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Sample records for tailoring inorganic sorbents

  1. TAILORING INORGANIC SORBENTS FOR SRS STRONTIUM AND ACTINIDE SEPARATIONS: OPTIMIZED MONOSODIUM TITANATE PHASE II FINAL REPORT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hobbs, D; Thomas Peters, T; Michael Poirier, M; Mark Barnes, M; Major Thompson, M; Samuel Fink, S

    2007-01-01

    3). Performance testing with simulated and actual waste solutions indicated that the material performs as well as or better than batches of modified MST prepared at the laboratory-scale. Particle size data of the vendor-prepared modified MST indicates a broader distribution centered at a larger particle size and microscopy shows more irregular particle morphology compared to the baseline MST and laboratory prepared modified MST. Stirred-cell (i.e., dead-end) filter testing revealed similar filtration rates relative to the baseline MST for both the laboratory and vendor-prepared modified MST materials. Crossflow filtration testing indicated that with MST-only slurries, the baseline MST produced between 30-100% higher flux than the vendor-prepared modified MST at lower solids loadings and comparable flux at higher solids loadings. With sludge-MST slurries, the modified MST produced 1.5-2.2 times higher flux than the baseline MST at all solids loadings. Based on these findings we conclude that the modified MST represents a much improved sorbent for the separation of strontium and actinides from alkaline waste solutions and recommend continued development of the material as a replacement for the baseline MST for waste treatment facilities at the Savannah River Site

  2. TAILORING INORGANIC SORBENTS FOR SRS STRONTIUM AND ACTINIDE SEPARATIONS: MODIFIED MONOSODIUM TITANATE PHASE III FINAL REPORT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor-Pashow, K.; Hobbs, D.

    2010-09-01

    This document provides a final report of Phase III testing activities for the development of modified monosodium titanate (mMST), which exhibits improved strontium and actinide removal characteristics compared to the baseline MST material. The activities included characterization of the crystalline phases present at varying temperatures, solids settling characteristics, quantification of the peroxide content; evaluation of the post-synthesis gas release under different conditions; the extent of desorption of {sup 85}Sr, Np, and Pu under washing conditions; and the effects of age and radiation on the performance of the mMST. Key findings and conclusions include the following. The peroxide content of several mMST samples was determined using iodometric titration. The peroxide content was found to decrease with age or upon extended exposure to elevated temperature. A loss of peroxide was also measured after exposure of the material to an alkaline salt solution similar in composition to the simulated waste solution. To determine if the loss of peroxide with age affects the performance of the material, Sr and actinide removal tests were conducted with samples of varying age. The oldest sample (4 years and 8 months) did show lower Sr and Pu removal performance. When compared to the youngest sample tested (1 month), the oldest sample retained only 15% of the DF for Pu. Previous testing with this sample indicated no decrease in Pu removal performance up to an age of 30 months. No loss in Np removal performance was observed for any of the aged samples, and no uptake of uranium occurred at the typical sorbent loading of 0.2 g/L. Additional testing with a uranium only simulant and higher mMST loading (3.0 g/L) indicated a 10% increase of uranium uptake for a sample aged 3 years and 8 months when compared to the results of the same sample measured at an age of 1 year and 5 months. Performance testing with both baseline-MST and mMST that had been irradiated in a gamma source to

  3. Influence of lignin on properties of wood-inorganic sorbents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Remez, V.P.; Charina, M.V.; Klass, S.M.; Shubin, A.S.; Tkachev, K.V.; Isaeva, O.F.

    1986-01-01

    Present article is devoted to influence of lignin on properties of wood-inorganic sorbents. The influence of component composition of matrix on sorption properties of sorbents and their stability in different mediums is studied. The dependence of sorption capacity of sorbent on component matrix composition and its porous structure is defined.

  4. Effectiveness of liquid radioactive waste purification by inorganic granulated sorbents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Komarevskij, V.M.; Stepanets, O.V.; Sharygin, L.M.; Matveev, S.A.

    1995-01-01

    Study results on purification of simulative and real liquid radioactive wastes from fission products radionuclides and by inorganic corrosion-nature sorbents 'Thermoxide' are presented. Properties by sorption of cesium, strontium and cobalt are studied; results of experiments on purification of weakly-salted water solutions (waste waters, ships drainage tanks, showers and laundries) of the Beloyarsk NPP are presented. Sorbents source characteristics are determined. 4 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs

  5. Evaluation of inorganic sorbent treatment for LWR coolant process streams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roddy, J.W.

    1984-03-01

    This report presents results of a survey of the literature and of experience at selected nuclear installations to provide information on the feasibility of replacing organic ion exchangers with inorganic sorbents at light-water-cooled nuclear power plants. Radioactive contents of the various streams in boiling water reactors and pressurized water reactors were examined. In addition, the methods and performances of current methods used for controlling water quality at these plants were evaluated. The study also includes a brief review of the physical and chemical properties of selected inorganic sorbents. Some attributes of inorganic sorbents would be useful in processing light water reactor (LWR) streams. The inorganic resins are highly resistant to damage from ionizing radiation, and their exchange capacities are generally equivalent to those of organic ion exchangers. However, they are more limited in application, and there are problems with physical integrity, especially in acidic solutions. Research is also needed in the areas of selectivity and anion removal before inorganic sorbents can be considered as replacements for the synthetic organic resins presently used in LWRs. 11 figures, 14 tables

  6. Application of inorganic sorbents for sewage purification from copper

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yelizarova, I.A.; Tomchuk, T.K.; Kalinin, N.F.; Vol'khin, V.V.; Levichek, M.S.; Gulyaeva, E.I.

    1986-01-01

    Article presents the results of elaboration of synthesis methods of sorbent on the base of phosphate and magnesium hydroxide. As a result of study the technology of sorbent production with optimal properties was elaborated.

  7. Inorganic sorbents for radiostrontium removal from waste solutions: selectivity and role of calixarenes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vijayan, S.; Belikov, K.; Drapailo, A.

    2011-01-01

    The challenge in the remediation of 90 Sr-contaminated waters arises from the need to achieve very high removal efficiencies to meet discharge targets from waste effluents containing relatively high concentrations of non-radioactive cations. Low-cost natural zeolites are not selective for strontium over other divalent cations, notably such ions as calcium; and produce low 90 Sr removal performance, and large volumes of spent sorbent waste. The synthesis and use of selective, synthetic inorganic sorbents could prove to be a feasible approach for high 90 Sr removal efficiencies, and much smaller volumes of secondary solid waste generation. The essential advantages of inorganic sorbents include their stability and resistance to radiation, and the potential for producing stable waste forms such as vitrified glass or ceramics for disposal. However, the cost of strontium-specific sorbents is prohibitive for large-scale applications at present. This paper is a review of the reported information on removal mechanisms and performance of Sr-specific inorganic sorbents. The analysis has revealed promising performance, efficiency and selectivity for strontium removal from solutions containing low and high concentrations of salts. The leading sorbents are crystalline silicotitanate and oxides of metals such as titanium. An initial assessment has also been made of the performance of calixarene-based macrocyclic compounds. These are known for their selectivity for strontium in solvent extraction processes. From the initial strontium removal results in bench-scale tests using different solid substrates, impregnated with calixarene derivatives, only sodium-mordenite impregnated with calyx[8]arene octamide gave an overall strontium removal efficiency in the range of 90 to 95% in the presence of 3.5 ppm calcium. There was no improvement observed for strontium-removal efficiency or selectivity over calcium in the calixarene-impregnated inorganic sorbent matrix. In several tests, the

  8. Separation of radionuclides from gas by sorption on activated charcoal and inorganic sorbents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kepak, F.

    1988-01-01

    The review deals with the sorption and ion exchange of gaseous radionuclides on activated charcoal and on inorganic sorbents. It presents the physical and chemical characteristics of radionuclides, the sources of gaseous forms of radionuclides as well as the composition of radioactive gases from some nuclear facilities. 79 refs. (author)

  9. Use of inorganic sorbents for treatment of liquid radioactive waste and backfill of underground repositories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-11-01

    This document presents the results of a four year Co-ordinated Research Programme (CRP) on the ''Use of Inorganic Sorbents for Treatment of Liquid Radioactive Waste and Backfill of Underground Repositories'' (1987-1991). Many countries have research programmes aiming at developing processes which would provide efficient and safe concentration of radionuclides in waste streams into solid materials which could then be reliably immobilized into forms suitable for long term storage or disposal. Use of inorganic sorbents for this purpose is very attractive because of their resistance to radiation and chemical attack, strong affinity for one or more radionuclides, their compatibility with likely immobilization matrices and their availability at low cost. According to the fundamental multibarrier concept for disposal of radioactive waste, backfill material is one of the important engineered barriers. Inorganic materials such as clays, naturally occurring zeolites (clinoptilolite, modenite and chabasite) are promising backfill materials. Research in technical uses of inorganic material applications was covered within the framework of the Co-ordinated Research Programme reported in this technical document. Final contributions by participants at the last Research Co-ordination Meeting held in Rez, Czechoslovakia, from 4 to 8 November 1991, are presented here. Refs, figs and tabs

  10. Composite sorbents of inorganic ion-exchangers and polyacrylonitrile binding matrix. Methods of modification of properties of inorganic ion-exchangers for application in column packed beds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sebesta, F.

    1997-01-01

    Methods of preparation of granules of inorganic ion exchangers as well as methods for improvement of granular strength of these materials are reviewed. The resulting ion exchangers are classified in three groups - 'intrinsic', supported and composite ion exchangers. Their properties are compared and possibilities of their technological application are evaluated. A new method of preparation of inorganic-organic composite sorbents of inorganic ion-exchangers and polyacrylonitrile binding matrix is described, advantages and disadvantages of such sorbents are discussed. Proposed fields of application include tratment of liquid radioactive and/or hazardous wastes, decontamination of natural water as well as analytical applications. (author)

  11. Use of synthetic zeolites and other inorganic sorbents for the removal of radionuclides from aqueous wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samantha, S.K.; Singh, I.J.; Jain, S.; Sathi, S.; Venkatesan, K.; Ramaswamy, M.; Theyyunni, T.K.; Siddiqui, H.R.

    1997-01-01

    Several synthetic zeolites and inorganic sorbents were tested in the laboratory for the sorption of various radionuclides present in radioactive aqueous waste streams originating from nuclear installations. The sorption of the critical radionuclides like 137 Cs, 90 Sr and 60 Co from level waste solutions was studied using the synthetic zeolites 4A, 13X and AR1 of Indian origin. Granulated forms of ammonium molybdophosphate and CaSO 4 -BaSO 4 eutectoid were tested for the sorption of cesium and strontium respectively, from acidic solutions. The removal of radiostrontium from alkaline salt-loaded intermediate level reprocessing wastes was studied using hydrous ferric oxide-activated carbon composite sorbent, hydrous titania and hydrous manganese dioxide.. The results of these investigations are expected to be of value in formulating radioactive waste treatment schemes for achieving high decontamination and volume reduction factors. (author). 12 refs, 5 figs, 18 tabs

  12. Advances in organic-inorganic hybrid sorbents for the extraction of organic and inorganic pollutants in different types of food and environmental samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Nyuk-Ting; Kamaruddin, Amirah Farhan; Wan Ibrahim, Wan Aini; Sanagi, Mohd Marsin; Abdul Keyon, Aemi S

    2018-01-01

    The efficiency of the extraction and removal of pollutants from food and the environment has been an important issue in analytical science. By incorporating inorganic species into an organic matrix, a new material known as an organic-inorganic hybrid material is formed. As it possesses high selectivity, permeability, and mechanical and chemical stabilities, organic-inorganic hybrid materials constitute an emerging research field and have become popular to serve as sorbents in various separaton science methods. Here, we review recent significant advances in analytical solid-phase extraction employing organic-inorganic composite/nanocomposite sorbents for the extraction of organic and inorganic pollutants from various types of food and environmental matrices. The physicochemical characteristics, extraction properties, and analytical performances of sorbents are discussed; including morphology and surface characteristics, types of functional groups, interaction mechanism, selectivity and sensitivity, accuracy, and regeneration abilities. Organic-inorganic hybrid sorbents combined with extraction techniques are highly promising for sample preparation of various food and environmental matrixes with analytes at trace levels. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. Waste treatment and immobilization technologies involving inorganic sorbents. Final report of a co-ordinated research programme 1992-1996

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-06-01

    A Coordinated Research Programme (CRP) for the application of inorganic sorbents in liquid waste treatment and immobilization was initiated by the IAEA in 1992. The results of this CRP are presented in this report. Fifteen institutions from fourteen countries were involved in this programme. The framework of this CRP was: (1) to conduct fundamental studies on sorbent structure and sorption mechanism; (2) to obtain thermodynamic and kinetic data of the treatment process; (3) to define sorption mechanism of radionuclides on different soils; (4) to identify sorbents appropriate for treatment of liquid waste streams; (5) to develop standard tests to be able to compare results of different groups of investigations. Refs, figs, tabs

  14. Equilibriums of sorption of impurities of 3 d - cations by inorganic sorbents from phosphate and arsenate solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Filatova, L.N.; Kurdyumova, T.N.; Bagrov, V.M.; Blyum, G.Z.

    1986-01-01

    Present article is devoted to equilibriums of sorption of impurities of 3 d - cations by inorganic sorbents from phosphate and arsenate solutions. Equilibriums of sorption of microquantities of iron, scandium, zink, copper, cobalt and manganese by inorganic sorbents on the basis of titanium and aluminium oxides from phosphate and arsenate solutions are studied. The influence of structural and chemical properties of matrix on sorption properties of oxides in phosphate and arsenate solutions is studied as well. It is defined that in concentrated solutions the sorption value of trace contaminant depends on a character of cation of alkaline metal.

  15. Study of inorganic sorbents as materials for underground repositories in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhixiong, W.

    1989-01-01

    Since 1983, the construction of nuclear power plants has been taking place in Zhejiang and Guangdong provinces of China. The project is a part of the radwaste disposal plan of China. The project under the contract with IAEA studies absorption kinetics and mechanism of backfill material and selection of proper backfill material for the radwaste disposal plan. There are varieties of clay minerals as inorganic sorbents in China, such as zeolite, illite montomorillonite, kolinite, and so on. Bentonite is the first selected material for the research project. Bentonite is a common montonorillonite clay with good mechanical properties and chemical stability under certain conditions in a repository capacity. There are many huge bentonite deposits in China. China's LILW disposal will be possibly selected in the bentonite district. The investigation of China's bentonite will include the properties of China's sites, the study of migration of radionuclides and the geochemistry of actinides elements. Various bentonites of China have been studied to select one of good quality. The project is significant to assess the barrier ability of bentonite. The project also made the primary work for zeolite as a sorbent which has been used for the disposal of LILW liquid in China. Clinopliotite has been used in China's hydraulic fracture test of the radwaste liquid

  16. Investigations of the sorption of cesium from acid solutions by various inorganic sorbents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suess, M.; Pfrepper, G.

    1981-01-01

    Studies have been made to investigate the suitability of various inorganic sorbents for separating and obtaining cesium from acid solutions. In greater details, the distribution coefficients of cesium from nitric acid and ammonium nitrate solution were determined. To determine the saturation capacities it was necessary to plot the isotherms of adsorption from 0.5 N and 3.1 N nitric acid. Experimental sorption from a model solution, of which the composition was equal to that of the liquid Purex waste, enabled the suitability of the various exchangers for obtaining cesium from fission product solutions to be determined. From the results obtained it is apparent that ammonium phosphomolybdate is best suited for obtaining cesium from acid fission product solutions. (orig.)

  17. Sorbent suppliers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vedder, M.

    1994-01-01

    Sorbents are used to absorb or contain spilled and leaking chemicals, oils, lubricants and other process fluids. They are commonly used around the base of machinery in industrial applications, and in remediating oil spills on land and water. Sorbents are made from biodegradable, inorganic or synthetic materials. Organic materials include corn cobs, wood pulp, paper fiber and cotton. Inorganic materials include clay, perlite, expanded silicates and expanded mica. Synthetic sorbents are made from petroleum- or plastic-based materials such as polyurethane, polyethylene or polypropylene. Sorbents are available in a variety of forms, including pads, rolls, booms, pillows and loose particulate

  18. Metal-inorganic-organic matrices as efficient sorbents for hydrogen storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azzouz, Abdelkrim; Nousir, Saadia; Bouazizi, Nabil; Roy, René

    2015-03-01

    Stabilization of metal nanoparticles (MNPs) without re-aggregation is a major challenge. An unprecedented strategy is developed for achieving high dispersion of copper(0) or palladium(0) on montmorillonite-supported diethanolamine or thioglycerol. This results in novel metal-inorganic-organic matrices (MIOM) that readily capture hydrogen at ambient conditions, with easy release under air stream. Hydrogen retention appears to involve mainly physical interactions, slightly stronger on thioglycerol-based MIOM (S-MIOM). Thermal enhancement of desorption suggests also a contribution of chemical interactions. The increase of hydrogen uptake with prolonged contact times arises from diffusion hindrance, which appears to be beneficial by favoring hydrogen entrapment. Even with compact structures, MIOMs act as efficient sorbents with much higher efficiency factor (1.14-1.17 mmol H 2 m(-2)) than many other sophisticated adsorbents reported in the literature. This opens new prospects for hydrogen storage and potential applications in microfluidic hydrogenation reactions. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. Development and testing of inorganic sorbents made by the internal gelation process for radionuclide and heavy metal separations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Egan, B.Z.; Collins, J.L.; Anderson, K.K.; Chase, C.W.

    1995-01-01

    The objectives of this task are to develop, prepare, and test microspheres and granular forms of inorganic ion exchangers to remove radionuclides and heavy metals from waste streams occurring at various sites. Several inorganic materials, such as hexacyanoferrates, titanates, phosphates, and oxides have high selectivities and efficiencies for separating and removing radionuclides such as uranium, technetium, cesium, and strontium, and metals such as cobalt, silver, zinc, and zirconium from aqueous waste streams. However, these sorbents frequently exist only as powders and consequently are not readily adaptable to continuous processing such as column chromatography. Making these inorganic ion exchangers as microspheres or granular forms improves the flow dynamics for column operations and expands their practical applications. Microspheres of several materials have been prepared at ORNL, and the effectiveness of zirconium monohydrogen phosphate and hydrous titanium oxide microspheres for removing radionuclides from hot cell waste solutions has been demonstrated

  20. Research and application of inorganic selective sorbents at Mayak PA; Recherches et applications sur l'utilisation de sorbants specifiques a Mayak

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Logunov, M.V.; Skobtsov, A.S.; Soldatov, B.V.; Pazdnikov, A.P.; Voroshilov, Y.A.; Rovny, S.I. [Mayak Production Association, Chelyabinsk Region (Russian Federation)

    2004-12-01

    This work has been performed in order to identify selective inorganic sorbents for caesium and strontium. Thin-layer sorbents with nickel ferrocyanide embedded in an inert matrix were found to be the best for caesium. Sorbents including non-stoichiometric manganese dioxide were selected for strontium. Bench tests have been carried out on the purification of desalted water of SNF storage-pool from {sup 137}Cs, and on the purification of contaminated natural water from {sup 90}Sr. The facility for synthesizing the ferrocyanide sorbent with the registered mark 'Seleks-CFN' has been brought into operation. The sorbent ISM-S seems promising for {sup 90}Sr decontamination. (authors)

  1. Strategic Design and Optimization of Inorganic Sorbents for Cesium, Strontium and Actinides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maginn, Edward J.

    2009-01-01

    The primary objective of the Notre Dame component of the project was computational in nature. The goal was to provide a design tool for the synthesis of optimized sorbents for the removal of cesium, strontium and actinides from nuclear waste solutions. Molecular modeling enables us to observe and better understand the molecular level interactions that govern the selectivity of specific radionuclides in a particular sorbent. The research focused on the development and validation of a suitable and transferable model for all the cations and ion exchangers of interest, nd then subsequent simulations which determined the siting and mobility of water and cations. Speciic accomplishments include: (1) improving existing intermolecular force fields to accurately model the sorbents of interest; (2) utilizing energy-minimizations and molecular dynamics simulations for structural prediction of CST and niobium-substituted CST materials; (3) determining Na+/water positions in polyoxoniobate materials using molecular dynamics simulations; and (4) developing Hybrid Monte Carlo methods for improved structural prediction.

  2. Sb(III)-Imprinted Organic-Inorganic Hybrid Sorbent Prepared by Hydrothermal-Assisted Surface Imprinting Technique for Selective Adsorption of Sb(III)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Dan; Zhao, Yue; Xu, Hong-Bo

    2018-03-01

    Sb(III)-imprinted organic-inorganic hybrid sorbent was prepared by hydrothermal-assisted surface imprinting technique and was characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy coupled to an energy dispersive spectrometer and N2 adsorption/desorption isotherms. Hydrothermal-assisted process can improve the selectivity of the Sb(III)-imprinted hybrid sorbent for Sb(III) due to stable control of temperature and pressure. The Sb(III)-imprinted hybrid sorbent IIS indicated higher selectivity for Sb(III), had high static adsorption capacity of 37.3 mg g-1 for Sb(III), displayed stable adsorption capacity in pH range from 4 to 8, reached an rapid adsorption equilibrium within 30 min. According to the correlation coefficient ( r 2 > 0.99), the experimental data fitted better the pseudo-second-order kinetic model and Langmuir equilibrium isotherm.

  3. Spherical silica particles decorated with graphene oxide nanosheets as a new sorbent in inorganic trace analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sitko, Rafal; Zawisza, Beata; Talik, Ewa; Janik, Paulina; Osoba, Grzegorz; Feist, Barbara; Malicka, Ewa

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Graphene oxide (GO) covalently bonded to the spherical silica. • Very stable sorbent for SPE of metal ions. • Excellent contact with solution due to the softness and flexibility of GO nanosheets. • Several adsorption–elution cycles without any loss of adsorptive properties. • High adsorption capacity due to the wrinkled structure of GO nanosheets. - Abstract: Graphene oxide (GO) is a novel material with excellent adsorptive properties. However, the very small particles of GO can cause serious problems is solid-phase extraction (SPE) such as the high pressure in SPE system and the adsorbent loss through pores of frit. These problems can be overcome by covalently binding GO nanosheets to a support. In this paper, GO was covalently bonded to spherical silica by coupling the amino groups of spherical aminosilica and the carboxyl groups of GO (GO@SiO 2 ). The successful immobilization of GO nanosheets on the aminosilica was confirmed by scanning electron microscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The spherical particle covered by GO with crumpled silk wave-like carbon sheets are an ideal sorbent for SPE of metal ions. The wrinkled structure of the coating results in large surface area and a high extractive capacity. The adsorption bath experiment shows that Cu(II) and Pb(II) can be quantitatively adsorbed at pH 5.5 with maximum adsorption capacity of 6.0 and 13.6 mg g −1 , respectively. Such features of GO nanosheets as softness and flexibility allow achieving excellent contact with analyzed solution in flow-rate conditions. In consequence, the metal ions can be quantitatively preconcentrated from high volume of aqueous samples with excellent flow-rate. SPE column is very stable and several adsorption–elution cycles can be performed without any loss of adsorptive properties. The GO@SiO 2 was used for analysis of various water samples by flame atomic absorption spectrometry with excellent enrichment factors (200–250) and detection

  4. Spherical silica particles decorated with graphene oxide nanosheets as a new sorbent in inorganic trace analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sitko, Rafal, E-mail: rafal.sitko@us.edu.pl [University of Silesia, Institute of Chemistry, ul. Szkolna 9, 40-006 Katowice (Poland); Zawisza, Beata [University of Silesia, Institute of Chemistry, ul. Szkolna 9, 40-006 Katowice (Poland); Talik, Ewa [University of Silesia, Institute of Physics, ul. Uniwersytecka 4, 40-007 Katowice (Poland); Janik, Paulina; Osoba, Grzegorz; Feist, Barbara; Malicka, Ewa [University of Silesia, Institute of Chemistry, ul. Szkolna 9, 40-006 Katowice (Poland)

    2014-06-27

    Highlights: • Graphene oxide (GO) covalently bonded to the spherical silica. • Very stable sorbent for SPE of metal ions. • Excellent contact with solution due to the softness and flexibility of GO nanosheets. • Several adsorption–elution cycles without any loss of adsorptive properties. • High adsorption capacity due to the wrinkled structure of GO nanosheets. - Abstract: Graphene oxide (GO) is a novel material with excellent adsorptive properties. However, the very small particles of GO can cause serious problems is solid-phase extraction (SPE) such as the high pressure in SPE system and the adsorbent loss through pores of frit. These problems can be overcome by covalently binding GO nanosheets to a support. In this paper, GO was covalently bonded to spherical silica by coupling the amino groups of spherical aminosilica and the carboxyl groups of GO (GO@SiO{sub 2}). The successful immobilization of GO nanosheets on the aminosilica was confirmed by scanning electron microscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The spherical particle covered by GO with crumpled silk wave-like carbon sheets are an ideal sorbent for SPE of metal ions. The wrinkled structure of the coating results in large surface area and a high extractive capacity. The adsorption bath experiment shows that Cu(II) and Pb(II) can be quantitatively adsorbed at pH 5.5 with maximum adsorption capacity of 6.0 and 13.6 mg g{sup −1}, respectively. Such features of GO nanosheets as softness and flexibility allow achieving excellent contact with analyzed solution in flow-rate conditions. In consequence, the metal ions can be quantitatively preconcentrated from high volume of aqueous samples with excellent flow-rate. SPE column is very stable and several adsorption–elution cycles can be performed without any loss of adsorptive properties. The GO@SiO{sub 2} was used for analysis of various water samples by flame atomic absorption spectrometry with excellent enrichment factors (200–250) and

  5. Study of calcium chloride and calcium nitrate purification on inorganic sorbents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vasil'eva, L.V.; Knyazeva, A.N.; Fakeev, A.A.; Belyaeva, N.A.; Morozov, V.I.; Kucherova, V.V.

    1986-01-01

    Purification of calcium chloride and calcium nitrate from iron, chromium, manganese and cobalt impurities by sorption on some inorganic collectors are considered in this article. Study was conducted by means of radioactive-tracer technique at concurrent use of several γ-radioactive isotopes. As a collectors were used hydrated aluminium and zirconium oxides. Dependence of effectiveness of precipitation by collectors on ph-value of medium, quantity of collector, nature and concentration of components is studied. Optimal parameters of purification of calcium chloride and calcium nitrate are defined.

  6. Spherical silica particles decorated with graphene oxide nanosheets as a new sorbent in inorganic trace analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sitko, Rafal; Zawisza, Beata; Talik, Ewa; Janik, Paulina; Osoba, Grzegorz; Feist, Barbara; Malicka, Ewa

    2014-06-27

    Graphene oxide (GO) is a novel material with excellent adsorptive properties. However, the very small particles of GO can cause serious problems is solid-phase extraction (SPE) such as the high pressure in SPE system and the adsorbent loss through pores of frit. These problems can be overcome by covalently binding GO nanosheets to a support. In this paper, GO was covalently bonded to spherical silica by coupling the amino groups of spherical aminosilica and the carboxyl groups of GO (GO@SiO2). The successful immobilization of GO nanosheets on the aminosilica was confirmed by scanning electron microscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The spherical particle covered by GO with crumpled silk wave-like carbon sheets are an ideal sorbent for SPE of metal ions. The wrinkled structure of the coating results in large surface area and a high extractive capacity. The adsorption bath experiment shows that Cu(II) and Pb(II) can be quantitatively adsorbed at pH 5.5 with maximum adsorption capacity of 6.0 and 13.6 mg g(-1), respectively. Such features of GO nanosheets as softness and flexibility allow achieving excellent contact with analyzed solution in flow-rate conditions. In consequence, the metal ions can be quantitatively preconcentrated from high volume of aqueous samples with excellent flow-rate. SPE column is very stable and several adsorption-elution cycles can be performed without any loss of adsorptive properties. The GO@SiO2 was used for analysis of various water samples by flame atomic absorption spectrometry with excellent enrichment factors (200-250) and detection limits (0.084 and 0.27 ng mL(-1) for Cu(II) and Pb(II), respectively). Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Silica- and germania-based dual-ligand sol-gel organic-inorganic hybrid sorbents combining superhydrophobicity and π-π interaction. The role of inorganic substrate in sol-gel capillary microextraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seyyal, Emre; Malik, Abdul

    2017-04-29

    Principles of sol-gel chemistry were utilized to create silica- and germania-based dual-ligand surface-bonded sol-gel coatings providing enhanced performance in capillary microextraction (CME) through a combination of ligand superhydrophobicity and π-π interaction. These organic-inorganic hybrid coatings were prepared using sol-gel precursors with bonded perfluorododecyl (PF-C 12 ) and phenethyl (PhE) ligands. Here, the ability of the PF-C 12 ligand to provide enhanced hydrophobic interaction was advantageously combined with π-π interaction capability of the PhE moiety to attain the desired sorbent performance in CME. The effect of the inorganic sorbent component on microextraction performance of was explored by comparing microextraction characteristics of silica- and germania-based sol-gel sorbents. The germania-based dual-ligand sol-gel sorbent demonstrated superior CME performance compared to its silica-based counterpart. Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) of the created silica- and germania-based dual-ligand sol-gel sorbents suggested higher carbon loading on the germania-based sorbent. This might be indicative of more effective condensation of the organic ligand-bearing sol-gel-active chemical species to the germania-based sol-gel network (than to its silica-based counterpart) evolving in the sol solution. The type and concentration of the organic ligands were varied in the sol-gel sorbents to fine-tune extraction selectivity toward different classes of analytes. Specific extraction (SE) values were used for an objective comparison of the prepared sol-gel CME sorbents. The sorbents with higher content of PF-C 12 showed remarkable affinity for aliphatic hydrocarbons. Compared to their single-ligand sol-gel counterparts, the dual-ligand sol-gel coatings demonstrated significantly superior CME performance in the extraction of alkylbenzenes, providing up to ∼65.0% higher SE values. The prepared sol-gel CME coatings provided low ng L -1 limit of detections (LOD

  8. Synthesis and adsorption behaviour of some organic and inorganic sorbents for some hazardous toxic elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Naggar, I.M.; Abou-Mesalam, M.M.; Abdel-Hamid, M.M.; Shady, S.A.; Aly, H.F.

    2000-01-01

    Poly (acrylamide-acrylic acid ) -zirconium phosphate p(AM-AA) -Zr p is a new organic resin and can be synthesized by gamma radiation induced polymerization of acrylic acid (AA) in the presence of poly acrylamide (PAM) using a template polymerization technique in the presence of zirconium oxychloride and then soaking in phosphoric acid. The obtained polymer shows an excellent thermal and chemical stabilities, high capacities measurements in addition to high selectivity behaviour to some hazardous heavy metals. In a comparative study for the previous organic resin, P(AM-AA)-Zr P with cerium(IV) antimonate (Ce Sb) and titanium (IV) antimonate (Ti Sb) as inorganic ion exchangers we can concluded that both of Ce Sb and Ti Sb have a greater selectivities to the hazardous heavy metals as compared with p(AM-AA) Zr P whereas the later has a higher capacity than Ce Sb and Ti Sb

  9. Treatment of model and galvanic waste solutions of copper(II) ions using a lignin/inorganic oxide hybrid as an effective sorbent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciesielczyk, Filip; Bartczak, Przemysław; Klapiszewski, Łukasz; Jesionowski, Teofil

    2017-04-15

    A study was made concerning the removal of copper(II) ions from model and galvanic waste solutions using a new sorption material consisting of lignin in combination with an inorganic oxide system. Specific physicochemical properties of the material resulted from combining the activity of the functional groups present in the structure of lignin with the high surface area of the synthesized oxide system (585m 2 /g). Analysis of the porous structure parameters, particle size and morphology, elemental composition and characteristic functional groups confirmed the effective synthesis of the new type of sorbent. A key element of the study was a series of tests of adsorption of copper(II) ions from model solutions. It was determined how the efficiency of the adsorption process was affected by the process time, mass of sorbent, concentration of adsorbate, pH and temperature. Potential regeneration of adsorbent, which provides the possibility of its reusing and recovering the adsorbed copper, was also analyzed. The sorption capacity of the material was measured (83.98mg/g), and the entire process was described using appropriate kinetic models. The results were applied to the design of a further series of adsorption tests, carried out on solutions of real sewage from a galvanizing plant. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Tailoring the properties of magnetite nanoparticles clusters by coating with double inorganic layers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petran, Anca [National Institute for Research and Development of Isotopic and Molecular Technologies, 67-103 Donat Str., 400293 Cluj-Napoca (Romania); Radu, Teodora, E-mail: teodora.radu@itim-cj.ro [National Institute for Research and Development of Isotopic and Molecular Technologies, 67-103 Donat Str., 400293 Cluj-Napoca (Romania); Culic, Bogdan [Faculty of Dental Medicine,Iuliu Hatieganu University of Medicine and Pharmacy, 32 Clinicilor Str., 400006 Cluj-Napoca (Romania); Turcu, Rodica, E-mail: rodica.turcu@itim-cj.ro [National Institute for Research and Development of Isotopic and Molecular Technologies, 67-103 Donat Str., 400293 Cluj-Napoca (Romania)

    2016-12-30

    Highlights: • New magnetite clusters covered with inorganic oxides double layers. • Coating layers influence on the surface properties of the magnetic clusters. • Color parameters assessment for the inorganic oxides coated magnetic clusters. • High magnetization clusters with appropiate color for magnetic security paper. - Abstract: New magnetic nanoparticles based on Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} clusters covered with a double layer of inorganic salts/oxides with high magnetization for incorporation in security materials such as security paper were synthesized. For the inorganic layers ZnO, SiO{sub 2} and BaSO{sub 4} were used. The microstructure and composition of the products were determined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Magnetization measurements on the obtained samples show a straightforward correlation between the saturation magnetization (M{sub s}) and morphology of the samples. The results obtained from color parameter assessment are discussed in relation with the morphology and microstructure of the prepared samples.

  11. Preparation and characterization of an organic/inorganic hybrid sorbent (PLE) to enhance selectivity for As(V).

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Byungryul; Kim, Hakchan; Park, Chanhyuk; Lee, Sang-Hyup; Choi, Jae-Woo

    2015-05-30

    For the selective removal of arsenate (As(V)) a hybrid sorbent was prepared using a non-toxic natural organic material, chitosan, by loading a transition metal, nickel. The immobilization of nickel was achieved by coordination with a deprotonated amino group (NH2) in the chitosan polymer chain. The amount of nickel was directly correlated to the presence of the amino group and was calculated to be 62 mg/g. FTIR spectra showed a peak shift from 1656 to 1637 cm(-1) after Ni(2+) loading, indicating the complexation between the amino group and nickel, and a peak of As(V) was observed at 834 cm(-1). An increase of sulfate concentration from 100 mg/L to 200 mg/L did not significantly affect As(V) sorption, and an increase in the concentration of bicarbonate reduced the As(V) uptake by 33%. The optimal pH of the solution was determined at pH 10, which is in accordance with the fraction of HAsO4(2-) and AsO4(-3). According to a fixed column test, a break through behavior of As(V) revealed that selectivity for As(V) was over sulfate. Regeneration using 5% NaCl extended the use of sorbent to up to uses without big loss of sorption capacity. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Carbon-Electrode-Tailored All-Inorganic Perovskite Solar Cells To Harvest Solar and Water-Vapor Energy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Jialong; Hu, Tianyu; Zhao, Yuanyuan; He, Benlin; Tang, Qunwei

    2018-05-14

    Moisture is the worst enemy for state-of-the-art perovskite solar cells (PSCs). However, the flowing water vapor within nanoporous carbonaceous materials can create potentials. Therefore, it is a challenge to integrate water vapor and solar energies into a single PSC device. We demonstrate herein all-inorganic cesium lead bromide (CsPbBr 3 ) solar cells tailored with carbon electrodes to simultaneously harvest solar and water-vapor energy. Upon interfacial modification and plasma treatment, the bifunctional PSCs yield a maximum power conversion efficiency up to 9.43 % under one sun irradiation according to photoelectric conversion principle and a power output of 0.158 μW with voltage of 0.35 V and current of 0.45 μA in 80 % relative humidity through the flowing potentials at the carbon/water interface. The initial efficiency is only reduced by 2 % on exposing the inorganic PSC with 80 % humidity over 40 days. The successful realization of physical proof-of-concept multi-energy integrated solar cells provides new opportunities of maximizing overall power output. © 2018 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. Sorbent Scoping Studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chancellor, Christopher John

    2016-01-01

    The Los Alamos National Laboratory-Carlsbad Operations (LANL-CO) office was tasked by the DOE CBFO, Office of the Manager to perform a review of the acceptable knowledge (AK) to identify the oxidizers and sorbents in transuranic (TRU) waste streams, to conduct scoping studies on the oxidizers and sorbents identified in AK review to inform the Quality Level 1 (QL1) testing, and to conduct a series of QL1 tests to provide the scientific data to support a basis of knowledge document for determining the criteria for (1) accepting waste at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) without treatment, (2) determining waste that will require treatment, and (3) if treatment is required, how the treatment must be performed. The purpose of this report is to present the results of the AK review of sorbents present in active waste streams, provide a technical analysis of the sorbent list, report the results of the scoping studies for the fastest-burning organic sorbent, and provide the list of organic and inorganic sorbents to be used in the development of a Test Plan for Preparation and Testing of Sorbents Mixed with Oxidizer found in Transuranic Waste (DWT-TP-001). The companion report, DWT-RPT-001, Oxidizer Scoping Studies, has similar information for oxidizers identified during the AK review of TRU waste streams. The results of the oxidizer and sorbent scoping studies will be used to inform the QL1 test plan. The QL1 test results will support the development of a basis of knowledge document that will evaluate oxidizing chemicals and sorbents in TRU waste and provide guidance for treatment.

  14. Sorbent Scoping Studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chancellor, Christopher John [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Carlsbad, NM (United States). Difficult Waste Team

    2016-11-14

    The Los Alamos National Laboratory–Carlsbad Operations (LANL-CO) office was tasked by the DOE CBFO, Office of the Manager to perform a review of the acceptable knowledge (AK) to identify the oxidizers and sorbents in transuranic (TRU) waste streams, to conduct scoping studies on the oxidizers and sorbents identified in AK review to inform the Quality Level 1 (QL1) testing, and to conduct a series of QL1 tests to provide the scientific data to support a basis of knowledge document for determining the criteria for (1) accepting waste at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) without treatment, (2) determining waste that will require treatment, and (3) if treatment is required, how the treatment must be performed. The purpose of this report is to present the results of the AK review of sorbents present in active waste streams, provide a technical analysis of the sorbent list, report the results of the scoping studies for the fastest-burning organic sorbent, and provide the list of organic and inorganic sorbents to be used in the development of a Test Plan for Preparation and Testing of Sorbents Mixed with Oxidizer found in Transuranic Waste (DWT-TP-001). The companion report, DWT-RPT-001, Oxidizer Scoping Studies, has similar information for oxidizers identified during the AK review of TRU waste streams. The results of the oxidizer and sorbent scoping studies will be used to inform the QL1 test plan. The QL1 test results will support the development of a basis of knowledge document that will evaluate oxidizing chemicals and sorbents in TRU waste and provide guidance for treatment.

  15. Aerogel sorbents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Begag, Redouane; Rhine, Wendell E.; Dong, Wenting

    2018-04-03

    The current invention describes methods and compositions of various sorbents based on aerogels of various silanes and their use as sorbent for carbon dioxide. Methods further provide for optimizing the compositions to increase the stability of the sorbents for prolonged use as carbon dioxide capture matrices.

  16. Inorganic sorbents for removal of radioactivity from aqueous waste streams: 1. Development of seeded ultrafiltration. 2. Ion exchange properties of hydrous titanium oxide. 3. The novel absorber evaluation club

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hooper, E.W.

    1997-01-01

    This report describes briefly three areas of work involving inorganic sorbents that have been carried out at AEA Technology, Harwell during the course of the Co-ordinated Research Programme (CRP). 1. Seed ultrafiltration, in which finely divided sodium nickel hexacyanoferrate (II), zirconium phosphate and a hydrous titanium oxide were used as a 'seed' cocktail, in combination with cross-flow membrane filtration, to decontaminate a simulate PWR primary coolant. All but one of the eight radionuclides present were reduced in concentration by a factor of ten or more. 2. Some data on the ion-exchange properties of hydrous titanium oxides are presented. These include the cation exchange capacity for barium (as a stand-in for radium), kinetics of sorption and Na:Ti ratio at different values of pH. 3. Some of the data collected from tests carried out by the Novel Absorber Evaluation Club are presented for a number of sorbents that have been examined during the period of this CRP. (author). 1 ref., 5 figs, 6 tabs

  17. CO2 Capacity Sorbent Analysis Using Volumetric Measurement Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Roger; Richardson, Tra-My Justine; Belancik, Grace; Jan, Darrell; Knox, Jim

    2017-01-01

    In support of air revitalization system sorbent selection for future space missions, Ames Research Center (ARC) has performed CO2 capacity tests on various solid sorbents to complement structural strength tests conducted at Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC). The materials of interest are: Grace Davison Grade 544 13X, Honeywell UOP APG III, LiLSX VSA-10, BASF 13X, and Grace Davison Grade 522 5A. CO2 capacity was for all sorbent materials using a Micromeritics ASAP 2020 Physisorption Volumetric Analysis machine to produce 0C, 10C, 25C, 50C, and 75C isotherms. These data are to be used for modeling data and to provide a basis for continued sorbent research. The volumetric analysis method proved to be effective in generating consistent and repeatable data for the 13X sorbents, but the method needs to be refined to tailor to different sorbents.

  18. Sorption of radionuclides on inorganic sorbents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rajec, P.; Matel, L.

    1995-01-01

    The sorption of cesium, strontium, plutonium and americium from water solution on natural zeolite, clay minerals, synthetic zeolites and ferrocyanides in silica gel matrix was studied. The same experiments but with synthetic zeolites irradiated by the dose 100 kGy proved no change in sorption properties. 1 tab., 4 refs

  19. Development and testing of spheroidal inorganic sorbents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Collins, J.L.; Egan, B.Z.; Anderson, K.K.

    1996-01-01

    Objective was to develop sodium titanate (ST) microspheres, made by the HMTA (hexamethylenetetramine) internal gelation process, to remove radionuclides and heavy metals from waste streams at DOE sites. to determine the optimum amount of ST that can be embedded in hydrous Ti oxide (HTO) microspheres, batches of 9.2 to 23.3% ST in HTO were prepared. Crush strength of the air-dried microspheres was found to be highest. Sr was removed from simulated supernatant by all composite microspheres; 13.2% ST/HTO worked best

  20. Application of a macrocyclic compound, bambus[6]uril, in tailor-made liquid membranes for highly selective electromembrane extractions of inorganic anions

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šlampová, Andrea; Šindelář, V.; Kubáň, Pavel

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 950, JAN (2017), s. 49-56 ISSN 0003-2670 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA16-09135S Institutional support: RVO:68081715 Keywords : bambus[6]uril * electromembrane extraction selectivity * inorganic anions Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation OBOR OECD: Analytical chemistry Impact factor: 4.950, year: 2016

  1. Desulfurization sorbent regeneration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jalan, V.M.; Frost, D.G.

    1982-07-07

    A spent solid sorbent resulting from the removal of hydrogen sulfide from a fuel gas flow is regenerated with a steam-air mixture. The mixture of steam and air may also include additional nitrogen or carbon dioxide. The gas mixture contacts the spent sorbent containing metal sulfide at a temperature above 500/sup 0/C to regenerate the sulfide to metal oxide or carbonate. Various metal species including the period four transition metals and the lanthanides are suitable sorbents that may be regenerated by this method. In addition, the introduction of carbon dioxide gas permits carbonates such as those of strontium, barium and calcium to be regenerated. The steam permits regeneration of spent sorbent without formation of metal sulfate. Moreover, the regeneration will proceed with low oxygen concentrations and will occur without the increase in temperature to minimize the risk of sintering and densification of the sorbent. This method may be used for high-temperature fuel cells.

  2. Rubidium extraction using an organic polymer encapsulated potassium copper hexacyanoferrate sorbent

    KAUST Repository

    Naidu, Gayathri; Loganathan, Paripurnanda; Jeong, Sanghyun; Johir, Md.Abu Hasan; To, Vu Hien Phuong; Kandasamy, Jaya; Vigneswaran, Saravanamuthu

    2016-01-01

    Sea water reverse osmosis (SWRO) brine contains significant quantity of Rb. As an economically valuable metal, extracting Rb using a suitable and selective extraction method would be beneficial. An inorganic sorbent, copper based potassium

  3. Natural sorbents as barriers against migration of radionuclides from radioactive waste repositories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stefanova, I.; Gradev, G.D.

    1993-01-01

    The sorption properties of Bulgarian inorganic sorbents - clinoptilolite, vermiculite, bentonite, glauconite, celadonite and loess, which can be used as buffer, backfill and sealing materials in radwaste repository are studied. Experimental data about sorption and desorption capacities, radiation and thermal stability of sorbents from different Bulgarian deposits are reported and compared. Clinoptilolite from Beli Plast and its sodium variety from Kostino and Moryantsi is recommended as a barrier against radionuclide migration from radwaste repository due to their high sorption capacity of 137 Ce, 90 Sr and 60 Co. The high selectivity of vermiculite for polyvalent ions ( 144 Ce, 59 Fe and 90 Sr) gives grounds to include the sorption on vermiculite as a second step in the ion exchange technology for low level laundry waste decontamination. Bentonite is studied as a proposed buffer, backfill and sealing material. Its selectivity for cesium is lower compared to those of clinoptilolite. Thus a tailored-made mixture of bentonite and clinoptilolite will act as a barrier against radionuclides in different oxidation state. Glauconite can be successfully used as a barrier against migration of 144 Ce, 90 Sr, 54 Mn and 65 Zn. Loess is also included in the study, as the Kozloduy NPP is sited on loess formation and it is a natural potential site for low and intermediate level waste burial. It is concludes that zeolites and clays of Bulgarian deposits can be used effectively against radionuclide migration from radioactive waste repositories. 59 refs., 5 tabs. (author)

  4. Mercury removal sorbents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alptekin, Gokhan

    2016-03-29

    Sorbents and methods of using them for removing mercury from flue gases over a wide range of temperatures are disclosed. Sorbent materials of this invention comprise oxy- or hydroxyl-halogen (chlorides and bromides) of manganese, copper and calcium as the active phase for Hg.sup.0 oxidation, and are dispersed on a high surface porous supports. In addition to the powder activated carbons (PACs), this support material can be comprised of commercial ceramic supports such as silica (SiO.sub.2), alumina (Al.sub.2O.sub.3), zeolites and clays. The support material may also comprise of oxides of various metals such as iron, manganese, and calcium. The non-carbon sorbents of the invention can be easily injected into the flue gas and recovered in the Particulate Control Device (PCD) along with the fly ash without altering the properties of the by-product fly ash enabling its use as a cement additive. Sorbent materials of this invention effectively remove both elemental and oxidized forms of mercury from flue gases and can be used at elevated temperatures. The sorbent combines an oxidation catalyst and a sorbent in the same particle to both oxidize the mercury and then immobilize it.

  5. New Composite Sorbents for Caesium and Strontium Ions Sorption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mykola Kartel

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Composite lignocellulose-inorganic sorbents derived from plant residues of agriculture and food industry, modified with ferrocyanides of d-metals and hydrated antimony pentoxide were prepared. Caesium and strontium ions removal from water was tested by radiotracer method. Sorption of heavy metal ions, methylene blue, gelatin, vitamin B12 was also studied.

  6. Enhanced durability and reactivity for zinc ferrite desulfurization sorbent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berggren, M.H.; Jha, M.C.

    1989-10-01

    AMAX Research Development Center (AMAX R D) investigated methods for enhancing the reactivity and durability of zinc ferrite desulfurization sorbents. Zinc ferrite sorbents are intended for use in desulfurization of hot coal gas in integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) or molten carbonate fuel cell (MCFC) applications. For this program, the reactivity of the sorbent may be defined as its sulfur sorption capacity at the breakthrough point and at saturation in a bench-scale, fixed-bed reactor. Durability may be defined as the ability of the sorbent to maintain important physical characteristics such as size, strength, and specific surface area during 10 cycles of sulfidation and oxidation. Two base case sorbents, a spherical pellet and a cylindrical extrude used in related METC-sponsored projects, were used to provide a basis for the aimed enhancement in durability and reactivity. Sorbent performance was judged on the basis of physical properties, single particle kinetic studies based on thermogravimetric (TGA) techniques, and multicycle bench-scale testing of sorbents. A sorbent grading system was utilized to quantify the characteristics of the new sorbents prepared during the program. Significant enhancements in both reactivity and durability were achieved for the spherical pellet shape over the base case formulation. Overall improvements to reactivity and durability were also made to the cylindrical extrude shape. The primary variables which were investigated during the program included iron oxide type, zinc oxide:iron oxide ratio, inorganic binder concentration, organic binder concentration, and induration conditions. The effects of some variables were small or inconclusive. Based on TGA studies and bench-scale tests, induration conditions were found to be very significant.

  7. A FAMILY OF PEROXO-TITANATE MATERIALS TAILORED FOR OPTIMAL STRONTIUM ANDACTINIDE SORPTION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hobbs, D

    2006-01-01

    Achieving global optimization of inorganic sorbent efficacy, as well as tailoring sorbent specificity for target sorbates would facilitate increased wide-spread use of these materials in applications such as producing potable water or nuclear waste treatment. Sodium titanates have long been known as sorbents for radionuclides; 90 Sr and transuranic elements in particular. We have developed a related class of materials, which we refer to as peroxo-titanates: these are sodium titanates or hydrous titanates synthesized in the presence of or treated post-synthesis with hydrogen peroxide. Peroxo-titanates show remarkable and universal improved sorption behavior with respect to separation of actinides and strontium from Savannah River Site (SRS) nuclear waste simulants. Enhancement in sorption kinetics can potentially result in as much as an order of magnitude increase in batch processing throughput. Peroxo-titanates have been produced by three different synthetic routes: post-synthesis peroxide-treatment of a commercially produced monosodium titanate, an aqueous-peroxide synthetic route, and an isopropanol-peroxide synthetic route. The peroxo-titanate materials are characteristically yellow to orange, indicating the presence of protonated or hydrated Ti-peroxo species; and the chemical formula can be generally written as H v Na w Ti 2 O 5 -(xH 2 O)[yH z O 2 ] where (v+w) = 2, z = 0-2, and total volatile species accounts for 25-50 wt % of the solid. Further enhancement of sorption performance is achieved by processing, storing and utilizing the peroxo-titanate as an aqueous slurry rather than a dry powder, and post-synthesis acidification. All three synthesis modifications; addition of hydrogen peroxide, use of a slurry form and acidification can be applied more broadly to the optimization of other metal oxide sorbents and other ion separations processes

  8. Space-filling polyhedral sorbents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haaland, Peter

    2016-06-21

    Solid sorbents, systems, and methods for pumping, storage, and purification of gases are disclosed. They derive from the dynamics of porous and free convection for specific gas/sorbent combinations and use space filling polyhedral microliths with facial aplanarities to produce sorbent arrays with interpenetrating interstitial manifolds of voids.

  9. PROCEEDINGS: MULTIPOLLUTANT SORBENT REACTIVITY ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    The report is a compilation of technical papers and visual aids presented by representatives of industry, academia, and government agencies at a workshop on multipollutant sorbent reactivity that was held at EPA's Environmental Research Center in Research Triangle Park, NC, on July 19-20, 1994. There were 16 technical presentations in three sessions, and a panel discussion between six research experts. The workshop was a forum for the exchange of ideas and information on the use of sorbents to control air emissions of acid gases (sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxides, and hydrogen chloride); mercury and dioxins; and toxic metals, primarily from fossil fuel combustion. A secondary purpose for conducting the workshop was to help guide EPA's research planning activities. A general theme of the workshop was that a strategy of controlling many pollutants with a single system rather than systems to control individual pollutants should be a research goal. Some research needs cited were: hazardous air pollutant removal by flue gas desulfurization systems, dioxin formation and control, mercury control, waste minimization, impact of ash recycling on metals partitioning, impact of urea and sorbents on other pollutants, high temperature filtration, impact of coal cleaning on metals partitioning, and modeling dispersion of sorbents in flue gas. information

  10. Design of engineered sorbent barriers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, E.O.; Freeman, H.D.

    1988-08-01

    A sorbent barrier uses sorbent material such as activated carbon or natural zeolites to prevent the migration of radionuclides from a low-level waste site to the aquifer. The sorbent barrier retards the movement of radioactive contaminants, thereby providing time for the radionuclides to decay. Sorbent barriers can be a simple, effective, and inexpensive method for reducing the migration of radionuclides to the environment. Designing a sorbent barrier consists of using soil and sorbent material properties and site conditions as input to a model which will determine the necessary sorbent barrier thickness to meet contaminant limits. The paper will cover the following areas: techniques for measuring sorption properties of barrier materials and underlying soils, use of a radionuclide transport model to determine the required barrier thickness and performance under a variety of site conditions, and cost estimates for applying the barrier. 8 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab

  11. Design of engineered sorbent barriers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, E.O.; Freeman, H.D.

    1988-01-01

    A sorbent barrier uses sorbent material such as activated carbon or natural zeolites to prevent the migration of radionuclides from a low-level waste site to the aquifer. The sorbent barrier retards the movement of radioactive contaminants, thereby providing time for the radionuclides to decay. Sorbent barriers can be a simple, effective, and inexpensive method for reducing the migration of radionuclides to the environment. Designing a sorbent barrier consists of using soil and sorbent material properties and site conditions as input to a model which will determine the necessary sorbent barrier thickness to meet contaminant limits. The paper covers the following areas: techniques for measuring sorption properties of barrier materials and underlying soils, use of a radionuclide transport model to determine the required barrier thickness and performance under a variety of site conditions, and cost estimates for applying the barrier

  12. Peat hybrid sorbents for treatment of wastewaters and remediation of polluted environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klavins, Maris; Burlakovs, Juris; Robalds, Artis; Ansone-Bertina, Linda

    2015-04-01

    For remediation of soils and purification of polluted waters, wastewaters, sorbents might be considered as an prospective group of materials and amongst them peat have a special role due to low cost, biodegradability, high number of functional groups, well developed surface area and combination of hydrophilic/hydrophobic structural elements. Peat as sorbent have good application potential for removal of trace metals, and we have demonstrated peat sorption capacities, sorption kinetics, thermodynamics in respect to metals with different valencies - Tl(I), Cu(II), Cr(III). However peat sorption capacity in respect to nonmetallic (anionic species) elements is low. Also peat mechanical properties do not support application in large scale column processes. To expand peat application possibilities the approach of biomass based hybrid sorbents has been elaborated. The concept "hybrid sorbent" in our understanding means natural, biomass based sorbent modified, covered with another sorbent material, thus combining two types of sorbent properties, sorbent functionalities, surface properties etc. As the "covering layer" both inorganic substances, mineral phases (iron oxohydroxides, oxyapatite) both organic polymers (using graft polymerization) were used. The obtained sorbents were characterised by their spectral properties, surface area, elemental composition. The obtained hybrid sorbents were tested for sorption of compounds in anionic speciation forms, for example of arsenic, antimony, tellurium and phosphorous compounds in comparison with weakly basic anionites. The highest sorption capacity was observed when peat sorbents modified with iron compounds were used. Sorption of different arsenic speciation forms onto iron-modified peat sorbents was investigated as a function of pH and temperature. It was established that sorption capacity increases with a rise in temperature, and the calculation of sorption process thermodynamic parameters indicates the spontaneity of sorption

  13. Durable zinc ferrite sorbent pellets for hot coal gas desulfurization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jha, Mahesh C.; Blandon, Antonio E.; Hepworth, Malcolm T.

    1988-01-01

    Durable, porous sulfur sorbents useful in removing hydrogen sulfide from hot coal gas are prepared by water pelletizing a mixture of fine zinc oxide and fine iron oxide with inorganic and organic binders and small amounts of activators such as sodium carbonate and molybdenite; the pellets are dried and then indurated at a high temperature, e.g., 1800.degree. C., for a time sufficient to produce crush-resistant pellets.

  14. Sorbents for mercury removal from flue gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Granite, Evan J.; Hargis, Richard A.; Pennline, Henry W.

    1998-01-01

    A review of the various promoters and sorbents examined for the removal of mercury from flue gas is presented. Commercial sorbent processes are described along with the chemistry of the various sorbent-mercury interactions. Novel sorbents for removing mercury from flue gas are suggested. Since activated carbons are expensive, alternate sorbents and/or improved activated carbons are needed. Because of their lower cost, sorbent development work can focus on base metal oxides and halides. Additionally, the long-term sequestration of the mercury on the sorbent needs to be addressed. Contacting methods between the flue gas and the sorbent also merit investigation.

  15. Sorbents for effective removal of radioactive antimony during chemical decontamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishad, Padala Abdul; Bhaskarapillai, Anupkumar; Velmurugan, Sankaralingam

    2014-01-01

    Removal of radioactive antimony is a challenging problem. Often, during decontamination, they get mobilized around the system and redeposit in different areas thus offsetting the reduction in the radiation field obtained by removing other activities such as 60 Co. Thus, there is a clear need for better antimony removing materials/strategies for effective reactor decontamination. In this regard, six commercially available sorbents namely, Tulsion A33 (strong base anion (-OH) resin), Amberlite IRC-718 (chelating resin), Radex ® Sb-1000, nano TiO 2 -special grade (Inorganic type IX), Chitosan (biosorbent) and Aeroxide p25 (nano TiO 2 , Inorganic type IX) were evaluated for their antimony sorption properties. Radex ® and TiO 2 based materials were found to be more effective in removing both Sb(V) and Sb(III). Solution pH was seen to significantly influence the antimony sorption and the effect was more prominent in anion resin, when tested under column conditions. Apart from the commercial sorbents, we have synthesised a robust high performing sorbent (TA-Chitosan beads) in the form of stable beads, using nano-TiO 2 and chitosan. The beads were found to retain the antimony sorption properties of the nano-TiO 2 , while adapting a physical format suitable for large scale operations. The sorbent exhibited almost complete sorption of antimony both in low (ppb level) as well as high concentrations of antimony. The suitability of the beads for use in column mode has been established and its radiation stability was probed in detail. The beads were found to be stable to irradiations as ascertained from the TOC values and unchanged sorption properties. The sorption properties of the CHITA beads in typical decontamination formulation containing mixture of complexing agents have been investigated in detail. (author)

  16. Novel sorbents for environmental remediation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manariotis, Ioannis D.; Karapanagioti, Hrissi K.; Werner, David

    2014-05-01

    Nowadays, one of the major environmental problems is the pollution of aquatic systems and soil by persistent pollutants. Persistent pollutants have been found widespread in sediments, surface waters, and drinking water supplies. The removal of pollutants can be accomplished prior to their discharge to receiving bodies or by immobilizing them onto soil. Sorption is the most commonly applied process, and activated carbons have been widely used. Rapid progress in nanotechnology and a new focus on biomass-based instead of non-renewable starting materials have produced a wide range of novel engineered sorbents including biosorbents, biochars, carbon-based nanoparticles, bio-nano hybrid materials, and iron-impregnated activated carbons. Sorbent materials have been used in environmental remediation processes and especially in agricultural soil, sediments and contaminated soil, water treatment, and industrial wastewater treatment. Furthermore, sorbents may enhance the synergistic action of other processes, such as volatilization and biodegradation. Novel sorbents have been employed for the removal or immobilization of persistent pollutants such as and include heavy metals (As, Cr, Cu, Pb, Cd, and Hg), halogenated organic compounds, endocrine disrupting chemicals, metalloids and non-metallic elements, and other organic pollutants. The development and evaluation of novel sorbents requires a multidisciplinary approach encompassing environmental, nanotechnology, physical, analytical, and surface chemistry. The necessary evaluations encompass not only the efficiency of these materials to remove pollutants from surface waters and groundwater, industrial wastewater, polluted soils and sediments, etc., but also the potential side-effects of their environmental applications. The aim of this work is to present the results of the use of biochar and impregnated carbon sorbents for the removal of organic pollutants and metals. Furthermore, the new findings from the forthcoming session

  17. Waste Derived Sorbents and Their Potential Roles in Heavy Metal Remediation Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiang Y. W.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Inorganic waste materials that have the suitable inherent characteristics could be used as precursors for the synthesis of micro- and mesoporous materials, which present great potential to be re-utilized as sorbent materials for heavy metal remediation. Three inorganic waste materials were studied in the present work: water treatment residuals (WTRs from an integrated drinking water/wastewater treatment plant, and fly ash and bottom ash samples from a municipal solid waste incinerator (MSWI. These wastes were converted into three sorbent materials: ferrihydrite-like materials derived from drying of WTRs, hydroxyapatite-like material derived from ultrasound assisted synthesis of MSWI fly ash with phosphoric acid solution, and a zeolitic material derived from alkaline hydrothermal conversion of MSWI bottom ash. The performance of these materials, as well as their equivalent commercially available counterparts, was assessed for the adsorption of multiple heavy metals (As, Cd, Co, Ni, Pb, Zn from synthetic solutions, contaminated sediments and surface waters; and satisfactory results were obtained. In addition, it was observed that the combination of sorbents into sorbent mixtures enhanced the performance levels and, where applicable, stabilized inherently mobile contaminants from the waste derived sorbents.

  18. Sol-gel derived sorbents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sigman, Michael E.; Dindal, Amy B.

    2003-11-11

    Described is a method for producing copolymerized sol-gel derived sorbent particles for the production of copolymerized sol-gel derived sorbent material. The method for producing copolymerized sol-gel derived sorbent particles comprises adding a basic solution to an aqueous metal alkoxide mixture for a pH.ltoreq.8 to hydrolyze the metal alkoxides. Then, allowing the mixture to react at room temperature for a precalculated period of time for the mixture to undergo an increased in viscosity to obtain a desired pore size and surface area. The copolymerized mixture is then added to an immiscible, nonpolar solvent that has been heated to a sufficient temperature wherein the copolymerized mixture forms a solid upon the addition. The solid is recovered from the mixture, and is ready for use in an active sampling trap or activated for use in a passive sampling trap.

  19. Sol-gel niobia sorbent with a positively charged octadecyl ligand providing enhanced enrichment of nucleotides and organophosphorus pesticides in capillary microextraction for online HPLC analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kesani, Sheshanka; Malik, Abdul

    2018-04-01

    A niobia-based sol-gel organic-inorganic hybrid sorbent carrying a positively charged C 18 ligand (Nb 2 O 5 -C 18 (+ve)) was synthesized to achieve enhanced enrichment capability in capillary microextraction of organophosphorus compounds (which include organophosphorus pesticides and nucleotides) before their online analysis by high-performance liquid chromatography. The sorbent was designed to simultaneously provide three different types of molecular level interactions: electrostatic, Lewis acid-base, and van der Waals interactions. To understand relative contributions of various molecular level analyte-sorbent interactions in the extraction process, two other sol-gel niobia sorbents were also created: (a) a purely inorganic sol-gel niobia sorbent (Nb 2 O 5 ) and (b) an organic-inorganic hybrid sol-gel niobia sorbent carrying an electrically neutral-bonded octadecyl ligand (Nb 2 O 5 -C 18 ). The extraction efficiency of the created sol-gel niobia sorbent (Nb 2 O 5 -C 18 (+ve)) was compared with that of analogously designed and synthesized titania-based sol-gel sorbent (TiO 2 -C 18 (+ve)), taking into consideration that titania-based sorbents present state-of-the-art extraction media for organophosphorus compounds. In capillary microextraction with high-performance liquid chromatography analysis, Nb 2 O 5 -C 18 (+ve) had shown 40-50% higher specific extraction values (a measure of extraction efficiency) over that of TiO 2 -C 18 (+ve). Compared to TiO 2 -C 18 (+ve), Nb 2 O 5 -C 18 (+ve) also provided superior analyte desorption efficiency (96 vs. 90%) during the online release of the extracted organophosphorus pesticides from the sorbent coating in the capillary microextraction capillary to the chromatographic column using reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography mobile phase. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. High capacity carbon dioxide sorbent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietz, Steven Dean; Alptekin, Gokhan; Jayaraman, Ambalavanan

    2015-09-01

    The present invention provides a sorbent for the removal of carbon dioxide from gas streams, comprising: a CO.sub.2 capacity of at least 9 weight percent when measured at 22.degree. C. and 1 atmosphere; an H.sub.2O capacity of at most 15 weight percent when measured at 25.degree. C. and 1 atmosphere; and an isosteric heat of adsorption of from 5 to 8.5 kilocalories per mole of CO.sub.2. The invention also provides a carbon sorbent in a powder, a granular or a pellet form for the removal of carbon dioxide from gas streams, comprising: a carbon content of at least 90 weight percent; a nitrogen content of at least 1 weight percent; an oxygen content of at most 3 weight percent; a BET surface area from 50 to 2600 m.sup.2/g; and a DFT micropore volume from 0.04 to 0.8 cc/g.

  1. Decontamination formulation with sorbent additive

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker; Mark D. , Comstock; Robert H.

    2007-10-16

    A decontamination formulation and method of making that neutralizes the adverse health effects of both chemical and biological compounds, especially chemical warfare (CW) and biological warfare (BW) agents, and toxic industrial chemicals. The formulation provides solubilizing compounds that serve to effectively render the chemical and biological compounds, particularly CW and BW compounds, susceptible to attack, and at least one reactive compound that serves to attack (and detoxify or kill) the compound. The formulation includes at least one solubilizing agent, a reactive compound, a bleaching activator, a sorbent additive, and water. The highly adsorbent, water-soluble sorbent additive (e.g., sorbitol or mannitol) is used to "dry out" one or more liquid ingredients, such as the liquid bleaching activator (e.g., propylene glycol diacetate or glycerol diacetate) and convert the activator into a dry, free-flowing powder that has an extended shelf life, and is more convenient to handle and mix in the field.

  2. Inorganic-organic hybrid polymers for food packaging

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Kesavan Pillai, Sreejarani

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available packaging application. Numerous hybrid inorganic-organic materials have been developed using low temperature sol-gel chemistry, which enables the tailoring of the nanostructure and the resulting material is often multifunctional, offering a wide range...

