Sample records for taim hydrological system

  1. Võimsad taimed / Rachel Hartigan Shea

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Hartigan Shea, Rachel


    Füüsik Eleni Stavrinidou töörühm pani lõigatud roosi varreotsa lahjendatud polümeerlahusesse, moodustades ksüleemis elektrijuhi. Selline tehnoloogia võimaldaks toota andureid, mis suudavad analüüsida ja muuta taime füsioloogiat raku tasandil, toota fotosünteesiga elektrit

  2. Checklist comparison and dominance patterns of the fish fauna at Taim Wetland, South Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre M. Garcia

    Full Text Available Taim Hydrological System is a unique subtropical wetland in southern Brazil harboring an exceptional biological diversity. In 1978, an ecological reserve was established to protect part of this area from increasing anthropogenic impacts in its surroundings. Fishes have been poorly investigated in this system. Based on a multi-gear sampling study encompassing several years (2001-2005, and on comparisons with previous fish inventories, we provide an up-to-date species list of fishes occurring in the Taim Wetland. In addition, we made the first preliminary description of fish dominance patterns found in the main lakes of the system (Flores, Nicola, Jacaré and Mangueira. Checklist comparison resulted in 62 fish species distributed in 24 families, with Characidae (19 species and Cichlidae (7 showing the highest species richness. Six species are cited for the first time in the reserve: Trachelyopterus lucenai (Auchenipteridae, Hoplosternum littorale (Callichthyidae, Rineloricaria cadeae (Loricariidae, Eigenmannia trilineata (Sternopygidae, Odontesthes mirinensis and O. perugiae (Atherinopsidae. Apparently, the black catfish T. lucenai invaded the system in the last decade and became one of the dominant species in the pelagic waters. Although differences in gears hindered direct comparisons, differences in species composition and dominance patterns between shallow margins and pelagic waters of lakes seem to occur in the lakes. A more diverse assemblage dominated by small fishes ( 15 cm seemed to dominate in pelagic waters.

  3. Stochastic Modelling of Hydrologic Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jonsdottir, Harpa


    In this PhD project several stochastic modelling methods are studied and applied on various subjects in hydrology. The research was prepared at Informatics and Mathematical Modelling at the Technical University of Denmark. The thesis is divided into two parts. The first part contains...... an introduction and an overview of the papers published. Then an introduction to basic concepts in hydrology along with a description of hydrological data is given. Finally an introduction to stochastic modelling is given. The second part contains the research papers. In the research papers the stochastic methods...... are described, as at the time of publication these methods represent new contribution to hydrology. The second part also contains additional description of software used and a brief introduction to stiff systems. The system in one of the papers is stiff....

  4. Feeding habits of capybaras (Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris, Linnaeus 1766, in the Ecological Reserve of Taim (ESEC - Taim - south of Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucélia do Valle Borges


    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine feeding habitats of capybaras in the ESEC-Taim (RS, Brazil, using microhistological analyses of feces. Data were analyzed seasonally. In 172 samples analyzed, 17 species were identified, with predominance of Poaceae. Zizaniopsis bonariensis was the most frequent species in winter (38%, spring (32% and summer (26.5% and Paspalum disthichum in fall (31.5%. A observed increase in vegetation consumption during summer might be due to the food quality. Capybaras showed an opportunistic behavior in the winter and summer and a more selective behavior in spring and fall. Capybaras from the ESEC-Taim varied diet according to the season and alimentary availability.O principal objetivo deste estudo foi determinar os hábitos alimentares das capivaras na ESEC-Taim baseado na análise microhistologica de suas fezes. Os dados foram analisados sazonalmente. Em 172 amostras analisadas, foram identificadas 17 espécies, com predominância de Poaceae. Zizaniopsis bonariensis foi a espécie mais freqüente no inverno (38%, primavera (32% e verão (26,5% e Paspalum disthichum no outono (31,5%. O aumento no consumo da vegetação durante o verão pode ser explicado devido à qualidade da vegetação. As capivaras mostram um comportamento de oportunismo nas estações de inverno e verão e um comportamento mais seletivo na primavera e outono. Concluindo, as capivaras da ESEC-Taim variam sua dieta de acordo com a estação e a disponibilidade de comida.

  5. Data Access System for Hydrology (United States)

    Whitenack, T.; Zaslavsky, I.; Valentine, D.; Djokic, D.


    As part of the CUAHSI HIS (Consortium of Universities for the Advancement of Hydrologic Science, Inc., Hydrologic Information System), the CUAHSI HIS team has developed Data Access System for Hydrology or DASH. DASH is based on commercial off the shelf technology, which has been developed in conjunction with a commercial partner, ESRI. DASH is a web-based user interface, developed in ASP.NET developed using ESRI ArcGIS Server 9.2 that represents a mapping, querying and data retrieval interface over observation and GIS databases, and web services. This is the front end application for the CUAHSI Hydrologic Information System Server. The HIS Server is a software stack that organizes observation databases, geographic data layers, data importing and management tools, and online user interfaces such as the DASH application, into a flexible multi- tier application for serving both national-level and locally-maintained observation data. The user interface of the DASH web application allows online users to query observation networks by location and attributes, selecting stations in a user-specified area where a particular variable was measured during a given time interval. Once one or more stations and variables are selected, the user can retrieve and download the observation data for further off-line analysis. The DASH application is highly configurable. The mapping interface can be configured to display map services from multiple sources in multiple formats, including ArcGIS Server, ArcIMS, and WMS. The observation network data is configured in an XML file where you specify the network's web service location and its corresponding map layer. Upon initial deployment, two national level observation networks (USGS NWIS daily values and USGS NWIS Instantaneous values) are already pre-configured. There is also an optional login page which can be used to restrict access as well as providing a alternative to immediate downloads. For large request, users would be notified via

  6. Sharing Hydrologic Data with the CUAHSI Hydrologic Information System (Invited) (United States)

    Tarboton, D. G.; Maidment, D. R.; Zaslavsky, I.; Horsburgh, J. S.; Whiteaker, T.; Piasecki, M.; Goodall, J. L.; Valentine, D. W.; Whitenack, T.


    The CUAHSI Hydrologic Information System (HIS) is an internet based system to support the sharing of hydrologic data consisting of databases connected using the internet through web services as well as software for data discovery, access and publication. The HIS is founded upon an information model for observations at stationary points that supports its data services. A data model, the CUAHSI Observations Data Model (ODM), provides community defined semantics needed to allow sharing information from diverse data sources. A defined set of CUAHSI HIS web services allows for the development of data services, which scale from centralized data services which support access to National Datasets such as the USGS National Water Information System (NWIS) and EPA Storage and Retrieval System (STORET), in a standard way; to distributed data services which allow users to establish their own server and publish their data. User data services are registered to a central HIS website, and they become searchable and accessible through the centralized discovery and data access tools. HIS utilizes both an XML and relational database schema for transmission and storage of data respectively. WaterML is the XML schema used for data transmission that underlies the machine to machine communications, while the ODM is implemented as relational database model for persistent data storage. Web services support access to hydrologic data stored in ODM and communicate using WaterML directly from applications software such as Excel, MATLAB and ArcGIS that have Simple Object Access Protocol (SOAP) capability. A significant value of web services derives from the capability to use them from within a user’s preferred analysis environment, using community defined semantics, rather than requiring a user to learn new software. This allows a user to work with data from national and academic sources, almost as though it was on their local disk. Users wishing to share or publish their data through CUAHSI

  7. Infrastructure to Support Hydrologic Research: Information Systems (United States)

    Lall, U.; Duffy, C j


    Hydrologic Sciences are inherently interdisciplinary. Consequently, a myriad state variables are of interest to hydrologists. Hydrologic processes transcend many spatial and temporal scales, and their measurements reflect a variety of scales of support. The global water cycle is continuously modified by human activity through changes in land use, alteration of rivers, irrigation and groundwater pumping and through a modification of atmospheric composition. Since water is a solvent and a medium of transport, the water cycle fundamentally influences other material and energy cycles. This metaphor extends to the function that a hydrologic research information system needs to provide, to facilitate discovery in earth systems science, and to improve our capability to manage resources and hazards in a sustainable manner. At present, we have a variety of sources that provide data useful for hydrologic analyses, that range from massive remote sensed data sets, to sparsely sampled historical and paleo data. Consequently, the first objective of the Hydrologic Information Systems (HIS) group is to design a data services system that makes these data accessible in a uniform and useful way for specific, prioritized research goals. The design will include protocols for archiving and disseminating data from the Long Term Hydrologic Observatories (LTHOs), and comprehensive modeling experiments. Hydrology has a rich tradition of mathematical and statistical modeling of processes. However, given limited data and access to it, and a narrow focus that has not exploited connections to climatic and ecologic processes (among others), there have been only a few forays into diagnostic analyses of hydrologic fields, to identify and evaluate spatial and process teleconnections and an appropriate reduced space for modeling and understanding systems. The HIS initiative consequently proposes an investment in research and the provision of toolboxes to facilitate such analyses using the data

  8. Visualizing complex (hydrological) systems with correlation matrices (United States)

    Haas, J. C.


    When trying to understand or visualize the connections of different aspects of a complex system, this often requires deeper understanding to start with, or - in the case of geo data - complicated GIS software. To our knowledge, correlation matrices have rarely been used in hydrology (e.g. Stoll et al., 2011; van Loon and Laaha, 2015), yet they do provide an interesting option for data visualization and analysis. We present a simple, python based way - using a river catchment as an example - to visualize correlations and similarities in an easy and colorful way. We apply existing and easy to use python packages from various disciplines not necessarily linked to the Earth sciences and can thus quickly show how different aquifers work or react, and identify outliers, enabling this system to also be used for quality control of large datasets. Going beyond earlier work, we add a temporal and spatial element, enabling us to visualize how a system reacts to local phenomena such as for example a river, or changes over time, by visualizing the passing of time in an animated movie. References: van Loon, A.F., Laaha, G.: Hydrological drought severity explained by climate and catchment characteristics, Journal of Hydrology 526, 3-14, 2015, Drought processes, modeling, and mitigation Stoll, S., Hendricks Franssen, H. J., Barthel, R., Kinzelbach, W.: What can we learn from long-term groundwater data to improve climate change impact studies?, Hydrology and Earth System Sciences 15(12), 3861-3875, 2011

  9. An integrated crop and hydrologic modeling system to estimate hydrologic impacts of crop irrigation demands (United States)

    R.T. McNider; C. Handyside; K. Doty; W.L. Ellenburg; J.F. Cruise; J.R. Christy; D. Moss; V. Sharda; G. Hoogenboom; Peter Caldwell


    The present paper discusses a coupled gridded crop modeling and hydrologic modeling system that can examine the benefits of irrigation and costs of irrigation and the coincident impact of the irrigation water withdrawals on surface water hydrology. The system is applied to the Southeastern U.S. The system tools to be discussed include a gridded version (GriDSSAT) of...

  10. Susquehanna River Basin Hydrologic Observing System (SRBHOS) (United States)

    Reed, P. M.; Duffy, C. J.; Dressler, K. A.


    In response to the NSF-CUAHSI initiative for a national network of Hydrologic Observatories, we propose to initiate the Susquehanna River Basin Hydrologic Observing System (SRBHOS), as the northeast node. The Susquehanna has a drainage area of 71, 410 km2. From the headwaters near Cooperstown, NY, the river is formed within the glaciated Appalachian Plateau physiographic province, crossing the Valley and Ridge, then the Piedmont, before finishing its' 444 mile journey in the Coastal Plain of the Chesapeake Bay. The Susquehanna is the major source of water and nutrients to the Chesapeake. It has a rich history in resource development (logging, mining, coal, agriculture, urban and heavy industry), with an unusual resilience to environmental degradation, which continues today. The shallow Susquehanna is one of the most flood-ravaged rivers in the US with a decadal regularity of major damage from hurricane floods and rain-on-snow events. As a result of this history, it has an enormous infrastructure for climate, surface water and groundwater monitoring already in place, including the nations only regional groundwater monitoring system for drought detection. Thirty-six research institutions have formed the SRBHOS partnership to collaborate on a basin-wide network design for a new scientific observing system. Researchers at the partner universities have conducted major NSF research projects within the basin, setting the stage and showing the need for a new terrestrial hydrologic observing system. The ultimate goal of SRBHOS is to close water, energy and solute budgets from the boundary layer to the water table, extending across plot, hillslope, watershed, and river basin scales. SRBHOS is organized around an existing network of testbeds (legacy watershed sites) run by the partner universities, and research institutions. The design of the observing system, when complete, will address fundamental science questions within major physiographic regions of the basin. A nested

  11. Grey Box Modelling of Hydrological Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thordarson, Fannar Ørn

    of two papers where the stochastic differential equation based model is used for sewer runoff from a drainage system. A simple model is used to describe a complex rainfall-runoff process in a catchment, but the stochastic part of the system is formulated to include the increasing uncertainty when...... rainwater flows through the system, as well as describe the lower limit of the uncertainty when the flow approaches zero. The first paper demonstrates in detail the grey box model and all related transformations required to obtain a feasible model for the sewer runoff. In the last paper this model is used......The main topic of the thesis is grey box modelling of hydrologic systems, as well as formulation and assessment of their embedded uncertainties. Grey box model is a combination of a white box model, a physically-based model that is traditionally formulated using deterministic ordinary differential...

  12. Hydrological Monitoring System Design and Implementation Based on IOT (United States)

    Han, Kun; Zhang, Dacheng; Bo, Jingyi; Zhang, Zhiguang

    In this article, an embedded system development platform based on GSM communication is proposed. Through its application in hydrology monitoring management, the author makes discussion about communication reliability and lightning protection, suggests detail solutions, and also analyzes design and realization of upper computer software. Finally, communication program is given. Hydrology monitoring system from wireless communication network is a typical practical application of embedded system, which has realized intelligence, modernization, high-efficiency and networking of hydrology monitoring management.

  13. Hydrology (United States)

    Sharp, John M.


    Lists many recent research projects in hydrology, including flow in fractured media, improvements in remote-sensing techniques, effects of urbanization on water resources, and developments in drainage basins. (MLH)

  14. Hydrology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Obando G, E.


    Isotopical techniques are used in hydrology area for exploration, evaluation and exploration of water investigation. These techniques have been used successfully and are often the best or only means for providing certain hydrogeological parameters

  15. Hydrology (United States)

    Brutsaert, Wilfried


    Water in its different forms has always been a source of wonder, curiosity and practical concern for humans everywhere. Hydrology - An Introduction presents a coherent introduction to the fundamental principles of hydrology, based on the course that Wilfried Brutsaert has taught at Cornell University for the last thirty years. Hydrologic phenomena are dealt with at spatial and temporal scales at which they occur in nature. The physics and mathematics necessary to describe these phenomena are introduced and developed, and readers will require a working knowledge of calculus and basic fluid mechanics. The book will be invaluable as a textbook for entry-level courses in hydrology directed at advanced seniors and graduate students in physical science and engineering. In addition, the book will be more broadly of interest to professional scientists and engineers in hydrology, environmental science, meteorology, agronomy, geology, climatology, oceanology, glaciology and other earth sciences. Emphasis on fundamentals Clarification of the underlying physical processes Applications of fluid mechanics in the natural environment

  16. [Gene method for inconsistent hydrological frequency calculation. 2: Diagnosis system of hydrological genes and method of hydrological moment genes with inconsistent characters]. (United States)

    Xie, Ping; Zhao, Jiang Yan; Wu, Zi Yi; Sang, Yan Fang; Chen, Jie; Li, Bin Bin; Gu, Hai Ting


    The analysis of inconsistent hydrological series is one of the major problems that should be solved for engineering hydrological calculation in changing environment. In this study, the diffe-rences of non-consistency and non-stationarity were analyzed from the perspective of composition of hydrological series. The inconsistent hydrological phenomena were generalized into hydrological processes with inheritance, variability and evolution characteristics or regulations. Furthermore, the hydrological genes were identified following the theory of biological genes, while their inheritance bases and variability bases were determined based on composition of hydrological series under diffe-rent time scales. To identify and test the components of hydrological genes, we constructed a diagnosis system of hydrological genes. With the P-3 distribution as an example, we described the process of construction and expression of the moment genes to illustrate the inheritance, variability and evolution principles of hydrological genes. With the annual minimum 1-month runoff series of Yunjinghong station in Lancangjiang River basin as an example, we verified the feasibility and practicability of hydrological gene theory for the calculation of inconsistent hydrological frequency. The results showed that the method could be used to reveal the evolution of inconsistent hydrological series. Therefore, it provided a new research pathway for engineering hydrological calculation in changing environment and an essential reference for the assessment of water security.

  17. Hydrologi

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burcharth, Hans F.

    Hydro1ogi er den videnskab, der omhand1er jordens vand, dets forekomst, cirku1ation og forde1ing, dets kemiske og fysiske egenskaber samt indvirkning på omgivelserne, herunder dets relation ti1 alt liv på jorden. Således lyder en b1andt mange definitioner på begrebet hydrologi, og som man kan se...

  18. From engineering hydrology to Earth system science: milestones in the transformation of hydrologic science

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Sivapalan


    Full Text Available Hydrology has undergone almost transformative changes over the past 50 years. Huge strides have been made in the transition from early empirical approaches to rigorous approaches based on the fluid mechanics of water movement on and below the land surface. However, progress has been hampered by problems posed by the presence of heterogeneity, including subsurface heterogeneity present at all scales. The inability to measure or map the heterogeneity everywhere prevented the development of balance equations and associated closure relations at the scales of interest, and has led to the virtual impasse we are presently in, in terms of development of physically based models needed for hydrologic predictions. An alternative to the mapping of heterogeneity everywhere is a new Earth system science view, which sees the heterogeneity as the end result of co-evolutionary hydrological, geomorphological, ecological, and pedological processes, each operating at a different rate, which help to shape the landscapes that we find in nature, including the heterogeneity that we do not readily see. The expectation is that instead of specifying exact details of the heterogeneity in our models, we can replace it (without loss of information with the ecosystem function that they perform. Guided by this new Earth system science perspective, development of hydrologic science is now addressing new questions using novel holistic co-evolutionary approaches as opposed to the physical, fluid mechanics based reductionist approaches that we inherited from the recent past. In the emergent Anthropocene, the co-evolutionary view has expanded further to involve interactions and feedbacks with human-social processes as well. In this paper, I present my own perspective of key milestones in the transformation of hydrologic science from engineering hydrology to Earth system science, drawn from the work of several students and colleagues of mine, and discuss their implication for

  19. From engineering hydrology to Earth system science: milestones in the transformation of hydrologic science (United States)

    Sivapalan, Murugesu


    Hydrology has undergone almost transformative changes over the past 50 years. Huge strides have been made in the transition from early empirical approaches to rigorous approaches based on the fluid mechanics of water movement on and below the land surface. However, progress has been hampered by problems posed by the presence of heterogeneity, including subsurface heterogeneity present at all scales. The inability to measure or map the heterogeneity everywhere prevented the development of balance equations and associated closure relations at the scales of interest, and has led to the virtual impasse we are presently in, in terms of development of physically based models needed for hydrologic predictions. An alternative to the mapping of heterogeneity everywhere is a new Earth system science view, which sees the heterogeneity as the end result of co-evolutionary hydrological, geomorphological, ecological, and pedological processes, each operating at a different rate, which help to shape the landscapes that we find in nature, including the heterogeneity that we do not readily see. The expectation is that instead of specifying exact details of the heterogeneity in our models, we can replace it (without loss of information) with the ecosystem function that they perform. Guided by this new Earth system science perspective, development of hydrologic science is now addressing new questions using novel holistic co-evolutionary approaches as opposed to the physical, fluid mechanics based reductionist approaches that we inherited from the recent past. In the emergent Anthropocene, the co-evolutionary view has expanded further to involve interactions and feedbacks with human-social processes as well. In this paper, I present my own perspective of key milestones in the transformation of hydrologic science from engineering hydrology to Earth system science, drawn from the work of several students and colleagues of mine, and discuss their implication for hydrologic observations

  20. Hydrological system dynamics of glaciated Karnali River Basin Nepal Himalaya using J2000 Hydrological model (United States)

    Khatiwada, K. R.; Nepal, S.; Panthi, J., Sr.; Shrestha, M.


    Hydrological modelling plays an important role in understanding hydrological processes of a catchment. In the context of climate change, the understanding of hydrological characteristic of the catchment is very vital to understand how the climate change will affect the hydrological regime. This research facilitates in better understanding of the hydrological system dynamics of a himalayan mountainous catchment in western Nepal. The Karnali River, longest river flowing inside Nepal, is one of the three major basins of Nepal, having the area of 45269 sq. km. is unique. The basin has steep topography and high mountains to the northern side. The 40% of the basin is dominated by forest land while other land cover are: grass land, bare rocky land etc. About 2% of the areas in basin is covered by permanent glacier apart from that about 12% of basin has the snow and ice cover. There are 34 meteorological stations distributed across the basin. A process oriented distributed J2000 hydrologial model has been applied to understand the hydrological system dynamics. The model application provides distributed output of various hydrological components. The J2000 model applies Hydrological Response Unit (HRU) as a modelling entity. With 6861 HRU and 1010 reaches, the model was calibrated (1981-1999) and validated (2000-2004) at a daily scale using split-sample test. The model is able to capture the overall hydrological dynamics well. The rising limbs and recession limbs are simulated equally and with satisfactory ground water conditions. Based on the graphical and statistical evaluation of the model performance the model is able to simulate hydrological processes fairly well. Calibration shows that Nash Sutcliffe efficiency is 0.91, coefficient of determination is 0.92 Initial observation shows that during the pre-monsoon season(March to May) the glacial runoff is 25% of the total discharge while in the monsoon(June to September) season it is only 13%. The surface runoff

  1. Systems approach to tracer data in groundwater hydrology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saxena, R.K.


    A brief review of current mathematical methods for the analysis of tracer data in groundwater hydrology has been given. The description of the hydrological cycle as a whole or in part, by a system (compartment) or sub-system under linear and stationary conditions is discussed. Basic concepts of transit time, residence time, their distributions in time and response characteristics of a system are outlined. From the knowledge of tracer input, output and systems response function for a generalised system, reservoir capacity and storage for given period can be estimated. Use of a time series model for environmental tracer data in discreet time scale aimed at the solution of hydrological problems e.g. mean transit time and reservoir capacity is also explored. It is concluded that the combination of tracer data with systems approach can go a long way in the study of some complex hydrological problems. (author)

  2. Water System Adaptation To Hydrological Changes: Module 9, Water System Resilience and Security under Hydrologic Variability and Uncertainty (United States)

    This course will introduce students to the fundamental principles of water system adaptation to hydrological changes, with emphasis on data analysis and interpretation, technical planning, and computational modeling. Starting with real-world scenarios and adaptation needs, the co...

  3. Modeling the Hydrologic Processes of a Permeable Pavement System (United States)

    A permeable pavement system can capture stormwater to reduce runoff volume and flow rate, improve onsite groundwater recharge, and enhance pollutant controls within the site. A new unit process model for evaluating the hydrologic performance of a permeable pavement system has be...

  4. A system of automated processing of deep water hydrological information (United States)

    Romantsov, V. A.; Dyubkin, I. A.; Klyukbin, L. N.


    An automated system for primary and scientific analysis of deep water hydrological information is presented. Primary processing of the data in this system is carried out on a drifting station, which also calculates the parameters of vertical stability of the sea layers, as well as their depths and altitudes. Methods of processing the raw data are described.

  5. Optimizing Multireservoir System Operating Policies Using Exogenous Hydrologic Variables (United States)

    Pina, Jasson; Tilmant, Amaury; Côté, Pascal


    Stochastic dual dynamic programming (SDDP) is one of the few available algorithms to optimize the operating policies of large-scale hydropower systems. This paper presents a variant, called SDDPX, in which exogenous hydrologic variables, such as snow water equivalent and/or sea surface temperature, are included in the state space vector together with the traditional (endogenous) variables, i.e., past inflows. A reoptimization procedure is also proposed in which SDDPX-derived benefit-to-go functions are employed within a simulation carried out over the historical record of both the endogenous and exogenous hydrologic variables. In SDDPX, release policies are now a function of storages, past inflows, and relevant exogenous variables that potentially capture more complex hydrological processes than those found in traditional SDDP formulations. To illustrate the potential gain associated with the use of exogenous variables when operating a multireservoir system, the 3,137 MW hydropower system of Rio Tinto (RT) located in the Saguenay-Lac-St-Jean River Basin in Quebec (Canada) is used as a case study. The performance of the system is assessed for various combinations of hydrologic state variables, ranging from the simple lag-one autoregressive model to more complex formulations involving past inflows, snow water equivalent, and winter precipitation.

  6. Meteorological systems for hydrological applications; Meteorologische Systeme fuer hydrologische Anwendungen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    The development of hydrology with its many practical applications in water management has led to a great demand for hydrometeorological data, variables derived from meteorological measurements, and models. The report shows the many fields in which meteorological data are required in hydrology and water management. Measuring networks and methods are described and critically assessed, including remote measurement by radar and satellite. For the hydrologist, the most important variables to be derived are the regional precipitation and evaporation, each with the error source and size. Other factors of interest are the snowbreak, the expected maximum precipitation (rain), the statistical derivation of strong rain, and regionalisation methods for all variables derived. These methods are presented. The possibilities of meteorology, especially (WMO) in the field of data transmission systems are assessed. (orig./KW) [Deutsch] Die Entwicklung der Hydrologie mit ihren zahlreichen wasserwirtschaftlichen Anwendungen hat zu einem grossen Bedarf an hydrometeorologischen Daten, aus meteorologischen Messungen abgeleiteten Groessen und auch an Modellen gefuehrt. Wo ueberall sich ein Bedarf an meteorologischen Daten in Hydrologie und Wasserwirtschaft eingestellt hat, ist in diesem Bericht zusammengefasst. Es werden die verschiedenen Messnetze und Messverfahren beschrieben und kritisch beurteilt, auch die Radar- und Satellitenfernerkundung gehoeren dazu. Fuer den Hydrologen zaehlt zu den wichtigsten abgeleiteten Groessen der Gebietsniederschlag und die Gebietsverdunstung, jeweils mit Angabe von Fehlerquelle und Fehlerschwankung. Von Interesse sind auch die Schneeschmelze, der vermutlich maximale Niederschlag (Regen), die statistische Ableitung von Starkregen und Regionalisierungsmethoden aller abgeleiteten Groessen. Diese Verfahren werden vorgestellt. Die quantitative Niederschlagsvorhersage wird wegen ihrer Bedeutung fuer die operationellen hydrologischen Vorhersagen eingehend

  7. Water System Adaptation to Hydrological Changes: Module 10, Basic Principles of Incorporating Adaptation Science into Hydrologic Planning and Design (United States)

    This course will introduce students to the fundamental principles of water system adaptation to hydrological changes, with emphasis on data analysis and interpretation, technical planning, and computational modeling. Starting with real-world scenarios and adaptation needs, the co...

  8. Synthesizing International Understanding of Changes in the Arctic Hydrological System (United States)

    Pundsack, J. W.; Vorosmarty, C. J.; Hinzman, L. D.


    There are several notable gaps in our current level of understanding of Arctic hydrological systems. At the same time, rapidly emerging data sets, technologies, and modeling resources provide us with an unprecedented opportunity to move substantially forward. The Arctic Community-Wide Hydrological Analysis and Monitoring Program (Arctic-CHAMP), funded by NSF/ARCSS, was established to initiate a major effort to improve our current monitoring of water cycle variables, and to foster collaboration with the many relevant U.S. and international arctic research initiatives. These projects, funded under ARCSS through the ‘Freshwater Integration (FWI) study’, links CHAMP, the Arctic/Subarctic Ocean Fluxes (ASOF) Programme, and SEARCH. As part of the overall synthesis and integration efforts of the NSF-ARCSS Freshwater Integration (FWI) study, the program carried-out a major International Synthesis Capstone Workshop in Fall 2009 as an International Polar Year (IPY) affiliated meeting. The workshop, "Synthesizing International Understanding of Changes in the Arctic Hydrological System,” was held 30 September to 4 October 2009 in Stockholm at the Beijer Auditorium of the Royal Swedish Academy. The workshop was sponsored by the NSF-ARCSS Arctic-CHAMP Science Management Office (City College of New York / Univ. of New Hampshire), the International Study of Arctic Change (ISAC), and the International Arctic Research Center (IARC; Univ. of Alaska Fairbanks). The overarching goals of the meeting were to stage a post-IPY lessons-learned workshop with co-equal numbers of FWI, IPY, and ICARP-II researchers, using insights from recent scientific findings, data, and strategies to afford synthesis. The workshop aimed to: (1) take stock of recent advances in our understanding of changes in the Arctic hydrological system; (2) identify key remaining research gaps / unanswered questions; and (3) gather insight on where to focus future research efforts/initiatives (nationally and

  9. Is there a need for hydrological modelling in decision support systems for nuclear emergencies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raskob, W.; Heling, R.; Zheleznyak, M.


    This paper discusses the role of hydrological modelling in decision support systems for nuclear emergencies. In particular, most recent developments such as, the radionuclide transport models integrated in to the decision support system RODOS will be explored. Recent progress in the implementation of physically-based distributed hydrological models for operational forecasting in national and supranational centres, may support a closer cooperation between national hydrological services and therefore, strengthen the use of hydrological and radiological models implemented in decision support systems. (authors)

  10. Zoneamento ambiental dos banhados da Estação Ecológica do Taim, RS Environmental zoning of swamps in the Ecological Station of Taim, RS, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio Charão Kurtz


    Full Text Available O "Zoneamento Ambiental dos Banhados da Estação Ecológica do Taim" permitiu avaliar a deterioração ambiental dos ecossistemas existentes na Estação Ecológica do Taim (ESEC/TAIM, municípios de Rio Grande e Santa Vitória do Palmar (RS. Consideraram-se dois tipos distintos de ecossistemas: o do Banhado (ECO1 = Ecossistema Límnico e o da Planície Marítima (ECO2 = Ecossistema Planície Marítima. A ECO TOTAL (ECO1 + ECO2 apresentou 64% de classe APP (Área de Preservação Permanente, 27,6% de ACP (Área de Conservação Permanente, 5,6% de AUO (Uso e Ocupação; em menor porcentagem encontrou-se a classe AR (Área de Restauração com 2,8%. A deterioração ambiental média para o ECO1 foi de 10,32%, sendo menor que a ECO2 (23,94%. A deterioração ambiental da ESEC/TAIM (ECO ficou em 13,65%. Com relação à análise de regressão para ECO1, concluiu-se que com 06 parâmetros ambientais se obteve a precisão de 95%, enquanto que, com 04 parâmetros ambientais obteve-se a mesma precisão para a ECO2. Com relação à análise fatorial concluiu-se que essa técnica permitiu conhecer a estrutura dos dados, mostrando as correlações entre cada variável (classes de exuberância e seu respectivo fator, entretanto não foi possível separar grupos ou quantificar a influência de uma ou mais variáveis sobre outra de interesse (variável resposta, como por exemplo: quantos parâmetros são necessários para elaborar um zoneamento ambiental, sendo esta pergunta respondida pela análise de regressão. Recomenda-se que o zoneamento ambiental seja elaborado pelos órgãos públicos ambientais nas demais estações ecológicas e nas unidades de conservação.The "Environmental Zoning of swamps in the Ecological Station of Taim (RS" allowed to evaluate an environmental deterioration of the existent ecosystems in the Ecological Station of Taim (ESEC/TAIM; municipal districts of Rio Grande and Santa Vitória do Palmar (RS. Two types of different

  11. Hydrologic Drought Decision Support System (HyDroDSS) (United States)

    Granato, Gregory E.


    The hydrologic drought decision support system (HyDroDSS) was developed by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in cooperation with the Rhode Island Water Resources Board (RIWRB) for use in the analysis of hydrologic variables that may indicate the risk for streamflows to be below user-defined flow targets at a designated site of interest, which is defined herein as data-collection site on a stream that may be adversely affected by pumping. Hydrologic drought is defined for this study as a period of lower than normal streamflows caused by precipitation deficits and (or) water withdrawals. The HyDroDSS is designed to provide water managers with risk-based information for balancing water-supply needs and aquatic-habitat protection goals to mitigate potential effects of hydrologic drought. This report describes the theory and methods for retrospective streamflow-depletion analysis, rank correlation analysis, and drought-projection analysis. All three methods are designed to inform decisions made by drought steering committees and decisionmakers on the basis of quantitative risk assessment. All three methods use estimates of unaltered streamflow, which is the measured or modeled flow without major withdrawals or discharges, to approximate a natural low-flow regime. Retrospective streamflow-depletion analysis can be used by water-resource managers to evaluate relations between withdrawal plans and the potential effects of withdrawal plans on streams at one or more sites of interest in an area. Retrospective streamflow-depletion analysis indicates the historical risk of being below user-defined flow targets if different pumping plans were implemented for the period of record. Retrospective streamflow-depletion analysis also indicates the risk for creating hydrologic drought conditions caused by use of a pumping plan. Retrospective streamflow-depletion analysis is done by calculating the net streamflow depletions from withdrawals and discharges and applying these depletions

  12. Embedding complex hydrology in the climate system - towards fully coupled climate-hydrology models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Butts, M.; Rasmussen, S.H.; Ridler, M.


    Motivated by the need to develop better tools to understand the impact of future management and climate change on water resources, we present a set of studies with the overall aim of developing a fully dynamic coupling between a comprehensive hydrological model, MIKE SHE, and a regional climate...... distributed parameters using satellite remote sensing. Secondly, field data are used to investigate the effects of model resolution and parameter scales for use in a coupled model. Finally, the development of the fully coupled climate-hydrology model is described and some of the challenges associated...... with coupling models for hydrological processes on sub-grid scales of the regional climate model are presented....

  13. Understanding Socio-Hydrology System in the Kissimmee River Basin (United States)

    Chen, X.; Wang, D.; Tian, F.; Sivapalan, M.


    This study is to develop a conceptual socio-hydrology model for the Kissimmee River Basin. The Kissimmee River located in Florida was channelized in mid-20 century for flood protection. However, the environmental issues caused by channelization led Floridians to conduct a restoration project recently, focusing on wetland recovery. As a complex coupled human-water system, Kissimmee River Basin shows the typical socio-hydrology interactions. Hypothetically, the major reason to drive the system from channelization to restoration is that the community sensitivity towards the environment has changed from controlling to restoring. The model developed in this study includes 5 components: water balance, flood risk, wetland area, crop land area, and community sensitivity. Furthermore, urban population and rural population in the basin have different community sensitivities towards the hydrologic system. The urban population, who live further away from the river are more sensitive to wetland restoration; while the rural population, who live closer to the river are more sensitive to flood protection. The power dynamics between the two groups and its impact on management decision making is described in the model. The model is calibrated based on the observed watershed outflow, wetland area and crop land area. The results show that the overall focus of community sensitivity has changed from flood protection to wetland restoration in the past 60 years in Kissimmee River Basin, which confirms the study hypothesis. There are two main reasons for the community sensitivity change. Firstly, people's flood memory is fading because of the effective flood protection, while the continuously shrinking wetland and the decreasing bird and fish population draw more and more attention. Secondly, in the last 60 years, the urban population in Florida drastically increased compared with a much slower increase of rural population. As a result, the community sensitivity of urban population towards

  14. Assessing predictability of a hydrological stochastic-dynamical system (United States)

    Gelfan, Alexander


    The water cycle includes the processes with different memory that creates potential for predictability of hydrological system based on separating its long and short memory components and conditioning long-term prediction on slower evolving components (similar to approaches in climate prediction). In the face of the Panta Rhei IAHS Decade questions, it is important to find a conceptual approach to classify hydrological system components with respect to their predictability, define predictable/unpredictable patterns, extend lead-time and improve reliability of hydrological predictions based on the predictable patterns. Representation of hydrological systems as the dynamical systems subjected to the effect of noise (stochastic-dynamical systems) provides possible tool for such conceptualization. A method has been proposed for assessing predictability of hydrological system caused by its sensitivity to both initial and boundary conditions. The predictability is defined through a procedure of convergence of pre-assigned probabilistic measure (e.g. variance) of the system state to stable value. The time interval of the convergence, that is the time interval during which the system losses memory about its initial state, defines limit of the system predictability. The proposed method was applied to assess predictability of soil moisture dynamics in the Nizhnedevitskaya experimental station (51.516N; 38.383E) located in the agricultural zone of the central European Russia. A stochastic-dynamical model combining a deterministic one-dimensional model of hydrothermal regime of soil with a stochastic model of meteorological inputs was developed. The deterministic model describes processes of coupled heat and moisture transfer through unfrozen/frozen soil and accounts for the influence of phase changes on water flow. The stochastic model produces time series of daily meteorological variables (precipitation, air temperature and humidity), whose statistical properties are similar

  15. Adaptable Web Modules to Stimulate Active Learning in Engineering Hydrology using Data and Model Simulations of Three Regional Hydrologic Systems (United States)

    Habib, E. H.; Tarboton, D. G.; Lall, U.; Bodin, M.; Rahill-Marier, B.; Chimmula, S.; Meselhe, E. A.; Ali, A.; Williams, D.; Ma, Y.


    The hydrologic community has long recognized the need for broad reform in hydrologic education. A paradigm shift is critically sought in undergraduate hydrology and water resource education by adopting context-rich, student-centered, and active learning strategies. Hydrologists currently deal with intricate issues rooted in complex natural ecosystems containing a multitude of interconnected processes. Advances in the multi-disciplinary field include observational settings such as Critical Zone and Water, Sustainability and Climate Observatories, Hydrologic Information Systems, instrumentation and modeling methods. These research advances theory and practices call for similar efforts and improvements in hydrologic education. The typical, text-book based approach in hydrologic education has focused on specific applications and/or unit processes associated with the hydrologic cycle with idealizations, rather than the contextual relations in the physical processes and the spatial and temporal dynamics connecting climate and ecosystems. An appreciation of the natural variability of these processes will lead to graduates with the ability to develop independent learning skills and understanding. This appreciation cannot be gained in curricula where field components such as observational and experimental data are deficient. These types of data are also critical when using simulation models to create environments that support this type of learning. Additional sources of observations in conjunction with models and field data are key to students understanding of the challenges associated with using models to represent such complex systems. Recent advances in scientific visualization and web-based technologies provide new opportunities for the development of active learning techniques utilizing ongoing research. The overall goal of the current study is to develop visual, case-based, data and simulation driven learning experiences to instructors and students through a web

  16. An experimental seasonal hydrological forecasting system over the Yellow River basin - Part 1: Understanding the role of initial hydrological conditions (United States)

    Yuan, Xing; Ma, Feng; Wang, Linying; Zheng, Ziyan; Ma, Zhuguo; Ye, Aizhong; Peng, Shaoming


    The hydrological cycle over the Yellow River has been altered by the climate change and human interventions greatly during past decades, with a decadal drying trend mixed with a large variation of seasonal hydrological extremes. To provide support for the adaptation to a changing environment, an experimental seasonal hydrological forecasting system is established over the Yellow River basin. The system draws from a legacy of a global hydrological forecasting system that is able to make use of real-time seasonal climate predictions from North American Multimodel Ensemble (NMME) climate models through a statistical downscaling approach but with a higher resolution and a spatially disaggregated calibration procedure that is based on a newly compiled hydrological observation dataset with 5 decades of naturalized streamflow at 12 mainstream gauges and a newly released meteorological observation dataset including 324 meteorological stations over the Yellow River basin. While the evaluation of the NMME-based seasonal hydrological forecasting will be presented in a companion paper to explore the added values from climate forecast models, this paper investigates the role of initial hydrological conditions (ICs) by carrying out 6-month Ensemble Streamflow Prediction (ESP) and reverse ESP-type simulations for each calendar month during 1982-2010 with the hydrological models in the forecasting system, i.e., a large-scale land surface hydrological model and a global routing model that is regionalized over the Yellow River. In terms of streamflow predictability, the ICs outweigh the meteorological forcings up to 2-5 months during the cold and dry seasons, but the latter prevails over the former in the predictability after the first month during the warm and wet seasons. For the streamflow forecasts initialized at the end of the rainy season, the influence of ICs for lower reaches of the Yellow River can be 5 months longer than that for the upper reaches, while such a difference

  17. A framework for human-hydrologic system model development integrating hydrology and water management: application to the Cutzamala water system in Mexico (United States)

    Wi, S.; Freeman, S.; Brown, C.


    This study presents a general approach to developing computational models of human-hydrologic systems where human modification of hydrologic surface processes are significant or dominant. A river basin system is represented by a network of human-hydrologic response units (HHRUs) identified based on locations where river regulations happen (e.g., reservoir operation and diversions). Natural and human processes in HHRUs are simulated in a holistic framework that integrates component models representing rainfall-runoff, river routing, reservoir operation, flow diversion and water use processes. We illustrate the approach in a case study of the Cutzamala water system (CWS) in Mexico, a complex inter-basin water transfer system supplying the Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA). The human-hydrologic system model for CWS (CUTZSIM) is evaluated in terms of streamflow and reservoir storages measured across the CWS and to water supplied for MCMA. The CUTZSIM improves the representation of hydrology and river-operation interaction and, in so doing, advances evaluation of system-wide water management consequences under altered climatic and demand regimes. The integrated modeling framework enables evaluation and simulation of model errors throughout the river basin, including errors in representation of the human component processes. Heretofore, model error evaluation, predictive error intervals and the resultant improved understanding have been limited to hydrologic processes. The general framework represents an initial step towards fuller understanding and prediction of the many and varied processes that determine the hydrologic fluxes and state variables in real river basins.

  18. Isotope hydrology of catchment basins: lithogenic and cosmogenic isotopic systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nimz, G. J., LLNL


    A variety of physical processes affect solute concentrations within catchment waters. The isotopic compositions of the solutes can indicate which processes have determined the observed concentrations. These processes together constitute the physical history of the water. Many solutes in natural waters are derived from the interaction between the water and the rock and/or soil within the system - these are termed `lithogenic` solutes. The isotopic compositions of these solutes provide information regarding rock-water interactions. Many other solutes have their isotopic compositions determined both within and outside of the catchment - i.e., in addition to being derived from catchment rock and soil, they are solutes that are also transported into the catchment. Important members of this group include solutes that have isotopic compositions produced by atomic particle interactions with other nuclides. The source of the atomic particles can be cosmic radiation (producing `cosmogenic` nuclides in the atmosphere and land surface), anthropogenic nuclear reactions (producing `thermonuclear` nuclides), or radioactive and fission decay of naturally-occurring elements, principally {sup 238}U (producing `in-situ` lithogenic nuclides in the deep subsurface). Current language usage often combines all of the atomic particle-produced nuclides under the heading `cosmogenic nuclides`, and for simplicity we will often follow that usage here, although always indicating which variety is being discussed. This paper addresses the processes that affect the lithogenic and cosmogenic solute concentrations in catchment waters, and how the isotopic compositions of the solutes can be used in integrative ways to identify these processes, thereby revealing the physical history of the water within a catchment system. The concept of a `system` is important in catchment hydrology. A catchment is the smallest landscape unit that can both participate in all of the aspects of the hydrologic cycle and

  19. Adapting the CUAHSI Hydrologic Information System to OGC standards (United States)

    Valentine, D. W.; Whitenack, T.; Zaslavsky, I.


    The CUAHSI Hydrologic Information System (HIS) provides web and desktop client access to hydrologic observations via water data web services using an XML schema called “WaterML”. The WaterML 1.x specification and the corresponding Water Data Services have been the backbone of the HIS service-oriented architecture (SOA) and have been adopted for serving hydrologic data by several federal agencies and many academic groups. The central discovery service, HIS Central, is based on an metadata catalog that references 4.7 billion observations, organized as 23 million data series from 1.5 million sites from 51 organizations. Observations data are published using HydroServer nodes that have been deployed at 18 organizations. Usage of HIS has increased by 8x from 2008 to 2010, and doubled in usage from 1600 data series a day in 2009 to 3600 data series a day in the first half of 2010. The HIS central metadata catalog currently harvests information from 56 Water Data Services. We collaborate on the catalog updates with two federal partners, USGS and US EPA: their data series are periodically reloaded into the HIS metadata catalog. We are pursuing two main development directions in the HIS project: Cloud-based computing, and further compliance with Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC) standards. The goal of moving to cloud-computing is to provide a scalable collaborative system with a simpler deployment and less dependence of hardware maintenance and staff. This move requires re-architecting the information models underlying the metadata catalog, and Water Data Services to be independent of the underlying relational database model, allowing for implementation on both relational databases, and cloud-based processing systems. Cloud-based HIS central resources can be managed collaboratively; partners share responsibility for their metadata by publishing data series information into the centralized catalog. Publishing data series will use REST-based service interfaces, like OData

  20. A Web GIS Enabled Comprehensive Hydrologic Information System for Indian Water Resources Systems (United States)

    Goyal, A.; Tyagi, H.; Gosain, A. K.; Khosa, R.


    Hydrological systems across the globe are getting increasingly water stressed with each passing season due to climate variability & snowballing water demand. Hence, to safeguard food, livelihood & economic security, it becomes imperative to employ scientific studies for holistic management of indispensable resource like water. However, hydrological study of any scale & purpose is heavily reliant on various spatio-temporal datasets which are not only difficult to discover/access but are also tough to use & manage. Besides, owing to diversity of water sector agencies & dearth of standard operating procedures, seamless information exchange is challenging for collaborators. Extensive research is being done worldwide to address these issues but regrettably not much has been done in developing countries like India. Therefore, the current study endeavours to develop a Hydrological Information System framework in a Web-GIS environment for empowering Indian water resources systems. The study attempts to harmonize the standards for metadata, terminology, symbology, versioning & archiving for effective generation, processing, dissemination & mining of data required for hydrological studies. Furthermore, modelers with humble computing resources at their disposal, can consume this standardized data in high performance simulation modelling using cloud computing within the developed Web-GIS framework. They can also integrate the inputs-outputs of different numerical models available on the platform and integrate their results for comprehensive analysis of the chosen hydrological system. Thus, the developed portal is an all-in-one framework that can facilitate decision makers, industry professionals & researchers in efficient water management.

  1. A Flexible Framework Hydrological Informatic Modeling System - HIMS (United States)

    WANG, L.; Wang, Z.; Changming, L.; Li, J.; Bai, P.


    Simulating water cycling process temporally and spatially fitting for the characteristics of the study area was important for floods prediction and streamflow simulation with high accuracy, as soil properties, land scape, climate, and land managements were the critical factors influencing the non-linear relationship of rainfall-runoff at watershed scales. Most existing hydrological models cannot simulate water cycle process at different places with customized mechanisms with fixed single structure and mode. This study develops Hydro-Informatic Modeling System (HIMS) model with modular of each critical hydrological process with multiple choices for various scenarios to solve this problem. HIMS has the structure accounting for two runoff generation mechanisms of infiltration excess and saturation excess and estimated runoff with different methods including Time Variance Gain Model (TVGM), LCM which has good performance at ungauged areas, besides the widely used Soil Conservation Service-Curve Number (SCS-CN) method. Channel routing model contains the most widely used Muskingum, and kinematic wave equation with new solving method. HIMS model performance with its symbolic runoff generation model LCM was evaluated through comparison with the observed streamflow datasets of Lasha river watershed at hourly, daily, and monthly time steps. Comparisons between simulational and obervational streamflows were found with NSE higher than 0.87 and WE within ±20%. Water balance analysis about precipitation, streamflow, actual evapotranspiration (ET), and soil moisture change was conducted temporally at annual time step and it has been proved that HIMS model performance was reliable through comparison with literature results at the Lhasa River watershed.

  2. Hydrogeology and hydrologic conditions of the Ozark Plateaus aquifer system (United States)

    Hays, Phillip D.; Knierim, Katherine J.; Breaker, Brian K.; Westerman, Drew A.; Clark, Brian R.


    The hydrogeology and hydrologic characteristics of the Ozark Plateaus aquifer system were characterized as part of ongoing U.S. Geological Survey efforts to assess groundwater availability across the Nation. The need for such a study in the Ozark Plateaus physiographic province (Ozark Plateaus) is highlighted by increasing demand on groundwater resources by the 5.3 million people of the Ozark Plateaus, water-level declines in some areas, and potential impacts of climate change on groundwater availability. The subject study integrates knowledge gained through local investigation within a regional perspective to develop a regional conceptual model of groundwater flow in the Ozark Plateaus aquifer system (Ozark system), a key phase of groundwater availability assessment. The Ozark system extends across much of southern Missouri and northwestern and north-central Arkansas and smaller areas of southeastern Kansas and northeastern Oklahoma. The region is one of the major karst landscapes in the United States, and karst aquifers are predominant in the Ozark system. Groundwater flow is ultimately controlled by aquifer and confining unit lithologies and stratigraphic relations, geologic structure, karst development, and the character of surficial lithologies and regolith mantle. The regolith mantle is a defining element of Ozark Plateaus karst, affecting recharge, karst development, and vulnerability to surface-derived contaminants. Karst development is more advanced—as evidenced by larger springs, hydraulic characteristics, and higher well yields—in the Salem Plateau and in the northern part of the Springfield Plateau (generally north of the Arkansas-Missouri border) as compared with the southern part of the Springfield Plateau in Arkansas, largely due to thinner, less extensive regolith and purer carbonate lithology.Precipitation is the ultimate source of all water to the Ozark system, and the hydrologic budget for the Ozark system includes inputs from recharge

  3. Long-term changes in river system hydrology in Texas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Zhang


    Full Text Available Climate change and human actives are recognized as a topical issue that change long-term water budget, flow-frequency, and storage-frequency characteristics of different river systems. Texas is characterized by extreme hydrologic variability both spatially and temporally. Meanwhile, population and economic growth and accompanying water resources development projects have greatly impacted river flows throughout Texas. The relative effects of climate change, water resources development, water use, and other factors on long-term changes in river flow, reservoir storage, evaporation, water use, and other components of the water budgets of different river basins of Texas have been simulated in this research using the monthly version of the Water Rights Analysis Package (WRAP modelling system with input databases sets from the Texas Commission on Environmental Quality (TCEQ and Texas Water Development Board (TWDB. The results show that long-term changes are minimal from analysis monthly precipitation depths. Evaporation rates vary greatly seasonally and for much of the state appear to have a gradually upward trend. River/reservoir system water budgets and river flow characteristics have changed significantly during the past 75 years in response to water resources development and use.

  4. A framework for improving a seasonal hydrological forecasting system using sensitivity analysis (United States)

    Arnal, Louise; Pappenberger, Florian; Smith, Paul; Cloke, Hannah


    Seasonal streamflow forecasts are of great value for the socio-economic sector, for applications such as navigation, flood and drought mitigation and reservoir management for hydropower generation and water allocation to agriculture and drinking water. However, as we speak, the performance of dynamical seasonal hydrological forecasting systems (systems based on running seasonal meteorological forecasts through a hydrological model to produce seasonal hydrological forecasts) is still limited in space and time. In this context, the ESP (Ensemble Streamflow Prediction) remains an attractive forecasting method for seasonal streamflow forecasting as it relies on forcing a hydrological model (starting from the latest observed or simulated initial hydrological conditions) with historical meteorological observations. This makes it cheaper to run than a standard dynamical seasonal hydrological forecasting system, for which the seasonal meteorological forecasts will first have to be produced, while still producing skilful forecasts. There is thus the need to focus resources and time towards improvements in dynamical seasonal hydrological forecasting systems which will eventually lead to significant improvements in the skill of the streamflow forecasts generated. Sensitivity analyses are a powerful tool that can be used to disentangle the relative contributions of the two main sources of errors in seasonal streamflow forecasts, namely the initial hydrological conditions (IHC; e.g., soil moisture, snow cover, initial streamflow, among others) and the meteorological forcing (MF; i.e., seasonal meteorological forecasts of precipitation and temperature, input to the hydrological model). Sensitivity analyses are however most useful if they inform and change current operational practices. To this end, we propose a method to improve the design of a seasonal hydrological forecasting system. This method is based on sensitivity analyses, informing the forecasters as to which element of

  5. Integrating remote sensing, geographic information systems and global positioning system techniques with hydrological modeling (United States)

    Thakur, Jay Krishna; Singh, Sudhir Kumar; Ekanthalu, Vicky Shettigondahalli


    Integration of remote sensing (RS), geographic information systems (GIS) and global positioning system (GPS) are emerging research areas in the field of groundwater hydrology, resource management, environmental monitoring and during emergency response. Recent advancements in the fields of RS, GIS, GPS and higher level of computation will help in providing and handling a range of data simultaneously in a time- and cost-efficient manner. This review paper deals with hydrological modeling, uses of remote sensing and GIS in hydrological modeling, models of integrations and their need and in last the conclusion. After dealing with these issues conceptually and technically, we can develop better methods and novel approaches to handle large data sets and in a better way to communicate information related with rapidly decreasing societal resources, i.e. groundwater.

  6. Description of the National Hydrologic Model for use with the Precipitation-Runoff Modeling System (PRMS) (United States)

    Regan, R. Steven; Markstrom, Steven L.; Hay, Lauren E.; Viger, Roland J.; Norton, Parker A.; Driscoll, Jessica M.; LaFontaine, Jacob H.


    This report documents several components of the U.S. Geological Survey National Hydrologic Model of the conterminous United States for use with the Precipitation-Runoff Modeling System (PRMS). It provides descriptions of the (1) National Hydrologic Model, (2) Geospatial Fabric for National Hydrologic Modeling, (3) PRMS hydrologic simulation code, (4) parameters and estimation methods used to compute spatially and temporally distributed default values as required by PRMS, (5) National Hydrologic Model Parameter Database, and (6) model extraction tool named Bandit. The National Hydrologic Model Parameter Database contains values for all PRMS parameters used in the National Hydrologic Model. The methods and national datasets used to estimate all the PRMS parameters are described. Some parameter values are derived from characteristics of topography, land cover, soils, geology, and hydrography using traditional Geographic Information System methods. Other parameters are set to long-established default values and computation of initial values. Additionally, methods (statistical, sensitivity, calibration, and algebraic) were developed to compute parameter values on the basis of a variety of nationally-consistent datasets. Values in the National Hydrologic Model Parameter Database can periodically be updated on the basis of new parameter estimation methods and as additional national datasets become available. A companion ScienceBase resource provides a set of static parameter values as well as images of spatially-distributed parameters associated with PRMS states and fluxes for each Hydrologic Response Unit across the conterminuous United States.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cássio Arthur Wollmann


    Full Text Available O presente artigo consiste na apresentação de um atlas climático de definição das unidades climáticas na Estação Ecológica do Taim/RS. Para a realização desta pesquisa, necessitou-se a realização de 03 (três trabalhos de campo na ESEC Taim/RS, onde, foram instalados 06 (seis mini abrigos meteorológicos em pontos distintos, que consistem nas bases de segurança da ESEC, contendo em cada mini abrigo um Datalogger de temperatura e umidade do ar, os quais ficaram permanentemente instalados na ESEC durante a pesquisa. Mediu-se a temperatura e a umidade relativa do ar, além também da aquisição de dados de pressão atmosférica e velocidade dos ventos, disponibilizados por Santos (2012. Para a análise e definição das unidades climáticas da ESEC Taim, utilizou-se a metodologia proposta por Wollmann (2011; Serafini Jr. (2005 que definiram critérios de análise da temperatura e umidade relativa do ar, além da interpolação (mensal e sazonal das variáveis climáticas através de técnicas de geoprocessamento, para a criação das unidades climáticas. O mapa das unidades climáticas apresenta a interpolação das médias anuais de temperatura e umidade do ar, bem como, as médias para o mês mais quente e para o mês mais frio do ano, janeiro e julho, respectivamente. Após análise climática e cartográfica, viu-se que o clima é tão diverso e dinâmico quanto à natureza viva do local, especialmente nas variações térmicas e higrométricas, que nesta pesquisa, pode-se sugerir a divisão da ESEC Taim em cinco unidades climáticas, influenciadas diretamente pelos ambientes naturais, como os banhados as lagoas e as dunas eólicas, como também, pelas atividades antrópicas como a rizicultura, silvicultura e também pela BR 471 que passa dentro dos limites do Taim.

  8. The Snowcloud System: Architecture and Algorithms for Snow Hydrology Studies (United States)

    Skalka, C.; Brown, I.; Frolik, J.


    Snowcloud is an embedded data collection system for snow hydrology field research campaigns conducted in harsh climates and remote areas. The system combines distributed wireless sensor network technology and computational techniques to provide data at lower cost and higher spatio-temporal resolution than ground-based systems using traditional methods. Snowcloud has seen multiple Winter deployments in settings ranging from high desert to arctic, resulting in over a dozen node-years of practical experience. The Snowcloud system architecture consists of multiple TinyOS mesh-networked sensor stations collecting environmental data above and, in some deployments, below the snowpack. Monitored data modalities include snow depth, ground and air temperature, PAR and leaf-area index (LAI), and soil moisture. To enable power cycling and control of multiple sensors a custom power and sensor conditioning board was developed. The electronics and structural systems for individual stations have been designed and tested (in the lab and in situ) for ease of assembly and robustness to harsh winter conditions. Battery systems and solar chargers enable seasonal operation even under low/no light arctic conditions. Station costs range between 500 and 1000 depending on the instrumentation suite. For remote field locations, a custom designed hand-held device and data retrieval protocol serves as the primary data collection method. We are also developing and testing a Gateway device that will report data in near-real-time (NRT) over a cellular connection. Data is made available to users via web interfaces that also provide basic data analysis and visualization tools. For applications to snow hydrology studies, the better spatiotemporal resolution of snowpack data provided by Snowcloud is beneficial in several aspects. It provides insight into snowpack evolution, and allows us to investigate differences across different spatial and temporal scales in deployment areas. It enables the

  9. Variabilidade sazonal dos atributos climáticos e definição das unidades climáticas na estação ecológica do Taim, RS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Paulo Delapasse Simioni


    Full Text Available O presente trabalho consiste na análise e na definição das unidades climáticas na Estação Ecológica do Taim/RS. Para a concretização desta pesquisa, necessitou-se a realização de 03 (três trabalhos de campo na ESEC Taim/RS, onde foram instalados 06 (seis mini abrigos meteorológicos em pontos distintos, os quais consistem nas bases de segurança da ESEC. Mediu-se a temperatura e a umidade relativa do ar, pressão atmosférica e velocidade dos ventos. Para a análise e a definição das unidades climáticas da ESEC Taim, utilizou-se a metodologia proposta por Wollmann (2011; Serafini Jr. (2005. Nesta pesquisa, pode-se sugerir a divisão da ESEC Taim em cinco unidades climáticas, influenciadas diretamente pelos ambientes naturais, de banhados, lagoas e dunas eólicas, como pelas atividades antrópicas como a rizicultura, silvicultura e, também, pela BR 471, que passa dentro dos limites do Taim.

  10. Governance and decision making in complex socio-hydrological systems (United States)

    Elshorbagy, Amin; Wheater, Howard; Gober, Patricia; Hassanzadeh, Elmira


    Manitoba. The model highlights the spatial tradeoffs across the three provinces and sectoral trade-offs among the differing water uses. These trade-offs represent challenging dilemmas for water management decisions in a complex system. The study reveals the need for a holistic framework of water resources analysis that can dynamically capture the feedback loops among hydrological, social, and administrative/political analysis units to support public discussion of critical water tradeoffs and a consensual water value framework to guide future development decisions.

  11. Developing predictive insight into changing water systems: use-inspired hydrologic science for the Anthropocene (United States)

    Thompson, S. E.; Sivapalan, M.; Harman, C. J.; Srinivasan, V.; Hipsey, M. R.; Reed, P.; Montanari, A.; Blöschl, G.


    Globally, many different kinds of water resources management issues call for policy- and infrastructure-based responses. Yet responsible decision-making about water resources management raises a fundamental challenge for hydrologists: making predictions about water resources on decadal- to century-long timescales. Obtaining insight into hydrologic futures over 100 yr timescales forces researchers to address internal and exogenous changes in the properties of hydrologic systems. To do this, new hydrologic research must identify, describe and model feedbacks between water and other changing, coupled environmental subsystems. These models must be constrained to yield useful insights, despite the many likely sources of uncertainty in their predictions. Chief among these uncertainties are the impacts of the increasing role of human intervention in the global water cycle - a defining challenge for hydrology in the Anthropocene. Here we present a research agenda that proposes a suite of strategies to address these challenges from the perspectives of hydrologic science research. The research agenda focuses on the development of co-evolutionary hydrologic modeling to explore coupling across systems, and to address the implications of this coupling on the long-time behavior of the coupled systems. Three research directions support the development of these models: hydrologic reconstruction, comparative hydrology and model-data learning. These strategies focus on understanding hydrologic processes and feedbacks over long timescales, across many locations, and through strategic coupling of observational and model data in specific systems. We highlight the value of use-inspired and team-based science that is motivated by real-world hydrologic problems but targets improvements in fundamental understanding to support decision-making and management. Fully realizing the potential of this approach will ultimately require detailed integration of social science and physical science

  12. Hydrological simulation approaches for BMPs and LID practices in highly urbanized area and development of hydrological performance indicator system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan-wei Sun


    Full Text Available Urbanization causes hydrological change and increases stormwater runoff volumes, leading to flooding, erosion, and the degradation of instream ecosystem health. Best management practices (BMPs, like detention ponds and infiltration trenches, have been widely used to control flood runoff events for the past decade. However, low impact development (LID options have been proposed as an alternative approach to better mimic the natural flow regime by using decentralized designs to control stormwater runoff at the source, rather than at a centralized location in the watershed. For highly urbanized areas, LID stormwater management practices such as bioretention cells and porous pavements can be used to retrofit existing infrastructure and reduce runoff volumes and peak flows. This paper describes a modeling approach to incorporate these LID practices and the two BMPs of detention ponds and infiltration trenches in an existing hydrological model to estimate the impacts of BMPs and LID practices on the surface runoff. The modeling approach has been used in a parking lot located in Lenexa, Kansas, USA, to predict hydrological performance of BMPs and LID practices. A performance indicator system including the flow duration curve, peak flow frequency exceedance curve, and runoff coefficient have been developed in an attempt to represent impacts of BMPs and LID practices on the entire spectrum of the runoff regime. Results demonstrate that use of these BMPs and LID practices leads to significant stormwater control for small rainfall events and less control for flood events.

  13. A seamless global hydrological monitoring and forecasting system for water resources assessment and hydrological hazard early warning (United States)

    Sheffield, Justin; He, Xiaogang; Wood, Eric; Pan, Ming; Wanders, Niko; Zhan, Wang; Peng, Liqing


    Sustainable management of water resources and mitigation of the impacts of hydrological hazards are becoming ever more important at large scales because of inter-basin, inter-country and inter-continental connections in water dependent sectors. These include water resources management, food production, and energy production, whose needs must be weighed against the water needs of ecosystems and preservation of water resources for future generations. The strains on these connections are likely to increase with climate change and increasing demand from burgeoning populations and rapid development, with potential for conflict over water. At the same time, network connections may provide opportunities to alleviate pressures on water availability through more efficient use of resources such as trade in water dependent goods. A key constraint on understanding, monitoring and identifying solutions to increasing competition for water resources and hazard risk is the availability of hydrological data for monitoring and forecasting water resources and hazards. We present a global online system that provides continuous and consistent water products across time scales, from the historic instrumental period, to real-time monitoring, short-term and seasonal forecasts, and climate change projections. The system is intended to provide data and tools for analysis of historic hydrological variability and trends, water resources assessment, monitoring of evolving hazards and forecasts for early warning, and climate change scale projections of changes in water availability and extreme events. The system is particular useful for scientists and stakeholders interested in regions with less available in-situ data, and where forecasts have the potential to help decision making. The system is built on a database of high-resolution climate data from 1950 to present that merges available observational records with bias-corrected reanalysis and satellite data, which then drives a coupled land

  14. Land Sea Level Difference Impacts on Socio-Hydrological System. (United States)

    Sung, K.; Yu, D. J.; Oh, W. S.; Sangwan, N.


    Allowing moderate shocks can be a new solution that helps to build adaptive capacity in society is a rising issue. In Social-Ecological field, Carpenter et al. (2015) suggested that exposure to short-term variability leads to long term resilience by enlarging safe operating space (SOS). The SOS refers to the boundary of favorable state that ecosystem can maintain resilience without imposing certain conditions (Carpenter et al. 2015). Our work is motivated by defining SOS in socio-hydrological system(SHS) because it can be an alternative way for flood management beyond optimized or robust flood control. In this context, large flood events that make system to cross the SOS should be fully managed, but frequent small floods need to be allowed if the system is located in SOS. Especially, land sea level change is critical factor to change flood resilience since it is one of the most substantial disturbance that changes the entire boundary of SOS. In order to have broader perspective of vulnerability and resilience of the coastal region, it is crucial to understand the land sea level dynamics changed with human activities and natural variances.The risk of land sea level change has been researched , but most of these researches have focused on explain cause and effect of land sea level change, paying little attention to its dynamics interacts with human activities. Thus, an objective of this research is to study dynamics of human work, land sea level change and resilience to flood with SOS approach. Especially, we focus on the case in Ganges-Brahmaputra, Bangladesh where has high vulnerability to flood, and is faced with relatively rapid land sea level change problem. To acheive the goal, this study will develop a stylized model by extending the human - flood interaction model combined with relative sea level difference equation. The model describes the dynamics of flood protection system which is changed by SHS and land sea level chage. we will focus on the aggradation

  15. Water System Adaptation To Hydrological Changes: Module 8, Regulatory Framework Intersections: Past, Present, and Future (United States)

    This course will introduce students to the fundamental principles of water system adaptation to hydrological changes, with emphasis on data analysis and interpretation, technical planning, and computational modeling. Starting with real-world scenarios and adaptation needs, the co...

