Zuvic, D; Álvarez, J; Linn, K; Thöne, N; de los Ángeles Paul, M; Borzutzky, A

    2014-01-01

    Food allergies (FAs) affect 2-4% of school-aged children in developed countries and strongly impact their quality of life. The prevalence of FA in Chile remains unknown. Cross-sectional survey study of 488 parents of school-aged children from Santiago who were asked to complete a FA screening questionnaire. Parents who reported symptoms suggestive of FA were contacted to answer a second in-depth questionnaire to determine immediate hypersensitivity FA prevalence and clinical characteristics of school-aged Chilean children. A total of 455 parents answered the screening questionnaire: 13% reported recurrent symptoms to a particular food and 6% reported FA. Forty-three screening questionnaires (9%) were found to be suggestive of FA. Parents of 40 children answered the second questionnaire; 25 were considered by authors to have FA. FA rate was 5.5% (95% CI: 3.6-7.9). Foods reported to frequently cause FA included walnut, peanut, egg, chocolate, avocado, and banana. Children with FA had more asthma (20% vs. 7%, PChilean children may suffer from FA, most frequently to walnut and peanut. It is critical to raise awareness in Chile regarding FA and recognition of anaphylaxis, and promote epinephrine autoinjectors in affected children. Copyright © 2013 SEICAP. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  5. Socioeconomic and Behavioral Characteristics Associated With Metabolic Syndrome Among Overweight/Obese School-age Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ham, Ok Kyung

    Obesity in children comprises a significant public health concern in Korea. As with increased prevalence of overweight and obesity among children, risk factors for metabolic syndrome (MetS) have also increased in this population. The purpose was to examine behavioral and socioeconomic factors that were associated with biomarkers of MetS among overweight/obese school-age children. A cross-sectional study was conducted, and a convenience sample of 75 overweight/obese school-age children participated. Socioeconomic and behavioral characteristics, anthropometric measurements, and physiologic examinations were studied. The data were analyzed using an analysis of covariance and logistic regression. Metabolic syndrome was diagnosed in 27.8% of our population. Severe stress was significantly associated with elevated systolic blood pressure (P characteristics, children's perception of family income (wealthy and very wealthy) and mother's education level (high school or less) were associated with diagnoses of MetS in children (P characteristics were associated with risk factors of MetS, and therefore, interventions to modify these risk factors are needed to promote the healthy development of overweight/obese school-age children.

  6. Factors associated with bed and room sharing in Chinese school-aged children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, S; Jin, X; Yan, C; Wu, S; Jiang, F; Shen, X

    2009-03-01

    Co-sleeping (bed or room sharing) has potential implications for children's development. Previous studies showed that co-sleeping was more prevalent in non-Western countries than in Western countries, which demonstrated that co-sleeping was marked with ethnic and socio-cultural background characteristics. The purpose of this study was to survey the prevalence of bed and room sharing and to examine related factors among school-aged children in an Asian country - China. A cross-sectional questionnaire survey was conducted in 10 districts of Shanghai, China from November to December 2005. A total of 4108 elementary school children, 49.2% boys and 50.8% girls with a mean age of 8.79 years, participated. Parent-administered questionnaires were used to collect information about children's sleeping arrangements and socio-demographic characteristics. The prevalence of routine bed sharing, room sharing and sleeping alone in Chinese school-aged children was 21.0%, 19.1% and 47.7%, respectively. Bed and room sharing didn't show significant gender difference but gradually decreased with increasing age. Multivariate logistic regression identified those factors associated with bed and room sharing: younger age, large family, children without their own bedroom and parents' approval of a co-sleeping arrangement. Co-sleeping arrangement was a common practice in Chinese school-aged children. Associated factors were characterized by intrinsic socio-cultural values and socio-economic status in China.

  7. Prospective thinking and decision making in primary school age children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabetta Lombardi

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we seek to widen our understanding of the developmental processes underlying bargaining behaviour in children addressing the concept of prospective thinking. We argue that the emergence of the capacity to think prospectively about future outcomes or behaviours in response to current actions is a required precedent to strategic decision making. To test this idea, we compared 6, 8 and 10 years old children’s performance on three tasks: the ultimatum game assessing fairness/inequality aversion, the marshmallow task, an intertemporal choice task evaluating the ability to delay gratification, and the dictator game assessing altruism. The children’s socio-demographic and cognitive variables were also evaluated. We hypothesized that development of strategic thinking in the ultimatum game is related to an increased ability to delay gratification − given that both tasks require looking at prospective benefits − and, crucially, not to altruism, which benefits from immediate selfless reward. Our results confirmed our hypothesis suggesting that increased strategic planning with age would also stem from the development of competencies like prospective thinking.

  8. Social Adversity and Regional Differences in Prescribing of ADHD Medication for School-Age Children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kildemoes, Helle Wallach; Skovgaard, Anne Mette; Thielen, Karsten

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: To explore whether regional variations in the initiation of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) medication among school-age children are explained by differences in sociodemographic composition and/or ADHD prescribing practice, especially in children who face social...... adversity (low parental education and single parenthood). Methods: A cohort of Danish school-age children (ages 5–17) without previous psychiatric conditions (N = 813,416) was followed during 2010–2011 for incident ADHD prescribing in the individual-level Danish registers. Register information was retrieved...... for both children and their parents. Regional differences were decomposed into contributions from differences in sociodemographic composition and in prescribing practices. Incidence rate ratios (IRR) with 95% confidence interval (CI) of ADHD prescribing were calculated using demographically standardized...

  9. The Impact of Nutrition, Sedentary Behaviour and Lifestyle on School-Age Children

    OpenAIRE

    Pantea-Stoian Anca; Chilianu Sabina; Stefanca Florentina; Elian Viviana; Serafinceanu Cristian

    2015-01-01

    Background and Aims. Diet and lifestyle in school-age children have a particularly large impact on health, as well as various consequences in future. The objective of this papers it to assess the relationship between lifestyle and daily diet and the effects of an unhealthy diet. Material and Methods. An observational cohort study was conducted in Bucharest, in three schools and one high school on 100 children, between 2011 and 2013. The criterion for inclusion was the appropriate age (school-...

  10. Psychosocial coping resources in elementary school-age children of divorce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurtz, L

    1994-10-01

    The psychosocial coping resources of elementary school-age children living in the sole custody of a divorced single parent were compared with those of their peers living with nondivorced parents. Children of divorced parents were found to have lower levels of self-efficacy, self-esteem, and social support, and less effectual coping styles. Contact with the noncustodial parent was found to have a positive influence on their attitudes toward divorce.

  11. Hypnosis for treatment of insomnia in school-age children: a retrospective chart review

    OpenAIRE

    Slothower Molly P; Anbar Ran D

    2006-01-01

    Abstract Background The purposes of this study are to document psychosocial stressors and medical conditions associated with development of insomnia in school-age children and to report use of hypnosis for this condition. Methods A retrospective chart review was performed for 84 children and adolescents with insomnia, excluding those with central or obstructive sleep apnea. All patients were offered and accepted instruction in self-hypnosis for treatment of insomnia, and for other symptoms if...

  12. Development of Daily Activities in School-Age Children with Cerebral Palsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smits, Dirk-Wouter; Ketelaar, Marjolijn; Gorter, Jan Willem; van Schie, Petra; Dallmeijer, Annet; Jongmans, Marian; Lindeman, Eline

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe the course of capabilities in self-care, mobility, and social function in school-age children with cerebral palsy (CP) and to investigate associations with CP-, child-, and family-characteristics. A clinic-based sample of children with CP (n = 116; 76 males, 40 females; mean age 6 y 3 mo, SD 12 mo) was…

  13. Urinary Iodine Concentrations Indicate Iodine Deficiency in Pregnant Thai Women but Iodine Sufficiency in Their School-Aged Children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gowachirapant, S.; Winichagoon, P.; Wyss, L.; Tong, B.; Baumgartner, J.; Boonstra, A.; Zimmermann, M.B.

    2009-01-01

    The median urinary iodine concentration (UI) in school-aged children is recommended for assessment of iodine nutrition in populations. If the median UI is adequate in school-aged children, it is usually assumed iodine intakes are also adequate in the remaining population, including pregnant women.

  14. [Overweight in primary school-age children. Prevalence and risk factors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funk, M B; Bausback-Schomakers, S; Hanschmann, K M; Gerhards, B; Kuhn, K; Krackhardt, B

    2015-10-01

    Various studies show that pre-school age is a sensitive period for the development of overweight and obesity. During a longitudinal study between 2010 and 2013, the municipal health authority (city of Frankfurt) in cooperation with the university children's hospital investigated the development of weight in children aged 5 to 8. The weight and height of a collective of 5720 children were measured (2010/11). In addition, nutritional and exercise habits, as well as media consumption was documented for 4758 children through a questionnaire during the school enrolment procedure. The weight and height of 3481 children were measured again in the second grade (2012/13). Over a period of 24 months, the percentage of overweight (not obese) children increased from 7.5 to 9.4 % and that of obese children from 4.5 to 5.0 %. 164 of 2818 children with a normal initial weight (5.8 %) changed to percentile class overweight or obese. 79 of 260 children who were initially overweight, not obese (30 %), changed to the group of normal weight, but only 4 out of 156 obese children (3 %). Increased TV consumption (> 1 h per day), availability of their own television, lack of physical activity, and consumption of high-calorie drinks were risk factors for the development of overweight during the primary school age. 72 % of parents of overweight children and 22 % of obese children falsely classified their children as normal weight. Targeted education about the risk of obesity in the primary school age and offers for early intervention should be established in the healthcare services concerned.

  15. Catch-up growth does not associate with cognitive development in Indian school-age children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sokolovic, N; Selvam, S; Srinivasan, K; Thankachan, P; Kurpad, A V; Thomas, T

    2014-01-01

    Stunting is significantly associated with lifetime morbidity and poorer cognitive outcomes in children. Although several studies have examined the relationship between stunting, catch-up growth and cognitive performance in young populations, this relationship has not yet been explored in school-aged children. In this study, we used data from three different nutritional intervention studies conducted over a 4-year period on school-age children in Bangalore, India to assess these relationships. A battery of cognitive tests was conducted before each intervention to determine whether stunting status at baseline was related to cognitive performance across four separate domains, and repeated after a 6-month period to assess whether changes to stunting status is related to cognitive advancement. Results of independent t-tests showed that while stunted children had significantly poorer performance on short-term memory, retrieval ability and visuospatial ability tests (P=0.023, 0.026 and 0.028, respectively), there was no significant difference in the change in cognitive scores following nutritional interventions over a 6-month period between those who remained stunted and those who were no longer stunted (P>0.10). Evidently, stunting remains associated with cognitive ability in school-age children; however, the reversal of these effects in this age group may be quite difficult.

  16. Diagnostic History and Treatment of School-Aged Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder and Special Health Care Needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... History and Treatment of School-aged Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder and Special Health Care Needs Recommend on Facebook ... children with special health care needs (CSHCN) and autism spectrum disorder (ASD) were first identified as having ASD was ...

  17. Self-care of school-age children with diabetes: an integrative review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelo, Marjatta; Martikainen, Marja; Eriksson, Elina

    2011-10-01

    This paper is a report of an integrative review of findings from empirical studies on self-care in school-age children with type 1 diabetes. The purpose is to generate insight into opportunities to develop empowering patient education. Managing diabetes is demanding and requires parental involvement in care. Good self-care forms the basis for diabetes management and self-care patterns are established at school age, but how and to what extent school-age children increase their self-care capabilities is unclear. A search for studies from 1998 to 2010 focusing on self-care in school-age children with diabetes was conducted through electronic databases. Using integrative methods, quantitative and qualitative papers surveyed were analysed separately, but the themes that arose were combined at the end of the analysis. Self-care is formed in a learning process involving the objectives of normality, being able to cope and independence. The content of self-care is a combination of knowledge and skills. Children have the technical skill, but they need their parents to participate in the care and share responsibility for it. The factors related to self-care comprised the characteristics of the child; the nature of the illness and care; and support from the parents, school environment, peers and healthcare team. A balance between diabetes care requirements and a child's maturity should be found. Nurses must adopt an empowering manner of education and recognize and assess a child's readiness to learn diabetes care and bear responsibility for it. Nurses must also help parents and other adults to gradually shift the responsibility to the children. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  18. Handwriting performance of preterm children at school age: a literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julie Souza de Medeiros Rocha

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: At school age, handwriting is on of the most important tasks among the fine motor activities. Good handwriting performance contributes to the child´s school performance. As prematurity impacts on motor development, it may influence handwriting. Objective: To review the specific literature and investigate whether there are differences in handwriting performance at school age between children born preterm and full term. Method: A search was performed in the Capes electronic database, in English and Portuguese, comprising the time period between January 2000 and June 2012. Articles were selected according to the inclusion criteria; the sample, objectives, instruments utilized and outcomes were analyzed. Results: Six articles were included in the study. Data analysis indicates that children born prematurely present poorer handwriting performance and a handicap in the underlying handwriting mechanisms when compared with full term infants. Conclusion: Preterm children without obvious neurological impairment are at increased risk for problems in handwriting development at school age. The small number of recent studies on this topic indicates a need for further research, as well as the development of standardized resources for the motor and handwriting assessment of Brazilian children.

  19. Toxoplasma gondii seropositivity and cognitive functions in school-aged children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendy, A; Vieira, E R; Albatineh, A N; Gasana, J

    2015-08-01

    Toxoplasma gondii (T. gondii) infects one-third of the world population, but its association with cognitive functions in school-aged children is unclear. We examined the relationship between Toxoplasma seropositivity and neuropsychological tests scores (including math, reading, visuospatial reasoning and verbal memory) in 1755 school-aged children 12-16 years old who participated to the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, using multiple linear regressions adjusted for covariates. Toxoplasma seroprevalence was 7·7% and seropositivity to the parasite was associated with lower reading skills (regression coefficient [β] = -5·86, 95% confidence interval [CI]: -11·11, -0·61, P = 0·029) and memory capacities (β = -0·86, 95% CI: -1·58, -0·15, P = 0·017). The interaction between T. gondii seropositivity and vitamin E significantly correlated with memory scores. In subgroup analysis, Toxoplasma-associated memory impairment was worse in children with lower serum vitamin E concentrations (β = -1·61, 95% CI: -2·44, -0·77, P Toxoplasma seropositivity may be associated with reading and memory impairments in school-aged children. Serum vitamin E seems to modify the relationship between the parasitic infection and memory deficiency.

  20. Maternal employment and Mexican school-age children overweight in 2012: the importance of households features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espinosa, Alejandro Martínez

    2018-01-01

    International evidence regarding the relationship between maternal employment and school-age children overweight and obesity shows divergent results. In Mexico, this relationship has not been confirmed by national data sets analysis. Consequently, the objective of this article was to evaluate the role of the mothers' participation in labor force related to excess body weight in Mexican school-age children (aged 5-11 years). A cross-sectional study was conducted on a sample of 17,418 individuals from the National Health and Nutrition Survey 2012, applying binomial logistic regression models. After controlling for individual, maternal and contextual features, the mothers' participation in labor force was associated with children body composition. However, when the household features (living arrangements, household ethnicity, size, food security and socioeconomic status) were incorporated, maternal employment was no longer statically significant. Household features are crucial factors for understanding the overweight and obesity prevalence levels in Mexican school-age children, despite the mother having a paid job. Copyright: © 2018 Permanyer.

  1. Vital signs: sodium intake among U.S. school-aged children - 2009-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cogswell, Mary E; Yuan, Keming; Gunn, Janelle P; Gillespie, Cathleen; Sliwa, Sarah; Galuska, Deborah A; Barrett, Jan; Hirschman, Jay; Moshfegh, Alanna J; Rhodes, Donna; Ahuja, Jaspreet; Pehrsson, Pamela; Merritt, Robert; Bowman, Barbara A

    2014-09-12

    A national health objective is to reduce average U.S. sodium intake to 2,300 mg daily to help prevent high blood pressure, a major cause of heart disease and stroke. Identifying common contributors to sodium intake among children can help reduction efforts. Average sodium intake, sodium consumed per calorie, and proportions of sodium from food categories, place obtained, and eating occasion were estimated among 2,266 school-aged (6–18 years) participants in What We Eat in America, the dietary intake component of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2009–2010. U.S. school-aged children consumed an estimated 3,279 mg of sodium daily with the highest total intake (3,672 mg/d) and intake per 1,000 kcal (1,681 mg) among high school–aged children. Forty-three percent of sodium came from 10 food categories: pizza, bread and rolls, cold cuts/cured meats, savory snacks, sandwiches, cheese, chicken patties/nuggets/tenders, pasta mixed dishes, Mexican mixed dishes, and soups. Sixty-five percent of sodium intake came from store foods, 13% from fast food/pizza restaurants, 5% from other restaurants, and 9% from school cafeteria foods. Among children aged 14–18 years, 16% of total sodium intake came from fast food/pizza restaurants versus 11% among those aged 6–10 years or 11–13 years (pschool meal on the day assessed, 26% of sodium intake came from school cafeteria foods. Thirty-nine percent of sodium was consumed at dinner, followed by lunch (29%), snacks (16%), and breakfast (15%). Sodium intake among school-aged children is much higher than recommended. Multiple food categories, venues, meals, and snacks contribute to sodium intake among school-aged children supporting the importance of populationwide strategies to reduce sodium intake. New national nutrition standards are projected to reduce the sodium content of school meals by approximately 25%–50% by 2022. Based on this analysis, if there is no replacement from other sources, sodium intake

  2. The oral core vocabulary of typically developing English-speaking school-aged children: implications for AAC practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boenisch, Jens; Soto, Gloria

    2015-03-01

    This study analyzes the core vocabulary used by typically developing school-aged English-speaking children in the United States while participating in a variety of school activities. The language of typically developing children, some of whom spoke English as a second language was recorded, transcribed and analyzed to identify the most frequently used words across samples. An inventory of oral core vocabulary of typically developing school-aged children resulted from this analysis. This inventory can be used as a source list for vocabulary selection for school-aged children with AAC needs. Implications for vocabulary selection are discussed.

  3. METHODS AND TECHNIQUES OF TEACHING CHILDREN OF PRE-SCHOOL AGE THE SPORTS DANCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VARNACOVA ELEONORA

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The article exposes some conclusions about the influence of the sports dance on the multilateral development of a preschool child`s personality. The author presents methods and techniques used in the didactic activity of teaching-learning the sports dance in groups of children of under school age. At the same time, she outlines the methods of organizing systematically her classes and the fact that the teacher is free to choose the time when to deliver theoretical courses or have practical classes taking in consideration the children`s individual abilities.

  4. Narrative skill and syntactic complexity in school-age children with and without late language emergence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domsch, Celeste; Richels, Corrin; Saldana, Michelle; Coleman, Cardin; Wimberly, Clayton; Maxwell, Lauren

    2012-01-01

    Children who do not produce single words by the expected age have been described as 'late talkers' or as demonstrating 'late language emergence' (LLE). Although their short-term growth in vocabulary is often strong, longer-term consequences of LLE remain in dispute. It has been argued that the majority of school-age children who had LLE move into the average range for narrative production, though studies have not examined narrative comprehension. It has also been argued that school-age children with LLE score in the average range on standardized tests of syntax, though studies have not examined performance in conversational contexts. This article compared school-age children with and without histories of LLE for performance on standardized narrative comprehension and production tasks, as well as the use of complex sentences and relative clauses in narration and conversation. Both complex syntax and relative clause use are reduced in children with specific language impairment (SLI), so these structures may be useful as indicators of linguistic weakness. The participants were twenty-two 8-year-old children, divided into two groups. Eleven children who had been diagnosed with LLE at 30 months were compared with a control group of 11 children with typical development (TD). All participants completed a standardized test of narrative comprehension and production and a 10-min conversational sample. Both narrative and conversational samples were analysed for the number of complex sentences and relative clauses. Overall results indicated that children with a history of LLE did not have comprehension or production scores that were significantly different from the TD group on the standardized narrative test; nor did groups differ for production of complex sentences or relative clauses in narrative samples. However, a significant difference was found for the production of complex sentences in conversational samples, with the children diagnosed with LLE producing fewer complex

  5. Sexual education for children in younger school age with Autism Spectrum Disorder in the family

    OpenAIRE

    KOBLÁSOVÁ, Pavla

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this thesis is to present some problems connected with sexual education of junior school-age children suffering from Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) and to examine to which extent their parents are informed about this topic. The thesis is divided into two parts, theoretical and practical. The theoretical part focuses on describing the individual disorders, which are encompassed in the overall diagnosis under the label ASD, such as Infantile Autism, Asperger Disorder, Rett Syndrome,...

  6. Mentally-Retarded Children of a Pre-School Age and the Development of Movement Skills

    OpenAIRE

    Morávková, Šárka

    2006-01-01

    The diploma work covers the issues of children with mental retardation in pre-school age aimed to the development of the movement abilities. It focuses on the relationships between the pre-school child with mental retardation and possibilities of developing its motor skills in context of an organized pre-school education. Theoretical part of the Diploma work indicates the development specifics of the indi- vidual due to mental retardation, describes mainly the movement development of the chil...

  7. Therapeutic techniques and their use for children with disabilities at school age

    OpenAIRE

    KOLÁŘOVÁ, Marie

    2013-01-01

    The topic of this bachelor thesis are therapheutical techniques and the way they are used in helping school-age children with disabilities. The theoretical part of this thesis defines the terms "therapy", "therapist" and ?comprehensive rehabilitation system?. Comprehensive rehabilitation system comprises not only occupational, social and pedagogical resources, but primarily also therapeutic resources that include (but are not limited to) therapies (e.g. ergotherapy, animal-assisted therapy, m...

  8. Dietary patterns are associated with overweight and obesity in Mexican school-age children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Ramírez, Sonia; Mundo-Rosas, Verónica; García-Guerra, Armando; Shamah-Levy, Teresa

    2011-09-01

    In Mexico, about one third of school-age population is overweight or obese and the diet is one of the main determinants. The purpose of this study was to identify the dietary patterns of Mexican school-age children and to determine their association with the risk of overweight/obesity. This study included 8252 school-age children who participated in the 2006 National Health and Nutrition Survey (ENSANUT-2006). Dietary data were collected using a 7-day Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ). Foods were classified into 25 groups and dietary patterns were defined by cluster analysis. Body Mass Index and prevalence of overweight/obesity were calculated. Logistic regression models were used to evaluate the association between dietary patterns and overweight/obesity. Five dietary patterns were identified: Rural dietary pattern (high intake of tortilla and legumes), sweet cereal and corn dishes pattern (high intake of sugary cereals, tortilla, and maize products); diverse pattern (intake of several food groups); western pattern (high intake of sweetened beverages, fried snacks, industrial snack cakes, and sugary cereals), and whole milk and sweet pattern (high intake of whole milk and sweets). We found that children with sweet cereal and corn dishes and western dietary patterns showed an association with overweight and obesity (prevalence ratio 1.29 and 1.35, respectively, using as reference the rural dietary pattern). Patterns characterized by high intakes of sugary cereals, sweetened beverages, industrial snack, cakes, whole milk, and sweets were associated with a higher risk of overweight/obesity among in Mexican school-age children.

  9. Alimentation of the younger school-aged children in relationship with the school environment

    OpenAIRE

    Vanya, Ondřej

    2013-01-01

    This bachelor thesis provides information about the eating of the younger school-aged children with a special focus on their eating habits during the morning time at school. This age group carries certain alimentation particularities, which need to be observed. A theoretical part of the thesis contains the key information about this issue. A practical part deals with a research at a selected primary school. The research focuses on the determination of the first school pupil's alimentation, th...

  10. The association between watching television and obesity in children of school-age in Saudi Arabia

    OpenAIRE

    Al-Ghamdi, Sameer H.

    2013-01-01

    Background: There is little information on the association between watching Television (TV) and obesity in the Arabian Peninsula. Aim of the Study: The aim of this study was to explore the association between the watching of television and obesity in Saudi children of school-age. Materials and Methods: A case-controlled study was conducted with students between the ages of 9 and 14 years who attended the school health clinic in King Abdulaziz Housing for National Guard (Iskan), Riyadh, Saudi ...

  11. Dental Treatment Needs in Vancouver Inner-City Elementary School-Aged Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Samim

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims. To examine the dental treatment needs of inner-city Vancouver elementary school-aged children and relate them to sociodemographic characteristics. Methods. A census sampling comprising 562 children from six out of eight eligible schools was chosen (response rate was 65.4%. Dental treatment needs were assessed based on criteria from the World Health Organization. Results. Every third child examined needed at least one restorative treatment. A higher proportion of children born outside Canada were in need of more extensive dental treatments such as pulp care and extractions compared to the children born in Canada. There were no statistically significant differences in dental treatment needs between age, gender, or income groups or between children with or without dental insurance (Chi Squared P>0.05. The best significant predictors (Linear Multiple Regression, P>0.05 of higher dental treatment needs were being born outside Canada, gender, time of last dental visit, and family income. Having dental insurance did not associate with needing less treatment. Conclusion. A high level of unmet dental treatment needs (32% was found in inner-city Vancouver elementary school-aged children. Children born outside Canada, particularly the ones who recently arrived to Canada, needed more extensive dental treatments than children born in Canada.

  12. Fine motor function of school-aged children with dyslexia, learning disability and learning difficulties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capellini, Simone Aparecida; Coppede, Aline Cirelli; Valle, Talita Regina

    2010-01-01

    fine motor function of school-aged children with dyslexia, learning disabilities and learning difficulties. this study aimed to characterize the fine motor, sensory and perceptive function of school-aged children with dyslexia, learning disabilities and learning difficulties and to correlate these results with the analysis of the children's handwriting. participants were 80 2nd to 4th graders, ranging in age from 7 to 12 years, of both genders, divided as follows: GI: composed of 20 students with dyslexia, GII: composed of 20 students with learning disabilities, GIII: composed of 20 students with learning difficulties and GIV: composed of 20 good readers. All of the children were submitted to an assessment of the fine motor, sensorial and perceptive functions using the Dysgraphia Scale. the results indicated that most groups presented a poor performance in tests of FMF7 (fingers opposition), S8 (graphestesia) and P1 (body imitation). GI and GII were the groups that presented the worst performance in most of the tests when compared to GIII and GIV. Regarding handwriting, it was observed that all of the children in GII are dysgraphics. the presence of motor, sensorial and perceptive alterations is a characteristic of children with learning disabilities and dyslexia. However this characteristic may or may not be found in children with learning difficulties, therefore motor, sensorial and perceptive alterations are responsible for the dysgraphic behavior observed in the children with learning disabilities of the present study.

  13. Amblyopia and refractive errors among school-aged children with low socioeconomic status in southeastern Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caca, Ihsan; Cingu, Abdullah Kursat; Sahin, Alparslan; Ari, Seyhmus; Dursun, Mehmet Emin; Dag, Umut; Balsak, Selahattin; Alakus, Fuat; Yavuz, Abdullah; Palanci, Yilmaz

    2013-01-01

    To investigate the prevalence of refractive errors and other eye diseases, incidence and types of amblyopia in school-aged children, and their relation to gender, age, parental education, and socioeconomic factors. A total of 21,062 children 6 to 14 years old were screened. The examination included visual acuity measurements and ocular motility evaluation. Autorefraction under cycloplegia and examination of the external eye, anterior segment, media, and fundus were performed. There were 11,118 females and 9,944 males. The average age was 10.56 ± 3.59 years. When all of the children were evaluated, 3.2% had myopia and 5.9% had hyperopia. Astigmatism 0.50 D or greater was present in 14.3% of children. Myopia was associated with older age, female gender, and higher parental education. Hyperopia was inversely proportional with older age. Spectacles were needed in 4,476 (22.7%) children with refractive errors, and 10.6% of children were unaware of their spectacle needs. Amblyopia was detected in 2.6% of all children. The most common causes of amblyopia were anisometropia (1.2%) and strabismus (0.9%). Visual impairment is a common disorder in school-aged children. Eye health screening programs are beneficial in early detection and proper treatment of refractive errors. Copyright 2013, SLACK Incorporated.

  14. High burden of Schistosoma mansoni infection in school-aged children in Marolambo District, Madagascar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spencer, Stephen A; Penney, James M St John; Russell, Hannah J; Howe, Anthony P; Linder, Cortland; Rakotomampianina, Andriamahitsisambatra L D; Nandimbiniaina, Anjara M; Squire, S Bertel; Stothard, J Russell; Bustinduy, Amaya L; Rahetilahy, Alain M

    2017-06-24

    A school-based survey was undertaken to assess prevalence and infection intensity of schistosomiasis in school-aged children in the Marolambo District of Madagascar. School-aged children from six purposively selected schools were tested for Schistosoma haematobium by urine filtration and Schistosoma mansoni using circulating cathodic antigen (CCA) and Kato-Katz stool analysis. The investigators did not address soil-transmitted helminths (STH) in this study. Of 399 school-aged children screened, 93.7% were infected with S. mansoni based on CCA analysis. Kato-Katz analysis of stool revealed S. mansoni infection in 73.6% (215/ 292). Heavy infections (> 400 eggs per gram) were common (32.1%; 69/ 215), with a mean of 482 eggs per gram of stool. Moderate infection intensities were detected in 31.2% (67/ 215) and light infection intensities in 36.7% (79/ 215) of infected participants. No infection with S. haematobium was detected by urine filtration. Intestinal schistosomiasis appears a considerable public health issue in this remote area of Madagascar where there is a pressing need for mass drug administration.

  15. Correlation between iron deficiency anemia and intestinal parasitic infection in school-age children in Medan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darlan, D. M.; Ananda, F. R.; Sari, M. I.; Arrasyid, N. K.; Sari, D. I.

    2018-03-01

    Anemia is an abnormal hemoglobin concentration in blood that impacts almost 40% school-age children in developing countries. Intestinal parasitic infection, along with malnutrition are contributed to influence absorption, transportation, and metabolism of iron which is the most common etiology of anemia in school-age children. The purpose of this study was to determine whether there is a correlation between iron deficiency anemia (IDA) and parasitic intestinal infection generally and protozoa infection particularly among school-age children in Medan. This was a cross-sectional study conducted from May until October 2016 in primaryschool in Medan and Hamparan Perak, Deli Serdang. Consecutive sampling was used with total 132 samples obtained. Univariate analysis and Bivariate analysis were performed.This study showed the prevalence of IDA was 7.6%, and proportion of parasitic intestinal infection was 26.5% with 19.8% protozoa infection. The correlation between IDA and intestinal parasitic infection was not significant in Chi-Square Test (p-value: 0.089), neither was between IDA and protozoa infection (p-value: 0.287). There was a correlation between MCV, MCH, and anemia with p-value0.05).

  16. [Nutritional status of Mexican school age children, living in the frontier with United States].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aviña-Barrera, Mariel A; Castillo-Ruiz, Octelina; Vázquez-Nava, Francisco; Perales-Torres, Adriana; Aleman-Castillo, Sanjuana

    2016-03-01

    Undernutrition and obesity coexist among Mexican children due to poverty, sedentariness and inadequate food intake. To assess the nutritional status of school age children in a Mexican city located in the frontier with United States. Cross sectional assessment of children from 28 basic schools in 2005, 2008 and 2013. Using a cluster sampling methodology, 5 children per course were selected in each school, reaching a final sample 840 children aged 7 to 12 years old. Body mass index z scores were calculated. The pre valence of overweight and obesity among these children was 49, 54 and 45% in the assessments performed in 2005, 2008 and 2013 respectively. There is a trend towards a decrease in the frequency of obesity in these children from 2005 to 2013.

  17. Stuttering in school-age children: a comprehensive approach to treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaruss, J Scott; Coleman, Craig E; Quesal, Robert W

    2012-10-01

    This letter, prepared through a close collaboration between the authors and more than 100 colleagues, responds to a paper by the editor of Language, Speech, and Hearing Services in Schools that highlighted the need for research on treatment for stuttering in school-age children. Our response addresses 3 themes: First, we offer agreement with the editor's call for research because more evidence about treatment for children who stutter is certainly needed. Second, we provide an overview of recent literature, demonstrating that the majority of current treatments include strategies for helping children improve speech fluency in addition to helping them increase acceptance of their stuttering and diminish the negative consequences of the disorder. Third, we present several strategies designed to help clinicians respond to the individual needs of children who stutter in a data-based, comprehensive manner that focuses on minimizing the adverse impact of stuttering on children's educational endeavors, and on their lives as a whole. Much has been learned about the factors that contribute to the successful treatment of stuttering in school-age children, and evidence will continue to accumulate. Meanwhile, speech-language pathologists can help children increase their fluency while simultaneously minimizing the adverse impact of their speaking difficulties and helping them improve their overall communication.

  18. INCIDENCE OF STUTTERING IN SCHOOL-AGE CHILDREN WITH DOWN SYNDROME

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nevzeta SALIHOVIĆ

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of this study was to examine the incidence (frequency and stuttering severity in the school-age children with Down syndrome. The sample was consisted of 37 school-age children with Down syndrome, both male and female. The study was conducted in the following institutions: Institute of Special Education and Rehabilitation for Children with Intellectual Disabilities "Mjedenica"; Centre for Education, Training and Employment of Mentally Retarded Children, Children with Autism and Cerebral palsy "Vladimir Nazor" in Sarajevo; Primary School of Special Education „Zenica“; Primary school "Kovačići" Sarajevo; "Association of United Civic Actions – DUGA" in Sarajevo; and The Association "Be my friend" in Ilijaš. All of the subjects were individually examined. The results showed that 13,51 % of the children with Down syndrome stuttered, and the total result of stuttering severity indicates a moderate stuttering. These results show that children with Down syndrome should be enrolled intensively in speech therapy in order to help them overcome their stuttering, to facilitate their everyday communication and to teach them how to cope with stuttering.

  19. Emotion understanding, pictorial representations of friendship and reciprocity in school-aged children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laghi, Fiorenzo; Baiocco, Roberto; Di Norcia, Anna; Cannoni, Eleonora; Baumgartner, Emma; Bombi, Anna Silvia

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between emotional understanding, friendship representation and reciprocity in school-aged children. Two hundred and fifty-one Caucasian 6-year-old children (111 males and 140 females) took part in the study. The Test of Emotion Comprehension (TEC) and the Pictorial Assessment of Interpersonal Relationships (PAIR) were used. Children having a reciprocal friendship and children having a unilateral friendship with a child named as their "best friend" were compared on the emotional understanding task and on their pictorial representations of friendship. Multilevel analyses indicated that friendship status effects were not influenced by classroom-level differences. Results showed that children with reciprocal friendships drew themselves as more similar to and more cohesive with their best friends, and they showed better understanding of emotions, than children having a unilateral friendship. Finally, the implications of these findings for theoretical and empirical research development on friendship are discussed.

  20. Working memory in school-age children with and without a persistent speech sound disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farquharson, Kelly; Hogan, Tiffany P; Bernthal, John E

    2017-03-17

    The aim of this study was to explore the role of working memory processes as a possible cognitive underpinning of persistent speech sound disorders (SSD). Forty school-aged children were enrolled; 20 children with persistent SSD (P-SSD) and 20 typically developing children. Children participated in three working memory tasks - one to target each of the components in Baddeley's working memory model: phonological loop, visual spatial sketchpad and central executive. Children with P-SSD performed poorly only on the phonological loop tasks compared to their typically developing age-matched peers. However, mediation analyses revealed that the relation between working memory and a P-SSD was reliant upon nonverbal intelligence. These results suggest that co-morbid low-average nonverbal intelligence are linked to poor working memory in children with P-SSD. Theoretical and clinical implications are discussed.

  1. Prenatal Micronutrient Supplementation Is Not Associated with Intellectual Development of Young School-Aged Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chao; Zeng, Lingxia; Wang, Duolao; Yang, Wenfang; Dang, Shaonong; Zhou, Jing; Yan, Hong

    2015-08-01

    Micronutrient supplementation is often prescribed during pregnancy. The effects of prenatal iron and multimicronutrient supplementation on intellectual development in young school-aged children are less than clear. The aim of this study was to examine the long-term effects of prenatal iron plus folic acid or multiple micronutrient (including iron and folic acid) supplementation vs. folic acid supplementation on the intellectual development of young school-aged children in rural China. Young school-aged children (aged 7-10 y, n = 1744) of women who had participated in a trial of prenatal supplementation with various combinations of micronutrients and remained residents in 2 rural counties in China were followed. We measured their intellectual development by Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children Fourth Edition (WISC-IV). The WISC-IV generated the Full-Scale Intelligence Quotient (FSIQ), Verbal Comprehension Index (VCI), Working Memory Index (WMI), Perceptual Reasoning Index (PRI), and Processing Speed Index (PSI). Multilevel analyses were used to assess the effect of prenatal micronutrient supplementation on the intellectual development of children. The mean differences in FSIQ, VCI, WMI, PRI, and PSI, respectively, were not significant between prenatal folic acid supplementation and either iron plus folic acid [-0.34 (P = 0.65), -0.06 (P = 0.95), -0.22 (P = 0.76), -0.01 (P = 0.99), and -1.26 (P = 0.11)] or multimicronutrient [-0.39 (P = 0.60), -0.64 (P = 0.48), 0.11 (P = 0.87), -0.43 (P = 0.59), and -0.34; (P = 0.65)] supplementation after adjusting for confounders. There is no evidence to suggest a different effect on intellectual development between prenatal iron plus folic acid, multimicronutrient supplementation, and prenatal folic acid supplementation in children aged 7-10 y. This trial was registered at www.isrctn.com as ISRCTN08850194. © 2015 American Society for Nutrition.

  2. Care and supportive measures in school-aged children with prenatal substance exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandtorv, Lisbeth B; Haugland, Siren; Elgen, Irene

    2017-12-01

    Prenatal exposure to substances, including alcohol, opiates, and a number of illicit drugs, may have a negative impact on fetal development. Studies have shown that substance exposure can influence a child's neurodevelopment and the need for care and supportive measures. In this study, we aimed to investigate the care status and the level of supportive measures in school-aged children prenatally exposed to alcohol and other substances. This study included children aged between 6 and 14 years who were referred to Haukeland University Hospital in Norway with developmental impairment and a history of prenatal substance exposure. Participants were classified according to their main prenatal exposure to either alcohol or other substances. Information on care status and supportive measures was obtained from medical records and participants' caregivers. We also compared the use of supportive measures for children placed into foster care before and after 1 year of age. A total of 111 (87% of 128 referrals) eligible children participated in the study. Of these 111 children, 96 (86%) were in foster care, of whom 29 (30%) were placed into foster care during their first year of life and 83 out of 90 (92%) had supportive measures, including reinforced foster care and school or social support. A high proportion of the sample lived in foster care and received supportive measures. Findings may reflect an increased need of care and support in school-aged children with prenatal substance exposure, highlighting the importance of awareness among caregivers and public agencies.

  3. Prevalence and predictors of overweight and obesity among school-aged children in urban Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aryeetey, Richmond; Lartey, Anna; Marquis, Grace S; Nti, Helena; Colecraft, Esi; Brown, Patricia

    2017-01-01

    Childhood overnutrition is a serious public health problem, with consequences that extend into adulthood. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence and determinants of overweight and obesity among school-age children in two urban settings in Ghana. This cross-sectional study involved 3089 children (9-15 years) recruited between December 2009 and February 2012 in Accra and Kumasi, Ghana. Socio-demographic, dietary, and physical activity data were collected using pretested questionnaires. BMI-for-age z-scores were used to categorize anthropometric data of the children as thin, normal, or overweight/obese. Determinants of overweight were examined using multiple logistic regressions. Seventeen percent of children were overweight or obese. Children who reported lower participation (overweight or obese (AOR = 1.44; 95% CI: 1.07, 1.94). Maternal tertiary education (AOR = 1.91, 95% CI: 1.07, 3.42), higher household socioeconomic status (AOR = 1.56, 95% CI: 1.18, 2.06), and attending private school (AOR = 1.74, 95% CI: 1.31, 2.32) were also associated with elevated risk of overweight and obesity. Physical inactivity is a modifiable independent determinant of overweight or obesity among Ghanaian school-aged children. Promoting and supporting a physically active lifestyle in this population is likely to reduce risk of childhood overnutrition.

  4. Sleep Behaviors and Sleep Problems in School-Aged Children in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sirirassamee, Fawima; Chonchaiya, Weerasak; Pruksananonda, Chandhita

    2015-10-01

    Sleep problems can have a significant effect on children behaviors, emotional and cognitive developments. However, limited information is available regarding the sleep behaviors and sleep problems of school-aged children in Thailand. The purposes of this study were to examine the prevalence of sleep problems and to describe sleep/wake pattern of Thai children. The school-based, cross-sectional study was conducted in 5 primary public schools selected from Bangkok and three regions of Thailand. The samples were selected from the first and fourth grades of each school. The Children's Sleep Habits Questionnaire (CSHQ) was used to evaluate sleep behaviors and sleep problems. Grade 1 children went to bed earlier and had longer weekday sleep duration comparing with grade 4 children. Sleep duration was significantly shorter in children living in Bangkok, comparing with those living in rural areas. Mean total CSHQ score was significant higher in grade 1 children, when comparing with grade 4 children (51.30 vs. 50.18; p = 0.026). Grade 1 children scored significantly higher on bedtime resistance (10.96 vs. 10.39; p = 0.004) and sleep anxiety subscale (6.68 vs. 6.41; p = 0.022), while grade 4 children scored significantly higher on sleep-onset delay subscale (1.41 vs. 1.23; p sleep problems was highest in the category of "falling asleep while riding in car or bus" (69.5%), followed by "awakening by others in the morning" (68.5%). Sleep problems were common in Thai school-aged children. The most common sleep problems were in the domains of daytime sleepiness and bedtime resistance and anxiety.

  5. [Effects of strontium in drinking water on the growth of school-age children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Y; Cao, S; Xu, F; Li, J

    1999-09-30

    An epidemiological study on the effect of strontium in drinking water on body shape development, bone age, prevalence of caries and dental fluorosis was carried out. The results show: there is a certain promotion on the development of bone age of school-age children, especially of girls, and there is no obvious impact on body shape developing when the concentration of strontium in drinking water is only 10 mg/L. The correlation between strontium in drinking water and the prevalence of caries in children could not get a conclusive evidence in this paper. A further epidemiological investigation is necessary if the role of strontium against caries should be proved.

  6. Transfer of asthma management responsibility from parents to their school-age children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buford, Terry A

    2004-02-01

    This study used grounded theory to explore the process of transfer of responsibility for asthma management from parents to their school-age children. Interviews were conducted with 11 mothers, 2 fathers, 1 grandmother, and their 14 children who were between 8 and 13 years old. Responses revealed that transfer of responsibility within families is a complex, uneven process that occurs over years and involves identifiable stages and transitions. The Theoretical Model for Parent-Child Transfer of Asthma Responsibility emerged from the data. The central concept underlying the process was controlling the situation. Specific cues stimulated changes in parent-child responsibility.

  7. Consistency of Self-Report in School Age Children with Asthma

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-01-01

    AUTHOR(S) Barbara Jean Heiller, Major 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND AOORESS(ES) 8. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION REPORT NUMBER AFIT Student Attending...41 0 (S F i SA’I,(’ C t.I I I QN ) ’ 7/ Abstract A-,.. : az* Consistency of Self-Report ,..., ’a in School Age Children with Asthma Barbara Jean ...1981). There’s a demon in your belly: children’s understanding of illness. Pediatrics, 0_, 841-849. Piaget , J. & Inhelder, B. (1969). The

  8. Reducing Listening-Related Stress in School-Aged Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rance, Gary; Chisari, Donella; Saunders, Kerryn; Rault, Jean-Loup

    2017-07-01

    High levels of stress and anxiety are common in children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). Within this study of school-aged children (20 male, 6 female) we hypothesised that functional hearing deficits (also pervasive in ASD) could be ameliorated by auditory interventions and that, as a consequence, stress levels would be reduced. The use of Ear-Level Remote Microphone devices and Classroom Amplification systems resulted in significantly improved listening, communication and social interaction and a reduction in physiologic stress levels (salivary cortisol) in both one-on-one and group listening situations.

  9. Suitability of asthma education materials for school-age children: Implications for health literacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tzeng, Yu-Fen; Gau, Bih-Shya

    2017-08-09

    To investigate the suitability of asthma education materials for school-age children with asthma and elucidate how these children used their health-literacy abilities to identify whether the materials can be accepted, comprehended and applied. Effective asthma self-management education is influenced by the suitability of materials and an individual's health literacy. A mixed-method research design was developed using quantitative and qualitative surveys. The suitability of the materials was assessed on the basis of the Chinese version of the Suitability Assessment of Materials by five experts. In addition, five school-age children (age: 8-12 years) were recruited and interviewed. In total, 25 pieces of asthma education material for children were collected. On the basis of their type, the materials were categorised as nine brochures, 11 leaflets and five videos. Of the 25 materials, 17 were rated as superior materials, whereas eight were rated as adequate materials. The suitability scores of the video-based materials were significantly higher than those of the brochures and leaflets (p = .006). One print material was considered to have a reading level suitable for fifth-grade or younger children, whereas the remaining materials were considered suitable for sixth-grade or older children. The following six health-literacy domains were identified: recognising asthma through body knowledge, posing reflective questions, identifying self-care difficulties, receiving adult guidance, learning with enjoyment and addressing learning requirements. The video-based materials had integrated content and were appealing to children. Cartoon animations, interactive computer games, and skill demonstrations may enhance learning stimulation and motivation and increase learning effects in children. The present results may help healthcare providers to understand children's capacities to manage their disease, effectively address children's requirements and function as a key resource for

  10. Joint-Attention and the Social Phenotype of School-Aged Children with ASD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mundy, Peter; Novotny, Stephanie; Swain-Lerro, Lindsey; McIntyre, Nancy; Zajic, Matt; Oswald, Tasha

    2017-05-01

    The validity of joint attention assessment in school-aged children with ASD is unclear (Lord, Jones, Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry 53(5):490-509, 2012). This study examined the feasibility and validity of a parent-report measure of joint attention related behaviors in verbal children and adolescents with ASD. Fifty-two children with ASD and 34 controls were assessed with the Childhood Joint Attention Rating Scale (C-JARS). The C-JARS exhibited internally consistency, α = 0.88, and one factor explained 49% of the scale variance. Factor scores correctly identified between 88 and 94% of the children with ASD and 62-82% of controls. These scores were correlated with the ADOS-2, but not other parent-report symptom measures. The C-JARS appears to assess a unique dimension of the social-phenotype of children with ASD.

  11. Health outcomes of school-aged children conceived using donor sperm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amor, David J; Lewis, Sharon; Kennedy, Joanne; Habgood, Emily; McBain, John; McLachlan, Robert I; Rombauts, Luk J; Williams, Katrina; Halliday, Jane

    2017-10-01

    The use of donor sperm is increasing, yet limited information is available about the health and development of children conceived from donor sperm. This retrospective descriptive study aimed to assess health and development in a cohort of school-aged children who were conceived using donor sperm. Participants included 224 children, aged 5-11 years, who were conceived using donor sperm. Participants' mothers completed a questionnaire comprising validated scales examining their child's current and past physical, psychosocial and mental health, healthcare needs and child development, as well as the mothers' health and wellbeing. At the conclusion of the study, the response rate was 296 out of 407 (72.7%), with a participation rate of 224 out o 407 (55.0%). Compared with the normative Australian population, sperm donor-conceived children had similar physical, psychosocial and mental health and development. A modest increase in healthcare needs was evident. The study concludes that in school-aged children conceived using donor sperm, most aspects of child health and wellbeing are similar to the general population. Copyright © 2017 Reproductive Healthcare Ltd. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Exposure to violence among urban school-aged children: is it only on television?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purugganan, O H; Stein, R E; Silver, E J; Benenson, B S

    2000-10-01

    To measure exposure to different types of violence among school-aged children in a primary care setting. Child interviews using an instrument measuring 4 types of exposure (direct victimization, witnessing, hearing reports, media). Violent acts measured include being beaten up, chased/threatened, robbed/mugged, stabbed/shot, killed. Pediatric primary care clinic of large urban hospital. Convenience sample of 175 children 9-12 years old and their mothers. A total of 53% of the children were boys, 55% were Hispanic, and 40% received public assistance. All children had been exposed to media violence. A total of 97% (170/175) had been exposed to more direct forms of violence; 77% had witnessed violence involving strangers; 49% had witnessed violence involving familiar persons; 49% had been direct victims; and 31% had witnessed someone being shot, stabbed, or killed. Exposure to violence was significantly associated with being male. Most school-aged children who visited a pediatric primary care clinic of a large urban hospital had directly experienced violence as witnesses and/or victims.

  13. Perceived class climate and school-aged children's life satisfaction: The role of the learning environment in classrooms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rathmann, Katharina; Herke, Max G; Hurrelmann, Klaus; Richter, Matthias

    2018-01-01

    The aim of this study is to examine the impact of class-level class climate on school-aged children's life satisfaction. Data was derived from the German National Educational Panel Study (NEPS) using sixth grade school-aged children (n = 4,764, 483 classes). Class climate includes indicators of teachers' care and monitoring, demands, interaction, autonomy, as well as school-aged children's attitudes towards schoolwork at the class- and individual-level. Results showed that individual perceived class climate in terms of teachers' care and monitoring and autonomy was positively related to life satisfaction, whereas school-related demands were related to lower life satisfaction. Besides teachers' care and monitoring at class-level, indicators of class climate were not associated with school-aged children's life satisfaction, while the individual perceived class climate is more important for life satisfaction.

  14. Association between family structure, maternal education level, and maternal employment with sedentary lifestyle in primary school-age children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Vázquez-Nava

    2013-03-01

    Conclusion: : Living in a non-intact family, more than low maternal educational level and having a working mother, appears to be associated with sedentary lifestyle in overweight primary school-age children.