  3. Matrix supported tailored polymer for solid phase extraction of fluoride from variety of aqueous streams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thakur, Neha; Kumar, Sanjukta A.; Wagh, D.N.; Das, Sadananda; Pandey, Ashok K.; Kumar, Sangita D.; Reddy, A.V.R.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Th complexed with poly (bis[2-(methacryloyloxy)-ethyl]phosphate) as tailored polymer membranes. ► Membranes offered high capacity and selectivity for fluoride in aqueous media. ► Quantitative uptake (80 ± 5%) of fluoride. ► Fast sorption kinetics. ► Reusability of polymer membranes. - Abstract: Fluoride related health hazards (fluorosis) are a major environmental problem in many regions of the world. It affects teeth; skeleton and its accumulation over a long period can lead to changes in the DNA structure. It is thus absolutely essential to bring down the fluoride levels to acceptable limits. Here, we present a new inorganic–organic hybrid polymer sorbent having tailored fixed-sites for fluoride sorption. The matrix supported poly (bis[2-(methacryloyloxy)-ethyl]phosphate) was prepared by photo-initiator induced graft-polymerization in fibrous and microporous (sheet) host poly(propylene) substrates. These substrates were conditioned for selective fluoride sorption by forming thorium complex with phosphate groups on bis[2-methacryloyloxy)-ethyl] phosphate (MEP). These tailored sorbents were studied for their selectivity towards fluoride in aqueous media having different chemical conditions. The fibrous sorbent was found to take up fluoride with a faster rate (15 min for ≈76% sorption) than the sheet sorbent. But, the fluoride loading capacity of sheet sorbent (4320 mg kg −1 ), was higher than fibrous and any other sorbent reported in the literature so far. The sorbent developed in the present work was found to be reusable after desorption of fluoride using NaOH solution. It was tested for solid phase extraction of fluoride from natural water samples.

  4. Sorbent Nanotechnologies for Water Cleaning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Snober

    Despite decades of regulatory efforts to mitigate water pollution, many chemicals, particularly heavy metals, still present risks to human health. In addition to direct exposure, certain metals such as mercury threaten public health due to its persistence, bioaccumulation and bioamplification throughout the food chain. A number of U.S. Federal and State regulations have been established to reduce the levels of mercury in water. Activated carbon (AC) has been widely explored for the removal of mercury. However, AC suffers from many limitations inherent to its chemical properties, and it becomes increasingly challenging to meet current and future regulations by simply modifying AC to enhance its performance. Recently, the performance of nanosorbents have been studied in order to removal pollutants. Nanosorbents utilize the ultra-high reactive surface of nanoparticles for rapid, effective and even permanent sequestration of heavy metals from water and air, thus showed promising results as compared to AC. The goal of this thesis research is to develop nanomaterial-based sorbents for the removal of mercury from water. It describes the development of a new solid-support assisted growth of selenium nanoparticles, their use for water remediation, and the development of a new nanoselenium-based sorbent sponge for fast and efficient mercury removal. The nanoselenium sorbent not only shows irreversible interaction with mercury but also exhibits remarkable properties by overcoming the limitations of AC. The nanoselenium sponge was shown to remove mercury to undetectable levels within one minute. This new sponge technology would have an impact on inspiring new stringent regulations and lowering costs to help industries meet regulatory requirements, which will ultimately help improve air and water quality, aquatic life and public health.

  5. Sorbent Structural Impacts Due to Humidity on Carbon Dioxide Removal Sorbents for Advanced Exploration Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, David; Knox, James C.; West, Phillip; Stanley, Christine M.; Bush, Richard

    2015-01-01

    The Life Support Systems Project (LSSP) under the Advanced Exploration Systems (AES) program builds upon the work performed under the AES Atmosphere Resource Recovery and Environmental Monitoring (ARREM) project focusing on the numerous technology development areas. The CO2 removal and associated air drying development efforts are focused on improving the current state-of-the-art system on the International Space Station (ISS) utilizing fixed beds of sorbent pellets by seeking more robust pelletized sorbents, evaluating structured sorbents, and examining alternate bed configurations to improve system efficiency and reliability. A component of the CO2 removal effort encompasses structural stability testing of existing and emerging sorbents. Testing will be performed on dry sorbents and sorbents that have been conditioned to three humidity levels. This paper describes the sorbent structural stability screening efforts in support of the LSS Project within the AES Program.

  6. Selective inorganic thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Phillips, M.L.F.; Weisenbach, L.A.; Anderson, M.T. [Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM (United States)] [and others

    1995-05-01

    This project is developing inorganic thin films as membranes for gas separation applications, and as discriminating coatings for liquid-phase chemical sensors. Our goal is to synthesize these coatings with tailored porosity and surface chemistry on porous substrates and on acoustic and optical sensors. Molecular sieve films offer the possibility of performing separations involving hydrogen, air, and natural gas constituents at elevated temperatures with very high separation factors. We are focusing on improving permeability and molecular sieve properties of crystalline zeolitic membranes made by hydrothermally reacting layered multicomponent sol-gel films deposited on mesoporous substrates. We also used acoustic plate mode (APM) oscillator and surface plasmon resonance (SPR) sensor elements as substrates for sol-gel films, and have both used these modified sensors to determine physical properties of the films and have determined the sensitivity and selectivity of these sensors to aqueous chemical species.

  7. Sorbents for the oxidation and removal of mercur

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, Edwin S.; Holmes, Michael J.; Pavlish, John Henry

    2017-09-12

    A promoted activated carbon sorbent is described that is highly effective for the removal of mercury from flue gas streams. The sorbent comprises a new modified carbon form containing reactive forms of halogen and halides. Optional components may be added to increase reactivity and mercury capacity. These may be added directly with the sorbent, or to the flue gas to enhance sorbent performance and/or mercury capture. Mercury removal efficiencies obtained exceed conventional methods. The sorbent can be regenerated and reused. Sorbent treatment and preparation methods are also described. New methods for in-flight preparation, introduction, and control of the active sorbent into the mercury contaminated gas stream are described.

  8. Sorbents for the oxidation and removal of mercury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, Edwin S [Grand Forks, ND; Holmes, Michael J [Thompson, ND; Pavlish, John H [East Grand Forks, MN

    2008-10-14

    A promoted activated carbon sorbent is described that is highly effective for the removal of mercury from flue gas streams. The sorbent comprises a new modified carbon form containing reactive forms of halogen and halides. Optional components may be added to increase reactivity and mercury capacity. These may be added directly with the sorbent, or to the flue gas to enhance sorbent performance and/or mercury capture. Mercury removal efficiencies obtained exceed conventional methods. The sorbent can be regenerated and reused. Sorbent treatment and preparation methods are also described. New methods for in-flight preparation, introduction, and control of the active sorbent into the mercury contaminated gas stream are described.

  9. Sorbents for the oxidation and removal of mercury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, Edwin S [Grand Forks, ND; Holmes, Michael J [Thompson, ND; Pavlish, John H [East Grand Forks, MN

    2012-05-01

    A promoted activated carbon sorbent is described that is highly effective for the removal of mercury from flue gas streams. The sorbent comprises a new modified carbon form containing reactive forms of halogen and halides. Optional components may be added to increase reactivity and mercury capacity. These may be added directly with the sorbent, or to the flue gas to enhance sorbent performance and/or mercury capture. Mercury removal efficiencies obtained exceed conventional methods. The sorbent can be regenerated and reused. Sorbent treatment and preparation methods are also described. New methods for in-flight preparation, introduction, and control of the active sorbent into the mercury contaminated gas stream are described.

  10. Sorption of methylxanthines by different sorbents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dmitrienko, S. G.; Andreeva, E. Yu.; Tolmacheva, V. V.; Terent'eva, E. A.

    2013-05-01

    Sorption of caffeine, theophylline, theobromine, diprophylline, and pentoxyphylline on different sorbents (supercross-linked polystyrene, surface-modified copolymer of styrene and divinylbenzene Strata-X, and carbon nanomaterials Taunit and Diasorb-100-C16T) was studied in a static mode in an effort to find new sorbents suitable for sorption isolation and concentration of methylxanthines. The peculiarities of sorption of methylxanthines were explained in relation to the solution acidity, the nature of the sorbates and their concentration, the nature of the solvent, and the structural characteristics of the sorbents.

  11. Low-Cost Sorbents: A Literature Summary

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bailey, Susan

    1997-01-01

    The capital and regeneration costs of activated carbon and ion exchange media suggest that better process economics may be achieved with disposable sorbents for the treatment of metals-contaminated...

  12. Poly(ethyleneimine) infused and functionalized Torlon®-silica hollow fiber sorbents for post-combustion CO2 capture

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Fuyue Stephanie

    2014-03-01

    Organic-inorganic hybrid materials functionalized with amine-containing reagents are emerging as an important class of materials for capturing carbon dioxide from flue gas. Polymeric silica hollow fiber sorbents are fabricated through the proven dry-jet/wet-quench spinning process. In our study, a new technique for functionalizing polymeric silica hollow fiber sorbents with poly(ethyleneimine), followed by a post-spinning infusion step was studied. This two step process introduces a sufficient amount of poly(ethyleneimine) to the polymeric silica hybrid material support to improve the CO2 sorption capacity due to the added amine groups. The poly(ethyleneimine) infused and functionalized hollow fiber sorbents are also characterized by a thermal gravimetric analyzer (TGA) to assess their CO2 sorption capacities. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Possibility of sorption purification of chromium comprising waste waters of galvanic production by inorganic ion exchangers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khaynakov, S.A.; Likov, E.P.; Bortun, A.I.; Belyukov, V.N.

    1986-01-01

    Present work is devoted to possibilities of sorption purification of chromium comprising waste waters of galvanic production by inorganic ion exchangers. Thus, the comparative study of sorption of chromium ions on anion exchanger A B-17 and on inorganic ion exchangers on the basis of hydrated titanium and zirconium dioxides in static and dynamic conditions is conducted. The influence of chromium ions concentration, solutions acidity (ph=1÷12) and presence of base electrolyte on sorption is studied. The state of chromium ions sorbed by inorganic ion exchangers is studied by means of infrared spectroscopy and spectroscopy. It is defined that inorganic sorbents could be used for chromium extraction from different solutions.

  14. Tailored Porous Materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    BARTON,THOMAS J.; BULL,LUCY M.; KLEMPERER,WALTER G.; LOY,DOUGLAS A.; MCENANEY,BRIAN; MISONO,MAKOTO; MONSON,PETER A.; PEZ,GUIDO; SCHERER,GEORGE W.; VARTULI,JAMES C.; YAGHI,OMAR M.

    1999-11-09

    Tailoring of porous materials involves not only chemical synthetic techniques for tailoring microscopic properties such as pore size, pore shape, pore connectivity, and pore surface reactivity, but also materials processing techniques for tailoring the meso- and the macroscopic properties of bulk materials in the form of fibers, thin films and monoliths. These issues are addressed in the context of five specific classes of porous materials: oxide molecular sieves, porous coordination solids, porous carbons, sol-gel derived oxides, and porous heteropolyanion salts. Reviews of these specific areas are preceded by a presentation of background material and review of current theoretical approaches to adsorption phenomena. A concluding section outlines current research needs and opportunities.

  15. Method of making ionic liquid mediated sol-gel sorbents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malik, Abdul; Shearrow, Anne M.

    2017-01-31

    Ionic liquid (IL)-mediated sol-gel hybrid organic-inorganic materials present enormous potential for effective use in analytical microextraction. One obstacle to materializing this prospect arises from high viscosity of ILs significantly slowing down sol-gel reactions. A method was developed which provides phosphonium-based, pyridinium-based, and imidazolium-based IL-mediated advanced sol-gel organic-inorganic hybrid materials for capillary microextraction. Scanning electron microscopy results demonstrate that ILs can serve as porogenic agents in sol-gel reactions. IL-mediated sol-gel coatings prepared with silanol-terminated polymers provided up to 28 times higher extractions compared to analogous sol-gel coatings prepared without any IL in the sol solution. This study shows that IL-generated porous morphology alone is not enough to provide effective extraction media: careful choice of the organic polymer and the precursor with close sol-gel reactivity must be made to ensure effective chemical bonding of the organic polymer to the created sol-gel material to be able to provide the desired sorbent characteristics.

  16. Lead, Chromium and Cadmium Removal from Contaminated Water Using Phosphate Sorbents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fariborz Riahi

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Sorption of 3 poisonous metal ions (Pb2+, Cd2+, Cr3+ in aqueous solutions by two phosphate sorbents under dynamic and static conditions was studied. Phosphate sorbents (MgNH4PO4. H2O, Mg3(PO42. 6H2O were synthesized by known procedures. The resulting crystalline samples were analyzed for the contents of Mg2+, Pb2+, P, N using spectrophotometric and elemental analysis methods. Likewise, the amounts of Pb2+, Cd2+, Cr3+ in solutions were determined before and after the sorption process using the atomic absorption method. The relative standard deviations for Pb2+, Cd2+, Cr3+ were 4.7%, 2.17%, and 1.61% and the detection limits were 5 g/L, 0.05 mg/L, and 0.1 mg/L, respectively. The sorbents showed a high performance in the purification of contaminated solutions under static conditions. The sorption capacity levels of Mg3 (PO42. 6H2O and MgNH4 PO4. H2O were 9.8m.mol/gr and 8.9m.mol/gr for Pb2+; 10.5m.mol/gr and 9m.mol/gr for Cd2+; and 6.6m.mol/gr and 5.3m.mol/gr for Cr3+, respectively. Pb2+ , Cd2+, Cr3+. sorption by inorganic phosphate sorbents from solutions is associated with complicated chemical transformations of the sorbents. A proper account of these transformations allows for the sorption process to be optimized. The data on Pb2+, Cd2+, Cr3+ sorption under static conditions (24-h contact of Mg3 (PO42. 6H2O, MgNH4PO4. H2O, with solutions at 20oC and under dynamic conditions were obtained and the sorption behaviors of the metal ions were investigated in response to the sorbents used. It was found that Mg3 (PO42. 6H2O was the best sorbent for Pb2+, Cd2+, Cr3+ under dynamic conditions.

  17. Long Life Moving-Bed Zinc Titanate Sorbent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Copeland, Robert J.; Cesario, Mike; Feinberg, Daniel A.; Sibold, Jack; Windecker, Brian; Yang, Jing

    1997-01-01

    The objective of this work was to develop and test long-life sorbents for hot gas cleanup. Specifically, we measured the sulfur loading at space velocities typically used for absorption of H 2 S and regenerated the sorbent with diluted air for multiple cycles. Based on the experimental results, we prepared a conceptual design of the sorbent-fabrication system, and estimated the cost of sorbent production and of sulfur removal

  18. Alkaline sorbent injection for mercury control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madden, Deborah A.; Holmes, Michael J.

    2002-01-01

    A mercury removal system for removing mercury from combustion flue gases is provided in which alkaline sorbents at generally extremely low stoichiometric molar ratios of alkaline earth or an alkali metal to sulfur of less than 1.0 are injected into a power plant system at one or more locations to remove at least between about 40% and 60% of the mercury content from combustion flue gases. Small amounts of alkaline sorbents are injected into the flue gas stream at a relatively low rate. A particulate filter is used to remove mercury-containing particles downstream of each injection point used in the power plant system.

  19. Topical Report 5: Sorbent Performance Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krutka, Holly; Sjostrom, Sharon

    2011-05-31

    ADA-ES has completed an extensive sorbent screening program funded primarily through DOE NETL cooperative agreement DE-NT0005649 with support from EPRI and industry cost-share participants. Tests were completed on simulated and actual flue gas. The overall project objective is to address the viability and accelerate development of a solid-based postcombustion CO2 capture technology that can be retrofit to the existing fleet of coal-fired power plants. An important component of the viability assessment was to evaluate the state of development of sorbents and measure key performance characteristics under realistic operating conditions.

  20. Desulfurization Sorbents for Transport-Bed Applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gupta, Raghubir P.; Turk, Brian S.; Vierheilig, Albert A.

    1997-01-01

    This project extends the prior work on the development of fluidizable zinc titanate particles using a spray-drying technique to impart high reactivity and attrition resistance. The specific objectives are: (1) To develop highly reactive and attrition-resistant zinc titanate sorbents in 40- to 150-(micro)m particle size range for transport reactor applications; (2) To transfer sorbent production technology to private sector; and (3) To provide technical support to Sierra Pacific Clean Coal Technology Demonstration plant and FETC's Hot-Gas Desulfurization Process Development Unit (PDU), both employing a transport reactor system

  1. Non-carbon sorbents for mercury removal from flue gases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alptekin, G.O.; Dubovik, M.; Cesario, M. [TDA Research Inc., Wheat Ridge, CO (United States)

    2005-07-01

    TDA Research Inc. is developing a new sorbent that can effectively remove mercury from flue gases. It is made of non-carbon based materials and will therefore not alter the properties of the fly ash. The sorbent can be produced as an injectable powder. The paper summarises the initial testing results of the new sorbent. The sorbent exhibited 7.5 to 11.0 mg/g mercury absorption capacity under representative flue gas streams depending on the operating temperature and gas hourly space velocity. The sorbent also showed resistance to sulfur poisoning by sulfur dioxide. 6 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  2. Radon adsorption in fibrous carbon sorbents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anshakov, O.M.; Kish, A.O.; Chudakov, V.A.; Matvejchuk, S.V.; Sokolovskij, A.S.; Ugolev, I.I.

    2006-01-01

    Radon sorption in woven fibrous sorbents 'AUT-M' and 'Busofit' and nonwoven fiber in the temperature range 0-50 degrees centigrade was studied. Adsorption heat of radon from the ambient air in different types of carbon fiber was determined. (authors)

  3. Analysis of Ethane and Diethylbenzene Bridged Sorbents

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-12-13

    Textiles modified in this manner have been shown to reduce or eliminate transport of chemical warfare agents and simulants across the fabric barrier...B.J. Johnson; B.J. Melde; M.H. Moore; A.P. Malanoski; J.R. Taft, "Improving sorbents for glycerol capture in biodiesel refinement," Materials 10

  4. Polymeric supported sorbents for decreasing hazardous metal ions content in wet process phosphoric acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Zahhar, A.A.; El-Naggar, H.A.; Ahmed, M.

    2005-01-01

    Procedure for preparation of polymeric supported silica, and their usage for decreasing hazardous metal ion content in wet process phosphoric acid was developed. The procedure is based firstly on extraction silica from rice straw by alkaline treatment , secondly supporting the produced silica on binding polyacrylonitrile (PAN). The produced polymer based sorbent was used for decreasing hazardous metal ions (especially iron) present as inorganic impurities in crud Egyptian phosphoric acid (green acid). Different factors affecting the sorption equilibrium ( contact time, temperature , sorbent mass and batch factor ) were studied. Studying the sorption isotherm revealed that the adsorption data could favorably fit the Langmuir adsorption isotherm. In the dynamic study , the sorption capacity at (Cξ/Cο = 50%) was found to be 28.5 mg/g and the loaded column could be regenerated using 50ml of 0.15 M HNO 3 . The regenerated column could undergo sorption regeneration cycles up to four cycles without significant decrease in the sorption capacity , weight loss or change in the physical properties of the sorbent

  5. Composite materials based on inorganic sorbents and extractants - new sorbents for several radionuclides removal from liquid radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kopyrin, A.A.

    1999-01-01

    A short review of recent investigation concerned with liquid radioactive waste treatment by means of composite materials. It is considered different aspects of technology of selective radionuclides removal and its direction connected with usage of composites. Results of research works in this line carried out under the direction of author are presented. (author)

  6. The antimicrobial efficiency of silver activated sorbents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Đolić, Maja B.; Rajaković-Ognjanović, Vladana N.; Štrbac, Svetlana B.; Rakočević, Zlatko Lj.; Veljović, Đorđe N.; Dimitrijević, Suzana I.; Rajaković, Ljubinka V.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Different sorbents were activated by Ag + -ions and modified sorbents were determined by sorption capacities, in range of values: 42.06–3.28 mg/g. • Granulated activated carbon (GAC), natural zeolit (Z) and titanium dioxide (T) activated by Ag + -ions were tested against E. coli, S. aureus and C. albicans. • The most successful bacteria removal was obtained using Ag/Z against S. aureus and E. coli, while the yeast cell reduction reached unsatisfactory effect for all three activated sorbents. • XRD, XPS and FE-SEM analysis showed that the chemical state of the silver activating agent affects the antimicrobial activity, as well as the structural properties of the material. • An overall microbial cell reduction, which is performed by separated antimicrobial tests on the Ag + -activated surface and Ag + -ions in aquatic solutions, is a consequence of both mechanisms. - Abstract: This study is focused on the surface modifications of the materials that are used for antimicrobial water treatment. Sorbents of different origin were activated by Ag + -ions. The selection of the most appropriate materials and the most effective activation agents was done according to the results of the sorption and desorption kinetic studies. Sorption capacities of selected sorbents: granulated activated carbon (GAC), zeolite (Z), and titanium dioxide (T), activated by Ag + -ions were following: 42.06, 13.51 and 17.53 mg/g, respectively. The antimicrobial activity of Ag/Z, Ag/GAC and Ag/T sorbents were tested against Gram-negative bacteria E. coli, Gram-positive bacteria S. aureus and yeast C. albicans. After 15 min of exposure period, the highest cell removal was obtained using Ag/Z against S. aureus and E. coli, 98.8 and 93.5%, respectively. Yeast cell inactivation was unsatisfactory for all three activated sorbents. The antimicrobial pathway of the activated sorbents has been examined by two separate tests – Ag + -ions desorbed from the activated surface to the

  7. Biochar: a green sorbent to sequester acidic organic contaminants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sigmund, Gabriel; Kah, Melanie; Sun, Huichao; Hofmann, Thilo

    2015-04-01

    Biochar is a carbon rich product of biomass pyrolysis that exhibits a high sorption potential towards a wide variety of inorganic and organic contaminants. Because it is a valuable soil additive and a potential carbon sink that can be produced from renewable resources, biochar has gained growing attention for the development of more sustainable remediation strategies. A lot of research efforts have been dedicated to the sorption of hydrophobic contaminants and metals to biochar. Conversely, the understanding of the sorption of acidic organic contaminants remains limited, and questions remain on the influence of biochar characteristics (e.g. ash content) on the sorption behaviour of acidic organic contaminants. To address this knowledge gap, sorption batch experiments were conducted with a series of structurally similar acidic organic contaminants covering a range of dissociation constant (2,4-D, MCPA, 2,4-DB and triclosan). The sorbents selected for experimentation included a series of 10 biochars covering a range of characteristics, multiwalled carbon nanotubes as model for pure carbonaceous phases, and an activated carbon as benchmark. Overall, sorption coefficient [L/kg] covered six orders of magnitude and generally followed the order 2,4-D pH dependent lipophilicity ratio (i.e. D instead of Kow), ash content and ionic strength are key factors influencing the sorption of acidic organic contaminants to biochars. Overall, the identified factors, as well as the environmental matrix, should be carefully considered when selecting the type of biochar for sequestration purposes.

  8. Tailored reflectors for illumination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, D; Winston, R

    1996-04-01

    We report on tailored reflector design methods that allow the placement of general illumination patterns onto a target plane. The use of a new integral design method based on the edge-ray principle of nonimaging optics gives much more compact reflector shapes by eliminating the need for a gap between the source and the reflector profile. In addition, the reflectivity of the reflector is incorporated as a design parameter. We show the performance of design for constant irradiance on a distant plane, and we show how a leading-edge-ray method may be used to achieve general illumination patterns on nearby targets.

  9. New polymer bounces into sorbent market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roy, K.A.

    1991-01-01

    Spectacular spills like the Exxon Valdez capture headlines and dominate conversation, but most releases involve quantities too small to attract media attention. For these spills, companies often rely on sorbents to collect the oil and dispose it. These devices come in a variety of shapes, sizes and absorbent materials, including a new generation of products that offers solid results-literally. This paper reports on the Solidifier which absorbs oil, as well as chlorinated solvents, hydrocarbons and PCBs, and, as the name implies, solidifies into a rubber-like material. A polymer used extensively in the rubber industry is the key to the sorbent's success. Oil and other contaminants, act like catalysts. They dissolve into the polymer, causing its molecules to bond together and form a rubber-like mass. No. 2 diesel fuel oil can be bounced on the floor after it solidifies

  10. Magnetically separable reactive sorbent based on the CeO2/γ-Fe2O3 composite and its utilization for rapid degradation of the organophosphate pesticide parathion methyl and certain nerve agents

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Janoš, P.; Kuráň, P.; Pilařová, V.; Trögl, J.; Šťastný, M.; Pelant, O.; Henych, Jiří; Bakardjieva, Snejana; Životský, O.; Kormunda, M.; Mazanec, K.; Skoumal, M.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 262, FEB (2015), s. 747-755 ISSN 1385-8947 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP106/12/1116 Institutional support: RVO:61388980 Keywords : Magnetically separable sorbent * Destructive sorption * Cerium oxide * Parathion methyl * Toxic organophosphates Subject RIV: CA - Inorganic Chemistry Impact factor: 5.310, year: 2015

  11. Adsorption of Ammonia on Regenerable Carbon Sorbents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wójtowicz, Marek A.; Cosgrove, Jesph E.; Serio, Michael A..; Wilburn, Monique

    2015-01-01

    Results are presented on the development of reversible sorbents for the combined carbon dioxide, moisture, and trace-contaminant (TC) removal for use in Extravehicular Activities (EVAs), and more specifically in the Primary Life Support System (PLSS). The currently available life support systems use separate units for carbon dioxide, trace contaminants, and moisture control, and the long-term objective is to replace the above three modules with a single one. Data on sorption and desorption of ammonia, which is a major TC of concern, are presented in this paper. The current TC-control technology involves the use of a packed bed of acid-impregnated granular charcoal, which is non-regenerable, and the carbon-based sorbent under development in this project can be regenerated by exposure to vacuum at room temperature. In this study, several carbon sorbents were fabricated and tested for ammonia sorption. Ammonia-sorption capacity was related to carbon pore structure characteristics, and the temperature of oxidative carbon-surface treatment was optimized for enhanced ammonia-sorption performance.

  12. Sorbents based on carbonized rice peel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mansurova, R. M.; Taipova, R. A.; Zhylybaeva, N. K.; Mansurov, Z. A.; Bijsenbaev, M. A.

    2004-01-01

    The process receiving of sorbents based on carbonized rice peel (RP) was received and their sorption properties were investigated. Processing carbonization of samples leading on station, this was developed in laboratory of hybrid technology. Carbonization of samples was realized in nitric atmosphere on 400-8000 deg. C. On raising temperature of carbonization content of carbon in samples is rice, hydrogen and oxygen is reduce as a result isolation of volatility products is discover. The samples carbonized on 650 deg. C (910 m 2 /g) owners with maximum removed surface is discover. On carbonization temperature 600-800 deh. C the sorption of ions, which carbonized by sorbents based on rice peel is run to 95-100 %. Electron-microscopic investigation of samples leaded on EM-125 mechanism by accelerating pressure 100 kV. From electron-microscopic print of original samples of RP it is evident, that sample consists of carbonic fractions of different species: carbonic fiber of rounded fractions, fractions of ellipsoid form and of more thickly carbonic structure. Increasing sizes of pores and modification structure of synthesized sorbent is occur during carbonization process. The RP-samples, which carbonized by 650 deg. C has the higher specific surface. Samples consist of thin carbonic scum and reducing specific surface, by higher temperature

  13. Advanced sorbent development progam; development of sorbents for moving-bed and fluidized-bed applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ayala, R.E.; Venkataramani, V.S.

    1998-01-01

    The integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) power system using high-temperature coal gas cleanup is one of the most promising advanced technologies for the production of electric power from coal in an environmentally acceptable manner. Unlike conventional low-temperature cleanup systems that require costly heat exchangers, high-temperature coal gas cleanup systems can be operated near 482-538 C (900-1000F) or higher, conditions that are a closer match with the gasifier and turbine components in the IGCC system, thus resulting is a more efficient overall system. GE is developing a moving-bed, high-temperature desulfurization system for the IGCC power cycle in which zinc-based regenerable sorbents are currently being used as desulfurization sorbents. Zinc titanate and other proprietary zinc-based oxides are being considered as sorbents for use in the Clean Coal Technology Demonstration Program at Tampa Electric Co.s (TECo) Polk Power Station. Under cold startup conditions at TECo, desulfurization and regeneration may be carried out at temperatures as low as 343 C (650 F), hence a versatile sorbent is desirable to perform over this wide temperature range. A key to success in the development of high-temperature desulfurization systems is the matching of sorbent properties for the selected process operating conditions, namely, sustainable desulfurization kinetics, high sulfur capacity, and mechanical durability over multiple cycles. Additionally, the sulfur species produced during regeneration of the sorbent must be in a form compatible with sulfur recovery systems, such as sulfuric acid or elemental sulfur processes. The overall objective of this program is to develop regenerable sorbents for hydrogen sulfide removal from coal-derived fuel gases in the temperature range 343-538 C (650-1000 F). Two categories of reactor configurations are being considered: moving-bed reactors and fluidized-bed (bubbling and circulating) reactors. In addition, a cost assessment and

  14. Enhanced durability and reactivity for zinc ferrite desulfurization sorbent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jha, M.C.; Berggren, M.H.

    1989-05-02

    AMAX Research Development Center (AMAX R D) has been investigating methods for enhancing the reactivity and durability of the zinc ferrite desulfurization sorbent. Zinc ferrite sorbents are intended for use in desulfurization of hot coal gas in integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) or molten carbonate fuel cell (MCFC) applications. For the present program, the reactivity of the sorbent may be defined as its sulfur sorption capacity at the breakthrough point and at saturation in a bench-scale, fixed-bed reactor. Durability may be defined as the ability of the sorbent to maintain important physical characteristics such As size, strength, and specific surface area during 10 cycles of sulfidation and oxidation.

  15. Properties and reactivity of reactivated calcium-based sorbents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davini, P. [Pisa University, Pisa (Italy). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

    2002-04-01

    Calcium-based sorbents used in the process of high temperature desulfurisation of flue gases are partly regenerable by hydration with steam; the best results are obtained for treatment temperatures of approximately 300{degree}C. The regeneration process, and the consequent increase in the sorbent consumption can be correlated to the surface characteristics (BET surface area, porosity and pore size distribution) of the sorbents themselves. In particular, the presence of suitable pore structure, also having pores large enough to let molecules easily penetrate the inner part of the sorbent particles, is very important. 27 refs., 9 figs., 2 tabs.

  16. Simple test guidelines for screening oilspill sorbents for toxicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blenkinsopp, S.A.; Sergy, G.; Doe, K.; Jackman, P.; Huybers, A.

    1998-01-01

    Environment Canada's Emergencies Science Division has established a program to develop a standard test method suitable for evaluating the toxicity of common sorbent materials. Sorbents are used to absorb or adsorb spilled oil and other hazardous materials. They vary widely in composition and packaging. They are often treated with oleophilic and hydrophobic compounds to improve performance and have been used in large quantities during oil spills. Until now, their potential toxicity has never been considered. Three tests have been evaluated to determine how appropriate they are in screening the toxicity of sorbents. Seven toxicity test recommendations for sorbents were presented. 7 refs., 3 tabs., 2 figs

  17. Sorbent selection and design considerations for uranium trapping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schultz, R.M.; Hobbs, W.E.; Norton, J.L.; Stephenson, M.J.

    1981-07-01

    The efficient removal of UF 6 from effluent streams can be accomplished through the selection of the best solid sorbent and the implementation of good design principles. Pressure losses, sorbent capacity, reaction kinetics, sorbent regeneration/uranium recovery requirements and the effects of other system components are the performance factors which are summarized. The commonly used uranium trapping materials highlighted are sodium fluoride, H-151 alumina, XF-100 alumina, and F-1 alumina. Sorbent selection and trap design have to be made on a case-by-case basis but the theoretical modeling studies and the evaluation of the performance factors presented can be used as a guide for other chemical trap applications

  18. Tailored Random Graph Ensembles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roberts, E S; Annibale, A; Coolen, A C C

    2013-01-01

    Tailored graph ensembles are a developing bridge between biological networks and statistical mechanics. The aim is to use this concept to generate a suite of rigorous tools that can be used to quantify and compare the topology of cellular signalling networks, such as protein-protein interaction networks and gene regulation networks. We calculate exact and explicit formulae for the leading orders in the system size of the Shannon entropies of random graph ensembles constrained with degree distribution and degree-degree correlation. We also construct an ergodic detailed balance Markov chain with non-trivial acceptance probabilities which converges to a strictly uniform measure and is based on edge swaps that conserve all degrees. The acceptance probabilities can be generalized to define Markov chains that target any alternative desired measure on the space of directed or undirected graphs, in order to generate graphs with more sophisticated topological features.

  19. Anionic sorbents for arsenic and technetium species

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lucero, Daniel A.; Moore, Robert Charles; Bontchev, Ranko Panayotov; Hasan, Ahmed Ali Mohamed; Zhao, Hongting; Salas, Fred Manuel; Holt, Kathleen Caroline

    2003-01-01

    Two sorbents, zirconium coated zeolite and magnesium hydroxide, were tested for their effectiveness in removing arsenic from Albuquerque municipal water. Results for the zirconium coated zeolite indicate that phosphate present in the water interfered with the sorption of arsenic. Additionally, there was a large quantity of iron and copper present in the water, corrosion products from the piping system, which may have interfered with the uptake of arsenic by the sorbent. Magnesium hydroxide has also been proven to be a strong sorbent for arsenic as well as other metals. Carbonate, present in water, has been shown to interfere with the sorption of arsenic by reacting with the magnesium hydroxide to form magnesium carbonate. The reaction mechanism was investigated by FT-IR and shows that hydrogen bonding between an oxygen on the arsenic species and a hydrogen on the Mg(OH)2 is most likely the mechanism of sorption. This was also confirmed by RAMAN spectroscopy and XRD. Technetium exists in multiple oxidation states (IV and VII) and is easily oxidized from the relatively insoluble Tc(IV) form to the highly water soluble and mobile Tc(VII) form. The two oxidation states exhibit different sorption characteristics. Tc(VII) does not sorb to most materials whereas Tc(IV) will strongly sorb to many materials. Therefore, it was determined that it is necessary to first reduce the Tc (using SnCl2) before sorption to stabilize Tc in the environment. Additionally, the effect of carbonate and phosphate on the sorption of technetium by hydroxyapatite was studied and indicated that both have a significant effect on reducing Tc sorption

  20. TRUEX process solvent cleanup with solid sorbents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tse, Pui-Kwan; Reichley-Yinger, L.; Vandegrift, G.F.

    1989-01-01

    Solid sorbents, alumina, silica gel, and Amberlyst A-26 have been tested for the cleanup of degraded TRUEX-NPH solvent. A sodium carbonate scrub alone does not completely remove acidic degradation products from highly degraded solvent and cannot restore the stripping performance of the solvent. By following the carbonate scrub with either neutral alumina or Amberlyst A-26 anion exchange resin, the performance of the TRUEX-NPH is substantially restored. The degraded TRUEX-NPH was characterized before and after treatment by supercritical fluid chromatography. Its performance was evaluated by americium distribution ratios, phase-separation times, and lauric acid distribution coefficients. 17 refs., 2 figs., 5 tabs

  1. Assessment of spent mushroom substrate as sorbent of fungicides: influence of sorbent and sorbate properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marín-Benito, Jesús M; Rodríguez-Cruz, M Sonia; Andrades, M Soledad; Sánchez-Martín, María J

    2012-01-01

    The capacity of spent mushroom substrate (SMS) as a sorbent of fungicides was evaluated for its possible use in regulating pesticide mobility in the environment. The sorption studies involved four different SMS types in terms of nature and treatment and eight fungicides selected as representative compounds from different chemical groups. Nonlinear sorption isotherms were observed for all SMS-fungicide combinations. The highest sorption was obtained by composted SMS from Agaricus bisporus cultivation. A significant negative and positive correlation was obtained between the K(OC) sorption constants and the polarity index values of sorbents and the K(OW) of fungicides, respectively. The statistic revealed that more than 77% of the variability in the K(OW) could be explained considering these properties jointly. The other properties of both the sorbent (total carbon, dissolved organic carbon, or pH) and the sorbate (water solubility) were nonsignificant. The hysteresis values for cyprodinil (log K(OW)= 4) were for all the sorbents much higher (>3) than for other fungicides. This was consistent with the remaining sorption after desorption considered as an indicator of the sorption efficiency of SMS for fungicides. Changes in the absorption bands of fungicides sorbed by SMS observed by FTIR permitted establishing the interaction mechanism of fungicides with SMS. The findings of this work provide evidence for the potential capacity of SMS as a sorbent of fungicides and the low desorption observed especially for some fungicides, although they suggest that more stabilized or humified organic substrates should be produced to enhance their efficiency in environmental applications. Copyright © by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America, Inc.

  2. Preconcentration of traces of radionuclides and elements with foamed polyurethane sorbents in the analysis of environmental samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palagyi, S.; Braun, T.

    1986-01-01

    The importance of preconcentration and the permanent need of efficient preconcentrating agents in environmental analysis are pointed out. Foamed polyurethane sorbents draw attention as novel agents in separation chemistry. A survey is presented of recent applications of unloaded and reagent-loaded open-cell type resilient polyurethane foams in the separation and preconcentration of radionuclides from environmental samples, and of the latest uses of these foams in the preconcentration and detection of traces of some, mainly inorganic materials in environmental samples, using radioanalytical techniques. Possible future uses of polyurethane foams in trace element detection in environmental analysis are outlined. (author)

  3. Engineered inorganic core/shell nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mélinon, Patrice, E-mail: patrice.melinon@univ-lyon1.fr [Institut Lumière matière Université Claude Bernard Lyon 1 et CNRS et OMNT, Domaine Scientifique de la Doua, Bâtiment Léon Brillouin, 43 Boulevard du 11 Novembre 1918, F 69622 Villeurbanne (France); Begin-Colin, Sylvie [IPCMS et OMNT, 23 rue du Loess BP 43, 67034 STRASBOURG Cedex 2 (France); Duvail, Jean Luc [IMN UMR 6502 et OMNT Campus Sciences : 2 rue de la Houssinire, BP32229, 44322 Nantes Cedex3 (France); Gauffre, Fabienne [SPM et OMNT : Institut des sciences chimiques de Rennes - UMR 6226, 263 Avenue du General Leclerc, CS 74205, 35042 RENNES Cedex (France); Boime, Nathalie Herlin [IRAMIS-NIMBE, Laboratoire Francis Perrin (CEA CNRS URA 2453) et OMNT, Bat 522, CEA Saclay, 91191 Gif sur Yvette Cedex (France); Ledoux, Gilles [Institut Lumière Matière Université Claude Bernard Lyon 1 et CNRS et OMNT, Domaine Scientifique de la Doua, Bâtiment Alfred Kastler 43 Boulevard du 11 Novembre 1918 F 69622 Villeurbanne (France); Plain, Jérôme [Universit de technologie de Troyes LNIO-ICD, CNRS et OMNT 12 rue Marie Curie - CS 42060 - 10004 Troyes cedex (France); Reiss, Peter [CEA Grenoble, INAC-SPrAM, UMR 5819 CEA-CNRS-UJF et OMNT, Grenoble cedex 9 (France); Silly, Fabien [CEA, IRAMIS, SPEC, TITANS, CNRS 2464 et OMNT, F-91191 Gif sur Yvette (France); Warot-Fonrose, Bénédicte [CEMES-CNRS, Université de Toulouse et OMNT, 29 rue Jeanne Marvig F 31055 Toulouse (France)

    2014-10-20

    It has been for a long time recognized that nanoparticles are of great scientific interest as they are effectively a bridge between bulk materials and atomic structures. At first, size effects occurring in single elements have been studied. More recently, progress in chemical and physical synthesis routes permitted the preparation of more complex structures. Such structures take advantages of new adjustable parameters including stoichiometry, chemical ordering, shape and segregation opening new fields with tailored materials for biology, mechanics, optics magnetism, chemistry catalysis, solar cells and microelectronics. Among them, core/shell structures are a particular class of nanoparticles made with an inorganic core and one or several inorganic shell layer(s). In earlier work, the shell was merely used as a protective coating for the core. More recently, it has been shown that it is possible to tune the physical properties in a larger range than that of each material taken separately. The goal of the present review is to discuss the basic properties of the different types of core/shell nanoparticles including a large variety of heterostructures. We restrict ourselves on all inorganic (on inorganic/inorganic) core/shell structures. In the light of recent developments, the applications of inorganic core/shell particles are found in many fields including biology, chemistry, physics and engineering. In addition to a representative overview of the properties, general concepts based on solid state physics are considered for material selection and for identifying criteria linking the core/shell structure and its resulting properties. Chemical and physical routes for the synthesis and specific methods for the study of core/shell nanoparticle are briefly discussed.

  4. Post-combustion carbon capture - solid sorbents and membranes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davidson, R.M.

    2009-01-15

    This report follows on from that on solvent scrubbing for post-combustion carbon capture from coal-fired power plants by considering the use of solid sorbents and membranes instead of solvents. First, mesoporous and microporous adsorbents are discussed: carbon-based adsorbents, zeolites, hydrotalcites and porous crystals. Attempts have been made to improve the performance of the porous adsorbent by functionalising them with nitrogen groups and specifically, amine groups to react with CO{sub 2} and thus enhance the physical adsorption properties. Dry, regenerable solid sorbents have attracted a good deal of research. Most of the work has been on the carbonation/calcination cycle of natural limestone but there have also been studies of other calcium-based sorbents and alkali metal-based sorbents. Membranes have also been studied as potential post-combustion capture devices. Finally, techno-economic studies predicting the economic performance of solid sorbents and membranes are discussed. 340 refs., 21 figs., 8 tabs.

  5. Detoxication and recycling of radioactive waters using selective mineral sorbents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berak, L.

    1980-01-01

    Activated BaSO 4 (designated AB 70) was proposed for use in decontaminating concentrated calcium salt solutions containing a small amount of 226 Ra. The AB 70 concentration factor amounts to 2x1a 3 . A sorption contactor for applying the powder sorbent was proposed and will be tested. The AB 70 sorbent liberates small amounts of sulphates into the decontaminated solution, and thus another suitable mineral sorbent was sought. A new sorbent could be synthetized and tested, called RAS-1 whose Ra/Ca selectivity is comparable to that of AB 70 while its Ra/Ba selectivity is considerably higher. The RAS-1 sorbent is also suitable for radiochemical separation in the analysis and concentration of Ra. (Ha)

  6. Literature survey: methods for the removal of iodine species from off-gases and liquid waste streams of nuclear power and nuclear fuel reprocessing plants, with emphasis on solid sorbents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holladay, D.W.

    1979-01-01

    Emphasis was focused on the operating parameters that most strongly affected the optimization of the processes used to treat actual process or feed streams which simulated actual compositions occurring at nuclear facilities. These parameters included gas superficial velocity, temperature, types of organic and inorganic contaminants, relative humidity, iodine feed-gas concentration, iodine species, column design (for both acid-scrub and solid sorbent-based processes), sorbent particle size, run time, intense radiation (solid sorbents only), and scrub-acid concentration. The most promising acid-scrub process for removal of iodine species from off-gases appears to be Iodox. The most promising solid sorbent for removal of iodine species from off-gases is the West German Ag-KTB--AgNO 3 -impregnated amorphous silicic acid. The tandem silver mordenite--lead mordenite sorbent system is also quite attractive. Only a limited number of processes have thus far been studied for removal of iodine species from low-level liquid waste streams. The most extensive successful operating experience has been obtained with anion exchange resins utilized at nuclear power reactors. Bench-scale engineering tests have indicated that the best process for removal of all types of iodine species from liquid waste streams may be treatment on a packed bed containing a mixture of sorbents with affinity for both elemental and anionic species of iodine. 154 references, 7 figures, 21 tables

  7. Surfactant-modified zeolites as permeable barriers to organic and inorganic groundwater contaminants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bowman, R.S.; Sullivan, E.J.

    1995-01-01

    We have shown in laboratory experiments that natural zeolites treated with hexadecyltrimethylammonium (HDTMA) are effective sorbents for nonpolar organics, inorganic cations, and inorganic anions. Due to their low cost (∼$0.75/kg) and granular nature, HDTMA-zeolites appear ideal candidates for reactive, permeable subsurface barriers. The HDTMA-zeolites are stable over a wide range of pH (3-13), ionic strength (1 M Cs + or Ca 2+ ), and in organic solvents. Surfactant-modified zeolites sorb nonpolar organics (benzene, toluene, xylene, chlorinated aliphatics) via a partitioning mechanism, inorganic cations (Pb 2+ ) via ion exchange and surface complexation, and inorganic anions (CrO 4 2- , SeO 4 2- , SO 4 2- ) via surface precipitation.The goal of this work is to demonstrate the use of surfactant-modified zeolite as a permeable barrier to ground water contaminants

  8. Laying Waste to Mercury: Inexpensive Sorbents Made from Sulfur and Recycled Cooking Oils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worthington, Max J. H.; Kucera, Renata L.; Albuquerque, Inês S.; Gibson, Christopher T.; Sibley, Alexander; Slattery, Ashley D.; Campbell, Jonathan A.; Alboaiji, Salah F. K.; Muller, Katherine A.; Young, Jason; Adamson, Nick; Gascooke, Jason R.; Jampaiah, Deshetti; Sabri, Ylias M.; Bhargava, Suresh K.; Ippolito, Samuel J.; Lewis, David A.; Quinton, Jamie S.; Ellis, Amanda V.; Johs, Alexander; Bernardes, Gonçalo J. L.

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Mercury pollution threatens the environment and human health across the globe. This neurotoxic substance is encountered in artisanal gold mining, coal combustion, oil and gas refining, waste incineration, chloralkali plant operation, metallurgy, and areas of agriculture in which mercury‐rich fungicides are used. Thousands of tonnes of mercury are emitted annually through these activities. With the Minamata Convention on Mercury entering force this year, increasing regulation of mercury pollution is imminent. It is therefore critical to provide inexpensive and scalable mercury sorbents. The research herein addresses this need by introducing low‐cost mercury sorbents made solely from sulfur and unsaturated cooking oils. A porous version of the polymer was prepared by simply synthesising the polymer in the presence of a sodium chloride porogen. The resulting material is a rubber that captures liquid mercury metal, mercury vapour, inorganic mercury bound to organic matter, and highly toxic alkylmercury compounds. Mercury removal from air, water and soil was demonstrated. Because sulfur is a by‐product of petroleum refining and spent cooking oils from the food industry are suitable starting materials, these mercury‐capturing polymers can be synthesised entirely from waste and supplied on multi‐kilogram scales. This study is therefore an advance in waste valorisation and environmental chemistry. PMID:28763123

  9. Laying Waste to Mercury: Inexpensive Sorbents Made from Sulfur and Recycled Cooking Oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worthington, Max J H; Kucera, Renata L; Albuquerque, Inês S; Gibson, Christopher T; Sibley, Alexander; Slattery, Ashley D; Campbell, Jonathan A; Alboaiji, Salah F K; Muller, Katherine A; Young, Jason; Adamson, Nick; Gascooke, Jason R; Jampaiah, Deshetti; Sabri, Ylias M; Bhargava, Suresh K; Ippolito, Samuel J; Lewis, David A; Quinton, Jamie S; Ellis, Amanda V; Johs, Alexander; Bernardes, Gonçalo J L; Chalker, Justin M

    2017-11-16

    Mercury pollution threatens the environment and human health across the globe. This neurotoxic substance is encountered in artisanal gold mining, coal combustion, oil and gas refining, waste incineration, chloralkali plant operation, metallurgy, and areas of agriculture in which mercury-rich fungicides are used. Thousands of tonnes of mercury are emitted annually through these activities. With the Minamata Convention on Mercury entering force this year, increasing regulation of mercury pollution is imminent. It is therefore critical to provide inexpensive and scalable mercury sorbents. The research herein addresses this need by introducing low-cost mercury sorbents made solely from sulfur and unsaturated cooking oils. A porous version of the polymer was prepared by simply synthesising the polymer in the presence of a sodium chloride porogen. The resulting material is a rubber that captures liquid mercury metal, mercury vapour, inorganic mercury bound to organic matter, and highly toxic alkylmercury compounds. Mercury removal from air, water and soil was demonstrated. Because sulfur is a by-product of petroleum refining and spent cooking oils from the food industry are suitable starting materials, these mercury-capturing polymers can be synthesised entirely from waste and supplied on multi-kilogram scales. This study is therefore an advance in waste valorisation and environmental chemistry. © 2017 The Authors. Published by Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA.

  10. Application of polyurethane foam as a sorbent for trace metal pre-concentration — A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemos, V. A.; Santos, M. S.; Santos, E. S.; Santos, M. J. S.; dos Santos, W. N. L.; Souza, A. S.; de Jesus, D. S.; das Virgens, C. F.; Carvalho, M. S.; Oleszczuk, N.; Vale, M. G. R.; Welz, B.; Ferreira, S. L. C.

    2007-01-01

    The first publication on the use of polyurethane foam (PUF) for sorption processes dates back to 1970, and soon after the material was applied for separation processes. The application of PUF as a sorbent for solid phase extraction of inorganic analytes for separation and pre-concentration purposes is reviewed. The physical and chemical characteristics of PUF (polyether and polyester type) are discussed and an introduction to the characterization of these sorption processes using different types of isotherms is given. Separation and pre-concentration methods using unloaded and loaded PUF in batch and on-line procedures with continuous flow and flow injection systems are presented. Methods for the direct solid sampling analysis of the PUF after pre-concentration are discussed as well as approaches for speciation analysis. Thermodynamic proprieties of some extraction processes are evaluated and the interpretation of determined parameters, such as enthalpy, entropy and Gibbs free energy in light of the physico-chemical processes is explained.

  11. Sorbent-based Oxygen Production for Energy Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sethi, Vijay [Western Research Inst. (WRI), Laramie, WY (United States)

    2017-01-31

    Project DE-FE0024075 deals with the development of a moderate-temperature sorbent-based oxygen production technology. Sorbent-based oxygen production process utilizes oxygen-storage properties of Perovskites to (1) adsorb oxygen from air in a solid sorbent, and (2) release the adsorbed oxygen into a sweep gas such as CO2 and/or steam for gasification systems or recycled flue gas for oxy-combustion systems. Pure oxygen can be produced by the use of vacuum instead of a sweep gas to affect the pressure swing. By developing more efficient and stable, higher sorption capacity, newer class of materials operating at moderate temperatures this process represents a major advancement in air separation technology. Newly developed perovskite ceramic sorbent materials with order-disorder transition have a higher O2 adsorption capacity, potentially 200 °C lower operating temperatures, and up to two orders of magnitude faster desorption rates than those used in earlier development efforts. The performance advancements afforded by the new materials lead to substantial savings in capital investment and operational costs. Cost of producing oxygen using sorbents could be as much as 26% lower than VPSA and about 13% lower than a large cryogenic air separation unit. Cost advantage against large cryogenic separation is limited because sorbent-based separation numbers up sorbent modules for achieving the larger capacity.

  12. NIFSIL - a composite sorbent for caesium - properties and application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rajec, P.; Orechovska, J.

    1998-01-01

    Samples of the potassium-nickel ferrocyanides K 2 NiFe(CN) 6 , KNi 1,5 Fe(CN) 6 and Ni 2 Fe(CN) 6 were prepared and their properties studied with respect to their use as sorbents for caesium. Caesium is fixed on mixed alkaline-nickel ferrocyanide without structural change. The capacity of Cs retention never reached the theoretic value corresponding to a total release of the monovalent ions of the solid. High distribution coefficients (K D in the order of 10 4 cm 3 /g) determined in batch experiments show that these sorbents have a very high affinity for caesium ions, even in the presence of competing K + , Na + and Ca 2+ ions. The sorbents have a good chemical stability in a wide pH-range (2-12). The irradiation of some sorbent samples with high energy gamma-rays ( 60 Co) of a total dose of 1.10 5 Gy caused no remarkable changes in the sorbent properties (K D , sorption capacity and kinetics, mechanical stability). The sorbents were also tested for 85 Sr and 239 Pu and the results carried out under dynamic and batch experiments have shown that sorbents are not suitable for removal of these radionuclides. Potassium nickel hexacyanoferrate incorporated in silica-gel matrix could compete with others sorbents based on insoluble hexacyanoferrates, has the advantage of good radiation stability and suitable granulometry. The sorbent was prepared on a pilot scale with a capacity about 1000 kg per year with the prospect that it could be easily upgraded to an industrial scale

  13. Octahedral molecular sieve sorbents and catalysts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Liyu [Richland, WA; King, David L [Richland, WA

    2010-04-20

    Octahedral molecular sieve sorbents and catalysts are disclosed, including silver hollandite and cryptomelane. These materials can be used, for example, to catalyze the oxidation of CO.sub.x (e.g., CO), NO.sub.x (e.g., NO), hydrocarbons (e.g., C.sub.3H.sub.6) and/or sulfur-containing compounds. The disclosed materials also may be used to catalyze other reactions, such as the reduction of NO.sub.2. In some cases, the disclosed materials are capable of sorbing certain products from the reactions they catalyze. Silver hollandite, in particular, can be used to remove a substantial portion of certain sulfur-containing compounds from a gas or liquid by catalysis and/or sorption. The gas or liquid can be, for example, natural gas or a liquid hydrocarbon.

  14. Potential of Cogon Grass as an Oil Sorbent

    OpenAIRE

    Wiloso, Edi Iswanto; Barlianti, Vera; Anggraini, Irni Fitria; Hendarsyah, Hendris

    2012-01-01

    Experiments on the potential of Cogon grass (lmperata cylindrica), a weed harmful to other plants, for use as a low-cost and biodegradable oil sorbent were carried out under various spill conditions. Flowers of Cogon grass adsorbed much larger amount of high-viscosity lubricating oil (57.9 g-oil/g-sorbent) than that adsorbed by Peat Sorb (7.7 g-oil/g-sorbent), a commercial oilsorbent based on peat. However, the flowers adsorbed only 27.9 g of low-viscosity crude oillgsorbent. In an oil-water ...

  15. Layered inorganic solids

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Čejka, Jiří; Morris, R. E.; Nachtigall, P.; Roth, Wieslaw Jerzy

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 43, č. 27 (2014), s. 10274-10275 ISSN 1477-9226 Institutional support: RVO:61388955 Keywords : layered inorganic solids * physical chemistry * catalysis Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 4.197, year: 2014

  16. Inorganic Coatings Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The inorganic Coatings Lab provides expertise to Navy and Joint Service platforms acquisition IPTs to aid in materials and processing choices which balance up-front...

  17. Inorganic and geological materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dinnin, J.I.

    1975-01-01

    Recently described methods for applied inorganic analysis are reviewed from an interdisciplinary standpoint. Abstracts and periodical literature up to Nov. 1974, are included for consideration. The following areas of interest are covered: general reviews of inorganic analytical techniques; analytical techniques, areas of application, and analysis of individual elements. Selected books, monographs, and review articles on the analytical chemistry of the elements are listed. (416 references.) (U.S.)

  18. Flow-injection determination of total organic fluorine with off-line defluorination reaction on a solid sorbent bed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musijowski, Jacek; Trojanowicz, Marek; Szostek, Bogdan; da Costa Lima, José Luis Fontes; Lapa, Rui; Yamashita, Hiroki; Takayanagi, Toshio; Motomizu, Shoji

    2007-09-26

    Considering recent reports on widespread occurrence and concerns about perfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) in environmental and biological systems, analysis of these compounds have gained much attention in recent years. Majority of analyte-specific methods are based on a LC/MS/MS or a GC/MS detection, however many environmental or biological studies would benefit from a total organic fluorine (TOF) determination. Presented work was aimed at developing a method for TOF determination. TOF is determined as an amount of inorganic fluoride obtained after defluorination reaction conducted off-line using sodium biphenyl reagent directly on the sorbent without elution of retained analytes. Recovered fluoride was analyzed using flow-injection system with either fluorimetric or potentiometric detection. The TOF method was tested using perfluorocarboxylic acids (PFCA), including perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), as model compounds. Considering low concentrations of PFAS in natural samples, solid-phase extraction as a preconcentration procedure was evaluated. Several carbon-based sorbents were tested, namely multi-wall carbon nanotubes, carbon nanofibres and activated carbon. Good sorption of all analytes was achieved and defluorination reaction was possible to carry out directly on a sorbent bed. Recoveries obtained for PFCAs, adsorbed on an activated carbon sorbent, and measured as TOF, were 99.5+/-1.7, 110+/-9.4, 95+/-26, 120+/-32, 110+/-12 for C4, C6, C8, C10 and C12-PFCA, respectively. Two flow systems that would enable the defluorination reaction and fluoride determination in a single system were designed and tested.

  19. Ion Exchange Kinetics of CO2+ Ions In the Particles of Some Organic and Inorganic Sorbents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Naggar, I.M.; Abou-Messalam, M.M; Shady, S.A.

    2000-01-01

    The rate of exchange and diffusion mechanism of Co 2+ and Zn 2+ on the hydrogen form of cerium (IV) antimonate Ce/Sb and polyacrylamide acrylic acid resin impregnated with zirconium phosphate p(A M-A A) Zr-P was determined at different reaction temperatures 25,45 and 60 degree. The exchange rate was controlled by a particle diffusion mechanism and a limited batch technique. The effective diffusion coefficients of exchange reactions, values of activation energies, entropy of activation have been calculated and were confirmed by the B t versus t plots

  20. The application and properties of composite sorbents of inorganic ion exchangers and polyacrylonitrile binding matrix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilchi, A; Khanchi, A; Atashi, H; Bagheri, A; Nematollahi, L

    2006-10-11

    A description is given of the preparation and properties of potassium hexacyanocobalt (II) ferrate (II) (KCFC) and the composite, potassium hexacyanocobalt (II) ferrate (II)-polyacrylonitrile (KCFC-PAN). The materials were dried at high temperatures and characterized by chemical analysis, scanning electron microscope, X-ray diffraction, inductively coupled plasma and infrared. The ion exchange of alkaline earth metals and molybdenum on a nonstoichiometric compound K(2)[CoFe(CN)(6)] and its PAN based absorber was examined by batch methods. The adsorption of molybdenum from aqueous solutions on KCFC-PAN was investigated and optimized as a function of equilibration time and pH. The materials which were dried at optimum high temperature of 110 degrees C were found to be stable in water, dilute acids, alkaline solutions and relatively high temperature. The distribution coefficient values K(d) for alkaline earth metals, followed the same trend of increase for both sets of absorbers studied, i.e. Ba(2+)>Sr(2+)>Ca(2+)>Mg(2+), which closely resembles to the order of the size of the hydrated cations. However, the K(d) values show a significant increase for PAN based absorbers in comparison to KCFC absorbers.

  1. Inorganic chemically active adsorbents (ICAAs)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ally, M.R. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Tavlarides, L.

    1997-10-01

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) researchers are developing a technology that combines metal chelation extraction technology and synthesis chemistry. They begin with a ceramic substrate such as alumina, titanium oxide or silica gel because they provide high surface area, high mechanical strength, and radiolytic stability. One preparation method involves silylation to hydrophobize the surface, followed by chemisorption of a suitable chelation agent using vapor deposition. Another route attaches newly designed chelating agents through covalent bonding by the use of coupling agents. These approaches provide stable and selective, inorganic chemically active adsorbents (ICAAs) tailored for removal of metals. The technology has the following advantages over ion exchange: (1) higher mechanical strength, (2) higher resistance to radiation fields, (3) higher selectivity for the desired metal ion, (4) no cation exchange, (5) reduced or no interference from accompanying anions, (6) faster kinetics, and (7) easy and selective regeneration. Target waste streams include metal-containing groundwater/process wastewater at ORNL`s Y-12 Plant (multiple metals), Savannah River Site (SRS), Rocky Flats (multiple metals), and Hanford; aqueous mixed wastes at Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL); and scrubber water generated at SRS and INEL. Focus Areas that will benefit from this research include Mixed Waste, and Subsurface Contaminants.

  2. Evaluation of 137Cs sorbents for fixation in concrete

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plodinec, M.J.

    1976-01-01

    As part of the long-term waste management program at the Savannah River Laboratory, several 137 Cs sorbents were evaluated for incorporation into concrete. The sorbents studied were: Linde AW-300, AW-500, 13-X, and SK-40; Norton Zeolon 200, 500, and 900; clinoptilolite; and vermiculite. The parameters studied were sorption kinetics, leachability, and compressive strength of the concrete. The best sorbents identified were Linde AW-500 and Norton Zeolon 900. In all tests, these two sorbents performed almost identically; sorption kinetics were acceptable; both strengthened the concrete, and both gave relatively leach-resistant concrete. Vermiculite that had been heated to collapse its lattice around 137 Cs gave the most leach-resistant concrete. However, it sorbed cesium slowly, and the resulting concrete was very weak. When silica gel was added to concrete to react with free calcium, the addition had no effect on cesium leachability

  3. Novel Sorbent to Clean Up Biogas for CHPs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alptekin, Gökhan O. [TDA Research, Incorporated, Wheat Ridge, CO (United States); Jayataman, Ambalavanan [TDA Research, Incorporated, Wheat Ridge, CO (United States); Schaefer, Matthew [TDA Research, Incorporated, Wheat Ridge, CO (United States); Ware, Michael [TDA Research, Incorporated, Wheat Ridge, CO (United States); Hunt, Jennifer [FuelCell Energy, Inc., Danbury, CT (United States); Dobek, Frank [FuelCell Energy, Inc., Danbury, CT (United States)

    2015-05-30

    In this project, TDA Research Inc. (TDA) has developed low-cost (on a per unit volume of gas processed basis), high-capacity expendable sorbents that can remove both the H2S and organic sulfur species in biogas to the ppb levels. The proposed sorbents will operate downstream of a bulk desulfurization system as a polishing bed to provide an essentially sulfur-free gas to a fuel cell (or any other application that needs a completely sulfur-free feed). Our sorbents use a highly dispersed mixed metal oxides active phase with desired modifiers prepared over on a mesoporous support. The support structure allows the large organic sulfur compounds (such as the diethyl sulfide and dipropyl sulfide phases with a large kinetic diameter) to enter the sorbent pores so that they can be adsorbed and removed from the gas stream.

  4. Dual layer hollow fiber sorbents: Concept, fabrication and characterization

    KAUST Repository

    Bhandari, Dhaval; Olanrewaju, Kayode O.; Bessho, Naoki; Breedveld, Victor; Koros, William J.

    2013-01-01

    and to ensure consistent sorption capacity over repeated cycles, a dense, thin polymer barrier layer on the fiber sorbents is needed to allow only thermal interactions between the sorbate loaded layer and the thermal regeneration fluid. This paper considers

  5. Water purification from radionuclides with using fibroid sorbents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khaydarov, R. A.; Gapurova, O.U.; Khaydarov, R.R.

    2005-01-01

    Full text: Purification waste water and drinking water from radionuclides, heavy metal ions, organic contamination is one of the important problems today. For solving this problem we have created three types of fibroid sorbents on the base of Polyester: cationic and anionic exchange and carbonic. Main properties of these sorbents are described in this article. For example characteristics of the sorbents for removing radionuclides Co-60,57, Zn-65, Sr-89,90, Cs-134,137, etc., radionuclides containing organic molecules M-P-32, M-I-131, M-Mo-99+Tc-99m, M-C-14, etc., heavy metal ions Zn, Ni, Cu, Sb, Pb, Cd, Cr, U, etc., organic molecules (pesticides, phenols, dioxin, benzene, toluene, etc.) were investigated. Influence of pH on percent removal, influence of K, Na and another ions concentrations in the liquid on the percent removal, decreasing of the saturation capacity from number of regeneration and another characteristics are described. Static exchange capacity of the cationic sorbents is 1-2 mg-equ/g and anionic - 0.5-1 mg-equ/g. Capacity of the carbonic sorbents for benzene is 100 mg/g. Time of chemical balance setting is 1-2 s. The sorbents are effective in removing the low concentrations of contamination from the water (lower than 100-200 mg/l) and the air (lower than 100 mg/m 3 ). The use of sorbents in drinking water filters and mini-systems is described. The industrial water purification system consists of coagulating unit, sorbent unit and disinfectant unit. The systems are used in atomic power stations, electroplating plants, matches plants, leather and skin treating plants, car-washing stations, etc

  6. Oil sorbents from plastic wastes and polymers: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saleem, Junaid; Adil Riaz, Muhammad; Gordon, McKay

    2018-01-05

    A large volume of the waste produced across the world is composed of polymers from plastic wastes such as polyethylene (HDPE or LDPE), polypropylene (PP), and polyethylene terephthalate (PET) amongst others. For years, environmentalists have been looking for various ways to overcome the problems of such large quantities of plastic wastes being disposed of into landfill sites. On the other hand, the usage of synthetic polymers as oil sorbents in particular, polyolefins, including polypropylene (PP) and polyethylene (PE) have been reported. In recent years, the idea of using plastic wastes as the feed for the production of oil sorbents has gained momentum. However, the studies undertaking such feasibility are rather scattered. This review paper is the first of its kind reporting, compiling and reviewing these various processes. The production of an oil sorbent from plastic wastes is being seen to be satisfactorily achievable through a variety of methods Nevertheless, much work needs to be done regarding further investigation of the numerous parameters influencing production yields and sorbent qualities. For example, differences in results are seen due to varying operating conditions, experimental setups, and virgin or waste plastics being used as feeds. The field of producing oil sorbents from plastic wastes is still very open for further research, and seems to be a promising route for both waste reduction, and the synthesis of value-added products such as oil sorbents. In this review, the research related to the production of various oil sorbents based on plastics (plastic waste and virgin polymer) has been discussed. Further oil sorbent efficiency in terms of oil sorption capacity has been described. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. REMOVAL OF ANIONIC SURFACTANTS FROM WASTEWATER BY MAGNETIC MINERAL SORBENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oksana Vladimirova Makarchuk

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The simplest and most effective method of removing low concentrations of anionic surfactants such as sodium dodecyl benzenesulfonate (SDBS and sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS is adsorption. Among adsorbents the natural clays are cheap and promising for these purposes. However, there are significant difficulties in removal of spent sorbent after the adsorption process. So, the creation of magnetic sorbents that can be effectively removed from water after sorption by magnetic separation will be a successful decision. The aim of this investigation is the creation of cheap and efficient magnetic sorbents based on natural clays and magnetite for anionic surfactant removal from wastewater. We have synthesized a series of magnetic sorbents from different natural clays with a content of magnetite from 2 to 10 wt%. The ability of magnetic sorbents to remove SDBS and SLS from aqueous solutions has been studied for different adsorbate concentrations by varying the amount of adsorbent, temperature and shaking time. Thermodynamic parameters were calculated from the slope and intercept of the linear plots of ln K against 1/T. Analysis of adsorption results obtained at different temperatures showed that the adsorption pattern on magnetic sorbents correspond to the Langmuir isotherm. It is shown that with increasing the content of magnetite in the magnetic sorbents improves not only their separation from water by magnetic separation, but adsorption capacity to SDBS and SLS. Thus, we obtained of cheap magnetic sorbents based on natural clays and magnetite by the easy way, which not only quickly separated from the solution by magnetic separation, but effectively remove anionic surfactants.