  16. Water System Adaptation To Hydrological Changes: Module 7, Adaptation Principles and Considerations (United States)

    This course will introduce students to the fundamental principles of water system adaptation to hydrological changes, with emphasis on data analysis and interpretation, technical planning, and computational modeling. Starting with real-world scenarios and adaptation needs, the co...

  17. Water System Adaptation To Hydrological Changes: Module 11, Methods and Tools: Computational Models (United States)

    This course will introduce students to the fundamental principles of water system adaptation to hydrological changes, with emphasis on data analysis and interpretation, technical planning, and computational modeling. Starting with real-world scenarios and adaptation needs, the co...

  18. Novel wireless sensors for in situ measurement of sub-ice hydrologic systems


    Bagshaw, E; Lishman, B; Wadham, J; Bowden, J; Burrow, S; Clare, L; Chandler, D


    Wireless sensors have the potential to provide significant insight into in situ physical and biogeochemical processes in sub-ice hydrologic systems. However, the nature of the glacial environment means that sensor deployment and data return is challenging. We describe two bespoke sensor platforms, electronic tracers or ‘ETracers’, and ‘cryoegg’, for untethered, wireless data collection from glacial hydrologic systems, including subglacial channels. Both employ radio frequencies for data trans...

  19. Integrating Geographical Information Systems (GIS) with Hydrological Modelling – Applicability and Limitations


    Rajesh VijayKumar Kherde; Dr. Priyadarshi. H. Sawant


    The evolution of Geographic information systems (GIS) facilitated the use digital terrain data for topography based hydrological modelling. The use of spatial data for hydrological modelling emerged from the great capability of GIS tools to store and handle the data associated hydro-morphology of the basin. These models utilize the spatially variable terrain data for converting rainfall into surface runoff.Manual map manipulation has always posed difficulty in analysing and designing large sc...

  20. A meteo-hydrological prediction system based on a multi-model approach for precipitation forecasting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Davolio


    Full Text Available The precipitation forecasted by a numerical weather prediction model, even at high resolution, suffers from errors which can be considerable at the scales of interest for hydrological purposes. In the present study, a fraction of the uncertainty related to meteorological prediction is taken into account by implementing a multi-model forecasting approach, aimed at providing multiple precipitation scenarios driving the same hydrological model. Therefore, the estimation of that uncertainty associated with the quantitative precipitation forecast (QPF, conveyed by the multi-model ensemble, can be exploited by the hydrological model, propagating the error into the hydrological forecast.

    The proposed meteo-hydrological forecasting system is implemented and tested in a real-time configuration for several episodes of intense precipitation affecting the Reno river basin, a medium-sized basin located in northern Italy (Apennines. These episodes are associated with flood events of different intensity and are representative of different meteorological configurations responsible for severe weather affecting northern Apennines.

    The simulation results show that the coupled system is promising in the prediction of discharge peaks (both in terms of amount and timing for warning purposes. The ensemble hydrological forecasts provide a range of possible flood scenarios that proved to be useful for the support of civil protection authorities in their decision.

  1. A polynomial chaos ensemble hydrologic prediction system for efficient parameter inference and robust uncertainty assessment (United States)

    Wang, S.; Huang, G. H.; Baetz, B. W.; Huang, W.


    This paper presents a polynomial chaos ensemble hydrologic prediction system (PCEHPS) for an efficient and robust uncertainty assessment of model parameters and predictions, in which possibilistic reasoning is infused into probabilistic parameter inference with simultaneous consideration of randomness and fuzziness. The PCEHPS is developed through a two-stage factorial polynomial chaos expansion (PCE) framework, which consists of an ensemble of PCEs to approximate the behavior of the hydrologic model, significantly speeding up the exhaustive sampling of the parameter space. Multiple hypothesis testing is then conducted to construct an ensemble of reduced-dimensionality PCEs with only the most influential terms, which is meaningful for achieving uncertainty reduction and further acceleration of parameter inference. The PCEHPS is applied to the Xiangxi River watershed in China to demonstrate its validity and applicability. A detailed comparison between the HYMOD hydrologic model, the ensemble of PCEs, and the ensemble of reduced PCEs is performed in terms of accuracy and efficiency. Results reveal temporal and spatial variations in parameter sensitivities due to the dynamic behavior of hydrologic systems, and the effects (magnitude and direction) of parametric interactions depending on different hydrological metrics. The case study demonstrates that the PCEHPS is capable not only of capturing both expert knowledge and probabilistic information in the calibration process, but also of implementing an acceleration of more than 10 times faster than the hydrologic model without compromising the predictive accuracy.

  2. On modeling complex interplay in small-scale self-organized socio-hydrological systems (United States)

    Muneepeerakul, Rachata


    Successful and sustainable socio-hydrological systems, as in any coupled natural human-systems, require effective governance, which depends on the existence of proper infrastructure (both hard and soft). Recent work has addressed systems in which resource users and the organization responsible for maintaining the infrastructure are separate entities. However, many socio-hydrological systems, especially in developing countries, are small and without such formal division of labor; rather, such division of labor typically arises from self-organization within the population. In this work, we modify and mathematically operationalize a conceptual framework by developing a system of differential equations that capture the strategic behavior within such a self-organized population, its interplay with infrastructure characteristics and hydrological dynamics, and feedbacks between these elements. The model yields a number of insightful conditions related to long-term sustainability and collapse of the socio-hydrological system in the form of relationships between biophysical and social factors. These relationships encapsulate nonlinear interactions of these factors. The modeling framework is grounded in a solid conceptual foundation upon which additional modifications and realism can be built for potential reconciliation between socio-hydrology with other related fields and further applications.

  3. Water System Adaptation To Hydrological Changes: Module 12, Models and Tools for Stormwater and Wastewater System Adaptation (United States)

    This course will introduce students to the fundamental principles of water system adaptation to hydrological changes, with emphasis on data analysis and interpretation, technical planning, and computational modeling. Starting with real-world scenarios and adaptation needs, the co...

  4. Water System Adaptation To Hydrological Changes: Module 14, Life Cycle Analysis (LCA) and Prioritization Tools in Water System Adaptation (United States)

    This course will introduce students to the fundamental principles of water system adaptation to hydrological changes, with emphasis on data analysis and interpretation, technical planning, and computational modeling. Starting with real-world scenarios and adaptation needs, the co...

  5. Numerical modeling of the agricultural-hydrologic system in Punjab, India (United States)

    Nyblade, M.; Russo, T. A.; Zikatanov, L.; Zipp, K.


    The goal of food security for India's growing population is threatened by the decline in freshwater resources due to unsustainable water use for irrigation. The issue is acute in parts of Punjab, India, where small landholders produce a major quantity of India's food with declining groundwater resources. To further complicate this problem, other regions of the state are experiencing groundwater logging and salinization, and are reliant on canal systems for fresh water delivery. Due to the lack of water use records, groundwater consumption for this study is estimated with available data on crop yields, climate, and total canal water delivery. The hydrologic and agricultural systems are modeled using appropriate numerical methods and software. This is a state-wide hydrologic numerical model of Punjab that accounts for multiple aquifer layers, agricultural water demands, and interactions between the surface canal system and groundwater. To more accurately represent the drivers of agricultural production and therefore water use, we couple an economic crop optimization model with the hydrologic model. These tools will be used to assess and optimize crop choice scenarios based on farmer income, food production, and hydrologic system constraints. The results of these combined models can be used to further understand the hydrologic system response to government crop procurement policies and climate change, and to assess the effectiveness of possible water conservation solutions.

  6. Socio-Hydrology: Conceptual and Methodological Challenges in the Bidirectional Coupling of Human and Water Systems (United States)

    Scott, C. A.


    This presentation reviews conceptual advances in the emerging field of socio-hydrology that focuses on coupled human and water systems. An important current challenge is how to better couple the bidirectional influences between human and water systems, which lead to emergent dynamics. The interactions among (1) the structure and dynamics of systems with (2) human values and norms lead to (3) outcomes, which in turn influence subsequent interactions. Human influences on hydrological systems are relatively well understood, chiefly resulting from developments in the field of water resources. The ecosystem-service concept of cultural value has expanded understanding of decision-making beyond economic rationality criteria. Hydrological impacts on social processes are less well developed conceptually, but this is changing with growing attention to vulnerability, adaptation, and resilience, particularly in the face of climate change. Methodological limitations, especially in characterizing the range of human responses to hydrological events and drivers, still pose challenges to modeling bidirectional human-water influences. Evidence from multiple case studies, synthesized in more broadly generic syndromes, helps surmount these methodological limitations and offers the potential to improve characterization and quantification of socio-hydrological systems.

  7. Improved Hydrology over Peatlands in a Global Land Modeling System (United States)

    Bechtold, M.; Delannoy, G.; Reichle, R.; Koster, R.; Mahanama, S.; Roose, Dirk


    Peatlands of the Northern Hemisphere represent an important carbon pool that mainly accumulated since the last ice age under permanently wet conditions in specific geological and climatic settings. The carbon balance of peatlands is closely coupled to water table dynamics. Consequently, the future carbon balance over peatlands is strongly dependent on how hydrology in peatlands will react to changing boundary conditions, e.g. due to climate change or regional water level drawdown of connected aquifers or streams. Global land surface modeling over organic-rich regions can provide valuable global-scale insights on where and how peatlands are in transition due to changing boundary conditions. However, the current global land surface models are not able to reproduce typical hydrological dynamics in peatlands well. We implemented specific structural and parametric changes to account for key hydrological characteristics of peatlands into NASA's GEOS-5 Catchment Land Surface Model (CLSM, Koster et al. 2000). The main modifications pertain to the modeling of partial inundation, and the definition of peatland-specific runoff and evapotranspiration schemes. We ran a set of simulations on a high performance cluster using different CLSM configurations and validated the results with a newly compiled global in-situ dataset of water table depths in peatlands. The results demonstrate that an update of soil hydraulic properties for peat soils alone does not improve the performance of CLSM over peatlands. However, structural model changes for peatlands are able to improve the skill metrics for water table depth. The validation results for the water table depth indicate a reduction of the bias from 2.5 to 0.2 m, and an improvement of the temporal correlation coefficient from 0.5 to 0.65, and from 0.4 to 0.55 for the anomalies. Our validation data set includes both bogs (rain-fed) and fens (ground and/or surface water influence) and reveals that the metrics improved less for fens. In

  8. Role of Hydrological Studies for the Development of the TDPS System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Canedo


    Full Text Available The South American Altiplano in the Andes is, aside from Tibet, the most extensive high plateau on Earth. This semiarid area represents important water resources storages, including the Lakes Titicaca and Poopó located in the northern and central Altiplano, respectively. The two lake basins and the southern saltpans constitute a large watershed, called the Lake Titicaca, Desaguadero River, Lake Poopó, and Coipasa Salt Flat System (TDPS hydrologic system. The Altiplano climate, topography, and location determine the TDPS hydrologic functioning. Scarce data and high spatial variability represent challenges to correctly simulate the TDPS water budget. Consequently, there is an important need to improve the understanding of the water resources in current and future climate over the area. The paper provides a comprehensive state-of-the-art regarding current knowledge of the TDPS hydro-socioeconomic system and summarizes the data needs to improve the current hydrological understanding.

  9. Hydrologic monitoring using open-source Arduino logging platforms in a socio-hydrological system of the drought-prone tropics, Guanacaste, Costa Rica (United States)

    Hund, S. V.; Johnson, M. S.; Steyn, D. G.; Keddie, T.; Morillas, L.


    Water supply is highly disputed in the tropics of northwestern Costa Rica where rainfall exhibits high seasonal variability and long annual dry seasons. Water shortages are common during the dry season, and water conflicts emerge between domestic water users, intensively irrigated agriculture, the tourism industry, and ecological flows. Climate change may further increase the variability of precipitation and the risk for droughts, and pose challenges for small rural agricultural communities experiencing water stress. To adapt to seasonal droughts and improve resilience of communities to future changes, it is essential to increase understanding of interactions between components of the coupled hydrological-social system. Yet, hydrological monitoring and data on water use within developing countries of the humid tropics is limited. To address these challenges and contribute to extended monitoring networks, low-cost and open-source monitoring platforms were developed based off Arduino microelectronic boards and software and combined with hydrological sensors to monitor river stage and groundwater levels in two watersheds of Guanacaste, Costa Rica. Hydrologic monitoring stations are located in remote locations and powered by solar panels. Monitoring efforts were made possible through collaboration with local rural communities, and complemented with a mix of digitized water extraction data and community water use narratives to increase understanding of water use and challenges. We will present the development of the Arduino logging system, results of water supply in relation to water use for both the wet and dry season, and discuss these results within a socio-hydrological system context.

  10. Hydro-economic assessment of hydrological forecasting systems (United States)

    Boucher, M.-A.; Tremblay, D.; Delorme, L.; Perreault, L.; Anctil, F.


    SummaryAn increasing number of publications show that ensemble hydrological forecasts exhibit good performance when compared to observed streamflow. Many studies also conclude that ensemble forecasts lead to a better performance than deterministic ones. This investigation takes one step further by not only comparing ensemble and deterministic forecasts to observed values, but by employing the forecasts in a stochastic decision-making assistance tool for hydroelectricity production, during a flood event on the Gatineau River in Canada. This allows the comparison between different types of forecasts according to their value in terms of energy, spillage and storage in a reservoir. The motivation for this is to adopt the point of view of an end-user, here a hydroelectricity production society. We show that ensemble forecasts exhibit excellent performances when compared to observations and are also satisfying when involved in operation management for electricity production. Further improvement in terms of productivity can be reached through the use of a simple post-processing method.

  11. Testing the potential of geochemical techniques in identifying hydrological systems within landslides in partly weathered marls

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bogaard, T.A.; Buma, J.T.; Klawer, C.J.M.


    This paper’s objective is to determine how useful geochemistry can be in landslide investigations. More specifically, what additional information can be gained by analysing the cation exchange capacity (CEC) and cation composition in respect to the hydrological system of a landslide area in clayey

  12. A system dynamic model to estimate hydrological processes and water use in a eucalypt plantation (United States)

    Ying Ouyang; Daping Xu; Ted Leininger; Ningnan Zhang


    Eucalypts have been identified as one of the best feedstocks for bioenergy production due to theirfast-growth rate and coppicing ability. However, their water use efficiency along with the adverse envi-ronmental impacts is still a controversial issue. In this study, a system dynamic model was developed toestimate the hydrological processes and water use in a eucalyptus...

  13. An Evaluation System for the Online Training Programs in Meteorology and Hydrology (United States)

    Wang, Yong; Zhi, Xiefei


    This paper studies the current evaluation system for the online training program in meteorology and hydrology. CIPP model that includes context evaluation, input evaluation, process evaluation and product evaluation differs from Kirkpatrick model including reactions evaluation, learning evaluation, transfer evaluation and results evaluation in…

  14. Multiple effects of hydrological connectivity on floodplain processes in human modified river systems (United States)

    Hein, Thomas; Bondar-Kunze, Elisabeth; Preiner, Stefan; Reckendorfer, Walter; Tritthart, Michael; Weigelhofer, Gabriele; Welti, Nina


    Floodplain and riparian ecosystems provide multiple functions and services of importance for human well-being and are of strategic importance for different sectors at catchment scale. Especially floodplains in the vicinity of urban areas can be areas of conflicting interests ranging from different land use types, flood water retention, drinking water production and recreation to conservation of last remnants of former riverine landscape, as it is the case in floodplains in the Danube Nationalpark downstream Vienna. Many of these ecosystem functions and services are controlled by the exchange conditions between river main channel and floodplain systems, the hydrological connectivity. At the same time these systems have been highly altered and especially the connectivity has been severely impaired. Thus, far ranging effects of changes in hydrological connectivity at various levels can be expected in altered floodplain systems. The aim of this presentation is to explore the complex control of different ecosystem functions and associated services by different parameters of hydrological connectivity, ranging from nutrient, sediment and matter dynamics and biodiversity aspects. Increasing connectivity will be shown to impact microbial dynamics, sediment-water interactions, carbon dynamics and trophic conditions, thus affecting the fundamental functions of particular floodplain systems at various spatial and temporal scales. Based on these changes also the provision of ecosystem services of floodplains is affected. The results clearly show that hydrological connectivity needs to be considered in a sustainable management approach.

  15. Optimizing Use of Water Management Systems during Changes of Hydrological Conditions (United States)

    Výleta, Roman; Škrinár, Andrej; Danáčová, Michaela; Valent, Peter


    When designing the water management systems and their components, there is a need of more detail research on hydrological conditions of the river basin, runoff of which creates the main source of water in the reservoir. Over the lifetime of the water management systems the hydrological time series are never repeated in the same form which served as the input for the design of the system components. The design assumes the observed time series to be representative at the time of the system use. However, it is rather unrealistic assumption, because the hydrological past will not be exactly repeated over the design lifetime. When designing the water management systems, the specialists may occasionally face the insufficient or oversized capacity design, possibly wrong specification of the management rules which may lead to their non-optimal use. It is therefore necessary to establish a comprehensive approach to simulate the fluctuations in the interannual runoff (taking into account the current dry and wet periods) in the form of stochastic modelling techniques in water management practice. The paper deals with the methodological procedure of modelling the mean monthly flows using the stochastic Thomas-Fiering model, while modification of this model by Wilson-Hilferty transformation of independent random number has been applied. This transformation usually applies in the event of significant asymmetry in the observed time series. The methodological procedure was applied on the data acquired at the gauging station of Horné Orešany in the Parná Stream. Observed mean monthly flows for the period of 1.11.1980 - 31.10.2012 served as the model input information. After extrapolation the model parameters and Wilson-Hilferty transformation parameters the synthetic time series of mean monthly flows were simulated. Those have been compared with the observed hydrological time series using basic statistical characteristics (e. g. mean, standard deviation and skewness) for testing

  16. A national-scale seasonal hydrological forecast system: development and evaluation over Britain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. A. Bell


    Full Text Available Skilful winter seasonal predictions for the North Atlantic circulation and northern Europe have now been demonstrated and the potential for seasonal hydrological forecasting in the UK is now being explored. One of the techniques being used combines seasonal rainfall forecasts provided by operational weather forecast systems with hydrological modelling tools to provide estimates of seasonal mean river flows up to a few months ahead. The work presented here shows how spatial information contained in a distributed hydrological model typically requiring high-resolution (daily or better rainfall data can be used to provide an initial condition for a much simpler forecast model tailored to use low-resolution monthly rainfall forecasts. Rainfall forecasts (hindcasts from the GloSea5 model (1996 to 2009 are used to provide the first assessment of skill in these national-scale flow forecasts. The skill in the combined modelling system is assessed for different seasons and regions of Britain, and compared to what might be achieved using other approaches such as use of an ensemble of historical rainfall in a hydrological model, or a simple flow persistence forecast. The analysis indicates that only limited forecast skill is achievable for Spring and Summer seasonal hydrological forecasts; however, Autumn and Winter flows can be reasonably well forecast using (ensemble mean rainfall forecasts based on either GloSea5 forecasts or historical rainfall (the preferred type of forecast depends on the region. Flow forecasts using ensemble mean GloSea5 rainfall perform most consistently well across Britain, and provide the most skilful forecasts overall at the 3-month lead time. Much of the skill (64 % in the 1-month ahead seasonal flow forecasts can be attributed to the hydrological initial condition (particularly in regions with a significant groundwater contribution to flows, whereas for the 3-month ahead lead time, GloSea5 forecasts account for  ∼ 70

  17. Interactive Learning Environment: Web-based Virtual Hydrological Simulation System using Augmented and Immersive Reality (United States)

    Demir, I.


    Recent developments in internet technologies make it possible to manage and visualize large data on the web. Novel visualization techniques and interactive user interfaces allow users to create realistic environments, and interact with data to gain insight from simulations and environmental observations. The hydrological simulation system is a web-based 3D interactive learning environment for teaching hydrological processes and concepts. The simulation systems provides a visually striking platform with realistic terrain information, and water simulation. Students can create or load predefined scenarios, control environmental parameters, and evaluate environmental mitigation alternatives. The web-based simulation system provides an environment for students to learn about the hydrological processes (e.g. flooding and flood damage), and effects of development and human activity in the floodplain. The system utilizes latest web technologies and graphics processing unit (GPU) for water simulation and object collisions on the terrain. Users can access the system in three visualization modes including virtual reality, augmented reality, and immersive reality using heads-up display. The system provides various scenarios customized to fit the age and education level of various users. This presentation provides an overview of the web-based flood simulation system, and demonstrates the capabilities of the system for various visualization and interaction modes.

  18. An evaluation of the Canadian global meteorological ensemble prediction system for short-term hydrological forecasting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Anctil


    Full Text Available Hydrological forecasting consists in the assessment of future streamflow. Current deterministic forecasts do not give any information concerning the uncertainty, which might be limiting in a decision-making process. Ensemble forecasts are expected to fill this gap.

    In July 2007, the Meteorological Service of Canada has improved its ensemble prediction system, which has been operational since 1998. It uses the GEM model to generate a 20-member ensemble on a 100 km grid, at mid-latitudes. This improved system is used for the first time for hydrological ensemble predictions. Five watersheds in Quebec (Canada are studied: Chaudière, Châteauguay, Du Nord, Kénogami and Du Lièvre. An interesting 17-day rainfall event has been selected in October 2007. Forecasts are produced in a 3 h time step for a 3-day forecast horizon. The deterministic forecast is also available and it is compared with the ensemble ones. In order to correct the bias of the ensemble, an updating procedure has been applied to the output data. Results showed that ensemble forecasts are more skilful than the deterministic ones, as measured by the Continuous Ranked Probability Score (CRPS, especially for 72 h forecasts. However, the hydrological ensemble forecasts are under dispersed: a situation that improves with the increasing length of the prediction horizons. We conjecture that this is due in part to the fact that uncertainty in the initial conditions of the hydrological model is not taken into account.

  19. Linked hydrologic and social systems that support resilience of traditional irrigation communities (United States)

    Fernald, A.; Guldan, S.; Boykin, K.; Cibils, A.; Gonzales, M.; Hurd, B.; Lopez, S.; Ochoa, C.; Ortiz, M.; Rivera, J.; Rodriguez, S.; Steele, C.


    Southwestern US irrigated landscapes are facing upheaval due to water scarcity and land use conversion associated with climate change, population growth, and changing economics. In the traditionally irrigated valleys of northern New Mexico, these stresses, as well as instances of community longevity in the face of these stresses, are apparent. Human systems have interacted with hydrologic processes over the last 400 years in river-fed irrigated valleys to create linked systems. In this study, we ask if concurrent data from multiple disciplines could show that human-adapted hydrologic and socioeconomic systems have created conditions for resilience. Various types of resiliencies are evident in the communities. Traditional local knowledge about the hydrosocial cycle of community water management and ability to adopt new water management practices is a key response to disturbances such as low water supply from drought. Livestock producers have retained their irrigated land by adapting: changing from sheep to cattle and securing income from outside their livestock operations. Labor-intensive crops decreased as off-farm employment opportunities became available. Hydrologic resilience of the system can be affected by both human and natural elements. We find, for example, that there are multiple hydrologic benefits of traditional irrigation system water seepage: it recharges the groundwater that recharges rivers, supports threatened biodiversity by maintaining riparian vegetation, and ameliorates impacts of climate change by prolonging streamflow hydrographs. Human decisions to transfer water out of agriculture or change irrigation management, as well as natural changes such as long-term drought or climate change, can result in reduced seepage and the benefits it provides. We have worked with the communities to translate the multidisciplinary dimensions of these systems into a common language of causal loop diagrams, which form the basis for modeling future scenarios to

  20. Preliminary subsurface hydrologic considerations: Columbia River Plateau Physiographic Province. Assessment of effectiveness of geologic isolation systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Veatch, M.D.


    This report contains a discussion of the hydrologic conditions of the Columbia River Plateau physiographic province. The Columbia River Plateau is underlain by a thick basalt sequence. The Columbia River basalt sequence contains both basalt flows and sedimentary interbeds. These sedimentary interbeds, which are layers of sedimentary rock between lava flows, are the main aquifer zones in the basalt sequence. Permeable interflow zones, involving the permeable top and/or rubble bottom of a flow, are also water-transmitting zones. A number of stratigraphic units are present in the Pasco Basin, which is in the central part of the Columbia River Plateau. At a conceptual level, the stratigraphic sequence from the surface downward can be separated into four hydrostratigraphic systems. These are: (1) the unsaturated zone, (2) the unconfined aquifer, (3) the uppermost confined aquifers, and (4) the lower Yakima basalt hydrologic sequence. A conceptual layered earth model (LEM) has been developed. The LEM represents the major types of porous media (LEM units) that may be encountered at a number of places on the Columbia Plateau, and specifically in the Pasco Basin. The conceptual LEM is not representative of the actual three-dimensional hydrostratigraphic sequence and hydrologic conditions existing at any specific site within the Columbia Plateau physiographic province. However, the LEM may be useful for gaining a better understanding of how the hydrologic regime may change as a result of disruptive events that may interact with a waste repository in geologic media

  1. Drinking Water Systems, Hydrology, and Childhood Gastrointestinal Illness in Central and Northern Wisconsin (United States)

    Uejio, Christopher K.; Yale, Steven H.; Malecki, Kristen; Borchardt, Mark A.; Anderson, Henry A.; Patz, Jonathan A.


    Objectives. This study investigated if the type of drinking water source (treated municipal, untreated municipal, and private well water) modifies the effect of hydrology on childhood (aged water systems. Separate time series models were created for each system and half-year period (winter/spring, summer/fall). Results. More precipitation (summer/fall) systematically increased childhood gastrointestinal illness in municipalities accessing untreated water. The relative risk of contracting gastrointestinal illness was 1.4 in weeks with 3 centimeters of precipitation and 2.4 in very wet weeks with 12 centimeters of precipitation. By contrast, gastrointestinal illness in private well and treated municipal areas was not influenced by hydrologic conditions, although warmer winter temperatures slightly increased incidence. Conclusions. Our study suggests that improved drinking water protection, treatment, and delivery infrastructure may improve public health by specifically identifying municipal water systems lacking water treatment that may transmit waterborne disease. PMID:24524509

  2. The state of the art of flood forecasting - Hydrological Ensemble Prediction Systems (United States)

    Thielen-Del Pozo, J.; Pappenberger, F.; Salamon, P.; Bogner, K.; Burek, P.; de Roo, A.


    Flood forecasting systems form a key part of ‘preparedness' strategies for disastrous floods and provide hydrological services, civil protection authorities and the public with information of upcoming events. Provided the warning leadtime is sufficiently long, adequate preparatory actions can be taken to efficiently reduce the impacts of the flooding. Because of the specific characteristics of each catchment, varying data availability and end-user demands, the design of the best flood forecasting system may differ from catchment to catchment. However, despite the differences in concept and data needs, there is one underlying issue that spans across all systems. There has been an growing awareness and acceptance that uncertainty is a fundamental issue of flood forecasting and needs to be dealt with at the different spatial and temporal scales as well as the different stages of the flood generating processes. Today, operational flood forecasting centres change increasingly from single deterministic forecasts to probabilistic forecasts with various representations of the different contributions of uncertainty. The move towards these so-called Hydrological Ensemble Prediction Systems (HEPS) in flood forecasting represents the state of the art in forecasting science, following on the success of the use of ensembles for weather forecasting (Buizza et al., 2005) and paralleling the move towards ensemble forecasting in other related disciplines such as climate change predictions. The use of HEPS has been internationally fostered by initiatives such as "The Hydrologic Ensemble Prediction Experiment" (HEPEX), created with the aim to investigate how best to produce, communicate and use hydrologic ensemble forecasts in hydrological short-, medium- und long term prediction of hydrological processes. The advantages of quantifying the different contributions of uncertainty as well as the overall uncertainty to obtain reliable and useful flood forecasts also for extreme events

  3. Modelling hydrology of a single bioretention system with HYDRUS-1D. (United States)

    Meng, Yingying; Wang, Huixiao; Chen, Jiangang; Zhang, Shuhan


    A study was carried out on the effectiveness of bioretention systems to abate stormwater using computer simulation. The hydrologic performance was simulated for two bioretention cells using HYDRUS-1D, and the simulation results were verified by field data of nearly four years. Using the validated model, the optimization of design parameters of rainfall return period, filter media depth and type, and surface area was discussed. And the annual hydrologic performance of bioretention systems was further analyzed under the optimized parameters. The study reveals that bioretention systems with underdrains and impervious boundaries do have some detention capability, while their total water retention capability is extremely limited. Better detention capability is noted for smaller rainfall events, deeper filter media, and design storms with a return period smaller than 2 years, and a cost-effective filter media depth is recommended in bioretention design. Better hydrologic effectiveness is achieved with a higher hydraulic conductivity and ratio of the bioretention surface area to the catchment area, and filter media whose conductivity is between the conductivity of loamy sand and sandy loam, and a surface area of 10% of the catchment area is recommended. In the long-term simulation, both infiltration volume and evapotranspiration are critical for the total rainfall treatment in bioretention systems.

  4. Ore bearing system and hydrological characteristics of mineralized sector in Hushiliang area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Zhaolin; Liu Zhengbang; Miao Aisheng


    Hushiliang area is one of the best uranium ore bearing areas in Erdos basin from the point of fluvial sedimentary system and uranium geochemical environment, So far, three mineralized sector has been found that are Nalingou, Nongshengxin, Baobeigou. By using the first-hand data of uranium regional survey in this area lately and systematically comparing and analyzing of the hydrological structure in the mineralized sector of this area, the thesis ascertain the ore and water bearing fluid reservoir's spatial relationship generally, and argues that the Zhiluo formation ore and water bearing fluid reservoir in this area is a unified underwater ore bearing system, and the orebody's hydrological structure is propitious in the distributary channel and unpropitious in the main channel because of deep ore bearing layer to the ISL. (authors)

  5. Water and the Earth System in the Anthropocene: Evolution of Socio-Hydrology (United States)

    Sivapalan, M.; Bloeschl, G.


    Over the past century, hydrological science has evolved through distinct eras as judged by ideas, information sources, technological advances and societal influences: Empirical Era which was data based with little theory, Systems Era that focused on input-output relationships, Process Era with a focus on processes, and the Geosciences Era where hydrology was considered an Earth System science. We argue that as the human footprint on earth becomes increasingly dominant, we are moving into a Co-evolution Era. Co-evolution implies that the components of the Earth system are intimately intertwined at many time scales - fast scales of immediate feedbacks that translate into slow scale interdependencies and trends. These involve feedbacks between the atmosphere, biota, soils and landforms, mediated by water flow and transport processes. The human factor is becoming a key component of this coupled system. While there is a long tradition of considering effects of water on humans, and vice versa, the new thrust on socio-hydrology has a number of defining characteristics that sets it apart from traditional approaches: - Capturing feedbacks of human-natural water system in a dynamic way (slow and fast processes) to go beyond prescribing human factors as mere boundary conditions. These feedbacks will be essential to understand how the system may evolve in the future into new, perhaps previously unobserved, states. - Quantifying system dynamics in a generalizable way. So far, water resources assessment has been context dependent, tied to local conditions. While for immediate decision making this is undoubtedly essential, for more scientific inquiry, a more uniform knowledge base is indispensable. - Not necessarily predictive. The coupled human-nature system is inherently non-linear, which may prohibit predictability in the traditional sense. The socio-hydrologic approach may still be predictive in a statistical sense and, perhaps even more importantly, it may yet reveal

  6. Development of hybrid 3-D hydrological modeling for the NCAR Community Earth System Model (CESM)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zeng, Xubin [Univ. of Arizona, Tucson, AZ (United States); Troch, Peter [Univ. of Arizona, Tucson, AZ (United States); Pelletier, Jon [Univ. of Arizona, Tucson, AZ (United States); Niu, Guo-Yue [Univ. of Arizona, Tucson, AZ (United States); Gochis, David [NCAR Research Applications Lab., Boulder, CO (United States)


    This is the Final Report of our four-year (3-year plus one-year no cost extension) collaborative project between the University of Arizona (UA) and the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR). The overall objective of our project is to develop and evaluate the first hybrid 3-D hydrological model with a horizontal grid spacing of 1 km for the NCAR Community Earth System Model (CESM).

  7. Hydrological characteristics and problems of Calma hydro accumulation system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dolinaj Dragan


    Full Text Available Srem, as traditional farming, orchard and wine-growing region, faces the problem of shortage of water needed for agriculture. During the seventies of the last century brook valleys in the southern part of Fruska Gora loess plateau were intended to be dammed. Thus, artificial lakes could have been formed. It took long period of time to put these projects into practice and numerous projects have not started yet. After the dams had been built and lakes filled with water, planners faced hydro-geological problems at many locations. Nevertheless, these accumulations fulfill their primary function, i.e. they ensure water for irrigation and protect agricultural land from floods. There is a hydroaccumulation system, Calma lakes, near the village of Calma. Its primary function was to ensure water supplies for agriculture, but eventually it got new significance which can be noticed in fish raising and sport fishing development.

  8. RIMS: An Integrated Mapping and Analysis System with Applications to Earth Sciences and Hydrology (United States)

    Proussevitch, A. A.; Glidden, S.; Shiklomanov, A. I.; Lammers, R. B.


    A web-based information and computational system for analysis of spatially distributed Earth system, climate, and hydrologic data have been developed. The System allows visualization, data exploration, querying, manipulation and arbitrary calculations with any loaded gridded or vector polygon dataset. The system's acronym, RIMS, stands for its core functionality as a Rapid Integrated Mapping System. The system can be deployed for a Global scale projects as well as for regional hydrology and climatology studies. In particular, the Water Systems Analysis Group of the University of New Hampshire developed the global and regional (Northern Eurasia, pan-Arctic) versions of the system with different map projections and specific data. The system has demonstrated its potential for applications in other fields of Earth sciences and education. The key Web server/client components of the framework include (a) a visualization engine built on Open Source libraries (GDAL, PROJ.4, etc.) that are utilized in a MapServer; (b) multi-level data querying tools built on XML server-client communication protocols that allow downloading map data on-the-fly to a client web browser; and (c) data manipulation and grid cell level calculation tools that mimic desktop GIS software functionality via a web interface. Server side data management of the system is designed around a simple database of dataset metadata facilitating mounting of new data to the system and maintaining existing data in an easy manner. RIMS contains "built-in" river network data that allows for query of upstream areas on-demand which can be used for spatial data aggregation and analysis of sub-basin areas. RIMS is an ongoing effort and currently being used to serve a number of websites hosting a suite of hydrologic, environmental and other GIS data.

  9. Rapid response of a hydrologic system to volcanic activity: Masaya volcano, Nicaragua (United States)

    Pearson, S.C.P.; Connor, C.B.; Sanford, W.E.


    Hydrologic systems change in response to volcanic activity, and in turn may be sensitive indicators of volcanic activity. Here we investigate the coupled nature of magmatic and hydrologic systems using continuous multichannel time series of soil temperature collected on the flanks of Masaya volcano, Nicaragua, one of the most active volcanoes in Central America. The soil temperatures were measured in a low-temperature fumarole field located 3.5 km down the flanks of the volcano. Analysis of these time series reveals that they respond extremely rapidly, on a time scale of minutes, to changes in volcanic activity also manifested at the summit vent. These rapid temperature changes are caused by increased flow of water vapor through flank fumaroles during volcanism. The soil temperature response, ~5 °C, is repetitive and complex, with as many as 13 pulses during a single volcanic episode. Analysis of the frequency spectrum of these temperature time series shows that these anomalies are characterized by broad frequency content during volcanic activity. They are thus easily distinguished from seasonal trends, diurnal variations, or individual rainfall events, which triggered rapid transient increases in temperature during 5% of events. We suggest that the mechanism responsible for the distinctive temperature signals is rapid change in pore pressure in response to magmatism, a response that can be enhanced by meteoric water infiltration. Monitoring of distal fumaroles can therefore provide insight into coupled volcanic-hydrologic-meteorologic systems, and has potential as an inexpensive monitoring tool.

  10. Drinking water systems, hydrology, and childhood gastrointestinal illness in Central and Northern Wisconsin. (United States)

    Uejio, Christopher K; Yale, Steven H; Malecki, Kristen; Borchardt, Mark A; Anderson, Henry A; Patz, Jonathan A


    This study investigated if the type of drinking water source (treated municipal, untreated municipal, and private well water) modifies the effect of hydrology on childhood (aged hydrologic and weather conditions with childhood gastrointestinal illness from 1991 to 2010. The Central and Northern Wisconsin study area includes households using all 3 types of drinking water systems. Separate time series models were created for each system and half-year period (winter/spring, summer/fall). More precipitation (summer/fall) systematically increased childhood gastrointestinal illness in municipalities accessing untreated water. The relative risk of contracting gastrointestinal illness was 1.4 in weeks with 3 centimeters of precipitation and 2.4 in very wet weeks with 12 centimeters of precipitation. By contrast, gastrointestinal illness in private well and treated municipal areas was not influenced by hydrologic conditions, although warmer winter temperatures slightly increased incidence. Our study suggests that improved drinking water protection, treatment, and delivery infrastructure may improve public health by specifically identifying municipal water systems lacking water treatment that may transmit waterborne disease.

  11. Isotopic hydrological studies carried out on the Karst water system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Longinelli, A.


    The isotopic composition and temperature of many karst springs in the area of Trieste (Italy) have been measured for about three and a half years. During the same period the isotopic composition of precipitation has also been systematically studied. The isotopic composition of springs generally shows variations which are markedly shifted in time with respect to those of precipitation. In most of the springs the heavy isotope contents of winter samples are the highest of the whole year. On the contrary, summer samples normally show quite negative δ-values, the most negative of which often refer to the last summer months. The data obtained are explained in terms of variable mixing of waters from two main reservoirs. The less negative reservoir (in terms of δ) is recharged by ''local'' meteoric waters falling on the westernmost section of the karst area whose mean elevation is about 400 m a.s.l. The most negative reservoir is probably recharged by meteoric waters falling on the Slovenian section of the karst, whose mean elevation is about 800-900 m a.s.l. At least in the case of some of the northernmost karst springs, it is likely that a third water system, basically fed by the Isonzo river, flowing north of the karst area, could interfere with the previously mentioned reservoirs, partially controlling the outflow of some springs. 6 figs

  12. Primer: Using Watershed Modeling System (WMS) for Gridded Surface Subsurface Hydrologic Analysis (GSSHA) Data Development - WMS 6.1 and GSSHA 1.43C

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Downer, Charles


    This document is a primer for use of the Watershed Modeling System (WMS) interface with the physically based, distributed-parameter hydrologic model Gridded Surface Subsurface Hydrologic Analysis (GSSHA...

  13. Evaluation of thermo-hydrological performance in support of the thermal loading systems study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buscheck, T.A.; Nitao, J.J.


    Heat generated as a result of emplacing spent nuclear fuel will significantly affect the pre- and post-closure performance of the Mined Geological Disposal System (MGDS) at the potential repository site in Yucca Mountain. Understanding thermo-hydrological behavior under repository thermal loads is essential in (a) planning and conducting the site characterization and testing program, (b) designing the repository and engineered barrier system, and (c) assessing performance. The greatest concern for hydrological performance is source of water that would contact a waste package, accelerate its failure rate, and eventually transport radionuclides to the water table. The primary sources of liquid water are: (1) natural infiltration, (2) condensate generated under boiling conditions, and (3) condensate generated under sub-boiling conditions. Buoyant vapor flow, occurring either on a sub-repository scale or on a mountain scale, any affect the generation of the second and third sources of liquid water. A system of connected fractures facilitates repository-heat-driven gas and liquid flow as well as natural infiltration. With the use of repository-scale and sub-repository-scale models, the authors analyze thermo-hydrological behavior for Areal Mass Loadings (AMLs) of 24.2, 35.9, 55.3, 83.4, and 110.5 MTU/acre for a wide range of bulk permeability. They examine the temporal and spatial extent of the temperature and saturation changes during the first 100,000 yr. They also examine the sensitivity of mountain scale moisture redistribution to a range of AMLs and bulk permeabilities. In addition, they investigate how boiling and buoyant, gas-phase convection influence thermo-hydrological behavior in the vicinity of emplacement drifts containing spent nuclear fuel

  14. Introducing the CUAHSI Hydrologic Information System Desktop Application (HydroDesktop) and Open Development Community (United States)

    Ames, D.; Kadlec, J.; Horsburgh, J. S.; Maidment, D. R.


    The Consortium of Universities for the Advancement of Hydrologic Sciences (CUAHSI) Hydrologic Information System (HIS) project includes extensive development of data storage and delivery tools and standards including WaterML (a language for sharing hydrologic data sets via web services); and HIS Server (a software tool set for delivering WaterML from a server); These and other CUASHI HIS tools have been under development and deployment for several years and together, present a relatively complete software “stack” to support the consistent storage and delivery of hydrologic and other environmental observation data. This presentation describes the development of a new HIS software tool called “HydroDesktop” and the development of an online open source software development community to update and maintain the software. HydroDesktop is a local (i.e. not server-based) client side software tool that ultimately will run on multiple operating systems and will provide a highly usable level of access to HIS services. The software provides many key capabilities including data query, map-based visualization, data download, local data maintenance, editing, graphing, data export to selected model-specific data formats, linkage with integrated modeling systems such as OpenMI, and ultimately upload to HIS servers from the local desktop software. As the software is presently in the early stages of development, this presentation will focus on design approach and paradigm and is viewed as an opportunity to encourage participation in the open development community. Indeed, recognizing the value of community based code development as a means of ensuring end-user adoption, this project has adopted an “iterative” or “spiral” software development approach which will be described in this presentation.

  15. A flexible hydrological modelling system developed using an object oriented methodology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rinde, Trond


    The report presents a software system called Process Integrating Network (PINE). The capabilities, working principles, programming technical design and principles of use of the system are described as are some practical applications. PINE is a simulation tool for modelling of hydrological and hydrologically related phenomena. The system is based on object oriented programming principles and was specially designed to provide freedom in the choice of model structures and algorithms for process descriptions. It supports full freedom with regards to spatial distribution and temporal resolution. Geographical information systems (GIS) may be integrated with PINE in order to provide full spatial distribution in system parametrisation, process simulation and visualisation of simulation results. Simulation models are developed by linking components for process description together in a structure. The system can handle compound working media such as water with chemical or biological constituents. Non-hydrological routines may then be included to describe the responses of such constituents. Features such as extensibility and reuse of program components are emphasised in the program design. Separation between process topology, process descriptions and process data facilitates simple and consistent implementation of components for process description. Such components may be automatically prototyped and their response functions may be implemented without knowledge of other parts of the program system and without the need to program import or export routines or a user interface. Model extension is thus a rapid process that does not require extensive programming skills. Components for process descriptions may further be placed in separate program libraries, which can be included in the program as required. The program system can thus be very compact while it still has a large number of process algorithms available. The system can run on both PC and UNIX platforms. 106 figs., 20

  16. Hydrologic-geochemical modeling needs for nuclear waste disposal systems performance assessments from the NEA perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muller, A.B.


    Credible scenarios for releases from high level nuclear waste repositories require radionuclides to be mobilized and transported by ground water. The capability to predict ground water flow velocities and directions as well as radionuclide concentrations in the flow system as a function of time are essential for assessing the performance of disposal systems. The first of these parameters can be estimated by hydrologic modeling while the concentrations can be predicted by geochemical modeling. The complementary use of empirical and phenomenological approaches to the geochemical modeling, when effectively coupled with hydrologic models can provide the tools needed for realistic performance assessment. An overview of the activities of the NEA in this area, with emphasis on the geochemical data bases (ISIRS for Ksub(d) data and the thermochemical data base critical review), rock/water interaction modeling (code development and short-courses), and hydrologic-geochemical code coupling (workshop and in-house activities) is presented in this paper from the perspective of probabilistic risk assessment needs. (author)

  17. Using the object modeling system for hydrological model development and application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Kralisch


    Full Text Available State of the art challenges in sustainable management of water resources have created demand for integrated, flexible and easy to use hydrological models which are able to simulate the quantitative and qualitative aspects of the hydrological cycle with a sufficient degree of certainty. Existing models which have been de-veloped to fit these needs are often constrained to specific scales or purposes and thus can not be easily adapted to meet different challenges. As a solution for flexible and modularised model development and application, the Object Modeling System (OMS has been developed in a joint approach by the USDA-ARS, GPSRU (Fort Collins, CO, USA, USGS (Denver, CO, USA, and the FSU (Jena, Germany. The OMS provides a modern modelling framework which allows the implementation of single process components to be compiled and applied as custom tailored model assemblies. This paper describes basic principles of the OMS and its main components and explains in more detail how the problems during coupling of models or model components are solved inside the system. It highlights the integration of different spatial and temporal scales by their representation as spatial modelling entities embedded into time compound components. As an exam-ple the implementation of the hydrological model J2000 is discussed.

  18. NATO Advanced Study Institute on Recent Advances in the Modeling of Hydrologic Systems

    CERN Document Server

    O’Connell, P


    Modeling of the rainfall-runoff process is of both scientific and practical significance. Many of the currently used mathematical models of hydrologic systems were developed a genera­ tion ago. Much of the effort since then has focused on refining these models rather than on developing new models based on improved scientific understanding. In the past few years, however, a renewed effort has been made to improve both our fundamental understanding of hydrologic processes and to exploit technological advances in computing and remote sensing. It is against this background that the NATO Advanced Study Institute on Recent Advances in the Modeling of Hydrologic Systems was organized. The idea for holding a NATO ASI on this topic grew out of an informal discussion between one of the co-directors and Professor Francisco Nunes-Correia at a previous NATO ASI held at Tucson, Arizona in 1985. The Special Program Panel on Global Transport Mechanisms in the Geo-Sciences of the NATO Scientific Affairs Division agreed to sp...

  19. Is there a need for hydrological modelling in decision support systems for nuclear emergencies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raskob, W.; Heling, R.; Zheleznyak, M.


    Full text: Potential releases from nuclear installations may contaminate both the terrestrial and the aquatic environment. Significant dose contributions via the aquatic pathways were shown for releases from Oak Ridge Laboratory (on the Clinch River-Tennessee River basin), for releases from the 'Mayak' plant (on the Techa River - Ob River system) and finally for releases from Chernobyl (on the Dnieper River basin and on the Scandinavian lake system via atmospheric fallout). Of highest concern was the contamination of drinking water, as the public is very sensitive to the quality of this essential nutrient. Consumption of aquatic food products and contamination of terrestrial crops via irrigation are potential exposure pathways which have to be considered in addition in case of a contamination of the aquatic environment. National hydrological services were, among others, responsible for the surveillance of the national water ways. This includes also monitoring of radioactive substances on a routine basis. Besides taking measurements at various locations, models might be available to predict the water discharge and to some extend also the concentration of pollutants in some of the most important river systems. Therefore, one can argue that these services, as they are part of the emergency management team in case of a nuclear emergency, should be able to support decision making to the extend necessary. However, the advice from the hydrological services might be limited to the analysis of the present situation including only limited prediction capabilities mainly focusing on the behaviour of radionuclides in the main river systems in relation to the preduction of drinking water. Contrary to this, a complete hydrological model chain has been established in the RODOS system, covering all relevant processes from the runoff from contaminated areas, transport in river systems and reservoirs, behaviour of radionuclides in lakes and finally the modelling of coastal areas. To

  20. Simplifying a hydrological ensemble prediction system with a backward greedy selection of members – Part 1: Optimization criteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Brochero


    Full Text Available Hydrological Ensemble Prediction Systems (HEPS, obtained by forcing rainfall-runoff models with Meteorological Ensemble Prediction Systems (MEPS, have been recognized as useful approaches to quantify uncertainties of hydrological forecasting systems. This task is complex both in terms of the coupling of information and computational time, which may create an operational barrier. The main objective of the current work is to assess the degree of simplification (reduction of the number of hydrological members that can be achieved with a HEPS configured using 16 lumped hydrological models driven by the 50 weather ensemble forecasts from the European Centre for Medium-range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF. Here, Backward Greedy Selection (BGS is proposed to assess the weight that each model must represent within a subset that offers similar or better performance than a reference set of 800 hydrological members. These hydrological models' weights represent the participation of each hydrological model within a simplified HEPS which would issue real-time forecasts in a relatively short computational time. The methodology uses a variation of the k-fold cross-validation, allowing an optimal use of the information, and employs a multi-criterion framework that represents the combination of resolution, reliability, consistency, and diversity. Results show that the degree of reduction of members can be established in terms of maximum number of members required (complexity of the HEPS or the maximization of the relationship between the different scores (performance.

  1. Relative effects of statistical preprocessing and postprocessing on a regional hydrological ensemble prediction system (United States)

    Sharma, Sanjib; Siddique, Ridwan; Reed, Seann; Ahnert, Peter; Mendoza, Pablo; Mejia, Alfonso


    The relative roles of statistical weather preprocessing and streamflow postprocessing in hydrological ensemble forecasting at short- to medium-range forecast lead times (day 1-7) are investigated. For this purpose, a regional hydrologic ensemble prediction system (RHEPS) is developed and implemented. The RHEPS is comprised of the following components: (i) hydrometeorological observations (multisensor precipitation estimates, gridded surface temperature, and gauged streamflow); (ii) weather ensemble forecasts (precipitation and near-surface temperature) from the National Centers for Environmental Prediction 11-member Global Ensemble Forecast System Reforecast version 2 (GEFSRv2); (iii) NOAA's Hydrology Laboratory-Research Distributed Hydrologic Model (HL-RDHM); (iv) heteroscedastic censored logistic regression (HCLR) as the statistical preprocessor; (v) two statistical postprocessors, an autoregressive model with a single exogenous variable (ARX(1,1)) and quantile regression (QR); and (vi) a comprehensive verification strategy. To implement the RHEPS, 1 to 7 days weather forecasts from the GEFSRv2 are used to force HL-RDHM and generate raw ensemble streamflow forecasts. Forecasting experiments are conducted in four nested basins in the US Middle Atlantic region, ranging in size from 381 to 12 362 km2. Results show that the HCLR preprocessed ensemble precipitation forecasts have greater skill than the raw forecasts. These improvements are more noticeable in the warm season at the longer lead times (> 3 days). Both postprocessors, ARX(1,1) and QR, show gains in skill relative to the raw ensemble streamflow forecasts, particularly in the cool season, but QR outperforms ARX(1,1). The scenarios that implement preprocessing and postprocessing separately tend to perform similarly, although the postprocessing-alone scenario is often more effective. The scenario involving both preprocessing and postprocessing consistently outperforms the other scenarios. In some cases

  2. Evolving hydrologic connectivity in discontinuous permafrost lowlands: what it means for lake systems (United States)

    Walvoord, M. A.; Jepsen, S. M.; Rover, J.; Voss, C. I.; Briggs, M. A.


    Permafrost influence on the hydrologic connectivity of surface water bodies in high-latitude lowlands is complicated by subsurface heterogeneity and the propensity of the system to change over time. In general, permafrost limits the subsurface exchange of water, solute, and nutrients between lakes and rivers. It follows that permafrost thaw could enhance subsurface hydrologic connectivity among surface water bodies, but the impact of this process on lake distribution is not well known. Changes in the extent of lakes in interior Alaska have important ecological and societal impacts since lakes provide (1) critical habitat for migratory arctic shorebirds and waterfowl, fish, and wildlife, and (2) provisional, recreational, and cultural resources for local communities. We utilize electromagnetic imaging of the shallow subsurface and remote sensing of lake level dynamics in the Yukon Flats of interior Alaska, USA, together with water balance modeling, to gain insight into the influence of discontinuous permafrost on lowland lake systems. In the study region with relatively low precipitation, observations suggest that lakes that are hydrologically isolated during normal conditions are sustained by periodic river flooding events, including ice-jam floods that occur during river ice break-up. Climatically-influenced alterations in flooding frequency and intensity, as well as depth to permafrost, are quantitatively assessed in the context of lake maintenance. Scenario modeling is used to evaluate lake level evolution under plausible changing conditions. Model results demonstrate how permafrost degradation can reduce the dependence of typical lowland lakes on flooding events. Study results also suggest that river flooding may recharge a more spatially widespread zone of lakes and wetlands under future scenarios of permafrost table deepening and enhanced subsurface hydrologic connectivity.

  3. The progress of hydrology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chow, V T [University of Illinois, Urbana, IL (United States)


    This paper discusses mainly the challenge of hydrology, recent activities, events, and major problems in hydrology, and advances in hydrological techniques. New scientific knowledge and techniques developed in many modern scientific disciplines, and the recognition of the importance of hydrology in water-resources development enable and encourage the hydrologist to advance scientific hydrology. Many programmes to promote hydrology and to expand its attendant activities have been developed in recent years. Therefore, the activities in the United States of America, such as the Universities Council on Water Resources and the President's Water for Peace Programme, and the programmes in the International Hydrological Decade are mentioned. The most important advance in theoretical hydrology is the development of a new concept of dynamic sequential systems for the hydrological cycle, thus creating new fields of systems, parametric, and stochastic hydrology. Modern scientific instrumentation provide the hydrologist with better tools for solving his problems. The most important of these, such as electronic computers, remote sensing, and nuclear techniques are discussed. Today various major problems, both theoretical and practical, face the hydrologist. Theoretical problems concern the basic understanding of hydrological systems and the mathematical simulation and physical interpretation of hydrological phenomena. Major practical problems are numerous and diversified, but they are mostly related to the multiple-purpose development of water resources. Four central problematical subjects are discussed; namely, the effects of man on his environment, the dynamics of aqueous flow systems, hydrological transport mechanism, and groundwater hydrology. Also, the use of nuclear techniques in solving various hydrological problems is discussed. It is believed that the application of nuclear techniques would prove extremely valuable in helping solve problems, but their ultimate use in

  4. The progress of hydrology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chow, V.T.


    This paper discusses mainly the challenge of hydrology, recent activities, events, and major problems in hydrology, and advances in hydrological techniques. New scientific knowledge and techniques developed in many modern scientific disciplines, and the recognition of the importance of hydrology in water-resources development enable and encourage the hydrologist to advance scientific hydrology. Many programmes to promote hydrology and to expand its attendant activities have been developed in recent years. Therefore, the activities in the United States of America, such as the Universities Council on Water Resources and the President's Water for Peace Programme, and the programmes in the International Hydrological Decade are mentioned. The most important advance in theoretical hydrology is the development of a new concept of dynamic sequential systems for the hydrological cycle, thus creating new fields of systems, parametric, and stochastic hydrology. Modern scientific instrumentation provide the hydrologist with better tools for solving his problems. The most important of these, such as electronic computers, remote sensing, and nuclear techniques are discussed. Today various major problems, both theoretical and practical, face the hydrologist. Theoretical problems concern the basic understanding of hydrological systems and the mathematical simulation and physical interpretation of hydrological phenomena. Major practical problems are numerous and diversified, but they are mostly related to the multiple-purpose development of water resources. Four central problematical subjects are discussed; namely, the effects of man on his environment, the dynamics of aqueous flow systems, hydrological transport mechanism, and groundwater hydrology. Also, the use of nuclear techniques in solving various hydrological problems is discussed. It is believed that the application of nuclear techniques would prove extremely valuable in helping solve problems, but their ultimate use in

  5. Global system for hydrological monitoring and forecasting in real time at high resolution (United States)

    Ortiz, Enrique; De Michele, Carlo; Todini, Ezio; Cifres, Enrique


    This project presented at the EGU 2016 born of solidarity and the need to dignify the most disadvantaged people living in the poorest countries (Africa, South America and Asia, which are continually exposed to changes in the hydrologic cycle suffering events of large floods and/or long periods of droughts. It is also a special year this 2016, Year of Mercy, in which we must engage with the most disadvantaged of our Planet (Gaia) making available to them what we do professionally and scientifically. The project called "Global system for hydrological monitoring and forecasting in real time at high resolution" is Non-Profit and aims to provide at global high resolution (1km2) hydrological monitoring and forecasting in real time and continuously coupling Weather Forecast of Global Circulation Models, such us GFS-0.25° (Deterministic and Ensembles Run) forcing a physically based distributed hydrological model computationally efficient, such as the latest version extended of TOPKAPI model, named TOPKAPI-eXtended. Finally using the MCP approach for the proper use of ensembles for Predictive Uncertainty assessment essentially based on a multiple regression in the Normal space, can be easily extended to use ensembles to represent the local (in time) smaller or larger conditional predictive uncertainty, as a function of the ensemble spread. In this way, each prediction in time accounts for both the predictive uncertainty of the ensemble mean and that of the ensemble spread. To perform a continuous hydrological modeling with TOPKAPI-X model and have hot start of hydrological status of watersheds, the system assimilated products of rainfall and temperature derived from remote sensing, such as product 3B42RT of TRMM NASA and others.The system will be integrated into a Decision Support System (DSS) platform, based on geographical data. The DSS is a web application (For Pc, Tablet/Mobile phone): It does not need installation (all you need is a web browser and an internet

  6. Integrating 3D geological information with a national physically-based hydrological modelling system (United States)

    Lewis, Elizabeth; Parkin, Geoff; Kessler, Holger; Whiteman, Mark


    Robust numerical models are an essential tool for informing flood and water management and policy around the world. Physically-based hydrological models have traditionally not been used for such applications due to prohibitively large data, time and computational resource requirements. Given recent advances in computing power and data availability, a robust, physically-based hydrological modelling system for Great Britain using the SHETRAN model and national datasets has been created. Such a model has several advantages over less complex systems. Firstly, compared with conceptual models, a national physically-based model is more readily applicable to ungauged catchments, in which hydrological predictions are also required. Secondly, the results of a physically-based system may be more robust under changing conditions such as climate and land cover, as physical processes and relationships are explicitly accounted for. Finally, a fully integrated surface and subsurface model such as SHETRAN offers a wider range of applications compared with simpler schemes, such as assessments of groundwater resources, sediment and nutrient transport and flooding from multiple sources. As such, SHETRAN provides a robust means of simulating numerous terrestrial system processes which will add physical realism when coupled to the JULES land surface model. 306 catchments spanning Great Britain have been modelled using this system. The standard configuration of this system performs satisfactorily (NSE > 0.5) for 72% of catchments and well (NSE > 0.7) for 48%. Many of the remaining 28% of catchments that performed relatively poorly (NSE land cover change studies and integrated assessments of groundwater and surface water resources.

  7. Water and chemical budgets in an urbanized river system under various hydrological conditions (United States)

    Brion, Natacha; Carbonnel, Vincent; Elskens, Marc; Claeys, Philippe; Verbanck, Michel A.


    Since historical times, riversides are preferential settlement places for human life and activities, ultimately leading to the development of Cities. Available water resources are not only essential to ensure human's vital functions, they are also used for the production of food, goods, and energy, as transport routes and as evacuation ways for domestic and industrial waste products. All these activities profoundly modify natural water circulation as well as water quality, with increased hydrological risks (floods, droughts,…) and chemical hazards (untreated sewage releases, industrial pollution,…) as consequence. An extreme example of strongly modified river system is the river Zenne crossing the city of Brussels. In and around the city, the river together with its connected navigation canal, determine a small vertical urbanized area (800 km2) combining extreme land-use landscapes. While the southern upstream part of this area lies in a region of intensive agricultural activities, the central part is occupied by a dense cityscape including a forested area, and the downstream part is mainly under industrial influence. In this context, we established a box-model representation of water and selected polluting chemicals (N and P, biological oxygen demand, and a selection of metals, pesticides and PAHs) budgets for the studied area under variable hydrological conditions. We first have identified the general distribution of water and pollutant tracers in the various background sources of the system: waters in streams located in the very upstream parts of the catchment, and untreated and treated sewage. Secondly we have assessed the distribution of water flows, and pollutant tracer concentrations at the boundaries of the studied water systems for different stable hydrological conditions and during flood events. Finally we will discuss water budgets and pollution tracer budgets for a yearly average hydrological situation and for dry and wet weather conditions in order

  8. Verification of ECMWF System 4 for seasonal hydrological forecasting in a northern climate (United States)

    Bazile, Rachel; Boucher, Marie-Amélie; Perreault, Luc; Leconte, Robert


    Hydropower production requires optimal dam and reservoir management to prevent flooding damage and avoid operation losses. In a northern climate, where spring freshet constitutes the main inflow volume, seasonal forecasts can help to establish a yearly strategy. Long-term hydrological forecasts often rely on past observations of streamflow or meteorological data. Another alternative is to use ensemble meteorological forecasts produced by climate models. In this paper, those produced by the ECMWF (European Centre for Medium-Range Forecast) System 4 are examined and bias is characterized. Bias correction, through the linear scaling method, improves the performance of the raw ensemble meteorological forecasts in terms of continuous ranked probability score (CRPS). Then, three seasonal ensemble hydrological forecasting systems are compared: (1) the climatology of simulated streamflow, (2) the ensemble hydrological forecasts based on climatology (ESP) and (3) the hydrological forecasts based on bias-corrected ensemble meteorological forecasts from System 4 (corr-DSP). Simulated streamflow computed using observed meteorological data is used as benchmark. Accounting for initial conditions is valuable even for long-term forecasts. ESP and corr-DSP both outperform the climatology of simulated streamflow for lead times from 1 to 5 months depending on the season and watershed. Integrating information about future meteorological conditions also improves monthly volume forecasts. For the 1-month lead time, a gain exists for almost all watersheds during winter, summer and fall. However, volume forecasts performance for spring varies from one watershed to another. For most of them, the performance is close to the performance of ESP. For longer lead times, the CRPS skill score is mostly in favour of ESP, even if for many watersheds, ESP and corr-DSP have comparable skill. Corr-DSP appears quite reliable but, in some cases, under-dispersion or bias is observed. A more complex bias

  9. A Quantitative Socio-hydrological Characterization of Water Security in Large-Scale Irrigation Systems (United States)

    Siddiqi, A.; Muhammad, A.; Wescoat, J. L., Jr.


    Large-scale, legacy canal systems, such as the irrigation infrastructure in the Indus Basin in Punjab, Pakistan, have been primarily conceived, constructed, and operated with a techno-centric approach. The emerging socio-hydrological approaches provide a new lens for studying such systems to potentially identify fresh insights for addressing contemporary challenges of water security. In this work, using the partial definition of water security as "the reliable availability of an acceptable quantity and quality of water", supply reliability is construed as a partial measure of water security in irrigation systems. A set of metrics are used to quantitatively study reliability of surface supply in the canal systems of Punjab, Pakistan using an extensive dataset of 10-daily surface water deliveries over a decade (2007-2016) and of high frequency (10-minute) flow measurements over one year. The reliability quantification is based on comparison of actual deliveries and entitlements, which are a combination of hydrological and social constructs. The socio-hydrological lens highlights critical issues of how flows are measured, monitored, perceived, and experienced from the perspective of operators (government officials) and users (famers). The analysis reveals varying levels of reliability (and by extension security) of supply when data is examined across multiple temporal and spatial scales. The results shed new light on evolution of water security (as partially measured by supply reliability) for surface irrigation in the Punjab province of Pakistan and demonstrate that "information security" (defined as reliable availability of sufficiently detailed data) is vital for enabling water security. It is found that forecasting and management (that are social processes) lead to differences between entitlements and actual deliveries, and there is significant potential to positively affect supply reliability through interventions in the social realm.

  10. A process-based model for the definition of hydrological alert systems in landslide risk mitigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Floris


    Full Text Available The definition of hydrological alert systems for rainfall-induced landslides is strongly related to a deep knowledge of the geological and geomorphological features of the territory. Climatic conditions, spatial and temporal evolution of the phenomena and characterization of landslide triggering, together with propagation mechanisms, are the key elements to be considered. Critical steps for the development of the systems consist of the identification of the hydrological variable related to landslide triggering and of the minimum rainfall threshold for landslide occurrence.

    In this paper we report the results from a process-based model to define a hydrological alert system for the Val di Maso Landslide, located in the northeastern Italian Alps and included in the Vicenza Province (Veneto region, NE Italy. The instability occurred in November 2010, due to an exceptional rainfall event that hit the Vicenza Province and the entire NE Italy. Up to 500 mm in 3-day cumulated rainfall generated large flood conditions and triggered hundreds of landslides. During the flood, the Soil Protection Division of the Vicenza Province received more than 500 warnings of instability phenomena. The complexity of the event and the high level of risk to infrastructure and private buildings are the main reasons for deepening the specific phenomenon occurred at Val di Maso.

    Empirical and physically-based models have been used to identify the minimum rainfall threshold for the occurrence of instability phenomena in the crown area of Val di Maso landslide, where a retrogressive evolution by multiple rotational slides is expected. Empirical models helped in the identification and in the evaluation of recurrence of critical rainfall events, while physically-based modelling was essential to verify the effects on the slope stability of determined rainfall depths. Empirical relationships between rainfall and landslide consist of the calculation of rainfall

  11. Water System Adaptation to Hydrological Changes: Module 1, Introduction to Water System Adaptation (United States)

    Contemporary water management requires resilience, the ability to meet ever increasing water needs, and capacity to adapt to abrupt or transient changes in water quality and availability. For this purpose, effective adaptation to extreme hydrological events (e.g. intense storms, ...