  15. Sex differences in the intellectual functioning of early school-aged children in rural China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chao Li

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Gender disparities in China are concentrated in poor rural areas and among poor households. The difference in intelligence between boys and girls is less clear in rural China. The purpose of this paper was to assess sex differences in the intellectual function of early school-aged children in rural China. Methods One thousand seven hundred forty four early school-aged offspring of women who had participated in a prenatal supplementation trial with different combinations of micronutrients and continued to reside in two rural counties in China were followed. We measured their Full-Scale IQ (FSIQ, Verbal Comprehension Index (VCI, Working Memory Index (WMI, Perceptual Reasoning Index (PRI and Processing Speed Index (PSI using the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children (WISC-IV. Multilevel analyses were used to assess sex differences in intellectual functioning in 7-10-year-old children in rural China. Results Boys’ adjusted mean FSIQ score was 0.97 points higher (95 % CI: -2.22 − 0.28 than that of girls. Girls obtained higher mean WMI and PSI scores, with 1.32 points (95 % CI: 0.14 − 2.51 and 3.10 points (95 % CI: 1.82–4.38 higher adjusted means, respectively. Boys’ adjusted mean VCI and PRI scores were significantly higher than those of girls, and the mean differences were 2.44 points (95 % CI: 0.95 − 3.94 and 3.68 points (95 % CI: 2.36 − 5.01, respectively. Conclusions There is no evidence to suggest sex differences in the general intelligence of early school-aged children in rural China. However, a difference in general intelligence between 10-year-old boys and girls was evident. Girls and boys in rural China tended to show different specific cognitive abilities.

  16. Non-Resident Fathers' Relationships with Their Secondary School Age Children: Determinants and Children's Mental Health Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flouri, Eirini

    2006-01-01

    Data from 520 British secondary school age children were used to explore determinants of and mental health outcomes (measured with the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire) from their non-resident fathers' relationships (child-reported father's involvement and frequency of contact) with them. Frequency of contact was negatively related to time…

  17. The Impact of Nutrition, Sedentary Behaviour and Lifestyle on School-Age Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pantea-Stoian Anca

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aims. Diet and lifestyle in school-age children have a particularly large impact on health, as well as various consequences in future. The objective of this papers it to assess the relationship between lifestyle and daily diet and the effects of an unhealthy diet. Material and Methods. An observational cohort study was conducted in Bucharest, in three schools and one high school on 100 children, between 2011 and 2013. The criterion for inclusion was the appropriate age (school-age. The protocol consisted in clinical examination, body mass index (BMI calculation, questions about diet, physical activity and time spent watching television (TV. Results. Most children do not respect a schedule of meals and snacks (78%. Unhealthy diet (fast food, carbonated beverages, chocolate registered higher preferences. Mean TV time was 2.32 hours/day (SD=1.92 and a strong evidence on relationship between age and number of hours allocated to TV was discovered (p< .01. Four percent of children were found to be under the 5th percentile (underweight, 18% between 85th and 95th percentile (overweight and 14% above 95th percentile (obesity. Conclusions. A sedentary life in this case was mainly determined by the time spent daily in front of the television rather than lack of exercise.

  18. [Effect of poor dietary behaviors on the overweight and obesity of school-aged children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Yong; Yun, Chen; Zhao, Ai; Wang, Peiyu; Zhang, Yumei; Mu, Zhishen

    2014-09-01

    To explore the rate of overweight and obesity, and the association between unhealthy dietary behaviors and overweight and obesity among Chinese school-aged children from 9 areas. By multiple stage stratified cluster sampling, 814 children aged 7 - 12 years old were chosen, provided with questionnaire and anthropometric measurements. According to the definition from Working Group on Obesity in China, children,were divided into different group, univariate logistic regression and multivariate logistic regression were used to analyze the associations between unhealthy dietary behaviors and overweight and obesity. The rates of overweight and obesity of school-aged children were 22. 88% and 9. 90%, respectively. The rates were higher in urban areas, and second-tier cities were similar with first-tier city. Influence factor analysis revealed skipping breakfast behavior was the influence factor (OR =1. 65, Pchildren’s overweight and obesity has been an increasingly serious health problem, which were correlated with genetic factor, environmental factor, and dietary behaviors and so on, poor dietary behavior might be influence factor for overweight and obesity, so it is necessary to provide earlier intervention strategies for parents to promote children’s good dietary habits.

  19. Concurrent validity of clinical tests for measuring hamstring flexibility in school age children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muyor, J M; Zemková, E; Štefániková, G; Kotyra, M

    2014-07-01

    The objectives were 1) to evaluate the hamstring muscle flexibility in children and adolescents; 2) to examine the relative contribution of the spinal curvatures, pelvic tilt and hamstring flexibility on the sit-and-reach (SR) score; and 3) to determine the validity of the sit-and-reach test through both active and passive hip flexion tests. 118 children and adolescents (aged 7-18 years; 60 males and 58 females) were tested for sit-and-reach (SR), passive straight leg raise (PSLR) and active straight leg raise (ASLR). The spinal curvatures and pelvic tilt were assessed during the SR test by means of the Spinal Mouse system. Females showed a statistically greater anterior pelvic tilt, distance reached in the SR test and hip flexion in both PSLR and ASLR tests than males. The pelvic tilt independently explained more than 60% of the variance (distance reached in the SR test) and in conjunction with lumbar flexion explained more than 80% of the variance. In conclusion, the pelvic tilt is the main determinant of SR test in school age children. The SR test can be considered an appropriate and valid test for evaluating pelvic tilt and lumbar flexion in school age children, but not to measure hamstring flexibility. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  20. The Association between Sleep and Injury among School-Aged Children in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Forugh Rafii

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. A good night’s sleep plays a key role in diseases resistance, injury prevention, and mood stability. The objective of this study was to examine relationship between sleep problems and accidental injury occurrences in school-aged children. Method. A retrospective study was conducted for comparing two groups of children. Children who have experienced injuries for at least two times during an academic year are the participants in the injury group (IG and those who have not experienced any kind of injuries are placed in the noninjury group (NIG. Data was collected through parent-reported sleep patterns and problems using Children’s Sleep Habits Questionnaire (CSHQ. Findings. The findings showed that global sleep problems were more in the IG than in the NIG. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that the daytime sleepiness and sleep duration are the two major reasons for accidental injury. In addition, significant difference was seen between the sleep patterns of the two groups. Sleep duration was also shorter in the IG, and this group had a greater percentage (63% versus 41.1% of “short sleepers” (<9 h. Conclusion. There is a significant relationship between injury occurrence and sleep problems and sleep duration in Iranian school-aged children.

  1. Factors associated with medication adherence in school-aged children with asthma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amy H.Y. Chan

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Adherence to preventive asthma treatment is poor, particularly in children, yet the factors associated with adherence in this age group are not well understood. Adherence was monitored electronically over 6 months in school-aged children who attended a regional emergency department in New Zealand for an asthma exacerbation and were prescribed twice-daily inhaled corticosteroids. Participants completed questionnaires including assessment of family demographics, asthma responsibility and learning style. Multivariable analysis of factors associated with adherence was conducted. 101 children (mean (range age 8.9 (6–15 years, 51% male participated. Median (interquartile range preventer adherence was 30% (17–48% of prescribed. Four explanatory factors were identified: female sex (+12% adherence, Asian ethnicity (+19% adherence, living in a smaller household (−3.0% adherence per person in the household, and younger age at diagnosis (+2.7% for every younger year of diagnosis (all p<0.02. In school-aged children attending the emergency department for asthma, males and non-Asian ethnic groups were at high risk for poor inhaled corticosteroid adherence and may benefit most from intervention. Four factors explained a small proportion of adherence behaviour indicating the difficulty in identifying adherence barriers. Further research is recommended in other similar populations.

  2. The relation among sleep duration, homework burden, and sleep hygiene in chinese school-aged children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Wan-Qi; Spruyt, Karen; Chen, Wen-Juan; Jiang, Yan-Rui; Schonfeld, David; Adams, Ryan; Tseng, Chia-Huei; Shen, Xiao-Ming; Jiang, Fan

    2014-09-03

    Insufficient sleep in school-aged children is common in modern society, with homework burden being a potential risk factor. The aim of this article is to explore the effect of sleep hygiene on the association between homework and sleep duration. Children filled out the Chinese version of the Adolescent Sleep Hygiene Scale, and parents filled out a sociodemographic questionnaire. The final sample included 363 boys and 371 girls with a mean age of 10.82 ± 0.38 years. Children with more homework went to bed later and slept less. Better sleep hygiene was associated with earlier bedtimes and longer sleep duration. Findings suggest that homework burden had a larger effect on sleep duration than sleep hygiene. Fifth-grade children in Shanghai have an excessive homework burden, which overwrites the benefit of sleep hygiene on sleep duration.

  3. Health maintenance in school-aged children: Part I. History, physical examination, screening, and immunizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riley, Margaret; Locke, Amy B; Skye, Eric P

    2011-03-15

    The goals of the well-child examination in school-aged children (kindergarten through early adolescence) are promoting health, detecting disease, and counseling to prevent injury and future health problems. A complete history should address any concerns from the patient and family and screen for lifestyle habits, including diet, physical activity, daily screen time (e.g., television, computer, video games), hours of sleep per night, dental care, and safety habits. School performance can be used for developmental surveillance. A full physical examination should be performed; however, the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force recommends against routine scoliosis screening and testicular examination. Children should be screened for obesity, which is defined as a body mass index at or above the 95th percentile for age and sex, and resources for comprehensive, intensive behavioral interventions should be provided to children with obesity. Although the evidence is mixed regarding screening for hypertension before 18 years of age, many experts recommend checking blood pressure annually beginning at three years of age. The American Academy of Pediatrics recommends vision and hearing screening annually or every two years in school-aged children. There is insufficient evidence to recommend screening for dyslipidemia in children of any age, or screening for depression before 12 years of age. All children should receive at least 400 IU of vitamin D daily, with higher doses indicated in children with vitamin D deficiency. Children who live in areas with inadequate fluoride in the water (less than 0.6 ppm) should receive a daily fluoride supplement. Age-appropriate immunizations should be given, as well as any missed immunizations.

  4. Trend analyses in the health behaviour in school-aged children study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schnohr, Christina W; Molcho, Michal; Rasmussen, Mette

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: This article presents the scope and development of the Health Behaviour in School-aged Children (HBSC) study, reviews trend papers published on international HBSC data up to 2012 and discusses the efforts made to produce reliable trend analyses. METHODS: The major goal of this article...... is to present the statistical procedures and analytical strategies for upholding high data quality, as well as reflections from the authors of this article on how to produce reliable trends based on an international study of the magnitude of the HBSC study. HBSC is an international cross-sectional study...

  5. Comparative ultrasound measurement of normal thyroid gland dimensions in school aged children in our local environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchie, T T; Oyobere, O; Eze, K C

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the measurement of normal range of ultrasound (US) thyroid gland dimensions in school-aged children (6-16 years) in our environment and compared with what is obtained elsewhere. A prospective ultrasound measurement study done in University of Benin Teaching Hospital Benin, Nigeria. A prospective ultrasound (US) study of thyroid dimensions of 500 school-aged children in our environment consisting of 227 boys and 273 girls was done from 1 December 2006 to July 2007. The subjects were examined by the authors and subjects with palpable abnormal thyroid gland were excluded from the study. The thyroid dimensions (length, height, and diameter) were taken for each lobe by means of ultrasound (US). In addition volume of each thyroid lobe was calculated and the summation of volume of the lobes was taken as thyroid gland volume of each subject. Also height and weight of patients were documented from which the subject's body surface was calculated. Incidental thyroid gland lesion in US was excluded from the study. Using the Statistical program of social science (SPSS) and INSTAT (Graph Pad Inc. USA) the data were analyzed. Informed consent was obtained from all the subjects and the study was done in line with the ethical guidelines of the centers. The US thyroid gland volume in school-aged children in Benin City from this study ranges between 1.17 cm 3 and 7.19 cm 3 , mean volume range of 1.76-4.95 cm 3 , median volume range of 1.73-4.73 cm 3 , and range of standard deviation from 0.39 cm 3 to 1.49 cm 3 . The average mean thyroid volume is 2.32 cm 3 with the following average dimensions; anteroposterior right lobe =1.06 cm, mediolateral right lobe = 1.01 cm and craniocaudal right lobe = 2.34 cm, and anteroposterior left lobe = 1.01 cm, mediolateral left lobe = 1.04 cm and craniocaudal left lobe = 2.41 cm for both boys and girls respectively. These data are significantly lower than data obtained by European based World Health

  6. Are language and social communication intact in children with congenital visual impairment at school age?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tadić, Valerie; Pring, Linda; Dale, Naomi

    2010-06-01

    Development of children with congenital visual impairment (VI) has been associated with vulnerable socio-communicative outcomes often bearing striking similarities to those of sighted children with autism.(1) To date, very little is known about language and social communication in children with VI of normal intelligence. We examined the presentation of language and social communication of 15 children with VI and normal-range verbal intelligence, age 6-12 years, using a standardised language assessment and parental reports of everyday social and communicative behaviours. Their profiles were compared to those of typically developing sighted children of similar age and verbal ability. Compared to their sighted peers, and relative to their own good and potentially superior structural language skills, children with VI showed significantly poorer use of language for social purposes. Pragmatic language weaknesses were a part of a broader socio-communicative profile of difficulties, present in a substantial proportion of these children and consistent with the pattern found in sighted children with autism. There are ongoing socio-communicative and pragmatic language difficulties in children with congenital VI at school age, despite their good intellectual abilities and advanced linguistic skills. Further research is required to unpack the underlying causes and factors maintaining this vulnerability in such children.

  7. [Does a Physical Education lesson affect the foot morphology in school-aged children?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín-Casado, Laura; Barquín, Christian

    To analyze the changes in foot morphology in school-age children, after a Physical Education lesson. A total of 10 school-age children (5 girls and 5 boys) were recruited with a mean age of 9.3 ± 0.5 years that voluntary participated in this study. Measurements of both feet were obtained using a 3D foot digitizer model IFU-S-01 (Japan) in two different moments, before and after a physical education lesson (per-exercise and post-exercise), where different activities involving displacements, jumps and landings were performed. By comparing foot morphology before and after exercise, significant differences in the arch height were found, which increased after exercise (p<0.05). The ball width shows greater changes after exercise but without significant differences (p= 0.07; effect size [ES] = 0.2). Furthermore, a positive correlation between the ball width and the arch height (p<0.05) and negative correlation between the distance from the heel to the first metatarsal and the ball width (r = - 0.7; p<0.05), were observed. The type of activities undertaken during physical education lesson (displacements, jumps and landings) increased the pressure on the forefoot, which would lead to a lager arch height. Development of children's sport footwear systems should take into account the foot lengths, widths and heights, for a better fit, preventing future musculoskeletal injuries. Copyright © 2017. Publicado por Masson Doyma México S.A.

  8. Subjective health literacy: Development of a brief instrument for school-aged children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paakkari, Olli; Torppa, Minna; Kannas, Lasse; Paakkari, Leena

    2016-12-01

    The present paper focuses on the measurement of health literacy (HL), which is an important determinant of health and health behaviours. HL starts to develop in childhood and adolescence; hence, there is a need for instruments to monitor HL among younger age groups. These instruments are still rare. The aim of the project reported here was, therefore, to develop a brief, multidimensional, theory-based instrument to measure subjective HL among school-aged children. The development of the instrument covered four phases: item generation based on a conceptual framework; a pilot study ( n = 405); test-retest ( n = 117); and construction of the instrument ( n = 3853). All the samples were taken from Finnish 7th and 9th graders. Initially, 65 items were generated, of which 32 items were selected for the pilot study. After item reduction, the instrument contained 16 items. The test-retest phase produced estimates of stability. In the final phase a 10-item instrument was constructed, referred to as Health Literacy for School-Aged Children (HLSAC). The instrument exhibited a high Cronbach alpha (0.93), and included two items from each of the five predetermined theoretical components (theoretical knowledge, practical knowledge, critical thinking, self-awareness, citizenship). The iterative and validity-driven development process made it possible to construct a brief multidimensional HLSAC instrument. Such instruments are suitable for large-scale studies, and for use with children and adolescents. Validation will require further testing for use in other countries.

  9. [Structural Equation Model of Health-Related Quality of Life in School Age Children with Asthma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yunsoo; Park, Ho Ran

    2018-02-01

    This study aimed to construct and test a hypothetical model of the quality of life of school-age children with asthma based on the health-related quality of life model by Wilson and Cleary. Data were collected from 205 pairs of pediatric outpatients diagnosed with asthma and their parents in Seoul and Gyeonggi-do from July 2016 to April 2017. The exogenous variables were asthma knowledge, number of accompanying allergic diseases, and social support. The endogenous variables were asthma self-efficacy, asthma symptom control, perceived health status, parental quality of life, and children's quality of life. For data analysis, descriptive statistics, factor analysis, and structural equation modeling were performed. Eighteen of the twenty-four hypotheses selected for the hypothetical model were attentive and supported statistically. Quality of life was explained by asthma self-efficacy, asthma symptom control, perceived health, parental quality of life, and asthma knowledge with 83.5%. Strategies for promoting self-efficacy and enforcing asthma knowledge will be helpful for the improvement of health-related quality of life with school-aged asthmatic children. © 2018 Korean Society of Nursing Science.

  10. Processing of prosodic changes in natural speech stimuli in school-age children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindström, R; Lepistö, T; Makkonen, T; Kujala, T

    2012-12-01

    Speech prosody conveys information about important aspects of communication: the meaning of the sentence and the emotional state or intention of the speaker. The present study addressed processing of emotional prosodic changes in natural speech stimuli in school-age children (mean age 10 years) by recording the electroencephalogram, facial electromyography, and behavioral responses. The stimulus was a semantically neutral Finnish word uttered with four different emotional connotations: neutral, commanding, sad, and scornful. In the behavioral sound-discrimination task the reaction times were fastest for the commanding stimulus and longest for the scornful stimulus, and faster for the neutral than for the sad stimulus. EEG and EMG responses were measured during non-attentive oddball paradigm. Prosodic changes elicited a negative-going, fronto-centrally distributed neural response peaking at about 500 ms from the onset of the stimulus, followed by a fronto-central positive deflection, peaking at about 740 ms. For the commanding stimulus also a rapid negative deflection peaking at about 290 ms from stimulus onset was elicited. No reliable stimulus type specific rapid facial reactions were found. The results show that prosodic changes in natural speech stimuli activate pre-attentive neural change-detection mechanisms in school-age children. However, the results do not support the suggestion of automaticity of emotion specific facial muscle responses to non-attended emotional speech stimuli in children. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Development in the neurophysiology of emotion processing and memory in school-age children

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    Jacqueline S. Leventon

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In the adult literature, emotional arousal is regarded as a source of the enhancing effect of emotion on subsequent memory. Here, we used behavioral, electrophysiological, and psychophysiological methods to examine the role of emotional arousal on subsequent memory in school-age children. Five- to 8-year-olds, divided into younger and older groups, viewed emotional scenes as EEG, heart rate, and respiration was recorded, and participated in a memory task 24 hours later where EEG and behavioral responses were recorded; participants provided subjective ratings of the scenes after the memory task. All measures indicated emotion responses in both groups, and in ERP measures the effects were stronger for older children. Emotion responses were more consistent across measures for negative than positive stimuli. Behavioral memory performance was strong but did not differ by emotion condition. Emotion influenced the ERP index of recognition memory in the older group only (enhanced recognition of negative scenes. The findings an increasing interaction of emotion and memory during the school years. Further, the findings impress the value of combining multiple methods to assess emotion and memory in development. Development in the neurophysiology of emotion processing and memory in school-age children.

  12. Development in the neurophysiology of emotion processing and memory in school-age children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leventon, Jacqueline S; Stevens, Jennifer S; Bauer, Patricia J

    2014-10-01

    In the adult literature, emotional arousal is regarded as a source of the enhancing effect of emotion on subsequent memory. Here, we used behavioral, electrophysiological, and psychophysiological methods to examine the role of emotional arousal on subsequent memory in school-age children. Five- to 8-year-olds, divided into younger and older groups, viewed emotional scenes as EEG, heart rate, and respiration was recorded, and participated in a memory task 24 hours later where EEG and behavioral responses were recorded; participants provided subjective ratings of the scenes after the memory task. All measures indicated emotion responses in both groups, and in ERP measures the effects were stronger for older children. Emotion responses were more consistent across measures for negative than positive stimuli. Behavioral memory performance was strong but did not differ by emotion condition. Emotion influenced the ERP index of recognition memory in the older group only (enhanced recognition of negative scenes). The findings an increasing interaction of emotion and memory during the school years. Further, the findings impress the value of combining multiple methods to assess emotion and memory in development. Development in the neurophysiology of emotion processing and memory in school-age children. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  13. Sedentary lifestyle and passive leisure in Czech school-aged children

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    Zdeněk Hamřík

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Sedentary behaviour and an insufficient level of physical activity in children are the key factors leading to physically inactive behaviour in adulthood associated with the growing prevalence of mass non-communicable diseases in the population of the Czech Republic. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to analyze sedentary lifestyle, focusing on passive leisure (time spent watching television and using computer in school-aged children in the Czech Republic. METHODS: To determine the time spent watching television and using computer, data of a randomly selected set of 11 to 15 year old elementary school children in the Czech Republic (n = 4425 was used. Research data collection was conducted within an international research project Health Behaviour in School Aged Children in June 2010. For statistical processing of results and identification of differences between various age groups of girls and boys, logistic regression analysis in SPSS Statistics 20 programme was used. RESULTS: More than 55% of girls and 60% of boys spend over 2 hours a day in a working week in front of the TV, DVD, video; most of the time was recorded for 13 year old respondents. While playing games on the PC or Playstation occupies more than 2 hours per day for more than a half of boys, for girls more typical is "chatting", "surfing the Internet" or "e-mailing". With age, the proportion of children who spend 2 or more hours a day using computer increases. CONCLUSIONS: The problem of an increasing level of sedentary behaviour in children in their leisure should be addressed together with interventions aimed at increasing the levels of physical activity in children in the national, regional and local policies to encourage physical activity and health in the Czech Republic.

  14. Neurobehavioral outcomes of school-age children born preterm: a preliminary study in the Arabic community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed M.J. Alqahtani

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Preterm survivors from the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU are considered as high risk group for some neurobehavioral impairments such as cognitive disabilities, developmental delays, social/emotional limitations, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD, and academic difficulties. Objective: The current study aimed to investigate the neurobehavioral outcome of premature infants in Saudi Arabia at the school age.Methods: At the school age, preterm children (range 23-29 weeks or ≤ 1.52 kg born from April, 2006 through September, 2008, and who were admitted following birth to a NICU, were evaluated with several neurobehavioral tools. Results: This study includes 53 preterm children, who were followed up at the chronological age that ranged from 6.4-8.0 years. The results of the neurobehavioral assessments showed in general normal social adaptive levels and cognitive abilities, with mean total score of about 91.0 and 90.0, respectively. The prevalence of ADHD among preterm children was high, with result of 34.0% for the inattentive type and 11.3% for the hyperactive/impulsive type. None of the preterm children repeats a grade, but 22.6% utilize a form of special educational supports. Some of the preterm children showed poor school performance in reading skills, writing skills and mathematics skills, with percentages of 26.4%, 28.3% and 15.1%, respectively.Conclusions: The present results emphasize that preterm children are a group of high-risk children who need regular follow-up to track the developmental conditions and to provide the early developmental intervention for optimal outcome.

  15. School-aged children can benefit from audiovisual semantic congruency during memory encoding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heikkilä, Jenni; Tiippana, Kaisa

    2016-05-01

    Although we live in a multisensory world, children's memory has been usually studied concentrating on only one sensory modality at a time. In this study, we investigated how audiovisual encoding affects recognition memory. Children (n = 114) from three age groups (8, 10 and 12 years) memorized auditory or visual stimuli presented with a semantically congruent, incongruent or non-semantic stimulus in the other modality during encoding. Subsequent recognition memory performance was better for auditory or visual stimuli initially presented together with a semantically congruent stimulus in the other modality than for stimuli accompanied by a non-semantic stimulus in the other modality. This congruency effect was observed for pictures presented with sounds, for sounds presented with pictures, for spoken words presented with pictures and for written words presented with spoken words. The present results show that semantically congruent multisensory experiences during encoding can improve memory performance in school-aged children.

  16. Structural brain differences in school-age children with residual speech sound errors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preston, Jonathan L; Molfese, Peter J; Mencl, W Einar; Frost, Stephen J; Hoeft, Fumiko; Fulbright, Robert K; Landi, Nicole; Grigorenko, Elena L; Seki, Ayumi; Felsenfeld, Susan; Pugh, Kenneth R

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to identify structural brain differences in school-age children with residual speech sound errors. Voxel based morphometry was used to compare gray and white matter volumes for 23 children with speech sound errors, ages 8;6-11;11, and 54 typically speaking children matched on age, oral language, and IQ. We hypothesized that regions associated with production and perception of speech sounds would differ between groups. Results indicated greater gray matter volumes for the speech sound error group relative to typically speaking controls in bilateral superior temporal gyrus. There was greater white matter volume in the corpus callosum for the speech sound error group, but less white matter volume in right lateral occipital gyrus. Results may indicate delays in neuronal pruning in critical speech regions or differences in the development of networks for speech perception and production. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Prenatal exposure to environmental chemical contaminants and asthma and eczema in school-age children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smit, Lidwien A M; Lenters, Virissa; Høyer, Birgit Bjerre

    2015-01-01

    with asthma and eczema in school-age children. METHODS: We studied 1024 mother-child pairs from Greenland and Ukraine from the INUENDO birth cohort. Data were collected by means of an interview-based questionnaire when the children were 5-9 years of age. Questions from the ISAAC study were used to define......BACKGROUND: Emerging evidence suggests that prenatal or early-life exposures to environmental contaminants may contribute to an increased risk of asthma and allergies in children. We aimed to the explore associations of prenatal exposures to a large set of environmental chemical contaminants...... asthma, eczema, and wheeze. We applied principal components analysis (PCA) to sixteen contaminants in maternal serum sampled during pregnancy, including perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs), metabolites of diethylhexyl (DEHP) and diisononyl (DiNP) phthalates, PCB-153, and p,p'-DDE. Scores of five principal...

  18. Eating behaviors among school-age children associated with perceptions of stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, Sandra K; Rew, Lynn; Sternglanz, R Weylin

    2005-01-01

    Eating has been theorized to be useful as a coping strategy in response to stressful situations. However, investigation of this behavior in children is limited. The present study is a secondary cross-sectional analysis of longitudinal data that were collected from cohorts of fourth-, fifth-, and sixth-grader students. Perceived stress was correlated with unhealthy eating behaviors (r = .13, p eating as a coping mechanism (r = .24, p eating as a coping mechanism most frequently, followed by African-American and Caucasian children. School-age children who experience high levels of stress may be at risk for developing unhealthy eating habits in order to cope; continued examination of these relationships is suggested. Future research should focus on the development of interventions to encourage positive coping mechanisms and healthy eating behaviors.

  19. Parenting and feeding behaviors associated with school-aged African American and White children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polfuss, Michele Lynn; Frenn, Marilyn

    2012-08-01

    Pediatric obesity is multifactorial and difficult to treat. Parenting and feeding behaviors have been shown to influence a child's weight status. Most prior studies have focused on preschool-aged White children. Additional complicating factors include parents' inability to accurately identify their child's abnormal weight status. Parenting and feeding behaviors used by 176 African American and White parents of school-age children were examined. Assessment included (a) identifying what behaviors were reported when parent expressed concern with child's weight and (b) the relationship of these behaviors on child's body mass index percentile (BMI%), considering ethnicity, socioeconomic status (SES), and parent's body mass index (BMI). Findings included African American parents and parents concerned about their child's weight exhibited increased controlling/authoritarian parenting and feeding behaviors. Parents were able to accurately identify their child's weight status. Parenting and feeding behaviors played a significant role in the children's BMI% even when controlling for ethnicity, SES, and parent's BMI.

  20. Consumption of junk foods by school-aged children in rural Himachal Pradesh, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Aakriti; Kapil, Umesh; Singh, Gajendra

    2018-01-01

    There has been an increase in the consumption of junk food (JF) among school-aged children (SAC) possibly leading to obesity and diet-related diseases among them. We do not have evidence on consumption of JF in rural areas; hence, we conducted a study to assess the consumption of JF by SAC in rural, Himachal Pradesh. A total of 425 children in the age group of 12-18 years studying in 30 government schools (clusters) were included. The clusters were selected using population proportionate to size sampling methodology. We found high prevalence (36%) of consumption of JF among SAC during the last 24 h. Efforts should be taken to reduce the consumption of JF by promotion of healthy dietary habits and educating children about the ill effects of JF.

  1. Comparison of the tooth brushing habits of primary school age children and their parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozbek, Ceren Damla; Eser, Didem; Bektas-Kayhan, Kivanc; Unur, Meral

    2015-01-01

    As they grow, children develop their attitude and behavior related to tooth brushing by taking their parents' oral-dental health behavior as an example. The purpose of this study was to assess whether there was a similarity in tooth brushing between primary school-age children and their parents presenting to the Department of Oral, Dental and Jaw Diseases and Surgery and the Department of Pedodontics, School of Dental Medicine, Istanbul University. The study included 126 children and their parents, as totally 252 subjects. The data on oral hygiene of the subjects were obtained using a questionnaire form including questions on the qualitative-quantitative tooth brushing habits of the children and their parents and the socio-demographic characteristics of their families. In most of the cases, there was a similarity between children and their parents in terms of the frequency of dentist visits, the therapy they underwent in their last dentist visit, the cause of caries, the frequency of tooth brushing, the material used for oral hygiene, the duration of tooth brushing, method of tooth brushing, and tooth sites most brushed, which showed a significant association between children and their parents (p<0.01). Correct knowledge given to the children by their families will positively affect the oral-dental health of the children. Thus, firstly, correct knowledge should be given to the parents so that they can successfully carry out their responsibility in being the correct model for their children in oral-dental health.

  2. A survey of epilepsy knowledge, attitudes and practice in school-aged children in Bangkok, Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Limotai, C; Manmen, T; Urai, K; Limarun, C

    2018-01-01

    To estimate the level of knowledge about epilepsy, attitude towards PWE and practice in school-aged children in Bangkok, Thailand. Significant findings from this study will be employed to develop a relevant and effective tool to educate children. This cross-sectional survey study was conducted in Bangkok, Thailand, from August 2014 to December 2015. Study population included school-aged children between 9 and 14 years (4th to 8th grade). A structured age-appropriate, Thai culture-adjusted and simple 20-item questionnaire was used for this survey. The questionnaire comprised three domains which were eight items for knowledge (K), seven items for attitudes (A), and five items for practice (P). Descriptive and analytic statistics including Pearson's correlation were used to find correlation among KAP domains and age with KAP scores. A total of 1040 students from 13 schools participated in our survey study. Mean age was 11.27 (SD 0.94). Some basic knowledge about epilepsy and practice of inserting objects into mouth of seizing persons account for a high magnitude of misunderstanding. Girls and older-aged children are associated with better positive attitudes towards epilepsy. It seems that educating children with knowledge of both epilepsy and first aid is necessary to improve positive attitudes among this age group. Given the findings, our study suggests that a lack of knowledge in some aspects of KAP in children exists. Educational materials should contain basic knowledge about the simple pathogenesis of seizure, seizure types and seizure characteristics, and provide explanation as to why inserting objects into mouths of seizing persons is not recommended. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Perceived class climate and school-aged children's life satisfaction: The role of the learning environment in classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herke, Max G.; Hurrelmann, Klaus; Richter, Matthias

    2018-01-01

    The aim of this study is to examine the impact of class-level class climate on school-aged children’s life satisfaction. Data was derived from the German National Educational Panel Study (NEPS) using sixth grade school-aged children (n = 4,764, 483 classes). Class climate includes indicators of teachers' care and monitoring, demands, interaction, autonomy, as well as school-aged children's attitudes towards schoolwork at the class- and individual-level. Results showed that individual perceived class climate in terms of teachers' care and monitoring and autonomy was positively related to life satisfaction, whereas school-related demands were related to lower life satisfaction. Besides teachers' care and monitoring at class-level, indicators of class climate were not associated with school-aged children’s life satisfaction, while the individual perceived class climate is more important for life satisfaction. PMID:29420540

  4. Health and Self-Regulation among School-Age Children Experiencing Family Homelessness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, Andrew J; Lafavor, Theresa L; Cutuli, J J; Zhang, Lei; Oberg, Charles N; Masten, Ann S

    2017-08-04

    Children in homeless families have high levels of adversity and are at risk for behavior problems and chronic health conditions, however little is known about the relationship between cognitive-emotional self-regulation and health among school-aged homeless children. Children (n = 86; mean age 10.5) living in shelters were assessed for health, family stress/adversity, emotional-behavioral regulation, nonverbal intellectual abilities, and executive function. Vision problems were the most prevalent health condition, followed by chronic respiratory conditions. Cumulative risk, child executive function, and self-regulation problems in children were uniquely related to child physical health. Homeless children experience problems with cognitive, emotional, and behavioral regulation as well as physical health, occurring in a context of high psychosocial risk. Several aspects of children's self-regulation predict physical health in 9- to 11-year-old homeless children. Health promotion efforts in homeless families should address individual differences in children's self-regulation as a resilience factor.

  5. Attention and written expression in school-age, high-functioning children with autism spectrum disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zajic, Matthew C; McIntyre, Nancy; Swain-Lerro, Lindsay; Novotny, Stephanie; Oswald, Tasha; Mundy, Peter

    2018-04-01

    High-functioning children with autism spectrum disorders often find writing challenging. These writing difficulties may be specific to autism spectrum disorder or to a more general clinical effect of attention disturbance, as these children are often comorbid for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptomatology (and children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder often also find writing challenging). To examine this issue, this study investigated the role of attention disturbance on writing in 155 school-age children across four diagnostic groups: high-functioning autism spectrum disorder (HFASD) with lower ADHD symptoms (HFASD-L), HFASD with higher ADHD symptoms (HFASD-H), ADHD symptoms but no autism spectrum disorder symptoms, and typical development. Both HFASD subgroups and the ADHD group displayed lower word production writing scores than the typical development group, but the clinical groups did not differ. The HFASD-H and ADHD groups had significantly lower theme development and text organization writing scores than the typical development group, but the HFASD-L and typical development groups were not significantly different. The findings support prior research reporting writing problems in children with autism spectrum disorder but also suggest that children with HFASD-H may be at greater risk for writing difficulties than children with HFASD-L. Better understanding the role of attention in writing development could advance methods for assessment and intervention for children with high-functioning autism spectrum disorder at risk for writing difficulties.

  6. The longitudinal relationship between generalized self-efficacy and physical activity in school-aged children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yao-Chuen; Joshi, Divya; King-Dowling, Sara; Hay, John; Faught, Brent E; Cairney, John

    2018-02-05

    Our understanding of the longitudinal relationship between generalized self-efficacy (GSE) and physical activity in children and youth is limited. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of GSE towards physical activity on sedentary behaviours and physical activity in school-aged children over time. A total of 2278 nine-year-old children (1120 girls and 1158 boys) were recruited at baseline and followed for seven waves of data collection from 2005 to 2008. All children completed questionnaires at each wave assessing their GSE (adequacy, predilection, and enjoyment), sedentary behaviours, free play, and organized activity. Mixed-effects models were used to estimate changes in physical activity and GSE within individuals over time, controlling for gender and motor ability. The results showed that participation in free play significantly increased over time, whereas organized activity significantly decreased over the same period. Children with high perceived adequacy and predilection had higher free play and organized activity participation relative to other children over time. However, the effect of perceived adequacy diminished over time, while the gaps between groups with different levels of predilection widened over time. While sedentary behaviours were lower over time in children with high predilection, these behaviours were consistently higher in children with high enjoyment. The differences in sedentary behaviours between groups increased over time for both predilection and enjoyment. This study highlights the importance of different components of GSE on physical activity participation. In addition, interventions targeting the enhancement of predilection may facilitate physical activity and reduce sedentary behaviours.

  7. Narrative Performance of Gifted African American School-Aged Children From Low-Income Backgrounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Purpose This study investigated classroom differences in the narrative performance of school-age African American English (AAE)-speaking children in gifted and general education classrooms. Method Forty-three children, Grades 2–5, each generated fictional narratives in response to the book Frog, Where Are You? (Mayer, 1969). Differences in performance on traditional narrative measures (total number of communication units [C-units], number of different words, and mean length of utterance in words) and on AAE production (dialect density measure) between children in gifted and general education classrooms were examined. Results There were no classroom-based differences in total number of C-units, number of different words, and mean length of utterance in words. Children in gifted education classrooms produced narratives with lower dialect density than did children in general educated classrooms. Direct logistic regression assessed whether narrative dialect density measure scores offered additional information about giftedness beyond scores on the Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test–Fourth Edition (Dunn & Dunn, 2007), a standard measure of language ability. Results indicated that a model with only Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test–Fourth Edition scores best discriminated children in the 2 classrooms. Conclusion African American children across gifted and general education classrooms produce fictional narratives of similar length, lexical diversity, and syntax complexity. However, African American children in gifted education classrooms may produce lower rates of AAE and perform better on standard measures of vocabulary than those in general education classrooms. PMID:25409770

  8. Narrative performance of gifted African American school-aged children from low-income backgrounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, Monique T

    2015-02-01

    This study investigated classroom differences in the narrative performance of school-age African American English (AAE)-speaking children in gifted and general education classrooms. Forty-three children, Grades 2-5, each generated fictional narratives in response to the book Frog, Where Are You? (Mayer, 1969). Differences in performance on traditional narrative measures (total number of communication units [C-units], number of different words, and mean length of utterance in words) and on AAE production (dialect density measure) between children in gifted and general education classrooms were examined. There were no classroom-based differences in total number of C-units, number of different words, and mean length of utterance in words. Children in gifted education classrooms produced narratives with lower dialect density than did children in general educated classrooms. Direct logistic regression assessed whether narrative dialect density measure scores offered additional information about giftedness beyond scores on the Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test-Fourth Edition (Dunn & Dunn, 2007), a standard measure of language ability. Results indicated that a model with only Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test-Fourth Edition scores best discriminated children in the 2 classrooms. African American children across gifted and general education classrooms produce fictional narratives of similar length, lexical diversity, and syntax complexity. However, African American children in gifted education classrooms may produce lower rates of AAE and perform better on standard measures of vocabulary than those in general education classrooms.

  9. Energy and nutrient intake in preschool and school age Mexican children: National Nutrition Survey 1999

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barquera Simón

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To estimate energy and nutrient intake and adequacy in preschool and school age Mexican children, using the National Nutrition Survey 1999 (NNS-1999. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Twenty four-h dietary recalls from pre-school (n=1 309 and school (n=2 611 children obtained from a representative sub-sample of the NNS-1999 were analyzed. Intakes and adequacies were estimated and compared across four regions, socio-economic strata, and between urban and rural areas, and indigenous vs. non-indigenous children. RESULTS: Median energy intake in pre-school children was 949 kcal and in school children 1 377 kcal, with adequacies 150% in both age groups. The North and Mexico City regions had the highest fat intake and the lowest fiber intake. Children in the South region, indigenous children, and those in the lowest socio-economic stratum had higher fiber and carbohydrate intakes and the lowest fat intake. These children also showed the highest risks of inadequacies for vitamin A, vitamin C, folate, iron, zinc and calcium. CONCLUSIONS: Mexico is experiencing a nutrition transition with internal inequalities across regions and socio-economic strata. Food policy must account for these differences in order to optimize resources directed at social programs.

  10. "Parenting about Peace": Exploring Taiwanese Parents' and Children's Perceptions in a Shared Political and Sociocultural Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Liang-Yu F.

    2012-01-01

    This study explored what Taiwanese parents would educate their children about peace and what children retained from parental teaching, as well as children's reported communication with parents about peace. In-depth interviews were conducted with 60 parents and one of their children. Based on the perceptions of children, the most influential…

  11. Utterance-final position and pitch marking aid word learning in school-age children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filippi, Piera; Laaha, Sabine; Fitch, W Tecumseh

    2017-08-01

    We investigated the effects of word order and prosody on word learning in school-age children. Third graders viewed photographs belonging to one of three semantic categories while hearing four-word nonsense utterances containing a target word. In the control condition, all words had the same pitch and, across trials, the position of the target word was varied systematically within each utterance. The only cue to word-meaning mapping was the co-occurrence of target words and referents. This cue was present in all conditions. In the Utterance-final condition, the target word always occurred in utterance-final position, and at the same fundamental frequency as all the other words of the utterance. In the Pitch peak condition, the position of the target word was varied systematically within each utterance across trials, and produced with pitch contrasts typical of infant-directed speech (IDS). In the Pitch peak + Utterance-final condition, the target word always occurred in utterance-final position, and was marked with a pitch contrast typical of IDS. Word learning occurred in all conditions except the control condition. Moreover, learning performance was significantly higher than that observed with simple co-occurrence ( control condition) only for the Pitch peak + Utterance-final condition. We conclude that, for school-age children, the combination of words' utterance-final alignment and pitch enhancement boosts word learning.

  12. Evaluation performance of diagnostic methods of intestinal parasitosis in school age children in Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yimer, Mulat; Hailu, Tadesse; Mulu, Wondemagegn; Abera, Bayeh

    2015-12-26

    Although the sensitivity of Wet mount technique is questionable, it is the major diagnostic technique for routine diagnosis of intestinal parasitosis in Ethiopia. Therefore, the aim of this study was the evaluation performance of diagnostic methods of intestinal parasitosis in school age children in Ethiopia. A cross sectional study was conducted from May to June 2013. Single stool sample was processed for direct, Formol ether concentration (FEC) and Kato Katz methods. The sensitivity and negative predictive value (NPV) of diagnostic tests were calculated in terms of the "Gold" standard method (the combined result of the three methods altogether). A total of 422 school age children were participated in this study. The prevalence of intestinal parasites was high (74.6%) with Kato Katz technique. The sensitivity of Wet mount, FEC and Kato Katz tests against the Gold standard test was 48.9, 63.1 and 93.7%, respectively. Kato Katz technique revealed a better NPV 80.4 (80.1-80.6) as compared to the Wet mount (33.7%) and FEC techniques (41.3%). In this study, the Kato Katz technique outperformed the other two methods but the true values for sensitivity, specificity and diagnostic values are not known. Moreover, it is labor intensive and not easily accessible. Hence, it is preferable to use FEC technique to complement the Wet mount test.

  13. Behavioral pattern in Chinese school-aged children with cleft lip and palate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ha, Pin; Zhuge, Xu-Qing; Zheng, Qian; Shi, Bing; Gong, Cai-Xia; Wang, Yan

    2013-02-01

    To obtain descriptive information of behavioral pattern in Chinese school-aged children with cleft lip and palate. A total of 93 cleft lip and palate patients between the age of 6-11 year-old and treated at West China Stomatology Hospital were selected. And another 100 unaffected controls, matched for age and gender, were recruited randomly from a common primary school in Chengdu. Chart review of medical records was used to obtain psychosocial checklists. Scores were compared with published norms and controls to evaluate the risk of problems, separately for three diagnostic groups. The patients group had lower scores of social and academic competencies, especially those with facial deformity or speech problem. No difference was found in the aspect of activity competency. All patients showed elevations in behavior problems. But the type of behavior problems varied in different genders. Chinese school-aged children with cleft lip and palate are at raised risk for social and academic difficulties. Specific pattern of behavior problems displays differently depending on gender of the patient. Copyright © 2013 Hainan Medical College. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. The Relationship between Social and Motor Cognition in Primary School Age-Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenny, Lorcan; Hill, Elisabeth; Hamilton, Antonia F. de C.

    2016-01-01

    There is increased interest in the relationship between motor skills and social skills in child development, with evidence that the mechanisms underlying these behaviors may be linked. We took a cognitive approach to this problem, and examined the relationship between four specific cognitive domains: theory of mind, motor skill, action understanding, and imitation. Neuroimaging and adult research suggest that action understanding and imitation are closely linked, but are somewhat independent of theory of mind and low-level motor control. Here, we test if a similar pattern is shown in child development. A sample of 101 primary school aged children with a wide ability range completed tests of IQ (Raven’s matrices), theory of mind, motor skill, action understanding, and imitation. Parents reported on their children’s social, motor and attention performance as well as developmental concerns. The results showed that action understanding and imitation correlate, with the latter having a weak link to motor control. Theory of mind was independent of the other tasks. These results imply that independent cognitive processes for social interaction (theory of mind) and for motor control can be identified in primary school age children, and challenge approaches that link all these domains together. PMID:26941685

  15. The relationship between social and motor cognition in primary school age-children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorcan eKenny

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available AbstractThere is increased interest in the relationship between motor skills and social skills in child development, with evidence that the mechanisms underlying these behaviors may be linked. We took a cognitive approach to this problem, and examined the relationship between four specific cognitive domains: theory of mind, motor skill, action understanding and imitation. Neuroimaging and adult research suggest that action understanding and imitation are closely linked, but are somewhat independent of theory of mind and low-level motor control. Here we test if a similar pattern is shown in child development. A sample of 101 primary school aged children with a wide ability range completed tests of IQ (Raven’s matrices, theory of mind, motor skill, action understanding and imitation. Parents reported on their children’s social, motor and attention performance as well as developmental concerns. The results showed that action understanding and imitation correlate, with the latter having a weak link to motor control. Theory of mind was independent of the other tasks. These results imply that independent cognitive processes for social interaction (theory of mind and for motor control can be identified in primary school age children, and challenge approaches that link all these domains together.

  16. Comparison of two optical biometers in Chinese school-aged children

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    Pei-Yang Shen

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To evaluate the repeatability of ocular biometrical measurements obtained from the optical low-coherence reflectometry(Lenstar LS900® version 1.10, as well as its agreement with the partial coherence interferometry(IOL Master® 500 version 7.1in Chinese school-aged children.METHODS: A prospective comparison of ocular biometrical measurements made by the Lenstar and IOL Master was performed on right eye of each participant. The intraobserver repeatability of Lenstar was assessed by coefficient of variation(CV. Agreement was analyzed using Bland-Altman plots.RESULTS: The mean age of the 110 subjects(range 6-15ywas 10.9±2.0y, and 54.5% were female. The Lenstar yielded repeatable measurements, with the smallest CV was obtained for axial length(AL(CVvs 23.88±1.27mm, Pvs 3.58±0.25mm, Pvs 7.56±0.27mm, PCONCLUSIONS: The Lenstar yielded excellent repeatability results of AL, ACD, and corneal curvature measurements, which were interchangeable with the IOL Master measurements in school-aged children.

  17. Longitudinal Impact on Quality of Life for School-aged Children with Amblyopia Treatment: Perspective from Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yanyan; Chen, Xinhong; Chen, Jie; Zheng, Jingwei; Xu, Jinling; Yu, Xinping

    2016-01-01

    To evaluate the longitudinal impact on health-related quality of life (HRQOL) during amblyopia treatment for school-aged children from children's perspective. School-aged children prescribed amblyopia treatment for the first time were recruited into the current study. Using a questionnaire, subjects' HRQOL was assessed before patching treatment, and at 8 weeks and 16 weeks after the commencement of patching treatment. Evaluation of visual function and psychosocial aspect was included in the questionnaire. Visual acuity and demographic data of the subjects were recorded. Forty-four children, aged 7-12 years, with anisometropic amblyopia were included in the study. Visual acuity in the amblyopic eye improved 1.90 (0.41-3.74) and 3.98 (2.22-5.11) lines at follow-up weeks 8 and 16, respectively. Both the total score and subscales of the questionnaire were reduced at the first follow-up and recovered at the second follow-up. Scores at week 16 were higher than those before treatment in the psychosocial aspect (p = 0.003), and lower in the visual function aspect (p amblyopia treatment for school-aged children. Meanwhile, necessary precautions should be taken to help reduce the impacts.

  18. Academic achievement in school-aged children with active epilepsy: a population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reilly, Colin; Atkinson, Patricia; Das, Krishna B; Chin, Richard F C; Aylett, Sarah E; Burch, Victoria; Gillberg, Christopher; Scott, Rod C; Neville, Brian G R

    2014-12-01

    To provide population-based data on the performance of school-aged children with epilepsy on measures of academic achievement and factors associated with this performance after controlling for IQ. Eighty-five (74%) of 115 children with "active" epilepsy (experienced a seizure in the past year and/or on antiepileptic drugs [AEDs]) underwent psychological assessment including measures of IQ, aspects of working memory and processing speed. Sixty-five of the 85 were able to complete subtests on the Wide Range Achievement Test-Fourth Edition (WRAT-4). Paired sample t-tests were conducted to compare subtest scores. Factors associated with academic performance after controlling for IQ were examined using linear regression. Seventy-two percent of the children, who could complete subtests on the WRAT-4, displayed "low achievement" (1 standard deviation [SD] below test mean) and 42% displayed "underachievement" (1 SD below assessed IQ) on at least one of the four WRAT-4 subtests. The mean scores on the Math Computation subtest and Sentence Comprehension subtest were significantly lower than scores on the Word Reading (p academic achievement are common in school-aged children with "active" epilepsy. Much of the difficulties can be attributed to lowered global cognition. However, specific cognitive deficits, younger onset of first seizure, and school attendance difficulties may contribute to difficulties independent of global cognition. There is a need to screen all children with "active" epilepsy for difficulties in school achievement, to identify contributory factors and to identify efficacious interventions for ameliorating such difficulties. Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2014 International League Against Epilepsy.