  8. Engineered sorbent barriers for low-level waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitchell, S.J.; Freeman, H.D.; Buelt, J.L.

    1987-01-01

    The Engineered Sorbent Barriers Program at Pacific Northwest Laboratory is developing sorbent materials to prevent the migration of radionuclides from low-level waste sites. These materials would allow water to pass, preventing the bathtub effect at humid sites. Screening studies identified promising sorbent materials for three key radionuclides: for cesium, greensand; for cobalt, activated charcoal; and for strontium, synthetic zeolite of clinoptilolite. Mixtures of these sorbent materials were tested in 0.6-m-diameter columns using radioactive leachates. To simulate expected worst-case conditions, the leachate solution contained the radionuclides, competing cations, and a chelating agent, adjusted to a pH of 5. A sorbent barrier comprised of greensand (1 wt%), activated charcoal (6 wt%), synthetic zeolite (20 wt%), and soil (73 wt%) achieved the decontamination factors necessary to meet the regulatory performance requirements established for this study. Sorbent barriers can be applied to shallow land burial, as backfill around the waste or engineered structures, or as backup to other liner systems. 2 references, 6 figures, 3 tables

  9. Characterization of calcium carbonate sorbent particle in furnace environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Kang Soo; Jung, Jae Hee; Keel, Sang In; Yun, Jin Han; Min, Tai Jin; Kim, Sang Soo

    2012-01-01

    The oxy-fuel combustion system is a promising technology to control CO 2 and NO X emissions. Furthermore, sulfation reaction mechanism under CO 2 -rich atmospheric condition in a furnace may lead to in-furnace desulfurization. In the present study, we evaluated characteristics of calcium carbonate (CaCO 3 ) sorbent particles under different atmospheric conditions. To examine the physical/chemical characteristics of CaCO 3 , which is used as a sorbent particle for in-furnace desulfurization in the oxy-fuel combustion system, they were injected into high temperature drop tube furnace (DTF). Experiments were conducted at varying temperatures, residence times, and atmospheric conditions in a reactor. To evaluate the aerosolizing characteristics of the CaCO 3 sorbent particle, changes in the size distribution and total particle concentration between the DTF inlet and outlet were measured. Structural changes (e.g., porosity, grain size, and morphology) of the calcined sorbent particles were estimated by BET/BJH, XRD, and SEM analyses. It was shown that sorbent particles rapidly calcined and sintered in the air atmosphere, whereas calcination was delayed in the CO 2 atmosphere due to the higher CO 2 partial pressure. Instead, the sintering effect was dominant in the CO 2 atmosphere early in the reaction. Based on the SEM images, it was shown that the reactions of sorbent particles could be explained as a grain–subgrain structure model in both the air and CO 2 atmospheres.

  10. Engineered sorbent barriers for low-level waste disposal.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freeman, H.D.; Mitchell, S.J.; Buelt, J.L.

    1986-12-01

    The Engineered Sorbent Barriers Program at Pacific Northwest Laboratory is investigating sorbent materials to prevent the migration of soluble radio nuclides from low-level waste sites. These materials would allow water to pass, preventing the bathtub effect at humid sites. Laboratory studies identifield promising sorbent materials for three key radionuclides: for cesium, greensand; for cobalt, activated charcoal; and for strontium, synthetic zeolite or clinoptilolite. Mixtures of these sorbent materials were tested in 0.6-m-diameter columns using radioactive leachates. To simulate expected worst-case conditions, the leachate solution contained the radionuclides, competing cations, and a chelating agent and was adjusted to a pH of 5. A sorbent barrier comprised of greensand (1 wt%), activated charcoal (6 wt%), synthetic zeolite (20 wt%), and local soil (73 wt%) achieved the decontamination factors necessary to meet the regulatory performance requirements established for this study. Sorbent barriers can be applied to shallow-land burial, as backfill around the waste or engineered structures, or as backup to other liner systems. 7 refs., 14 figs., 12 tabs.

  11. Engineered sorbent barriers for low-level waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freeman, H.D.; Mitchell, S.J.; Buelt, J.L.

    1986-12-01

    The Engineered Sorbent Barriers Program at Pacific Northwest Laboratory is investigating sorbent materials to prevent the migration of soluble radio nuclides from low-level waste sites. These materials would allow water to pass, preventing the bathtub effect at humid sites. Laboratory studies identifield promising sorbent materials for three key radionuclides: for cesium, greensand; for cobalt, activated charcoal; and for strontium, synthetic zeolite or clinoptilolite. Mixtures of these sorbent materials were tested in 0.6-m-diameter columns using radioactive leachates. To simulate expected worst-case conditions, the leachate solution contained the radionuclides, competing cations, and a chelating agent and was adjusted to a pH of 5. A sorbent barrier comprised of greensand (1 wt%), activated charcoal (6 wt%), synthetic zeolite (20 wt%), and local soil (73 wt%) achieved the decontamination factors necessary to meet the regulatory performance requirements established for this study. Sorbent barriers can be applied to shallow-land burial, as backfill around the waste or engineered structures, or as backup to other liner systems. 7 refs., 14 figs., 12 tabs

  12. New Sorbents for Removing Arsenic From Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    McConchie, D. M.; Genc-Fuhrman, H.; Clark, M. W.; Caldicott, W.; Davies-McConchie, F. G.

    2004-12-01

    Elevated concentrations of arsenic in the drinking water used in many countries, including some of the poorest developing countries, and recognition that consuming this water can have serious consequences for human health, have led to increased investigations of ways to obtain safe water supplies. Finding new groundwater resources is a possible solution but this is a costly strategy that has no guarantee of success, particularly in areas where water is already a scarce commodity. The alternative is to treat water that is already available, but existing technologies are usually too expensive, too difficult to operate and maintain, or not completely effective when used in less developed countries or remote areas. There is therefore, an urgent need to find a simple and effective but inexpensive sorbent for arsenic that can be used to treat large volumes of water under less than ideal conditions. In this paper we present the results of field and laboratory trials that used a new, highly cost-effective, sorbent to remove arsenic from contaminated water. BauxsolT is the name given to the cocktail of minerals prepared by treating caustic bauxite refinery residues with Mg and Ca to produce a substance with a reaction pH of about 8.5, a high acid neutralizing capacity and an excellent ability to trap trace metals, metalloids and some other ionic species. The trapped ions are tightly bound by processes that include; precipitation of low solubility neoformational minerals, isomorphous substitution, solid-state diffusion, and adsorption; it is also an excellent flocculant. Although ordinary BauxsolT has an excellent ability to bind arsenate, and to a lesser extent arsenite, this ability can be further increased for particular water types by using activated BauxsolT or BauxsolT combined with small amounts of other reagents. Field trials conducted at the Gilt Edge Mine, South Dakota, showed that the addition of BauxsolT to highly sulfidic waste rock reduced the arsenic

  13. Inorganic UV filters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eloísa Berbel Manaia

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, concern over skin cancer has been growing more and more, especially in tropical countries where the incidence of UVA/B radiation is higher. The correct use of sunscreen is the most efficient way to prevent the development of this disease. The ingredients of sunscreen can be organic and/or inorganic sun filters. Inorganic filters present some advantages over organic filters, such as photostability, non-irritability and broad spectrum protection. Nevertheless, inorganic filters have a whitening effect in sunscreen formulations owing to the high refractive index, decreasing their esthetic appeal. Many techniques have been developed to overcome this problem and among them, the use of nanotechnology stands out. The estimated amount of nanomaterial in use must increase from 2000 tons in 2004 to a projected 58000 tons in 2020. In this context, this article aims to analyze critically both the different features of the production of inorganic filters (synthesis routes proposed in recent years and the permeability, the safety and other characteristics of the new generation of inorganic filters.

  14. Removal of copper(II) from some environmental samples by sorptive-flotation using powdered marble wastes as sorbents and oleic acid as surfactant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghazy, S E; Samra, S E; Mahdy, A F M; El-Morsy, S M

    2004-11-01

    A simple and economic experimental sorptive -flotation procedure is presented for the removal of copper(II) species from aqueous solutions. It is based on using powdered marble wastes (PMW), which are widespread and inexpensive and may represent an environmental problem, as the effective inorganic sorbent and oleic (HOL) as the surfactant. The main parameters (i.e. initial solution pH, sorbent, surfactant and copper concentrations, stirring times, ionic strength, temperature and the presence of foreign ions) influencing the flotation of PMW and /or Cu(II) were examined. Nearly, 100% of PMW and Cu(II) were removed from aqueous solutions at pH7 after stirring for 10 min and at room temperature, (approximately 25 degrees C). The procedure was successfully applied to recover Cu(II) spiked to some natural water samples. A mechanism for sorption and flotation is suggested.

  15. Inorganic liquid scintillator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pavlicek, Z.; Barta, C.; Jursova, L.

    1986-01-01

    An inorganic liquid scintillator is designed which contains 1 to 30 wt.% of an inorganic molecular compound as the basic active component; the compound contains a cation with an atomic number higher than 47 and a halogen anion. The basic inorganic component is dissolved in water or in an organic solvent in form of non-dissociated molecules or self-complexes in which the bond is preserved between the cation and anion components. The light yield from these scintillators ranges between 70 and 150% of the light yield of a standard organic scintillator based on toluene. They are advantageous in that that they allow to increase the water content in the sample to up to 100%. (M.D.)

  16. Thorium inorganic gels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Genet, M.; Brandel, V.

    1988-01-01

    The optimum pH and concentration values of thorium salts and oxoacids or oxoacid salts which lead to transparent and stable inorganic gels have been determined. The isotherm drying process of the gel at 50 0 C leads successively to a partly dehydrated gel, then, to the formation of an unusual liquid phase and, finally to a dry amorphous solid phase which is still transparent. This kind of transparent inorganic gels and amorphous phase can be used as matrices for spectroscopic studies [fr

  17. Neonates need tailored drug formulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allegaert, Karel

    2013-02-08

    Drugs are very strong tools used to improve outcome in neonates. Despite this fact and in contrast to tailored perfusion equipment, incubators or ventilators for neonates, we still commonly use drug formulations initially developed for adults. We would like to make the point that drug formulations given to neonates need to be tailored for this age group. Besides the obvious need to search for active compounds that take the pathophysiology of the newborn into account, this includes the dosage and formulation. The dosage or concentration should facilitate the administration of low amounts and be flexible since clearance is lower in neonates with additional extensive between-individual variability. Formulations need to be tailored for dosage variability in the low ranges and also to the clinical characteristics of neonates. A specific focus of interest during neonatal drug development therefore is a need to quantify and limit excipient exposure based on the available knowledge of their safety or toxicity. Until such tailored vials and formulations become available, compounding practices for drug formulations in neonates should be evaluated to guarantee the correct dosing, product stability and safety.

  18. Nonhydrolytic sol-gel approach to facile creation of surface-bonded zirconia organic-inorganic hybrid coatings for sample preparation. Ι. Capillary microextraction of catecholamine neurotransmitters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alhendal, Abdullah; Mengis, Stephanie; Matthews, Jacob; Malik, Abdul

    2016-10-14

    Nonhydrolytic sol-gel (NHSG) route was used for the creation of novel zirconia-polypropylene oxide (ZrO 2 -PPO) sol-gel hybrid sorbents in the form of surface coatings for the extraction and preconcentration of catecholamine neurotransmitters and molecules structurally related to their deaminated metabolites. In comparison to other sorbents made of inorganic transition metal oxides, the presented hybrid organic-inorganic sorbents facilitated reversible sorption properties that allowed for efficient desorption of the extracted analytes by LC-MS compatible mobile phases. The presented sol-gel hybrid sorbents effectively overcame the major drawbacks of traditional silica- or polymer-based sorbents by providing superior pH stability (pH range: 0-14), and a variety of intermolecular interactions. Nonaqueous sol-gel treatment of PPO with ZrCl 4 was employed for the derivatization of the terminal hydroxyl groups on PPO, providing zirconium trichloride-containing end groups characterized by enhanced sol-gel reactivity. NHSG ZrO 2 -PPO sorbent provided excellent microextraction performance for catecholamines, low detection limits (5.6-9.6pM), high run-to-run reproducibility (RSD 0.6-5.1%), high desorption efficiency (95.0-99.5%) and high enrichment factors (∼1480-2650) for dopamine and epinephrine, respectively, extracted from synthetic urine samples. The presented sol-gel sorbents provided effective alternative to conventional extraction media providing unique physicochemical characteristics and excellent extraction capability. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Tunable polymeric sorbent materials for fractionation of model naphthenates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamed, Mohamed H; Wilson, Lee D; Headley, John V

    2013-04-04

    The sorption properties are reported for several examples of single-component carboxylic acids representing naphthenic acids (NAs) with β-cyclodextrin (β-CD) based polyurethane sorbents. Seven single-component examples of NAs were chosen with variable z values, carbon number, and chemical structure as follows: 2-hexyldecanoic acid (z = 0 and C = 16; S1), n-caprylic acid (z = 0 and C = 8; S2), trans-4-pentylcyclohexanecarboxylic acid (z = -2 and C = 12; S3), 4-methylcyclohexanecarboxylic acid (z = -2 and C = 8; S4), dicyclohexylacetic acid (z = -4; C = 14; S5), 4-pentylbicyclo[2.2.2]octane-1-carboxylic acid (z = -4; C = 14; S6), and lithocholic acid (z = -6; C = 24; S7). The copolymer sorbents were synthesized at three relative β-CD:diisocyanate mole ratios (i.e., 1:1, 1:2, and 1:3) using 4,4'-dicyclohexylmethane diisocyanate (CDI) and 4,4'-diphenylmethane diisocyanate (MDI). The sorption properties of the copolymer sorbents were characterized using equilibrium sorption isotherms in aqueous solution at pH 9.00 with electrospray ionization mass spectrometry. The equilibrium fraction of the unbound carboxylate anions was monitored in the aqueous phase. The sorption properties of the copolymer sorbents (i.e., Qm) were obtained from the Sips isotherm model. The Qm values generally decrease as the number of accessible β-CD inclusion sites in the copolymer framework decreases. The chemical structure of the adsorbates played an important role in their relative uptake, as evidenced by the adsorbate lipophilic surface area (LSA) and the involvement of hydrophobic effects. The copolymers exhibit molecular selective sorption of the single-component carboxylates in mixtures which suggests their application as sorbents for fractionation of mixtures of NAs. By comparison, granular activated carbon (GAC) and chitosan sorbents did not exhibit any significant molecular selective sorption relative to the copolymer materials; however, evidence of variable sorption capacity was

  20. Tributyl phosphate removal from reprocessing off-gas streams using a selected sorbent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parker, G.B.

    1980-01-01

    Laboratory experiments used small laboratory-scale columns packed with selected sorbent materials to remove tributyl phosphate (TBP) and iodine at conditions approaching those in actual reprocessing off-gas streams. The sorbent materials for TBP removal were placed upstream of iodine sorbent materials to protect the iodine sorbent from the deleterious effects of TBP. Methyl iodide in an airstream containing 30% TBP in normal paraffin hydrocarbons (NPH) and water vapor was metered to two packed columns of sorbents simultaneously (in parallel). One column contained a segment of 8-in. x 14-in. mesh alumina sorbent for TBP removal, the other did not. The measure of the effectiveness of TBP sorbent materials for TBP removal was determined by comparing the iodine retention of the iodine sorbent materials in the two parallel columns. Results from an 18 wt % Ag substituted mordenite iodine sorbent indicated that the iodine retention capacity of the sorbent was reduced 60% by the TBP and that the column containing iodine sorbent material protected by the alumina TBP sorbent retained 30 times more iodine than the column without TBP sorbent. TBP concentration was up to 500 mg/m 3 . Similar experiments using a 7 wt % Ag impregnated silica gel indicated that the TBP vapor had little effect on the iodine retention of the silica gel material. The stoichiometric maximum amount of iodine was retained by the silica gel material. Further experiments were conducted assessing the effects of NO 2 on iodine retention of this 7 wt % Ag sorbent. After the two columns were loaded with iodine in the presence of TBP (in NPH), one column was subjected to 2 vol % NO 2 in air. From visual comparison of the two columns, it appeared that the NO 2 regenerated the silica gel iodine sorbent and that iodine was washed off the silica gel iodine sorbent leaving the sorbent in the original state

  1. Post combustion carbon capture - solid sorbents and membranes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davidson, R.M. [IEA Clean Coal Centre, London (United Kingdom)

    2009-04-15

    This report follows on from that on solvent scrubbing for post-combustion carbon capture from coal-fired power plants by considering the use of solid sorbents and membranes instead of solvents. First, mesoporous and microporous adsorbents are discussed: carbon-based adsorbents, zeolites, hydrotalcites and porous crystals. Attempts have been made to improve the performance of the porous adsorbent by functionalising them with nitrogen groups and specifically, amine groups to react with CO{sub 2} and thus enhance the physical adsorption properties. Dry, regenerable solid sorbents have attracted a good deal of research. Most of the work has been on the carbonation/calcination cycle of natural limestone but there have also been studies of other calcium-based sorbents and alkali metal-based sorbents. Membranes have also been studied as potential post-combustion capture devices. Finally, techno-economic studies predicting the economic performance of solid sorbents and membranes are discussed. The report is available from IEA Clean Coal Centre as report no. CCC/144. See Coal Abstracts entry April 2009 00406. 340 refs., 21 figs., 8 tabs.

  2. Oil spill sorbents: Testing protocol and certification listing program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cooper, D.; Gausemel, I.

    1993-01-01

    Environment Canada's Emergencies Engineering Division is spearheading a program in conjunction with the Canadian General Standards Board that would see the development of a certification and listing program in addition to a national standard for the testing of sorbent materials. Funding for this program is provided by Environment Canada (EC), Canadian Coast Guard (CCG), Marine Spill Response Corporation (MSRC), US Coast Guard (USCG), and US Minerals Management Service (MMS). The test methods are based upon those defined by the American Society for Testing and Materials and previous test methods developed by Environment Canada for our series of reports entitled Selection Criteria and Laboratory Evaluation of Oil Spill Sorbents. This series, which was started in 1975, encompasses a number of commercially available oil spill sorbents tested with different petroleum products and hydrocarbon solvents. The testing program will categorize the sorbents according to their operating characteristics. The main categories are oil spills on water, oil spills on land, and industrial use. The characteristics to be evaluated with the new test protocols include initial and maximum sorption capacities, water pickup, buoyancy, reuse potential, retention profile, disintegration (material integrity), and ease of application and retrieval. In the near future are plans to incorporate changes to the test that would involve increasing the list of test liquids to encompass spills in an industrial setting, in addition to testing sorbent booms and addressing the disposal problem

  3. Engineered sorbent barriers for low-level waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitchell, S.J.; Freeman, H.D.; Buelt, J.L.

    1986-01-01

    Pacific Northwest Laboratory is developing sorbent materials to prevent the migration of radionuclides from low-level waste sites. These materials would allow water to pass, preventing the bathtub effect at humid sites. Screening studies identified promising sorbent materials for three key radionuclides: for cesium, greensand; for cobalt, activated charcoal; and for strontium, synthetic zeolite or clinoptilolite. Mixtures of these sorbent materials were tested in 0.6-m-diameter columns using radioactive leachates. To simulate expected worst-case conditions, the leachate solution contained the radionuclides, competing cations, and a chelating agent, adjusted to a pH of 5. A sorbent barrier comprised of greensand (1 wt %), activated charcoal (6 wt %), synthetic zeolite (20 wt %), and soil (73 wt %) achieved the decontamination factors necessary to meet the regulatory performance requirements established for this study. Sorbent barriers can be applied to shallow land burial, as backfill around the waste or engineered structures, or as backup to other liner systems. 2 refs., 6 figs., 3 tabs

  4. Cheap carbon sorbents produced from lignite by catalytic pyrolysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuznetsov, B.N.; Schchipko, M.L. [Inst. of Chemistry of Natural Organic Materials, Akademgorodok, Krasnoyarsk (Russian Federation)

    1995-12-01

    Some data are presented describing the new technology of carbon sorbent production from powdered lignite in the installation with fluidized bed of catalyst. It was shown the different types of char products with extended pore structure and high sorption ability can be produced from cheap and accessible lignite of Kansk-Achinsk coal pit in pilot installation with fluidized bed of Al-Cu-Cr oxide catalyst or catalytically active slag materials. In comparison with the conventional technologies of pyrolysis the catalytic pyrolysis allows to increase by 3-5 times the process productivity and to decrease significantly the formation of harmful compounds. The latter is accomplished by complete oxidation of gaseous pyrolysis products in the presence of catalysts and by avoiding the formation of pyrolysis tars - the source of cancerogenic compounds. The technology of cheap powdered sorbent production from lignites makes possible to obtain from lignite during the time of pyrolysis only a few seconds char products with porosity up to 0.6 cm{sup 3} /g, and specific surface area more than 400 m{sup 3} /g. Some methods of powdered chars molding into carbon materials with the different shape were proved for producing of firmness sorbents. Cheap carbon sorbents obtained by thermocatalytic pyrolysis can be successfully used in purification of different industrial pollutants as one-time sorbent or as adsorbents of long-term application with periodic regeneration.

  5. Ecologically pure sorbents for power system of Myanmar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikitina, I. S.; Moryganova, Y. A.; Maung, Ko Ko; Arefeva, E. A.

    2017-11-01

    Currently, one of the most important problems of the thermal power plant, and many industrial enterprises in different countries is a wastewater treatment for oil products. When choosing the good sorbents is necessary to consider not only the properties and efficiency of the recommended materials, but also the cost, the possibility of environmentally friendly disposal of used sorbents and the possibility of using secondary resources. The purpose of this paper is to study the possibility of using agricultural waste in Myanmar as the sorbents in wastewater treatment containing oil products. The results of experiments have confirmed that rice hulls, and coconut fiber can be effectively used as the sorbents in wastewater treatment containing oil products at concentrations up to 10 mg/l. According to comparative analysis with the conventional sorbent-activated birch carbon (BAC-A) in the Russian power industry has shown that coconut fiber has very good sorption capacity and it is available to use as the raw materials for industries, which does not require to regenerate after using it and can be directly recycled in the factory.

  6. Dual layer hollow fiber sorbents: Concept, fabrication and characterization

    KAUST Repository

    Bhandari, Dhaval

    2013-02-01

    Hollow fiber sorbents are pseudo-monolithic separations materials created with fiber spinning technology using a polymer \\'binder\\', impregnated with high loadings of sorbent \\'fillers\\' [1]. To increase purified gas recovery during the sorption step and to ensure consistent sorption capacity over repeated cycles, a dense, thin polymer barrier layer on the fiber sorbents is needed to allow only thermal interactions between the sorbate loaded layer and the thermal regeneration fluid. This paper considers materials and methods to create delamination-free dual layer fiber sorbents, with a porous core and a barrier sheath layer formed using a simultaneous co-extrusion process. Low permeability polymers were screened for sheath layer creation, with the core layer comprising cellulose acetate polymer as binder and zeolite NaY as sorbent fillers. Appropriate core and sheath layer dope compositions were determined by the cloud-point method and rheology measurements. The morphology of the as-spun fibers was characterized in detail by SEM, EDX and gas permeation analysis. A simplified qualitative model is described to explain the observed fiber morphology. The effects of core, sheath spin dope and bore fluid compositions, spinning process parameters such as air-gap height, spin dope and coagulation bath temperatures, and elongation draw ratio are examined in detail. © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Sorbent application on the base of chitosan for radionuclides separation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pivarciova, L.

    2016-01-01

    Radioactive waste contains enormous amounts of radionuclides, which pollute the environment and can cause serious chemical and radiological toxicity threats to lower and higher living organism. Alternative process for the removal of heavy metal ions and radionuclides is sorption, which utilizes various certain natural materials of biological origin. Amino-polysaccharide-based sorbents e.g. chitosan represent suitable materials for binding of metal oxo-anion species because of numerous functional groups -OH and -NH_2 because of their suitable H-bond donor and acceptor sites. The sorbents on the base chitosan prepared through chemical modification were used for removal and separation certain radionuclides from aqueous media. The aim of this work was the study of physicochemical properties of prepared sorbents. The specific surface of sorbents was characterized with BET methods. Point of zero charge was identified with potentiometric titration. The size of particles and shape of sorbents were determined by scanning electron microscope. The sorption experiments for selected radionuclides were conducted under static and dynamic conditions. The effect of various parameters on the sorption "9"9"mTc, "6"0Co and the effect of pH on the separation of radionuclide mixture in the solution were studied. (author)

  8. Environmental Conditions Influencing Sorption of Inorganic Anions to Multiwalled Carbon Nanotubes Studied by Column Chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metzelder, Florian; Schmidt, Torsten C

    2017-05-02

    Sorption to carbon-based nanomaterials is typically studied in batch experiments. An alternative method offering advantages to study sorption is column chromatography. Sorbent packed columns are used and sorption data are determined by relating sorbate retention to that of a nonretarded tracer. We have now for the first time applied this technique to study the influence of environmental conditions on sorption of inorganic anions (bromide, nitrite, nitrate, and iodide) to multiwalled carbon nanotubes. Deuterium oxide was used as nonretarded tracer. Sorption isotherms were best described by the Freundlich model. Sorption increased in the order bromide 4.5 the surface charge was negative, but sorption was still detectable at pH 6 and 9. Consequently, other forces than electrostatic attraction contributed to sorption. These forces may include H-bonding as indicated by sorption enthalpy determined by variation of column temperature. Overall, column chromatography represents a promising alternative in sorption studies to reveal sorbent properties.

  9. Testing and modelling the performance of inorganic exchangers for radionuclide removal from aqueous nuclear waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harjula, R.; Lehto, J.; Paajanen, A.; Saarinen, L.

    1997-01-01

    Three different inorganic sorbents/ion exchangers have been tested in this work. Granular hexacyanoferrate-based ion exchanger was developed for Cs removal from radioactive liquid waste at NPPs. It was tested for Cs removal from waste solutions containing different complexing agents and detergents. Radiation stability and thermal stability test has shown, that this sorbent can be used for treatment of medium-active waste treatment. Active carbon materials were tested for Co removal from liquid waste effluents at NPPs. It was found that 60 Co cannot be removed from the evaporator concentrates with reasonable efficiency and a combined process with up-stream precipitation step is needed for better Co separation efficiency. Granular modified titanium oxide was tested for 90 Sr removal from the waste effluents and showed very high efficiency. A mathematical model was developed to analyze ion exchange performance in feeds of different chemical and radiochemical compositions. (author). 9 refs, 7 figs, 3 tabs

  10. Development of inorganic ion exchangers for nuclear waste remediation. 1997 annual progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clearfield, A.; Collins, J.L.; Egan, B.Z.

    1997-01-01

    'In this research program, Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) is collaborating with Texas A and M University in the development of highly selective inorganic ion exchangers for the removal of cesium and strontium from nuclear tank-waste and from groundwater. Inorganic ion exchangers are developed and characterized at Texas A and M University; ORNL is involved in preparing the powders in engineered forms and testing the performance of the sorbents in actual nuclear waste solutions. The Texas A and M studies are divided into two main categories: (1) exchangers for tank wastes and (2) exchangers for groundwater remediation. These are subdivided into exchangers for use in acid and alkaline solutions for tank wastes and those that can be recycled for use in groundwater remediation. The exchangers will also be considered for in situ immobilization of radionuclides. The approach will involve a combination of exchanger synthesis, structural characterization, and ion exchange behavior. ORNL has developed a technique for preparing inorganic ion exchangers in the form of spherules by a gel-sphere internal gelation process. This technology, which was developed and used for making nuclear fuels, has the potential of greatly enhancing the usability of many other special inorganic materials because of the improved flow dynamics of the spherules. Also, pure inorganic spherules can be made without the use of binders. ORNL also has access to actual nuclear waste in the form of waste tank supernatant solutions for testing the capabilities of the sorbents for removing the cesium and strontium radionuclides from actual waste solutions. The ORNL collaboration will involve the preparation of the powdered ion exchangers, developed and synthesized at Texas A and M, in the form of spherules, and evaluating the performance of the exchangers in real nuclear waste solutions. Selected sorbents will be provided by Texas A and M for potential incorporation into microspheres, and the performance

  11. Granulated bog iron ores as sorbents in passive (bio)remediation systems for arsenic removal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debiec, Klaudia; Rzepa, Grzegorz; Bajda, Tomasz; Uhrynowski, Witold; Sklodowska, Aleksandra; Krzysztoforski, Jan; Drewniak, Lukasz

    2018-03-01

    The main element of PbRS (passive (bio)remediation systems) are sorbents, which act as natural filters retaining heavy metals and carriers of microorganisms involved in water treatment. Thus, the effectiveness of PbRS is determined by the quality of the (ad)sorbents, which should be stable under various environmental conditions, have a wide range of applications and be non-toxic to (micro)organisms used in these systems. Our previous studies showed that bog iron ores (BIOs) meet these requirements. However, further investigation of the physical and chemical parameters of BIOs under environmental conditions is required before their large-scale application in PbRS. The aim of this study was (i) to investigate the ability of granulated BIOs (gBIOs) to remove arsenic from various types of contaminated waters, and (ii) to estimate the application potential of gBIOs in technologies dedicated to water treatment. These studies were conducted on synthetic solutions of arsenic and environmental samples of arsenic contaminated water using a set of adsorption columns filled with gBIOs. The experiments performed in a static system revealed that gBIOs are appropriate arsenic and zinc adsorbent. Dynamic adsorption studies confirmed these results and showed that the actual sorption efficiency of gBIOs depends on the adsorbate concentration and is directly proportional to them. Desorption analysis showed that As-loaded gBIOs are characterized by high chemical stability and they may be reused for the (ad)sorption of other elements, i.e. zinc. It was also shown that gBIOs may be used for remediation of both highly oxygenated waters and groundwater or settling ponds, where the oxygen level is low, as both forms of inorganic arsenic (arsenate and arsenite) were effectively removed. Arsenic concentration after treatment was <100 µg/L, which is below the limit for industrial water.

  12. Deep Bed Iodine Sorbent Testing FY 2011 Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soelberg, Nick; Watson, Tony

    2011-01-01

    Nuclear fission results in the production of fission products (FPs) and activation products that increasingly interfere with the fission process as their concentrations increase. Some of these fission and activation products tend to evolve in gaseous species during used nuclear fuel reprocessing. Analyses have shown that I129, due to its radioactivity, high potential mobility in the environment, and high longevity (half life of 15.7 million years), can require control efficiencies of up to 1,000x or higher to meet regulatory emission limits. Deep-bed iodine sorption testing has been done to evaluate the performance of solid sorbents for capturing iodine in off-gas streams from nuclear fuel reprocessing plants. The objectives of the FY 2011 deep bed iodine sorbent testing are: (1) Evaluate sorbents for iodine capture under various conditions of gas compositions and operating temperature (determine sorption efficiencies, capacities, and mass transfer zone depths); and (2) Generate data for dynamic iodine sorption modeling. Three tests performed this fiscal year on silver zeolite light phase (AgZ-LP) sorbent are reported here. Additional tests are still in progress and can be reported in a revision of this report or a future report. Testing was somewhat delayed and limited this year due to initial activities to address some questions of prior testing, and due to a period of maintenance for the on-line GC. Each test consisted of (a) flowing a synthetic blend of gases designed to be similar to an aqueous dissolver off-gas stream over the sorbent contained in three separate bed segments in series, (b) measuring each bed inlet and outlet gas concentrations of iodine and methyl iodide (the two surrogates of iodine gas species considered most representative of iodine species expected in dissolver off-gas), (c) operating for a long enough time to achieve breakthrough of the iodine species from at least one (preferably the first two) bed segments, and (d) post-test purging

  13. Bench-scale Development of an Advanced Solid Sorbent-based CO2 Capture Process for Coal-fired Power Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nelson, Thomas [Research Triangle Institute (RTI), Research Triangle Park, NC (United States); Kataria, Atish [Research Triangle Institute (RTI), Research Triangle Park, NC (United States); Soukri, Mustapha [Research Triangle Institute (RTI), Research Triangle Park, NC (United States); Farmer, Justin [Research Triangle Institute (RTI), Research Triangle Park, NC (United States); Mobley, Paul [Research Triangle Institute (RTI), Research Triangle Park, NC (United States); Tanthana, Jak [Research Triangle Institute (RTI), Research Triangle Park, NC (United States); Wang, Dongxiang [Research Triangle Institute (RTI), Research Triangle Park, NC (United States); Wang, Xiaoxing [Research Triangle Institute (RTI), Research Triangle Park, NC (United States); Song, Chunshan [Research Triangle Institute (RTI), Research Triangle Park, NC (United States)

    2015-12-31

    It is increasingly clear that CO2 capture and sequestration (CCS) must play a critical role in curbing worldwide CO2 emissions to the atmosphere. Development of these technologies to cost-effectively remove CO2 from coal-fired power plants is very important to mitigating the impact these power plants have within the world’s power generation portfolio. Currently, conventional CO2 capture technologies, such as aqueous-monoethanolamine based solvent systems, are prohibitively expensive and if implemented could result in a 75 to 100% increase in the cost of electricity for consumers worldwide. Solid sorbent CO2 capture processes – such as RTI’s Advanced Solid Sorbent CO2, Capture Process – are promising alternatives to conventional, liquid solvents. Supported amine sorbents – of the nature RTI has developed – are particularly attractive due to their high CO2 loadings, low heat capacities, reduced corrosivity/volatility and the potential to reduce the regeneration energy needed to carry out CO2 capture. Previous work in this area has failed to adequately address various technology challenges such as sorbent stability and regenerability, sorbent scale-up, improved physical strength and attrition-resistance, proper heat management and temperature control, proper solids handling and circulation control, as well as the proper coupling of process engineering advancements that are tailored for a promising sorbent technology. The remaining challenges for these sorbent processes have provided the framework for the project team’s research and development and target for advancing the technology beyond lab- and bench-scale testing. Under a cooperative agreement with the US Department of Energy, and part of NETL’s CO2 Capture Program, RTI has led an effort to address and mitigate the challenges associated with solid sorbent CO2 capture. The overall objective

  14. Tailoring Earned Value Management. General Guidelines

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2002-01-01

    Partial Contents: General Principles, A Spectrum of Implementation, OMB Guidance, A Special Note about DOD, Risk Factors to Consider, How can EVMS be tailored, Tailor EVMS to Inherent Risk, Application Thresholds-DoD...

  15. Characterization of calcium carbonate sorbent particle in furnace environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Kang Soo [Aerosol and Particle Technology Laboratory, Department of Mechanical Engineering, KAIST 291 Daehak-ro, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon, 305-701 (Korea, Republic of); Jung, Jae Hee [Environment Sensor System Research Center, KIST 39-1 Hawolgok-dong, Seongbuk-gu, Seoul, 136-791 (Korea, Republic of); Keel, Sang In; Yun, Jin Han; Min, Tai Jin [Environmental Systems Research Division, KIMM 104 Sinseongno, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon, 305-343 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Sang Soo, E-mail: sskim@kaist.ac.kr [Aerosol and Particle Technology Laboratory, Department of Mechanical Engineering, KAIST 291 Daehak-ro, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon, 305-701 (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-07-01

    The oxy-fuel combustion system is a promising technology to control CO{sub 2} and NO{sub X} emissions. Furthermore, sulfation reaction mechanism under CO{sub 2}-rich atmospheric condition in a furnace may lead to in-furnace desulfurization. In the present study, we evaluated characteristics of calcium carbonate (CaCO{sub 3}) sorbent particles under different atmospheric conditions. To examine the physical/chemical characteristics of CaCO{sub 3}, which is used as a sorbent particle for in-furnace desulfurization in the oxy-fuel combustion system, they were injected into high temperature drop tube furnace (DTF). Experiments were conducted at varying temperatures, residence times, and atmospheric conditions in a reactor. To evaluate the aerosolizing characteristics of the CaCO{sub 3} sorbent particle, changes in the size distribution and total particle concentration between the DTF inlet and outlet were measured. Structural changes (e.g., porosity, grain size, and morphology) of the calcined sorbent particles were estimated by BET/BJH, XRD, and SEM analyses. It was shown that sorbent particles rapidly calcined and sintered in the air atmosphere, whereas calcination was delayed in the CO{sub 2} atmosphere due to the higher CO{sub 2} partial pressure. Instead, the sintering effect was dominant in the CO{sub 2} atmosphere early in the reaction. Based on the SEM images, it was shown that the reactions of sorbent particles could be explained as a grain-subgrain structure model in both the air and CO{sub 2} atmospheres.

  16. Sorbents based on xerogels of zirconium, aluminum and manganese oxyhydroxides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.V. Smotraiev

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The actual problem of water supply in the world and in Ukraine, in particular, is a high level of pollution in water resources and an insufficient level of drinking water purification. With industrial wastewater, a significant amount of pollutants falls into water bodies, including suspended particles, sulfates, iron compounds, heavy metals, etc. Aim: The aim of this work is to determine the impact of aluminum and manganese ions additives on surface and sorption properties of zirconium oxyhydroxide based sorbents during their production process. Materials and Methods: The sorbents based on xerogels of zirconium, aluminum and manganese oxyhydroxides were prepared by sol-gel method during the hydrolysis of metal chlorides (zirconium oxychloride ZrOCl2, aluminum chloride AlCl3 and manganese chloride MnCl2 with carbamide. Results: The surface and sorption properties of sorbents based on xerogels of zirconium, aluminum and manganese oxyhydroxides were investigated. X-ray amorphous structure and evolved hydroxyl-hydrate cover mainly characterize the obtained xerogels. The composite sorbents based on xerogels of zirconium oxyhydroxide doped with aluminum oxyhydroxide (aS = 537 m2/g and manganese oxyhydroxide (aS = 356 m2/g have more developed specific surface area than single-component xerogels of zirconium oxyhydroxide (aS = 236 m2/g and aluminum oxyhydroxide (aS = 327 m2/g. The sorbent based on the xerogel of zirconium and manganese oxyhydroxides have the maximum SO42--ions sorption capacity. It absorbs 1.5 times more SO42–-ions than the industrial anion exchanger AN-221. The sorbents based on xerogels of zirconium oxyhydroxide has the sorption capacity of Fe3+-ions that is 1.5…2 times greater than the capacity of the industrial cation exchanger KU-2-8. The Na+-ions absorption capacity is 1.47…1.56 mmol/g for each sorbent. Conclusions: Based on these data it can be concluded that the proposed method is effective for sorbents production based on

  17. Itaconic acid based potential sorbent for uranium recovery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalyan, Y.; Naidu, G.R.K.; Das, Sadananda; Pandey, A.K.; Reddy, A.V.R.

    2010-01-01

    Cross-linked hydrogels and adsorptive membranes containing Itaconic acid, Acrylamide, Penta erythritol tetra acrylate and α, α-dimethyl- α-phenyl aceto phenone were prepared by UV-initiated bulk polymerization. These hydrogels and adsorptive membranes were characterized for pH uptake, sorption and desorption kinetics and selectivity towards uranium. The sorption ability of the sorbents towards uranyl ion was thoroughly examined. The developed itaconic acid based sorbents were evaluated for the recovery of uranium from lean sources like sea water. (author)

  18. Bench-scale studies on capture of mercury on mineral non-carbon based sorbents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Yang [Huazhong Univ. of Science and Technology, Wuhan (China). State Key Lab. of Coal Combustion; Utah Univ., Salt Lake City, UT (United States). Dept. of Chemical Engineering; Wendt, Jost O.L. [Utah Univ., Salt Lake City, UT (United States). Dept. of Chemical Engineering; Zhang, Junying; Zheng, Chuguang [Huazhong Univ. of Science and Technology, Wuhan (China). State Key Lab. of Coal Combustion

    2013-07-01

    A new high-temperature, mineral non-carbon based dispersed sorbent derived from paper recycling products has been shown to capture mercury at high temperatures in excess of 600 C. The sorbent is consisted of kaolinite/calcite/lime mixtures. Experiments have been conducted on chemi-sorption of elemental mercury in air on a packed bed. The sorption occurs at temperatures between 600 and 1,100 C and requires activation of the minerals contained within the sorbents. Mercury capture is dominated by temperature and capture on sorbents over long time scales. The capture shows a maximum effectiveness at 1,000 C and increases monotonically with temperature. The presence of oxygen is also the required. Freshly activated sorbent is the most effective, and deactivation of sorbents occurs at high temperatures with long pre-exposure times. This activation is suspected to involve a solid-solid reaction between intimately mixed calcium oxide and silica that are both contained within the sorbent. Deactivation occurs at temperatures higher than 1,000 C, and this is due to melting of the substrate and pore closure. The situation in packed beds is complicated because the bed also shrinks, thus allowing channeling and by-passing, and consequent ambiguities in determining sorbent saturation. Sorbent A had significantly greater capacity for mercury sorption than did Sorbent B, for all temperatures and exposure time examined. The effect of SiO{sub 2} on poor Sorbent B is much larger than sorbent A.

  19. Inorganic Constituents in Coal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rađenović A.

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Coal contains not only organic matter but also small amounts of inorganic constituents. More thanone hundred different minerals and virtually every element in the periodic table have been foundin coal. Commonly found group minerals in coal are: major (quartz, pyrite, clays and carbonates,minor, and trace minerals. Coal includes a lot of elements of low mass fraction of the orderof w=0.01 or 0.001 %. They are trace elements connected with organic matter or minerals comprisedin coal. The fractions of trace elements usually decrease when the rank of coal increases.Fractions of the inorganic elements are different, depending on the coal bed and basin. A varietyof analytical methods and techniques can be used to determine the mass fractions, mode ofoccurrence, and distribution of organic constituents in coal. There are many different instrumentalmethods for analysis of coal and coal products but atomic absorption spectroscopy – AAS is theone most commonly used. Fraction and mode of occurrence are one of the main factors that haveinfluence on transformation and separation of inorganic constituents during coal conversion.Coal, as an important world energy source and component for non-fuels usage, will be continuouslyand widely used in the future due to its relatively abundant reserves. However, there is aconflict between the requirements for increased use of coal on the one hand and less pollution onthe other. It’s known that the environmental impacts, due to either coal mining or coal usage, canbe: air, water and land pollution. Although, minor components, inorganic constituents can exert asignificant influence on the economic value, utilization, and environmental impact of the coal.

  20. Inorganic Analytical Chemistry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berg, Rolf W.

    The book is a treatise on inorganic analytical reactions in aqueous solution. It covers about half of the elements in the periodic table, i.e. the most important ones : H, Li, B, C, N, O, Na, Mg, Al, P, S, Cl, K, Ca, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Se, Br, Sr, Mo, Ag, Cd, Sn, Sb, I, Ba, W,...

  1. Deep drawing simulation of Tailored Blanks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Berg, Albert; Meinders, Vincent T.; Stokman, B.

    1998-01-01

    Tailored blanks are increasingly used in the automotive industry. A tailored blank consists of different metal parts, which are joined by a welding process. These metal parts usually have different material properties. Hence, the main advantage of using a tailored blank is to provide the right

  2. Matrix molecularly imprinted mesoporous sol-gel sorbent for efficient solid-phase extraction of chloramphenicol from milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samanidou, Victoria; Kehagia, Maria; Kabir, Abuzar; Furton, Kenneth G

    2016-03-31

    Highly selective and efficient chloramphenicol imprinted sol-gel silica based inorganic polymeric sorbent (sol-gel MIP) was synthesized via matrix imprinting approach for the extraction of chloramphenicol in milk. Chloramphenicol was used as the template molecule, 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane (3-APTES) and triethoxyphenylsilane (TEPS) as the functional precursors, tetramethyl orthosilicate (TMOS) as the cross-linker, isopropanol as the solvent/porogen, and HCl as the sol-gel catalyst. Non-imprinted sol-gel polymer (sol-gel NIP) was synthesized under identical conditions in absence of template molecules for comparison purpose. Both synthesized materials were characterized by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FT-IR) and nitrogen adsorption porosimetry, which unambiguously confirmed their significant structural and morphological differences. The synthesized MIP and NIP materials were evaluated as sorbents for molecularly imprinted solid phase extraction (MISPE) of chloramphenicol in milk. The effect of critical extraction parameters (flow rate, elution solvent, sample and eluent volume, selectivity coefficient, retention capacity) was studied in terms of retention and desorption of chloramphenicol. Competition and cross reactivity tests have proved that sol-gel MIP sorbent possesses significantly higher specific retention and enrichment capacity for chloramphenicol compared to its non-imprinted analogue. The maximum imprinting factor (IF) was found as 9.7, whereas the highest adsorption capacity of chloramphenicol by sol-gel MIP was 23 mg/g. The sol-gel MIP was found to be adequately selective towards chloramphenicol to provide the necessary minimum required performance limit (MRPL) of 0.3 μg/kg set forth by European Commission after analysis by LC-MS even without requiring time consuming solvent evaporation and sample reconstitution step, often considered as an integral part in solid phase extraction work-flow. Intra and

  3. Time series with tailored nonlinearities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Räth, C.; Laut, I.

    2015-10-01

    It is demonstrated how to generate time series with tailored nonlinearities by inducing well-defined constraints on the Fourier phases. Correlations between the phase information of adjacent phases and (static and dynamic) measures of nonlinearities are established and their origin is explained. By applying a set of simple constraints on the phases of an originally linear and uncorrelated Gaussian time series, the observed scaling behavior of the intensity distribution of empirical time series can be reproduced. The power law character of the intensity distributions being typical for, e.g., turbulence and financial data can thus be explained in terms of phase correlations.

  4. Preconcentration of traces of radionuclides with sorbents based on spherical polyurethane membrane systems in the analysis of environmental samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palagyi, S.; Braun, T.

    1986-01-01

    In the paper the importance of preconcentration and a permanent need for efficient preconcentrating agents in environmental analysis are pointed out. The increased attention is devoted to the foamed polyurethane sorbents as a novel advance in the separation chemistry. The paper has two main aims. The first is to present a survey of recent applications of unloaded and reagent loaded open-cell type resilient polyurethane foams to the separation and preconcentration of radionuclides from environmental samples. The second is to show the newest results in the use of these foams for the preconcentration and determination of traces of some mainly inorganic species in environmental samples by radioanalytical techniques. Some future possibilities of the use of polyurethane foams in trace elemental determinations in environmental analysis are also outlined. (author)

  5. Sorption of europium (3) by polymer sorbents with grafted heterocyclic nitrogen-containing groupings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bel'tyukova, S.V.; Kravchenko, T.B.; Balamtsarashvili, G.M.; Roska, A.S.

    1990-01-01

    On polymer sorbents (copolymer of styrene-divinylbenzene) with grafted heterocyclic nitrogen-containing functional groupings of tetrazole, triazole and imidazole (sorbents 1,2,3, respectively). It is stated that europium sorption takes place from neutral solutions in presence of organic solvents. Luminescent properties of europium on sorbent are used to develope methods of its determination in high purity lanthanide and yttrium oxides. Europium determination limits consist 7.5·10 -5 μg/ml on 1 and 3 sorbents and 1.5·10 -4 μg/ml on sorbent 2, S p value is 0.089 and 0.075, respectivaly

  6. Novel composite sorbent AAm/MA hydrogels containing starch and ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A novel polymer/clay composite sorbent based on acrylamide/maleic acid, starch and clay such as kaolin was synthesized with free radical solution polymerization by using ammonium persulfate/,,','-tetramethylethylenediamine as redox initiating pair in the presence of poly(ethylene glycol)diacrylate as a crosslinker.

  7. Comments on "Ceria-Zirconia High-Temperature Desulfurization Sorbents".

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hartman, Miloslav; Trnka, Otakar

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 45, č. 4 (2006), s. 1548-1549 ISSN 0888-5885 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40720504 Keywords : hydrogen sulfide * desulfurization * cerium sorbent Subject RIV: CI - Industrial Chemistry, Chemical Engineering Impact factor: 1.518, year: 2006

  8. Natural sorbents for decontamination of objects of urban territories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Movchan, N.; Fedorenko, Yu.; Zlobenko, B.; Spigoun, A.

    1996-01-01

    This paper gives an information about the use of film coverings, based on natural sorbents, in decontamination of buildings, contaminated after the Chernobyl accident. This method has incontrovertible advantages in the beginning period after the accident and can be used for cleaning considerable areas of urban territories

  9. Core-in-shell sorbent for hot coal gas desulfurization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheelock, Thomas D.; Akiti, Jr., Tetteh T.

    2004-02-10

    A core-in-shell sorbent is described herein. The core is reactive to the compounds of interest, and is preferably calcium-based, such as limestone for hot gas desulfurization. The shell is a porous protective layer, preferably inert, which allows the reactive core to remove the desired compounds while maintaining the desired physical characteristics to withstand the conditions of use.

  10. MERCURY CONTROL WITH CALCIUM-BASED SORBENTS AND OXIDIZING AGENTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas K. Gale

    2002-06-01

    The initial tasks of this DOE funded project to investigate mercury removal by calcium-based sorbents have been completed, and initial testing results have been obtained. Mercury monitoring capabilities have been obtained and validated. An approximately 1MW (3.4 Mbtu/hr) Combustion Research Facility at Southern Research Institute was used to perform pilot-scale investigations of mercury sorbents, under conditions representative of full-scale boilers. The initial results of ARCADIS G&M proprietary sorbents, showed ineffective removal of either elemental or oxidized mercury. Benchscale tests are currently underway to ascertain the importance of differences between benchscale and pilot-scale experiments. An investigation of mercury-capture temperature dependence using common sorbents has also begun. Ordinary hydrated lime removed 80 to 90% of the mercury from the flue gas, regardless of the temperature of injection. High temperature injection of hydrated lime simultaneously captured SO{sub 2} at high temperatures and Hg at low temperatures, without any deleterious effects on mercury speciation. Future work will explore alternative methods of oxidizing elemental mercury.

  11. Tailoring PKI for the battlespace

    Science.gov (United States)

    Covey, Carlin R.

    2003-07-01

    A Public Key Infrastructure (PKI) can provide useful communication protections for friendly forces in the battlespace. The PKI would be used in conjunction with communication facilities that are accorded physical and Type-1 cryptographic protections. The latter protections would safeguard the confidentiality and (optionally) the integrity of communications between enclaves of users, whereas the PKI protections would furnish identification, authentication, authorization and privacy services for individual users. However, Commercial-Off-the-Shelf (COTS) and most Government-Off-the-Shelf (GOTS) PKI solutions are not ideally tailored for the battlespace environment. Most PKI solutions assume a relatively static, high-bandwidth communication network, whereas communication links in the battlespace will be dynamically reconfigured and bandwidth-limited. Most enterprise-wide PKI systems assume that users will enroll and disenroll at an orderly pace, whereas the battlespace PKI "enterprise" will grow and shrink abruptly as units are deployed or withdrawn from the battlespace. COTS and GOTS PKIs are seldom required to incorporate temporary "enterprise mergers", whereas the battlespace "enterprise" will need to incorporate temporary coalitions of forces drawn from various nations. This paper addresses both well-known and novel techniques for tailoring PKI for the battlespace environment. These techniques include the design of the security architecture, the selection of appropriate options within PKI standards, and some new PKI protocols that offer significant advantages in the battlespace.

  12. Inorganic chemistry and medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sadler, P.J.; Guo, Z.

    1999-01-01

    Inorganic chemistry is beginning to have a major impact on medicine. Not only does it offer the prospect of the discovery of truly novel drugs and diagnostic agents, but it promises to make a major contribution to our understanding of the mechanism of action of organic drugs too. Most of this article is concerned with recent developments in medicinal coordination chemistry. The role of metal organic compounds of platinum, titanium, ruthenium, gallium, bismuth, gold, gadolinium, technetium, silver, cobalt in the treatment or diagnosis of common diseases are briefly are examined

  13. Lime-Based Sorbents for High-Temperature CO2 Capture—A Review of Sorbent Modification Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manovic, Vasilije; Anthony, Edward J.

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a review of the research on CO2 capture by lime-based looping cycles undertaken at CanmetENERGY’s (Ottawa, Canada) research laboratories. This is a new and very promising technology that may help in mitigation of global warming and climate change caused primarily by the use of fossil fuels. The intensity of the anticipated changes urgently requires solutions such as more cost-effective technologies for CO2 capture. This new technology is based on the use of lime-based sorbents in a dual fluidized bed combustion (FBC) reactor which contains a carbonator—a unit for CO2 capture, and a calciner—a unit for CaO regeneration. However, even though natural materials are cheap and abundant and very good candidates as solid CO2 carriers, their performance in a practical system still shows significant limitations. These limitations include rapid loss of activity during the capture cycles, which is a result of sintering, attrition, and consequent elutriation from FBC reactors. Therefore, research on sorbent performance is critical and this paper reviews some of the promising ways to overcome these shortcomings. It is shown that reactivation by steam/water, thermal pre-treatment, and doping simultaneously with sorbent reforming and pelletization are promising potential solutions to reduce the loss of activity of these sorbents over multiple cycles of use. PMID:20948952

  14. Lime-Based Sorbents for High-Temperature CO2 Capture—A Review of Sorbent Modification Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edward J. Anthony

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a review of the research on CO2 capture by lime-based looping cycles undertaken at CanmetENERGY’s (Ottawa, Canada research laboratories. This is a new and very promising technology that may help in mitigation of global warming and climate change caused primarily by the use of fossil fuels. The intensity of the anticipated changes urgently requires solutions such as more cost-effective technologies for CO2 capture. This new technology is based on the use of lime-based sorbents in a dual fluidized bed combustion (FBC reactor which contains a carbonator—a unit for CO2 capture, and a calciner—a unit for CaO regeneration. However, even though natural materials are cheap and abundant and very good candidates as solid CO2 carriers, their performance in a practical system still shows significant limitations. These limitations include rapid loss of activity during the capture cycles, which is a result of sintering, attrition, and consequent elutriation from FBC reactors. Therefore, research on sorbent performance is critical and this paper reviews some of the promising ways to overcome these shortcomings. It is shown that reactivation by steam/water, thermal pre-treatment, and doping simultaneously with sorbent reforming and pelletization are promising potential solutions to reduce the loss of activity of these sorbents over multiple cycles of use.

  15. Tailor-welded blanks and their production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Qi

    2005-01-01

    Tailor welded blanks had been widely used in the automobile industry. A tailor welded blank consists of several flat sheets that were laser welded together before stamping. A combination of different materials, thickness, and coatings could be welded together to form a blank for stamping car body panels. As for the material for automobile industry, this technology was one of the development trend for automobile industry because of its weight reduction, safety improvement and economical use of materials. In this paper, the characters and production of tailor welded blanks in the market were discussed in detail. There had two major methods to produce tailor welded blanks. Laser welding would replace mesh seam welding for the production of tailor welded blanks in the future. The requirements on the edge preparation of unwelded blanks for tailor welded blanks were higher than the other steel processing technology. In order to produce the laser welded blank, there had the other process before the laser welding in the factory. In the world, there had three kinds of patterns for the large volume production of tailor welded blanks. In China, steel factory played the important role in the promotion of the application of tailor welded blanks. The competition for the supply of tailor welded blanks to the automobile industry would become fierce in the near future. As a result, the demand for the quality control on the production of tailor welded blanks would be the first priority concern for the factory.

  16. Carbon Dioxide Capture from Flue Gas Using Dry Regenerable Sorbents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas Nelson; David Green; Paul Box; Raghubir Gupta; Gennar Henningsen

    2007-06-30

    Regenerable sorbents based on sodium carbonate (Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3}) can be used to separate carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) from coal-fired power plant flue gas. Upon thermal regeneration and condensation of water vapor, CO{sub 2} is released in a concentrated form that is suitable for reuse or sequestration. During the research project described in this report, the technical feasibility and economic viability of a thermal-swing CO{sub 2} separation process based on dry, regenerable, carbonate sorbents was confirmed. This process was designated as RTI's Dry Carbonate Process. RTI tested the Dry Carbonate Process through various research phases including thermogravimetric analysis (TGA); bench-scale fixed-bed, bench-scale fluidized-bed, bench-scale co-current downflow reactor testing; pilot-scale entrained-bed testing; and bench-scale demonstration testing with actual coal-fired flue gas. All phases of testing showed the feasibility of the process to capture greater than 90% of the CO{sub 2} present in coal-fired flue gas. Attrition-resistant sorbents were developed, and these sorbents were found to retain their CO{sub 2} removal activity through multiple cycles of adsorption and regeneration. The sodium carbonate-based sorbents developed by RTI react with CO{sub 2} and water vapor at temperatures below 80 C to form sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3) and/or Wegscheider's salt. This reaction is reversed at temperatures greater than 120 C to release an equimolar mixture of CO{sub 2} and water vapor. After condensation of the water, a pure CO{sub 2} stream can be obtained. TGA testing showed that the Na{sub 2}CO3 sorbents react irreversibly with sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) and hydrogen chloride (HCl) (at the operating conditions for this process). Trace levels of these contaminants are expected to be present in desulfurized flue gas. The sorbents did not collect detectable quantities of mercury (Hg). A process was designed for the Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3}-based sorbent that

  17. Taming Parasites by Tailoring Them

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bingjian Ren

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The next-generation gene editing based on CRISPR (clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats has been successfully implemented in a wide range of organisms including some protozoan parasites. However, application of such a versatile game-changing technology in molecular parasitology remains fairly underexplored. Here, we briefly introduce state-of-the-art in human and mouse research and usher new directions to drive the parasitology research in the years to come. In precise, we outline contemporary ways to embolden existing apicomplexan and kinetoplastid parasite models by commissioning front-line gene-tailoring methods, and illustrate how we can break the enduring gridlock of gene manipulation in non-model parasitic protists to tackle intriguing questions that remain long unresolved otherwise. We show how a judicious solicitation of the CRISPR technology can eventually balance out the two facets of pathogen-host interplay.

  18. Conducting Layered Organic-inorganic Halides Containing -Oriented Perovskite Sheets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitzi, D B; Wang, S; Feild, C A; Chess, C A; Guloy, A M

    1995-03-10

    Single crystals of the layered organic-inorganic perovskites, [NH(2)C(I=NH(2)](2)(CH(3)NH(3))m SnmI3m+2, were prepared by an aqueous solution growth technique. In contrast to the recently discovered family, (C(4)H(9)NH(3))(2)(CH(3)NH(3))n-1SnnI3n+1, which consists of (100)-terminated perovskite layers, structure determination reveals an unusual structural class with sets of m -oriented CH(3)NH(3)SnI(3) perovskite sheets separated by iodoformamidinium cations. Whereas the m = 2 compound is semiconducting with a band gap of 0.33 +/- 0.05 electron volt, increasing m leads to more metallic character. The ability to control perovskite sheet orientation through the choice of organic cation demonstrates the flexibility provided by organic-inorganic perovskites and adds an important handle for tailoring and understanding lower dimensional transport in layered perovskites.

  19. Fundamentals of EUV resist-inorganic hardmask interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldfarb, Dario L.; Glodde, Martin; De Silva, Anuja; Sheshadri, Indira; Felix, Nelson M.; Lionti, Krystelle; Magbitang, Teddie

    2017-03-01

    High resolution Extreme Ultraviolet (EUV) patterning is currently limited by EUV resist thickness and pattern collapse, thus impacting the faithful image transfer into the underlying stack. Such limitation requires the investigation of improved hardmasks (HMs) as etch transfer layers for EUV patterning. Ultrathin (<5nm) inorganic HMs can provide higher etch selectivity, lower post-etch LWR, decreased defectivity and wet strippability compared to spin-on hybrid HMs (e.g., SiARC), however such novel layers can induce resist adhesion failure and resist residue. Therefore, a fundamental understanding of EUV resist-inorganic HM interactions is needed in order to optimize the EUV resist interfacial behavior. In this paper, novel materials and processing techniques are introduced to characterize and improve the EUV resist-inorganic HM interface. HM surface interactions with specific EUV resist components are evaluated for open-source experimental resist formulations dissected into its individual additives using EUV contrast curves as an effective characterization method to determine post-development residue formation. Separately, an alternative adhesion promoter platform specifically tailored for a selected ultrathin inorganic HM based on amorphous silicon (aSi) is presented and the mitigation of resist delamination is exemplified for the cases of positive-tone and negative-tone development (PTD, NTD). Additionally, original wafer priming hardware for the deposition of such novel adhesion promoters is unveiled. The lessons learned in this work can be directly applied to the engineering of EUV resist materials and processes specifically designed to work on such novel HMs.

  20. Inorganic Halogen Oxidizer Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-02-16

    Inorganic Chemistry. Vol. 14. No. 9. 1975 Karl 0. Christ¢ (21) L. J. Basile . P. LaBonvillk. J. R. Ferraro, and J. M. Williams. J. Claim. (38) K. 0. Chriae. E... basils of a nonplanar structure of symmetry CI, are revised for six fundamental frequencies. Imalredetle either the 1:2 adduct N 2F4.2SbF5 or the 1:3...8217 in mT are 7 2.1 for B, facility. We aba thank L. K. White and R. L. Belford 111.0 for C, 55.0 for N, and 17100 for F, and the atomic aniso- trop’c

  1. Modern Trends in Inorganic Chemistry

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    The series of symposia on 'Modern Trends in Inorganic Chemistry' (MTIC), which began in 1985 at the Indian Association for Cultivation of Science, Calcutta has evolved into a forum for the Inorganic Chemistry fraternity of the country to meet every two years and discuss the current status and future projections of research in.

  2. CARBON DIOXIDE CAPTURE FROM FLUE GAS USING DRY REGENERABLE SORBENTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David A. Green; Brian S. Turk; Raghubir Gupta; Alejandro Lopez-Ortiz

    2001-01-01

    Four grades of sodium bicarbonate and two grades of trona were characterized in terms of particle size distribution, surface area, pore size distribution, and attrition. Surface area and pore size distribution determinations were conducted after calcination of the materials. The sorbent materials were subjected to thermogravimetric testing to determine comparative rates and extent of calcination (in inert gas) and sorption (in a simulated coal combustion flue gas mixture). Selected materials were exposed to five calcination/sorption cycles and showed no decrease in either sorption capacity or sorption rate. Process simulations were conducted involving different heat recovery schemes. The process is thermodynamically feasible. The sodium-based materials appear to have suitable physical properties for use as regenerable sorbents and, based on thermogravimetric testing, are likely to have sorption and calcination rates that are rapid enough to be of interest in full-scale carbon sequestration processes.

  3. Recent Applications of 2D Inorganic Nanosheets for Emerging Energy Storage System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Seung Mi; Patil, Sharad B; Jin, Xiaoyan; Hwang, Seong-Ju

    2018-04-03

    Among many types of nanostructured inorganic materials, highly anisotropic 2D nanosheets provide unique advantages in designing and synthesizing efficient electrode and electrocatalyst materials for novel energy storage technologies. 2D inorganic nanosheets boast lots of unique characteristics such as high surface area, short ion diffusion path, tailorable compositions, and tunable electronic structures. These merits of 2D inorganic nanosheets render them promising candidate materials as electrodes for diverse secondary batteries and supercapacitors, and electrocatalysts. A wide spectrum of examples is presented for inorganic nanosheet-based electrodes and electrocatalysts. Future perspectives in research about 2D nanosheet-based functional materials are discussed to provide insight for the development of next-generation energy storage systems using 2D nanostructured materials. © 2018 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. Advanced Polymeric and Organic–Inorganic Membranes for Pressure-Driven Processes

    KAUST Repository

    Le, Ngoc Lieu

    2017-02-13

    The state-of-the-art of membranes for reverse osmosis, nanofiltration, and gas separation is shortly reviewed, taking in account the most representative examples currently in application. Emphasis is also done on recent developments of advanced polymeric and organic–inorganic materials for pressure-driven processes. Many of the more recent membranes are not only polymeric but also contain an inorganic phase. Tailoring innovative materials with organic and inorganic phases coexisting in a nanoscale with multifunctionalization is an appealing approach to control at the same time diffusivity and gas solubility. Other advanced materials that are now being considered for membrane development are organic or organic–inorganic self-assemblies, metal-organic frameworks, and different forms of carbon fillers.

  5. Advanced Polymeric and Organic–Inorganic Membranes for Pressure-Driven Processes

    KAUST Repository

    Le, Ngoc Lieu; Phuoc, Duong; Nunes, Suzana Pereira

    2017-01-01

    The state-of-the-art of membranes for reverse osmosis, nanofiltration, and gas separation is shortly reviewed, taking in account the most representative examples currently in application. Emphasis is also done on recent developments of advanced polymeric and organic–inorganic materials for pressure-driven processes. Many of the more recent membranes are not only polymeric but also contain an inorganic phase. Tailoring innovative materials with organic and inorganic phases coexisting in a nanoscale with multifunctionalization is an appealing approach to control at the same time diffusivity and gas solubility. Other advanced materials that are now being considered for membrane development are organic or organic–inorganic self-assemblies, metal-organic frameworks, and different forms of carbon fillers.

  6. The effect of preparation of biogenic sorbent on zinc sorption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jana Jenčárová

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to prepare biogenic sulphides by using bacteria for the removal of zinc cations from their solutions. Theproduction was realized in a bioreactor under anaerobic conditions at 30 °C. Sorbents were prepared by sulphate-reducing bacteria indifferent nutrient medium modifications, under two modes of bacteria cultivation. Created precipitates of iron sulphides were removedfrom the liquid phase of the cultivation medium by filtration, dried and used for the sorption experiments.