  12. Hydrology and phosphorus transport simulation in a lowland polder by a coupled modeling system. (United States)

    Yan, Renhua; Huang, Jiacong; Li, Lingling; Gao, Junfeng


    Modeling the rain-runoff processes and phosphorus transport processes in lowland polders is critical in finding reasonable measures to alleviate the eutrophication problem of downstream rivers and lakes. This study develops a lowland Polder Hydrology and Phosphorus modeling System (PHPS) by coupling the WALRUS-paddy model and an improved phosphorus module of a Phosphorus Dynamic model for lowland Polder systems (PDP). It considers some important hydrological characteristics, such as groundwater-unsaturated zone coupling, groundwater-surface water feedback, human-controlled irrigation and discharge, and detailed physical and biochemical cycles of phosphorus in surface water. The application of the model in the Jianwei polder shows that the simulated phosphorus matches well with the measured values. The high precision of this model combined with its low input data requirement and efficient computation make it practical and easy to the water resources management of Chinese polders. Parameter sensitivity analysis demonstrates that K uptake , c Q2 , c W1 , and c Q1 exert a significant effect on the modeled results, whereas K resuspensionMax , K settling , and K mineralization have little effect on the modeled total phosphorus. Among the three types of uncertainties (i.e., parameter, initial condition, and forcing uncertainties), forcing uncertainty produces the strongest effect on the simulated phosphorus. Based on the analysis result of annual phosphorus balance when considering the high import from irrigation and fertilization, lowland polder is capable of retaining phosphorus and reducing phosphorus export to surrounding aquatic ecosystems because of their special hydrological regulation regime. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Integrated analysis of hydrological system, use and management. Langueyu stream basin, Tandil, Argentina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruiz de Galarreta, V.A.; Banda Noriega, R.B.; Barranquero, R.S.; Diaz, A.A.; Rodriguez, C.I.; Miguel, R.E.


    This work is aim to hydrological and environmental characterization of Langueyu stream basin, where Tandil city is located. This basin is developed on northern hillside of Tandilia system, in Buenos Aires province, and it drains to NE. There are two different hydrogeological units: crystalline rocks and Cenozoic sediments, which correspond with two hydrolithological characters, fissured and clastic porous, respectively. The population is supplied by groundwater sources. Water exploitation and use were analyzed, according to the growing demands from industrial, agricultural and urban uses. The impacts of intense exploitation were evaluated. High levels of nitrate were corroborated in older wells of the city, which nowadays are in use. The hydrodynamic change in a section of the stream, where it converts to influent, was detected. This disturbance of the natural relation could be a potential source of contamination to the aquifer, due to high charges of industrial and urban effluents which the stream receives. Several population sectors, which have neither a drinking water net nor a sewer system, showed microbiological and chemical water contamination. Other water impact is constituted by several abandoned quarries which have historically received wastes, mainly from foundry industries. In conclusion, water management basin does not aim to sustainable development, due to its lack of integration. It demands the knowledge of hydrological system, according with the goal to avoid water quality degradation and to guarantee its protection. (Author).

  14. JGrass-NewAge hydrological system: an open-source platform for the replicability of science. (United States)

    Bancheri, Marialaura; Serafin, Francesco; Formetta, Giuseppe; Rigon, Riccardo; David, Olaf


    JGrass-NewAge is an open source semi-distributed hydrological modelling system. It is based on the object modelling framework (OMS version 3), on the JGrasstools and on the Geotools. OMS3 allows to create independent packages of software which can be connected at run-time in a working modelling solution. These components are available as library/dependency or as repository to fork in order to add further features. Different tools are adopted to make easier the integration, the interoperability and the use of each package. Most of the components are Gradle integrated, since it represents the state-of-art of the building systems, especially for Java projects. The continuous integration is a further layer between local source code (client-side) and remote repository (server-side) and ensures the building and the testing of the source code at each commit. Finally, the use of Zenodo makes the code hosted in GitHub unique, citable and traceable, with a defined DOI. Following the previous standards, each part of the hydrological cycle is implemented in JGrass-NewAge as a component that can be selected, adopted, and connected to obtain a user "customized" hydrological model. A variety of modelling solutions are possible, allowing a complete hydrological analysis. Moreover, thanks to the JGrasstools and the Geotools, the visualization of the data and of the results using a selected GIS is possible. After the geomorphological analysis of the watershed, the spatial interpolation of the meteorological inputs can be performed using both deterministic (IDW) and geostatistic (Kriging) algorithms. For the radiation balance, the shortwave and longwave radiation can be estimated, which are, in turn, inputs for the simulation of the evapotranspiration, according to Priestly-Taylor and Penman-Monteith formulas. Three degree-day models are implemented for the snow melting and SWE. The runoff production can be simulated using two different components, "Adige" and "Embedded Reservoirs

  15. Improved Lower Mekong River Basin Hydrological Decision Making Using NASA Satellite-based Earth Observation Systems (United States)

    Bolten, J. D.; Mohammed, I. N.; Srinivasan, R.; Lakshmi, V.


    Better understanding of the hydrological cycle of the Lower Mekong River Basin (LMRB) and addressing the value-added information of using remote sensing data on the spatial variability of soil moisture over the Mekong Basin is the objective of this work. In this work, we present the development and assessment of the LMRB (drainage area of 495,000 km2) Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT). The coupled model framework presented is part of SERVIR, a joint capacity building venture between NASA and the U.S. Agency for International Development, providing state-of-the-art, satellite-based earth monitoring, imaging and mapping data, geospatial information, predictive models, and science applications to improve environmental decision-making among multiple developing nations. The developed LMRB SWAT model enables the integration of satellite-based daily gridded precipitation, air temperature, digital elevation model, soil texture, and land cover and land use data to drive SWAT model simulations over the Lower Mekong River Basin. The LMRB SWAT model driven by remote sensing climate data was calibrated and verified with observed runoff data at the watershed outlet as well as at multiple sites along the main river course. Another LMRB SWAT model set driven by in-situ climate observations was also calibrated and verified to streamflow data. Simulated soil moisture estimates from the two models were then examined and compared to a downscaled Soil Moisture Active Passive Sensor (SMAP) 36 km radiometer products. Results from this work present a framework for improving SWAT performance by utilizing a downscaled SMAP soil moisture products used for model calibration and validation. Index Terms: 1622: Earth system modeling; 1631: Land/atmosphere interactions; 1800: Hydrology; 1836 Hydrological cycles and budgets; 1840 Hydrometeorology; 1855: Remote sensing; 1866: Soil moisture; 6334: Regional Planning

  16. Data and Models as Social Objects in the HydroShare System for Collaboration in the Hydrology Community and Beyond (United States)

    Tarboton, D. G.; Idaszak, R.; Horsburgh, J. S.; Ames, D. P.; Goodall, J. L.; Band, L. E.; Merwade, V.; Couch, A.; Hooper, R. P.; Maidment, D. R.; Dash, P. K.; Stealey, M.; Yi, H.; Gan, T.; Castronova, A. M.; Miles, B.; Li, Z.; Morsy, M. M.; Crawley, S.; Ramirez, M.; Sadler, J.; Xue, Z.; Bandaragoda, C.


    How do you share and publish hydrologic data and models for a large collaborative project? HydroShare is a new, web-based system for sharing hydrologic data and models with specific functionality aimed at making collaboration easier. HydroShare has been developed with U.S. National Science Foundation support under the auspices of the Consortium of Universities for the Advancement of Hydrologic Science, Inc. (CUAHSI) to support the collaboration and community cyberinfrastructure needs of the hydrology research community. Within HydroShare, we have developed new functionality for creating datasets, describing them with metadata, and sharing them with collaborators. We cast hydrologic datasets and models as "social objects" that can be shared, collaborated around, annotated, published and discovered. In addition to data and model sharing, HydroShare supports web application programs (apps) that can act on data stored in HydroShare, just as software programs on your PC act on your data locally. This can free you from some of the limitations of local computing capacity and challenges in installing and maintaining software on your own PC. HydroShare's web-based cyberinfrastructure can take work off your desk or laptop computer and onto infrastructure or "cloud" based data and processing servers. This presentation will describe HydroShare's collaboration functionality that enables both public and private sharing with individual users and collaborative user groups, and makes it easier for collaborators to iterate on shared datasets and models, creating multiple versions along the way, and publishing them with a permanent landing page, metadata description, and citable Digital Object Identifier (DOI) when the work is complete. This presentation will also describe the web app architecture that supports interoperability with third party servers functioning as application engines for analysis and processing of big hydrologic datasets. While developed to support the

  17. Forest hydrology (United States)

    Ge Sun; Devendra Amatya; Steve McNulty


    Forest hydrology studies the distribution, storage, movement, and quality of water and the hydrological processes in forest-dominated ecosystems. Forest hydrological science is regarded as the foundation of modern integrated water¬shed management. This chapter provides an overview of the history of forest hydrology and basic principles of this unique branch of...

  18. Enhancing Access to Drought Information Using the CUAHSI Hydrologic Information System (United States)

    Schreuders, K. A.; Tarboton, D. G.; Horsburgh, J. S.; Sen Gupta, A.; Reeder, S.


    The National Drought Information System (NIDIS) Upper Colorado River Basin pilot study is investigating and establishing capabilities for better dissemination of drought information for early warning and management. As part of this study we are using and extending functionality from the Consortium of Universities for the Advancement of Hydrologic Science, Inc. (CUAHSI) Hydrologic Information System (HIS) to provide better access to drought-related data in the Upper Colorado River Basin. The CUAHSI HIS is a federated system for sharing hydrologic data. It is comprised of multiple data servers, referred to as HydroServers, that publish data in a standard XML format called Water Markup Language (WaterML), using web services referred to as WaterOneFlow web services. HydroServers can also publish geospatial data using Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC) web map, feature and coverage services and are capable of hosting web and map applications that combine geospatial datasets with observational data served via web services. HIS also includes a centralized metadata catalog that indexes data from registered HydroServers and a data access client referred to as HydroDesktop. For NIDIS, we have established a HydroServer to publish drought index values as well as the input data used in drought index calculations. Primary input data required for drought index calculation include streamflow, precipitation, reservoir storages, snow water equivalent, and soil moisture. We have developed procedures to redistribute the input data to the time and space scales chosen for drought index calculation, namely half monthly time intervals for HUC 10 subwatersheds. The spatial redistribution approaches used for each input parameter are dependent on the spatial linkages for that parameter, i.e., the redistribution procedure for streamflow is dependent on the upstream/downstream connectivity of the stream network, and the precipitation redistribution procedure is dependent on elevation to account

  19. Hydrological functioning and water balance in a heavily modified hydrographic system (United States)

    Carbonnel, Vincent; Brion, Natacha; Elskens, Marc; Claeys, Philippe; Verbanck, Michel A.


    Rivers and canals are often the location for the historical settlement of cities and the backbone for their expansion, as they permit the transport of goods and people, the access to water for industrial activities and energy production, and the evacuation of the domestic and industrial wastewaters. In turn, human activities can result in modifications of the natural river systems to allow for instance ship transport or protection against flooding. The complex interconnected hydrographic network composed of the Zenne and the parallel Charleroi-Brussels-Scheldt Canal, which supports the development of the economy and urbanization of Brussels Metropolitan Area (Belgium), is a good example of such an altered system. The natural water course has been profoundly modified by the deviation of rivers to feed the canal, the control of the water flow in the canal by locks and pumps and the overflow exchange of water between the river and the canal for flood protection purposes. Also, the functioning of this system is strongly impacted by urban hydrology in Brussels, which results in amounts of wastewater discharged in the Zenne River that are nearly equivalent to the natural riverine flow. Water and water quality management in such complex and altered systems correspond to difficult tasks. They require, as a first step, a deep understanding of their hydrological functioning. Building an accurate water budget is also a necessary step in the investigation of the pollution sources, sinks, dynamics and mass-balance. In order to assess the water quality and provide insights for water management in the Zenne-Canal hydrographic network (cf. other contributions in this session), we established a detailed box-model representation of the water budget for the whole system, with a particular interest on the importance and the effects of the exchanges of water between the river and the canal. A particularity of this study is that, in contrast to the widespread use of hydrological

  20. The UP modelling system for large scale hydrology: simulation of the Arkansas-Red River basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. G. Kilsby


    Full Text Available The UP (Upscaled Physically-based hydrological modelling system to the Arkansas-Red River basin (USA is designed for macro-scale simulations of land surface processes, and aims for a physical basis and, avoids the use of discharge records in the direct calibration of parameters. This is achieved in a two stage process: in the first stage parametrizations are derived from detailed modelling of selected representative small and then used in a second stage in which a simple distributed model is used to simulate the dynamic behaviour of the whole basin. The first stage of the process is described in a companion paper (Ewen et al., this issue, and the second stage of this process is described here. The model operated at an hourly time-step on 17-km grid squares for a two year simulation period, and represents all the important hydrological processes including regional aquifer recharge, groundwater discharge, infiltration- and saturation-excess runoff, evapotranspiration, snowmelt, overland and channel flow. Outputs from the model are discussed, and include river discharge at gauging stations and space-time fields of evaporation and soil moisture. Whilst the model efficiency assessed by comparison of simulated and observed discharge records is not as good as could be achieved with a model calibrated against discharge, there are considerable advantages in retaining a physical basis in applications to ungauged river basins and assessments of impacts of land use or climate change.

  1. A Basin Approach to a Hydrological Service Delivery System in the Amur River Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergei Borsch


    Full Text Available This paper presents the basin approach to the design, development, and operation of a hydrological forecasting and early warning system in a large transboundary river basin of high flood potential, where accurate, reliable, and timely available daily water-level and reservoir-inflow forecasts are essential for water-related economic and social activities (the Amur River basin case study. Key aspects of basin-scale system planning and implementation are considered, from choosing efficient forecast models and techniques, to developing and operating data-management procedures, to disseminating operational forecasts using web-GIS. The latter, making the relevant forecast data available in real time (via Internet, visual, and well interpretable, serves as a good tool for raising awareness of possible floods in a large region with transport and industrial hubs located alongside the Amur River (Khabarovsk, Komsomolsk-on-Amur.

  2. Testing the potential of geochemical techniques for identifying hydrological systems within landslides in partly weathered marls (United States)

    Bogaard, T. A.; Buma, J. T.; Klawer, C. J. M.


    This paper's objective is to determine how useful geochemistry can be in landslide investigations. More specifically, what additional information can be gained by analysing the cation exchange capacity (CEC) and cation composition in respect to the hydrological system of a landslide area in clayey material. Two cores from the Boulc-Mondorès landslide (France) and one core from the Alvera landslide (Italy) were analysed. The NH 4Ac and NaCl laboratory techniques are tested. The geochemical results are compared with the core descriptions and interpreted with respect to their usefulness. Both analysis techniques give identical results for CEC, and are plausible on the basis of the available clay content information. The determination of the exchangeable cations was more difficult, since part of the marls dissolved. With the ammonium-acetate method more of the marls are dissolved than with the sodium-chloride method. The NaCl method is preferred for the determination of the cation fractions at the complex, be it that this method has the disadvantage that the sodium fraction cannot be determined. To overcome this problem, it is recommended to try other displacement fluids. In the Boulc-Mondorès example, the subsurface information that can be extracted from CEC analyses was presented. In the Boulc-Mondorès cores deviant intervals of CEC could be identified. These are interpreted as weathered layers (and preferential flow paths) that may develop or have already developed into slip surfaces. The major problem of the CEC analyses was to explain the origin of the differences found in the core samples. Both Alvera and Boulc-Mondorès examples show transitions in cation composition with depth. It was shown that the exchangeable caution fractions can be useful in locating boundaries between water types, especially the boundary between the superficial, rain-fed hydrological system and the lower, regional groundwater system. This information may be important for landslide

  3. Well, hydrology, and geochemistry problems encountered in ATES systems and their solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jenne, E.A.; Andersson, O.; Willemsen, A.


    In aquifer thermal energy storage (ATES) systems, wells provide the interface between the energy storage and use. Efficient operational wells are, therefore, essential for the system to run at maximum (design) efficiency. Adequate test drilling to accurately predict aquifer properties is essential in the design phase; proper construction and development are crucial; and proper monitoring of performance is necessary to identify the early stages of clogging and to evaluate the adequacy of well rehabilitation. Problems related to hydrology, well, and aquifer properties include: loss of permeability resulting from gas exsolution, chemical precipitation, and dispersion and movement of fine-grained particles; loss of recoverable heat caused by excessive regional ground-water gradient, hydrodynamic mixing of injected and native ground water, buoyancy flow and heat conduction through the cap and base of the storage zone; leakage up along the well casing; and ''fracturing'' of a shallow upper aquiclude as a result of an injection pressure greater than the hydrostatic pressure on the aquiclude. The predominant geochemical problems encountered are precipitation of carbonates in some areas and iron plus manganese oxides in others. These precipitation problems can be anticipated, and thus avoided, via geochemical calculations. The likelihood of iron carbonate precipitation is less certain because of the lack of adequate research. Corrosion is a frequent problem. Most of the hydrochemically related clogging and corrosion problems that have been encountered in ATES systems can be predicted and avoided by appropriate design, construction, and operation of new ATF-S systems, assuming that appropriate hydrologic and geochemical modeling is carried out in advance. It is prudent to carefully consider the need for water treatment and to anticipate that there will be some increase in injection pressure and decrease of specific capacity over time

  4. Telemetric system for hydrology and water quality monitoring in watersheds of northern New Mexico, USA. (United States)

    Meyer, Michael L; Huey, Greg M


    This study utilized telemetric systems to sample microbes and pathogens in forest, burned forest, rangeland, and urban watersheds to assess surface water quality in northern New Mexico. Four sites included remote mountainous watersheds, prairie rangelands, and a small urban area. The telemetric system was linked to dataloggers with automated event monitoring equipment to monitor discharge, turbidity, electrical conductivity, water temperature, and rainfall during base flow and storm events. Site data stored in dataloggers was uploaded to one of three types of telemetry: 1) radio in rangeland and urban settings; 2) a conventional phone/modem system with a modem positioned at the urban/forest interface; and 3) a satellite system used in a remote mountainous burned forest watershed. The major variables affecting selection of each system were site access, distance, technology, and cost. The systems were compared based on operation and cost. Utilization of telecommunications systems in this varied geographic area facilitated the gathering of hydrologic and water quality data on a timely basis.

  5. Online updating procedures for a real-time hydrological forecasting system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kahl, B; Nachtnebel, H P


    Rainfall-runoff-models can explain major parts of the natural runoff pattern but never simulate the observed hydrograph exactly. Reasons for errors are various sources of uncertainties embedded in the model forecasting system. Errors are due to measurement errors, the selected time period for calibration and validation, the parametric uncertainty and the model imprecision. In on-line forecasting systems forecasted input data is used which additionally generates a major uncertainty for the hydrological forecasting system. Techniques for partially compensating these uncertainties are investigated in the recent study in a medium sized catchment in the Austrian part of the Danube basin. The catchment area is about 1000 km2. The forecasting system consists of a semi-distributed continuous rainfall-runoff model that uses quantitative precipitation and temperature forecasts. To provide adequate system states at the beginning of the forecasting period continuous simulation is required, especially in winter. In this study two online updating methods are used and combined for enhancing the runoff forecasts. The first method is used for updating the system states at the beginning of the forecasting period by changing the precipitation input. The second method is an autoregressive error model, which is used to eliminate systematic errors in the model output. In combination those two methods work together well as each method is more effective in different runoff situations.

  6. Hydrodynamic modeling of hydrologic surface connectivity within a coastal river-floodplain system (United States)

    Castillo, C. R.; Guneralp, I.


    Hydrologic surface connectivity (HSC) within river-floodplain environments is a useful indicator of the overall health of riparian habitats because it allows connections amongst components/landforms of the riverine landscape system to be quantified. Overbank flows have traditionally been the focus for analyses concerned with river-floodplain connectivity, but recent works have identified the large significance from sub-bankfull streamflows. Through the use of morphometric analysis and a digital elevation model that is relative to the river water surface, we previously determined that >50% of the floodplain for Mission River on the Coastal Bend of Texas becomes connected to the river at streamflows well-below bankfull conditions. Guided by streamflow records, field-based inundation data, and morphometric analysis; we develop a two-dimensional hydrodynamic model for lower portions of Mission River Floodplain system. This model not only allows us to analyze connections induced by surface water inundation, but also other aspects of the hydrologic connectivity concept such as exchanges of sediment and energy between the river and its floodplain. We also aggregate hydrodynamic model outputs to an object/landform level in order to analyze HSC and associated attributes using measures from graph/network theory. Combining physically-based hydrodynamic models with object-based and graph theoretical analyses allow river-floodplain connectivity to be quantified in a consistent manner with measures/indicators commonly used in landscape analysis. Analyzes similar to ours build towards the establishment of a formal framework for analyzing river-floodplain interaction that will ultimately serve to inform the management of riverine/floodplain environments.

  7. Application of the Precipitation Runoff Modeling System to measure impacts of forest fire on watershed hydrology (United States)

    Driscoll, J. M.


    Precipitation in the southwestern United States falls primarily in areas of higher elevation. Drought conditions over the past five years have limited snowpack and rainfall, increasing the vulnerability to and frequency of forest fires in these montane regions. In June 2012, the Little Bear fire burned approximately 69 square miles (44,200 acres) in high-elevation forests of the Rio Hondo headwater catchments, south-central New Mexico. Burn severity was high or moderate on 53 percent of the burn area. The Precipitation Runoff Modeling System (PRMS) is a publically-available watershed model developed by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS). PRMS data are spatially distributed using a 'Geospatial Fabric' developed at a national scale to define Hydrologic Response Units (HRUs), based on topography and points of interest (such as confluences and streamgages). The Little Bear PRMS study area is comprised of 22 HRUs over a 587 square-mile area contributing to the Rio Hondo above Chavez Canyon streamgage (USGS ID 08390020), in operation from 2008 to 2014. Model input data include spatially-distributed climate data from the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) DayMet and land cover (such as vegetation and soil properties) data from the USGS Geo Data Portal. Remote sensing of vegetation over time has provided a spatial distribution of recovery and has been applied using dynamic parameters within PRMS on the daily timestep over the study area. Investigation into the source and timing of water budget components in the Rio Hondo watershed may assist water planners and managers in determining how the surface-water and groundwater systems will react to future land use/land cover changes. Further application of PRMS in additional areas will allow for comparison of streamflow before and following wildfire conditions, and may lead to better understanding of the changes in watershed-scale hydrologic processes in the Southwest through post-fire watershed recovery.

  8. A Lightweight Modeling System for Region-Wide Monitoring of Hydrologic Threats (United States)

    Luna, D.; Hernandez, F.; Wang, R.; Liang, Y.; Teng, W. L.; Liang, X.


    Transportation infrastructure is subject to multiple hydrology-related threats, including floods, bridge scouring, landslides, and icing. While modern land-surface models could potentially assist in forecast and response operations, applying these models is challenging, because of the extensiveness of the infrastructure that the government transportation agencies are responsible for. Constructing detailed models for every point of interest and running them in real time would require significant efforts from a team of modeling professionals and considerable computational resources. To address this challenge, we introduce the Hydrologic Disaster Forecast and Response (HDFR) system, a lightweight software framework (under development) that streamlines the process of acquiring real-time and forecast data, inputting it into hydrologic models, and translating the results into concrete actionable information for field-team deployment. HDFR integrates a series of data, modeling, and severity modules behind a unified GIS graphical user interface. The latter interface allows non-expert users to easily execute complex workflows, ranging from forcing information acquisition to severity level computations at specific locations. The HDFR allows the performance of these monitoring tasks without the need of a supercomputer-grade infrastructure. Currently, the HDFR uses a regression algorithm as a proxy for physically-based models, to estimate return periods of variables of interest for watersheds of concern, based on key forcing and state variables (e.g., precipitation, soil moisture). This method only requires the execution of land-surface simulations during an offline training phase; however, the HDFR also features a hierarchical multi-scale modeling strategy for improved forecast precision. This approach minimizes the number of models runs to those for selected areas and resolutions, depending on observed conditions. Several prototype versions of the HDFR built on GRASS GIS

  9. Hydraulic and hydrological aspects of an evapotranspiration-constructed wetland combined system for household greywater treatment. (United States)

    Filho, Fernando Jorge C Magalhães; Sobrinho, Teodorico Alves; Steffen, Jorge L; Arias, Carlos A; Paulo, Paula L


    Constructed wetlands systems demand preliminary and primary treatment to remove solids present in greywater (GW) to avoid or reduce clogging processes. The current paper aims to assess hydraulic and hydrological behavior in an improved constructed wetland system, which has a built-in anaerobic digestion chamber (AnC), GW is distributed to the evapotranspiration and treatment tank (CEvaT), combined with a subsurface horizontal flow constructed wetland (SSHF-CW). The results show that both the plants present in the units and the AnC improve hydraulic and volumetric efficiency, decrease short-circuiting and improve mixing conditions in the system. Moreover, the hydraulic conductivity measured on-site indicates that the presence of plants in the system and the flow distribution pattern provided by the AnC might reduce clogging in the SSHF-CW. It is observed that rainfall enables salt elimination, thus increasing evapotranspiration (ET), which promotes effluent reduction and enables the system to have zero discharge when reuse is unfeasible.

  10. Users manual for an expert system (HSPEXP) for calibration of the hydrological simulation program; Fortran (United States)

    Lumb, A.M.; McCammon, R.B.; Kittle, J.L.


    Expert system software was developed to assist less experienced modelers with calibration of a watershed model and to facilitate the interaction between the modeler and the modeling process not provided by mathematical optimization. A prototype was developed with artificial intelligence software tools, a knowledge engineer, and two domain experts. The manual procedures used by the domain experts were identified and the prototype was then coded by the knowledge engineer. The expert system consists of a set of hierarchical rules designed to guide the calibration of the model through a systematic evaluation of model parameters. When the prototype was completed and tested, it was rewritten for portability and operational use and was named HSPEXP. The watershed model Hydrological Simulation Program--Fortran (HSPF) is used in the expert system. This report is the users manual for HSPEXP and contains a discussion of the concepts and detailed steps and examples for using the software. The system has been tested on watersheds in the States of Washington and Maryland, and the system correctly identified the model parameters to be adjusted and the adjustments led to improved calibration.

  11. Ocorrência de ixodidae parasitos de capivara (Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris linnaeus, 1766 na estação ecológica do Taim, Rio Grande - RS, Brasil Occurence of ixodidae parasites of capybara (Hydrochoeurus hydrochaeris linnaeus, 1766 in the ecologic area of Taim, Rio Grande - RS, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afonso Lodovico Sinkoc


    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi identificar as espécies de carrapatos observadas sobre capivaras na Estação Ecológica do Taim, Rio Grande- RS, Brasil. Foram examinadas 27 capivaras encontradas mortas por atropelamento na BR 471, em seu trecho que corta a Estação, sendo cole lados 497 carrapatos das espécies Amblyomma cooperi (=A. lutzi; = A. ypisilophorum, Amblyomma triste, Amblyomma tigrinum e ninfas do gênero Amblyomma. A. cooperi representou 68,41% dos carrapatos identificados, com uma freqüência de parasitismo de 92,60% dos hospedeiros, enquanto A. triste representou 24,75% dos carrapatos em 44,43% dos hospedeiros e A. tigrinum foi coletado em 14,81% dos hospedeiros, totalizando 1,21% dos carrapatos. As ninfas de Amblyomma sp. foram cotetadas em 18,51% dos hospedeiros apresentando um percentual de 5,63% do total de carrapatos. A relação macho : fêmea apresentou valores de 2,3 : 1 e 2 : l para o A. cooperi e A. triste, respectivamente. Todos hospedeiros apresentavam-se parasitados, com uma média de 18,4 carrapatos, variando de 1 a 64 carrapatos coletados por hospedeiro.The aim of this article was the identification ofthe tick species observed on capybara in wildlife in the Ecologic Area of Taim, Rio Grande - RS; Brazil. Twenly seven capybaras found dead by trample in the road BR 471 in the Ecologic Area, wereexamined ticks coilected of the species Amblyomma cooperi (= A. lutzi and = A. ypisilophorum, Amblyomma triste, Amblyomma tigrinum and ninphs of the Genus Amblyomma. Amblyomma cooperi represented 68.41% of the ticks with a frequency of parasitism of 92.60% of the hosts; Amblyomma triste species represented 24.75% of the collected ticks m 44.43% of the hosts; Amblyomma tigrinum species were coilected m 14.81% of the hosts from a total of 1.21% of the found ticks and, the nimphs of Amblyomma were coilected in 18.51% of the hosts per forming 5.63% of the ali ticks coilected. The relation mate .female showed values of 2.3:1 and 2

  12. Application of environmental isotope techniques to selected hydrological systems in Pampean, Argentina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dapena, C.; Panarello, H.O.


    The isotopic composition of precipitation in Buenos Aires station is of great importance to understand the Pampean hydrological Systems. The rain isotope content ( 2 H, 18 O and 3 H) is being recorded since 1978 at Ciudad Universitaria Station, belonging to the Red Nacional de Colectores constitutes the main recharge factor for most of local and regional hydrologic system. The knowledge and characterization of their isotope content is of fundamental importance for a hydrological investigation, so we need a historical updated record. For this reason the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) in co-operation with the World Meteorological Organization (WMO) developed an international network devoted to the measurement of isotope contents in precipitation named as GNIP (Global Network for Isotopes in Precipitation) which started in 1960. The main objective of the network is to evaluate on a global scale the spatial and temporal distribution of isotope contents in precipitation and their dependence to relevant meteorological parameters. In this framework, the 'Instituto de Geocronologia y Geologia Isotopica' (INGEIS) established a National Collector Network for Isotopes in Precipitation (RNC) which integrates with the GNIP. The operation of the network in Argentina began in November 1978 with one station located in Buenos Aires City. At present, INGEIS is operating 17 stations at different altitudes and latitudes, covering a wide range of temperatures and a large variety of climates. This information allows us to know the input functions (rain isotope content) at different regions of the country. Signatures of isotopes in precipitation are not static. They respond to both, synoptic and climatology and global climate change. Attracted by this issue, a new community, interested in palaeoclimate and atmospheric circulation modelling, started to use the GNIP data. However, it becomes apparent soon that the collected data were also useful in other water-related fields

  13. An Integrated Decision Support System with Hydrological Processes and Socio-economic Assessments (United States)

    Yu, Yang; Disse, Markus; Yu, Ruide


    The debate over the effectiveness of Integrated Water Resources Management (IWRM) in practice has lasted for years. As the complexity and scope of IWRM increases, the difficulties of hydrological modeling is shifting from the model itself into the links with other cognate sciences, to understand the interactions among water, earth, ecosystem and humans. This work presents the design and development of a decision support system (DSS) that links the outputs of hydrological models with real-time decision making on social-economic assessments and land use changes. Discharge and glacier geometry changes were simulated with hydrological model WASA. Irrigation and ecological water were simulated by a new commercial software MIKE HYDRO. Groundwater was simulated by MODFLOW. All the outputs of theses hydrological models were integrated as inputs into the DSS in three types of links: regression equations, stationary data inputs, or dynamic data inputs into DSS as the models running parallel in the simulation periods. Within DSS, three types of logics were established: equations, conditional statements and fuzzy logics. The programming was realized in C++. The implementation of DSS takes place in the Tarim River Basin. With the mainstream of 1,321km and located in an arid area in northwest China, the Tarim River is China's longest inland river. The Tarim basin on the northern edge of the Taklamakan desert is an extremely arid region. In this region, agricultural water consumption and allocation management are crucial to address the conflicts among irrigation water users from upstream to downstream. Since 2011, the German Ministry of Science and Education BMBF established the Sino-German SuMaRiO project, for the sustainable management of river oases along the Tarim River. Project SuMaRiO focus on realizable management strategies, considering social, economic and ecological criteria. This will have positive effects for nearly 10 million inhabitants of different ethnic groups

  14. Using expert knowledge of the hydrological system to constrain multi-objective calibration of SWAT models (United States)

    The SWAT model is a helpful tool to predict hydrological processes in a study catchment and their impact on the river discharge at the catchment outlet. For reliable discharge predictions, a precise simulation of hydrological processes is required. Therefore, SWAT has to be calibrated accurately to ...

  15. Green Infrastructure and Watershed-Scale Hydrology in a Mixed Land Cover System (United States)

    Hoghooghi, N.; Golden, H. E.; Bledsoe, B. P.


    Urbanization results in replacement of pervious areas (e.g., vegetation, topsoil) with impervious surfaces such as roads, roofs, and parking lots, which cause reductions in interception, evapotranspiration, and infiltration, and increases in surface runoff (overland flow) and pollutant loads and concentrations. Research on the effectiveness of different Green Infrastructure (GI), or Low Impact Development (LID), practices to reduce these negative impacts on stream flow and water quality has been mostly focused at the local scale (e.g., plots, small catchments). However, limited research has considered the broader-scale effects of LID, such as how LID practices influence water quantity, nutrient removal, and aquatic ecosystems at watershed scales, particularly in mixed land cover and land use systems. We use the Visualizing Ecosystem Land Management Assessments (VELMA) model to evaluate the effects of different LID practices on daily and long-term watershed-scale hydrology, including infiltration surface runoff. We focus on Shayler Crossing (SHC) watershed, a mixed land cover (61% urban, 24% agriculture, 15% forest) subwatershed of the East Fork Little Miami River watershed, Ohio, United States, with a drainage area of 0.94 km2. The model was calibrated to daily stream flow at the outlet of SHC watershed from 2009 to 2010 and was applied to evaluate diverse distributions (at 25% to 100% implementation levels) and types (e.g., pervious pavement and rain gardens) of LID across the watershed. Results show reduced surface water runoff and higher rates of infiltration concomitant with increasing LID implementation levels; however, this response varies between different LID practices. The highest magnitude response in streamflow at the watershed outlet is evident when a combination of LID practices is applied. The combined scenarios elucidate that the diverse watershed-scale hydrological responses of LID practices depend primarily on the type and extent of the implemented

  16. Drainage systems of Lonar Crater, India: Contributions to Lonar Lake hydrology and crater degradation (United States)

    Komatsu, Goro; Senthil Kumar, P.; Goto, Kazuhisa; Sekine, Yasuhito; Giri, Chaitanya; Matsui, Takafumi


    Lonar, a 1.8-km-diameter impact crater in India, is a rare example of terrestrial impact craters formed in basaltic bedrock. The estimated age of the crater ranges widely from less than 12 ka to over 600 ka, but the crater preserves a relatively pristine morphology. We conducted a study of various drainage systems of Lonar Crater. The crater floor hosts a shallow 5-m-deep lake, which fluctuates seasonally. Our investigation reveals that the lake level is influenced by surface runoff that is active during the monsoon and groundwater input effective during both the rainy and the dry seasons. The groundwater discharge is observed as springs on the inner rim walls corresponding to weathered vesicular basalt and/or proximal ejecta, which are underlain by thick massive basalt layers. This observation indicates that groundwater movement is lithologically controlled: it passes preferentially through permeable vesicular basalt or proximal ejecta but is hindered in less permeable massive basalt. It is hypothesized that groundwater is also structurally controlled by dipping of basalt layers, interconnectivity of the permeable lithologic units through fractures, and preferential pathways such as fractures within the permeable lithologic units. Investigation on hydrological processes at Lonar Crater and its lake could provide useful insights into purported paleo-crater lakes presumably formed in the basaltic crust of Mars. The Lonar Crater interior shows signs of degradation in the forms of gullies and debris flows, and the Dhar valley incising in the rim leading to form a fan delta. The ejecta surface is characterized by the presence of channels, originating from the rim area and extending radially away from the crater center. The channels probably resulted from surface runoff, and its erosion contributes to the removal of the ejecta. Lonar Crater is a valuable analog site for studying degradation processes with potential application to impact craters occurring on

  17. Hydrology Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    Research carried out in the 'Hydrology Project' of the Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura', Piracicaba, Sao Paulo State, Brazil, are described. Such research comprises: Amazon hydrology and Northeast hydrology. Techniques for the measurement of isotope ratios are used. (M.A.) [pt

  18. Threshold behaviour in hydrological systems as (human geo-ecosystems: manifestations, controls, implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Sivapalan


    Full Text Available In this paper we review threshold behaviour in environmental systems, which are often associated with the onset of floods, contamination and erosion events, and other degenerative processes. Key objectives of this review are to a suggest indicators for detecting threshold behavior, b discuss their implications for predictability, c distinguish different forms of threshold behavior and their underlying controls, and d hypothesise on possible reasons for why threshold behaviour might occur. Threshold behaviour involves a fast qualitative change of either a single process or the response of a system. For elementary phenomena this switch occurs when boundary conditions (e.g., energy inputs or system states as expressed by dimensionless quantities (e.g. the Reynolds number exceed threshold values. Mixing, water movement or depletion of thermodynamic gradients becomes much more efficient as a result. Intermittency is a very good indicator for detecting event scale threshold behavior in hydrological systems. Predictability of intermittent processes/system responses is inherently low for combinations of systems states and/or boundary conditions that push the system close to a threshold. Post hoc identification of "cause-effect relations" to explain when the system became critical is inherently difficult because of our limited ability to perform observations under controlled identical experimental conditions. In this review, we distinguish three forms of threshold behavior. The first one is threshold behavior at the process level that is controlled by the interplay of local soil characteristics and states, vegetation and the rainfall forcing. Overland flow formation, particle detachment and preferential flow are examples of this. The second form of threshold behaviour is the response of systems of intermediate complexity – e.g., catchment runoff response and sediment yield – governed by the redistribution of water and sediments in space and time

  19. The Socio-hydrology of Bangalore's Lake System and implications for Urban Water Security (United States)

    Srinivasan, V.; Roy, S.


    Bengaluru city has experienced unprecedented growth in recent decades. If the city is to sustain growth and claim its position as a "global" high-tech city, it must be able to secure sufficient water supply and also create a healthy livable environment. With the city's many lakes vanishing due to rapid urbanisation, depletion of groundwater as a result of overuse in the peri-urban areas, and lack of proper underground drainage system and sewage treatment plants, Bangalore is now grappling with issues of imminent water crisis, inequitable access to water supply, and public health hazards. In this context, the restoration of Bangalore's lakes has been promoted as a panacea for its flooding, water stress, and wastewater problems. It has been argued that lakes can store storm water and recycled wastewater and avoid the need for potentially destructive, expensive schemes that may destroy biodiversity rich aquatic ecosystems and forests. Bangalore's lakes are linked by the drainage channels to form a cascade; overflow from each lake flows to the next lake downstream. Yet, most efforts have tended to view the lakes in isolation. This study of the hydrology of Bangalore's lake system in its entirety simulates the lake system as a whole. The study explores approaches to management and theor impact on urban water security.

  20. Testing the potential of geochemical techniques in identifying hydrological systems within landslides in partly weathered marls (United States)

    Bogaard, T. A.


    This paper’s objectives are twofold: to test the potential of cation exchange capacity (CEC) analysis for refinement of the knowledge of the hydrological system in landslide areas; and to examine two laboratory CEC analysis techniques on their applicability to partly weathered marls. The NH4Ac and NaCl laboratory techniques are tested. The geochemical results are compared with the core descriptions and interpreted with respect to their usefulness. Both analysis techniques give identical results for CEC, and are plausible on the basis of the available clay content information. The determination of the exchangeable cations was more difficult, since part of the marls dissolved. With the ammonium-acetate method more of the marls are dissolved than with the sodium-chloride method. This negatively affects the results of the exchangeable cations. Therefore, the NaCl method is to be preferred for the determination of the cation fractions at the complex, be it that this method has the disadvantage that the sodium fraction cannot be determined. To overcome this problem it is recommended to try and use another salt e.g. SrCl2 as displacement fluid. Both Alvera and Boulc-Mondorès examples show transitions in cation composition with depth. It was shown that the exchangeable cation fractions can be useful in locating boundaries between water types, especially the boundary between the superficial, rain fed hydrological system and the lower, regional ground water system. This information may be important for landslide interventions since the hydrological system and the origin of the water need to be known in detail. It is also plausible that long-term predictions of slope stability may be improved by knowledge of the hydrogeochemical evolution of clayey landslides. In the Boulc-Mondorès example the subsurface information that can be extracted from CEC analyses was presented. In the Boulc-Mondorès cores deviant intervals of CEC could be identified. These are interpreted as

  1. Temperature as a tracer of hydrological dynamics in an anchialine cave system with a submarine spring (United States)

    Domínguez-Villar, David; Cukrov, Neven; Krklec, Kristina


    Although temperature is a nonconservative tracer, it often provides useful information to understand hydrological processes. This study explores the potential of temperature to characterize the hydrological dynamics of a submarine spring and its coastal karst aquifer in Krka Estuary (Croatia). The estuary is well stratified and its water column has a clear thermocline. A network of loggers was designed to monitor the temperature along vertical profiles in the estuary and the coastal aquifer, taking advantage of an anchialine cave that enabled access to the subterranean estuary. The location of the thermocline in the groundwater, which defines the upper boundary of the saline intrusion, depends on (1) the recharge of the aquifer via infiltration of precipitation, (2) the evolution of the thermocline in the estuary, and (3) the tidal oscillations. The sources of water flowing though the anchialine cave were identified: brackish water from the estuary above the thermocline, saline water from the estuary below the thermocline, and freshwater from infiltrated precipitation. A conceptual model is described that characterizes the hydrological dynamics of this coastal aquifer and its interactions with the estuary. Thus, at least for some hydrological settings, temperature is a valid tracer to characterize the main hydrological processes. The measurement of temperature is inexpensive compared to other (conservative) tracers. Therefore, for those hydrological settings that have water masses with distinct temperatures, the use of temperature as a tracer to establish conceptual models of the hydrological dynamics is encouraged.

  2. A flexible hydrological warning system in Denmark for real-time surface water and groundwater simulations (United States)

    He, Xin; Stisen, Simon; Wiese, Marianne B.; Jørgen Henriksen, Hans


    In Denmark, increasing focus on extreme weather events has created considerable demand for short term forecasts and early warnings in relation to groundwater and surface water flooding. The Geological Survey of Denmark and Greenland (GEUS) has setup, calibrated and applied a nationwide water resources model, the DK-Model, primarily for simulating groundwater and surface water flows and groundwater levels during the past 20 years. So far, the DK-model has only been used in offline historical and future scenario simulations. Therefore, challenges arise in operating such a model for online forecasts and early warnings, which requires access to continuously updated observed climate input data and forecast data of precipitation, temperature and global radiation for the next 48 hours or longer. GEUS has a close collaboration with the Danish Meteorological Institute in order to test and enable this data input for the DK model. Due to the comprehensive physical descriptions of the DK-Model, the simulation results can potentially be any component of the hydrological cycle within the models domain. Therefore, it is important to identify which results need to be updated and saved in the real-time mode, since it is not computationally economical to save every result considering the heavy load of data. GEUS have worked closely with the end-users and interest groups such as water planners and emergency managers from the municipalities, water supply and waste water companies, consulting companies and farmer organizations, in order to understand their possible needs for real time simulation and monitoring of the nationwide water cycle. This participatory process has been supported by a web based questionnaire survey, and a workshop that connected the model developers and the users. For qualifying the stakeholder engagement, GEUS has selected a representative catchment area (Skjern River) for testing and demonstrating a prototype of the web based hydrological warning system at the

  3. Integrated forecast system atmospheric - hydrologic - hydraulic for the Urubamba river basin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Metzger, L [Peruvian National Weather Service, Lima (Peru); Carrillo, M; Diaz, A; Coronado, J; Fano, G [Peruvian National Weather Service, Lima (Peru)


    Full text: During the months of December to March, Peru is affected by intense precipitations which generate every year land slides and floods mainly in low and middle river basins of the western and Eastern of the Andes, places that exhibit the greatest number of population and productive activities. These extreme events are favored by the steep slopes that characterize the Peruvian topography. For this reason at the end of year 2000, SENAMHI began the design of a monitoring, analysis and forecast system, that had the capacity to predict the occurrence of adverse events on the low and middle river basins of the main rivers such as Piura river in the north of Peru and the Rimac river in the capital of the country. The success of this system opened the possibilities of developing similar systems throughout the country and extend to different users or sectors such as: energy, water management, river transport, etc. An example of a solution prepared for a user (the gas extraction company Pluspetrol) was the implementation of a river level forecasting system in the Urubamba river to support river navigation in this amazonic river where water level variability turns risky the navigation during the dry season. The Urubamba catchment higher altitudes are famous because of the presence of the Machupicchu ancient city, downslope this city is characterized by the Amazon rainforest with scarce observation stations for water level and rainfall. A very challenging modelling and operational hydrology enterprise was developed. The system implemented for the Urubamba river consist on running the atmospheric part of the global climate model CCM3, this model inputs Sea Surface Temperature forecasts from NCEP-NOAA. The global model was set on a T42 (300 km) grid resolution, this information was used as initial and boundary conditions for the regional model RAMS which provided a downscaled 20 Km grid resolution having as results daily precipitation forecasts. Besides the global

  4. Integrated forecast system atmospheric-hydrologic-hydraulic for the Urubamba River Basin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Metzger, L; Carrillo, M; Diaz, A; Coronado, J; Fano, G [Peruvian National Weather Service, Lima (Peru)


    Full text: During the months of December to March, Peru is affected by intense precipitations which generate every year land slides and floods mainly in low and middle river basins of the western and Eastern of the Andes, places that exhibit the greatest number of population and productive activities. These extreme events are favored by the steep slopes that characterize the Peruvian topography. For this reason at the end of year 2000, SENAMHI began the design of a monitoring, analysis and forecast system, that had the capacity to predict the occurrence of adverse events on the low and middle river basins of the main rivers such as Piura river in the north of Peru and the Rimac river in the capital of the country. The success of this system opened the possibilities of developing similar systems throughout the country and extend to different users or sectors such as: energy, water management, river transport, etc. An example of a solution prepared for a user (the gas extraction company Pluspetrol) was the implementation of a river level forecasting system in the Urubamba river to support river navigation in this amazonic river where water level variability turns risky the navigation during the dry season. The Urubamba catchment higher altitudes are famous because of the presence of the Machupicchu ancient city, downslope this city is characterized by the Amazon rainforest with scarce observation stations for water level and rainfall. A very challenging modelling and operational hydrology enterprise was developed. The system implemented for the Urubamba river consist on running the atmospheric part of the global climate model CCM3, this model inputs Sea Surface Temperature forecasts from NCEP-NOAA. The global model was set on a T42 (300 km) grid resolution, this information was used as initial and boundary conditions for the regional model RAMS which provided a downscaled 20 Km grid resolution having as results daily precipitation forecasts. Besides the global

  5. CEREF: A hybrid data-driven model for forecasting annual streamflow from a socio-hydrological system (United States)

    Zhang, Hongbo; Singh, Vijay P.; Wang, Bin; Yu, Yinghao


    Hydrological forecasting is complicated by flow regime alterations in a coupled socio-hydrologic system, encountering increasingly non-stationary, nonlinear and irregular changes, which make decision support difficult for future water resources management. Currently, many hybrid data-driven models, based on the decomposition-prediction-reconstruction principle, have been developed to improve the ability to make predictions of annual streamflow. However, there exist many problems that require further investigation, the chief among which is the direction of trend components decomposed from annual streamflow series and is always difficult to ascertain. In this paper, a hybrid data-driven model was proposed to capture this issue, which combined empirical mode decomposition (EMD), radial basis function neural networks (RBFNN), and external forces (EF) variable, also called the CEREF model. The hybrid model employed EMD for decomposition and RBFNN for intrinsic mode function (IMF) forecasting, and determined future trend component directions by regression with EF as basin water demand representing the social component in the socio-hydrologic system. The Wuding River basin was considered for the case study, and two standard statistical measures, root mean squared error (RMSE) and mean absolute error (MAE), were used to evaluate the performance of CEREF model and compare with other models: the autoregressive (AR), RBFNN and EMD-RBFNN. Results indicated that the CEREF model had lower RMSE and MAE statistics, 42.8% and 7.6%, respectively, than did other models, and provided a superior alternative for forecasting annual runoff in the Wuding River basin. Moreover, the CEREF model can enlarge the effective intervals of streamflow forecasting compared to the EMD-RBFNN model by introducing the water demand planned by the government department to improve long-term prediction accuracy. In addition, we considered the high-frequency component, a frequent subject of concern in EMD

  6. Stochastic dynamic programming optimization of BC Hydro's system under market and hydrologic uncertainties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Druce, D. [British Columbia Hydro, Vancouver, BC (Canada)


    BC Hydro's installed generation capacity as of March 31, 2003 was 11,103 MW, of which 90 per cent was hydro power, 9 per cent was gas-fired and 1 per cent was non-integrated. The hydroelectric plants belong to one of three groups, the Peace River, Columbia River or small hydro which includes small to moderate sized-plants. Small hydro is controlled by hydrologic regime and storage limitations rather than by system requirements. The installed capacity for the 4 plants on the Columbia River totals 4,722 MW. The installed capacity at the 2 plants on the Peace River totals 3,424 MW. Both watersheds are subject to interior climate conditions with significant inflows from snowmelt and rainfall runoff. This presentation addressed the issue of mid-term hydro scheduling and its impact on markets. For the past 15 years, BC Hydro has used the marginal cost model for electricity trade and for operations planning. The model considers system loads and resources, and maximizes the expected net revenue over a planning horizon of 6 years. A marginal value of water stored in the Williston Reservoir has been established using the marginal cost model. The affect of weather, natural gas prices and water supply on hydro generation was also discussed. It was noted that information on spot market electricity prices has significantly improved since the electric power industry was deregulated in 1996. tabs., figs.

  7. Stochastic dynamic programming optimization of BC Hydro's system under market and hydrologic uncertainties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Druce, D.


    BC Hydro's installed generation capacity as of March 31, 2003 was 11,103 MW, of which 90 per cent was hydro power, 9 per cent was gas-fired and 1 per cent was non-integrated. The hydroelectric plants belong to one of three groups, the Peace River, Columbia River or small hydro which includes small to moderate sized-plants. Small hydro is controlled by hydrologic regime and storage limitations rather than by system requirements. The installed capacity for the 4 plants on the Columbia River totals 4,722 MW. The installed capacity at the 2 plants on the Peace River totals 3,424 MW. Both watersheds are subject to interior climate conditions with significant inflows from snowmelt and rainfall runoff. This presentation addressed the issue of mid-term hydro scheduling and its impact on markets. For the past 15 years, BC Hydro has used the marginal cost model for electricity trade and for operations planning. The model considers system loads and resources, and maximizes the expected net revenue over a planning horizon of 6 years. A marginal value of water stored in the Williston Reservoir has been established using the marginal cost model. The affect of weather, natural gas prices and water supply on hydro generation was also discussed. It was noted that information on spot market electricity prices has significantly improved since the electric power industry was deregulated in 1996. tabs., figs

  8. Moment-based metrics for global sensitivity analysis of hydrological systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Dell'Oca


    Full Text Available We propose new metrics to assist global sensitivity analysis, GSA, of hydrological and Earth systems. Our approach allows assessing the impact of uncertain parameters on main features of the probability density function, pdf, of a target model output, y. These include the expected value of y, the spread around the mean and the degree of symmetry and tailedness of the pdf of y. Since reliable assessment of higher-order statistical moments can be computationally demanding, we couple our GSA approach with a surrogate model, approximating the full model response at a reduced computational cost. Here, we consider the generalized polynomial chaos expansion (gPCE, other model reduction techniques being fully compatible with our theoretical framework. We demonstrate our approach through three test cases, including an analytical benchmark, a simplified scenario mimicking pumping in a coastal aquifer and a laboratory-scale conservative transport experiment. Our results allow ascertaining which parameters can impact some moments of the model output pdf while being uninfluential to others. We also investigate the error associated with the evaluation of our sensitivity metrics by replacing the original system model through a gPCE. Our results indicate that the construction of a surrogate model with increasing level of accuracy might be required depending on the statistical moment considered in the GSA. The approach is fully compatible with (and can assist the development of analysis techniques employed in the context of reduction of model complexity, model calibration, design of experiment, uncertainty quantification and risk assessment.

  9. Enhancing Access to and Use of NASA Earth Sciences Data via CUAHSI-HIS (Hydrologic Information System) and Other Hydrologic Community Tools (United States)

    Rui, H.; Strub, R.; Teng, W. L.; Vollmer, B.; Mocko, D. M.; Maidment, D. R.; Whiteaker, T. L.


    The way NASA earth sciences data are typically archived (by time steps, one step per file, often containing multiple variables) is not optimal for their access by the hydrologic community, particularly if the data volume and/or number of data files are large. To enhance the access to and use of these NASA data, the NASA Goddard Earth Sciences Data and Information Services Center (GES DISC) adopted two approaches, in a project supported by the NASA ACCESS Program. The first is to optimally reorganize two large hydrological data sets for more efficient access, as time series, and to integrate the time series data (aka 'data rods') into hydrologic community tools, such as CUAHSI-HIS, EPA-BASINS, and Esri-ArcGIS. This effort has thus far resulted in the reorganization and archive (as data rods) of the following variables from the North American and Global Land Data Assimilation Systems (NLDAS and GLDAS, respectively): precipitation, soil moisture, evapotranspiration, runoff, near-surface specific humidity, potential evaporation, soil temperature, near surface air temperature, and near-surface wind. The second approach is to leverage the NASA Simple Subset Wizard (SSW), which was developed to unite data search and subsetters at various NASA EOSDIS data centers into a single, simple, seamless process. Data accessed via SSW are converted to time series before being made available via Web service. Leveraging SSW makes all data accessible via SSW potentially available to HIS users, which increases the number of data sets available as time series beyond those available as data rods. Thus far, a set of selected variables from the NASA Modern Era-Retrospective Analysis for Research and Applications Land Surface (MERRA-Land) data set has been integrated into CUAHSI-HIS, including evaporation, land surface temperature, runoff, soil moisture, soil temperature, precipitation, and transpiration. All data integration into these tools has been conducted in collaboration with their

  10. Flood Simulations and Uncertainty Analysis for the Pearl River Basin Using the Coupled Land Surface and Hydrological Model System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongnan Zhu


    Full Text Available The performances of hydrological simulations for the Pearl River Basin in China were analysed using the Coupled Land Surface and Hydrological Model System (CLHMS. Three datasets, including East Asia (EA, high-resolution gauge satellite-merged China Merged Precipitation Analysis (CMPA-Daily, and the Asian Precipitation Highly-Resolved Observational Data Integration Towards Evaluation (APHRODITE daily precipitation were used to drive the CLHMS model to simulate daily hydrological processes from 1998 to 2006. The results indicate that the precipitation data was the most important source of uncertainty in the hydrological simulation. The simulated streamflow driven by the CMPA-Daily agreed well with observations, with a Pearson correlation coefficient (PMC greater than 0.70 and an index of agreement (IOA similarity coefficient greater than 0.82 at Liuzhou, Shijiao, and Wuzhou Stations. Comparison of the Nash-Sutcliffe efficiency coefficient (NSE shows that the peak flow simulation ability of CLHMS driven with the CMPA-Daily rainfall is relatively superior to that with the EA and APHRODITE datasets. The simulation results for the high-flow periods in 1998 and 2005 indicate that the CLHMS is promising for its future application in the flood simulation and prediction.

  11. Evidence of linked biogeochemical and hydrological processes in homogeneous and layered vadose zone systems (United States)

    McGuire, J. T.; Hansen, D. J.; Mohanty, B. P.


    Understanding chemical fate and transport in the vadose zone is critical to protect groundwater resources and preserve ecosystem health. However, prediction can be challenging due to the dynamic hydrologic and biogeochemical nature of the vadose zone. Additional controls on hydrobiogeochemical processes are added by subsurface structural heterogeneity. This study uses repacked soil column experiments to quantify linkages between microbial activity, geochemical cycling and hydrologic flow. Three “short” laboratory soil columns were constructed to evaluate the effects of soil layering: a homogenized medium-grained sand, homogenized organic-rich loam, and a sand-over-loam layered column. In addition, two “long” columns were constructed using either gamma-irradiated (sterilized) or untreated sediments to evaluate the effects of both soil layers and the presence of microorganisms. The long columns were packed identically; a medium-grained sand matrix with two vertically separated and horizontally offset lenses of organic-rich loam. In all 5 columns, downward and upward infiltration of water was evaluated to simulate rainfall and rising water table events respectively. In-situ colocated probes were used to measure soil water content, matric potential, Eh, major anions, ammonium, Fe2+, and total sulfide. Enhanced biogeochemical cycling was observed in the short layered column versus the short, homogeneous columns, and enumerations of iron and sulfate reducing bacteria were 1-2 orders of magnitude greater. In the long columns, microbial activity caused mineral bands and produced insoluble gases that impeded water flow through the pores of the sediment. Capillary barriers, formed around the lenses due to soil textural differences, retarded water flow rates through the lenses. This allowed reducing conditions to develop, evidenced by the production of Fe2+ and S2-. At the fringes of the lenses, Fe2+ oxidized to form Fe(III)-oxide bands that further retarded water

  12. The Effects of Different Tillage Systems on Soil Hydrology and Erosion in Southeastern Brazil (United States)

    Bertolino, A. V. F. A.; Fernandes, N. F.; Souza, A. P.; Miranda, J. P.; Rocha, M. L.


    Conventional tillage usually imposes a variety of modifications on soil properties that can lead to important changes in the type and magnitude of the hydrological processes that take place at the upper portion of the soil profile. Plough pan formation, for example, is considered to be an important consequence of conventional tillage practices in southeastern Brazil, decreasing infiltration rates and contributing to soil erosion, especially in steep slopes. In order to characterize the changes in soil properties and soil hydrology due to the plough pan formation we carried out detailed investigations in two experimental plots in Paty do Alferes region, located in the hilly landscape of Serra do Mar in southeastern Brazil, close to Rio de Janeiro city. Farming activities are very important in this area, in particular the ones related to the tomato production. The local hilly topography with short and steep hillslopes, as well as an average annual rainfall of almost 2000 mm, favor surface runoff and the evolution of rill and gully erosion. The two runoff plots are 22m long by 4m wide and were installed side by side along a representative hillslope, both in terms of soil (Oxisol) and steepness. At the lower portion of each plot there is a collecting trough connected by a PVC pipe to a 500 and 1000 liters sediment storage boxes. Soil tillage treatments used in the two plots were: Conventional Tillage (CT), with one plowing using disc-type plow (about 18 cm depth) and one downhill tractor leveling, in addition to burning residues from previous planting; and Minimum Tillage (MT), which did not allow burning residues from previous planting and preserved a vegetative cover between plantation lines. Runoff and soil erosion measurements were carried out in both plots immediately after each rainfall event. In order to characterize soil water movements under the two tillage systems (CT and MT), 06 nests of tensiometers and 04 nests of Watermark sensors were installed in each

  13. Development of hybrid 3-D hydrological modeling for the NCAR Community Earth System Model (CESM)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zeng, Xubin [Univ. of Arizona, Tucson, AZ (United States); Troch, Peter [Univ. of Arizona, Tucson, AZ (United States); Pelletier, Jon [Univ. of Arizona, Tucson, AZ (United States); Niu, Guo-Yue [Univ. of Arizona, Tucson, AZ (United States); Gochis, David [NCAR Research Applications (RAL), Boulder, CO (United States)


    This is the Final Report of our four-year (3-year plus one-year no cost extension) collaborative project between the University of Arizona (UA) and the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR). The overall objective of our project is to develop and evaluate the first hybrid 3-D hydrological model with a horizontal grid spacing of 1 km for the NCAR Community Earth System Model (CESM). We have made substantial progress in model development and evaluation, computational efficiencies and software engineering, and data development and evaluation, as discussed in Sections 2-4. Section 5 presents our success in data dissemination, while Section 6 discusses the scientific impacts of our work. Section 7 discusses education and mentoring success of our project, while Section 8 lists our relevant DOE services. All peer-reviewed papers that acknowledged this project are listed in Section 9. Highlights of our achievements include: • We have finished 20 papers (most published already) on model development and evaluation, computational efficiencies and software engineering, and data development and evaluation • The global datasets developed under this project have been permanently archived and publicly available • Some of our research results have already been implemented in WRF and CLM • Patrick Broxton and Michael Brunke have received their Ph.D. • PI Zeng has served on DOE proposal review panels and DOE lab scientific focus area (SFA) review panels

  14. Gastrintestinal helminths of capybara (Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris, Linnaeus, 1766 in Cattle Breeding Farm in the area of the Ecological Reserve of Taim, Rio Grande

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afonso Lodovico Sinkoc


    Full Text Available The aim of this study was we observe the prevalence, intensity and mean intensity of theinfection by gastrintestinal helminths in capybaras. The helminths collected resulted in the following relationship with their respective prevalence and mean intensities of infection: Strongyloides sp. - 62.55% and 168.67; Protozoophaga obesa - 95.83% and 2698.26; Vianella hydrochoeri - 70.83% and 83.82; Hydrochoerisnema anomalobursata - 58.33% and 57.86; Capillaria hydrochoeri - 83.33% and 35.25; Trichuris spp. - 50.00% and 36.58; Hippocrepis hippocrepis - 62.50% and 22.40; Taxorchis schistocotyle - 12.50% and 2.33; Hydrochoeristrema cabrali - 45.83% and 10.73; Monoecocestus hydrochoeri - 50,00% and 28.25 and Monoecocestus jacobi - 41.67% and 5.40. The helminths M. hydrochoeri, Strongyloides sp., Trichuris spp., H. hippocrepis and H. cabrali showed a statistical differences between ages in the mean intensity of parasitism, and the first two presented higher values for the young animals and the last three for the adults.Com o objetivo de observar a prevalência, intensidade e intensidade média de infecção de helmintos gastrintestinais de capivaras foram estudados 24 animais na Granja Santa Maria, região do Banhado do Taim, Município de Rio Grande, RS. As espécies de helmintos coletadas resultaram na seguinte relação, com suas respectivas prevalências e intensidades médias de infecção: Strongyloides sp. - 62,5% e 168,67; Protozoophaga obesa - 95,83% e 2698,26; Vianella hydrochoeri - 70,83% e 83,82; Hydrochoerisnema anomalobursata - 58,33% e 57,86; Capillaria hydrochoeri - 83,33% e 35,25; Trichuris spp. - 50,00% e 36,58; Hippocrepis hippocrepis - 62,50 e 22,40; Taxorchis schistocotyle - 12,50% e 2,33; Hydrochoeristrema cabrali - 45,83% e 10,73; Monoecocestus hydrochoeri - 50,00% e 28,25 e Monoecocestus jacobi - 41,67% e 5,40. Os helmintos M. hydrochoeri, Strongyloides sp., Trichuris spp., H. hippocrepis e H. cabrali diferiram estatisticamente entre

  15. Hydrological deformation signals in karst systems: new evidence from the European Alps (United States)

    Serpelloni, E.; Pintori, F.; Gualandi, A.; Scoccimarro, E.; Cavaliere, A.; Anderlini, L.; Belardinelli, M. E.; Todesco, M.


    The influence of rainfall on crustal deformation has been described at local scales, using tilt and strain meters, in several tectonic settings. However, the literature on the spatial extent of rainfall-induced deformation is still scarce. We analyzed 10 years of displacement time-series from 150 continuous GPS stations operating across the broad zone of deformation accommodating the N-S Adria-Eurasia convergence and the E-ward escape of the Eastern Alps toward the Pannonian basin. We applied a blind-source-separation algorithm based on a variational Bayesian Independent Component Analysis method to the de-trended time-series, being able to characterize the temporal and spatial features of several deformation signals. The most important ones are a common mode annual signal, with spatially uniform response in the vertical and horizontal components and a time-variable, non-cyclic, signal characterized by a spatially variable response in the horizontal components, with stations moving (up to 8 mm) in the opposite directions, reversing the sense of movement in time. This implies a succession of extensional/compressional strains, with variable amplitudes through time, oriented normal to rock fractures in karst areas. While seasonal displacements in the vertical component (with an average amplitude of 4 mm over the study area) are satisfactorily reproduced by surface hydrological loading, estimated from global assimilation models, the non seasonal signal is associated with groundwater flow in karst systems, and is mainly influencing the horizontal component. The temporal evolution of this deformation signal is correlated with cumulated precipitation values over periods of 200-300 days. This horizontal deformation can be explained by pressure changes associated with variable water levels within vertical fractures in the vadose zones of karst systems, and the water level changes required to open or close these fractures are consistent with the fluctuations of precipitation

  16. Seasonal streamflow prediction by a combined climate-hydrologic system for river basins of Taiwan (United States)

    Kuo, Chun-Chao; Gan, Thian Yew; Yu, Pao-Shan


    SummaryA combined, climate-hydrologic system with three components to predict the streamflow of two river basins of Taiwan at one season (3-month) lead time for the NDJ and JFM seasons was developed. The first component consists of the wavelet-based, ANN-GA model (Artificial Neural Network calibrated by Genetic Algorithm) which predicts the seasonal rainfall by using selected sea surface temperature (SST) as predictors, given that SST are generally predictable by climate models up to 6-month lead time. For the second component, three disaggregation models, Valencia and Schaake (VS), Lane, and Canonical Random Cascade Model (CRCM), were tested to compare the accuracy of seasonal rainfall disaggregated by these three models to 3-day time scale rainfall data. The third component consists of the continuous rainfall-runoff model modified from HBV (called the MHBV) and calibrated by a global optimization algorithm against the observed rainfall and streamflow data of the Shihmen and Tsengwen river basins of Taiwan. The proposed system was tested, first by disaggregating the predicted seasonal rainfall of ANN-GA to rainfall of 3-day time step using the Lane model; then the disaggregated rainfall data was used to drive the calibrated MHBV to predict the streamflow for both river basins at 3-day time step up to a season's lead time. Overall, the streamflow predicted by this combined system for the NDJ season, which is better than that of the JFM season, will be useful for the seasonal planning and management of water resources of these two river basins of Taiwan.