  19. Frequency of consumption of foods rich in calcium and vitamin D among school-age children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostecka, Małgorzata

    2016-01-01

    Calcium is one of the most important minerals for the human body which is essential for healthy bones and teeth. Vitamin D has hormone-like properties in the human body. It is supplied with the diet, but it is also synthesized by the body under exposure to UV radiation. Vitamin D controls calcium and phosphorus metabolism and is responsible for bone modeling and mineralization. The objective of this study was to evaluate eating habits and food preferences of school-age children meet the demand for calcium and vitamin D, and estimate the frequency of consumption of foods rich in these nutrients. A total of 197 parents of 7- to 9-year-olds attending randomly selected primary schools in Lublin and Świdnik were asked to fill out a questionnaire designed by the authors. The results were processed by the Chi-squared test in the Excel application. Considerable differences in the consumption of milk and dairy products were observed between age groups. In the group of 7-year-olds, 57.5% of children drank milk and ate dairy products at least once a day, whereas in the group of 9-year-olds, only 16.6% of children ate dairy products at least once a day. The intake of foods rich in vitamin D was equally low among the surveyed children. School-age children may be at risk of calcium and vitamin D deficiencies due to low consumption of milk, dairy products and fish, and inadequate vitamin D supplementation. Parents should be educated about nutrition to change the family's eating habits.

  20. Correlates of physical fitness and activity in Taiwanese children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, J-L; Unnithan, V; Kennedy, C; Yeh, C-H

    2008-03-01

    This cross-sectional study examined factors related to children's physical fitness and activity levels in Taiwan. A total of 331 Taiwanese children, aged 7 and 8, and their mothers participated in the study. Children performed physical fitness tests, recorded their physical activities during two weekdays and completed self-esteem questionnaires. Research assistants measured the children's body mass and stature. Mothers completed demographic, parenting style and physical activity questionnaires. Attending urban school, lower body mass index (BMI), older age and better muscular endurance contributed to the variance in better aerobic capacity, and attending rural school and better aerobic capacity contributed to the variance in better muscular endurance in boys. Attending urban school, lower BMI and better athletic competence contributed to the variance in better aerobic capacity, and younger age, rural school and higher household income contributed to the variance in better flexibility in girls. Despite the limitations of the study, with many countries and regions, including Taiwan, now emphasizing the importance of improving physical fitness and activity in children, an intervention that is gender-, geographically, and developmentally appropriate can improve the likelihood of successful physical fitness and activity programmes.

  1. [Perception of their social environment and their future in institutionalized school-age children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remetić, Mirjana; Tahirović, Husref; Loga, Slobodan

    2005-01-01

    Family home and institutions for children without parental care represent the rearing-environments where, from the early years, whole human development goes on. It's known today that despite the recognized importance of inborn traits, the influence of child-rearing environments dominates current models of development. The aim of the study was to investigate the satisfaction with the rearing-environment of school-aged institutionalized children, their dominating feeling and if institutionalization affects life optimism for now and for the future. The study was conducted in two institutions in Bosnia and Herzegovina who share the same care model imitating the traditional Bosnian families where the older children care for the younger siblings. We took as a sample 30 institutionalized children aged 8-12, and for the control group 60 children matched by age and sex. Parents, children and teachers who gave their informed consent answered the questionnaires. It was confirmed that children without parental care are vulnerable group and in a great risk who need urgent help of professional multidisciplinary team of their close and broad environment. Lack of social support cause the withdrawing and suffering and can lead soon or later to problematic behaviour.

  2. Prevalence of refractive errors in school-age children in Morocco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anera, Rosario G; Soler, Margarita; de la Cruz Cardona, Juan; Salas, Carlos; Ortiz, Carolina

    2009-03-01

    The prevalence of refractive errors in school-age children in Morocco was assessed. A total of 545 children (300 boys and 245 girls, between 6 and 16 years of age) attending school were examined to assess their refractive errors in a field study in Morocco (North Africa). The examination included autorefraction under cycloplegia and visual acuity, stereopsis and anterior corneal-radius measurements . We found a low prevalence of myopia (prevalence of hyperopia (> or =2.0 D SE in at least one eye) was 18.3%. Astigmatism (children. The low prevalence of large refractive errors makes visual acuity in these children very good. In general, the corneal radii did not significantly vary with age. There were no significant differences between the distribution of refractive errors in these children according to gender but there were with respect to age. There was a low prevalence of myopia in these African children, astigmatism being the most frequent refractive error. The mean refractive errors found were low, and therefore visual acuity was high in these children.

  3. Influence of spatial perception abilities on reading in school-age children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arnaud Saj

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Spatial perception abilities enable individuals to explore a visual field, to detect spatial position and to infer relationships between visual stimuli. Written words and text are conceptualized spatially along a horizontal mental line, but little is known about the way children develop these representations. The exact relationship between visuo-spatial perception and academic achievement has never been directly assessed. Therefore, our aim was to study the developmental trajectory of space perception abilities by assessing perceptual, attentional and memory components, the relationship between these abilities and reading achievement in school-age children. Forty-nine children aged between 6.5 and 11 years old were divided into four age groups and were assessed with visual bisection, visual search and visual memory location tasks. The results showed that the groups of older children, from the age of nine, improved significantly on the bisection and visual search tasks with respect to all visual fields, while the groups of younger children showed more errors in the left visual field (LVF. Performances on these tasks were correlated with reading level and age. Older children with a low reading score showed a LVF bias, similar to the youngest children. These results demonstrate how abnormal space perception might distort space representation and in turn affect reading and learning processes.

  4. Systematic review of self-concept measures for primary school aged children with cerebral palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheong, Sau Kuan; Johnston, Leanne M

    2013-10-01

    This study involved a systematic review aimed to identify self-concept measures that provided published psychometrics for primary school aged children (8-12 years) with cerebral palsy (CP). Six electronic databases (PubMed, MEDLINE, CINAHL, PsycINFO, PsycARTICLES and Web of Science) were searched to identify assessments that (1) measured self-concept; (2) in children aged 8-12 years; (3) with CP; (4) with psychometrics available. The Consensus-based Standards for the Selection of Health Measurement Instruments (COSMIN) checklist was used to evaluate psychometric properties and the CanChild Outcome Measure Rating Form was used to evaluate clinical utility. Search yielded 271 papers, of which five met inclusion criteria. These papers reported five measures of self-concept with psychometric properties for the target population: the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Index, Self-Description Questionnaire-I, Self-Perception Profile for Children (original) and two separate modifications of the Self-Perception Profile for Children. Currently, no self-concept measures published in English had sufficient psychometric data for children with CP. The Self-Description Questionnaire-I and the Self-Perception Profile for Children were promising options. Further research is required (a) to determine self-concept construct components important for children with CP and (b) to examine the relative strength, validity, reliability and clinical utility of self-concept measures for the target population. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Towards a richer understanding of school-age children's experiences of domestic violence: the voices of children and their mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swanston, Jennifer; Bowyer, Laura; Vetere, Arlene

    2014-04-01

    Millions of children are exposed to domestic violence. How children negotiate and make sense of living with domestic violence is still under-researched. This study sought to capture the dual-perspectives of school-aged children and their mothers, to develop a richer understanding of children's experiences of domestic violence, using a community-based sample. A qualitative research design was employed, with interpretative phenomenological analysis used to interpret the data. Five school-aged children and three of their mothers participated in the study. Two master themes are discussed from the analysis of the children's perspective: domestic violence through the eyes of children; and learning from children's experiences. Two master themes are discussed from the analysis of the mothers' perspective: reflecting on the child in the context of domestic violence; and learning from mothers: insights, support and services. The crucial importance of the mother-child relationship in shaping children's experience of domestic violence was illustrated in both the perspectives; a finding which may have important implications for the development of interventions. It was also evident that children as young as eight were able to powerfully articulate their experiences of domestic violence.

  6. Mycoplasma Pneumoniae: A Cross-sectional Population-based Comparison of Disease Severity in Preschool and School-age Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inchley, Christopher Stephen; Berg, Are Stuwitz; Vahdani Benam, Afsaneh; Kvissel, Anne Katrine; Leegaard, Truls Michael; Nakstad, Britt

    2017-10-01

    Mycoplasma pneumoniae causes epidemics of upper respiratory disease and pneumonia. It is thought that M. pneumoniae usually causes milder upper respiratory disease in preschool children, with a greater chance of pneumonia in school-age children. In this population-based cross-sectional study, we present evidence that severe M. pneumoniae infection is more common in preschool children than previously thought. During an M. pneumoniae epidemic in our area, widespread health service and public awareness lead to extensive testing for M. pneumoniae. Medical records of hospital-referred M. pneumoniae-positive children were assessed retrospectively for respiratory disease and chest radiographic results. Severe disease was defined as supplementary oxygen or fluid requirement, mechanical ventilatory support or neurologic disease. Age-specific population figures were used to calculate incidence during the study period. Those who were 0-5-year-olds were considered preschool, whereas 6-17-year-olds were considered school-aged. Thirty-seven preschool and 55 school-age children were referred to the hospital and tested positive for M. pneumoniae. Twenty-two (60%) preschool and 23 (42%) school-age children had severe disease [incidence 56 vs. 29 per 100,000; relative risk: 1.9; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.06-3.4; P = 0.03]. Twenty (54%) preschool and 19 (35%) school-age children had severe pneumonia (incidence 51 vs. 24 per 100,000; relative risk: 2.1; 95% CI: 1.1-3.9; P = 0.03). During an M. pneumoniae epidemic in Akershus and North Oslo in 2011-2012, preschool children infected with M. pneumoniae had significantly higher risk of severe disease, particularly severe pneumonia, when compared with school-age children. M. pneumoniae should be considered a potential pathogen in younger children with respiratory distress, particularly during an epidemic period.

  7. Electronic media use and sleep in school-aged children and adolescents: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cain, Neralie; Gradisar, Michael

    2010-09-01

    Electronic media have often been considered to have a negative impact on the sleep of children and adolescents, but there are no comprehensive reviews of research in this area. The present study identified 36 papers that have investigated the relationship between sleep and electronic media in school-aged children and adolescents, including television viewing, use of computers, electronic gaming, and/or the internet, mobile telephones, and music. Many variables have been investigated across these studies, although delayed bedtime and shorter total sleep time have been found to be most consistently related to media use. A model of the mechanisms by which media use may affect sleep is presented and discussed as a vehicle for future research. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Association between parents' attitudes and behaviors toward children's visual care and myopia risk in school-aged children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Shuang; Yang, Lihua; Lu, Benlin; Wang, Hexin; Xu, Ting; Du, Dandan; Wu, Shiqing; Li, Xiuxiu; Lu, Meixia

    2017-12-01

    The purpose of this survey was to determine the association of parents' attitudes and behaviors toward children's visual care with myopia risk in school-aged children.A total of 894 parents of school-aged children were investigated in primary and middle schools in the central and noncentral urban area in Wuhan through stratified cluster random sampling on July, 2015. We analyzed the association by the generalized linear mixed model.The results indicated that children with parents' high expectations of 1.5 or higher on their vision exhibited a decreased risk of myopia compared with 1.0 and 0.5 or lower (OR = 0.49, 95%CI = 0.36-0.67). Children whose parents only paid attention to their vision in junior and senior school and in primary school had an increased myopia risk than that in preschool (OR = 2.12, 95%CI = 1.01-4.45, and OR = 3.11, 95%CI = 1.28-7.58, respectively). Children whose parents ensured for their sufficient sleep had a decreased myopia risk (OR = 0.45, 95%CI = 0.24-0.85). Compared with children whose parents who never adjusted electronic devices' parameters, the odds ratio of sometimes was 0.49 (95%CI = 0.31-0.79), often 0.53 (95%CI = 0.33-0.85), and always 0.44 (95%CI = 0.26-0.75), respectively.Parents' attitudes and behaviors toward children's visual care are significantly associated with the myopia risk in school-aged children. Consequently, efforts should be made to educate parents on how they protect children's vision and reduce their risk of myopia. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Suicide Trends Among Elementary School-Aged Children in the United States From 1993 to 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bridge, Jeffrey A; Asti, Lindsey; Horowitz, Lisa M; Greenhouse, Joel B; Fontanella, Cynthia A; Sheftall, Arielle H; Kelleher, Kelly J; Campo, John V

    2015-07-01

    Suicide is a leading cause of death among school-aged children younger than 12 years but little is known about the epidemiology of suicide in this age group. To describe trends in suicide among US children younger than 12 years by sociodemographic group and method of death. Period trend analysis of national mortality data on suicide in children aged 5 to 11 years in the United States from January 1, 1993, to December 31, 2012. Data were analyzed per 5-year periods, between 1993 to 1997 and 2008 to 2012. Number of suicide deaths and crude suicide rates. Period trends in rates of suicide were estimated using negative binomial regression incidence rate ratios (IRRs). The overall suicide rate among children aged 5 to 11 years remained stable between 1993 to 1997 and 2008 to 2012 (from 1.18 to 1.09 per 1 million; IRR = 0.96; 95% CI, 0.90-1.03). However, the suicide rate increased significantly in black children (from 1.36 to 2.54 per 1 million; IRR = 1.27; 95% CI, 1.11-1.45) and decreased in white children (from 1.14 to 0.77 per 1 million; IRR = 0.86; 95% CI, 0.79-0.94). The overall firearm suicide rate (IRR = 0.69; 95% CI, 0.57-0.85) and firearm suicide rate among white boys (IRR = 0.72; 95% CI, 0.59-0.88) decreased significantly during the study. The rate of suicide by hanging/suffocation increased significantly in black boys (IRR = 1.35; 95% CI, 1.14-1.61), although the overall change in suicide rates by hanging/suffocation or other suicide methods did not change during the study. The stable overall suicide rate in school-aged children in the United States during 20 years of study obscured a significant increase in suicide incidence in black children and a significant decrease in suicide incidence among white children. Findings highlight a potential racial disparity that warrants attention. Further studies are needed to monitor these emerging trends and identify risk, protective, and precipitating factors relevant to suicide prevention efforts

  10. Common components of evidence-based parenting programs for preventing maltreatment of school-age children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Temcheff, Caroline E; Letarte, Marie-Josée; Boutin, Stéphanie; Marcil, Katherine

    2018-04-06

    Child maltreatment can lead to a variety of negative outcomes in childhood including physical and mental health problems that can extend into adulthood. Given the transactional nature of child maltreatment and the difficulties that many maltreating families experience, child protection services typically offer various kinds of programs to maltreated children, their parents, and/or their families. Although the specific difficulties experienced by these families may vary, sub-optimal parenting practices are typically part of the picture and may play a central role in maltreated children's development. Hence, to deal with child maltreatment, programs that focus on parenting practices are essential, and identifying the common components of effective programs is of critical importance. The objectives of the present study were to: 1) describe the components of evidence-based parenting programs aimed at parents who have maltreated their elementary school-aged children or are at-risk for doing so and 2) identify the components that are common to these programs, using the approach proposed by Barth and Liggett-Creel (2014). Fourteen evidence-based parenting programs aimed at parents who had maltreated their elementary school-aged children (ages 6-12) or were at-risk for doing so were identified using both a review of relevant online databases of evidence-based programs (California Evidence-Based Clearinghouse for Child Welfare, Blueprints for Healthy Youth Development, Youth.gov, and the National Registry of Evidence-based Programs and Practices). Common components were identified (operationalized as components present in two thirds of programs) and discussed. The identification of common components of evidence-based programs may help clinicians choose the best intervention methods. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  11. Hypnosis for treatment of insomnia in school-age children: a retrospective chart review

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    Slothower Molly P

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The purposes of this study are to document psychosocial stressors and medical conditions associated with development of insomnia in school-age children and to report use of hypnosis for this condition. Methods A retrospective chart review was performed for 84 children and adolescents with insomnia, excluding those with central or obstructive sleep apnea. All patients were offered and accepted instruction in self-hypnosis for treatment of insomnia, and for other symptoms if it was felt that these were amenable to therapy with hypnosis. Seventy-five patients returned for follow-up after the first hypnosis session. Their mean age was 12 years (range, 7–17. When insomnia did not resolve after the first instruction session, patients were offered the opportunity to use hypnosis to gain insight into the cause. Results Younger children were more likely to report that the insomnia was related to fears. Two or fewer hypnosis sessions were provided to 68% of the patients. Of the 70 patients reporting a delay in sleep onset of more than 30 minutes, 90% reported a reduction in sleep onset time following hypnosis. Of the 21 patients reporting nighttime awakenings more than once a week, 52% reported resolution of the awakenings and 38% reported improvement. Somatic complaints amenable to hypnosis were reported by 41%, including chest pain, dyspnea, functional abdominal pain, habit cough, headaches, and vocal cord dysfunction. Among these patients, 87% reported improvement or resolution of the somatic complaints following hypnosis. Conclusion Use of hypnosis appears to facilitate efficient therapy for insomnia in school-age children.

  12. Relationship between media viewing and obesity in school-aged children in Taipei, Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Hsiu-Mei; Chien, Li-Yin; Yeh, Ting-Chi; Lee, Pi-Hsia; Chang, Pi-Chen

    2013-09-01

    Increased media viewing such as watching television and videos and playing on/using computers has been associated with childhood obesity. Guidelines from the American Academy of Pediatrics recommend limiting children's total media time to no more than 2 hours per day. Information about media usage and school-aged obesity in Taiwan is lacking. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether media viewing after school is associated with the total and centralobesity in school-aged children in Taipei, Taiwan's capital and largest city. A case-control study was designed, and a control approach was used to recruit participants. Two hundred seventy-five obese and 275 normal-weight children currently in the fourth grade were enrolled from 29 elementary schools in Taipei City. Media viewing after school was measured using a 3-day self-reported physical activity log and the daily sedentary activity component of the National Health Interview Survey in Taiwan. The latter was completed by the participants' parents. Participants with total obesity had significantly more television watching time (60.24 minutes vs. 43.50 minutes, p < .05) and total media watching time (73.61 minutes vs. 52.67 minutes, p < .001) than normal-weight participants. Similar results were found for participants with central obesity. Total television and total media watching durations greater than 2 hours a day correlated significantly with total and central obesity. Time spent using computers did not differ significantly between obese and normal-weight control participants on weekdays. Childhood obesity may be multifactorial in origin. Excessive sedentary activity such as watching television may have a variety of consequences beyond the putative effect on body habitus. School nurses should promote health programs targeted to prevent excessive weight and obesity in children, recommend reducing media viewing, and encourage patient participation in extracurricular outdoor activities.

  13. Prevalence and risk factors of obesity among school-aged children in Xi'an, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Xiaoqing; Yin, Chunyan; Chang, Ming; Xiao, Yanfeng

    2012-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the prevalence and the risk factors associated with obesity among school-aged children in Xi'an city. The body mass index of 6,740 children aged 7-18 years was compared with the Working Group on Obesity in China cut-off value to estimate the prevalence of obesity. A case-control study of obese and non-obese children was carried out to study risk factors for obesity. A standardized questionnaire was used to collect information on possible risk factors causing obesity. Univariate analysis was performed first to compare the distribution of risk factors between cases and controls. Conditional logistic regression analysis was used to assess independent risk factors of obesity. The results showed that the overall prevalence of obesity among school-aged children was 4.11% (4.63% for males and 3.57% for females). A total of 516 subjects (258 pairs of cases and controls) were included in the final analysis. High maternal education and a longer sleeping time were shown to be protective factors against obesity (odds ratio [OR] 0.148, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.074-0.296 and OR 0.472, 95% CI 0.342-0.652, respectively). Whereas family history of diabetes (OR 5.498, 95% CI 2.606-11.600), parental overweight (OR 3.720, 95% CI 2.068-6.689), and watching television, playing video games, and using computers (OR 1.564, 95% CI 1.133-2.159) were associated with a higher obesity risk. The prevalence of childhood obesity in Xi'an has become a concern, and sleeping time, sedentary behavior, and family factors have pronounced effects on the prevalence of obesity.

  14. Interlimb coordination during forward and backward walking in primary school-aged children.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pieter Meyns

    Full Text Available Previous studies comparing forward (FW and backward (BW walking suggested that the leg kinematics in BW were essentially those of FW in reverse. This led to the proposition that in adults the neural control of FW and BW originates from the same basic neural circuitry. One aspect that has not received much attention is to what extent development plays a role in the maturation of neural control of gait in different directions. BW has been examined either in adults or infants younger than one year. Therefore, we questioned which changes occur in the intermediate phases (i.e. in primary school-aged children. Furthermore, previous research focused on the lower limbs, thereby raising the question whether upper limb kinematics are also simply reversed from FW to BW. Therefore, in the current study the emphasis was put both on upper and lower limb movements, and the coordination between the limbs. Total body 3D gait analysis was performed in primary school-aged children (N = 24, aged five to twelve years at a preferred walking speed to record angular displacements of upper arm, lower arm, upper leg, lower leg, and foot with respect to the vertical (i.e. elevation angle. Kinematics and interlimb coordination were compared between FW and BW. Additionally, elevation angle traces of BW were reversed in time (revBW and correlated to FW traces. Results showed that upper and lower limb kinematics of FW correlated highly to revBW kinematics in children, which appears to be consistent with the proposal that control of FW and BW may be similar. In addition, age was found to mildly alter lower limb kinematic patterns. In contrast, interlimb coordination was similar across all children, but was different compared to adults, measured for comparison. It is concluded that development plays a role in the fine-tuning of neural control of FW and BW.

  15. Current concepts and therapeutic strategies for allergic rhinitis in school-age children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blaiss, Michael

    2004-11-01

    Allergic rhinitis (AR) is a common debilitating disorder that can adversely affect the quality of life and the academic performance of school-age children. Symptoms during the day can hamper concentration and lead to learning problems. Nocturnal symptoms can cause sleep loss and secondary daytime fatigue, further undermining a child's ability to function well during the school day Oral antihistamines are the foundation of pharmacologic therapy, but there are important differences between the agents. The purpose of this review is to provide an overview of the diagnostic and treatment challenges posed by AR in school-age children. The paper discusses and compares the available treatment modalities for this age group, with a focus on their beneficial and adverse effects. Pertinent articles were identified in the literature through a MEDLINE search (1990-2003). Keywords used were antihistamines cetirizine fexofenadine loratadine desloratadine intranasal corticosteroids and CNS effects. Results of numerous clinical trials of first-generation early second-generation and the newer antihistamines were identified. This review established that the socioeconomic costs of AR are considerable. In children aged > or =12 years, direct US expenditures (eg, physician visits, medications) in 1996 amounted to $2.3 billion. Indirect costs measured by variables such as missed school days and poor performance also have an impact Major concerns include underdiagnosis and inadequate treatment, increasing the risk of serious comorbid conditions such as asthma. Advantages and drawbacks of antihistamines show that first-generation agents (eg, hydroxyzine) are effective and readily available over the counter, but are associated with sedation and the potential for suboptimal dosing. Newer agents, such as cetirizine, loratadine, desloratadine, and fexofenadine are effective and safer than the older drugs tie, no cardiotoxicity and less sedation). Of these, fexofenadine has been shown to be

  16. Health and Self-Regulation among School-Age Children Experiencing Family Homelessness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew J. Barnes

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Children in homeless families have high levels of adversity and are at risk for behavior problems and chronic health conditions, however little is known about the relationship between cognitive-emotional self-regulation and health among school-aged homeless children. Children (n = 86; mean age 10.5 living in shelters were assessed for health, family stress/adversity, emotional-behavioral regulation, nonverbal intellectual abilities, and executive function. Vision problems were the most prevalent health condition, followed by chronic respiratory conditions. Cumulative risk, child executive function, and self-regulation problems in children were uniquely related to child physical health. Homeless children experience problems with cognitive, emotional, and behavioral regulation as well as physical health, occurring in a context of high psychosocial risk. Several aspects of children’s self-regulation predict physical health in 9- to 11-year-old homeless children. Health promotion efforts in homeless families should address individual differences in children’s self-regulation as a resilience factor.

  17. Comparative Study of Multimodal and Pharmacological Therapy in Treating School Aged Children with ADHD

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    Susana Bogdana MILEA

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD, one of the most commonly diagnosed psychiatric disorders among school aged children, continues to create disputes between specialists, upon the best treatment to be used. The herby study aims to bring forward some differences that may exist between the efficacy of the multimodal treatment compared to the drug treatment of ADHD. The novelty component of this study, unfolded February 2010-July 2012, is that the children, their parents and also their teachers were included in the multimodality treatment. The children included in this research (n=63, aged 6-14 and ADHD diagnosed, were randomly assigned in two groups. In the medication (Med group (n=32 the children only received the specific pharmacological treatment (Atomoxetine or Methylphenidate, and for the multimodality (MM group (n=31 the therapy included psychosocial interventions besides the drug therapy. All children were evaluated, both pre and post intervention, with the Achenbach System of Empirically Based Assessment – ASEBA, for the 6-18 aged category. We have compared the influence of therapy on the core symptoms, on the adaptive functionality and academic performance and on the competences and social functioning of the children in the two groups. The multimodal intervention proved to be more effective (p<0.05 than medication alone, firstly in ameliorating the child’s social behavior in both family and school environment, than in what concerns the main ADHD symptoms. The children’s academic performance was little impacted by either of the two therapies.

  18. No association between cognitive achievements, academic performance and serum cholesterol concentrations among school-aged children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, Lewis A; Stigger, Cagney B; Ainsworth, Barbara E; Zhang, Jian

    2009-08-01

    The uncertainty of the role of serum cholesterol in neurodevelopment of children has largely hampered the implementation of the fat recommendation to children in the general population. We explored whether serum cholesterol concentrations are associated with cognitive achievements, academic performance in school-aged children and adolescents at the population level. In the Third National Health and Nutrition Survey, blood specimens were collected from 4248 6-16-year-old children and adolescents to assess three serum cholesterol measures, e.g. total serum cholesterol, high density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol and non-high density lipoprotein cholesterol. Cognitive achievements and academic performance were measured on standard tests of arithmetic skills, reading skills, non-verbal reasoning and short-term memory. No significant difference in measures of cognitive and academic performance was observed between children and adolescents stratified by the levels of serum total, HDL, and non-HDL cholesterol. Our results suggest that differences within the normal range of serum lipids at a population level are not associated with intelligence and cognition developmental outcomes of children and adolescents.

  19. Prevalence of lower urinary tract symptoms in school-age children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaz, Giovana T; Vasconcelos, Monica M; Oliveira, Eduardo A; Ferreira, Aline L; Magalhães, Paula G; Silva, Fabiana M; Lima, Eleonora M

    2012-04-01

    Epidemiological studies have demonstrated rates of incontinence and enuresis as high as 20% in school-age children. This cross-sectional study aimed to investigate the prevalence of lower urinary tract (LUT) symptoms in 739 children aged 6-12 years enrolled in three government schools with different socioeconomic levels in Minas Gerais, Brazil. Symptoms of LUT were evaluated using a modified version of the Dysfunction Voiding Scoring System in which the cutoff point considered as an indicator of LUT dysfunction is >6 for girls and >9 for boys. Children with a score indicative of symptoms received an educational booklet on the functioning of the LUT and were sent for clinical evaluation. LUT dysfunction symptoms were detected in 161 (21.8%) children. Symptoms were most frequent in girls (p LUT score. The most common urinary symptoms in children with an elevated score were diurnal urinary incontinence (30.7%), holding maneuvers (19.1%), and urinary urgency (13.7%). Stress factors were associated in 28.4% of children. Our findings suggest that LUT symptoms must be investigated carefully at routine pediatric visits.

  20. Effects of a self-esteem intervention program on school-age children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalgas-Pelish, Peggy

    2006-01-01

    Self-esteem is essential for school-aged children's optimum health. High self-esteem is linked to increased school performance, improved health, and productive behavior. This study reports on the effects of a four-lesson self-esteem enhancement program for six groups of 5th and 6th grade children (N=98). The interactive lessons dealt with an overview of self-esteem, media influences, hiding emotions, and changes in self-esteem. Using a pre-test/ post-test design, Coopersmith's Self-Esteem Inventory (SEI) was used to measure self-esteem. The self-esteem subscales dealing with general and social areas were found to significantly increase over time (pself-esteem score. Mean scores showed that children who had friends had more significant changes than those who did not have friends. Children with lower socioeconomic status had lower scores at both the pre and post testing with significance in the general and social subscales. No significance was found related to racial group, family make-up, or the number of household chores or activities. This study supports the effectiveness of a self-esteem enhancement program for girls, those children with friends, and those in lower socioeconomic status. Future research is needed to understand what contributes to the self-esteem of children who report that they do not have friends.

  1. Vocal fold nodules in school age children: attention deficit hyperactivity disorder as a potential risk factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Alatri, Lucia; Petrelli, Livia; Calò, Lea; Picciotti, Pasqualina Maria; Marchese, Maria Raffaella; Bussu, Francesco

    2015-05-01

    To evaluate the presence of symptoms of inattention and hyperactivity/impulsivity in a population of school age children affected by vocal fold nodules. Parents and teachers of 18 children with vocal fold nodules (10 males, eight females; aged between 6 and 12 years) and 20 matched controls without dysphonia and/or vocal fold diseases (11 males, nine females; aged between 6 and 12 years) completed Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) rating scale for parents (SDAG [Scala per i Disturbi di Attenzione/Iperattività per Genitori]) and teachers (SDAI [Scala per i Disturbi di Attenzione/Iperattività per Insegnanti) rating scales containing in two subscales items that specifically evaluate the symptoms of ADHD according to the DSM-IV. All children were subjected to videolaryngoscopy. The group with vocal fold nodules scored significantly higher than the controls; the difference between the two groups was statistically significant for both the subscales of both questionnaires (SDAG and SDAI) (P < 0.05). Four children in the group with vocal fold nodules who scored higher than 14 in at least one subscale were referred for psychiatric evaluation. For two of the children, both male, a diagnosis of combined ADHD was formulated. ADHD is a possible risk factor for the development of vocal fold nodules in childhood. SDAG and SDAI rating scales may supplement the diagnostic assessment of children with vocal fold nodules. Copyright © 2015 The Voice Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Cortical morphometry and cognition in very preterm and term-born children at early school age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mürner-Lavanchy, Ines; Rummel, Christian; Steinlin, Maja; Everts, Regula

    2018-01-01

    Very preterm birth influences brain development and may result in alterations of cortical morphometry. These structural alterations may interact with cognitive development. The aim of the present study was to investigate the structure-function relationship in school-aged very preterm and term-born control children. A comprehensive neuropsychological test battery was administered to 41 very preterm (preterm children>controls). No group differences occurred for cortical surface area. The relationship between cortical morphometry and cognition differed between very preterm and control children. In very preterm children, some cognitive domains correlated positively and others negatively with regional cortical thickness and cortical surface area. Our findings contribute to the understanding of the structure-function relationship in very preterm children and their term-born peers. They add to the notion that this relationship varies depending on the brain region and the cognitive function in question and suggest developmental differences between very preterm and term-born children. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. The role of play in pre-school and younger school age children

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    Kopas-Vukašinović Emina

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the importance of play for children’s development and learning in institutionalized preschool education, as well as the opportunities it provides concerning the organization of teaching activities with younger school age children. The paper is based on the theoretical framework emphasizing educational character of children’s play, as a specific form of learning. Notwithstanding occasional attempts within pedagogic theory to deny educational values of children’s play and to emphasize instruction as the only form of systematic learning, contemporary pedagogic views consider play an important part of school education. Learning through play at younger school age helps overcome the discontinuity between preschool and school education. Curriculum subject matter can be covered through carefully selected and prepared play activities within the existing system, providing the support, encouragement and guidance by the adults involved, including their proper knowledge of children’ age-related and psycho-physical characteristics. Play facilitates gradual change over from preschool to school developmental stage, free, spontaneous and creative expression and the development of children’s potential.

  4. CT identification of abdominal injuries in abused pre-school-age children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hilmes, Melissa A.; Hernanz-Schulman, Marta; Kan, J.H.; Greeley, Christopher S.; Piercey, Lisa M.; Yu, Chang

    2011-01-01

    Although the abdominopelvic CT findings of abdominal trauma in children have been described, little has been written about the subset of children who are victims of abuse. Our purpose is to describe abdominopelvic injuries in abused pre-school-age children as identified on CT. An IRB-approved retrospective review of our institutional child abuse registry was performed. Searching a 14-year period, we identified 84 children ≤ 5 years of age with medically diagnosed abuse who underwent CT. We reviewed imaging studies, operative reports, autopsy findings and patient outcomes. Consensus review of the CT examinations was performed by CAQ-certified pediatric radiologists, and findings were categorized as normal or by injury types (solid organ versus bowel). The injuries were analyzed in light of existing literature on pediatric accidental and non-accidental injuries. Of the 84 children, 35 (41.7%) had abdominal injuries. Abdominal injuries included liver (15), bowel (13), mesentery (4), spleen (6), kidneys (7), pancreas (4) and adrenal glands (3). Of these children, 26% (9/35) required surgical intervention for bowel, mesenteric and pancreatic injuries. Another 9/35 children died, not as a result of abdominal injuries but as a direct result of inflicted intracranial injuries. Our data indicate that abdominal injuries in abused children present in a pattern similar to that of children with accidental abdominal trauma, underscoring the need for vigilance and correlative historical and clinical data to identify victims of abuse. Mortality in abused children with intra-abdominal injury was frequently related to concomitant head injury. (orig.)

  5. CT identification of abdominal injuries in abused pre-school-age children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hilmes, Melissa A.; Hernanz-Schulman, Marta; Kan, J.H. [Vanderbilt Children' s Hospital, Department of Radiology and Radiological Sciences, Nashville, TN (United States); Greeley, Christopher S. [University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston, Department of Pediatrics, Houston, TX (United States); Piercey, Lisa M. [Vanderbilt Children' s Hospital, Department of Pediatrics, Nashville, TN (United States); Yu, Chang [Vanderbilt University, Department of Biostatistics, Nashville, TN (United States)

    2011-05-15

    Although the abdominopelvic CT findings of abdominal trauma in children have been described, little has been written about the subset of children who are victims of abuse. Our purpose is to describe abdominopelvic injuries in abused pre-school-age children as identified on CT. An IRB-approved retrospective review of our institutional child abuse registry was performed. Searching a 14-year period, we identified 84 children {<=} 5 years of age with medically diagnosed abuse who underwent CT. We reviewed imaging studies, operative reports, autopsy findings and patient outcomes. Consensus review of the CT examinations was performed by CAQ-certified pediatric radiologists, and findings were categorized as normal or by injury types (solid organ versus bowel). The injuries were analyzed in light of existing literature on pediatric accidental and non-accidental injuries. Of the 84 children, 35 (41.7%) had abdominal injuries. Abdominal injuries included liver (15), bowel (13), mesentery (4), spleen (6), kidneys (7), pancreas (4) and adrenal glands (3). Of these children, 26% (9/35) required surgical intervention for bowel, mesenteric and pancreatic injuries. Another 9/35 children died, not as a result of abdominal injuries but as a direct result of inflicted intracranial injuries. Our data indicate that abdominal injuries in abused children present in a pattern similar to that of children with accidental abdominal trauma, underscoring the need for vigilance and correlative historical and clinical data to identify victims of abuse. Mortality in abused children with intra-abdominal injury was frequently related to concomitant head injury. (orig.)

  6. The association between watching television and obesity in children of school-age in Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Ghamdi, Sameer H

    2013-05-01

    There is little information on the association between watching Television (TV) and obesity in the Arabian Peninsula. The aim of this study was to explore the association between the watching of television and obesity in Saudi children of school-age. A case-controlled study was conducted with students between the ages of 9 and 14 years who attended the school health clinic in King Abdulaziz Housing for National Guard (Iskan), Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, during the study period (February to April 2012). During each clinic, children were selected by simple random sampling (five obese and five non-obese). For data collection, two trained physicians interviewed the participants using a 20-item Arabic questionnaire. Well-trained nurses collected the anthropometric measurements of weight and height. The study included 397 students. Higher (body mass index) BMI was associated with a higher number of televisions at home (P watching TV for more than three hours per day at the weekend (P = 0.047), eating more than three snacks per day (P = 0.005), watching TV at night (P = 0.026), and siblings' decisions on how much TV to watch (P = 0.025). The prevalence of childhood obesity was significantly lower among those whose mothers determined how much TV they could watch (P = 0.03). In logistic regression analysis, the increase in the child's age, the presence of more than one TV at home, having his or her own TV, and an increase in the number of hours of watching TV over the weekend were significantly associated with an increased risk of childhood obesity. Personal computers and the Internet were not significantly associated with an increased risk of childhood obesity. The present investigation revealed that watching TV represents an important risk factor for obesity in children of school-age.

  7. Cognition, behavior and social competence of preterm low birth weight children at school age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel Gick Fan

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to assess the cognitive and behavioral development of preterm and low birth weight newborns living in a disadvantageous socioeconomic environment at school age. METHODS: This cross-sectional study included children aged 6-7 from a historical birth cohort of preterm (gestational age <37 weeks and low birth weight (<2,500 g infants. The Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children III (WISC-III was administered by a psychologist while the parents completed the Child Behavior Checklist. The results were compared to the test's reference. The perinatal information and follow-up data were collected from the hospital files. The demographic data were collected from the parents. The current performance was compared with the results from the Denver II and Bayley II tests, which were administered during the first years of life. RESULTS: The total intelligence quotient varied from 70 to 140 (mean 98.7±15.8. The borderline intelligence quotient was observed in 9.3% of the children. The Child Behavior Checklist indicated a predominance of social competence problems (27.8%, CI 19.2 to 37.9 compared with behavioral problems (15.5%, CI 8.9 to 24.2. Both the Child Behavior Checklist domains, such as schooling, social and attention problems, and the cognitive scores were significantly associated with maternal education and family income. The results of the Denver and Bayley tests were associated with the cognitive performance (p<0.001 and the Child Behavior Checklist social profile, including aggressive and externalizing behavior (p<0.001. CONCLUSIONS: Our data suggest that even low-risk preterm newborns are at risk for developing disturbances in early school age, such as mild cognitive deficits and behavioral disorders. This risk might increase under unfavorable socioeconomic conditions.

  8. Developmental trajectories for attention and working memory in healthy Japanese school-aged children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egami, Chiyomi; Yamashita, Yushiro; Tada, Yasuhiro; Anai, Chiduru; Mukasa, Akiko; Yuge, Kotaro; Nagamitsu, Shinichiro; Matsuishi, Toyojiro

    2015-10-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the developmental trajectories of attention, short-term memory, and working memory in school-aged children using a 10 min test battery of cognitive function. Participants comprised 144 typically developing children (TDC) aged 7-12 years and 24 healthy adults, divided according to age into seven groups (12 males and 12 females for each age group). Participants were assessed using CogHealth, which is a computer-based measure composed of five tasks. We measured attention, short-term memory, and working memory (WM) with visual stimulation. Each task was analyzed for age-related differences in reaction time and accuracy rate. Attention tasks were faster in stages from the age of 7-10 years. Accuracy rate of short-term memory gradually increased from 12 years of age and suddenly increased and continued to increase at 22 years of age. Accuracy rate of working memory increased until 12 years of age. Correlations were found between the ages and reaction time, and between ages and accuracy rate of the tasks. These results indicate that there were rapid improvements in attention, short-term memory, and WM performance between 7 and 10 years of age followed by gradual improvement until 12 years of age. Increase in short-term memory continued until 22 years of age. In our experience CogHealth was an easy and useful measure for the evaluation of cognitive function in school-age children. Copyright © 2015 The Japanese Society of Child Neurology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Helminth infections and micronutrients in school-age children: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Gier, Brechje; Campos Ponce, Maiza; van de Bor, Margot; Doak, Colleen M; Polman, Katja

    2014-06-01

    Helminth infections and micronutrient deficiencies are highly prevalent in developing countries. Neither condition typically causes overt disease, but they do lead to indirect morbidity such as impaired physical and cognitive development. We aimed to systematically review current evidence on the relation of helminth infections with micronutrient status in school-age children worldwide. We included both observational studies and randomized controlled trials (RCTs). We applied a random-effects meta-analysis to estimate 1) cross-sectional associations between helminths and micronutrient status, 2) effects of anthelminthic treatment on micronutrient status, and 3) effects of micronutrient supplementation on helminth infection and reinfection. Meta-analyses of observational studies showed an association between helminth infections and serum retinol [standardized mean difference (SMD): -0.30; 95% CI: -0.48, -0.13] but not serum ferritin (SMD: 0.00; 95% CI: -0.7, 0.7). Conversely, meta-analyses of anthelminthic treatment RCTs showed a positive effect on ferritin (SMD: 0.16; 95% CI: 0.09, 0.22) but not retinol (SMD: 0.04; 95% CI: -0.06, 0.14). The number of studies on micronutrients other than ferritin and retinol was not sufficient for pooling. Meta-analyses of micronutrient-supplementation RCTs showed only a modest protective effect for multimicronutrient interventions on helminth infection and reinfection rates (OR: 0.77; 95% CI: 0.61, 0.97). In this review, we show evidence of distinct associations between helminth infections and micronutrients in school-age children. More studies are needed on micronutrients other than iron and vitamin A and on possible helminth species-specific effects. A thorough comprehension of the interplay between helminth infections and micronutrients will help guide integrated and sustainable intervention strategies in affected children worldwide. © 2014 American Society for Nutrition.

  10. The association between watching television and obesity in children of school-age in Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sameer H Al-Ghamdi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: There is little information on the association between watching Television (TV and obesity in the Arabian Peninsula. Aim of the Study: The aim of this study was to explore the association between the watching of television and obesity in Saudi children of school-age. Materials and Methods: A case-controlled study was conducted with students between the ages of 9 and 14 years who attended the school health clinic in King Abdulaziz Housing for National Guard (Iskan, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, during the study period (February to April 2012. During each clinic, children were selected by simple random sampling (five obese and five non-obese. For data collection, two trained physicians interviewed the participants using a 20-item Arabic questionnaire. Well-trained nurses collected the anthropometric measurements of weight and height. Results: The study included 397 students. Higher (body mass index BMI was associated with a higher number of televisions at home (P < 0.001, watching TV for more than three hours per day at the weekend (P = 0.047, eating more than three snacks per day (P = 0.005, watching TV at night (P = 0.026, and siblings′ decisions on how much TV to watch (P = 0.025. The prevalence of childhood obesity was significantly lower among those whose mothers determined how much TV they could watch (P = 0.03. In logistic regression analysis, the increase in the child′s age, the presence of more than one TV at home, having his or her own TV, and an increase in the number of hours of watching TV over the weekend were significantly associated with an increased risk of childhood obesity. Personal computers and the Internet were not significantly associated with an increased risk of childhood obesity. Conclusion: The present investigation revealed that watching TV represents an important risk factor for obesity in children of school-age.

  11. School-age children's metalinguistic awareness of grammaticality in verb form.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutter, J C; Johnson, C J

    1990-03-01

    This study investigated 6-, 7-, and 8-year-old children's ability to monitor grammaticality in the past progressive, perfect progressive, and perfect verb forms. The children achieved a significantly higher rate of accurate judgments monitoring grammatical forms that ungrammatical forms. Age was a significant factor in error identification. Eight-year-olds were substantially better at identifying ungrammatical forms than were their younger schoolmates. Verb form, in conjunction with type of anomaly, significantly varied with respect to ease of identification. Errors of the auxiliary and suffix were easier for children to identify than an adverbial error which required a sentence analysis to determine the incompatibility. The context surrounding ungrammatical verb forms significantly affected monitoring ability. Anomalous forms in unrelated sentences were easier to identify as ungrammatical than anomalous forms in sentences taken from a story the children had just heard. It appears that school-age children prefer to maintain the semantic intent of the message rather than critically search for grammatical errors.

  12. Determinants of Anemia and Hemoglobin Concentration in Haitian School-Aged Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iannotti, Lora L.; Delnatus, Jacques R.; Odom, Audrey R.; Eaton, Jacob C.; Griggs, Jennifer J.; Brown, Sarah; Wolff, Patricia B.

    2015-01-01

    Anemia diminishes oxygen transport in the body, resulting in potentially irreversible growth and developmental consequences for children. Limited evidence for determinants of anemia exists for school-aged children. We conducted a cluster randomized controlled trial in Haiti from 2012 to 2013 to test the efficacy of a fortified school snack. Children (N = 1,047) aged 3–13 years were followed longitudinally at three time points for hemoglobin (Hb) concentrations, anthropometry, and bioelectrical impedance measures. Dietary intakes, infectious disease morbidities, and socioeconomic and demographic factors were collected at baseline and endline. Longitudinal regression modeling with generalized least squares and logit models with random effects identified anemia risk factors beyond the intervention effect. At baseline, 70.6% of children were anemic and 2.6% were severely anemic. Stunting increased the odds of developing anemia (adjusted odds ratio [OR]: 1.48, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.05–2.08) and severe anemia (adjusted OR: 2.47, 95% CI: 1.30–4.71). Parent-reported vitamin A supplementation and deworming were positively associated with Hb concentrations, whereas fever and poultry ownership showed a negative relationship with Hb concentration and increased odds of severe anemia, respectively. Further research should explore the full spectrum of anemia etiologies in school children, including genetic causes. PMID:26350448

  13. Development of Morphosyntactic Accuracy and Grammatical Complexity in Dutch School-Age Children With SLI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zwitserlood, Rob; van Weerdenburg, Marjolijn; Verhoeven, Ludo; Wijnen, Frank

    2015-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify the development of morphosyntactic accuracy and grammatical complexity in Dutch school-age children with specific language impairment (SLI). Morphosyntactic accuracy, the use of dummy auxiliaries, and complex syntax were assessed using a narrative task that was administered at three points in time (T1, T2, T3) with 12-month intervals during a 2-year period. Participants were 30 monolingual Dutch children with SLI, age 6;5 (years;months) at T1; 30 typically developing peers, age 6;6 at T1; and 30 typically developing language-matched children, age 4;7 at T1. On the morphosyntactic accuracy measures, the group with SLI performed more poorly than both control groups. Error rates in the group with SLI were much higher than expected on the basis of mean length of T-units and scores on standardized language tests. Percentages of dummy auxiliaries remained high over time. No group differences were found for grammatical complexity, except at T3, when the group with SLI used fewer relative clauses than the typically developing peer group. The narrative analysis demonstrates different developmental trajectories for morphosyntactic accuracy and grammatical complexity in children with SLI and typically developing peer and language-matched children. In the group with SLI, grammatical skills continue to develop.

  14. The intelligence quotient of school aged children delivered by cesarean section and vaginal delivery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khadem, Nayereh; Khadivzadeh, Talaat

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: There has always been an asking question with physicians and health staff whether delivery mode can effect on child intelligence. This study was conducted to compare the intelligence quotient (IQ) of school aged children delivered by cesarean section and vaginal delivery in Mashhad, Iran. METHODS: This study conducted in two stages; a cross-sectional section in which 5000 randomly selected children, who were 6-7 years old, attended at 10 Cognitive Examination Posts in Mashhad. The examination was performed by the Exceptional Education and Training Institute affiliated to Ministry of Education for all 6-7 years old children at the entry to the primary school. At the second stage, we selected two matched groups of 189 children who delivered by cesarean section or spontaneous vaginal delivery and then compared their IQ scores. RESULTS: The cesarean delivery group had significantly higher IQ test scores. Maternal and paternal educational levels were related to children’s IQ scores. After adjusting of maternal and paternal education, maternal age and parity, there was not any significant difference between IQ scores of cesarean delivery and natural vaginal delivery groups 101(3.67) vs. 100.7(4.28). CONCLUSIONS: Based on our findings, the association between cesarean deliveries with better cognitive development in children cannot be supported. PMID:21589777

  15. Effects of maternal education on diet, anemia, and iron deficiency in Korean school-aged children

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    Choi Hyeon-Jeong

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We investigated the relationship among socioeconomic status factors, the risk of anemia, and iron deficiency among school-aged children in Korea. Methods The sample consisted of fourth-grade students aged 10 y recruited from nine elementary schools in Korean urban areas in 2008 (n = 717. Anthropometric and blood biochemistry data were obtained for this cross-sectional observational study. Anemia was defined as hemoglobin levels lower than 11.5 g/dl. Iron deficiency was defined as serum iron levels lower than 40 ug/dl. We also obtained data on parental education from questionnaires and on children's diets from 3-day food diaries. Parental education was categorized as low or high, with the latter representing an educational level beyond high school. Results Children with more educated mothers were less likely to develop anemia (P = 0.0324 and iron deficiency (P = 0.0577 than were those with less educated mothers. This group consumed more protein (P = 0.0004 and iron (P = 0.0012 from animal sources than did the children of less educated mothers, as reflected by their greater consumption of meat, poultry, and derivatives (P Conclusions As a contributor to socioeconomic status, maternal education is important in reducing the risk of anemia and iron deficiency and in increasing children's consumption of animal food sources.

  16. Development of interactions between sensorimotor representations in school-aged children

    Science.gov (United States)

    KAGERER, Florian A.; CLARK, Jane E.