  7. CARBON DIOXIDE CAPTURE FROM FLUE GAS USING DRY REGENERABLE SORBENTS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    David A. Green; Brian S. Turk; Raghubir P. Gupta; William J. McMichael; Douglas P. Harrison; Ya Liang

    2002-01-01

    The objective of this project is to develop a simple, inexpensive process to separate CO(sub 2) as an essentially pure stream from a fossil fuel combustion system using a regenerable, sodium-based sorbent. The sorbents being investigated in this project are primarily alkali carbonates, and particularly sodium carbonate and potassium carbonate, which are converted to bicarbonates, through reaction with carbon dioxide and water vapor. Bicarbonates are regenerated to carbonates when heated, producing a nearly pure CO(sub 2) stream after condensation of water vapor. This quarter, electrobalance tests conducted at LSU indicated that exposure of sorbent to water vapor prior to contact with carbonation gas does not significantly increase the reaction rate. Calcined fine mesh trona has a greater initial carbonation rate than calcined sodium bicarbonate, but appears to be more susceptible to loss of reactivity under severe calcination conditions. The Davison attrition indices for Grade 5 sodium bicarbonate, commercial grade sodium carbonate and extra fine granular potassium carbonate were, as tested, outside of the range suitable for entrained bed reactor testing. Fluidized bed testing at RTI indicated that in the initial stages of reaction potassium carbonate removed 35% of the carbon dioxide in simulated flue gas, and is reactive at higher temperatures than sodium carbonate. Removals declined to 6% when 54% of the capacity of the sorbent was exhausted. Carbonation data from electrobalance testing was correlated using a shrinking core reaction model. The activation energy of the reaction of sodium carbonate with carbon dioxide and water vapor was determined from nonisothermal thermogravimetry

  8. Enhanced capture of elemental mercury by bamboo-based sorbents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tan, Zengqiang [State Key Laboratory of Coal Combustion, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, Hubei 430074 (China); Xiang, Jun, E-mail: xiangjun@mail.hust.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Coal Combustion, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, Hubei 430074 (China); Su, Sheng, E-mail: susheng_sklcc@hotmail.com [State Key Laboratory of Coal Combustion, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, Hubei 430074 (China); Zeng, Hancai; Zhou, Changsong; Sun, Lushi; Hu, Song; Qiu, Jianrong [State Key Laboratory of Coal Combustion, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, Hubei 430074 (China)

    2012-11-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The KI-modified BC has excellent capacity for elemental mercury removal. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The chemisorption plays a dominant role for the modified BC materials. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The BC-I has strong anti-poisoning ability with the presence of NO or SO{sub 2}. - Abstract: To develop cost-effective sorbent for gas-phase elemental mercury removal, the bamboo charcoal (BC) produced from renewable bamboo and KI modified BC (BC-I) were used for elemental mercury removal. The effect of NO, SO{sub 2} on gas-phase Hg{sup 0} adsorption by KI modified BC was evaluated on a fixed bed reactor using an online mercury analyzer. BET surface area analysis, temperature programmed desorption (TPD) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) were used to determine the pore structure and surface chemistry of the sorbents. The results show that KI impregnation reduced the sorbents' BET surface area and total pore volume compared with that of the original BC. But the BC-I has excellent adsorption capacity for elemental mercury at a relatively higher temperature of 140 Degree-Sign C and 180 Degree-Sign C. The presence of NO or SO{sub 2} could inhibit Hg{sup 0} capture, but BC-I has strong anti-poisoning ability. The specific reaction mechanism has been further analyzed.

  9. CARBON DIOXIDE CAPTURE FROM FLUE GAS USING DRY REGENERABLE SORBENTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David A. Green; Brian S. Turk; Raghubir P. Gupta; Alejandro Lopez-Ortiz; Douglas P. Harrison; Ya Liang

    2001-07-01

    Sodium based sorbents including sodium carbonate may be used to capture carbon dioxide from flue gas. A relatively concentrated carbon dioxide stream may be recoverable for sequestration when the sorbent is regenerated. Electrobalance tests indicated that sodium carbonate monohydrate was formed in a mixture of helium and water vapor at temperatures below 65 C. Additional compounds may also form, but this could not be confirmed. In the presence of carbon dioxide and water vapor, both the initial reaction rate of sodium carbonate with carbon dioxide and water and the sorbent capacity decreased with increasing temperature, consistent with the results from the previous quarter. Increasing the carbon dioxide concentration at constant temperature and water vapor concentration produced a measurable increase in rate, as did increasing the water vapor concentration at constant carbon dioxide concentration and temperature. Runs conducted with a flatter TGA pan resulted in a higher initial reaction rate, presumably due to improved gas-solid contact, but after a short time, there was no significant difference in the rates measured with the different pans. Analyses of kinetic data suggest that the surface of the sodium carbonate particles may be much hotter than the bulk gas due to the highly exothermic reaction with carbon dioxide and water, and that the rate of heat removal from the particle may control the reaction rate. A material and energy balance was developed for a cyclic carbonation/calcination process which captures about 26 percent of the carbon dioxide present in flue gas available at 250 C.

  10. Ionic liquids: solvents and sorbents in sample preparation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Kevin D; Emaus, Miranda N; Varona, Marcelino; Bowers, Ashley N; Anderson, Jared L

    2018-01-01

    The applications of ionic liquids (ILs) and IL-derived sorbents are rapidly expanding. By careful selection of the cation and anion components, the physicochemical properties of ILs can be altered to meet the requirements of specific applications. Reports of IL solvents possessing high selectivity for specific analytes are numerous and continue to motivate the development of new IL-based sample preparation methods that are faster, more selective, and environmentally benign compared to conventional organic solvents. The advantages of ILs have also been exploited in solid/polymer formats in which ordinarily nonspecific sorbents are functionalized with IL moieties in order to impart selectivity for an analyte or analyte class. Furthermore, new ILs that incorporate a paramagnetic component into the IL structure, known as magnetic ionic liquids (MILs), have emerged as useful solvents for bioanalytical applications. In this rapidly changing field, this Review focuses on the applications of ILs and IL-based sorbents in sample preparation with a special emphasis on liquid phase extraction techniques using ILs and MILs, IL-based solid-phase extraction, ILs in mass spectrometry, and biological applications. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  11. Cleanup of Savannah River Plant solvent using solid sorbents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mailen, J.C.; Tallent, O.K.

    1985-04-01

    The degradation products produced in Purex solvent by exposure to nitric acid and radiation can be divided into two groups: those which are removed by scrubbing with sodium carbonate solutions and those which are not; these latter materials are called secondary degradation products. This study investigated the use of solid sorbents for removal of the secondary degradation products from first-cycle Savannah River Plant solvent that had been previously washed with sodium carbonate solution. Silica gel, activated charcoal, macroreticular resin, attapulgite clay and activated alumina were the sorbents investigated in preliminary testing. Activated alumina was found to be most effective for improving phase separation of the solvent from sodium carbonate solutions and for increasing the interfacial tension. The activated alumina was also the sorbent most useful for removing complexants which retain plutonium at low acidity, but it was less effective in removing anionic surfactants and ruthenium. We found that the capacity of the activated alumina was greatly improved by drying the solvent before treatment

  12. Inorganic Fullerene-Like Nanoparticles and Inorganic Nanotubes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reshef Tenne

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Fullerene-like nanoparticles (inorganic fullerenes; IF and nanotubes of inorganic layered compounds (inorganic nanotubes; INT combine low dimensionality and nanosize, enhancing the performance of corresponding bulk counterparts in their already known applications, as well as opening new fields of their own [1]. This issue gathers articles from the diverse area of materials science and is devoted to fullerene-like nanoparticles and nanotubes of layered sulfides and boron nitride and collects the most current results obtained at the interface between fundamental research and engineering.[...

  13. Molecular tailoring of solid surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Evenson, Simon Alan

    1997-07-01

    The overall performance of a material can be dramatically improved by tailoring its surface at the molecular level. The aim of this project was to develop a universal technique for attaching dendrimers (well-defined, nanoscale, functional polymers) and Jeffamines (high molecular weight polymer chains) to the surface of any shaped solid substrate. This desire for controlled functionalization is ultimately driven by the need to improve material compatibility in various biomedical applications. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) was used initially to study the packing and structure of Langmuir-Blodgett films on surfaces, and subsequently resulted in the first visualization of individual, spherically shaped, nanoscopic polyamidoamine dendrimers. The next goal was to develop a methodology for attaching such macromolecules to inert surfaces. Thin copolymer films were deposited onto solid substrates to produce materials with a fixed concentration of surface anhydride groups. Vapor-phase functionalization reactions were then carried out with trifluorinated amines to confirm the viability of this technique to bond molecules to surfaces. Finally, pulsed plasma polymerization of maleic anhydride took this approach one stage further, by forming well-adhered polymer films containing a predetermined concentration of reactive anhydride groups. Subsequent functionalization reactions led to the secure attachment of dendrimers and Jeffamines at any desired packing density. An alternative route to biocompatibilization used 1,2-ethanedithiol to yield thiolated surfaces containing very high polymeric sulfur : carbon ratios. (author)

  14. Molecular tailoring of solid surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evenson, Simon Alan

    1997-01-01

    The overall performance of a material can be dramatically improved by tailoring its surface at the molecular level. The aim of this project was to develop a universal technique for attaching dendrimers (well-defined, nanoscale, functional polymers) and Jeffamines (high molecular weight polymer chains) to the surface of any shaped solid substrate. This desire for controlled functionalization is ultimately driven by the need to improve material compatibility in various biomedical applications. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) was used initially to study the packing and structure of Langmuir-Blodgett films on surfaces, and subsequently resulted in the first visualization of individual, spherically shaped, nanoscopic polyamidoamine dendrimers. The next goal was to develop a methodology for attaching such macromolecules to inert surfaces. Thin copolymer films were deposited onto solid substrates to produce materials with a fixed concentration of surface anhydride groups. Vapor-phase functionalization reactions were then carried out with trifluorinated amines to confirm the viability of this technique to bond molecules to surfaces. Finally, pulsed plasma polymerization of maleic anhydride took this approach one stage further, by forming well-adhered polymer films containing a predetermined concentration of reactive anhydride groups. Subsequent functionalization reactions led to the secure attachment of dendrimers and Jeffamines at any desired packing density. An alternative route to biocompatibilization used 1,2-ethanedithiol to yield thiolated surfaces containing very high polymeric sulfur : carbon ratios. (author)

  15. Formability of stainless steel tailored blanks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bagger, Claus; Gong, Hui; Olsen, Flemming Ove

    2004-01-01

    In a number of systematic tests, the formability of tailored blanks consisting of even and different combinations of AISI304 and AISI316 in thickness of 0.8 mm and 1.5 mm have been investigated. In order to analyse the formability of tailored blanks with different sheet thickness, a method based ...

  16. Dual layer hollow fiber sorbents for trace H2S removal from gas streams

    KAUST Repository

    Bhandari, Dhaval A.; Bessho, Naoki; Koros, William J.

    2013-01-01

    Hollow fiber sorbents are pseudo monolithic materials with potential use in various adsorption based applications. Dual layer hollow fiber sorbents have the potential to allow thermal regeneration without direct contact of the regeneration fluid with the sorbent particles. This paper considers the application of dual layer hollow fiber sorbents for a case involving trace amounts of H2S removal from a simulated gas stream and offers a comparison with single layer hollow fiber sorbents. The effect of spin dope composition and core layer zeolite loading on the gas flux, H2S transient sorption capacity and pore structure are also studied. This work can be used as a guide to develop and optimize dual layer hollow fiber sorbent properties beyond the specific example considered here. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.

  17. Different sorbents in calcium looping cycle for CO{sub 2} capture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luo, Cong; Zheng, Ying; Ding, Ning [Huazhong Univ. of Science and Technology, Wuhan (China). State Key Lab. of Coal Combustion

    2013-07-01

    Cyclic CO{sub 2} capture using commercial pure micro CaCO{sub 3} and nano CaCO{sub 3} is investigated in this paper which focuses on the different characteristics two different sorbents during high temperature reactions. The results indicate that the nano CaCO{sub 3} sorbent has higher carbonation conversions and carbonation rates than the micro CaCO{sub 3} sorbent in the cyclic reactions. Furthermore, nano sorbent can retain its fast carbonation rates at the beginning dozens of seconds during each cycle. In contrast, the carbonation rates of micro sorbent diminish with the increase of cycle number. But, unfortunately, CaO derived from nano CaCO3 sorbent sinter much easily. Its grains, which are composed of numerous spherical nanocrystallites, experience dramatic morphological changes during high temperature reactions.

  18. Dual layer hollow fiber sorbents for trace H2S removal from gas streams

    KAUST Repository

    Bhandari, Dhaval A.

    2013-05-01

    Hollow fiber sorbents are pseudo monolithic materials with potential use in various adsorption based applications. Dual layer hollow fiber sorbents have the potential to allow thermal regeneration without direct contact of the regeneration fluid with the sorbent particles. This paper considers the application of dual layer hollow fiber sorbents for a case involving trace amounts of H2S removal from a simulated gas stream and offers a comparison with single layer hollow fiber sorbents. The effect of spin dope composition and core layer zeolite loading on the gas flux, H2S transient sorption capacity and pore structure are also studied. This work can be used as a guide to develop and optimize dual layer hollow fiber sorbent properties beyond the specific example considered here. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.

  19. Advanced Utility Mercury-Sorbent Field-Testing Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ronald Landreth

    2007-12-31

    This report summarizes the work conducted from September 1, 2003 through December 31, 2007 on the project entitled Advanced Utility Mercury-Sorbent Field-Testing Program. The project covers the testing at the Detroit Edison St. Clair Plant and the Duke Power Cliffside and Buck Stations. The St. Clair Plant used a blend of subbituminous and bituminous coal and controlled the particulate emissions by means of a cold-side ESP. The Duke Power Stations used bituminous coals and controlled their particulate emissions by means of hot-side ESPs. The testing at the Detroit Edison St. Clair Plant demonstrated that mercury sorbents could be used to achieve high mercury removal rates with low injection rates at facilities that burn subbituminous coal. A mercury removal rate of 94% was achieved at an injection rate of 3 lb/MMacf over the thirty day long-term test. Prior to this test, it was believed that the mercury in flue gas of this type would be the most difficult to capture. This is not the case. The testing at the two Duke Power Stations proved that carbon- based mercury sorbents can be used to control the mercury emissions from boilers with hot-side ESPs. It was known that plain PACs did not have any mercury capacity at elevated temperatures but that brominated B-PAC did. The mercury removal rate varies with the operation but it appears that mercury removal rates equal to or greater than 50% are achievable in facilities equipped with hot-side ESPs. As part of the program, both sorbent injection equipment and sorbent production equipment was acquired and operated. This equipment performed very well during this program. In addition, mercury instruments were acquired for this program. These instruments worked well in the flue gas at the St. Clair Plant but not as well in the flue gas at the Duke Power Stations. It is believed that the difference in the amount of oxidized mercury, more at Duke Power, was the difference in instrument performance. Much of the equipment was

  20. CARBON DIOXIDE CAPTURE FROM FLUE GAS USING DRY REGENERABLE SORBENTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David A. Green; Brian S. Turk; Raghubir P. Gupta; William J. McMichael; Douglas P. Harrison; Ya Liang

    2002-01-01

    The objective of this project is to develop a simple, inexpensive process to separate CO{sub 2} as an essentially pure stream from a fossil fuel combustion system using a regenerable, sodium-based sorbent. The sorbent being used in this project is sodium carbonate which is converted to sodium bicarbonate, or ''baking soda,'' through reaction with carbon dioxide and water vapor. Sodium bicarbonate is regenerated to sodium carbonate when heated, producing a nearly pure CO{sub 2} stream after condensation of water vapor. This quarter, five cycle thermogravimetric tests were conducted at the Louisiana State University (LSU) with sodium bicarbonate Grade 3 (SBC{number_sign}3) which showed that carbonation activity declined slightly over 5 cycles following severe calcination conditions of 200 C in pure CO{sub 2}. Three different sets of calcination conditions were tested. Initial carbonation activity (as measured by extent of reaction in the first 25 minutes) was greatest subsequent to calcination at 120 C in He, slightly less subsequent to calcination in 80% CO{sub 2}/20% H{sub 2}O, and lowest subsequent to calcination in pure CO{sub 2} at 200 C. Differences in the extent of reaction after 150 minutes of carbonation, subsequent to calcination under the same conditions followed the same trend but were less significant. The differences between fractional carbonation under the three calcination conditions declined with increasing cycles. A preliminary fixed bed reactor test was also conducted at LSU. Following calcination, the sorbent removed approximately 19% of the CO{sub 2} in the simulated flue gas. CO{sub 2} evolved during subsequent calcination was consistent with an extent of carbonation of approximately 49%. Following successful testing of SBC{number_sign}3 sorbent at RTI reported in the last quarter, a two cycle fluidized bed reactor test was conducted with trona as the sorbent precursor, which was calcined to sodium carbonate. In the first

  1. CARBON DIOXIDE CAPTURE FROM FLUE GAS USING DRY REGENERABLE SORBENTS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    David A. Green; Brian S. Turk; Raghubir P. Gupta; William J. McMichael; Douglas P. Harrison; Ya Liang

    2002-01-01

    The objective of this project is to develop a simple, inexpensive process to separate CO(sub 2) as an essentially pure stream from a fossil fuel combustion system using a regenerable, sodium-based sorbent. The sorbent being used in this project is sodium carbonate which is converted to sodium bicarbonate, or ''baking soda,'' through reaction with carbon dioxide and water vapor. Sodium bicarbonate is regenerated to sodium carbonate when heated, producing a nearly pure CO(sub 2) stream after condensation of water vapor. This quarter, five cycle thermogravimetric tests were conducted at the Louisiana State University (LSU) with sodium bicarbonate Grade 3 (SBC(number s ign)3) which showed that carbonation activity declined slightly over 5 cycles following severe calcination conditions of 200 C in pure CO(sub 2). Three different sets of calcination conditions were tested. Initial carbonation activity (as measured by extent of reaction in the first 25 minutes) was greatest subsequent to calcination at 120 C in He, slightly less subsequent to calcination in 80% CO(sub 2)/20% H(sub 2)O, and lowest subsequent to calcination in pure CO(sub 2) at 200 C. Differences in the extent of reaction after 150 minutes of carbonation, subsequent to calcination under the same conditions followed the same trend but were less significant. The differences between fractional carbonation under the three calcination conditions declined with increasing cycles. A preliminary fixed bed reactor test was also conducted at LSU. Following calcination, the sorbent removed approximately 19% of the CO(sub 2) in the simulated flue gas. CO(sub 2) evolved during subsequent calcination was consistent with an extent of carbonation of approximately 49%. Following successful testing of SBC(number s ign)3 sorbent at RTI reported in the last quarter, a two cycle fluidized bed reactor test was conducted with trona as the sorbent precursor, which was calcined to sodium carbonate. In the first carbonation cycle, CO

  2. Use of biomass sorbents for oil removal from gas station runoff.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Eakalak; Virojnagud, Wanpen; Ratpukdi, Thunyalux

    2004-11-01

    The use of biomass sorbents, which are less expensive and more biodegradable than synthetic sorbents, for oil removal from gas station runoff was investigated. A bench-scale flume experiment was conducted to evaluate the oil removal and retention capabilities of the biomass sorbents which included kapok fiber, cattail fiber, Salvinia sp., wood chip, rice husk, coconut husk, and bagasse. Polyester fiber, a commercial synthetic sorbent, was also experimented for comparison purpose. Oil sorption and desorption tests were performed at a water flow rate of 20 lmin-1. In the oil sorption tests, a 50 mgl(-1) of used engine oil-water mixture was synthesized to simulate the gas station runoff. The mass of oil sorbed for all sorbents, except coconut husk and bagasse, was greater than 70%. Cattail fiber and polyester fiber were the sorbents that provided the least average effluent oil concentrations. Oil selectivity (hydrophobic properties) and physical characteristics of the sorbents are the two main factors that influence the oil sorption capability. The used sorbents from the sorption tests were employed in the desorption tests. Results indicated that oil leached out of all the sorbents tested. Polyester fiber released the highest amount of oil, approximately 4% (mass basis) of the oil sorbed. copyright 2004 Elsevier Ltd.

  3. Research on using Mineral Sorbents for A Sorption Process in the Environment Contaminated with Petroleum Substances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pijarowski Piotr Marek

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available A research on diatomite sorbents was carried out to investigate their ability to remove hazardous substances from oil spillages. We used two types of sorbents available on the market with differences in material density and particles size of composition. As sorbents we used Ekoterm oil and unleaded petrol 95 coming from refinery PKN Orlen S.A. Two types of sorbents with similar chemical composition but different granulometric composition were used. They are marked as D1 and C1 samples. The fastest absorbent was C1, but D1 sample was the most absorptive.

  4. IMMOBILIZATION OF MICROALGAE ON THE SURFACE OF NEW CROSS-LINKED POLYETHYLENIMINE-BASED SORBENTS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasilieva, Svetlana; Shibzukhova, Karina; Morozov, Alexey; Solovchenko, Alexei; Bessonov, Ivan; Kopitsyna, Maria; Lukyanov, Alexander; Chekanov, Konstantin; Lobakova, Elena

    2018-04-11

    We report on the use of the polyethylenimine-based (PEI) sorbents for immobilization and harvesting of microalgae (MA) cells. Specific materials assessed were porous solid polymers from highly-branched PEI synthesized by cross-linking with epichlorohydrin (ECH) or diethylene glycol diglycidyl ether (DGDE). We estimated the effect of PEI/cross-linker ratio on the MA attachment and biocompatibility of the sorbents with the MA cells. A decrease in the cross-linker percentage resulted in the enhancement of the immobilization efficiency but impaired the cell viability as was manifested by inhibition of the photosynthetic activity of the MA cells. The rate of Chlorella vulgaris cell attachment to the sorbents with ECH was faster as compared to that of the PEI-DGDE-based polymers. The cells immobilized on the PEI-ECH sorbents showed a more profound decline in their viability (assessed via photosynthetic activity). The sorbents with 60% of DGDE were characterized by high immobilization efficiency. These sorbents supported a prolonged cultivation of the immobilized MA without impairing their viability and metabolic activity. We conclude that the sorbents with a lower percentage of DGDE (<30%) and sorbents with ECH are suitable for harvesting of the MA cells intended for immediate downstream processing, potentially without the cell desorption. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on successful application of PEI-based sorbents in microalgal biotechnology. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Cancer risk from inorganics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swierenga, S.H.; Gilman, J.P.; McLean, J.R.

    1987-01-01

    Inorganic metals and minerals for which there is evidence of carcinogenicity are identified. The risk of cancer from contact with them in the work place, the general environment, and under conditions of clinical (medical) exposure is discussed. The evidence indicates that minerals and metals most often influence cancer development through their action as cocarcinogens. The relationship between the physical form of mineral fibers, smoking and carcinogenic risk is emphasized. Metals are categorized as established (As, Be, Cr, Ni), suspected (Cd, Pb) and possible carcinogens, based on the existing in vitro, animal experimental and human epidemiological data. Cancer risk and possible modes of action of elements in each class are discussed. Views on mechanisms that may be responsible for the carcinogenicity of metals are updated and analysed. Some specific examples of cancer risks associated with the clinical use of potentially carcinogenic metals and from radioactive pharmaceuticals used in therapy and diagnosis are presented. Questions are raised as to the effectiveness of conventional dosimetry in accurately measuring risk from radiopharmaceuticals. 302 references

  6. Inorganic nanofibers with tailored placement of nanocatalysts for hydrogen production via alkaline hydrolysis of glucose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Nathaniel S; Ferguson, Thomas E; Panels, Jeanne E; Park, Ah-Hyung Alissa; Joo, Yong Lak

    2011-08-12

    Monoaxial silica nanofibers containing iron species as well as coaxial nanofibers with a pure silica core and a silica shell containing high concentrations of iron nanocrystals were fabricated via electrospinning precursor solutions, followed by thermal treatment. Tetraethyl-orthosilicate (TEOS) and iron nitrate (Fe(NO(3))(3)) were used as the precursors for the silica and iron phases, respectively. Thermal treatments of as-spun precursor fibers were applied to generate nanocrystals of iron with various oxidation states (pure iron and hematite). Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), x-ray diffraction (XRD), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) were used to probe the fiber morphology and crystal structures. The results indicated that the size, phase, and placement of iron nanocrystals can be tuned by varying the precursor concentration, thermal treatment conditions, and processing scheme. The resulting nanofiber/metal systems obtained via both monoaxial and coaxial electrospinning were applied as catalysts to the alkaline hydrolysis of glucose for the production of fuel gas. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), and bulk weight change in a furnace with residual gas analysis (RGA) were used to evaluate the performance of the catalysts for various ratios of both Fe to Si, and catalyst to glucose, and the oxidation state of the iron nanocrystals. The product gas is composed of mostly H(2) (>96 mol%) and CH(4) with very low concentrations of CO(2) and CO. Due to the clear separation of reaction temperature for H(2) and CH(4) production, pure hydrogen can be obtained at low reaction temperatures. Our coaxial approach demonstrates that placing the iron species selectively near the fiber surface can lead to two to three fold reduction in catalytic consumption compared to the monoaxial fibers with uniform distribution of catalysts.

  7. Comparative DNA isolation behaviours of silica and polymer based sorbents in batch fashion: monodisperse silica microspheres with bimodal pore size distribution as a new sorbent for DNA isolation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Günal, Gülçin; Kip, Çiğdem; Eda Öğüt, S; İlhan, Hasan; Kibar, Güneş; Tuncel, Ali

    2018-02-01

    Monodisperse silica microspheres with bimodal pore-size distribution were proposed as a high performance sorbent for DNA isolation in batch fashion under equilibrium conditions. The proposed sorbent including both macroporous and mesoporous compartments was synthesized 5.1 μm in-size, by a "staged shape templated hydrolysis and condensation method". Hydrophilic polymer based sorbents were also obtained in the form of monodisperse-macroporous microspheres ca 5.5 μm in size, with different functionalities, by a developed "multi-stage microsuspension copolymerization" technique. The batch DNA isolation performance of proposed material was comparatively investigated using polymer based sorbents with similar morphologies. Among all sorbents tried, the best DNA isolation performance was achieved with the monodisperse silica microspheres with bimodal pore size distribution. The collocation of interconnected mesoporous and macroporous compartments within the monodisperse silica microspheres provided a high surface area and reduced the intraparticular mass transfer resistance and made easier both the adsorption and desorption of DNA. Among the polymer based sorbents, higher DNA isolation yields were achieved with the monodisperse-macroporous polymer microspheres carrying trimethoxysilyl and quaternary ammonium functionalities. However, batch DNA isolation performances of polymer based sorbents were significantly lower with respect to the silica microspheres.

  8. Inorganic chemistry of earliest sediments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ochiai, E.I.

    1983-01-01

    A number of inorganic elements are now known to be essential to organisms. Chemical evolutionary processes involving carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen and oxygen have been studied intensively and extensively, but the other essential elements have been rather neglected in the studies of chemical and biological evolution. This article attempts to assess the significance of inorganic chemistry in chemical and biological evolutionary processes on the earth. Emphasis is placed on the catalytic effects of inorganic elements and compounds, and also on possible studies on the earliest sediments, especially banded iron formation and stratabound copper from the inorganic point of view in the hope of shedding some light on the evolution of the environment and the biological effects on it. (orig./WL)

  9. Essentials of inorganic materials synthesis

    CERN Document Server

    Rao, C N R

    2015-01-01

    This compact handbook describes all the important methods of synthesis employed today for synthesizing inorganic materials. Some features: Focuses on modern inorganic materials with applications in nanotechnology, energy materials, and sustainability Synthesis is a crucial component of materials science and technology; this book provides a simple introduction as well as an updated description of methods Written in a very simple style, providing references to the literature to get details of the methods of preparation when required

  10. Development of composite calcium hydroxide sorbent in mechanical operations and evaluation of its basic sorption properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gara Paweł

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This article presents the results of research carried out on the possibility of obtaining composite calcium hydroxide sorbent in the process of two-step granulation, containing additional compounds of Al, Mg and Fe, and their textural and sorption studies. For this purpose, attempts were undertaken to compact commercial calcium hydroxide powder with six additives in the laboratory roll press. The resulting compacts were crushed and sieved in order to achieve the assumed sieve fraction. Based on the obtained results, basic parameters of the process of formation of composite sorbent have been determined. Both, the selected composite sorbents fractions and additives were subsequently subjected to textural studies (determination of the specific surface area and porosity and sorption capacity performance. In addition, for the better interpretation of the results, thermogravimetric studies were carried out both for the additives and composite sorbents, as well as the grain size distribution of the additives. The results of the physicochemical tests of the obtained composite sorbents were compared with analogic results from the study on fine-grained hydroxide sorbent without additives and carbonate sorbent. The presented results showed that in a two-step granulation process it is possible to obtain the granular Ca(OH2 sorbent, as well as composite sorbents possessing better SO2 sorption capacity in comparison to the powder Ca(OH2 and/or to the calcium carbonate sorbent. This can be attributed to the combination of capability of the sorbent to appropriate thermal decomposition and the formation of a group of pores in the range of 0.07-0.3 microns.

  11. Inorganic polymers and materials. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sneddon, Larry G.

    2001-01-01

    This DOE-sponsored project was focused on the design, synthesis, characterization, and applications of new types of boron and silicon polymers with a goal of attaining processable precursors to advanced ceramic materials of technological importance. This work demonstrated a viable design strategy for the systematic formation of polymeric precursors to ceramics based on the controlled functionalization of preformed polymers with pendant groups of suitable compositions and crosslinking properties. Both the new dipentylamine-polyborazylene and pinacolborane-hydridopolysilazane polymers, unlike the parent polyborazylene and other polyborosilazanes, are stable as melts and can be easily spun into polymer fibers. Subsequent pyrolyses of these polymer fibers then provide excellent routes to BN and SiNCB ceramic fibers. The ease of synthesis of both polymer systems suggests new hybrid polymers with a range of substituents appended to polyborazylene or polysilazane backbones, as well as other types of preceramic polymers, should now be readily achieved, thereby allowing even greater control over polymer and ceramic properties. This control should now enable the systematic tailoring of the polymers and derived ceramics for use in different technological applications. Other major recent achievements include the development of new types of metal-catalyzed methods needed for the polymerization and modification of inorganic monomers and polymers, and the modification studies of polyvinylsiloxane and related polymers with substituents that enable the formation of single source precursors to high-strength, sintered SiC ceramics.

  12. FURNACE INJECTION OF ALKALINE SORBENTS FOR SULFURIC ACID REMOVAL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gary M. Blythe

    2004-01-01

    The objective of this project has been to demonstrate the use of alkaline reagents injected into the furnace of coal-fired boilers as a means of controlling sulfuric acid emissions. The project was co-funded by the U.S. DOE National Energy Technology Laboratory under Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-99FT40718, along with EPRI, the American Electric Power Company (AEP), FirstEnergy Corporation, the Tennessee Valley Authority, and Carmeuse North America. Sulfuric acid controls are becoming of increased interest for coal-fired power generating units for a number of reasons. In particular, sulfuric acid can cause plant operation problems such as air heater plugging and fouling, back-end corrosion, and plume opacity. These issues will likely be exacerbated with the retrofit of selective catalytic reduction (SCR) for NOX control, as SCR catalysts are known to further oxidize a portion of the flue gas SO{sub 2} to SO{sub 3}. The project tested the effectiveness of furnace injection of four different magnesium-based or dolomitic alkaline sorbents on full-scale utility boilers. These reagents were tested during one- to two-week tests conducted on two FirstEnergy Bruce Mansfield Plant (BMP) units. One of the sorbents tested was a magnesium hydroxide slurry byproduct from a modified Thiosorbic{reg_sign} Lime wet flue gas desulfurization process. The other three sorbents are available commercially and include dolomite, pressure-hydrated dolomitic lime, and commercially available magnesium hydroxide. The dolomite reagent was injected as a dry powder through out-of-service burners. The other three reagents were injected as slurries through air-atomizing nozzles inserted through the front wall of the upper furnace. After completing the four one- to two-week tests, the most promising sorbents were selected for longer-term (approximately 25-day) full-scale tests on two different units. The longer-term tests were conducted to confirm sorbent effectiveness over extended operation on two

  13. The spectroscopic study of building composites containing natural sorbents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Król, M; Mozgawa, W

    2011-08-15

    This work presents the results of FT-IR spectroscopic studies of heavy metal cations (Ag(+), Pb(2+), Zn(2+), Cd(2+) and Cr(3+)) immobilization from aqueous solutions on natural sorbents. The sorption has been conducted on sodium forms of zeolite (clinoptilolite) and clay minerals (mixtures containing mainly montmorillonite and kaolinite) which have been separated from natural Polish deposit. In the next part of the work both sorbents were used to obtain new building composites. It was proven those heavy metal cations' sorption causes changes in IR spectra of the zeolite and clay minerals. These alterations are dependent on the way the cations were sorbed. In the case of zeolite, variations of the bands corresponding to the characteristic ring vibrations have been observed. These rings occur in pseudomolecular complexes 4-4-1 (built of alumino- and silicooxygen tetrahedra) which constitute the secondary building units (SBU) and form spatial framework of the zeolite. The most significant changes have been determined in the region of pseudolattice vibrations (650-700 cm(-1)). In the instance of clay minerals, changes in the spectra occur at two ranges: 1200-800 cm(-1)--the range of the bands assigned to asymmetric Si-O(Si,Al) and bending Al-OH vibrations and 3800-3000 cm(-1)--the range of the bands originating from OH(-) groups stretching vibrations. Next results indicate possibilities of applying the used natural sorbents for the obtainment of new building materials having favourable composition and valuable properties. The zeolite was used for obtaining autoclaved materials with an addition of CaO, and the clay minerals for ceramic sintered materials with an addition of quartz and clinoptilolite were produced. FT-IR studies were also conducted on the obtained materials. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Continuous tailoring activities in software engineering

    OpenAIRE

    Ribaud , Vincent; Saliou , Philippe

    2004-01-01

    International audience; Software activities belong to different processes. Tailoring software processes aims to relate the operational software processes of an organization to the effective project. With the information technology industry moving ever faster, established positions are undergoing constant evolutionary change. The failure of a complex tailoring process of a management information system is reported. There is a need to adopt software processes that can operate under constant cha...

  15. Microwave synthesis of nanostructured oxide sorbents doped with lanthanides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mitrofanov, Andrey A., E-mail: mitrofanov-a@icloud.com; Silyavka, Elena S.; Shilovskikh, Vladimir V.; Kolonitckii, Petr D.; Sukhodolov, Nikolai G.; Selyutin, Artem A., E-mail: selutin@inbox.ru [Saint Petersburg State University, 7/9, Universitetskaya nab., St. Petersburg, 199034 (Russian Federation)

    2016-06-17

    A number of nanostructured mesoporous oxide systems based on aluminum oxide, doped with lanthanide ions have been obtained in this study. Structure and morphology of oxides obtained have been examined by X-ray diffraction analysis, thermogravimetric analysis, scanning electron microscopy. The surface area of the samples was determined by the BET method. The dependence of the adsorption of insulin on synthesized oxides from the concentration was investigated. The containing of insulin in solutions after adsorption was determined by the Bradford method. The isotherms of adsorption of insulin on resulting oxide sorbents were plotted, the dependence capacity of the sorption of insulin from the lanthanide dopant was determined.

  16. Durable zinc oxide-containing sorbents for coal gas desulfurization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siriwardane, Ranjani V.

    1996-01-01

    Durable zinc-oxide containing sorbent pellets for removing hydrogen sulfide from a gas stream at an elevated temperature are made up to contain titania as a diluent, high-surface-area silica gel, and a binder. These materials are mixed, moistened, and formed into pellets, which are then dried and calcined. The resulting pellets undergo repeated cycles of sulfidation and regeneration without loss of reactivity and without mechanical degradation. Regeneration of the pellets is carried out by contacting the bed with an oxidizing gas mixture.

  17. The use of clays as sorbents and catalysts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCabe, R.W.

    1998-01-01

    The paper attempts to show the structural, physical and chemical properties of clay minerals relate to their laboratory, industrial and environmental uses as sorbents and catalysts. A brief review of the formulae and structures of clays and their relationship to their chemical and physical properties follows. Clay minerals are also useful in environmental protection as they can adsorb crude oils from spills and they are used, sometimes mixed into concrete, as containment barriers for radionuclides caesium 137 and strontium 90. Clay soils can also act as natural barriers to the migration of radionuclides in the environment

  18. Matrix molecularly imprinted mesoporous sol–gel sorbent for efficient solid-phase extraction of chloramphenicol from milk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samanidou, Victoria; Kehagia, Maria; Kabir, Abuzar; Furton, Kenneth G.

    2016-01-01

    Highly selective and efficient chloramphenicol imprinted sol–gel silica based inorganic polymeric sorbent (sol–gel MIP) was synthesized via matrix imprinting approach for the extraction of chloramphenicol in milk. Chloramphenicol was used as the template molecule, 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane (3-APTES) and triethoxyphenylsilane (TEPS) as the functional precursors, tetramethyl orthosilicate (TMOS) as the cross-linker, isopropanol as the solvent/porogen, and HCl as the sol–gel catalyst. Non-imprinted sol–gel polymer (sol–gel NIP) was synthesized under identical conditions in absence of template molecules for comparison purpose. Both synthesized materials were characterized by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FT-IR) and nitrogen adsorption porosimetry, which unambiguously confirmed their significant structural and morphological differences. The synthesized MIP and NIP materials were evaluated as sorbents for molecularly imprinted solid phase extraction (MISPE) of chloramphenicol in milk. The effect of critical extraction parameters (flow rate, elution solvent, sample and eluent volume, selectivity coefficient, retention capacity) was studied in terms of retention and desorption of chloramphenicol. Competition and cross reactivity tests have proved that sol–gel MIP sorbent possesses significantly higher specific retention and enrichment capacity for chloramphenicol compared to its non-imprinted analogue. The maximum imprinting factor (IF) was found as 9.7, whereas the highest adsorption capacity of chloramphenicol by sol–gel MIP was 23 mg/g. The sol–gel MIP was found to be adequately selective towards chloramphenicol to provide the necessary minimum required performance limit (MRPL) of 0.3 μg/kg set forth by European Commission after analysis by LC-MS even without requiring time consuming solvent evaporation and sample reconstitution step, often considered as an integral part in solid phase extraction work

  19. Matrix molecularly imprinted mesoporous sol–gel sorbent for efficient solid-phase extraction of chloramphenicol from milk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Samanidou, Victoria, E-mail: samanidu@chem.auth.gr [Laboratory of Analytical Chemistry, Department of Chemistry, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki (Greece); Kehagia, Maria [Laboratory of Analytical Chemistry, Department of Chemistry, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki (Greece); Kabir, Abuzar, E-mail: akabir@fiu.edu [International Forensic Research Institute, Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Florida International University, Miami, FL (United States); Furton, Kenneth G. [International Forensic Research Institute, Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Florida International University, Miami, FL (United States)

    2016-03-31

    Highly selective and efficient chloramphenicol imprinted sol–gel silica based inorganic polymeric sorbent (sol–gel MIP) was synthesized via matrix imprinting approach for the extraction of chloramphenicol in milk. Chloramphenicol was used as the template molecule, 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane (3-APTES) and triethoxyphenylsilane (TEPS) as the functional precursors, tetramethyl orthosilicate (TMOS) as the cross-linker, isopropanol as the solvent/porogen, and HCl as the sol–gel catalyst. Non-imprinted sol–gel polymer (sol–gel NIP) was synthesized under identical conditions in absence of template molecules for comparison purpose. Both synthesized materials were characterized by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FT-IR) and nitrogen adsorption porosimetry, which unambiguously confirmed their significant structural and morphological differences. The synthesized MIP and NIP materials were evaluated as sorbents for molecularly imprinted solid phase extraction (MISPE) of chloramphenicol in milk. The effect of critical extraction parameters (flow rate, elution solvent, sample and eluent volume, selectivity coefficient, retention capacity) was studied in terms of retention and desorption of chloramphenicol. Competition and cross reactivity tests have proved that sol–gel MIP sorbent possesses significantly higher specific retention and enrichment capacity for chloramphenicol compared to its non-imprinted analogue. The maximum imprinting factor (IF) was found as 9.7, whereas the highest adsorption capacity of chloramphenicol by sol–gel MIP was 23 mg/g. The sol–gel MIP was found to be adequately selective towards chloramphenicol to provide the necessary minimum required performance limit (MRPL) of 0.3 μg/kg set forth by European Commission after analysis by LC-MS even without requiring time consuming solvent evaporation and sample reconstitution step, often considered as an integral part in solid phase extraction work

  20. SORBENT/UREA SLURRY INJECTION FOR SIMULTANEOUS SO2/NOX REMOVAL

    Science.gov (United States)

    The combination of sorbent injection and selective noncatalytic reduction (SNCR) technologies has been investigated for simulataneous SO2/NOx removal. A slurry composed of a urea-based solution and various Ca-based sorbents was injected at a range of tempera...

  1. Adsorption of H2O and CO2 on supported amine sorbents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veneman, Rens; Frigka, Natalia; Zhao, Wenying; Li, Zhenshan; Kersten, Sascha R.A.; Brilman, Derk Willem Frederik

    2015-01-01

    In this work the adsorption of H2O and CO2 on Lewatit VP OC 1065 was studied in view of the potential application of this sorbent in post combustion CO2 capture. Both CO2 and H2O were found to adsorb on the amine active sites present on the pore surface of the sorbent material. However, where the

  2. Synthesis of hydroxide type sorbents from industry high-iron wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stepanenko, E.K.; Smirnov, A.L.

    1986-01-01

    Article presents the results of studies on possibility of using of technological iron containing wastes for the obtaining of hydroxide type sorbents in granular form. The scheme of technology of synthesis of hydroxide type sorbents from high-iron wastes is elaborated.

  3. Evaluation of hydrous ferric oxide loaded activated carbon as a granular composite sorbent for radiostrontium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samanta, S.K.

    1997-01-01

    A composite sorbent was prepared in granular form by depositing hydrous ferric oxide inside the pores of activated carbon. The composite sorbent was found to show excellent sorption of radiostrontium in the presence of high sodium concentration under alkaline conditions. (author). 3 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab

  4. Coating membranes for a sorbent-based artificial liver: adsorption characteristics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Koning, H. W.; Chamuleau, R. A.; Bantjes, A.

    1982-01-01

    Techniques are described for the coating of sorbents to be used in an artificial liver support system based on mixed sorbent bed hemoperfusion. Activated charcoal has been coated with cellulose acetate (CA) by solvent evaporation. With Amberlite XAD-4, the Wurster technique was used for coating with

  5. Cross-linked poly(tetrahydrofuran) as promising sorbent for organic solvent/oil spill

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yati, Ilker; Ozan Aydin, Gulsah; Bulbul Sonmez, Hayal, E-mail: hayalsonmez@gtu.edu.tr

    2016-05-15

    Highlights: • Poly(tetrahydrofuran) based sorbents were prepared. • PTHF sorbents demonstrate reusability at least for ten times. • PTHF based sorbents show fast and quick absorption-desorption process. • 19 g of oil can be absorbed by 1 g of PTHF based sorbent. - Abstract: In this study, a series of different molecular weights of poly(tetrahydrofuran) (PTHF), which is one of the most important commercial polymers around the world, was condensed with tris[3-(trimethoxysilyl)propyl]isocyanurate (ICS) to generate a cross-linked 3-dimensional network in order to obtain organic solvent/oil sorbents having high swelling capacity. The prepared sorbents show high and fast swelling capacity in oils such as dichloromethane (DCM), tetrahydrofuran (THF), acetone, t-butyl methyl ether (MTBE), gasoline, euro diesel, and crude oil. The recovery of the absorbed oils from contaminated surfaces, especially from water, and the regeneration of the sorbents after several applications are effective. The characterization and thermal properties of the sorbents are identified by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), solid-state {sup 13}C and {sup 29}Si cross-polarization magic angle spinning (CPMAS) nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and thermal gravimetric analyses (TGA), respectively. The new usage area of PTHF is emerged by the preparation of PTHF-based network structure with high oil absorption capacity and having excellent reusability as an oil absorbent for the removal of organic liquids from the spill site.

  6. Synthesis and test of sorbents based on calcium aluminates for SE-SR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barelli, L.; Bidini, G.; Di Michele, A.; Gallorini, F.; Petrillo, C.; Sacchetti, F.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Synthesis strategy of CaO incorporation into calcium aluminates was approached. • Three innovative sorbents (M1, M2, M3) were synthesized and characterized. • Sorption capacity of developed sorbents was evaluated in multi-cycle processes. • M3 sorbent showed best performance, much higher than conventional CaO ones. • M3 sorbent functionality in SE-SR process was verified. - Abstract: Greenhouse gases emission of power generation plants will be continuously tightened to achieve European targets in terms of CO 2 emissions. In particular, the switching to a sustainable power generation using fossil fuels will be strongly encouraged in the future. In this context, sorption-enhanced steam reforming (SE-SR) is a promising process because it can be implemented as a CCS pre-combustion methodology. The purpose of this study is to develop and test innovative materials in order to overcome main limitations of standard CaO sorbent, usually used in the SE-SR process. The investigated innovative sorbents are based on incorporation of CaO particles into inert materials which significantly reduce the performance degradation. In particular, sorbent materials based on calcium aluminates were considered, investigating different techniques of synthesis. All synthesized materials were packed, together with the catalyst, in a fixed bed reactor and tested in sorption/regeneration cycles. Significant improvements were obtained respect to standard CaO regarding sorption capacity stability exhibited by the sorbent

  7. Development of New Potassium Carbonate Sorbent for CO2 Capture under Real Flue Gas Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javad Esmaili

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the development of a new potassium carbonateon alumina support sorbent prepared by impregnating K2CO3 with an industrial grade of Al2O3 support was investigated. The CO2 capture capacity was measured using real flue gas with 8% CO2 and 12% H2O in a fixed-bed reactor at a temperature of 65 °C using breakthrough curves. The developed sorbent showed an adsorption capacity of 66.2 mgCO2/(gr sorbent. The stability of sorbent capture capacity was higher than the reference sorbent. The SO2 impurity decreased sorbent capacity about 10%. The free carbon had a small effect on sorbent capacity after 5 cycles. After 5 cycles of adsorption and regeneration, the changes in the pore volume and surface area were 0.020 cm3/gr and 5.5 m2/gr respectively. Small changes occurred in the pore size distribution and surface area of sorbent after 5 cycles.

  8. Reuse of Partially Sulphated CFBC Ash as an SO2 Sorbent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Yinghai; Jia, Lufei; Anthony, E.J. [CanmetENERGY, 1 Haanel Drive, Ottawa, Ontario, K1A1M1 (Canada); Nobili, M.; Telesca, A. [Department of Environmental Engineering and Physics, University of Basilicata, Viale dell' Ateneo, Lucano 10, 85100 Potenza (Italy); Montagnaro, F. [Department of Chemistry, University of Naples ' Federico II' , Monte Sant' Angelo, 80126 Naples (Italy)

    2010-06-15

    Ashes produced from fluidized bed combustors (FBC) burning high-sulphur fuels often contain 20-30 % unreacted CaO because of the limestone added to remove SO2 in situ. This paper presents the results from experiments into reactivating partially sulphated FBC ash (both bed ash and fly ash) with liquid water, steam and sodium carbonate. The water- or steam-hydrated ashes were subsequently re-sulphated in a thermogravimetric analyzer (TGA) with simulated flue gas. The TGA results show that, while liquid water and steam successfully hydrate and reactivate the unreacted CaO in the bed ash, the treated ashes sulphated to widely different extents. Attempts to reactivate fly ash with hydration failed, although fly ash by itself is extremely reactive. A pilot-scale mini-circulating FBC (CFBC) was also used to evaluate the results of reactivation on the bed ash by hydrating with liquid water and admixtures of inorganic salt (Na2CO3) in the form of either powder or solution. When the treated ash was re-injected into the combustor with the fuel, the effect on SO2 removal efficiency was negligible if Na2CO3 was added as powder. Doping with aqueous solution resulted in enhanced SO2 removal; however, the extent was lower than the level achieved if only water hydration was employed. Increasing the amount of water (from 10% to 30%) to reactivate the ash did not improve the sulphur capture capacity in the mini-CFBC. Overall, this study suggests that the most practical way for re-use of the partially sulphated bed ash as a sulphur sorbent is reactivation by water. A proposal for utilization of the fly ash in an economically reasonable way is also discussed.

  9. Granulated Bog Iron Ores as Sorbents in Passive (BioRemediation Systems for Arsenic Removal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klaudia Debiec

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The main element of PbRS (passive (bioremediation systems are sorbents, which act as natural filters retaining heavy metals and carriers of microorganisms involved in water treatment. Thus, the effectiveness of PbRS is determined by the quality of the (adsorbents, which should be stable under various environmental conditions, have a wide range of applications and be non-toxic to (microorganisms used in these systems. Our previous studies showed that bog iron ores (BIOs meet these requirements. However, further investigation of the physical and chemical parameters of BIOs under environmental conditions is required before their large-scale application in PbRS. The aim of this study was (i to investigate the ability of granulated BIOs (gBIOs to remove arsenic from various types of contaminated waters, and (ii to estimate the application potential of gBIOs in technologies dedicated to water treatment. These studies were conducted on synthetic solutions of arsenic and environmental samples of arsenic contaminated water using a set of adsorption columns filled with gBIOs. The experiments performed in a static system revealed that gBIOs are appropriate arsenic and zinc adsorbent. Dynamic adsorption studies confirmed these results and showed, that the actual sorption efficiency of gBIOs depends on the adsorbate concentration and is directly proportional to them. Desorption analysis showed that As-loaded gBIOs are characterized by high chemical stability and they may be reused for the (adsorption of other elements, i.e., zinc. It was also shown that gBIOs may be used for remediation of both highly oxygenated waters and groundwater or settling ponds, where the oxygen level is low, as both forms of inorganic arsenic (arsenate and arsenite were effectively removed. Arsenic concentration after treatment was <100 μg/L, which is below the limit for industrial water.

  10. Rubidium extraction using an organic polymer encapsulated potassium copper hexacyanoferrate sorbent

    KAUST Repository

    Naidu, Gayathri

    2016-07-11

    Sea water reverse osmosis (SWRO) brine contains significant quantity of Rb. As an economically valuable metal, extracting Rb using a suitable and selective extraction method would be beneficial. An inorganic sorbent, copper based potassium hexacyanoferrate (KCuFC), exhibited high selectivity to extract Rb compared to potassium hexacyanoferrate consisting of other transition metal combinations such as Ni, Co and Fe. An organic polymer (polyacrylonitrile, PAN) encapsulated KCuFC (KCuFC-PAN) achieved a Langmuir maximum Rb sorption capacity of 1.23 mmol/g at pH 7.0 ± 0.5. KCuFC-PAN showed Rb selectivity over a wide concentration range of co-existing ions and salinity of SWRO brine. High salinity (0.5-2.5 M NaCl) resulted in 12-30% sorption capacity reduction. At a molar ratio of Li:Rb (21:1), Cs:Rb (0.001:1) and Ca:Rb (14,700:1) commonly found in SWRO brine, sorption reduction of only 18% occurred. Nevertheless, at a very high K:Rb molar ratio (7700:1), KCuFC-PAN sorption capacity of Rb reduced significantly by 65-70%. KCuFC-PAN was well suited for column operation. In a fixed-bed KCuFC-PAN column (influent concentration 0.06 mmol Rb/L, flow velocity 2 m/h), two sorption/desorption cycles were successfully achieved with a maximum Rb sorption capacity of 1.01 (closely similar to the batch study) and 0.85 mmol/g in the first and second cycles, respectively. Around 95% of Rb was desorbed from the column with 0.2 M KCl. Resorcinol formaldehyde (RF) resin showed promising results of separating Rb from K/Rb mixed solution in effluents from a fixed-bed column, and a subsequent sequential acid desorption, producing 68% purified Rb.

  11. Use of red mud (bauxite residue) for the retention of aqueous inorganic mercury(II).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubinos, David A; Barral, María Teresa

    2015-11-01

    The effectiveness of the oxide-rich residue from bauxite refining (red mud) to remove inorganic Hg(II) from aqueous solutions was assessed. The aspects studied comprised the kinetics of the process (t = 1 min-24 h), the effect of pH (3.5-11.5), the interacting effect between salt concentration (0.01-1 M NaNO3) and pH and the Hg(II) sorption isotherm. Hg leaching from spent red mud was evaluated using the toxicity characteristics leaching procedure (TCLP) method. The sorption of Hg(II) onto red mud was very fast, with most of Hg(II) (97.0-99.7%) being removed from 0.5-50 μM Hg solutions in few minutes. The kinetic process was best described by Ho's pseudo-second order equation, pointing to chemisorption as the rate controlling step. Hg(II) sorption efficiency was very high (% removal between 93.9 and 99.8%) within all the studied pH range (3.5-11.5) and added Hg concentrations (5 and 50 μM), being optimal at pH 5-8 and decreasing slightly at both lowest and highest pH. The effect of background electrolyte concentration suggests specific sorption as the main interaction mechanism between Hg(II) and red mud, but the increasing non-sorbed Hg concentrations at low and high pH for higher electrolyte concentrations also revealed the contribution of an electrostatic component to the process. The sorption isotherm showed the characteristic shape of high affinity sorbents, and it was better described by the Redlich-Peterson and Freundlich equations, which are models that assume sorbent heterogeneity and involvement of more than one mechanism. The estimated Hg(II) sorption capacity from the Langmuir equation (q m ~9 mmol/kg) was comparable to those of some inorganic commercial sorbents but lower than most bio- or specifically designed sorbents. The leachability of retained Hg(II) from spent red mud (0.02, 0.25 and 2.42 mmol Hg/kg sorbed concentration) was low (0.28, 1.15 and 2.23 μmol/kg, respectively) and accounted for 1.2, 0.5 and 0.1% of previously sorbed Hg

  12. Effect of characteristic of sorbents on their sulfur capture capability at a fluidized bed condition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leming Cheng; Bo Chen; Ni Liu; Zhongyang Luo; Kefa Cen [Zhejiang University, Hangzhou (China). Clean Energy and Environment Engineering Key Lab of Ministry of Education, Institute for Thermal Power Engineering

    2004-05-01

    This research was intent for finding relationships among physical and/or chemical properties of sorbents and their sulfur capture capability at a fluidized bed condition. Three limestones and two seashells were chosen as a SO{sub 2} sorbent. Characteristics of sorbents were evaluated based on atomic absorption spectrophotometer, scanning electron microscope and mercury-penetration porosimeter analyses. Their sulfur capture capabilities were measured on a fluidized bed test system at 800, 850, 900 and 950{sup o}C. Conversion of the sobents was computed and analyzed depending on the sorbents' morphology and microstructure analysis. Results showed pore size and specific surface might have large influence on sorbents' desulfurization ability in the range of 800 950{sup o}C. 14 refs., 6 figs., 4 tabs.

  13. Experimental research on combustion fluorine retention using calcium-based sorbents during coal combustion (II)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qi, Q.; Ma, X.; Liu, J.; Wu, X.; Zhou, J.; Cen, K. [Liaoning Technical University, Fuxin (China). College of Resource and Environment Engineering

    2008-12-15

    Fluoride pollution produced by coal burning can be controlled with the calcium-based sorbent combustion fluorine technique in which calcium-based sorbents are mixed with the coal or sprayed into the combustion chamber. In a fixed bed tube furnace combustion experiment using one calcium-based natural mineral, limestone and one calcium-based building material, it was shown that the calcium-based sorbent particle grain size and pore structure have a big influence on the combustion fluorine retention effect. Reducing the calcium-based sorbent particle grain size and improving the calcium sorbent structure characteristics at very high temperature to enhance the fluorine retention effect is the important approach to the fluorine retention agent development. 8 refs., 1 fig., 5 tabs.

  14. Preparation and characterisation of a sorbent suitable for technetium separation from environmental matrices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bartosova, A.; Rajec, P.; Reich, M.

    2003-01-01

    A sorbent based on Aliquat 336 anchored on hydrophobised silica gel support as an ion exchanger was prepared. Prepared sorbent was suitable for separation of technetium-99 from environmental matrices. The sorbent properties, sorption characteristic and distribution coefficient of 99 mTcO 4 - in various medium was studied. The chemical yield of Tc during separation process was determined using 99m Tc tracer and gamma measurement. Typical sorption recoveries of Tc for this sorbent from 0.1 M HNO 3 were more than 98 %. Typical desorption recoveries using 8 M HNO 3 were in the range 92 - 96 %. The commercial TEVA Spec resin from Eichrom Industries for comparison purpose was used as well. It was found that the prepared sorbent is suitable for separation of technetium from environmental matrices. (authors)

  15. Tailoring of mobility advices to consumers. Executive summary; Tailoring van mobiliteitsadviezen aan consumenten. Managementsamenvatting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Weerdt, I.; Jonkers, R. [ResCon, Haarlem (Netherlands)

    2003-09-01

    An outline is given of the options to apply so-called computer tailoring in the field of mobility. A feasibility study has been carried out for the realization of a computerized tailored mobility programme. Tailoring is a method, based on social-scientific theories on behavioral change, by means of which information is tailored to individual circumstances, preferences and motivation. [Dutch] De mogelijkheden van computer tailoring (tailoring is een methodiek die gebaseerd is op sociaal-wetenschappelijke theorieen over gedragsverandering, waarbij de aangeboden informatie is afgestemd op individuele omstandigheden, preferenties en motivaties) op het gebied van mobiliteit worden verkend. Er is een haalbaarheidsonderzoek uitgevoerd ter voorbereiding op de realisatie van een computer tailored mobiliteitsprogramma. In dit onderzoek is nagegaan: of consumenten belangstelling hebben voor informatie op maat over mobiliteit; waar consumenten zelf de meeste mogelijkheden zien om hun mobiliteitspatroon te veranderen (en dus meer duurzame mobiliteitsopties toe te passen); hoe het gedrag van consumenten m.b.t. mobiliteit d.m.v. een tailoring systeem gericht beinvloed kan worden; of er organisaties te vinden zijn die de exploitatie van een tailoring systeem m.b.t. mobiliteit op zich zouden willen nemen; of de ontwikkeling van een dergelijk systeem kosten effectief kan zijn.

  16. Tailoring of mobility advices to consumers. A determinants survey; Tailoring van mobiliteitsadviezen aan consumenten. Een determinantenonderzoek

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Weerdt, I.; Jonkers, R. [ResCon, Haarlem (Netherlands)

    2003-08-01

    An outline is given of the options to apply so-called computer tailoring in the field of mobility. A feasibility study has been carried out for the realization of a computerized tailored mobility programme. Tailoring is a method, based on social-scientific theories on behavioral change, by means of which information is tailored to individual circumstances, preferences and motivation. [Dutch] De mogelijkheden van computer tailoring (tailoring is een methodiek die gebaseerd is op sociaal-wetenschappelijke theorieen over gedragsverandering, waarbij de aangeboden informatie is afgestemd op individuele omstandigheden, preferenties en motivaties) op het gebied van mobiliteit worden verkend. Er is een haalbaarheidsonderzoek uitgevoerd ter voorbereiding op de realisatie van een computer tailored mobiliteitsprogramma. In dit onderzoek is nagegaan: of consumenten belangstelling hebben voor informatie op maat over mobiliteit; waar consumenten zelf de meeste mogelijkheden zien om hun mobiliteitspatroon te veranderen (en dus meer duurzame mobiliteitsopties toe te passen); hoe het gedrag van consumenten m.b.t. mobiliteit d.m.v. een tailoring systeem gericht beinvloed kan worden; of er organisaties te vinden zijn die de exploitatie van een tailoring systeem m.b.t. mobiliteit op zich zouden willen nemen; of de ontwikkeling van een dergelijk systeem kosten effectief kan zijn.

  17. Enhanced capture of elemental mercury by bamboo-based sorbents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tan, Zengqiang; Xiang, Jun; Su, Sheng; Zeng, Hancai; Zhou, Changsong; Sun, Lushi; Hu, Song; Qiu, Jianrong

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► The KI-modified BC has excellent capacity for elemental mercury removal. ► The chemisorption plays a dominant role for the modified BC materials. ► The BC-I has strong anti-poisoning ability with the presence of NO or SO 2 . - Abstract: To develop cost-effective sorbent for gas-phase elemental mercury removal, the bamboo charcoal (BC) produced from renewable bamboo and KI modified BC (BC-I) were used for elemental mercury removal. The effect of NO, SO 2 on gas-phase Hg 0 adsorption by KI modified BC was evaluated on a fixed bed reactor using an online mercury analyzer. BET surface area analysis, temperature programmed desorption (TPD) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) were used to determine the pore structure and surface chemistry of the sorbents. The results show that KI impregnation reduced the sorbents’ BET surface area and total pore volume compared with that of the original BC. But the BC-I has excellent adsorption capacity for elemental mercury at a relatively higher temperature of 140 °C and 180 °C. The presence of NO or SO 2 could inhibit Hg 0 capture, but BC-I has strong anti-poisoning ability. The specific reaction mechanism has been further analyzed.

  18. Arsenic removal using natural biomaterial-based sorbents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ansone, Linda; Klavins, Maris; Viksna, Arturs

    2013-10-01

    Arsenic contamination of water is a major problem worldwide. A possible solution can be approached through developing new sorbents based on cost-effective and environmentally friendly natural biomaterials. We have developed new sorbents based on biomaterial impregnation with iron oxyhydroxide. In this study, raw peat material, iron-modified peat, iron-modified biomass (shingles, straw, sands, cane and moss) as well as iron humate were used for the removal of arsenate from contaminated water. The highest sorption capacity was observed in iron-modified peat, and kinetic studies indicated that the amount of arsenic sorbed on this material exceeds 90 % in 5 h. Arsenate sorption on iron-modified peat is characterised by the pseudo-second-order mechanism. The results of arsenic sorption in the presence of competing substances indicated that sulphate, nitrate, chloride and tartrate anions have practically no influence on As(V) sorption onto Fe-modified peat, whereas the presence of phosphate ions and humic acid significantly lowers the arsenic removal efficiency.

  19. Ultratrace determination of arsenic in water samples by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry after pre-concentration with Mg-Al-Fe ternary layered double hydroxide nano-sorbent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdolmohammad-Zadeh, Hossein; Jouyban, Abolghasem; Amini, Roghayeh

    2013-11-15

    A selective solid phase extraction method, based on nano-structured Mg-Al-Fe(NO3(-)) ternary layered double hydroxide as a sorbent, is developed for the pre-concentration of ultra-trace levels of arsenic (As) prior to determination by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry. It is found that both As(III) and As(V) could be quantitatively retained on the sorbent within a wide pH range of 4-12. Accordingly, the presented method is applied to determination of total inorganic As in aqueous solutions. Maximum analytical signal of As is achieved when the pyrolysis and atomization temperatures are close to 900 °C and 2300 °C, respectively. Several variables affecting the extraction efficiency including pH, sample flow rate, amount of nano-sorbent, elution conditions and sample volume are optimized. Under the optimized conditions, the limit of detection (3Sb/m) and the relative standard deviation are 4.6 pg mL(-1) and 3.9%, respectively. The calibration graph is linear in the range of 15.0-650 pg mL(-1) with a correlation coefficient of 0.9979, sorption capacity and pre-concentration factor are 8.68 mg g(-1) and 300, respectively. The developed method is validated by the analysis of a standard reference material (SRM 1643e) and is successfully applied to the determination of ultra-trace amounts of As in different water samples. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Preparation of inorganic hydrophobic catalysts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Yong; Wang, Heyi; Du, Yang

    2009-04-01

    In order to catalyse the oxidation of tritium gas, two inorganic hydrophobic catalysts are prepared. Under room temperature, the catalysed oxidation ratio of 0.3%-1% (V/V) hydrogen gas in air is higher than 95%. Pt-II inorganic hydrophobic catalysts has obviously better catalysing ability than Pt-PTFE and lower ability than Pt-SDB in H 2 -HTO isotopic exchange, because the pressure resistence of Pt-II is much higher than Pt-SDB, it can be used to the CECE cell of heavy water detritium system. (authors)

  1. Tailored nutrition education: is it really effective?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eyles, Helen; Ni Mhurchu, Cliona

    2012-03-01

    There has been a growing interest in tailored nutrition education over the previous decade, with a number of literature reviews suggesting this intervention strategy holds considerable potential. Nevertheless, the majority of intervention trials undertaken to date have employed subjective self-report outcome measures (such as dietary recalls). The aim of the present review is to further consider the likely true effect of tailored nutrition education by assessing the findings of tailored nutrition education intervention trials where objective outcome measures (such as sales data) have been employed. Four trials of tailored nutrition education employing objective outcome measures were identified: one was undertaken in eight low-cost supermarkets in New Zealand (2010; n 1104); one was an online intervention trial in Australia (2006; n 497); and two were undertaken in US supermarkets (1997 and 2001; n 105 and 296, respectively). Findings from the high-quality New Zealand trial were negative. Findings from the US trials were also generally negative, although reporting was poor making it difficult to assess quality. Findings from the high-quality online trial were positive, although have limited generalisability for public health. Trials employing objective outcome measures strongly suggest tailored nutrition education is not effective as a stand-alone strategy. However, further large, high-quality trials employing objective outcome measures are needed to determine the true effectiveness of this popular nutrition intervention strategy. Regardless, education plays an important role in generating social understanding and acceptance of broader interventions to improve nutrition.

  2. Nanoparticles and their tailoring with laser light

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hubenthal, Frank

    2009-01-01

    Monodisperse noble metal nanoparticles are of tremendous interest for numerous applications, such as surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy, catalysis or biosensing. However, preparation of monodisperse metal nanoparticles is still a challenging task, because typical preparation methods yield nanoparticle ensembles with broad shape and/or size distributions. To overcome this drawback, tailoring of metal nanoparticles with laser light has been developed, which is based on the pronounced shape- and size-dependent optical properties of metal nanoparticles. I will demonstrate that nanoparticle tailoring with ns-pulsed laser light is a suitable method to prepare nanoparticle ensembles with a narrow shape and/or size distribution. While irradiation with ns-pulsed laser light during nanoparticle growth permits a precise shape tailoring, post-grown irradiation allows a size tailoring. For example, the initial broad Gaussian size distribution of silver nanoparticles on quartz substrates with a standard deviation of σ= 30% is significantly reduced to as little as σ= 10% after tailoring. This paper addresses teachers of undergraduate and advanced school level as well as students. It assumes some fundamental knowledge in solid-state physics, thermodynamics and resonance vibration.

  3. Methods and sorbents for utilizing a hot-side electrostatic precipitator for removal of mercury from combustion gases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Sidney [Hudson, OH

    2011-02-15

    Methods are provided for reducing emission of mercury from a gas stream by treating the gas with carbonaceous mercury sorbent particles to reduce the mercury content of the gas; collecting the carbonaceous mercury sorbent particles on collection plates of a hot-side ESP; periodically rapping the collection plates to release a substantial portion of the collected carbonaceous mercury sorbent particles into hoppers; and periodically emptying the hoppers, wherein such rapping and emptying are done at rates such that less than 70% of mercury adsorbed onto the mercury sorbent desorbs from the collected mercury sorbent into the gas stream.