  17. RAMSES: a nowcasting system for mitigating geo-hydrological risk along the railway (United States)

    Gabriele, Salvatore; Terranova, Oreste G.; Pascale, Stefania; Rago, Valeria; Chiaravalloti, Francesco; Sabatino, Pietro; Brocca, Luca; Laviola, Sante; Baldini, Luca; Federico, Stefano; Miglietta, Mario M.; Marra, Gian Paolo; Niccoli, Raffaele; Arcuri, Salvatore; Catalano, Filippo; Stassi, Sergio; Baccillieri, Maurizio; Agostino, Mario; Iovine, Giulio G. R.


    In recent years, a number of exceptional rainfall events of short / very short duration (from 15 minutes to about 2 hours) caused incidents and service interruptions due to landslides, collapses of bridges, and erosion of the ballast, along the Calabrian railway. RAMSES (RAilway Meteorological SEcurity System) is a pilot CNR project, recently co-funded by RFI S.p.A. and aimed at mitigating the risk along the railway. Forecasting of weather events responsible of heavy convective rainfall, even when provided with some advance, is not generally performed with reliable localization. In fact, objective limits of the numerical weather prediction derive from grid resolution, often exceeding the size of convective cells. These phenomena, whose recurrence periods seem to show a reduction due to climate changes, affect limited areas and are characterized by a very short life cycle. As a consequence, failures of hydraulic crossings are increasingly being recorded together with landslide-related debris invasion along the drainage network and slopes. RAMSES aims at improving short term (3-6 hours) weather forecasts and ground effects at local scale. The employed approach is base on synergistic and integrated operational tools to provide weather information on small-size basins. The system will also allow to promptly identify and track the short-term evolution (15-60 min) of convective cells, by means of imaging techniques based on quasi-real time radar and Meteosat data. The extension of the temporal horizon of the forecast up to three hours will be performed by using the Local Analysis and Prediction System (LAPS) model. This latter employs, as a "first guess", the output of the WRF numerical model: such analyses are updated and improved by means of observational data from different instruments (e.g. on land weather stations, radar, satellites, etc.). Finally, the assessment of ground effects will be accomplished for selected study areas, by means of landslide susceptibility

  18. Resilience of Socio-Hydrological Systems in Canadian Prairies to Agricultural Drainage: Policy Analysis and Modelling Approach (United States)

    Wheater, H. S.; Xu, L.; Gober, P.; Pomeroy, J. W.; Wong, J.


    wetland basins and social welfare, which help to evaluate potential impacts of the current policy on the resilience and sustainability of socio-hydrological systems. The results also help determine effective goals for management to maximize the societal benefits of drainage and minimize its negative impacts on ecosystem functions.

  19. Hydrology team (United States)

    Ragan, R.


    General problems faced by hydrologists when using historical records, real time data, statistical analysis, and system simulation in providing quantitative information on the temporal and spatial distribution of water are related to the limitations of these data. Major problem areas requiring multispectral imaging-based research to improve hydrology models involve: evapotranspiration rates and soil moisture dynamics for large areas; the three dimensional characteristics of bodies of water; flooding in wetlands; snow water equivalents; runoff and sediment yield from ungaged watersheds; storm rainfall; fluorescence and polarization of water and its contained substances; discriminating between sediment and chlorophyll in water; role of barrier island dynamics in coastal zone processes; the relationship between remotely measured surface roughness and hydraulic roughness of land surfaces and stream networks; and modeling the runoff process.

  20. An enhanced model of land water and energy for global hydrologic and earth-system studies (United States)

    Milly, Paul C.D.; Malyshev, Sergey L.; Shevliakova, Elena; Dunne, Krista A.; Findell, Kirsten L.; Gleeson, Tom; Liang, Zhi; Phillips, Peter; Stouffer, Ronald J.; Swenson, Sean


    LM3 is a new model of terrestrial water, energy, and carbon, intended for use in global hydrologic analyses and as a component of earth-system and physical-climate models. It is designed to improve upon the performance and to extend the scope of the predecessor Land Dynamics (LaD) and LM3V models by better quantifying the physical controls of climate and biogeochemistry and by relating more directly to components of the global water system that touch human concerns. LM3 includes multilayer representations of temperature, liquid water content, and ice content of both snowpack and macroporous soil–bedrock; topography-based description of saturated area and groundwater discharge; and transport of runoff to the ocean via a global river and lake network. Sensible heat transport by water mass is accounted throughout for a complete energy balance. Carbon and vegetation dynamics and biophysics are represented as in LM3V. In numerical experiments, LM3 avoids some of the limitations of the LaD model and provides qualitatively (though not always quantitatively) reasonable estimates, from a global perspective, of observed spatial and/or temporal variations of vegetation density, albedo, streamflow, water-table depth, permafrost, and lake levels. Amplitude and phase of annual cycle of total water storage are simulated well. Realism of modeled lake levels varies widely. The water table tends to be consistently too shallow in humid regions. Biophysical properties have an artificial stepwise spatial structure, and equilibrium vegetation is sensitive to initial conditions. Explicit resolution of thick (>100 m) unsaturated zones and permafrost is possible, but only at the cost of long (≫300 yr) model spinup times.

  1. Hydrological characterization of a pre-Inca artificial recharge system to alleviate drought and flooding in the Peruvian Andes (United States)

    Ochoa-Tocachi, B. F.; Buytaert, W.; Bardales, J. D.; Antiporta, J.; De Bièvre, B.


    The tropical Andes provide a broad range of ecosystem services for downstream cities, with an abundant supply of fresh water among the most important. Because of the highly seasonal precipitation regime and flashy response of the mountainous topography, rivers along the Pacific coast of Peru are prone to generate devastating flash floods during the wet season, and low to non-existing base flows during the dry season. This creates hydrological challenges, especially for Lima, Peru's capital and the second largest desert city in the world. Furthermore, the complex spatiotemporal patterns and the generalized data scarcity of tropical Andean catchments make hydrological predictions very challenging. Long before modern urbanization, pre-Incan communities already recognized the problems of such a variable hydrological regime, and as a response developed artificial recharge systems that increase water availability during the dry season. The specific kind of technique called "Mamanteo" in the central Sierra, consists of diverting flow from a natural small stream to force it to infiltrate on mountain slopes during the rainy season. This water builds in lag times of weeks to months, and resurfaces in springs to be `harvested' during critical dry months. To quantify the storage and regulation capacity of these systems, hydrological monitoring and dye tracer experiments were implemented in two subcatchments of the Chillon river, which is part of the water supply of Lima. We found a clear hydrological connectivity between the infiltration canals and open springs downslope, with travel times of dye tracer between 2 weeks and 8 months -peaking at 2 months- confirming the ability of the system to effectively make water available in the dry season. However, some challenges remain, especially with respect to an accurate quantification of harvestable water and percolated volumes to deeper soil strata, that might be a benefit for Lima in the coastal plain. Nevertheless, there is clear

  2. Coupling biophysical processes and water rights to simulate spatially distributed water use in an intensively managed hydrologic system (United States)

    Han, Bangshuai; Benner, Shawn G.; Bolte, John P.; Vache, Kellie B.; Flores, Alejandro N.


    Humans have significantly altered the redistribution of water in intensively managed hydrologic systems, shifting the spatiotemporal patterns of surface water. Evaluating water availability requires integration of hydrologic processes and associated human influences. In this study, we summarize the development and evaluation of an extensible hydrologic model that explicitly integrates water rights to spatially distribute irrigation waters in a semi-arid agricultural region in the western US, using the Envision integrated modeling platform. The model captures both human and biophysical systems, particularly the diversion of water from the Boise River, which is the main water source that supports irrigated agriculture in this region. In agricultural areas, water demand is estimated as a function of crop type and local environmental conditions. Surface water to meet crop demand is diverted from the stream reaches, constrained by the amount of water available in the stream, the water-rights-appropriated amount, and the priority dates associated with particular places of use. Results, measured by flow rates at gaged stream and canal locations within the study area, suggest that the impacts of irrigation activities on the magnitude and timing of flows through this intensively managed system are well captured. The multi-year averaged diverted water from the Boise River matches observations well, reflecting the appropriation of water according to the water rights database. Because of the spatially explicit implementation of surface water diversion, the model can help diagnose places and times where water resources are likely insufficient to meet agricultural water demands, and inform future water management decisions.

  3. Temporal variations in the potential hydrological performance of extensive green roof systems (United States)

    De-Ville, Simon; Menon, Manoj; Stovin, Virginia


    Existing literature provides contradictory information about variation in potential green roof hydrological performance over time. This study has evaluated a long-term hydrological monitoring record from a series of extensive green roof test beds to identify long-term evolutions and sub-annual (seasonal) variations in potential hydrological performance. Monitoring of nine differently-configured extensive green roof test beds took place over a period of 6 years in Sheffield, UK. Long-term evolutions and sub-annual trends in maximum potential retention performance were identified through physical monitoring of substrate field capacity over time. An independent evaluation of temporal variations in detention performance was undertaken through the fitting of reservoir-routing model parameters. Aggregation of the resulting retention and detention variations permitted the prediction of extensive green roof hydrological performance in response to a 1-in-30-year 1-h summer design storm for Sheffield, UK, which facilitated the comparison of multi and sub-annual hydrological performance variations. Sub-annual (seasonal) variation was found to be significantly greater than long-term evolution. Potential retention performance increased by up to 12% after 5-years, whilst the maximum sub-annual variation in potential retention was 27%. For vegetated roof configurations, a 4% long-term improvement was observed for detention performance, compared to a maximum 63% sub-annual variation. Consistent long-term reductions in detention performance were observed in unvegetated roof configurations, with a non-standard expanded-clay substrate experiencing a 45% reduction in peak attenuation over 5-years. Conventional roof configurations exhibit stable long-term hydrological performance, but are nonetheless subject to sub-annual variation.

  4. Development of Load Duration Curve System in Data Scarce Watersheds Based on a Distributed Hydrological Model (United States)

    WANG, J.


    In stream water quality control, the total maximum daily load (TMDL) program is very effective. However, the load duration curves (LDC) of TMDL are difficult to be established because no sufficient observed flow and pollutant data can be provided in data-scarce watersheds in which no hydrological stations or consecutively long-term hydrological data are available. Although the point sources or a non-point sources of pollutants can be clarified easily with the aid of LDC, where does the pollutant come from and to where it will be transported in the watershed cannot be traced by LDC. To seek out the best management practices (BMPs) of pollutants in a watershed, and to overcome the limitation of LDC, we proposed to develop LDC based on a distributed hydrological model of SWAT for the water quality management in data scarce river basins. In this study, firstly, the distributed hydrological model of SWAT was established with the scarce-hydrological data. Then, the long-term daily flows were generated with the established SWAT model and rainfall data from the adjacent weather station. Flow duration curves (FDC) was then developed with the aid of generated daily flows by SWAT model. Considering the goal of water quality management, LDC curves of different pollutants can be obtained based on the FDC. With the monitored water quality data and the LDC curves, the water quality problems caused by the point or non-point source pollutants in different seasons can be ascertained. Finally, the distributed hydrological model of SWAT was employed again to tracing the spatial distribution and the origination of the pollutants of coming from what kind of agricultural practices and/or other human activities. A case study was conducted in the Jian-jiang river, a tributary of Yangtze river, of Duyun city, Guizhou province. Results indicate that this kind of method can realize the water quality management based on TMDL and find out the suitable BMPs for reducing pollutant in a watershed.

  5. Hydrologic connectivity in the McMurdo Dry Valleys of Antarctica: System function and changes over two decades (United States)

    Wlostowski, A. N.; Gooseff, M. N.; Bernzott, E. D.; McKnight, D. M.; Jaros, C.; Lyons, W.


    The McMurdo Dry Valleys of Antarctica is one of the coldest (average annual air temperature of -18°C) and driest (ecological connections in the McMurdo Dry Valleys. Intermittent glacial meltwater streams connect glaciers to closed basin lakes and compose the most prominent hydrologic nexus in the valleys. This study uses of 20+ years of stream temperature, electrical conductivity (EC), and discharge data to enhance our quantitative understanding of the temporal dynamics of hydrologic connections along the glacier-stream-lake continuum. Annually, streamflow occurs for a relatively brief 10-12 week period of the austral summer. Longer streams are more prone to intermittent dry periods during the flow season, making for a harsher ecological environment than shorter streams. Diurnal streamflow variation occurs primarily as a result of changing solar postion relative to the source-glacier surfaces. Therfore, different streams predictably experience high flows and low flows at different times of the day. Electrical conductivity also exhibits diel variations, but the nature of EC-discharge relationships differs among streams throughout the valley. Longer streams have higher EC values and lower discharges than shorter streams, suggesting that hyporheic zones act as a significant solute source and hydrologic reservoir along longer streams. Water temperatures are consistently warmer in longer streams, relative to shorter streams, likely due to prolonged exposure to incident radiation with longer surface water residence times. Inter-annually, several shorter streams in the region show significant increases in Q10, Q30, Q50, Q70, Q90, and/or Q100 flows across the 20+ year record, indicating a long-term non-stationarity in hydrologic system dynamics. The tight coupling between surface waters and the glacier surface energy balance bring forth remarkably consistent hydrologic patterns on the daily and annual timescales, providing a model system for understanding fundamental

  6. Wetland Hydrology (United States)

    This chapter discusses the state of the science in wetland hydrology by touching upon the major hydraulic and hydrologic processes in these complex ecosystems, their measurement/estimation techniques, and modeling methods. It starts with the definition of wetlands, their benefit...

  7. [Socio-hydrology: A review]. (United States)

    Ding, Jing-yi; Zhao, Wen-wu; Fang, Xue-ning


    Socio-hydrology is an interdiscipline of hydrology, nature, society and humanity. It mainly explores the two-way feedbacks of coupled human-water system and its dynamic mechanism of co-evolution, and makes efforts to solve the issues that human faces today such as sustainable utilization of water resources. Starting from the background, formation process, and fundamental concept of socio-hydrology, this paper summarized the features of socio-hydrology. The main research content of socio-hydrology was reduced to three aspects: The tradeoff in coupled human-water system, interests in water resources management and virtual water research in coupled human-water system. And its differences as well as relations with traditional hydrology, eco-hydrology and hydro-sociology were dwelled on. Finally, with hope to promote the development of socio-hydrology researches in China, the paper made prospects for the development of the subject from following aspects: Completing academic content and deepening quantitative research, focusing on scale studies of socio-hydrology, fusing socio-hydrology and eco-hydrology.

  8. Hydrologic conditions, recharge, and baseline water quality of the surficial aquifer system at Jekyll Island, Georgia, 2012-13 (United States)

    Gordon, Debbie W.; Torak, Lynn J.


    An increase of groundwater withdrawals from the surficial aquifer system on Jekyll Island, Georgia, prompted an investigation of hydrologic conditions and water quality by the U.S. Geological Survey during October 2012 through December 2013. The study demonstrated the importance of rainfall as the island’s main source of recharge to maintain freshwater resources by replenishing the water table from the effects of hydrologic stresses, primarily evapotranspiration and pumping. Groundwater-flow directions, recharge, and water quality of the water-table zone on the island were investigated by installing 26 shallow wells and three pond staff gages to monitor groundwater levels and water quality in the water-table zone. Climatic data from Brunswick, Georgia, were used to calculate potential maximum recharge to the water-table zone on Jekyll Island. A weather station located on the island provided only precipitation data. Additional meteorological data from the island would enhance potential evapotranspiration estimates for recharge calculations.

  9. Improving regional climate and hydrological forecasting following the record setting flooding across the Lake Ontario - St. Lawrence River system (United States)

    Gronewold, A.; Seglenieks, F.; Bruxer, J.; Fortin, V.; Noel, J.


    In the spring of 2017, water levels across Lake Ontario and the upper St. Lawrence River exceeded record high levels, leading to widespread flooding, damage to property, and controversy over regional dam operating protocols. Only a few years earlier, water levels on Lakes Superior, Michigan, and Huron (upstream of Lake Ontario) had dropped to record low levels leading to speculation that either anthropogenic controls or climate change were leading to chronic water loss from the Great Lakes. The contrast between low water level conditions across Earth's largest lake system from the late 1990s through 2013, and the rapid rise prior to the flooding in early 2017, underscores the challenges of quantifying and forecasting hydrologic impacts of rising regional air and water temperatures (and associated changes in lake evaporation) and persistent increases in long-term precipitation. Here, we assess the hydrologic conditions leading to the recent record flooding across the Lake Ontario - St. Lawrence River system, with a particular emphasis on understanding the extent to which those conditions were consistent with observed and anticipated changes in historical and future climate, and the extent to which those conditions could have been anticipated through improvements in seasonal climate outlooks and hydrological forecasts.

  10. Water System Adaptation To Hydrological Changes: Module 5, Water Quality and Infrastructure Response to Rapid Urbanization: Adaptation Case Study in China (United States)

    This course will introduce students to the fundamental principles of water system adaptation to hydrological changes, with emphasis on data analysis and interpretation, technical planning, and computational modeling. Starting with real-world scenarios and adaptation needs, the co...

  11. Water System Adaptation To Hydrological Changes: Module 3, Consequences of Prolonged Drought on Urban Water System Resilience: Case Study from Las Vegas, Nevada, USA (United States)

    This course focuses on water system adaptation to short-term and long-term climate and hydrologic stressors that affect water availability, water quality, security, and resilience. The course is organized into 15 sequential modules. The lectures will be augmented by weekly assign...

  12. Characterising the hydrological regime of an ungauged temporary river system: a case study. (United States)

    D'Ambrosio, Ersilia; De Girolamo, Anna Maria; Barca, Emanuele; Ielpo, Pierina; Rulli, Maria Cristina


    Temporary streams are characterised by specific hydrological regimes, which influence ecosystem processes, groundwater and surface water interactions, sediment regime, nutrient delivery, water quality and ecological status. This paper presents a methodology to characterise and classify the regime of a temporary river in Southern Italy based on hydrological indicators (HIs) computed with long-term daily flow records. By using a principal component analysis (PCA), a set of non-redundant indices were identified describing the main characteristics of the hydrological regime in the study area. The indicators identified were the annual maximum 30- and 90-day mean (DH4 and DH5), the number of zero flow days (DL6), flow permanence (MF) and the 6-month seasonal predictability of dry periods (SD6). A methodology was also tested to estimate selected HIs in ungauged river reaches. Watershed characteristics such as catchment area, gauging station elevation, mean watershed slope, mean annual rainfall, land use, soil hydraulic conductivity and available water content were derived for each site. Selected indicators were then linked to the catchment characteristics using a regression analysis. Finally, MF and SD6 were used to classify the river reaches on the basis of their degree of intermittency. The methodology presented in this paper constitutes a useful tool for ecologists and water resource managers in the Water Framework Directive implementation process, which requires a characterisation of the hydrological regime and a 'river type' classification for all water bodies.

  13. Hydrologic connectivity between geographically isolated wetlands and surface water systems: A review of select modeling methods (United States)

    Heather E. Golden; Charles R. Lane; Devendra M. Amatya; Karl W. Bandilla; Hadas Raanan Kiperwas Kiperwas; Christopher D. Knightes; Herbert. Ssegane


    Geographically isolated wetlands (GIW), depressional landscape features entirely surrounded by upland areas, provide a wide range of ecological functions and ecosystem services for human well-being. Current and future ecosystem management and decision-making rely on a solid scientific understanding of how hydrologic processes affect these important GIW services and...

  14. The hydrology of prehistoric farming systems in a central Arizona ecotone (United States)

    Gumerman, G. J.; Hanson, J. A.; Brew, D.; Tomoff, K.; Weed, C. S.


    The prehistoric land use and water management in the semi-arid Southwest was examined. Remote sensing data, geology, hydrology and biology are discussed along with an evaluation of remote sensing contributions, recommendations for applications, and proposed future remote sensing studies.

  15. Building hydrologic information systems to promote climate resilience in the Blue Nile/Abay higlands (United States)

    Climate adaptation requires information about climate and land-surface conditions – spatially distributed, and at scales of human influence (the field scale). This article describes a project aimed at combining meteorological data, satellite remote sensing, hydrologic modeling, and downscaled clima...

  16. Soil Systems for Upscaling Saturated Hydraulic Conductivity (Ksat) for Hydrological Modeling in the Critical Zone (United States)

    Successful hydrological model predictions depend on appropriate framing of scale and the spatial-temporal accuracy of input parameters describing soil hydraulic properties. Saturated soil hydraulic conductivity (Ksat) is one of the most important properties influencing water movement through soil un...

  17. Hydrologic Education and Undergraduate Research in a Passive Wetland Treatment System (United States)

    Fredrick, K. C.; Lohr, L.


    Legacy coal mine drainage has been found to impair surface water throughout southwestern Pennsylvania. Though few of our incoming students know what "acid mine drainage" is, nearly all have seen the orange streams and seeps that are its most obvious characteristic. On the other end of the spectrum, our geology majors are typically finding jobs in the oil and gas industry related to shale gas, or in environmental fields especially related to local and regional surface water. To take advantage of their early familiarity with local stream impacts and the likelihood they will have to deal with mine effluent during their post-academic careers, we have leveraged a local passive wetland treatment system to bring a relevant, real-life scenario into the classroom and lab. Moraine State Park, in western PA, is centered on Lake Arthur, an artificial reservoir of Muddy Creek. The park, particularly the lake, is a destination for recreational visitors, including boating and fishing enthusiasts. There is concern among visitors and park administrators about the health of the local streams and the lake. The area has been extensively undermined, with most coal mines sealed prior to the damming of the reservoir. One such instance of these sealed mine ports failed along one of the many embayments of Lake Arthur and a passive treatment system was installed. It was used as an example of the environmental impacts to the area for park guests, with an access road and signage. However, at this time, the three-pond system may be failing, five years beyond its projected life span and showing signs of stress and downstream contamination. Though the system is small, it provides a robust opportunity for hydrologic and geochemical analyses. We have used the pond system extensively for undergraduate research. Over the past five years, a Master's thesis was completed, and numerous undergraduate projects followed. Students have measured precipitate thickness and deposition rates, endeavored to

  18. Habitat and hydrology: assessing biological resources of the Suwannee River Estuarine System (United States)

    Raabe, Ellen A.; Edwards, Randy E.; McIvor, Carole C.; Grubbs, Jack W.; Dennis, George D.


    The U.S. Geological Survey conducted a pilot integrated-science study during 2002 and 2003 to map, describe, and evaluate benthic and emergent habitats in the Suwannee River Estuary on the Gulf Coast of Florida. Categories of aquatic, emergent, and terrestrial habitats were determined from hyperspectral imagery and integrated with hydrologic data to identify estuarine fish habitats. Maps of intertidal and benthic habitat were derived from 12-band, 4-m resolution hyperspectral imagery acquired in September 2002. Hydrologic data were collected from tidal creeks during the winter of 2002-03 and the summer-fall of 2003. Fish were sampled from tidal creeks during March 2003 using rivulet nets, throw traps, and seine nets. Habitat characteristics, hydrologic data, and fish assemblages were compared for tidal creeks north and south of the Suwannee River. Tidal creeks north of the river had more shoreline edge and shallow habitat than creeks to the south. Tidal creeks south of the river were generally of lower salinity (fresher) and supported more freshwater marsh and submerged aquatic vegetation. The southern creeks tended to be deeper but less sinuous than the northern creeks. Water quality and inundation were evaluated with hydrologic monitoring in the creeks. In-situ gauges, recording pressure and temperature, documented a net discharge of brackish to saline groundwater into the tidal creeks with pronounced flow during low tide. Groundwater flow into the creeks was most prominent north of the river. Combined fish-sampling results showed an overall greater abundance of organisms and greater species richness in the southern creeks, nominally attributed a greater range in water quality. Fish samples were dominated by juvenile spot, grass shrimp, bay anchovy, and silverside. The short time frame for hydrologic monitoring and the one-time fish-sampling effort were insufficient for forming definitive conclusions. However, the combination of hyperspectral imagery and

  19. A spatiotemporal analysis of hydrological patterns based on a wireless sensor network system (United States)

    Plaza, F.; Slater, T. A.; Zhong, X.; Li, Y.; Liang, Y.; Liang, X.


    Understanding complicated spatiotemporal patterns of eco-hydrological variables at a small scale plays a profound role in improving predictability of high resolution distributed hydrological models. However, accurate and continuous monitoring of these complex patterns has become one of the main challenges in the environmental sciences. Wireless sensor networks (WSNs) have emerged as one of the most widespread potential solutions to achieve this. This study presents a spatiotemporal analysis of hydrological patterns (e.g., soil moisture, soil water potential, soil temperature and transpiration) based on observational data collected from a dense multi-hop wireless sensor network (WSN) in a steep-forested testbed located in Southwestern Pennsylvania, USA. At this WSN testbed with an approximate area of 3000 m2, environmental variables are collected from over 240 sensors that are connected to more than 100 heterogeneous motes. The sensors include the soil moisture of EC-5, soil temperature and soil water potential of MPS-1 and MPS-2, and sap flow sensors constructed in house. The motes consist of MICAz, IRIS and TelosB. In addition, several data loggers have been installed along the site to provide a comparative reference to the WSN measurements for the purpose of checking the WSN data quality. The edaphic properties monitored by the WSN sensors show strong agreement with the data logger measurements. Moreover, sap flow measurements, scaled to tree stand transpiration, are found to be reasonable. This study also investigates the feasibility and roles that these sensor measurements play in improving the performance of high-resolution distributed hydrological models. In particular, we explore this using a modified version of the Distributed Hydrological Soil Vegetation Model (DHSVM).

  20. Development of a 14-digit Hydrologic Unit Code Numbering System for South Carolina (United States)

    Bower, David E.; Lowry, Claude; Lowery, Mark A.; Hurley, Noel M.


    A Hydrologic Unit Map showing the cataloging units, watersheds, and subwatersheds of South Carolina has been developed by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control, funded through a U.S. Environmental Protection Agency 319 Grant, and the U.S. Department of Agriculture, Natural Resources Conservation Service. These delineations represent 8-, 11-, and 14-digit Hydrologic Unit Codes, respectively. This map presents information on drainage, hydrography, and hydrologic boundaries of the water-resources regions, subregions, accounting units, cataloging units, watersheds, and subwatersheds. The source maps for the basin delineations are 1:24,000-scale 7.5-minute series topographic maps and the base maps are from 1:100,000-scale Digital Line Graphs; however, the data are published at a scale of 1:500,000. In addition, an electronic version of the data is provided on a compact disc.Of the 1,022 subwatersheds delineated for this project, 1,004 range in size from 3,000 to 40,000 acres (4.69 to 62.5 square miles). Seventeen subwatersheds are smaller than 3,000 acres and one subwatershed, located on St. Helena Island, is larger than 40,000 acres.This map and its associated codes provide a standardized base for use by water-resource managers and planners in locating, storing, retrieving, and exchanging hydrologic data. In addition, the map can be used for cataloging water-data acquisition activities, geographically organizing hydrologic data, and planning and describing water-use and related land-use activities.

  1. An introduction to the European Hydrological SystemSysteme Hydrologique Europeen, ``SHE'', 2: Structure of a physically-based, distributed modelling system (United States)

    Abbott, M. B.; Bathurst, J. C.; Cunge, J. A.; O'Connell, P. E.; Rasmussen, J.


    The paper forms the second part of an introduction to the SHE, a physically-based, distributed catchment modelling system produced jointly by the Danish Hydraulic Institute, the British Institute of Hydrology and SOGREAH (France) with the financial support of the Commission of the European Communities. The SHE is physically-based in the sense that the hydrological processes of water movement are modelled either by finite difference representations of the partial differential equations of mass, momentum and energy conservation, or by empirical equations derived from independent experimental research. Spatial distribution of catchment parameters, rainfall input and hydrological response is achieved in the horizontal by an orthogonal grid network and in the vertical by a column of horizontal layers at each grid square. Each of the primary processes of the land phase of the hydrological cycle is modelled in a separate component as follows: interception, by the Rutter accounting procedure; evapotranspiration, by the Penman-Monteith equation; overland and channel flow, by simplifications of the St. Venant equations; unsaturated zone flow, by the one-dimensional Richards equation; saturated zone flow, by the two-dimensional Boussinesq equation; snowmelt, by an energy budget method. Overall control of the parallel running of the components and the information exchanges between them is managed by a FRAME component. Careful attention has been devoted to a modular construction so that improvements or additional components (e.g. water quality and sediment yield) can be added in the future. Considerable operating flexibility is provided through the ability to vary the level of sophistication of the calculation mode to match the availability or quality of the data.

  2. Soil hydrology of agroforestry systems: Competition for water or positive tree-crops interactions? (United States)

    Gerjets, Rowena; Richter, Falk; Jansen, Martin; Carminati, Andrea


    In dry periods during the growing season crops may suffer from severe water stress. The question arises whether the alternation of crop and tree strips might enhance and sustain soil water resources available for crops during drought events. Trees reduce wind exposure, decreasing the potential evapotranspiration of crops and soils; additionally hydraulic lift from the deep roots of trees to the drier top soil might provide additional water for shallow-rooted crops. To understand the above and belowground water relations of agroforestry systems, we measured soil moisture and soil water potential in crop strips as a function of distance to the trees at varying depth as well as meteorological parameters. At the agroforestry site Reiffenhausen, Lower Saxony, Germany, two different tree species are planted, each in one separated tree strip: willow breed Tordis ((Salix viminalis x Salix Schwerinii) x Salix viminalis) and poplar clone Max 1 (Populus nigra x Populus maximowiczii). In between the tree strips a crop strip of 24 m width was established with annual crop rotation, managed the same way as the reference site. During a drought period in May 2016 with less than 2 mm rain in four weeks, an overall positive effect on hydrological conditions of the agroforestry system was observed. The results show that trees shaded the soil surface, lowering the air temperature and further increasing the soil moisture in the crop strips compared to the reference site, which was located far from the trees. At the reference site the crops took up water in the upper soil (sunlight. The two tree species behaved differently. The poplar strips showed more marked diurnal changes in soil water potential, with fast drying during daytime and rewetting during nighttime. We suppose that the rewetting during nighttime was caused by hydraulic lift, which supports passively the drier upper soil with water from the wetter, lower soil layers. This experimental study shows the importance of above- and

  3. Effect and relevance of the artificial drainage system when assessing the hydrologic impact of the imperviousness distribution within the watershed (United States)

    Thenoux, M.; Gironas, J. A.; Mejia, A.


    Cities and urban growth have relevant environmental and social impacts, which could eventually be enhanced or reduced during the urban planning process. From the point of view of hydrology, impermeability and natural soil compaction are one of the main problems that urbanization brings to watershed. Previous studies demonstrate and quantify the impacts of the distribution of imperviousness in a watershed, both on runoff volumes and flow, and the quality and integrity of streams and receiving bodies. Moreover, some studies have investigated the optimal distribution of imperviousness, based on simulating different scenarios of land use change and its effects on runoff, mostly at the outlet of the watershed. However, these studies typically do not address the impact of artificial drainage system associated with the imperviousness scenarios, despite it is known that storm sewer coverage affects the flow accumulation and generation of flow hydrographs. This study seeks to quantify the effects and relevance of the artificial system when it comes to assess the hydrological impacts of the spatial distribution of imperviousness and to determine the characteristics of this influence. For this purpose, an existing model to generate imperviousness distribution scenarios is coupled with a model developed to automatically generate artificial drainage networks. These models are applied to a natural watershed to generate a variety of imperviousness and storm sewer layout scenarios, which are evaluate with a morphoclimatic instantaneous unit hydrograph model. We first tested the ability of this approach to represent the joint effects of imperviousness (i.e. level and distribution) and storm sewer coverage. We then quantified the effects of these variables on the hydrological response, considering also different return period in order to take into account the variability of the precipitation regime. Overall, we show that the layout and spatial coverage of the storm sewer system

  4. Evaluating Coupled Human-Hydrologic Systems in High Altitude Regions: A Case Study of the Arun Watershed, Eastern Nepal (United States)

    Voss, K.; Bookhagen, B.; Tague, C.; Lopez-Carr, D.


    The Himalaya exhibit dynamic ecological, hydrological, and climatic extremes that magnify the variability and extent of natural hazards, resulting in destruction to both physical and human landscapes. Coupled with poverty, these factors intensify local communities' vulnerability to climate change. This study highlights the Arun watershed in eastern Nepal as a case study to evaluate how local communities in high altitude regions are managing their water for domestic and agricultural needs while coping with extreme events, such as floods and landslides. Remotely-sensed precipitation, snowpack and glacial extent data from the past decade are combined with preliminary results from extensive field-based community surveys in the Arun watershed. The analysis of remotely-sensed data will describe seasonal trends in water availability, glacial lake growth, and the spatial variation of these trends within the basin. These hydrologic changes will be linked to the human survey analysis, which will provide an understanding of locals' perceptions of water challenges and the current water management strategies within the basin. Particular attention will be given to a comparison between the eastern and western tributaries of the Arun River, where the catchments are mainly rain-fed (eastern) versus glacial-fed (western). This contrast will highlight how different hydrologic scenarios evidenced from remote-sensing data motivate diverse human water management responses as defined in field surveys. A particular focus will be given to management decisions related to agriculture expansion and hydropower development. This synthesis of remote-sensing and social research methodologies provides a valuable perspective on coupled human-hydrologic systems.

  5. Regime shifts under forcing of non-stationary attractors: Conceptual model and case studies in hydrologic systems. (United States)

    Park, Jeryang; Rao, P Suresh C


    We present here a conceptual model and analysis of complex systems using hypothetical cases of regime shifts resulting from temporal non-stationarity in attractor strengths, and then present selected published cases to illustrate such regime shifts in hydrologic systems (shallow aquatic ecosystems; water table shifts; soil salinization). Complex systems are dynamic and can exist in two or more stable states (or regimes). Temporal variations in state variables occur in response to fluctuations in external forcing, which are modulated by interactions among internal processes. Combined effects of external forcing and non-stationary strengths of alternative attractors can lead to shifts from original to alternate regimes. In systems with bi-stable states, when the strengths of two competing attractors are constant in time, or are non-stationary but change in a linear fashion, regime shifts are found to be temporally stationary and only controlled by the characteristics of the external forcing. However, when attractor strengths change in time non-linearly or vary stochastically, regime shifts in complex systems are characterized by non-stationary probability density functions (pdfs). We briefly discuss implications and challenges to prediction and management of hydrologic complex systems. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. GC23G-1310: Investigation Into the Effects of Climate Variability and Land Cover Change on the Hydrologic System of the Lower Mekong Basin (United States)

    Markert, Kel N.; Griffin, Robert; Limaye, Ashutosh S.; McNider, Richard T.; Anderson, Eric R.


    The Lower Mekong Basin (LMB) is an economically and ecologically important region that experiences hydrologic hazards such as floods and droughts, which can directly affect human well-being and limit economic growth and development. To effectively develop long-term plans for addressing hydrologic hazards, the regional hydrological response to climate variability and land cover change needs to be evaluated. This research aims to investigate how climate variability, specifically variations in the precipitation regime, and land cover change will affect hydrologic parameters both spatially and temporally within the LMB. The research goal is achieved by (1) modeling land cover change for a baseline land cover change scenario as well as changes in land cover with increases in forest or agriculture and (2) using projected climate variables and modeled land cover data as inputs into the Variable Infiltration Capacity (VIC) hydrologic model to simulate the changes to the hydrologic system. The VIC model outputs were analyzed against historic values to understand the relative contribution of climate variability and land cover to change, where these changes occur, and to what degree these changes affect the hydrology. This study found that the LMB hydrologic system is more sensitive to climate variability than land cover change. On average, climate variability was found to increase discharge and evapotranspiration (ET) while decreasing water storage. The change in land cover show that increasing forest area will slightly decrease discharge and increase ET while increasing agriculture area increases discharge and decreases ET. These findings will help the LMB by supporting individual country policy to plan for future hydrologic changes as well as policy for the basin as a whole.

  7. Hydrological Bulletin (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Historical report (December 1937-April 1948) containing hydrologic information for the United States, divided into ten regions. While hourly precipitation tables...

  8. Landfilling: Hydrology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjeldsen, Peter; Beaven, R.


    Landfill hydrology deals with the presence and movement of water through a landfill. The main objective in landfill hydrology is usually to predict leachate generation, but the presence and movement of water in a landfill also affect the degradation of the waste, the leaching of pollutants...... and the geotechnical stability of the fill. Understanding landfill hydrology is thus important for many aspects of landfill, in particular siting, design and operation. The objective of this chapter is to give a basic understanding of the hydrology of landfills, and to present ways to estimate leachate quantities...... under specific circumstances. Initially a general water balance equation is defined for a typical landfill, and the different parts of the water balance are discussed. A separate section discusses water flow and the hydrogeology of landfilled wastes and considers the impact of water short...

  9. Embedding complex hydrology in the regional climate system – Dynamic coupling across different modelling domains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Butts, Michael; Drews, Martin; Larsen, Morten Andreas Dahl


    the atmosphere and the groundwater via the land surface and can represent the lateral movement of water in both the surface and subsurface and their interactions, not normally accounted for in climate models. Meso-scale processes are important for climate in general and rainfall in particular. Hydrological......To improve our understanding of the impacts of feedback between the atmosphere and the terrestrial water cycle including groundwater and to improve the integration of water resource management modelling for climate adaption we have developed a dynamically coupled climate–hydrological modelling...... impacts are assessed at the catchment scale, the most important scale for water management. Feedback between groundwater, the land surface and the atmosphere occurs across a range of scales. Recognising this, the coupling was developed to allow dynamic exchange of water and energy at the catchment scale...

  10. A multiscale dataset for understanding complex eco-hydrological processes in a heterogeneous oasis system


    Li, Xin; Liu, Shaomin; Xiao, Qin; Ma, Mingguo; Jin, Rui; Che, Tao; Wang, Weizhen; Hu, Xiaoli; Xu, Ziwei; Wen, Jianguang; Wang, Liangxu


    We introduce a multiscale dataset obtained from Heihe Watershed Allied Telemetry Experimental Research (HiWATER) in an oasis-desert area in 2012. Upscaling of eco-hydrological processes on a heterogeneous surface is a grand challenge. Progress in this field is hindered by the poor availability of multiscale observations. HiWATER is an experiment designed to address this challenge through instrumentation on hierarchically nested scales to obtain multiscale and multidisciplinary data. The HiWAT...

  11. Social Position Influencing the Water Perception Gap Between Local Leaders and Constituents in a Socio-Hydrological System (United States)

    Haeffner, Melissa; Jackson-Smith, Douglas; Flint, Courtney G.


    How well city leaders represent their constituents and meet their needs are key concerns in transitioning to local sustainable water governance. To date, however, there is little research documenting the influence of social position between elected leaders who make policy, career staff water managers who design and operate systems and implement policies, and the members of the public whose individual water use behaviors are important drivers of water sustainability outcomes. In this study, we ask: "How does social position explain variation in water perceptions and concerns between different actors in a socio-hydrological system?" Using a mixed method approach with survey and interview data, we explore the ways that positioning within the governance system, geographic context, and citizen engagement in local government mediate perceptions of the urban water system. Regardless of local biophysical water supply conditions, residents showed most concern about future water shortages and high water costs, while their leaders were consistently most concerned about deteriorating local water infrastructure. Further, constituents who received water-related information directly from public utility mailings or served on community committees and boards had perceptions that were more aligned with leaders' concerns. The importance of social structure over natural and built environments in shaping water issue perceptions underscores the value of social analysis in socio-hydrology studies. Further, practitioners looking to increase consensus for a transition to sustainable water governance might work to develop institutional mechanisms to increase opportunities for water user involvement in local water system governance.

  12. Technology demonstration: geostatistical and hydrologic analysis of salt areas. Assessment of effectiveness of geologic isolation systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doctor, P.G.; Oberlander, P.L.; Rice, W.A.; Devary, J.L.; Nelson, R.W.; Tucker, P.E.


    The Office of Nuclear Waste Isolation (ONWI) requested Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) to: (1) use geostatistical analyses to evaluate the adequacy of hydrologic data from three salt regions, each of which contains a potential nuclear waste repository site; and (2) demonstrate a methodology that allows quantification of the value of additional data collection. The three regions examined are the Paradox Basin in Utah, the Permian Basin in Texas, and the Mississippi Study Area. Additional and new data became available to ONWI during and following these analyses; therefore, this report must be considered a methodology demonstration here would apply as illustrated had the complete data sets been available. A combination of geostatistical and hydrologic analyses was used for this demonstration. Geostatistical analyses provided an optimal estimate of the potentiometric surface from the available data, a measure of the uncertainty of that estimate, and a means for selecting and evaluating the location of future data. The hydrologic analyses included the calculation of transmissivities, flow paths, travel times, and ground-water flow rates from hypothetical repository sites. Simulation techniques were used to evaluate the effect of optimally located future data on the potentiometric surface, flow lines, travel times, and flow rates. Data availability, quality, quantity, and conformance with model assumptions differed in each of the salt areas. Report highlights for the three locations are given

  13. Integration of a Hydrological Model within a Geographical Information System: Application to a Forest Watershed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimitris Fotakis


    Full Text Available Watershed simulation software used for operational purposes must possess both dependability of results and flexibility in parameter selection and testing. The UBC watershed model (UBCWM contains a wide spectrum of parameters expressing meteorological, geological, as well as ecological watershed characteristics. The hydrological model was coupled to the MapInfo GIS and the software created was named Watershed Mapper (WM. WM is endowed with several features permitting operational utilization. These include input data and basin geometry visualization, land use/cover and soil simulation, exporting of statistical results and thematic maps and interactive variation of disputed parameters. For the application of WM two hypothetical scenarios of forest fires were examined in a study watershed. Four major rainfall events were selected from 12-year daily precipitation data and the corresponding peak flows were estimated for the base line data and hypothetical scenarios. A significant increase was observed as an impact of forest fires on peak flows. Due to its flexibility the combined tool described herein may be utilized in modeling long-term hydrological changes in the context of unsteady hydrological analyses.

  14. Coupling of Processes and Data in PennState Integrated Hydrologic Modeling (PIHM) System (United States)

    Kumar, M.; Duffy, C.


    Full physical coupling, "natural" numerical coupling and parsimonious but accurate data coupling is needed to comprehensively and accurately capture the interaction between different components of a hydrologic continuum. Here we present a physically based, spatially distributed hydrologic model that incorporates all the three coupling strategies. Physical coupling of interception, snow melt, transpiration, overland flow, subsurface flow, river flow, macropore based infiltration and stormflow, flow through and over hydraulic structures likes weirs and dams, and evaporation from interception, ground and overland flow is performed. All the physically coupled components are numerically coupled through semi-discrete form of ordinary differential equations, that define each hydrologic process, using Finite-Volume based approach. The fully implicit solution methodology using CVODE solver solves for all the state variables simultaneously at each adaptive time steps thus providing robustness, stability and accuracy. The accurate data coupling is aided by use of constrained unstructured meshes, flexible data model and use of PIHMgis. The spatial adaptivity of decomposed domain and temporal adaptivity of the numerical solver facilitates capture of varied spatio-temporal scales that are inherent in hydrologic process interactions. The implementation of the model has been performed on a meso-scale Little-Juniata Watershed. Model results are validated by comparison of streamflow at multiple locations. We discuss some of the interesting hydrologic interactions between surface, subsurface and atmosphere witnessed during the year long simulation such as a) inverse relationship between evaporation from interception storage and transpiration b) relative influence of forcing (precipitation, temperature and radiation) and source (soil moisture and overland flow) on evaporation c) influence of local topography on gaining, loosing or "flow-through" behavior of river-aquifer interactions

  15. Developing hydrological monitoring system based on HF radar for islands and reefs in the South China Sea (United States)

    Li, J.; Shi, P.; Chen, J.; Zhu, Y.; Li, B.


    There are many islands (or reefs) in the South China Sea. The hydrological properties (currents and waves) around the islands are highly spatially variable compared to those of coastal region of mainland, because the shorelines are more complex with much smaller scale, and the topographies are step-shape with a much sharper slope. The currents and waves with high spatial variations may destroy the buildings or engineering on shorelines, or even influence the structural stability of reefs. Therefore, it is necessary to establish monitoring systems to obtain the high-resolution hydrological information. This study propose a plan for developing a hydrological monitoring system based on HF radar on the shoreline of a typical island in the southern South China Sea: firstly, the HF radar are integrated with auxiliary equipment (such as dynamo, fuel tank, air conditioner, communication facilities) in a container to build a whole monitoring platform; synchronously, several buoys are set within the radar visibility for data calibration and validation; and finally, the current and wave observations collected by the HF radar are assimilated with numerical models to obtain long-term and high-precision reanalysis products. To test the feasibility of this plan, our research group has built two HF radar sites at the western coastal region of Guangdong Province. The collected data were used to extract surface current information and assimilated with an ocean model. The results show that the data assimilation can highly improve the surface current simulation, especially for typhoon periods. Continuous data with intervals between 6 and 12 hour are the most suitable for ideal assimilations. On the other hand, the test also reveal that developing similar monitoring system on island environments need advanced radars that have higher resolutions and a better performance for persistent work.

  16. Virtual hydrology observatory: an immersive visualization of hydrology modeling (United States)

    Su, Simon; Cruz-Neira, Carolina; Habib, Emad; Gerndt, Andreas


    The Virtual Hydrology Observatory will provide students with the ability to observe the integrated hydrology simulation with an instructional interface by using a desktop based or immersive virtual reality setup. It is the goal of the virtual hydrology observatory application to facilitate the introduction of field experience and observational skills into hydrology courses through innovative virtual techniques that mimic activities during actual field visits. The simulation part of the application is developed from the integrated atmospheric forecast model: Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF), and the hydrology model: Gridded Surface/Subsurface Hydrologic Analysis (GSSHA). Both the output from WRF and GSSHA models are then used to generate the final visualization components of the Virtual Hydrology Observatory. The various visualization data processing techniques provided by VTK are 2D Delaunay triangulation and data optimization. Once all the visualization components are generated, they are integrated into the simulation data using VRFlowVis and VR Juggler software toolkit. VR Juggler is used primarily to provide the Virtual Hydrology Observatory application with fully immersive and real time 3D interaction experience; while VRFlowVis provides the integration framework for the hydrologic simulation data, graphical objects and user interaction. A six-sided CAVETM like system is used to run the Virtual Hydrology Observatory to provide the students with a fully immersive experience.

  17. Gridded Surface Subsurface Hydrologic Analysis (GSSHA) User's Manual; Version 1.43 for Watershed Modeling System 6.1

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Downer, Charles W; Ogden, Fred L


    The need to simulate surface water flows in watersheds with diverse runoff production mechanisms has led to the development of the physically-based hydrologic model Gridded Surface Subsurface Hydrologic Analysis (GSSHA...

  18. Application of Large-Scale, Multi-Resolution Watershed Modeling Framework Using the Hydrologic and Water Quality System (HAWQS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haw Yen


    Full Text Available In recent years, large-scale watershed modeling has been implemented broadly in the field of water resources planning and management. Complex hydrological, sediment, and nutrient processes can be simulated by sophisticated watershed simulation models for important issues such as water resources allocation, sediment transport, and pollution control. Among commonly adopted models, the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT has been demonstrated to provide superior performance with a large amount of referencing databases. However, it is cumbersome to perform tedious initialization steps such as preparing inputs and developing a model with each changing targeted study area. In this study, the Hydrologic and Water Quality System (HAWQS is introduced to serve as a national-scale Decision Support System (DSS to conduct challenging watershed modeling tasks. HAWQS is a web-based DSS developed and maintained by Texas A & M University, and supported by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Three different spatial resolutions of Hydrologic Unit Code (HUC8, HUC10, and HUC12 and three temporal scales (time steps in daily/monthly/annual are available as alternatives for general users. In addition, users can specify preferred values of model parameters instead of using the pre-defined sets. With the aid of HAWQS, users can generate a preliminarily calibrated SWAT project within a few minutes by only providing the ending HUC number of the targeted watershed and the simulation period. In the case study, HAWQS was implemented on the Illinois River Basin, USA, with graphical demonstrations and associated analytical results. Scientists and/or decision-makers can take advantage of the HAWQS framework while conducting relevant topics or policies in the future.

  19. Modelling the transport of radioactive cesium released from the Fukushima Dai-ichi NPP with sediments through the hydrologic system (United States)

    Kinouchi, T.; Omata, T.; Wei, L.; Liu, T.; Araya, M.


    Due to the accident of the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant on March 2011, a huge amount of radionuclides including Cesium-134 and Cesium-137 was deposited over the main island of Japan and the Pacific Ocean, resulting in further transfer and diffusion of Cesium through the atmospheric flow, watershed hydrological processes, and terrestrial ecosystem. Particularly, for the transfer of Cesium-134 and Cesium-137, sediments eroded and transported by the rainfall-runoff processes play an important role as Cesium tends to be strongly adsorbed to soil particles such as clay and silt. In this study, we focus on the transport of sediment and adsorbed Cesium in the watershed-scale hydrologic system to predict the long-term change of distribution of Cesium and its discharge to rivers and ocean. We coupled a physically-based distributed hydrological model with the modules of erosion and transport of sediments and adsorbed Cesium, and applied the coupled model to the Abukuma River watershed, which is located over the area of higher deposition of Cesium. In the model, complex land use and land cover distributions, and the effect of human activities such as irrigation, dam control and urban drainage system are taken into accounts. Simulation was conducted for the period of March 2011 until August 2012, with initial spatial distribution of Cesium-134 and Cesium-137 obtained by the airborne survey. Simulated flow rates and sediment concentrations agreed well with observed, and found that since the accident, two major storms in July and September 2011 transported about 50% of total sediments transported during the simulated periods. Cesium concentration in the sediment was reproduced well except for the difference in the initial periods. This difference is attributable to the uncertainty arisen from the initial distribution of Cesium in the soil and the transfer of Cesium from the forest canopy.

  20. Talveaedade ajaloolised taimed / Urmas Laansoo

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Laansoo, Urmas, 1962-


    Artiklis tutvustatakse järgmisi talveaiataimi: harilik sidrunipuu, viirpelargoon, sprengeri aspar, harilik loorberipuu, ameerika agaav, harilik münt, datlipalm, powelli kriinum, kõrge nefroleep, meeldiv monstera, lõuna-tõlvpuu, jaapani kameelia

  1. Simulation of the Lower Walker River Basin hydrologic system, west-central Nevada, using PRMS and MODFLOW models (United States)

    Allander, Kip K.; Niswonger, Richard G.; Jeton, Anne E.


    Walker Lake is a terminal lake in west-central Nevada with almost all outflow occurring through evaporation. Diversions from Walker River since the early 1900s have contributed to a substantial reduction in flow entering Walker Lake. As a result, the lake is receding, and salt concentrations have increased to a level in which Oncorhynchus clarkii henshawi (Lahontan Cutthroat trout) are no longer present, and the lake ecosystem is threatened. Consequently, there is a concerted effort to restore the Walker Lake ecosystem and fishery to a level that is more sustainable. However, Walker Lake is interlinked with the lower Walker River and adjacent groundwater system which makes it difficult to understand the full effect of upstream water-management actions on the overall hydrologic system including the lake level, volume, and dissolved-solids concentrations of Walker Lake. To understand the effects of water-management actions on the lower Walker River Basin hydrologic system, a watershed model and groundwater flow model have been developed by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the Bureau of Reclamation and the National Fish and Wildlife Foundation.

  2. An Integrated Modelling System to Predict Hydrological Processes under Climate and Land-Use/Cover Change Scenarios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Babak Farjad


    Full Text Available This study proposes an integrated modeling system consisting of the physically-based MIKE SHE/MIKE 11 model, a cellular automata model, and general circulation models (GCMs scenarios to investigate the independent and combined effects of future climate and land-use/land-cover (LULC changes on the hydrology of a river system. The integrated modelling system is applied to the Elbow River watershed in southern Alberta, Canada in conjunction with extreme GCM scenarios and two LULC change scenarios in the 2020s and 2050s. Results reveal that LULC change substantially modifies the river flow regime in the east sub-catchment, where rapid urbanization is occurring. It is also shown that the change in LULC causes an increase in peak flows in both the 2020s and 2050s. The impacts of climate and LULC change on streamflow are positively correlated in winter and spring, which intensifies their influence and leads to a significant rise in streamflow, and, subsequently, increases the vulnerability of the watershed to spring floods. This study highlights the importance of using an integrated modeling approach to investigate both the independent and combined impacts of climate and LULC changes on the future of hydrology to improve our understanding of how watersheds will respond to climate and LULC changes.

  3. An Integrated Hydrological and Water Management Study of the Entire Nile River System - Lake Victoria to Nile Delta (United States)

    Habib, Shahid; Zaitchik, Benjamin; Alo, Clement; Ozdogan, Mutlu; Anderson, Martha; Policelli, Fritz


    The Nile basin River system spans 3 million km(exp 2) distributed over ten nations. The eight upstream riparian nations, Ethiopia, Eretria, Uganda, Rwanda, Burundi, Congo, Tanzania and Kenya are the source of approximately 86% of the water inputs to the Nile, while the two downstream riparian countries Sudan and Egypt, presently rely on the river's flow for most of the their needs. Both climate and agriculture contribute to the complicated nature of Nile River management: precipitation in the headwaters regions of Ethiopia and Lake Victoria is variable on a seasonal and inter-annual basis, while demand for irrigation water in the arid downstream region is consistently high. The Nile is, perhaps, one of the most difficult trans-boundary water issue in the world, and this study would be the first initiative to combine NASA satellite observations with the hydrologic models study the overall water balance in a to comprehensive manner. The cornerstone application of NASA's Earth Science Research Results under this project are the NASA Land Data Assimilation System (LDAS) and the USDA Atmosphere-land Exchange Inverse (ALEXI) model. These two complementary research results are methodologically independent methods for using NASA observations to support water resource analysis in data poor regions. Where an LDAS uses multiple sources of satellite data to inform prognostic simulations of hydrological process, ALEXI diagnoses evapotranspiration and water stress on the basis of thermal infrared satellite imagery. Specifically, this work integrates NASA Land Data Assimilation systems into the water management decision support systems that member countries of the Nile Basin Initiative (NBI) and Regional Center for Mapping of Resources for Development (RCMRD, located in Nairobi, Kenya) use in water resource analysis, agricultural planning, and acute drought response to support sustainable development of Nile Basin water resources. The project is motivated by the recognition that

  4. Isotope hydrology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drost, W.


    The International Symposium on Isotope Hydrology was jointly organized by the IAEA and UNESCO, in co-operation with the National Committee of the Federal Republic of Germany for the International Hydrological Programme (IHP) and the Gesellschaft fuer Strahlen- und Umweltforschung mbH (GSF). Upon the invitation of the Federal Republic of Germany the Symposium was held from 19-23 June 1978 in Neuherberg on the GSF campus. The Symposium was officially opened by Mr. S. Eklund, Director General of the IAEA. The symposium - the fifth meeting held on isotope hydrology - was attended by over 160 participants from 44 countries and four international organizations and by about 30 observers from the Federal Republic of Germany. Due to the absence of scientists from the USSR five papers were cancelled and therefore only 46 papers of the original programme were presented in ten sessions

  5. Assessing the reduction of the hydrological connectivity of gully systems through vegetation restoration: field experiments and numerical modelling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Molina


    well, as the error on the simulated total outflow volumes is below 13% for 15 out of 16 cases. However, predicting infiltration amounts is difficult: the high sensitivity of model results to some crucial hydraulic parameters (runoff width, hydraulic conductivity and sorptivity is one of the reasons why the relationships between model parameter values and gully features are relatively weak.

    The results obtained from the field experiments show that gully systems are key elements in the hydrological connectivity of degraded landscapes. The transfer of overland flow and sediment from the slopes towards the river system highly depends on the presence/absence of vegetation in the gully beds and should therefore be accounted for in assessments of landscape degradation and/or recovery.

  6. Hydrogeology and hydrologic conditions of the Northern Atlantic Coastal Plain aquifer System from Long Island, New York, to North Carolina (United States)

    Masterson, John P.; Pope, Jason P.; Monti, Jack; Nardi, Mark R.; Finkelstein, Jason S.; McCoy, Kurt J.


    The seaward-dipping sedimentary wedge that underlies the Northern Atlantic Coastal Plain forms a complex groundwater system. This major source of water provides for public and domestic supply and serves as a vital source of freshwater for industrial and agricultural uses throughout the region. Population increases and land-use and climate changes, however, have led to competing demands for water. The regional response of the aquifer system to these stresses poses regional challenges for water-resources management at the State level because hydrologic effects often extend beyond State boundaries. In response to these challenges, the U.S. Geological Survey Groundwater Resources Program began a regional assessment of the groundwater availability of the Northern Atlantic Coastal Plain aquifer system in 2010.

  7. Simulation, evaluation and optimization of hydrological storage systems; Simulation, Bewertung und Optimierung von Betriebsregeln fuer wasserwirtschaftliche Speichersysteme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lohr, H.


    The investigation focused on controlled hydrological storage system. Existing operating schedules and new control options were analyzed, classified and generalized in order to obtain a standardized terminology and operating concept. This generalized approach will do away with the need for system-specific analyses and models for every single new system. [German] Der Schwerpunkt dieser Arbeit ist der wasserwirtschaftliche Betrieb von regelbaren Speichersystemen und ihre Simulation. Dabei bestand das Ziel darin, bestehende Betriebsplaene und neue praktikable Steuerungsmoeglichkeiten zu analysieren, zu klassifizieren und so zu generalisieren, dass eine einheitliche Terminologie und Konzeption zum Betrieb von Speichern entstand. Dieses Konzept erlaubt, in Verbindung mit den Prinzipien aus der Modellierung von Flussgebieten, verschieden strukturierte Speichersysteme mit unterschiedlichsten Steuerungsvorschriften abzubilden. Damit erhaelt man den Vorteil einer generalisierten Anwendung im Gegensatz zu einer fuer den speziellen Fall konzipierten und nicht uebertragbaren Einzelloesung. Als Folge davon entfaellt das systemspezifische, je nach Aufgabenstellung neu zu entwerfende und zu programmierende Einzelmodell. (orig.)

  8. Applying Hillslope Hydrology to Bridge between Ecosystem and Grid-Scale Processes within an Earth System Model (United States)

    Subin, Z. M.; Sulman, B. N.; Malyshev, S.; Shevliakova, E.


    Soil moisture is a crucial control on surface energy fluxes, vegetation properties, and soil carbon cycling. Its interactions with ecosystem processes are highly nonlinear across a large range, as both drought stress and anoxia can impede vegetation and microbial growth. Earth System Models (ESMs) generally only represent an average soil-moisture state in grid cells at scales of 50-200 km, and as a result are not able to adequately represent the effects of subgrid heterogeneity in soil moisture, especially in regions with large wetland areas. We addressed this deficiency by developing the first ESM-coupled subgrid hillslope-hydrological model, TiHy (Tiled-hillslope Hydrology), embedded within the Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory (GFDL) land model. In each grid cell, one or more representative hillslope geometries are discretized into land model tiles along an upland-to-lowland gradient. These geometries represent ~1 km hillslope-scale hydrological features and allow for flexible representation of hillslope profile and plan shapes, in addition to variation of subsurface properties among or within hillslopes. Each tile (which may represent ~100 m along the hillslope) has its own surface fluxes, vegetation state, and vertically-resolved state variables for soil physics and biogeochemistry. Resolution of water state in deep layers (~200 m) down to bedrock allows for physical integration of groundwater transport with unsaturated overlying dynamics. Multiple tiles can also co-exist at the same vertical position along the hillslope, allowing the simulation of ecosystem heterogeneity due to disturbance. The hydrological model is coupled to the vertically-resolved Carbon, Organisms, Respiration, and Protection in the Soil Environment (CORPSE) model, which captures non-linearity resulting from interactions between vertically-heterogeneous soil carbon and water profiles. We present comparisons of simulated water table depth to observations. We examine sensitivities to

  9. Hydrologic Landscape Classification to Estimate Bristol Bay Watershed Hydrology (United States)

    The use of hydrologic landscapes has proven to be a useful tool for broad scale assessment and classification of landscapes across the United States. These classification systems help organize larger geographical areas into areas of similar hydrologic characteristics based on cl...

  10. An operational hydrological ensemble prediction system for the city of Zurich (Switzerland: skill, case studies and scenarios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Addor


    Full Text Available The Sihl River flows through Zurich, Switzerland's most populated city, for which it represents the largest flood threat. To anticipate extreme discharge events and provide decision support in case of flood risk, a hydrometeorological ensemble prediction system (HEPS was launched operationally in 2008. This model chain relies on limited-area atmospheric forecasts provided by the deterministic model COSMO-7 and the probabilistic model COSMO-LEPS. These atmospheric forecasts are used to force a semi-distributed hydrological model (PREVAH, coupled to a hydraulic model (FLORIS. The resulting hydrological forecasts are eventually communicated to the stakeholders involved in the Sihl discharge management. This fully operational setting provides a real framework with which to compare the potential of deterministic and probabilistic discharge forecasts for flood mitigation.

    To study the suitability of HEPS for small-scale basins and to quantify the added-value conveyed by the probability information, a reforecast was made for the period June 2007 to December 2009 for the Sihl catchment (336 km2. Several metrics support the conclusion that the performance gain can be of up to 2 days lead time for the catchment considered. Brier skill scores show that overall COSMO-LEPS-based hydrological forecasts outperforms their COSMO-7-based counterparts for all the lead times and event intensities considered. The small size of the Sihl catchment does not prevent skillful discharge forecasts, but makes them particularly dependent on correct precipitation forecasts, as shown by comparisons with a reference run driven by observed meteorological parameters. Our evaluation stresses that the capacity of the model to provide confident and reliable mid-term probability forecasts for high discharges is limited. The two most intense events of the study period are investigated utilising a novel graphical representation of probability forecasts, and are used

  11. Hydrologic Sub-basins of Greenland (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Hydrologic Sub-basins of Greenland data set contains Geographic Information System (GIS) polygon shapefiles that include 293 hydrologic sub-basins of the...

  12. Developing Flexible, Integrated Hydrologic Modeling Systems for Multiscale Analysis in the Midwest and Great Lakes Region (United States)

    Hamlet, A. F.; Chiu, C. M.; Sharma, A.; Byun, K.; Hanson, Z.


    Physically based hydrologic modeling of surface and groundwater resources that can be flexibly and efficiently applied to support water resources policy/planning/management decisions at a wide range of spatial and temporal scales are greatly needed in the Midwest, where stakeholder access to such tools is currently a fundamental barrier to basic climate change assessment and adaptation efforts, and also the co-production of useful products to support detailed decision making. Based on earlier pilot studies in the Pacific Northwest Region, we are currently assembling a suite of end-to-end tools and resources to support various kinds of water resources planning and management applications across the region. One of the key aspects of these integrated tools is that the user community can access gridded products at any point along the end-to-end chain of models, looking backwards in time about 100 years (1915-2015), and forwards in time about 85 years using CMIP5 climate model projections. The integrated model is composed of historical and projected future meteorological data based on station observations and statistical and dynamically downscaled climate model output respectively. These gridded meteorological data sets serve as forcing data for the macro-scale VIC hydrologic model implemented over the Midwest at 1/16 degree resolution. High-resolution climate model (4km WRF) output provides inputs for the analyses of urban impacts, hydrologic extremes, agricultural impacts, and impacts to the Great Lakes. Groundwater recharge estimated by the surface water model provides input data for fine-scale and macro-scale groundwater models needed for specific applications. To highlight the multi-scale use of the integrated models in support of co-production of scientific information for decision making, we briefly describe three current case studies addressing different spatial scales of analysis: 1) Effects of climate change on the water balance of the Great Lakes, 2) Future

  13. GIS model-based real-time hydrological forecasting and operation management system for the Lake Balaton and its watershed (United States)

    Adolf Szabó, János; Zoltán Réti, Gábor; Tóth, Tünde


    Today, the most significant mission of the decision makers on integrated water management issues is to carry out sustainable management for sharing the resources between a variety of users and the environment under conditions of considerable uncertainty (such as climate/land-use/population/etc. change) conditions. In light of this increasing water management complexity, we consider that the most pressing needs is to develop and implement up-to-date GIS model-based real-time hydrological forecasting and operation management systems for aiding decision-making processes to improve water management. After years of researches and developments the HYDROInform Ltd. has developed an integrated, on-line IT system (DIWA-HFMS: DIstributed WAtershed - Hydrologyc Forecasting & Modelling System) which is able to support a wide-ranging of the operational tasks in water resources management such as: forecasting, operation of lakes and reservoirs, water-control and management, etc. Following a test period, the DIWA-HFMS has been implemented for the Lake Balaton and its watershed (in 500 m resolution) at Central-Transdanubian Water Directorate (KDTVIZIG). The significant pillars of the system are: - The DIWA (DIstributed WAtershed) hydrologic model, which is a 3D dynamic water-balance model that distributed both in space and its parameters, and which was developed along combined principles but its mostly based on physical foundations. The DIWA integrates 3D soil-, 2D surface-, and 1D channel-hydraulic components as well. - Lakes and reservoir-operating component; - Radar-data integration module; - fully online data collection tools; - scenario manager tool to create alternative scenarios, - interactive, intuitive, highly graphical user interface. In Vienna, the main functions, operations and results-management of the system will be presented.