    2014-01-01

    Reliable sensory-motor integration is a pre-requisite for optimal movement control; the functionality of this integration changes during development. Previous research has shown that motor performance of school-age children is characterized by higher variability, particularly under conditions where vision is not available, and movement planning and control is largely based on kinesthetic input. The purpose of the current study was to determine the characteristics of how kinesthetic-motor internal representations interact with visuo-motor representations during development. To this end, we induced a visuo-motor adaptation in 59 children, ranging from 5 to 12 years of age, as well as in a group of adults, and measured initial directional error (IDE) and endpoint error (EPE) during a subsequent condition where visual feedback was not available, and participants had to rely on kinesthetic input. Our results show that older children (age range 9–12 years) de-adapted significantly more than younger children (age range 5–8 years) over the course of 36 trials in the absence of vision, suggesting that the kinesthetic-motor internal representation in the older children was utilized more efficiently to guide hand movements, and was comparable to the performance of the adults. PMID:24636697

  17. Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and autism spectrum disorder symptoms in school-age children born very preterm

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bröring, Tinka; Oostrom, Kim J.; van Dijk-Lokkart, Elisabeth M.; Lafeber, Harrie N.; Brugman, Anniek; Oosterlaan, Jaap

    2018-01-01

    Very preterm (VP) children face a broad range of neurodevelopmental sequelae, including behavioral problems. To investigate prevalence, pervasiveness and co-occurrence of symptoms of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and autism spectrum disorder (ASD) in school-age children born very

  18. Severe Feeding Problems Secondary to Anatomical Disorders: Effectiveness of Behavioural Treatment in Three School-Aged Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Moor, Jan; Didden, Robert; Tolboom, Jules

    2005-01-01

    In the present study, behavioural treatment is described of three school-aged children with severe feeding problems caused by (surgically corrected) anatomical disorders of the digestive system. Two children showed food refusal and were tube-fed whereas the third child showed extreme food selectivity. During treatment, shaping, (non)verbal…

  19. Active Travel to School: Findings from the Survey of US Health Behavior in School-Aged Children, 2009-2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yong; Ivey, Stephanie S.; Levy, Marian C.; Royne, Marla B.; Klesges, Lisa M.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Whereas children's active travel to school (ATS) has confirmed benefits, only a few large national surveys of ATS exist. Methods: Using data from the Health Behavior in School-aged Children (HBSC) 2009-2010 US survey, we conducted a logistic regression model to estimate the odds ratios of ATS and a linear regression model to estimate…

  20. School-Aged Children Who Are Educated at Home by Their Parents: Is There a Role for Educational Psychologists?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arora, Tiny C. M. J.

    2003-01-01

    This paper reviews the literature on home education with reference to issues that may concern educational psychologists. It notes the fast growing number of families (at present, 1% of the UK school population) who have chosen to educate their school-aged children at home. The great majority of home-educated children are reported to be well…

  1. School-Aged Children with Mild Bilateral and Unilateral Hearing Loss: Parents' Reflections on Services, Experiences, and Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grandpierre, Viviane; Fitzpatrick, Elizabeth M.; Na, Eunjung; Mendonca, Oreen

    2018-01-01

    Following the establishment of newborn hearing screening programs, age of identification and length of time before receiving interventions has been reduced for children, including those with milder degrees of hearing loss who were previously not identified until school age. This population of early-identified children requires new support programs…

  2. Effectiveness of Cognitive-behavioral Program on Pain and Fear in School-aged Children Undergoing Intravenous Placement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-Chuan Hsieh, RN, MSN

    2017-12-01

    Conclusion: In this study, the cognitive-behavioral program used with school-aged hospitalized children promoted less fear during IV placement. The results of this study can serve as a reference for empirical nursing care and as care guidance for clinical IV injections involving children.

  3. Relationships between Narrative Language Samples and Norm-Referenced Test Scores in Language Assessments of School-Age Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebert, Kerry Danahy; Scott, Cheryl M.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Both narrative language samples and norm-referenced language tests can be important components of language assessment for school-age children. The present study explored the relationship between these 2 tools within a group of children referred for language assessment. Method: The study is a retrospective analysis of clinical records from…

  4. Story Discourse and Use of Mental State Language between Mothers and School-Aged Children with and without Visual Impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tadic, Valerija; Pring, Linda; Dale, Naomi

    2013-01-01

    Background: Lack of sight compromises insight into other people's mental states. Little is known about the role of maternal language in assisting the development of mental state language in children with visual impairment (VI). Aims: To investigate mental state language strategies of mothers of school-aged children with VI and to compare…

  5. Development of social functioning and communication in school-aged (5-9 years) children with cerebral palsy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Schie, P.E.M.; Siebes, R.C.; Dallmeijer, A.J.; Schuengel, C.; Smits, D.W.; Gorter, J.W.; Becher, J.G.

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine determinants of the course and level of social functioning and communication in school-aged children with cerebral palsy (CP) over a 2-year period. A clinic-based sample of 5 and 7 years old children with CP ( n=108; 72 males; mean age 6. y 3. mo, SD 12. mo;

  6. The Effects of Visual Stimuli on the Spoken Narrative Performance of School-Age African American Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, Monique T.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: This study investigated the fictional narrative performance of school-age African American children across 3 elicitation contexts that differed in the type of visual stimulus presented. Method: A total of 54 children in Grades 2 through 5 produced narratives across 3 different visual conditions: no visual, picture sequence, and single…

  7. Psychiatric disorders and MND in non-handicapped preterm children - Prevalence and stability from school age into adolescence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schoihorst, P. F.; Swaab-Barneveld, H.; van Engeland, H.

    2007-01-01

    In preterm children (N = 66) without major physical and/or mental handicaps the prevalence of psychiatric disorders and minor neurological dysfunction (MND) was assessed at school age (8-10 years). In adolescence (15-17 years) 43 children were reassessed. The study sample was drawn from a cohort of

  8. Growth performance and iron status of rural Beninese school-age children in post-and pre-harvest season

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mitchikpe, C.E.S.; Ram, D.; Ead, A.; Raaij, van J.M.A.; Kok, F.J.

    2012-01-01

    Malnutrition and micronutrient deficiencies are major public health problems in developing countries. Most affected groups are children, adolescents, women of reproductive age and pregnant women. School-age children also represent an important vulnerable age category because they are still in the

  9. Feasibility of Using Actigraphy and Motivational-Based Interviewing to Improve Sleep among School-Age Children and Their Parents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willgerodt, Mayumi A.; Kieckhefer, Gail M.; Ward, Teresa M.; Lentz, Martha J.

    2014-01-01

    Inadequate sleep occurs in 25% of our nation's children; poor sleep is associated with physical, cognitive, and social consequences. Developing good sleep hygiene in middle childhood is important, because habits typically extend to adolescence and adulthood; yet, there has been little research on sleep interventions for school-age children. The…

  10. Target-distractor similarity has a larger impact on visual search in school-age children than spacing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huurneman, B.; Boonstra, F.N.

    2015-01-01

    In typically developing children, crowding decreases with increasing age. The influence of target-distractor similarity with respect to orientation and element spacing on visual search performance was investigated in 29 school-age children with normal vision (4- to 6-year-olds [N = 16], 7- to

  11. Bangladeshi school-age children's experiences and perceptions on child maltreatment: A qualitative interview study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atiqul Haque, M; Janson, S; Moniruzzaman, S; Rahman, A K M F; Mashreky, S R; Eriksson, U-B

    2017-11-01

    Child maltreatment (CM) is a public health problem and is recognized as a huge barrier for child development. Most of the research and definitions on CM are from the perspective of high-income western countries. Because no major studies have been conducted on CM in Bangladesh, the aim of the current study was to explore the experiences of and perceptions on CM in school-age children in rural and urban Bangladesh in order to understand maltreatment in a local context and from a child perspective. Semistructured individual interviews with 24 children (13 boys and 11 girls), between the ages of 9 and 13 years of which 11 were schoolgoing and 13 non-schoolgoing, were conducted during July 2013 and analysed according to qualitative content analysis. CM was a common and painful experience with serious physical and emotional consequences but highly accepted by the society. Vulnerable groups were especially young children, girls, and poor children. The children's voices were not heard due to their low status and low position in their families, schools, and working places. The main theme that emerged in the analysis was children's subordination, which permeated the five categories: (a) perception of children's situation in society, (b) understanding children's development and needs, (c) CM associated to school achievement, (d) negative impact of CM, and (e) emotional responses. Different kinds of abuse are obviously common in Bangladesh, and the schools do not follow the law from 2011 prohibiting corporal punishment at school. The society has to take further steps to live up to the UN Convention on the Rights of the Child, which was ratified already in 1990, to protect the Bangladeshi children from CM. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Conversational Repair in School-Aged Children with High-Functioning Autism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pei-Mei Lu

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of this study was to investigate the conversational repair skills of Mandarin Chinese-speaking children with high-functioning autism (HFA as compared with those of typically developing children (TD. Ten school-aged children (age 9 to 12 with HFA were recruited and matched against ten TD children in the control group based on age, gender, and verbal intelligence level. During three different conversation situations (free talk, story picture description, play, an examiner engineered 9 episodes of communicative breakdowns. Each consisted of a stacked series of three prompts for responding to requests for clarification (RQCLs (i.e.‘What?’, ‘I don’t understand’, ‘I still don’t know’. Verbal responses to each RQCL were then coded for further analyses. The results showed that (1 In response to the stacked series RQCLs, children with HFA were similar to the control group children in evidencing repetition, revision, and addition types of repair. Furthermore, children with HFA showed fewer cue type of repair and more inappropriate type of repair than TD group. (2For both groups, the pattern of responding over the series of RQCLs was similar in varying the repetition and revision types of repair strategies. However, the pattern in the addition, cue, and inappropriate types of repair strategies were different. Children with HFA were significantly more likely to respond to an RQCL with an inappropriate response than the language and age-matched controls. It is suggested that teachers and parents could facilitate the conversational repair skills of children with high-functioning autism by offering them opportunities to manage different types of communicative breakdowns.

  13. Comparison of Nutritional Status Among, Flood Affected and Unaffected School Aged Children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohsin, S.N.; Aasim, M.; Ghous, R.; Fatima, M.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Natural disasters like floods affect large human populations by not only displacing them temporarily but also poses nutritional issues to women and children. Objectives: To determine the long term effects of floods, on the nutritional status of school going children in Pakistan. Study design, settings and duration: A cross sectional study which was conducted in public schools of district Nowshera which is a large district of province Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan from February 2012 to March 2014. Subjects and Methods: A total of 353 children aged 6-14 years were enrolled. There were 190 children from flood affected areas and 163 controls from unaffected areas. Using height, weight, age and gender, malnutrition indicators like acute malnutrition, chronic malnutrition and underweight were calculated to evaluate effect of flood on these children after 20 months of the calamity. Weight for age (WAZ) was used to measure underweight, height for age (HAZ) to measure stunted growth, and weight for height (WHZ) to measure wasting or acute malnutrition. The malnutrition indicators which were positively associated with floods were further evaluated for associated factors. Results The frequency of acute malnutrition or wasting (WHZ) among flood affected children was 23.7 percent as compared to 16.5 percent among unaffected children while the frequency of underweight (WAZ) in flood affected areas was 42.1 percent as against 36.8 percent in unaffected areas (both were not significant). The frequency of chronic malnutrition or stunting (AZ) was 35.8 percent in affected and 27.6 percent in unaffected children (p< 0.041) and was the only positively associated indicator with exposure to floods. Factors associated with chronic malnutrition were age of the child, maternal education, history of fever, administration of de-worming medication and diarrhea. Conclusion: Floods had a long term effect on nutritional status of school aged children as shown by chronic malnutrition

  14. Academic and Behavioral Outcomes in School-Age South African Children Following Severe Traumatic Brain Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dollman, Aimee K.; Figaji, Anthony A.; Schrieff-Elson, Leigh E.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Children who have sustained severe traumatic brain injuries (TBIs) demonstrate a range of post-injury neurocognitive and behavioral sequelae, which may have adverse effects on their academic and behavioral outcomes and interfere with school re-entry, educational progress, and quality of life. These post-TBI sequelae are exacerbated within the context of a resource-poor country like South Africa (SA) where the education system is in a somewhat precarious state especially for those from disadvantaged backgrounds. Objectives: To describe behavioral and academic outcomes of a group of school-aged SA children following severe TBI. Methods: The sample included 27 school-age children who were admitted to the Red Cross War Memorial Children's Hospital (RXH), SA, between 2006 and 2011 for closed severe TBI and who received intracranial monitoring. We collected behavioral data using the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) and the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function (BRIEF) and academic information sourced from the BRIEF, CBCL, medical folders, and caregivers. Analyses include descriptive statistics and bivariate correlation matrices. Results: The descriptive results show that (1) more than half of the participants experienced clinically-significant behavioral problems across the CBCL scales, (2) the working memory BRIEF subscale appeared to be the most problematic subdomain, (3) two thirds of the sample were receiving some form of, or were in the process of being placed in, special needs education, (4) there was a three-fold increase in the use of special education services from pre- to post-injury, and (5) more than half (n = 16) of the sample repeated at least one grade after returning to school post-injury. Correlation analyses results suggest that children with increased externalizing behavioral problems and executive dysfunction are more likely to repeat a grade post-injury; and that children with executive dysfunction post-TBI are more likely to

  15. A Survey of Some Behavioral Disorders Due to Parental Corporal Punishment in School Age Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    fatemeh Qasemi

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Qasemi F1, Valizadeh F1, Toulabi T2, Saki M3 1. Instructor, Department of Children, Faculty of Nursing and Midwifery, Lorestan University of Medical Sciences 2. Instructor, Department of Internal Surgery, Faculty of Nursing and Midwifery, Lorestan University of Medical Sciences 3. Instructor, Department of Nursing, Faculty of Nursing and Midwifery, Lorestan University of Medical Sciences Abstract Background: Family has an important role on childrens personality and preparing them for future. Corporal punishment involves the application of some forms of physical pain in response to undesirable behavior for the purpose of correction or control of the childs behavior. Corporal punishment constitutes a human-rights violation and has physical and mental health consequences for children. Materials and methods: This survey was conducted to detect and compare some behavioral disorders due to parental corporal punishment in school age children. This case-control trial deals with 240, primary school children aged 7-12 years old. These subjects were selected through cluster randomized sampling in Korramabad and divided into two (case and control groups. Instruments for measuring data consisted of three components: 1 a questionnaire on demographic information, 2 a questionnaire on corporal punishment and, 3 a rating scale about behavioral disorder such as verbal and behavioral aggression, withdrawal, and cooperation in school. Data were analyzed by SPSS ver11. Results: Results indicated that in 92.6% of cases the corporal punishment method was slapping. Significant differences were found between the two groups in terms of mothers educational level (p=0.001, mothers job (p=0.004, mothers child-birth number (p=0.024, verbal aggression (p=0.001, behavioral aggression (p=0.001, withdrawal (p=0.05, and cooperation (p=0.001. Conclusion: Results indicated that housekeeper mothers and mothers with low educational level use more corporal punishment and behavioral

  16. Academic and Behavioral Outcomes in School-Age South African Children Following Severe Traumatic Brain Injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aimee K. Dollman

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Children who have sustained severe traumatic brain injuries (TBIs demonstrate a range of post-injury neurocognitive and behavioral sequelae, which may have adverse effects on their academic and behavioral outcomes and interfere with school re-entry, educational progress, and quality of life. These post-TBI sequelae are exacerbated within the context of a resource-poor country like South Africa (SA where the education system is in a somewhat precarious state especially for those from disadvantaged backgrounds.Objectives: To describe behavioral and academic outcomes of a group of school-aged SA children following severe TBI.Methods: The sample included 27 school-age children who were admitted to the Red Cross War Memorial Children's Hospital (RXH, SA, between 2006 and 2011 for closed severe TBI and who received intracranial monitoring. We collected behavioral data using the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL and the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function (BRIEF and academic information sourced from the BRIEF, CBCL, medical folders, and caregivers. Analyses include descriptive statistics and bivariate correlation matrices.Results: The descriptive results show that (1 more than half of the participants experienced clinically-significant behavioral problems across the CBCL scales, (2 the working memory BRIEF subscale appeared to be the most problematic subdomain, (3 two thirds of the sample were receiving some form of, or were in the process of being placed in, special needs education, (4 there was a three-fold increase in the use of special education services from pre- to post-injury, and (5 more than half (n = 16 of the sample repeated at least one grade after returning to school post-injury. Correlation analyses results suggest that children with increased externalizing behavioral problems and executive dysfunction are more likely to repeat a grade post-injury; and that children with executive dysfunction post-TBI are more likely

  17. Academic and Behavioral Outcomes in School-Age South African Children Following Severe Traumatic Brain Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dollman, Aimee K; Figaji, Anthony A; Schrieff-Elson, Leigh E

    2017-01-01

    Background: Children who have sustained severe traumatic brain injuries (TBIs) demonstrate a range of post-injury neurocognitive and behavioral sequelae, which may have adverse effects on their academic and behavioral outcomes and interfere with school re-entry, educational progress, and quality of life. These post-TBI sequelae are exacerbated within the context of a resource-poor country like South Africa (SA) where the education system is in a somewhat precarious state especially for those from disadvantaged backgrounds. Objectives: To describe behavioral and academic outcomes of a group of school-aged SA children following severe TBI. Methods: The sample included 27 school-age children who were admitted to the Red Cross War Memorial Children's Hospital (RXH), SA, between 2006 and 2011 for closed severe TBI and who received intracranial monitoring. We collected behavioral data using the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) and the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function (BRIEF) and academic information sourced from the BRIEF, CBCL, medical folders, and caregivers. Analyses include descriptive statistics and bivariate correlation matrices. Results: The descriptive results show that (1) more than half of the participants experienced clinically-significant behavioral problems across the CBCL scales, (2) the working memory BRIEF subscale appeared to be the most problematic subdomain, (3) two thirds of the sample were receiving some form of, or were in the process of being placed in, special needs education, (4) there was a three-fold increase in the use of special education services from pre- to post-injury, and (5) more than half ( n = 16) of the sample repeated at least one grade after returning to school post-injury. Correlation analyses results suggest that children with increased externalizing behavioral problems and executive dysfunction are more likely to repeat a grade post-injury; and that children with executive dysfunction post-TBI are more likely to

  18. THE MODEL OF MOTOR ACTIVITY OPTIMIZATION OF YOUNGER SCHOOL AGE CHILDREN LIVING IN THE CONDITIONS OF THE NORTHERN CITY

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    Zhanna Ildarovna Busheva

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Extreme conditions of the North, computerization, Internet and a gadget dependence, high physical and intellectual loads of children activities living in the north negatively affect younger generation health state. It is difficult to overestimate a role of motor activity in expansion of functionality of the developing organism as the lack of locomotion can lead to pathological shifts in an organism. Based on the study of the concept of a ‘motor activity’ and features North of the city the article suggests a model of motor activity optimization of younger school age children living in the conditions of the northern city. It consisted of 6 units related to goal-setting, diagnostic-analytical, concept, process-activity, reflexive-evaluative and effective. The research was conducted on the basis of Surgut city schools and the Surgut region of Khanty-Mansi Autonomous Region-Yugra. During the research we revealed the most priority organization forms of motor activity of younger school age children living in conditions of the northern city. The model of motor activity optimization of younger school age children allows to create necessary optimum volume and to control of motor activity of children of younger school age. Purpose. The purpose of our research was to create model of motor activity optimization of younger school age children living in the conditions of the northern city. Methodology. Analysis and synthesis of the materials as well as the method of simulation are used as the main instruments. Results. A model of motor activity optimization of younger school age children has been elaborated in the course of study and its characteristics have been specified. Practical implications. The results can be of use for teachers at professional educational institutions.

  19. Main meal frequency measures in the Health Behaviour in School-aged Children study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Trine Pagh; Holstein, Bjørn E; Laursen, Bjarne

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To estimate agreement between questionnaire-based frequency measures from the Health Behaviour in School-aged Children study (HBSC) and 7-day 24-h recall measures of breakfast, lunch and evening meals among 11-15-year-olds, and examine whether disagreement between the two methods varied...... by socio-demographic factors. METHODS: In one week 11-15-year-old Danish students completed HBSC questionnaires including meal frequency items. The following week they completed daily 24-h recall questionnaire about their meals (response rate 88.4 %, n = 412). RESULTS: Good to moderate agreement...... methods for week day breakfast OR (95 % CI) 2.17 (1.16-4.04) and lunch 2.44 (1.33-4.48). CONCLUSIONS: We found good to moderate agreement between frequency and 7-day 24-h recall measures for breakfast, a fair agreement for lunch and for evening meal the two agreement methods provided different results...

  20. A Pilot Investigation of Speech Sound Disorder Intervention Delivered by Telehealth to School-Age Children

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    Sue Grogan-Johnson

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available This article describes a school-based telehealth service delivery model and reports outcomes made by school-age students with speech sound disorders in a rural Ohio school district. Speech therapy using computer-based speech sound intervention materials was provided either by live interactive videoconferencing (telehealth, or conventional side-by-side intervention.  Progress was measured using pre- and post-intervention scores on the Goldman Fristoe Test of Articulation-2 (Goldman & Fristoe, 2002. Students in both service delivery models made significant improvements in speech sound production, with students in the telehealth condition demonstrating greater mastery of their Individual Education Plan (IEP goals. Live interactive videoconferencing thus appears to be a viable method for delivering intervention for speech sound disorders to children in a rural, public school setting. Keywords:  Telehealth, telerehabilitation, videoconferencing, speech sound disorder, speech therapy, speech-language pathology; E-Helper

  1. A pilot exploration of speech sound disorder intervention delivered by telehealth to school-age children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grogan-Johnson, Susan; Gabel, Rodney M; Taylor, Jacquelyn; Rowan, Lynne E; Alvares, Robin; Schenker, Jason

    2011-01-01

    This article describes a school-based telehealth service delivery model and reports outcomes made by school-age students with speech sound disorders in a rural Ohio school district. Speech therapy using computer-based speech sound intervention materials was provided either by live interactive videoconferencing (telehealth), or conventional side-by-side intervention. Progress was measured using pre- and post-intervention scores on the Goldman Fristoe Test of Articulation-2 (Goldman & Fristoe, 2002). Students in both service delivery models made significant improvements in speech sound production, with students in the telehealth condition demonstrating greater mastery of their Individual Education Plan (IEP) goals. Live interactive videoconferencing thus appears to be a viable method for delivering intervention for speech sound disorders to children in a rural, public school setting.

  2. Brain network characterization of high-risk preterm-born school-age children

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    Elda Fischi-Gomez

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Higher risk for long-term cognitive and behavioral impairments is one of the hallmarks of extreme prematurity (EP and pregnancy-associated fetal adverse conditions such as intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR. While neurodevelopmental delay and abnormal brain function occur in the absence of overt brain lesions, these conditions have been recently associated with changes in microstructural brain development. Recent imaging studies indicate changes in brain connectivity, in particular involving the white matter fibers belonging to the cortico-basal ganglia-thalamic loop. Furthermore, EP and IUGR have been related to altered brain network architecture in childhood, with reduced network global capacity, global efficiency and average nodal strength. In this study, we used a connectome analysis to characterize the structural brain networks of these children, with a special focus on their topological organization. On one hand, we confirm the reduced averaged network node degree and strength due to EP and IUGR. On the other, the decomposition of the brain networks in an optimal set of clusters remained substantially different among groups, talking in favor of a different network community structure. However, and despite the different community structure, the brain networks of these high-risk school-age children maintained the typical small-world, rich-club and modularity characteristics in all cases. Thus, our results suggest that brain reorganizes after EP and IUGR, prioritizing a tight modular structure, to maintain the small-world, rich-club and modularity characteristics. By themselves, both extreme prematurity and IUGR bear a similar risk for neurocognitive and behavioral impairment, and the here defined modular network alterations confirm similar structural changes both by IUGR and EP at school age compared to control. Interestingly, the combination of both conditions (IUGR + EP does not result in a worse outcome. In such cases, the alteration

  3. Dietary and Physical Activity/Inactivity Factors Associated with Obesity in School-Aged Children123

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez-Rodriguez, Marcela; Melendez, Guillermo; Nieto, Claudia; Aranda, Marisol; Pfeffer, Frania

    2012-01-01

    Diet and physical activity (PA) are essential components of nutritional status. Adequate nutrition and an active lifestyle are key factors during childhood, because food habits track into adulthood. Children spend more time in school than in any other environment away from home. Studying the diet factors and patterns of PA that affect obesity risk in children during school hours and the complete school day can help identify opportunities to lower this risk. We directly measured the time children spent performing moderate to vigorous PA (MVPA) at school, compared the amount and intensity of PA during school hours with after-school hours, and tried to determine if diet behaviors and PA or inactivity were associated with excess weight and body fat. This cross-sectional study included 143 normal-weight (NLW) and 48 obese children aged 8–10 y. Diet data were obtained from two 24-h recalls. Body composition was measured by bioimpedance. Screen time and sports participation data were self-reported. NLW children drank/ate more dairy servings than the obese children, who consumed more fruit-flavored water than the NLW group. Consumption of soft drinks, sugar-added juices, and fresh juices was low in both groups. Children were less active during school hours than after school. MVPA was lower during school hours in the obese group than in the NLW group. Schools, parents, and authorities should be more involved in promoting strategies to improve the dietary habits and PA levels of school-aged children, because this group is not achieving the recommended level of daily MVPA. PMID:22798003

  4. Infection by Intestinal Parasites, Stunting and Anemia in School-Aged Children from Southern Angola.

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    Dinamene Oliveira

    Full Text Available Intestinal parasites are responsible for morbidity in children worldwide, especially in low income countries. In the present study we determine the prevalence of intestinal parasites and explore its association with anemia and stunting in school-aged children.A cross-sectional study was conducted from September to October 2010 enrolling 328 children attending the primary school in Lubango, the second largest city after the capital Luanda. Stool samples were collected for parasite detection through microscopy and molecular identification of Entamoeba histolytica and Entamoeba dispar. Stunting was assessed using the z-scores of height for age and hemoglobin concentration was determined using a portable hemoglobin analyzing system.The global prevalence of pathogenic intestinal parasites was 44.2%, the most common being Ascaris lumbricoides (22.0%, Giardia lamblia (20.1% and Hymenolepis nana (8.8%. Molecular detection revealed that 13.1% of the children carried E. dispar and 0.3% were infected with E. histolytica. The prevalence of stunting (mild to severe was 41.5%. Stunting was more frequent in older children (p = 0.006, OR = 1.886, while anemia was more frequent in younger children (p = 0.005, OR = 2.210. The prevalence of anemia was 21.6%, and we found a significant association with infection by H. nana (p = 0.031, OR = 2.449.This is one of the few published studies reporting intestinal parasites infection, nutritional status and anemia in children from Angola. Furthermore, the present work highlights the importance of regular intestinal parasites screening in children.

  5. Infection by Intestinal Parasites, Stunting and Anemia in School-Aged Children from Southern Angola.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Dinamene; Ferreira, Filipa Santana; Atouguia, Jorge; Fortes, Filomeno; Guerra, António; Centeno-Lima, Sónia

    2015-01-01

    Intestinal parasites are responsible for morbidity in children worldwide, especially in low income countries. In the present study we determine the prevalence of intestinal parasites and explore its association with anemia and stunting in school-aged children. A cross-sectional study was conducted from September to October 2010 enrolling 328 children attending the primary school in Lubango, the second largest city after the capital Luanda. Stool samples were collected for parasite detection through microscopy and molecular identification of Entamoeba histolytica and Entamoeba dispar. Stunting was assessed using the z-scores of height for age and hemoglobin concentration was determined using a portable hemoglobin analyzing system. The global prevalence of pathogenic intestinal parasites was 44.2%, the most common being Ascaris lumbricoides (22.0%), Giardia lamblia (20.1%) and Hymenolepis nana (8.8%). Molecular detection revealed that 13.1% of the children carried E. dispar and 0.3% were infected with E. histolytica. The prevalence of stunting (mild to severe) was 41.5%. Stunting was more frequent in older children (p = 0.006, OR = 1.886), while anemia was more frequent in younger children (p = 0.005, OR = 2.210). The prevalence of anemia was 21.6%, and we found a significant association with infection by H. nana (p = 0.031, OR = 2.449). This is one of the few published studies reporting intestinal parasites infection, nutritional status and anemia in children from Angola. Furthermore, the present work highlights the importance of regular intestinal parasites screening in children.

  6. School age child development (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    School age child development is a range from 6 to 12 years of age. During this time period observable differences in height, ... peers. As always, safety is important in school age children and proper safety rules should be enforced ...

  7. Investigating the Relationship between Anxiety of School-age Children Undergoing Surgery and Parental State-trait Anxiety

    OpenAIRE

    Fatemeh Heshmati Nabavi; Malihe Shoja; Monir Ramezani; Azadeh Saki; Marjan Joodi

    2017-01-01

    Background: Surgery is a stressful experience for children, and preoperative anxiety in children could be affected by the level of parental anxiety. Aim: The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between anxiety in school-age children before surgery and parental state-trait anxiety. Method: This descriptive study was performed on 81 children within the age group of 6-12 years admitted for elective surgical operation and 128 parents in Doctor Sheikh Hospital, Mashhad, Iran, 2016....

  8. [Orthodontic treatment need in school-age children in the Leningrad region].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagnenko, N M; Bagnenko, A S; Grebnev, G A; Madai, D Y

    2016-01-01

    Epidemiology of dentoalveolar anomalies is undoubtedly important, but in terms of the organization of orthodontic care, greater interest are data on the needs in this type of treatment. In a situation of limited manpower and resources for the provision of orthodontic care information about needs in orthodontic treatment allows you to define a group of patients with the primary need for orthodontic treatment, and to identify priorities to optimize the organization of orthodontic care in the region. Such data can be obtained by using the Dental Aesthetics Index (DAI) and Index of Orthodontic Treatment Need (IOTN). The aim of the study was to analyze the epidemiology of various forms of dentoalveolar anomalies school-age children of Kirishi district of Leningrad region, as well as their needs in orthodontic treatment in accordance with objective evaluation indices. The study involved 734 pupils of Kirishi lyceum №1 of Leningrad region. Analysis of the prevalence of dentoalveolar anomalies, as well as needs in the orthodontic treatment was conducted in three age groups: I mixed dentition period (6-9 years), II mixed dentition period (10-13 years), and permanent dentition (14-17). To determine the needs in the orthodontic treatment were used two most common international index (DAI and IOTN). In Kirishi district of Leningrad region dentoalveolar anomalies were found in 88.8% of children of school age, which is in accordance with the indices and IOTN DAI needs in orthodontic treatment is 38.8% and 54.5%, respectively. In order to reduce unnecessarily high load volume medical institutions orthodontic profile, optimize utilization of financial resources, as well as reducing social tension it is recommended to introduce the practice of doctors-orthodontists methodology for determining the needs in orthodontic treatment by objective indices.

  9. Toxic stress and protective factors in multi-ethnic school age children: A research protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Condon, Eileen M; Sadler, Lois S; Mayes, Linda C

    2018-04-01

    Exposure to stressful environments in early childhood can cause a toxic stress response and lead to poor health outcomes, including obesity, cardiac disease, diabetes, and mental illness. In animals and maltreated children, the presence of a nurturing caregiver can buffer against the physiological disruptions associated with a toxic stress response; however, the specific caregiver and parenting characteristics that best promote a protective relationship in humans remain largely unexplored, particularly in families living in high-risk environments. In this study, framed in an ecobiodevelopmental (EBD) model, a cross-sectional design is being used to study 54 multi-ethnic, urban maternal-child dyads with children at early school age (4-9 years). Mothers' past experiences, mental health, and caregiving patterns and children's hair cortisol, C-reactive protein, pro-inflammatory cytokines, blood pressure, BMI, behavior, and school performance are being analyzed to identify maternal characteristics that may protect against children's toxic stress response in families at high risk for exposure to stressors such as poverty, trauma, or exposure to violence. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. [Dyslipidemias in school-age chilean children: prevalence and associated factors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barja Yáñez, Salesa; Arnaiz Gómez, Pilar; Villarroel Del Pino, Luis; Domínguez de Landa, Angélica; Castillo Valenzuela, Oscar; Farías Jofré, Marcelo; Mardones Santander, Francisco

    2015-05-01

    Dyslipidemias are a key cardiovascular risk factor, and are increased since early childhood. The objective of this study was to describe the prevalence, characteristics of dyslipidemias and associated factors in a population of Chilean children. Cross-sectional study done in school-age children from Santiago, Chile (2009-2011). Parents answered questions about family medical history and children answered questions about physical activity. Anthropometry was performed and in a blood sample (12 hours fast) lipid profile, glycemia and insulinemia were measured. We recruited 2900 euglycemic children, 11.4 ± 0.97 years old, 52% girls. According to BMI, 22.5% were overweight and 15,3% had obesity. Considering recommended cut-off points for lipids, 69.3% were in acceptable range, 19.2% at risk and 11.5% at high cardiovascular risk. In total, 32% of the population had any clinical form of dyslipidemia: Isolated hypertriglyceridemia (9.4%), low HDL-C (7.6%), isolated hypercholesterolemia (4.9%), atherogenic dyslipidemia (6.24%) and mixed dyslipidemia (3.9%). Except for isolated hypercholesterolemia, dyslipidemias were more frequent in girls (globally 36.2% vs. 27.4%, pdyslipidemia, and the principal determinant was weight excess. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2014. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  11. Caffeine intake from carbonated beverages among primary school-age children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wierzejska, Regina; Wolnicka, Katarzyna; Jarosz, Mirosław; Jaczewska-Schuetz, Joanna; Taraszewska, Anna; Siuba-Strzelińska, Magdalena

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the study was to assess caffeine intake from cola beverages and energy drinks, as well as the consumption frequency among primary-school-age children in relation to other dietary habits. The study included 329 children (aged 11-13 years) from five randomly selected schools in Warsaw. Caffeine intake was assessed from a food frequency questionnaire. The face-to-face interview method was selected. 89.7% of the children consumed carbonated beverages whom caffeine, of which nearly 24% consumed energy drinks. The median caffeine intake from carbonated beverages was 0.12 mg/kg body weight/day, accounting for 4.8% of the recommended maximum daily intake from all dietary sources. Frequent consumers of cola drinks were often found to eat fast foods, as well as salty snacks. Caffeine intake in the studied group of children turned out to be at a safe level. The safe dose of caffeine does not mean that consumption of carbonated drinks should not raise any concerns. The recently established legal ban on selling unhealthy foods at school is a good idea, since the school should not be a place for improper dietary models.

  12. Iodine Status and Iodised Salt Consumption in Portuguese School-Aged Children: The Iogeneration Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa Leite, João; Keating, Elisa; Pestana, Diogo; Cruz Fernandes, Virgínia; Maia, Maria Luz; Norberto, Sónia; Pinto, Edgar; Moreira-Rosário, André; Sintra, Diana; Moreira, Bárbara; Costa, Ana; Silva, Sofia; Costa, Vera; Martins, Inês; Castro Mendes, Francisca; Queirós, Pedro; Peixoto, Bruno; Carlos Caldas, José; Guerra, António; Fontoura, Manuel; Leal, Sandra; Moreira, Roxana; Palmares Carvalho, Irene; Matias Lima, Rui; Martins, Catia; Delerue-Matos, Cristina; Almeida, Agostinho; Azevedo, Luís; Calhau, Conceição

    2017-05-05

    The World Health Organization promotes salt iodisation to control iodine deficiency. In Portugal, the use of iodised salt in school canteens has been mandatory since 2013. The present study aimed to evaluate iodine status in school-aged children (6-12 years) and to monitor the use of iodised salt in school canteens. A total of 2018 participants were randomly selected to participate in a cross-sectional survey in northern Portugal. Children's urine and salt samples from households and school canteens were collected. A lifestyle questionnaire was completed by parents to assess children's eating frequency of iodine food sources. Urinary iodine concentration (UIC) was measured by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry. The median UIC was 129 µg/L which indicates the adequacy of iodine status and 32% of the children had UIC salt policy and only 2% of the households were using iodised salt. Lower consumption of milk, but not fish, was associated with a higher risk of iodine deficiency. Estimation of sodium intake from spot urine samples could be an opportunity for adequate monitoring of population means. Implementation of iodine deficiency control policies should include a monitoring program aligned with the commitment of reducing the population salt intake.

  13. [Food promotion and food preferences in Chilean school age children from different socioeconomic levels].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olivares, Sonia; Lera, Lydia; Mardones, María Angélica; Araneda, Jacqueline; Bustos, Nelly; Olivares, María Antonieta; Colque, María Ester

    2011-06-01

    To determine the attitude towards marketing of food and beverages a sample of 1,048 school children ages 8 to 13 from three cities of Chile (north, center and south of the country) were interviewed. The instrument applied was a validated questionnaire used in previous studies. A descriptive analysis of the variables was performed and differences were determined by region, socioeconomic level (SEL) and gender using Chi2 test. Differences per SEL were higher in Santiago. A greater proportion of school children of medium-low SEL watched more than 2 hours of TV during weekdays and weekends (p food and beverage commercials was greater in medium-low SEL in Santiago (66%) (p foods at supermarkets, on the streets, shopping centers and on the Internet. The preferred commercials were those for beverages, chocolates, ice-creams and cereals. Most common foods taken from home to school were cookies, fruits and yogurt. Most of the children had money available to buy food and the products more frequently preferred were cookies, sweets, French fries, beverages with sugar, chocolates, ice-creams and hot-dogs. marketing of food and beverages is recognized and remembered by school age children, influencing what they buy and consume regularly at school.

  14. [ANTHROPOMETRIC INDICATORS AND CARDIOMETABOLIC EVENTS AMONG SCHOOL-AGED CHILDREN FROM SONORA, MEXICO].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peralta Peña, Sandra Lidia; Reséndiz González, Eunice; Rubí Vargas, María; Terrazas Medina, Efraín Alonso; Cupul Uicab, Lea Aurora

    2015-10-01

    obesity in childhood is predictive of obesity in adulthood and it is associated with adverse health effect apparent since childhood; however, the joint assessment of obesity and adverse events among children in clinical settings is unusual. to assess the association of overweight and obesity, abdominal obesity, and excess body fat with systolic [SBP] and diastolic [DBP] blood pressure, lipid profile and glucose levels; and to identify the best anthropometric indicator of such events. we conducted a cross-sectional study in a sample of 412 schoolchildren. The presence of overweight and obesity, abdominal obesity and excess body fat was determined among all participants; levels of total cholesterol, triglycerides, high and low density lipoproteins, and glucose were measured in a subsample (n = 133). The associations of interest were assessed using adjusted linear and logistic regression models. 33% of the children were overweight or obese. Overall, overweight, obesity, abdominal obesity, and excess body fat were associated with elevated SBP and DBP and with a lipid profile and glucose levels that could indicate health risks among these children. Overweight and obesity were the best predictors of such events. among these school-aged children, we observed that obesity was associated with high odds of having adverse health outcomes such as high blood pressure, lipids and glucose. Such adverse events can be predicted by the presence of obesity measured by BMI, which is a noninvasive, inexpensive and easy to implement measure. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2014. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  15. Refractive status and prevalence of refractive errors in suburban school-age children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pi, Lian-Hong; Chen, Lin; Liu, Qin; Ke, Ning; Fang, Jing; Zhang, Shu; Xiao, Jun; Ye, Wei-Jiang; Xiong, Yan; Shi, Hui; Yin, Zheng-Qin

    2010-10-18

    This study investigated the distribution pattern of refractive status and prevalence of refractive errors in school-age children in Western China to determine the possible environmental factors. A random sampling strategy in geographically defined clusters was used to identify children aged 6-15 years in Yongchuan, a socio-economically representative area in Western China. We carried out a door-to-door survey and actual eye examinations, including visual acuity measurements, stereopsis examination, anterior segment and eyeball movements, fundus examinations, and cycloplegic retinoscopy with 1% cyclopentolate. A total of 3469 children living in 2552 households were selected, and 3070 were examined. The distributions of refractive status were positively-skewed for 6-8-year-olds, and negatively-skewed for 9-12 and 13-15-year-olds. The prevalence of hyperopia (≥+2.00 D spherical equivalent [SE]), myopia (≤-0.50 D SE), and astigmatism (≥1.00 diopter of cylinder [DC]) were 3.26%, 13.75%, and 3.75%, respectively. As children's ages increased, the prevalence rate of hyperopia decreased (PChildren in academically challenging schools had a higher risk of myopia (Prefractive status changes gradually from positively-skewed to negatively-skewed distributions as age increases, with 9-year-old being the critical age for the changes. Environmental factors and study intensity influence the occurrence and development of myopia.

  16. Physical activity and physical fitness of school-aged children and youth with autism spectrum disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyler, Kiley; MacDonald, Megan; Menear, Kristi

    2014-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is characterized by impairments in social communication deficits and the presence of restricted and repetitive behaviors, interests, or activities. Literature comparing the physical activity and fitness of children with ASD to typically developing peers is in need of attention. The purpose of this investigation was to examine the physical activity and fitness of school-aged children with ASD (N = 17) in comparison to typically developing peers (N = 12). Participants with ASD completed diagnostic and developmental assessments and a series of physical fitness assessments: 20-meter multistage shuttle, sit-and-reach test, handgrip strength, and body mass index. Physical activity was measured using accelerometry and preestablished cut-points of physical activity (Freedson et al., 2005). MANCOVA revealed significant between-group effects in strength (P = .03), while ANCOVA revealed significant between-group effects in sedentary (P = .00), light (P = .00), moderate (P = .00), and total moderate-to-vigorous (P = .01) physical activity. Children with ASD are less physically active and fit than typically developing peers. Adapted physical activity programs are one avenue with intervention potential to combat these lower levels of physical activity and fitness found in children with ASD.

  17. Physical Activity and Physical Fitness of School-Aged Children and Youth with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kiley Tyler

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Autism spectrum disorder (ASD is characterized by impairments in social communication deficits and the presence of restricted and repetitive behaviors, interests, or activities. Literature comparing the physical activity and fitness of children with ASD to typically developing peers is in need of attention. The purpose of this investigation was to examine the physical activity and fitness of school-aged children with ASD (N=17 in comparison to typically developing peers (N=12. Participants with ASD completed diagnostic and developmental assessments and a series of physical fitness assessments: 20-meter multistage shuttle, sit-and-reach test, handgrip strength, and body mass index. Physical activity was measured using accelerometry and preestablished cut-points of physical activity (Freedson et al., 2005. MANCOVA revealed significant between-group effects in strength (P=.03, while ANCOVA revealed significant between-group effects in sedentary (P=.00, light (P=.00, moderate (P=.00, and total moderate-to-vigorous (P=.01 physical activity. Children with ASD are less physically active and fit than typically developing peers. Adapted physical activity programs are one avenue with intervention potential to combat these lower levels of physical activity and fitness found in children with ASD.

  18. Shared etiology of phonological memory and vocabulary deficits in school-age children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Robin L; Pennington, Bruce F; Samuelsson, Stefan; Byrne, Brian; Olson, Richard K

    2013-08-01

    The goal of this study was to investigate the etiologic basis for the association between deficits in phonological memory (PM) and vocabulary in school-age children. Children with deficits in PM or vocabulary were identified within the International Longitudinal Twin Study (ILTS; Samuelsson et al., 2005). The ILTS includes 1,045 twin pairs (between the ages of 5 and 8 years) from the United States, Australia, and Scandinavia. The authors applied the DeFries-Fulker ( DeFries & Fulker, 1985, 1988) regression method to determine whether problems in PM and vocabulary tend to co-occur because of overlapping genes, overlapping environmental risk factors, or both. Among children with isolated PM deficits, the authors found significant bivariate heritability of PM and vocabulary weaknesses both within and across time. However, when probands were selected for a vocabulary deficit, there was no evidence for bivariate heritability. In this case, it appears that the PM-vocabulary relationship is caused by common shared environmental experiences. The findings are consistent with previous research on the heritability of specific language impairment and suggest that there are etiologic subgroups of children with low vocabulary for different reasons, 1 being more influenced by genes and another being more influenced by environment.

  19. The bond between school-age children and their dogs, and the socioemotional effects of this bond

    OpenAIRE

    Claudia Schencke; Chamarrita Farkas

    2012-01-01

    Numerous international studies have proved that owning a pet can enhance the quality of life of school-age children; however, there have been no such studies in Chile. The objective of the present study is to analyzes the bond between school-age children and their dogs, and the socioemotional effects of such bond, in particular as it relates to self-identity and the perception of social support. Some differences appear in the results of international studies, in the sense that no significant ...

  20. Validation and clinical utility of a bowel habit questionnaire in school-age children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wald, Ellen R; Jagodzinski, Tanya D; Moyer, Stacey C L; Wald, Arnold; Eickhoff, Jens C; Edmonson, M Bruce

    2011-11-01

    The aim of the study was to validate a brief Bowel Habit Questionnaire (BHQ) with prospectively obtained data from a 14-day diary and to determine whether the BHQ predicts the development of medically significant constipation (MSC) during the following year. The BHQ was distributed to parents of children ages 5 to 8 years during health supervision visits. Both the BHQ and subsequent diary were scored to indicate constipation if at least 2 of the following were reported: infrequent bowel movements, stool accidents, straining, avoidance, discomfort with defecation, or passing large stools >25% of the time. One year later, the BHQ was repeated to assess for MSC, defined as medical encounters about constipation or use of enemas, suppositories, laxatives, or stool softeners. MSC was reported for 57 (13.7%) of 416 children on the first BHQ. Paired BHQ and diary data were obtained for 269 children; 54 (20.1%) had diary scores indicating constipation. BHQ had a sensitivity of 59.6% (95% confidence interval [CI] 46.7%-71.4%) and a specificity of 82.6% (95% CI 77.0%-87.1%). One year later, 11 children (5.2%) had developed new-onset MSC; 7 (63.6%) of these children had initial BHQ scores of at least 2. Positive and negative predictive values for MSC were 19.4% (95% CI 9.8%-35.0%) and 97.7% (94.2%-99.1%), respectively. Parents often do not recognize constipation in young school-age children and most constipated children remain untreated. A brief screening questionnaire in this population proved to be valid but only moderately sensitive; efforts to improve sensitivity are needed before recommending it for routine use.

  1. Auditory scene analysis in school-aged children with developmental language disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sussman, E; Steinschneider, M; Lee, W; Lawson, K

    2015-02-01

    Natural sound environments are dynamic, with overlapping acoustic input originating from simultaneously active sources. A key function of the auditory system is to integrate sensory inputs that belong together and segregate those that come from different sources. We hypothesized that this skill is impaired in individuals with phonological processing difficulties. There is considerable disagreement about whether phonological impairments observed in children with developmental language disorders can be attributed to specific linguistic deficits or to more general acoustic processing deficits. However, most tests of general auditory abilities have been conducted with a single set of sounds. We assessed the ability of school-aged children (7-15 years) to parse complex auditory non-speech input, and determined whether the presence of phonological processing impairments was associated with stream perception performance. A key finding was that children with language impairments did not show the same developmental trajectory for stream perception as typically developing children. In addition, children with language impairments required larger frequency separations between sounds to hear distinct streams compared to age-matched peers. Furthermore, phonological processing ability was a significant predictor of stream perception measures, but only in the older age groups. No such association was found in the youngest children. These results indicate that children with language impairments have difficulty parsing speech streams, or identifying individual sound events when there are competing sound sources. We conclude that language group differences may in part reflect fundamental maturational disparities in the analysis of complex auditory scenes. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. The association between food insecurity and academic achievement in Canadian school-aged children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faught, Erin L; Williams, Patty L; Willows, Noreen D; Asbridge, Mark; Veugelers, Paul J

    2017-10-01

    Education is a crucial social determinant of health. Food insecurity can be detrimental to children's academic achievement, potentially perpetuating a cycle of poverty and food insecurity. We aimed to assess the relationship between food insecurity and academic achievement in Canadian school-aged children. Cross-sectional study of children and parents. Parents completed the short-form Household Food Security Survey Module and questions about income and education level (socio-economic status). Children completed FFQ. Data were prospectively linked to children's performance on standardized exams written one year later. Mixed-effect logistic regression was employed to assess the relationship between food insecurity and likelihood of meeting academic expectations adjusting for socio-economic status, diet quality and potential confounders. Nova Scotia, Canada in 2011-2012. Students (n 4105) in grade 5 (10-11 years; 2167 girls) and their parents. Low food security was reported by 9·8 % of households; very low food security by 7·1 % of households. Students from low-income households and reporting poor diet quality were less likely to do well in school. Children who lived in households reporting very low food security had 0·65 times the odds (OR=0·65; 95 % CI 0·44, 0·96) of meeting expectations for reading and 0·62 times the odds (OR=0·62; 95 % CI 0·45, 0·86) of meeting expectations for mathematics. Very low household insecurity is associated with poor academic achievement among children in Nova Scotia.