  4. Performance Evaluation of Engineered Structured Sorbents for Atmosphere Revitalization Systems On Board Crewed Space Vehicles and Habitats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, David F.; Perry, Jay L.; Knox, James C.; Junaedi, Christian; Roychoudhury, Subir

    2011-01-01

    Engineered structured (ES) sorbents are being developed to meet the technical challenges of future crewed space exploration missions. ES sorbents offer the inherent performance and safety attributes of zeolite and other physical adsorbents but with greater structural integrity and process control to improve durability and efficiency over packed beds. ES sorbent techniques that are explored include thermally linked and pressure-swing adsorption beds for water-save dehumidification and sorbent-coated metal meshes for residual drying, trace contaminant control, and carbon dioxide control. Results from sub-scale performance evaluations of a thermally linked pressure-swing adsorbent bed and an integrated sub-scale ES sorbent system are discussed.

  5. The Economy of Persistence: Mario the Tailor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prudence Black

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Mario Conte has had a tailor shop in King Street, Newtown since the mid 1960s. Taking an interview with Mario as its point of departure, this article describes the persistence of a skilled worker whose practices and techniques remain the same in a world that has long changed. While inattentive to what rules might be used to decorate a shop window, Mario continues to make and sew in the way that he learnt in post-war Italy. Mario’s persistence could be described as all the skills and other elements that need to be in place to keep him working, in particular the tradition of tailoring techniques he has remained true to over the last fifty years. The hand stitching of his tailoring is like a metronome of that persistence.

  6. CARBON DIOXIDE CAPTURE FROM FLUE GAS USING DRY REGENERABLE SORBENTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David A. Green; Brian S. Turk; Raghubir P. Gupta; Douglas P. Harrison; Ya Liang

    2001-10-01

    The objective of this project is to develop a simple, inexpensive process to separate CO{sub 2} as an essentially pure stream from a fossil fuel combustion system using a regenerable, sodium-based sorbent. The sorbent being used in this project is sodium carbonate which is converted to sodium bicarbonate, ''baking soda,'' through reaction with carbon dioxide and water vapor. Sodium bicarbonate is regenerated to sodium carbonate when heated, producing a nearly pure CO{sub 2} stream after condensation of water vapor. Testing conducted previously confirmed that the reaction rate and achievable CO{sub 2} capacity of sodium carbonate decreased with increasing temperature, and that the global rate of reaction of sodium carbonate to sodium bicarbonate increased with an increase in both CO{sub 2} and H{sub 2}O concentrations. Energy balance calculations indicated that the rate of heat removal from the particle surface may determine the reaction rate for a particular particle system. This quarter, thermogravimetric analyses (TGA) were conducted which indicated that calcination of sodium bicarbonate at temperatures as high as 200 C did not cause a significant decrease in activity in subsequent carbonation testing. When sodium bicarbonate was subjected to a five cycle calcination/carbonation test, activity declined slightly over the first two cycles but was constant thereafter. TGA tests were also conducted with two other potential sorbents. Potassium carbonate was found to be less active than sodium carbonate, at conditions of interest in preliminary TGA tests. Sodium carbonate monohydrate showed negligible activity. Testing was also conducted in a 2-inch internal diameter quartz fluidized-bed reactor system. A five cycle test demonstrated that initial removals of 10 to 15 percent of the carbon dioxide in a simulated flue gas could be achieved. The carbonation reaction proceeded at temperatures as low as 41 C. Future work by TGA and in fixed

  7. CARBON DIOXIDE CAPTURE FROM FLUE GAS USING DRY REGENERABLE SORBENTS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    David A. Green; Brian S. Turk; Raghubir P. Gupta; Douglas P. Harrison; Ya Liang

    2001-01-01

    The objective of this project is to develop a simple, inexpensive process to separate CO(sub 2) as an essentially pure stream from a fossil fuel combustion system using a regenerable, sodium-based sorbent. The sorbent being used in this project is sodium carbonate which is converted to sodium bicarbonate, ''baking soda,'' through reaction with carbon dioxide and water vapor. Sodium bicarbonate is regenerated to sodium carbonate when heated, producing a nearly pure CO(sub 2) stream after condensation of water vapor. Testing conducted previously confirmed that the reaction rate and achievable CO(sub 2) capacity of sodium carbonate decreased with increasing temperature, and that the global rate of reaction of sodium carbonate to sodium bicarbonate increased with an increase in both CO(sub 2) and H(sub 2)O concentrations. Energy balance calculations indicated that the rate of heat removal from the particle surface may determine the reaction rate for a particular particle system. This quarter, thermogravimetric analyses (TGA) were conducted which indicated that calcination of sodium bicarbonate at temperatures as high as 200 C did not cause a significant decrease in activity in subsequent carbonation testing. When sodium bicarbonate was subjected to a five cycle calcination/carbonation test, activity declined slightly over the first two cycles but was constant thereafter. TGA tests were also conducted with two other potential sorbents. Potassium carbonate was found to be less active than sodium carbonate, at conditions of interest in preliminary TGA tests. Sodium carbonate monohydrate showed negligible activity. Testing was also conducted in a 2-inch internal diameter quartz fluidized-bed reactor system. A five cycle test demonstrated that initial removals of 10 to 15 percent of the carbon dioxide in a simulated flue gas could be achieved. The carbonation reaction proceeded at temperatures as low as 41 C. Future work by TGA and in fixed-bed, fluidized-bed, and transport

  8. FURNACE INJECTION OF ALKALINE SORBENTS FOR SULFURIC ACID CONTROL; SEMIANNUAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gary M. Blythe

    2002-01-01

    This document summarizes progress on Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-99FT40718, Furnace Injection of Alkaline Sorbents for Sulfuric Acid Control, during the time period October 1, 2001 through March 31, 2002. The objective of this project is to demonstrate the use of alkaline reagents injected into the furnace of coal-fired boilers as a means of controlling sulfuric acid emissions. The coincident removal of hydrochloric acid and hydrofluoric acid is also being determined, as is the removal of arsenic, a known poison for NO(sub X) selective catalytic reduction (SCR) catalysts. EPRI, the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA), FirstEnergy Corporation, American Electric Power (AEP) and the Dravo Lime Company are project co-funders. URS Corporation is the prime contractor. This is the fifth reporting period for the subject Cooperative Agreement. During the previous (fourth) period, two long-term sorbent injection tests were conducted, one on Unit 3 at FirstEnergy's Bruce Mansfield Plant (BMP) and one on Unit 1 at AEP's Gavin Plant. Those tests determined the effectiveness of injecting alkaline slurries into the upper furnace of the boiler as a means of controlling sulfuric acid emissions from these units. The alkaline slurries tested included commercially available magnesium hydroxide slurry (Gavin Plant) and a byproduct magnesium hydroxide slurry (at both Gavin and BMP). The tests showed that injecting either the commercial or the byproduct magnesium hydroxide slurry could achieve up to 70-75% overall sulfuric acid removal. At BMP, the overall removal was limited by the need to maintain acceptable electrostatic precipitator (ESP) particulate control performance. At Gavin Plant, the overall sulfuric acid removal was limited because the furnace injected sorbent was less effective at removing SO(sub 3) formed across the SCR system installed on the unit for NO(sub X) control than at removing SO(sub 3) formed in the furnace. The SO(sub 3) removal results were presented in the

  9. Thermochemical Characterizations of Novel Vermiculite-LiCl Composite Sorbents for Low-Temperature Heat Storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yannan Zhang

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available To store low-temperature heat below 100 °C, novel composite sorbents were developed by impregnating LiCl into expanded vermiculite (EVM in this study. Five kinds of composite sorbents were prepared using different salt concentrations, and the optimal sorbent for application was selected by comparing both the sorption characteristics and energy storage density. Textural properties of composite sorbents were obtained by extreme-resolution field emission scanning electron microscopy (ER-SEM and an automatic mercury porosimeter. After excluding two composite sorbents which would possibly exhibit solution leakage in practical thermal energy storage (TES system, thermochemical characterizations were implemented through simulative sorption experiments at 30 °C and 60% RH. Analyses of thermogravimetric analysis/differential scanning calorimetry (TGA/DSC curves indicate that water uptake of EVM/LiCl composite sorbents is divided into three parts: physical adsorption of EVM, chemical adsorption of LiCl crystal, and liquid–gas absorption of LiCl solution. Energy storage potential was evaluated by theoretical calculation based on TGA/DSC curves. Overall, EVMLiCl20 was selected as the optimal composite sorbent with water uptake of 1.41 g/g, mass energy storage density of 1.21 kWh/kg, and volume energy storage density of 171.61 kWh/m3.

  10. Carbon-Containing Waste of Coal Enterprises in Magnetic Sorbents Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kvashevaya, Ekaterina; Ushakova, Elena; Ushakov, Andrey

    2017-11-01

    The article shows the issues state of coal-mining enterprises carbonaceous wastes utilization, including by obtaining oil-sorbent. The characteristics of the feedstock are presented; experiment methods of obtaining a binder based on the livestock enterprises waste, of forming binder with filler (sawdust, coal waste); of pyrogenetic processing to obtain a sorbent are described. Possible options for the introduction of magnetite (a magnetic component) in the composition of the oil sorbent are considered: on the surface, in the volume of the granule and the magnetite core. In the course of the work it was found that the optimum content of coal dust in the sorbent granules is 75% by weight, and the most effective way of obtaining the magnetic sorbent is to apply the carbon material directly to the "core" of magnetite. However, in this case, the problem of finding an effective binder for magnetite arises. The option of applying magnetite on the surface of a carbon sorbent is not effective. Thus, at present, we use a mixture of coal waste, which binds to the uniform distribution of magnetite in the volume. The developed magnetic sorbents can be used in various weather conditions, including strong winds and icing of water bodies, as well as for small and medium currents.

  11. Sorption of Aromatic Compounds with Copolymer Sorbent Materials Containing β-Cyclodextrin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee D. Wilson

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Urethane copolymer sorbent materials that incorporate β-cyclodextrin (CD have been prepared and their sorption properties with chlorinated aromatic compounds (i.e., pentachlorophenol, 2,4-dichlorophenol and 2,4-dichlorophenoxy acetic acid have been evaluated. The sorption properties of granular activated carbon (GAC were similarly compared in aqueous solution at variable pH conditions. The sorbents displayed variable BET surface areas as follows: MDI-X copolymers (< 101 m2/g, CDI-X copolymers (< 101 m2/g, and granular activated carbon (GAC ~103 m2/g. The sorption capacities for the copolymers sorbents are listed in descending order, as follows: GAC > CDI-3 copolymer ≈ MDI-3 copolymer. The sorption capacity for the aromatic adsorbates with each sorbent are listed in descending order, as follows: 2,4-dichlorophenol > 2,4-dichlorophenoxy acetic acid > pentachlorophenol. In general, the differences in the sorption properties of the copolymer sorbents with the chlorinated organics were related to the following factors: (i surface area of the sorbent; (ii CD content and accessibility; and (iii and the chemical nature of the sorbent material.

  12. Sorption of agrochemical model compounds by sorbent materials containing beta-cyclodextrin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Lee D; Mohamed, Mohamed H; Guo, Rui; Pratt, Dawn Y; Kwon, Jae Hyuck; Mahmud, Sarker T

    2010-04-01

    Polymeric sorbent materials that incorporate beta-cyclodextrin (CD) have been prepared and their sorption behavior toward two model agrochemical contaminant compounds, p-nitrophenol (PNP) and methyl chloride examined. The sorption of PNP was studied in aqueous solution using ultraviolet-visible (UV-Vis) spectroscopy, whereas the sorption of methyl chloride from the gas phase was studied using a Langmuir adsorption method. The sorption results for PNP in solution were compared between granular activated carbon (GAC), modified GAC, CD copolymers, and CD-based mesoporous silica hybrid materials. Nitrogen porosimetry at 77 K was used to estimate the surface area and pore structure properties of the sorbent materials. The sorbents displayed variable surface areas as follows: copolymers (36.2-157 m(2)/g), CD-silica materials (307-906 m(2)/g), surface modified GAC (657 m(2)/g), and granular activated carbon (approximately 10(3) m(2)/g). The sorption capacities for PNP and methyl chloride with the different sorbents are listed in descending order as follows: GAC > copolymers > surface modified GAC > CD-silica hybrid materials. In general, the differences in the sorption properties of the sorbents were related to the following: (i) surface area of the sorbent, (ii) CD content and accessibility, (iii) and the chemical nature of the sorbent material.

  13. Sorption of Aromatic Compounds with Copolymer Sorbent Materials Containing β-Cyclodextrin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Lee D; Mohamed, Mohamed H; Berhaut, Christopher L

    2011-08-29

    Urethane copolymer sorbent materials that incorporate β-cyclodextrin (CD) have been prepared and their sorption properties with chlorinated aromatic compounds (i.e., pentachlorophenol, 2,4-dichlorophenol and 2,4-dichlorophenoxy acetic acid) have been evaluated. The sorption properties of granular activated carbon (GAC) were similarly compared in aqueous solution at variable pH conditions. The sorbents displayed variable BET surface areas as follows: MDI-X copolymers (granular activated carbon (GAC ~10³ m²/g). The sorption capacities for the copolymers sorbents are listed in descending order, as follows: GAC > CDI-3 copolymer ≈ MDI-3 copolymer. The sorption capacity for the aromatic adsorbates with each sorbent are listed in descending order, as follows: 2,4-dichlorophenol > 2,4-dichlorophenoxy acetic acid > pentachlorophenol. In general, the differences in the sorption properties of the copolymer sorbents with the chlorinated organics were related to the following factors: (i) surface area of the sorbent; (ii) CD content and accessibility; and (iii) and the chemical nature of the sorbent material.

  14. Evaluation of silk-floss fiber and dog fur as sorbent materials for the petroleum sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Lucas P. dos [Universidade Federal do Parana (PGMec/UFPR), Curitiba, PR (Brazil). Programa de Pos-Graduacao em Engenharia Mecanica; Dubiella, Juliana [Universidade Federal do Parana (DEMEC/UFPR), Curitiba, PR (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Mecanica. Programa Institucional de Bolsas de Iniciacao Cientifica; Perotta, Larissa [Universidade Federal do Parana (UFPR), Curitiba, PR (Brazil). Programa Interdisciplinar em Engenharia de Petroleo e Gas Natural; Satyanarayana, Kestur G. [Universidade Federal do Parana (UFPR), Curitiba, PR (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica; Flores-Sahagun, Thais Sydenstricker [Universidade Federal do Parana (DEMEC/UFPR), Curitiba, PR (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Mecanica

    2009-07-01

    In this study silk-floss and dog fur were tested as sorbent materials for oils and the results were compared with peat, a commercial sorbent. Sorption tests were carried out in dry and aqueous systems, with and without stirring for different periods of time (5-1440 min). Density, hydrophobicity, buoyancy and water uptake by the fibers of the impregnated sorbents have been determined. The use of silk-floss and dog fur was also tested in columns to purify water containing toluene, benzene, motor oil or sunflower oil. Breakthrough curves during 120 min were drawn for each material with the samples (oily water or water containing benzene or toluene) and were analyzed by ultraviolet spectroscopy. It was concluded that the silk-floss is the best sorbent material (65.3 g oil/g sorbent) followed by the dog fur (34.6 g oil/g sorbent) and peat (19.5 g oil/g sorbent), for sorption time of 1 h in dynamic condition. The efficiency of the pollutant removal from water with the use of adsorption columns was high for both materials although the use of dog fur was preferable because of the slight superiority in efficiency compared to silk-floss and also, due to the easier packing of the dog fur in the column. (author)

  15. Development of the advanced coolside sorbent injection process for SO{sub 2}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Withum, J.A.; Maskew, J.T.; Rosenhoover, W.A. [Consol, Inc., Library, PA (United States)] [and others

    1995-11-01

    The goal of this work was to develop a low-capital-cost process capable of over 90% SO{sub 2} removal as an economically attractive option for compliance with the Clean Air Act. The Advanced Coolside Process uses a contactor to simultaneously remove fly ash and saturate the flue gas with water, followed by sorbent injection into the highly humid flue gas and collection of the sorbent by the existing particulate collector High sorbent utilization is achieved by sorbent recycle. The original performance targets of 90% SO{sub 2} removal and 60% sorbent utilization were exceeded in 1000 acfm pilot plant operations using commercial hydrated lime as the only sorbent. Process optimization simplified the process equipment, resulting in significant cost reduction. Recent accomplishments include completion of equipment testing and sorbent optimization, a waste management study, and a long-term performance test. An economic evaluation for the optimized process projects capital costs 55% to 60 % less than those of limestone forced oxidation wet FGD. The projected levelized control cost is 15% to 35% lower than wet FGD (25% lower for a 260 MWe plant burning a 2.5% sulfur coal), depending on plant size and coal sulfur content.

  16. Molecular modeling of inorganic compounds

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Comba, Peter; Hambley, Trevor W; Martin, Bodo

    2009-01-01

    ... mechanics to inorganic and coordination compounds. Initially, simple metal complexes were modeled, but recently the field has been extended to include organometallic compounds, catalysis and the interaction of metal ions with biological macromolecules. The application of molecular mechanics to coordination compounds is complicated by the numbe...

  17. Inorganic nanomedicine--part 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekhon, Bhupinder S; Kamboj, Seema R

    2010-08-01

    Inorganic nanomedicine refers to the use of inorganic or hybrid nanomaterials and nanosized objects to achieve innovative medical breakthroughs for drug and gene discovery and delivery, discovery of biomarkers, and molecular diagnostics. Potential uses for fluorescent quantum dots include cell labeling, biosensing, in vivo imaging, bimodal magnetic-luminescent imaging, and diagnostics. Biocompatible quantum dot conjugates have been used successfully for sentinel lymph node mapping, tumor targeting, tumor angiogenesis imaging, and metastatic cell tracking. Magnetic nanowires applications include biosensing and construction of nucleic acids sensors. Magnetic cell therapy is used for the repair of blood vessels. Magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) are important for magnetic resonance imaging, drug delivery, cell labeling, and tracking. Superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles are used for hyperthermic treatment of tumors. Multifunctional MNPs applications include drug and gene delivery, medical imaging, and targeted drug delivery. MNPs could have a vital role in developing techniques to simultaneously diagnose, monitor, and treat a wide range of common diseases and injuries. From the clinical editor: This review serves as an update about the current state of inorganic nanomedicine. The use of inorganic/hybrid nanomaterials and nanosized objects has already resulted in innovative medical breakthroughs for drug/gene discovery and delivery, discovery of biomarkers and molecular diagnostics, and is likely to remain one of the most prolific fields of nanomedicine. 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. James Moir as Inorganic Chemist

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    NICO

    KEYWORDS. Inorganic chemistry, gold, atomic theory, history of chemistry. .... Figure 2 (a) shows Moir's model for the C atom, where the black circles represent the ..... Na filled the hole in the F atom, both becoming ions even in the crystal state ...

  19. Determining Inorganic and Organic Carbon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koistinen, Jaana; Sjöblom, Mervi; Spilling, Kristian

    2017-11-21

    Carbon is the element which makes up the major fraction of lipids and carbohydrates, which could be used for making biofuel. It is therefore important to provide enough carbon and also follow the flow into particulate organic carbon and potential loss to dissolved organic forms of carbon. Here we present methods for determining dissolved inorganic carbon, dissolved organic carbon, and particulate organic carbon.

  20. Tailoring group velocity by topology optimization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stainko, Roman; Sigmund, Ole

    2007-01-01

    The paper describes a systematic method for the tailoring of dispersion properties of slab-based photonic crystal waveguides. The method is based on the topology optimization method which consists in repeated finite element frequency domain analyses. The goal of the optimization process is to come...... up with slow light, zero group velocity dispersion photonic waveguides or photonic waveguides with tailored dispersion properties for dispersion compensation purposes. An example concerning the design of a wide bandwidth, constant low group velocity waveguide demonstrate the e±ciency of the method....

  1. Highly stable and regenerable Mn-based/SBA-15 sorbents for desulfurization of hot coal gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, F.M.; Liu, B.S.; Zhang, Y.; Guo, Y.H.; Wan, Z.Y.; Subhan, Fazle

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► A series of mesoporous Cu x Mn y O z /SBA-15 sorbents were fabricated for hot coal gas desulfurization. ► 1Cu9Mn/SBA-15 sorbent with high breakthrough sulfur capacity is high stable and regenerable. ► Utilization of SBA-15 constrained the sintering and pulverization of sorbents. - Abstract: A series of mesoporous xCuyMn/SBA-15 sorbents with different Cu/Mn atomic ratios were prepared by wet impregnation method and their desulfurization performance in hot coal gas was investigated in a fixed-bed quartz reactor in the range of 700–850 °C. The successive nine desulfurization–regeneration cycles at 800 °C revealed that 1Cu9Mn/SBA-15 presented high performance with durable regeneration ability due to the high dispersion of Mn 2 O 3 particles incorporated with a certain amount of copper oxides. The breakthrough sulfur capacity of 1Cu9Mn/SBA-15 observed 800 °C is 13.8 g S/100 g sorbents, which is remarkably higher than these of 40 wt%LaFeO 3 /SBA-15 (4.8 g S/100 g sorbents) and 50 wt%LaFe 2 O x /MCM-41 (5.58 g S/100 g sorbents) used only at 500–550 °C. This suggested that the loading of Mn 2 O 3 active species with high thermal stability to SBA-15 support significantly increased sulfur capacity at relatively higher sulfidation temperature. The fresh and used xCuyMn/SBA-15 sorbents were characterized by means of BET, XRD, XPS, XAES, TG/DSC and HRTEM techniques, confirmed that the structure of the sorbents remained intact before and after hot coal gas desulfurization.

  2. Solid phase extraction for the speciation and preconcentration of inorganic selenium in water samples: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrero Latorre, C; Barciela García, J; García Martín, S; Peña Crecente, R M

    2013-12-04

    Selenium is an essential element for the normal cellular function of living organisms. However, selenium is toxic at concentrations of only three to five times higher than the essential concentration. The inorganic forms (mainly selenite and selenate) present in environmental water generally exhibit higher toxicity (up to 40 times) than organic forms. Therefore, the determination of low levels of different inorganic selenium species in water is an analytical challenge. Solid-phase extraction has been used as a separation and/or preconcentration technique prior to the determination of selenium species due to the need for accurate measurements for Se species in water at extremely low levels. The present paper provides a critical review of the published methods for inorganic selenium speciation in water samples using solid phase extraction as a preconcentration procedure. On the basis of more than 75 references, the different speciation strategies used for this task have been highlighted and classified. The solid-phase extraction sorbents and the performance and analytical characteristics of the developed methods for Se speciation are also discussed. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Hybrid polymer-inorganic photovoltaic cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beek, W.J.E.; Janssen, R.A.J.; Merhari, L.

    2009-01-01

    Composite materials made from organic conjugated polymers and inorganic semiconductors such as metal oxides attract considerable interest for photovoltaic applications. Hybrid polymer-inorganic solar cells offer the opportunity to combine the beneficial properties of the two materials in charge

  4. Sorption of 60 Co on inorganic solids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Granados C, F.; Bulbulian G, S.; Mardel V, B.

    2003-01-01

    The behavior of sorption of the 60 Co in aqueous solution under static conditions to different values of pH of the aqueous solution (1, 3, 5, 7, and 10) on MgO, MnO 2 , SnO, TiO 2 , activated carbon and calcinate hydrotalcite was investigated. It was found that the best sorbents of the 60 Co was the MnO 2 , activated carbon and TiO 2 whose sorption was incremented when increasing the pH value of the aqueous solutions, in the one case of the hydrated oxides, the 60 Co interacted with the electrically charged surface of the sorbents that depends on the pH of the solution and of the point of zero charge (zpc) of the sorbent. (Author)

  5. Application of TIO2 as A sorbent for radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zamroni, H.; Las, T.; Kamarz, H.

    1997-01-01

    The sorption properties of the neodymium has been studied by using TiO 2 sorbent. The experiment was carried out by batch methods to investigate the kinetic sorption, effect of pH and effect of NaNO 3 concentration in the solution. Neodymium uses for a model of trivalent actinide treated by TiO 2 which was known as materials having high thermal and radiation stabilities as well as potentially used for immobilization of waste with cement or vitrification. the results show that the optimum of kinetic sorption was obtained after one day experiment to reach the equilibrium in sorption on pH 4, and the increasing of NaNO 3 concentrations will increase the sorption of neodymium in solution (author)

  6. Phosphorus organic extragents and sorbents of radioactive a heavy metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trofimov, B.A.; Gusarova, N.K.; Malysheva, S.F.; Sukhov, B.G.

    2002-01-01

    A fundamentally new method for activation of phosphorus in heterogenous super-base media including the conditions of mechanical, ultrasonic and X-ray activation, opening up a new way to C-P bond formation is developed. The method is opens principally new possibilities for direct atom-economic synthesis of previously unknown or difficult to obtain organophosphorus compounds (primary, secondary, tertiary phosphines and phosphine oxides) from elemental phosphorus and orga-nyl halides, electrophilic alkenes, acetylenes and oxiranes. Thus, the phosphothion and phosphorylation of organic compounds with elemental phosphorus, phosphines and phosphine oxides opens the principal new approach to the synthesis of specific and selective extra-gents, sorbents and complex-forming agents which can be used in the processes of purification and disinfecting of soil and water from radioactive and heavy metals

  7. Regenerable immobilized aminosilane sorbents for carbon dioxide capture applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gay, McMahan; Choi, Sunho; Jones, Christopher W

    2014-09-16

    A method for the separation of carbon dioxide from ambient air and flue gases is provided wherein a phase separating moiety with a second moiety are simultaneously coupled and bonded onto an inert substrate to create a mixture which is subsequently contacted with flue gases or ambient air. The phase-separating moiety is an amine whereas the second moiety is an aminosilane, or a Group 4 propoxide such as titanium (IV) propoxide (tetrapropyl orthotitanate, C.sub.12H.sub.28O.sub.4Ti). The second moiety makes the phase-separating moiety insoluble in the pores of the inert substrate. The new sorbents have a high carbon dioxide loading capacity and considerable stability over hundreds of cycles. The synthesis method is readily scalable for commercial and industrial production.

  8. Hot fuel gas dedusting after sorbent-based gas cleaning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-07-01

    Advanced power generation technologies, such as Air Blown Gasification Cycle (ABGC), require gas cleaning at high temperatures in order to meet environmental standards and to achieve high thermal efficiencies. The primary hot gas filtration process, which removes particulates from the cooled raw fuel gas at up to 600{degree}C is the first stage of gas cleaning prior to desulphurization and ammonia removal processes. The dust concentration in the fuel gas downstream of the sorbent processes would be much lower than for the hot gas filtration stage and would have a lower sulphur content and possibly reduced chlorine concentration. The main aim of this project is to define the requirements for a hot gas filter for dedusting fuel gas under these conditions, and to identify a substantially simpler and more cost effective solution using ceramic or metal barrier filters.

  9. Efficient CO2 sorbents based on silica foam with ultra-large mesopores

    KAUST Repository

    Qi, Genggeng; Fu, Liling; Choi, Brian Hyun; Giannelis, Emmanuel P.

    2012-01-01

    A series of high-capacity, amine impregnated sorbents based on a cost-effective silica foam with ultra-large mesopores is reported. The sorbents exhibit fast CO2 capture kinetics, high adsorption capacity (of up to 5.8 mmol g-1 under 1 atm of dry CO2), as well as good stability over multiple adsorption-desorption cycles. A simple theoretical analysis is provided relating the support structure to sorbent performance. © 2012 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

  10. Development of a Microwave Regenerative Sorbent-Based Hydrogen Purifier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheeler, Richard R., Jr.; Dewberry, Ross H.; McCurry, Bryan D.; Abney, Morgan B.; Greenwood, Zachary W.

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes the design and fabrication of a Microwave Regenerative Sorbent-based Hydrogen Purifier (MRSHP). This unique microwave powered technology was developed for the purification of a hydrogen stream produced by the Plasma Pyrolysis Assembly (PPA). The PPA is a hydrogen recovery (from methane) post processor for NASA's Sabatier-based carbon dioxide reduction process. Embodied in the Carbon dioxide Reduction Assembly (CRA), currently aboard the International Space Station (ISS), the Sabatier reaction employs hydrogen to catalytically recover oxygen, in the form of water, from respiratory carbon dioxide produced by the crew. This same approach is base-lined for future service in the Air Revitalization system on extended missions into deep space where resupply is not practical. Accordingly, manned exploration to Mars may only become feasible with further closure of the air loop as afforded by the greater hydrogen recovery permitted by the PPA with subsequent hydrogen purification. By utilizing the well-known high sorbate loading capacity of molecular sieve 13x, coupled with microwave dielectric heating phenomenon, MRSHP technology is employed as a regenerative filter for a contaminated hydrogen gas stream. By design, freshly regenerated molecular sieve 13x contained in the MRSHP will remove contaminants from the effluent of a 1-CM scale PPA for several hours prior to breakthrough. By reversing flow and pulling a relative vacuum the MRSHP prototype then uses 2.45 GHz microwave power, applied through a novel coaxial antenna array, to rapidly heat the sorbent bed and drive off the contaminants in a short duration vacuum/thermal contaminant desorption step. Finally, following rapid cooling via room temperature cold plates, the MRSHP is again ready to serve as a hydrogen filter.

  11. Supported modified hydrotalcites as sorbent for CO2 capture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meis, N.

    2010-02-15

    The average concentration of CO2 in the atmosphere has been increasing since the start of the industrial revolution in the 18th century from 280 ppm to 385 ppm nowadays, and continues to increase because of the enormous human usage of fossil fuels (oil, gas, coal). This can strongly affect the climate, causing the Earth's surface to warm up, the so called 'amplified greenhouse effect'. To alleviate these environmental concerns regarding the current CO2 emissions into the atmosphere, Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) is investigated as one of the possible routes. Due to the acidic character of CO2, basic oxides are expected to be suitable sorbents. Hydrotalcite, a natural clay, is specifically suitable for pre-combustion capture (250- 400{sup o}C), due to its acceptable sorption capacity and facile regeneration. The influence of lateral platelet size ({+-}40 nm - 2 {mu}m), the use of a support (carbon nanofibers, CNF) and addition of a promoter (alkali carbonate: K{sub 2}CO{sub 3}/Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3}) on the CO2 capture properties of HT was investigated. There was no significant difference in the CO2 sorption capacities at 523K for all unsupported HTs, regardless the platelet size of the HT precursor ({+-}0.1 mmol.g{sup -1}). The use of activated, promoted (alkali carbonate) hydrotalcites showed a much higher capacity ({+-}0.3 mmol.g{sup -1}) at 523K. In addition, the capacities of the activated supported HT at 523K were significantly increased compared to the activated unsupported HT (1.3-2.5 mmol.g{sup -1} HT). The alkali-loaded supported HTs showed capacities slightly higher than the capacity of supported unpromoted HT. The increase in capacity for the promoted and/or supported HTs points to a higher concentration of defects (low-coordination of oxygen sites) on the surface of the activated (alkali-)loaded HTs compared to the unloaded and unsupported HT. The higher concentration of adsorption for the promoted (supported) HTs, might be caused by the

  12. Tailoring endocrine treatment for early breast cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fontein, Duveken Berthe Yvonne

    2014-01-01

    This thesis describes several important aspects of adjuvant endocrine therapy for postmenopausal women with endocrine-sensitive, early-stage breast cancer. In our ongoing efforts to tailor treatment so as to provide the best possible care to each of our patients, we studied the influence of various

  13. Tinker Tailor Robot Pi -- The Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianchi, Lynne

    2017-01-01

    Tinker Tailor Robot Pi (TTRP) is an innovative curriculum development project, which started in September 2014. It involves in-service primary and secondary teachers, university academic engineers, business partners and pupils at Key Stages 1, 2 and 3 (ages 5-14). The focus of the work has been to explore how a pedagogy for primary engineering…

  14. LIFE-STYLE SEGMENTATION WITH TAILORED INTERVIEWING

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    KAMAKURA, WA; WEDEL, M

    The authors present a tailored interviewing procedure for life-style segmentation. The procedure assumes that a life-style measurement instrument has been designed. A classification of a sample of consumers into life-style segments is obtained using a latent-class model. With these segments, the

  15. Hybrid Films Based on a Bridged Silsesquioxane Doped with Goethite and Montmorillonite Nanoparticles as Sorbents of Wastewater Contaminants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina V. Waiman

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The synthesis and characterization of silsesquioxane (SSO films with pendant dodecyl groups and doped with goethite (Gt or montmorillonite (MMT nanoparticles were carried out and the new materials tested as sorbents of diverse contaminants. The synthetic method used yielded SSO films with the inorganic substrates homogeneously distributed within the polymeric matrices. The new materials were characterized by SEM, FTIR, XRD, and DSC and tested to evaluate their capability for adsorbing metallic cations, organic dyes, and phosphate, frequent contaminants of industrial effluents. All films were found suitable for removing metallic cations. Results also showed that the SSO films undoped and doped with Gt are primarily apt for anionic compounds removal. Although the SSO films doped with MMT are capable of removing cationic contaminants from aqueous samples, the stiffness of the SSO matrix hinders MMT properties as an adsorbent. The possibility of dispersing nanoparticulate systems in the stable and chemically inert SSO matrices simplifies their application for contaminant removal, particularly because it makes the separation process of the absorbed pollutant from the treated medium easier.

  16. Titanium dioxide solid phase for inorganic species adsorption and determination: the case of arsenic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vera, R; Fontàs, C; Anticó, E

    2017-04-01

    We have evaluated a new titanium dioxide (Adsorbsia As600) for the adsorption of both inorganic As (V) and As (III) species. In order to characterize the sorbent, batch experiments were undertaken to determine the capacities of As (III) and As (V) at pH 7.3, which were found to be 0.21 and 0.14 mmol g -1 , respectively. Elution of adsorbed species was only possible using basic solutions, and arsenic desorbed under batch conditions was 50 % when 60 mg of loaded titanium dioxide was treated with 0.5 M NaOH solution. Moreover, its use as a sorbent for solid-phase extraction and preconcentration of arsenic species from well waters has been investigated, without any previous pretreatment of the sample. Solid-phase extraction was implemented by packing several minicolumns with Adsorbsia As600. The method has been validated showing good accuracy and precision. Acceptable recoveries were obtained when spiked waters at 100-200 μg L -1 were measured. The presence of major anions commonly found in waters did not affect arsenic adsoption, and only silicate at 100 mg L -1 level severely competed with arsenic species to bind to the material. Finally, the measured concentrations in water samples containing arsenic from the Pyrinees (Catalonia, Spain) showed good agreement with the ICP-MS results.

  17. Inorganic oxides as alternative in the separation of non fissioned residual uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baca G, A.

    1997-01-01

    The Al 2 O 3 , SiO 2 and SnO 2 as well as vegetable carbon have been studied for its possible use as sorbent in the concentration and separation of non fissioned residual uranium of some fission products such as: 141 Ce, 134 Cs, 125 Sb, 103 Ru, 95 Zr, 95 Nb of alkaline aqueous systems. The separation efficiency has been evaluated using natural uranium and radionuclides in static and dynamic processes, through liquid scintillation and gamma spectrometry. Therefore Al 2 O 3 , SiO 2 , SnO 2 and carbon were pre-treated thermic and chemically and characterized through the technique of Nitrogen absorption analysis, X-ray diffraction and IR spectroscopy. By means of the p H determination and the aqueous system potential the present hydrolysis products were determined. The inorganic oxides show structural and surface changes due to the treatment. The adsorption process is realized by different mechanism depending of the sorbent. The results show that the retention capacity is a dependence of the oxides pre-treatment and of the hydrolysis products in the aqueous system, as well as of the experimental conditions. Not in this way for carbon in which the results show the treatment and the experimental conditions significantly have not influence in its adsorption capacity. (Author)

  18. Separation of In (III)and Cd(II) Using Zirconium Vanadate As Inorganic Ion Exchanger

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Massoud, A.; Abou El Nour, F.

    2012-01-01

    In this work, zirconium vanadate as inorganic ion exchanger was chemically synthesized using homogeneous precipitation technique. The obtained zirconium vanadate was mixed with Indium ions to determine its capacity in aqueous solution using batch experiment. Ion exchange capacity of various metal ions was investigated. Effects of ph, initial concentration, weight of the sorbent and contact time on the adsorption of metals were studied. Chromatographic column methods were applied for separation of indium and cadmium. A fixed bed column of zirconium vanadate was successfully used for separation of indium and cadmium. The recovery percentage of both metal ions was about 98.4% using 2 M HCl and citrate buffer ph 3.5, respectively.

  19. High efficiency nanocomposite sorbents for CO2 capture based on amine-functionalized mesoporous capsules

    KAUST Repository

    Qi, Genggeng; Wang, Yanbing; Estevez, Luis; Duan, Xiaonan; Anako, Nkechi; Park, Ah-Hyung Alissa; Li, Wen; Jones, Christopher W.; Giannelis, Emmanuel P.

    2011-01-01

    A novel high efficiency nanocomposite sorbent for CO2 capture has been developed based on oligomeric amine (polyethylenimine, PEI, and tetraethylenepentamine, TEPA) functionalized mesoporous silica capsules. The newly synthesized sorbents exhibit extraordinary capture capacity up to 7.9 mmol g-1 under simulated flue gas conditions (pre-humidified 10% CO 2). The CO2 capture kinetics were found to be fast and reached 90% of the total capacities within the first few minutes. The effects of the mesoporous capsule features such as particle size and shell thickness on CO2 capture capacity were investigated. Larger particle size, higher interior void volume and thinner mesoporous shell thickness all improved the CO2 capacity of the sorbents. PEI impregnated sorbents showed good reversibility and stability during cyclic adsorption-regeneration tests (50 cycles). © 2011 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

  20. Sorbents for waste water purification from radionuclides and other toxic substances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maddalone, R.F.; MakKlenason, L.Ts.

    1996-01-01

    The TRW firm (USA) developed the system for sorption and disposal of radionuclides, heavy metals and organic substances, based on utilization of carbon sorbents. The sorbent is produced through processing natural coal by alkali-salt solution and has a large specific pores surface (up to 1000 m 2 /g). The sorbent carboxyl ionogenic groups are able of absorbing heavy metals cations from waste waters. Sorption by uranium constituted 30 mg/l. The sorbent with absorbed substances may be burnt (it contains no sulfur) or delivered for vitrification. The volume of disposed materials constitutes in comparison with existing techniques for uranium isotopes 420000 : 1. The costs are reduced up to 0.26 doll/m 2 of reprocessed water. 2 refs., 2 figs., 4 tabs

  1. Application of magnetic sorbent in the removal of cadmium from soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michal Lovás

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available A contamination of soil by heavy metals is a common problem at many metalliferous mining sites. There are various treatment processes for the cleanup of soil contaminated with heavy metals. A method designed for the decontamination of soil polluted by Cd is described. The method utilizes a magnetic sorbent – sludges from the hydrometallurgic processing of nickel mineral, activated by milling. The influence of sorbent concentration, pH and microwave energy on the sorption capacity and content of Cd ions in a soil was studed. The effectiveness of Cd desorption from the soil was 75 %, the maximal sorption capacity of sorbent was 9,8 mg/g. The content of Cd in water is function of pH and the concentration of sorbent. The influence of microwave energy (90 W was negligible.

  2. Experimental investigation of various vegetable fibers as sorbent materials for oil spills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annunciado, T R; Sydenstricker, T H D; Amico, S C

    2005-11-01

    Oil spills are a global concern due to their environmental and economical impact. Various commercial systems have been developed to control these spills, including the use of fibers as sorbents. This research investigates the use of various vegetable fibers, namely mixed leaves residues, mixed sawdust, sisal (Agave sisalana), coir fiber (Cocos nucifera), sponge-gourd (Luffa cylindrica) and silk-floss as sorbent materials of crude oil. Sorption tests with crude oil were conducted in deionized and marine water media, with and without agitation. Water uptake by the fibers was investigated by tests in dry conditions and distillation of the impregnated sorbent. The silk-floss fiber showed a very high degree of hydrophobicity and oil sorption capacity of approximately 85goil/g sorbent (in 24hours). Specific gravity measurements and buoyancy tests were also used to evaluate the suitability of these fibers for the intended application.

  3. Experimental investigation of various vegetable fibers as sorbent materials for oil spills

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Annunciado, T.R.; Sydenstricker, T.H.D.; Amico, S.C. [Federal University of Parana, Curitiba, (Brazil). Department of Mechanical Engineering

    2005-11-15

    Oil spills are a global concern due to their environmental and economical impact. various commercial systems have been developed to control these spills, including the use of fibers as sorbents. This research investigates the use of various vegetable fibers, namely mixed leaves residues, mixed sawdust, sisal (Agave sisalana), coir fiber (Cocos nucifera), sponge-gourd (Luffa cylindrica) and silk-floss as sorbent materials of crude oil. Sorption tests with crude oil were conducted in deionized and marine water media, with and without agitation. Water uptake by the fibers was investigated by tests in dry conditions and distillation of the impregnated sorbent. The silk-floss fiber showed a very high degree of hydrophobicity and oil sorption capacity of approximately 85 g oil/g sorbent (in 24 hours). Specific gravity measurements and buoyancy tests were also used to evaluate the suitability of these fibers for the intended application. (author)

  4. Arsenic removal from aqueous solutions by sorption onto zirconium- and titanium-modified sorbents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ignjatović Ljubiša

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Arsenic reduction in drinking water can include treatment by adsorption, switching to alternative water sources, or blending with water that has a lower arsenic concentration. Commercial sorbents MTM, Greensand and BIRM (Clack Corporation were modified with zirconium and titanium after activation. The modifications were performed with titanium tetrachloride and zirconium tetrachloride. The modified sorbents were dried at different temperatures. The sorption of arsenate and arsenite dissolved in drinking water (200μg L-1 onto the sorbents were tested using a batch procedure. After removal of the sorbent, the concentration of arsenic was determined by HG-AAS. Zirconium-modified BIRM showed the best performance for the removal of both arsenite and arsenate. Modification of the greensand did not affect arsenic sorption ability. Zirconium-modified BIRM diminished the concentration of total As to below 5 μg L-1.

  5. Evaluation of Solid Sorbents as a Retrofit Technology for CO2 Capture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sjostrom, Sharon [Ada-Es, Inc., Highlands Ranch, CO (United States)

    2016-06-02

    ADA completed a DOE-sponsored program titled Evaluation of Solid Sorbents as a Retrofit Technology for CO2 Capture under program DE-FE0004343. During this program, sorbents were analyzed for use in a post-combustion CO2 capture process. A supported amine sorbent was selected based upon superior performance to adsorb a greater amount of CO2 than the activated carbon sorbents tested. When the most ideal sorbent at the time was selected, it was characterized and used to create a preliminary techno-economic analysis (TEA). A preliminary 550 MW coal-fired power plant using Illinois #6 bituminous coal was designed with a solid sorbent CO2 capture system using the selected supported amine sorbent to both facilitate the TEA and to create the necessary framework to scale down the design to a 1 MWe equivalent slipstream pilot facility. The preliminary techno-economic analysis showed promising results and potential for improved performance for CO2 capture compared to conventional MEA systems. As a result, a 1 MWe equivalent solid sorbent system was designed, constructed, and then installed at a coal-fired power plant in Alabama. The pilot was designed to capture 90% of the CO2 from the incoming flue gas at 1 MWe net electrical generating equivalent. Testing was not possible at the design conditions due to changes in sorbent handling characteristics at post-regenerator temperatures that were not properly incorporated into the pilot design. Thus, severe pluggage occurred at nominally 60% of the design sorbent circulation rate with heated sorbent, although no handling issues were noted when the system was operated prior to bringing the regenerator to operating temperature. Testing within the constraints of the pilot plant resulted in 90% capture of the incoming CO2 at a flow rate equivalent of 0.2 to 0.25 MWe net electrical generating equivalent. The reduction in equivalent flow rate at 90% capture was

  6. Chitosan-ferrocyanide sorbent for Cs-137 removal from mineralized alkaline media

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Egorin, Andrei [Far Eastern Federal Univ., Vladivostok (Russian Federation); Institute of Chemistry FEBRAS, Vladivostok (Russian Federation); Ozyorsk Technical Institute MEPHI, Ozersk (Russian Federation); Tokar, Eduard [Far Eastern Federal Univ., Vladivostok (Russian Federation); Zemskova, Larisa [Institute of Chemistry FEBRAS, Vladivostok (Russian Federation)

    2016-11-01

    An organomineral sorbent based on mixed nickel-potassium ferrocyanide and chitosan to be used in removal of Cs-137 radionuclide from highly mineralized media with high pH has been fabricated. The synthesized sorbent was applied to remove Cs-137 from model solutions under static and dynamic conditions. The effects of contact time, pH, and presence of sodium ions and complexing agents in the process of Cs-137 removal have been investigated. The sorbent is distinguished by increased stability to the impact of alkaline media containing complexing agents, whereas the sorbent capacity in solutions with pH 11 exceeds 1000 bed volumes with the Cs-137 removal efficiency higher than 95%.

  7. 21 CFR 876.5600 - Sorbent regenerated dialysate delivery system for hemodialysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... dialyzer. The device is used with the extracorporeal blood system and the dialyzer of the hemodialysis... dialysate conditions. The sorbent cartridge may include absorbent, ion exchange and catalytic materials. (b...

  8. Application of fibrous complexing sorbents for trace elements preconcentration and separation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zakhartchenko, E.A.; Myasoedova, G.V.

    2003-01-01

    This article demonstrates the application of the 'filled' fibrous sorbents for preconcentration and separation of platinum metals, as well as heavy metals and radionuclides. The POLYORGS complexing sorbents and ion-exchangers were used as fillers. Dynamic preconcentration conditions should be set for complete sorption of the elements: diameter and mass of the sorbent disk or the column as well as flow rate of the solution. These conditions depend on specific features of materials to be analysed and the requirements of the experimental task or detection method. Extensive alteration of features as well as perfect kinetic properties and high selectivity of the 'filled' sorbents confirm their applicability for trace elements preconcentration and separation in technology and analytical chemistry. (authors)

  9. Zinc-oxide-based sorbents and processes for preparing and using same

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gangwal, Santosh Kumar; Turk, Brian Scott; Gupta, Raghubir Prasael

    2010-03-23

    Zinc oxide-based sorbents, and processes for preparing and using them are provided. The sorbents are preferably used to remove one or more reduced sulfur species from gas streams. The sorbents comprise an active zinc component, optionally in combination with one or more promoter components and/or one or more substantially inert components. The active zinc component is a two phase material, consisting essentially of a zinc oxide (ZnO) phase and a zinc aluminate (ZnAl.sub.2O.sub.4) phase. Each of the two phases is characterized by a relatively small crystallite size of typically less than about 500 Angstroms. Preferably the sorbents are prepared by converting a precursor mixture, comprising a precipitated zinc oxide precursor and a precipitated aluminum oxide precursor, to the two-phase, active zinc oxide containing component.

  10. Hydroxyapatite-based sorbents: elaboration, characterization and application for the removal of catechol from the aqueous phase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sebei, Haroun; Pham Minh, Doan; Lyczko, Nathalie; Sharrock, Patrick; Nzihou, Ange

    2017-10-01

    Hydroxyapatite (HAP) is highly considered as good sorbent for the removal of metals from the aqueous phase. However, soluble metals co-exist with organic pollutants in wastewaters. But little work has been devoted to investigate the reactivity of HAP for the removal of organic compounds. The main objective of this work is to study the reactivity of HAP-based sorbents for the removal of catechol as a model organic pollutant from an aqueous solution. Thus, HAP sorbents were firstly synthesized using calcium carbonate and potassium dihydrogen phosphate under moderate conditions (25-80°C, atmospheric pressure). A zinc-doped HAP was also used as sorbent, which was obtained from the contact of HAP with an aqueous solution of zinc nitrate. All the sorbents were characterized by different standard physico-chemical techniques. The sorption of catechol was carried out in a batch reactor under stirring at room temperature and pressure. Zinc-doped HAP sorbent was found to be more reactive than non-doped HAP sorbents for the fixation of catechol. The highest sorption capacity was of 15 mg of C per gram of zinc-doped HAP sorbent. The results obtained suggest the reaction scheme of HAP sorbents with metals and organic pollutants when HAP sorbents were used for the treatment of complex wastewaters.

  11. Inorganic, coordination and organometallic compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jursik, F.

    1978-01-01

    Separation of cations and anions of inorganic, coordination and metalloorganic compounds by the method of liquid column chromatography is considered. Common scheme of multicomponent cation mixture is suggesteed. Separation conditions, adsrbents, eluents, pH value solution concenstration, elution rate are also suggested. Separation of rare earth elements Cs, Be, Cd, Te, Th, U, Mo, Re, V, Ru, Zr, In compounds is considered as an example of liquid column chromatography application. Data on column chromatography application are summarized in a table

  12. Sorption of short-lived radionuclides in a layer of sorbent with spherical granules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karlin, Yu.V.

    1993-01-01

    Sorption methods have found wide application in the purification of liquid radioactive wastes. The working element in sorption methods for this purpose is usually a sorption column with a fixed layer of sorbent. Continuous-action equipment with a moving layer of sorbent is very seldom used. When a fixed layer of sorbent is used its wear and prolonged mixing in the sorption column are reduced to a minimum, and maximum purification is achieved due to the advantages of the dynamic method of sorption over the static method. The time of protective action of the sorbent layer is determined by the time taken for the radionuclide to pass through the sorption column, and for the majority of radionuclides is determined by numerous parameters, including the type of sorbent and radionuclide, the rate of flow through the sorbent, the size of the sorbent granules, etc. The physical and chemical aspects of this process have been investigated in detail, and numerous methods for modeling it mathematically have been developed and have been used to develop methods of designing sorption column apparatus. The specific nature of the radionuclides as unstable materials enables the hypothetical case of a open-quotes perpetualclose quotes sorption filter to be represented. In fact, to achieve this it is only necessary to assume that the half-life of the radionuclide is so small that the rate of decay of the radionuclide in the sorption column (both in the sorbed state and in the aqueous phase of the sorption layer) is equal to the rate that it is fed into the column in the flow of liquid radioactive waste. In this case the sorption front of the radionuclide in the column wall remains fixed after a certain initial period. In this paper, a mathematical model of such a hypothetical filter for the case of spherical sorbent granules is considered

  13. Silver nanoparticles embedded polymer sorbent for preconcentration of uranium from bio-aggressive aqueous media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Das, Sadananda; Pandey, Ashok K.; Athawale, Anjali A.; Subramanian, M.; Seshagiri, T.K.; Khanna, Pawan K.; Manchanda, Vijay K.

    2011-01-01

    Adsorptive sorbent for bio-aggressive natural aqueous media like seawater was developed by one pot simultaneous synthesis of silver nanoparticles (Ag nps) and poly(ethylene glycol methacrylate phosphate) (PEGMP) by UV-initiator induced photo-polymerization. The photo-polymerization was carried out by irradiating N,N'-dimethylformamide (DMF) solution containing appropriate amounts of the functional monomer (ethylene glycol methacrylate phosphate), UV initiator (α,α'-dimethoxy-α-phenyl acetophenone), and Ag + ions with 365 nm UV light in a multilamps photoreactor. To increase mechanical strength, nano-composite sorbent (Ag-PEGMP) was also reinforced with thermally bonded non-woven poly(propylene) fibrous sheet. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) of the nano-composite sorbent showed uniform distribution of spherical Ag nanoparticles with particles size ranging from 3 to 6 nm. The maximum amount of Ag 0 that could be anchored in the form of nanoparticles were 5 ± 1 and 10 ± 1 wt.% in self-supported PEGMP and poly(propylene) reinforced PEGMP matrices, respectively. Ag-PEGMP sorbent was found to be stable under ambient conditions for a period of six months. Ag-PEGMP composite sorbent did not exhibit growth at all after incubation with pre-grown Escherichia coli cells, and showed non-adherence of this bacteria to the composite. This indicated that composite sorbent has the bio-resistivity due to bacterial repulsion and bactericidal properties of Ag nanoparticles embedded in the PEGMP. Sorption of U(VI) in PEGMP and Ag-PEGMP nano-composite sorbents from well-stirred seawater was studied to explore the possibility of using it for uranium preconcentration from bio-aggressive aqueous streams. The nano-composite sorbent was used to preconcentrate U(VI) from a process aqueous waste stream.

  14. Mixed and Doped Solid Sorbents for CO2 Capture Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duan, Yuhua [National Energy Technology Lab. (NETL), Albany, OR (United States)

    2016-06-14

    The objectives of this presentation are to capture CO2 we need materials with optimal performance and low costs; establish a theoretical procedure to identify most potential candidates of CO2 solid sorbents from a large solid material databank; computational synthesis new materials to fit industrial needs; and explore the optimal working conditions for the promised CO2 solid sorbents, especially from room to warm T ranges with optimal energy usage.

  15. Sorption of Aromatic Compounds with Copolymer Sorbent Materials Containing β-Cyclodextrin

    OpenAIRE

    Wilson, Lee D.; Mohamed, Mohamed H.; Berhaut, Christopher L.

    2011-01-01

    Urethane copolymer sorbent materials that incorporate β-cyclodextrin (CD) have been prepared and their sorption properties with chlorinated aromatic compounds (i.e., pentachlorophenol, 2,4-dichlorophenol and 2,4-dichlorophenoxy acetic acid) have been evaluated. The sorption properties of granular activated carbon (GAC) were similarly compared in aqueous solution at variable pH conditions. The sorbents displayed variable BET surface areas as follows: MDI-X copolymers (< 101 m2/g), CDI-X cop...

  16. Theoretical Predictions of the thermodynamic Properties of Solid Sorbents Capture CO2 Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duan, Yuhua; Sorescu, Dan; Luebke David; Pennline, Henry

    2012-05-02

    We are establishing a theoretical procedure to identify most potential candidates of CO{sub 2} solid sorbents from a large solid material databank to meet the DOE programmatic goal for energy conversion; and to explore the optimal working conditions for the promising CO{sub 2} solid sorbents, especially from room to warm T ranges with optimal energy usage, used for both pre- and post-combustion capture technologies.

  17. Efficient light emission from inorganic and organic semiconductor hybrid structures by energy-level tuning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlesinger, R.; Bianchi, F.; Blumstengel, S.; Christodoulou, C.; Ovsyannikov, R.; Kobin, B.; Moudgil, K.; Barlow, S.; Hecht, S.; Marder, S.R.; Henneberger, F.; Koch, N.

    2015-01-01

    The fundamental limits of inorganic semiconductors for light emitting applications, such as holographic displays, biomedical imaging and ultrafast data processing and communication, might be overcome by hybridization with their organic counterparts, which feature enhanced frequency response and colour range. Innovative hybrid inorganic/organic structures exploit efficient electrical injection and high excitation density of inorganic semiconductors and subsequent energy transfer to the organic semiconductor, provided that the radiative emission yield is high. An inherent obstacle to that end is the unfavourable energy level offset at hybrid inorganic/organic structures, which rather facilitates charge transfer that quenches light emission. Here, we introduce a technologically relevant method to optimize the hybrid structure's energy levels, here comprising ZnO and a tailored ladder-type oligophenylene. The ZnO work function is substantially lowered with an organometallic donor monolayer, aligning the frontier levels of the inorganic and organic semiconductors. This increases the hybrid structure's radiative emission yield sevenfold, validating the relevance of our approach. PMID:25872919

  18. Efficient light emission from inorganic and organic semiconductor hybrid structures by energy-level tuning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlesinger, R; Bianchi, F; Blumstengel, S; Christodoulou, C; Ovsyannikov, R; Kobin, B; Moudgil, K; Barlow, S; Hecht, S; Marder, S R; Henneberger, F; Koch, N

    2015-04-15

    The fundamental limits of inorganic semiconductors for light emitting applications, such as holographic displays, biomedical imaging and ultrafast data processing and communication, might be overcome by hybridization with their organic counterparts, which feature enhanced frequency response and colour range. Innovative hybrid inorganic/organic structures exploit efficient electrical injection and high excitation density of inorganic semiconductors and subsequent energy transfer to the organic semiconductor, provided that the radiative emission yield is high. An inherent obstacle to that end is the unfavourable energy level offset at hybrid inorganic/organic structures, which rather facilitates charge transfer that quenches light emission. Here, we introduce a technologically relevant method to optimize the hybrid structure's energy levels, here comprising ZnO and a tailored ladder-type oligophenylene. The ZnO work function is substantially lowered with an organometallic donor monolayer, aligning the frontier levels of the inorganic and organic semiconductors. This increases the hybrid structure's radiative emission yield sevenfold, validating the relevance of our approach.

  19. High temperature CO2 capture using calcium oxide sorbent in a fixed-bed reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dou Binlin; Song Yongchen; Liu Yingguang; Feng Cong

    2010-01-01

    The gas-solid reaction and breakthrough curve of CO 2 capture using calcium oxide sorbent at high temperature in a fixed-bed reactor are of great importance, and being influenced by a number of factors makes the characterization and prediction of these a difficult problem. In this study, the operating parameters on reaction between solid sorbent and CO 2 gas at high temperature were investigated. The results of the breakthrough curves showed that calcium oxide sorbent in the fixed-bed reactor was capable of reducing the CO 2 level to near zero level with the steam of 10 vol%, and the sorbent in CaO mixed with MgO of 40 wt% had extremely low capacity for CO 2 capture at 550 deg. C. Calcium oxide sorbent after reaction can be easily regenerated at 900 deg. C by pure N 2 flow. The experimental data were analyzed by shrinking core model, and the results showed reaction rates of both fresh and regeneration sorbents with CO 2 were controlled by a combination of the surface chemical reaction and diffusion of product layer.

  20. Qualification of the ALKASORB sorbent for the sorption-enhanced water-gas shift process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Selow, E.R.; Cobden, P.D.; Dijk, Van H.A.J.; Walspurger, S.; Verbraeken, P.A.; Jansen, D.

    2013-07-01

    For the sorption-enhanced water-gas shift (SEWGS) process, a new sorbent material has been qualified in a reactor of 2 m length under conditions close to industrial designs. The sorbent ALKASORB is a potassium-carbonate promoted hydrotalcite-based compound. ALKASORB is shown to have many favourable properties in comparison to the reference sorbent, in particular with respect to mechanical stability. The cyclic capacity of the new compound is substantially higher than the cyclic capacity of the reference sorbent, and it allows a reduction of the steam requirement of 50%. The sorbent has demonstrated catalytic activity for the water-gas shift reaction that is sufficient to omit a separate catalyst. It is demonstrated that the sorbent remains chemically and mechanically stable during operation of at least 2000 adsorption-desorption cycles, even in the presence of H2S in the feed. H2S is shown not to influence CO2 adsorption capacity and is co-captured with the CO2. In contrast to the reference material that showed mechanical degradation during extended adsorption-desorption cycles, the new material is stable and allows to obtain carbon capture levels exceeding 95% more efficiently and more economically since the required size of the vessels will be smaller.

  1. Simulation of mercury capture by sorbent injection using a simplified model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Bingtao; Zhang, Zhongxiao; Jin, Jing; Pan, Wei-Ping

    2009-10-30

    Mercury pollution by fossil fuel combustion or solid waste incineration is becoming the worldwide environmental concern. As an effective control technology, powdered sorbent injection (PSI) has been successfully used for mercury capture from flue gas with advantages of low cost and easy operation. In order to predict the mercury capture efficiency for PSI more conveniently, a simplified model, which is based on the theory of mass transfer, isothermal adsorption and mass balance, is developed in this paper. The comparisons between theoretical results of this model and experimental results by Meserole et al. [F.B. Meserole, R. Chang, T.R. Carrey, J. Machac, C.F.J. Richardson, Modeling mercury removal by sorbent injection, J. Air Waste Manage. Assoc. 49 (1999) 694-704] demonstrate that the simplified model is able to provide good predictive accuracy. Moreover, the effects of key parameters including the mass transfer coefficient, sorbent concentration, sorbent physical property and sorbent adsorption capacity on mercury adsorption efficiency are compared and evaluated. Finally, the sensitive analysis of impact factor indicates that the injected sorbent concentration plays most important role for mercury capture efficiency.

  2. Experimental evaluation of sorbents for sulfur control in a coal-fueled gas turbine slagging combustor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cowell, L.H.; Wen, C.S.; LeCren, R.T.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports on a slagging combustor that has been used to evaluate three calcium-based sorbents for sulfur capture efficiency in order to assess their applicability for use in a oil-fueled gas turbine. Testing is competed in a bench-scale combustor with one-tenth the heat input needed for the full-scale gas turbine. The bench-scale rig is a two-stage combustor featuring a fuel-rich primary zone an a fuel-lean secondary zone. The combustor is operated at 6.5 bars with inlet air preheated to 600 K. Gas temperatures of 1840 K are generated in the primary zone and 1280 K in the secondary zone. Sorbents are either fed into the secondary zone or mixed with the coal-water mixture and fed into the primary zone. Dry powered sorbents are fed into the secondary zone by an auger into one of six secondary air inlet ports. The three sorbents tested in the secondary zone include dolomite, pressure-hydrated dolomitic lime, and hydrated lime. Sorbents have been tested while burning coal-water mixtures with coal sulfur loadings of 0.56 to 3.13 weight percent sulfur. Sorbents are injected into the secondary zone at varying flow rates such that the calcium/sulfur ratio varies from 0.5 to 10.0

  3. Reactivity improvement of Ca(OH)2 sorbent using diatomaceous earth (DE) from Aceh Province

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mariana, M.; Mahidin, M.; Mulana, F.; Agam, T.; Hafdiansyah, F.

    2018-04-01

    In this study, the diatomaceous earth (DE) from Aceh Province was used to increase the reactivity of Ca(OH)2sorbent. The high silica (SiO2) content of about 97% in the diatomaceous earth allows the increasing reactivity of Ca(OH)2sorbent by forming calcium silicate hydrate (CSH). The CSH improved the porosity characteristic of the sorbent. The improvement process was performed by mixing Ca(OH)2sorbent, diatomaceous earth and water in a beaker glass at the Ca(OH)2/DE weight ratio of 1:10 for 2 hand then dried at 120 °C for 24 h. The dried sorbent was calcined at 500 °C and 800 °C for 2 h. The activated sorbent was characterized using Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) for the morphological properties; X- Ray Diffraction (XRD) for the materials characteristics. The adsorption capacity of thesorbent was tested by methylene blue adsorption. The results showed that the Ca(OH)2/DEsorbent had a higher porosity than the Ca(OH)2 adsorbent.The results also showed that Ca(OH)2/DE which was calcined at higher temperature of 800 °C had a higher adsorption capacity compared to Ca(OH)2/DE which was calcined at lower temperature of 500 °C.

  4. Retrofit acid gas emission control for municipal waste incineration application of dry sorbent injection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zmuda, J.T.; Smith, P.V.

    1991-01-01

    Dry sorbent injection (DSI) has been successfully demonstrated on coal fired boiler applications as a means of reducing sulfur dioxide emissions. More recently, the dry sorbent injection process was applied to an existing municipal waste incinerator to provide acid gas emission controls. The results obtained from the successful demonstration of the sorbent injection system on an existing municipal incinerator are presented. Removal efficiencies of compounds such as HCl, SO 2 , SO 3 , mercury, and others by the use of sorbent injection are shown. Effects of the DSI system on downstream equipment, such as electrostatic precipitators, fabric filters, ash handling systems, and waste management is included. The impacts of the DSI system on the furnace is also discussed. In this paper a discussion of dry sorbent injection as a means of reducing acid gas and other emissions from existing municipal waste incinerators which may be affected by the regulations is presented. An application case study will outline typical exhaust conditions, expected pollution reductions, capital and operating costs, and type of available sorbents and their costs

  5. Activation and characterization of waste coffee grounds as bio-sorbent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mariana; Marwan; Mulana, F.; Yunardi; Ismail, T. A.; Hafdiansyah, M. F.

    2018-03-01

    As the city well known for its culture of coffee drinkers, modern and traditional coffee shops are found everywhere in Banda Aceh, Indonesia. High number of coffee shops in the city generates large quantities of spent coffee grounds as waste without any effort to convert them as other valuable products. In an attempt to reduce environmental problems caused by used coffee grounds, this research was conducted to utilize waste coffee grounds as an activated carbon bio-sorbent. The specific purpose of this research is to improve the performance of coffee grounds bio-sorbent through chemical and physical activation, and to characterize the produced bio-sorbent. Following physical activation by carbonization, a chemical activation was achieved by soaking the carbonized waste coffee grounds in HCl solvent and carbonization process. The activated bio-sorbent was characterized for its morphological properties using Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), its functional groups by Fourier Transform Infra-Red Spectrophotometer (FTIR), and its material characteristics using X-Ray Diffraction (XRD). Characterization of the activated carbon prepared from waste coffee grounds shows that it meets standard quality requirement in accordance with Indonesian National Standard, SNI 06-3730-1995. Activation process has modified the functional groups of the waste coffee grounds. Comparing to natural waste coffee grounds, the resulted bio-sorbent demonstrated a more porous surface morphology following activation process. Consequently, such bio-sorbent is a potential source to be used as an adsorbent for various applications.

  6. Release of iodine radionuclides from gas media in a system of selective block sorbents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moskvin, L.N.; Miroshnikov, V.S.; Mel'nikov, V.A.; Chetverikov, V.V.