  14. Expansionary Adaptive Transformations of Socio-Hydrological Systems (SHSs): The Case of Drought in Messara Plain, Crete, Greece. (United States)

    Sapountzaki, Kalliopi; Daskalakis, Ioannis


    The paper attempts to document the ontology of socio-hydrological systems (SHSs), propose approaches of delimitation of SHSs' (territorial) boundaries, and investigate operational aspects of their adaptation to drought including repercussions on sustainability. To this end, a series of hypotheses are tested: (a) SHSs contain social subsystems with different expectations regarding water resources, different adaptive capacities, adaptation limits and prospects of sustainability, (b) SHSs do not adapt homogenously; some of their subsystems manage optimum adaptation, others fail to adapt and (c) territorial transformation of SHSs (e.g., through expansion of SHSs) may be the result of differential adaptation and sustainability potential within the SHS owing to power relations. After testing above hypotheses in the SHS of Messara Plain, Crete, the authors found out that powerful and dynamic sub-SHSs expand or break the boundaries of the initial SHS by establishing new relationships with other SHSs for the sake of resilience resources. Conversely, powerless sub-SHSs incapable to adapt descend and disappear. Therefore, territorial transformation of SHSs comes about from a combination of successful and failed adaptations, or in other words from different adaptation limits within SHSs. Consequently, water management and local development planning to guarantee adaptability to drought for all should be based on SHSs' analysis and management, not on jurisdictional areas or hydrological basins.

  15. Methodology for Developing Hydrological Models Based on an Artificial Neural Network to Establish an Early Warning System in Small Catchments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivana Sušanj


    Full Text Available In some situations, there is no possibility of hazard mitigation, especially if the hazard is induced by water. Thus, it is important to prevent consequences via an early warning system (EWS to announce the possible occurrence of a hazard. The aim and objective of this paper are to investigate the possibility of implementing an EWS in a small-scale catchment and to develop a methodology for developing a hydrological prediction model based on an artificial neural network (ANN as an essential part of the EWS. The methodology is implemented in the case study of the Slani Potok catchment, which is historically recognized as a hazard-prone area, by establishing continuous monitoring of meteorological and hydrological parameters to collect data for the training, validation, and evaluation of the prediction capabilities of the ANN model. The model is validated and evaluated by visual and common calculation approaches and a new evaluation for the assessment. This new evaluation is proposed based on the separation of the observed data into classes based on the mean data value and the percentages of classes above or below the mean data value as well as on the performance of the mean absolute error.

  16. Modeling of hydrologic perturbations during reverse circulation drilling: 1, System and model description

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sagar, B.; Connelly, M.P.; Long, P.E.


    The Hanford site located in southeastern Washington state was under consideration for the location of a high-level nuclear waste repository. As a part of site investigation, a borehole of depth > 3000 ft was drilled using reverse circulation drilling technique with water as the drilling fluid. After completion of drilling, seven piezometers were to be installed in the borehole with their lower ends at different depths to measure equilibrated hydraulic heads and aquifer response during future pumping tests. The hydrologic perturbations caused during the drilling, clean up, and piezometer installation process were of primary concern. A numerical model was used to predict these perturbations and determine efficiency of borehole cleanup. It was found that the boundary condition at the borehole was the most difficult to model. 9 refs., 5 figs

  17. Modeling Hydrological Services in Shade Grown Coffee Systems: Case Study of the Pico Duarte Region of the Dominican Republic (United States)

    Erickson, J. D.; Gross, L.; Agosto Filion, N.; Bagstad, K.; Voigt, B. G.; Johnson, G.


    The modification of hydrologic systems in coffee-dominated landscapes varies widely according to the degree of shade trees incorporated in coffee farms. Compared to mono-cropping systems, shade coffee can produce both on- and off-farm benefits in the form of soil retention, moderation of sediment transport, and lower hydropower generating costs. The Pico Duarte Coffee Region and surrounding Madres de Las Aguas (Mother of Waters) Conservation Area in the Dominican Republic is emblematic of the challenges and opportunities of ecosystem service management in coffee landscapes. Shade coffee poly-cultures in the region play an essential role in ensuring ecosystem function to conserve water resources, as well as provide habitat for birds, sequester carbon, and provide consumptive resources to households. To model the provision, use, and flow of ecosystem services from coffee farms in the region, an application of the Artificial Intelligence for Ecosystem Services (ARIES) model was developed with particular focus on sediment regulation. ARIES incorporates an array of techniques from data mining, image analysis, neural networks, Bayesian statistics, information theory, and expert systems to model the production, delivery, and demand for ecosystem services. Geospatial data on slope, soils, and vegetation cover is combined with on-farm data collection of coffee production, tree diversity, and intercropping of household food. Given hydropower production and river recreation in the region, the management of sedimentation through on-farm practices has substantial, currently uncompensated value that has received recent attention as the foundation for a payment for ecosystem services system. Scenario analysis of the implications of agro-forestry management choices on farmer livelihoods and the multiple beneficiaries of farm-provided hydrological services provide a foundation for ongoing discussions in the region between local, national, and international interests.

  18. Hydrological processes obtained on the plot scale under four simulated rainfall tests during the cycle of different crop systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ildegardis Bertol


    Full Text Available The cropping system influences the interception of water by plants, water storage in depressions on the soil surface, water infiltration into the soil and runoff. The aim of this study was to quantify some hydrological processes under no tillage cropping systems at the edge of a slope, in 2009 and 2010, in a Humic Dystrudept soil, with the following treatments: corn, soybeans, and common beans alone; and intercropped corn and common bean. Treatments consisted of four simulated rainfall tests at different times, with a planned intensity of 64 mm h-1 and 90 min duration. The first test was applied 18 days after sowing, and the others at 39, 75 and 120 days after the first test. Different times of the simulated rainfall and stages of the crop cycle affected soil water content prior to the rain, and the time runoff began and its peak flow and, thus, the surface hydrological processes. The depth of the runoff and the depth of the water intercepted by the crop + soil infiltration + soil surface storage were affected by the crop systems and the rainfall applied at different times. The corn crop was the most effective treatment for controlling runoff, with a water loss ratio of 0.38, equivalent to 75 % of the water loss ratio exhibited by common bean (0.51, the least effective treatment in relation to the others. Total water loss by runoff decreased linearly with an increase in the time that runoff began, regardless of the treatment; however, soil water content on the gravimetric basis increased linearly from the beginning to the end of the rainfall.

  19. Integrated water system simulation by considering hydrological and biogeochemical processes: model development, with parameter sensitivity and autocalibration (United States)

    Zhang, Y. Y.; Shao, Q. X.; Ye, A. Z.; Xing, H. T.; Xia, J.


    Integrated water system modeling is a feasible approach to understanding severe water crises in the world and promoting the implementation of integrated river basin management. In this study, a classic hydrological model (the time variant gain model: TVGM) was extended to an integrated water system model by coupling multiple water-related processes in hydrology, biogeochemistry, water quality, and ecology, and considering the interference of human activities. A parameter analysis tool, which included sensitivity analysis, autocalibration and model performance evaluation, was developed to improve modeling efficiency. To demonstrate the model performances, the Shaying River catchment, which is the largest highly regulated and heavily polluted tributary of the Huai River basin in China, was selected as the case study area. The model performances were evaluated on the key water-related components including runoff, water quality, diffuse pollution load (or nonpoint sources) and crop yield. Results showed that our proposed model simulated most components reasonably well. The simulated daily runoff at most regulated and less-regulated stations matched well with the observations. The average correlation coefficient and Nash-Sutcliffe efficiency were 0.85 and 0.70, respectively. Both the simulated low and high flows at most stations were improved when the dam regulation was considered. The daily ammonium-nitrogen (NH4-N) concentration was also well captured with the average correlation coefficient of 0.67. Furthermore, the diffuse source load of NH4-N and the corn yield were reasonably simulated at the administrative region scale. This integrated water system model is expected to improve the simulation performances with extension to more model functionalities, and to provide a scientific basis for the implementation in integrated river basin managements.

  20. Hydrological mixing and geochemical processes characterization in an estuarine/mangrove system using environmental tracers in Babitonga Bay (Santa Catarina, Brazil) (United States)

    Barros Grace, Virgínia; Mas-Pla, Josep; Oliveira Novais, Therezinha; Sacchi, Elisa; Zuppi, Gian Maria


    The hydrologic complex of Babitonga Bay (Brazil) forms a vast environmental complex where agriculture, shellfish farming, and industries coexist with a unique natural area of Atlantic rain forest and mangrove systems. The origin of different continental hydrological components, the environmental transition between saline and freshwaters, and the influence of the seasonality on Babitonga Bay waters are evaluated using isotopes and chemistry. End-member mixing analysis is used to explore hydrological processes in the bay. We show that a mixing of waters from different origins takes place in the bay modifying its chemical characteristics. Furthermore, biogeochemical processes related to well-developed mangrove systems are responsible for an efficient bromide uptake, which limit its use as a tracer as commonly used in non-biologically active environments. Seasonal behaviours are also distinguished from our datasets. The rainy season (April) provides a homogenization of the hydrological processes that is not seen after the dry season (October), when larger spatial differences appear and when the effects of biological processes on the bay hydrochemistry are more dynamic, or can be better recognized. Moreover, Cl/Br and stable isotopes of water molecule allow a neat definition of the hydrological and biogeochemical processes that control chemical composition in coastal and transition areas.

  1. Development of a hybrid 3-D hydrological model to simulate hillslopes and the regional unconfined aquifer system in Earth system models (United States)

    Hazenberg, P.; Broxton, P. D.; Brunke, M.; Gochis, D.; Niu, G. Y.; Pelletier, J. D.; Troch, P. A. A.; Zeng, X.


    The terrestrial hydrological system, including surface and subsurface water, is an essential component of the Earth's climate system. Over the past few decades, land surface modelers have built one-dimensional (1D) models resolving the vertical flow of water through the soil column for use in Earth system models (ESMs). These models generally have a relatively coarse model grid size (~25-100 km) and only account for sub-grid lateral hydrological variations using simple parameterization schemes. At the same time, hydrologists have developed detailed high-resolution (~0.1-10 km grid size) three dimensional (3D) models and showed the importance of accounting for the vertical and lateral redistribution of surface and subsurface water on soil moisture, the surface energy balance and ecosystem dynamics on these smaller scales. However, computational constraints have limited the implementation of the high-resolution models for continental and global scale applications. The current work presents a hybrid-3D hydrological approach is presented, where the 1D vertical soil column model (available in many ESMs) is coupled with a high-resolution lateral flow model (h2D) to simulate subsurface flow and overland flow. H2D accounts for both local-scale hillslope and regional-scale unconfined aquifer responses (i.e. riparian zone and wetlands). This approach was shown to give comparable results as those obtained by an explicit 3D Richards model for the subsurface, but improves runtime efficiency considerably. The h3D approach is implemented for the Delaware river basin, where Noah-MP land surface model (LSM) is used to calculated vertical energy and water exchanges with the atmosphere using a 10km grid resolution. Noah-MP was coupled within the WRF-Hydro infrastructure with the lateral 1km grid resolution h2D model, for which the average depth-to-bedrock, hillslope width function and soil parameters were estimated from digital datasets. The ability of this h3D approach to simulate

  2. Coupling hydrological and impact assessment models to explore nutrient cycling in freshwater systems (United States)

    Bouwman, Lex; van Beek, Rens; Beusen, Arthur; Mogollón, José; Middelburg, Jack


    The IMAGE-Global Nutrient Model (GNM) is a new globally distributed, spatially explicit model in which the hydrology model PCR-GLOBWB is coupled to the integrated assessment model IMAGE to simulate nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) delivery, and then with a spiraling ecological approach to simulating instream biogeochemistry. Routing the water with dissolved and suspended N and P from upstream grid cells occurs simultaneous with N and P delivery to water bodies within grid cells from diffuse and point sources (wastewater). IMAGE-GNM describes the following diffuse sources associated with the water flow: surface runoff, shallow and deep groundwater, riparian zones. Depending on the landscape features, all these flows may be present within one grid cell. Furthermore, diffuse N and P inputs occur through allochtonous organic matter inputs via litterfall in (temporarily) inundated river floodplains, and atmospheric deposition. In the spiraling concept, the residence time of the water and nutrient uptake velocity determine N and P retention in water bodies. Validation of model results with observations yields acceptable agreement given the global scale of the uncalibrated model. Sensitivity analysis shows shifts in the importance of the different sources, with decreasing importance of natural sources and increasing influence of wastewater and agriculture. IMAGE-GNM can be employed to study the interaction between society and the environment over prolonged time periods. Here we show results for the full 20th century.

  3. Thermal-Hydrologic Sensitivity Analysis of Engineered Barrier System Design Options

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dunlap, B.


    This sensitivity study presents the effects that changing the ventilation time and initial linear power loading can have on specific thermal-hydrologic response parameters, such as waste package peak temperatures. Results show that an approximate 55 C drop in waste package peak temperature can be expected from the reference case design if the initial line loading is reduced to 0.90 kW/m or if the ventilation time is increased to 125 years. Increasing the waste package to waste package spacing in order to reduce the linear load to 0.90 kW/m requires additional emplacement drifts and an expansion of the area that the repository occupies. Increasing the ventilation duration requires that the repository remains open and is maintained for long periods of time. The effectiveness and expense of each design alternative must be weighed in determining the best way to achieve a particular thermal goal. Also, this sensitivity study shows that certain thermal goals may not be reached if only using ventilation, sometimes only the reduction of the linear load or a combination of linear loading and ventilation can reduce the thermal response to lower temperature specifications, if considered. As an example, Figure 1 shows that waste package peak temperatures below 96 C would require both a reduction in the linear load and an increase in ventilation duration

  4. Daily river flow prediction based on Two-Phase Constructive Fuzzy Systems Modeling: A case of hydrological - meteorological measurements asymmetry (United States)

    Bou-Fakhreddine, Bassam; Mougharbel, Imad; Faye, Alain; Abou Chakra, Sara; Pollet, Yann


    Accurate daily river flow forecast is essential in many applications of water resources such as hydropower operation, agricultural planning and flood control. This paper presents a forecasting approach to deal with a newly addressed situation where hydrological data exist for a period longer than that of meteorological data (measurements asymmetry). In fact, one of the potential solutions to resolve measurements asymmetry issue is data re-sampling. It is a matter of either considering only the hydrological data or the balanced part of the hydro-meteorological data set during the forecasting process. However, the main disadvantage is that we may lose potentially relevant information from the left-out data. In this research, the key output is a Two-Phase Constructive Fuzzy inference hybrid model that is implemented over the non re-sampled data. The introduced modeling approach must be capable of exploiting the available data efficiently with higher prediction efficiency relative to Constructive Fuzzy model trained over re-sampled data set. The study was applied to Litani River in the Bekaa Valley - Lebanon by using 4 years of rainfall and 24 years of river flow daily measurements. A Constructive Fuzzy System Model (C-FSM) and a Two-Phase Constructive Fuzzy System Model (TPC-FSM) are trained. Upon validating, the second model has shown a primarily competitive performance and accuracy with the ability to preserve a higher day-to-day variability for 1, 3 and 6 days ahead. In fact, for the longest lead period, the C-FSM and TPC-FSM were able of explaining respectively 84.6% and 86.5% of the actual river flow variation. Overall, the results indicate that TPC-FSM model has provided a better tool to capture extreme flows in the process of streamflow prediction.

  5. Diatom-inferred hydrological changes and Holocene geomorphic transitioning of Africa's largest estuarine system, Lake St Lucia (United States)

    Gomes, M.; Humphries, M. S.; Kirsten, K. L.; Green, A. N.; Finch, J. M.; de Lecea, A. M.


    The diverse lagoons and coastal lakes along the east coast of South Africa occupy incised valleys that were flooded during the rise and subsequent stabilisation of relative sea-level during the Holocene. Sedimentary deposits contained within these waterbodies provide an opportunity to investigate complex hydrological and sedimentological processes, and examine sea-level controls governing system geomorphic evolution. In this paper, we combine diatom and sulfur isotope analyses from two sediment cores extracted from the northern sub-basins of Lake St Lucia, a large shallow estuarine lake that is today largely isolated from direct ocean influence behind a Holocene-Pleistocene barrier complex. Analyses allow the reconstruction of hydrological changes associated with the geomorphic development of the system over the mid-to late Holocene. The sedimentary sequences indicate that St Lucia was a shallow, partially enclosed estuary/embayment dominated by strong tidal flows prior to ∼6200 cal. BP. Infilling was initiated when sea-level rise slowed and stabilised around present day levels, resulting in the accumulation of fine-grained sediment behind an emergent proto-barrier. Diatom assemblages, dominated by marine benthic and epiphytic species, reveal a system structured by marine water influx and characterised by marsh and tidal flat habitats until ∼4550 cal. BP. A shift in the biological community at ∼4550 cal. BP is linked to the development of a back-barrier water body that supported a brackish community. Marine planktonics and enrichments in δ34S suggest recurrent, large-scale barrier inundation events during this time, coincident with a mid-Holocene sea-level highstand. Periodic marine incursions associated with episodes of enhanced storminess and overwash remained prevalent until ∼1200 cal. BP, when further barrier construction ultimately isolated the northern basins from the ocean. This study provides the first reconstruction of the palaeohydrological

  6. netherland hydrological modeling instrument (United States)

    Hoogewoud, J. C.; de Lange, W. J.; Veldhuizen, A.; Prinsen, G.


    Netherlands Hydrological Modeling Instrument A decision support system for water basin management. J.C. Hoogewoud , W.J. de Lange ,A. Veldhuizen , G. Prinsen , The Netherlands Hydrological modeling Instrument (NHI) is the center point of a framework of models, to coherently model the hydrological system and the multitude of functions it supports. Dutch hydrological institutes Deltares, Alterra, Netherlands Environmental Assessment Agency, RWS Waterdienst, STOWA and Vewin are cooperating in enhancing the NHI for adequate decision support. The instrument is used by three different ministries involved in national water policy matters, for instance the WFD, drought management, manure policy and climate change issues. The basis of the modeling instrument is a state-of-the-art on-line coupling of the groundwater system (MODFLOW), the unsaturated zone (metaSWAP) and the surface water system (MOZART-DM). It brings together hydro(geo)logical processes from the column to the basin scale, ranging from 250x250m plots to the river Rhine and includes salt water flow. The NHI is validated with an eight year run (1998-2006) with dry and wet periods. For this run different parts of the hydrology have been compared with measurements. For instance, water demands in dry periods (e.g. for irrigation), discharges at outlets, groundwater levels and evaporation. A validation alone is not enough to get support from stakeholders. Involvement from stakeholders in the modeling process is needed. There fore to gain sufficient support and trust in the instrument on different (policy) levels a couple of actions have been taken: 1. a transparent evaluation of modeling-results has been set up 2. an extensive program is running to cooperate with regional waterboards and suppliers of drinking water in improving the NHI 3. sharing (hydrological) data via newly setup Modeling Database for local and national models 4. Enhancing the NHI with "local" information. The NHI is and has been used for many

  7. Estimating impact of rainfall change on hydrological processes in Jianfengling rainforest watershed, China using BASINS-HSPF-CAT modeling system (United States)

    Zhang Zhou; Ying Ouyang; Yide Li; Zhijun Qiu; Matt Moran


    Climate change over the past several decades has resulted in shifting rainfall pattern and modifying rain-fall intensity, which has exacerbated hydrological processes and added the uncertainty and instability tothese processes. This study ascertained impacts of potential future rainfall change on hydrological pro-cesses at the Jianfengling (JFL) tropical mountain...

  8. Comparison of the South Florida Natural System Model with Pre-canal Everglades Hydrology Estimated from Historical Sources (United States)

    McVoy, Christopher; Park, Winifred A.; Obeysekera, Jayantha


    Preservation and restoration of the remaining Everglades ecosystem is focussed on two aspects: improving upstream water quality and improving 'hydropatterns' - the timing, depth and flow of surface water. Restoration of hydropatterns requires knowledge of the original pre-canal drainage conditions as well as an understanding of the soil, topo-graphic, and vegetation changes that have taken place since canal drainage began in the 1880's. The Natural System Model (NSM), developed by the South Florida Water Management District (SFWMD) and Everglades National Park, uses estimates of pre-drainage vegetation and topography to estimate the pre-drainage hydrologic response of the Everglades. Sources of model uncertainty include: (1) the algorithms, (2) the parameters (particularly those relating to vegetation roughness and evapotranspiration), and (3) errors in the assumed pre-drainage vegetation distribution and pre-drainage topography. Other studies are concentrating on algorithmic and parameter sources of uncertainty. In this study we focus on the NSM output -- predicted hydropattern -- and evaluate this by comparison with all available direct and indirect information on pre-drainage hydropatterns. The unpublished and published literature is being searched exhaustively for observations of water depth, flow direction, flow velocity and hydroperiod, during the period prior and just after drainage (1840-1920). Additionally, a comprehensive map of soils in the Everglades region, prepared in the 1940's by personnel from the University of Florida Agricultural Experiment Station, the U.S. Soil Conservation Service, the U.S. Geological Survey, and the Everglades Drainage District, is being used to identify wetland soils and to infer the spatial distribution of pre-drainage hydrologic conditions. Detailed study of this map and other early soil and vegetation maps in light of the history of drainage activities will reveal patterns of change and possible errors in the input to the

  9. Water System Adaptation to Hydrological Changes: Module 2, Stormwater Management and Sewer Performance under Intense Storms: Case Study from Lawrence, Massachusetts, U.S.A. (United States)

    This course focuses on water system adaptation to short-term and long-term climate and hydrologic stressors that affect water availability, water quality, security, and resilience. The course is organized into 15 sequential modules. The lectures will be augmented by weekly assign...

  10. Water System Adaptations To Hydrological Changes: Module 4, Water Quality Response to Land-use and Precipitation Changes : Case Study of Ohio River Valley, USA (United States)

    This course focuses on water system adaptation to short-term and long-term climate and hydrologic stressors that affect water availability, water quality, security, and resilience. The course is organized into 15 sequential modules. The lectures will be augmented by weekly assign...

  11. Thresholds, switches and hysteresis in hydrology from the pedon to the catchment scale: a non-linear systems theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)


    Full Text Available Hysteresis is a rate-independent non-linearity that is expressed through thresholds, switches, and branches. Exceedance of a threshold, or the occurrence of a turning point in the input, switches the output onto a particular output branch. Rate-independent branching on a very large set of switches with non-local memory is the central concept in the new definition of hysteresis. Hysteretic loops are a special case. A self-consistent mathematical description of hydrological systems with hysteresis demands a new non-linear systems theory of adequate generality. The goal of this paper is to establish this and to show how this may be done. Two results are presented: a conceptual model for the hysteretic soil-moisture characteristic at the pedon scale and a hysteretic linear reservoir at the catchment scale. Both are based on the Preisach model. A result of particular significance is the demonstration that the independent domain model of the soil moisture characteristic due to Childs, Poulavassilis, Mualem and others, is equivalent to the Preisach hysteresis model of non-linear systems theory, a result reminiscent of the reduction of the theory of the unit hydrograph to linear systems theory in the 1950s. A significant reduction in the number of model parameters is also achieved. The new theory implies a change in modelling paradigm.

  12. Thermal-hydrological models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buscheck, T., LLNL


    This chapter describes the physical processes and natural and engineered system conditions that affect thermal-hydrological (T-H) behavior in the unsaturated zone (UZ) at Yucca Mountain and how these effects are represented in mathematical and numerical models that are used to predict T-H conditions in the near field, altered zone, and engineered barrier system (EBS), and on waste package (WP) surfaces.

  13. A natural tracer investigation of the hydrological regime of Spring Creek Springs, the largest submarine spring system in Florida (United States)

    Dimova, Natasha T.; Burnett, William C.; Speer, Kevin


    This work presents results from a nearly two-year monitoring of the hydrologic dynamics of the largest submarine spring system in Florida, Spring Creek Springs. During the summer of 2007 this spring system was observed to have significantly reduced flow due to persistent drought conditions. Our examination of the springs revealed that the salinity of the springs' waters had increased significantly, from 4 in 2004 to 33 in July 2007 with anomalous high radon ( 222Rn, t1/2=3.8 days) in surface water concentrations indicating substantial saltwater intrusion into the local aquifer. During our investigation from August 2007 to May 2009 we deployed on an almost monthly basis a continuous radon-in-water measurement system and monitored the salinity fluctuations in the discharge area. To evaluate the springs' freshwater flux we developed three different models: two of them are based on water velocity measurements and either salinity or 222Rn in the associated surface waters as groundwater tracers. The third approach used only salinity changes within the spring area. The three models showed good agreement and the results confirmed that the hydrologic regime of the system is strongly correlated to local precipitation and water table fluctuations with higher discharges after major rain events and very low, even reverse flow during prolong droughts. High flow spring conditions were observed twice during our study, in the early spring and mid-late summer of 2008. However the freshwater spring flux during our observation period never reached that reported from a 1970s value of 4.9×10 6 m 3/day. The maximum spring flow was estimated at about 3.0×10 6 m 3/day after heavy precipitation in February-March 2008. As a result of this storm (total of 173 mm) the salinity in the spring area dropped from about 27 to 2 in only two days. The radon-in-water concentrations dramatically increased in parallel, from about 330 Bq/m 3 to about 6600 Bq/m 3. Such a rapid response suggests a direct

  14. Summary of hydrologic testing of the Floridan aquifer system at Fort Stewart, coastal Georgia, 2009-2010 (United States)

    Gonthier, Gerald J.


    Two test wells were completed at Fort Stewart, coastal Georgia, to investigate the potential for using the Lower Floridan aquifer as a source of water to satisfy anticipated, increased water needs. The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the U.S. Department of the Army, completed hydrologic testing of the Floridan aquifer system at the study site, including flowmeter surveys, slug tests, and 24- and 72-hour aquifer tests by mid-March 2010. Analytical approaches and model simulation were applied to aquifer-test results to provide estimates of transmissivity and hydraulic conductivity of the multilayered Floridan aquifer system. Data from a 24-hour aquifer test of the Upper Floridan aquifer were evaluated by using the straight-line Cooper-Jacob analytical method. Data from a 72-hour aquifer test of the Lower Floridan aquifer were simulated by using axisymmetric model simulations. Results of aquifer testing indicated that the Upper Floridan aquifer has a transmissivity of 100,000 feet-squared per day, and the Lower Floridan aquifer has a transmissivity of 7,000 feet-squared per day. A specific storage for the Floridan aquifer system as a result of model calibration was 3E-06 ft–1. Additionally, during a 72-hour aquifer test of the Lower Floridan aquifer, a drawdown response was observed in two Upper Floridan aquifer wells, one of which was more than 1 mile away from the pumped well.

  15. Investigation of isotopes and hydrological processes in Indus river system, Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manzoor Ahmad, M; Latif, Z.; Tariq, J.A.; Akram, W.; Rafique, M.


    Indus River, one of the longest rivers in the World, has five major eastern tributaries viz. Bias, Sutlej, Ravi, Chenab and Jhelum) while many small rivers join it from the right side among which Kabul River is the biggest with its main tributaries, the Swat, Panjkora and Kunar. All these main rivers are perennial and originate from the mountains. Basic sources of these rivers are snow melt, rainfall and under certain conditions seepage from the formations. Different water sources are labeled with different isotope signatures which are used as fingerprints for identifying source and movement of water, geochemical and/or hydrological processes, and dynamics (age of water). Monitoring of isotopes in rivers can also enhance understanding of the water cycle of large river basins and to assess impacts of environmental and climatic changes on the water cycle. Therefore, a national network of suitable stations was established for isotopic monitoring of river waters in Indus Basin with specific objectives to study temporal variations of isotopes (/sup 2/H, /sup 18/O and /sup 3/H), understand water cycles and hydrological processes in the catchments of these rivers, and to develop comprehensive database to support future isotope-based groundwater studies in the basin on recharge mechanism, water balance and monitoring of ongoing environmental changes. Water samples were collected during 2002-2006 on monthly basis from more than 20 stations at the major rivers and analyzed for /sup 18/O, /sup 2/H and /sup 3/H isotopes. Headwaters of main Indus River (Hunza, Gilgit and Kachura tributaries), which are generally snow melt, have the most depleted values of delta /sup 18/O (-14.5 to -11.0%) and delta /sup 2/H ( 106.1 to -72.6%) due to precipitation at very high altitude and very low temperatures. Generally these waters have low d-excess showing that the moisture source is from Indian Ocean. High d-excess of some winter (November-February) samples from Hunza and Gilgit indicates

  16. Environmental isotope hydrology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    Environmental isotope hydrology is a relatively new field of investigation based on isotopic variations observed in natural waters. These isotopic characteristics have been established over a broad space and time scale. They cannot be controlled by man, but can be observed and interpreted to gain valuable regional information on the origin, turnover and transit time of water in the system which often cannot be obtained by other techniques. The cost of such investigations is usually relatively small in comparison with the cost of classical hydrological studies. The main environmental isotopes of hydrological interest are the stable isotopes deuterium (hydrogen-2), carbon-13, oxygen-18, and the radioactive isotopes tritium (hydrogen-3) and carbon-14. Isotopes of hydrogen and oxygen are ideal geochemical tracers of water because their concentrations are usually not subject to change by interaction with the aquifer material. On the other hand, carbon compounds in groundwater may interact with the aquifer material, complicating the interpretation of carbon-14 data. A few other environmental isotopes such as 32 Si and 238 U/ 234 U have been proposed recently for hydrological purposes but their use has been quite limited until now and they will not be discussed here. (author)

  17. POSEIDON: An integrated system for analysis and forecast of hydrological, meteorological and surface marine fields in the Mediterranean area (United States)

    Speranza, A.; Accadia, C.; Casaioli, M.; Mariani, S.; Monacelli, G.; Inghilesi, R.; Tartaglione, N.; Ruti, P. M.; Carillo, A.; Bargagli, A.; Pisacane, G.; Valentinotti, F.; Lavagnini, A.


    The Mediterranean area is characterized by relevant hydrological, meteorological and marine processes developing at horizontal space-scales of the order of 1-100 km. In the recent past, several international programs have been addressed (ALPEX, POEM, MAP, etc.) to "resolving" the dynamics of such motions. Other projects (INTERREG-Flooding, MEDEX, etc.) are at present being developed with special emphasis on catastrophic events with major impact on human society that are, quite often, characterized in their manifestation by processes with the above-mentioned scales of motion. In the dynamical evolution of such events, however, equally important is the dynamics of interaction of the local (and sometimes very damaging) processes with others developing at larger scales of motion. In fact, some of the most catastrophic events in the history of Mediterranean countries are associated with dynamical processes covering all the range of space-time scales from planetary to local. The Prevision Operational System for the mEditerranean basIn and the Defence of the lagOon of veNice (POSEIDON) is an integrated system for the analysis and forecast of hydrological, meteorological, oceanic fields specifically designed and set up in order to bridge the gap between global and local scales of motion, by modeling explicitly the above referred to dynamical processes in the range of scales from Mediterranean to local. The core of POSEIDON consists of a "cascade" of numerical models that, starting from global scale numerical analysis-forecast, goes all the way to very local phenomena, like tidal propagation in Venice Lagoon. The large computational load imposed by such operational design requires necessarily parallel computing technology: the first model in the cascade is a parallelised version of BOlogna Limited Area Model (BOLAM) running on a Quadrics 128 processors computer (also known as QBOLAM). POSEIDON, developed in the context of a co-operation between the Italian Agency for New

  18. Hydrological information system based on on-line monitoring--from strategy to implementation in the Brantas River Basin, East Java, Indonesia. (United States)

    Marini, G W; Wellguni, H


    The worsening environmental situation of the Brantas River, East Java, is addressed by a comprehensive basin management strategy which relies on accurate water quantity and quality data retrieved from a newly installed online monitoring network. Integrated into a Hydrological Information System, the continuously measured indicative parameters allow early warning, control and polluter identification. Additionally, long-term analyses have been initiated for improving modelling applications like flood forecasting, water resource management and pollutant propagation. Preliminary results illustrate the efficiency of the installed system.

  19. Entropy: From Thermodynamics to Hydrology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Demetris Koutsoyiannis


    Full Text Available Some known results from statistical thermophysics as well as from hydrology are revisited from a different perspective trying: (a to unify the notion of entropy in thermodynamic and statistical/stochastic approaches of complex hydrological systems and (b to show the power of entropy and the principle of maximum entropy in inference, both deductive and inductive. The capability for deductive reasoning is illustrated by deriving the law of phase change transition of water (Clausius-Clapeyron from scratch by maximizing entropy in a formal probabilistic frame. However, such deductive reasoning cannot work in more complex hydrological systems with diverse elements, yet the entropy maximization framework can help in inductive inference, necessarily based on data. Several examples of this type are provided in an attempt to link statistical thermophysics with hydrology with a unifying view of entropy.

  20. Biological soil crust as a bio-mediator alters hydrological processes in stabilized dune system of the Tengger Desert, China (United States)

    Li, Xinrong


    Biological soil crust (BSC) is a vital component in the stabilized sand dunes with a living cover up to more than 70% of the total, which has been considered as a bio-mediator that directly influences and regulates the sand dune ecosystem processes. However, its influences on soil hydrological processes have been long neglected in Chinese deserts. In this study, BSCs of different successional stages were chose to test their influence on the hydrological processes of stabilized dune, where the groundwater deep exceeds 30m, further to explore why occur the sand-binding vegetation replacement between shrubs and herbs. Our long-term observation (60 years) shows that cyanobacteria crust has been colonized and developed after 3 years since the sand-binding vegetation has been established and dune fixation using planted xerophytic shrubs and made sand barrier (straw-checkerboard) on shifting dune surface, lichen and moss crust occurred after 20 years, and the cover of moss dominated crust could reach 70 % after 50 years. The colonization and development of BSC altered the initial soil water balance of revegetated areas by influencing rainfall infiltration, soil evaporation and dew water entrapment. The results show that BSC obviously reduced the infiltration that occurred during most rainfall events (80%), when rainfall was greater than 5 mm or less than 20 mm. The presence of BSC reduced evaporation of topsoil after small rainfall (<5 mm) because its high proportion of finer particles slowed the evaporation rate, thus keeping the water in the soil surface longer, and crust facilitated topsoil evaporation when rainfall reached 10 mm. The amount of dew entrapment increases with the succession of BSC. Moreover, the effect of the later successional BSC to dew entrapment, rainfall infiltration and evaporation was more obvious than the early successional BSC on stabilized dunes. In general, BSC reduced the amount of rainfall water that reached deeper soil (0.4-3m), which is

  1. Evaluation of the ISBA-TRIP continental hydrologic system over the Niger basin using in situ and satellite derived datasets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Pedinotti


    Full Text Available During the 1970s and 1980s, West Africa has faced extreme climate variations with extended drought conditions. Of particular importance is the Niger basin, since it traverses a large part of the Sahel and is thus a critical source of water for an ever-increasing local population in this semi arid region. However, the understanding of the hydrological processes over this basin is currently limited by the lack of spatially distributed surface water and discharge measurements. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the ability of the ISBA-TRIP continental hydrologic system to represent key processes related to the hydrological cycle of the Niger basin. ISBA-TRIP is currently used within a coupled global climate model, so that the scheme must represent the first order processes which are critical for representing the water cycle while retaining a limited number of parameters and a simple representation of the physics. To this end, the scheme uses first-order approximations to account explicitly for the surface river routing, the floodplain dynamics, and the water storage using a deep aquifer reservoir. In the current study, simulations are done at a 0.5 by 0.5° spatial resolution over the 2002–2007 period (in order to take advantage of the recent satellite record and data from the African Monsoon Multidisciplinary Analyses project, AMMA. Four configurations of the model are compared to evaluate the separate impacts of the flooding scheme and the aquifer on the water cycle. Moreover, the model is forced by two different rainfall datasets to consider the sensitivity of the model to rainfall input uncertainties. The model is evaluated using in situ discharge measurements as well as satellite derived flood extent, total continental water storage changes and river height changes. The basic analysis of in situ discharges confirms the impact of the inner delta area, known as a significant flooded area, on the discharge, characterized by a strong

  2. Quantitative and qualitative hydrologic balance for a suburban watershed with a separate sewer system (Nantes, France). (United States)

    Ruban, V; Larrarte, F; Berthier, M; Favreau, L; Sauvourel, Y; Letellier, L; Mosisni, M L; Raimbault, G


    A qualitative and quantitative budget at the outlet of the storm-water runoff system of a small suburban watershed is presented together with some data regarding waste-water. 445,000 m3 (34% of the rain-water volume) were drained by the storm-water runoff system and 40,879 m3 by the waste-water system from September 2002 to March 2004. Storm-water runoff is generally not heavily polluted with regard to trace metals but concentrations occasionally exceed the standards for surface water of good quality. On the contrary, pesticides (diuron and glyphosate) have very high concentrations especially in spring and autumn when their use is maximum. As the St Joseph storm-water runoff is finally discharged into the Erdre River, measures to reduce the use of these pollutants should be considered.

  3. Impacts of adaptive flood management strategies on the Socio-Hydrological system in Ganges - Brahmaputra river basin, Bangladesh (United States)

    Sung, K.; Jeong, H.; Sangwan, N.; Yu, D. J.


    Human societies have tried to prevent floods by building robust infrastructure such as levees or dams. However, some scholars raise a doubt to this approach because of a lack of adaptiveness to environmental and societal changes in a long-term. Thus, a growing number of studies now suggest adopting new strategies in flood management to reinforce an adapt capacity to the long-term flood risk. This study addresses this issue by developing a conceptual mathematical model exploring how flood management strategies effect to the dynamics human-flood interaction, ultimately the flood resilience in a long-term. Especially, our model is motivated by the community-based flood protection system in southwest coastal area in Bangladesh. We developed several conceptual flood management strategies and investigated the interplay between those strategies and community's capacity to cope with floods. We additionally analyzed how external disturbances (sea level rise, water tide level change, and outside economic development) alter the adaptive capacity to flood risks. The results of this study reveal that the conventional flood management has potential vulnerabilities as external disturbances increase. Our results also highlight the needs of the adaptive strategy as a new paradigm in flood management which is able to feedback to the social and hydrological conditions. These findings provide insights on the resilience-based, adaptive strategies which can build flood resilience under global change.

  4. pCO2 and enzymatic activity in a river floodplain system of the Danube under different hydrological settings. (United States)

    Sieczko, Anna; Demeter, Katalin; Mayr, Magdalena; Meisterl, Karin; Peduzzi, Peter


    Surface waters may serve as either sinks or sources of CO2. In contrast to rivers, which are typically sources of CO2 to the atmosphere, the role of fringing floodplains in CO2 flux is largely understudied. This study was conducted in a river-floodplain system near Vienna (Austria). The sampling focused on changing hydrological situations, particularly on two distinct flood events: a typical 1-year flood in 2012 and an extraordinary 100-year flood in 2013. One objective was to determine partial pressure of CO2 (pCO2) in floodplain lakes with different degree of connectivity to the main channel, and compare the impact of these two types of floods. Another aim was to decipher which fraction of the dissolved organic matter (DOM) pool contributed to pCO2 by linking pCO2 with optical properties of DOM and extracellular enzymatic activity (EEA) of microbes. The EEA is a valuable tool, especially for assessing the non-chromophoric but rapidly utilized DOM-fraction during floods. In 2012 and 2013, the floodplain lakes were dominated by supersaturated pCO2 conditions, which indicates that they served as CO2 sources. Surprisingly, there were no significant differences in pCO2 between the two types of flood. Our findings imply that the extent of the flood had minor impact on pCO2, but the general occurrence of a flood appears to be important. During the flood in 2013 significantly more dissolved organic carbon (DOC) (pcarbohydrates.

  5. Global Land Data Assimilation System (GLDAS) Products, Services and Application from NASA Hydrology Data and Information Services Center (HDISC) (United States)

    Fang, Hongliang; Beaudoing, Hiroko K.; Rodell, matthew; Teng, William L.; Vollmer, Bruce E.


    The Global Land Data Assimilation System (GLDAS) is generating a series of land surface state (e.g., soil moisture and surface temperature) and flux (e.g., evaporation and sensible heat flux) products simulated by four land surface models (CLM, Mosaic, Noah and VIC). These products are now accessible at the Hydrology Data and Information Services Center (HDISC), a component of the NASA Goddard Earth Sciences Data and Information Services Center (GES DISC). Current data holdings include a set of 1.0 degree resolution data products from the four models, covering 1979 to the present; and a 0.25 degree data product from the Noah model, covering 2000 to the present. The products are in Gridded Binary (GRIB) format and can be accessed through a number of interfaces. Users can search the products through keywords and perform on-the-fly spatial and parameter subsetting and format conversion of selected data. More advanced visualization, access and analysis capabilities will be available in the future. The long term GLDAS data are used to develop climatology of water cycle components and to explore the teleconnections of droughts and pluvial.

  6. Using x-ray computed tomography in hydrology: Systems, resolutions, and limitations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wildenschild, Dorthe; Hopmans, J.W.; Vaz, C.M.P.


    media, obtained with different scanning systems and sample sizes, to illustrate advantages and limitations of these various systems, including topics of spatial resolution and contrast. In addition, we present examples of our most recent three-dimensional high-resolution images, for which......A combination of advances in experimental techniques and mathematical analysis has made it possible to characterize phase distribution and pore geometry in porous media using non-destructive X-ray computed tomography (CT). We present qualitative and quantitative CT results for partially saturated...

  7. Threshold behaviour in hydrological systems as (human) geo-ecosystems : Manifestations, controls, implications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zehe, E.; Sivapalan, M.


    In this paper we review threshold behaviour in environmental systems, which are often associated with the onset of floods, contamination and erosion events, and other degenerative processes. Key objectives of this review are to a) suggest indicators for detecting threshold behavior, b) discuss their

  8. Hydrology and Conservation Ecology (United States)

    Narayanan, M.


    Responses to change in the behavior of ecological systems are largely governed by interactions at different levels. Research is essential and is to be necessarily designed to gain insights into various interactions at the community level. Sustainable resource management is only possible if conservation of biodiversity can be accomplished by properly using the knowledge discovered. It is well known that the United States Department of Agriculture provides technical information, resources, and data necessary to assist the researchers in addressing their conservation needs. Conservation aims to protect, preserve and conserve the earth's natural resources. These include, but not limited to the conservation of soil, water, minerals, air, plants and all living beings. The United States Department of Agriculture also encourages farmers and ranchers to voluntarily address threats to soil and water. Protection of wetlands and wildlife habitat has been on the radar screen of conservation experts for a very long time. The main objective has always been to help farmers and landowners conform and comply with federal and state environmental laws. During the implementation phase, farmers should be encouraged to make beneficial, cost-effective changes to methods of irrigation systems. In some cases, the hydrologic regime of the project area can be thought of as principally an issue of river flow regimes for floodplain forests. In this presentation, the author tries to focus on the impact of hydrology and conservation ecology on global warming. He also discusses the impact of hydrology and conservation ecology global air concerns such as greenhouse gas concentrations in the atmosphere. References: Chow, V. T, D. R. Maidment, and L. W. Mays. 1988. Applied Hydrology. McGraw-Hill, Inc. U.S. Soil Conservation Service. Technical Release 55: Urban Hydrology for Small Watersheds. USDA (U.S. Department of Agriculture). June 1986. Lehner, B. and P. Döll (2004). Development and validation

  9. Enhancing Famine Early Warning Systems with Improved Forecasts, Satellite Observations and Hydrologic Simulations (United States)

    Funk, C. C.; Verdin, J.; Thiaw, W. M.; Hoell, A.; Korecha, D.; McNally, A.; Shukla, S.; Arsenault, K. R.; Magadzire, T.; Novella, N.; Peters-Lidard, C. D.; Robjohn, M.; Pomposi, C.; Galu, G.; Rowland, J.; Budde, M. E.; Landsfeld, M. F.; Harrison, L.; Davenport, F.; Husak, G. J.; Endalkachew, E.


    Drought early warning science, in support of famine prevention, is a rapidly advancing field that is helping to save lives and livelihoods. In 2015-2017, a series of extreme droughts afflicted Ethiopia, Southern Africa, Eastern Africa in OND and Eastern Africa in MAM, pushing more than 50 million people into severe food insecurity. Improved drought forecasts and monitoring tools, however, helped motivate and target large and effective humanitarian responses. Here we describe new science being developed by a long-established early warning system - the USAID Famine Early Warning Systems Network (FEWS NET). FEWS NET is a leading provider of early warning and analysis on food insecurity. FEWS NET research is advancing rapidly on several fronts, providing better climate forecasts and more effective drought monitoring tools that are being used to support enhanced famine early warning. We explore the philosophy and science underlying these successes, suggesting that a modal view of climate change can support enhanced seasonal prediction. Under this modal perspective, warming of the tropical oceans may interact with natural modes of variability, like the El Niño-Southern Oscillation, to enhance Indo-Pacific sea surface temperature gradients during both El Niño and La Niña-like climate states. Using empirical data and climate change simulations, we suggest that a sequence of droughts may commence in northern Ethiopia and Southern Africa with the advent of a moderate-to-strong El Niño, and then continue with La Niña/West Pacific related droughts in equatorial eastern East Africa. Scientifically, we show that a new hybrid statistical-dynamic precipitation forecast system, the FEWS NET Integrated Forecast System (FIFS), based on reformulations of the Global Ensemble Forecast System weather forecasts and National Multi-Model Ensemble (NMME) seasonal climate predictions, can effectively anticipate recent East and Southern African drought events. Using cross-validation, we

  10. The effects of changes to estuarine hydrology on system phosphorous retention capacity: The Mondego estuary, Portugal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lillebo, A. I.; Otero, M.; Coelho, J. P.


    with the highest PO4-P adsorption capacity (Q* = 657 mu g P g(-1) wwt), thus the PO4-P availability in the water column was mostly dependent on the mineralization processes, which is in agreement with previous findings; ii) After 1998, the water residence time diminished from moderate (weeks) to short (days......). This change coincided with a diversion of the water to an area with a much lower PO4-P adsorption capacity (Q* = 410 mu g P g(-1) wwt), which represented a decrease in 7.3% of the system adsorption capacity. This means that sediments were not able to adsorb much of the PO4-P and a higher equilibrium...... in the estuary, we framed the hypothesis that the significant increase of DIP could be related to different sorption capacities of the sediments. The results highlighted two scenarios: i) Before 1998 the nutrient-rich freshwater input from the upstream cultivated lands entered the system through the area...

  11. Hydrological and Farming System Impacts of Agricultural Water Management Interventions in North Gujarat


    Singh, O.P.


    Groundwater over-exploitation is a common phenomenon in many arid and semi arid regions of the world. Within India, north Gujarat is one of such intensively exploited regions. Groundwater supports irrigated crop production and intensive dairy farming in the region. Well irrigation is critical to the region’s rural economy and livelihoods. The overall objective of the study was to examine the water demand management interventions on farming system, livelihood patterns, food and nutritional s...

  12. Relationships of dispersive mass transport and stochastic convective flow through hydrologic systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simmons, C.S.


    Uncertainty in water flow velocity appears to be a major factor in determining the magnitude of contaminant dispersion expected in a ground water system. This report discusses some concepts and mathematical methods relating dispersive contaminant transport to stochastic aspects of ground water flow. The theory developed should not be construed as absolutely rigorous mathematics, but is presented with the intention of clarifying the physical concepts

  13. Integration of a Three-Dimensional Process-Based Hydrological Model into the Object Modeling System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe Formetta


    Full Text Available The integration of a spatial process model into an environmental modeling framework can enhance the model’s capabilities. This paper describes a general methodology for integrating environmental models into the Object Modeling System (OMS regardless of the model’s complexity, the programming language, and the operating system used. We present the integration of the GEOtop model into the OMS version 3.0 and illustrate its application in a small watershed. OMS is an environmental modeling framework that facilitates model development, calibration, evaluation, and maintenance. It provides innovative techniques in software design such as multithreading, implicit parallelism, calibration and sensitivity analysis algorithms, and cloud-services. GEOtop is a physically based, spatially distributed rainfall-runoff model that performs three-dimensional finite volume calculations of water and energy budgets. Executing GEOtop as an OMS model component allows it to: (1 interact directly with the open-source geographical information system (GIS uDig-JGrass to access geo-processing, visualization, and other modeling components; and (2 use OMS components for automatic calibration, sensitivity analysis, or meteorological data interpolation. A case study of the model in a semi-arid agricultural catchment is presented for illustration and proof-of-concept. Simulated soil water content and soil temperature results are compared with measured data, and model performance is evaluated using goodness-of-fit indices. This study serves as a template for future integration of process models into OMS.

  14. Hydrological land surface modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ridler, Marc-Etienne Francois

    Recent advances in integrated hydrological and soil-vegetation-atmosphere transfer (SVAT) modelling have led to improved water resource management practices, greater crop production, and better flood forecasting systems. However, uncertainty is inherent in all numerical models ultimately leading...... temperature are explored in a multi-objective calibration experiment to optimize the parameters in a SVAT model in the Sahel. The two satellite derived variables were effective at constraining most land-surface and soil parameters. A data assimilation framework is developed and implemented with an integrated...... and disaster management. The objective of this study is to develop and investigate methods to reduce hydrological model uncertainty by using supplementary data sources. The data is used either for model calibration or for model updating using data assimilation. Satellite estimates of soil moisture and surface...

  15. AGU hydrology publication outlets (United States)

    Freeze, R. Allan

    In recent months I have been approached on several occasions by members of the hydrology community who asked me which of the various AGU journals and publishing outlets would be most suitable for a particular paper or article that they have prepared.Water Resources Research (WRR) is the primary AGU outlet for research papers in hydrology. It is an interdisciplinary journal that integrates research in the social and natural sciences of water. The editors of WRR invite original contributions in the physical, chemical and biological sciences and also in the social and policy sciences, including economics, systems analysis, sociology, and law. The editor for the physical sciences side of the journal is Donald R. Nielson, LAWR Veihmeyer Hall, University of California Davis, Davis, CA 95616. The editor for the policy sciences side of the journal is Ronald G. Cummings, Department of Economics, University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM 87131

  16. Adaption to Extreme Rainfall with Open Urban Drainage System: An Integrated Hydrological Cost-Benefit Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhou, Qianqian; Panduro, Toke Emil; Thorsen, Bo Jellesmark


    with extreme rainfalls is evaluated using a quantitative flood risk approach based on urban inundation modeling and socio-economic analysis of corresponding costs and benefits. A hedonic valuation model is applied to capture the local economic gains or losses from more water bodies in green areas....... The framework was applied to the northern part of the city of Aarhus, Denmark. We investigated four adaptation strategies that encompassed laissez-faire, larger sewer pipes, local infiltration units, and open drainage system in the urban green structure. We found that when taking into account environmental...

  17. Hydrochemistry and Isotope Hydrology for Groundwater Sustainability of the Coastal Multilayered Aquifer System (Zhanjiang, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pengpeng Zhou


    Full Text Available Groundwater sustainability has become a critical issue for Zhanjiang (China because of serious groundwater level drawdown induced by overexploitation of its coastal multilayered aquifer system. It is necessary to understand the origins, material sources, hydrochemical processes, and dynamics of the coastal groundwater in Zhanjiang to support its sustainable management. To this end, an integrated analysis of hydrochemical and isotopic data of 95 groundwater samples was conducted. Hydrochemical analysis shows that coastal groundwater is fresh; however, relatively high levels of Cl−, Mg2+, and total dissolved solid (TDS imply slight seawater mixing with coastal unconfined groundwater. Stable isotopes (δ18O and δ2H values reveal the recharge sources of groundwater in the multilayered aquifer system. The unconfined groundwater originates from local modern precipitation; the confined groundwater in mainland originates from modern precipitation in northwestern mountain area, and the confined groundwater in Donghai and Leizhou is sourced from rainfall recharge during an older period with a colder climate. Ionic relations demonstrate that silicate weathering, carbonate dissolutions, and cation exchange are the primary processes controlling the groundwater chemical composition. Declining trends of groundwater level and increasing trends of TDS of the confined groundwater in islands reveal the landward extending tendency of the freshwater-seawater mixing zone.

  18. Insights into Andean slope hydrology: reservoir characteristics of the thermal Pica spring system, Pampa del Tamarugal, northern Chile (United States)

    Scheihing, Konstantin W.; Moya, Claudio E.; Tröger, Uwe


    The thermal Pica springs, at ˜1,400 m above sea level (asl) in the Pampa del Tamarugal (Chile), represent a low-saline spring system at the eastern margin of the hyper-arid Atacama Desert, where groundwater resources are scarce. This study investigates the hydrogeological and geothermal characteristics of their feed reservoir, fostered by the interpretation of a 20-km east-west-heading reflection-seismic line in the transition zone from the Andean Precordillera to the Pampa del Tamarugal. Additional hydrochemical, isotope and hydrologic time-series data support the integrated analysis. One of the main factors that enabled the development of the spring-related vertical fracture system at Pica, is a disruption zone in the Mesozoic Basement caused by intrusive formations. This destabilized the younger Oligocene units under the given tectonic stress conditions; thus, the respective groundwater reservoir is made up of fractured Oligocene units of low to moderate permeability. Groundwater recharge takes place in the Precordillera at ˜3,800 m asl. From there groundwater flow covers a height difference of ˜3,000 m with a maximum circulation depth of ˜800-950 m, where the waters obtain their geothermal imprint. The maximal expected reservoir temperature, as confirmed by geothermometers, is ˜55 °C. Corrected mean residence times of spring water and groundwater plot at 1,200-4,300 years BP and yield average interstitial velocities of 6.5-22 m/year. At the same time, the hydraulic head signal, as induced by recharge events in the Precordillera, is transmitted within 20-24 months over a distance of ˜32 km towards the Andean foothills at Pica and Puquio Nunez.

  19. Using streamflow and hydrochemical tracers to conceptualise hydrological function of underground channel system in a karst catchment of southwest China (United States)

    Zhang, Zhicai; Chen, Xi; Wang, Jinli


    Karst hydrodynamic behaviour is complex because of special karst geology and geomorphology. The permeable multi-media consisting of soil, epikarst fractures and conduits has a key influence on karst hydrological processes. Spatial heterogeneity is high due to special landforms of vertical shafts, caves and sinkholes, which leads to a high dynamic variability of hydrological processes in space and time, and frequent exchange of surface water and groundwater. Underground water in different reach were sampled over the 1996-2001 in a karst catchment of Houzhai, with 81km2, located in Guizhou province of southwest China. Samples were analysed for water temperature, pH, conductivity and four solute concentrations. The monitoring sought to assess the combined utility of flow discharge and natural geochemical tracers in upscaling flow structure understanding in karst area. Based on previous researches and field investigation, the catchment characteristics were explored with the use of a GIS. Both flow discharge and solute concentrations exhibited clear seasonal patterns at every groundwater sampling sites. The variations of flow and chemistry are more dramatic in upstream site with less soil cover and more sinkholes development, which affect the hydrological pathways significantly. There was clear evidence that the differences in geology and soil were the main controls on hydrology and flow chemistry, which was spatially variable in different sites of underground channel. Conceptual flow structures in main hydrological response units for different area in the catchment were developed according to the variation of discharge and flow chemistry.

  20. Hydrologic Engineering Center River Analysis System (HEC-RAS) Water Temperature Models Developed for the Missouri River Recovery Management Plan and Environmental Impact Statement (United States)


    ER D C/ EL T R- 17 -1 8 Missouri River Recovery Program (MRRP) Hydrologic Engineering Center-River Analysis System (HEC-RAS) Water...Zhonglong Zhang and Billy E. Johnson September 2017 Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. The U.S. Army Engineer Research...and Development Center (ERDC) solves the nation’s toughest engineering and environmental challenges. ERDC develops innovative solutions in civil and

  1. Behavior of plutonium-238 solutions in the soil and hydrology system at Mound Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodgers, D.R.


    Because plutonium is a potentially hazardous material, extensive precautions have been exercised since Pu operations began at Mound Laboratory to carefully maintain strict control of the Pu and to prevent significant amounts from entering the environment. These precautions include elaborate facility and equipment design criteria, scientific expertise, experience, personnel training, management and operational control systems, and environmental monitoring. In spite of these precautions, in early 1974, core samples from area waterways collected and analyzed showed that 238 Pu concentrations in the sediment of certain waterways adjacent to the site were above the baseline levels expected ( 238 Pu deposits presented no immediate hazard to the general population in the area as indicated by the air and water concentrations which were well within accepted Radioactivity Concentration Guides (RCG) for 238 Pu. Data are presented from an investigation of the extent of the contamination, the source of Pu, how it was transported and deposited in waterways, and potential hazards of these deposits to the general public

  2. Learning from Nature - Mapping of Complex Hydrological and Geomorphological Process Systems for More Realistic Modelling of Hazard-related Maps (United States)

    Chifflard, Peter; Tilch, Nils


    Introduction Hydrological or geomorphological processes in nature are often very diverse and complex. This is partly due to the regional characteristics which vary over time and space, as well as changeable process-initiating and -controlling factors. Despite being aware of this complexity, such aspects are usually neglected in the modelling of hazard-related maps due to several reasons. But particularly when it comes to creating more realistic maps, this would be an essential component to consider. The first important step towards solving this problem would be to collect data relating to regional conditions which vary over time and geographical location, along with indicators of complex processes. Data should be acquired promptly during and after events, and subsequently digitally combined and analysed. Study area In June 2009, considerable damage occurred in the residential area of Klingfurth (Lower Austria) as a result of great pre-event wetness and repeatedly heavy rainfall, leading to flooding, debris flow deposit and gravitational mass movement. One of the causes is the fact that the meso-scale watershed (16 km²) of the Klingfurth stream is characterised by adverse geological and hydrological conditions. Additionally, the river system network with its discharge concentration within the residential zone contributes considerably to flooding, particularly during excessive rainfall across the entire region, as the flood peaks from different parts of the catchment area are superposed. First results of mapping Hydro(geo)logical surveys across the entire catchment area have shown that - over 600 gravitational mass movements of various type and stage have occurred. 516 of those have acted as a bed load source, while 325 mass movements had not reached the final stage yet and could thus supply bed load in the future. It should be noted that large mass movements in the initial or intermediate stage were predominately found in clayey-silty areas and weathered material

  3. Development and verification of a new wind speed forecasting system using an ensemble Kalman filter data assimilation technique in a fully coupled hydrologic and atmospheric model (United States)

    Williams, John L.; Maxwell, Reed M.; Monache, Luca Delle


    Wind power is rapidly gaining prominence as a major source of renewable energy. Harnessing this promising energy source is challenging because of the chaotic nature of wind and its inherently intermittent nature. Accurate forecasting tools are critical to support the integration of wind energy into power grids and to maximize its impact on renewable energy portfolios. We have adapted the Data Assimilation Research Testbed (DART), a community software facility which includes the ensemble Kalman filter (EnKF) algorithm, to expand our capability to use observational data to improve forecasts produced with a fully coupled hydrologic and atmospheric modeling system, the ParFlow (PF) hydrologic model and the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) mesoscale atmospheric model, coupled via mass and energy fluxes across the land surface, and resulting in the PF.WRF model. Numerous studies have shown that soil moisture distribution and land surface vegetative processes profoundly influence atmospheric boundary layer development and weather processes on local and regional scales. We have used the PF.WRF model to explore the connections between the land surface and the atmosphere in terms of land surface energy flux partitioning and coupled variable fields including hydraulic conductivity, soil moisture, and wind speed and demonstrated that reductions in uncertainty in these coupled fields realized through assimilation of soil moisture observations propagate through the hydrologic and atmospheric system. The sensitivities found in this study will enable further studies to optimize observation strategies to maximize the utility of the PF.WRF-DART forecasting system.

  4. Adaption to extreme rainfall with open urban drainage system: an integrated hydrological cost-benefit analysis. (United States)

    Zhou, Qianqian; Panduro, Toke Emil; Thorsen, Bo Jellesmark; Arnbjerg-Nielsen, Karsten


    This paper presents a cross-disciplinary framework for assessment of climate change adaptation to increased precipitation extremes considering pluvial flood risk as well as additional environmental services provided by some of the adaptation options. The ability of adaptation alternatives to cope with extreme rainfalls is evaluated using a quantitative flood risk approach based on urban inundation modeling and socio-economic analysis of corresponding costs and benefits. A hedonic valuation model is applied to capture the local economic gains or losses from more water bodies in green areas. The framework was applied to the northern part of the city of Aarhus, Denmark. We investigated four adaptation strategies that encompassed laissez-faire, larger sewer pipes, local infiltration units, and open drainage system in the urban green structure. We found that when taking into account environmental amenity effects, an integration of open drainage basins in urban recreational areas is likely the best adaptation strategy, followed by pipe enlargement and local infiltration strategies. All three were improvements compared to the fourth strategy of no measures taken.

  5. Isotope hydrology of some hydrothermal systems of the Kurilo-Kamchatskay volcanic region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Esikov, A.D.


    The hydrogen and oxygen isotope composition of underground and surface (thermal and cold) waters, as well as local precipitation waters from the geothermal fields of the Uzon caldera, the Mutnovsky volcano (Kamchatka), and the Baransky volcano (island of Iturup) have been analysed. As has been demonstrated, hydrothermal solutions were formed due to hypogene circulation of water originating from local precipitation. Observed variations in the isotope composition of the water are easily explained by underground boiling of hydrothermal solutions and their exchange with bedrock, and also by the processes of non-steady evaporation of water under differing surface conditions and the widely-spread mutual intermixing of waters of different origin. Data on the isotope composition of 50 samples from the region studied are to be found in the paper. The method of constructing diagrams in coordinates of δD vs δ 18 O is discussed in detail, reflecting a single-step separation of the thermal fluid. Data obtained during the analysis of the thermal fields estimates the processes forming the isotope composition of the world's geothermal sub-aerial systems as being unique. (author)

  6. The strategies of local farmers' water management and the eco-hydrological effects of irrigation-drainage engineering systems in world heritage of Honghe Hani Rice Terraces (United States)

    Gao, Xuan


    Terraces are built in mountainous regions to provide larger area for cultivation,in which the hydrological and geomorphological processes are impacted by local farmers' water management strategies and are modified by manmade irrigation-drainage engineering systems.The Honghe Hani Rice Terraces is a 1300a history of traditional agricultural landscape that was inscribed in the 2013 World Heritage List.The local farmers had developed systematic water management strategies and built perfect irrigation-drainage engineering systems to adapt the local rainfall pattern and rice farming activities.Through field investigation,interviews,combined with Geographic Information Systems,Remote Sensing images and Global Positioning Systems technology,the water management strategies as well as the irrigation-drainage systems and their impacts on eco-hydrological process were studied,the results indicate:Firstly,the local people created and maintained an unique woodcarving allocating management system of irrigating water over hundreds years,which aids distributing water and natural nutrition to each terrace field evenly,and regularly according to cultivation schedule.Secondly,the management of local people play an essential role in effective irrigation-drainage engineering system.A ditch leader takes charge of managing the ditch of their village,keeping ample amount of irrigation water,repairing broken parts of ditches,dealing with unfair water using issues,and so on.Meanwhile,some traditional leaders of minority also take part in.Thus, this traditional way of irrigation-drainage engineering has bringed Hani people around 1300 years of rice harvest for its eco-hydrological effects.Lastly we discuss the future of Honghe Hani Rice Terraces,the traditional cultivation pattern has been influenced by the rapid development of modern civilization,in which some related changes such as the new equipment of county roads and plastic channels and the water overusing by tourism are not totally

  7. Phytoplankton Ecology and Hydrological Dynamics of the Yahuarcaca Lake System, Amazonas, Colombia: Integrated Analysis of 16 Years of Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Juliana Salcedo-Hernández


    Full Text Available This article provides a synthesis of the current knowledge on the evolving relation between the Amazon River and the Yahuarcaca lagoon system, through the limnological features and the ecology of phytoplankton in a period of sixteen years. The synthesis of the information was conducted by reviewing existing data about the system, for the time indicated, and analyzing it by means of descriptive statistics and linear correlation between the variables found. Also, it contains a summary of the most important aspects of the first attempt in Colombia to evaluate the influence of the flood pulse on the phytoplankton in a daily time scale. The thermal pattern of this laggon system corresponds to a warm and constant polymicthic lake type according to the de Lewis (1983 classification. The physical, chemical and biological variables examined in this várzea system change according to the hydrologic period. The conductivity, transparency and richness of the phytoplankton increase in the low water season, while the nutrient concentration, and the density, productivity and the biomass of phytoplankton increase during the high water season. Nitrate during the low water season and phosphate during the high water season are the most restricting nutrients. The changes that have taken place through these years in the connectivity between the river and the Yahuarcaca lagoon system are reflected in the dynamics of the structure and composition of the phytoplankton. Normal 0 21 false false false ES-CO X-NONE X-NONE /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Tabla normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:ES-CO; mso-fareast-language:ES-CO;}

  8. Deposition and early hydrologic evolution of Westwater Canyon wet alluvial-fan system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galloway, W.E.