  3. Predictors for Asthma Formation in School-Age Children in Ternopil Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.I. Burbela

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background. Algorithm of screening diagnostics for bronchial asthma (BA to identify asthma susceptibility forces doctors of a first contact to a differentiated approach to the compilation of forecasting, individual treatment and rehabilitation programs. The aim of the study was to investigate the risk of asthma in school-age children. Materials and methods. 121 children with asthma treated at Ternopil region children hospital during 2012–2016 were studied. The control group consisted of 226 adolescents, of which 76.55 % (n  =  173 apparently healthy children at the time of examination were secondary school urban students and 2.45 % (n  =  53 — rural students. The average age of patients investigated was 12.98 ± 2.80 years old and 12.36 ± 2.80 years old in the control group. The study was conducted with regard to the basic principles of the Helsinki Declaration on Biomedical Research and provisions GCH ICH, compliance with ethical principles and guidelines involving people as subjects set out in Belmont Report. Results and discussion. Based on a simple ranking value %AR factors playinbg a major role in causing asthma were considered as a level above 50 %. These predictors were: maintenance of diathesis manifestations after the first year of life, оbstructive bronchitis, passive smoking, burdened heredity for atopy, atopic dermatitis, high personal anxiety, high and medium situational anxiety, general school anxiety, social stress, frustration at needs to succeed, fear expression and fear of knowledge test, fear not to match to the expectations of others, low resistance to physiological stress, the presence of autonomic dysfunction, high (70 cu Robinson index. Seven contributing factors in the formation of BA level above 25 % were determined: atopic manifestations on the skin up to a year, the presence of phlegmatic temperament, and eutonia and vagotony according to the Kerdem index, Robinson index above average (71–75 cu. Conclusions

  4. Tidal breathing analysis in school-age children. Comparison with the parameters of forced expiration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostianev, Stefan S; Marinov, Blagoy I; Gencova, Nelly B; Hodgev, Vladimir A; Yanev, Ivan B

    2004-01-01

    Tidal breathing analysis is a method which has the potential to be used for distinguishing and follow-up of airflow obstruction (AFO) in infants, children and critically ill patients. The aim of the present study was to analyse the tidal breathing parameters (TBP) in healthy and in asthmatic school-age children and to compare them with the parameters of forced expiration. Two hundred and twenty five healthy children and 100 asthmatics (7 to 14 years- old) took part in the present study. The results show that TBPs exhibit great inter- and intraindividual variability, even if the mean value of 10 consecutive breathing cycles is used. Parameters that reflect the tidal expiratory flow pattern--V(PTEF)/V(E) and T(PTEF)/T(E) demonstrate high variability and no correlation with age, sex and anthropometric parameters in healthy children. These indices are useful for detection of acute changes in bronchomotor tonus in asthmatics - V(PTEF)/V(E) = 36.1 +/- 6.6% vs. 32.6 +/- 6.2% (methacholine) vs. 37.4 +/- 7.5% (salbutamol) and T(PTEF)/T(E) = 34.2 +/- 6.2% vs. 28.6 +/- 7.8% vs. 35.3 +/- 7.5%, resp. (P AFO vs. controls (V(PTEF)/V(E) = 30.9 +/- 6.5% vs. 35.3 +/- 8.0%; P = 0.005, and T(PTEF)/T(E) = 29.0 +/- 6.7% vs. 32.8 +/- 7.6%; P = 0.016). The evaluation of the area under the ROC curves (AUC) in the asthmatic group showed weak discriminative capacity of T(PTEF)/T(E) and V(PTEF)/V(E) in comparison to FEV1 (AUC of T(PTEF)/T(E) = 0.62; 95%CI 0.51-0.74). Tidal breathing parameters could add insight t.o the functional profile but are not capable of substituting forced expiration regarding detection of overt airflow obstruction in school-age children.

  5. Comorbid anxiety and depression in school-aged children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and selfreported symptoms of ADHD, anxiety, and depression among parents of school-aged children with and without ADHD

    OpenAIRE

    XIA, Weiping; SHEN, Lixiao; ZHANG, Jinsong

    2015-01-01

    Background Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a common psychiatric disorder in children that can extend into adulthood and that is often associated with a variety of comorbid psychiatric disorders. Aim Assess the comorbidity of ADHD with anxiety disorders and depressive disorders in school-aged children, and the relationship of the severity of ADHD, anxiety, and depressive symptoms in children who have ADHD with the severity of the corresponding symptoms in their parents. Meth...

  6. Academic Achievement, Self-Concept and Depression in Taiwanese Children: Moderated Mediation Effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Pei-Chen; Kuo, Shin-Ting

    2015-01-01

    The primary purpose of this study was to utilize a multidimensional perspective to examine whether children's self-concept served as a mediator between academic achievement and depression, and to further investigate whether this mediation effect was moderated by the ages of children. The participants consisted of 632 Taiwanese children in the…

  7. Types of Lamp for Homework and Myopia among Chinese School-Aged Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Chen-Wei; Wu, Rong-Kun; Liu, Hu; Li, Jun; Zhong, Hua

    2017-12-27

    We aim to determine the association of the types of lamp for homework including incandescent lamp, fluorescent lamp, and light-emitting diode (LED) lamp with the prevalence of myopia in Chinese children. 2346 grade 7 students from ten middle schools (93.5% response rate) aged 13 to 14 years in Mojiang, a small county located in Southwestern China, participated in the study. Refractive error was measured with cycloplegia using an autorefractor by optometrists or trained technicians. An IOL Master was used to measure ocular biometric parameters including axial length (AL). Information regarding the types of lamp for homework af``ter schools was collected by questionnaires. Of all the study participants, 693 (29.5%) were affected by myopia, with the prevalence estimates being higher in girls (36.8%; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 34.0, 39.6) than in boys (22.8%; 95% CI: 20.4, 25.1) (P homework had a more myopic refractive error and a longer AL compared with those using incandescent or fluorescent lamps. There were no significant differences in myopia prevalence between children using incandescent and fluorescent lamps for homework. The population attributable risk percentage for myopia associated with using LED lamps for homework after schools was 11.2%. Using LED lamps for homework after schools might contribute to the development of myopia among school-aged children.

  8. Nutritional status of school-aged children of Buenos Aires, Argentina: data using three references.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovalskys, I; Rausch Herscovici, C; De Gregorio, M J

    2011-09-01

    Childhood overweight has been reported in developing countries. The World Health Organization (WHO) has recommended a standardized classification system in order to facilitate comparison across countries and studies. This study aims to assess the prevalence of overweight, obesity and thinness in a group of 10-11-year-old children using three references [the Center for Disease Control (CDC) 2000, the the International Obesity Task Force (IOTF) 2000 and the WHO, 2007]. A representative sample of 1588 children (771 boys and 817 girls) resulted from the randomization of 80 public schools from Buenos Aires. The prevalence of overweight, including obesity, for the whole sample was 35.5, 27.9 and 27.9%, respectively, depending on the reference used. For overweight, no gender differences were observed regardless of the reference used. Obesity was significantly more frequent among boys, and this remained consistent for the three references. Thinness frequency was 1.6 and 2.5% for the boys and 2.7 and 4.5% for the girls when considering the WHO and CDC cut-off points, respectively, and frequency increased in both boys and girls for each age group. There is a high prevalence of overweight and obese cases among school-aged children of Buenos Aires regardless of the reference used. Epidemiological data provided by this study suggests the urgent need to design preventive interventions.

  9. Prevalence of urinary incontinence and lower urinary tract symptoms in school-age children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akil, Ipek Ozunan; Ozmen, Dilek; Cetinkaya, Aynur Cakmakci

    2014-07-08

    To investigate the prevalence of lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) and urinary incontinence (UI) in elementary school aged children in Manisa. Dysfunctional Voiding and Incontinence Scoring System (DVIS) which was developed in Turkey is used. A total of 416 children, 216 (51.9%) male and 200 (48.1%) female were recruited in this study. Mean age of children was 10.35 ± 2.44 years (median10 years). Daytime UI frequency was 6.7% (28 child), nocturnal incontinence 16.6% (69 child) and combined daytime and nocturnal incontinence 4.1% (17 child). There was no statistically significant difference in the prevalence of nocturnal and or daytime UI between male and female gender. Mean DVIS score was 2.65 ± 3.95 and gender did not affect total DVIS points. The mean ages of achieving daytime bowel and bladder control were all significantly correlated with DVIS points. DVIS points were positively correlated with the history of UI of the family. Total points were increased when the father was unemployed. UI negatively influences health related quality of life of the family and child, so it is important that awareness of the UI and symptoms of lower urinary tract dysfunction.

  10. Body composition by bioelectrical impedance analysis and prevalence of obesity in a school-age children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salas-Flores, Ricardo; González-Pérez, Brian; Cornejo-Barrera, Judith; Llanas-Rodríguez, José Daniel; Cruz-Hernández, Cosme

    2011-01-01

    the interest in the direct assessment of adiposity is increasing. The aim was to assess fat mass and lean mass by bioelectrical impedance, and to analyze the correlation between percentage Body Fat-body mass index and percentage Body Fat-WC, and determine the prevalence of overweight and obesity in a sample of school-age children. a cross-sectional study was performed in 360 children; differences between the sexes were assessed by independent t-test. Prevalence of overweight and obesity were calculated according to body mass index and two percentage body fat-based cutoffs. there was no significant gender difference in body mass index (p = 0.91), while the boys were both taller and presented more abdominal obesity but with lower mean percentage body fat (p obesity in boys (12.7 % and 17.7 %) than girls (12 % and 13.9 %). it is an urgent need to implement preventive actions among school children to decrease the prevalence of childhood obesity, which constitutes an important health problem in Mexico.

  11. The creation of false memories of school-aged children as a consequence of misinformation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Žitníková, Dominika

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Human memory is not as correct and reliable as it might be considered, as it is possible to be manipulated easily. Even a small suggestion could influence the memory, leading to the distortion of original memory or a creation of a new one. Children are more suggestible than adults, so their memories and testimony could be considered less reliable or thrustworthy. In this experiment the influence of misinformation to the memory is examined on the sample of 107 children of school age. During the misinformation procedure the memory have been altered in 45,7 % of cases using misleading suggestive questions. The difference between the experimental and control group in wrong answers to the critical item question was more than 20 %. There was a confidence scale attached to every question. According to the results, even if children are able to remember properly, in situations the suggestive questions are asked in a face-to-face interview, their memories adapt to the new information and become less reliable for further testimony. (Fulltext in Czech

  12. School-based sleep education program improves sleep and academic performance of school-age children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruber, Reut; Somerville, Gail; Bergmame, Lana; Fontil, Laura; Paquin, Soukaina

    2016-05-01

    The objective of this study was to develop and evaluate the effectiveness of a school-based sleep education program aimed at improving the sleep and academic performance of school-age children. Using a community-based participatory research approach, we created a school-based sleep education program, "Sleep for Success"™ (SFS), composed of four distinct modules that addressed the children, their family and community, the school staff, and decision makers within the school setting. Implementation was carried out in three elementary schools. Seventy-one students participated in the evaluation of the program. The effectiveness of the SFS program was evaluated using non-randomized controlled before-and-after study groups (intervention and control) assessed over two time points (pre- and post-program implementation). Before (baseline) and after implementation, sleep and academic performance were measured using actigraphy and report card marks, respectively. In the intervention group, true sleep was extended by 18.2 min per night, sleep efficiency improved by 2.3%, and sleep latency was shortened by 2.3 min, and report card grades in mathematics and English improved significantly. No changes were noted in the control group. Participation in the sleep education program was associated with significant improvements in children's sleep and academic performance. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. School-aged children's production of /s/ and /r/ consonant clusters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLeod, Sharynne; Arciuli, Joanne

    2009-01-01

    To describe the acquisition of /s/ and /r/ word-initial consonant clusters across 2 elicitation modalities. Seventy-four typically developing children aged 5-12 years produced 2- and 3-element /s/ and /r/ consonant clusters in word-initial position. Stimuli were presented pictorially and as written words in separate trials. Overall, 94.5% of the consonant clusters were produced correctly. Two-element /r/ clusters were 94.0% correct, 2-element /s/ clusters were 96.8% correct, and 3-element clusters were 92.0% correct. The age of acquisition was typically younger than established by previous researchers. The characteristic non-adult production of /s/ consonant clusters was the substitution of /s/ with interdental or lateral phonemes, and of /r/ consonant clusters the substitution of /r/ with [w]. The last consonant clusters to be mastered were: /thetar/ (thr), /str/, /spr/ and /skr/. There were no significant differences in error rates across the modalities; although younger children required significantly more prompting when naming written words. Primary-school-aged children characteristically produced /s/ and /r/ consonant clusters correctly. The accuracy of production was not influenced by the elicitation modality. Elicitation using pictures compared with written words was more efficient for 5- to 8-year-olds. Both elicitation modes were equally efficient for 9- to 12-year-olds. Copyright 2009 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  14. Food advertising targeted at school-age children: a content analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Folta, Sara C; Goldberg, Jeanne P; Economos, Christina; Bell, Rick; Meltzer, Rachel

    2006-01-01

    To determine whether the contents of food and beverage advertisements are associated with physical activity and athletic ability more often than those for toys and games, and to describe persuasive techniques used in advertising food and beverages to children. A content analysis of advertisements during 31 hours of school-age children's television programming. Chi-square tests were used to examine differences in depictions of physical activity. Types of persuasive techniques were tabulated and, within each advertisement, categorized as implicit or explicit. Food and beverage ads depicted children engaged in physical activity and associated the advertised product with athletic ability significantly more than toy and game ads. Food was most often associated with fun and good times (75%), pleasant taste (54.1%), being hip or cool (43.2%), and feelings of happiness (43.2%). These findings raise concern that greater levels of physical activity and athletic ability in food advertising, in which the product is frequently associated with fun, may promote overconsumption, especially of calorie-dense, nutrient-poor foods. Further research would elucidate whether this concern is warranted. On the other hand, since food advertisements are presumably effective, health educators can use these techniques to formulate messages for nutritious foods. This concept should be tested with well-designed interventions.

  15. Reading abilities in school-aged preterm children: a review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovachy, Vanessa N; Adams, Jenna N; Tamaresis, John S; Feldman, Heidi M

    2015-05-01

    Children born preterm (at ≤32wks) are at risk of developing deficits in reading ability. This meta-analysis aims to determine whether or not school-aged preterm children perform worse than those born at term in single-word reading (decoding) and reading comprehension. Electronic databases were searched for studies published between 2000 and 2013, which assessed decoding or reading comprehension performance in English-speaking preterm and term-born children aged between 6 years and 13 years, and born after 1990. Standardized mean differences in decoding and reading comprehension scores were calculated. Nine studies were suitable for analysis of decoding, and five for analysis of reading comprehension. Random-effects meta-analyses showed that children born preterm had significantly lower scores (reported as Cohen's d values [d] with 95% confidence intervals [CIs]) than those born at term for decoding (d=-0.42, 95% CI -0.57 to -0.27, preading comprehension (d=-0.57, 95% CI -0.68 to -0.46, preading comprehension (Q[1]=4.69, p=0.03) between preterm and term groups. Differences between groups increased with age for reading comprehension (Q[1]=5.10, p=0.02) and, although not significant, there was also a trend for increased group differences for decoding (Q[1]=3.44, p=0.06). Preterm children perform worse than peers born at term on decoding and reading comprehension. These findings suggest that preterm children should receive more ongoing monitoring for reading difficulties throughout their education. © 2014 Mac Keith Press.

  16. Impact of rhinitis on asthma severity in school-age children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deliu, M; Belgrave, D; Simpson, A; Murray, C S; Kerry, G; Custovic, A

    2014-11-01

    In a population-based sample of school-age children, we investigated factors associated with rhinitis, and differences between allergic and nonallergic rhinitis. Amongst children with asthma, we explored the association between rhinitis and asthma severity. Children participating in a birth cohort study (n = 906) were reviewed at age 8 years. Asthma was defined as at least two of the following three features: physician-diagnosed asthma, currently using asthma medication and current wheeze. We measured lung function (plethysmography and spirometry) and airway hyper-reactivity (AHR; methacholine challenge). In the analysis adjusted for the presence of asthma, children with rhinitis had significantly higher AHR (P = 0.001). Maternal smoking and absence of breastfeeding were stronger predictors of nonallergic rhinitis, whereas current wheeze and eczema were stronger predictors of allergic rhinitis. Amongst asthmatics (n = 159), when compared to 76 children without rhinitis, those with rhinitis (n = 83) were 2.89-fold (95% CI 1.41-5.91) more likely to experience frequent attacks of wheezing, 3.44-fold (1.19-9.94) more likely to experience severe attacks of wheezing limiting speech, 10.14-fold (1.27-81.21) more likely to have frequent visits to their doctor because of asthma and nine-fold (1.11-72.83) more likely to miss school. Reported use of intranasal corticosteroids resulted in a numerically small, but consistent reduction in risk, rendering the associations between rhinitis and asthma severity nonsignificant. We observed differences in risk factors and severity between allergic and nonallergic rhinitis. In children with asthma, rhinitis had adverse impact on asthma severity. The use of intranasal corticosteroids resulted in a small, but consistent reduction in the risk. © 2014 The Authors. Allergy Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Exposure to violence and psychosocial adjustment among urban school-aged children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purugganan, Oscar H; Stein, Ruth E K; Silver, Ellen Johnson; Benenson, Blanch S

    2003-12-01

    This study determines the relationship between psychosocial adjustment in school-aged children and one aspect of exposure to violence, the proximity of exposure, in terms of (1) "physical" proximity and (2) "emotional" proximity to the victims of violence. A convenience sample of 175 children aged 9 to 12 years from a primary care clinic of a large urban hospital were interviewed about their exposure to violence using the Children's Report of Exposure to Violence. Psychosocial adjustment was measured through maternal reports using the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) and the Personal Adjustment and Role Skills Scale (PARS III). Children were categorized into three groups according to their closest proximity to exposure to violence ("victim" > "witness" > exposure through other people's "report") and two groups according to emotional proximity (victim was a "familiar person" or "stranger"). All children (23/175) who scored above the CBCL clinical cutoff (T score > 63) were witnesses or victims of violence. The CBCL total T scores (higher score = more maladjustment) showed that the "victims" group (mean 52.4) scored significantly higher than the "witness" group (mean 50.0) and "report" group (mean 47.4). The PARS III total scores (lower scores = more maladjustment) showed that the "victims" group (mean 87.5) scored significantly lower than the "witness" group (mean 93.1) and "report" group (mean 98.2). The relationship of the child to the victim was not associated with significantly different CBCL and PARS III scores. Children exposed to more proximal forms of violence as victims or witnesses exhibited more psychosocial maladjustment.

  18. On certain aspects of the semantic development of younger primary school-age children

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    Stevanović Jelena

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The ability to understand the meaning of words and sentences is an important determinant of the language development, which also indicates the development of the ability to learn. Bearing this in mind, the research was aimed at studying the level of semantic development of younger primary school-age children. Semantic development was studied from the aspect of understanding the meaning of words and their use in the following lexical relations: homonyms, antonyms, synonyms and metonyms. The research was conducted in three Belgrade primary schools during the school year 2013/2014. The sample was convenient and included 431 second- and third-grade pupils. The Semantic test (by S. Vladisavljevic was used in the study. Research results showed that none of the pupils had provided the correct answer to all administered tasks. The best scores were achieved on the part of the test referring to antonyms, while the pupils were least successful on the tasks referring to metonyms. Additionally, third-grade pupils were more successful than younger participants, while there were no differences according to gender. The results indicated that it was necessary to devote more attention to different lexical and semantic exercises at preschool and early school age, considering the link between semantic development, the acquisition of reading and writing skills and the (unsuccessful mastering of the school curriculum in the majority of subjects. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 179034: Od podsticanja inicijative, saradnje, stvaralaštva u obrazovanju do novih uloga i identiteta u društvu i br. 47008: Unapređivanje kvaliteta i dostupnosti obrazovanja u procesima modernizacije Srbije

  19. Play and video effects on mood and procedure behaviors in school-aged children visiting the pediatrician.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns-Nader, Sherwood; Hernandez-Reif, Maria; Thoma, Stephen J

    2013-10-01

    This study examines how different types of activities, including medical play, typical play, and videos, affect the mood and behaviors of children visiting a pediatric office. Seventy-two school-aged children visiting a pediatrician's office were randomly assigned to 1 of 4 groups: medical play, medical information video, typical play, and nonmedical information video control. Children completed a mood self-report measure and their behaviors were recorded during triage by nurses. The medical information video improved the school-aged children's mood. Children in the medical information video displayed less difficult behaviors during procedures than the medical play group. The findings suggest that providing information about medical equipment through a video of a child engaging in medical play may benefit children visiting the pediatrician.

  20. Psycho-pedagogіcal characteristic of adaptive mobile games for deaf children of primary school age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Іvahnenko A.A.

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Conducted psycho-pedagogical and medico-biological basis of usage specially adapted mobile games in the psychophysical development of deaf children of primary school age. Determine the importance of mobile gaming as a means of physical education for this children's category. As a result of research found wellness, educational, educate and correctional importance of mobile games adapted deaf schoolchildren. Adaptive mobile games are effective media for psychophysical development of deaf children that brings to improvement of cognitions.

  1. Sleep Patterns in School-Age Children with Asperger Syndrome or High-Functioning Autism: A Follow-Up Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allik, Hiie; Larsson, Jan-Olov; Smedje, Hans

    2008-01-01

    The course of sleep patterns over 2-3 years was compared between 16 school-age children with Asperger syndrome (AS) or high-functioning autism (HFA) and 16 age- and gender-matched typically developing children, using 1-week actigraphy at baseline and follow-up. At baseline (mean age 11.1 years), children with AS/HFA had longer sleep latency and…

  2. Lifestyle intervention as a treatment for obesity in school-age-children in Celaya, Guanajuato: An experimental study

    OpenAIRE

    Nicolas Padilla-Raygoza; Rosalina Diaz-Guerrero; Ma. Laura Ruiz-Paloalto

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Obesity is a risk factor in chronic diseases, and its frequency among children in Mexico is increasing. Objective: To determine the effect of lifestyle intervention as a treatment for obesity in school-age-children from Celaya, Mexico.Methodology: For this experimental study, four schools were randomly selected. Children and parents participated voluntarily and signed consent forms. Two schools were chosen as the experimental group and the other two formed the control group. Age...

  3. The role of local food availability in explaining obesity risk among young school-aged children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Helen

    2012-04-01

    In recent years, research and public policy attention has increasingly focused on understanding whether modifiable aspects of the local food environment - the types and composition of food outlets families have proximate access to - are drivers of and potential solutions to the problem of childhood obesity in the United States. Given that much of the earlier published research has documented greater concentrations of fast-food outlets alongside limited access to large grocery stores in neighborhoods with higher shares of racial/ethnic minority groups and residents living in poverty, differences in retail food contexts may indeed exacerbate notable child obesity disparities along socioeconomic and racial/ethnic lines. This paper examines whether the lack of access to more healthy food retailers and/or the greater availability of "unhealthy" food purveyors in residential neighborhoods explains children's risk of excessive weight gain, and whether differential food availability explains obesity disparities. I do so by analyzing a national survey of U.S. children followed over elementary school (Early Childhood Longitudinal Study - Kindergarten Cohort) who are linked to detailed, longitudinal food availability measures from a comprehensive business establishment database (the National Establishment Time Series). I find that children who live in residentially poor and minority neighborhoods are indeed more likely to have greater access to fast-food outlets and convenience stores. However, these neighborhoods also have greater access to other food establishments that have not been linked to increased obesity risk, including large-scale grocery stores. When examined in a multi-level modeling framework, differential exposure to food outlets does not independently explain weight gain over time in this sample of elementary school-aged children. Variation in residential food outlet availability also does not explain socioeconomic and racial/ethnic differences. It may thus be

  4. Sleep patterns and sleep disturbances among Chinese school-aged children: prevalence and associated factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Guanghai; Xu, Guangxing; Liu, Zhijun; Lu, Ning; Ma, Rui; Zhang, Entao

    2013-01-01

    The study aimed to (1) characterize sleep patterns and sleep disturbances among Chinese school-aged children, (2) determine the prevalence of their short sleep duration and sleep disturbances based on clinical cutoffs, and (3) examine possible factors (socio-demographic factors and emotional/behavioral problems) that are associated with sleep disturbances. A large representative sample of 912 children aged 6-14years was recruited from Shenzhen, China. Their parents completed the Children's Sleep Habits Questionnaire (CSHQ) and the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ). The mean bedtime was 9:45pm (SD=1h 11min), mean wake-up time was 7:03am (SD=31min), mean sleep duration was 9h 14min (SD=46min), and 23.8% of the children had sleep duration children suffered from global sleep disturbances (CSHQ total score >41). Bedtime resistance (22.9%), sleep anxiety (22.1%), sleep duration (21%) and daytime sleepiness (20%) were the most prevalent sleep disturbances; followed by sleep disordered breathing (12.1%), parasomnias (9.4%), sleep onset delay (6.9%), and night waking (5.2%). The prevalence of specific sleep disturbances ranged from 3.2% (falling asleep while watching television) to 81.9% (awakening by others in the morning). Correlations between most domains of sleep disturbances and emotional/behavioral problems were statistically significant (pchildren. Sleep disturbances are associated with gender, school grade, co-sleeping, emotional symptoms, conduct problems, and hyperactivity. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Seasonality affects dietary diversity of school-age children in northern Ghana.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul-Razak Abizari

    Full Text Available Dietary diversity score (DDS is relatively easy to measure and is shown to be a very useful indicator of the probability of adequate micronutrient intake. Dietary diversity, however, is usually assessed during a single period and little is known about the effect of seasonality on it. This study investigates whether dietary diversity is influenced by seasonality.Two cross-sectional surveys were conducted in two different seasons-dry season (October 2010 and rainy season (May 2011 among the same school-age children (SAC in two rural schools in northern Ghana. The study population consisted of 228 school-age children. A qualitative 24-hour dietary recall was conducted in both seasons. Based on 13 food groups, a score of 1 was given if a child consumed a food item belonging to a particular food group, else 0. Individual scores were aggregated into DDS for each child. Differences in mean DDS between seasons were compared using linear mixed model analysis.The dietary pattern of the SAC was commonly plant foods with poor consumption of animal source foods. The mean DDS was significantly higher (P < 0.001 in the rainy season (6.95 ± 0.55 compared to the dry season (6.44 ± 0.55 after adjusting for potential confounders such as age, sex, occupation (household head and mother and education of household head. The difference in mean DDS between dry and rainy seasons was mainly due to the difference in the consumption of Vitamin A-rich fruits and vegetables between the seasons. While vitamin A-rich fruits (64.0% vs. 0.9%; P < 0.0001 and vitamin A rich dark green leafy vegetables (52.6% vs. 23.3%, P < .0001 were consumed more during the rainy season than the dry season, more children consumed vitamin A-rich deep yellow, orange and red vegetables during the dry season than during the rainy season (73.7% vs. 36.4%, P <0.001.Seasonality has an effect on DDS and may affect the quality of dietary intake of SAC; in such a context, it would be useful to measure DDS

  6. Profile of intestinal parasitosis among school-aged children in Kiliba (eastern DR Congo).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyambikwa Bisangamo, C; Jabari Mutwa, P; Mulongo Mbarambara, P

    2017-06-01

    This study of feces sought to determine the prevalence of human intestinal parasites in the Kiliba area of the eastern DR Congo. Feces of 602 school children aged from 9 to 20 years were collected from April to June 2014 and examined. Direct analyses were supplemented with the Kato and Ritchie methods. The global prevalence of intestinal parasitosis in school-aged children in the Kiliba area was 91.4 % [95 % CI: 87.6-94.3%]. The frequency of helminthiasis was high at 73.8 % (95 % CI: 68.4-78.6%) and that of protozoa reached 32.9 % (95 % CI: 27.7-38.6%). Girls were infected more often than boys. The group aged 17-20 years had the highest infection rate (97.7 %), but no statistically significant difference was observed among the age groups studied. The most frequent parasite species were: Schistosoma mansoni (30.6 %), Strongyloides stercolaris (21.3 %), Entamoeba histolytica (17.6 %), Trichomonas intestinalis (14.6 %), Ankylostoma duodenale (13.6 %), Ascaris lumbricoides (12.6 %), Trichuris trichiura (9.0 %), Taenia saginata (6.6 %), and Giardia intestinalis (5.0 %). This investigation demonstrated the extreme frequency of these fecal infections. Preventive measures, including water distribution, sanitary installations, and hygiene education, should be implemented.

  7. The effectiveness of assertiveness training for school-aged children on bullying and assertiveness level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avşar, Fatma; Ayaz Alkaya, Sultan

    The aim of this study was to determine the effectiveness of an assertive training for school-aged children on peer bullying and assertiveness. A quasi-experimental design using pre- and post-testing was conducted. Data were collected using a demographic questionnaire, an assertiveness scale, and the peer victimization scale. The training program was comprised of eight sessions which were implemented to intervention group. Descriptive characteristics were not statistically different between the groups (p>0.05). The peer victimization victim dimension results show that post-test mean scores of the students in the intervention group were lower than the pre-test mean scores (p0.05). A comparison of the mean pre-test/post-test scores of peer-victimization bully dimension of the students' intervention and control groups revealed that the mean post-test scores of the students in the each group decreased (p>0.05). An assertiveness training program increased the assertiveness level and reduced the state of being victims, but did not affect the state of being bullies. The results of this study can help children acquire assertive behaviors instead of negative behaviors such as aggression and shyness, and help them to build effective social communication. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Predictors of reading comprehension ability in primary school-aged children who have pragmatic language impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freed, Jenny; Adams, Catherine; Lockton, Elaine

    2015-01-01

    Children who have pragmatic language impairment (CwPLI) have difficulties with the use of language in social contexts and show impairments in above-sentence level language tasks. Previous studies have found that typically developing children's reading comprehension (RC) is predicted by reading accuracy and spoken sentence level comprehension (SLC). This study explores the predictive ability of these factors and above-sentence level comprehension (ASLC) on RC skills in a group of CwPLI. Sixty nine primary school-aged CwPLI completed a measure of RC along with measures of reading accuracy, spoken SLC and both visual (pictorially presented) and spoken ASLC tasks. Regression analyses showed that reading accuracy was the strongest predictor of RC. Visual ASLC did not explain unique variance in RC on top of spoken SLC. In contrast, a measure of spoken ASLC explained unique variance in RC, independent from that explained by spoken SLC. A regression model with nonverbal intelligence, reading accuracy, spoken SLC and spoken ASLC as predictors explained 74.2% of the variance in RC. Findings suggest that spoken ASLC may measure additional factors that are important for RC success in CwPLI and should be included in routine assessments for language and literacy learning in this group. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Prevalence and Related Factors for Myopia in School-Aged Children in Qingdao

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    Jin Tao Sun

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To investigate the prevalence and related factors for myopia in school-aged children in the Economic and Technological Development Zone of Qingdao, Eastern China. Methods. A total of 4890 (aged 10 to 15 years students were initially enrolled in this study. 3753 (76.75% students with completed refractive error and questionnaire data were analyzed. The children underwent a comprehensive eye examination. Multiple logistic regression models were applied to assess possible factors associated with myopia. Results. The prevalence of myopia increased as the children’s grade increased (χ2=560.584, P<0.001. Low myopia was the main form of myopia in adolescent students (30.22%. With the growth of age, students spent significantly more time on near work (P=0.03 and less time on outdoor activity (P<0.001. In multivariate models, only the following variables were significantly associated with myopia: age, two myopic parents, outdoor activity time, and continuous near work without 5 min rest. Conclusions. The prevalence of myopia increased as the grade increased. Age, two myopic parents, and continuous near work time without 5 min rest were risk factors for myopia. Outdoor activities had protective effect for myopia.

  10. Asthma management self-efficacy in parents of primary school-age children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Nicola; Gallagher, Robyn; Fowler, Cathrine; Wales, Sandra

    2014-06-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate asthma management self-efficacy in parents of primary school-age children with asthma and to explore possible associations between parent asthma management self-efficacy, parent and child characteristics, asthma task difficulty and asthma management responsibility. A cross-sectional descriptive survey of 113 parents was conducted to assess the level of parent asthma management self-efficacy, asthma task difficulty and confidence, asthma responsibility and socio-demographic characteristics. The findings indicate that parents had higher self-efficacy for attack prevention than attack management. Parents had higher self-efficacy for asthma management tasks that are simple, skills based and performed frequently such as medication administration and less confidence and greater difficulty with tasks associated with judgement and decision-making. Multivariate linear regression analysis identified English language, child asthma responsibility and parent education as predictors of higher asthma management self-efficacy, while an older child was associated with lower parent asthma management self-efficacy. The implications of these results for planning and targeting health education and self-management interventions for parents and children are discussed. © The Author(s) 2013.

  11. Enhancing Asthma Self-Management in Rural School-Aged Children: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horner, Sharon D; Brown, Adama; Brown, Sharon A; Rew, D Lynn

    2016-06-01

    To test the effects of 2 modes of delivering an asthma educational intervention on health outcomes and asthma self-management in school-aged children who live in rural areas. Longitudinal design with data collected 4 times over 12 months. The target sample was composed of children in grades 2-5 who had a provider diagnosis of asthma. Elementary schools were stratified into high or low socioeconomic status based on student enrollment in the free or reduced-cost lunch program. Schools were then randomly assigned to 1 of 3 treatment arms: in-school asthma class, asthma day camp, or the attention-control group. Sample retention was good (87.7%) and equally distributed by study arm. Improvements in emergency department visits and office visits were related to attending either the asthma class or asthma day camp. Asthma severity significantly decreased in both asthma treatment groups. Other factors such as hospitalizations, parent asthma management, and child asthma management improved for all groups. Both asthma class and asthma day camp yielded significant reductions in asthma severity. There were reductions in the emergency department and office visits for the 2 asthma arms, and hospitalizations declined significantly for all groups. Asthma self-management also improved in all groups, while it was somewhat higher in the asthma arms. This may be due to the attention being drawn to asthma management by study participation and the action of completing questionnaires about asthma management, asthma symptoms, and health outcomes. © 2015 National Rural Health Association.

  12. Interactive vs passive screen time and nighttime sleep duration among school-aged children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yland, Jennifer; Guan, Stanford; Emanuele, Erin; Hale, Lauren

    2015-09-01

    Insufficient sleep among school-aged children is a growing concern, as numerous studies have shown that chronic short sleep duration increases the risk of poor academic performance and specific adverse health outcomes. We examined the association between weekday nighttime sleep duration and 3 types of screen exposure: television, computer use, and video gaming. We used age 9 data from an ethnically diverse national birth cohort study, the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study, to assess the association between screen time and sleep duration among 9-year-olds, using screen time data reported by both the child (n = 3269) and by the child's primary caregiver (n= 2770). Within the child-reported models, children who watched more than 2 hours of television per day had shorter sleep duration by approximately 11 minutes per night compared to those who watched less than 2 hours of television (β = -0.18; P < .001). Using the caregiver-reported models, both television and computer use were associated with reduced sleep duration. For both child- and parent-reported screen time measures, we did not find statistically significant differences in effect size across various types of screen time. Screen time from televisions and computers is associated with reduced sleep duration among 9-year-olds, using 2 sources of estimates of screen time exposure (child and parent reports). No specific type or use of screen time resulted in significantly shorter sleep duration than another, suggesting that caution should be advised against excessive use of all screens.

  13. Developmental Trajectories From Birth to School Age in Healthy Term-Born Children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roze, E.; Meijer, Lisethe; Van Braeckel, K.N.J.A.; Ruiter, S.A.J.; Bruggink, J.L.M.; Bos, A.F.

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine the stability of the scores obtained on tests of motor development from birth until school age in healthy, term singletons and to determine if early motor scores are associated with more complex cognitive functions at school age, such as attention and memory. PATIENTS AND

  14. The bond between school-age children and their dogs, and the socioemotional effects of this bond

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Schencke

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Numerous international studies have proved that owning a pet can enhance the quality of life of school-age children; however, there have been no such studies in Chile. The objective of the present study is to analyzes the bond between school-age children and their dogs, and the socioemotional effects of such bond, in particular as it relates to self-identity and the perception of social support. Some differences appear in the results of international studies, in the sense that no significant difference can be observed in terms of self-identity or perceived social support between children who own a dog and children who don’t. However, it is significant that children who perceive themselves as unpopular have a stronger bond with their pets than those who perceive themselves as popular.

  15. Effects of prenatal PCB and dioxin background exposure on cognitive and motor abilities in Dutch children at school age

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vreugdenhil, HJI; Lanting, Caren; Mulder, PCH; Boersma, ER; Weisglas-Kuperus, N

    Objective: Our purpose was to evaluate whether effects of exposure to environmental levels of PCBs and dioxins on development in the Dutch cohort persist until school age. Study design: In the Dutch PCB/dioxin study, cognitive and motor abilities were assessed with the McCarthy Scales of Children's

  16. Parental smoking during pregnancy and total and abdominal fat distribution in school-age children: The Generation R Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    B. Durmus (Busra); D.H.M. Heppe (Denise); H.R. Taal (Rob); R. Manniesing (Rashindra); H. Raat (Hein); A. Hofman (Albert); E.A.P. Steegers (Eric); R. Gaillard (Romy); V.W.V. Jaddoe (Vincent)

    2014-01-01

    textabstractObjective: Fetal smoke exposure may influence growth and body composition later in life. We examined the associations of maternal and paternal smoking during pregnancy with total and abdominal fat distribution in school-age children. Methods: We performed a population-based prospective

  17. Enhancing Treatment for School-Age Children Who Stutter I. Reducing Negative Reactions through Desensitization and Cognitive Restructuring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, William P.; Yaruss, J. Scott; Quesal, Robert W.

    2007-01-01

    This paper describes several treatment strategies that clinicians can use to address negative affective, behavioral, and cognitive reactions that school-age children who stutter may experience as part of their disorder. Specific strategies include desensitization to stuttering, cognitive restructuring, self-acceptance, purposeful self-disclosure,…

  18. Assessment and Treatment of Working Memory Deficits in School-Age Children: The Role of the Speech-Language Pathologist

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boudreau, Donna; Costanza-Smith, Amy

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: To review research addressing the relationship of working memory (WM) to language development and academic functioning and to consider the role of the speech-language pathologist (SLP) in assessment and intervention of WM difficulties in school-age children. Method: Aspects of WM critical to language acquisition and academic success are…

  19. Correlation between diopters and refractive parameters among 5 to 12 years old school-age children of Lanzhou city

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Ting Li

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To investigate the epidemiological status of refractive state among school-age children of 5 to 12 years in Chengguan district of Lanzhou city, and to analyze the correlation with axial length(AL, horizontal and vertical corneal refractive power(K1, K2, anterior chamber depth(ACDand corneal diameter(W-W. METHODS: The value of AL, K1, K2, ACD and W-W of 813 school-age children(1626 eyesaged 8.46±2.30 years old(5-12 yearswere measured by IOL-Master, refractive error was measured by computer refractor. The eyes were divided into 5 groups according to different mean spherical equivalent(SEdiopter: high myopia, moderate myopia, low myopia, emmetropia and hyperopia. The correlation between diopter and different refractive parameters of different ages and different diopter groups were analyzed respectively, the SPSS 19.0 was used for the statistical analysis.RESULTS: There were statistically significant difference(PPPPPr=-0.764, Pr=-0.498, PCONCLUSION: The increase of AL plays an important role in the changes of refractive among school-age children of 5-12 years, AL is the main morphological variable related to myopia. Meanwhile, refractive changes may be affected by corneal refractive power(K1, K2, ACD and corneal diameter(W-W. 7-8 years old can be regarded as the main phase from emmetropization to myopization of school-age children.

  20. Assessing Defense Structure in School-Age Children Using the Response Evaluation Measure-71-Youth Version (REM-Y-71)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araujo, Katy B.; Medic, Sanja; Yasnovsky, Jessica; Steiner, Hans

    2006-01-01

    This study used the Response Evaluation Measure-Youth (REM-Y-71), a self-report measure of 21 defense reactions, among school-age children. Participants were elementary and middle school students (n=290; grades 3-8; age range: 8-15; mean=11.73). Factor analysis revealed a 2-factor defense structure consistent with structure among high school and…

  1. Home uroflowmetry biofeedback in behavioral training for dysfunctional voiding in school-age children: a randomized controlled study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klijn, Aart J.; Uiterwaal, Cuno S. P. M.; Vijverberg, Marianne A. W.; Winkler, Pauline L. H.; Dik, Pieter; de Jong, Tom P. V. M.

    2006-01-01

    We studied the added value of home uroflowmetry for biofeedback training compared to added attention and standard therapy in a multicomponent behavioral training program for voiding disorders in school-age children. Little is known about the role of biofeedback by home uroflowmetry for dysfunctional

  2. Quality of life of victims, bullies, and bully/victims among school-aged children in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klein Velderman, M.; Dorst, A.G. van; Wiefferink, C.H.; Detmar, S.B.; Paulussen, T.G.W.M.

    2008-01-01

    Two studies were conducted to examine the Quality of Life (QoL) of victims, bullies and bully/victims among Dutch school-aged children. Study 1 studied associations of QoL dimensions with self-reported victimisation in the Dutch sample from the KIDSCREEN Project (N = 1,669). Study 2 examined QoL of

  3. The Design and Development of a Computerized Attention-Training Game System for School-Aged Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Tsui-Ying; Huang, Ho-Chuan

    2013-01-01

    A computerized attention-training game system has been developed to support attention training for school-aged children. The present system offers various types of computer games that provide training in different aspects of attention, such as selective attention, sustained attention, and divided attention. The N-tier architecture of the Web-based…

  4. Relations between Perceived Competence, Importance Ratings, and Self-Worth among African American School-Age Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grier, Leslie K.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to investigate how domain-specific importance ratings affect relations between perceived competence and self-worth among African American school-age children. Importance ratings have been found to affect the strength of the relationship between perceived competence and self-worth and have implications for…

  5. Seasonal variation in food pattern but not in energy and nutrient intakes of rural Beninese school-aged children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mitchikpe, C.E.S.; Dossa, R.A.M.; Ategbo, E.A.D.; Raaij, van J.M.A.; Kok, F.J.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Inadequate energy and nutrient intakes are a major nutritional problem in developing countries. A recent study in Beninese school-aged children in different seasons revealed a high prevalence of stunting and poor iron status that might be related to the food pattern. Objective: To

  6. [Gene-gene interaction on central obesity in school-aged children in China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, L W; Zhang, M X; Wu, L J; Gao, L W; Mi, J

    2017-07-10

    Objective: To investigate possible effect of 6 obesity-associated SNPs in contribution to central obesity and examine whether there is an interaction in the 6 SNPs in the cause of central obesity in school-aged children in China. Methods: A total of 3 502 school-aged children who were included in Beijing Child and Adolescent Metabolic Syndrome (BCAMS) Study were selected, and based on the age and sex specific waist circumference (WC) standards in the BCAMS study, 1 196 central obese cases and 2 306 controls were identified. Genomic DNA was extracted from peripheral blood white cells using the salt fractionation method. A total of 6 single nucleotide polymorphisms ( FTO rs9939609, MC4R rs17782313, BDNF rs6265, PCSK1 rs6235, SH2B1 rs4788102, and CSK rs1378942) were genotyped by TaqMan allelic discrimination assays with the GeneAmp 7900 sequence detection system (Applied Biosystems, Foster City, CA, USA). Logistic regression model was used to investigate the association between 6 SNPs and central obesity. Gene-gene interactions among 6 polymorphic loci were analyzed by using the Generalized Multifactor Dimensionality Reduction (GMDR) method, and then logistic regression model was constructed to confirm the best combination of loci identified in the GMDR. Results: After adjusting gender, age, Tanner stage, physical activity and family history of obesity, the FTO rs9939609-A, MC4R rs17782313-C and BDNF rs6265-G alleles were associated with central obesity under additive genetic model ( OR =1.24, 95 %CI : 1.06-1.45, P =0.008; OR =1.26, 95 %CI : 1.11-1.43, P =2.98×10(-4); OR =1.18, 95 % CI : 1.06-1.32, P =0.003). GMDR analysis showed a significant gene-gene interaction between MC4R rs17782313 and BDNF rs6265 ( P =0.001). The best two-locus combination showed the cross-validation consistency of 10/10 and testing accuracy of 0.539. This interaction showed the maximum consistency and minimum prediction error among all gene-gene interaction models evaluated. Moreover, the

  7. Correlates of dietary energy sources with cardiovascular disease risk markers in Mexican school-age children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perichart-Perera, Otilia; Balas-Nakash, Margie; Rodríguez-Cano, Ameyalli; Muñoz-Manrique, Cinthya; Monge-Urrea, Adriana; Vadillo-Ortega, Felipe

    2010-02-01

    Dietary and lifestyle changes in Mexico have been linked to an increase in chronic diseases such as obesity and cardiovascular disease. Important dietary changes such as an increase in the consumption of energy-dense foods (high in oils, animal or processed fats, and sugars) have been recently reported. The objective of this study was to identify how key dietary energy sources correlated with other indexes of cardiovascular disease in a Mexican school-age population. From 2004 to 2006, a convenience sample (n=228) of 9- to 13-year-olds, 48.2% girls and 51.8% boys, from three public urban schools were included. Anthropometric, blood pressure, and dietary assessment (two multiple pass 24-hour recalls) were done. More than half of children did not meet the fruit and vegetable recommended intake. High-fat dairy foods (14% of total energy intake), refined carbohydrates (13.5%), red/processed meat (8.5%), added sugars/desserts (7%), corn tortilla (6.5%), and soft drinks/sweetened beverages (5%) were the highest dietary energy sources consumed. In a subgroup of children (n=185), a fasting blood sample was collected for biochemical analysis. A positive association was observed between glucose and diastolic blood pressure with the intake of soft drinks/sweetened beverages, insulin concentrations and the intake of white bread, and triglyceride concentrations with the intake of added fats. Unhealthful dietary energy sources are frequently consumed by these children. Culturally competent nutrition counseling should be offered to Mexican-American children and their families with a significant risk of cardiovascular disease. Efforts should be made to design and implement nutrition education and health promotion strategies in schools. Copyright 2010 American Dietetic Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Contralateral Noise Stimulation Delays P300 Latency in School-Aged Children.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thalita Ubiali

    Full Text Available The auditory cortex modulates auditory afferents through the olivocochlear system, which innervates the outer hair cells and the afferent neurons under the inner hair cells in the cochlea. Most of the studies that investigated the efferent activity in humans focused on evaluating the suppression of the otoacoustic emissions by stimulating the contralateral ear with noise, which assesses the activation of the medial olivocochlear bundle. The neurophysiology and the mechanisms involving efferent activity on higher regions of the auditory pathway, however, are still unknown. Also, the lack of studies investigating the effects of noise on human auditory cortex, especially in peadiatric population, points to the need for recording the late auditory potentials in noise conditions. Assessing the auditory efferents in schoolaged children is highly important due to some of its attributed functions such as selective attention and signal detection in noise, which are important abilities related to the development of language and academic skills. For this reason, the aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of noise on P300 responses of children with normal hearing.P300 was recorded in 27 children aged from 8 to 14 years with normal hearing in two conditions: with and whitout contralateral white noise stimulation.P300 latencies were significantly longer at the presence of contralateral noise. No significant changes were observed for the amplitude values.Contralateral white noise stimulation delayed P300 latency in a group of school-aged children with normal hearing. These results suggest a possible influence of the medial olivocochlear activation on P300 responses under noise condition.

  9. Visual status and prevalence of eye disorders among school-age children in southern Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernadine N. Ekpenyong

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Aim: This study assessed the types and prevalence of eye problems among school-age children in Cross River State (CRS, Nigeria. Method: The study design was a cross-sectional analytic survey of 2418 school children aged 6–17 years from seven public and three private schools in CRS, selected using the multistage random sampling technique. Ethical approval was obtained from the Ethical Committee, CRS Ministry of Health, Nigeria. The following tests were carried out on all children enrolled in the study: researcher-administered semi-structured questionnaires, LogMAR visual acuity measurements, external and internal eye examinations, non-cycloplegic auto-refractions, retinoscopy and subjective refractions. Quality assurance was carried out to validate the data collected, and data were analysed using SPSS and EPI info. Results: A total of 2418 school children were enumerated, and 2110 (87.3% were examined; 1117 (52.9% were girls, and 1250 (59.2% were 6–11 years old, while 860 (40.8% were 12–17 years old, and 77% attended public schools. The majority, 1895 (89.9% of the children examined, had never had an eye examination. The prevalence of eye diseases among the school children was 32.1%, and the major causes were conjunctivitis 397 (18.8%; confidence interval [CI] 19.2–13.0, refractive error 243 (11.5%; CI 10.2–13.0, glaucoma suspects 52 (2.5%; CI 1.9–3.2, amblyopia 7 (0.3%; CI 0.0–0.7 and corneal opacity 4 (0.2%; CI 0.1–0.5. Analysis using chi-square tests and logistic regression shows a positive higher association of refractive error in private (16.7% than public schools (9.9% (crude odds ratio [COR] 1.8150; adjusted odds ratio [AOR] 1.9129, p < 0.001, higher socio-economic status of parents (COR 2.3402, AOR 1.9819, p < 0.001, older age group (COR 1.7258, AOR 1.8202, p < 0.001 and girls (13.1% versus boys (9.8% (COR 0.7200, AOR 0.7144, p < 0.001. Conclusion: Physical and eye health examination of children before school entry is

  10. Evaluation of Adaptive Noise Management Technologies for School-Age Children with Hearing Loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfe, Jace; Duke, Mila; Schafer, Erin; Jones, Christine; Rakita, Lori

    2017-05-01

    with adaptive noise management exceeded the decrement obtained when the signal arrived from behind. Most participants reported better subjective SIRs when using adaptive noise management technologies, particularly when the signal of interest arrived from in front of the listener. In addition, most participants reported a preference for the technology with an automatically switching, adaptive directional microphone and adaptive noise reduction in real-world listening situations when compared to conventional, omnidirectional microphone use with minimal noise reduction processing. Use of the adaptive noise management technologies evaluated in this study improves school-age children's speech recognition in noise for signals arriving from the front. Although a small decrement in speech recognition in noise was observed for signals arriving from behind the listener, most participants reported a preference for use of noise management technology both when the signal arrived from in front and from behind the child. The results of this study suggest that adaptive noise management technologies should be considered for use with school-age children when listening in academic and social situations. American Academy of Audiology

  11. How European American and Taiwanese Mothers Talk to Their Children about Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jin; Fung, Heidi; Bakeman, Roger; Rae, Katharine; Wei, Wanchun

    2014-01-01

    Little cross-cultural research exists on parental socialization of children's learning beliefs. The current study compared 218 conversations between European American and Taiwanese mothers and children (6-10 years) about good and poor learning. The findings support well-documented cultural differences in learning beliefs. European Americans…

  12. Relationships among Taiwanese Children's Computer Game Use, Academic Achievement and Parental Governing Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeh, Duen-Yian; Cheng, Ching-Hsue

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the relationships among children's computer game use, academic achievement and parental governing approach to propose probable answers for the doubts of Taiwanese parents. 355 children (ages 11-14) were randomly sampled from 20 elementary schools in a typically urbanised county in Taiwan. Questionnaire survey (five questions)…

  13. Obesity and Motor Coordination Ability in Taiwanese Children with and without Developmental Coordination Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Yi-Ching; Wu, Sheng K.; Cairney, John

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the associations between obesity and motor coordination ability in Taiwanese children with and without developmental coordination disorder (DCD). 2029 children (1078 boys, 951 girls) aged nine to ten years were chosen randomly from 14 elementary schools across Taiwan. We used bioelectrical impedance…

  14. Low level exposure to manganese from drinking water and cognition in school-age children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouchard, Maryse F; Surette, Céline; Cormier, Pierre; Foucher, Delphine

    2018-01-01

    and cognitive development in this sample of school-age children although the data suggest there might be sex-specific associations. Given the low levels of exposure and sex-specific associations, a larger sample size would have been required to increase the statistical power and better characterize the relations. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Lower birth weight and increased body fat at school age in children prenatally exposed to modern pesticides: A prospective study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wohlfahrt-Veje, Christine; Main, Katharina Maria; Schmidt, Ida Maria

    2011-01-01

    of prenatal exposure to currently used pesticides on children's growth, endocrine and reproductive function. METHOD: In a prospective study of 247 children born by women working in greenhouses in early pregnancy, 168 were categorized as prenatally exposed to pesticides. At three months (n=203) and at 6 to11......) children had significantly larger increase in BMI Z-score (0.55 SD (95% CI: 0.1; 1.0) from birth to school age) and highly exposed children had 15.8% (0.2; 34.6) larger skin folds and higher body fat percentage compared to unexposed. If prenatally exposed to both pesticides and maternal smoking (any amount......, and effects on body fat content at school age was potentiated by maternal smoking in pregnancy....