    1979-01-01

    A scheme of extracting iodine radionuclides from gas flows in a system of selective sorbents has been developed. The method provides separation of three forms of iodine: the aerosol component, the elementary iodine and organic-iodine compounds. Aerosols are trapped by a mechanical filter made of porous polytetrafluoroethylene with pores of no more than 1 μm. Silver-based sorbents for the elementary iodine are made by sintering the granular polytetrafluoroethylene (the size of granules is 0.1-0.5 mm) with of finely dispersed solver (5% mass). Organic iodine compounds are extracted by a silica sorbent impregnated with silver nitrate. The efficiency of sorbents was tested in gas flows with a known content of 131 I in the form of elementary iodine and methyl iodide. The results of experiments show that the efficiency of sorption of elementary iodine by a metallic-silver sorbent and of methyl iodide by a SiO 2 /AgNO 3 sorbent constitutes no less than 99% at a flow rate of up to 200 l/h. The iodine has been extracted at a flow rate of 100 l/h during 100 hours and for that time the efficiency of the iodine sorbtion has not changed. The suggested variant of extracting iodine radionuclides from gaseous media can be used both for fast control of iodine content in gas blowoffs and for researches aimed at studying the distribution of iodine forms in steam-and-gas media depending on nuclear plant operating conditions

  7. CaO-Based CO2 Sorbents Effectively Stabilized by Metal Oxides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naeem, Muhammad Awais; Armutlulu, Andac; Imtiaz, Qasim; Müller, Christoph R

    2017-11-17

    Calcium looping (i.e., CO 2 capture by CaO) is a promising second-generation CO 2 capture technology. CaO, derived from naturally occurring limestone, offers an inexpensive solution, but due to the harsh operating conditions of the process, limestone-derived sorbents undergo a rapid capacity decay induced by the sintering of CaCO 3 . Here, we report a Pechini method to synthesize cyclically stable, CaO-based CO 2 sorbents with a high CO 2 uptake capacity. The sorbents synthesized feature compositional homogeneity in combination with a nanostructured and highly porous morphology. The presence of a single (Al 2 O 3 or Y 2 O 3 ) or bimetal oxide (Al 2 O 3 -Y 2 O 3 ) provides cyclic stability, except for MgO which undergoes a significant increase in its particle size with the cycle number. We also demonstrate a direct relationship between the CO 2 uptake and the morphology of the synthesized sorbents. After 30 cycles of calcination and carbonation, the best performing sorbent, containing an equimolar mixture of Al 2 O 3 and Y 2 O 3 , exhibits a CO 2 uptake capacity of 8.7 mmol CO 2  g -1 sorbent, which is approximately 360 % higher than that of the reference limestone. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  8. Development of a Catalyst/Sorbent for Methane Reforming

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    B.H. Shans; T.D. Wheelock; Justinus Satrio; Karl Albrecht; Tanya Harris Janine Keeley; Ben Silva; Aaron Shell; Molly Lohry; Zachary Beversdorf

    2008-12-31

    This project led to the further development of a combined catalyst and sorbent for improving the process technology required for converting CH{sub 4} and/or CO into H{sub 2} while simultaneously separating the CO{sub 2} byproduct all in a single step. The new material is in the form of core-in-shell pellets such that each pellet consists of a CaO core surrounded by an alumina-based shell capable of supporting a Ni catalyst. The Ni is capable of catalyzing the reactions of steam with CH{sub 4} or CO to produce H{sub 2} and CO{sub 2}, whereas the CaO is capable of absorbing the CO{sub 2} as it is produced. The absorption of CO{sub 2} eliminates the reaction inhibiting effects of CO{sub 2} and provides a means for recovering the CO{sub 2} in a useful form. The present work showed that the lifecycle performance of the sorbent can be improved either by incorporating a specific amount of MgO in the material or by calcining CaO derived from limestone at 1100 C for an extended period. It also showed how to prepare a strong shell material with a large surface area required for supporting an active Ni catalyst. The method combines graded particles of {alpha}-alumina with noncrystalline alumina having a large specific surface area together with a strength promoting additive followed by controlled calcination. Two different additives produced good results: 3 {micro}m limestone and lanthanum nitrate which were converted to their respective oxides upon calcination. The oxides partially reacted with the alumina to form aluminates which probably accounted for the strength enhancing properties of the additives. The use of lanthanum made it possible to calcine the shell material at a lower temperature, which was less detrimental to the surface area, but still capable of producing a strong shell. Core-in-shell pellets made with the improved shell materials and impregnated with a Ni catalyst were used for steam reforming CH{sub 4} at different temperatures and pressures. Under all

  9. Aeroelastic tailoring of composite aircraft wings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mihaila-Andres, Mihai; Larco, Ciprian; Rosu, Paul-Virgil; Rotaru, Constantin

    2017-07-01

    The need of a continuously increasing size and performance of aerospace structures has settled the composite materials as the preferred materials in aircraft structures. Apart from the clear capacity to reduce the structural weight and with it the manufacture cost and the fuel consumption while preserving proper airworthiness, the prospect of tailoring a structure using the unique directional stiffness properties of composite materials allows an aerospace engineer to optimize aircraft structures to achieve particular design objectives. This paper presents a brief review of what is known as the aeroelastic tailoring of airframes with the intent of understanding the evolution of this research topic and at the same time providing useful references for further studies.

  10. New sorbents and ion exchangers for nuclear waste solution remediation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clearfield, A.; Peng, G.Z.; Cahill, R.A.; Bellinghausen, P.; Aly, H.I.; Scott, K.; Wang, J.D.

    1993-01-01

    There is now a concerted effort underway to clean up the accumulated nuclear wastes as the major sites around the country. Because of the complexity of the mixtures in the holding tanks highly specific exchangers are required to fulfill a multitude of desired tasks. These include removal of Cs + , Sr 2+ , Tc, Actinides and possible recovery of rare and precious metals. No one exchanger or sequestrant can accomplish these tasks and a variety of exchangers in a multistep process will be required. The behavior of a number of inorganic ion exchangers in a multistep process will be required. The behavior of a number of inorganic ion exchangers and new organo-inorganic exchangers towards Cs + , Sr 2+ and rare-earth ions in acid and basic media will be described. Preliminary data on the effect of high levels of sodium nitrate on the uptake of these ions will also be presented, as well as the changes observed in selectivity in simulated waste solutions. A possible separation scheme based on these data will be described

  11. Development of Novel Sorbents for Uranium Extraction from Seawater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, Wenbin [Univ. of Chicago, IL (United States); Taylor-Pashow, Kathryn [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2014-01-08

    As the uranium resource in terrestrial ores is limited, it is difficult to ensure a long-term sustainable nuclear energy technology. The oceans contain approximately 4.5 billion tons of uranium, which is one thousand times the amount of uranium in terrestrial ores. Development of technologies to recover the uranium from seawater would greatly improve the uranium resource availability, sustaining the fuel supply for nuclear energy. Several methods have been previously evaluated including solvent extraction, ion exchange, flotation, biomass collection, and adsorption; however, none have been found to be suitable for reasons such as cost effectiveness, long term stability, and selectivity. Recent research has focused on the amidoxime functional group as a promising candidate for uranium sorption. Polymer beads and fibers have been functionalized with amidoxime functional groups, and uranium adsorption capacities as high as 1.5 g U/kg adsorbent have recently been reported with these types of materials. As uranium concentration in seawater is only ~3 ppb, great improvements to uranium collection systems must be made in order to make uranium extraction from seawater economically feasible. This proposed research intends to develop transformative technologies for economic uranium extraction from seawater. The Lin group will design advanced porous supports by taking advantage of recent breakthroughs in nanoscience and nanotechnology and incorporate high densities of well-designed chelators into such nanoporous supports to allow selective and efficient binding of uranyl ions from seawater. Several classes of nanoporous materials, including mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MSNs), mesoporous carbon nanoparticles (MCNs), meta-organic frameworks (MOFs), and covalent-organic frameworks (COFs), will be synthesized. Selective uranium-binding liagnds such as amidoxime will be incorporated into the nanoporous materials to afford a new generation of sorbent materials that will be

  12. Biochar from Coffee Residues: A New Promising Sorbent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fotopoulou, Kalliopi; Karapanagioti, Hrissi; Manariotis, Ioannis

    2014-05-01

    Biochar is a carbon-rich material produced by heating biomass in an oxygen-limited environment. Biochar is mainly used as an additive to soils to sequester carbon and improve soil fertility as well as a sorbent for environmental remediation processes. Surface properties such as point of zero charge, surface area and pore volume, surface topography, surface functional groups and acid-base behavior are important factors, which affect sorption efficiency. Understanding the surface alteration of biochars increases our understanding of the pollutant-sorbent interaction. The objective of the present study was to characterize the surface properties of biochar produced, and to investigate the effect of thermal treatment conditions on key characteristics that affect sorptive properties. The espresso coffee residue was obtained after the coffee was brewed through espresso machines in coffee shops. The coffee residue was dried and kept in an oven at 50oC until its pyrolysis at 850oC. Pyrolysis with different coffee mass and containers were tested in order to find optimum biochar characteristics. Detailed characterization techniques were carried out to determine the properties of the produced biochar. The surface area, the pore volume, and the average pore size of the biochars were determined using gas (N2) adsorption-desorption cycles using the Brunauer, Emmett, and Teller (BET) equation. Open surface area and micropore volume were determined using the t-plot method and the Harkins & Jura equation. Total organic carbon was also determined because it is an important factor that affects sorption. The results were compared with the corresponding properties of activated carbons. The biochar produced exhibited a wide range of surface area from 21 to 770 m2/g and open surface area from 21 to 65 m2/g. It is obvious that the surface area results from the formation of pores. Actually it was calculated that up to 90% of the porosity is due to the micropores. More specifically the

  13. Development of Novel Sorbents for Uranium Extraction from Seawater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, Wenbin; Taylor-Pashow, Kathryn

    2014-01-01

    As the uranium resource in terrestrial ores is limited, it is difficult to ensure a long-term sustainable nuclear energy technology. The oceans contain approximately 4.5 billion tons of uranium, which is one thousand times the amount of uranium in terrestrial ores. Development of technologies to recover the uranium from seawater would greatly improve the uranium resource availability, sustaining the fuel supply for nuclear energy. Several methods have been previously evaluated including solvent extraction, ion exchange, flotation, biomass collection, and adsorption; however, none have been found to be suitable for reasons such as cost effectiveness, long term stability, and selectivity. Recent research has focused on the amidoxime functional group as a promising candidate for uranium sorption. Polymer beads and fibers have been functionalized with amidoxime functional groups, and uranium adsorption capacities as high as 1.5 g U/kg adsorbent have recently been reported with these types of materials. As uranium concentration in seawater is only ~3 ppb, great improvements to uranium collection systems must be made in order to make uranium extraction from seawater economically feasible. This proposed research intends to develop transformative technologies for economic uranium extraction from seawater. The Lin group will design advanced porous supports by taking advantage of recent breakthroughs in nanoscience and nanotechnology and incorporate high densities of well-designed chelators into such nanoporous supports to allow selective and efficient binding of uranyl ions from seawater. Several classes of nanoporous materials, including mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MSNs), mesoporous carbon nanoparticles (MCNs), meta-organic frameworks (MOFs), and covalent-organic frameworks (COFs), will be synthesized. Selective uranium-binding liagnds such as amidoxime will be incorporated into the nanoporous materials to afford a new generation of sorbent materials that will be

  14. Tailoring electronic structure of polyazomethines thin films

    OpenAIRE

    J. Weszka; B. Hajduk; M. Domański; M. Chwastek; J. Jurusik; B. Jarząbek; H. Bednarski; P. Jarka

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this work is to show how electronic properties of polyazomethine thin films deposited by chemical vapor deposition method (CVD) can be tailored by manipulating technological parameters of pristine films preparation as well as modifying them while the as-prepared films put into iodine atmosphere.Design/methodology/approach: The recent achievements in the field of designing and preparation methods to be used while preparing polymer photovoltaic solar cells or optoelectronic ...

  15. Evaluation of Carbon Dioxide Capture From Existing Coal Fired Plants by Hybrid Sorption Using Solid Sorbents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benson, Steven [Univ. of North Dakota, Grand Forks, ND (United States); Srinivasachar, Srivats [Envergex LLC, Sturbridge, MA (United States); Laudal, Daniel [Univ. of North Dakota, Grand Forks, ND (United States); Browers, Bruce [Barr Engineering, Minneapolis, MN (United States)

    2014-12-31

    A novel hybrid solid sorbent technology for CO₂ capture and separation from coal combustion-derived flue gas was evaluated. The technology – Capture of CO₂ by Hybrid Sorption (CACHYS™) – is a solid sorbent technology based on the following ideas: 1) reduction of energy for sorbent regeneration, 2) utilization of novel process chemistry, 3) contactor conditions that minimize sorbent-CO₂ heat of reaction and promote fast CO₂ capture, and 4) low-cost method of heat management. This report provides key information developed during the course of the project that includes sorbent performance, energy for sorbent regeneration, physical properties of the sorbent, the integration of process components, sizing of equipment, and overall capital and operational cost of the integrated CACHYS™ system. Seven sorbent formulations were prepared and evaluated at the lab-scale for energy requirements and CO₂ capture performance. Sorbent heat of regeneration ranged from 30-80 kJ/mol CO₂ and was found to be dependent on process conditions. Two sorbent formulations (designated HCK-4 & HCK-7) were down-selected for additional fixed-bed testing. Additional testing involved subjecting the sorbents to 100 continuous cycles in the fixed-bed reactor to determine performance as a function of time. The working capacity achieved for HCK-4 sorbent ranged from 5.5-8.0 g CO₂/100 g sorbent, while the HCK-7 typically ranged from 8.0-10.0 g CO₂/100 g sorbent. Overall, there was no deterioration in capacity with continuous cycling for either sorbent. The CACHYS™ bench-scale testing system designed and fabricated under this award consists of a dual circulating fluidized-bed adsorber and a moving-bed regenerator. The system takes a flue gas slipstream from the University of North Dakota’s coal-fired steam plant. Prior to being sent to the adsorber, the flue gas is scrubbed to remove SO₂ and particulate. During parametric testing of the adsorber, CO₂ capture achieved using

  16. Using of clay-salt slimes of 'Belaruskali' factory as a sorbents of radionuclide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maskalchuk, L.

    2010-01-01

    minimization of radioactive waste volume by concentration and condensation. The concept about differentiated collection of liquid radioactive waste opens ample opportunities for introduction sorption processes for direct purifying of waste right after their collection. Sorption method of purification of liquid radioactive waste would considerably facilitate further water-salt solution disposal after radionuclide extraction and would prevent further storage of concentrated liquid radioactive waste, formed at evaporation of initial liquid radioactive waste, would exclude necessity of expansion and service of short term storage of concentrated liquid radioactive waste, would eliminate the use of time-taking and expensive technologies for processing and concentration of liquid radioactive waste. The main task of sorption method application is choice and reception of selective sorbents. Application of the natural inorganic material with sorption properties attracts that in contrast to expensive synthetic sorbents it is widespread, accessible and have rather low cost price thanks to presence of the great storage in developed and studied deposits. The review of the scientific and technical data about structural and sorption properties of natural mineral shows, that the most perspective material for extraction of radionuclides of cesium and strontium, and also the most toxic transuranium elements, from liquid waste are aluminum silicates. By the preliminary researches realized in the JIPNR - Sosny of NAS of Belarus it is established, those clay-salt slimes are complex formations which basic components: potassium and sodium chlorides, dolomite, field spars, illite and quartz. The specific structure of clay-salt slimes causes: - Possibility of synthesis of wide scale materials of various special-purpose functions, - Updating of clay-salt slimes for reception of sorbents with set physical, chemical and sorption properties. It is shown that clay-salt slimes possess a considerable specific

  17. Improved CO_2 adsorption capacity and cyclic stability of CaO sorbents incorporated with MgO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farah Diana Mohd Daud; Kumaravel Vignesh; Srimala Sreekantan; Abdul Rahman Mohamed

    2016-01-01

    Calcium oxide (CaO) sorbents incorporated with magnesium oxide (MgO) were synthesized using a co-precipitation route. The sorbents were prepared with different MgO concentrations (from 5 wt% to 30 wt%). The as-prepared sorbents were characterized using X-ray diffraction (XRD), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) and BET surface area analysis techniques. The sintering effect of CaO sorbents was decreased after the incorporation of MgO. The sorbents with 5 wt% and 10 wt% of MgO retained their CO_2 adsorption capacity over multiple cycles. Most importantly, CaO with 10 wt% MgO showed constant CO_2 adsorption capacity over 30 carbonation cycles. The results revealed that CaO with 10 wt% MgO is sufficient to produce sorbents with high surface area, good structural stability and enhanced CO_2 adsorption capacity. (authors)

  18. Tailored information about cancer risk and screening: a systematic review.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Albada, A.; Ausems, M.G.E.M.; Bensing, J.M.; Dulmen, S. van

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To study interventions that provide people with information about cancer risk and about screening that is tailored to their personal characteristics. We assess the tailoring characteristics, theory base and effects on risk perception, knowledge and screening behavior of these

  19. Tailored Trustworthy Spaces: Solutions for the Smart Grid

    Data.gov (United States)

    Networking and Information Technology Research and Development, Executive Office of the President — The NITRD workshop on Tailored Trustworthy Spaces: Solutions for the Smart Grid was conceived by the Federal government to probe deeper into how Tailored Trustworthy...

  20. Efficient separations and processing crosscutting program: Develop and test sorbents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bray, L.A.

    1995-09-01

    This report summarizes work performed during FY 1995 under the task open-quotes Develop and Test Sorbents,close quotes the purpose of which is to develop high-capacity, selective solid extractants to recover cesium, strontium, and technetium from nuclear wastes. This work is being done for the Efficient Separations and Processing Crosscutting Program (ESP), operated by the U.S. Department of Energy's Office of Environmental Management's Office of Technology Development. The task is under the direction of staff at Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) with key participation from industrial and university staff at 3M, St. Paul, Minnesota; IBC Advanced Technologies, Inc., American Forks, Utah; AlliedSignal, Inc., Des Plaines, Illinois, and Texas A ampersand M University, College Station, Texas. 3M and IBC are responsible for ligand and membrane technology development; AlliedSignal and Texas A ampersand M are developing sodium titanate powders; and PNL is testing the materials developed by the industry/university team members. Major accomplishments for FY 1995 are summarized in this report

  1. Water Utility Lime Sludge Reuse – An Environmental Sorbent ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lime sludge can be used as an environmental sorbent to remove sulfur dioxide (SO2) and acid gases, by the ultra-fine CaCO3 particles, and to sequester mercury and other heavy metals, by the Natural Organic Matter and residual activated carbon. The laboratory experimental set up included a simulated flue gas preparation unit, a lab-scale wet scrubber, and a mercury analyzer system. The influent mercury concentration was based on a range from 22 surveyed power plants. The reactivity of the lime sludge sample for acid neutralization was determined using a method similar to method ASTM C1318-95. Similar experiments were conducted using reagent calcium carbonate and calcium sulfate to obtain baseline data for comparing with the lime sludge test results. The project also evaluated the techno-economic feasibility and sustainable benefits of reusing lime softening sludge. If implemented on a large scale, this transformative approach for recycling waste materials from water treatment utilities at power generation utilities for environmental cleanup can save both water and power utilities millions of dollars. Huge amounts of lime sludge waste, generated from hundreds of water treatment utilities across the U.S., is currently disposed in landfills. This project evaluated a sustainable and economically-attractive approach to the use of lime sludge waste as a valuable resource for power generation utilities.

  2. Thermal and Chemical Stability of Crystalline Silicotitanate Sorbent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, P.A.; Mattus, C.H.

    1999-01-01

    The Savannah River Site (SRS) is evaluating technologies for removing cesium-137 (137Cs) from the supemate solutions stored in the high-level waste tanks at the site. Crystalline silicotitanate sorbent (IONSIV IE-9 1 lo, UOP Molecular Sieves; Mount Laurel, NJ) is very effective for removing cesium from high-salt solution, such as the SRS supemates, and is currently being used at Oak Ridge National Laboratory to remove radioactive cesium from similar solutions, Because of the extremely high loading of 137Cs that would be expected for the large columns of crystalline silicotitanate (CST) that would be used for treating the SRS supemate, any loss of flow or cooling to the columns could result in high temperatures within the column from radiolytic heating. The ability of CST to retain previously loaded cesium while in contact with SRS tank supemates at various temperatures was determined by performing bench scale simulant tests using CST samples that were loaded with stable cesium and radi oactive cesium tracer. These results were compared with those obtained from loading tests at the same temperatures

  3. Development and application of charcoal sorbents for cryopumping fusion devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sedgley, D.W. (Grumman Corp., Bethpage, NY (USA). Space Systems Div.)

    1989-06-01

    Progress has been made in defining the capabilities of charcoal as the most promising absorbent to be used in cryopumps for fusion power application. The capabilities of alternative methods of cryopumping helium have been examined in a literature survey and by test, and the results are described here. Considerations include pumping speed, capacity to accumulate pumped gas, ease of reconditioning, use of alternative materials and tolerance to the fusion environment. Vacuum pumps for future fusion devices must handle large quantities of helium/hydrogen isotopes and other impurities. Cryopumps or turbomolecular pumps have demonstrated the capability on a small scale, and each has an important advantage: TMPs do not accumulate gases; cryopumps can separate helium from other effluents. This paper includes a review of a method for selecting charcoals for helium cryopumping, testing of a continuously operating cryopump system, and definition of a design that is based on the requirements of the Next European Torus. Tritium limits are satisfied. The pump design incorporates the charcoal sorbent system that has been recently developed and is based on a reasonable extrapolation of current state-of-the-art. Evaluation of alternative methods of separating helium and other gases led to selection of a movable barrier as the preferred solution. (orig.).

  4. Lay Health Influencers: How They Tailor Brief Tobacco Cessation Interventions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Nicole P.; Castaneda, Heide; Nichter, Mark; Nichter, Mimi; Wind, Steven; Carruth, Lauren; Muramoto, Myra

    2012-01-01

    Interventions tailored to individual smoker characteristics have increasingly received attention in the tobacco control literature. The majority of tailored interventions are generated by computers and administered with printed materials or web-based programs. The purpose of this study was to examine the tailoring activities of community lay…

  5. Nomenclature on an inorganic compound

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-10-01

    This book contains eleven chapters : which mention nomenclature of an inorganic compound with introduction and general principle on nomenclature of compound. It gives the description of grammar for nomenclature such as brackets, diagonal line, asterisk, and affix, element, atom and groups of atom, chemical formula, naming by stoichiometry, solid, neutral molecule compound, ion, a substituent, radical and name of salt, oxo acid and anion on introduction and definition of oxo acid, coordination compound like symbol of stereochemistry , boron and hydrogen compound and related compound.

  6. Enhanced durability and reactivity for zinc ferrite desulfurization sorbent. Volume 1, Bench-scale testing and analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jha, M.C.; Berggren, M.H.

    1989-05-02

    AMAX Research & Development Center (AMAX R&D) has been investigating methods for enhancing the reactivity and durability of the zinc ferrite desulfurization sorbent. Zinc ferrite sorbents are intended for use in desulfurization of hot coal gas in integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) or molten carbonate fuel cell (MCFC) applications. For the present program, the reactivity of the sorbent may be defined as its sulfur sorption capacity at the breakthrough point and at saturation in a bench-scale, fixed-bed reactor. Durability may be defined as the ability of the sorbent to maintain important physical characteristics such As size, strength, and specific surface area during 10 cycles of sulfidation and oxidation.

  7. Removal of mercury from coal-combustion flue gas using regenerable sorbents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turchi, C S; Albiston, J; Broderick, T E; Stewart, R M

    1999-07-01

    The US EPA estimates that coal-fired power plants constitute the largest anthropogenic source of mercury emissions in the US. The Agency has contemplated emission regulations for power plants, but the large gas-flow rates and low mercury concentrations involved have made current treatment options prohibitively expensive. ADA Technologies, Inc. (Englewood, Colorado), in conjunction with the US DOE, is developing regenerable sorbents for the removal and recovery of mercury from flue gas. These sorbents are based on the ability of noble metals to amalgamate mercury at typical flue-gas temperatures and release mercury at higher temperatures. The process allows for recovery of mercury with minimal volumes of secondary wastes and no impact on fly ash quality. In 1997 and 1998, ADA tested a 20-cfm sorbent unit at CONSOL Inc.'s coal-combustion test facility in Library, PA. Results from the 1997 tests indicated that the sorbent can remove elemental and oxidized mercury and can be regenerated without loss of capacity. Design changes were implemented in 1998 to enhance the thermal efficiency of the process and to recover the mercury in a stable form. Testing during autumn, 1998 demonstrated 60% to 90% removal efficiency of mercury from a variety of different coals. However, contradictory removal results were obtained at the end of the test period. Subsequent laboratory analyses indicated that the sorbent had lost over half its capacity for mercury due to a decrease in available sites for mercury sorption. The presence of sulfur compounds on the sorbent suggests that thermal cycling may have condensed acid gases on the sorbent leading to deterioration of the active sorption sites. The regeneration time/temperature profile has been altered to minimize this potential in the upcoming power plant tests.

  8. CNTs reinforced super-hydrophobic-oleophilic electrospun polystyrene oil sorbent for enhanced sorption capacity and reusability

    KAUST Repository

    Wu, Jingya; Kyoungjin An, Alicia; Guo, Jiaxin; Lee, Eui-Jong; Usman Farid, Muhammad; Jeong, Sanghyun

    2016-01-01

    To meet the challenges of global oil spills and oil-water contamination, the development of a low-cost and reusable sorbents with good hydrophobicity and oleophilic nature is crucial. In this study, functionalized carbon nanotubes (CNTs) were wrapped in polystyrene (PS) polymer (PS-CNTs) and electrospun to create an effective and rigid sorbent for oil. Covalent modification and fluorination of CNTs improved their dispersibility and interfacial interaction with the polymer, resulting in a well-aligned CNTs configuration inside the porous fiber structure. Interestingly, the oil sorption process using PS-CNTs was observed to have two phases. First, the oil swiftly entered the membrane pores formed by interconnected nanofibers due to oleophilic properties of the micro-sized void. In the second phase, the oil not only moved to nano interior spaces of the fibers by capillary forces but also adsorbed on the surface of fibers where the latter was retained due to Van der Waals force. The sorption process fits well with the intra particle diffusion model. Maximum oil sorption capacity of the PS-CNTs sorbent for sunflower oil, peanut oil, and motor oils were 116, 123, and 112 g/g, respectively, which was 65% higher than that of the PS sorbent without CNTs. Overall, a significant increase in the porosity, surface area, water contact angle, and oleophilic nature was observed for the PS-CNTs composite sorbents. Not only did the PS-CNTs sorbents exhibited a promising oil sorption capacity but also showed potential for reusability, which is an important factor to be considered in determining the overall performance of the sorbent and its environmental impacts.

  9. CNTs reinforced super-hydrophobic-oleophilic electrospun polystyrene oil sorbent for enhanced sorption capacity and reusability

    KAUST Repository

    Wu, Jingya

    2016-12-05

    To meet the challenges of global oil spills and oil-water contamination, the development of a low-cost and reusable sorbents with good hydrophobicity and oleophilic nature is crucial. In this study, functionalized carbon nanotubes (CNTs) were wrapped in polystyrene (PS) polymer (PS-CNTs) and electrospun to create an effective and rigid sorbent for oil. Covalent modification and fluorination of CNTs improved their dispersibility and interfacial interaction with the polymer, resulting in a well-aligned CNTs configuration inside the porous fiber structure. Interestingly, the oil sorption process using PS-CNTs was observed to have two phases. First, the oil swiftly entered the membrane pores formed by interconnected nanofibers due to oleophilic properties of the micro-sized void. In the second phase, the oil not only moved to nano interior spaces of the fibers by capillary forces but also adsorbed on the surface of fibers where the latter was retained due to Van der Waals force. The sorption process fits well with the intra particle diffusion model. Maximum oil sorption capacity of the PS-CNTs sorbent for sunflower oil, peanut oil, and motor oils were 116, 123, and 112 g/g, respectively, which was 65% higher than that of the PS sorbent without CNTs. Overall, a significant increase in the porosity, surface area, water contact angle, and oleophilic nature was observed for the PS-CNTs composite sorbents. Not only did the PS-CNTs sorbents exhibited a promising oil sorption capacity but also showed potential for reusability, which is an important factor to be considered in determining the overall performance of the sorbent and its environmental impacts.

  10. Heat-resistant inorganic binders.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KUDRYAVTSEV Pavel Gennadievich,

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The authors consider some aspects of production of inorganic heat-resistant composite materials in which new classes of inorganic binders - the basic salts of various metals – are applied. The possibility to use hydroxochlorides and hydroxonitrates of aluminum, zirconium, chromium and a number of other metals as the binder has been shown. The main products of the thermal decomposition of all types of binders discussed in this paper are nano-dispersed highly refractory oxides. Increased pressure in the manufacture of these materials shifts the position of the minimum of the dependence «production strength – production temperature» in the direction of low temperatures. This effect is caused by decreased film thickness of the binder located between filler particles and hence by increased rate of transfer of the matter to the interface and by facilitated sintering process. Materials based on the systems containing chromium and some other elements in transitional oxidation states are colour. For this reason, they have the worst thermal conductivity under the same heat resistance compared to colorless materials.

  11. Investigations of inorganic and hybrid inorganic-organic nanostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kam, Kinson Chihang

    This thesis focuses on the exploratory synthesis and characterization of inorganic and hybrid inorganic-organic nanomaterials. In particular, nanostructures of semiconducting nitrides and oxides, and hybrid systems of nanowire-polymer composites and framework materials, are investigated. These materials are characterized by a variety of techniques for structure, composition, morphology, surface area, optical properties, and electrical properties. In the study of inorganic nanomaterials, gallium nitride (GaN), indium oxide (In2O3), and vanadium dioxide (VO2) nanostructures were synthesized using different strategies and their physical properties were examined. GaN nanostructures were obtained from various synthetic routes. Solid-state ammonolysis of metastable gamma-Ga2O 3 nanoparticles was found to be particularly successful; they achieved high surface areas and photoluminescent study showed a blue shift in emission as a result of surface and size defects. Similarly, In2O3 nanostructures were obtained by carbon-assisted solid-state syntheses. The sub-oxidic species, which are generated via a self-catalyzed vapor-liquid-solid mechanism, resulted in 1D nanostructures including nanowires, nanotrees, and nanobouquets upon oxidation. On the other hand, hydrothermal methods were used to obtain VO2 nanorods. After post-thermal treatment, infrared spectroscopy demonstrated that these nanorods exhibit a thermochromic transition with temperature that is higher by ˜10°C compared to the parent material. The thermochromic behavior indicated a semiconductor-to-metal transition associated with a structural transformation from monoclinic to rutile. The hybrid systems, on the other hand, enabled their properties to be tunable. In nanowire-polymer composites, zinc oxide (ZnO) and silver (Ag) nanowires were synthesized and incorporated into polyaniline (PANI) and polypyrrole (PPy) via in-situ and ex-situ polymerization method. The electrical properties of these composites are

  12. Advances in Precision Medicine: Tailoring Individualized Therapies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matchett, Kyle B; Lynam-Lennon, Niamh; Watson, R William; Brown, James A L

    2017-10-25

    The traditional bench-to-bedside pipeline involves using model systems and patient samples to provide insights into pathways deregulated in cancer. This discovery reveals new biomarkers and therapeutic targets, ultimately stratifying patients and informing cohort-based treatment options. Precision medicine (molecular profiling of individual tumors combined with established clinical-pathological parameters) reveals, in real-time, individual patient's diagnostic and prognostic risk profile, informing tailored and tumor-specific treatment plans. Here we discuss advances in precision medicine presented at the Irish Association for Cancer Research Annual Meeting, highlighting examples where personalized medicine approaches have led to precision discovery in individual tumors, informing customized treatment programs.

  13. Functions of myosin motors tailored for parasitism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mueller, Christina; Graindorge, Arnault; Soldati-Favre, Dominique

    2017-01-01

    Myosin motors are one of the largest protein families in eukaryotes that exhibit divergent cellular functions. Their roles in protozoans, a diverse group of anciently diverged, single celled organisms with many prominent members known to be parasitic and to cause diseases in human and livestock......, are largely unknown. In the recent years many different approaches, among them whole genome sequencing, phylogenetic analyses and functional studies have increased our understanding on the distribution, protein architecture and function of unconventional myosin motors in protozoan parasites. In Apicomplexa......, myosins turn out to be highly specialized and to exhibit unique functions tailored to accommodate the lifestyle of these parasites....

  14. Predicting sorption of organic acids to a wide range of carbonized sorbents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sigmund, Gabriel; Kah, Melanie; Sun, Huichao; Hofmann, Thilo

    2016-04-01

    Many contaminants and infochemicals are organic acids that undergo dissociation under environmental conditions. The sorption of dissociated anions to biochar and other carbonized sorbents is typically lower than that of neutral species. It is driven by complex processes that are not yet fully understood. It is known that predictive approaches developed for neutral compounds are unlikely to be suitable for organic acids, due to the effects of dissociation on sorption. Previous studies on the sorption of organic acids to soils have demonstrated that log Dow, which describes the decrease in hydrophobicity of acids upon dissociation, is a useful alternative to log Kow. The aim of the present study was to adapt a log Dow based approach to describe the sorption of organic acids to carbonized sorbents. Batch experiments were performed with a series of 9 sorbents (i.e., carbonized wood shavings, pig manure, and sewage sludge, carbon nanotubes and activated carbon), and four acids commonly used for pesticidal and biocidal purposes (i.e., 2,4-D, MCPA, 2,4-DB, and triclosan). Sorbents were comprehensively characterized, including by N2 and CO2 physisorption, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and elemental analysis. The wide range of sorbents considered allows (i) discussing the mechanisms driving the sorption of neutral and anionic species to biochar, and (ii) their dependency on sorbate and sorbent properties. Results showed that the sorption of the four acids was influenced by factors that are usually not considered for neutral compounds (i.e., pH, ionic strength). Dissociation affected the sorption of the four compounds, and sorption of the anions ranged over five orders of magnitude, thus substantially contributing to sorption in some cases. For prediction purposes, most of the variation in sorption to carbonized sorbents (89%) could be well described with a two-parameter regression equation including log Dow and sorbent specific surface area. The proposed model

  15. Regenerable sorbents for mercury capture in simulated coal combustion flue gas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Pérez, Jorge; López-Antón, M Antonia; Díaz-Somoano, Mercedes; García, Roberto; Martínez-Tarazona, M Rosa

    2013-09-15

    This work demonstrates that regenerable sorbents containing nano-particles of gold dispersed on an activated carbon are efficient and long-life materials for capturing mercury species from coal combustion flue gases. These sorbents can be used in such a way that the high investment entailed in their preparation will be compensated for by the recovery of all valuable materials. The characteristics of the support and dispersion of gold in the carbon surface influence the efficiency and lifetime of the sorbents. The main factor that determines the retention of mercury and the regeneration of the sorbent is the presence of reactive gases that enhance mercury retention capacity. The capture of mercury is a consequence of two mechanisms: (i) the retention of elemental mercury by amalgamation with gold and (ii) the retention of oxidized mercury on the activated carbon support. These sorbents were specifically designed for retaining the mercury remaining in gas phase after the desulfurization units in coal power plants. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Immobilized humic substances and immobilized aggregates of humic substances as sorbent for solid phase extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erny, Guillaume L; Gonçalves, Bruna M; Esteves, Valdemar I

    2013-09-06

    In this work, humic substances (HS) immobilized, as a thin layer or as aggregates, on silica gel were tested as material for solid phase extraction. Some triazines (simazine, atrazine, therbutylazine, atrazine-desethyl-desisopropyl-2-hydroxy, ametryn and terbutryn), have been selected as test analytes due to their environmental importance and to span a large range of solubility and octanol/water partition coefficient (logP). The sorbent was obtained immobilizing a thin layer of HS via physisorption on a pre-coated silica gel with a cationic polymer (polybrene). While the sorbent could be used as it is, it was demonstrated that additional HS could be immobilized, via weak interactions, to form stable humic aggregates. However, while a higher quantity of HS could be immobilized, no significant differences were observed in the sorption parameters. This sorbent have been tested for solid phase extraction to concentrate triazines from aqueous matrixes. The sorbent demonstrated performances equivalent to commercial alternatives as a concentration factor between 50 and 200, depending on the type of triazines, was obtained. Moreover the low cost and the high flow rate of sample through the column allowed using high quantity of sorbent. The analytical procedure was tested with different matrixes including tap water, river water and estuarine water. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Hot coal gas desulfurization with manganese-based sorbents. Final report, September 1992--December 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hepworth, M.T.; Slimane, R.B.

    1994-11-01

    The focus of much current work being performed by the Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC) of the Department of Energy on hot coal-derived fuel gas desulfurization is in the use of zinc-based sorbents. METC has shown interest in formulating and testing manganese-based pellets as alternative effective sulfur sorbents in the 700 to 1200{degree}C temperature range. To substantiate the potential superiority of Mn-based pellets, a systematic approach toward the evaluation of the desulfurizing power of single-metal sorbents is developed based on thermodynamic considerations. This novel procedure considered several metal-based sorbents and singled out manganese oxide as a prime candidate sorbent capable of being utilized under a wide temperature range, irrespective of the reducing power (determined by CO{sub 2}/CO ratio) of the fuel gas. Then, the thermodynamic feasibility of using Mn-based pellets for the removal of H{sub 2}S from hot-coal derived fuel gases, and the subsequent oxidative regeneration of loaded (sulfided) pellets was established. It was concluded that MnO is the stable form of manganese for virtually all commercially available coal-derived fuel gases. In addition, the objective of reducing the H{sub 2}S concentration below 150 ppMv to satisfy the integrated gasification combined cycle system requirement was shown to be thermodynamically feasible. A novel process is developed for the manufacture of Mn-based spherical pellets which have the desired physical and chemical characteristics required.

  18. Application of engineered sorbent barriers Summary of Laboratory Data for FY 1988

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freeman, H.D.; Jones, E.O.

    1989-09-01

    Laboratory studies were conducted in FY 1988 Pacific Northwest Laboratory to determine the effect of contact time, pH, solution to solid ratio, and particle size on the performance of a number of materials in adsorbing radioactive cobalt, strontium, and cesium. The laboratory studies were conducted to provide background information useful in designing an engineered sorbent barrier, which restricts the migration of radionuclides from low-level waste sites. Understanding how the variables affect the adsorption of ions on the sorbent materials is the key to estimating the performance of sorbent barriers under a variety of conditions. The scope of the studies was limited to three radionuclides and four sorbent materials, but the general approach can be used to evaluate other radionuclides and conditions. The sorbent materials evaluated in this study included clinoptilolite, activated carbon, bentonite clay, and Savannah River soil. The clinoptilolite and activated carbon were identified in previous studies as the most cost-effective materials for sorption of the three radionuclides under consideration. The bentonite clay was evaluated as a component of the barrier that could be used to modify the permeability of the barrier system. The Savannah River soil was used to represent soil from a humid site. 3 refs., 14 figs., 1 tab.

  19. Influence of Inorganic Ions and Organic Substances on the Degradation of Pharmaceutical Compound in Water Matrix

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edyta Kudlek

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The paper determined the influence of inorganic substances and high-molecular organic compounds on the decomposition of diclofenac, ibuprofen, and carbamazepine in the process of photocatalysis conducted with the presence of Titanium dioxide (TiO2. It was determined that the presence of such ions as CO 3 2 − , HCO 3 − , HPO 4 2 − as well as SO 4 2 − inhibited the decomposition of carbamazepine, whereas the efficiency of diclofenac degradation was decreased only by the presence of CO 3 2 − and HCO 3 − anions. In case of ibuprofen sodium salt (IBU, all investigated anions influenced the increase in its decomposition rate. The process of pharmaceutical photooxidation conducted in suspensions with Al3+ and Fe3+ cations was characterized by a significantly decreased efficiency when compared to the solution deprived of inorganic compounds. The addition of Ca2+, Mg2+ and NH4+ affected the increase of reaction rate constant value of diclofenac and ibuprofen decomposition. On the other hand, high molecular organic compounds present in the model effluent additionally catalysed the degradation process of pharmaceutical compounds and constituted an additional sorbent that enabled to decrease their concentration. Toxicological analysis conducted in deionized water with pharmaceutical compounds’ patterns proved the production of by-products from oxidation and/or reduction of micropollutants, which was not observed for model effluent irradiation.

  20. Evaluation of Dry Sorbent Injection Technology for Pre-Combustion CO{sub 2} Capture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richardson, Carl [URS Group, Inc., Austin, TX (United States); Steen, William [URS Group, Inc., Austin, TX (United States); Triana, Eugenio [URS Group, Inc., Austin, TX (United States); Machalek, Thomas [URS Group, Inc., Austin, TX (United States); Davila, Jenny [URS Group, Inc., Austin, TX (United States); Schmit, Claire [URS Group, Inc., Austin, TX (United States); Wang, Andrew [URS Group, Inc., Austin, TX (United States); Temple, Brian [URS Group, Inc., Austin, TX (United States); Lu, Yongqi [Illinois State Geological Survey - University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign (United States); Lu, Hong [Illinois State Geological Survey - University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign (United States); Zhang, Luzheng [Illinois State Geological Survey - University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign (United States); Ruhter, David [Illinois State Geological Survey - University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign (United States); Rostam-Abadi, Massoud [Illinois State Geological Survey - University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign (United States); Sayyah, Maryam [Illinois State Geological Survey - University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign (United States); Ito, Brandon [Illinois State Geological Survey - University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign (United States); Suslick, Kenneth [Illinois State Geological Survey - University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign (United States)

    2013-09-30

    This document summarizes the work performed on Cooperative Agreement DE-FE0000465, “Evaluation of Dry Sorbent Technology for Pre-Combustion CO{sub 2} Capture,” during the period of performance of January 1, 2010 through September 30, 2013. This project involves the development of a novel technology that combines a dry sorbent-based carbon capture process with the water-gas-shift reaction for separating CO{sub 2} from syngas. The project objectives were to model, develop, synthesize and screen sorbents for CO{sub 2} capture from gasified coal streams. The project was funded by the DOE National Energy Technology Laboratory with URS as the prime contractor. Illinois Clean Coal Institute and The University of Illinois Urbana-Champaign were project co-funders. The objectives of this project were to identify and evaluate sorbent materials and concepts that were suitable for capturing carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) from warm/hot water-gas-shift (WGS) systems under conditions that minimize energy penalties and provide continuous gas flow to advanced synthesis gas combustion and processing systems. Objectives included identifying and evaluating sorbents that efficiently capture CO{sub 2} from a gas stream containing CO{sub 2}, carbon monoxide (CO), and hydrogen (H{sub 2}) at temperatures as high as 650 °C and pressures of 400-600 psi. After capturing the CO{sub 2}, the sorbents would ideally be regenerated using steam, or other condensable purge vapors. Results from the adsorption and regeneration testing were used to determine an optimal design scheme for a sorbent enhanced water gas shift (SEWGS) process and evaluate the technical and economic viability of the dry sorbent approach for CO{sub 2} capture. Project work included computational modeling, which was performed to identify key sorbent properties for the SEWGS process. Thermodynamic modeling was used to identify optimal physical properties for sorbents and helped down-select from the universe of possible sorbent

  1. Performance of a novel synthetic Ca-based solid sorbent suitable for desulfurizing flue gases in a fluidized bed

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pacciani, R.; Muller, C.R.; Davidson, J.F.; Dennis, J.S.; Hayhurst, A.N. [University of Cambridge, Cambridge (United Kingdom). Dept. of Chemical Engineering & Biotechnology

    2009-08-05

    The extent and mechanism of sulfation and carbonation of limestone, dolomite, and chalk, were compared with a novel, synthetic sorbent (85 wt % CaO and 15 wt % Ca{sub 12}A{sub l14}O{sub 33}), by means of experiments undertaken in a small, electrically heated fluidized bed. The sorbent particles were used either (I) untreated, sieved to two particle sizes and reacted with two different concentrations of SO{sub 2}, or (ii) after being cycled 20 times between carbonation, in 15 vol % CO{sub 2} in N2, and calcination, in pure N2, at 750 degrees C. The uptake of untreated limestone and dolomite was generally low (<0.2 g(SO{sub 2})/g(sorbent)), confirming previous results, However, the untreated chalk and the synthetic sorbent were found to be substantially more reactive with SO{sub 2}, and their final uptake was significantly higher (>0.5 g(SO{sub 2})/g(sorbent)) and essentially independent of the particle size. Here, comparisons are made on the basis of the sorbents in the calcined state. The capacities for the uptake of SO{sub 2}, on a basis of unit mass of calcined sorbent, were comparable for the chalk and the synthetic sorbent. However, previous work has demonstrated the ability of the synthetic sorbent to retain its capacity for CO{sub 2} over many cycles of carbonation and calcination: much more so than natural sorbents such as chalk and limestone. Accordingly, the advantage of the synthetic sorbent is that it could be used to remove CO{sub 2} from flue gases and, at the end of its life, to remove SO{sub 2} on a once-through basis.

  2. Silver-Loaded Aluminosilicate Aerogels As Iodine Sorbents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riley, Brian J. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, Washington 99354, United States; Kroll, Jared O. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, Washington 99354, United States; Peterson, Jacob A. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, Washington 99354, United States; Matyáš, Josef [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, Washington 99354, United States; Olszta, Matthew J. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, Washington 99354, United States; Li, Xiaohong [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, Washington 99354, United States; Vienna, John D. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, Washington 99354, United States

    2017-09-14

    This paper discusses the development of aluminosilicates aerogels as scaffolds for Ag0 nanoparticles used for chemisorption of I2(g). The starting materials for these scaffolds included both Na-Al-Si-O and Al-Si-O aerogels, both synthesized from metal alkoxides. The Ag0 particles are added by soaking the aerogels in AgNO3 followed by drying and flowing under H2/Ar to reduce Ag+ → Ag0. In some cases, samples were soaked in 3-(mercaptopropyl)trimethoxysilane under supercritical CO2 to add –SH tethers to the aerogel surfaces for more effective binding of Ag+. During the Ag+-impregnation steps, for the Na-Al-Si-O aerogels, Na was replaced with Ag, and for the Al-Si-O aerogel, Si was replaced with Ag. The Ag-loading of thiolated versus non-thiolated Na-Al-Si-O aerogels was comparable at ~35 at% whereas the Ag-loading in unthiolated Al-Si-O aerogels was significantly lower at ~ 7 at% after identical treatment. Iodine loadings in both thiolated and unthiolated Ag0-functionalized Na-Al-Si-O aerogels were > 0.5 g g-1 showing almost complete utilization of the Ag through chemisorption to form AgI. Iodine loading in the thiolated Al-Si-O aerogel was 0.31 g g-1. The control of Ag uptake over solution residence time and [AgNO3] demonstrates the ability to customize the Ag-loading in the base sorbent to regulate the capacity of iodine chemisorption. Consolidation experimental results are also presented.

  3. Medicinal Uses of Inorganic Compounds - 2

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In the first part of this article, we described medicinal uses of inorganic compounds relating to cancer care, infection and diabetic control, neurological, cardiovascular and in- flammatory diseases. This article contains further infor- mation on the medicinal uses of inorganic compounds as therapeutic and diagnostic in ...

  4. Recent Advances in Bio-inorganic Chemistry

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    Bio-inorganic chemistry has developed rapidly in recent years. A number of laboratories in India have made significant contributions to this area. The motivation in bringing out this special issue on Bio-inorganic. Chemistry is to highlight the recent work emerging from India in this important and fascinating interdisci-.

  5. Attachment of inorganic moieties onto aliphatic polyurethanes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliane Ayres

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Polyurethanes have been used in a series of applications due basically to their versatility in terms of controlling the behavior by altering basically the type of reagents used. However, for more specific and advanced applications, such as in membranes, biomaterials and sensors, well-organized and defined chemical functionalities are necessary. In this work, inorganic functionalities were incorporated into aliphatic polyurethanes (PU having different macromolecular architectures. Polyurethanes were synthesized using a polyether diol and dicyclohexylmethane 4,4' diisocyanate (H12-MDI. Polyurethanes having carboxylic acid groups were also produced by introducing 2,2- bis (hydroxymethyl propionic acid in the polymerization process. Inorganic functionalities were inserted into polyurethanes by reacting isocyanate end capped chains with aminopropyltriethoxysilane followed by tetraethoxysilane. PU having carboxylic acid groups yielded transparent samples after the incorporation of inorganic entities, as an evidence of smaller and better dispersed inorganic entities in the polymer network. FTIR and swelling measurements showed that polyurethanes having carboxylic acid groups had inorganic domains less packed, condensed and cross-linked when compared to polyurethanes with no carboxylic acid groups. Results also suggested that the progressive incorporation of inorganic moieties in both types of polyurethanes occurred in regions previously activated with inorganic functionalities, instead of by the creation of new domains. The temperatures of thermal decomposition and glass transition were also shifted to higher temperatures when inorganic functionalities were incorporated into polyurethanes.

  6. Uptake of inorganic contaminants by pteridophytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng Jiemin; Chen Ziyuan; Tang Shirong; Guangzhou Univ., Guangzhou; Ding Bingyang

    2005-01-01

    The review covers results at home and abroad in terms of uptake of inorganic contaminants by pteridophytes, and suggests pteridophytes' significance in phytoremediation; the mechanisms related to uptake of inorganic contaminants by pteridophytes and some methods and means used for research on the mechanism are also introduced; the authors' viewpoints on future development trends are presented in this paper. (authors)

  7. Ultrasound exfoliation of inorganic analogues of graphene

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Štengl, Václav; Henych, Jiří; Slušná, Michaela; Ecorchard, Petra

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 9, APR (2014), s. 1-14 ISSN 1556-276X R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA14-05146S Institutional support: RVO:61388980 Keywords : Ultrasound * Exfoliation * Graphene inorganic analogues Subject RIV: CA - Inorganic Chemistry Impact factor: 2.779, year: 2014

  8. Facile synthesis of a boronate affinity sorbent from mesoporous nanomagnetic polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxanes composite and its application for enrichment of catecholamines in human urine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    He, Haibo, E-mail: hbhe2006@shu.edu.cn [Department of Chemistry, Shanghai University, Shanghai 200444 (China); Key Laboratory of Analytical Chemistry for Biology and Medicine (Ministry of Education), Department of Chemistry, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430072 (China); Zhou, Ziqing; Dong, Chen; Wang, Xin [Department of Chemistry, Shanghai University, Shanghai 200444 (China); Yu, Qiong-wei [Key Laboratory of Analytical Chemistry for Biology and Medicine (Ministry of Education), Department of Chemistry, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430072 (China); Lei, Yunyi; Luo, Liqiang [Department of Chemistry, Shanghai University, Shanghai 200444 (China); Feng, Yuqi [Key Laboratory of Analytical Chemistry for Biology and Medicine (Ministry of Education), Department of Chemistry, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430072 (China)

    2016-11-09

    A boronate-decorated nanomagnetic organic-inorganic hybrid material was facilely synthesized by utilizing the nanomagnetic polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxanes (POSS) composite (Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}@POSS) as the base platform. A simple copolymerization occurred between 3-acrylamidophenylboronic acid (AAPBA) and the residual end vinyl groups supplied by the substrate. Here the special emphasis was placed on the octavinyl POSS, which not only acted as the building blocks for a hybrid architecture but also facilitated the process of grafting boronate groups onto the surface of POSS based nanomagnetic composite (Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}@POSS). The successful immobilization of affinity ligand-AAPBA on the Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}@POSS was confirmed by Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR), elemental analysis, inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometer (ICP-AES), field emission scanning electron microscope. A magnetic solid-phase extraction (MSPE) for cis-diols enrichment was developed using the as-prepared Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}@POSS-AAPBA material as an affinity sorbent and three catecholamines (CAs), namely noradrenaline, epinephrine and isoprenaline, as model analytes. Under the optimal extraction conditions, sensitive and simultaneous analysis of three CAs from the urine sample was achieved by high-performance liquid chromatography with UV detection (HPLC-UV). The limits of detection (LOD, S/N = 3) and the limits of quantitation (LOQ, S/N = 10) for the target analytes were 0.81–1.32 ng mL{sup −1} and 2.70–4.40 ng mL{sup −1}, respectively. Also good recoveries (85.5–101.7%) and repeatability (RSD≤10.1%) were obtained by this method. This work not only showed a facility for the utilization of Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}@POSS as a substrate for constructing a boronate functionalized nanomagnetic sorbent, but also demonstrated the capability of the derived material for recognition of trace amount of cis-diols biomolecules presented in complicated biological matrices

  9. Aerosol Formation during the Combustion of Straw with Addition of Sorbents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zeuthen, Frederik Jacob; Jensen, Peter Arendt; Jensen, Jørgen P.

    2007-01-01

    , calcium phosphate, Bentonite, ICA5000, and clay. The addition of chalk increased the aerosol mass concentration by 24%. Experiments in a laminar flow aerosol condenser with the six sorbents were carried out in the laboratory using a synthetic flue gas to avoid fluctuations in the alkali feeding......The influence of six sorbents on aerosol formation during the combustion of straw in a 100 MW boiler on a Danish power plant has been studied in full-scale. The following sorbents were studied: ammonium sulfate, monocalcium phosphate, Bentonite, ICA5000, clay, and chalk. Bentonite and ICA5000...... are mixtures of clay minerals and consist mainly of the oxides from Fe, Al, and Si. The straw used was Danish wheat and seed grass. Measurements were also made with increased flow of primary air. The experiments showed between 46% and 70% reduction in particle mass concentrations when adding ammonium sulfate...

  10. Adsorption of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHS from Aqueous Solutions on Different Sorbents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smol Marzena

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of the possibility and effectiveness of PAHs removal from a model aqueous solution, during the sorption on the selected sorbents. Six PAHs (naphthalene, acenaphthylene, acenaphthene, fluorene, phenanthrene, anthracene listed by EPA for the analysis in the environmental samples were determined. Model aqueous solution was prepared with RESTEK 610 mix PAHs standard. After the sorption process, decrease in the concentration of individual hydrocarbons was observed. The removal percentage was dependent on the type of sorbent (quartz sand, mineral sorbent, activated carbon. The highest efficiency (98.1% was observed for activated carbon.. The results shows that the sorption processes can be used in aqueous solutions treatment procedures.

  11. DEVELOPMENT OF DISPOSABLE SORBENTS FOR CHLORIDE REMOVAL FROM HIGH TEMPERATURE COAL-DERIVED GASES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gopala Krishnan; Raghubir Gupta

    1999-09-01

    Advanced integrated-gasification combined-cycle (IGCC) and integrated-gasification fuel cell (IGFC) systems require the development of high temperature sorbents for the removal of hydrogen chloride (HCl) vapor to less than 1 parts-per-million (ppm) levels. HCl is a highly reactive, corrosive, and toxic gas which must be removed to meet environmental regulations, to protect power generation equipment, and to minimize deterioration of hot gas desulfurization sorbents. The objective of this program was to develop disposable, alkali-based sorbents capable of reducing HCl vapor levels to less than 1 ppm in the temperature range from 400 to 750 C and pressures in the range from 1 to 20 atm. The primary areas of focus of this program were to investigate different methods of sorbent fabrication, testing their suitability for different reactor configurations, obtaining reaction kinetics data, and conducting a preliminary economic feasibility assessment. This program was a joint effort between SRI International (SRI), Research Triangle Institute (RTI), and General Electric Corporate Research and Development (GE-CRD). SRI, the prime contractor and RTI, a major subcontractor, performed most of the work in this program. Thermochemical calculations indicated that sodium-based sorbents were capable of reducing HCl vapor levels to less than 1 ppm at temperatures up to 650 C, but the regeneration of spent sorbents would require complex process steps. Nahcolite (NaHCO{sub 3}), a naturally-occurring mineral, could be used as an inexpensive sorbent to remove HCl vapor in hot coal gas streams. In the current program, nahcolite powder was used to fabricate pellets suitable for fixed-bed reactors and granules suitable for fluidized-bed reactors. Pilot-scale equipment were used to prepare sorbents in large batches: pellets by disk pelletization and extrusion techniques, and granules by granulation and spray-drying techniques. Bench-scale fixed- and fluidized-bed reactors were assembled at

  12. Ionic liquid-functionalized mesoporous sorbents and their use in the capture of polluting gases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jong Suk; Koros, William J.; Bhuwania, Nitesh; Hillesheim, Patrick C.; Dai, Sheng

    2016-01-12

    A composite structure for capturing a gaseous electrophilic species, the composite structure comprising mesoporous refractory sorbent particles on which an ionic liquid is covalently attached, wherein said ionic liquid includes an accessible functional group that is capable of binding to said gaseous electrophilic species. In particular embodiments, the mesoporous sorbent particles are contained within refractory hollow fibers. Also described is a method for capturing a gaseous electrophilic species by use of the above-described composite structure, wherein the gaseous electrophilic species is contacted with the composite structure. In particular embodiments thereof, cooling water is passed through the refractory hollow fibers containing the IL-functionalized sorbent particles in order to facilitate capture of the gaseous electrophilic species, and then steam is passed through the refractory hollow fibers to facilitate release of the gaseous electrophilic species such that the composite structure can be re-used to capture additional gas.

  13. Removal of dissolved textile dyes from wastewater by a compost sorbent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsui, L.S.; Roy, W.R.; Cole, M.A.

    2003-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the potential for treating dye-contaminated waste streams by sorption using compost as a low-cost sorbent. A mature, thermophilic compost sample was used to sorb CI Acid Black 24, CI Acid Orange 74, CI Basic Blue 9, CI Basic Green 4, CI Direct Blue 71, CI Direct Orange 39, CI Reactive Orange 16 and CI Reactive Red 2 from solution using a batch-sorption method. With the exception of the two reactive dyes, the sorption kinetics were favourable for a continuous-flow treatment process with the compost-dye mixtures reaching a steady state within 3-5 h. Based on limited comparisons, the affinity of the compost for each dye appeared to be competitive with other non-activated carbon sorbents. The results suggest that additional research on using compost as a sorbent for dye-contaminated solutions is warranted.

  14. Assessment of raw luffa as a natural hollow oleophilic fibrous sorbent for oil spill cleanup

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ola Abdelwahab

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Oil spills have a global concern due to its environmental and economical impact. Various commercial systems have been developed to control these spills, including the use of fibers as sorbents. However, plant biomass is renewable resource that can be converted into useful materials and energy. Luffa, an agricultural waste, was used as a sorbent material. The present study examines the adsorption capacity of raw luffa fibers for different types of oil and water pickup. The investigation revealed that the efficiency of fibers to remove crude oil from sea water was related to the surface properties of the fibers, concentration of the oil, amount of the fibers, as well as the temperature of the crude oil. The results show high sorption efficiency of luffa fibers for different kinds of oil. This sorbent also exhibited a good reusability since the decrease in sorption efficiency did not exceed 50% of the initial value after three sorption cycles.

  15. Adsorption of Carbon Dioxide, Ammonia, Formaldehyde, and Water Vapor on Regenerable Carbon Sorbents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wojtowicz, Marek A.; Cosgrove, Joseph E.; Serio, Michael A.; Wilburn, Monique

    2015-01-01

    Results are presented on the development of reversible sorbents for the combined carbon dioxide, moisture, and trace-contaminant (TC) removal for use in Extravehicular Activities (EVAs), and more specifically in the Primary Life Support System (PLSS). The currently available life support systems use separate units for carbon dioxide, trace contaminants, and moisture control, and the long-term objective is to replace the above three modules with a single one. Furthermore, the current TC-control technology involves the use of a packed bed of acid-impregnated granular charcoal, which is nonregenerable, and the carbon-based sorbent under development in this project can be regenerated by exposure to vacuum at room temperature. In this study, several carbon sorbents were fabricated and tested for simultaneous carbon dioxide, ammonia, formaldehyde, and water sorption. Multiple adsorption/vacuum-regeneration cycles were demonstrated at room temperature, and also the enhancement of formaldehyde sorption by the presence of ammonia in the gas mixture.

  16. Efficiency of sugarcane bagasse-based sorbents for oil removal from engine washing wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guilharduci, Viviane Vasques da Silva; Martelli, Patrícia Benedini; Gorgulho, Honória de Fátima

    2017-01-01

    This work evaluates the efficiency of sugarcane bagasse-based sorbents in the sorption of oil from engine washing wastewater. The sorbents were obtained from sugarcane bagasse in the natural form (SB-N) and modified with either acetic anhydride (SB-Acet) or 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane (SB-APTS). The results showed that the sorption capacity of these materials decreased in the following order: SB-APTS > SB-N > SB-Acet. The superior oil sorption capacity observed for SB-APTS was attributed to the polar amino end groups in the silane structure, which acted to increase the hydrophilic character of the fibers. However, all the sorbents obtained in this study were able to clean a real sample of wastewater from engine washing, leading to significant reductions in suspended matter, sediment, anionic surfactants, and turbidity.

  17. Development of cement material using inorganic additives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toyohara, Masumitsu; Satou, Tatsuaki; Wada, Mikio; Ishii, Tomoharu; Matsuo, Kazuaki.

    1997-01-01

    Inorganic admixtures to enhance the fluidity of cement material was developed. These admixtures turned into easy to immobilize the miscellaneous radioactive waste using cement material. It was found that the ζ potential of cement particles was directly proportional to the content of the inorganic admixtures in cement paste and the particles of cement were dispersed at the high ζ potential. The condensed sodium phosphate, which was the main component of the inorganic admixtures, retarded the dissolution of Ca 2+ ion from the cement, and generated the colloids by incorporating dissolved Ca 2+ ion. The cement material containing the inorganic admixtures was found to have the same mechanical strength and adsorption potential of radionuclides in comparison to normal cement materials. It was confirmed that the cement material containing the inorganic admixture was effectively filled gaps of miscellaneous radioactive waste. (author)

  18. Cadmium adsorption by coal combustion ashes-based sorbents-Relationship between sorbent properties and adsorption capacity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balsamo, Marco; Di Natale, Francesco; Erto, Alessandro; Lancia, Amedeo [Dipartimento di Ingegneria Chimica, Universita degli Studi di Napoli Federico II, Piazzale Vincenzo Tecchio 80, 80125 Napoli (Italy); Montagnaro, Fabio, E-mail: fabio.montagnaro@unina.it [Dipartimento di Chimica, Universita degli Studi di Napoli Federico II, Complesso Universitario di Monte Sant' Angelo, 80126 Napoli (Italy); Santoro, Luciano [Dipartimento di Chimica, Universita degli Studi di Napoli Federico II, Complesso Universitario di Monte Sant' Angelo, 80126 Napoli (Italy)

    2011-03-15

    A very interesting possibility of coal combustion ashes reutilization is their use as adsorbent materials, that can also take advantage from proper beneficiation techniques. In this work, adsorption of cadmium from aqueous solutions was taken into consideration, with the emphasis on the intertwining among waste properties, beneficiation treatments, properties of the beneficiated materials and adsorption capacity. The characterization of three solid materials used as cadmium sorbents (as-received ash, ash sieved through a 25 {mu}m-size sieve and demineralized ash) was carried out by chemical analysis, infrared spectroscopy, laser granulometry and mercury porosimetry. Cadmium adsorption thermodynamic and kinetic tests were conducted at room temperature, and test solutions were analyzed by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Maximum specific adsorption capacities resulted in the range 0.5-4.3 mg g{sup -1}. Different existing models were critically considered to find out an interpretation of the controlling mechanism for adsorption kinetics. In particular, it was observed that for lower surface coverage the adsorption rate is governed by a linear driving force while, once surface coverage becomes significant, mechanisms such as the intraparticle micropore diffusion may come into play. Moreover, it was shown that both external fluid-to-particle mass transfer and macropore diffusion hardly affect the adsorption process, which was instead regulated by intraparticle micropore diffusion: characteristic times for this process ranged from 4.1 to 6.1 d, and were fully consistent with the experimentally observed equilibrium times. Results were discussed in terms of the relationship among properties of beneficiated materials and cadmium adsorption capacity. Results shed light on interesting correlations among solid properties, cadmium capture rate and maximum cadmium uptake.

  19. Carbon nanocomposite sorbent and methods of using the same for separation of one or more materials from a gas stream

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, Edwin S.; Pavlish, John Henry

    2017-05-30

    The present invention relates to carbon nanocomposite sorbents. The present invention provides carbon nanocomposite sorbents, methods for making the same, and methods for separation of a pollutant from a gas that includes that pollutant. Various embodiments provide a method for reducing the mercury content of a mercury-containing gas.

  20. LOW CONCENTRATION MERCURY SORPTION MECHANISMS AND CONTROL BY CALCIUM-BASED SORBENTS; APPLICATION IN COAL-FIRED PROCESSES

    Science.gov (United States)

    The capture of elemental mercury (Hgo) and mercuric chloride (HgCl2) by three types of calcium (Ca)-based sorbents was examined in this bench-scale study under conditions prevalent in coal fired utilities. Ca-based sorbent performances were compared to that of an activated carbon...

  1. The Relative Influence of Turbulence and Turbulent Mixing on the Adsorption of Mercury within a Gas-Sorbent Suspension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Our previous investigations demonstrated that entrained flow or in-flight adsorption can be a more effective and flexible approach to trace gas adsorption than fixed sorbent beds. The present investigation establishes the turbulent mixing that accompanies sorbent injection is an ...

  2. INFLUENCE OF SOLVENT AND SORBENT CHARACTERISTICS ON DISTRIBUTION OF PENTACHLOROPHENOL IN OCTANOL-WATER AND SOIL-WATER SYSTEMS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorbent and solvent characteristics influencing sorption of pentachlorophenol (PCP) were investigated. Analysis of aqueous sorption data for several sorbents over a broad pH range suggested hydrophobic sorption of neutral PCP predominates at pH 7. At pH > 7, sorption of the penta...

  3. Experimental investigation of adsorption of NO and SO2 on modified activated carbon sorbent from flue gases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu, J.L.; Wang, Y.H.; Zhang, J.C.; Ma, R.Y.

    2005-01-01

    It is indicated that modified carbon is a practical sorbent for removal of NO and SO 2 from waste gases by the adsorption method. The ideal compositions for the prepared sorbent were 4.0 wt.% and 2.5 wt.% Na 2 CO 3 and KOH at the experimental conditions, respectively, shortened as ACNaK 2.5 . Experimental investigation showed that the sorbent had a comparatively high breakthrough adsorption capacity of NO and SO 2 , about 5.8 g (NO + SO 2 )/100 g sorbent. It is indicated that a relatively high adsorption temperature would benefit the sorbent adsorption capacities on NO and SO 2 at a certain space velocity and pressure. Further study revealed that the ACNaK 2.5 sorbent had good regenerability at the experimental conditions, which implied that the ACNaK 2.5 sorbent would be a useful sorbent for simultaneous removal of NO and SO 2 from waste gases by adsorption

  4. Multifunctional humate-based magnetic sorbent: Preparation, properties and sorption of Cu (II), phosphates and selected pesticides

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Janoš, P.; Kormunda, M.; Novák, František; Životský, O.; Fuitová, J.; Pilařová, V.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 73, č. 1 (2013), s. 46-52 ISSN 1381-5148 Grant - others:GA ČR(CZ) GAP106/12/1116 Program:GA Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : magnetic sorbent * humate-based sorbent * heavy metals * phosphate * pesticides Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry Impact factor: 2.822, year: 2013

  5. TG-FTIR measurement of CO2-H2O co-adsorption for CO2 air capture sorbent screening

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smal, I.M.; Yu, Qian; Veneman, Rens; Fränzel-Luiten, B.; Brilman, Derk Willem Frederik

    2014-01-01

    Capturing atmospheric CO2 using solid sorbents is gaining interest. As ambient air normally contains much more (up to 100 times) water than CO2, a selective sorbent is desirable as co-adsorption will most likely occur. In this study, a convenient method based on an TG-FTIR analysis system is

  6. Technology assessment guide for application of engineered sorbent barriers to low-level radioactive waste disposal sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freeman, H.D.; Jones, E.O.; Depner, J.P.