    The Westwater Canyon Member is one of several large, low-gradient alluvial fans that compose the Morrison Formation in the Four Corners area. Morrison fans were deposited by major laterally migrating streams entering a broad basin bounded by highlands to the west and south. The Westwater Canyon sand framework consists of a downfan succession of 1) proximal braided channel, 2) straight bed-load channel, 3) sinuous mixed-load channel, and 4) distributary mixed-load-channel sand bodies. Regional sand distribution and facies patterns are highly digitate and radiate from a point source located northwest of Gallup, New Mexico. Early ground-water flow evolution within the Westwater Canyon fan aquifer system can be inferred by analogy with Quaternary wet-fan deposits and by the interpreted paragenetic sequence of diagenetic features present. Syndepositional flow was controlled by the downfan hydrodynamic gradient and the high horizontal and vertical transmissivity of the sand-rich fan aquifer. Dissolution and transport of soluble humate would be likely in earliest ground water, which was abundant, fresh, and slightly alkaline. With increasing confinement of the aquifer below less permeable tuffaceous Brushy Basin deposits and release of soluble constituents from volcanic ash, flow patterns stabilized, and relatively more saline, uranium-rich ground water permeated the aquifer. Uranium mineralization occurred during this early postdepositional, semiconfined flow phase. Development of overlying Dakota swamps suggests a shallow water table indicative of regional dischare or stagnation. In either event, only limited downward flux of acidic water is recorded by local, bleached, kaolinized zones where the Westwater Canyon directly underlies the Dakota swamps. Subsequent ground-water flow phases have further obscured primary alteration patterns and caused local oxidation and redistribution of uranium

  9. Hydrology of and Current Monitoring Issues for the Chicago Area Waterway System, Northeastern Illinois (United States)

    Duncker, James J.; Johnson, Kevin K.


    The Chicago Area Waterway System (CAWS) consists of a combination of natural and manmade channels that form an interconnected navigable waterway of approximately 90-plus miles in the metropolitan Chicago area of northeastern Illinois. The CAWS serves the area as the primary drainage feature, a waterway transportation corridor, and recreational waterbody. The CAWS was constructed by the Metropolitan Water Reclamation District of Greater Chicago (MWRDGC). Completion of the Chicago Sanitary and Ship Canal (initial portion of the CAWS) in 1900 breached a low drainage divide and resulted in a diversion of water from the Lake Michigan Basin. A U.S. Supreme Court decree (Consent Decree 388 U.S. 426 [1967] Modified 449 U.S. 48 [1980]) limits the annual diversion from Lake Michigan. While the State of Illinois is responsible for the diversion, the MWRDGC regulates and maintains water level and water quality within the CAWS by using several waterway control structures. The operation and control of water levels in the CAWS results in a very complex hydraulic setting characterized by highly unsteady flows. The complexity leads to unique gaging requirements and monitoring issues. This report provides a general discussion of the complex hydraulic setting within the CAWS and quantifies this information with examples of data collected at a range of flow conditions from U.S. Geological Survey streamflow gaging stations and other locations within the CAWS. Monitoring to address longstanding issues of waterway operation, as well as current (2014) emerging issues such as wastewater disinfection and the threat from aquatic invasive species, is included in the discussion.

  10. Hydrologic controls on radiogenic Sr in meltwater from an alpine glacier system: Athabasca Glacier, Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arendt, C.A.; Stevenson, E.I.; Aciego, S.M.


    Filtered subglacial meltwater samples were collected daily during the onset of melt (May) and peak melt (July) over the 2011 melt season at the Athabasca Glacier (Alberta, Canada) and analyzed for strontium-87/strontium-86 ("8"7Sr/"8"6Sr) isotopic composition to infer the evolution of subglacial weathering processes. Both the underlying bedrock composition and subglacial water–rock interaction time are the primary influences on meltwater "8"7Sr/"8"6Sr. The Athabasca Glacier is situated atop Middle Cambrian carbonate bedrock that also contains silicate minerals. The length of time that subglacial meltwater interacts with the underlying bedrock and substrate is a predominant determining factor in solute concentration. Over the course of the melt season, increasing trends in Ca/K and Ca/Mg correspond to overall decreasing trends in "8"7Sr/"8"6Sr, which indicate a shift in weathering processes from the presence of silicate weathering to primarily carbonate weathering. Early in the melt season, rates of carbonate dissolution slow as meltwater approaches saturation with respect to calcite and dolomite, corresponding to an increase in silicate weathering that includes Sr-rich silicate minerals, and an increase in meltwater "8"7Sr/"8"6Sr. However, carbonate minerals are preferentially weathered in unsaturated waters. During the warmest part of a melt season the discharged meltwater is under saturated, causing an increase in carbonate weathering and a decrease in the radiogenic Sr signal. Likewise, larger fraction contributions of meltwater from glacial ice corresponds to lower "8"7Sr/"8"6Sr values, as the meltwater has lower water–rock interaction times in the subglacial system. These results indicate that although weathering of Sr-containing silicate minerals occurs in carbonate dominated glaciated terrains, the continual contribution of new meltwater permits the carbonate weathering signal to dominate. - Highlights: • Glacial meltwater "8"7Sr/"8"6Sr used to

  11. Efficacy of a national hydrological risk communication strategy: Domestic wastewater treatment systems in the Republic of Ireland (United States)

    Hynds, Paul; Naughton, Owen; O'Neill, Eoin; Mooney, Simon


    A significant body of research has focused on the role of domestic wastewater treatment systems (DWWTSs) as sources of human-specific aquatic contaminants in both developed and developing regions. However, to date few studies have sought to investigate the awareness, attitudes and behaviours of DWWTS owners and the efficacy of associated communication initiatives. The current study provides an examination of a public national engagement campaign undertaken in the Republic of Ireland which seeks to minimise the impact of DWWTSs on human and ecological health via concurrent inspection and information dissemination. Overall, 1634 respondents were surveyed using a "before and after" study design to capture if and how awareness, attitudes and behaviours evolved over time. Findings suggest that whilst the campaign provided a modest baseline to raise general awareness associated with the basic operational and maintenance requirements of DWWTS, there has been little or no behavioural engagement as a result, suggesting a significant awareness-behaviour gap. Accordingly, efforts to minimise potential human and ecological impacts have been unsuccessful. Moreover, results suggest that public attitudes towards water-related regulation and policy became increasingly negative over the study period due to parallel political and economic issues, further complicating future engagement. Future strategies, both in Ireland and further afield, should focus on health-based demographically-focused message framing to achieve significant knowledge and attitudinal shifts amongst specific population cohorts, and thus bring about significant behavioural change. Study findings and recommendations may be used by myriad stakeholders including local, provincial and national authorities to effectively engage with individuals and communities prior to and during implementation of legislative and policy-based instruments within numerous spheres including climate change adaptation, environmental

  12. Establishing an operational waterhole monitoring system using satellite data and hydrologic modelling: Application in the pastoral regions of East Africa (United States)

    Senay, Gabriel B.; Velpuri, Naga Manohar; Alemu, Henok; Pervez, Shahriar Md; Asante, Kwabena O; Karuki, Gatarwa; Taa, Asefa; Angerer, Jay


    Timely information on the availability of water and forage is important for the sustainable development of pastoral regions. The lack of such information increases the dependence of pastoral communities on perennial sources, which often leads to competition and conflicts. The provision of timely information is a challenging task, especially due to the scarcity or non-existence of conventional station-based hydrometeorological networks in the remote pastoral regions. A multi-source water balance modelling approach driven by satellite data was used to operationally monitor daily water level fluctuations across the pastoral regions of northern Kenya and southern Ethiopia. Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer data were used for mapping and estimating the surface area of the waterholes. Satellite-based rainfall, modelled run-off and evapotranspiration data were used to model daily water level fluctuations. Mapping of waterholes was achieved with 97% accuracy. Validation of modelled water levels with field-installed gauge data demonstrated the ability of the model to capture the seasonal patterns and variations. Validation results indicate that the model explained 60% of the observed variability in water levels, with an average root-mean-squared error of 22%. Up-to-date information on rainfall, evaporation, scaled water depth and condition of the waterholes is made available daily in near-real time via the Internet ( Such information can be used by non-governmental organizations, governmental organizations and other stakeholders for early warning and decision making. This study demonstrated an integrated approach for establishing an operational waterhole monitoring system using multi-source satellite data and hydrologic modelling.

  13. [Hydrology and water quality of rainfall-runoff in combined sewerage system along Suzhou Creek in central Shanghai]. (United States)

    Cheng, Jiang; Yang, Kai; Huang, Xiao-Fang; Lü, Yong-Peng


    In order to obtain the processes of hydrology and water quality of urban combined sewerage system (CSS) in highly urbanized region, the precipitation, discharge and pollutant concentration of four different intensity rainfall (light rain, moderate rain, heavy rain and storm) were measured from Jul. to Sep. 2007 in the Chendulu CSS along Suzhou Creek in Shanghai. The results show that the shapes of runoff graph are similar to rainfall graph, with a weaker fluctuation range and a 15-25 min delay between rainfall and runoff graph. Runoff coefficients of the four different rainfall are 0.33, 0.62, 0.67 and 0.73, respectively. The 30/30 first flush phenomenon is found in Chendulu CSS. The peak of pollutant concentration graph lags rainfall peak about 30-40 min. The pH and event mean concentration (EMC) of Cu, Zn, Cr, Cd, Pb and Ni totally measure up to environmental quality standards V for surface water of China besides COD, BOD5, NH4(+) -N and TP, and the EMC of COD, BOD5, NH4(+) -N and TP are 225.0-544.1, 31.5-98.9, 8.9-44.2 and 1.98-3.52 mg x L(-1), respectively. The rainfall-runoff pollutant concentration in Chendulu CSS is close to those of other foreign cites. At the confidence level of p < 0.01, good relationships exist between SS and COD, BOD5, NH4(+) -N and TP, respectively, and the average proportion of particulate organic pollutant and nutrient is 70.21%.

  14. Water System Adaptation To Hydrological Changes: Module 6, Synchronous Management of Storm Surge, Sea Level Rise, and Salt Water Intrusion: Case Study in Mattapoisett, Massachusetts, U.S.A. (United States)

    This course will introduce students to the fundamental principles of water system adaptation to hydrological changes, with emphasis on data analysis and interpretation, technical planning, and computational modeling. Starting with real-world scenarios and adaptation needs, the co...

  15. Hydrological AnthropoScenes (United States)

    Cudennec, Christophe


    The Anthropocene concept encapsulates the planetary-scale changes resulting from accelerating socio-ecological transformations, beyond the stratigraphic definition actually in debate. The emergence of multi-scale and proteiform complexity requires inter-discipline and system approaches. Yet, to reduce the cognitive challenge of tackling this complexity, the global Anthropocene syndrome must now be studied from various topical points of view, and grounded at regional and local levels. A system approach should allow to identify AnthropoScenes, i.e. settings where a socio-ecological transformation subsystem is clearly coherent within boundaries and displays explicit relationships with neighbouring/remote scenes and within a nesting architecture. Hydrology is a key topical point of view to be explored, as it is important in many aspects of the Anthropocene, either with water itself being a resource, hazard or transport force; or through the network, connectivity, interface, teleconnection, emergence and scaling issues it determines. We will schematically exemplify these aspects with three contrasted hydrological AnthropoScenes in Tunisia, France and Iceland; and reframe therein concepts of the hydrological change debate. Bai X., van der Leeuw S., O'Brien K., Berkhout F., Biermann F., Brondizio E., Cudennec C., Dearing J., Duraiappah A., Glaser M., Revkin A., Steffen W., Syvitski J., 2016. Plausible and desirable futures in the Anthropocene: A new research agenda. Global Environmental Change, in press, Brondizio E., O'Brien K., Bai X., Biermann F., Steffen W., Berkhout F., Cudennec C., Lemos M.C., Wolfe A., Palma-Oliveira J., Chen A. C-T. Re-conceptualizing the Anthropocene: A call for collaboration. Global Environmental Change, in review. Montanari A., Young G., Savenije H., Hughes D., Wagener T., Ren L., Koutsoyiannis D., Cudennec C., Grimaldi S., Blöschl G., Sivapalan M., Beven K., Gupta H., Arheimer B., Huang Y

  16. One multi-media environmental system with linkage between meteorology/ hydrology/ air quality models and water quality model (United States)

    Tang, C.; Lynch, J. A.; Dennis, R. L.


    The biogeochemical processing of nitrogen and associated pollutants is driven by meteorological and hydrological processes in conjunction with pollutant loading. There are feedbacks between meteorology and hydrology that will be affected by land-use change and climate change. Changes in meteorology will affect pollutant deposition. It is important to account for those feedbacks and produce internally consistent simulations of meteorology, hydrology, and pollutant loading to drive the (watershed/water quality) biogeochemical models. In this study, the ecological response to emission reductions in streams in the Potomac watershed was evaluated. Firstly, we simulated the deposition by using the fully coupled Weather Research & Forecasting (WRF) model and the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CAMQ) model; secondly, we created the hydrological data by the offline linked Variable Infiltration Capacity (VIC) model and the WRF model. Lastly, we investigated the water quality by one comprehensive/environment model, namely the linkage of CMAQ, WRF, VIC and the Model of Acidification of Groundwater In Catchment (MAGIC) model from 2002 to 2010.The simulated results (such as NO3, SO4, and SBC) fit well to the observed values. The linkage provides a generally accurate, well-tested tool for evaluating sensitivities to varying meteorology and environmental changes on acidification and other biogeochemical processes, with capability to comprehensively explore strategic policy and management design.

  17. Hydrologic response to and recovery from differing silvicultural systems in a deciduous forest landscape with seasonal snow cover (United States)

    Buttle, J. M.; Beall, F. D.; Webster, K. L.; Hazlett, P. W.; Creed, I. F.; Semkin, R. G.; Jeffries, D. S.


    Hydrological consequences of alternative harvesting strategies in deciduous forest landscapes with seasonal snow cover have received relatively little attention. Most forest harvesting experiments in landscapes with seasonal snow cover have focused on clearcutting in coniferous forests. Few have examined alternative strategies such as selection or shelterwood cutting in deciduous stands whose hydrologic responses to harvesting may differ from those of conifers. This study presents results from a 31-year examination of hydrological response to and recovery from alternative harvesting strategies in a deciduous forest landscape with seasonal snow cover in central Ontario, Canada. A quantitative means of assessing hydrologic recovery to harvesting is also developed. Clearcutting resulted in increased water year (WY) runoff. This was accompanied by increased runoff in all seasons, with greatest relative increases in Summer. Direct runoff and baseflow from treatment catchments generally increased following harvesting, although annual peak streamflow did not. Largest increases in WY runoff and seasonal runoff as well as direct runoff and baseflow generally occurred in the selection harvest catchment, likely as a result of interception of hillslope runoff by a forest access road and redirection to the stream channel. Hydrologic recovery appeared to begin towards the end of the experimental period for several streamflow metrics but was incomplete for all harvesting strategies 15 years after harvesting. Geochemical tracing indicated that harvesting enhanced the relative importance of surface and near-surface water pathways on catchment slopes for all treatments, with the clearcut catchment showing the most pronounced and prolonged response. Such insights into water partitioning between flow pathways may assist assessments of the ecological and biogeochemical consequences of forest disturbance.

  18. Assessing hydrological changes in a regulated river system over the last 90 years in Rimac Basin (Peru) (United States)

    Vega-Jácome, Fiorella; Lavado-Casimiro, Waldo Sven; Felipe-Obando, Oscar Gustavo


    Hydrological changes were assessed considering possible changes in precipitation and regulation or hydraulic diversion projects developed in the basin since 1960s in terms of improving water supply of the Rimac River, which is the main source of fresh water of Peru's capital. To achieve this objective, a trend analysis of precipitation and flow series was assessed using the Mann-Kendall test. Subsequently, the Eco-flow and Indicators of Hydrologic Alteration (IHA) methods were applied for the characterization and quantification of the hydrological change in the basin, considering for the analysis, a natural period (1920-1960) and an altered period (1961-2012). Under this focus, daily hydrologic information of the "Chosica R-2" station (from 1920 to 2013) and monthly rainfall information related to 14 stations (from 1964 to 2013) were collected. The results show variations in the flow seasonality of the altered period in relation to the natural period and a significant trend to increase (decrease) minimum flows (maximum flows) during the analyzed period. The Eco-flow assessment shows a predominance of Eco-deficit from December to May (rainy season), strongly related to negative anomalies of precipitation. In addition, a predominance of Eco-surplus was found from June to November (dry season) with a behavior opposite to precipitation, attributed to the regulations and diversion in the basin during that period. In terms of magnitude, the IHA assessment identified an increase of 51% in the average flows during the dry season and a reduction of 10% in the average flows during the rainy season (except December and May). Furthermore, the minimum flows increased by 35% with shorter duration and frequency, and maximum flows decreased by 29% with more frequency but less duration. Although there are benefits of regulation and diversion for developing anthropic activities, the fact that hydrologic alterations may result in significant modifications in the Rimac River ecosystem

  19. Estimating real-time predictive hydrological uncertainty

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verkade, J.S.


    Flood early warning systems provide a potentially highly effective flood risk reduction measure. The effectiveness of early warning, however, is affected by forecasting uncertainty: the impossibility of knowing, in advance, the exact future state of hydrological systems. Early warning systems

  20. Design and Applications of a GeoSemantic Framework for Integration of Data and Model Resources in Hydrologic Systems (United States)

    Elag, M.; Kumar, P.


    Hydrologists today have to integrate resources such as data and models, which originate and reside in multiple autonomous and heterogeneous repositories over the Web. Several resource management systems have emerged within geoscience communities for sharing long-tail data, which are collected by individual or small research groups, and long-tail models, which are developed by scientists or small modeling communities. While these systems have increased the availability of resources within geoscience domains, deficiencies remain due to the heterogeneity in the methods, which are used to describe, encode, and publish information about resources over the Web. This heterogeneity limits our ability to access the right information in the right context so that it can be efficiently retrieved and understood without the Hydrologist's mediation. A primary challenge of the Web today is the lack of the semantic interoperability among the massive number of resources, which already exist and are continually being generated at rapid rates. To address this challenge, we have developed a decentralized GeoSemantic (GS) framework, which provides three sets of micro-web services to support (i) semantic annotation of resources, (ii) semantic alignment between the metadata of two resources, and (iii) semantic mediation among Standard Names. Here we present the design of the framework and demonstrate its application for semantic integration between data and models used in the IML-CZO. First we show how the IML-CZO data are annotated using the Semantic Annotation Services. Then we illustrate how the Resource Alignment Services and Knowledge Integration Services are used to create a semantic workflow among TopoFlow model, which is a spatially-distributed hydrologic model and the annotated data. Results of this work are (i) a demonstration of how the GS framework advances the integration of heterogeneous data and models of water-related disciplines by seamless handling of their semantic

  1. Simplifying a hydrological ensemble prediction system with a backward greedy selection of members – Part 2: Generalization in time and space

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Brochero


    Full Text Available An uncertainty cascade model applied to stream flow forecasting seeks to evaluate the different sources of uncertainty of the complex rainfall-runoff process. The current trend focuses on the combination of Meteorological Ensemble Prediction Systems (MEPS and hydrological model(s. However, the number of members of such a HEPS may rapidly increase to a level that may not be operationally sustainable. This paper evaluates the generalization ability of a simplification scheme of a 800-member HEPS formed by the combination of 16 lumped rainfall-runoff models with the 50 perturbed members from the European Centre for Medium-range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF EPS. Tests are made at two levels. At the local level, the transferability of the 9th day hydrological member selection for the other 8 forecast horizons exhibits an 82% success rate. The other evaluation is made at the regional or cluster level, the transferability from one catchment to another from within a cluster of watersheds also leads to a good performance (85% success rate, especially for forecast time horizons above 3 days and when the basins that formed the cluster presented themselves a good performance on an individual basis. Diversity, defined as hydrological model complementarity addressing different aspects of a forecast, was identified as the critical factor for proper selection applications.

  2. The Long-Term Hydrological Performance of Permeable Pavement Systems in Northern Spain: An Approach to the “End-of-Life” Concept

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis A. Sañudo-Fontaneda


    Full Text Available Porous mixtures and Interlocking Concrete Block Pavements (ICBP are the most widely used surfaces in Permeable Pavement Systems (PPS. Despite the fact that there are many studies based on the hydrological performance of PPS, there are few long-term studies that identify the end of life of PPS regarding their hydrological performance. A field study has been developed over 10 years in the experimental car park “Las Llamas” in the city of Santander, Northern Spain. Permeability was measured in 37 car park bays (nine Polymer-Modified Porous Concrete, nine Porous Asphalt, and 17 ICBP of two different designs. Tests were conducted under the Spanish Standard NLT-327/00 for the porous-mixture surfaces and the ASTM methods C1701/C1701M-17a and C1781/C1781M-15 for porous mixtures and ICBP, respectively. No maintenance was carried out in this car park since it was opened to traffic in 2008, allowing for the assessment and identification of the hydrological failure of each surface. The research showed that after 10 years of operation without maintenance, the bays constructed using porous mixtures were completely clogged, reaching the end of their operational life after nine years. However, ICBP maintained high infiltration rates, showing better resilience to sediment clogging. Further research is needed to confirm the evolution of ICBP surfaces.

  3. Landscape-scale tropical forest dynamics: Relating canopy traits and topographically derived hydrologic indices in a floodplain system using CAO-AToMS (United States)

    Chadwick, K.; Asner, G. P.


    The geomorphology of floodplains in the humid tropics has been used to infer basic classifications of forest types. However, analysis of the landscape-scale topographic and hydrologic patterns underpinning spatial variation in forest composition and function remain elusive due to the sparse coverage of forest plots, coarse resolution remotely sensed data, and the challenges of collecting first order hydrologic data. Airborne remote measurements provide an opportunity to consider the relationship between high-resolution topographic and derived hydrologic environmental gradients, and forest canopy characteristics with important cascading effects on ecosystem function and biosphere-atmosphere interactions. In 2011, the Carnegie Airborne Observatory (CAO) Airborne Taxonomic Mapping System (AToMS) was used to map a large section of the Los Amigos Conservation Concession harboring largely intact lowland humid tropical forest in the southwestern Peruvian Amazon. The CAO Visible-Shortwave Imaging Spectrometer (VSWIR) collected 480-band high-fidelity imaging spectroscopy data of the forest canopy, while its high-resolution dual waveform LiDAR captured information on canopy structure and the underlying terrain. The data were used to quantify relationships between topographic and hydrologic gradients and forest functional traits. Results suggest strong local hydrogeomorphic control over vegetation spectral properties with known relationships to canopy functional traits, including pigment and nutrient concentrations and light capture, as well as canopy structural characteristics, including vegetation height, understory plant cover, and aboveground biomass. Data from CAO-AToMS reveals local-scale patterns in environmental conditions and ecological variation that meets or exceeds the variation previously reported across ecosystems of the Western Amazon Basin.

  4. Hydrologic Design in the Anthropocene (United States)

    Vogel, R. M.; Farmer, W. H.; Read, L.


    In an era dubbed the Anthropocene, the natural world is being transformed by a myriad of human influences. As anthropogenic impacts permeate hydrologic systems, hydrologists are challenged to fully account for such changes and develop new methods of hydrologic design. Deterministic watershed models (DWM), which can account for the impacts of changes in land use, climate and infrastructure, are becoming increasing popular for the design of flood and/or drought protection measures. As with all models that are calibrated to existing datasets, DWMs are subject to model error or uncertainty. In practice, the model error component of DWM predictions is typically ignored yet DWM simulations which ignore model error produce model output which cannot reproduce the statistical properties of the observations they are intended to replicate. In the context of hydrologic design, we demonstrate how ignoring model error can lead to systematic downward bias in flood quantiles, upward bias in drought quantiles and upward bias in water supply yields. By reincorporating model error, we document how DWM models can be used to generate results that mimic actual observations and preserve their statistical behavior. In addition to use of DWM for improved predictions in a changing world, improved communication of the risk and reliability is also needed. Traditional statements of risk and reliability in hydrologic design have been characterized by return periods, but such statements often assume that the annual probability of experiencing a design event remains constant throughout the project horizon. We document the general impact of nonstationarity on the average return period and reliability in the context of hydrologic design. Our analyses reveal that return periods do not provide meaningful expressions of the likelihood of future hydrologic events. Instead, knowledge of system reliability over future planning horizons can more effectively prepare society and communicate the likelihood

  5. Nuclear hydrology and sedimentology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Airey, P.L.


    The applications of isotope techniques to groundwater hydrology, sedimentation and surface water and heavy metal transport are discussed. Reference is made to several Australian studies. These include: a tritium study of the Burdekin Delta, North Queensland; a carbon-14 study of the Mereenie Sandstone aquifer, Alice Springs; groundwater studies in the Great Artesion Basin; uranium daughter product disequilibrium studies; the use of environmental cesium-137 to investigate sediment transport; and a study on the dispersion of water and zinc through the Magela system in the uranium mining areas of the Northern Territory

  6. Finding diversity for building one-day ahead Hydrological Ensemble Prediction System based on artificial neural network stacks (United States)

    Brochero, Darwin; Anctil, Francois; Gagné, Christian; López, Karol


    In this study, we addressed the application of Artificial Neural Networks (ANN) in the context of Hydrological Ensemble Prediction Systems (HEPS). Such systems have become popular in the past years as a tool to include the forecast uncertainty in the decision making process. HEPS considers fundamentally the uncertainty cascade model [4] for uncertainty representation. Analogously, the machine learning community has proposed models of multiple classifier systems that take into account the variability in datasets, input space, model structures, and parametric configuration [3]. This approach is based primarily on the well-known "no free lunch theorem" [1]. Consequently, we propose a framework based on two separate but complementary topics: data stratification and input variable selection (IVS). Thus, we promote an ANN prediction stack in which each predictor is trained based on input spaces defined by the IVS application on different stratified sub-samples. All this, added to the inherent variability of classical ANN optimization, leads us to our ultimate goal: diversity in the prediction, defined as the complementarity of the individual predictors. The stratification application on the 12 basins used in this study, which originate from the second and third workshop of the MOPEX project [2], shows that the informativeness of the data is far more important than the quantity used for ANN training. Additionally, the input space variability leads to ANN stacks that outperform an ANN stack model trained with 100% of the available information but with a random selection of dataset used in the early stopping method (scenario R100P). The results show that from a deterministic view, the main advantage focuses on the efficient selection of the training information, which is an equally important concept for the calibration of conceptual hydrological models. On the other hand, the diversity achieved is reflected in a substantial improvement in the scores that define the

  7. Combined use of stable isotopes and hydrologic modeling to better understand nutrient sources and cycling in highly altered systems (Invited) (United States)

    Young, M. B.; Kendall, C.; Guerin, M.; Stringfellow, W. T.; Silva, S. R.; Harter, T.; Parker, A.


    The Sacramento and San Joaquin Rivers provide the majority of freshwater for the San Francisco Bay Delta. Both rivers are important sources of drinking and irrigation water for California, and play critical roles in the health of California fisheries. Understanding the factors controlling water quality and primary productivity in these rivers and the Delta is essential for making sound economic and environmental water management decisions. However, these highly altered surface water systems present many challenges for water quality monitoring studies due to factors such as multiple potential nutrient and contaminant inputs, dynamic source water inputs, and changing flow regimes controlled by both natural and engineered conditions. The watersheds for both rivers contain areas of intensive agriculture along with many other land uses, and the Sacramento River receives significant amounts of treated wastewater from the large population around the City of Sacramento. We have used a multi-isotope approach combined with mass balance and hydrodynamic modeling in order to better understand the dominant nutrient sources for each of these rivers, and to track nutrient sources and cycling within the complex Delta region around the confluence of the rivers. High nitrate concentrations within the San Joaquin River fuel summer algal blooms, contributing to low dissolved oxygen conditions. High δ15N-NO3 values combined with the high nitrate concentrations suggest that animal manure is a significant source of nitrate to the San Joaquin River. In contrast, the Sacramento River has lower nitrate concentrations but elevated ammonium concentrations from wastewater discharge. Downstream nitrification of the ammonium can be clearly traced using δ15N-NH4. Flow conditions for these rivers and the Delta have strong seasonal and inter-annual variations, resulting in significant changes in nutrient delivery and cycling. Isotopic measurements and estimates of source water contributions

  8. Hydrologic Sub-basins of Greenland, Version 1 (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Hydrologic Sub-basins of Greenland data set contains Geographic Information System (GIS) polygon shapefiles that include 293 hydrologic sub-basins of the...

  9. A Community Data Model for Hydrologic Observations (United States)

    Tarboton, D. G.; Horsburgh, J. S.; Zaslavsky, I.; Maidment, D. R.; Valentine, D.; Jennings, B.


    The CUAHSI Hydrologic Information System project is developing information technology infrastructure to support hydrologic science. Hydrologic information science involves the description of hydrologic environments in a consistent way, using data models for information integration. This includes a hydrologic observations data model for the storage and retrieval of hydrologic observations in a relational database designed to facilitate data retrieval for integrated analysis of information collected by multiple investigators. It is intended to provide a standard format to facilitate the effective sharing of information between investigators and to facilitate analysis of information within a single study area or hydrologic observatory, or across hydrologic observatories and regions. The observations data model is designed to store hydrologic observations and sufficient ancillary information (metadata) about the observations to allow them to be unambiguously interpreted and used and provide traceable heritage from raw measurements to usable information. The design is based on the premise that a relational database at the single observation level is most effective for providing querying capability and cross dimension data retrieval and analysis. This premise is being tested through the implementation of a prototype hydrologic observations database, and the development of web services for the retrieval of data from and ingestion of data into the database. These web services hosted by the San Diego Supercomputer center make data in the database accessible both through a Hydrologic Data Access System portal and directly from applications software such as Excel, Matlab and ArcGIS that have Standard Object Access Protocol (SOAP) capability. This paper will (1) describe the data model; (2) demonstrate the capability for representing diverse data in the same database; (3) demonstrate the use of the database from applications software for the performance of hydrologic analysis


    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Hydrology data include spatial datasets and data tables necessary for documenting the hydrologic procedures for estimating flood discharges for a flood insurance...


    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Hydrology data include spatial datasets and data tables necessary for documenting the hydrologic procedures for estimating flood discharges for a flood insurance...


    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Hydrology data include spatial datasets and data tables necessary for documenting the hydrologic procedures for estimating flood discharges for a flood insurance...


    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Hydrology data include spatial datasets and data tables necessary for documenting the hydrologic procedures for estimating flood discharges for a flood insurance...


    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Hydrology data include spatial datasets and data tables necessary for documenting the hydrologic procedures for estimating flood discharges for a flood insurance...


    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Hydrology data include spatial datasets and data tables necessary for documenting the hydrologic procedures for estimating flood discharges for a flood insurance...


    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Hydrology data include spatial datasets and data tables necessary for documenting the hydrologic procedures for estimating flood discharges for a flood insurance...


    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Hydrology data include spatial datasets and data tables necessary for documenting the hydrologic procedures for estimating flood discharges for a flood insurance...

  18. Hydrology, OCONEE COUNTY, SC (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Hydrology data include spatial datasets and data tables necessary for documenting the hydrologic procedures for estimating flood discharges for a flood insurance...


    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Hydrology data include spatial datasets and data tables necessary for documenting the hydrologic procedures for estimating flood discharges for a flood insurance...


    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Hydrology data include spatial datasets and data tables necessary for documenting the hydrologic procedures for estimating flood discharges for a flood insurance...


    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Hydrology data include spatial datasets and data tables necessary for documenting the hydrologic procedures for estimating flood discharges for a flood insurance...


    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Hydrology data include spatial datasets and data tables necessary for documenting the hydrologic procedures for estimating flood discharges for a flood insurance...


    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Hydrology data include spatial datasets and data tables necessary for documenting the hydrologic procedures for estimating ALood discharges for a ALood Insurance...

  4. Weber County Hydrology Report (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Hydrology data include spatial datasets and data tables necessary for documenting the hydrologic procedures for estimating flood discharges for a flood insurance...


    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Hydrology data include spatial datasets and data tables necessary for documenting the hydrologic procedures for estimating flood discharges for a flood insurance...


    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Hydrology data include spatial datasets and data tables necessary for documenting the hydrologic procedures for estimating flood discharges for a flood insurance...


    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Hydrology data include spatial datasets and data tables necessary for documenting the hydrologic procedures for estimating flood discharges for a flood insurance...


    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Hydrology data include spatial datasets and data tables necessary for documenting the hydrologic procedures for estimating flood discharges for a flood insurance...

  9. HYDROLOGY, Yazoo COUNTY, MS (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Hydrology data include spatial datasets and data tables necessary for documenting the hydrologic procedures for estimating flood discharges for a flood insurance...

  10. HYDROLOGY, Lawrence County, ARKANSAS (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Hydrology data include spatial datasets and data tables necessary for documenting the hydrologic procedures for estimating flood discharges for a Flood Insurance...

  11. HYDROLOGY, Allegheny County, PA (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Hydrology data include spatial datasets and data tables necessary for documenting the hydrologic procedures for estimating flood discharges for a Flood Insurance...


    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Hydrology data include spatial datasets and data tables necessary for documenting the hydrologic procedures for estimating flood discharges for a flood insurance...


    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Hydrology data include spatial datasets and data tables necessary for documenting the hydrologic procedures for estimating flood discharges for a flood insurance...


    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Hydrology data include spatial datasets and data tables necessary for documenting the hydrologic procedures for estimating flood discharges for a Flood Insurance...

  15. HYDROLOGY, LEE COUNTY, TEXAS (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Hydrology data include spatial datasets and data tables necessary for documenting the hydrologic procedures for estimating flood discharges for a Flood Insurance...

  16. HYDROLOGY, GREENE County, ARKANSAS (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Hydrology data include spatial datasets and data tables necessary for documenting the hydrologic procedures for estimating flood discharges for a Flood Insurance...

  17. Hydrologic Features (United States)

    California Natural Resource Agency — California Spatial Information System (CaSIL) is a project designed to improve access to geo-spatial and geo-spatial related data information throughout the state of...

  18. Integration of Local Hydrology into Regional Hydrologic Simulation Model (United States)

    Van Zee, R. J.; Lal, W. A.


    South Florida hydrology is dominated by the Central and South Florida (C&SF) Project that is managed to provide flood protection, water supply and environmental protection. A complex network of levees canals and structures provide these services to the individual drainage basins. The landscape varies widely across the C&SF system, with corresponding differences in the way water is managed within each basin. Agricultural areas are managed for optimal crop production. Urban areas maximize flood protection while maintaining minimum water levels to protect adjacent wetlands and local water supplies. "Natural" areas flood and dry out in response to the temporal distribution of rainfall. The evaluation of planning, regulation and operational issues require access to a simulation model that captures the effects of both regional and local hydrology. The Regional Simulation Model (RSM) uses a "pseudo-cell" approach to integrate local hydrology within the context of a regional hydrologic system. A 2-dimensional triangulated mesh is used to represent the regional surface and ground water systems and a 1-dimensional canal network is superimposed onto this mesh. The movement of water is simulated using a finite volume formulation with a diffusive wave approximation. Each cell in the triangulated mesh has a "pseudo-cell" counterpart, which represents the same area as the cell, but it is conceptualized such that it simulates the localized hydrologic conditions Protocols have been established to provide an interface between a cell and its pseudo-cell counterpart. . A number of pseudo-cell types have already been developed and tested in the simulation of Water Conservation Area 1 and several have been proposed to deal with specific local issues in the Southwest Florida Feasibility Study. This presentation will provide an overview of the overall RSM design, describe the relationship between cells and pseudo-cells, and illustrate how pseudo-cells are be used to simulate agriculture

  19. Daily Streamflow Predictions in an Ungauged Watershed in Northern California Using the Precipitation-Runoff Modeling System (PRMS): Calibration Challenges when nearby Gauged Watersheds are Hydrologically Dissimilar (United States)

    Dhakal, A. S.; Adera, S.


    Accurate daily streamflow prediction in ungauged watersheds with sparse information is challenging. The ability of a hydrologic model calibrated using nearby gauged watersheds to predict streamflow accurately depends on hydrologic similarities between the gauged and ungauged watersheds. This study examines daily streamflow predictions using the Precipitation-Runoff Modeling System (PRMS) for the largely ungauged San Antonio Creek watershed, a 96 km2 sub-watershed of the Alameda Creek watershed in Northern California. The process-based PRMS model is being used to improve the accuracy of recent San Antonio Creek streamflow predictions generated by two empirical methods. Although San Antonio Creek watershed is largely ungauged, daily streamflow data exists for hydrologic years (HY) 1913 - 1930. PRMS was calibrated for HY 1913 - 1930 using streamflow data, modern-day land use and PRISM precipitation distribution, and gauged precipitation and temperature data from a nearby watershed. The PRMS model was then used to generate daily streamflows for HY 1996-2013, during which the watershed was ungauged, and hydrologic responses were compared to two nearby gauged sub-watersheds of Alameda Creek. Finally, the PRMS-predicted daily flows between HY 1996-2013 were compared to the two empirically-predicted streamflow time series: (1) the reservoir mass balance method and (2) correlation of historical streamflows from 80 - 100 years ago between San Antonio Creek and a nearby sub-watershed located in Alameda Creek. While the mass balance approach using reservoir storage and transfers is helpful for estimating inflows to the reservoir, large discrepancies in daily streamflow estimation can arise. Similarly, correlation-based predicted daily flows which rely on a relationship from flows collected 80-100 years ago may not represent current watershed hydrologic conditions. This study aims to develop a method of streamflow prediction in the San Antonio Creek watershed by examining PRMS

  20. Connecting the snowpack to the internet of things: an IPv6 architecture for providing real-time measurements of hydrologic systems (United States)

    Kerkez, B.; Zhang, Z.; Oroza, C.; Glaser, S. D.; Bales, R. C.


    We describe our improved, robust, and scalable architecture by which to rapidly instrument large-scale watersheds, while providing the resulting data in real-time. Our system consists of more than twenty wireless sensor networks and thousands of sensors, which will be deployed in the American River basin (5000 sq. km) of California. The core component of our system is known as a mote, a tiny, ultra-low-power, embedded wireless computer that can be used for any number of sensing applications. Our new generation of motes is equipped with IPv6 functionality, effectively giving each sensor in the field its own unique IP address, thus permitting users to remotely interact with the devices without going through intermediary services. Thirty to fifty motes will be deployed across 1-2 square kilometer regions to form a mesh-based wireless sensor network. Redundancy of local wireless links will ensure that data will always be able to traverse the network, even if hash wintertime conditions adversely affect some network nodes. These networks will be used to develop spatial estimates of a number of hydrologic parameters, focusing especially on snowpack. Each wireless sensor network has one main network controller, which is responsible with interacting with an embedded Linux computer to relay information across higher-powered, long-range wireless links (cell modems, satellite, WiFi) to neighboring networks and remote, offsite servers. The network manager is also responsible for providing an Internet connection to each mote. Data collected by the sensors can either be read directly by remote hosts, or stored on centralized servers for future access. With 20 such networks deployed in the American River, our system will comprise an unprecedented cyber-physical architecture for measuring hydrologic parameters in large-scale basins. The spatiotemporal density and real-time nature of the data is also expected to significantly improve operational hydrology and water resource

  1. Hydrology: The interdisciplinary science of water (United States)

    Vogel, Richard M.; Lall, Upmanu; Cai, Ximing; Rajagopalan, Balaji; Weiskel, Peter K.; Hooper, Richard P.; Matalas, Nicholas C.


    We live in a world where biophysical and social processes are tightly coupled. Hydrologic systems change in response to a variety of natural and human forces such as climate variability and change, water use and water infrastructure, and land cover change. In turn, changes in hydrologic systems impact socioeconomic, ecological, and climate systems at a number of scales, leading to a coevolution of these interlinked systems. The Harvard Water Program, Hydrosociology, Integrated Water Resources Management, Ecohydrology, Hydromorphology, and Sociohydrology were all introduced to provide distinct, interdisciplinary perspectives on water problems to address the contemporary dynamics of human interaction with the hydrosphere and the evolution of the Earth’s hydrologic systems. Each of them addresses scientific, social, and engineering challenges related to how humans influence water systems and vice versa. There are now numerous examples in the literature of how holistic approaches can provide a structure and vision of the future of hydrology. We review selected examples, which taken together, describe the type of theoretical and applied integrated hydrologic analyses and associated curricular content required to address the societal issue of water resources sustainability. We describe a modern interdisciplinary science of hydrology needed to develop an in-depth understanding of the dynamics of the connectedness between human and natural systems and to determine effective solutions to resolve the complex water problems that the world faces today. Nearly, every theoretical hydrologic model introduced previously is in need of revision to accommodate how climate, land, vegetation, and socioeconomic factors interact, change, and evolve over time.

  2. VIC–CropSyst-v2: A regional-scale modeling platform to simulate the nexus of climate, hydrology, cropping systems, and human decisions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Malek


    Full Text Available Food supply is affected by a complex nexus of land, atmosphere, and human processes, including short- and long-term stressors (e.g., drought and climate change, respectively. A simulation platform that captures these complex elements can be used to inform policy and best management practices to promote sustainable agriculture. We have developed a tightly coupled framework using the macroscale variable infiltration capacity (VIC hydrologic model and the CropSyst agricultural model. A mechanistic irrigation module was also developed for inclusion in this framework. Because VIC–CropSyst combines two widely used and mechanistic models (for crop phenology, growth, management, and macroscale hydrology, it can provide realistic and hydrologically consistent simulations of water availability, crop water requirements for irrigation, and agricultural productivity for both irrigated and dryland systems. This allows VIC–CropSyst to provide managers and decision makers with reliable information on regional water stresses and their impacts on food production. Additionally, VIC–CropSyst is being used in conjunction with socioeconomic models, river system models, and atmospheric models to simulate feedback processes between regional water availability, agricultural water management decisions, and land–atmosphere interactions. The performance of VIC–CropSyst was evaluated on both regional (over the US Pacific Northwest and point scales. Point-scale evaluation involved using two flux tower sites located in agricultural fields in the US (Nebraska and Illinois. The agreement between recorded and simulated evapotranspiration (ET, applied irrigation water, soil moisture, leaf area index (LAI, and yield indicated that, although the model is intended to work on regional scales, it also captures field-scale processes in agricultural areas.

  3. VIC-CropSyst-v2: A regional-scale modeling platform to simulate the nexus of climate, hydrology, cropping systems, and human decisions (United States)

    Malek, Keyvan; Stöckle, Claudio; Chinnayakanahalli, Kiran; Nelson, Roger; Liu, Mingliang; Rajagopalan, Kirti; Barik, Muhammad; Adam, Jennifer C.


    Food supply is affected by a complex nexus of land, atmosphere, and human processes, including short- and long-term stressors (e.g., drought and climate change, respectively). A simulation platform that captures these complex elements can be used to inform policy and best management practices to promote sustainable agriculture. We have developed a tightly coupled framework using the macroscale variable infiltration capacity (VIC) hydrologic model and the CropSyst agricultural model. A mechanistic irrigation module was also developed for inclusion in this framework. Because VIC-CropSyst combines two widely used and mechanistic models (for crop phenology, growth, management, and macroscale hydrology), it can provide realistic and hydrologically consistent simulations of water availability, crop water requirements for irrigation, and agricultural productivity for both irrigated and dryland systems. This allows VIC-CropSyst to provide managers and decision makers with reliable information on regional water stresses and their impacts on food production. Additionally, VIC-CropSyst is being used in conjunction with socioeconomic models, river system models, and atmospheric models to simulate feedback processes between regional water availability, agricultural water management decisions, and land-atmosphere interactions. The performance of VIC-CropSyst was evaluated on both regional (over the US Pacific Northwest) and point scales. Point-scale evaluation involved using two flux tower sites located in agricultural fields in the US (Nebraska and Illinois). The agreement between recorded and simulated evapotranspiration (ET), applied irrigation water, soil moisture, leaf area index (LAI), and yield indicated that, although the model is intended to work on regional scales, it also captures field-scale processes in agricultural areas.

  4. Integrated analysis of hydrological system, use and management. Langueyu stream basin, Tandil, Argentina; Analisis integral del sistema hidrico, uso y gestion. Cuenca del arroyo Langueyu, Tandil, Argentina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruiz de Galarreta, V.A.; Banda Noriega, R.B.; Barranquero, R.S.; Diaz, A.A.; Rodriguez, C.I.; Miguel, R.E.


    This work is aim to hydrological and environmental characterization of Langueyu stream basin, where Tandil city is located. This basin is developed on northern hillside of Tandilia system, in Buenos Aires province, and it drains to NE. There are two different hydrogeological units: crystalline rocks and Cenozoic sediments, which correspond with two hydrolithological characters, fissured and clastic porous, respectively. The population is supplied by groundwater sources. Water exploitation and use were analyzed, according to the growing demands from industrial, agricultural and urban uses. The impacts of intense exploitation were evaluated. High levels of nitrate were corroborated in older wells of the city, which nowadays are in use. The hydrodynamic change in a section of the stream, where it converts to influent, was detected. This disturbance of the natural relation could be a potential source of contamination to the aquifer, due to high charges of industrial and urban effluents which the stream receives. Several population sectors, which have neither a drinking water net nor a sewer system, showed microbiological and chemical water contamination. Other water impact is constituted by several abandoned quarries which have historically received wastes, mainly from foundry industries. In conclusion, water management basin does not aim to sustainable development, due to its lack of integration. It demands the knowledge of hydrological system, according with the goal to avoid water quality degradation and to guarantee its protection. (Author).

  5. Global off-line evaluation of the ISBA-TRIP continental hydrological system used in the CNRM-CM6 climate model for the next CMIP6 exercise (United States)

    Decharme, Bertrand; Vergnes, Jean-Pierre; Minvielle, Marie; Colin, Jeanne; Delire, Christine


    The land surface hydrology represents an active component of the climate system. It is likely to influence the water and energy exchanges at the land surface, the ocean salinity and temperature at the mouth of the largest rivers, and the climate at least at the regional scale. In climate models, the continental hydrology is simulated via Land Surface Models (LSM), which compute water and energy budgets at the surface, coupled to River Routing Model (RRM), which convert the runoff simulated by the LSMs into river discharge in order to transfer the continental fresh water into the oceans and then to close the global hydrological cycle. Validating these Continental Hydrological Systems (CHS) at the global scale is therefore a crucial task, which requires off-line simulations driven by realistic atmospheric fluxes to avoid the systematic biases commonly found in the atmospheric models. In the CNRM-CM6 climate model of Météo-France, that will be used for the next Coupled Climate Intercomparison Project phase 6 (CMIP6) exercise, the land surface hydrology is simulated using the ISBA-TRIP CHS coupled via the OASIS-MCT coupler. The ISBA LSM solves explicitly the one dimensional Fourier law for soil temperature and the mixed form of the Richards equation for soil moisture using a 14-layers discretization over 12m depths. For the snowpack, a discretization using 12 layers allows the explicit representation of some snow key processes as its viscosity, its compaction due to wind, its age and its albedo on the visible and near infrared spectra. The TRIP RRM uses a global river channel network at 0.5° resolution. It is based on a three prognostic equations for the surface stream water, the seasonal floodplains, and the groundwater. The streamflow velocity is computed using the Maning's formula. The floodplain reservoir fills when the river height exceeds the river bankfull height and vice-versa. The flood interacts with the ISBA soil hydrology through infiltration and with

  6. Hydrological behavior of a Vertisol under different soil management systems in a rain-fed olive orchard (United States)

    Cabezas, Jose Manuel; Gómez, Jose Alfonso; Auxiliadora Soriano, María


    Soil water availability is a major subject in Mediterranean agricultural systems, mainly due to the limited and highly variable annual rainfall, high evaporative demand, and soil hydrological characteristics. The recent expansion of olive cultivation in the rolling-plains of the Guadalquivir valley, due to the higher profitability of new intensive olive orchards, expanded the presence of olive orchards on Vertisols, soils traditionally used for annual rain-fed crops. These soils have a high content of smectitic clays, which give them a high water storage capacity, and are characterized by vertical and deep shrinkage cracks in the dry season, associated to low soil moisture. Farmers make several tillage passes in these olive groves during the summer, in order to cover the cracks and thus reduce soil water loss by evaporation, which will impact especially in rain-fed in the next olive yield. This tillage practice involves removal of plant residues from the soil surface, as well as burying seeds produced by the plants, so this will remain bared at the beginning of the rainy season, when in the Mediterranean climate is frequent occurrence of high-intensity rainfall, which are ideal conditions for soil loss by water erosion, one of the most serious problems for the sustainability of olive cultivation in Andalusia. Although there are some studies showing that water loss by evaporation from deep horizons of a vertic soil might be elevated (eg. Ritchie and Adams, 1974), the presence of plant residues on the soil surface drastically reduced soil water loss (eg Adams et al., 1969). Thus the aim of this study was to assess of soil moisture dynamics in a rain-fed olive orchard growing on a Vertisol under different soil management practices, in Andalusia (southern Spain). Four different soil management treatments were applied, which combined a cover crop (Bromus rubens L.) or bare soil throughout the year by applying herbicides, with tillage in summer to cover the cracks or non

  7. PATHS groundwater hydrologic model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nelson, R.W.; Schur, J.A.


    A preliminary evaluation capability for two-dimensional groundwater pollution problems was developed as part of the Transport Modeling Task for the Waste Isolation Safety Assessment Program (WISAP). Our approach was to use the data limitations as a guide in setting the level of modeling detail. PATHS Groundwater Hydrologic Model is the first level (simplest) idealized hybrid analytical/numerical model for two-dimensional, saturated groundwater flow and single component transport; homogeneous geology. This document consists of the description of the PATHS groundwater hydrologic model. The preliminary evaluation capability prepared for WISAP, including the enhancements that were made because of the authors' experience using the earlier capability is described. Appendixes A through D supplement the report as follows: complete derivations of the background equations are provided in Appendix A. Appendix B is a comprehensive set of instructions for users of PATHS. It is written for users who have little or no experience with computers. Appendix C is for the programmer. It contains information on how input parameters are passed between programs in the system. It also contains program listings and test case listing. Appendix D is a definition of terms.

  8. Hydrological simulation of Sperchios River basin in Central Greece using the MIKE SHE model and geographic information systems (United States)

    Paparrizos, Spyridon; Maris, Fotios


    The MIKE SHE model is able to simulate the entire stream flow which includes direct and basic flow. Many models either do not simulate or use simplistic methods to determine the basic flow. The MIKE SHE model takes into account many hydrological data. Since this study was directed towards the simulation of surface runoff and infiltration into saturated and unsaturated zone, the MIKE SHE is an appropriate model for reliable conclusions. In the current research, the MIKE SHE model was used to simulate runoff in the area of Sperchios River basin. Meteorological data from eight rainfall stations within the Sperchios River basin were used as inputs. Vegetation as well as geological data was used to perform the calibration and validation of the physical processes of the model. Additionally, ArcGIS program was used. The results indicated that the model was able to simulate the surface runoff satisfactorily, representing all the hydrological data adequately. Some minor differentiations appeared which can be eliminated with the appropriate adjustments that can be decided by the researcher's experience.

  9. Evaluation of a simple, point-scale hydrologic model in simulating soil moisture using the Delaware environmental observing system (United States)

    Legates, David R.; Junghenn, Katherine T.


    Many local weather station networks that measure a number of meteorological variables (i.e. , mesonetworks) have recently been established, with soil moisture occasionally being part of the suite of measured variables. These mesonetworks provide data from which detailed estimates of various hydrological parameters, such as precipitation and reference evapotranspiration, can be made which, when coupled with simple surface characteristics available from soil surveys, can be used to obtain estimates of soil moisture. The question is Can meteorological data be used with a simple hydrologic model to estimate accurately daily soil moisture at a mesonetwork site? Using a state-of-the-art mesonetwork that also includes soil moisture measurements across the US State of Delaware, the efficacy of a simple, modified Thornthwaite/Mather-based daily water balance model based on these mesonetwork observations to estimate site-specific soil moisture is determined. Results suggest that the model works reasonably well for most well-drained sites and provides good qualitative estimates of measured soil moisture, often near the accuracy of the soil moisture instrumentation. The model exhibits particular trouble in that it cannot properly simulate the slow drainage that occurs in poorly drained soils after heavy rains and interception loss, resulting from grass not being short cropped as expected also adversely affects the simulation. However, the model could be tuned to accommodate some non-standard siting characteristics.

  10. Hydrogeologic setting, conceptual groundwater flow system, and hydrologic conditions 1995–2010 in Florida and parts of Georgia, Alabama, and South Carolina (United States)

    Bellino, Jason C.; Kuniansky, Eve L.; O'Reilly, Andrew M.; Dixon, Joann F.


    The hydrogeologic setting and groundwater flow system in Florida and parts of Georgia, Alabama, and South Carolina is dominated by the highly transmissive Floridan aquifer system. This principal aquifer is a vital source of freshwater for public and domestic supply, as well as for industrial and agricultural uses throughout the southeastern United States. Population growth, increased tourism, and increased agricultural production have led to increased demand on groundwater from the Floridan aquifer system, particularly since 1950. The response of the Floridan aquifer system to these stresses often poses regional challenges for water-resource management that commonly transcend political or jurisdictional boundaries. To help water-resource managers address these regional challenges, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Water Availability and Use Science Program began assessing groundwater availability of the Floridan aquifer system in 2009.The current conceptual groundwater flow system was developed for the Floridan aquifer system and adjacent systems partly on the basis of previously published USGS Regional Aquifer-System Analysis (RASA) studies, specifically many of the potentiometric maps and the modeling efforts in these studies. The Floridan aquifer system extent was divided into eight hydrogeologically distinct subregional groundwater basins delineated on the basis of the estimated predevelopment (circa 1880s) potentiometric surface: (1) Panhandle, (2) Dougherty Plain-Apalachicola, (3) Thomasville-Tallahassee, (4) Southeast Georgia-Northeast Florida-South South Carolina, (5) Suwannee, (6) West-central Florida, (7) East-central Florida, and (8) South Florida. The use of these subregions allows for a more detailed analysis of the individual basins and the groundwater flow system as a whole.The hydrologic conditions and associated groundwater budget were updated relative to previous RASA studies to include additional data collected since the 1980s and to reflect the

  11. Dryland soil hydrological processes and their impacts on the nitrogen balance in a soil-maize system of a freeze-thawing agricultural area.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Ouyang

    Full Text Available Understanding the fates of soil hydrological processes and nitrogen (N is essential for optimizing the water and N in a dryland crop system with the goal of obtaining a maximum yield. Few investigations have addressed the dynamics of dryland N and its association with the soil hydrological process in a freeze-thawing agricultural area. With the daily monitoring of soil water content and acquisition rates at 15, 30, 60 and 90 cm depths, the soil hydrological process with the influence of rainfall was identified. The temporal-vertical soil water storage analysis indicated the local albic soil texture provided a stable soil water condition for maize growth with the rainfall as the only water source. Soil storage water averages at 0-20, 20-40 and 40-60 cm were observed to be 490.2, 593.8, and 358 m3 ha-1, respectively, during the growing season. The evapo-transpiration (ET, rainfall, and water loss analysis demonstrated that these factors increased in same temporal pattern and provided necessary water conditions for maize growth in a short period. The dry weight and N concentration of maize organs (root, leaf, stem, tassel, and grain demonstrated the N accumulation increased to a peak in the maturity period and that grain had the most N. The maximum N accumulative rate reached about 500 mg m-2d-1 in leaves and grain. Over the entire growing season, the soil nitrate N decreased by amounts ranging from 48.9 kg N ha-1 to 65.3 kg N ha-1 over the 90 cm profile and the loss of ammonia-N ranged from 9.79 to 12.69 kg N ha-1. With soil water loss and N balance calculation, the N usage efficiency (NUE over the 0-90 cm soil profile was 43%. The soil hydrological process due to special soil texture and the temporal features of rainfall determined the maize growth in the freeze-thawing agricultural area.

  12. Weather radar rainfall data in urban hydrology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorndahl, Søren; Einfalt, Thomas; Willems, Patrick


    estimation, radar data adjustment and data quality, and (3) nowcasting of radar rainfall and real-time applications. Based on these three fields of research, the paper provides recommendations based on an updated overview of shortcomings, gains, and novel developments in relation to urban hydrological...... applications. The paper also reviews how the focus in urban hydrology research has shifted over the last decade to fields such as climate change impacts, resilience of urban areas to hydrological extremes, and online prediction/warning systems. It is discussed how radar rainfall data can add value......Application of weather radar data in urban hydrological applications has evolved significantly during the past decade as an alternative to traditional rainfall observations with rain gauges. Advances in radar hardware, data processing, numerical models, and emerging fields within urban hydrology...

  13. Model Calibration in Watershed Hydrology (United States)

    Yilmaz, Koray K.; Vrugt, Jasper A.; Gupta, Hoshin V.; Sorooshian, Soroosh


    Hydrologic models use relatively simple mathematical equations to conceptualize and aggregate the complex, spatially distributed, and highly interrelated water, energy, and vegetation processes in a watershed. A consequence of process aggregation is that the model parameters often do not represent directly measurable entities and must, therefore, be estimated using measurements of the system inputs and outputs. During this process, known as model calibration, the parameters are adjusted so that the behavior of the model approximates, as closely and consistently as possible, the observed response of the hydrologic system over some historical period of time. This Chapter reviews the current state-of-the-art of model calibration in watershed hydrology with special emphasis on our own contributions in the last few decades. We discuss the historical background that has led to current perspectives, and review different approaches for manual and automatic single- and multi-objective parameter estimation. In particular, we highlight the recent developments in the calibration of distributed hydrologic models using parameter dimensionality reduction sampling, parameter regularization and parallel computing.

  14. The JGrass-NewAge system for forecasting and managing the hydrological budgets at the basin scale: models of flow generation and propagation/routing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Formetta


    Full Text Available This paper presents a discussion of the predictive capacity of the implementation of the semi-distributed hydrological modeling system JGrass-NewAge. This model focuses on the hydrological budgets of medium scale to large scale basins as the product of the processes at the hillslope scale with the interplay of the river network. The part of the modeling system presented here deals with the: (i estimation of the space-time structure of precipitation, (ii estimation of runoff production; (iii aggregation and propagation of flows in channel; (v estimation of evapotranspiration; (vi automatic calibration of the discharge with the method of particle swarming.

    The system is based on a hillslope-link geometrical partition of the landscape, combining raster and vectorial treatment of hillslope data with vector based tracking of flow in channels. Measured precipitation are spatially interpolated with the use of kriging. Runoff production at each channel link is estimated through a peculiar application of the Hymod model. Routing in channels uses an integrated flow equation and produces discharges at any link end, for any link in the river network. Evapotranspiration is estimated with an implementation of the Priestley-Taylor equation. The model system assembly is calibrated using the particle swarming algorithm. A two year simulation of hourly discharge of the Little Washita (OK, USA basin is presented and discussed with the support of some classical indices of goodness of fit, and analysis of the residuals. A novelty with respect to traditional hydrological modeling is that each of the elements above, including the preprocessing and the analysis tools, is implemented as a software component, built upon Object Modelling System v3 and jgrasstools prescriptions, that can be cleanly switched in and out at run-time, rather than at compiling time. The possibility of creating different modeling products by the connection of modules with or without the

  15. Application of near-surface geophysics as part of a hydrologic study of a subsurface drip irrigation system along the Powder River floodplain near Arvada, Wyoming (United States)

    Sams, James I.; Veloski, Garret; Smith, Bruce D.; Minsley, Burke J.; Engle, Mark A.; Lipinski, Brian A.; Hammack, Richard W.; Zupancic, John W.


    Rapid development of coalbed natural gas (CBNG) production in the Powder River Basin (PRB) of Wyoming has occurred since 1997. National attention related to CBNG development has focused on produced water management, which is the single largest cost for on-shore domestic producers. Low-cost treatment technologies allow operators to reduce their disposal costs, provide treated water for beneficial use, and stimulate oil and gas production by small operators. Subsurface drip irrigation (SDI) systems are one potential treatment option that allows for increased CBNG production by providing a beneficial use for the produced water in farmland irrigation.Water management practices in the development of CBNG in Wyoming have been aided by integrated geophysical, geochemical, and hydrologic studies of both the disposal and utilization of water. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) and the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) have utilized multi-frequency airborne, ground, and borehole electromagnetic (EM) and ground resistivity methods to characterize the near-surface hydrogeology in areas of produced water disposal. These surveys provide near-surface EM data that can be compared with results of previous surveys to monitor changes in soils and local hydrology over time as the produced water is discharged through SDI.The focus of this investigation is the Headgate Draw SDI site, situated adjacent to the Powder River near the confluence of a major tributary, Crazy Woman Creek, in Johnson County, Wyoming. The SDI system was installed during the summer of 2008 and began operation in October of 2008. Ground, borehole, and helicopter electromagnetic (HEM) conductivity surveys were conducted at the site prior to the installation of the SDI system. After the installation of the subsurface drip irrigation system, ground EM surveys have been performed quarterly (weather permitting). The geophysical surveys map the heterogeneity of the near

  16. Monitoring the hydrologic system for potential effects of geothermal and ground-water development in the Long Valley Caldera, Mono County, California, USA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farrar, C.D.; Lyster, D.L.


    In the early 1980's, renewed interest in the geothermal potential of the Long valley caldera, California, highlighted the need to balance the benefits of energy development with the established recreational activities of the area. The Long Valley Hydrologic Advisory Committee, formed in 1987, instituted a monitoring program to collect data during the early stages of resource utilization to evaluate potential effects on the hydrologic system. This paper reports that early data show declines in streamflow, spring flow, and ground-water levels caused by 6 years of below-average precipitation. Springs in the Hot Creek State Fish Hatchery area discharge water that is a mixture of nonthermal and hydrothermal components. Possible sources of nonthermal water have been identified by comparing deuterium concentrations in streams and springs. The equivalent amount of undiluted thermal water discharged from the springs was calculated on the basis of boron and chloride concentrations. Quantifying the thermal and nonthermal fractions of the total flow may allow researchers to assess changes in flow volume or temperature of the springs caused by ground-water or geothermal development

  17. Geographic Information System and Remote Sensing Approach with Hydrologic Rational Model for Flood Event Analysis in Jakarta (United States)

    Aditya, M. R.; Hernina, R.; Rokhmatuloh


    Rapid development in Jakarta which generates more impervious surface has reduced the amount of rainfall infiltration into soil layer and increases run-off. In some events, continuous high rainfall intensity could create sudden flood in Jakarta City. This article used rainfall data of Jakarta during 10 February 2015 to compute rainfall intensity and then interpolate it with ordinary kriging technique. Spatial distribution of rainfall intensity then overlaid with run-off coefficient based on certain land use type of the study area. Peak run-off within each cell resulted from hydrologic rational model then summed for the whole study area to generate total peak run-off. For this study area, land use types consisted of 51.9 % industrial, 37.57% parks, and 10.54% residential with estimated total peak run-off 6.04 m3/sec, 0.39 m3/sec, and 0.31 m3/sec, respectively.

  18. Cybernetic methods for the optimal sustainable management of complex hydrologic and water supply systems. Strategies, models, applications; Kybernetische Methoden fuer die optimale nachhaltige Fuehrung komplexer wasserwirtschaftlicher Systeme. Strategien, Modelle, Anwendungen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rauschenbach, T.; Wernstedt, J. [Fraunhofer Anwendungszentrum Systemtechnik, Ilmenau (Germany)


    The sustainable development of community and environment can be understood as a multi criteria optimization problem. All sub criteria are not of the same importance all the time. In this contribution an approach is introduced, which makes the situation dependent determination of the weighting factors of the sub criteria possible. For two practice examples solutions for a sustainable management of complex hydrologic and water supply systems are presented. (orig.)