  16. Is Weak Oral Language Associated with Poor Spelling in School-Age Children with Specific Language Impairment, Dyslexia, or Both?

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, Jillian H.; Hogan, Tiffany P.; Catts, Hugh W.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that word reading accuracy, not oral language, is associated with spelling performance in school-age children. We compared fourth grade spelling accuracy in children with specific language impairment (SLI), dyslexia, or both (SLI/dyslexia) to their typically developing grade-matched peers. Results of the study revealed that children with SLI performed similarly to their typically developing peers on a single word spelling task. Alternatively, those with dyslexia and SLI/dyslexia evidenced poor spelling accuracy. Errors made by both those with dyslexia and SLI/dyslexia were characterized by numerous phonologic, orthographic, and semantic errors. Cumulative results support the hypothesis that word reading accuracy, not oral language, is associated with spelling performance in typically developing school-age children and their peers with SLI and dyslexia. Findings are provided as further support for the notion that SLI and dyslexia are distinct, yet co-morbid, developmental disorders. PMID:22876769

  17. Oscillometric blood pressure percentiles for Polish normal-weight school-aged children and adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kułaga, Zbigniew; Litwin, Mieczysław; Grajda, Aneta; Kułaga, Katarzyna; Gurzkowska, Beata; Góźdź, Magdalena; Pan, Huiqi

    2012-10-01

    The objective of this study was to construct blood pressure (BP) references with the use of a validated oscillometric device for normal-weight, school-aged children and adolescents and to study BP predictors. BP was measured in 14 266 randomly selected, normal-weight Polish children and adolescents aged 7-18 years, who were free of chronic disease, using a validated oscillometric device (Datascope Accutor Plus). Height, weight and waist circumference were measured. BP percentiles were constructed for age and height simultaneously with the use of a polynomial regression model. The normative values of BP were compared with the US normal-weight reference, German oscillometric reference, and Polish auscultatory reference. Reference BP percentiles by sex, age and height are presented. At median height, the age-specific differences in the 90th BP percentiles compared with German oscillometric reference ranged in the case of boys from -3 to 2  mmHg and from -5 to -1  mmHg, SBP and DBP, respectively, and in the case of girls from 0 to 3  mmHg and from -5 to -1  mmHg, SBP and DBP, respectively. As compared to weight, waist circumference was stronger SBP predictor in low birth weight boys. The study provides BP references for oscillmetric device, based on a current, nationally representative sample of normal-weight Polish children and adolescents. The normative values of BP were compared taking into consideration the height and BMI differences, the pubertal spurt, the methods of BP measurement and percentile construction.

  18. Impact of divorce on the quality of life in school-age children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eymann, Alfredo; Busaniche, Julio; Llera, Julián; De Cunto, Carmen; Wahren, Carlos

    2009-01-01

    To assess psychosocial quality of life in school-age children of divorced parents. A cross-sectional survey was conducted at the pediatric outpatient clinic of a community hospital. Children 5 to 12 years old from married families and divorced families were included. Child quality of life was assessed through maternal reports using a Child Health Questionnaire-Parent Form 50. A multiple linear regression model was constructed including clinically relevant variables significant on univariate analysis (beta coefficient and 95%CI). Three hundred and thirty families were invited to participate and 313 completed the questionnaire. Univariate analysis showed that quality of life was significantly associated with parental separation, child sex, time spent with the father, standard of living, and maternal education. In a multiple linear regression model, quality of life scores decreased in boys -4.5 (-6.8 to -2.3) and increased for time spent with the father 0.09 (0.01 to 0.2). In divorced families, multiple linear regression showed that quality of life scores increased when parents had separated by mutual agreement 6.1 (2.7 to 9.4), when the mother had university level education 5.9 (1.7 to 10.1) and for each year elapsed since separation 0.6 (0.2 to 1.1), whereas scores decreased in boys -5.4 (-9.5 to -1.3) and for each one-year increment of maternal age -0.4 (-0.7 to -0.05). Children's psychosocial quality of life was affected by divorce. The Child Health Questionnaire can be useful to detect a decline in the psychosocial quality of life.

  19. Aerobic fitness, micronutrient status, and academic achievement in Indian school-aged children.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ishaan K Desai

    Full Text Available Aerobic fitness has been shown to have several beneficial effects on child health. However, research on its relationship with academic performance has been limited, particularly in developing countries and among undernourished populations. This study examined the association between aerobic fitness and academic achievement in clinically healthy but nutritionally compromised Indian school-aged children and assessed whether micronutrient status affects this association. 273 participants, aged 7 to 10.5 years, were enrolled from three primary schools in Bangalore, India. Data on participants' aerobic fitness (20-m shuttle test, demographics, anthropometry, diet, physical activity, and micronutrient status were abstracted. School-wide exam scores in mathematics and Kannada language served as indicators of academic performance and were standardized by grade level. The strength of the fitness/achievement association was analyzed using Spearman's rank correlation, multiple variable logistic regression, and multi-level models. Significant positive correlations between aerobic capacity (VO2 peak and academic scores in math and Kannada were observed (P < 0.05. After standardizing scores across grade levels and adjusting for school, gender, socioeconomic status, and weight status (BMI Z-score, children with greater aerobic capacities (mL * kg(-1 * min(-1 had greater odds of scoring above average on math and Kannada exams (OR=1.08, 95% CI: 1.02 to 1.15 and OR=1.11, 95% CI: 1.04 to 1.18, respectively. This association remained significant after adjusting for micronutrient deficiencies. These findings provide preliminary evidence of a fitness/achievement association in Indian children. While the mechanisms by which aerobic fitness may be linked to academic achievement require further investigation, the results suggest that educators and policymakers should consider the adequacy of opportunities for physical activity and fitness in schools for both their

  20. Hunger and overweight in Canadian school-aged children: A propensity score matching analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sentenac, Mariane; Gariepy, Geneviève; McKinnon, Britt; Elgar, Frank J

    2016-12-27

    The last decade saw a higher prevalence of overweight reported among food-insecure families in Canada, but no robust evidence exists on the covariate-adjusted association in children. In this study, we examined the association between hunger and overweight in Canadian students, using a propensity score matching analysis to reduce confounding. This research used data from the 2009/2010 Canadian Health Behaviour in School-aged Children study on a representative national sample of students in Grades 6 through 10. Students self-reported their height and weight and how often they have gone to school or to bed hungry due to a lack of food at home. Multivariate logistic regression modeling was conducted on the total sample (N = 17,694) and on the sample matched on propensity scores (n = 7,788). The overall prevalence of overweight among students was 20.2% with a significant difference between students who reported hunger (24.0%; 95% CI: 22.1-26.0) and students who did not (19.0%; 95% CI: 17.9-20.2). Analysis on the matched sample revealed a significant association between hunger and overweight in children (adjusted odds ratio: 1.30; 95% CI: 1.12-1.50). A substantial number of Canadian students have reported being hungry because of a lack of food at home. These students are at increased risk of overweight, regardless of their social class. Child hunger and household food insecurity exist in Canada and constitute a call for policy action at a national level.

  1. Perinatal dioxin exposure and psychosocial and behavioral development in school-aged children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kono, Yumi; Oka, Akira; Tada, Hiroshi; Itabashi, Kazuo; Matsui, Eiko; Nakamura, Yosikazu

    2015-09-01

    The aim of this study was to elucidate the association between psychosocial and behavioral problems in children at school age and dioxin level in breast milk or estimated dioxin exposure (EDE) through breastfeeding in the general Japanese population. Dioxin level of breast milk at 1month of age and breastfeeding ratio through the first year of life were used to calculate the EDE of infants born in 1998-2005 in Japan. The Japanese Social Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) for the assessment of children's behavior was sent by mail to mothers whose breast milk underwent the dioxin survey, at the time when their infants were aged 6-13 years. The study subjects were 175 pairs of mothers and their first infants (79 boys, 96 girls). The mean total dioxin levels of breast milk were 18.3 and 19.8 (pgTEQ/g fat) and EDEs were 16.4 and 19.6 (ngTEQ/kg/year) in boys and girls, respectively. In linear multiple regression analyses after adjusting for age at SDQ, maternal age, birth weight and maternal smoking habit, dioxin level in breast milk was not significantly related to the total difficulties score (TDS) of SDQ in boys, B=2.29 (95% CI -7.60-12.18), or in girls, B=-1.04 (95% CI -9.24-7.15). EDE correlated to the TDS in neither boys, B=-0.99 (95% CI -4.14-2.15), nor girls, B=1.08 (95% CI -2.69-4.85). No evidence was found of a correlation between perinatal dioxin exposure and behavioral and psychosocial problems of children measured by SDQ. These results support the benefits of recommending breastfeeding. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Low-level lead exposure and autistic behaviors in school-age children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kyoung-Nam; Kwon, Ho-Jang; Hong, Yun-Chul

    2016-03-01

    The association between lead exposure and autism spectrum disorder is inconclusive. We hypothesized an association between higher blood lead concentrations and more autistic behaviors, including impaired social interactions and communication, stereotypical behaviors, and restricted interests, among school-age children. Data from 2473 Korean children aged 7-8years who had no prior history of developmental disorders were analyzed. Two follow-up surveys were conducted biennially until the children reached 11-12years of age. Blood lead concentrations were measured at every survey, and autistic behaviors were evaluated at 11-12years of age using the Autism Spectrum Screening Questionnaire (ASSQ) and Social Responsiveness Scale (SRS). The associations of blood lead concentration with ASSQ and SRS scores were analyzed using negative binomial, logistic, and linear regression models. Blood lead concentrations at 7-8years of age (geometric mean: 1.64μg/dL), but not at 9-10 and 11-12years of age, were associated with more autistic behaviors at 11-12years of age, according to the ASSQ (β=0.151; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.061, 0.242) and SRS (β=2.489; 95% CI: 1.378, 3.600). SRS subscale analysis also revealed associations between blood lead concentrations and social awareness, cognition, communication, motivation, and mannerisms. Even low blood lead concentrations at 7-8years of age are associated with more autistic behaviors at 11-12years of age, underscoring the need for continued efforts to reduce lead exposure. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  3. Common household chemicals and the allergy risks in pre-school age children.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyunok Choi

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The risk of indoor exposure to volatile organic compounds (VOCs on allergic airway diseases in children remains unknown.We examined the residential concentrations of VOCs, emitted from building materials, paints, furniture, and other lifestyle practices and the risks of multiple allergic diseases as well as the IgE-sensitization in pre-school age children in Sweden.In a case-control investigation (198 case children with asthma and allergy and 202 healthy controls, air samples were collected in the room where the child slept. The air samples were analyzed for the levels of eight classes of VOCs.A natural-log unit of summed propylene glycol and glycol ethers (PGEs in bedroom air (equal to interquartile range, or 3.43 - 15.65 µg/m(3 was associated with 1.5-fold greater likelihood of being a case (95% CI, 1.1 - 2.1, 1.5-fold greater likelihood of asthma (95% CI, 1.0 - 2.3, 2.8-fold greater likelihood of rhinitis (95% CI, 1.6 - 4.7, and 1.6-fold greater likelihood of eczema (95% CI, 1.1 - 2.3, accounting for gender, secondhand smoke, allergies in both parents, wet cleaning with chemical agents, construction period of the building, limonene, cat and dog allergens, butyl benzyl phthalate (BBzP, and di(2-ethylhexylphthalate (DEHP. When the analysis was restricted to the cases, the same unit concentration was associated with 1.8-fold greater likelihood of IgE-sensitization (95% CI, 1.1 - 2.8 compared to the non-IgE sensitized cases. No similar associations were found for the other classes of VOCs.We propose a novel hypothesis that PGEs in indoor air exacerbate and/or induce the multiple allergic symptoms, asthma, rhinitis and eczema, as well as IgE sensitization respectively.

  4. Comparative Analysis of Audio-Verbal, Visual and Motor Memory in School-Age Children with Perinatal Hypoxia

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    Goryacheva T.G.

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available This article is devoted to the study of memory features for children of primary school age with perinatal central nervous system lesions in history, in particular, hypoxia. These results were compared with those obtained in a study of healthy peers. The study involved 32 children aged 6 to 8, of which 16 children had a o perinatal hypoxia in history and 16 without CNS perinatal pathology. Based on these results, it was found that children who have suffered hypoxia have a lower playback volume and productivity modal-specific forms of memory, which are subject to greater influence of interfering effects than that of healthy children.

  5. DYNAMICS OF THE COMPELEX FORMS OF VISUAL PERCEPTION IN CHILDREN OF PRE-SCHOOL AGE (A NEUROPSYCHOLOGICAL ANALYSIS)

    OpenAIRE

    VASILEVA Neli

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Experimental data in preschool aged children proves the determining role of the auditory and visual processes for future reading skills, therefore the investigation of complex forms of visual perception in this age period is diagnostically important. Objectives: Basic aim of the research is assessment of the sensitive period for the non-verbal perceptive operations in pre-school aged children, and determination of subgroup with low results for non-verbal perception. Method...

  6. Trends in Lifetime Cannabis Use among Czech School-aged Children from 2002 to 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kážmér, Ladislav; Csémy, Ladislav; Ružbarská, Ingrid; Pavelka, Jan; Hamřík, Zdeněk; Kalman, Michal

    2017-07-01

    The aim of the study was to examine trends in the prevalence of lifetime cannabis use among the Czech 15-year old students. Data from the nationally representative Health Behaviour in School-aged Children Survey, conducted in the Czech Republic in 2002, 2006, 2010 and 2014, were used. Trends in cannabis use among both boys and girls were modelled through binary logistic regression with period as a predictor of the lifetime cannabis use. The prevalence of lifetime cannabis use has significantly decreased among young Czechs, particularly among boys. Gender differences in cannabis use have been also gradually decreasing since 2002, with no significant differences between genders in recent period. Although there are positive changes in the prevalence of adolescent cannabis use, from the European perspective, Czech students still belong to those with significantly higher rates in this respect. Thus, alongside with the use of other substances, adolescent cannabis consumption remains an important challenge for the national public health policy. Copyright© by the National Institute of Public Health, Prague 2017

  7. It Is Time to Rethink Central Auditory Processing Disorder Protocols for School-Aged Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeBonis, David A

    2015-06-01

    The purpose of this article is to review the literature that pertains to ongoing concerns regarding the central auditory processing construct among school-aged children and to assess whether the degree of uncertainty surrounding central auditory processing disorder (CAPD) warrants a change in current protocols. Methodology on this topic included a review of relevant and recent literature through electronic search tools (e.g., ComDisDome, PsycINFO, Medline, and Cochrane databases); published texts; as well as published articles from the Journal of the American Academy of Audiology; the American Journal of Audiology; the Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research; and Language, Speech, and Hearing Services in Schools. This review revealed strong support for the following: (a) Current testing of CAPD is highly influenced by nonauditory factors, including memory, attention, language, and executive function; (b) the lack of agreement regarding the performance criteria for diagnosis is concerning; (c) the contribution of auditory processing abilities to language, reading, and academic and listening abilities, as assessed by current measures, is not significant; and (d) the effectiveness of auditory interventions for improving communication abilities has not been established. Routine use of CAPD test protocols cannot be supported, and strong consideration should be given to redirecting focus on assessing overall listening abilities. Also, intervention needs to be contextualized and functional. A suggested protocol is provided for consideration. All of these issues warrant ongoing research.

  8. Language, reading, and math learning profiles in an epidemiological sample of school age children.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa M D Archibald

    Full Text Available Dyscalculia, dyslexia, and specific language impairment (SLI are relatively specific developmental learning disabilities in math, reading, and oral language, respectively, that occur in the context of average intellectual capacity and adequate environmental opportunities. Past research has been dominated by studies focused on single impairments despite the widespread recognition that overlapping and comorbid deficits are common. The present study took an epidemiological approach to study the learning profiles of a large school age sample in language, reading, and math. Both general learning profiles reflecting good or poor performance across measures and specific learning profiles involving either weak language, weak reading, weak math, or weak math and reading were observed. These latter four profiles characterized 70% of children with some evidence of a learning disability. Low scores in phonological short-term memory characterized clusters with a language-based weakness whereas low or variable phonological awareness was associated with the reading (but not language-based weaknesses. The low math only group did not show these phonological deficits. These findings may suggest different etiologies for language-based deficits in language, reading, and math, reading-related impairments in reading and math, and isolated math disabilities.

  9. The Prevalence of goiter and urinary iodine exertion in school-aged children in Lorestan province

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    mozhgan Padyab

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Iodine deficiency and its related disorder such as goiter are endemic in Lorestan province. Following initiation of iodine deficiency control program in 1989, production, distribution and consumption of iodinated salt were begun. This survey was conducted in the framework of national monitoring survey in 2001 to find out the prevalence of goiter and urinary iodine level in order to evaluate the iodine status of school- aged children in Lorestan. Materials and Methods: 1200 schoolchildren, aged 7-10 years, were selected randomly from all regions of Lorestan. The grade of goiter in 600 boys and 600 girls, was determined according to WHO classification. Urinary iodine content was estimated using the digestion method in one tenth of the schoolchildren. Findings: Total goiter rate was 7.8% 7.8% in girls and 7.7% in boys. Median urinary iodine was 17 μg/dl. Urinary iodine was above 10 μg/dl in 85.7% and less than 5 μg/dl in 1.7%. No one had urinary iodine below 2 μg/dl. Conclusion: It is concluded that the rate of goiter in Lorestan has decreased significantly since 1996 and urinary iodine levels in schoolchildren are indicative of adequate iodine intake. Therefore Lorestan province can be considered as an 'iodine deficiency free' zone.

  10. Language, reading, and math learning profiles in an epidemiological sample of school age children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Archibald, Lisa M D; Oram Cardy, Janis; Joanisse, Marc F; Ansari, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    Dyscalculia, dyslexia, and specific language impairment (SLI) are relatively specific developmental learning disabilities in math, reading, and oral language, respectively, that occur in the context of average intellectual capacity and adequate environmental opportunities. Past research has been dominated by studies focused on single impairments despite the widespread recognition that overlapping and comorbid deficits are common. The present study took an epidemiological approach to study the learning profiles of a large school age sample in language, reading, and math. Both general learning profiles reflecting good or poor performance across measures and specific learning profiles involving either weak language, weak reading, weak math, or weak math and reading were observed. These latter four profiles characterized 70% of children with some evidence of a learning disability. Low scores in phonological short-term memory characterized clusters with a language-based weakness whereas low or variable phonological awareness was associated with the reading (but not language-based) weaknesses. The low math only group did not show these phonological deficits. These findings may suggest different etiologies for language-based deficits in language, reading, and math, reading-related impairments in reading and math, and isolated math disabilities.

  11. [A structural model for the practice of life safety behavior in school-age children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chae, Myung Ock

    2014-04-01

    This study is an examination of the paths in which the primary factors of anxiety, impulsiveness, knowledge of life safety practice, attitudes towards life safety practice, interpersonal support, and self-efficacy from Pender's Health Promotion Model influence the practice of life safety behavior in school-age children. The sample consisted of 489 5th and 6th grade students recruited from five elementary schools in Seoul City and four provinces, South Korea. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, correlations, factor analysis, and structural equation modeling. Attitudes towards life safety practice, interpersonal support, self-efficacy and impulsiveness directly influenced practice of life safety behavior. Anxiety did not have a direct influence on practice of life safety behavior, but indirectly affected it. In this modified model, 52.0% of the practice of life safety behavior was explained by the primary factors. To facilitate the practice life safety behaviors in late childhood, a positive attitude towards life safety needs to be developed along with decreasing impulsiveness and enhancing self-efficacy.

  12. Effects of internet addiction on heart rate variability in school-aged children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Pi-Chu; Kuo, Shu-Yu; Lee, Pi-Hsia; Sheen, Tzong-Chyi; Chen, Su-Ru

    2014-01-01

    The Internet has been gaining worldwide popularity in recent years, but a loss of control over Internet use might lead to negative impacts on our daily lives. This study explored the effects of Internet addiction on autonomic nervous system function through heart rate variability (HRV) analysis. This was a cross-sectional design. Data were collected from 240 school-aged children who completed the Chinese Internet Addiction Scale and Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index questionnaires. Spectral analysis was used to measure HRV. Independent t test was used to compare differences in characteristics and HRV between groups. A 2-way analysis of variance was used to examine group differences in HRV. Internet addicts had significantly lower high frequency (HF) percentage, logarithmically transformed HF, and logarithmically transformed total power and significantly higher low frequency percentage than did nonaddicts. Internet addicts who had insomnia had higher low frequency percentage and lower HF percentage, logarithmically transformed HF, and logarithmically transformed total power compared with nonaddicts who did not have insomnia. Internet addiction is associated with higher sympathetic activity and lower parasympathetic activity. The autonomic dysregulation associated with Internet addiction might partly result from insomnia, but the mechanism still needs to be further studied.

  13. Reliability and Validity of Nonsymbolic and Symbolic Comparison Tasks in School-Aged Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, Danilka; Estévez, Nancy; Gómez, David; Dartnell, Pablo Ricardo

    2017-12-04

    Basic numerical processing has been regularly assessed using numerical nonsymbolic and symbolic comparison tasks. It has been assumed that these tasks index similar underlying processes. However, the evidence concerning the reliability and convergent validity across different versions of these tasks is inconclusive. We explored the reliability and convergent validity between two numerical comparison tasks (nonsymbolic vs. symbolic) in school-aged children. The relations between performance in both tasks and mental arithmetic were described and a developmental trajectories' analysis was also conducted. The influence of verbal and visuospatial working memory processes and age was controlled for in the analyses. Results show significant reliability (p task (global adjusted RT (adjRT): r = .78, global efficiency measures (EMs): r = .74) and, for symbolic task (adjRT: r = .86, EMs: r = .86). Also, significant convergent validity between tasks (p tasks index the same underlying cognitive architecture and are appropriate to explore the Approximate Number System (ANS) characteristics. The evidence supports the central role of ANS in arithmetic efficiency and suggests there are differences across the age range assessed, concerning the extent to which efficiency in nonsymbolic and symbolic tasks reflects ANS acuity.

  14. The relationship between Autism Spectrum Quotient (AQ and uneven intellectual development in school-age children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Melling

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies have found correlations between uneven intellectual development and autistic symptom severity but thus far each study has looked only at specific types of discrepancy score and results have been inconsistent. This study used the Autism Spectrum Quotient (AQ and the British Ability Scales (second edition to look for a correlation between autistic-like traits and an overall index of unevenness based on three types of discrepancy score, namely: discrepancies between IQ subscales; discrepancies between IQ domain scores; and, discrepancies between overall IQ and word-level literacy skills. The AQ scale was designed to measure autistic-like symptoms both in those with an Autism Spectrum Disorder and at all levels across the general population. The study sample was therefore not restricted to children with an ASD. The 106 school age participants had a mean IQ of 97 (SD 19.6 and a mean AQ (child version score of 69.6 (SD 24.6. After controlling for IQ, each of the three intellectual discrepancy types accounted for unique variance in AQ with a large overall effect size. Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging studies are recommended to examine how far uneven intellectual development may be an analogue for aberrant cortical connectivity.

  15. Fitness Trends and Disparities Among School-Aged Children in Georgia, 2011-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Yang; Saint-Maurice, Pedro F; Welk, Gregory J

    Although FitnessGram fitness data on aerobic capacity and body mass index (BMI) have been collected in public schools in Georgia since the 2011-2012 school year, the data have not been analyzed. The primary objective of our study was to use these data to assess changes in fitness among school-aged children in Georgia between 2011 and 2014. A secondary objective was to determine if student fitness differed by school size and socioeconomic characteristics. FitnessGram classifies fitness into the Healthy Fitness Zone (HFZ) or not within the HFZ for aerobic capacity and BMI. We used data for 3 successive school years (ie, 2011-2012 to 2013-2014) obtained from FitnessGram testing of students in >1600 schools. We calculated the percentage of students who achieved the HFZ for aerobic capacity and BMI. We used growth curve models to estimate the annual changes in these proportions, and we determined the effect of school size and socioeconomic status on these changes. Both elementary school boys (β = 1.31%, standard error [SE] = 0.23%, P fitness profiles. Surveillance results such as these may help inform the process of designing state and local school-based fitness promotion and public health programs and tracking the results of those programs.

  16. Relationships between Sleep Behaviors and Unintentional Injury in Southern Chinese School-Aged Children: A Population-Based Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Yafei; Ma, Di; Chen, Ying; Cheng, Fuyuan; Liu, Xiangxiang; Li, Liping

    2015-10-16

    The purpose of this study is to explore the relationships between sleep behaviors and injury occurrence among Chinese school-aged children. Data were collected with self-administered questionnaires of a cross-sectional survey which covered the school-aged children from southeastern Chinese urban and rural areas in April 2010. Information was collected on unintentional injury in the past year, sleep duration, napping and daytime fatigue, sleeping pill use, and social-demographic variables. Multivariable logistic regression analyses, controlling for confounding factors, were conducted to assess sleep-related variables that were associated with injuries. Students who slept for less than 8 h had a 30% increased risk of injury (OR: 1.30; 95%CI: 1.01-1.69) compared with those who slept for 8-9 h. Lack of napping, snoring and use of sleeping pills were significantly associated with injury. Among different genders, the slight difference in sleep behaviors predicted the occurrence of injury. Rural children displayed more sleep behaviors associated with injury than urban children. The sleep behaviors of primary school students were more negatively correlated with injury occurrence than junior/senior high school children. Consideration should be given to the prevention of problematic sleep behaviors as a potential risk factor in order to decrease injury rates and promote the health of school-aged children.

  17. Relationships between Sleep Behaviors and Unintentional Injury in Southern Chinese School-Aged Children: A Population-Based Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yafei Tan

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to explore the relationships between sleep behaviors and injury occurrence among Chinese school-aged children. Data were collected with self-administered questionnaires of a cross-sectional survey which covered the school-aged children from southeastern Chinese urban and rural areas in April 2010. Information was collected on unintentional injury in the past year, sleep duration, napping and daytime fatigue, sleeping pill use, and social-demographic variables. Multivariable logistic regression analyses, controlling for confounding factors, were conducted to assess sleep-related variables that were associated with injuries. Students who slept for less than 8 h had a 30% increased risk of injury (OR: 1.30; 95%CI: 1.01–1.69 compared with those who slept for 8–9 h. Lack of napping, snoring and use of sleeping pills were significantly associated with injury. Among different genders, the slight difference in sleep behaviors predicted the occurrence of injury. Rural children displayed more sleep behaviors associated with injury than urban children. The sleep behaviors of primary school students were more negatively correlated with injury occurrence than junior/senior high school children. Consideration should be given to the prevention of problematic sleep behaviors as a potential risk factor in order to decrease injury rates and promote the health of school-aged children.

  18. Nutritional status and morbidity pattern in school age children in Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N Bhandari

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available School Health has been regarded as a high priority intervention in developing countries. However it has not been prioritized in Nepal for many years. The objectives of the study are to find out the nutritional status and morbidity pattern in school age children. To arouse importance of personal hygiene and healthful surrounding through information, education and communication (IEC. This cross-sectional study was administered in two schools located in Bolde phedeche and Mahure of Kavrepalanchowk. From the selected schools, a total number of 160 students studying from Grade 1 to V were enumerated in the study using census survey method. Among 160 students, the most important three problems were pediculosis 42(26.2 %, dental caries 29(18.1%, and waxy ear 27(17.1 %. Thus the school health education should put more emphasis on oral care, nutrition, personal hygiene and others. Applying classification of Indian Academy of Pediatrics: based on weight for age, 36(55.3% boys and 34(35.8% girls fall under 1st degree malnutrition and 15(23.07% boys and 44(46.3% girls fall under IInd degree malnutrition, 7(7.2 % girls fall under IIIrd degree malnutrition.The health and nutritional standards of school children in this study were found to be unsatisfactory. Among different morbidity pediculosis is found more in girls. The present study put more emphasis on the need for initiation of school health program in the school with more on improving personal hygiene, prevention of disease like parasitic infection/infestation and improvement of their nutritional status. Journal of College of Medical Sciences-Nepal,2012,Vol-8,No-2, 12-16 DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3126/jcmsn.v8i2.6832

  19. Beverage patterns and trends among school-aged children in the US, 1989-2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Popkin Barry M

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background High intake of sugar-sweetened beverages in childhood is linked to increased risk of obesity and type II diabetes later in life. Using three nationally representative surveys of dietary intake, we investigated beverage patterns and trends among US school-aged children from 1989/91 to 2007/08. Methods 3, 583 participants ages 6-11 y old were included. We reported per capita trends in beverage consumption, percent consuming, and amount per consumer for the following categories of beverages: sugar-sweetened beverages (SSB, caloric nutritional beverages (CNB and low calorie beverages (LCB. Statistically significant differences were tested using the Student's t test in Stata 11. Results While per capita kcal contribution from total beverages remained constant over the study period, per capita consumption of SSBs increased and CNBs decreased in similar magnitude. The substantial increase in consumption of certain SSBs, such as fruit drinks and soda, high fat high sugar milk, and sports drinks, coupled with the decrease in consumption of high fat low sugar milk was responsible for this shift. The percent consuming SSBs as well as the amount per consumer increased significantly over time. Per capita intake of total milk declined, but the caloric contribution from high fat high sugar milk increased substantially. Among ethnicities, important differences in consumption trends of certain SSBs and 100% juice indicate the complexity in determining strategies for children's beverage calorie reduction. Conclusions As upward trends of SSB consumption parallel increases in childhood obesity, educational and policy interventions should be considered.

  20. Aerobic fitness, micronutrient status, and academic achievement in Indian school-aged children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desai, Ishaan K; Kurpad, Anura V; Chomitz, Virginia R; Thomas, Tinku

    2015-01-01

    Aerobic fitness has been shown to have several beneficial effects on child health. However, research on its relationship with academic performance has been limited, particularly in developing countries and among undernourished populations. This study examined the association between aerobic fitness and academic achievement in clinically healthy but nutritionally compromised Indian school-aged children and assessed whether micronutrient status affects this association. 273 participants, aged 7 to 10.5 years, were enrolled from three primary schools in Bangalore, India. Data on participants' aerobic fitness (20-m shuttle test), demographics, anthropometry, diet, physical activity, and micronutrient status were abstracted. School-wide exam scores in mathematics and Kannada language served as indicators of academic performance and were standardized by grade level. The strength of the fitness/achievement association was analyzed using Spearman's rank correlation, multiple variable logistic regression, and multi-level models. Significant positive correlations between aerobic capacity (VO2 peak) and academic scores in math and Kannada were observed (P Kannada exams (OR=1.08, 95% CI: 1.02 to 1.15 and OR=1.11, 95% CI: 1.04 to 1.18, respectively). This association remained significant after adjusting for micronutrient deficiencies. These findings provide preliminary evidence of a fitness/achievement association in Indian children. While the mechanisms by which aerobic fitness may be linked to academic achievement require further investigation, the results suggest that educators and policymakers should consider the adequacy of opportunities for physical activity and fitness in schools for both their physical and potential academic benefits.

  1. Television viewing and alcohol advertising with alcohol expectancies among school-aged children in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ying-Ying; Chiu, Yu-Chan; Ting, Te-Tien; Liao, Hsin-Yao; Chen, Wei J; Chen, Chuan-Yu

    2016-05-01

    This study is aimed to examine the strength of association between television watching and potential exposure to alcohol advertising with multidimensional alcohol expectancies in school-aged children. A total of 779 4th (age 10) and 768 6th (age 12) grade students were recruited from 17 public elementary schools in northern Taiwan in 2006, with two waves of follow-up at 6 months apart. Self-administered questionnaires were used to collect information concerning individual characteristics, parental attributes, past-week screen time, drinking behaviors, and alcohol expectancies. Data of aired alcohol advertisements at baseline were obtained from the Nielsen Media Research Advertising Information Services; parenting styles were ascertained from the 1st follow-up. Alcohol Expectancies Questionnaire-Children version was used to measure alcohol expectancies (AEs) at baseline and the 2nd follow-up. Nearly 27% of students reported watching television for more than two hours per day and 58% watching television after 9 p.m. Dimension-related heterogeneity exists in the relationship between TV viewing and alcohol advertising with AEs. With statistical adjustment for covariates, spending more than two hours watching TV per day was associated with increased levels of positive AEs "Promoting Relaxation or Tension Reduction [PRTR]" (β=1.52, 95% CI=0.92, 2.12; padvertising was associated with decline in negative AEs "Deteriorated Cognitive and Behavioral Function" (e.g., >8.0 ads: β=-1.06, 95% CI=-1.66, -0.47, padvertising exposure is linked with lowered negative expectancies in late childhood. School-based anti-underage drinking programs may consider integrating the media literacy curriculum. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. The interoccasion repeatability of intraocular pressure measurement using the Tono-Pen in a sample of school-aged children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khamees, K M; Zadnik, K

    2001-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the interoccasion repeatability of the Tono-Pen XL portable applanation tonometer in school-aged children. Thirty-one normal children were recruited from The Ohio State College of Optometry Pediatric Clinic. They ranged in age from 6 to 14 years. Intraocular pressure was measured using the Tono-Pen XL in both eyes of all subjects on two different occasions within a median of 9 days. Refractive error was measured by noncycloplegic autorefraction. Data from right eyes only are presented. There was no average difference in the intraocular pressure between occasions. The 95% limits of agreement between occasions were -5.58 to 4.87 mm Hg. The Tono-Pen XL gives reasonably repeatable readings between occasions in school-aged children.

  3. Health implications of chronic hepatosplenomegaly in Kenyan school-aged children chronically exposed to malarial infections and Schistosoma mansoni

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wilson, Shona; Vennervald, Birgitte J; Kadzo, Hilda

    2010-01-01

    Hepatosplenomegaly among school-aged children in sub-Saharan Africa is highly prevalent. Two of the more common aetiological agents of hepatosplenomegaly, namely chronic exposure to malaria and Schistosoma mansoni infection, can result in similar clinical presentation, with the liver and spleen...... being chronically enlarged and of a firm consistency. Where co-endemic, the two parasites are thought to synergistically exacerbate hepatosplenomegaly. Here, two potential health consequences, i.e. dilation of the portal vein (indicative of increased portal pressure) and stunting of growth, were...... with hepatosplenomegaly. Children who presented with hepatosplenomegaly had the lowest height-for-age Z-scores. This study shows that hepatosplenomegaly associated with chronic exposure to malaria and schistosomiasis is not a benign symptom amongst school-aged children but has potential long-term health consequences....

  4. Comparative Study of Features of Social Intelligence and Speech Behavior of Children of Primary School Age with Impaired Mental Function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shcherban D.

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses the concept of social intelligence and its characteristics in children of primary school age with impaired mental functions. The concept and main features, including speech, are discussed, delays of mental development, the importance of detained development for social intelligence and speech behavior are also considered. Also, the concept of speech behavior is analyzed, the author defines the phenomenon, describes its specific features, which are distinguish its structure, and consist of six components: verbal, emotional, motivational, ethical (moral, prognostic, semantic (cognitive. Particular attention is paid to the position of social intelligence in the structure of speech behavior of children of primary school age with a impaired mental functions. Indicators of social intelligence were analyzed from the point of view of speech behavior of children with different rates of mental development and compared with its components at a qualitative level. The study used both author's and well-known techniques.

  5. Exploration of the Influence of Factors Identified in the Literature on School-aged Children's Emotional Responses to Asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Verónica García

    Approximately 6.3 million US children suffer from asthma. The purpose of this study was to explore factors on school-aged children's emotional responses to asthma, N=85, ages 6-12. Correlations included Asthma related child emotional functioning QOL and (a) asthma severity, r=-0.30, pchild internalizing behaviors, r=-0.26, pchild externalizing behaviors r=-0.43, pasthma severity, r=-0.39, pchild internalizing behaviors, r=-0.22, pchild externalizing behaviors, r=-0.25; pasthma severity and child externalizing problems accounted for 26% of the variance in asthma related child emotional functioning QOL, F (4, 79)=7.051, pasthma severity, β=-0.31, pchild externalizing problem behaviors, β=-0.43, pasthma research should consider problem behaviors of school-aged children when addressing asthma related emotional functioning QOL. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Theory of Mind Indexes the Broader Autism Phenotype in Siblings of Children with Autism at School Age

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    Tawny Tsang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Subclinical variants of the social-communicative challenges and rigidity that define autism spectrum disorder (ASD are known as the broader autism phenotype (BAP. The BAP has been conceptualized categorically (as specific to a subset of relatives of individuals with ASD and dimensionally (as continuously distributed within the general population. The current study examined the compatibility of these two approaches by assessing associations among autism symptoms and social-communicative skills in young school-age children with ASD, children who have a sibling with ASD, and children without a sibling with ASD. Autism symptoms were associated with reduced Theory of Mind (ToM, adaptive skills, cognitive empathy, and language skills across the full sample. Reduced ToM was a core aspect of the BAP in the current sample regardless of whether the BAP was defined categorically (in terms of siblings of children with ASD who exhibited atypical developmental or dimensionally (in terms of associations with autism symptoms across the entire sample. Early language skills predicted school-age ToM. Findings support the compatibility of categorical and dimensional approaches to the BAP, highlight reduced ToM as a core aspect of the school-age BAP, and suggest that narrative-based approaches to promoting ToM may be beneficial for siblings of children with ASD.

  7. Right prefrontal cortex specialization for visuospatial working memory and developmental alterations in prefrontal cortex recruitment in school-age children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Kota; Kita, Yosuke; Oi, Yuhei; Okumura, Yasuko; Okuzumi, Hideyuki; Inagaki, Masumi

    2018-02-12

    The right prefrontal cortex (PFC) plays an essential role in active processing within visuospatial working memory (VSWM). The aim of this study was to examine developmental changes in the recruitment patterns of the PFC during visuospatial memory tasks in school-age participants. We recruited 80 school-age children who were classified into three age groups: 7- to 8-year-old, 9- to 10-year-old, and 11- to 12-year-old children. We used near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) to measure PFC activity during visuospatial memory task. Memory stimuli were presented either sequentially or simultaneously. In all three groups, right-lateralized PFC activity was observed during sequential presentation, suggesting specialization of the right PFC for VSWM. During simultaneous presentation, right-lateralized PFC activity was not observed in 7- to 8-year-old children or 9- to 10-year-old children. In contrast, PFC activity was right-lateralized in 11- to 12-year-old children. We suggest that specialization of the right PFC for VSWM is already present before school-age, but widely distributed activity in response to visuospatial memory tasks changes to more focal activity in VSWM-specific regions during the early school years. Using NIRS, we showed developmental changes in the recruitment patterns of the PFC during visuospatial memory tasks. Copyright © 2018 International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Low Dietary Diversity and Intake of Animal Source Foods among School Aged Children in Libo Kemkem and Fogera Districts, Ethiopia.

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    Zaida Herrador

    Full Text Available A low dietary diversity score (DDS and low consumption of food from animal sources (ASF are among the factors related to malnutrition in school-aged children living in Libo Kemkem and Fogera (Ethiopia.This study aimed to identify associated determinants for low dietary diversity and lack of consumption of ASF.In 2009, a cross-sectional survey was carried out in May, at the end of the lean season. Socio-demographic characteristics and diet habits were collected from 886 school-aged children. Additionally, 516 children from rural sites were followed up in the post-harvest season, in December of the same year. Bivariate and multivariable statistical methods were employed to assess low DDS and ASF intake and their association with different factors.Up to 80% and 60% of school-aged children living in rural and urban sites, respectively, ate ≤ 3 food groups the day before the survey. The percentage of children consuming ASF was significantly higher in urban settings (64% vs 18%. In the rural areas, if the head of the household was male (OR: 1.91; 95%CI: 1.00-3.65 and older than 40 years (OR: 1.56; 95%CI: 1.02-2.38 the child had a lower DDS in the lean season, while differences by socioeconomic indexes were observed in the post-harvest season. Males took more ASF than females in rural settings (OR: 1.73; 95%CI: 1.14-2.62 and differences by socioeconomic indexes were observed in both settings in the lean season, though not in post-harvest survey.The findings of this study revealed that the diet among school-aged children in Libo Kemkem and Fogera districts lacked diversity, and that the intake of foods from animal sources was low, especially among rural girls. To effectively tackle malnutrition, dietary diversification strategies oriented to the local needs are recommended.

  9. Parent-Child Interaction Therapy (PCIT) in school-aged children with specific language impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Jessica; Marshall, Chloë R

    2011-01-01

    for non-verbal responses. Despite the small group sizes, this study provides preliminary evidence that PCIT can achieve its treatment goals with 8-10-year-olds who have expressive language impairments. This has potentially important implications for how mainstream speech and language services provide intervention to school-aged children. In contrast to direct one-to-one therapy, PCIT offers a single block of therapy where the parents' communication and interaction skills are developed to provide the child with an appropriate language-rich environment, which in turn could be more cost-effective for the service provider. © 2010 Royal College of Speech & Language Therapists.

  10. Comorbid anxiety and depression in school-aged children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and selfreported symptoms of ADHD, anxiety, and depression among parents of school-aged children with and without ADHD

    Science.gov (United States)

    XIA, Weiping; SHEN, Lixiao; ZHANG, Jinsong

    2015-01-01

    Background Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a common psychiatric disorder in children that can extend into adulthood and that is often associated with a variety of comorbid psychiatric disorders. Aim Assess the comorbidity of ADHD with anxiety disorders and depressive disorders in school-aged children, and the relationship of the severity of ADHD, anxiety, and depressive symptoms in children who have ADHD with the severity of the corresponding symptoms in their parents. Methods A two-stage screening process identified children 7-10 years of age with and without ADHD treated at the Xin Hua Hospital in Shanghai. ADHD and other DSM-IV diagnoses were determined by a senior clinician using the Schedule for Affective Disorder and Schizophrenia for School-Aged Children (K-SADS-PL). One parent for each enrolled child completed three self-report scales: the ADHD Adult Self Report Scale (ASRS), the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI), and the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI). In total 135 children with ADHD and 65 control group children without ADHD were enrolled; parents for 94 of the children with ADHD and 63 of the children without ADHD completed the parental assessment scales. Results Among the 135 children with ADHD, 27% had a comorbid anxiety disorder, 18% had a comorbid depressive disorder, and another 15% had both comorbid anxiety and depressive disorders. Parents of children with ADHD self-reported more severe ADHD inattention symptoms than parents of children without ADHD and were more likely to meet criteria for adult ADHD. Mothers (but not fathers) of children with ADHD had significantly more severe trait anxiety and depressive symptoms than mothers of children without ADHD. Among children with ADHD, the severity of ADHD symptoms was not significantly correlated with the severity of ADHD symptoms in parents, but depressive symptoms and anxiety symptoms in the children were significantly correlated with the corresponding symptoms in the parents

  11. Circadian health differs between boys and girls as assessed by non-invasive tools in school-aged children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barraco, Gloria Maria; Martínez-Lozano, Nuria; Vales-Villamarín, Claudia; Del Carmen Blaya, María; Rios, Rafael; Madrid, Juan Antonio; Fardy, Paul; Garaulet, Marta

    2018-03-21

    Assessment of circadian health is confined to adults. However, understanding circadian status of school-aged children is necessary due to its health implications. The aim was to develop 1) a protocol to assess circadian function in school-aged children by combining the best non-invasive tools previously validated in adults; 2) a score to capture circadian function in children including food timing. This protocol will allow to explore gender differences and to compare the circadian function of school-aged children with adults from the same Mediterranean area. Healthy children (8-12 y) from 3 schools in a Mediterranean area of Spain were recruited (n = 248; 125 males and 123 females). Several non-invasive tools were used: a) 7-day-diaries of food timing and food intake, physical-activity and sleep, b) Munich-chronotype-self-reported-questionnaire; c) cortisol and melatonin saliva determinations; d) 7-day-rhythms of wrist temperature (T), activity (A), position (P) and the integrative variable TAP e) 7-day-light exposure. We have constructed the first school-aged children population for the assessment of circadian function (ONTIME-Jr) and a new circadian score has been developed. Among circadian-related measures, TAP was the most suitable and reliable to determine circadian system characteristics. Circadian function was better in girls than in boys [circadian score (AU) Mean ± SD (girls, 1216 ± 153 vs. 1159 ± 173 boys, P = 0.012)], and also in school-aged children than in adults from the same Mediterranean area (Circadian-Function-Index: children 0.47 ± 0.06 vs. adults 0.45 ± 0.06 P = 0.001). A new protocol, including TAP and food timing, demonstrated to be reliable in assessing circadian function in children. These non-invasive techniques provide the wherewithal for paediatricians to assess circadian function in clinical practice. Chronobiology and childhood obesity (ONTIME-Jr: Obesity, Nutrigenetics, Timing and Mediterranean, Junior). Clinical

  12. Systematic review of sedentary behaviour and health indicators in school-aged children and youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Accumulating evidence suggests that, independent of physical activity levels, sedentary behaviours are associated with increased risk of cardio-metabolic disease, all-cause mortality, and a variety of physiological and psychological problems. Therefore, the purpose of this systematic review is to determine the relationship between sedentary behaviour and health indicators in school-aged children and youth aged 5-17 years. Online databases (MEDLINE, EMBASE and PsycINFO), personal libraries and government documents were searched for relevant studies examining time spent engaging in sedentary behaviours and six specific health indicators (body composition, fitness, metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular disease, self-esteem, pro-social behaviour and academic achievement). 232 studies including 983,840 participants met inclusion criteria and were included in the review. Television (TV) watching was the most common measure of sedentary behaviour and body composition was the most common outcome measure. Qualitative analysis of all studies revealed a dose-response relation between increased sedentary behaviour and unfavourable health outcomes. Watching TV for more than 2 hours per day was associated with unfavourable body composition, decreased fitness, lowered scores for self-esteem and pro-social behaviour and decreased academic achievement. Meta-analysis was completed for randomized controlled studies that aimed to reduce sedentary time and reported change in body mass index (BMI) as their primary outcome. In this regard, a meta-analysis revealed an overall significant effect of -0.81 (95% CI of -1.44 to -0.17, p = 0.01) indicating an overall decrease in mean BMI associated with the interventions. There is a large body of evidence from all study designs which suggests that decreasing any type of sedentary time is associated with lower health risk in youth aged 5-17 years. In particular, the evidence suggests that daily TV viewing in excess of 2 hours is associated with

  13. Determinants of Anemia among School-Aged Children in Mexico, the United States and Colombia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syed, Sana; Addo, O Yaw; De la Cruz-Góngora, Vanessa; Ashour, Fayrouz A Sakr; Ziegler, Thomas R; Suchdev, Parminder S

    2016-06-23

    Anemia affects approximately 25% of school-aged children (SAC-aged 5.00-14.99 years) globally. We determined in three countries the prevalence and determinants of anemia in SAC. Data on sociodemographics, inflammation and nutrition status were obtained from the 2006 Mexican National Nutrition Survey, the 2003-6 US National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys, and the 2010 Encuesta Nacional de Nutrición Situación Colombia. In the US, vitamin A and iron deficiency (ID) were available only for girls aged 12.00-14.99 years to which our analysis was limited. Associations were evaluated by country using multivariable logistic regression adjusting for confounders and complex survey design. The prevalence of anemia and ID were: Mexico 12% (ID 18%), n = 3660; US 4% (ID 10%), n = 733; and Colombia 4% (ID 9%), n = 8573. The percentage of anemia associated with ID was 22.4% in Mexico, 38.9% in the US and 16.7% in Colombia. In Mexico, anemia was associated with ID (adjusted OR: 1.5, p = 0.02) and overweight (aOR 0.4, p = 0.007). In the US, anemia was associated with black race/ethnicity (aOR: 14.1, p Colombia, anemia was associated with black race/ethnicity (aOR: 1.6, p = 0.005), lowest socio-economic status quintile (aOR: 1.8, p = 0.0005), ID (aOR: 2.7, p Mexico, Columbia, and the United States, other measured factors showed inconsistent associations with anemia. Additional data on anemia determinants in SAC are needed to guide interventions.