    1989-06-01

    An engineered sorbent barrier (ESB) uses sorbent materials (such as activated carbon or natural zeolites) to restrict migration of radionuclides from low-level waste sites. The permeability of the ESB allows moisture to pass while the sorbent material traps or absorbs contaminants. In contrast, waste sites with impermeable barriers could fill with water, especially those waste sites in humid climates. A sorbent barrier can be a simple, effective, and inexpensive method for restricting radionuclide migration. This report provides information and references to be used in assessing the sorbent barrier technology for low-level waste disposal. The ESB assessment is based on sorbent material and soil properties, site conditions, and waste properties and inventories. These data are used to estimate the thickness of the barrier needed to meet all performance requirements for the waste site. This document addresses the following areas: (1) site information required to assess the need and overall performance of a sorbent barrier; (2) selection and testing of sorbent materials and underlying soils; (3) use of radionuclide transport models to estimate the required barrier thickness and long-term performance under a variety of site conditions; (4) general considerations for construction and quality assurance; and (5) cost estimates for applying the barrier. 37 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs.

  7. Phosphate Adsorption using Modified Iron Oxide-based Sorbents in Lake Water: Kinetics, Equilibrium, and Column Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adsorption behavior of Bayoxide ® E33 (E33) and three E33-modified sorbents for the removal of phosphate from lake water was investigated in this study. E33-modified sorbents were synthesized by coating with manganese (E33/Mn) and silver (E33/AgI and E33/AgII) nanoparticles. Adso...

  8. The study of sorption of cesium radionuclides by 'T-55' ferrocyanide sorbent from various types of liquid radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Semenischev, V.S.; Voronina, A.V.; Bykov, A.A.

    2013-01-01

    The sorption of caesium by T-55 sorbent from different types of liquid radioactive wastes is studied. It is shown that the sorbent can be used for extraction of cesium from high level acidic and saline solutions and also for decontamination of caesium contaminated waters containing surfactants and EDTA. (author)

  9. Deep Drawing of High-Strength Tailored Blanks by Using Tailored Tools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Mennecart

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In most forming processes based on tailored blanks, the tool material remains the same as that of sheet metal blanks without tailored properties. A novel concept of lightweight construction for deep drawing tools is presented in this work to improve the forming behavior of tailored blanks. The investigations presented here deal with the forming of tailored blanks of dissimilar strengths using tailored dies made of two different materials. In the area of the steel blank with higher strength, typical tool steel is used. In the area of the low-strength steel, a hybrid tool made out of a polymer and a fiber-reinforced surface replaces the steel half. Cylindrical cups of DP600/HX300LAD are formed and analyzed regarding their formability. The use of two different halves of tool materials shows improved blank thickness distribution, weld-line movement and pressure distribution compared to the use of two steel halves. An improvement in strain distribution is also observed by the inclusion of springs in the polymer side of tools, which is implemented to control the material flow in the die. Furthermore, a reduction in tool weight of approximately 75% can be achieved by using this technique. An accurate finite element modeling strategy is developed to analyze the problem numerically and is verified experimentally for the cylindrical cup. This strategy is then applied to investigate the thickness distribution and weld-line movement for a complex geometry, and its transferability is validated. The inclusion of springs in the hybrid tool leads to better material flow, which results in reduction of weld-line movement by around 60%, leading to more uniform thickness distribution.

  10. Calcium looping technology using improved stability nanostructured sorbent for cyclic CO{sub 2} capture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luo, Cong; Zheng, Ying; Ding, Ning; Zheng, Chu-guang [Huazhong Univ. of Science and Technology, Wuhan (China). State Key Lab. of Coal Combustion

    2013-07-01

    One of the post-combustion CO{sub 2} capture technologies that have sufficiently been proved to be the best candidates for practical large scale post-combustion application is the calcium looping cycle. However, the CO{sub 2} capture capacity of a calcium-based sorbent derived from natural limestone decays through long-term cyclic utilization; thus, the development of novel sorbents to achieve a high CO{sub 2} capture capacity is an critical challenge for the calcium looping cycle technology. In this paper, we report the preparation and character of a new calcium-based sorbent produced via the combustion of a dry gel. The results show that the novel calcium-based sorbent has a much higher residual carbonation conversion as well as a better performance of anti-sintering when compared with the calcium-based sorbent derived from commercial micrometer grade CaCO{sub 3} and nanometer grade CaCO{sub 3}. It is reasonable to propose that the different final carbonation performances are induced by their different pore structures and BET surface areas rather than by different particle sizes. Compared with the commercial nano CaO, the morphology of the new sorbent shows a more rough porous appearance with hollow nanostructure. During carbonation, CO{sub 2} diffused more easily through the hollow structure than through a solid structure to reach the unreacted CaO. Besides, there is less chance for the hollow nanostructured particles to be merged together during the high temperature reactions.

  11. The use of lightweight expanded clay aggregate (LECA) as sorbent for PAHs removal from water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nkansah, Marian Asantewah; Christy, Alfred A.; Barth, Tanja; Francis, George William

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Effect of contact time on sorption PAH by LECA. ► Effect of mass of sorbent (LECA) on sorption of PAH. ► Sorption Isotherms for PAH-LECA interaction. - Abstract: Lightweight expanded clay aggregate (LECA) has been explored as a sorbent for the removal of PAHs (phenanthrene, fluoranthene and pyrene) from water. The efficacy of LECA as a sorbent for PAHs was assessed using contact time, mass of sorbent and sorption isotherms in a series of batch experiments. Maximum (optimum) sorption was reached at 21 h after which the amount of PAHs sorbed remained almost constant. Batch experiments were conducted by shaking a 100 ml solution mixture of individual PAHs (containing 0.02 mg/L) with LECA. The maximum sorption was 70.70, 70.82 and 72.12%, respectively for phenanthrene, fluoranthene and pyrene when a mass of 0.2 g of sorbent was used. There was an increase in sorption as a result of an increase in mass of sorbent until a maximum was reached at a mass of 4.0 g LECA with 92.61, 93.91 and 94.15% sorption of phenanthrene, fluoranthene and pyrene respectively. Sorption data were fitted to the linearised forms of the Freundlich and Langmuir isotherm models to determine the water-LECA partitioning coefficient. Physical sorption caused by the aromatic nature of the compounds was the main mechanism that governed the removal process while the hydrophobicity of the PAHs also influenced the sorption capacity. LECA can be used as an alternative method for aqueous PAHs removal.

  12. A decontamination system for chemical weapons agents using a liquid solution on a solid sorbent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Waysbort, Daniel [Israel Institute for Biological Research, PO Box 19, Ness-Ziona 74100 (Israel); McGarvey, David J. [R and T Directorate, Edgewood Chemical and Biological Center (ECBC), Aberdeen Proving Ground-Edgewood Area, MD 21010 (United States)], E-mail: david.mcgarvey@us.army.mil; Creasy, William R.; Morrissey, Kevin M.; Hendrickson, David M. [SAIC, P.O. Box 68, Gunpowder Branch, Aberdeen Proving Ground, MD 21010 (United States); Durst, H. Dupont [R and T Directorate, Edgewood Chemical and Biological Center (ECBC), Aberdeen Proving Ground-Edgewood Area, MD 21010 (United States)

    2009-01-30

    A decontamination system for chemical warfare agents was developed and tested that combines a liquid decontamination reagent solution with solid sorbent particles. The components have fewer safety and environmental concerns than traditional chlorine bleach-based products or highly caustic solutions. The liquid solution, based on Decon Green{sup TM}, has hydrogen peroxide and a carbonate buffer as active ingredients. The best solid sorbents were found to be a copolymer of ethylene glycol dimethacrylate and n-lauryl methacrylate (Polytrap 6603 Adsorber); or an allyl methacrylate cross-linked polymer (Poly-Pore E200 Adsorber). These solids are human and environmentally friendly and are commonly used in cosmetics. The decontaminant system was tested for reactivity with pinacolyl methylphosphonofluoridate (Soman, GD), bis(2-chloroethyl)sulfide (Mustard, HD), and S-(2-diisopropylaminoethyl) O-ethyl methylphosphonothioate (VX) by using NMR Spectroscopy. Molybdate ion (MoO{sub 4}{sup -2}) was added to the decontaminant to catalyze the oxidation of HD. The molybdate ion provided a color change from pink to white when the oxidizing capacity of the system was exhausted. The decontaminant was effective for ratios of agent to decontaminant of up to 1:50 for VX (t{sub 1/2} {<=} 4 min), 1:10 for HD (t{sub 1/2} < 2 min with molybdate), and 1:10 for GD (t{sub 1/2} < 2 min). The vapor concentrations of GD above the dry sorbent and the sorbent with decontamination solution were measured to show that the sorbent decreased the vapor concentration of GD. The E200 sorbent had the additional advantage of absorbing aqueous decontamination solution without the addition of an organic co-solvent such as isopropanol, but the rate depended strongly on mixing for HD.

  13. A decontamination system for chemical weapons agents using a liquid solution on a solid sorbent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waysbort, Daniel; McGarvey, David J.; Creasy, William R.; Morrissey, Kevin M.; Hendrickson, David M.; Durst, H. Dupont

    2009-01-01

    A decontamination system for chemical warfare agents was developed and tested that combines a liquid decontamination reagent solution with solid sorbent particles. The components have fewer safety and environmental concerns than traditional chlorine bleach-based products or highly caustic solutions. The liquid solution, based on Decon Green TM , has hydrogen peroxide and a carbonate buffer as active ingredients. The best solid sorbents were found to be a copolymer of ethylene glycol dimethacrylate and n-lauryl methacrylate (Polytrap 6603 Adsorber); or an allyl methacrylate cross-linked polymer (Poly-Pore E200 Adsorber). These solids are human and environmentally friendly and are commonly used in cosmetics. The decontaminant system was tested for reactivity with pinacolyl methylphosphonofluoridate (Soman, GD), bis(2-chloroethyl)sulfide (Mustard, HD), and S-(2-diisopropylaminoethyl) O-ethyl methylphosphonothioate (VX) by using NMR Spectroscopy. Molybdate ion (MoO 4 -2 ) was added to the decontaminant to catalyze the oxidation of HD. The molybdate ion provided a color change from pink to white when the oxidizing capacity of the system was exhausted. The decontaminant was effective for ratios of agent to decontaminant of up to 1:50 for VX (t 1/2 ≤ 4 min), 1:10 for HD (t 1/2 1/2 < 2 min). The vapor concentrations of GD above the dry sorbent and the sorbent with decontamination solution were measured to show that the sorbent decreased the vapor concentration of GD. The E200 sorbent had the additional advantage of absorbing aqueous decontamination solution without the addition of an organic co-solvent such as isopropanol, but the rate depended strongly on mixing for HD

  14. Welcome to Inorganics: A New Open Access, Inclusive Forum for Inorganic Chemistry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duncan H. Gregory

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available One of the beauties of inorganic chemistry is its sheer diversity. Just as chemistry sits at the centre of the sciences, inorganic chemistry sits at the centre of chemistry itself. Inorganic chemists are fortunate in having the entire periodic table at their disposal, providing a palette for the creation of a multitude of rich and diverse compounds and materials from the simplest salts to the most complex of molecular species. It follows that the language of inorganic chemistry can thus be a demanding one, accommodating sub-disciplines with very different perspectives and frames of reference. One could argue that it is the unequivocal breadth of inorganic chemistry that empowers inorganic chemists to work at the interfaces, not just between the traditional Inorganic-Organic-Physical boundaries of the discipline, but in the regions where chemistry borders the other physical and life sciences, engineering and socio-economics. [...

  15. Development of disposal sorbents for chloride removal from high-temperature coal-derived gases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krishnan, G.N.; Wood, B.J.; Canizales, A. [and others

    1995-11-01

    The objective of this program is to develop alkali-based disposable sorbents capable of reducing HCl vapor concentrations to less than 1 ppmv in coal gas streams at temperatures in the range 400{degrees} to 750{degrees}C and pressures in the range 1 to 20 atm. The primary areas of focus of this program are investigation of different processes for fabricating the sorbents, testing their suitability for different reactor configurations, obtaining kinetic data for commercial reactor design, and updating the economics of the process.

  16. Potential for preparation of hot gas cleanup sorbents from spent hydroprocessing catalysts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Furimsky, E.; Biagini, M. [Canada Centre for Mineral and Energy Technology, Ottawa, ON (Canada). Energy Research Labs.

    1996-01-01

    Three spent-decoked hydroprocessing catalysts and two corresponding fresh catalysts were tested as hot gas clean-up sorbents and compared with the zinc ferrite using a simulated coal gasification gas mixture. The catalysts deposited only by coke exhibited relatively good cleaning efficiency. The catalyst deposited by coke and metals such as vanadium and nickel was less efficient. The useful life of the spent hydroprocessing catalysts may be extended if utilized as hot gas clean-up sorbents. 12 refs., 3 figs., 4 tabs.

  17. Experimentation of netlike hydro gel nitrogen containing polymer sorbents for biological liquids purification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karieva, Z.M.; Karimova, N. Kh.

    2003-01-01

    The high efficiency of hydrogels synthesized earlier in comparison with Pharmacopoeia sorbents are interesting to study comprehensively for the number of the toxins of biological liquids. Taking into considerations the high electoral sorption ability of ethynilpiperidol polymers to the hydro phobic interaction it may be suggested that they have a high detoxication ability. The detoxication characteristics of studied polymers have advantages over the known sorbents. Experiences with animals showed that in identical conditions of experiment in application of netlike polymers the survival grew 90%. Synthesis and investigations of netlike hydrogels polymer materials on nitrogen containing monomers of ethynil piperidol were given in the work. (author)

  18. Novel nanoporous sorbent for solid-phase extraction in petroleum fingerprinting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alayande, S. Oluwagbemiga; Hlengilizwe, Nyoni; Dare, E. Olugbenga; Msagati, Titus A. M.; Akinlabi, A. Kehinde; Aiyedun, P. O.

    2016-04-01

    Sample preparation is crucial in the analysis of petroleum and its derivatives. In this study, developing affordable sorbent for petroleum fingerprinting analysis using polymer waste such expanded polystyrene was explored. The potential of electrospun expanded polystyrene (EPS) as a sorbent for the solid-phase extraction (SPE) technique was investigated, and its efficiency was compared with commercial cartridges such as alumina, silica and alumina/silica hybrid commercial for petroleum fingerprinting analysis. The chromatograms showed that the packed electrospun EPS fibre demonstrated excellent properties for SPE applications relative to the hybrid cartridges.

  19. Lanthanide Selective Sorbents: Self-Assembled Monolayers on Mesoporous Supports (SAMMS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fryxell, Glen E.; Wu, Hong; Lin, Yuehe; Shaw, Wendy J.; Birnbaum, Jerome C.; Linehan, John C.; Nie, Zimin; Kemner, Kenneth M.; Kelly, Shelley

    2004-11-01

    Through the marriage of mesoporous ceramics with self-assembled monolayer chemistry, the genesis of a powerful new class of environmental sorbent materials has been realized. By coating the mesoporous ceramic backbone with a monolayer terminated with a lanthanide-specific ligand, it is possible to couple high lanthanide binding affinity with the high loading capacity (resulting from the extremely high surface area of the support). This lanthanide-specific ligand field is created by pairing a “hard” anionic Lewis base with a suitable synergistic ligand, in a favorable chelating geometry. Details of the synthesis, characterization, lanthanide binding studies, binding kinetics, competition experiments and sorbent regeneration studies are summarized.

  20. Removal of H/sub 2/S from hot gas in the presence of Cu-containing sorbents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kyotani, T.; Kawashima, H.; Tomita, A.; Palmer, A.; Furimsky, E.

    1989-01-01

    Three solids containing Cu oxides were tested as sorbents for H/sub 2/S removal from hot gas at 600 degrees C. The formation of a surface layer of sulphides on pellet exterior affected Cu utilization for the sorbent prepared from Cu oxides alone. This improved for the sorbent prepared by impregnation of zeolite with Cu oxides, although complete utilization of Cu was not achieved. The combination of Cu oxides with SiO/sub 2/ gave the most efficient sorbent. Oxidation of H/sub 2/S to SO/sub 2/ on admission of hot gas to the fixed bed was a common observation for all sorbents. The addition of steam to hot gas suppressed the SO/sub 2/ formation. 9 refs., 6 figs., 4 tabs.

  1. Data summary report for M.W. Kellogg Z-sorb sorbent tests. CRADA 92-008 Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Everett, C E; Monaco, S J

    1994-05-01

    A series of tests were undertaken from August 6, 1992 through July 6, 1993 at METC`s High Pressure Bench-Scale Hot Gas Desulfurization Unit to support a Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) between METC`s Sorbent Development Cluster and M.W. Kellogg. The M.W. Kellogg Company is currently developing a commercial offering of a hot gas clean-up system to be used in Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) systems. The intent of the CRADA agreement was to identify a suitable zinc-based desulfurization sorbent for the Sierra Pacific Power Company Clean Coal Technology Project, to identify optimum operating conditions for the sorbent, and to estimate potential sorbent loss per year. This report presents results pertaining to Phillips Petroleum`s Z-Sorb III sorbent.

  2. Tailoring superelasticity of soft magnetic materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cremer, Peet; Löwen, Hartmut; Menzel, Andreas M.

    2015-10-01

    Embedding magnetic colloidal particles in an elastic polymer matrix leads to smart soft materials that can reversibly be addressed from outside by external magnetic fields. We discover a pronounced nonlinear superelastic stress-strain behavior of such materials using numerical simulations. This behavior results from a combination of two stress-induced mechanisms: a detachment mechanism of embedded particle aggregates and a reorientation mechanism of magnetic moments. The superelastic regime can be reversibly tuned or even be switched on and off by external magnetic fields and thus be tailored during operation. Similarities to the superelastic behavior of shape-memory alloys suggest analogous applications, with the additional benefit of reversible switchability and a higher biocompatibility of soft materials.

  3. Engineering tailored nanoparticles with microbes: quo vadis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasad, Ram; Pandey, Rishikesh; Barman, Ishan

    2016-01-01

    In the quest for less toxic and cleaner methods of nanomaterials production, recent developments in the biosynthesis of nanoparticles have underscored the important role of microorganisms. Their intrinsic ability to withstand variable extremes of temperature, pressure, and pH coupled with the minimal downstream processing requirements provide an attractive route for diverse applications. Yet, controlling the dispersity and facile tuning of the morphology of the nanoparticles of desired chemical compositions remains an ongoing challenge. In this Focus Review, we critically review the advances in nanoparticle synthesis using microbes, ranging from bacteria and fungi to viruses, and discuss new insights into the cellular mechanisms of such formation that may, in the near future, allow complete control over particle morphology and functionalization. In addition to serving as paradigms for cost-effective, biocompatible, and eco-friendly synthesis, microbes hold the promise for a unique template for synthesis of tailored nanoparticles targeted at therapeutic and diagnostic platform technologies. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Tailored vacuum chambers for ac magnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harvey, A.

    1985-01-01

    The proposed LAMPF-II accelerator has a 60-Hz booster synchrotron and a 3-Hz main ring. To provide a vacuum enclosure inside the magnets with low eddy-current losses and minimal field distortion, yet capable of carrying rf image currents and providing beam stabilization, we propose an innovative combination pipe. Structurally, the enclosure is high-purity alumina ceramic, which is strong, radiation resistant, and has good vacuum properties. Applied to the chamber are thin, spaced, silver conductors using adapted thick-film technology. The conductor design can be tailored to the stabilization requirements, for example, longitudinal conductors for image currents, circumferential for transverse stabilization. The inside of the chamber has a thin, resistive coating to avoid charge build-up. The overall 60-Hz power loss is less than 100 W/m

  5. Computer-Tailored Intervention for Juvenile Offenders

    Science.gov (United States)

    LEVESQUE, DEBORAH A.; JOHNSON, JANET L.; WELCH, CAROL A.; PROCHASKA, JANICE M.; FERNANDEZ, ANNE C.

    2012-01-01

    Studies assessing the efficacy of juvenile justice interventions show small effects on recidivism and other outcomes. This paper describes the development of a prototype of a multimedia computer-tailored intervention (“Rise Above Your Situation”or RAYS) that relies on an evidence-based model of behavior change, the Transtheoretical Model, and expert system technology to deliver assessments, feedback, printed reports, and counselor reports with intervention ideas. In a feasibility test involving 60 system-involved youths and their counselors, evaluations of the program were favorable: 91.7% of youths agreed that the program could help them make positive changes, and 86.7% agreed that the program could give their counselor helpful information about them. PMID:23264754

  6. Optimizing Tailored Health Promotion for Older Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcus-Varwijk, Anne Esther; Koopmans, Marg; Visscher, Tommy L. S.; Seidell, Jacob C.; Slaets, Joris P. J.; Smits, Carolien H. M.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: This study explores older adults’ perspectives on healthy living, and their interactions with professionals regarding healthy living. This perspective is necessary for health professionals when they engage in tailored health promotion in their daily work routines. Method: In a qualitative study, 18 semi-structured interviews were carried out with older adults (aged 55-98) living in the Netherlands. The framework analysis method was used to analyze the transcripts. Results: Three themes emerged from the data—(a) healthy living: daily routines and staying active, (b) enacting healthy living: accepting and adapting, (c) interaction with health professionals with regard to healthy living: autonomy and reciprocity. Discussion: Older adults experience healthy living in a holistic way in which they prefer to live active and independent lives. Health professionals should focus on building an equal relationship of trust and focus on positive health outcomes, such as autonomy and self-sufficiency when communicating about healthy living. PMID:28138485

  7. SO{sub 2} retention by reactivated CaO-based sorbent from multiple CO{sub 2} capture cycles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vasilije Manovic; Edward J. Anthony [CANMET Energy Technology Centre-Ottawa, Ottawa, ON (Canada). Natural Resources Canada

    2007-06-15

    This paper examines the reactivation of spent sorbent, produced from multiple CO{sub 2} capture cycles, for use in SO{sub 2} capture. CaO-based sorbent samples were obtained from Kelly Rock limestone using three particle size ranges, each containing different impurities levels. Using a thermogravimetric analyzer (TGA), the sulfation behavior of partially sulfated and unsulfated samples obtained after multiple calcination-carbonation cycles in a tube furnace (TF), following steam reactivation in a pressurized reactor, is examined. In addition, samples calcined/sintered under different conditions after hydration are also examined. The results show that suitably treated spent sorbent has better sulfation characteristics than that of the original sorbent. Thus for example, after 2 h sulfation, {gt} 80% of the CaO was sulfated. In addition, the sorbent showed significant activity even after 4 h when {gt} 95% CaO was sulfated. The results were confirmed by X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis, which showed that, by the end of the sulfation process, samples contained CaSO{sub 4} with only traces of unreacted CaO. The superior behavior of spent reactivated sorbent appears to be due to swelling of the sorbent particles during steam hydration. The surface area morphology of sorbent after reactivation was examined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Ca(OH){sub 2} crystals were seen, which displayed their regular shape, and their elemental composition was confirmed by energy-dispersive X-ray (EDX) analysis. These results allow the proposal of a new process for the use of CaO-based sorbent in fluidized bed combustion (FBC) systems, which incorporates CO{sub 2} capture, sorbent reactivation, and SO{sub 2} retention. 26 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  8. SO{sub 2} Retention by CaO-Based Sorbent Spent in CO{sub 2} Looping Cycles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manovic, V.; Anthony, E.J.; Loncarevic, D.

    2009-07-15

    CaO-based looping cycles are promising processes for CO{sub 2} Capture from both syngas and flue gas. The technology is based on cyclical carbonation of CaO and regeneration of CaCO{sub 3} in a dual fluidized-bed reactor to produce a pure CO{sub 2} stream suitable for sequestration. Use of spent sorbent from CO{sub 2} looping cycles for SO{sub 2} capture is investigated. Three limestones were investigated: Kelly Rock (Canada), La Blanca (Spain), and Katowice (Poland, Upper Silesia). Carbonation/calcination cycles were performed in a tube furnace with both the original limestones and samples thermally pretreated for different times (i.e., sintered). The spent sorbent samples were sulfated in a thermogravimetric analyzer (TGA). The changes in the resulting sorbent pore structure were then investigated using mercury porosimetry. It has been shown that the sulfation rates of both thermally pretreated and spent sorbent samples are lower in comparison with those of the original samples. However, final conversions of both spent and pretreated sorbents after longer sulfation time were comparable or higher than those observed for the original sorbents under comparable conditions. Maximum sulfation levels strongly depend on sorbent porosity and pore surface area. The results showed that spent sorbent samples from CO{sub 2} looping cycles can be used as sorbents for SO{sub 2} retention in cases where significant porosity loss does not occur during CO{sub 2} reaction cycles. In the case of spent Kelly Rock and Katowice samples, sorbent particles are practically uniformly sulfated, achieving final conversions that are determined by the total pore volume available for the bulky CaSO{sub 4} product.

  9. Tailoring CSR Strategy to Company Size?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra ZBUCHEA

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR is one of the most debated topics in the academic and professional business literature, being analyzed in a myriad of perspectives, from philosophy, to marketing, management practice, managerial strategies or financial impact. The very term of CSR implies that involving with society in a structural way that is part of a business DNA is or should be understood as a characteristic of big size companies (e.g. ‘corporations’. Academic literature and financial reports show a direct relationship between a company size and its CSR budget, therefore some conclusions have been taken that CSR is effective mostly in cases of big budgets and, consequently, of big companies. Academic research also tends to favor large corporations. Most of the literature on CSR is dedicated to large companies. Nevertheless, in the past decade, increasingly more studies have investigated the social responsibility assumed by other types of companies (such as SMEs, by public institutions or by nonprofit organizations. Our present empirical analysis based on structured academic literature review (comprehensive selection of relevant international papers and content analysis demonstrates that CSR should go beyond the classical understanding of the ‘corporation’ concept and that it should be tailored to SMEs as well. Innovation and top management support are the drivers of effective CSR adoption by SMEs, for positive results meeting specific business model requirements, as well as for society. Going beyond social responsibility as a philosophical duty, correctly tailored CSR strategies can be efficient for small and medium enterprises in meeting strategic business objectives.

  10. Synroc tailored waste forms for actinide immobilization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gregg, Daniel J.; Vance, Eric R. [Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation, Kirrawee (Australia). ANSTOsynroc, Inst. of Materials Engineering

    2017-07-01

    Since the end of the 1970s, Synroc at the Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation (ANSTO) has evolved from a focus on titanate ceramics directed at PUREX waste to a platform waste treatment technology to fabricate tailored glass-ceramic and ceramic waste forms for different types of actinide, high- and intermediate level wastes. The particular emphasis for Synroc is on wastes which are problematic for glass matrices or existing vitrification process technologies. In particular, nuclear wastes containing actinides, notably plutonium, pose a unique set of requirements for a waste form, which Synroc ceramic and glass-ceramic waste forms can be tailored to meet. Key aspects to waste form design include maximising the waste loading, producing a chemically durable product, maintaining flexibility to accommodate waste variations, a proliferation resistance to prevent theft and diversion, and appropriate process technology to produce waste forms that meet requirements for actinide waste streams. Synroc waste forms incorporate the actinides within mineral phases, producing products which are much more durable in water than baseline borosilicate glasses. Further, Synroc waste forms can incorporate neutron absorbers and {sup 238}U which provide criticality control both during processing and whilst within the repository. Synroc waste forms offer proliferation resistance advantages over baseline borosilicate glasses as it is much more difficult to retrieve the actinide and they can reduce the radiation dose to workers compared to borosilicate glasses. Major research and development into Synroc at ANSTO over the past 40 years has included the development of waste forms for excess weapons plutonium immobilization in collaboration with the US and for impure plutonium residues in collaboration with the UK, as examples. With a waste loading of 40-50 wt.%, Synroc would also be considered a strong candidate as an engineered waste form for used nuclear fuel and highly

  11. Matrix-compatible sorbent coatings based on structurally-tuned polymeric ionic liquids for the determination of acrylamide in brewed coffee and coffee powder using solid-phase microextraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cagliero, Cecilia; Nan, He; Bicchi, Carlo; Anderson, Jared L

    2016-08-12

    Nine crosslinked polymeric ionic liquid (PIL)-based SPME sorbent coatings were designed and screened in this study for the trace level determination of acrylamide in brewed coffee and coffee powder using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The structure of the ionic liquid (IL) monomer was tailored by introducing different functional groups to the cation and the nature of the IL crosslinker was designed by altering both the structure of the cation as well as counteranions. The extraction efficiency of the new PIL coatings towards acrylamide was investigated and compared to a previously reported PIL sorbent coating. All PIL fibers exhibited excellent analytical precision and linearity. The PIL fiber coating consisting of 50% 1,12-di(3-vinylbenzylbenzimidazolium)dodecane dibis[(trifluoromethyl)sulfonyl]imide as IL crosslinker in 1-vinyl-3-(10-hydroxydecyl)imidazolium bis[(trifluoromethyl)sulfonyl]imide IL monomer resulted in a limit of quantitation of 0.5μgL(-1) with in-solution SPME sampling. The hydroxyl moiety appended to the IL cation was observed to significantly increase the sensitivity of the PIL coating toward acrylamide. The quantitation of acrylamide in brewed coffee and coffee powder was performed using the different PIL-based fibers by the method of standard addition after a quenching reaction using ninhydrin to inhibit the formation of interfering acrylamide in the GC inlet, mainly by asparagine thermal degradation. Excellent repeatability with relative standard deviations below 10% were obtained on the real coffee samples and the structure of the coatings appeared intact by scanning electron microscopy after coffee sampling proving the matrix-compatibility of the PIL sorbent coatings. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Understanding and Tailoring Grain Growth of Lead-Halide Perovskite for Solar Cell Application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Yongchao; Liu, Yanliang; Shin, Insoo; Hwang, In-Wook; Jung, Yun Kyung; Jeong, Jung Hyun; Park, Sung Heum; Kim, Kwang Ho

    2017-10-04

    The fundamental mechanism of grain growth evolution in the fabrication process from the precursor phase to the perovskite phase is not fully understood despite its importance in achieving high-quality grains in organic-inorganic hybrid perovskites, which are strongly affected by processing parameters. In this work, we investigate the fundamental conversion mechanism from the precursor phase of perovskite to the complete perovskite phase and how the intermediate phase promotes growth of the perovskite grains during the fabrication process. By monitoring the morphological evolution of the perovskite during the film fabrication process, we observed a clear rod-shaped intermediate phase in the highly crystalline perovskite and investigated the role of the nanorod intermediate phase on the growth of the grains of the perovskite film. Furthermore, on the basis of these findings, we developed a simple and effective method to tailor grain properties including the crystallinity, size, and number of grain boundaries, and then utilized the film with the tailored grains to develop perovskite solar cells.

  13. Molecular tailoring approach for exploring structures, energetics and ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    Keywords. Molecular clusters; linear scaling methods; molecular tailoring approach (MTA); Hartree– ..... energy decomposition analysis also performed and which clearly ... through molecular dynamics simulation furnished by. Takeguchi,. 46.

  14. Inorganic biomaterials structure, properties and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Xiang C

    2014-01-01

    This book provides a practical guide to the use and applications of inorganic biomaterials. It begins by introducing the concept of inorganic biomaterials, which includes bioceramics and bioglass. This concept is further extended to hybrid biomaterials consisting of inorganic and organic materials to mimic natural biomaterials. The book goes on to provide the reader with information on biocompatibility, bioactivity and bioresorbability. The concept of the latter is important because of the increasing role resorbable biomaterials are playing in implant applications. The book also introduces a n

  15. Inorganic elements in sugar samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salles, Paulo M.B. de; Campos, Tarcisio P.R. de, E-mail: pauladesalles@yahoo.com.br, E-mail: tprcampos@pq.cnpq.br [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (DEN/UFMG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Departamento de Engenharia Nuclear; Menezes, Maria Angela de B.C., E-mail: menezes@cdtn.br [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    Sugar is considered a safe food ingredient; however, it can be contaminated by organic elements since its planting until its production process. Thus, this study aims at checking the presence of inorganic elements in samples of crystal, refined and brown sugar available for consumption in Brazil. The applied technique was neutron activation analysis, the k{sub 0} method, using the TRIGA MARK - IPR-R1 reactor located at CDTN/CNEN, in Belo Horizonte. It was identified the presence of elements such as, Au, Br, Co, Cr, Hf, K, Na, Sb, Sc and Zn in the samples of crystal/refined sugar and the presence of As, Au, Br, Ca, Co, Cr, Cs, Fe, Hf, K, Na, Sb, Sc, Sm, Sr, Th and Zn in the brown sugar samples. The applied technique was appropriate to this study because it was not necessary to put the samples in solution, essential condition in order to apply other techniques, avoiding contaminations and sample losses, besides allowing a multi elementary detection in different sugar samples. (author)

  16. Inorganic elements in sugar samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salles, Paulo M.B. de; Campos, Tarcisio P.R. de

    2013-01-01

    Sugar is considered a safe food ingredient; however, it can be contaminated by organic elements since its planting until its production process. Thus, this study aims at checking the presence of inorganic elements in samples of crystal, refined and brown sugar available for consumption in Brazil. The applied technique was neutron activation analysis, the k 0 method, using the TRIGA MARK - IPR-R1 reactor located at CDTN/CNEN, in Belo Horizonte. It was identified the presence of elements such as, Au, Br, Co, Cr, Hf, K, Na, Sb, Sc and Zn in the samples of crystal/refined sugar and the presence of As, Au, Br, Ca, Co, Cr, Cs, Fe, Hf, K, Na, Sb, Sc, Sm, Sr, Th and Zn in the brown sugar samples. The applied technique was appropriate to this study because it was not necessary to put the samples in solution, essential condition in order to apply other techniques, avoiding contaminations and sample losses, besides allowing a multi elementary detection in different sugar samples. (author)

  17. The quest for inorganic fullerenes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pietsch, Susanne; Dollinger, Andreas; Strobel, Christoph H.; Ganteför, Gerd, E-mail: gerd.gantefoer@uni-konstanz.de, E-mail: ydkim91@skku.edu [Department of Physics, University of Konstanz, D-78457 Konstanz (Germany); Park, Eun Ji; Kim, Young Dok, E-mail: gerd.gantefoer@uni-konstanz.de, E-mail: ydkim91@skku.edu [Department of Chemistry, Sungkyunkwan University, 440-746 Suwon (Korea, Republic of); Seo, Hyun Ook [Center for Free-Electron Laser Science/DESY, D-22607 Hamburg (Germany); Idrobo, Juan-Carlos [Center for Nanophase Materials Sciences, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831 (United States); Pennycook, Stephen J. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National University of Singapore, Singapore 117575 (Singapore)

    2015-10-07

    Experimental results of the search for inorganic fullerenes are presented. Mo{sub n}S{sub m}{sup −} and W{sub n}S{sub m}{sup −} clusters are generated with a pulsed arc cluster ion source equipped with an annealing stage. This is known to enhance fullerene formation in the case of carbon. Analogous to carbon, the mass spectra of the metal chalcogenide clusters produced in this way exhibit a bimodal structure. The species in the first maximum at low mass are known to be platelets. Here, the structure of the species in the second maximum is studied by anion photoelectron spectroscopy, scanning transmission electron microscopy, and scanning tunneling microcopy. All experimental results indicate a two-dimensional structure of these species and disagree with a three-dimensional fullerene-like geometry. A possible explanation for this preference of two-dimensional structures is the ability of a two-element material to saturate the dangling bonds at the edges of a platelet by excess atoms of one element. A platelet consisting of a single element only cannot do this. Accordingly, graphite and boron might be the only materials forming nano-spheres because they are the only single element materials assuming two-dimensional structures.

  18. Mercury Removal from MSW Incineration Flue Gas by Mineral-based Sorbents.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Rumayor, Marta; Svoboda, Karel; Švehla, Jaroslav; Pohořelý, Michael; Šyc, Michal

    2018-01-01

    Roč. 73, DEC 13 (2018), s. 265-270 ISSN 0956-053X R&D Projects: GA TA ČR TE02000236 Institutional support: RVO:67985858 Keywords : mercury * removal * mineral sorbents Subject RIV: DI - Air Pollution ; Quality OBOR OECD: Environmental sciences (social aspects to be 5.7) Impact factor: 4.030, year: 2016

  19. Anaerobic co-digestion of cork based oil sorbent and cow manure or sludge

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cavaleiro, A.J.; Neves, T.M.; Guedes, A.P.; Alves, M.M.; Pinto, P.; Silva, S.P.; Machado de Sousa, Diana

    2015-01-01

    Cork, a material with great economic, social and environmental importance in Portugal, is also a good oil sorbent that can be used in the remediation of oil spills. The oil-impregnated cork can be easily removed, but requires further treatment. In the case of vegetable oil spills, anaerobic

  20. Water Utility Lime Sludge Reuse – An Environmental Sorbent for Power Utilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lime sludge can be used as an environmental sorbent to remove sulfur dioxide (SO2) and acid gases, by the ultra-fine CaCO3 particles, and to sequester mercury and other heavy metals, by the Natural Organic Matter and residual activated carbon. The laboratory experimental set up ...

  1. ACTIVATION AND REACTIVITY OF NOVEL CALCIUM-BASED SORBENTS FOR DRY SO2 CONTROL IN BOILERS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chemically modified calcium hydroxide (Ca(OH)2) sorbents developed in the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's Air and Energy Engineering Research Laboratory (AEERL) for sulfur dioxide (SO2) control in utility boilers were tested in an electrically heated, bench-scale isotherma...

  2. High temperature capture of CO2 on lithium-based sorbents from rice husk ash.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ke; Guo, Xin; Zhao, Pengfei; Wang, Fanzi; Zheng, Chuguang

    2011-05-15

    Highly efficient Li(4)SiO(4) (lithium orthosilicate)-based sorbents for CO(2) capture at high temperature, was developed using waste materials (rice husk ash). Two treated rice husk ash (RHA) samples (RHA1 and RHA2) were prepared and calcined at 800°C in the presence of Li(2)CO(3). Pure Li(4)SiO(4) and RHA-based sorbents were characterized by X-ray fluorescence, X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, nitrogen adsorption, and thermogravimetry. CO(2) sorption was tested through 15 carbonation/calcination cycles in a fixed bed reactor. The metals of RHA were doped with Li(4)SiO(4) resulting to inhibited growth of the particles and increased pore volume and surface area. Thermal analyses indicated a much better CO(2) absorption in Li(4)SiO(4)-based sorbent prepared from RHA1 (higher metal content sample) because the activation energies for the chemisorption process and diffusion process were smaller than that of pure Li(4)SiO(4). RHA1-based sorbent also maintained higher capacities during the multiple cycles. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Technical task plan for testing filter box sorbent-paint filter test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kilpatrick, L.L.

    1993-01-01

    At the Savannah River Plant, High Level Waste Engineering (HLWE) asked Interim Waste Technology (IWT) to choose and test a sorbent to add to the ITP filter box that meets the EPA requirement for land disposal of containerized liquid hazardous wastes per Paint Filter Liquids (PFL) test method 9095. This report outlines the process to be used in accomplishing this task

  4. A highly efficient and selective polysilsesquioxane sorbent for heavy metal removal

    KAUST Repository

    Duan, Xiaonan; Qi, Genggeng; Wang, Peng; Giannelis, Emmanuel P.

    2012-01-01

    Suited for heavy stuff: An efficient mesoporous sorbent based on a pure ethylendiamine-bridged polysilsesquioxane is presented. This material, with both a high amine loading and a high surface area, is applied for heavy metal ion removal. Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. Regeneration dynamics of potassium-based sediment sorbents for CO{sub 2} capture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Li-wei; Diao, Yong-fa; Wang, Lin-lin; Shi, Xiao-fang; Tai, Xiao-yan [Donghua University, Shanghai (China)

    2013-08-15

    Simulating regeneration tests of Potassium-Based sorbents that supported by Suzhou River Channel Sediment were carried out in order to obtain parameters of regeneration reaction. Potassium-based sediment sorbents have a better morphology with the surface area of 156.73 m{sup 2}·g{sup −1}, the pore volume of 357.5x10{sup −3} cm{sup 3}·g{sup −1} and the distribution of pore diameters about 2-20 nm. As a comparison, those of hexagonal potassium-based sorbents are only 2.83 m{sup 2}g{sup −1}, 7.45x10{sup −3} cm{sup 3}g{sup −1} and 1.72-5.4 nm, respectively. TGA analysis shows that the optimum final temperature of regeneration is 200 and the optimum loading is about 40%, with the best heating rate of 10 .deg. C·min{sup −1}. By the modified Coats-Redfern integral method, the activation energy of 40% KHCO{sub 3} sorbents is 102.43 kJ·mol{sup −1}. The results obtained can be used as basic data for designing and operating CO{sub 2} capture process.

  6. CO2 removal from biogas with supported amine sorbents : First technical evaluation based on experimental data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sutanto, Stevia; Dijkstra, J. W.; Pieterse, J. A.Z.; Boon, J; Hauwert, P.; Brilman, D. W.F.

    2017-01-01

    Biogas from fermentation of manure and organic residues produces a gas stream that can be fed into the natural gas grid, provided impurities (CO2, H2S and H2O) are removed according to specifications prior to grid injection. Compared to conventional technologies, supported amine sorbents (SAS) seem

  7. Adsorption of gaseous RuO4 by various sorbents. II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vujisic, L.; Nikolic, R.

    1983-01-01

    Sorption of gaseous RuO 4 on impregnated Alcoa Alumina H-151, impregnated charcoal, silica gel and HEPA filter was investigated. The results obtained on various sorbents are compared and discussed in connection with possibilities to use the chosen material in air cleaning systems

  8. Mercury Removal from MSW Incineration Flue Gas by Mineral-based Sorbents.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Rumayor, Marta; Svoboda, Karel; Švehla, Jaroslav; Pohořelý, Michael; Šyc, Michal

    Roč. 73, DEC 13 ( 2018 ), s. 265-270 ISSN 0956-053X R&D Projects: GA TA ČR TE02000236 Institutional support: RVO:67985858 Keywords : mercury * removal * mineral sorbents Subject RIV: DI - Air Pollution ; Quality OBOR OECD: Environmental sciences (social aspects to be 5.7) Impact factor: 4.030, year: 2016

  9. Microbial consortia in mesocosm bioremediation trial using oil sorbents, slow-release fertilizer and bioaugmentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gertler, Christoph; Gerdts, Gunnar; Timmis, Kenneth N; Golyshin, Peter N

    2009-08-01

    An experimental prototype oil boom including oil sorbents, slow-release fertilizers and biomass of the marine oil-degrading bacterium, Alcanivorax borkumensis, was applied for sorption and degradation of heavy fuel oil in a 500-L mesocosm experiment. Fingerprinting of DNA and small subunit rRNA samples for microbial activity conducted to study the changes in microbial communities of both the water body and on the oil sorbent surface showed the prevalence of A. borkumensis on the surface of the oil sorbent. Growth of this obligate oil-degrading bacterium on immobilized oil coincided with a 30-fold increase in total respiration. A number of DNA and RNA signatures of aromatic hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria were detected both in samples of water body and on oil sorbent. Ultimately, the heavy fuel oil in this mesocosm study was effectively removed from the water body. This is the first study to successfully investigate the fate of oil-degrading microbial consortia in an experimental prototype for a bioremediation strategy in offshore, coastal or ship-bound oil spill mitigation using a combination of mechanical and biotechnological techniques.

  10. 77 FR 9610 - Gastroenterology-Urology Devices; Reclassification of Sorbent Hemoperfusion Devices for the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-17

    ... encephalopathy, a complication of liver failure in which the brain function progressively deteriorates. Hepatic encephalopathy is a condition in which toxic substances that are normally cleared from the body by the liver... encephalopathy, at which the disturbance of the brain function leads to loss of consciousness. Sorbent...

  11. Recovery of Lithium from Geothermal Brine with Lithium-Aluminum Layered Double Hydroxide Chloride Sorbents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paranthaman, Mariappan Parans; Li, Ling; Luo, Jiaqi; Hoke, Thomas; Ucar, Huseyin; Moyer, Bruce A; Harrison, Stephen

    2017-11-21

    We report a three-stage bench-scale column extraction process to selectively extract lithium chloride from geothermal brine. The goal of this research is to develop materials and processing technologies to improve the economics of lithium extraction and production from naturally occurring geothermal and other brines for energy storage applications. A novel sorbent, lithium aluminum layered double hydroxide chloride (LDH), is synthesized and characterized with X-ray powder diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES), and thermogravimetric analysis. Each cycle of the column extraction process consists of three steps: (1) loading the sorbent with lithium chloride from brine; (2) intermediate washing to remove unwanted ions; (3) final washing for unloading the lithium chloride ions. Our experimental analysis of eluate vs feed concentrations of Li and competing ions demonstrates that our optimized sorbents can achieve a recovery efficiency of ∼91% and possess excellent Li apparent selectivity of 47.8 compared to Na ions and 212 compared to K ions, respectively in the brine. The present work demonstrates that LDH is an effective sorbent for selective extraction of lithium from brines, thus offering the possibility of effective application of lithium salts in lithium-ion batteries leading to a fundamental shift in the lithium supply chain.

  12. Catalyst functionalized buffer sorbent pebbles for rapid separation of carbon dioxide from gas mixtures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aines, Roger D

    2015-03-31

    A method for separating CO.sub.2 from gas mixtures uses a slurried media impregnated with buffer compounds and coating the solid media with a catalyst or enzyme that promotes the transformation of CO.sub.2 to carbonic acid. Buffer sorbent pebbles with a catalyst or enzyme coating are provided for rapid separation of CO.sub.2 from gas mixtures.

  13. A highly efficient and selective polysilsesquioxane sorbent for heavy metal removal

    KAUST Repository

    Duan, Xiaonan

    2012-02-29

    Suited for heavy stuff: An efficient mesoporous sorbent based on a pure ethylendiamine-bridged polysilsesquioxane is presented. This material, with both a high amine loading and a high surface area, is applied for heavy metal ion removal. Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  14. Feasibility Study of Commercial Sorbent in Coal-derived Syngas Desulfurization Field.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Chien, H.-Y.; Chyou, Y.-P.; Svoboda, Karel

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 6, č. 4 (2015), s. 236-242 ISSN 2078-0737 R&D Projects: GA ČR GC14-09692J Grant - others:MOST(TW) NSC 103-2923-E-042A-001 -MY3 Institutional support: RVO:67985858 Keywords : gasification * desulfurization * sorbent Subject RIV: CI - Industrial Chemistry, Chemical Engineering

  15. Theoretical evaluation on selective adsorption characteristics of alkali metal-based sorbents for gaseous oxidized mercury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Hongjian; Duan, Yufeng; Zhu, Chun; Cai, Tianyi; Li, Chunfeng; Cai, Liang

    2017-10-01

    Alkali metal-based sorbents are potential for oxidized mercury (Hg 2+ ) selective adsorption but show hardly effect to elemental mercury (Hg 0 ) in flue gas. Density functional theory (DFT) was employed to investigate the Hg 0 and HgCl 2 adsorption mechanism over alkali metal-based sorbents, including calcium oxide (CaO), magnesium oxide (MgO), potassium chloride (KCl) and sodium chloride (NaCl). Hg 0 was found to weakly interact with CaO (001), MgO (001), KCl (001) and NaCl (001) surfaces while HgCl 2 was effectively adsorbed on top-O and top-Cl sites. Charge transfer and bond population were calculated to discuss the covalency and ionicity of HgCl 2 bonding with the adsorption sites. The partial density of states (PDOS) analysis manifests that HgCl 2 strongly interacts with surface sites through the orbital hybridizations between Hg and top O or Cl. Frontier molecular orbital (FMO) energy and Mulliken electronegativity are introduced as the quantitative criteria to evaluate the reactivity of mercury species and alkali metal-based sorbents. HgCl 2 is identified as a Lewis acid and more reactive than Hg 0 . The Lewis basicity of the four alkali metal-based sorbents is predicted as the increasing order: NaCl < MgO < KCl < CaO, in consistence with the trend of HgCl 2 adsorption energies. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Catalyst functionalized buffer sorbent pebbles for rapid separation of carbon dioxide from gas mixtures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aines, Roger D.

    2013-03-12

    A method for separating CO.sub.2 from gas mixtures uses a slurried media impregnated with buffer compounds and coating the solid media with a catalyst or enzyme that promotes the transformation of CO.sub.2 to carbonic acid. Buffer sorbent pebbles with a catalyst or enzyme coating are provided for rapid separation of CO.sub.2 from gas mixtures.

  17. A decontamination system for chemical weapons agents using a liquid solution on a solid sorbent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waysbort, Daniel; McGarvey, David J; Creasy, William R; Morrissey, Kevin M; Hendrickson, David M; Durst, H Dupont

    2009-01-30

    A decontamination system for chemical warfare agents was developed and tested that combines a liquid decontamination reagent solution with solid sorbent particles. The components have fewer safety and environmental concerns than traditional chlorine bleach-based products or highly caustic solutions. The liquid solution, based on Decon Greentrade mark, has hydrogen peroxide and a carbonate buffer as active ingredients. The best solid sorbents were found to be a copolymer of ethylene glycol dimethacrylate and n-lauryl methacrylate (Polytrap 6603 Adsorber); or an allyl methacrylate cross-linked polymer (Poly-Pore E200 Adsorber). These solids are human and environmentally friendly and are commonly used in cosmetics. The decontaminant system was tested for reactivity with pinacolyl methylphosphonofluoridate (Soman, GD), bis(2-chloroethyl)sulfide (Mustard, HD), and S-(2-diisopropylaminoethyl) O-ethyl methylphosphonothioate (VX) by using NMR Spectroscopy. Molybdate ion (MoO(4)(-2)) was added to the decontaminant to catalyze the oxidation of HD. The molybdate ion provided a color change from pink to white when the oxidizing capacity of the system was exhausted. The decontaminant was effective for ratios of agent to decontaminant of up to 1:50 for VX (t(1/2) decontamination solution were measured to show that the sorbent decreased the vapor concentration of GD. The E200 sorbent had the additional advantage of absorbing aqueous decontamination solution without the addition of an organic co-solvent such as isopropanol, but the rate depended strongly on mixing for HD.

  18. Super-Hydrophobic High Throughput Electrospun Cellulose Acetate (CA) Nanofibrous Mats as Oil Selective Sorbents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Chao

    The threat of oil pollution increases with the expansion of oil exploration and production activities, as well as the industrial growth around the world. Use of sorbents is a common method to deal with the oil spills. In this work, an advanced sorbent technology is described. A series of non-woven Cellulose Acetate (CA) nanofibrous mats with a 3D fibrous structure were synthesized by a novel high-throughput electrospinning technique. The precursor was solutions of CA/ acetic acid-acetone in various concentrations. Among them, 15.0% CA exhibits a superhydrophobic surface property, with a water contact angle of 128.95°. Its oil sorption capacity is many times higher the oil sorption capacity of the best commercial sorbent available in the market. Also, it showed good buoyancy properties on the water both as dry-mat and oil-saturated mat. In addition, it is biodegradable, easily available, easily manufactured, so the CA nanofibrous mat is an excellent candidate as oil sorbent for oil spill in water treatment.

  19. Monolithic columns with organic sorbent based on poly-1-vinylimidazole for high performance liquid chromatography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patrushev, Y. V.; Sidelnikov, V. N.; Yudina, Y. S.

    2017-03-01

    Monolithic chromatographic columns for HPLC with sorbent based on 1-vinylimidazole are prepared. It is shown that changing the 1-vinylimidazole content in the initial solution allows us to change the polarity of columns. An example of aromatic hydrocarbons separation is presented.

  20. Adsorption of CO2 and H2O on supported amine sorbents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veneman, Rens; Zhao, W.; Li, Z.; Cai, N.; Brilman, Derk Willem Frederik

    2014-01-01

    In this work we have evaluated the H2O and CO2 adsorption characteristics of Lewatit VP OC 1065 in view of the potential application of solid sorbents in post combustion CO2 capture. Here we present single component adsorption isotherms for H2O and CO2 as well as co-adsorption experiments. It was

  1. Electrostatic interactions between immunoglobulin (IgG) molecules and a charged sorbent

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bremer, M.G.E.G.; Duval, J.; Norde, Willem; Lyklema, J.

    2004-01-01

    The influence of electrostatic interactions on the adsorption of IgG is examined both theoretically and experimentally. The long-range interaction between IgG and the charged sorbent surface is treated in terms of the DLVO theory taking into account the possibility of charge- and potential

  2. CO_2 capture with solid sorbent: CFD model of an innovative reactor concept

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barelli, L.; Bidini, G.; Gallorini, F.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • A new reactor solution based on rotating fixed beds was presented. • The preliminary design of the reactor was approached. • A CFD model of the reactor, including CO_2 capture kinetic, was developed. • The CFD model is validated with experimental results. • Sorbent exploitation increasing is possible thanks to the new reactor. - Abstract: In future decarbonization scenarios, CCS with particular reference to post-combustion technologies will be an important option also for energy intensive industries. Nevertheless, today CCS systems are rarely installed due to high energy and cost penalties of current technology based on chemical scrubbing with amine solvent. Therefore, innovative solutions based on new/optimized solvents, sorbents, membranes and new process designs, are R&D priorities. Regarding the CO_2 capture through solid sorbents, a new reactor solution based on rotating fixed beds is presented in this paper. In order to design the innovative system, a suitable CFD model was developed considering also the kinetic capture process. The model was validated with experimental results obtained by the authors in previous research activities, showing a potential reduction of energy penalties respect to current technologies. In the future, the model will be used to identify the control logic of the innovative reactor in order to verify improvements in terms of sorbent exploitation and reduction of system energy consumption.

  3. Promoting a Culture of Tailoring for Systems Engineering Policy Expectations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blankenship, Van A.

    2016-01-01

    NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) has developed an integrated systems engineering approach to promote a culture of tailoring for program and project policy requirements. MSFC's culture encourages and supports tailoring, with an emphasis on risk-based decision making, for enhanced affordability and efficiency. MSFC's policy structure integrates the various Agency requirements into a single, streamlined implementation approach which serves as a "one-stop-shop" for our programs and projects to follow. The engineers gain an enhanced understanding of policy and technical expectations, as well as lesson's learned from MSFC's history of spaceflight and science missions, to enable them to make appropriate, risk-based tailoring recommendations. The tailoring approach utilizes a standard methodology to classify projects into predefined levels using selected mission and programmatic scaling factors related to risk tolerance. Policy requirements are then selectively applied and tailored, with appropriate rationale, and approved by the governing authorities, to support risk-informed decisions to achieve the desired cost and schedule efficiencies. The policy is further augmented by implementation tools and lifecycle planning aids which help promote and support the cultural shift toward more tailoring. The MSFC Customization Tool is an integrated spreadsheet that ties together everything that projects need to understand, navigate, and tailor the policy. It helps them classify their project, understand the intent of the requirements, determine their tailoring approach, and document the necessary governance approvals. It also helps them plan for and conduct technical reviews throughout the lifecycle. Policy tailoring is thus established as a normal part of project execution, with the tools provided to facilitate and enable the tailoring process. MSFC's approach to changing the culture emphasizes risk-based tailoring of policy to achieve increased flexibility, efficiency

  4. Biomedical inorganic polymers bioactivity and applications of natural and synthetic polymeric inorganic molecules

    CERN Document Server

    Müller, Werner E G; Schröder, Heinz C; Schroder, Heinz C

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, inorganic polymers have attracted much attention in nano-biomedicine, in particular in the area of regenerative medicine and drug delivery. This growing interest in inorganic polymers has been further accelerated by the development of new synthetic and analytical methods in the field of nanotechnology and nanochemistry. Examples for biomedical inorganic polymers that had been proven to exhibit biomedical effects and/or have been applied in preclinical or clinical trials are polysilicate / silica glass (such as naturally formed "biosilica" and synthetic "bioglass") and inorganic polyphosphate. Some members of the mentioned biomedical inorganic polymers have already been applied e.g. as "bioglass" for bone repair and bone tissue engineering, or they are used in food processing and in dental care (inorganic polyphosphates). However, there are a number of further biological and medicinal properties of these polymers, which have been elucidated in the last few years but not yet been applied for tr...

  5. Thermally moderated hollow fiber sorbent modules in rapidly cycled pressure swing adsorption mode for hydrogen purification

    KAUST Repository

    Lively, Ryan P.; Bessho, Naoki; Bhandari, Dhaval A.; Kawajiri, Yoshiaki; Koros, William J.

    2012-01-01

    We describe thermally moderated multi-layered pseudo-monolithic hollow fiber sorbents entities, which can be packed into compact modules to provide small-footprint, efficient H2 purification/CO2 removal systems for use in on-site steam methane reformer product gas separations. Dual-layer hollow fibers are created via dry-jet, wet-quench spinning with an inner "active" core of cellulose acetate (porous binder) and zeolite NaY (69 wt% zeolite NaY) and an external sheath layer of pure cellulose acetate. The co-spun sheath layer reduces the surface porosity of the fiber and was used as a smooth coating surface for a poly(vinyl-alcohol) post-treatment, which reduced the gas permeance through the fiber sorbent by at least 7 orders of magnitude, essentially creating an impermeable sheath layer. The interstitial volume between the individual fibers was filled with a thermally-moderating paraffin wax. CO2 breakthrough experiments on the hollow fiber sorbent modules with and without paraffin wax revealed that the "passively" cooled paraffin wax module had 12.5% longer breakthrough times than the "non-isothermal" module. The latent heat of fusion/melting of the wax offsets the released latent heat of sorption/desorption of the zeolites. One-hundred rapidly cycled pressure swing adsorption cycles were performed on the "passively" cooled hollow fiber sorbents using 25 vol% CO2/75 vol% He (H2 surrogate) at 60 °C and 113 psia, resulting in a product purity of 99.2% and a product recovery of 88.1% thus achieving process conditions and product quality comparable to conventional pellet processes. Isothermal and non-isothermal dynamic modeling of the hollow fiber sorbent module and a traditional packed bed using gPROMS® indicated that the fiber sorbents have sharper fronts (232% sharper) and longer adsorbate breakthrough times (66% longer), further confirming the applicability of the new fiber sorbent approach for H2 purification. © 2012, Hydrogen Energy Publications, LLC

  6. Thermally moderated hollow fiber sorbent modules in rapidly cycled pressure swing adsorption mode for hydrogen purification

    KAUST Repository

    Lively, Ryan P.

    2012-10-01

    We describe thermally moderated multi-layered pseudo-monolithic hollow fiber sorbents entities, which can be packed into compact modules to provide small-footprint, efficient H2 purification/CO2 removal systems for use in on-site steam methane reformer product gas separations. Dual-layer hollow fibers are created via dry-jet, wet-quench spinning with an inner "active" core of cellulose acetate (porous binder) and zeolite NaY (69 wt% zeolite NaY) and an external sheath layer of pure cellulose acetate. The co-spun sheath layer reduces the surface porosity of the fiber and was used as a smooth coating surface for a poly(vinyl-alcohol) post-treatment, which reduced the gas permeance through the fiber sorbent by at least 7 orders of magnitude, essentially creating an impermeable sheath layer. The interstitial volume between the individual fibers was filled with a thermally-moderating paraffin wax. CO2 breakthrough experiments on the hollow fiber sorbent modules with and without paraffin wax revealed that the "passively" cooled paraffin wax module had 12.5% longer breakthrough times than the "non-isothermal" module. The latent heat of fusion/melting of the wax offsets the released latent heat of sorption/desorption of the zeolites. One-hundred rapidly cycled pressure swing adsorption cycles were performed on the "passively" cooled hollow fiber sorbents using 25 vol% CO2/75 vol% He (H2 surrogate) at 60 °C and 113 psia, resulting in a product purity of 99.2% and a product recovery of 88.1% thus achieving process conditions and product quality comparable to conventional pellet processes. Isothermal and non-isothermal dynamic modeling of the hollow fiber sorbent module and a traditional packed bed using gPROMS® indicated that the fiber sorbents have sharper fronts (232% sharper) and longer adsorbate breakthrough times (66% longer), further confirming the applicability of the new fiber sorbent approach for H2 purification. © 2012, Hydrogen Energy Publications, LLC

  7. Using sorbent waste materials to enhance treatment of micro-point source effluents by constructed wetlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Verity; Surridge, Ben; Quinton, John; Matthews, Mike

    2014-05-01

    Sorbent materials are widely used in environmental settings as a means of enhancing pollution remediation. A key area of environmental concern is that of water pollution, including the need to treat micro-point sources of wastewater pollution, such as from caravan sites or visitor centres. Constructed wetlands (CWs) represent one means for effective treatment of wastewater from small wastewater producers, in part because they are believed to be economically viable and environmentally sustainable. Constructed wetlands have the potential to remove a range of pollutants found in wastewater, including nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) and carbon (C), whilst also reducing the total suspended solids (TSS) concentration in effluents. However, there remain particular challenges for P and N removal from wastewater in CWs, as well as the sometimes limited BOD removal within these treatment systems, particularly for micro-point sources of wastewater. It has been hypothesised that the amendment of CWs with sorbent materials can enhance their potential to treat wastewater, particularly through enhancing the removal of N and P. This paper focuses on data from batch and mesocosm studies that were conducted to identify and assess sorbent materials suitable for use within CWs. The aim in using sorbent material was to enhance the combined removal of phosphate (PO4-P) and ammonium (NH4-N). The key selection criteria for the sorbent materials were that they possess effective PO4-P, NH4-N or combined pollutant removal, come from low cost and sustainable sources, have potential for reuse, for example as a fertiliser or soil conditioner, and show limited potential for re-release of adsorbed nutrients. The sorbent materials selected for testing were alum sludge from water treatment works, ochre derived from minewater treatment, biochar derived from various feedstocks, plasterboard and zeolite. The performance of the individual sorbents was assessed through

  8. Nanoscale Organic−Inorganic Hybrid Lubricants

    KAUST Repository

    Kim, Daniel; Archer, Lynden A.

    2011-01-01

    Silica (SiO2) nanoparticles densely grafted with amphiphilic organic chains are used to create a family of organic-inorganic hybrid lubricants. Short sulfonate-functionalized alkylaryl chains covalently tethered to the particles form a dense corona

  9. Room-temperature ductile inorganic semiconductor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Xun; Chen, Hongyi; Hao, Feng; Liu, Ruiheng; Wang, Tuo; Qiu, Pengfei; Burkhardt, Ulrich; Grin, Yuri; Chen, Lidong

    2018-05-01

    Ductility is common in metals and metal-based alloys, but is rarely observed in inorganic semiconductors and ceramic insulators. In particular, room-temperature ductile inorganic semiconductors were not known until now. Here, we report an inorganic α-Ag2S semiconductor that exhibits extraordinary metal-like ductility with high plastic deformation strains at room temperature. Analysis of the chemical bonding reveals systems of planes with relatively weak atomic interactions in the crystal structure. In combination with irregularly distributed silver-silver and sulfur-silver bonds due to the silver diffusion, they suppress the cleavage of the material, and thus result in unprecedented ductility. This work opens up the possibility of searching for ductile inorganic semiconductors/ceramics for flexible electronic devices.

  10. Lab-on-a-chip synthesis of inorganic nanomaterials and quantum dots for biomedical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishna, Katla Sai; Li, Yuehao; Li, Shuning; Kumar, Challa S S R

    2013-11-01

    The past two decades have seen a dramatic raise in the number of investigations leading to the development of Lab-on-a-Chip (LOC) devices for synthesis of nanomaterials. A majority of these investigations were focused on inorganic nanomaterials comprising of metals, metal oxides, nanocomposites and quantum dots. Herein, we provide an analysis of these findings, especially, considering the more recent developments in this new decade. We made an attempt to bring out the differences between chip-based as well as tubular continuous flow systems. We also cover, for the first time, various opportunities the tools from the field of computational fluid dynamics provide in designing LOC systems for synthesis inorganic nanomaterials. Particularly, we provide unique examples to demonstrate that there is a need for concerted effort to utilize LOC devices not only for synthesis of inorganic nanomaterials but also for carrying out superior in vitro studies thereby, paving the way for faster clinical translation. Even though LOC devices with the possibility to carry out multi-step syntheses have been designed, surprisingly, such systems have not been utilized for carrying out simultaneous synthesis and bio-functionalization of nanomaterials. While traditionally, LOC devices are primarily based on microfluidic systems, in this review article, we make a case for utilizing millifluidic systems for more efficient synthesis, bio-functionalization and in vitro studies of inorganic nanomaterials tailor-made for biomedical applications. Finally, recent advances in the field clearly point out the possibility for pushing the boundaries of current medical practices towards personalized health care with a vision to develop automated LOC-based instrumentation for carrying out simultaneous synthesis, bio-functionalization and in vitro evaluation of inorganic nanomaterials for biomedical applications. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Development and thermochemical characterizations of vermiculite/SrBr_2 composite sorbents for low-temperature heat storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Y.N.; Wang, R.Z.; Zhao, Y.J.; Li, T.X.; Riffat, S.B.; Wajid, N.M.

    2016-01-01

    Novel EVM/SrBr_2 composite sorbents with different salt contents were developed for low-temperature thermal energy storage (TES). Simulative sorption experiment was conducted to obtain the sorption kinetics diagram and identify threshold salt content that composite sorbents can hold without solution leakage. Distribution of salt embedded in EVM was observed by extreme-resolution scanning electron microscopy (ER-SEM). Thermochemical characterizations including desorption performance and desorption heat were fully investigated by analyzing simultaneous thermal analyzer (STA) results. Results reveal that sorption process of composite sorbents is divided into three parts: water adsorption of EVM, water adsorption of SrBr_2 crystal and liquid-gas absorption of SrBr_2 solution. Since SrBr_2 solution can be hold in macrospores of EVM, water uptake and energy storage density are greatly increased. It appears that the composite sorbent of EVMSrBr_240 is a promising material for thermal energy storage, with water uptake of 0.53 g/g, mass energy storage density of 0.46 kWh/kg and volume energy storage density of 105.36 kWh/m"3. - Highlights: • Vermiculite/SrBr_2 composite sorbents were developed for thermal energy storage. • Water uptake of composite sorbents is divided into three phases. • Energy storage density of each sorption phase is evaluated via calculations. • EVMSrBr_240 is chosen as optimal sorbent without solution leakage.