  19. Combining hydrologic and groundwater modelling to characterize a regional aquifer system within a rift setting (Gidabo River Basin, Main Ethiopian Rift) (United States)

    Birk, Steffen; Mechal, Abraham; Wagner, Thomas; Dietzel, Martin; Leis, Albrecht; Winkler, Gerfried; Mogessie, Aberra


    The development of groundwater resources within the Ethiopian Rift is complicated by the strong physiographic contrasts between the rift floor and the highland and by the manifold hydrogeological setting composed of volcanic rocks of different type and age that are intersected by numerous faults. Hydrogeochemical and isotope data from various regions within the Ethiopian Rift suggest that the aquifers within the semi-arid rift floor receive a significant contribution of groundwater flow from the humid highland. For example, the major ion composition of groundwater samples from Gidabo River Basin (3302 km²) in the southern part of the Main Ethiopian Rift reveals a mixing trend from the highland toward the rift floor; moreover, the stable isotopes of water, deuterium and O-18, of the rift-floor samples indicate a component recharged in the highland. This work aims to assess if the hydrological and hydrogeological data available for Gidabo River Basin is consistent with these findings and to characterize the regional aquifer system within the rift setting. For this purpose, a two-step approach is employed: First, the semi-distributed hydrological model SWAT is used to obtain an estimate of the spatial and temporal distribution of groundwater recharge within the watershed; second, the numerical groundwater flow model MODFLOW is employed to infer aquifer properties and groundwater flow components. The hydrological model was calibrated and validated using discharge data from three stream gauging stations within the watershed (Mechal et al., Journal of Hydrology: Regional Studies, 2015, doi:10.1016/j.ejrh.2015.09.001). The resulting recharge distribution exhibits a strong decrease from the highland, where the mean annual recharge amounts to several hundred millimetres, to the rift floor, where annual recharge largely is around 100 mm and below. Using this recharge distribution as input, a two-dimensional steady-state groundwater flow model was calibrated to hydraulic

  20. Applications of AMS to hydrology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bentley, H.W.; Davis, S.N.


    The evaluation and management of water as a resource requires an understanding of the chemical, and geological interactions that water effects or undergoes in the hydrologic cycle. Delivery of water to the land surface by precipitation, subsequent streamflow, circulation in surface waters and evapotranspiration, infiltration, recharge, movement of waters in the subsurface, and discharge are of interest. Also important are the quality of water, water's role in mineral dissolution, transport, and deposition, and the various water-related geotechnical problems of subsidence, tectonics, slope instability, and earth structures. Mathematical modeling techniques are available and are being improved which describe these phenomena and predict future system behavior. Typically, however, models suffer from substantial uncertainties due to insufficient data. Refinement, calibration,and verification of hydrologic models require expansion of the data base. Examination of chemical constituents of water which act as tracers can often supply the needed information. Unfortunately, few tracers are available which are both mobile and chemically stable. Several long-lived radioisotopic hydrologic tracers exist, however, which have received little attention in hydrologic studies to date because of low concentration, low specific activity, or sample size limitations. Recent development of ultra-sensitive accelerator mass spectrometry techniques (AMS) by Purser and others (1977), Nelson and others (1977), Bennett and others (1978), Muller and others (1978), Raisbeck and others (1978) is now expected to provide access to many of these tracers

  1. Human effects on the hydrologic system of the Verde Valley, central Arizona, 1910–2005 and 2005–2110, using a regional groundwater flow model (United States)

    Garner, Bradley D.; Pool, D.R.; Tillman, Fred D.; Forbes, Brandon T.


    Water budgets were developed for the Verde Valley of central Arizona in order to evaluate the degree to which human stresses have affected the hydrologic system and might affect it in the future. The Verde Valley is a portion of central Arizona wherein concerns have been raised about water availability, particularly perennial base flow of the Verde River. The Northern Arizona Regional Groundwater Flow Model (NARGFM) was used to generate the water budgets and was run in several configurations for the 1910–2005 and 2005–2110 time periods. The resultant water budgets were subtracted from one another in order to quantify the relative changes that were attributable solely to human stresses; human stresses included groundwater withdrawals and incidental and artificial recharge but did not include, for example, human effects on the global climate. Three hypothetical and varied conditions of human stresses were developed and applied to the model for the 2005–2110 period. On the basis of this analysis, human stresses during 1910–2005 were found to have already affected the hydrologic system of the Verde Valley, and human stresses will continue to affect the hydrologic system during 2005–2110. Riparian evapotranspiration decreased and underflow into the Verde Valley increased because of human stresses, and net groundwater discharge to the Verde River in the Verde Valley decreased for the 1910–2005 model runs. The model also showed that base flow at the upstream end of the study area, as of 2005, was about 4,900 acre-feet per year less than it would have been in the absence of human stresses. At the downstream end of the Verde Valley, base flow had been reduced by about 10,000 acre-feet per year by the year 2005 because of human stresses. For the 2005–2110 period, the model showed that base flow at the downstream end of the Verde Valley may decrease by an additional 5,400 to 8,600 acre-feet per year because of past, ongoing, and hypothetical future human

  2. Temporal hydrological and hydrochemical behaviour of the regional discharge area of a carbonate system - why we can not see fast responses? (United States)

    Bodor, Petra; Eröss, Anita; Kovács, József; Mádl-Szönyi, Judit


    The subsurface part of the hydrologic cycle, the saturated groundwater flow can be mostly studied in regional discharge areas. In these regions the water has already spent geologically long time under the surface, therefore the upwelling water reflect the effect of the geometry and boundary conditions of the whole flow field, its geology and chemical processes. According to these conditions, the discharging waters can be characterized with different values and variability of physicochemical parameters (temperature, total dissolved solids, cations, anions, gas content etc.). This question has special interest in carbonate systems where the concept of regional groundwater flow was only introduced in the last few years. Hydrographs and chemographs are frequently used in karst studies to demonstrate the effect of variability of the system and to derive information for the nature of flow inside the karst (channel, fracture or matrix). Usually these graphs show abrupt changes after precipitation events, but this is typical for epigenic karsts. However, discharge areas, where hypogenic karsts developed, can behave differently due to their feeding flow systems. These systems and their effects are not so well studied yet. In this study we examined hydrographs and chemographs of the regional discharge area of a deep and thick carbonate range of Buda Thermal Karst and tried to understand those mechanisms which determine the hydrological and hydrochemical behaviour of the region. Here cold, lukewarm and also thermal waters discharge along the River Danube. The variability of physicochemical parameters (temperature, electric conductivity, pH, volume discharge, water level, dissolved CO2 and 222Rn, δ18O, δD) of the discharging water was studied to understand influencing mechanisms. We tried to understand the effect of precipitation (short and long term) and the effect of River Danube with geomathematical methods for the lukewarm components of the discharging water. Based on

  3. Hydrologic assessment of the shallow groundwater flow system beneath the Shinnecock Nation tribal lands, Suffolk County, New York (United States)

    Noll, Michael L.; Rivera, Simonette L.; Busciolano, Ronald J.


    Defining the distribution and flow of shallow groundwater beneath the Shinnecock Nation tribal lands in Suffolk County, New York, is a crucial first step in identifying sources of potential contamination to the surficial aquifer and coastal ecosystems. The surficial or water table aquifer beneath the tribal lands is the primary source of potable water supply for at least 6 percent of the households on the tribal lands. Oyster fisheries and other marine ecosystems are critical to the livelihood of many residents living on the tribal lands, but are susceptible to contamination from groundwater entering the embayment from the surficial aquifer. Contamination of the surficial aquifer from flooding during intense coastal storms, nutrient loading from fertilizers, and septic effluent have been identified as potential sources of human and ecological health concerns on tribal lands.The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) facilitated the installation of 17 water table wells on and adjacent to the tribal lands during March 2014. These wells were combined with other existing wells to create a 32-well water table monitoring network that was used to assess local hydrologic conditions. Survey-grade, global-navigation-satellite systems provided centimeter-level accuracy for positioning wellhead surveys. Water levels were measured by the USGS during May (spring) and November (fall) 2014 to evaluate seasonal effects on the water table. Water level measurements were made at high and low tide during May 2014 to identify potential effects on the water table caused by changes in tidal stage (tidal flux) in Shinnecock Bay. Water level contour maps indicate that the surficial aquifer is recharged by precipitation and upgradient groundwater flow that moves from the recharge zone located generally beneath Sunrise Highway, to the discharge zone beneath the tribal lands, and eventually discharges into the embayment, tidal creeks, and estuaries that bound the tribal lands to the east, south, and

  4. Hydrology Domain Cyberinfrastructures: Successes, Challenges, and Opportunities (United States)

    Horsburgh, J. S.


    Anticipated changes to climate, human population, land use, and urban form will alter the hydrology and availability of water within the water systems on which the world's population relies. Understanding the effects of these changes will be paramount in sustainably managing water resources, as well as maintaining associated capacity to provide ecosystem services (e.g., regulating flooding, maintaining instream flow during dry periods, cycling nutrients, and maintaining water quality). It will require better information characterizing both natural and human mediated hydrologic systems and enhanced ability to generate, manage, store, analyze, and share growing volumes of observational data. Over the past several years, a number of hydrology domain cyberinfrastructures have emerged or are currently under development that are focused on providing integrated access to and analysis of data for cross-domain synthesis studies. These include the Consortium of Universities for the Advancement of Hydrologic Science, Inc. (CUAHSI) Hydrologic Information System (HIS), the Critical Zone Observatory Information System (CZOData), HyroShare, the BiG CZ software system, and others. These systems have focused on sharing, integrating, and analyzing hydrologic observations data. This presentation will describe commonalities and differences in the cyberinfrastructure approaches used by these projects and will highlight successes and lessons learned in addressing the challenges of big and complex data. It will also identify new challenges and opportunities for next generation cyberinfrastructure and a next generation of cyber-savvy scientists and engineers as developers and users.

  5. Clarifying regional hydrologic controls of the Marañón River, Peru through rapid assessment to inform system-wide basin planning approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alice F. Hill


    Full Text Available We use remote sensing to enhance the interpretation of the first baseline dataset of hydrologic, isotopic and hydrochemical variables spanning 620 km of the upper Marañón River, in Andean Peru, from the steep alpine canyons to the lower lying jungle. Remote, data-scarce river systems are under increased hydropower development pressure to meet rising energy demands. The upstream-downstream river continuum, which serves as a conduit for resource exchange across ecosystems, is at risk, potentially endangering the people, environments, and economies that rely on river resources. The Marañón River, one of the final free-flowing headwater connections between the Andes and the Amazon, is the subject of myriad large-scale hydropower proposals. Due to challenging access, environmental data are scarce in the upper Marañón, limiting our ability to do system-wide river basin planning. We capture key processes and transitions in the context of hydropower development. Two hydrologic regimes control the Marañón dry-season flow: in the higher-elevation upper reaches, a substantial baseflow is fed by groundwater recharged from wet season rains, in contrast to the lower reaches where the mainstem discharge is controlled by rain-fed tributaries that receive rain from lowland Amazon moisture systems. Sustainability of the upper corridor’s dry-season baseflow appears to be more highly connected to the massive natural storage capacity of extensive wetlands in the puna (alpine grasslands than with cryospheric water inputs. The extent and conservation of puna ecosystems and glacier reservoirs may be interdependent, bringing to bear important conservation questions in the context of changing climate and land use in the region. More generally, this case study demonstrates an efficient combined remote sensing and field observation approach to address data scarcity across regional scales in mountain basins facing imminent rapid change.

  6. Fundamentals of watershed hydrology (United States)

    Pamela J. Edwards; Karl W.J. Williard; Jon E. Schoonover


    This is a primer about hydrology, the science of water. Watersheds are the basic land unit for water resource management and their delineation, importance, and variation are explained and illustrated. The hydrologic cycle and its components (precipitation, evaporation, transpiration, soil water, groundwater, and streamflow) which collectively provide a foundation for...

  7. Hands-On Hydrology (United States)

    Mathews, Catherine E.; Monroe, Louise Nelson


    A professional school and university collaboration enables elementary students and their teachers to explore hydrology concepts and realize the beneficial functions of wetlands. Hands-on experiences involve young students in determining water quality at field sites after laying the groundwork with activities related to the hydrologic cycle,…

  8. Hydrologic Services Course. (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (DOC), Rockville, MD. National Weather Service.

    A course to develop an understanding of the scope of water resource activities, of the need for forecasting, of the National Weather Service's role in hydrology, and of the proper procedures to follow in fulfilling this role is presented. The course is one of self-help, guided by correspondence. Nine lessons are included: (1) Hydrology in the…

  9. Arid Zone Hydrology (United States)

    Arid zone hydrology encompasses a wide range of topics and hydro-meteorological and ecological characteristics. Although arid and semi-arid watersheds perform the same functions as those in humid environments, their hydrology and sediment transport characteristics cannot be readily predicted by inf...

  10. Evaluation, Calibration and Comparison of the Precipitation-Runoff Modeling System (PRMS) National Hydrologic Model (NHM) Using Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) and Snow Data Assimilation System (SNODAS) Gridded Datasets (United States)

    Norton, P. A., II; Haj, A. E., Jr.


    The United States Geological Survey is currently developing a National Hydrologic Model (NHM) to support and facilitate coordinated and consistent hydrologic modeling efforts at the scale of the continental United States. As part of this effort, the Geospatial Fabric (GF) for the NHM was created. The GF is a database that contains parameters derived from datasets that characterize the physical features of watersheds. The GF was used to aggregate catchments and flowlines defined in the National Hydrography Dataset Plus dataset for more than 100,000 hydrologic response units (HRUs), and to establish initial parameter values for input to the Precipitation-Runoff Modeling System (PRMS). Many parameter values are adjusted in PRMS using an automated calibration process. Using these adjusted parameter values, the PRMS model estimated variables such as evapotranspiration (ET), potential evapotranspiration (PET), snow-covered area (SCA), and snow water equivalent (SWE). In order to evaluate the effectiveness of parameter calibration, and model performance in general, several satellite-based Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) and Snow Data Assimilation System (SNODAS) gridded datasets including ET, PET, SCA, and SWE were compared to PRMS-simulated values. The MODIS and SNODAS data were spatially averaged for each HRU, and compared to PRMS-simulated ET, PET, SCA, and SWE values for each HRU in the Upper Missouri River watershed. Default initial GF parameter values and PRMS calibration ranges were evaluated. Evaluation results, and the use of MODIS and SNODAS datasets to update GF parameter values and PRMS calibration ranges, are presented and discussed.

  11. Network analysis applications in hydrology (United States)

    Price, Katie


    Applied network theory has seen pronounced expansion in recent years, in fields such as epidemiology, computer science, and sociology. Concurrent development of analytical methods and frameworks has increased possibilities and tools available to researchers seeking to apply network theory to a variety of problems. While water and nutrient fluxes through stream systems clearly demonstrate a directional network structure, the hydrological applications of network theory remain under­explored. This presentation covers a review of network applications in hydrology, followed by an overview of promising network analytical tools that potentially offer new insights into conceptual modeling of hydrologic systems, identifying behavioral transition zones in stream networks and thresholds of dynamical system response. Network applications were tested along an urbanization gradient in Atlanta, Georgia, USA. Peachtree Creek and Proctor Creek. Peachtree Creek contains a nest of five long­term USGS streamflow and water quality gages, allowing network application of long­term flow statistics. The watershed spans a range of suburban and heavily urbanized conditions. Summary flow statistics and water quality metrics were analyzed using a suite of network analysis techniques, to test the conceptual modeling and predictive potential of the methodologies. Storm events and low flow dynamics during Summer 2016 were analyzed using multiple network approaches, with an emphasis on tomogravity methods. Results indicate that network theory approaches offer novel perspectives for understanding long­ term and event­based hydrological data. Key future directions for network applications include 1) optimizing data collection, 2) identifying "hotspots" of contaminant and overland flow influx to stream systems, 3) defining process domains, and 4) analyzing dynamic connectivity of various system components, including groundwater­surface water interactions.

  12. An eco-hydrological project on Turkey Creek watershed, South Carolina, U.S.A. (United States)

    Devendra Amatya; Carl Trettin


    The low-gradient, forested wetland landscape of the southeastern United States’ Coastal Plain represents an important eco-hydrologic system, yet there is a very little information available on the region’s ecological, hydrological and biogeochemical processes. Long-term hydrologic monitoring can provide the information needed to understand basic hydrologic processes...

  13. Hydrogeochemistry and isotope hydrology of surface water and groundwater systems in the Ellembelle district, Ghana, West Africa (United States)

    Edjah, A. K. M.; Akiti, T. T.; Osae, S.; Adotey, D.; Glover, E. T.


    An integrated approach based on the hydrogeochemistry and the isotope hydrology of surface water and groundwater was carried out in the Ellembelle district of the Western Region of Ghana. Measurement of physical parameters (pH, temperature, salinity, total dissolved solutes, total hardness and conductivity), major ions (Ca2+, Mg2+, Na+, K+, HCO3 -, Cl-, SO4 2- and NO3 -), and stable isotopes (δ2H and δ18O) in 7 rivers, 13 hand-dug wells and 18 boreholes were taken. Na+ was the dominant cation and HCO3 - was the dominant anion for both rivers and groundwater. The dominant hydrochemical facies for the rivers were Na-K-HCO3 - type while that of the groundwater (hand-dug wells and boreholes) were Na-Cl and Na-HCO3 - type. According to the Gibbs diagram, majority of the rivers fall in the evaporation-crystallization field and majority of the hand-dug wells and the boreholes fall in the rock dominance field. From the stable isotope composition measurements, all the rivers appeared to be evaporated, 60 % of the hand-dug wells and 70 % of the boreholes clustered along and in between the global meteoric water line and the local meteoric water line, suggesting an integrative and rapid recharge from meteoric origin.

  14. Hydrology of Ranger land application area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McQuade, C.V.


    In 1984 Ranger Uranium Mines (RUM) began assessing the technique of water treatment by land application as a means of reducing the volume of stored water within the Restricted Release Zone. Knowledge of the hydrological characteristics of the treatment site is necessary for optimal day to day and season to season operation of the system and as an input into the assessment of the long-term viability of the site. This paper provides background information on the hydrological requirements for a water treatment site, describes the RUM's water treatment by land application system and summarises the operational statistics and current hydrological knowledge of the site. The general groundwater hydrology of the area comprises a surface soil aquifer overlying a semi-confined aquifer. Drainage of the surface aquifer follows the surface topography along the sandy clays. Vertical permeability ranges between 3 and 12 times greater than horizontal permeability. 7 refs., 2 tabs., 4 figs

  15. Mountaintop Removal Mining and Catchment Hydrology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew J. Miller


    Full Text Available Mountaintop mining and valley fill (MTM/VF coal extraction, practiced in the Central Appalachian region, represents a dramatic landscape-scale disturbance. MTM operations remove as much as 300 m of rock, soil, and vegetation from ridge tops to access deep coal seams and much of this material is placed in adjacent headwater streams altering landcover, drainage network, and topography. In spite of its scale, extent, and potential for continued use, the effects MTM/VF on catchment hydrology is poorly understood. Previous reviews focus on water quality and ecosystem health impacts, but little is known about how MTM/VF affects hydrology, particularly the movement and storage of water, hence the hydrologic processes that ultimately control flood generation, water chemistry, and biology. This paper aggregates the existing knowledge about the hydrologic impacts of MTM/VF to identify areas where further scientific investigation is needed. While contemporary surface mining generally increases peak and total runoff, the limited MTM/VF studies reveal significant variability in hydrologic response. Significant knowledge gaps relate to limited understanding of hydrologic processes in these systems. Until the hydrologic impact of this practice is better understood, efforts to reduce water quantity and quality problems and ecosystem degradation will be difficult to achieve.

  16. Genetic Programming for Automatic Hydrological Modelling (United States)

    Chadalawada, Jayashree; Babovic, Vladan


    One of the recent challenges for the hydrologic research community is the need for the development of coupled systems that involves the integration of hydrologic, atmospheric and socio-economic relationships. This poses a requirement for novel modelling frameworks that can accurately represent complex systems, given, the limited understanding of underlying processes, increasing volume of data and high levels of uncertainity. Each of the existing hydrological models vary in terms of conceptualization and process representation and is the best suited to capture the environmental dynamics of a particular hydrological system. Data driven approaches can be used in the integration of alternative process hypotheses in order to achieve a unified theory at catchment scale. The key steps in the implementation of integrated modelling framework that is influenced by prior understanding and data, include, choice of the technique for the induction of knowledge from data, identification of alternative structural hypotheses, definition of rules, constraints for meaningful, intelligent combination of model component hypotheses and definition of evaluation metrics. This study aims at defining a Genetic Programming based modelling framework that test different conceptual model constructs based on wide range of objective functions and evolves accurate and parsimonious models that capture dominant hydrological processes at catchment scale. In this paper, GP initializes the evolutionary process using the modelling decisions inspired from the Superflex framework [Fenicia et al., 2011] and automatically combines them into model structures that are scrutinized against observed data using statistical, hydrological and flow duration curve based performance metrics. The collaboration between data driven and physical, conceptual modelling paradigms improves the ability to model and manage hydrologic systems. Fenicia, F., D. Kavetski, and H. H. Savenije (2011), Elements of a flexible approach

  17. Isotope hydrology: A historical overview of achievements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    The IAEA's efforts in the water sector cover all aspects of the three main categories of isotope methodologies, such as the use of radioactive isotopes as tracers for site-specific investigations related to water movement; the use of sealed radioactive sources for in-situ measurement of hydrological field parameters; and the use of naturally occurring isotopic species for the assessment and study of water occurrence, genesis and flow pathways/dynamics at regional-scale hydrological systems

  18. Hydrological response to land cover changes and human activities in arid regions using a geographic information system and remote sensing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shereif H Mahmoud

    Full Text Available The hydrological response to land cover changes induced by human activities in arid regions has attracted increased research interest in recent decades. The study reported herein assessed the spatial and quantitative changes in surface runoff resulting from land cover change in the Al-Baha region of Saudi Arabia between 1990 and 2000 using an ArcGIS-surface runoff model and predicted land cover and surface runoff depth in 2030 using Markov chain analysis. Land cover maps for 1990 and 2000 were derived from satellite images using ArcGIS 10.1. The findings reveal a 26% decrease in forest and shrubland area, 28% increase in irrigated cropland, 1.5% increase in sparsely vegetated land and 0.5% increase in bare soil between 1990 and 2000. Overall, land cover changes resulted in a significant decrease in runoff depth values in most of the region. The decrease in surface runoff depth ranged from 25-106 mm/year in a 7020-km2 area, whereas the increase in such depth reached only 10 mm/year in a 243-km2 area. A maximum increase of 73 mm/year was seen in a limited area. The surface runoff depth decreased to the greatest extent in the central region of the study area due to the huge transition in land cover classes associated with the construction of 25 rainwater harvesting dams. The land cover prediction revealed a greater than twofold increase in irrigated cropland during the 2000-2030 period, whereas forest and shrubland are anticipated to occupy just 225 km2 of land area by 2030, a significant decrease from the 747 km2 they occupied in 2000. Overall, changes in land cover are predicted to result in an annual increase in irrigated cropland and dramatic decline in forest area in the study area over the next few decades. The increase in surface runoff depth is likely to have significant implications for irrigation activities.

  19. Understanding and seasonal forecasting of hydrological drought in the Anthropocene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    X. Yuan


    Full Text Available Hydrological drought is not only caused by natural hydroclimate variability but can also be directly altered by human interventions including reservoir operation, irrigation, groundwater exploitation, etc. Understanding and forecasting of hydrological drought in the Anthropocene are grand challenges due to complicated interactions among climate, hydrology and humans. In this paper, five decades (1961–2010 of naturalized and observed streamflow datasets are used to investigate hydrological drought characteristics in a heavily managed river basin, the Yellow River basin in north China. Human interventions decrease the correlation between hydrological and meteorological droughts, and make the hydrological drought respond to longer timescales of meteorological drought. Due to large water consumptions in the middle and lower reaches, there are 118–262 % increases in the hydrological drought frequency, up to 8-fold increases in the drought severity, 21–99 % increases in the drought duration and the drought onset is earlier. The non-stationarity due to anthropogenic climate change and human water use basically decreases the correlation between meteorological and hydrological droughts and reduces the effect of human interventions on hydrological drought frequency while increasing the effect on drought duration and severity. A set of 29-year (1982–2010 hindcasts from an established seasonal hydrological forecasting system are used to assess the forecast skill of hydrological drought. In the naturalized condition, the climate-model-based approach outperforms the climatology method in predicting the 2001 severe hydrological drought event. Based on the 29-year hindcasts, the former method has a Brier skill score of 11–26 % against the latter for the probabilistic hydrological drought forecasting. In the Anthropocene, the skill for both approaches increases due to the dominant influence of human interventions that have been implicitly

  20. Nuclear techniques in hydrology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moser, H.


    The nuclear techniques used in hydrology are usually tracer techniques based on the use of nuclides either intentionally introduced into, or naturally present in the water. The low concentrations of these nuclides, which must be detected in groundwater and surface water, require special measurement techniques for the concentrations of radioactive or of stable nuclides. The nuclear techniques can be used most fruitfully in conjunction with conventional methods for the solution of problems in the areas of hydrology, hydrogeology and glacier hydrology. Nuclear techniques are used in practice in the areas of prospecting for water, environment protection and engineering hydrogeology. (orig.) [de

  1. Gradation of complexity and predictability of hydrological processes (United States)

    Sang, Yan-Fang; Singh, Vijay P.; Wen, Jun; Liu, Changming


    Quantification of the complexity and predictability of hydrological systems is important for evaluating the impact of climate change on hydrological processes, and for guiding water activities. In the literature, the focus seems to have been on describing the complexity of spatiotemporal distribution of hydrological variables, but little attention has been paid to the study of complexity gradation, because the degree of absolute complexity of hydrological systems cannot be objectively evaluated. Here we show that complexity and predictability of hydrological processes can be graded into three ranks (low, middle, and high). The gradation is based on the difference in the energy distribution of hydrological series and that of white noise under multitemporal scales. It reflects different energy concentration levels and contents of deterministic components of the hydrological series in the three ranks. Higher energy concentration level reflects lower complexity and higher predictability, but scattered energy distribution being similar to white noise has the highest complexity and is almost unpredictable. We conclude that the three ranks (low, middle, and high) approximately correspond to deterministic, stochastic, and random hydrological systems, respectively. The result of complexity gradation can guide hydrological observations and modeling, and identification of similarity patterns among different hydrological systems.

  2. The earth's hydrological cycle

    CERN Document Server

    Bonnet, R-M; Calisto, M; Destouni, G; Gurney, R; Johannessen, J; Kerr, Y; Lahoz, WA; Rast, M


    This book gives a comprehensive presentation of our present understanding of the Earth's Hydrological cycle and the problems, consequences and impacts that go with this topic. Water is a central component in the Earth's system. It is indispensable for life on Earth in its present form and influences virtually every aspect of our planet's life support system. On relatively short time scales, atmospheric water vapor interacts with the atmospheric circulation and is crucial in forming the Earth's climate zones. Water vapor is the most powerful of the greenhouse gases and serves to enhance the tropospheric temperature. The dominant part of available water on Earth resides in the oceans. Parts are locked up in the land ice on Greenland and Antarctica and a smaller part is estimated to exist as groundwater. If all the ice over the land and all the glaciers were to melt, the sea level would rise by some 80 m. In comparison, the total amount of water vapor in the atmosphere is small; it amounts to ~ 25 kg/m2, or the ...

  3. Hydrology for a Changing World (United States)

    Hirsch, R. M.


    To support critical decisions related to water quantity, quality, and hazard mitigation, surface water hydrologists and water resources engineers have historically invoked the assumption that hydrologic systems are stationary; variables such as discharge or solute fluxes were assumed to have a mean, a variance, and other statistical properties that did not change over time. Today, the drivers of non-stationarity such as urbanization, groundwater depletion, engineered land-drainage systems, application of nutrients at the land surface, new farming technologies, and changes in greenhouse gas forcing of the global atmosphere have perturbed hydrologic systems enough so that this assumption must be challenged. Understanding of the non-stationarity in hydrologic systems is important for at least two major reasons: (1) Society needs insights on the hydrologic conditions of the future as a basis for planning, operating, and regulating water resources in the future. Water resources engineers cannot depend solely on records of the past to design and operate in the future. However, simply substituting model projections for historic records, without evaluation of the ability of those models to produce realistic projections, is not acceptable. (2) Non-stationarity provides a framework to identify emerging water resource issues and evaluate our society's success in achieving its environmental goals. The study of hydrologic change is our greatest challenge. We must learn how best to blend our knowledge of the past with our projections of the future. In this non-stationary world, observing systems and networks become even more critically important and our models must be tested using historical records to ensure that they produce useful projections of our future. In the words of Ralph Keeling, "The only way to figure out what is happening to our planet is to measure it, and this means tracking the changes decade after decade, and poring over the records." Walter Langbein knew the

  4. Allegheny County Hydrology Areas (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — The Hydrology Feature Dataset contains photogrammetrically compiled water drainage features and structures including rivers, streams, drainage canals, locks, dams,...

  5. PNW Hydrologic Landscape Class (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Work has been done to expand the hydrologic landscapes (HLs) concept and to develop an approach for using it to address streamflow vulnerability from climate change....

  6. Hydrologic Engineering Center (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Hydrologic Engineering Center (HEC), an organization within the Institute for Water Resources, is the designated Center of Expertise for the U.S. Army Corps of...

  7. Allegheny County Hydrology Lines (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — The Hydrology Feature Dataset contains photogrammetrically compiled water drainage features and structures including rivers, streams, drainage canals, locks, dams,...

  8. Hydrologic Areas of Concern (United States)

    University of New Hampshire — A Hydrologic Area of Concern (HAC) is a land area surrounding a water source, which is intended to include the portion of the watershed in which land uses are likely...

  9. Towards Reproducibility in Computational Hydrology (United States)

    Hutton, Christopher; Wagener, Thorsten; Freer, Jim; Han, Dawei; Duffy, Chris; Arheimer, Berit


    Reproducibility is a foundational principle in scientific research. The ability to independently re-run an experiment helps to verify the legitimacy of individual findings, and evolve (or reject) hypotheses and models of how environmental systems function, and move them from specific circumstances to more general theory. Yet in computational hydrology (and in environmental science more widely) the code and data that produces published results are not regularly made available, and even if they are made available, there remains a multitude of generally unreported choices that an individual scientist may have made that impact the study result. This situation strongly inhibits the ability of our community to reproduce and verify previous findings, as all the information and boundary conditions required to set up a computational experiment simply cannot be reported in an article's text alone. In Hutton et al 2016 [1], we argue that a cultural change is required in the computational hydrological community, in order to advance and make more robust the process of knowledge creation and hypothesis testing. We need to adopt common standards and infrastructures to: (1) make code readable and re-useable; (2) create well-documented workflows that combine re-useable code together with data to enable published scientific findings to be reproduced; (3) make code and workflows available, easy to find, and easy to interpret, using code and code metadata repositories. To create change we argue for improved graduate training in these areas. In this talk we reflect on our progress in achieving reproducible, open science in computational hydrology, which are relevant to the broader computational geoscience community. In particular, we draw on our experience in the Switch-On (EU funded) virtual water science laboratory (, which is an open platform for collaboration in hydrological experiments (e.g. [2]). While we use computational hydrology as

  10. Using biodiversity of diatoms to identify hydrological connectivity in the hillslope-riparian zone-stream system (United States)

    Wetzel, C. E.; Martínez-Carreras, N.; Ector, L.; Hlubikova, D.; Frentress, J.; McDonnell, J. J.; Hoffmann, L.; Pfister, L.


    In recent years, there have been increasingly calls for new eco-hydrological approaches to answer questions on water source and connectivity in the landscape. Diatoms are one of the most common and diverse algal groups, and offer the potential for the identification of reproducible flow patterns and a link to underlying watershed behaviour. Our preliminary investigations on the potential for terrestrial diatoms to detect the onset/cessation of surface runoff suggested that diatoms can contribute to confirm or reject the existence of a surface runoff component in total runoff, thereby helping to constrain assumptions made on a potential surface runoff component in a conventional tracer based hydrograph separation. Our investigations currently focus on the Attert River basin (Luxembourg, Europe) and the HJ Andrews experimental forest (Oregon, USA). Here we show results from the schistose Weierbach experimental catchment (0.45 km2), located in the Attert River basin. Ordination analysis revealed a clear distinction between communities belonging to the river bed substrate and the riparian zone. Drift samples corresponding to stream water show a mixed composition of diatoms stemming from the river bed substrate and the riparian zone. Ongoing investigations focus on the composition of hillslope communities. In winter, long-lasting low intensity rainfall events generate a two-tailed hydrograph response of the Weierbach, consisting in an immediate reaction to precipitation, followed by a delayed and much more significant rise of the hydrograph. For these events, mixing diagrams (SiO2 & Absorbance) suggest a substantial contribution of the soil water component to total runoff, with groundwater and especially overland flow remaining insignificant. Terrestrial diatom abundance appeared to be very sensitive to incident precipitation (rising to +/- 15% of the total diatom population), suggesting a rapid connectivity between the soil surface and the stream. In summer, short and

  11. Detection of Hydrological changes of Wujiang River (United States)

    Dong, L.; Chen, Y.


    In the century our earth experienced a rapid environment changes due to strong human activities, which impactedthe earth'shydrology and water resources systems negatively, and causedsevere problems to the society, such as increased flood and drought risk, water pollution and ecosystem degradation. Understanding the variations of hydrological characteristics has important meaning to solve the problem of hydrology and water resources and maintain sustainable development of river basin water resources.This paper takesWujiangriveras an example,which is a typical medium watershedaffected by human activities seriously in southern China.Using the methods of Mann-Kendall test and serial cluster analysis, this paper studies the characteristics and laws of historical hydrological process inWujiang river, detectsthe impact of changing environment to watershed hydrological processes, based on the observed hydrological data of 36 years from 1980 to 2015 in three representative hydrological stationsnamedFenshi,Chixi and Pingshi. The results show that the annual runoffandannual precipitation has some kind of changes.

  12. Hydrologic modeling of the Columbia Plateau basalts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dove, F.H.; Cole, C.R.; Bond, F.W.; Zimmerman, D.A.


    The Office of Nuclear Waste Isolation (ONWI) directed the Assessment of Effectiveness of Geologic Isolation Systems (AEGIS) Program to conduct a technology demonstration of current performance assessment techniques for the Department of Energy (DOE) as applied to a nuclear waste repository in the Columbia Plateau Basalts. Hypothetical repository coordinates were selected for an actual geographical setting on the Hanford Reservation in the state of Washington. Published hydrologic and geologic data used in the analyses were gathered in 1979 or earlier. The hydrologic simulation was divided into three major parts: (1) aquifer recharge calculations, (2) a regional hydrologic model, and (3) a local hydrologic model of the Pasco Basin. The presentation discusses the regional model. An estimate of the amount of water transmitted through the groundwater system was required to bound the transmissivity values and to estimate the transmissivity distributions for the deeper basalts. The multiple layer two-dimensional Variable Thickness Transient (VTT) code was selected as appropriate for the amount of data available and for the conditions existing in the regional systems. This model uses a finite difference formulation to represent the partial differential flow equation. The regional study area as defined for the VTT model was divided into 55 by 55 square pattern with each grid 5 kilometers on a side. The regional system was modeled as a held potential surface layer and two underlying basalt layers. The regional model established the boundary conditions for the hydrologic model the Pasco Basin

  13. Adaptation of water resources systems to changing society and environment: a statement by the International Association of Hydrological Sciences


    Serena Ceola; Alberto Montanari; Tobias Krueger; Fiona Dyer; H. Kreibich; Ida Westerberg; Gemma Carr; Christophe Cudennec; Amin Elshorbagy; Hubert Savenije; Pieter van der Zaag; Dan Rosbjerg; Hafzullah Aksoy; Francesco Viola; Guido Petrucci


    We explore how to address the challenges of adaptation of water resources systems under changing conditions by supporting flexible, resilient and low-regret solutions, coupled with on-going monitoring and evaluation. This will require improved understanding of the linkages between biophysical and social aspects in order to better anticipate the possible future co-evolution of water systems and society. We also present a call to enhance the dialogue and foster the actions of governments, the i...

  14. Isotope methods in hydrology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moser, H.; Rauert, W.


    Of the investigation methods used in hydrology, tracer methods hold a special place as they are the only ones which give direct insight into the movement and distribution processes taking place in surface and ground waters. Besides the labelling of water with salts and dyes, as in the past, in recent years the use of isotopes in hydrology, in water research and use, in ground-water protection and in hydraulic engineering has increased. This by no means replaces proven methods of hydrological investigation but tends rather to complement and expand them through inter-disciplinary cooperation. The book offers a general introduction to the application of various isotope methods to specific hydrogeological and hydrological problems. The idea is to place the hydrogeologist and the hydrologist in the position to recognize which isotope method will help him solve his particular problem or indeed, make a solution possible at all. He should also be able to recognize what the prerequisites are and what work and expenditure the use of such methods involves. May the book contribute to promoting cooperation between hydrogeologists, hydrologists, hydraulic engineers and isotope specialists, and thus supplement proven methods of investigation in hydrological research and water utilization and protection wherever the use of isotope methods proves to be of advantage. (orig./HP) [de

  15. Tapping environmental history to recreate America's colonial hydrology (United States)

    Pastore, Christopher L.; Green, Mark B.; Bain, Daniel J.; Muñoz-Hernandez, Andrea; Vorosmarty, Charles J.; Arrigo, Jennifer; Brandt, Sara; Duncan, Jonathan M.; Greco, Francesca; Kim, Hyojin; Kumar, Sanjiv; Lally, Michael; Parolari, Anthony J.; Pellerin, Brian A.; Salant, Nira; Schlosser, Adam; Zalzal, Kate


    Throughout American history water resources have played integral roles in shaping patterns of human settlement and networks of biological and economic exchange. In turn, humans have altered hydrologic systems to meet their needs. A paucity of climate and water discharge data for the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries, however, has left America's preindustrial hydrology largely unstudied. As a result, there have been few detailed, quantifiable, regional assessments of hydrologic change between the time of first European settlement and the dawn of industrial expansion.

  16. Um caso de albinismo em tachã (Chauna Torquata, Oken (Aves, Anseniformes ocorrido na estação ecológica do Taím, Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil A case of albinism in Southern screamer (Chauna Torquata, Oken (Aves, Anseniformes occurred at the Ecological Station of Taim. Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Alberto Veiga


    Full Text Available It is described herein a case study of albinism in Chauna torquata Oken, 1816 (Southern screamer occurred at the Ecological Station of Taim, Rio Grande do Sul. Brazil. Screamers are birds of marshes, wet grasslands and forest lagoons. The bill is short and curved, the head is small and slender and the neek rather short. The strong wings are armed with two large, sharp spurs on their forward edge. The feet and legs are fleshy, the lower half of the tibia is bare, and the three long front toes show just a trace of webbing between them, They are often seen walking in pairs on the floating masses of vegetation or in large groups for feeding. The albino specimen described herein was observed feeding in the midst of a group of almost fifty birds. Their plumage was white but their legs and bill were normally red pigmented, and also presented a light grey ring on its neek. It did not represent a case of total albinism, in which pigment should be totally absent.

  17. Hydrological Process Simulation of Inland River Watershed: A Case Study of the Heihe River Basin with Multiple Hydrological Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lili Wang


    Full Text Available Simulating the hydrological processes of an inland river basin can help provide the scientific guidance to the policies of water allocation among different subbasins and water resource management groups within the subbasins. However, it is difficult to simulate the hydrological processes of an inland river basin with hydrological models due to the non-consistent hydrological characteristics of the entire basin. This study presents a solution to this problem with a case study about the hydrological process simulation in an inland river basin in China, Heihe River basin. It is divided into the upper, middle, and lower reaches based on the distinctive hydrological characteristics in the Heihe River basin, and three hydrological models are selected, applied, and tested to simulate the hydrological cycling processes for each reach. The upper reach is the contributing area with the complex runoff generation processes, therefore, the hydrological informatic modeling system (HIMS is utilized due to its combined runoff generation mechanisms. The middle reach has strong impacts of intensive human activities on the interactions of surface and subsurface flows, so a conceptual water balance model is applied to simulate the water balance process. For the lower reach, as the dissipative area with groundwater dominating the hydrological process, a groundwater modeling system with the embedment of MODFLOW model is applied to simulate the groundwater dynamics. Statistical parameters and water balance analysis prove that the three models have excellent performances in simulating the hydrological process of the three reaches. Therefore, it is an effective way to simulate the hydrological process of inland river basin with multiple hydrological models according to the characteristics of each subbasin.

  18. Lithologic and hydrologic controls of mixed alluvial-bedrock channels in flood-prone fluvial systems: bankfull and macrochannels in the Llano River watershed, central Texas, USA (United States)

    Heitmuller, Frank T.; Hudson, Paul F.; Asquith, William H.


    The rural and unregulated Llano River watershed located in central Texas, USA, has a highly variable flow regime and a wide range of instantaneous peak flows. Abrupt transitions in surface lithology exist along the main-stem channel course. Both of these characteristics afford an opportunity to examine hydrologic, lithologic, and sedimentary controls on downstream changes in channel morphology. Field surveys of channel topography and boundary composition are coupled with sediment analyses, hydraulic computations, flood-frequency analyses, and geographic information system mapping to discern controls on channel geometry (profile, pattern, and shape) and dimensions along the mixed alluvial-bedrock Llano River and key tributaries. Four categories of channel classification in a downstream direction include: (i) uppermost ephemeral reaches, (ii) straight or sinuous gravel-bed channels in Cretaceous carbonate sedimentary zones, (iii) straight or sinuous gravel-bed or bedrock channels in Paleozoic sedimentary zones, and (iv) straight, braided, or multithread mixed alluvial–bedrock channels with sandy beds in Precambrian igneous and metamorphic zones. Principal findings include: (i) a nearly linear channel profile attributed to resistant bedrock incision checkpoints; (ii) statistically significant correlations of both alluvial sinuosity and valley confinement to relatively high f (mean depth) hydraulic geometry values; (iii) relatively high b (width) hydraulic geometry values in partly confined settings with sinuous channels upstream from a prominent incision checkpoint; (iv) different functional flow categories including frequently occurring events (< 1.5-year return periods) that mobilize channel-bed material and less frequent events that determine bankfull channel (1.5- to 3-year return periods) and macrochannel (10- to 40-year return periods) dimensions; (v) macrochannels with high f values (most ≤ 0.45) that develop at sites with unit stream power values in excess

  19. Lithologic and hydrologic controls of mixed alluvial-bedrock channels in flood-prone fluvial systems: bankfull and macrochannels in the Llano River watershed, central Texas, USA (United States)

    Heitmuller, Frank T.; Hudson, Paul F.; Asquith, William H.


    The rural and unregulated Llano River watershed located in central Texas, USA, has a highly variable flow regime and a wide range of instantaneous peak flows. Abrupt transitions in surface lithology exist along the main-stem channel course. Both of these characteristics afford an opportunity to examine hydrologic, lithologic, and sedimentary controls on downstream changes in channel morphology. Field surveys of channel topography and boundary composition are coupled with sediment analyses, hydraulic computations, flood-frequency analyses, and geographic information system mapping to discern controls on channel geometry (profile, pattern, and shape) and dimensions along the mixed alluvial-bedrock Llano River and key tributaries. Four categories of channel classification in a downstream direction include: (i) uppermost ephemeral reaches, (ii) straight or sinuous gravel-bed channels in Cretaceous carbonate sedimentary zones, (iii) straight or sinuous gravel-bed or bedrock channels in Paleozoic sedimentary zones, and (iv) straight, braided, or multithread mixed alluvial–bedrock channels with sandy beds in Precambrian igneous and metamorphic zones. Principal findings include: (i) a nearly linear channel profile attributed to resistant bedrock incision checkpoints; (ii) statistically significant correlations of both alluvial sinuosity and valley confinement to relatively high f (mean depth) hydraulic geometry values; (iii) relatively high b (width) hydraulic geometry values in partly confined settings with sinuous channels upstream from a prominent incision checkpoint; (iv) different functional flow categories including frequently occurring events (high f values (most ≤ 0.45) that develop at sites with unit stream power values in excess of 200 watts per square meter (W/m2); and (vi) downstream convergence of hydraulic geometry exponents for bankfull and macrochannels, explained by co-increases of flood magnitude and noncohesive sandy sediments that collectively

  20. Performance of complex snow cover descriptions in a distributed hydrological model system: A case study for the high Alpine terrain of the Berchtesgaden Alps. (United States)

    Warscher, M; Strasser, U; Kraller, G; Marke, T; Franz, H; Kunstmann, H


    [1] Runoff generation in Alpine regions is typically affected by snow processes. Snow accumulation, storage, redistribution, and ablation control the availability of water. In this study, several robust parameterizations describing snow processes in Alpine environments were implemented in a fully distributed, physically based hydrological model. Snow cover development is simulated using different methods from a simple temperature index approach, followed by an energy balance scheme, to additionally accounting for gravitational and wind-driven lateral snow redistribution. Test site for the study is the Berchtesgaden National Park (Bavarian Alps, Germany) which is characterized by extreme topography and climate conditions. The performance of the model system in reproducing snow cover dynamics and resulting discharge generation is analyzed and validated via measurements of snow water equivalent and snow depth, satellite-based remote sensing data, and runoff gauge data. Model efficiency (the Nash-Sutcliffe coefficient) for simulated runoff increases from 0.57 to 0.68 in a high Alpine headwater catchment and from 0.62 to 0.64 in total with increasing snow model complexity. In particular, the results show that the introduction of the energy balance scheme reproduces daily fluctuations in the snowmelt rates that trace down to the channel stream. These daily cycles measured in snowmelt and resulting runoff rates could not be reproduced by using the temperature index approach. In addition, accounting for lateral snow transport changes the seasonal distribution of modeled snowmelt amounts, which leads to a higher accuracy in modeling runoff characteristics.

  1. Probing dynamic hydrologic system of slowly-creeping landslides with passive seismic imaging: A comprehensive landslide monitoring site at Lantai, Ilan area in Taiwan (United States)

    Huang, H. H.; Hsu, Y. J.; Kuo, C. Y.; Chen, C. C.; Kuo, L. W.; Chen, R. F.; Lin, C. R.; Lin, P. P.; Lin, C. W.; Lin, M. L.; Wang, K. L.


    A unique landslide monitoring project integrating multidisciplinary geophysics experiments such as GPS, inclinometer, piezometer, and spontaneous potential log has been established at Lantai, Ilan area to investigating the possible detachment depth range and the physical mechanism of a slowly creeping landslide. In parallel with this, a lately deployed local seismic network also lends an opportunity to employ the passive seismic imaging technique to detect the time-lapse changes of seismic velocity in and around the landslide area. Such technique that retrieves Green's functions by cross-correlation of continuous ambient noise has opened new opportunities to seismologically monitoring the environmental and tectonic events such as ground water variation, magma intrusion under volcanos, and co-seismic medium damage in recent years. Integrating these geophysical observations, we explore the primary controls of derived seismic velocity changes and especially the hydrological response of the landslide to the passage of Megi typhoon in the last September 2016, which could potentially further our understanding of the dynamic system of landslides and in turn help the hazard mitigation.

  2. Potential effects of alterations to the hydrologic system on the distribution of salinity in the Biscayne aquifer in Broward County, Florida (United States)

    Hughes, Joseph D.; Sifuentes, Dorothy F.; White, Jeremy T.


    To address concerns about the effects of water-resource management practices and rising sea level on saltwater intrusion, the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the Broward County Environmental Planning and Community Resilience Division, initiated a study to examine causes of saltwater intrusion and predict the effects of future alterations to the hydrologic system on salinity distribution in eastern Broward County, Florida. A three-dimensional, variable-density solute-transport model was calibrated to conditions from 1970 to 2012, the period for which data are most complete and reliable, and was used to simulate historical conditions from 1950 to 2012. These types of models are typically difficult to calibrate by matching to observed groundwater salinities because of spatial variability in aquifer properties that are unknown, and natural and anthropogenic processes that are complex and unknown; therefore, the primary goal was to reproduce major trends and locally generalized distributions of salinity in the Biscayne aquifer. The methods used in this study are relatively new, and results will provide transferable techniques for protecting groundwater resources and maximizing groundwater availability in coastal areas. The model was used to (1) evaluate the sensitivity of the salinity distribution in groundwater to sea-level rise and groundwater pumping, and (2) simulate the potential effects of increases in pumping, variable rates of sea-level rise, movement of a salinity control structure, and use of drainage recharge wells on the future distribution of salinity in the aquifer.

  3. Combined top-down and bottom-up climate change impact assessment for the hydrological system in the Vu Gia- Thu Bon River Basin. (United States)

    Tra, Tran Van; Thinh, Nguyen Xuan; Greiving, Stefan


    Vu Gia- Thu Bon (VGTB) River Basin, located in the Central Coastal zone of Viet Nam currently faces water shortage. Climate change is expected to exacerbate the challenge. Therefore, there is a need to study the impacts of climate change on water shortage in the river basin. The study adopts a combined top-down and bottom-up climate change impact assessment to address the impacts of climate change on water shortage in the VGTB River Basin. A MIKE BASIN water balance model for the river basin was established to simulate the response of the hydrological system. Simulations were performed through parametrically varying temperature and precipitation to determine the vulnerability space of water shortage. General Circulation Models (GCMs) were then utilized to provide climate projections for the river basin. The output from GCMs was then mapped onto the vulnerability space determined earlier. In total, 9 out of 55 water demand nodes in the simulation are expected to face problematic conditions as future climate changes. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Socio-hydrological resilience of an arid aquifer system, subject to changing climate and inadequate agricultural management: A case study from the Valley of Santo Domingo, Mexico (United States)

    Wurl, Jobst; Gámez, Alba E.; Ivanova, Antonina; Imaz Lamadrid, Miguel A.; Hernández-Morales, Pablo


    Mismanagement has caused the overexploitation of one third of the major aquifers in Mexico, mainly due to excessive water extraction for agricultural irrigation. Santo Domingo (Baja California Sur, in northern Mexico, where agriculture absorbs nearly 80% of water) is the only aquifer in the Mexico where, after a period of overexploitation, equality between extraction and recharge rates was achieved, although this has not meant the securement of long-term water availability. This paper offers an analysis of hydrological resilience of a water-limited arid ecosystem under future extraction scenarios and changing climate conditions. A regional groundwater flow model is proposed using MODFLOW software. Then, different indicators were modeled as outcomes of coupled human-water systems to predict water trajectories under different human impacts. The aim was to recognize water insecurity scenarios and define appropriate actions to a more sustainable use of this scarce resource in the region. Thus, although runoff derived from extreme floods may favor infiltration, the involvement of local stakeholders and decision makers to reverse the adverse impacts of current water management and climate change is imperative if water availability and better quality are to be secured.

  5. Hillslope hydrology and stability (United States)

    Lu, Ning; Godt, Jonathan


    Landslides are caused by a failure of the mechanical balance within hillslopes. This balance is governed by two coupled physical processes: hydrological or subsurface flow and stress. The stabilizing strength of hillslope materials depends on effective stress, which is diminished by rainfall. This book presents a cutting-edge quantitative approach to understanding hydro-mechanical processes across variably saturated hillslope environments and to the study and prediction of rainfall-induced landslides. Topics covered include historic synthesis of hillslope geomorphology and hydrology, total and effective stress distributions, critical reviews of shear strength of hillslope materials and different bases for stability analysis. Exercises and homework problems are provided for students to engage with the theory in practice. This is an invaluable resource for graduate students and researchers in hydrology, geomorphology, engineering geology, geotechnical engineering and geomechanics and for professionals in the fields of civil and environmental engineering and natural hazard analysis.

  6. Acting, predicting and intervening in a socio-hydrological world (United States)

    Lane, S. N.


    This paper asks a simple question: if humans and their actions co-evolve with hydrological systems (Sivapalan et al., 2012), what is the role of hydrological scientists, who are also humans, within this system? To put it more directly, as traditionally there is a supposed separation of scientists and society, can we maintain this separation as socio-hydrologists studying a socio-hydrological world? This paper argues that we cannot, using four linked sections. The first section draws directly upon the concern of science-technology studies to make a case to the (socio-hydrological) community that we need to be sensitive to constructivist accounts of science in general and socio-hydrology in particular. I review three positions taken by such accounts and apply them to hydrological science, supported with specific examples: (a) the ways in which scientific activities frame socio-hydrological research, such that at least some of the knowledge that we obtain is constructed by precisely what we do; (b) the need to attend to how socio-hydrological knowledge is used in decision-making, as evidence suggests that hydrological knowledge does not flow simply from science into policy; and (c) the observation that those who do not normally label themselves as socio-hydrologists may actually have a profound knowledge of socio-hydrology. The second section provides an empirical basis for considering these three issues by detailing the history of the practice of roughness parameterisation, using parameters like Manning's n, in hydrological and hydraulic models for flood inundation mapping. This history sustains the third section that is a more general consideration of one type of socio-hydrological practice: predictive modelling. I show that as part of a socio-hydrological analysis, hydrological prediction needs to be thought through much more carefully: not only because hydrological prediction exists to help inform decisions that are made about water management; but also because

  7. Lithological and hydrological influences on ground-water composition in a heterogeneous carbonate-clay aquifer system (United States)

    Kauffman, S.J.; Herman, J.S.; Jones, B.F.


    The influence of clay units on ground-water composition was investigated in a heterogeneous carbonate aquifer system of Miocene age in southwest Florida, known as the Intermediate aquifer system. Regionally, the ground water is recharged inland, flows laterally and to greater depths in the aquifer systems, and is discharged vertically upward at the saltwater interface along the coast. A depth profile of water composition was obtained by sampling ground water from discrete intervals within the permeable carbonate units during coring and by squeezing pore water from a core of the less-permeable clay layers. A normative salt analysis of solute compositions in the water indicated a marine origin for both types of water and an evolutionary pathway for the clay water that involves clay diagenesis. The chemical composition of the ground water in the carbonate bedrock is significantly different from that of the pore water in the clay layers. Dissolution of clays and opaline silica results in high silica concentrations relative to water in other parts of the Intermediate aquifer system. Water enriched in chloride relative to the overlying and underlying ground water recharges the aquifer inland where the confining clay layer is absent, and it dissolves carbonate and silicate minerals and reacts with clays along its flow path, eventually reaching this coastal site and resulting in the high chloride and silica concentrations observed in the middle part of the Intermediate aquifer system. Reaction-path modeling suggests that the recharging surficial water mixes with sulfate-rich water upwelling from the Upper Floridan aquifer, and carbonate mineral dissolution and precipitation, weathering and exchange reactions, clay mineral diagenesis, clay and silica dissolution, organic carbon oxidation, and iron and sulfate reduction result in the observed water compositions.A study was conducted to clarify the influence of clay units on ground-water composition in a heterogeneous

  8. The development and evaluation of a hydrological seasonal forecast system prototype for predicting spring flood volumes in Swedish rivers (United States)

    Foster, Kean; Bertacchi Uvo, Cintia; Olsson, Jonas


    Hydropower makes up nearly half of Sweden's electrical energy production. However, the distribution of the water resources is not aligned with demand, as most of the inflows to the reservoirs occur during the spring flood period. This means that carefully planned reservoir management is required to help redistribute water resources to ensure optimal production and accurate forecasts of the spring flood volume (SFV) is essential for this. The current operational SFV forecasts use a historical ensemble approach where the HBV model is forced with historical observations of precipitation and temperature. In this work we develop and test a multi-model prototype, building on previous work, and evaluate its ability to forecast the SFV in 84 sub-basins in northern Sweden. The hypothesis explored in this work is that a multi-model seasonal forecast system incorporating different modelling approaches is generally more skilful at forecasting the SFV in snow dominated regions than a forecast system that utilises only one approach. The testing is done using cross-validated hindcasts for the period 1981-2015 and the results are evaluated against both climatology and the current system to determine skill. Both the multi-model methods considered showed skill over the reference forecasts. The version that combined the historical modelling chain, dynamical modelling chain, and statistical modelling chain performed better than the other and was chosen for the prototype. The prototype was able to outperform the current operational system 57 % of the time on average and reduce the error in the SFV by ˜ 6 % across all sub-basins and forecast dates.

  9. Hydrologic studies for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davies, P.B.


    The objective of this paper is to provide a general overview of hydrologic conditions at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) by describing several key hydrologic studies that have been carried out as part of the site characterization program over the last 20 years. The paper is composed of three parts: background information about general objectives of the WIPP project; information about the geologic and hydrologic setting of the facility; and information about three aspects of the hydrologic system that are important to understanding the long-term performance of the WIPP facility. For additional detailed information, the reader is referred to the references cited in the text

  10. Development of a Historical Hydrological online research and application platform for Switzerland - Historical Hydrological Atlas of Switzerland (HHAS) (United States)

    Wetter, Oliver


    It is planned to develop and maintain a historical hydrological online platform for Switzerland, which shall be specially designed for the needs of research and federal, cantonal or private institutions being interested in hydrological risk assessment and protection measures. The aim is on the one hand to facilitate the access to raw data which generally is needed for further historical hydrological reconstruction and quantification, so that future research will be achieved in significantly shorter time. On the other hand, new historical hydrological research results shall be continuously included in order to establish this platform as a useful tool for the assessment of hydrological risk by including the long term experience of reconstructed pre-instrumental hydrological extreme events like floods and droughts. Meteorological parameters that may trigger extreme hydrological events, like monthly or seasonally resolved reconstructions of temperature and precipitation shall be made accessible in this platform as well. The ultimate goal will be to homogenise the reconstructed hydrological extreme events which usually appeared in the pre anthropogenic influence period under different climatological as well as different hydrological regimes and topographical conditions with the present day state. Long term changes of reconstructed small- to extreme flood seasonality, based on municipal accounting records, will be included in the platform as well. This helps - in combination with the before mentioned meteorological parameters - to provide an increased understanding of the major changes in the generally complex overall system that finally causes hydrological extreme events. The goal of my presentation at the Historical Climatology session is to give an overview about the applied historical climatological and historical hydrological methodologies that are applied on the historical raw data (evidence) to reconstruct pre instrumental hydrological events and meteorological

  11. A new 36Cl hydrological model and 36Cl systematics in the Jordan River/Dead Sea system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paul, M.; Fink, D.; Meirav, O.; Kaim, R.


    Accelerator mass spectrometry results of 36 Cl for the Jordan River/Dead Sea system show that the amount of chloride leached from rocks ranges from approx. 70% in source springs to >90% in water bodies downstream. Furthermore, the amount of water left after evaporation decreases from approx. 50% in the source springs to 20% in the intermediate Lake Kinneret. In the terminal Dead Sea, 99% of the stable chloride originates from ancient rocks and evaporite formations while approx. 80% of its 36 Cl content is of meteoric origin. Using 36 Cl measurements, the accumulation time of the Dead Sea salt is estimated to be 19,000-25,000 yr. (author)

  12. Elements of a flexible approach for conceptual hydrological modeling : 1. Motivation and theoretical development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fenicia, F.; Kavetski, D.; Savenije, H.H.G.


    This paper introduces a flexible framework for conceptual hydrological modeling, with two related objectives: (1) generalize and systematize the currently fragmented field of conceptual models and (2) provide a robust platform for understanding and modeling hydrological systems. In contrast to


    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Hydrology data include spatial datasets and data tables necessary for documenting the hydrologic procedures for estimating flood discharges for a flood insurance...

  14. HYDROLOGY, DODGE COUNTY, WI, USA (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Hydrology data include spatial datasets and data tables necessary for documenting the hydrologic procedures for estimating flood discharges for a flood insurance...


    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Hydrology data include spatial datasets and data tables necessary for documenting the hydrologic procedures for estimating flood discharges for a flood insurance...

  16. HYDROLOGY, DUNN COUNTY, WI, USA (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Hydrology data include spatial datasets and data tables necessary for documenting the hydrologic procedures for estimating flood discharges for a flood insurance...

  17. HYDROLOGY, yakima County, WA, USA (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Hydrology data include spatial datasets and data tables necessary for documenting the hydrologic procedures for estimating flood discharges for a flood insurance...


    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Hydrology data include spatial datasets and data tables necessary for documenting the hydrologic procedures for estimating flood discharges for a flood insurance...


    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Hydrology data include spatial datasets and data tables necessary for documenting the hydrologic procedures for estimating flood discharges for a flood insurance...


    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Hydrology data include spatial datasets and data tables necessary for documenting the hydrologic procedures for estimating flood discharges for a flood insurance...


    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Hydrology data include spatial datasets and data tables necessary for documenting the hydrologic procedures for estimating flood discharges for a flood insurance...

  2. HYDROLOGY, Bourbon COUNTY, KENTUCKY USA (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Hydrology data include spatial datasets and data tables necessary for documenting the hydrologic procedures for estimating flood discharges for a flood insurance...


    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Hydrology data include spatial datasets and data tables necessary for documenting the hydrologic procedures for estimating flood discharges for a flood insurance...


    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Hydrology data include spatial datasets and data tables necessary for documenting the hydrologic procedures for estimating flood discharges for a flood insurance...


    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Hydrology data include spatial datasets and data tables necessary for documenting the hydrologic procedures for estimating flood discharges for a flood insurance...


    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Hydrology data include spatial datasets and data tables necessary for documenting the hydrologic procedures for estimating flood discharges for a flood insurance...


    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Hydrology data include spatial datasets and data tables necessary for documenting the hydrologic procedures for estimating flood discharges for a flood insurance...


    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Hydrology data include spatial datasets and data tables necessary for documenting the hydrologic procedures for estimating flood discharges for a flood insurance...

  9. HYDROLOGY, Richland County, ND, USA (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Hydrology data include spatial datasets and data tables necessary for documenting the hydrologic procedures for estimating flood discharges for a flood insurance...

  10. HYDROLOGY, Grant County, SD, USA (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Hydrology data include spatial datasets and data tables necessary for documenting the hydrologic procedures for estimating flood discharges for a flood insurance...

  11. HYDROLOGY, LEVY COUNTY, FL, USA (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Hydrology data include spatial datasets and data tables necessary for documenting the hydrologic procedures for estimating flood discharges for a flood insurance...


    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Hydrology data include spatial datasets and data tables necessary for documenting the hydrologic procedures for estimating flood discharges for a flood insurance...


    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Hydrology data include spatial datasets and data tables necessary for documenting the hydrologic procedures for estimating flood discharges for a flood insurance...


    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Hydrology data include spatial datasets and data tables necessary for documenting the hydrologic procedures for estimating flood discharges for a flood insurance...

  15. HYDROLOGY, RICE COUNTY, MN, USA (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Hydrology data include spatial datasets and data tables necessary for documenting the hydrologic procedures for estimating flood discharges for a flood insurance...


    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Hydrology data include spatial datasets and data tables necessary for documenting the hydrologic procedures for estimating flood discharges for a flood insurance...


    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Hydrology data include spatial datasets and data tables necessary for documenting the hydrologic procedures for estimating flood discharges for a flood insurance...


    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Hydrology data include spatial datasets and data tables necessary for documenting the hydrologic procedures for estimating flood discharges for a flood insurance...


    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Hydrology data include spatial datasets and data tables necessary for documenting the hydrologic procedures for estimating flood discharges for a flood insurance...


    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Hydrology data include spatial datasets and data tables necessary for documenting the hydrologic procedures for estimating flood discharges for a flood insurance...


    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Hydrology data include spatial datasets and data tables necessary for documenting the hydrologic procedures for estimating flood discharges for a flood insurance...

  2. Technical review of large-scale hydrological models for implementation in operational flood forecasting schemes on continental level




    The uncertainty in operational hydrological forecast systems driven with numerical weather predictions inputs are often assessed by quantifying the uncertainty from the inputs and not from the hydrological model itself. However, part of the uncertainty in modelled discharge stems from the hydrological model and some models may be more suitable than others for particular processes. A hydrological multi-model hydrological system can account for some of this uncertainty, but there exists a p...

  3. Hydrology and soil erosion (United States)

    Leonard J. Lane; Mary R. Kidwell


    We review research on surface water hydrology and soil erosion at the Santa Rita Experimental Range (SRER). Almost all of the research was associated with eight small experimental watersheds established from 1974 to 1975 and operated until the present. Analysis of climatic features of the SRER supports extending research findings from the SRER to broad areas of the...

  4. Hydrology and flow forecasting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vrijling, J.K.; Kwadijk, J.; Van Duivendijk, J.; Van Gelder, P.; Pang, H.; Rao, S.Q.; Wang, G.Q.; Huang, X.Q.


    We have studied and applied the statistic model (i.e. MMC) and hydrological models to Upper Yellow River. This report introduces the results and some conclusions from the model. The three models, MMC, MWBM and NAM, have be applied in the research area. The forecasted discharge by the three models

  5. Watershed hydrology. Chapter 7. (United States)

    Elons S. Verry; Kenneth N. Brooks; Dale S. Nichols; Dawn R. Ferris; Stephen D. Sebestyen


    Watershed hydrology is determined by the local climate, land use, and pathways of water flow. At the Marcell Experimental Forest (MEF), streamflow is dominated by spring runoff events driven by snowmelt and spring rains common to the strongly continental climate of northern Minnesota. Snowmelt and rainfall in early spring saturate both mineral and organic soils and...

  6. Hydrological evolution and chemical structure of a hyper-acidic spring-lake system on Whakaari/White Island, NZ (United States)

    Christenson, B. W.; White, S.; Britten, K.; Scott, B. J.