  14. Iris colour in relation to myopia among Chinese school-aged children.

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    Pan, Chen-Wei; Qiu, Qin-Xiao; Qian, Deng-Juan; Hu, Dan-Ning; Li, Jun; Saw, Seang-Mei; Zhong, Hua

    2018-01-01

    Understanding the association of iris colour and myopia may provide further insights into the role of the wavelength of lights in the pathophysiology of myopia. We aim to assess the association of iris colour and myopia in a school-based sample of Chinese students. Two thousand three hundred and forty-six Year 7 students from 10 middle schools (93.5% response rate) aged 13-14 years in Mojiang, a small county located in Southwestern China, participated in the study. We obtained standardised slit lamp photographs and developed a grading system assessing iris colour (higher grade denoting a darker iris). Refractive error was measured after cycloplegia using an autorefractor by optometrists or trained technicians. An IOLMaster (www.zeiss.com) was used to measure ocular biometric parameters including axial length (AL). Of all the study participants, 693 (29.5%) were affected by myopia with the prevalence estimates being higher in girls (36.8%; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 34.0, 39.6) than in boys (22.8%; 95% CI: 20.4, 25.1) (p iris colour tended to have a higher prevalence of myopia, a more myopic refraction and a longer AL. Dose-response relationships were observed in all regression models (p for trend iris colour was associated with more myopic refractive errors and longer ALs among Chinese school-aged children and this association was independent of other known myopia-related risk factors. © 2017 The Authors Ophthalmic & Physiological Optics © 2017 The College of Optometrists.

  15. Urine bisphenol-A level in relation to obesity and overweight in school-age children.

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    De-Kun Li

    Full Text Available Bisphenol-A (BPA is a potential endocrine disruptor impacting metabolic processes and increasing the risk of obesity. To determine whether urine BPA level is associated with overweight/obesity in school-age children, we examined 1,326 students in grades 4-12 from three schools (one elementary, one middle, and one high school in Shanghai. More than 98% of eligible students participated. Total urine BPA concentration was measured and anthropometric measures were taken by trained research staff. Information on risk factors for childhood obesity was collected for potential confounders. Age- and gender-specific weight greater than 90(th percentile of the underlying population was the outcome measure. After adjustment for potential confounders, a higher urine BPA level (≥2 µg/L, at the level corresponding to the median urine BPA level in the U.S. population, was associated with more than two-fold increased risk of having weight >90(th percentile among girls aged 9-12 (adjusted odds ratio (aOR = 2.32, 95% confidence interval: 1.15-4.65. The association showed a dose-response relationship with increasing urine BPA level associated with further increased risk of overweight (p = 0.006 for trend test. Other anthropometric measures of obesity showed similar results. The same association was not observed among boys. This gender difference of BPA effect was consistent with findings from experimental studies and previous epidemiological studies. Our study suggests that BPA could be a potential new environmental obesogen. Widespread exposure to BPA in the human population may also be contributing to the worldwide obesity epidemic.

  16. Sonographic biometry of liver size among Igbo school age children of South east, Nigeria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eze, Charles Ugwoke; Agwu, Kenneth Kalu; Ezeasor, Daniel Nwagbo; Aronu, Ann Ebele

    2013-01-01

    Background: The endemic diseases in the locality which are associated with changes in liver size necessitate sonographic biometry of this organ. Objectives: To establish by ultrasonography the normal limits and variations of the liver size according to age, sex, height, weight, body surface area and body mass index among school age children. Methods: This was a cross-sectional, hospital based study done at university of Nigeria medical center, Nsukka between January 2011 and June 2011. Participants included 947 apparently healthy subjects comprising 496 boys and 451 girls aged 6–17 years. The intra- and inter rater reliability of sonographic measurement of the liver size was determined. The sonographic examination was performed on Shenzhen DP-1100 machine with 3.5 MHz convex transducer. The longitudinal dimension of the liver was obtained in the midclavicular plane with the subject in deep inspiration. The weight and height of the subjects were obtained with the participants wearing light weight street clothes without shoes. Results: Measurement of liver length was reliable within and between sonographers. The mean of the liver length was 116.3 ± 10.6 mm. Dimension of the liver was not statistically different in boys and girls (p > 0.05). Height correlated best with the liver dimension followed by age, body surface area, weight, body mass index, and sex. The percentile curves, normal limits and prediction model of the liver dimension were defined according to height of the subjects. Conclusion: Determination of pathologic changes in the size of the liver necessitates knowing the normal ranges of dimension for the liver especially with respect to height in this population

  17. Understanding Taiwanese children's perceptions of peace and strategies to make peace: a social and cultural perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Liang-Yu F; Shih, Yi-Ling

    2009-12-01

    This exploratory study described Taiwanese children's perceptions of peace and what they think children can do to make peace. In-depth interviews were conducted with 60 Taiwanese children ages 4 to 18 years. The most predominant themes for the perceptions of peace were what peace is not, prosocial behaviors, positive emotions, and positive evaluations of peace. Approximately half of the children (48%) provided specific strategies for making peace. The suggested strategies generally were based on the child's immediate environment, such as "don't fight" "don't argue," and specific prosocial behaviors. 52% of children either said, "I don't know" when asked what children can do to make peace, or did not feel empowered to make peace. The initial findings were interpreted in terms of sociocultural issues, such as cultural heritage and upbringing, as well as within a political context.

  18. Automatic Pre-Attentive Auditory Responses: MMN to Tone Burst Frequency Changes in Autistic School-Age Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdeltawwab, Mohamed Moustafa; Baz, Hemmat

    2015-04-01

    Autism is a pervasive developmental disorder that includes deficits in socialization, communication, and adaptive functioning. The mismatch negativity (MMN) is a component of evoked response potentials that reflects pre-attentive change detection. The purpose of this study was to determine whether a group of autistic school-age children had abnormal changes in auditory MMN and to analyze and compare the results with an age-matched group of normal children. This prospective study was carried out on 31 autistic school-age children. Thirty age-, gender-, and IQ-matched children served as a control group. The children were evaluated through diagnostic procedures that included psychometric and speech language tests and audiological assessments. Auditory MMNs were recorded from all participants, and the peak amplitudes and latencies were measured. The mean ages were 11.3±2.8 and 11.2±3.2 years for the autistic and normal children, respectively. The MMN amplitudes obtained from the two groups were found to be statistically significantly different. The MMN amplitudes were reduced, and latencies were prolonged in autistic versus normal children. Our results suggest that children with autism do have auditory changes at the level measured by MMN, mainly pre-attentive response, which argues for a doubt on affection of the supposed origin of auditory MMN in those children.

  19. ARTICULATION CHARACTERISTICS IN CHILDREN SUFFERING FROM SLI IN EARLY SCHOOL AGE

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    Ana POPOSKA

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Getting closer to the articulation segment of SLI is important for diagnosis of children in early school age. Phonologic and articulation status of this population is specific, and acknowledging it, will secure adequate rehabilitation.The theory offers wide analysis of physiology of all speech-language aspects of the developmental period, as well as its pathology. The emphasis is put on the articulation segment in children with SLI.The goal of this study was to establish direct relation between speech-language development delay and the process of sound forming in children with SLI, and in the same time comparing it with the normal speech-language development.In this study a group of 35 children with SLI, and a group of 35 children without this problem were included.The examination was performed with four relevant tests: Global articulation test, Test for examining articulation, Articulation test for analytic estimation of phonologic and articulation disorders and Test for understanding speech.For processing data from empiric frequencies for specific categories in both tested groups, c2 test was used. In the same time, establishing correlation level between groups of different characteristics in examinees, quotient of contingency was included. Since the necessary confirmation of results correlation among different test results scored in both groups, Pearson test of correlation was also used. The results showed some important characteristics of phonologic-articulation disorders. Children suffering from SLI have approximately 20 well pronounced sounds. The biggest problem is pronunciation of sounds from fricative and affricate group, medial position of sound in a word, and the most frequent sound disorder is substitution. Detailed analysis resulted with dominant problem with the place of sound production, except in cases of sound mispronunciation of vowels and nasals.When estimating sound quality in word and sentence order, deviation of

  20. Racial Residential Segregation of School-Age Children and Adults: The Role of Schooling as a Segregating Force

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ann Owens

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Neighborhoods are critical contexts for children’s well-being, but differences in neighborhood inequality among children and adults are understudied. I document racial segregation between neighborhoods among school-age children and adults in 2000 and 2010 and find that though the racial composition of children’s and adults’ neighborhoods is similar, exposure to own-age neighbors varies. Compared with adults’ exposure to other adults, children are exposed to fewer white and more minority, particularly Hispanic, children. This is due in part to compositional differences, but children are also more unevenly sorted across neighborhoods by race than adults. One explanation for higher segregation among children is that parents consider school options when making residential choices. Consistent with this hypothesis, I find that school district boundaries account for a larger proportion of neighborhood segregation among children than among adults. Future research on spatial inequality must consider the multiple contexts differentially contributing to inequality among children and adults.

  1. Co-sleeping in school-aged children with a motor disability: a comparative population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacquier, David; Newman, Christopher John

    2017-04-01

    To determine the prevalence and determinants of co-sleeping in school-aged children with a motor disability compared with the school-aged general population. A questionnaire on demographic characteristics and co-sleeping habits, along with the Sleep Disturbance Scale for Children (SDSC), was sent to parents of children aged between 4 years and 18 years followed in our tertiary paediatric neurorehabilitation clinic, and to school-aged children in a representative sample of state schools. We analysed responses for 245 children with motor disability (142 males, 103 females; mean age 10y 6mo, standard deviation [SD] 3y 10mo, range 4-18y) and 2891 of the general population (1484 males, 1497 females; mean age [SD] 9y 6mo [3y 5mo], range 4-18y) (response rates 37% and 26% respectively). Cerebral palsy was the most common diagnosis among children with motor disability. Weekly co-sleeping was significantly more common in children with motor disability than in the general population (11.8% vs 7.9% respectively, p=0.032). Special care of the child with motor disability at night, mainly addressing epilepsy, was reported as a cause of co-sleeping by two-thirds of parents. Factors associated with co-sleeping in the motor disability group were age, housing crowding, severe visual impairment, and pathological sleep according to the SDSC. Co-sleeping is common among children with motor disability. It is influenced by personal and medical factors, as well as the requirements for special care at night. Therefore, health professionals should explore sleeping arrangements in families of children with motor disability. © 2016 Mac Keith Press.

  2. The Empowerment Of Role Of The Family In Developing Character Of Environmental Awareness In Elementary School-Age Children

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    Kadek Aria Prima Dewi PF

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This research aims to see the empowerment process of role of the family through Waste Bank media to develop character of environmental awareness in elementary school-age children. The qualitative descriptive research methodology is used. The result of this research shows that the empowerment of role of the family in developing character of environmental awareness in elementary school-age children in State Elementary School 1 Padangsambian is determined by the role of waste bank media through intervention of school to students' parents. The initial stage of intervention activity is performed with parenting activity in school with the theme of environmental awareness. Furthermore, all forms of activities or moral actions of environmental awareness are guided by Waste Bank community. The family becomes active in the environmental awareness activity and the control process is implemented together by school and Waste Bank community.

  3. Farm to School and Nutrition Education: Positively Affecting Elementary School-Aged Children's Nutrition Knowledge and Consumption Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moss, Ashley; Smith, Sylvia; Null, Dawn; Long Roth, Sara; Tragoudas, Ulrike

    2013-02-01

    Good nutrition is crucial. School-aged children battle social and health issues such as poor nutrition, childhood obesity, and minimal nutrition knowledge. This study was a quasi-experimental design analyzing the effects of the Coordinated Approach to Child Health (CATCH) nutrition curriculum with a Farm to School program to assess nutrition knowledge of 3(rd) grade students, and to increase fruit and vegetable consumption behavior. Third grade boys and girls (n=65) participated in this study. The intervention consisted of two nutrition education classes and a farm tour. Data were collected at baseline and postintervention. Surveys assessed nutrition knowledge, fruit and vegetable consumption behavior, and awareness of farms and farmers. Chi-squared tests of independence were performed to examine the relation between the baseline and postintervention responses. Significant differences were found concerning knowledge of fiber (pfarm exposure were also significant (peducation and farm tours can positively affect school-aged children's nutrition knowledge and fruit and vegetable consumption behavior.

  4. Short sleep duration is associated with poor performance on IQ measures in healthy school-age children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruber, Reut; Laviolette, Rachelle; Deluca, Paolo; Monson, Eva; Cornish, Kim; Carrier, Julie

    2010-03-01

    To examine the associations between habitual sleep duration and intellectual functioning in healthy, well-rested, school-age children. The study group consisted of 39 healthy children, aged 7-11 years old. Nightly actigraphic sleep recordings were taken for four consecutive nights to determine habitual week-night sleep duration in the home environment. Objective measures of cognitive functioning and sleepiness were used to measure daytime functioning. Longer habitual sleep duration in healthy school-age participants was associated with better performance on measures of perceptual reasoning and overall IQ, as measured by the WISC-IV, and on reported measures of competence and academic performance. No association between sleep duration and the studied behavioral measures was found. These findings support the hypothesis that sleep duration is differentially related to some components of cognitive functioning, even in the absence of evidence for sleep deprivation or attention deficits. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Children With Disability Are More at Risk of Violence Victimization: Evidence From a Study of School-Aged Chinese Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Ko Ling; Emery, Clifton R; Ip, Patrick

    2016-03-01

    Although research tends to focus on whether children with disability are more at risk of violence victimization, conclusive evidence on the association, especially in non-Western settings, is lacking. Using a large and representative sample of school-aged children in Hong Kong (N = 5,841, aged 9-18 years), this study aims to fill the research gap by providing reliable estimates of the prevalence of disability and the direct and indirect experiences of violence among children with disability. The study also compares the prevalence of child maltreatment, parental intimate partner violence (IPV), and in-law conflict to explore the factors related to the association between disability and violence victimization. The prevalence of disability among children was about 6%. Children with disability were more likely to report victimization than those without disability: 32% to 60% of the former had experienced child maltreatment, and 12% to 46% of them had witnessed IPV between parents or in-law conflict. The results of a logistic regression showed that disability increased the risk of lifetime physical maltreatment by 1.6 times. Furthermore, low levels of parental education and paternal unemployment were risk factors for lifetime child maltreatment. The risk of child maltreatment could have an almost sixfold increase when the child had also witnessed other types of family violence. Possible explanations and implications of the findings are discussed. © The Author(s) 2014.

  6. Does parental sexual orientation matter? A longitudinal follow-up of adoptive families with school-age children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farr, Rachel H

    2017-02-01

    Controversy continues to surround parenting by lesbian and gay (LG) adults and outcomes for their children. As sexual minority parents increasingly adopt children, longitudinal research about child development, parenting, and family relationships is crucial for informing such debates. In the psychological literature, family systems theory contends that children's healthy development depends upon healthy family functioning more so than family structure. From the framework of family stress theory, it was expected that longitudinal outcomes for school-age children adopted in infancy could be distinct among those with same-sex versus other-sex parents (N = 96 families). Similar findings were hypothesized in terms of parent adjustment, couple relationships, and family functioning in comparing same-sex and other-sex parent families. Results indicated that adjustment among children, parents, and couples, as well as family functioning, were not different on the basis of parental sexual orientation (lesbian, gay, or heterosexual) when children were school-age. Rather, children's behavior problems and family functioning during middle childhood were predicted by earlier child adjustment issues and parenting stress. These findings are consistent with and extend previous literature about families headed by LG parents, particularly those that have adopted children. The results have implications for advancing supportive policies, practices, and laws related to adoption and parenting by sexual minority adults. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  7. Preliminary study: Taiwanese mothers' experiences of children with sensory processing disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, En-Chi

    2013-09-01

    Different cultural backgrounds and parental experiences influence parenting styles and approaches to raising children with disabilities. Family-centered care should consider parental, especially main caregivers, experiences with their disabled children. In Taiwan, in most of homes, mothers are the main caregivers. The purpose of this study was to explore Taiwanese mothers' experiences with their children who have sensory processing disorder. This study used a qualitative ethnographic design and semistructured interview format. Transcripts were analyzed and synthesized into themes. Three mothers were interviewed. The following three themes emerged: (a) relationships within the shared worlds of disability and culture, (b) daily life challenges and expectations, and (c) opportunity to receive professional services. These Taiwanese mothers expressed that they experienced stress from being blamed for insufficient skills and from the shame of their children's disabilities that reflected lack of teacher, friend, and other family members' understanding of the cause of their children's inappropriate behaviors. Their children experienced difficulties performing daily activities, which resulted in stresses on both the mother and her child. The interviewed mothers needed to receive timely, long-term services from healthcare professionals. However, hospitals are inadequately staffed with occupational therapists, which delays care for children with special needs. Taiwanese mothers experience stresses from themselves, their child, and others. Healthcare professionals should apply a family-centered service approach to fulfill the needs of mothers and their disabled children. Moreover, healthcare professionals should promote greater awareness of sensory processing disorder symptoms and interventions to increase public awareness and acceptance of these children.

  8. School-age children's safety attitudes, cognitions, knowledge, and injury experiences: how do these relate to their safety practices?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrongiello, B A; Cusimano, M; Orr, E; Barton, B; Chipman, M; Tyberg, J; Kulkarini, A; Khanlou, N; Masi, R; Bekele, T

    2008-06-01

    A variety of factors affect the safety and risk practices of school-age children, but rarely have multiple factors been considered simultaneously. To examine children's safety attitudes and cognitions more thoroughly and assess how these factors, along with children's safety knowledge and injury experiences, relate to children's safety practices. Over several classroom sessions, boys and girls in two age groups (7-9, 10-12 years) completed a psychometrically sound questionnaire that indexes their behaviors, attitudes, cognitions, knowledge, and injury experiences. Fewer safety practices were reported by older than younger children and boys than girls. Children's attitudes, cognitions, knowledge, and injury experiences each correlated with safety practices, but only safety attitudes and injury experiences predicted practices in a multivariate model. Exploring the relative influence of numerous factors on safety practices highlights the important role that attitudes play in predicting children's safety practices. Implications of these results for injury prevention programming are discussed.

  9. Health beliefs of school-age rural children in podoconiosis-affected families: A qualitative study in Southern Ethiopia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abebayehu Tora

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Several studies have suggested investigation of health beliefs in children to be an important pre-condition for primary prevention of disease. However, little effort has been made to understand these in the context of podoconiosis. This study therefore aimed to explore the health beliefs of school-age rural children in podoconiosis-affected families.A cross sectional qualitative study was conducted in March 2016 in Wolaita Zone, Southern Ethiopia. Data were collected through in-depth individual interviews (IDIs and focus group discussions (FGDs, with a total of one hundred seventeen 9 to15-year-old children recruited from podoconiosis affected families. The study revealed various misconceptions regarding risk factors for podoconiosis. Most children believed barefoot exposure to dew, worms, snake bite, frog urine, other forms of poison, and contact with affected people to be major causes of the disease. Their knowledge about the role of heredity and that of long term barefoot exposure to irritant mineral particles was also weak. Though most participants correctly appraised their susceptibility to podoconiosis in relation to regular use of footwear and foot hygiene, others based their risk perceptions on factors they think beyond their control. They described several barriers to preventive behaviour, including uncomfortable footwear, shortage and poor adaptability of footwear for farm activities and sports, and shortage of soap for washing. Children also perceived low self-efficacy to practice preventive behaviour in spite of the barriers.Health education interventions may enhance school-age children's health literacy and be translated to preventive action. Overcoming practical challenges such as shortage of footwear and other hygiene facilities requires other forms of interventions such as livelihood strengthening activities. Linking podoconiosis-affected families with local governmental or non-governmental organizations providing socio

  10. [Effect of air pollution on respiratory health in school-aged children in the main urban area of Chongqing, China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Ming-Yue; Tang, Xu; Huang, Wei; Dai, Hua; Liu, Xing-Can; Xia, Yin-Yin; Meng, Pan; Zhang, Rui-Yuan; Guo, Yu-Ming; Cheng, Shu-Qun

    2017-04-01

    To investigate the effect of air pollution on respiratory health in school-aged children in the main urban area of Chongqing, China. The main urban area of Chongqing was divided into polluted area and clean area according to the air pollution data shown on the Environmental Protection Agency Website of Chongqing between 2010 and 2015. A cluster sampling method was used to select 695 third- or fourth-grade children from 2 primary schools in the clean or polluted area as study subjects, with 313 children from the clean area and 382 children from the polluted area. Pulmonary function was examined for all children and a standard American epidemiological questionnaire (ATS-DLD-78-C) was used to investigate the prevalence of respiratory diseases and symptoms. Compared with the clean area, the polluted area had significantly higher concentrations of inhalable particles (PM 10 ), fine particulate matter (PM 2.5 ), and nitric oxide (NO X ) (Ppolluted area had significantly higher risks of cough (OR=1.644), cough during cold (OR=1.596), expectoration during cold (OR=2.196), persistent expectoration (OR=1.802), and wheezing (OR=2.415). The boys and girls in the clean area had significantly higher forced vital capacity and forced expiratory volume in one second than those in the polluted area (PAir pollution in the main urban area of Chongqing is associated with the increased prevalence of respiratory symptoms in school-aged children and has certain effect on children's pulmonary function.

  11. Word Learning during Reading: Effects of Language Ability in School-Age Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Margaret S.; Wagovich, Stacy A.; Manfra, Louis

    2017-01-01

    Most vocabulary growth during the school-age years occurs incidentally. However, little is understood about the influence of language skills on word knowledge growth during reading. Using a pretest-posttest quasi-experimental design, we examined incidental word learning through reading, considering the presence/absence of supportive context and…

  12. Effects of Neonatal Dexamethasone Treatment on the Cardiovascular Stress Response of Children at School Age

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Karemaker, Rosa; Karemaker, John M.; Kavelaars, Annemieke; Tersteeg-Kamperman, Marijke; Baerts, Wim; Veen, Sylvia; Samsom, Jannie F.; van Bel, Frank; Heijnen, Cobi J.

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE. The goal was to investigate cardiovascular responses to a psychosocial stressor in school-aged, formerly premature boys and girls who had been treated neonatally with dexamethasone or hydrocortisone because of chronic lung disease. METHODS. We compared corticosteroid-treated, formerly

  13. Systematic review of sedentary behaviour and health indicators in school-aged children and youth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goldfield Gary

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Accumulating evidence suggests that, independent of physical activity levels, sedentary behaviours are associated with increased risk of cardio-metabolic disease, all-cause mortality, and a variety of physiological and psychological problems. Therefore, the purpose of this systematic review is to determine the relationship between sedentary behaviour and health indicators in school-aged children and youth aged 5-17 years. Online databases (MEDLINE, EMBASE and PsycINFO, personal libraries and government documents were searched for relevant studies examining time spent engaging in sedentary behaviours and six specific health indicators (body composition, fitness, metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular disease, self-esteem, pro-social behaviour and academic achievement. 232 studies including 983,840 participants met inclusion criteria and were included in the review. Television (TV watching was the most common measure of sedentary behaviour and body composition was the most common outcome measure. Qualitative analysis of all studies revealed a dose-response relation between increased sedentary behaviour and unfavourable health outcomes. Watching TV for more than 2 hours per day was associated with unfavourable body composition, decreased fitness, lowered scores for self-esteem and pro-social behaviour and decreased academic achievement. Meta-analysis was completed for randomized controlled studies that aimed to reduce sedentary time and reported change in body mass index (BMI as their primary outcome. In this regard, a meta-analysis revealed an overall significant effect of -0.81 (95% CI of -1.44 to -0.17, p = 0.01 indicating an overall decrease in mean BMI associated with the interventions. There is a large body of evidence from all study designs which suggests that decreasing any type of sedentary time is associated with lower health risk in youth aged 5-17 years. In particular, the evidence suggests that daily TV viewing in excess of 2

  14. Formative research to develop a community-based intervention for chronic disease prevention in Guatemalan school-age children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Letona, Paola; Ramirez-Zea, Manuel; Caballero, Benjamin; Gittelsohn, Joel

    2014-01-31

    Noncommunicable diseases (NCD) are the most common causes of morbidity and mortality worldwide, even in low- and middle-income countries (LMIC). Recent trends in health promotion emphasize community-based interventions as an important strategy for improving health outcomes. The aim of this study was to conduct formative research regarding the perceptions of NCD risk factors, their influencing factors, and community resources available to aid the development and implementation of a community-based intervention with school-age children. Focus group discussions (n = 18), home visits (n = 30), and individual semi-structured interviews (n = 26) were conducted in three urban communities in Guatemala with school-age children (10-12 years of age), teachers, parents, and local community members (i.e., school principals, school food kiosk vendors, religious leaders, authority representatives). All focus groups and interviews were transcribed verbatim for thematic analysis. Children, parents, and teachers have general knowledge about modifiable risk factors. Adults worried more about tobacco use, as compared to unhealthy diet and physical inactivity in children. Participants identified features at the intrapersonal (e.g., negative emotional state), interpersonal (e.g., peers as role models), and organizational and community levels (e.g., high levels of crime) that influence these risk factors in children. School committees, religious leaders, and government programs and activities were among the positive community resources identified. These findings should help researchers in Guatemala and similar LMIC to develop community-based interventions for NCD prevention in school-age children that are effective, feasible, and culturally acceptable.

  15. Prevalence of malnutrition in children under five and school-age children in Milot Valley, Haiti.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rollet, S R; Gray, E S; Previl, H; Forrester, J E

    2014-12-01

    This research aims to provide child malnutrition prevalence data from Haiti's Milot Valley to inform the design and implementation of local health interventions. This cross-sectional study measured underweight, stunting, and wasting/thinness using international growth standards. Anthropometric measurements (height/length and weight) were taken on a convenience sample of 358 children aged 0-14 years. Participants were recruited through door-to-door field visits at five recruitment sites in the Milot Valley, including individuals in the waiting area of the Pediatric Outpatient Clinic at Hôpital Sacré Coeur. Caregivers were asked questions about the child's health history, including past and current feeding practices. Combining moderate and severe forms of malnutrition, 14.8% of children under five were stunted, 15.3% were wasted, and 16.1% were underweight. Among children 5-14 years of age, 14.1% were stunted, 7.6% were thin (low body mass index (BMI)-for-age), and 14.5% were underweight. For children under five, 42% of mothers ended exclusive breastfeeding before the recommended six months. This study illustrates the local magnitude of childhood malnutrition and can serve as a resource for future child health interventions in the Milot Valley. To fight malnutrition, a multipronged, integrated approach is recommended, combining effective community outreach and monitoring, inpatient and outpatient nutrition therapy, and expanded partnerships with nutrition-related organizations in the region. Copyright © 2014 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Association between family structure, maternal education level, and maternal employment with sedentary lifestyle in primary school-age children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vázquez-Nava, Francisco; Treviño-Garcia-Manzo, Norberto; Vázquez-Rodríguez, Carlos F; Vázquez-Rodríguez, Eliza M

    2013-01-01

    To determine the association between family structure, maternal education level, and maternal employment with sedentary lifestyle in primary school-age children. Data were obtained from 897 children aged 6 to 12 years. A questionnaire was used to collect information. Body mass index (BMI) was determined using the age- and gender-specific Centers for Disease Control and Prevention definition. Children were categorized as: normal weight (5(th) percentile≤BMIeducational level, and 38.8% of the mothers worked outside of the home. The logistic regression model showed that living in a non-intact family household (adjusted OR=1.67; 95% CI=1.04-2.66) is associated with sedentary lifestyle in overweight children. In the group of normal weight children, logistic regression analysis show that living in a non-intact family, having a mother with a non-acceptable education level, and having a mother who works outside of the home were not associated with sedentary lifestyle. Living in a non-intact family, more than low maternal educational level and having a working mother, appears to be associated with sedentary lifestyle in overweight primary school-age children. Copyright © 2013 Sociedade Brasileira de Pediatria. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  17. Co-Sleeping among School-Aged Anxious and Non-Anxious Children: Associations with Sleep Variability and Timing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, Cara A; Clementi, Michelle A; Meers, Jessica M; Alfano, Candice A

    2018-01-05

    Little is known about the co-sleeping behaviors of school-aged children, particularly among anxious youth who commonly present for the treatment of sleep problems. The current study examined the occurrence of co-sleeping in both healthy and clinically anxious children and its associated sleep patterns. A total of 113 children (ages 6-12), 75 with primary generalized anxiety disorder and 38 healthy controls, participated along with their primary caregiver. Families completed structured diagnostic assessments, and parents reported on their child's co-sleeping behaviors and anxiety severity. Children provided reports of anxiety severity and completed one week of wrist-based actigraphy to assess objective sleep patterns. A significantly greater proportion of anxious youth compared to healthy children co-slept, and greater anxiety severity was related to more frequent co-sleeping. Co-sleeping in anxious youth was associated with a delay in sleep timing and with greater sleep variability (i.e., more variable nightly sleep duration). All analyses controlled for child age, race/ethnicity, family income, and parental marital status. Co-sleeping is highly common in anxious school-aged children, with more than 1 in 3 found to co-sleep at least sometimes (2-4 times a week). Co-sleeping was even more common for youth with greater anxiety severity. Increased dependence on others to initiate and maintain sleep may contribute to poorer sleep in this population via shifted schedules and more variable sleep patterns.

  18. Design Elements and Feasibility of an Organized Multiplayer Mobile Active Videogame for Primary School-Aged Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKenzie, Sophie; Bangay, Shaun; Barnett, Lisa M; Ridgers, Nicola D; Salmon, Jo

    2014-12-01

    This article describes the design, development, and implementation feasibility of a purpose-built mobile active videogame (M-AVG) named "Pirate Adventure," which was designed for primary school-aged children to engage in physical activity (PA) and fundamental movement skills (FMS), such as hopping, sidestepping, jumping, or running, in an afterschool setting. The design of "Pirate Adventure" was the result of a collaboration between games designers and health researchers. "Pirate Adventure" was designed and developed using Android(®) (Google, Mountain View, CA) phone sensors to respond to player actions within a playground environment. Using an interactive game framework, players solve clues and complete PA and FMS challenges via sensing the physical world through marked-out key game locations. Fourteen primary school-aged children participated in the feasibility evaluation, which took place in four afternoon sessions. The game was evaluated using Android phone telemetry data and a post-gameplay survey for children on their opinions and enjoyment of the game. The "Pirate Adventure" game design facilitated an enjoyable treasure hunt game (average of 11 minutes of activity per game) with narrative elements supporting children's engagement with movement activities. The majority of children (n=9/13) reported that they would like to play the game again. Combining real world and virtual world content through "Pirate Adventure" was moderately successful, with multiple gameplay sessions occurring. Further implementation feasibility testing, under more controlled conditions, needs to be conducted to assert the benefits of using a M-AVG for children's PA and FMS.

  19. The Relationship Between Sensory-Processing Disorders and Sleep Disturbances in School-Aged Autistic Children in Shiraz, 2015

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghanbari

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Background Autism is a neurological disorder that limits communication, socialization, and participation of children in symbolic play. Sensory processing disorders are common characteristics (45% to 96% of children with pervasive development disorders, including. Sleep disorders are also more prevalent in autistic children than in normal children. Objectives This study aimed to investigate the relationship between sensory processing disorders and sleep disturbances in school-aged autistic children. Patients and Methods This study is quantitative, observational, and cross-sectional. 35 school-aged autistic children in Shiraz, Iran were selected using cluster sampling. A demographic questionnaire, short sensory profile (SSP, and the sleep disturbance scale for children (SDSC were used. The Pearson correlation coefficient and Pearson chi-square were used during data analysis. Results Results shows that autistic children show clear differences from normal function (74.3%, possible differences with normal function (20%, and normal function (5.7% in their total sensory processing scores. 95.3% of autistic children had some degrees of abnormal sensory processing disorder. Also, 68.6% of the participants suffered from sleep disorders. However, there was no relationship between sensory processing disorders and sleep disturbances in children with autism (P value = 0.83. Also, there was no correlation between the subscales of sensory processing disorders and the subscales of sleep disturbances. Conclusions The results showed that despite the simultaneous high prevalence of sleep disturbances and sensory processing disorders in children with autism, there isn’t a significant relationship between the two conditions among these children.

  20. Processing of complex distracting sounds in school-aged children and adults: Evidence from EEG and MEG data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philipp eRuhnau

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available When a perceiver performs a task, rarely occurring sounds often have a distracting effect on task performance. The neural mismatch responses in event-related potentials to such distracting stimuli depend on age. Adults commonly show a negative response, whereas in children a positive as well as a negative mismatch response has been reported. Using electro- and magnetoencephalography (EEG/MEG, here we investigated the developmental changes of distraction processing in school-aged children (9–10 years and adults. Participants took part in an auditory-visual distraction paradigm comprising a visuo-spatial primary task and task-irrelevant environmental sounds distracting from this task. Behaviorally, distractors delayed reaction times in the primary task in both age groups, and this delay was of similar magnitude in both groups. The neurophysiological data revealed an early as well as a late mismatch response elicited by distracting stimuli in both age groups. Together with previous research, this indicates that deviance detection is accomplished in a hierarchical manner in the auditory system. Both mismatch responses were localized to auditory cortex areas. All mismatch responses were generally delayed in children, suggesting that not all neurophysiological aspects of deviance processing are mature in school-aged children. Furthermore, the P3a, reflecting involuntary attention capture, was present in both age groups in the EEG with comparable amplitudes and at similar latencies, but with a different topographical distribution. This suggests that involuntary attention shifts towards complex distractors operate comparably in school-aged children and adults, yet undergoing generator maturation.

  1. Questionnaire of Memory (Q-MEM): A new measure of everyday memory functioning in school-age children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geurten, Marie; Majerus, Steve; Lejeune, Caroline; Catale, Corinne

    2018-01-01

    We present a new measure of everyday memory, the Questionnaire of Memory (Q-MEM), which is specifically adapted for the ecological assessment of memory disorders in school-age children and constructed with four sections tapping effortful/intentional learning, automatic/procedural learning, prospective memory/organization, and working memory. Confirmatory Factor Analyses supported the Q-MEM's four-factor structure in 700 five-to twelve-year-old children. The analyses also revealed a good internal reliability and a good test-retest fidelity. Finally, comparisons between Q-MEM profiles of children with learning disabilities and typically developing children revealed significant differences. Therefore, the Q-MEM is a promising measure for identifying memory problems in children.

  2. Factors associated with overweight and obesity in Mexican school-age children: results from the National Nutrition Survey 1999

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hernández Bernardo

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The objective of the study was to measure the prevalence of overweight and obesity in Mexican school-age children (5-11 years in the National Nutrition Survey 1999 (NNS-1999. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Overweight and obesity (defined as an excess of adipose tissue in the body were evaluated through the Body Mass Index (BMI in 10,901 children, using the standard proposed by the International Obesity Task Force. Sociodemographic variables were obtained using a questionnaire administered to the children's mothers. RESULTS: The national prevalence of overweight and obesity was reported to be 19.5%. The highest prevalence figures were found in Mexico City (26.6% and the North region (25.6%. When adjusting by region, rural or urban area, sex, maternal schooling, socioeconomic status, indigenous ethnicity and age, the highest prevalences of overweight and obesity were found among girls. The risks of overweight and obesity were positively associated with maternal schooling, children's age and socioeconomic status. CONCLUSIONS: Overweight and obesity are prevalent health problems in Mexican school-age children, particularly among girls, and positively associated with socioeconomic status, age, and maternal schooling. This is a major public health problem requiring preventive interventions to avoid future health consequences.

  3. Factors associated with overweight and obesity in Mexican school-age children: results from the National Nutrition Survey 1999.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández, Bernardo; Cuevas-Nasu, Lucía; Shamah-Levy, Teresa; Monterrubio, Eric A; Ramírez-Silva, Claudia Ivonne; García-Feregrino, Raquel; Rivera, Juan A; Sepúlveda-Amor, Jaime

    2003-01-01

    The objective of the study was to measure the prevalence of overweight and obesity in Mexican school-age children (5-11 years) in the National Nutrition Survey 1999 (NNS-1999). Overweight and obesity (defined as an excess of adipose tissue in the body) were evaluated through the Body Mass Index (BMI) in 10,901 children, using the standard proposed by the International Obesity Task Force. Sociodemographic variables were obtained using a questionnaire administered to the children's mothers. The national prevalence of overweight and obesity was reported to be 19.5%. The highest prevalence figures were found in Mexico City (26.6%) and the North region (25.6%). When adjusting by region, rural or urban area, sex, maternal schooling, socioeconomic status, indigenous ethnicity and age, the highest prevalences of overweight and obesity were found among girls. The risks of overweight and obesity were positively associated with maternal schooling, children's age and socioeconomic status. Overweight and obesity are prevalent health problems in Mexican school-age children, particularly among girls, and positively associated with socioeconomic status, age, and maternal schooling. This is a major public health problem requiring preventive interventions to avoid future health consequences. The English version of this paper is available too at: http://www.insp.mx/salud/index.html.

  4. Determining soil-transmitted helminth infection status and physical fitness of school-aged children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yap, Peiling; Fürst, Thomas; Müller, Ivan; Kriemler, Susi; Utzinger, Jürg; Steinmann, Peter

    2012-08-22

    , they often go unnoticed, are considered a normal condition by affected individuals, or are treated as symptoms of other diseases that might be more common in a given setting. Hence, it is conceivable that the true burden of STH infections is underestimated by assessment tools relying on self-declared signs and symptoms as is usually the case in population-based surveys. In the late 1980s and early 1990s, Stephenson and colleagues highlighted the possibility of STH infections lowering the physical fitness of boys aged 6-12 years. This line of scientific inquiry gained new momentum recently. The 20-meter (m) shuttle run test was developed and validated by Léger et al. and is used worldwide to measure the aerobic fitness of children. The test is easy to standardize and can be performed wherever a 20-m long and flat running course and an audio source are available, making its use attractive in resource-constrained settings. To facilitate and standardize attempts at assessing whether STH infections have an effect on the physical fitness of school-aged children, we present methodologies that diagnose STH infections or measure physical fitness that are simple to execute and yet, provide accurate and reproducible outcomes. This will help to generate new evidence regarding the health impact of STH infections.

  5. Corporal punishment and children's externalizing problems: a cross-sectional study of Tanzanian primary school aged children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hecker, Tobias; Hermenau, Katharin; Isele, Dorothea; Elbert, Thomas

    2014-05-01

    The adverse effect of harsh corporal punishment on mental health and psychosocial functioning in children has been repeatedly suggested by studies in industrialized countries. Nevertheless, corporal punishment has remained common practice not only in many homes, but is also regularly practiced in schools, particularly in low-income countries, as a measure to maintain discipline. Proponents of corporal punishment have argued that the differences in culture and industrial development might also be reflected in a positive relationship between the use of corporal punishment and improving behavioral problems in low-income nations. In the present study we assessed the occurrence of corporal punishment at home and in school in Tanzanian primary school students. We also examined the association between corporal punishment and externalizing problems. The 409 children (52% boys) from grade 2 to 7 had a mean age of 10.49 (SD=1.89) years. Nearly all children had experienced corporal punishment at some point during their lifetime both in family and school contexts. Half of the respondents reported having experienced corporal punishment within the last year from a family member. A multiple sequential regression analysis revealed that corporal punishment by parents or by caregivers was positively related to children's externalizing problems. The present study provides evidence that Tanzanian children of primary school age are frequently exposed to extreme levels of corporal punishment, with detrimental consequences for externalizing behavior. Our findings emphasize the need to inform parents, teachers and governmental organizations, especially in low-income countries, about the adverse consequences of using corporal punishment be it at home or at school. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Television viewing and its association with health-related quality of life in school-age children from Montería, Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos M. Arango

    2014-12-01

    Conclusion: This study provides evidence of significant associations between high TV viewing time and poor HRQoL among school-age children from Monteria, Colombia, which were independent of physical activity and weight.

  7. Change of dynamics of development of a thyroid gland at children of school age of the both Gomel' and Mogilev area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sidorovich, M.V.; Loban, S.M.

    2009-01-01

    The given work estimates dynamics of development of a thyroid gland depending on age and anthopometrical parameters at children of school age. Results of work can be used in the further researches on the given subjects, for diagnostics of pathologies of a thyroid gland and their prevention, forecasting of groups of risk of diseases by a thyroid gland of children of school age and teenagers depending on development of anatomic, anthopometrical and age data. (authors)

  8. Beta-cell autoantibodies and their function in Taiwanese children with type 1 diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tung, Yi-Ching; Chen, Mei-Huei; Lee, Cheng-Ting; Tsai, Wen-Yu

    2009-11-01

    To understand the importance of autoimmunity in the development of type 1 diabetes in Taiwanese children, we evaluated the presence of beta-cell autoantibodies and their correlation with residual beta-cell function. From 1989 to 2006, 157 Taiwanese children with newly diagnosed type 1 diabetes were enrolled in this study. We determined the presence of beta-cell autoantibodies, such as glutamic acid decarboxylase autoantibodies (GADAs), insulinoma antigen 2 autoantibodies (IA-2As), and insulin autoantibodies (IAAs). A 6-minute glucagon test was also performed at diagnosis. At diagnosis, 73% of children tested positive for GADAs, 76% for IA-2As and 21% for IAAs. Ninety-two percent of them had at least one of the beta-cell autoantibodies detected. Positivity for IAAs was more frequent in patients younger than 5 years than in those older than 5 years (45% vs. 13%). Using multiple regression analysis, the presence of GADAs or IAAs, or age of onset of these patients was an independent factor for residual beta-cell function. Younger patients and those with GADAs had less residual beta-cell function at disease onset, whereas those with IAAs had more insulin reserve. Autoimmunity plays an important role in the pathogenesis of type 1 diabetes in Taiwanese children, and the presence of IAAs tends to be more common in younger children.

  9. Effectiveness of Cognitive-behavioral Program on Pain and Fear in School-aged Children Undergoing Intravenous Placement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Yi-Chuan; Cheng, Su-Fen; Tsay, Pei-Kwei; Su, Wen-Jen; Cho, Yen-Hua; Chen, Chi-Wen

    2017-12-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the effects of cognitive-behavioral program on pain and medical fear in hospitalized school-aged children receiving intravenous (IV) placement. This study used an quasi-experimental design. Thirty-five participants were assigned to the experimental group and 33 to the control group in the acute internal medicine ward of a children's hospital. The cognitive-behavioral program entailed having the patients read an educational photo book about IV placement before the procedure and having them watch their favorite music video during the procedure. The outcome measures were numeric rating scales for pain intensity and fear during the procedure. After applying the cognitive-behavioral program, the mean scores on pain and fear decreased in the experimental group. However, the difference in pain intensity between these two groups was nonsignificant. The intensity of fear in the experimental group was significantly lower than that in the control group. In this study, the cognitive-behavioral program used with school-aged hospitalized children promoted less fear during IV placement. The results of this study can serve as a reference for empirical nursing care and as care guidance for clinical IV injections involving children. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  10. Prevalence of refractive error and visual impairment among rural school-age children of Goro District, Gurage Zone, Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kedir, Jafer; Girma, Abonesh

    2014-10-01

    Refractive error is one of the major causes of blindness and visual impairment in children; but community based studies are scarce especially in rural parts of Ethiopia. So, this study aims to assess the prevalence of refractive error and its magnitude as a cause of visual impairment among school-age children of rural community. This community-based cross-sectional descriptive study was conducted from March 1 to April 30, 2009 in rural villages of Goro district of Gurage Zone, found south west of Addis Ababa, the capital of Ethiopia. A multistage cluster sampling method was used with simple random selection of representative villages in the district. Chi-Square and t-tests were used in the data analysis. A total of 570 school-age children (age 7-15) were evaluated, 54% boys and 46% girls. The prevalence of refractive error was 3.5% (myopia 2.6% and hyperopia 0.9%). Refractive error was the major cause of visual impairment accounting for 54% of all causes in the study group. No child was found wearing corrective spectacles during the study period. Refractive error was the commonest cause of visual impairment in children of the district, but no measures were taken to reduce the burden in the community. So, large scale community level screening for refractive error should be conducted and integrated with regular school eye screening programs. Effective strategies need to be devised to provide low cost corrective spectacles in the rural community.

  11. The Importance of Sleep: Attentional Problems in School-Aged Children With Down Syndrome and Williams Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashworth, Anna; Hill, Catherine M; Karmiloff-Smith, Annette; Dimitriou, Dagmara

    2015-01-01

    In typically developing (TD) children, sleep problems have been associated with day-time attentional difficulties. Children with developmental disabilities often suffer with sleep and attention problems, yet their relationship is poorly understood. The present study investigated this association in school-aged children with Down syndrome (DS) and Williams syndrome (WS). Actigraphy and pulse oximetry assessed sleep and sleep-disordered breathing respectively, and attention was tested using a novel visual Continuous Performance Task (CPT).Attentional deficits were evident in both disorder groups. In the TD group, higher scores on the CPT were related to better sleep quality, higher oxyhemoglobin saturation (SpO2), and fewer desaturation events. Sleep quality, duration, and SpO2 variables were not related to CPT performance for children with DS and WS.

  12. Persuasion in school-aged children: How does it change if the persuadee is the mother or the peer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lonigro, Antonia; Baiocco, Roberto; Baumgartner, Emma; Sette, Stefania; Laghi, Fiorenzo

    2017-02-01

    The present study was designed to verify how school-aged children's persuasive tactics changed if the persuadee was the mother or the peer. One hundred and forty-nine children at two grade levels (4th and 5th) were enrolled in the study. Persuasive strategies were investigated using pictures representing two common situations in which each child had to convince his/her playmate and his/her mother to obtain a toy. As predicted, with mothers children engaged more frequently in strategies aimed at encouraging cognitive reappraisal of the situation and offering guarantees. Conversely, with the peers, children adopted a greater variety of persuasive strategies, engaging in lower-order tactics. Implications and limitations of the study were discussed.

  13. Parent-reported Mental Health Problems and Mental Health Services Use in South Australian School-aged Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Wu

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background:Monitoring and reporting childhood mental health problems and mental health services utilization over time provide important information to identify mental health related issues and to guide early intervention. This paper aims to describe the recent prevalence of parent-reported mental health problems among South Australian (SA children; to identify mental health problems associated characteristics; and to describe mental health services utilization and its related characteristics among this population. Methods:Parent-reported mental health problems were assessed against the first item of the Strength and Difficulties Questionnaire. School-aged children were randomly sampled monthly and data were collected using a surveillance system between 2005 and 2015. Associations between mental health problems and various factors were analysed using univariable analysis and multivariable logistic regression modelling. Results:Prevalence of parent-reported mental health problems among children was 9.1% and 9.3% for children aged 5 to 11 years and children aged 12 to 15 years, respectively. No change in prevalence was observed during the past decade. Mental health problems were associated with male sex, long-term illness or pain, negative school experiences, not living with biological parents, and living in a rental dwelling. Less than half (48.7% of the children with mental health problems received professional help. An increasing trend was found in mental health services utilisation among children aged 5 to 15 years. Utilization of mental health services was associated with male sex, older age, long-term illness or pain, and feeling unhappy at school. Conclusion:This study reports the prevalence of parent-reported mental and mental health services utilisation among SA school-aged children. Identified characteristics associated with mental health problems and mental health services utilisation provide useful information for the planning of

  14. Researching health inequalities in adolescents: the development of the Health Behaviour in School-Aged Children (HBSC) family affluence scale

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Currie, Candace; Molcho, Michal; Boyce, William

    2008-01-01

    , it is unclear whether parental SES should be used as a proxy, and if so, which aspect of SES is most relevant. Methodologically, parental SES information is difficult to obtain from adolescents resulting in high levels of missing data. These issues led to the development of a new measure, the Family Affluence...... Scale (FAS), in the context of an international study on adolescent health, the Health Behaviour in School-Aged Children (HBSC) Study. The paper reviews the evolution of the measure over the past 10 years and its utility in examining and explaining health related inequalities at national and cross...

  15. Verbal strategies and nonverbal cues in school-age children with and without specific language impairment (SLI).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eichorn, Naomi; Marton, Klara; Campanelli, Luca; Scheuer, Jessica

    2014-01-01

    Considerable evidence suggests that performance across a variety of cognitive tasks is effectively supported by the use of verbal and nonverbal strategies. Studies exploring the usefulness of such strategies in children with specific language impairment (SLI) are scarce and report inconsistent findings. To examine the effects of induced labelling and auditory cues on the performance of children with and without SLI during a categorization task. Sixty-six school-age children (22 with SLI, 22 age-matched controls, 22 language-matched controls) completed three versions of a computer-based categorization task: one baseline, one requiring overt labelling and one with auditory cues (tones) on randomized trial blocks. Labelling had no effect on performance for typically developing children but resulted in lower accuracy and longer reaction time in children with SLI. The presence of tones had no effect on accuracy but resulted in faster reaction time and post-error slowing across groups. Verbal strategy use was ineffective for typically developing children and negatively affected children with SLI. All children showed faster performance and increased performance monitoring as a result of tones. Overall, effects of strategy use in children appear to vary based on task demands, strategy domain, age and language ability. Results suggest that children with SLI may benefit from auditory cues in their clinical intervention but that further research is needed to determine when and how verbal strategies might similarly support performance in this population. © 2014 Royal College of Speech and Language Therapists.