    White Island has a long and varied history of acid spring discharge and shallow ephemeral lake formation on its main crater floor. In the 12 months prior to the onset of the 1976-2000 eruptive episode, mass discharge from the spring system increased ca. 10-fold, pointing to a strong coupling of the hydrothermal environment to the evolving magmatic system. Between 1976 and 1978, the formation of numerous eruption vents to 200 m depth in the Western Sub-crater abruptly changed the hydraulic gradients in the volcano, resulting in the reversal of groundwater flow in the massif towards the newly-formed crater(s). This affected not only the style of volcanic activity (leading to phreatic-phreatomagmatic-magmatic eruption cycles), but also led to the demise of the spring system, with discharge from the main crater declining by a factor > 100 by 1979. Eruptive activity ended shortly after a moderate Strombolian eruption in mid-2000, after which ephemeral lakes started to form in the eruption crater complex. Between 2003 and 2015 there were three complete lake filling and evaporative cycles, reflecting varying heat flow through the conduit system beneath the lake. Over these cycles, lake water concentrations of Cl and SO4 varied between ca. 35-150 and 5-45 g/L respectively, with pH values temporally ranging from + 1.5 to - 1. Springs appeared on the Main Crater floor in 2004, and their discharges varied with lake level, pointing to the lake level being a primary control over the piezometric surface in the crater area. Springs closest to the crater complex show direct evidence of crater lake water infiltration into the crater floor aquifer, whereas distal spring discharges show compositional variations reflecting vertical displacement of the interface between shallow, dilute condensate and underlying acidic brine fluids. Source components for the spring fluids include magmatic vapour, dissolved andesitic host rocks, seawater and meteoric water. Lake waters, on the other hand

  7. Impact of tree planting configuration on canopy interception and soil hydrological properties: Implications for flood mitigation in silvopastoral systems (United States)

    Lunka, Peter; Patil, Sopan


    Compaction of upper soil layers by intensive sheep grazing has been connected with increased local flood risk in silvopastoral systems. A 12 week field study was conducted at the Henfaes Research Station near Bangor, Wales to compare two silvopastoral configurations, trees planted in fenced off clumps and trees planted evenly spaced, in terms of canopy throughfall, soil water infiltration and soil bulk density. The study's aim was to characterize the potential of these tree planting configurations to reduce local flood risk. The study site (Henfaes) was established in 1992 on 14 ha of agricultural land and is part of the Silvopastoral National Network Experiment sites that have been set up across the UK to examine the potential of silvopasture and agroforestry on UK farms. Automated throughfall gauges were installed in each silvopastoral treatment along with a similarly designed control gauge located in the grazed control pasture. Soil water infiltration and bulk density were measured 20 times in a stratified random design for each treatment and the control. Soil infiltration capacity in the clumped configuration was significantly higher than in the even spaced configuration and control pasture. The clumped configuration had mean infiltration capacity 504% greater than the control pasture and 454% greater than the even spaced configuration. Canopy interception was higher in the clumped trees than in the evenly spaced trees. Average canopy interception was 34% in the clumped treatment and 28% in the evenly spaced treatment. Soil bulk density was lower in the clumped configuration than in the control pasture and evenly spaced configuration. Results suggest that in silvopastoral systems the clumped tree configuration is more likely to reduce local flood risk than the evenly spaced tree configuration due to enhanced infiltration and increased canopy interception.

  8. Terrestrial Hydrological Data from NASA's Hydrology Data and Information Services Center (HDISC): Products, Services, and Applications (United States)

    Fang, Hongliang; Beaudoing, Hiroko K.; Mocko, David M.; Rodell, Matthew; Teng, Bill; Vollmer, Bruce


    Terrestrial hydrological variables are important in global hydrology, climate, and carbon cycle studies. The North American and Global Land Data Assimilation Systems (NLDAS and GLDAS, respectively) have been generating a series of land surface states (soil moisture, snow, and temperature) and fluxes (evapotranspiration, radiation, and heat flux) variables. These data, hosted at and available from NASA s Hydrology Data and Information Services Center (HDISC), include the NLDAS hourly 1/8 degree products and the GLDAS 3-hourly 0.25 and 1.0 degree products. HDISC provides easy access and visualization and analysis capabilities for these products, thus reducing the time and resources spent by scientists on data management and facilitating hydrological research. Users can perform spatial and parameter subsetting, data format transformation, and data analysis operations without needing to first download the data. HDISC is continually being developed as a data and services portal that supports weather and climate forecasts, and water and energy cycle research.

  9. Curricula and Syllabi in Hydrology. (United States)

    United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, Paris (France).

    This collection of papers is intended to provide a means for the exchange of information on hydrological techniques and for the coordination of research and data collection. The objectives and trends in hydrological education are presented. The International Hydrological Decade (IHD) Working Group on Education recommends a series of topics that…

  10. The response of deltaic systems to climatic and hydrological changes in Daihai Lake rift basin, Inner Mongolia, northern China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Xinghe


    Full Text Available Delta systems are ubiquitous around lacustrine rift basins. Its peripheral geometry, progradation structures and sedimentary successions were controlled by both tectonic settings and climatic changes. Peripheral geometry of a delta was strongly influenced by depositional gradients which formed the fan-shape delta on the steep slopes and developed the lobe-shape delta on the gentle slopes. Due to the discharge feed rivers can change rapidly driven by climatic variations, and the nearshore area of deltas display considerable facies variability. The rise of annual rainfall, which suggests the rivers feeding deltas are continuous, and result in distributary mouth bars that are prevalent in the front of deltas since the down-slope flows are greater than the along-slope currents. On the contrary, when the annual rainfall decreases and evaporation increases, the rivers only can feed deltas ephemerally. If the along-slope currents were in a dominant position, the distal bars were deposited. Progradation structure and sedimentary successions of deltas were controlled by the gradients of slopes. On gentle depositional slopes, shingle foreset beds predominate with fine sediments and small-scale sedimentary structures or vice versa.

  11. Characterization of the lowland coastal aquifer of Comacchio (Ferrara, Italy): Hydrology, hydrochemistry and evolution of the system (United States)

    Giambastiani, B. M. S.; Colombani, N.; Mastrocicco, M.; Fidelibus, M. D.


    This study delineates the actual hydrogeochemistry and the geological evolution of an unconfined coastal aquifer located in a lowland setting in order to understand the drivers of the groundwater salinization. Physical aquifer parameterization highlights a vertical hydraulic gradient due to the presence of a heavy drainage system, which controls the hydrodynamics of this coastal area, forcing groundwater to flow from the bottom toward the top of the aquifer. As a consequence, relict seawater in stable density stratification, preserved within low permeability sediments in the deepest portion of the aquifer, has been drawn upward. The hydrogeochemical investigations allow identifying the role of seepage and water-sediment interactions in the aquifer salinization process and in the modification of groundwater chemistry. Mixing between freshwater and saltwater occurs; however, it is neither the only nor the dominant process driving groundwater hydrochemistry. In the aquifer several concurring and competing water-sediment interactions - as NaCl solution, ion-exchange, calcite and dolomite dissolution/precipitation, oxidation of organic matter, and sulfate bacterial reduction - are triggered by or overlap freshwater-saltwater mixing The hyper-salinity found in the deepest portion of the aquifer cannot be associated with present seawater intrusion, but suggests the presence of salt water of marine origin, which was trapped in the inter-basin during the Holocene transgression. The results of this study contribute to a better understanding of groundwater dynamics and salinization processes in this lowland coastal aquifer.

  12. Evolution of hydrologic systems and brine geochemistry in a deforming salt medium: Data from WIPP brine seeps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deal, D.E.; Roggenthen, W.M.


    The Brine Sampling and Evaluation Program (BSEP) is a formalized continuation of studies that began in 1982 as part of the Site Validation Program. The program was established in 1985. The mission was to document and investigate the origins, hydraulic characteristics, extent, and composition of brine occurrences in the Permian Salado Formation and the seepage of that brine into the WIPP excavations. This document focuses on the cumulative data obtained from the BSEP. The overall activities of the BSEP described and quantified the brine. It includes documentation and study of brine inflow into boreholes in the facility. The BSEP investigated the occurrence and development of brine weeps, crusts, and brine geochemistry. The presence of salt-tolerant bacteria in the workings was recorded and their possible interactions with experiments and operations, was assessed. The formation properties associated with the occurrence of brine was characterized. The determination of formation properties included the water content of various geologic units, direct examination of these units in boreholes using a video camera system, and measurement of electrical properties relatable to the brine contents. Modeling examined the interaction of salt deformation near the workings and the flow of brine through the deforming rocks. 34 refs

  13. Kriging and local polynomial methods for blending satellite-derived and gauge precipitation estimates to support hydrologic early warning systems (United States)

    Verdin, Andrew; Funk, Christopher C.; Rajagopalan, Balaji; Kleiber, William


    Robust estimates of precipitation in space and time are important for efficient natural resource management and for mitigating natural hazards. This is particularly true in regions with developing infrastructure and regions that are frequently exposed to extreme events. Gauge observations of rainfall are sparse but capture the precipitation process with high fidelity. Due to its high resolution and complete spatial coverage, satellite-derived rainfall data are an attractive alternative in data-sparse regions and are often used to support hydrometeorological early warning systems. Satellite-derived precipitation data, however, tend to underrepresent extreme precipitation events. Thus, it is often desirable to blend spatially extensive satellite-derived rainfall estimates with high-fidelity rain gauge observations to obtain more accurate precipitation estimates. In this research, we use two different methods, namely, ordinary kriging and κ-nearest neighbor local polynomials, to blend rain gauge observations with the Climate Hazards Group Infrared Precipitation satellite-derived precipitation estimates in data-sparse Central America and Colombia. The utility of these methods in producing blended precipitation estimates at pentadal (five-day) and monthly time scales is demonstrated. We find that these blending methods significantly improve the satellite-derived estimates and are competitive in their ability to capture extreme precipitation.

  14. Hydrological Controls on Dissolved Organic Matter Quality and Export in a Coastal River System in Southeastern USA (United States)

    Bhattacharya, R.; Osburn, C. L.


    Dissolved organic matter (DOM) exported from river catchments can influence the biogeochemical processes in coastal environments with implications for water quality and carbon budget. High flow conditions are responsible for most DOM export ("pulses") from watersheds, and these events reduce DOM transformation and production by "shunting" DOM from river networks into coastal waters: the Pulse-Shunt Concept (PSC). Subsequently, the source and quality of DOM is also expected to change as a function of river flow. Here, we used stream dissolved organic carbon concentrations ([DOC]) along with DOM optical properties, such as absorbance at 350 nm (a350) and fluorescence excitation and emission matrices modeled by parallel factor analysis (PARAFAC), to characterize DOM source, quality and fluxes under variable flow conditions for the Neuse River, a coastal river system in the southeastern US. Observations were made at a flow gauged station above head of tide periodically between Aug 2011 and Feb 2013, which captured low flow periods in summer and several high flow events including Hurricane Irene. [DOC] and a350 were correlated and varied positively with river flow, implying that a large portion of the DOM was colored, humic and flow-mobilized. During high flow conditions, PARAFAC results demonstrated the higher influx of terrestrial humic DOM, and lower in-stream phytoplankton production or microbial degradation. However, during low flow, DOM transformation and production increased in response to higher residence times and elevated productivity. Further, 70% of the DOC was exported by above average flows, where 3-4 fold increases in DOC fluxes were observed during episodic events, consistent with PSC. These results imply that storms dramatically affects DOM export to coastal waters, whereby high river flow caused by episodic events primarily shunt terrestrial DOM to coastal waters, whereas low flow promotes in-stream DOM transformation and amendment with microbial DOM.

  15. Hydrology Research with the North American Land Data Assimilation System (NLDAS) Datasets at the NASA GES DISC Using Giovanni (United States)

    Mocko, David M.; Rui, Hualan; Acker, James G.


    The North American Land Data Assimilation System (NLDAS) is a collaboration project between NASA/GSFC, NOAA, Princeton Univ., and the Univ. of Washington. NLDAS has created a surface meteorology dataset using the best-available observations and reanalyses the backbone of this dataset is a gridded precipitation analysis from rain gauges. This dataset is used to drive four separate land-surface models (LSMs) to produce datasets of soil moisture, snow, runoff, and surface fluxes. NLDAS datasets are available hourly and extend from Jan 1979 to near real-time with a typical 4-day lag. The datasets are available at 1/8th-degree over CONUS and portions of Canada and Mexico from 25-53 North. The datasets have been extensively evaluated against observations, and are also used as part of a drought monitor. NLDAS datasets are available from the NASA GES DISC and can be accessed via ftp, GDS, Mirador, and Giovanni. GES DISC news articles were published showing figures from the heat wave of 2011, Hurricane Irene, Tropical Storm Lee, and the low-snow winter of 2011-2012. For this presentation, Giovanni-generated figures using NLDAS data from the derecho across the U.S. Midwest and Mid-Atlantic will be presented. Also, similar figures will be presented from the landfall of Hurricane Isaac and the before-and-after drought conditions of the path of the tropical moisture into the central states of the U.S. Updates on future products and datasets from the NLDAS project will also be introduced.

  16. The simulated effects of wastewater-management actions on the hydrologic system and nitrogen-loading rates to wells and ecological receptors, Popponesset Bay Watershed, Cape Cod, Massachusetts (United States)

    Walter, Donald A.


    percent of the instantaneous load within 30 years; this result indicates that loads estimated from recharge areas likely are reasonable for estimating current instantaneous loads. However, recharge areas are assumed to remain static as stresses and hydrologic conditions change in response to wastewater-management actions. Sewering of the Popponesset Bay watershed would not change hydraulic gradients and recharge areas to receptors substantially; however, disposal of wastewater from treatment facilities can change hydraulic gradients and recharge areas to nearby receptors, particularly if the facilities are near the boundary of the recharge area. In these cases, nitrogen loads implicitly estimated by using current recharge areas that do not accurately represent future hydraulic stresses can differ significantly from loads estimated with recharge areas that do represent those stresses. Nitrogen loads to two estuaries in the Popponesset Bay system estimated by using recharge areas delineated for future hydrologic conditions and nitrogen sources were about 3 and 9 times higher than loads estimated by using current recharge areas; for this reason, reliance on static recharge areas can present limitations for effective TMDL implementation by means of a hypothetical, but realistic, wastewater-management action. A solute-transport model explicitly represents nitrogen transport from surface sources and does not rely on the use of recharge areas; because changes in gradients resulting from wastewater-management actions are accounted for in transport simulations, they provide more reliable predictions of future nitrogen loads. Explicitly representing the mass transport of nitrogen can better account for the mechanisms by which nitrogen enters the estuary and improve estimates of the attenuation of nitrogen concentrations in fresh surface waters. Water and associated nitrogen can enter an estuary as either direct groundwater discharge or as surface-water inflow. Two estuaries in the

  17. Comparison of DNDC and RZWQM2 for simulating hydrology and nitrogen dynamics in a corn-soybean system with a winter cover crop (United States)

    Desjardins, R.; Smith, W.; Qi, Z.; Grant, B.; VanderZaag, A.


    Biophysical models are needed for assessing science-based mitigation options to improve the efficiency and sustainability of agricultural cropping systems. In order to account for trade-offs between environmental indicators such as GHG emissions, soil C change, and water quality it is important that models can encapsulate the complex array of interrelated biogeochemical processes controlling water, nutrient and energy flows in the agroecosystem. The Denitrification Decomposition (DNDC) model is one of the most widely used process-based models, and is arguably the most sophisticated for estimating GHG emissions and soil C&N cycling, however, the model simulates only simple cascade water flow. The purpose of this study was to compare the performance of DNDC to a comprehensive water flow model, the Root Zone Water Quality Model (RZWQM2), to determine which processes in DNDC may be limiting and recommend improvements. Both models were calibrated and validated for simulating crop biomass, soil hydrology, and nitrogen loss to tile drains using detailed observations from a corn-soybean rotation in Iowa, with and without cover crops. Results indicated that crop yields, biomass and the annual estimation of nitrogen and water loss to tiles drains were well simulated by both models (NSE > 0.6 in all cases); however, RZWQM2 performed much better for simulating soil water content, and the dynamics of daily water flow (DNDC: NSE -0.32 to 0.28; RZWQM2: NSE 0.34 to 0.70) to tile drains. DNDC overestimated soil water content near the soil surface and underestimated it deeper in the profile which was presumably caused by the lack of a root distribution algorithm, the inability to simulate a heterogeneous profile and lack of a water table. We recommend these improvements along with the inclusion of enhanced water flow and a mechanistic tile drainage sub-model. The accurate temporal simulation of water and N strongly impacts several biogeochemical processes.

  18. Monitoring and Attributions of Recent Dynamics in East Asia's Largest Fluvial Lake System: Integration of Remote Sensing, Hydrological Modeling, and Gauging Measurements (United States)

    Wang, J.; Sheng, Y.; Wada, Y.


    The fluvial lake system across China's Yangtze Plain (YP), a World Wildlife Fund (WWF) ecoregion, are critical freshwater storages for nearly half a billion people. Our mapping using daily MODIS imagery revealed an approximately 10% net loss in the YP lake area from 2000 to 2011. Causes of this decadal lake decline were highly contentious, as it coincided with several meteorological droughts, a rising human water consumption (HWC), and the initial and yearly intensified water regulation from the world's largest hydroelectric project, the Three Gorges Dam (TGD). Here we integrated optical remote sensing, hydrological modeling, and in situ measurements to decouple the impacts of climate variability and anthropogenic activities including (i) Yangtze flow and sediment alterations by the TGD and (ii) HWC in agricultural, industrial, and domestic sectors throughout the downstream Yangtze Basin. Results suggest that this decadal lake decline was predominantly driven by climate variability closely linked to the El Niño-Southern Oscillation. Studied human activities, despite varying seasonal impacts that peak in fall, contribute ˜10-20% or less to the inter-annual lake area decline. Given that the TGD impacts on the total YP lake area and its seasonal variation are both under ˜5%, we also dismiss the speculation that the TGD might be responsible for evident downstream climate change by altering lake surface extent and thus open water evaporation. Nevertheless, anthropogenic impacts exhibited a strengthening trend during the past decade. Although the TGD has reached its full-capacity water regulation, the negative impacts of HWC and TGD-induced net channel erosion, which are already comparable to that of TGD's flow regulation, may continue to grow as crucial anthropogenic factors to future YP lake conservation.

  19. Assessing the Hydrologic Performance of the EPA's Nonpoint Source Water Quality Assessment Decision Support Tool Using North American Land Data Assimilation System (Products) (United States)

    Lee, S.; Ni-Meister, W.; Toll, D.; Nigro, J.; Guiterrez-Magness, A.; Engman, T.


    The accuracy of streamflow predictions in the EPA's BASINS (Better Assessment Science Integrating Point and Nonpoint Sources) decision support tool is affected by the sparse meteorological data contained in BASINS. The North American Land Data Assimilation System (NLDAS) data with high spatial and temporal resolutions provide an alternative to the NOAA National Climatic Data Center (NCDC)'s station data. This study assessed the improvement of streamflow prediction of the Hydrological Simulation Program-FORTRAN (HSPF) model contained within BASINS using the NLDAS 118 degree hourly precipitation and evapotranspiration estimates in seven watersheds of the Chesapeake Bay region. Our results demonstrated consistent improvements of daily streamflow predictions in five of the seven watersheds when NLDAS precipitation and evapotranspiration data was incorporated into BASINS. The improvement of using the NLDAS data is significant when watershed's meteorological station is either far away or not in a similar climatic region. When the station is nearby, using the NLDAS data produces similar results. The correlation coefficients of the analyses using the NLDAS data were greater than 0.8, the Nash-Sutcliffe (NS) model fit efficiency greater than 0.6, and the error in the water balance was less than 5%. Our analyses also showed that the streamflow improvements were mainly contributed by the NLDAS's precipitation data and that the improvement from using NLDAS's evapotranspiration data was not significant; partially due to the constraints of current BASINS-HSPF settings. However, NLDAS's evapotranspiration data did improve the baseflow prediction. This study demonstrates the NLDAS data has the potential to improve stream flow predictions, thus aid the water quality assessment in the EPA nonpoint water quality assessment decision tool.

  20. Isotope and chemical tracers in groundwater hydrology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kendall, C.; Stewart, M.K.; Morgenstern, U.; Trompetter, V.


    The course sessions cover: session 1, Fundamentals of stable and radioactive isotopes; session 2, Stable oxygen and hydrogen isotopes in hydrology: background, examples, sampling strategy; session 3, Catchment studies using oxygen and hydrogen isotopes: background - the hydrologic water balance, evapotranspiration - the lion's share, runoff generation - new water/old water fractions, groundwater recharge - the crumbs; session 4, Isotopes in catchment hydrology: survey of applications, future developments; session 5, Applications of tritium in hydrology: background and measurement, interpretation, examples; session 6, Case studies using mixing models: Hutt Valley groundwater system, an extended mixing model for simulating tracer transport in the unsaturated zone; session 7, Groundwater dating using CFC concentrations: background, sampling and measurement, use and applications; session 8, Groundwater dating with carbon-14: background, sampling and measurement, use and applications; session 9, NZ case studies: Tauranga warm springs, North Canterbury Plains groundwater; session 10, Stable carbon and nitrogen isotopes: background and examples, biological applications of C-N-S isotopes; session 11, New developments in isotope hydrology: gas isotopes, compound specific applications, age dating of sediments etc; session 12, NZ case studies: North Canterbury Plains groundwater (continued), Waimea Plains groundwater. (author). refs., figs

  1. The Hydrologic Ensemble Prediction Experiment (HEPEX) (United States)

    Wood, A. W.; Thielen, J.; Pappenberger, F.; Schaake, J. C.; Hartman, R. K.


    The Hydrologic Ensemble Prediction Experiment was established in March, 2004, at a workshop hosted by the European Center for Medium Range Weather Forecasting (ECMWF). With support from the US National Weather Service (NWS) and the European Commission (EC), the HEPEX goal was to bring the international hydrological and meteorological communities together to advance the understanding and adoption of hydrological ensemble forecasts for decision support in emergency management and water resources sectors. The strategy to meet this goal includes meetings that connect the user, forecast producer and research communities to exchange ideas, data and methods; the coordination of experiments to address specific challenges; and the formation of testbeds to facilitate shared experimentation. HEPEX has organized about a dozen international workshops, as well as sessions at scientific meetings (including AMS, AGU and EGU) and special issues of scientific journals where workshop results have been published. Today, the HEPEX mission is to demonstrate the added value of hydrological ensemble prediction systems (HEPS) for emergency management and water resources sectors to make decisions that have important consequences for economy, public health, safety, and the environment. HEPEX is now organised around six major themes that represent core elements of a hydrologic ensemble prediction enterprise: input and pre-processing, ensemble techniques, data assimilation, post-processing, verification, and communication and use in decision making. This poster presents an overview of recent and planned HEPEX activities, highlighting case studies that exemplify the focus and objectives of HEPEX.

  2. Modelling Hydrological Processes in Created Freshwater Wetlands:an Integrated System Approach%人工淡水湿地的水文过程模拟:综合系统法(摘要)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张立; 威廉·杰·米奇


    This study investigates hydrologic processes of four different flow-through created freshwater wetlands in Ohio, USA, by use of several versions of a simple daily mass-balance water budget model.The model includes surface inflows and outflows, precipitation, evapotranspiration, and groundwater seepage. We calibrated the daily water budget for two experimental wetlands that had pumped inflow during 1999 and validated it during 2000 - 2002 on the same basins. The coefficient of prediction efficiency is 0.70 and the modelled hydroperiod followed observed water depths during the calibration period well. The average retention time in the calibration year 1999 was 4.4 - 4.6 days. The model was applied to a 3-ha created riparian wetland that receives river flooding. Results illustrated that this wetland has developed a hydroperiod with more than sufficient flooding to ensure that it will meet the hydrologic criteria of a formal jurisdictional wetland definition in the USA. Water budget predictions for a stormwater wetland provided useful design information for hydroperiod and hydrologic dynamics prior to the construction of that system. The model was simulated for average, dry, and wet years. An integrated systems approach was developed using a STELLA 7.0 with its capabilities of dynamicinterface level control (e. g. buttons and switches) features.

  3. Hydrological model in STEALTH 2-D code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hart, R.; Hofmann, R.


    Porous media fluid flow logic has been added to the two-dimensional version of the STEALTH explicit finite-difference code. It is a first-order hydrological model based upon Darcy's Law. Anisotropic permeability can be prescribed through x and y directional permeabilities. The fluid flow equations are formulated for either two-dimensional translation symmetry or two-dimensional axial symmetry. The addition of the hydrological model to STEALTH is a first step toward analyzing a physical system's response to the coupling of thermal, mechanical, and fluid flow phenomena

  4. What is needed to understand feedback mechanisms from agricultural and climate changes that can alter the hydrological system and the transport of sediments and agricultural chemicals? (United States)

    Coupe, Richard; Payraudeau, Sylvain; Babcsányi, Izabella; Imfeld, Gwenaël


    Modern agriculture activities are constantly changing as producers try to produce a crop, keep their soils fertile, control pests, and prevent contamination of air and water resources. Because most of the world's arable land is already in production we must become more efficient if we are to feed and clothe the world's growing population as well as do this in a sustainable manner; leaving a legacy of fertile soil and clean water resources for our descendants. The objective of this paper is to demonstrate the importance of historical datasets and of developing new strategies to understand the effects of changing agricultural systems on the environment. Scientists who study agriculture and its effects on water must constantly adapt their strategies and evaluate how changing agricultural activities impact the environment. As well as understand from historical datasets on hydrology and agriculture how a changing climate or agricultural activity such as a change in tillage method might impact the processes that determine the movement of agricultural chemicals off of the target site. The 42.7 ha Hohrain (Rouffach, Alsace, France) vineyard experimental catchment offers several examples of how scientists have used historical data from this catchment to understand how the transport of agricultural chemicals may change due to a changing climate as well as how new strategies are developed for understanding the transport of agricultural chemicals. Runoff is a major process of pesticide transport from agricultural land to downstream aquatic ecosystems. The impact of rainfall characteristics on the transport of runoff-related pesticides is crucial to understanding how to prevent or minimize their movement now, but also in understanding how climate change might affect runoff. If we understand how rainfall characteristics affect the transport of pesticides, we can use climate change models to predict how those characteristics might change in the future and be better prepared for

  5. An integrated approach for estimating global glacio isostatic adjustment, land ice, hydrology and ocean mass trends within a complete coupled Earth system framework (United States)

    Schumacher, M.; Bamber, J. L.; Martin, A.


    Future sea level rise (SLR) is one of the most serious consequences of climate change. Therefore, understanding the drivers of past sea level change is crucial for improving predictions. SLR integrates many Earth system components including oceans, land ice, terrestrial water storage, as well as solid Earth effects. Traditionally, each component have been tackled separately, which has often lead to inconsistencies between discipline-specific estimates of each part of the sea level budget. To address these issues, the European Research Council has funded a five year project aimed at producing a physically-based, data-driven solution for the complete coupled land-ocean-solid Earth system that is consistent with the full suite of observations, prior knowledge and fundamental geophysical constraints. The project is called "GlobalMass" and based at University of Bristol. Observed mass movement from the GRACE mission plus vertical land motion from a global network of permanent GPS stations will be utilized in a data-driven approach to estimate glacial isostatic adjustment (GIA) without introducing any assumptions about the Earth structure or ice loading history. A Bayesian Hierarchical Model (BHM) will be used as the framework to combine the satellite and in-situ observations alongside prior information that incorporates the physics of the coupled system such as conservation of mass and characteristic length scales of different processes in both space and time. The BHM is used to implement a simultaneous solution at a global scale. It will produce a consistent partitioning of the integrated SLR signal into its steric (thermal) and barystatic (mass) component for the satellite era. The latter component is induced by hydrological mass trends and melting of land ice. The BHM was developed and tested on Antarctica, where it has been used to separate surface, ice dynamic and GIA signals simultaneously. We illustrate the approach and concepts with examples from this test case

  6. Application of artificial radioisotopes in hydrological studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacob, Noble; Shivanna, K.


    In this article, various applications of the artificial radioisotopes in surface water and groundwater investigations are briefly reviewed with a few recent case studies. They are found to be extremely useful in understanding the hydrological processes and obtaining pertinent parameters such as dilution factors, dispersion coefficients, rate of sediment transport in surface waters and recharge rate, velocity and flow direction in groundwater systems. (author)

  7. Deforestation Hydrological Effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poveda J, G.; Mesa S, O.J.


    Deforestation causes strong disturbances in ecosystems and in hydrological cycle, increasing or reducing wealths. Particularly in this work, effects of feed back between interface processes land - atmosphere are discussed and is demonstrated that losses of water by evaporation-transpiration are thoroughly indispensable to maintain the balance of hydrological regime. It's concluded that as a rule the effect of deforestation is to reduce wealth middle and to increase extreme wealth with consequent stronger and more frequent droughts or flood effects. Other deforestation effects as increase in superficial temperature, increase in atmospherical pressure, decrease in soil moisture, decrease in evaporation-transpiration, decrease of soil ruggedness, decrease of thickness of atmospherical cap limit, decrease of clouds, decrease of rain in both medium and long term and the consequent decrease of rivers wealth middle are explained. Of other side, the basins with greater deforestation affectation in Colombia are indicated. Finally, it's demonstrated the need of implementing reforestation programs

  8. Scaling Hydrologic Processes in Boreal Forest Stands: New Eco-hydrological Perspectives or Deja vu? (United States)

    Silins, U.; Lieffers, V. J.; Landhausser, S. M.; Mendoza, C. A.; Devito, K. J.; Petrone, R. M.; Gan, T. Y.


    The leaf area of forest canopies is both main attribute of stands controlling water balance through transpiration and interception, and "engine" driving stand growth, stand dynamics, and forest succession. While transpiration and interception dynamics are classic themes in forest hydrology, we present results from our eco-hydrological research on boreal trees to highlight how more recent eco-physiological insights into species specific controls over water use and leaf area such as hydraulic architecture, cavitation, sapwood-leaf area relationships, and root system controls over water uptake are providing new insights into integrated atmospheric-autecological controls over these hydrologic processes. These results are discussed in the context of newer eco-hydrological frameworks which may serve to aid in exploring how forest disturbance and subsequent trajectories of hydrologic recovery are likely to affect both forest growth dynamics and hydrology of forested landscapes in response to forest management, severe forest pest epidemics such as the Mountain Pine Beetle epidemic in Western Canada, and climate change.

  9. Nuclear techniques in hydrology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bahadur, J.; Saxena, R.K.


    Several types of sealed radioactive sources, stable isotopes and water soluble radioactive tracers, used by different investigators, have been listed for studying the dynamic behaviour of water in nature. In general, all the facets of hydrological cycle, are amenable to these isotopic techniques. It is recommended that environmental isotopes data collection should be started for studying the water balance and also the interrelationships between surface and subsurface water in various rivers catchments with changing physical, geological and climatic parameters. (author)

  10. Hydrologic linkages drive spatial structuring of bacterial assemblages and functioning in alpine floodplains


    Freimann, Remo; Bürgmann, Helmut; Findlay, Stuart E.G.; Robinson, Christopher T.


    Microbial community assembly and microbial functions are affected by a number of different but coupled drivers such as local habitat characteristics, dispersal rates, and species interactions. In groundwater systems, hydrological flow can introduce spatial structure and directional dependencies among these drivers. We examined the importance of hydrology in structuring bacterial communities and their function within two alpine floodplains during different hydrological states. Piezometers were...

  11. Hydrologic studies within the Pasco Basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spane, F.A. Jr.


    As part of the Basalt Waste Isolation Project (BWIP), hydrologic studies are being performed to provide an evaluation of groundwater systems within the Columbia River Basalt Group. These studies are focused on the Hanford Site, which is located within the Pasco Basin in south-central Washington. Hydrologic studies within the Pasco Basin involve the areal and vertical characterization of hydraulic head, hydrologic properties, and hydrochemical content for the various basalt groundwater systems. Currently, in excess of 150 test intervals have been tested for hydraulic properties, while in excess of 80 horizons have been analyzed for hydrochemical characteristics at about 30 borehole sites within the Pasco Basin. Data obtained from these studies provide input for numerical modeling of groundwater flow and solute transport. Results from numerical modeling are used for evaluating potential waste migration as a function of space and time. In the Pasco Basin, geologic structures influence groundwater flow patterns within basalt aquifer systems. Potentiometric data and hydrochemical evidence collected from recent studies indicate that geologic structures act as areal hydrologic barriers and in some instances, regions of enhanced vertical conductivity. 8 figures

  12. Status report: A hydrologic framework for the Oak Ridge Reservation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solomon, D.K.; Toran, L.E.; Dreier, R.B.; Moore, G.K.; McMaster, W.M.


    This first status report on the Hydrologic Studies Task of the Oak Ridge Reservation Hydrology and Geology Study (ORRHAGS) revises earlier concepts of subsurface hydrology and hydrogeochemistry of the ORR. A new classification of hydrogeologic units is given, as well as new interpretations of the gydrogeologic properties and processes that influence contaminant migration. The conceptual hydrologic framework introduced in this report is based primarily on reinterpretations of data acquired during earlier hydrologic investigations of waste areas at and near the three US Department of Energy Oak Ridge (DOE-OR) plant facilities. In addition to describing and interpreting the properties and processes of the groundwater systems as they are presently understood, this report describes surface water-subsurface water relations, influences on contaminant migration,and implications to environmental restoration, environmental monitoring, and waste management

  13. Status report: A hydrologic framework for the Oak Ridge Reservation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Solomon, D.K.; Toran, L.E.; Dreier, R.B. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)); Moore, G.K.; McMaster, W.M. (Tennessee Univ., Knoxville, TN (United States). Dept. of Civil Engineering)


    This first status report on the Hydrologic Studies Task of the Oak Ridge Reservation Hydrology and Geology Study (ORRHAGS) revises earlier concepts of subsurface hydrology and hydrogeochemistry of the ORR. A new classification of hydrogeologic units is given, as well as new interpretations of the gydrogeologic properties and processes that influence contaminant migration. The conceptual hydrologic framework introduced in this report is based primarily on reinterpretations of data acquired during earlier hydrologic investigations of waste areas at and near the three US Department of Energy Oak Ridge (DOE-OR) plant facilities. In addition to describing and interpreting the properties and processes of the groundwater systems as they are presently understood, this report describes surface water-subsurface water relations, influences on contaminant migration,and implications to environmental restoration, environmental monitoring, and waste management.

  14. OLAP Cube Visualization of Hydrologic Data Catalogs (United States)

    Zaslavsky, I.; Rodriguez, M.; Beran, B.; Valentine, D.; van Ingen, C.; Wallis, J. C.


    As part of the CUAHSI Hydrologic Information System project, we assemble comprehensive observations data catalogs that support CUAHSI data discovery services (WaterOneFlow services) and online mapping interfaces (e.g. the Data Access System for Hydrology, DASH). These catalogs describe several nation-wide data repositories that are important for hydrologists, including USGS NWIS and EPA STORET data collections. The catalogs contain a wealth of information reflecting the entire history and geography of hydrologic observations in the US. Managing such catalogs requires high performance analysis and visualization technologies. OLAP (Online Analytical Processing) cube, often called data cubes, is an approach to organizing and querying large multi-dimensional data collections. We have applied the OLAP techniques, as implemented in Microsoft SQL Server 2005, to the analysis of the catalogs from several agencies. In this initial report, we focus on the OLAP technology as applied to catalogs, and preliminary results of the analysis. Specifically, we describe the challenges of generating OLAP cube dimensions, and defining aggregations and views for data catalogs as opposed to observations data themselves. The initial results are related to hydrologic data availability from the observations data catalogs. The results reflect geography and history of available data totals from USGS NWIS and EPA STORET repositories, and spatial and temporal dynamics of available measurements for several key nutrient-related parameters.

  15. Disturbance Hydrology: Preparing for an Increasingly Disturbed Future (United States)

    Mirus, Benjamin B.; Ebel, Brian A.; Mohr, Christian H.; Zegre, Nicolas


    This special issue is the result of several fruitful conference sessions on disturbance hydrology, which started at the 2013 AGU Fall Meeting in San Francisco and have continued every year since. The stimulating presentations and discussions surrounding those sessions have focused on understanding both the disruption of hydrologic functioning following discrete disturbances, as well as the subsequent recovery or change within the affected watershed system. Whereas some hydrologic disturbances are directly linked to anthropogenic activities, such as resource extraction, the contributions to this special issue focus primarily on those with indirect or less pronounced human involvement, such as bark-beetle infestation, wildfire, and other natural hazards. However, human activities are enhancing the severity and frequency of these seemingly natural disturbances, thereby contributing to acute hydrologic problems and hazards. Major research challenges for our increasingly disturbed planet include the lack of continuous pre and postdisturbance monitoring, hydrologic impacts that vary spatially and temporally based on environmental and hydroclimatic conditions, and the preponderance of overlapping or compounding disturbance sequences. In addition, a conceptual framework for characterizing commonalities and differences among hydrologic disturbances is still in its infancy. In this introduction to the special issue, we advance the fusion of concepts and terminology from ecology and hydrology to begin filling this gap. We briefly explore some preliminary approaches for comparing different disturbances and their hydrologic impacts, which provides a starting point for further dialogue and research progress.

  16. Perspective on Eco-Hydrology Developing Strategy in China (United States)

    Xia, J.


    China is one of developing countries with higher eco-environmental press in the world due to large population and its socio-economic development. In China, water is not only the sources for life, but also the key for production, and the foundation for eco-system. Thus, Eco-hydrology becomes a fundamental also an applied sciences related to describe the hydrologic mechanisms that underlie ecologic patterns and processes. This paper addresses the issue of Eco-hydrology Developing Strategy in China, supported by Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS). Major contents include four aspects, namely: (1) Demands and frontier of eco-hydrology in the world; (2) Major theories and approaches of Eco-hydrology; (3) Perspective of future development on Eco-hydrology; (4) Enacting and proposal for China development strategy on Eco-hydrology. Application fields involves urban, rural area, wetland, river & lake, forest and special regions in China, such as the arid and semi-arid region and so on. The goal is to promote the disciplinary development of eco-hydrology, and serve for national demands on ecological civilization construction in China.

  17. Disturbance hydrology: Preparing for an increasingly disturbed future (United States)

    Mirus, Benjamin B.; Ebel, Brian A.; Mohr, Christian H.; Zegre, Nicolas


    This special issue is the result of several fruitful conference sessions on disturbance hydrology, which started at the 2013 AGU Fall Meeting in San Francisco and have continued every year since. The stimulating presentations and discussions surrounding those sessions have focused on understanding both the disruption of hydrologic functioning following discrete disturbances, as well as the subsequent recovery or change within the affected watershed system. Whereas some hydrologic disturbances are directly linked to anthropogenic activities, such as resource extraction, the contributions to this special issue focus primarily on those with indirect or less pronounced human involvement, such as bark-beetle infestation, wildfire, and other natural hazards. However, human activities are enhancing the severity and frequency of these seemingly natural disturbances, thereby contributing to acute hydrologic problems and hazards. Major research challenges for our increasingly disturbed planet include the lack of continuous pre- and post-disturbance monitoring, hydrologic impacts that vary spatially and temporally based on environmental and hydroclimatic conditions, and the preponderance of overlapping or compounding disturbance sequences. In addition, a conceptual framework for characterizing commonalities and differences among hydrologic disturbances is still in its infancy. In this introduction to the special issue, we advance the fusion of concepts and terminology from ecology and hydrology to begin filling this gap. We briefly explore some preliminary approaches for comparing different disturbances and their hydrologic impacts, which provides a starting point for further dialogue and research progress.

  18. Long-term effects of climate change on the hydrological system of a lowland area at the German North Sea coast (United States)

    Graeff, Thomas; Baroni, Gabriele; Krause, Stefan


    Coastal areas are highly vulnerable to the impacts of climate change. In particular for the winter season, global sea level rise is expected to be combined with increased precipitation and higher storm surge frequency. During summer, due to the increase of temperature, enhanced evapotranspiration with an increase of groundwater intrusion has been observed. It is expected that the salinization of the surface will rise under drier conditions by upward seeping groundwater. Coastal water resource management requires a better understanding and predictions of these dynamic systems. Therefore, a long-term monitoring programme has been established at the German North Sea coast, located at the estuary of the River Ems. The research area is dominated by a dense canal system that is regulated by pumping stations and tidal gates. Landuse of the area is mainly dairy farming with 30 % of the area below sea level. The underlying aquifer is confined and brackish, and it is connected to the surface water by geological faults of old paleo-channels. Observations in those areas indicate a high salinity with concentrations peaking during the summer period. This study investigates the effects of climate change on water balance and salt transport by applying regional climate models (RCMs) based on the IPCC emission scenarios for the period until 2100 as drivers for a hydrological and solute transport model. To investigate the impact of different meteorological scenarios, the RCM results for the climate scenarios A1B, A2 and B1 are used to cover an increase of future temperature between 1 and 3.5 K. As changes in water level and salinity are expected to influence vegetation patterns (and water management aims to guaranty agricultural use) two alternative landuse scenarios are considered. The first scenario assumes that the technological level of the management will be adapted to rainfall and sea level but without additional drainage from the hinterland to reduce salt water concentration

  19. Some challenges in eco-hydrology (United States)

    Porporato, A.


    The importance of the mutual interactions between biosphere in hydrosphere has become increasingly apparent in both the ecological and hydrological sciences. In hydrology, while the role of plants in controlling soil water balance has been recognized from some time, more subtle controls have also been realized, such as the impact of soil organic matter on soil water dynamics and soil properties, the plant control on infiltration, erosion, and geomorphology. Ecosystem dynamics and land-use changes have also been recognized to impact water availability and quality. On the other hand, biologists and ecologists have increased their attention towards the dynamics of the terrestrial water balance and its impact on plants (photosynthesis, plant growth and reproduction) as well as microbial life (and thus decomposition and the entire cycling of nutrients and carbon fluxes). In this eco-hydrological context, we discuss: (i) the need to distinguish complex from complicated eco- hydrologic behaviors, which are both expected to be present in systems with many degrees of freedom, spatial heterogeneity, nonlinearities and feedbacks (and with biological components). (ii) The use of ideas and tools from complex systems science and non-equilibrium statistical mechanics to explore possible emerging behaviors and patterns. (iii) The importance of intermittency and of the entire spectrum of eco-hydrologic fluctuations conferred by the system nonlinearities, and their connection to a possible theory of biologically- meaningful hydroclimatic extremes. (iv) The need for further research of basic questions yet unanswered (e.g., role of organic matter/roots on soil water balance and soil properties; vegetation control on infiltration; competition for water by plants; role of plant control on uptake (e.g., hydraulic lift)). (v) Ways to merge observations, minimalist models and complex numerical simulations as well as to increase communication of hydrologists with physicists, statisticians

  20. Hydrological models for environmental management

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bolgov, Mikhail V


    .... Stochastic modelling and forecasting cannot at present adequately represent the characteristics of hydrological regimes, nor analyze the influence of water on processes that arise in biological...

  1. Isotope hydrology in Latin America

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Payne, B R [International Atomic Energy Agency, Division of Research and Laboratories, Isotope Hydrology Section, Vienna (Austria)


    A wide variety of problems in hydrology have proved susceptible to the use of nuclear techniques. Conclusions may be drawn from the relative abundances of certain 'environmental isotopes', such as heavy stable isotopes of hydrogen and oxygen in water molecules, tritium, carbon-14 and silicon-32, in atmospheric, surface or ground water; origin and rate of flow, for example, may be deduced. Artificial radioisotopes may be used similarly as a logical extension to well-known tracer techniques using dyes and salts. Inherent in the use of such radiotracers are the advantages of very high detection sensitivity (and thus very low required concentrations and the elimination of density effects), and a choice of a variety of nuclides alien to the geohydrological system (and hence unique identification and low background). (author)

  2. Some History and Hydrology of the Panama Canal

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Pabst, Arthur


    At the request of the Panama Canal Commission (now Panama Canal Authority), the Hydrologic Engineering Center participated in the development of a model to simulate the existing operation of the Panama Canal System...

  3. A question driven socio-hydrological modeling process (United States)

    Garcia, M.; Portney, K.; Islam, S.


    Human and hydrological systems are coupled: human activity impacts the hydrological cycle and hydrological conditions can, but do not always, trigger changes in human systems. Traditional modeling approaches with no feedback between hydrological and human systems typically cannot offer insight into how different patterns of natural variability or human-induced changes may propagate through this coupled system. Modeling of coupled human-hydrological systems, also called socio-hydrological systems, recognizes the potential for humans to transform hydrological systems and for hydrological conditions to influence human behavior. However, this coupling introduces new challenges and existing literature does not offer clear guidance regarding model conceptualization. There are no universally accepted laws of human behavior as there are for the physical systems; furthermore, a shared understanding of important processes within the field is often used to develop hydrological models, but there is no such consensus on the relevant processes in socio-hydrological systems. Here we present a question driven process to address these challenges. Such an approach allows modeling structure, scope and detail to remain contingent on and adaptive to the question context. We demonstrate the utility of this process by revisiting a classic question in water resources engineering on reservoir operation rules: what is the impact of reservoir operation policy on the reliability of water supply for a growing city? Our example model couples hydrological and human systems by linking the rate of demand decreases to the past reliability to compare standard operating policy (SOP) with hedging policy (HP). The model shows that reservoir storage acts both as a buffer for variability and as a delay triggering oscillations around a sustainable level of demand. HP reduces the threshold for action thereby decreasing the delay and the oscillation effect. As a result, per capita demand decreases during

  4. Isotope techniques for hydrology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    In the body of the Panel's report specific conclusions and recommendations are presented in the context of each subject. The general consensus of the Panel is as follows: by the study of this report, the 1961 Panel report, the Proceedings of the March 1963 Tokyo Symposium and other reports of research and technological advances, isotope-technique applications to hydrologic problems have provided some useful avenues for understanding the nature of the hydrologic cycle and in the solution of specific engineering problems. Some techniques are developed thoroughly enough for fairly routine application as tools for use in the solution of practical problems, but further research and development is needed on other concepts to determined whether or not they can be beneficially applied to either research or engineering problems. A concerted effort is required on the part of both hydrologists and isotope specialists working as teams to assure that proper synthesis of scientific advances in the respective fields and translation of these advances into practical technology is achieved

  5. Isotope techniques for hydrology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    In the body of the Panel's report specific conclusions and recommendations are presented in the context of each subject. The general consensus of the Panel is as follows: by the study of this report, the 1961 Panel report, the Proceedings of the March 1963 Tokyo Symposium and other reports of research and technological advances, isotope-technique applications to hydrologic problems have provided some useful avenues for understanding the nature of the hydrologic cycle and in the solution of specific engineering problems. Some techniques are developed thoroughly enough for fairly routine application as tools for use in the solution of practical problems, but further research and development is needed on other concepts to determined whether or not they can be beneficially applied to either research or engineering problems. A concerted effort is required on the part of both hydrologists and isotope specialists working as teams to assure that proper synthesis of scientific advances in the respective fields and translation of these advances into practical technology is achieved.

  6. Hydrology/Radionuclide Migration Program and related research activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, M.A.


    This report presents the results of technical studies conducted under the Hydrology/Radionuclide Migration Program (HRMP) at the Nevada Test Site (NTS) for the period of October 1, 1985 through September 30, 1986. The HRMP was initiated in 1973 as the Radionuclide Migration Program to study and better understand the hydrologic systems of the NTS and potential movement and rates of movement of radionuclides and other contaminants injected into these systems by underground nuclear testing

  7. Uncertainty in hydrological signatures (United States)

    McMillan, Hilary; Westerberg, Ida


    Information that summarises the hydrological behaviour or flow regime of a catchment is essential for comparing responses of different catchments to understand catchment organisation and similarity, and for many other modelling and water-management applications. Such information types derived as an index value from observed data are known as hydrological signatures, and can include descriptors of high flows (e.g. mean annual flood), low flows (e.g. mean annual low flow, recession shape), the flow variability, flow duration curve, and runoff ratio. Because the hydrological signatures are calculated from observed data such as rainfall and flow records, they are affected by uncertainty in those data. Subjective choices in the method used to calculate the signatures create a further source of uncertainty. Uncertainties in the signatures may affect our ability to compare different locations, to detect changes, or to compare future water resource management scenarios. The aim of this study was to contribute to the hydrological community's awareness and knowledge of data uncertainty in hydrological signatures, including typical sources, magnitude and methods for its assessment. We proposed a generally applicable method to calculate these uncertainties based on Monte Carlo sampling and demonstrated it for a variety of commonly used signatures. The study was made for two data rich catchments, the 50 km2 Mahurangi catchment in New Zealand and the 135 km2 Brue catchment in the UK. For rainfall data the uncertainty sources included point measurement uncertainty, the number of gauges used in calculation of the catchment spatial average, and uncertainties relating to lack of quality control. For flow data the uncertainty sources included uncertainties in stage/discharge measurement and in the approximation of the true stage-discharge relation by a rating curve. The resulting uncertainties were compared across the different signatures and catchments, to quantify uncertainty

  8. Darwinian hydrology: can the methodology Charles Darwin pioneered help hydrologic science? (United States)

    Harman, C.; Troch, P. A.


    There have been repeated calls for a Darwinian approach to hydrologic science or for a synthesis of Darwinian and Newtonian approaches, to deepen understanding the hydrologic system in the larger landscape context, and so develop a better basis for predictions now and in an uncertain future. But what exactly makes a Darwinian approach to hydrology "Darwinian"? While there have now been a number of discussions of Darwinian approaches, many referencing Harte (2002), the term is potentially a source of confusion while its connections to Darwin remain allusive rather than explicit. Here we discuss the methods that Charles Darwin pioneered to understand a variety of complex systems in terms of their historical processes of change. We suggest that the Darwinian approach to hydrology follows his lead by focusing attention on the patterns of variation in populations, seeking hypotheses that explain these patterns in terms of the mechanisms and conditions that determine their historical development, using deduction and modeling to derive consequent hypotheses that follow from a proposed explanation, and critically testing these hypotheses against new observations. It is not sufficient to catalogue the patterns or predict them statistically. Nor is it sufficient for the explanations to amount to a "just-so" story not subject to critical analysis. Darwin's theories linked present-day variation to mechanisms that operated over history, and could be independently test and falsified by comparing new observations to the predictions of corollary hypotheses they generated. With a Darwinian framework in mind it is easy to see that a great deal of hydrologic research has already been done that contributes to a Darwinian hydrology - whether deliberately or not. The various heuristic methods that Darwin used to develop explanatory theories - extrapolating mechanisms, space for time substitution, and looking for signatures of history - have direct application in hydrologic science. Some

  9. Hydrologic resilience and Amazon productivity. (United States)

    Ahlström, Anders; Canadell, Josep G; Schurgers, Guy; Wu, Minchao; Berry, Joseph A; Guan, Kaiyu; Jackson, Robert B


    The Amazon rainforest is disproportionately important for global carbon storage and biodiversity. The system couples the atmosphere and land, with moist forest that depends on convection to sustain gross primary productivity and growth. Earth system models that estimate future climate and vegetation show little agreement in Amazon simulations. Here we show that biases in internally generated climate, primarily precipitation, explain most of the uncertainty in Earth system model results; models, empirical data and theory converge when precipitation biases are accounted for. Gross primary productivity, above-ground biomass and tree cover align on a hydrological relationship with a breakpoint at ~2000 mm annual precipitation, where the system transitions between water and radiation limitation of evapotranspiration. The breakpoint appears to be fairly stable in the future, suggesting resilience of the Amazon to climate change. Changes in precipitation and land use are therefore more likely to govern biomass and vegetation structure in Amazonia.Earth system model simulations of future climate in the Amazon show little agreement. Here, the authors show that biases in internally generated climate explain most of this uncertainty and that the balance between water-saturated and water-limited evapotranspiration controls the Amazon resilience to climate change.

  10. Quantitative and qualitative synthesis of socio-hydrological research (United States)

    Xu, L.; Gober, P.; Wheater, H. S.; Kajikawa, Y.


    The challenge of climate change adaptation has raised awareness of the feedbacks and interconnections in complex human-natural coupled water systems. This has reinforced the call for a socio-hydrological approach to better understand, and represent in models, the associated system dynamics. Such models can potentially provide the tools to link knowledge about complex water systems to decision-making and policy frameworks. Socio-hydrology, as the subfield of human-natural coupled systems analysis, has been dramatically developed in the past few years. The purpose of this study is to empirically examine work that has been framed under the umbrella of socio-hydrology, to provide insights into the participants and their disciplinary perspectives, and to draw conclusions about where the field is headed. In doing so, we used a combined quantitative and qualitative approach to synthesise current knowledge of socio-hydrology and to propose some promising future directions in this subfield of water sciences. The general statistics of the existing literature showed that socio-hydrological research has become an emerging topic and is drawing more concern and engagement of hydrologists. However, the participation of social scientists is inadequate and greater cross-disciplinary integration is desirable. Current concerns in this subfield of water research centre on two basic challenges: (1) the need to embrace the social dimensions of water-related risks, and (2) the importance of interactions and feedbacks in dynamic socio-hydrological systems. A third challenge identified here relates to the large-scale implications of 1) and 2) above, i.e. virtual water flows as a mechanism to track the human use of water at the global scale. Accordingly, we propose five potential directions with regard to socio-hydrological models, interdisciplinary collaboration and transdisciplinary studies, the science-policy interface, resilience in socio-hydrological systems, and data sharing for human

  11. Status Report: A Hydrologic Framework for the Oak Ridge Reservation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Solomon, D.K.


    The Oak Ridge Reservation Hydrology and Geology Study (ORRHAGS) was established in 1989 as an integrated study of the hydrology, geology, and soils of the reservation in support of the extensive activities in environmental monitoring, environmental restoration, waste management, and regulatory compliance on the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) of the US Department of Energy (DOE). The Hydrologic Studies Task of ORRHAGS is designed to provide essential information about the hydrologic environment of the ORR to those responsible for dealing with environmental issues, including restoration, environmental monitoring, and waste management, compliance, and enforcement. In order to ensure optimum environmental protection, these systems and their elements must be better understood and quantified. Additionally, in light of the enormous costs attached to environmental protection, restoration, monitoring, and waste management, these activities must be planned and implemented as efficiently as possible. A practical understanding of the hydrologic systems is required for all the objectives associated with contaminants in the hydrologic environment of the ORR. This report describes the current status of the development of a workable framework for the hydrology of the ORR. The framework is based mostly on data and information available from previous investigations.

  12. Evaporation in hydrology and meteorology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brandsma, T.


    In this paper the role of evaporation in hydrology and meteorology is discussed, with the emphasis on hydrology. The basic theory of evaporation is given and methods to determine evaporation are presented. Some applications of evaporation studies in literature are given in order to illustrate the

  13. Inferring catchment precipitation by doing hydrology backward : A test in 24 small and mesoscale catchments in Luxembourg

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krier, R.; Matgen, P.; Goergen, K.; Pfister, L.; Hoffmann, L.; Kirchner, J.W.; Uhlenbrook, S.; Savenije, H.H.G.


    The complexity of hydrological systems and the necessary simplification of models describing these systems remain major challenges in hydrological modeling. Kirchner's (2009) approach of inferring rainfall and evaporation from discharge fluctuations by “doing hydrology backward” is based on the

  14. Effects of hydrology on red mangrove recruits (United States)

    Doyle, Thomas W.


    Coastal wetlands along the Gulf of Mexico have been experiencing significant shifts in hydrology and salinity levels over the past century as a result of changes in sea level and freshwater drainage patterns. Local land management in coastal zones has also impacted the hydrologic regimes of salt marshes and mangrove areas. Parks and refuges in south Florida that contain mangrove forests have, in some cases, been ditched or impounded to control mosquito outbreaks and to foster wildlife use. And while mangroves dominate the subtropical coastlines of Florida and thrive in saltwater environments, little is known about how they respond to changes in hydrology under managed or variable tidal conditions. USGS researchers designed a study to evaluate the basic hydrological requirements of mangroves so that their health and survival may be more effectively managed in controlled impoundments and restored wetlands. Mangroves are commonly found in the intertidal zone (between low and high tides) in a rather broad spectrum of hydrologic settings. Because they thrive at the interface of land and sea, mangroves are subject to changes in freshwater flow (flow rate, nutrients, pollutants) and to marine influences (sea-level rise, salinity). Salinity has long been recognized as a controlling factor that determines the health and distribution of mangrove forests. Field and experimental observations indicate that most mangrove species achieve their highest growth potential under brackish conditions (modest salinity) between 10 and 20 parts per thousand (ppt). Yet, if provided with available propagules, successful regeneration, and limited competition from other plants, then mangroves can survive and thrive in freshwater systems as well. Because little is known about the growthand survival patterns of mangrove species relative to changing hydrology, USGS scientists conducted greenhouse and field experiments to determine how flooded or drained patterns of hydrology would influence

  15. Teaching geographical hydrology in a non-stationary world (United States)

    Hendriks, Martin R.; Karssenberg, Derek


    Understanding hydrological processes in a non-stationary world requires knowledge of hydrological processes and their interactions. Also, one needs to understand the (non-linear) relations between the hydrological system and other parts of our Earth system, such as the climate system, the socio-economic system, and the ecosystem. To provide this knowledge and understanding we think that three components are essential when teaching geographical hydrology. First of all, a student needs to acquire a thorough understanding of classical hydrology. For this, knowledge of the basic hydrological equations, such as the energy equation (Bernoulli), flow equation (Darcy), continuity (or water balance) equation is needed. This, however, is not sufficient to make a student fully understand the interactions between hydrological compartments, or between hydrological subsystems and other parts of the Earth system. Therefore, secondly, a student also needs to be knowledgeable of methods by which the different subsystems can be coupled; in general, numerical models are used for this. A major disadvantage of numerical models is their complexity. A solution may be to use simpler models, provided that a student really understands how hydrological processes function in our real, non-stationary world. The challenge for a student then lies in understanding the interactions between the subsystems, and to be able to answer questions such as: what is the effect of a change in vegetation or land use on runoff? Thirdly, knowledge of field hydrology is of utmost importance. For this a student needs to be trained in the field. Fieldwork is very important as a student is confronted in the field with spatial and temporal variability, as well as with real life uncertainties, rather than being lured into believing the world as presented in hydrological textbooks and models, e.g. the world under study is homogeneous, isotropic, or lumped (averaged). Also, students in the field learn to plan and

  16. Testing the structure of a hydrological model using Genetic Programming (United States)

    Selle, Benny; Muttil, Nitin


    SummaryGenetic Programming is able to systematically explore many alternative model structures of different complexity from available input and response data. We hypothesised that Genetic Programming can be used to test the structure of hydrological models and to identify dominant processes in hydrological systems. To test this, Genetic Programming was used to analyse a data set from a lysimeter experiment in southeastern Australia. The lysimeter experiment was conducted to quantify the deep percolation response under surface irrigated pasture to different soil types, watertable depths and water ponding times during surface irrigation. Using Genetic Programming, a simple model of deep percolation was recurrently evolved in multiple Genetic Programming runs. This simple and interpretable model supported the dominant process contributing to deep percolation represented in a conceptual model that was published earlier. Thus, this study shows that Genetic Programming can be used to evaluate the structure of hydrological models and to gain insight about the dominant processes in hydrological systems.

  17. Testing the Structure of Hydrological Models using Genetic Programming (United States)

    Selle, B.; Muttil, N.


    Genetic Programming is able to systematically explore many alternative model structures of different complexity from available input and response data. We hypothesised that genetic programming can be used to test the structure hydrological models and to identify dominant processes in hydrological systems. To test this, genetic programming was used to analyse a data set from a lysimeter experiment in southeastern Australia. The lysimeter experiment was conducted to quantify the deep percolation response under surface irrigated pasture to different soil types, water table depths and water ponding times during surface irrigation. Using genetic programming, a simple model of deep percolation was consistently evolved in multiple model runs. This simple and interpretable model confirmed the dominant process contributing to deep percolation represented in a conceptual model that was published earlier. Thus, this study shows that genetic programming can be used to evaluate the structure of hydrological models and to gain insight about the dominant processes in hydrological systems.

  18. A Watershed Scale Life Cycle Assessment Framework for Hydrologic Design (United States)

    Tavakol-Davani, H.; Tavakol-Davani, PhD, H.; Burian, S. J.


    Sustainable hydrologic design has received attention from researchers with different backgrounds, including hydrologists and sustainability experts, recently. On one hand, hydrologists have been analyzing ways to achieve hydrologic goals through implementation of recent environmentally-friendly approaches, e.g. Green Infrastructure (GI) - without quantifying the life cycle environmental impacts of the infrastructure through the ISO Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) method. On the other hand, sustainability experts have been applying the LCA to study the life cycle impacts of water infrastructure - without considering the important hydrologic aspects through hydrologic and hydraulic (H&H) analysis. In fact, defining proper system elements for a watershed scale urban water sustainability study requires both H&H and LCA specialties, which reveals the necessity of performing an integrated, interdisciplinary study. Therefore, the present study developed a watershed scale coupled H&H-LCA framework to bring the hydrology and sustainability expertise together to contribute moving the current wage definition of sustainable hydrologic design towards onto a globally standard concept. The proposed framework was employed to study GIs for an urban watershed in Toledo, OH. Lastly, uncertainties associated with the proposed method and parameters were analyzed through a robust Monte Carlo simulation using parallel processing. Results indicated the necessity of both hydrologic and LCA components in the design procedure in order to achieve sustainability.

  19. Revisiting an interdisciplinary hydrological modelling project. A socio-hydrology (?) example from the early 2000s (United States)

    Seidl, Roman; Barthel, Roland


    Interdisciplinary scientific and societal knowledge plays an increasingly important role in global change research. Also, in the field of water resources interdisciplinarity as well as cooperation with stakeholders from outside academia have been recognized as important. In this contribution, we revisit an integrated regional modelling system (DANUBIA), which was developed by an interdisciplinary team of researchers and relied on stakeholder participation in the framework of the GLOWA-Danube project from 2001 to 2011 (Mauser and Prasch 2016). As the model was developed before the current increase in literature on participatory modelling and interdisciplinarity, we ask how a socio-hydrology approach would have helped and in what way it would have made the work different. The present contribution firstly presents the interdisciplinary concept of DANUBIA, mainly with focus on the integration of human behaviour in a spatially explicit, process-based numerical modelling system (Roland Barthel, Janisch, Schwarz, Trifkovic, Nickel, Schulz, and Mauser 2008; R. Barthel, Nickel, Meleg, Trifkovic, and Braun 2005). Secondly, we compare the approaches to interdisciplinarity in GLOWA-Danube with concepts and ideas presented by socio-hydrology. Thirdly, we frame DANUBIA and a review of key literature on socio-hydrology in the context of a survey among hydrologists (N = 184). This discussion is used to highlight gaps and opportunities of the socio-hydrology approach. We show that the interdisciplinary aspect of the project and the participatory process of stakeholder integration in DANUBIA were not entirely successful. However, important insights were gained and important lessons were learnt. Against the background of these experiences we feel that in its current state, socio-hydrology is still lacking a plan for knowledge integration. Moreover, we consider necessary that socio-hydrology takes into account the lessons learnt from these earlier examples of knowledge integration

  20. Evaluating Hydrologic Response of an Agricultural Watershed for Watershed Analysis


    Manoj Kumar Jha


    This paper describes the hydrological assessment of an agricultural watershed in the Midwestern United States through the use of a watershed scale hydrologic model. The Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) model was applied to the Maquoketa River watershed, located in northeast Iowa, draining an agriculture intensive area of about 5,000 km2. The inputs to the model were obtained from the Environmental Protection Agency’s geographic information/database system called Better Assessment Science...

  1. Use of environmental isotope techniques in groundwater hydrology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tirumalesh, K.; Shivanna, K.


    Environmental isotopes (stable and radioactive) have been used as tracers for investigating various hydrological problems. Wide variation in isotopic distribution ( 2 H, 13 C, 18 O, 15 N, 35 S, 3 H and 14 C) in the environment help in identifying the source, origin, pathways and processes affecting the system under consideration. In this article, a few Indian case studies covering some of the very important isotope applications in groundwater hydrology are briefly summarized. (author)

  2. Hydrologic modeling and field testing at Yucca mountain, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoxie, D.T.


    Yucca Mountain, Nevada, is being evaluated as a possible site for a mined geologic repository for the disposal of high-level nuclear waste. The repository is proposed to be constructed in fractured, densely welded tuff within the thick (500 to 750 meters) unsaturated zone at the site. Characterization of the site unsaturated-zone hydrogeologic system requires quantitative specification of the existing state of the system and the development of numerical hydrologic models to predict probable evolution of the hydrogeologic system over the lifetime of the repository. To support development of hydrologic models for the system, a testing program has been designed to characterize the existing state of the system, to measure hydrologic properties for the system and to identify and quantify those processes that control system dynamics. 12 refs

  3. Isotope hydrology in Latin America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Payne, B.R.


    There are a broad range of nuclear techniques applicable to a variety of hydrological problems and these techniques are becoming recognized as an additional and, in some cases, indispensable tool available to the hydrologist in his quest to meet the increasing demands for water by agriculture, industry and community water supply. In Latin America we find examples of almost all the nuclear hydrological techniques. This article endeavours to give a summary account of the status of isotope hydrology in the region and the types of problems to which these techniques have been applied

  4. Artificial radioisotopes in hydrological investigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plata-Bedmar, A.


    Radioisotope techniques have an important part in hydrological investigations. Sealed radiation sources have been used for measurements of sediments transported by river water, of thickness and density of sediment layers. X-ray fluorescence analysis and well-logging are widely applied in hydrological research. Tracer techniques have been useful in flow rate and river dynamics research, sediments tracing, irrigation and ground water problems, infiltration rate evaluation etc. The IAEA is supporting several projects involving the use of radioactive tracers in hydrological investigations p.e. in Guatemala, Romania, South East Asia, Brazil, Chile and Nicaragua

  5. Communicating uncertainty in hydrological forecasts: mission impossible? (United States)

    Ramos, Maria-Helena; Mathevet, Thibault; Thielen, Jutta; Pappenberger, Florian


    Cascading uncertainty in meteo-hydrological modelling chains for forecasting and integrated flood risk assessment is an essential step to improve the quality of hydrological forecasts. Although the best methodology to quantify the total predictive uncertainty in hydrology is still debated, there is a common agreement that one must avoid uncertainty misrepresentation and miscommunication, as well as misinterpretation of information by users. Several recent studies point out that uncertainty, when properly explained and defined, is no longer unwelcome among emergence response organizations, users of flood risk information and the general public. However, efficient communication of uncertain hydro-meteorological forecasts is far from being a resolved issue. This study focuses on the interpretation and communication of uncertain