  16. Story discourse and use of mental state language between mothers and school-aged children with and without visual impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tadić, Valerija; Pring, Linda; Dale, Naomi

    2013-01-01

    Background Lack of sight compromises insight into other people’s mental states. Little is known about the role of maternal language in assisting the development of mental state language in children with visual impairment (VI). Aims To investigate mental state language strategies of mothers of school-aged children with VI and to compare these with mothers of comparable children with typically developing vision. To investigate whether the characteristics of mother–child discourse were associated with the child’s socio-communicative competence. Methods & Procedures Mother–child discourse with twelve 6–12-year-old children with VI was coded during a shared book-reading narrative and compared with 14 typically sighted children matched in age and verbal ability. Outcomes & Results Mothers of children with VI elaborated more and made significantly more references to story characters’ mental states and descriptive elaborations than mothers of sighted children. Mental state elaborations of mothers in the VI group related positively with the level produced by their children, with the association remaining after mothers’ overall verbosity and children’s developmental levels were controlled for. Frequency of maternal elaborations, including their mental state language, was related to socio-communicative competence of children with VI. Conclusions & Implications The findings offer insights into the potential contribution of maternal verbal scaffolding to mentalistic language and social–communicative competences of children with VI. PMID:24165364

  17. Development of an educational intervention to promote healthy eating and physical activity in Mexican school-age children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amaya-Castellanos, Claudia; Shamah-Levy, Teresa; Escalante-Izeta, Ericka; Morales-Ruán, María Del Carmen; Jiménez-Aguilar, Alejandra; Salazar-Coronel, Araceli; Uribe-Carvajal, Rebeca; Amaya-Castellanos, Alejandra

    2015-10-01

    Mexico has the highest and most alarming rates of childhood obesity worldwide. A study conducted in the State of Mexico revealed that one of every three children presents overweight or obesity. The objective of this paper is to provide a step-by-step description of the design and implementation of an educational intervention to promote healthy eating and physical activity called "Healthy Recess". The educational intervention was designed using the six stages of the Health Communication Process. This methodological model allowed identifying the needs of school-age children on information and participation in activities. In order to improve the strategy, adjustments were made to the print and audiovisual materials as well as to assessment tools. Typography was modified as well as the color of the images in student's workbook and facilitator's; special effects of the videos were increased; the narration of the radio spots was improved and common words and phrases were included. The Health Communication Process is an effective tool for program planners to design interventions aimed at managing prevalent health problems such as overweight and obesity in school-age children. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Long-term changes in neurocognition and behavior following treatment of sleep disordered breathing in school-aged children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biggs, Sarah N; Vlahandonis, Anna; Anderson, Vicki; Bourke, Robert; Nixon, Gillian M; Davey, Margot J; Horne, Rosemary S C

    2014-01-01

    Sleep disordered breathing (SDB) in children is associated with detrimental neurocognitive and behavioral consequences. The long term impact of treatment on these outcomes is unknown. This study examined the long-term effect of treatment of SDB on neurocognition, academic ability, and behavior in a cohort of school-aged children. Four-year longitudinal study. Children originally diagnosed with SDB and healthy non-snoring controls underwent repeat polysomnography and age-standardized neurocognitive and behavioral assessment 4y following initial testing. Melbourne Children's Sleep Centre, Melbourne, Australia. Children 12-16 years of age, originally assessed at 7-12 years, were categorized into Treated (N = 12), Untreated (N = 26), and Control (N = 18) groups. Adenotonsillectomy, Tonsillectomy, Nasal Steroids. Decision to treat was independent of this study. Changes in sleep and respiratory parameters over time were assessed. A decrease in obstructive apnea hypopnea index (OAHI) from Time 1 to Time 2 was seen in 63% and 100% of the Untreated and Treated groups, respectively. The predictive relationship between change in OAHI and standardized neurocognitive, academic, and behavioral scores over time was examined. Improvements in OAHI were predictive of improvements in Performance IQ, but not Verbal IQ or academic measures. Initial group differences in behavioral assessment on the Child Behavior Checklist did not change over time. Children with SDB at baseline continued to exhibit significantly poorer behavior than Controls at follow-up, irrespective of treatment. After four years, improvements in SDB are concomitant with improvements in some areas of neurocognition, but not academic ability or behavior in school-aged children.

  19. The development of patterns of stable, transient, and school-age onset aggressive behavior in young children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kingston, L; Prior, M

    1995-03-01

    To examine the development of patterns of aggressive behavior in children from the age of 2 to 8 years. Children with early histories of aggressive behavior were selected from a community sample of 2,400 infants participating in a longitudinal study. The sample was divided into four groups: children with stable aggressive behavior, those with transient aggression, those with aggression only after age 5 years (late onset), and a comparison group of nonaggressive children. Children with stable aggressive behavior were characterized by a difficult temperament, hostile sibling interactions, maternal perception of the child as difficult, and harsher child-rearing practices. Children whose early aggression decreased over time and those who became aggressive only after entering school could not be reliably classified with the selected family variables. Teacher ratings of temperament factors of task orientation and reactivity and ability ratings correctly classified 74% of children whose aggression began at school-age. Children with persistent aggressive behavior differed from those who improved, predominantly in terms of symptom severity. Problems with aggression can be identified early in development, and a significant proportion of aggressive children are at risk for continuing social and scholastic difficulties. Knowledge of associated factors may play an important role in prevention.

  20. Emotional prosody perception and its association with pragmatic language in school-aged children with high-function autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jia-En; Tsao, Feng-Ming

    2015-02-01

    Emotional prosody perception is essential for social communication, but it is still an open issue whether children with high-function autism (HFA) exhibit any prosodic perception deficits or experience selective impairments in recognizing the prosody of positive emotions. Moreover, the associations between prosody perception, pragmatic language, and social adaptation in children with HFA have not been fully explored. This study investigated whether emotional prosody perception for words and sentences in children with HFA (n=25, 6-11 years of age) differed from age-matched, typically developing children (TD, n=25) when presented with an emotional prosody identification task. The Children's Communication Checklist and Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scale were used to assess pragmatic and social adaption abilities. Results show that children with HFA performed poorer than TD children in identifying happy prosody in both emotionally neutral and relevant utterances. In contrast, children with HFA did not exhibit any deficits in identifying sad and angry prosody. Results of correlation analyses revealed a positive association between happy prosody identification and pragmatic function. The findings indicate that school-aged children with HFA experience difficulties in recognizing happy prosody, and that this limitation in prosody perception is associated with their pragmatic and social adaption performances. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Population-based survey of refractive error among school-aged children in rural northern China: the Heilongjiang eye study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhijian; Xu, Keke; Wu, Shubin; Lv, Jia; Jin, Di; Song, Zhen; Wang, Zhongliang; Liu, Ping

    2014-01-01

    The prevalence of refractive error in the north of China is unknown. The study aimed to estimate the prevalence and associated factors of refractive error in school-aged children in a rural area of northern China. Cross-sectional study. The cluster random sampling method was used to select the sample. A total of 1700 subjects of 5 to 18 years of age were examined. All participants underwent ophthalmic evaluation. Refraction was performed under cycloplegia. Association of refractive errors with age, sex, and education was analysed. The main outcome measure was prevalence rates of refractive error among school-aged children. Of the 1700 responders, 1675 were eligible. The prevalence of uncorrected, presenting, and best-corrected visual acuity of 20/40 or worse in the better eye was 6.3%, 3.0% and 1.2%, respectively. The prevalence of myopia was 5.0% (84/1675, 95% CI, 4.8%-5.4%) and of hyperopia was 1.6% (27/1675, 95% CI, 1.0%-2.2%). Astigmatism was evident in 2.0% of the subjects. Myopia increased with increasing age, whereas hyperopia and astigmatism were associated with younger age. Myopia, hyperopia and astigmatism were more common in females. We also found that prevalence of refractive error were associated with education. Myopia and astigmatism were more common in those with higher degrees of education. This report has provided details of the refractive status in a rural school-aged population. Although the prevalence of refractive errors is lower in the population, the unmet need for spectacle correction remains a significant challenge for refractive eye-care services. © 2013 Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Ophthalmologists.

  2. Community Knowledge, Perceptions, and Practices Associated with Urogenital Schistosomiasis among School-Aged Children in Zanzibar, United Republic of Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Person, Bobbie; Ali, Said M; A'Kadir, Faiza M; Ali, Jamal N; Mohammed, Ulfat A; Mohammed, Khalfan A; Rollinson, David; Knopp, Stefanie

    2016-07-01

    On the Zanzibar islands, United Republic of Tanzania, elimination of urogenital schistosomiasis is strived for in the coming years. This qualitative study aimed to better understand community knowledge, perceptions, and practices associated with schistosomiasis among school-aged children on Unguja and Pemba islands, in order to inform the development of behavior change interventions contributing to eliminate urogenital schistosomiasis. In 2011, we conducted 35 children's discussion groups, 41 in-depth interviews with parents and teachers, and 5 focus group discussions with community members in Zanzibar. Using a modified-grounded theory approach, we transcribed and coded the narrative data followed by thematic analysis of the emergent themes. Urogenital schistosomiasis is a common experience among children in Zanzibar and typically considered a boys' disease. Children engage in multiple high-risk behaviors for acquiring schistosomiasis because of poor knowledge on disease transmission, lack of understanding on severity of disease-associated consequences, and lack of alternative options for water related activities of daily living and recreational play. Local primary school teachers had little to no training about the disease and no teaching tools or materials for students. Conducting activities in open natural freshwater contaminated by S. haematobium larvae compromises the health of school-aged children in Zanzibar. The perception of urogenital schistosomiasis as a minor illness rather than a serious threat to a child's well-being contributes to the spread of disease. Understanding community perceptions of disease along with the barriers and facilitators to risk reduction behaviors among children can inform health promotion activities, campaigns, and programs for the prevention, control, and elimination of urogenital schistosomiasis in Zanzibar.

  3. Community Knowledge, Perceptions, and Practices Associated with Urogenital Schistosomiasis among School-Aged Children in Zanzibar, United Republic of Tanzania.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bobbie Person

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available On the Zanzibar islands, United Republic of Tanzania, elimination of urogenital schistosomiasis is strived for in the coming years. This qualitative study aimed to better understand community knowledge, perceptions, and practices associated with schistosomiasis among school-aged children on Unguja and Pemba islands, in order to inform the development of behavior change interventions contributing to eliminate urogenital schistosomiasis.In 2011, we conducted 35 children's discussion groups, 41 in-depth interviews with parents and teachers, and 5 focus group discussions with community members in Zanzibar. Using a modified-grounded theory approach, we transcribed and coded the narrative data followed by thematic analysis of the emergent themes.Urogenital schistosomiasis is a common experience among children in Zanzibar and typically considered a boys' disease. Children engage in multiple high-risk behaviors for acquiring schistosomiasis because of poor knowledge on disease transmission, lack of understanding on severity of disease-associated consequences, and lack of alternative options for water related activities of daily living and recreational play. Local primary school teachers had little to no training about the disease and no teaching tools or materials for students.Conducting activities in open natural freshwater contaminated by S. haematobium larvae compromises the health of school-aged children in Zanzibar. The perception of urogenital schistosomiasis as a minor illness rather than a serious threat to a child's well-being contributes to the spread of disease. Understanding community perceptions of disease along with the barriers and facilitators to risk reduction behaviors among children can inform health promotion activities, campaigns, and programs for the prevention, control, and elimination of urogenital schistosomiasis in Zanzibar.

  4. Perinatal Risk Factors Associated with the Obstructive Sleep Apnea Syndrome in School-Aged Children Born Preterm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tapia, Ignacio E.; Shults, Justine; Doyle, Lex W.; Nixon, Gillian M.; Cielo, Christopher M.; Traylor, Joel; Marcus, Carole L.

    2016-01-01

    Study Objectives: The obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) is more prevalent in ex-preterm children compared to the general pediatric population. However, it is unknown whether OSAS in ex-preterm children is associated with specific perinatal risk factors. This multicenter cohort study aimed to determine perinatal factors associated with OSAS at school age. Methods: 197 ex-preterm (500–1,250 g) children aged 5–12 y who participated as neonates in a double-blind, randomized clinical trial of caffeine versus placebo (Caffeine for Apnea of Prematurity) underwent comprehensive ambulatory polysomnography. A negative binomial regression model was used to identify perinatal risk factors associated with OSAS. Results: 19 children had OSAS (9.6%). Chorioamnionitis and multiple gestation were positively associated with OSAS with P values of 0.014 and 0.03, respectively. Maternal white race (P = 0.047) and maternal age (P = 0.002) were negatively associated with OSAS. Other risk factors, such as birth weight, Apgar score at 5 min, antenatal corticosteroids, delivery route, and sex were not significant. Conclusions: OSAS is very frequent, and is associated with chorioamnionitis and multiple gestation in ex-preterm children. Those born to older white mothers appear to be protected. We speculate that the former may be due to systemic inflammation and the latter to a higher socio-economic status. Commentary: A commentary on this article appears in this issue on page 721. Citation: Tapia IE, Shults J, Doyle LW, Nixon GM, Cielo CM, Traylor J, Marcus CL. Perinatal risk factors associated with the obstructive sleep apnea syndrome in school-aged children born preterm. SLEEP 2016;39(4):737–742. PMID:26446117

  5. Evaluation of a Sexual Abuse Prevention Education Program for School-Age Children in China: A Comparison of Teachers and Parents as Instructors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Y.; Chen, J.; Jiang, Y.; Yu, B.

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this present study was to evaluate the effectiveness of a child sexual abuse (CSA) prevention curriculum toward children and to compare the knowledge gains between children who were taught by teachers and their parents. Four hundred and eighty-four school-age children recruited from one primary school in Beijing, China, were randomly…

  6. Trajectories of Reading Development: A Follow-up from Birth to School Age of Children with and without Risk for Dyslexia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyytinen, Heikki; Erskine, Jane; Tolvanen, Asko; Torppa, Minna; Poikkeus, Anna-Maija; Lyytinen, Paula

    2006-01-01

    In order to understand why some children are vulnerable to difficulties in their language development and their acquisition of reading skill, the Jyvaskyla Longitudinal Study of Dyslexia followed 200 Finnish children from birth to school age. Half of these children had a family history of reading problems and were considered at risk for dyslexia;…

  7. Parenting Behavior at 2 Years Predicts School-age Performance at 7 Years in Very Preterm Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treyvaud, Karli; Doyle, Lex W.; Lee, Katherine J.; Ure, Alexandra; Inder, Terrie E.; Hunt, Rod W.; Anderson, Peter J.

    2016-01-01

    Parenting influences child development, but it is unclear whether early parenting behavior can influence school-age outcomes in very preterm (VPT) children, and/or if certain groups of VPT children may be more affected by early parenting behavior. These research questions were examined. Participants were 147 children born <30 weeks' gestation…

  8. Relationship between SPECT regional cerebral blood flow imaging and cognitive function in school-age children with epilepsy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Jiangyan; Chen Xuehong; Wang Zhengjiang; Hu Jingui; Feng Jianzhong; Li Yimin; Lu Xiujuan

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To explore the feature of SPECT regional cerebral blood flow(rCBF) imaging, the cognitive functions and the relationship between them in school-age children with primary epilepsy. Methods: 99 Tc m -ethylene cysteinate dimer (ECD) brain imaging was performed on 32 school-age children with primary generalized tonic and (or) clonic seizures(GTCS). Cognitive functions were also evaluated in all patients and normal children. Relationship between cognitive function and rCBF was compared. Results: (1) Thirty of 32 (93.8%) patients were abnormal on SPECT imaging. Fifty areas of 29 cases showed decreased rCBF, the percentage of decreased rCBF was (21.07 ± 7.09)%; 2 areas of 1 case showed increased rCBF, the percentage of increased rCBF was (32.22 ± 4.31)%. 92.3% of the epileptic foci were located in frontal, temporal, parietal and occipital cortexes. (2) Verbal intelligence quotient (VIQ), performance intelligence quotient (PIQ) and full-scale intelligence quotient (FIQ) of children with epilepsy were significantly lower than those of the controls, and there were some cognitive skewnesses in children with epilepsy (VIQ >PIQ). (3)There was negative correlation between the number of foci and VIQ, PIQ, FIQ, the correlation coefficients were -0.543 (P=0.002), -0.469 (P=0.009), -0.578 (P=0.001); there was negative correlation between the extent of foci and VIQ, PIQ, FIQ, the correlation coefficients were -0.560 (P=0.003), -0.142 (P=0.016), -0.582 (P=0.001); there was no significant correlation between all the IQ of cognitive test and the percentage of changed rCBF. Conclusions: SPECT rCBF imaging may be useful for the localization of epileptic focus. Some of school-age children with epilepsy have impairment of the cognitive function, its magnitude is negative correlated with the number and extent of epileptic foci. (authors)

  9. Early nutrition transition in Haiti: linking food purchasing and availability to overweight status in school-aged children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morshed, Alexandra B; Becker, Haley V; Delnatus, Jacques Raymond; Wolff, Patricia B; Iannotti, Lora L

    2016-12-01

    The primary aim was to examine the association of socio-economic factors and diet with overweight (including obesity) among school-aged children in Haiti. The secondary aim was to describe food availability and the physical activity built environment in participating schools. This cross-sectional study examined baseline data from the intervention Mamba study assessing the effectiveness of a fortified peanut butter paste in school-aged children. Logistic regression modelling was used to test hypothesized factors in association with overweight status. Six primary schools in Cap-Haitien, the second largest city in Haiti. Children (n 968) aged 3-13 years, in good health and enrolled in a participating school for the 2012/13 school year. Child age (adjusted OR (AOR); 95 % CI=0·25; 0·12, 0·56), child age squared (1·08; 1·03, 1·13), always purchasing food at school (3·52; 1·12, 11·08), mother's BMI (1·10; 1·04, 1·16) and household ownership of a bicycle (0·28; 0·11, 0·71) were significantly associated with overweight (likelihood ratio=36, Poverweight children in the binary analysis (P=0·033) and improved the fit of the model. Schools had limited time and space for physical activity and foods sold by vendors were predominantly high in sugar or fat. To our knowledge the present study is the first to examine the covariates of childhood overweight or describe school food availability and physical activity built environments in Haiti. Further research is necessary to identify intervention targets and feasible, cost-effective approaches for prevention of obesity in Haiti children.

  10. Impact of interactive teaching on the efficient realization of objectives for children in early school age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arbona Xhemajli

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Innovation of the practice of teaching through interactive models, new roles of teacher and student, and preference of the activity of the student in the learning process, are found in the basis of changes that is taking place in education in Kosovo. We are talking about actions that aim to improve the quality, durability and applicability of the knowledge that students acquire in school. So today, in all cycles of education, new teaching models are applied that determine the student as an active subject in the teaching process. Interactive teaching is recommended and implemented with significant uplift, because it is becoming a need of modern education, and part of the needs of teachers and students. The extent and quality of mastering the knowledge in a large extent depends on the way work is organized in class and therefore interactive teaching is a key factor to improve the efficiency and quality of learning. Interactive teaching influences a higher level of motivation in the classroom by developing the cooperation between the students and activates the responsibility of the students. They learn about the harmonization of positions, collective action, tolerance and modern communication using different sources of knowledge. In this paper we define the terms of interaction and interactive teaching and actualize a number of other issues related to interactive teaching in the early school age. Also, this paper presents only a part of the authentic results of the two studies combined, one of the results obtained by means of questionnaires given to teachers from nine schools in Kosovo and from the results of interviews conducted with professionists as a focus group. Results from the survey show that interactive learning methods are extensively covered by the school age. They are already very popular in professional environments or communities of teachers since practice proved their effectiveness.

  11. Gender atypical behavior in Chinese school-aged children: its prevalence and relation to sex, age, and only child status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Lu; Winter, Sam

    2011-07-01

    This study had three purposes: (a) to compare the prevalence of boys' and girls' gender-atypical behaviors (GABs) in a sample of Chinese school-aged children, (b) to examine the developmental pattern of GABs in Chinese boys and girls over the age range in question (6-12 years), and (c) to test the effects of being an only child on children's GAB expression. Parents of 486 boys and 417 girls completed a Child Play Behavior and Activity Questionnaire (CPBAQ) in regard to their own children, and a demographic information sheet. The frequency distribution for each gender-related behavior was calculated. The associations between sex, age, and only-child status, and CPBAQ scale scores were examined. Although most GABs (by their very nature) were exhibited infrequently in Chinese children, it was found that girls displayed GABs more frequently than boys did. The prevalence of GABs rose for girls as they grew older, but fell slightly for boys. The expressions of GABs in only children did not differ from that in children with siblings. Possible effects of Chinese culture (including the current only-child policy) on children's GABs are discussed.

  12. Comparing Mental Health of School-Age Children of Parents With/Without Bipolar Disorders: A Case Control Study

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    Shamsaei

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Background Children of parents with bipolar disorder appear to have an increased risk of early-onset Bipolar Disorder (BP, mood disorders and other psychiatric disorders. Objectives The aim of this study was to compare the mental health of school-age children of parents, with/without bipolar disorder. Materials and Methods This case-control study included one hundred children aged six to twelve years, who had parents with bipolar disorder and 200 children of 163 demographically-matched control parents. Parents with bipolar disorder were recruited from Farshchian Psychiatric Hospital of Hamadan, Iran, during year 2014. The parent version of the Child Symptom Inventory-4 questionnaire was used to measure mental health. Mean comparisons were performed using Student’s t test while effect sizes were estimated by Cohen’s d coefficient. The Chi-square test was used to assess significant differences between frequency distribution of demographic variables in both groups. The significance level was considered less than 0.05. Results There were statistically significant differences between children of parents with and those without bipolar disorder regarding attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, oppositional defiant disorder, conduct, generalized anxiety disorder, schizophrenia, major depression, separation anxiety (P< 0.001 and social phobia (P < 0.05. Children of parents with BP are at high risk for psychiatric disorders. Conclusions These findings support that the careful evaluation and prospective following of the psychopathology of children of parents with bipolar disorder are critical for early identification and treatment.

  13. [Evaluation of nutritional status of school-age children after implementation of "Nutrition Improvement Program" in rural area in Hunan, China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Zhu-Juan; Mao, Guang-Xu; Wang, Yu-Jun; Liu, Li; Chen, Yan

    2016-09-01

    To investigate the nutritional status of school-age children in rural area in Hunan, China from 2012 to 2015 and to evaluate the effectiveness of the "Nutrition Improvement Program for Compulsory Education Students in Rural Area" (hereinafter referred to as "Nutrition Improvement Program"). The nutritional status of school-age children aged 6-14 years was evaluated after the implementation of the "Nutrition Improvement Program" and the changing trend of the children's nutritional status was analyzed. The statistical analysis was performed on the monitoring data of the school-age children aged 6-14 years in rural area in Hunan, China from 2012 to 2015, which came from "The Nutrition and Health Status Monitoring and Evaluation System of Nutrition Improvement Program for Compulsory Education Students in Rural Area". In 2015, female students aged 6-7 years in rural area in Hunan, China had a significantly greater body length than the rural average in China (PNutrition Improvement Program", the prevalence rate of growth retardation decreased (PNutrition Improvement Program" has achieved some success, but the nutritional status of school-age children has not improved significantly. Overweight/obesity and malnutrition are still present. Therefore, to promote the nutritional status of school-age children it is recommended to improve the measures for the "Nutrition Improvement Program".

  14. The relation between maternal work hours and cognitive outcomes of young school-aged children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Künn-Nelen, A.C.; de Grip, A.; Fouarge, D.

    2013-01-01

    This paper is the first that analyzes the relation between maternal work hours and the cognitive outcomes of young school-going children. When children attend school, the potential time working mothers miss out with their children, is smaller than when children do not yet attend school. At the same

  15. Psychological Impact of Virtual Reality Gaming on the Formation of Self-Image in Early School-Age Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pakhomova V.G.,

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The article investigates the problem of interaction between a modern primary school-aged child and the field of virtual reality gaming and, in particular, the impact of virtual reality on the formation of self-image. Our study enabled us to explore the differences in the self-image in active and non-active players of roleplaying video games. The outcomes proved that there are certain changes in the self-image of active players related to their self-identification with characters of computer games according to their individual psychological features, whereas for children who engage in non-role-playing games such identification is not common. It was found that non-active children players generally have positive selfacceptance and do not suffer from feelings of anxiety and abandonment; active players, on the opposite, often demonstrate inadequate self-esteem, anxiety and a tendency to self-actualise in virtual reality gaming.

  16. Seroprevalence and sociocultural conditionants of Chagas disease in school aged children of marginal zones of Asunción

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vera Ninfa I.

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Chagas disease is becoming a public health problem in Latin America due to the wide distribution, the high prevalence, the magnitude of the damage caused and the difficulties to control it. In Paraguay, the disease is mainly distributed in the departments of Paraguari, Cordillera and Central. Prevalence in marginal zones, where migrations from rural populations and endemic areas make possible the urbanization of the disease, has no been studied yet. This is a descriptive study with a cross-sectional sampling and a probabilistic system recruitment carried out in school aged children from marginal zones of Asuncion to determine the prevalence of Chagas' disease. Serological methods, parasite isolation and questionnaires were used to achieve the goals. Nine hundred and fifty three children were studied to determine the prevalence of Chagas' disease in marginal zones which was 1.4%.

  17. The Preschool-Aged and School-Aged Children Present Different Odds of Mortality than Adults in Southern Taiwan: A Cross-Sectional Retrospective Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Shu-Hui; Huang, Chun-Ying; Hsu, Shiun-Yuan; Yang, Li-Hui; Hsieh, Ching-Hua

    2018-04-25

    Background : This study aimed to profile the epidemiology of injury among preschool-aged and school-aged children in comparison to those in adults. Methods : According to the Trauma Registry System of a level I trauma center, the medical data were retrieved from 938 preschool-aged children (aged less than seven years), 670 school-aged children (aged 7⁻12 years), and 16,800 adults (aged 20⁻64 years) between 1 January 2009 and 31 December 2016. Two-sided Pearson’s, chi-squared, and Fisher’s exact tests were used to compare categorical data. A one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) with the Games-Howell post-hoc test was used to assess the differences in continuous variables among different groups of patients. The mortality outcomes of different subgroups were assessed by a multivariable regression model under the adjustment of sex, injury mechanisms, and injury severity. Results : InFsupppjury mechanisms in preschool-aged and school-aged children were remarkably different from that in adults; in preschool-aged children, burns were the most common cause of injury requiring hospitalization (37.4%), followed by falls (35.1%) and being struck by/against objects (11.6%). In school-aged children, injuries were most commonly sustained from falls (47.8%), followed by bicycle accidents (14%) and being struck by/against objects (12.5%). Compared to adults, there was no significant difference of the adjusted mortality of the preschool-aged children (AOR = 0.9; 95% CI 0.38⁻2.12; p = 0.792) but there were lower adjusted odds of mortality of the school-aged children (AOR = 0.4; 95% CI 0.10⁻0.85; p = 0.039). The school-aged children had lower odds of mortality than adults (OR, 0.2; 95% CI, 0.06⁻0.74; p = 0.012), but such lower odds of risk of mortality were not found in preschool-aged children (OR, 0.7; 95% CI, 0.29⁻1.81; p = 0.646). Conclusions : This study suggests that specific types of injuries from different injury mechanisms are predominant among preschool

  18. DYNAMICS OF THE COMPELEX FORMS OF VISUAL PERCEPTION IN CHILDREN OF PRE-SCHOOL AGE (A NEUROPSYCHOLOGICAL ANALYSIS

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    Neli VASILEVA

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Experimental data in preschool aged children proves the determining role of the auditory and visual processes for future reading skills, therefore the investigation of complex forms of visual perception in this age period is diagnostically important. Objectives: Basic aim of the research is assessment of the sensitive period for the non-verbal perceptive operations in pre-school aged children, and determination of subgroup with low results for non-verbal perception. Methods: The dynamics of the visual per-ception (visual gnosis in typically develop¬ing children were tested with an adapted version of the Poppelreuter-Ghent Test for figure-ground segregation. The total number of overlapping objects is 33, grouped accor¬ding to the level of difficulty. The children are given a group of objects separately in a following sequence and they should segregate and name the objects. Results: A number of 365 typically developing children without diagnosis of visual disorders and without corrected visus took part in the research. All children, aged 4, 5, and 6 from three different settlements attend state nursery schools and have Bulgarian as a mother tongue. A three-factor dispersion analysis was held to define the statistical significance of the independent factors age, gender and settlement. The research’s data define the 5 year olds as sensitive about the dynamics of the complex forms of visual perception, compared to the four year old children (pchildren (pchildren from the big town compared to the capital (pchildren at the age of six demonstrate a low rating

  19. The associations of objectively measured physical activity and sedentary time with cognitive functions in school-aged children.

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    Heidi J Syväoja

    Full Text Available Low levels of physical activity among children have raised concerns over the effects of a physically inactive lifestyle, not only on physical health but also on cognitive prerequisites of learning. This study examined how objectively measured and self-reported physical activity and sedentary behavior are associated with cognitive functions in school-aged children. The study population consisted of 224 children from five schools in the Jyväskylä school district in Finland (mean age 12.2 years; 56% girls, who participated in the study in the spring of 2011. Physical activity and sedentary time were measured objectively for seven consecutive days using the ActiGraph GT1M/GT3X accelerometer. Self-reported moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA and screen time were evaluated with the questions used in the "WHO Health Behavior in School-aged Children" study. Cognitive functions including visual memory, executive functions and attention were evaluated with a computerized Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery by using five different tests. Structural equation modeling was applied to examine how objectively measured and self-reported MVPA and sedentary behavior were associated with cognitive functions. High levels of objectively measured MVPA were associated with good performance in the reaction time test. High levels of objectively measured sedentary time were associated with good performance in the sustained attention test. Objectively measured MVPA and sedentary time were not associated with other measures of cognitive functions. High amount of self-reported computer/video game play was associated with weaker performance in working memory test, whereas high amount of computer use was associated with weaker performance in test measuring shifting and flexibility of attention. Self-reported physical activity and total screen time were not associated with any measures of cognitive functions. The results of the present study propose

  20. Prevalence of Eye Diseases and Causes of Visual Impairment in School-Aged Children in Western China

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    Pi, Lian-Hong; Chen, Lin; Liu, Qin; Ke, Ning; Fang, Jing; Zhang, Shu; Xiao, Jun; Ye, Wei-Jiang; Xiong, Yan; Shi, Hui; Zhou, Xi-Yuan; Yin, Zheng-Qin

    2012-01-01

    Background The present study investigated the prevalence of refractive error, visual impairment, and eye diseases in school-aged children in western China. Methods The survey was done in a representative county (Yongchuan District, Chongqing Municipality) of western China. Cluster random sampling was used to select children aged 6 to 15 years. We conducted door-to-door surveys and eye examinations including optometry, stereoscopic vision test, eye position and eye movement, slit lamp examination of the anterior segment, retinoscopy, and fundus examination after cycloplegia with 1% cyclopentolate. Results Among 3469 children, data were available for 3079 (88.76%). The prevalences of eye diseases were, in descending order, refractive error (20.69%; 637/3079), conjunctivitis (11.76%; 362/3079), amblyopia (1.88%; 58/3079), color vision defect (0.52%; 16/3079), keratitis (0.36%; 11/3079), strabismus (0.29%; 9/3079), cataract (0.23%; 7/3079), pathologic myopia (0.19%; 6/3079), and ocular trauma (0.13%; 4/3079). The prevalence of corneal leucoma, corneal staphyloma, optic neuropathy, macular degeneration, and myelinated nerve fibers was 0.03% (1/3079) for each. The prevalence of visual impairment was 7.70% (237/3079), and the major causes of visual impairment were uncorrected refractive error (86.08%; 204/237), amblyopia (9.70%; 23/237), pathologic myopia (1.27%; 3/237), congenital cataract (0.42%; 1/237), and others (2.11%; 5/237). Conclusions Among school-aged children in a less developed area of western China, refractive error was the most prevalent eye disorder, and uncorrected refractive error was the main cause of visual impairment. PMID:22123227

  1. Association of major dietary patterns with socioeconomic factors among rural school-aged children in Bijar, 2014

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    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: The identification of major dietary patterns using factor analysis can provide information about health status of children by obtaining an overall picture of the person's diet. The aim of this study was to determine major dietary patterns and to identify socioeconomic factors affecting them in school age children in rural areas of Bijar, Iran. Materials and Methods: In this cross sectional study, 255 rural school age children living rural areas of Bijar were selected by simple random sampling. Dietary intakes during the past year and assessment of socioeconomic information were examined. Dietary patterns were determined using factor analysis and their relation to socioeconomic factors was investigated. Results: Three major dietary patterns," traditional", "modern" and "mixed", were identified. After adjusting for age, sex, ethnic and energy intake, Age of mother (b= 0.03, CI=0.00_0.05 was positively associated and age of father (b= -0.03, CI=-0.05_-0.01, laboring Job for father (b= -0.24, CI=-0.44_-0.03 and higher education of parents (b= -0.20, CI=-0.35_-0.05 were negatively associated with traditional dietary pattern. In addition, higher education of parents (b= 0.27, CI=0.11_0.44 was positively associated and age of mother (b= -0.03, CI=-0.06_0.00 was negatively associated with mixed dietary pattern. Conclusion: Some socio-economic variables such as maternal age, parental education, parental occupation and economic conditions can have effect on major dietary patterns among rural children.

  2. Prevalence of eye diseases and causes of visual impairment in school-aged children in Western China.

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    Pi, Lian-Hong; Chen, Lin; Liu, Qin; Ke, Ning; Fang, Jing; Zhang, Shu; Xiao, Jun; Ye, Wei-Jiang; Xiong, Yan; Shi, Hui; Zhou, Xi-Yuan; Yin, Zheng-Qin

    2012-01-01

    The present study investigated the prevalence of refractive error, visual impairment, and eye diseases in school-aged children in western China. The survey was done in a representative county (Yongchuan District, Chongqing Municipality) of western China. Cluster random sampling was used to select children aged 6 to 15 years. We conducted door-to-door surveys and eye examinations including optometry, stereoscopic vision test, eye position and eye movement, slit lamp examination of the anterior segment, retinoscopy, and fundus examination after cycloplegia with 1% cyclopentolate. Among 3469 children, data were available for 3079 (88.76%). The prevalences of eye diseases were, in descending order, refractive error (20.69%; 637/3079), conjunctivitis (11.76%; 362/3079), amblyopia (1.88%; 58/3079), color vision defect (0.52%; 16/3079), keratitis (0.36%; 11/3079), strabismus (0.29%; 9/3079), cataract (0.23%; 7/3079), pathologic myopia (0.19%; 6/3079), and ocular trauma (0.13%; 4/3079). The prevalence of corneal leucoma, corneal staphyloma, optic neuropathy, macular degeneration, and myelinated nerve fibers was 0.03% (1/3079) for each. The prevalence of visual impairment was 7.70% (237/3079), and the major causes of visual impairment were uncorrected refractive error (86.08%; 204/237), amblyopia (9.70%; 23/237), pathologic myopia (1.27%; 3/237), congenital cataract (0.42%; 1/237), and others (2.11%; 5/237). Among school-aged children in a less developed area of western China, refractive error was the most prevalent eye disorder, and uncorrected refractive error was the main cause of visual impairment.

  3. A survey of rate of victimization and attitudes towards physical violence among school-aged children in Turkey.

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    Deveci, S E; Acik, Y; Ayar, A

    2008-01-01

    Violence of any type is a serious issue in the lives of many children from all racial, cultural and economic backgrounds, and is a topic of enormous societal concern in any society. The purpose of this study was to examine the rate of exposure to violence as victims, and attitudes towards physical violence among school-aged children in eastern Turkey. All the basic education schools in Elazig, a typical eastern Anatolian city, were included. A total of 3725 fifth and sixth graders were asked to answer survey questions about the rate of physical violence exposure in their everyday lives and whether they thought the violence was an 'acceptable' behaviour. The mean age of participants was 12.8 years with 46.8% boys and 53.2% girls, and their socio-economic status ranged from low-income to upper middle class. Seventy-four per cent of school-aged children reported exposure to at least one case of physical violence in their lives, and 43.4% reported experiencing physical violence within previous 12 months. Higher rates of exposure to physical violence were reported by boys than girls (P = 0.0001). Of the victims, 33.8% regarded physical violence as an acceptable or inevitable way of solution or responding to life events. Results from the self-report of the receiving end of violent behaviours indicate that physical violent victimization is at an alarmingly high rate among children of eastern Turkey, and a significant per cent of these victims approves violence as a way of solution.

  4. Dietary Fluoride Intake and Associated Skeletal and Dental Fluorosis in School Age Children in Rural Ethiopian Rift Valley.

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    Kebede, Aweke; Retta, Negussie; Abuye, Cherinet; Whiting, Susan J; Kassaw, Melkitu; Zeru, Tesfaye; Tessema, Masresha; Kjellevold, Marian

    2016-07-26

    An observational study was conducted to determine dietary fluoride intake, diet, and prevalence of dental and skeletal fluorosis of school age children in three fluorosis endemic districts of the Ethiopian Rift Valley having similar concentrations of fluoride (F) in drinking water (~5 mg F/L). The duplicate plate method was used to collect foods consumed by children over 24 h from 20 households in each community (n = 60) and the foods, along with water and beverages, were analyzed for fluoride (F) content. Prevalence of dental and skeletal fluorosis was determined using presence of clinical symptoms in children (n = 220). Daily dietary fluoride intake was at or above tolerable upper intake level (UL) of 10 mg F/day and the dietary sources (water, prepared food and beverages) all contributed to the daily fluoride burden. Urinary fluoride in children from Fentale and Adamitulu was almost twice (>5 mg/L) the concentration found in urine from children from Alaba, where rain water harvesting was most common. Severe and moderate dental fluorosis was found in Alaba and Adamitulu, the highest severity and prevalence being in the latter district where staple foods were lowest in calcium. Children in all three areas showed evidence of both skeletal and non-skeletal fluorosis. Our data support the hypothesis that intake of calcium rich foods in addition to using rain water for household consumption and preparation of food, may help in reducing risk of fluorosis in Ethiopia, but prospective studies are needed.

  5. Dietary Fluoride Intake and Associated Skeletal and Dental Fluorosis in School Age Children in Rural Ethiopian Rift Valley

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    Aweke Kebede

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available An observational study was conducted to determine dietary fluoride intake, diet, and prevalence of dental and skeletal fluorosis of school age children in three fluorosis endemic districts of the Ethiopian Rift Valley having similar concentrations of fluoride (F in drinking water (~5 mg F/L. The duplicate plate method was used to collect foods consumed by children over 24 h from 20 households in each community (n = 60 and the foods, along with water and beverages, were analyzed for fluoride (F content. Prevalence of dental and skeletal fluorosis was determined using presence of clinical symptoms in children (n = 220. Daily dietary fluoride intake was at or above tolerable upper intake level (UL of 10 mg F/day and the dietary sources (water, prepared food and beverages all contributed to the daily fluoride burden. Urinary fluoride in children from Fentale and Adamitulu was almost twice (>5 mg/L the concentration found in urine from children from Alaba, where rain water harvesting was most common. Severe and moderate dental fluorosis was found in Alaba and Adamitulu, the highest severity and prevalence being in the latter district where staple foods were lowest in calcium. Children in all three areas showed evidence of both skeletal and non-skeletal fluorosis. Our data support the hypothesis that intake of calcium rich foods in addition to using rain water for household consumption and preparation of food, may help in reducing risk of fluorosis in Ethiopia, but prospective studies are needed.

  6. Productive extension of semantic memory in school-aged children: Relations with reading comprehension and deployment of cognitive resources.

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    Bauer, Patricia J; Blue, Shala N; Xu, Aoxiang; Esposito, Alena G

    2016-07-01

    We investigated 7- to 10-year-old children's productive extension of semantic memory through self-generation of new factual knowledge derived through integration of separate yet related facts learned through instruction or through reading. In Experiment 1, an experimenter read the to-be-integrated facts. Children successfully learned and integrated the information and used it to further extend their semantic knowledge, as evidenced by high levels of correct responses in open-ended and forced-choice testing. In Experiment 2, on half of the trials, the to-be-integrated facts were read by an experimenter (as in Experiment 1) and on half of the trials, children read the facts themselves. Self-generation performance was high in both conditions (experimenter- and self-read); in both conditions, self-generation of new semantic knowledge was related to an independent measure of children's reading comprehension. In Experiment 3, the way children deployed cognitive resources during reading was predictive of their subsequent recall of newly learned information derived through integration. These findings indicate self-generation of new semantic knowledge through integration in school-age children as well as relations between this productive means of extension of semantic memory and cognitive processes engaged during reading. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  7. The late positive potential predicts emotion regulation strategy use in school-aged children concurrently and two years later.

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    Babkirk, Sarah; Rios, Victor; Dennis, Tracy A

    2015-09-01

    The ability to use cognitive emotion regulation strategies such as reappraisal may be a core component of emotional competence across development, but due to methodological challenges in measuring such strategies, they are rarely studied in young children. One neurophysiological measure, the late positive potential (LPP), has been examined in response to reappraisal as a potential neurosignature for emotion regulatory capacity in adults. The association between the LPP and emotion regulatory capacity in children is unknown. The present study examined whether the LPP during reappraisal could predict greater observed adaptive emotion regulation strategy use in school-aged children over a two-year period. Thirty-two 5- to 7-year-olds participated in two identical lab visits spaced two years apart. EEG was continuously recorded during a computerized reappraisal task in which children viewed unpleasant images paired with either reappraisal or negative stories. Next they completed a disappointing and a frustrating task during which emotion regulation strategies were observed. As predicted, children who showed reappraisal-induced reductions in the LPP at the first assessment used significantly more adaptive ER strategies concurrently and two years later. These findings provide observation-based evidence that the LPP may be a viable neurosignature for emotion regulatory capacity in children. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Relationship between physical activity and physical fitness in school-aged children with developmental language disorders

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    van der Niet, Anneke G.; Hartman, Esther; Moolenaar, Ben J.; Smith, Joanne; Visscher, Chris

    2014-01-01

    Children with developmental language disorders (DLD) often experience difficulty in understanding and engaging in interactive behavior with other children, which may lead to reduced daily physical activity and fitness levels. The present study evaluated the physical activity and physical fitness

  9. Attention and Written Expression in School-Aged, High-Functioning Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders

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    Zajic, Matthew C.; McIntyre, Nancy; Swain-Lerro, Lindsay; Novotny, Stephanie; Oswald, Tasha; Mundy, Peter

    2016-01-01

    High-functioning children with autism spectrum disorders often find writing challenging. These writing difficulties may be specific to autism spectrum disorder or to a more general clinical effect of attention disturbance, as these children are often comorbid for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptomatology (and children with…

  10. Unintentional Injury Risk in School-Age Children: Examining Interrelations between Parent and Child Factors

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    Wells, Melissa; Morrongiello, Barbara A.; Kane, Alexa

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Research on children's risk of injury reveals that parent and child factors are often interrelated. This study examined relations between children's risk taking, parent appraisal of this risk taking, and children's rate of injury in youth 8 and 9 years old. Methods: Responses to questionnaires and laboratory tasks were used to examine…

  11. The Home Literacy Environment of School-Aged Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders

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    Lucas, Rebecca; Norbury, Courtenay Frazier

    2018-01-01

    For typically developing (TD) children, the home literacy environment (HLE) impacts reading competence, yet few studies have explored the HLE of children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). We collected information about the HLE of children aged 7-13 with ASD and their TD peers via a parental questionnaire and examined whether there were any…

  12. Gender differences in tactile defensiveness in school-aged children with ADHD and their siblings

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    Bröring, T.; Rommelse, N.N.J.; Sergeant, J.A.; Scherder, E.J.A.

    2007-01-01

    Tactile defensiveness (TD) is a disturbance in sensory processing and is observed in some children with attention-deficit-hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). TD has been examined in male children with ADHD and in children with ADHD without differentiating by sex. As males and females with ADHD may differ

  13. Parental Perspectives on Alcohol Use among School-Aged Children in Ghana

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    Obeng, Cecilia

    2011-01-01

    Research on alcohol misuse and abuse indicates that it can cause many personal health and family problems. This study investigated whether Ghanaian parents would reward their children with alcohol if they sent the children to buy alcoholic drinks and whether they would favor legislation banning children from using alcohol. Also addressed in this…

  14. Are Language and Social Communication Intact in Children with Congenital Visual Impairment at School Age?

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    Tadic, Valerie; Pring, Linda; Dale, Naomi

    2010-01-01

    Background: Development of children with congenital visual impairment (VI) has been associated with vulnerable socio-communicative outcomes often bearing striking similarities to those of sighted children with autism. To date, very little is known about language and social communication in children with VI of normal intelligence. Methods: We…

  15. Reliability and Validity of the TGMD-2 in Primary-School-Age Children with Visual Impairments

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    Houwen, Suzanne; Hartman, Esther; Jonker, Laura; Visscher, Chris

    2010-01-01

    This study examines the psychometric properties of the Test of Gross Motor Development-2 (TGMD-2) in children with visual impairments (VI). Seventy-five children aged between 6 and 12 years with VI completed the TGMD-2 and the Movement Assessment Battery for Children (Movement ABC). The internal consistency of the TGMD-2 was found to be high…

  16. Early Family System Types Predict Children's Emotional Attention Biases at School Age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindblom, Jallu; Peltola, Mikko J.; Vänskä, Mervi; Hietanen, Jari K.; Laakso, Anu; Tiitinen, Aila; Tulppala, Maija; Punamäki, Raija-Leena

    2017-01-01

    The family environment shapes children's social information processing and emotion regulation. Yet, the long-term effects of early family systems have rarely been studied. This study investigated how family system types predict children's attentional biases toward facial expressions at the age of 10 years. The participants were 79 children from…

  17. The Effect of Remote Masking on the Reception of Speech by Young School-Age Children

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    Youngdahl, Carla L.; Healy, Eric W.; Yoho, Sarah E.; Apoux, Frédéric; Holt, Rachael Frush

    2018-01-01

    Purpose: Psychoacoustic data indicate that infants and children are less likely than adults to focus on a spectral region containing an anticipated signal and are more susceptible to remote masking of a signal. These detection tasks suggest that infants and children, unlike adults, do not listen selectively. However, less is known about children's…

  18. Development of non-verbal intellectual capacity in school-age children with cerebral palsy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smits, D. W.; Ketelaar, M.; Gorter, J. W.; van Schie, P. E.; Becher, J. G.; Lindeman, E.; Jongmans, M. J.

    Background Children with cerebral palsy (CP) are at greater risk for a limited intellectual development than typically developing children. Little information is available which children with CP are most at risk. This study aimed to describe the development of non-verbal intellectual capacity of

  19. Obesity increases metabolic syndrome risk factors in school-aged children from an urban school in Mexico city.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perichart-Perera, Otilia; Balas-Nakash, Margie; Schiffman-Selechnik, Esther; Barbato-Dosal, Annarella; Vadillo-Ortega, Felipe

    2007-01-01

    To characterize the nutritional status of school-aged children from an urban public school in Mexico City, Mexico, and to assess the influence of obesity on health status in a subgroup of these children. Cross-sectional descriptive study. A nutrition screening was done for all children, including anthropometric (ie, weight, height, and waist circumference) and blood pressure assessment. In the subgroup of children, complementary dietary and biochemical assessment (ie, glucose, total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, triglyceride, insulin, albumin, hemoglobin, and hematocrit levels) was done. Children from an urban school in Mexico City (N=561) aged 6 to 13 years. The representative subgroup (n=88) was selected based on age (9 to 12 years) and weight status (ie, normal, overweight, or obese). Descriptive statistics, correlations, mean differences tests (analysis of variance, Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney U), and chi(2) tests (categorical variables) were done with SPSS version 13 (2005, SPSS Inc, Chicago, IL). In the whole school, overweight and obesity prevalence were 27.1% and 21.4%, respectively. High systolic blood pressure was seen in 8.4% of children and 6.2% of children had prehypertension. Higher hypertension risk was seen in children with body mass index > or =95th percentile and waist circumference > or =90th percentile (88 cm). Significantly higher waist circumference, systolic blood pressure, insulin resistance indexes, and triglyceride levels were found among the obese when compared with normal-weight children. Childhood obesity prevalence is high in Mexico and it is having an influence on children's health. It is urgent to design, implement, and evaluate specific childhood obesity prevention programs.

  20. Internalizing behaviours in school-age children born very preterm are predicted by neonatal pain and morphine exposure.

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    Ranger, M; Synnes, A R; Vinall, J; Grunau, R E

    2014-07-01

    Greater neonatal pain is associated with higher internalizing behaviours in very preterm infants at 18 months corrected age, but it is unknown whether this relationship persists to school age. Moreover, it is unclear whether morphine ameliorates or exacerbates the potential influence of neonatal pain/stress on internalizing behaviours. We examined whether neonatal pain-related stress is associated with internalizing behaviours at age 7 years in children born very preterm, and whether morphine affects this relationship. One hundred one children born very preterm (≤32 weeks gestation) were seen at mean age 7.7 years. A parent completed the Parenting Stress Index and Child Behavior Checklist questionnaires. Neonatal pain-related stress (the number of skin-breaking procedures adjusted for clinical factors associated with prematurity) was examined in relation to internalizing behaviour, separately in subjects mechanically ventilated and exposed to both pain and morphine (n = 57) and those never mechanically ventilated, exposed to pain but not morphine (n = 44). In the non-ventilated group, higher skin-breaking procedures (p = 0.037) and parenting stress (p = 0.004) were related to greater internalizing behaviours. In the ventilated group, greater morphine exposure (p = 0.004) was associated with higher child internalizing scores. In very preterm children who undergo mechanical ventilation, judicious use of morphine is important, since morphine may mitigate the negative effects of neonatal pain on nociception but adversely affect internalizing behaviours at school age. Management of procedural pain needs to be addressed in very preterm infants in the neonatal intensive care unit, to prevent long-term effects on child behaviour. © 2013 European Pain Federation - EFIC®