  12. Sulphation of calcium-based sorbents in circulating fluidised beds under oxy-fuel combustion conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Francisco Garcia-Labiano; Luis F. de Diego; Alberto Abad; Pilar Gayan; Margarita de las Obras-Loscertales; Aranzazu Rufas; Juan Adanez [Instituto de Carboquimica (CSIC), Zaragoza (Spain). Dept. Energy and Environment

    2009-07-01

    Sulphur Retention (SR) by calcium-based sorbents is a process highly dependent on the temperature and CO{sub 2} concentration. In circulating fluidised beds combustors (CFBC's) operating under oxy-fuel conditions, the sulphation process takes place in atmospheres enriched in CO{sub 2} with bed concentrations that can vary from 40 to 95%. Under so high CO{sub 2} concentrations, very different from that in conventional coal combustion atmosphere with air, the calcination and sulphation behaviour of the sorbent must be defined to optimise the SR process in the combustor. The objective of this work was to determine the SO{sub 2} retention capacity of a Spanish limestone at typical oxy-fuel conditions in CFBC's. Long term duration tests of sulphation (up to 24 h), to simulate the residence time of sorbents in CFBC's, were carried out by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). Clear behaviour differences were found under calcining and non-calcining conditions. Especially relevant was the result obtained at calcining conditions but close to the thermodynamic temperature given for sorbent calcination. This situation must be avoided in CFBC's because the CO{sub 2} produced inside the particle during calcination can destroy the particles if a non-porous sulphate product layer has been formed around the particle. The effect of the main variables on the sorbent sulphation such as SO{sub 2} concentration, temperature, and particle size were analysed in the long term TGA tests. These data were also used to determine the kinetic parameters for the sulphation under oxy-fuel combustion conditions, which were able to adequately predict the sulphation conversion values in a wide range of operating conditions. 20 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  13. Removal of metals from industrial wastewater and urban runoff by mineral and bio-based sorbents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gogoi, Harshita; Leiviskä, Tiina; Heiderscheidt, Elisangela; Postila, Heini; Tanskanen, Juha

    2018-03-01

    The study was performed to evaluate chemically modified biosorbents, hydrochloric acid treated peat (HCl-P) and citric acid treated sawdust (Citric acid-SD) for their metal removal capacity from dilute industrial wastewater and urban runoff and compare their efficiency with that of commercially available mineral sorbents (AQM PalPower M10 and AQM PalPower T5M5 magnetite). Batch and column experiments were conducted using real water samples to assess the sorbents' metal sorption capacity. AQM PalPower M10 (consisting mainly of magnesium, iron and silicon oxides) exhibited excellent Zn removal from both industrial wastewater and spiked runoff water samples even at low dosages (0.1 g/L and 0.05 g/L, respectively). The high degree of Zn removal was associated with the release of hydroxyl ions from the sorbent and subsequent precipitation of zinc hydroxide. The biosorbents removed Ni and Cr better than AQM PalPower M10 from industrial wastewater and performed well in removing Cr and Cu from spiked runoff water, although at higher dosages (0.3-0.75 g/L). The main mechanism of sorption by biosorbents was ion exchange. The sorbents required a short contact time to reach equilibrium (15-30 min) in both tested water samples. AQM PalPower T5M5 magnetite was the worst performing sorbent, leaching Zn into both industrial and runoff water and Ni into runoff water. Column tests revealed that both HCl-P and AQM PalPower M10 were able to remove metals, although some leaching was witnessed, especially As from AQM PalPower M10. The low hydraulic conductivity observed for HCl-P may restrict the possibilities of using such small particle size peat material in a filter-type passive system. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. A Low Cost, High Capacity Regenerable Sorbent for Pre-combustion CO{sub 2} Capture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alptekin, Gokhan

    2012-09-30

    The overall objective of the proposed research is to develop a low cost, high capacity CO{sub 2} sorbent and demonstrate its technical and economic viability for pre-combustion CO{sub 2} capture. The specific objectives supporting our research plan were to optimize the chemical structure and physical properties of the sorbent, scale-up its production using high throughput manufacturing equipment and bulk raw materials and then evaluate its performance, first in bench-scale experiments and then in slipstream tests using actual coal-derived synthesis gas. One of the objectives of the laboratory-scale evaluations was to demonstrate the life and durability of the sorbent for over 10,000 cycles and to assess the impact of contaminants (such as sulfur) on its performance. In the field tests, our objective was to demonstrate the operation of the sorbent using actual coal-derived synthesis gas streams generated by air-blown and oxygen-blown commercial and pilot-scale coal gasifiers (the CO{sub 2} partial pressure in these gas streams is significantly different, which directly impacts the operating conditions hence the performance of the sorbent). To support the field demonstration work, TDA collaborated with Phillips 66 and Southern Company to carry out two separate field tests using actual coal-derived synthesis gas at the Wabash River IGCC Power Plant in Terre Haute, IN and the National Carbon Capture Center (NCCC) in Wilsonville, AL. In collaboration with the University of California, Irvine (UCI), a detailed engineering and economic analysis for the new CO{sub 2} capture system was also proposed to be carried out using Aspen PlusTM simulation software, and estimate its effect on the plant efficiency.

  15. Phosphorus removal from aqueous solution using iron coated natural and engineered sorbents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boujelben, N.; Bouzid, J.; Elouear, Z.; Feki, M.; Jamoussi, F.; Montiel, A.

    2008-01-01

    New filtration materials covered with metallic oxides are good adsorbents for both cation and anion forms of pollutants. Sfax is one of the most important industrial towns in Tunisia. Its phosphate manufacture in particular is causing considerable amounts of water pollution. Therefore, there is a need to find out a new way of getting rid of this excessive phosphate from water. This work is aimed to examining the potential of three sorbent materials (synthetic iron oxide coated sand (SCS), naturally iron oxide coated sand (NCS) and iron oxide coated crushed brick (CB)) for removing phosphate ions from aqueous solutions. According to our literature survey CB was not used as adsorbent previously. Phosphate ions are used here as species model for the elimination of other similar pollutants (arsenates, antimonates). Optical microscope and scanning electron microscope (SEM) analyses were used to investigate the surface properties and morphology of the coated sorbents. Infra-red spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction techniques were also used to characterize the sorbent structures. Results showed that iron coated crushed brick possess more micro pores and a higher surface area owing to its clay nature. The comparative sorption of PO 4 3- from aqueous solutions by SCS, CB and NCS was investigated by batch experiments. The estimated optimum pH of phosphate ion retention for the considered sorbents was 5. The equilibrium data were analysed using the Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms. The sorption capacities of PO 4 3- at pH 5 were 1.5 mg/g for SCS, 1.8 mg/g for CB and 0.88 mg/g for NCS. The effect of temperature on sorption phenomenon was also investigated. The results indicated that adsorption is an endothermic process for phosphate ions removal. This study demonstrates that all the considered sorbents can be used as an alternative emerging technology for water treatment without any side effect or treatment process alteration

  16. Human Motion Capture Data Tailored Transform Coding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Junhui Hou; Lap-Pui Chau; Magnenat-Thalmann, Nadia; Ying He

    2015-07-01

    Human motion capture (mocap) is a widely used technique for digitalizing human movements. With growing usage, compressing mocap data has received increasing attention, since compact data size enables efficient storage and transmission. Our analysis shows that mocap data have some unique characteristics that distinguish themselves from images and videos. Therefore, directly borrowing image or video compression techniques, such as discrete cosine transform, does not work well. In this paper, we propose a novel mocap-tailored transform coding algorithm that takes advantage of these features. Our algorithm segments the input mocap sequences into clips, which are represented in 2D matrices. Then it computes a set of data-dependent orthogonal bases to transform the matrices to frequency domain, in which the transform coefficients have significantly less dependency. Finally, the compression is obtained by entropy coding of the quantized coefficients and the bases. Our method has low computational cost and can be easily extended to compress mocap databases. It also requires neither training nor complicated parameter setting. Experimental results demonstrate that the proposed scheme significantly outperforms state-of-the-art algorithms in terms of compression performance and speed.

  17. Inorganic nanolayers: structure, preparation, and biomedical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saifullah, Bullo; Hussein, Mohd Zobir B

    2015-01-01

    Hydrotalcite-like compounds are two-dimensional inorganic nanolayers also known as clay minerals or anionic clays or layered double hydroxides/layered hydroxy salts, and have emerged as a single type of material with numerous biomedical applications, such as drug delivery, gene delivery, cosmetics, and biosensing. Inorganic nanolayers are promising materials due to their fascinating properties, such as ease of preparation, ability to intercalate different type of anions (inorganic, organic, biomolecules, and even genes), high thermal stability, delivery of intercalated anions in a sustained manner, high biocompatibility, and easy biodegradation. Inorganic nanolayers have been the focus for researchers over the last decade, resulting in widening application horizons, especially in the field of biomedical science. These nanolayers have been widely applied in drug and gene delivery. They have also been applied in biosensing technology, and most recently in bioimaging science. The suitability of inorganic nanolayers for application in drug delivery, gene delivery, biosensing technology, and bioimaging science makes them ideal materials to be applied for theranostic purposes. In this paper, we review the structure, methods of preparation, and latest advances made by inorganic nanolayers in such biomedical applications as drug delivery, gene delivery, biosensing, and bioimaging.

  18. Salicylate-spectrophotometric determination of inorganic monochloramine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tao Hui; Chen Zhonglin; Li Xing; Yang Yanling; Li Guibai

    2008-01-01

    On the basis of classical Berthelot reaction, a simple salicylate-spectrophotometric method was developed for quantitative determination of inorganic monochloramine in water samples. With the catalysis of disodium pentacyanonitrosylferrate(III), inorganic monochloramine reacts with salicylate in equimolar to produce indophenol compound which has an intense absorption at 703 nm. Parameters that influence method performance, such as pH, dosage of salicylate and nitroprussiate and reaction time, were modified to enhance the method performance. By using this method, inorganic monochloramine can be distinguished from organic chloramines and other inorganic chlorine species, such as free chlorine, dichloramine, and trichloramine. The molar absorptivities of the final products formed by these compounds are below ±3% of inorganic monochloramine, because of the α-N in them have only one exchangeable hydrogen atom, and cannot react with salicylate to produce the indophenol compound. The upper concentrations of typical ions that do not interfere with the inorganic monochloramine determination are also tested to be much higher than that mostly encountered in actual water treatment. Case study demonstrates that the results obtained from this method are lower than DPD-titrimetric method because the organic chloramines formed by chlorination of organic nitrogenous compounds give no response in the newly established method. And the result measured by salicylate-spectrophotometric method is coincident with theoretical calculation

  19. Tailorable software architectures in the accelerator control system environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mejuev, Igor; Kumagai, Akira; Kadokura, Eiichi

    2001-01-01

    Tailoring is further evolution of an application after deployment in order to adapt it to requirements that were not accounted for in the original design. End-user tailorability has been extensively researched in applied computer science from HCl and software engineering perspectives. Tailorability allows coping with flexibility requirements, decreasing maintenance and development costs of software products. In general, dynamic or diverse software requirements constitute the need for implementing end-user tailorability in computer systems. In accelerator physics research the factor of dynamic requirements is especially important, due to frequent software and hardware modifications resulting in correspondingly high upgrade and maintenance costs. In this work we introduce the results of feasibility study on implementing end-user tailorability in the software for accelerator control system, considering the design and implementation of distributed monitoring application for 12 GeV KEK Proton Synchrotron as an example. The software prototypes used in this work are based on a generic tailoring platform (VEDICI), which allows decoupling of tailoring interfaces and runtime components. While representing a reusable application-independent framework, VEDICI can be potentially applied for tailoring of arbitrary compositional Web-based applications

  20. Deep drawing simulations of tailored blanks and experimental verification

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meinders, Vincent T.; van den Berg, Albert; Huetink, Han

    2000-01-01

    Tailored Blanks are increasingly used in the automotive industry. A combination of different materials, thickness, and coatings can be welded together to form a blank for stamping car body panels. The main advantage of using Tailored Blanks is to have specific characteristics at particular parts of

  1. Tailoring self-assembled monolayers at the electrochemical interface

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    (SAMs) for functionalisation with different receptors, catalytic materials, biomolecules, enzymes, anti- gen-antibody, etc for various applications. ... and tailoring of SAMs by incorporation of suitable recognition elements. ... compatible with most organic functional groups and ...... the interfacial architecture can be tailored using.

  2. Sorbent Injection for Small ESP Mercury Control in Low Sulfur Eastern Bituminous Coal Flue Gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carl Richardson; Katherine Dombrowski; Douglas Orr

    2006-12-31

    This project Final Report is submitted to the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) as part of Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-03NT41987, 'Sorbent Injection for Small ESP Mercury Control in Low Sulfur Eastern Bituminous Coal Flue Gas.' Sorbent injection technology is targeted as the primary mercury control process on plants burning low/medium sulfur bituminous coals equipped with ESP and ESP/FGD systems. About 70% of the ESPs used in the utility industry have SCAs less than 300 ft2/1000 acfm. Prior to this test program, previous sorbent injection tests had focused on large-SCA ESPs. This DOE-NETL program was designed to generate data to evaluate the performance and economic feasibility of sorbent injection for mercury control at power plants that fire bituminous coal and are configured with small-sized electrostatic precipitators and/or an ESP-flue gas desulfurization (FGD) configuration. EPRI and Southern Company were co-funders for the test program. Southern Company and Reliant Energy provided host sites for testing and technical input to the project. URS Group was the prime contractor to NETL. ADA-ES and Apogee Scientific Inc. were sub-contractors to URS and was responsible for all aspects of the sorbent injection systems design, installation and operation at the different host sites. Full-scale sorbent injection for mercury control was evaluated at three sites: Georgia Power's Plant Yates Units 1 and 2 [Georgia Power is a subsidiary of the Southern Company] and Reliant Energy's Shawville Unit 3. Georgia Power's Plant Yates Unit 1 has an existing small-SCA cold-side ESP followed by a Chiyoda CT-121 wet scrubber. Yates Unit 2 is also equipped with a small-SCA ESP and a dual flue gas conditioning system. Unit 2 has no SO2 control system. Shawville Unit 3 is equipped with two small-SCA cold-side ESPs operated in series. All ESP systems tested in this program had SCAs less than 250 ft2/1000 acfm. Short-term parametric tests were conducted on Yates

  3. Tailoring of transition metal alkoxides via complexation for the synthesis of hybrid organic-inorganic sols and gels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanchez, C.; In, M.; Toledano, P.; Griesmar, P.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports that the chemical control of hydrolysis-condensation reactions of transition metal alkoxides can be performed through the modification of the transition metal coordination sphere by using strong complexing ligands (SCL). Complexing organic groups can be bonded to the transition metal oxide network in two different ways, as network modifiers or network formers. Different illustrations of the role of complexing ligands on Ti(IV) and Zr(IV) alkoxides are presented. As a network modifier, SCL act as termination agents for condensation reactions allowing a control of particle growth. The complexing ligands being located at the periphery of the oxo core open many opportunities for colloid surface protection. SCL carrying organofunctional groups which exhibit non linear optical (NLO) properties have also been used as probes to study sol-gel transformations. SCL functionalized with organic polymerizable functions act as network formers

  4. Inorganic nanostructure-organic polymer heterostructures useful for thermoelectric devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    See, Kevin C.; Urban, Jeffrey J.; Segalman, Rachel A.; Coates, Nelson E.; Yee, Shannon K.

    2017-11-28

    The present invention provides for an inorganic nanostructure-organic polymer heterostructure, useful as a thermoelectric composite material, comprising (a) an inorganic nanostructure, and (b) an electrically conductive organic polymer disposed on the inorganic nanostructure. Both the inorganic nanostructure and the electrically conductive organic polymer are solution-processable.

  5. Methods for Introducing Inorganic Polymer Concepts throughout the Undergraduate Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Lill, Daniel T.; Carraher, Charles E., Jr.

    2017-01-01

    Inorganic polymers can be introduced in a variety of undergraduate courses to discuss concepts related to polymer chemistry. Inorganic polymers such as silicates and polysiloxanes are simple materials that can be incorporated into an introductory or descriptive inorganic course. Polymers based on inorganic carbon, including diamond and graphite,…

  6. A refuge for inorganic chemistry: Bunsen's Heidelberg laboratory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nawa, Christine

    2014-05-01

    Immediately after its opening in 1855, Bunsen's Heidelberg laboratory became iconic as the most modern and best equipped laboratory in Europe. Although comparatively modest in size, the laboratory's progressive equipment made it a role model for new construction projects in Germany and beyond. In retrospect, it represents an intermediate stage of development between early teaching facilities, such as Liebig's laboratory in Giessen, and the new 'chemistry palaces' that came into existence with Wöhler's Göttingen laboratory of 1860. As a 'transition laboratory,' Bunsen's Heidelberg edifice is of particular historical interest. This paper explores the allocation of spaces to specific procedures and audiences within the laboratory, and the hierarchies and professional rites of passage embedded within it. On this basis, it argues that the laboratory in Heidelberg was tailored to Bunsen's needs in inorganic and physical chemistry and never aimed at a broad-scale representation of chemistry as a whole. On the contrary, it is an example of early specialisation within a chemical laboratory preceding the process of differentiation into chemical sub-disciplines. Finally, it is shown that the relatively small size of this laboratory, and the fact that after ca. 1860 no significant changes were made within the building, are inseparably connected to Bunsen's views on chemistry teaching.

  7. Does tailoring really make a difference? : the development and evaluation of tailored interventions aimed at benzodiazepine cessation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wolde, Geeske Brecht ten

    2008-01-01

    Because of the problems associated with chronic benzodiazepine use, there is impetus to prevent and reduce chronic benzodiazepine use. The overall aim was to develop a 'tailor-made' intervention in order to reduce chronic use. Before developing tailored patient education, it is first of all

  8. Ceramic laminates with tailored residual stresses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baudín, C.

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Severe environments imposed by new technologies demand new materials with better properties and ensured reliability. The intrinsic brittleness of ceramics has forced scientists to look for new materials and processing routes to improve the mechanical behaviour of ceramics in order to allow their use under severe thermomechanical conditions. The laminate approach has allowed the fabrication of a new family of composite materials with strength and reliability superior to those of monolithic ceramics with microstructures similar to those of the constituent layers. The different ceramic laminates developed since the middle 1970´s can be divided in two large groups depending on whether the development of residual stresses between layers is the main design tool. This paper reviews the developments in the control and tailoring of residual stresses in ceramic laminates. The tailoring of the thickness and location of layers in compression can lead to extremely performing structures in terms of strength values and reliability. External layers in compression lead to the strengthening of the structure. When relatively thin and highly compressed layers are located inside the material, threshold strength, crack bifurcation and crack arrest during fracture occur.

    Las severas condiciones de trabajo de las nuevas aplicaciones tecnológicas exigen el uso de materiales con mejores propiedades y alta fiabilidad. La potencialidad de uso de materiales frágiles, como los cerámicos, en estas aplicaciones exige el desarrollo de nuevos materiales y métodos de procesamiento que mejoren su comportamiento mecánico. El concepto de material laminado ha permitido la fabricación de una nueva familia de materiales con tensiones de fractura y fiabilidad superiores a las de materiales monolíticos con microestructuras similares a las de las láminas que conforman el laminado. Los distintos materiales laminados desarrollados desde mediados de los años 70 se pueden

  9. Thin tailored composite wing for civil tiltrotor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rais-Rohani, Masoud

    1994-01-01

    The tiltrotor aircraft is a flight vehicle which combines the efficient low speed (i.e., take-off, landing, and hover) characteristics of a helicopter with the efficient cruise speed of a turboprop airplane. A well-known example of such vehicle is the Bell-Boeing V-22 Osprey. The high cruise speed and range constraints placed on the civil tiltrotor require a relatively thin wing to increase the drag-divergence Mach number which translates into lower compressibility drag. It is required to reduce the wing maximum thickness-to-chord ratio t/c from 23% (i.e., V-22 wing) to 18%. While a reduction in wing thickness results in improved aerodynamic efficiency, it has an adverse effect on the wing structure and it tends to reduce structural stiffness. If ignored, the reduction in wing stiffness leads to susceptibility to aeroelastic and dynamic instabilities which may consequently cause a catastrophic failure. By taking advantage of the directional stiffness characteristics of composite materials the wing structure may be tailored to have the necessary stiffness, at a lower thickness, while keeping the weight low. The goal of this study is to design a wing structure for minimum weight subject to structural, dynamic and aeroelastic constraints. The structural constraints are in terms of strength and buckling allowables. The dynamic constraints are in terms of wing natural frequencies in vertical and horizontal bending and torsion. The aeroelastic constraints are in terms of frequency placement of the wing structure relative to those of the rotor system. The wing-rotor-pylon aeroelastic and dynamic interactions are limited in this design study by holding the cruise speed, rotor-pylon system, and wing geometric attributes fixed. To assure that the wing-rotor stability margins are maintained a more rigorous analysis based on a detailed model of the rotor system will need to ensue following the design study. The skin-stringer-rib type architecture is used for the wing

  10. Tailoring magnetism by light-ion irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fassbender, J; Ravelosona, D; Samson, Y

    2004-01-01

    Owing to their reduced dimensions, the magnetic properties of ultrathin magnetic films and multilayers, e.g. magnetic anisotropies and exchange coupling, often depend strongly on the surface and interface structure. In addition, chemical composition, crystallinity, grain sizes and their distribution govern the magnetic behaviour. All these structural properties can be modified by light-ion irradiation in an energy range of 5-150 keV due to the energy loss of the ions in the solid along their trajectory. Consequently the magnetic properties can be tailored by ion irradiation. Similar effects can also be observed using Ga + ion irradiation, which is the common ion source in focused ion beam lithography. Examples of ion-induced modifications of magnetic anisotropies and exchange coupling are presented. This review is limited to radiation-induced structural changes giving rise to a modification of magnetic parameters. Ion implantation is discussed only in special cases. Due to the local nature of the interaction, magnetic patterning without affecting the surface topography becomes feasible, which may be of interest in applications. The main patterning technique is homogeneous ion irradiation through masks. Focused ion beam and ion projection lithography are usually only relevant for larger ion masses. The creation of magnetic feature sizes below 50 nm is shown. In contrast to topographic nanostructures the surrounding area of these nanostructures can be left ferromagnetic, leading to new phenomena at their mutual interface. Most of the material systems discussed here are important for technological applications. The main areas are magnetic data storage applications, such as hard magnetic media with a large perpendicular magnetic anisotropy or patterned media with an improved signal to noise ratio and magnetic sensor elements. It will be shown that light-ion irradiation has many advantages in the design of new material properties and in the fabrication technology of

  11. Electron beam induced strong organic/inorganic grafting for thermally stable lithium-ion battery separators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Yunah; Kim, Jin Il; Moon, Jungjin; Jeong, Jongyeob; Park, Jong Hyeok

    2018-06-01

    A tailored interface between organic and inorganic materials is of great importance to maximize the synergistic effects from hybridization. Polyethylene separators over-coated with inorganic thin films are the state-of-the art technology for preparing various secondary batteries with high safety. Unfortunately, the organic/inorganic hybrid separators have the drawback of a non-ideal interface, thus causing poor thermal/dimensional stability. Here, we report a straightforward method to resolve the drawback of the non-ideal interface between vapor deposited SiO2 and polyethylene separators, to produce a highly stable lithium-ion battery separator through strong chemical linking generated by direct electron beam irradiation. The simple treatment with an electron beam with an optimized dose generates thermally stable polymer separators, which may enhance battery safety under high-temperature conditions. Additionally, the newly formed Si-O-C or Si-CH3 chemical bonding enhances electrolyte-separator compatibility and thus may provide a better environment for ionic transport between the cathode and anode, thereby leading to better charge/discharge behaviors.

  12. Foundation Coursework in Undergraduate Inorganic Chemistry: Results from a National Survey of Inorganic Chemistry Faculty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raker, Jeffrey R.; Reisner, Barbara A.; Smith, Sheila R.; Stewart, Joanne L.; Crane, Johanna L.; Pesterfield, Les; Sobel, Sabrina G.

    2015-01-01

    A national survey of inorganic chemists explored the self-reported topics covered in foundation-level courses in inorganic chemistry at the postsecondary level; the American Chemical Society's Committee on Professional Training defines a foundation course as one at the conclusion of which, "a student should have mastered the vocabulary,…

  13. The cleaning of the soils polluted by oil and radionuclides by natural sorbents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farajov, M.F.; Shamilov, E.N.; Abdullayev, A.S.; Huseynov, V.I.

    2005-01-01

    Full text : Problem of environmental pollution in oil extracting areas of Absheron peninsula became the very important discussion object lately. It this areas for many years oil and well waters were flowed to environmental areas caused a lot of pools in that areas and at the result the soil and plants were polluted with oil and radionuclides. By last years researches it was revealed that amount of radium 226 oil well water contains 10 - 500 Bq/l. Sometimes amount of radium 226 in polluted soils is increasing to 2000--5000 Bq/l and at the result it is raising probability of entering radionuclides by the way of migration from ground to plants into the nutrition chain cycle. Thus the polluted areas with oil and radionuclides and also when oil spills from oil-pipes by an accident the deactivation of soils is one of the main and most actual problems. In researches for cleaning of polluted soils with radionuclides for the first time were used the phyto sorbent modified breccias forms taken from Chaildag, Gobu, and Lokbatan mud volcano areas. The mineral contain of volcano mud generally consists of clay rocks -(kaolinit, montmorillonit, zeolite, chlorite, biotit) pyrite, and i.e.[2]. The polluted soil samples were taken in Surakhani region from area with the 150 mikroroentgen per hour radiation background. The contain and amount of radionuclides were determined with the radio spectrometer P rogress - Beta - Gamma . Polluted soil samples firstly are washed by hot water and HCl solution by mixing for 3-5 hours. At the next level by adding pieced sorbent into the solution is intensively mixing by mixer and putting for sedimentation for 24 hours. After sedimentation the stiring process is repeated by adding HCl on the sediment again. The soil is stirred by water for last time. Decomposed solutions from soil are adhering and are maked with sorbent again. Thus the soil is quite cleaned from oil and radionuclides by the sorbents we offer. At the same time this sorbents may be

  14. Extraction of trace nitrophenols in environmental water samples using boronate affinity sorbent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Yong; Mei, Meng; Huang, Xiaojia; Yuan, Dongxing

    2015-01-01

    In this research, the applicability of a new sorbent based on boronate affinity material is demonstrated. For this purpose, six strong polar nitrophenols were selected as models which are difficult to be extracted in neutral form (only based on hydrophobic interactions). The extracted nitrophenols were separated and determined by high-performance liquid chromatography with diode array detection. The sorbent was synthesized by in situ copolymerization of 3-acrylamidophenylboronic acid and divinylbenzene using dimethyl sulfoxide and azobisisobutyronitrile as porogen solvent and initiator, respectively. The effect of the preparation parameters in the polymerization mixture on extraction performance was investigated in detail. The size and morphology of the sorbent have been characterized via different techniques such as infrared spectroscopy, elemental analysis, scanning electron microscopy and mercury intrusion porosimetry. The important parameters influencing the extraction efficiency were studied and optimized thoroughly. Under the optimum extraction conditions, the limits of detection (S/N = 3) and limits of quantification (S/N = 10) for the target nitrophenols were 0.097–0.28 and 0.32–0.92 μg/L, respectively. The precision of the proposed method was evaluated in terms of intra- and inter-assay variability calculated as RSD, and it was found that the RSDs were all below 9%. Finally, the developed method was successfully applied for environmental water samples such as wastewater, tap, lake and river water. The recoveries varied within the range of 71.2–115% with RSD below 11% in all cases. The results well demonstrate that the new boronate affinity sorbent can extract nitrophenols effectively through multi-interactions including boron–nitrogen coordination, hydrogen-bond and hydrophobic interactions between sorbent and analytes. - Highlights: • A new boronate affinity sorbent (BAS) was prepared. • The BAS was used as the extractive medium of stir

  15. Automatically producing tailored web materials for public administration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colineau, Nathalie; Paris, Cécile; Vander Linden, Keith

    2013-06-01

    Public administration organizations commonly produce citizen-focused, informational materials describing public programs and the conditions under which citizens or citizen groups are eligible for these programs. The organizations write these materials for generic audiences because of the excessive human resource costs that would be required to produce personalized materials for everyone. Unfortunately, generic materials tend to be longer and harder to understand than materials tailored for particular citizens. Our work explores the feasibility and effectiveness of automatically producing tailored materials. We have developed an adaptive hypermedia application system that automatically produces tailored informational materials and have evaluated it in a series of studies. The studies demonstrate that: (1) subjects prefer tailored materials over generic materials, even if the tailoring requires answering a set of demographic questions first; (2) tailored materials are more effective at supporting subjects in their task of learning about public programs; and (3) the time required to specify the demographic information on which the tailoring is based does not significantly slow down the subjects in their information seeking task.

  16. Sulfation diffusion model for SO{sub 2} capture on the T-T sorbent at moderate temperatures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Y.R.; Yang, L.Z.; You, C.F.; Qi, H.Y. [Tsinghua University, Beijing (China)

    2009-07-15

    A sulfation model was developed for dry flue gas desulfurization (FGD) at moderate temperatures to describe the reaction characteristics of the T-T sorbent clusters and the fine CaO particles that fall off the sorbent grains in a circulating fluidized bed (CFB) reactor. The cluster model describes the calcium conversion and reaction rate for various size sorbent clusters. The sulfation reaction is first order with respect to the SO{sub 2} concentration above 973 K. The calcium conversion and reaction rate for the CaO particles were obtained by extrapolation. In the model for CaO particle, the reaction rate is linearly related to the calcium conversion and the SO{sub 2} concentration in the rapid reaction stage and linearly related only with the calcium conversion after the product layer forms. The sulfation model accurately describes the sulfation of the T-T sorbent flowing through a CFB reactor.

  17. Preparation and investigation of ion exchange properties of sorbent based on activated carbon BAU and zirconium hydroxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blokhin, A.A.; Semenov, M.I.; Taushkanov, V.P.; Andronov, E.A.

    1978-01-01

    The method of obtaining the sorbent based on the activated carbon and zirconium hydroxide, performed by carbon soaking by zirconium salt solution, hydrolytic decomposition, being in salt pores by ammonia solution and drying of the obtained sorbet in the air at the temperature of 105-115 deg. The kinetic characteristics of the obtained sorbent in the wide range of pH value of solutions are studied; sodium, chloride, fluoride and phosphate ion sorbtion taken as examples. A high selectivity of the sorbent to phosphate and fluoride ions has been established. The usefullness of the obtained sorbent for extraction of phosphorus microquantities from 1M sodium chloride solution and its concentration at the elution stage is shown

  18. Thermodynamics of organic molecule adsorption on sorbents modified with 5-hydroxy-6-methyluracil by inverse gas chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gus'kov, Vladimir Yu; Gainullina, Yulia Yu; Ivanov, Sergey P; Kudasheva, Florida Kh

    2014-08-22

    The thermodynamic features of organic molecule adsorption from the gaseous phase of sorbents modified with 5-hydroxy-6-methyluracil (HMU) were studied. Molar internal energy and entropy of adsorption variation analyses showed that with every type surface, except for silica gel, layers of supramolecular structure have cavities equal in size with the ones revealed in HMU crystals by X-ray diffraction. Adsorption thermodynamics on HMU-modified sorbents depended on the amount of impregnated HMU and on the polarity, but not the porosity, of the initial sorbent. Polarity of the modified surface increased as a function of HMU quantity and initial sorbent mean pore size, but become appreciably lower if the initial surface is capable of hydrogen bonding. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Diatomaceous earth and activated bauxite used as granular sorbents for the removal of sodium chloride vapor from hot flue gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, S.H.D.; Swift, W.M.; Johnson, I.

    1980-01-01

    Diatomaceous earth and activated bauxite were tested as granular sorbents for use as filter media in granular-bed filters for the removal of gaseous alkali metal compounds from the hot (800/sup 0/C) flue gas of PFBC. Tests were performed at atmospheric pressure, using NaCl vapor transported in relatively dry simulated flue gas of PFBC. Either a fixed-bed combustor or a high-temperature sorption test rig was used. The effects of sorbent bed temperature, superficial gas velocity, gas hourly space velocity, and NaCl-vapor concentration in flue gas on the sorption behavior of these two sorbents and their ultimate sorption capacities were determined. Both diatomaceous earth and activated bauxite were found to be very effective in removing NaCl vapor from flue gas. Preliminary cost evaluations showed that they are economically attractive as granular sorbents for cleaning alkali vapor from simulated flue gas.

  20. Effect of precursor and preparation method on manganese based activated carbon sorbents for removing H2S from hot coal gas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jiancheng; Qiu, Biao; Han, Lina; Feng, Gang; Hu, Yongfeng; Chang, Liping; Bao, Weiren

    2012-04-30

    Activated carbon (AC) supported manganese oxide sorbents were prepared by the supercritical water impregnation (SCWI) using two different precursor of Mn(NO(3))(2) (SCW(N)) and Mn(Ac)(2)·4H(2)O (SCW(A)). Their capacities of removing H(2)S from coal gas were evaluated and compared to the sorbents prepared by the pore volume impregnation (PVI) method. The structure and composition of different sorbents were characterized by XRD, SEM, TEM, XPS and XANES techniques. It is found that the precursor of active component plays the crucial role and SCW(N) sorbents show much better sulfidation performance than the SCW(A) sorbents. This is because the Mn(3)O(4) active phase of the SCW(N) sorbents are well dispersed on the AC support, while the Mn(2)SiO(4)-like species in the SCW(A) sorbent can be formed and seriously aggregated. The SCW(N) sorbents with 2.80% and 5.60% manganese are favorable for the sulfidation reaction, since the Mn species are better dispersed on the SCW(N) sorbents than those on the PV(N) sorbents and results in the better sulfidation performance of the SCW(N) sorbents. As the Mn content increases to 11.20%, the metal oxide particles on AC supports aggregate seriously, which leads to poorer sulfidation performance of the SCW(N)11.20% sorbents than that of the PV(N)11.20% sorbents. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Feasibility Study for the Use of Green, Bio-Based, Efficient Reactive Sorbent Material to Neutralize Chemical Warfare Agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-02

    REPORT Feasibility study for the use of green, bio-based, efficient reactive sorbent material to neutralize chemical warfare agents 14. ABSTRACT 16...way cellulose, lignin and hemicelluloses interact as well as whole wood dissolution occurs in ILs. The present project was conducted to 1. REPORT...Feasibility study for the use of green, bio-based, efficient reactive sorbent material to neutralize chemical warfare agents Report Title ABSTRACT Over the

  2. Semiconductor quantum optics with tailored photonic nanostructures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laucht, Arne

    2011-01-01

    the understanding of coupling phenomena between excitons in self-assembled quantum dots and optical modes of tailored photonic nanostructures realized on the basis of two-dimensional photonic crystals. While we highlight the potential for advanced applications in the direction of quantum optics and quantum computation, we also identify some of the challenges which will need to be overcome on the way. (orig.)

  3. [Tailored cranioplasty using CAD-CAM technology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitanovics, Dusán; Major, Ottó; Lovas, László; Banczerowski, Péter

    2014-11-30

    The majority of cranial defects are results of surgical intervention. The defect must be covered within resonable period of time usually after 4-6 week given the fact that the replacement of bone improve the brain circulation. Number of surgical techniques and materials are available to perform cranioplasty. Due to favorable properties we chosed ultra high molecular weight polyethylene as material. In this paper the authors show a procedure which allows tailored artificial bone replacement using state of art medical and engineering techniques. between 2004 and 2012, 19 patients were operated on cranial bone defect and a total of 22 3D custom-designed implants were implanted. The average age of patients was 35.4 years. In 12 patients we performed primary cranioplasty, while seven patients had the replacement at least once. Later the implants had to be removed due to infection or other causes (bone necrosis, fracture). All patients had native and bone-windowed 1 mm resolution CT. The 3D design was made using the original CT images and with design program. Computer controlled lathe was used to prepare a precise-fitting model. During surgery, the defect was exposed and the implant was fixed to normal bone using mini titanium plates and screws. All of our patients had control CT at 3, 6 and 12 months after surgery and at the same time neurological examination. Twenty-one polyethylene and one titanium implants were inserted. The average follow-up of the patients was 21.5 months, ranged from two to 96 months. We follow 12 patients (63.15%) more than one year. No intraoperative implant modifications had to be made. Each of the 22 implant exactly matched the bone defect proved by CT scan. No one of our patients reported aesthetic problems and we did not notice any kind of aesthetic complication. We had short term complication in three cases due to cranioplasty, subdural, epidural haemorrhage and skin defect. Polyethylene is in all respects suitable for primary and secondary

  4. Semiconductor quantum optics with tailored photonic nanostructures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laucht, Arne

    2011-06-15

    single photon emission into the waveguide. The results obtained during the course of this thesis contribute significantly to the understanding of coupling phenomena between excitons in self-assembled quantum dots and optical modes of tailored photonic nanostructures realized on the basis of two-dimensional photonic crystals. While we highlight the potential for advanced applications in the direction of quantum optics and quantum computation, we also identify some of the challenges which will need to be overcome on the way. (orig.)

  5. Tailored Materials for High Efficiency CIDI Engines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grant, G.J.; Jana, S.

    2012-03-30

    The overall goal of the project, Tailored Materials for High Efficiency Compression Ignition Direct Injection (CIDI) Engines, is to enable the implementation of new combustion strategies, such as homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI), that have the potential to significantly increase the energy efficiency of current diesel engines and decrease fuel consumption and environmental emissions. These strategies, however, are increasing the demands on conventional engine materials, either from increases in peak cylinder pressure (PCP) or from increases in the temperature of operation. The specific objective of this project is to investigate the application of a new material processing technology, friction stir processing (FSP), to improve the thermal and mechanical properties of engine components. The concept is to modify the surfaces of conventional, low-cost engine materials. The project focused primarily on FSP in aluminum materials that are compositional analogs to the typical piston and head alloys seen in small- to mid-sized CIDI engines. Investigations have been primarily of two types over the duration of this project: (1) FSP of a cast hypoeutectic Al-Si-Mg (A356/357) alloy with no introduction of any new components, and (2) FSP of Al-Cu-Ni alloys (Alloy 339) by physically stirring-in various quantities of carbon nanotubes/nanofibers or carbon fibers. Experimental work to date on aluminum systems has shown significant increases in fatigue lifetime and stress-level performance in aluminum-silicon alloys using friction processing alone, but work to demonstrate the addition of carbon nanotubes and fibers into aluminum substrates has shown mixed results due primarily to the difficulty in achieving porosity-free, homogeneous distributions of the particulate. A limited effort to understand the effects of FSP on steel materials was also undertaken during the course of this project. Processed regions were created in high-strength, low-alloyed steels up to 0.5 in

  6. Effect of cerium oxide doping on the performance of CaO-based sorbents during calcium looping cycles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shengping; Fan, Shasha; Fan, Lijing; Zhao, Yujun; Ma, Xinbin

    2015-04-21

    A series of CaO-based sorbents were synthesized through a sol-gel method and doped with different amounts of CeO2. The sorbent with a Ca/Ce molar ratio of 15:1 showed an excellent absorption capacity (0.59 gCO2/g sorbent) and a remarkable cycle durability (up to 18 cycles). The admirable capture performance of CaCe-15 was ascribed to its special morphology formed by the doping of CeO2 and the well-distributed CeO2 particles. The sorbents doped with CeO2 possessed a loose shell-connected cross-linking structure, which was beneficial for the contact between CaO and CO2. CaO and CeO2 were dispersed homogeneously, and the existence of CeO2 also decreased the grain size of CaO. The well-dispersed CeO2, which could act as a barrier, effectively prevented the CaO crystallite from growing and sintering, thus the sorbent exhibited outstanding stability. The doping of CeO2 also improved the carbonation rate of the sorbent, resulting in a high capacity in a short period of time.

  7. EVALUATION OF SOLID SORBENTS AS A RETROFIT TECHNOLOGY FOR CO2 CAPTURE FROM COAL-FIRED POWER PLANTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holly Krutka; Sharon Sjostrom

    2011-07-31

    Through a U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) funded cooperative agreement DE-NT0005649, ADA Environmental Solutions (ADA) has begun evaluating the use of solid sorbents for CO{sub 2} capture. The project objective was to address the viability and accelerate development of a solid-based CO{sub 2} capture technology. To meet this objective, initial evaluations of sorbents and the process/equipment were completed. First the sorbents were evaluated using a temperature swing adsorption process at the laboratory scale in a fixed-bed apparatus. A slipstream reactor designed to treat flue gas produced by coal-fired generation of nominally 1 kWe was designed and constructed, which was used to evaluate the most promising materials on a more meaningful scale using actual flue gas. In a concurrent effort, commercial-scale processes and equipment options were also evaluated for their applicability to sorbent-based CO{sub 2} capture. A cost analysis was completed that can be used to direct future technology development efforts. ADA completed an extensive sorbent screening program funded primarily through this project, DOE NETL cooperative agreement DE-NT0005649, with support from the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) and other industry participants. Laboratory screening tests were completed on simulated and actual flue gas using simulated flue gas and an automated fixed bed system. The following types and quantities of sorbents were evaluated: 87 supported amines; 31 carbon based materials; 6 zeolites; 7 supported carbonates (evaluated under separate funding); and 10 hydrotalcites. Sorbent evaluations were conducted to characterize materials and down-select promising candidates for further testing at the slipstream scale. More than half of the materials evaluated during this program were supported amines. Based on the laboratory screening four supported amine sorbents were selected for evaluation at the 1 kW scale at two different

  8. Concentration and immobilization of 137Cs from liquid radioactive waste using sorbents based on hydrated titanium and zirconium oxides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voronina, A. V.; Noskova, A. Y.; Gritskevich, E. Y.; Mashkovtsev, M. A.; Semenishchev, V. S.

    2017-09-01

    The possibility of use of sorbents based on hydrated titanium and zirconium oxides (T-3A, T-35, NPF-HTD) for concentration and immobilization of 137Cs from liquid radioactive waste of various chemical composition (fresh water, seawater, solutions containing NaNO3, ammonium acetate, EDTA) was evaluated. It was shown that the NPF-HTD and T-35 sorbents separate 137Cs from fresh water and seawater with distribution coefficients as high as 6.2.104 and 6.1.104, 4.0.105 and 1.6.105 L kg-1 respectively; in 1 M ammonium acetate these values were 2.0.103 and 1.0.103 L kg-1. The NPF-HTD sorbent showed the highest selectivity for cesium in NaNO3 solution: cesium distribution coefficients in 1M NaNO3 was 1.4.106 L kg-1. All studied sorbents are suitable for deactivation of solutions containing EDTA. Cesium distribution coefficients were around 102-103 L kg-1 depending on EDTA concentration. Chemical stability of the sorbents was also studied. It was shown that 137Cs leaching rate from all sorbents meet the requirements for matrix materials.

  9. Intercalation compounds involving inorganic layered structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CONSTANTINO VERA R. L.

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Two-dimensional inorganic networks can shown intracrystalline reactivity, i.e., simple ions, large species as Keggin ions, organic species, coordination compounds or organometallics can be incorporated in the interlayer region. The host-guest interaction usually causes changes in their chemical, catalytic, electronic and optical properties. The isolation of materials with interesting properties and making use of soft chemistry routes have given rise the possibility of industrial and technological applications of these compounds. We have been using several synthetic approaches to intercalate porphyrins and phthalocyanines into inorganic materials: smectite clays, layered double hydroxides and layered niobates. The isolated materials have been characterized by elemental and thermal analysis, X-ray diffraction, surface area measurements, scanning electronic microscopy, electronic and resonance Raman spectroscopies and EPR. The degree of layer stacking and the charge density of the matrices as well their acid-base nature were considered in our studies on the interaction between the macrocycles and inorganic hosts.

  10. Industrial inorganic chemistry. 2. rev. ed.

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buechner, W.; Schliebs, R.; Winter, G.; Buechel, K.H.

    1986-01-01

    Inorganic chemistry is a branch of considerable economic and technical importance. Apart from supplying the market with metals, fertilizers, building materials, pigments and glass it is one of the major suppliers of process materials to the organic chemical industry. Many modern products of other industrial sectors (video tapes, optical fibers or silicon chips) could not have been developed and manufactured without the achievements of industrial inorganic chemistry. The publication is the first of its kind to give a compact description of the inorganic chemistry sector. A clearly arranged survey facilitates access to production processes, economic aspects, ecological implications, energy consumption and raw material consumption as well as to many other data and facts. Due to its clear arrangement and the combination of technical and economic facts the book is a valuable source of information. (orig./EF) [de

  11. Inorganic Nanoparticles for Multimodal Molecular Imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena Swierczewska

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Multimodal molecular imaging can offer a synergistic improvement of diagnostic ability over a single imaging modality. Recent development of hybrid imaging systems has profoundly impacted the pool of available multimodal imaging probes. In particular, much interest has been focused on biocompatible, inorganic nanoparticle-based multimodal probes. Inorganic nanoparticles offer exceptional advantages to the field of multimodal imaging owing to their unique characteristics, such as nanometer dimensions, tunable imaging properties, and multifunctionality. Nanoparticles mainly based on iron oxide, quantum dots, gold, and silica have been applied to various imaging modalities to characterize and image specific biologic processes on a molecular level. A combination of nanoparticles and other materials such as biomolecules, polymers, and radiometals continue to increase functionality for in vivo multimodal imaging and therapeutic agents. In this review, we discuss the unique concepts, characteristics, and applications of the various multimodal imaging probes based on inorganic nanoparticles.

  12. Inorganic matter characterization in vegetable biomass feedstocks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suarez-Garcia, F.; Martinez-Alonso, A.; Fernandez Llorenta, M.; Tascon, J.M.D. [Instituto Nacional del Carbon, CSIC, Oviedo (Spain)

    2002-06-01

    A combination of techniques was used to characterize the inorganic constituents of four types of vegetable biomass: apple pulp, olive cake, olive tree pruning and thistle. Two methods were used to selectively eliminate organic matter: low-temperature oxidation in an oxygen plasma, and medium-temperature oxidation in air. Inorganic species present in the residues were identified by X-ray diffraction and FT-IR spectroscopy. The combination of these techniques allowed one to detect SiO{sub 2}, CaCO{sub 3} and various other Ca-, Mg-, Na- and K-containing phases as inorganic constituents of the studied biomass residues. It is concluded that the oxygen plasma treatment produces sulphates and nitrates that were not present in the starting material. Medium-temperature oxidation does not produce these artificial species but induces some thermal transformations in the mineral constituents of biomass, so that each technique has its own advantages and disadvantages. 27 refs., 6 figs., 3 tabs.

  13. Imprint-coating synthesis of selective functionalized ordered mesoporous sorbents for separation and sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Sheng; Burleigh, Mark C.; Shin, Yongsoon

    2001-01-01

    The present invention relates generally to mesoporous sorbent materials having high capacity, high selectivity, fast kinetics, and molecular recognition capability. The invention also relates to a process for preparing these mesoporous substrates through molecular imprinting techniques which differ from convention techniques in that a template molecule is bound to one end of bifunctional ligands to form a complex prior to binding of the bifunctional ligands to the substrate. The present invention also relates to methods of using the mesoporous sorbent materials, for example, in the separation of toxic metals from process effluents, paints, and other samples; detection of target molecules, such as amino acids, drugs, herbicides, fertilizers, and TNT, in samples; separation and/or detection of substances using chromatography; imaging agents; sensors; coatings; and composites.

  14. Ruthenium complexing in sorption by granulated sorbents with ethylene diamine and diethyl amine groups

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simanova, S.A.; Kolmakova, A.I.; Konovalov, L.V.; Kukushkin, Yu.N.; Kalalova, E.

    1986-01-01

    The sorption process of ruthenium (4) chlorocomplexes - K 2 (RuCl 6 ) macroporous granulated copolymers of glycidylmethacrylate ethylene dimethacrylate with ethylene diamine and diethyl amine has been studied. Sorption has been carried out under the static conditions (at 20 and 98 deg C) from 0.1-2.0 MxHCl and 1.0 M NaCl solutions. It is established that the sorption from acidic solutions proceeds according to anion exchange mechanism with formation of onium chlorocomplexes in the sorbent phase, subjecting to Anderson regrouping during the heating. During the sorption from neutral solutions the second-sphere coordination of polymer amino groups accirs near ruthenium atom and amino-chloride complexes are formed in the sorbent phase

  15. Successful experience with limestone and other sorbents for combustion of biomass in fluid bed power boilers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coe, D.R. [LG& E Power Systems, Inc., Irvine, CA (United States)

    1993-12-31

    This paper presents the theoretical and practical advantages of utilizing limestone and other sorbents during the combustion of various biomass fuels for the reduction of corrosion and erosion of boiler fireside tubing and refractory. Successful experiences using a small amount of limestone, dolomite, kaolin, or custom blends of aluminum and magnesium compounds in fluid bed boilers fired with biomass fuels will be discussed. Electric power boiler firing experience includes bubbling bed boilers as well as circulating fluid bed boilers in commercial service on biomass fuels. Forest sources of biomass fuels fired include wood chips, brush chips, sawmill waste wood, bark, and hog fuel. Agricultural sources of biomass fuels fired include grape vine prunings, bean straw, almond tree chips, walnut tree chips, and a variety of other agricultural waste fuels. Additionally, some urban sources of wood fuels have been commercially burned with the addition of limestone. Data presented includes qualitative and quantitative analyses of fuel, sorbent, and ash.

  16. Heat recovery from sorbent-based CO.sub.2 capture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamal, Aqil; Gupta, Raghubir P

    2015-03-10

    The present invention provides a method of increasing the efficiency of exothermic CO.sub.2 capture processes. The method relates to withdrawing heat generated during the exothermic capture of CO.sub.2 with various sorbents via heat exchange with a working fluid. The working fluid is provided at a temperature and pressure such that it is in the liquid state, and has a vaporization temperature in a range such that the heat arising from the reaction of the CO.sub.2 and the sorbent causes a phase change from liquid to vapor state in whole or in part and transfers heat from to the working fluid. The resulting heated working fluid may subsequently be used to generate power.

  17. CO.sub.2 removal sorbent composition with high chemical stability during multiple cycles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siriwardane, Ranjani V.; Rosencwaig, Shira

    2015-09-22

    Disclosed herein is a clay-alkali-amine CO.sub.2 sorbent composition prepared by integrating a clay substrate, basic alkali salt, and amine liquid. The basic alkali salt is present relative to the clay substrate in a weight ratio of from about 1 part to about 50 parts per 100 parts of the clay substrate. The amine liquid is present relative to a clay-alkali combination in a weight ratio of from about 1 part to about 10 parts per 10 parts of the clay-alkali combination. The clay-alkali-amine C02 sorbent is particularly advantageous for low temperature CO.sub.2 removal cycles in a gas stream having a C02 concentration less than around 2000 ppm and an oxygen concentration around 21%, such as air.

  18. Evaluation of Sorbents for Acetylene Separation in Atmosphere Revitalization Loop Closure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abney, Morgan B.; Miller, Lee A.; Barton, Katherine

    2012-01-01

    State-of-the-art carbon dioxide reduction technology uses a Sabatier reactor to recover water from metabolic carbon dioxide. In order to maximize oxygen loop closure, a byproduct of the system, methane, must be reduced to recover hydrogen. NASA is currently exploring a microwave plasma methane pyrolysis system for this purpose. The resulting product stream of this technology includes unreacted methane, product hydrogen, and acetylene. The hydrogen and the small amount of unreacted methane resulting from the pyrolysis process can be returned to the Sabatier reactor thereby substantially improving the overall efficiency of the system. However, the acetylene is a waste product that must be removed from the pyrolysis product. Two materials have been identified as potential sorbents for acetylene removal: zeolite 4A, a commonly available commercial sorbent, and HKUST-1, a newly developed microporous metal. This paper provides an explanation of the rationale behind acetylene removal and the results of separation testing with both materials

  19. Efficiency of Oil Removal from Real Storm Water With Different Sorbents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aušra Mažeikienė

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Suspended solids and oil products are considered as the most important pollutants in storm water. Surface water flow and changes in pollutant concentration complicate conventional matching techniques and prolong the duration of technological processes; therefore, a comprehensive study on this area is necessary. For this reason, the research and analysis of three different sorbents (“FIBROIL®”, “Duck”, “Reo-dry” were performed in the laboratory. According to the results of the conducted experiment, all three sorbents have similar treatment efficiency: “FIBROIL®” – 99%, “Reo-dry” – 95%, “Duck” – 98%. Filtering rate had an influence on the effectiveness of removing petrol products (slower speed increases effectiveness.Article in Lithuanian

  20. Lanthanide Selective Sorbents: Self-Assembled Monolayers on Mesoporous Supports (SAMMS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fryxell, Glen E.; Wu, Hong; Lin, Yuehe; Shaw, Wendy J.; Birnbaum, Jerome C.; Linehan, John C.; Nie, Zimin; Kemner, K. M.; Kelly, Shelley

    2004-11-01

    Through the marriage of mesoporous ceramics with self-assembled monolayer chemistry, the genesis of a powerful new class of environmental sorbent materials has been realized. By coating the mesoporous ceramic backbone with a monolayer terminated with a lanthanide-specific ligand, it is possible to couple high lanthanide binding affinity with the high loading capacity (resulting from the extremely high surface area of the support). This lanthanide-specific ligand field is created by pairing a ''hard'' anionic Lewis base with a suitable synergistic ligand, in a favorable chelating geometry. Details of the synthesis, characterization, lanthanide binding studies, binding kinetics, competition experiments and sorbent regeneration studies are summarized

  1. Crosslinked polymeric ionic liquids as solid-phase microextraction sorbent coatings for high performance liquid chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Honglian; Merib, Josias; Anderson, Jared L

    2016-03-18

    Neat crosslinked polymeric ionic liquid (PIL) sorbent coatings for solid-phase microextraction (SPME) compatible with high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) are reported for the first time. Six structurally different PILs were crosslinked to nitinol supports and applied for the determination of select pharmaceutical drugs, phenolics, and insecticides. Sampling conditions including sample solution pH, extraction time, desorption solvent, desorption time, and desorption solvent volume were optimized using design of experiment (DOE). The developed PIL sorbent coatings were stable when performing extractions under acidic pH and remained intact in various organic desorption solvents (i.e., methanol, acetonitrile, acetone). The PIL-based sorbent coating polymerized from the IL monomer 1-vinyl-3-(10-hydroxydecyl) imidazolium chloride [VC10OHIM][Cl] and IL crosslinker 1,12-di(3-vinylbenzylimidazolium) dodecane dichloride [(VBIM)2C12] 2[Cl] exhibited superior extraction performance compared to the other studied PILs. The extraction efficiency of pharmaceutical drugs and phenolics increased when the film thickness of the PIL-based sorbent coating was increased while many insecticides were largely unaffected. Satisfactory analytical performance was obtained with limits of detection (LODs) ranging from 0.2 to 2 μg L(-1) for the target analytes. The accuracy of the analytical method was examined by studying the relative recovery of analytes in real water samples, including tap water and lake water, with recoveries varying from 50.2% to 115.9% and from 48.8% to 116.6%, respectively. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Sorption of radionuclides on mesoporous Sn(IV) silicate: a new sorbent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sepehrian, H. [Jaber Ibn Hayan Research Labs., Nuclear Science and Technology Research Inst., AEOI, Tehran (Iran); Dept. of Applied Chemistry, Univ. of Tarbiat Moallem, Tehran (Iran); Yavari, R.; Ghannadi Maragheh, M. [Jaber Ibn Hayan Research Labs., Nuclear Science and Technology Research Inst., AEOI, Tehran (Iran); Husain, S.W. [Dept. of Applied Chemistry, Univ. of Tarbiat Moallem, Tehran (Iran)

    2008-07-01

    Four different samples of mesoporous Sn(IV) silicate with varying mole ratio of Si/Sn have been used to study the sorption behavior of 18 radionuclides on these materials. Ion-exchange capacity, SEM, distribution coefficient and chemical stability have been studied and discussed. Separation of Tl(I) from Th(IV), Cs(I) from Th(IV) and Cs(I) from Zr(IV) have been developed on columns of this sorbent. (orig.)

  3. Sorption of radionuclides on mesoporous Sn(IV) silicate: a new sorbent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sepehrian, H.; Yavari, R.; Ghannadi Maragheh, M.; Husain, S.W.

    2008-01-01

    Four different samples of mesoporous Sn(IV) silicate with varying mole ratio of Si/Sn have been used to study the sorption behavior of 18 radionuclides on these materials. Ion-exchange capacity, SEM, distribution coefficient and chemical stability have been studied and discussed. Separation of Tl(I) from Th(IV), Cs(I) from Th(IV) and Cs(I) from Zr(IV) have been developed on columns of this sorbent. (orig.)

  4. Prototype demonstration of dual sorbent injection for acid gas control on municipal solid waste combustion units

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1994-05-01

    This report gathered and evaluated emissions and operations data associated with furnace injection of dry hydrated lime and duct injection of dry sodium bicarbonate at a commercial, 1500 ton per day, waste-to-energy facility. The information compiled during the project sheds light on these sorbents to affect acid gas emissions from municipal solid waste combustors. The information assesses the capability of these systems to meet the 1990 Clean Air Act and 1991 EPA Emission Guidelines.

  5. From carbon nanostructures to high-performance sorbents for chromatographic separation and preconcentration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Postnov, V N; Rodinkov, O V; Moskvin, L N; Novikov, A G; Bugaichenko, A S; Krokhina, O A

    2016-01-01

    Information on carbon nanostructures (fullerenes, nanotubes, graphene, nanodiamond and nanodispersed active carbon) used to develop high-performance sorbents of organics and heavy metal ions from aqueous solutions is collected and analyzed. The advantages in the synthesis of hybrid carbon nanostructures and the possibilities of surface modification of these systems in order to carry out fast sorption pre-concentration are considered. Prospects for application of these materials in sorption technologies and analytical chemistry are discussed. The bibliography includes 364 references

  6. Carbon Nanotubes as a New Solid Phase Extraction Sorbent for Analysis of Environmental Pollutants

    OpenAIRE

    Constantin, Bele

    2010-01-01

    SPE is an increasingly useful technique for sample concentration and clean-up in environmental applications and can be easily incorporated into automated analytical procedures. The future of SPE is closely related to improvement of sorbents that can be more effective in obtaining high enrichment efficiency of analytes. The unusual properties of CNTs, their large sorption capacity, wide surface area and the presence of a wide spectrum of surface functional groups have generated a great interes...

  7. Silica-Silver Nanocomposites as Regenerable Sorbents for Hg0 Removal from Flue Gases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Tiantian; Li, Zhen; Xiong, Yong; Yang, Yue; Xu, Shengming; Bisson, Teresa; Gupta, Rajender; Xu, Zhenghe

    2017-10-17

    Silica-silver nanocomposites (Ag-SBA-15) are a novel class of multifunctional materials with potential applications as sorbents, catalysts, sensors, and disinfectants. In this work, an innovative yet simple and robust method of depositing silver nanoparticles on a mesoporous silica (SBA-15) was developed. The synthesized Ag-SBA-15 was found to achieve a complete capture of Hg 0 at temperatures up to 200 °C. Silver nanoparticles on the SBA-15 were shown to be the critical active sites for the capture of Hg 0 by the Ag-Hg 0 amalgamation mechanism. An Hg 0 capture capacity as high as 13.2 mg·g -1 was achieved by Ag(10)-SBA-15, which is much higher than that achievable by existing Ag-based sorbents and comparable with that achieved by commercial activated carbon. Even after exposure to more complex simulated flue gas flow for 1 h, the Ag(10)-SBA-15 could still achieve an Hg 0 removal efficiency as high as 91.6% with a Hg 0 capture capacity of 457.3 μg·g -1 . More importantly, the spent sorbent could be effectively regenerated and reused without noticeable performance degradation over five cycles. The excellent Hg 0 removal efficiency combined with a simple synthesis procedure, strong tolerance to complex flue gas environment, great thermal stability, and outstanding regeneration capability make the Ag-SBA-15 a promising sorbent for practical applications to Hg 0 capture from coal-fired flue gases.

  8. In vitro catheter and sorbent-based method for clearance of radiocontrast material during cerebral interventions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Angheloiu, George O.; Hänscheid, Heribert; Reiners, Christoph; Anderson, William D.; Kellum, John A.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Contrast-induced acute kidney injury is a severe condition resulting from the use of radiology contrast in patients with predisposing factors. Hypothesis: We hypothesized that a novel system including a device containing polymer resin sorbent beads and a custom-made suctioning catheter could efficiently remove contrast from an in vitro novel model of circulatory system (MOCS) mimicking the cerebral circulation. Methods: A custom-made catheter was built and optimized for cerebral venous approach. The efficiency of a system made of a polymer resin sorbent beads column (CST 401, Cytosorbents) and this particular catheter was tested in the MOCS running a solution composed of 0.9% saline and radio-contrast. During two series of 18 cycles of first-pass experiments we assessed the catheter's suctioning efficiency and the system's ability to clear radio-contrast injected into the MOCS's cerebral arterial segment. We also assessed the functioning and reliability of the MOCS. Results: Mean suctioning efficiency of the catheter was 84% ± 24%. The polymer sorbent column contrast removal rate was initially 96% and gradually decreased with subsequent cycles in a linear fashion during an experiment lasting approximately 90 minutes. The MOCS had a reliability of 0.9946×min −1 where 1 × min −1 was the optimum value. Conclusion: A system including a polymer resin sorbent beads column and a custom-made suctioning catheter had an excellent initial efficiency in quickly removing contrast from an artificial MOCS mimicking the cerebral circulation. MOCS is an inexpensive and relatively reliable custom-made system that can be used for training or testing purposes

  9. Biological – chemical regeneration of desulphurization sorbents based on zinc ferrite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Šepelák Vladimír

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available One of the main sources of air pollution is the combustion of fuels by various thermal and power plants, transport facilities, and metallurgical plants. Main components of industrial gases that pollute air are carbon oxides, nitrogen oxides, sulphur oxides and hydrogen sulphide. Sulphur has received a more attention than any other contaminant, because the sulphur released into the atmosphere in the form of sulphur dioxide or hydrogen sulphide is a precursor of the “acid rain” formation. To meet environmental emission regulations, sulphur and other contaminant species released during the gasification of coal must be removed from the fuel gas stream. The removal of contaminat at high temperatures is referred to as hot-gas cleanup in general and hot-gas desulphurization in particular when sulphur species are the primary contaminants to be remove. In recent years, zinc ferrite is the leading candidate for hot-gas desulphurization, capable of removing sulphur-containing species from coal gas at gasifier exit temperatures. It can also be of being regenerated for a continuous use. The conventional methods of the regeneration of sulphurized sorbents are based on oxidizing pyrolysis of sulphides or on the pressure leaching of sulphides in the water environment at high temperatures. The first results of the experiments using the biological-chemical leaching, as a new way of regeneration of sulphurized sorbent based on zinc ferrite, are presented in this paper. The results show that the biological-chemical leaching leads to the removal of sulphides layers (á-ZnS, â-ZnS from the surface of the sorbent at room temperature. The biological-chemical leaching process results in the increase of the active surface area of the regenerated sorbent.

  10. In vitro catheter and sorbent-based method for clearance of radiocontrast material during cerebral interventions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Angheloiu, George O., E-mail: goangheloiu@drmc.org [Heart and Vascular Institute, University of Pittsburgh Medical Center, Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Department of Cardiology, Dubois Regional Medical Center, Dubois, PA (United States); Hänscheid, Heribert; Reiners, Christoph [Department of Nuclear Medicine, University of Würzburg, Würzburg (Germany); Anderson, William D. [Cardiology Department, Exempla Healthcare, Denver, CO (United States); Kellum, John A. [CRISMA Center, Department of Critical Care Medicine, University of Pittsburgh Medical Center, Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    2013-07-15

    Background: Contrast-induced acute kidney injury is a severe condition resulting from the use of radiology contrast in patients with predisposing factors. Hypothesis: We hypothesized that a novel system including a device containing polymer resin sorbent beads and a custom-made suctioning catheter could efficiently remove contrast from an in vitro novel model of circulatory system (MOCS) mimicking the cerebral circulation. Methods: A custom-made catheter was built and optimized for cerebral venous approach. The efficiency of a system made of a polymer resin sorbent beads column (CST 401, Cytosorbents) and this particular catheter was tested in the MOCS running a solution composed of 0.9% saline and radio-contrast. During two series of 18 cycles of first-pass experiments we assessed the catheter's suctioning efficiency and the system's ability to clear radio-contrast injected into the MOCS's cerebral arterial segment. We also assessed the functioning and reliability of the MOCS. Results: Mean suctioning efficiency of the catheter was 84% ± 24%. The polymer sorbent column contrast removal rate was initially 96% and gradually decreased with subsequent cycles in a linear fashion during an experiment lasting approximately 90 minutes. The MOCS had a reliability of 0.9946×min{sup −1} where 1 × min{sup −1} was the optimum value. Conclusion: A system including a polymer resin sorbent beads column and a custom-made suctioning catheter had an excellent initial efficiency in quickly removing contrast from an artificial MOCS mimicking the cerebral circulation. MOCS is an inexpensive and relatively reliable custom-made system that can be used for training or testing purposes.

  11. Experimental study on ZnO-TiO_2 sorbents for the removal of elemental mercury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qiu, Kunzan; Zhou, Jinsong; Qi, Pan; Zhou, Qixin; Gao, Xiang; Luo, Zhongyang

    2017-01-01

    ZnO-TiO_2 sorbents synthesized by an impregnation method were characterized through XRD (X-ray diffraction), XPS (X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy) and EDS (Energy dispersive spectrometer) analyses. An experiment concerning the adsorption of Hg0 by ZnO-TiO_2 under a simulated fuel gas atmosphere was then conducted in a benchscale fixed-bed reactor. The effects of ZnO loading amounts and reaction temperatures on Hg"0 removal performance were analyzed. The results showed that ZnO-TiO_2 sorbents exhibited excellent Hg removal capacity in the presence of H2S at 150 .deg. C and 200 .deg. C; 95.2% and 91.2% of Hg0 was removed, respectively, under the experimental conditions. There are two possible causes for the H_2S reacting on the surface of ZnO-TiO_2: (1) H_2S directly reacted with ZnO to form ZnS, (2) H_2S was oxidized to elemental sulfur (S_a_d) by means of active oxygen on the sorbent surface, and then Sad provided active absorption sites for Hg0 to form HgS. This study identifies three reasons why higher temperatures limit mercury removal. First, the reaction between Hg"0 and H_2S is inhibited at high temperatures. Second, HgS, as the resulting product in the reaction of mercury removal, becomes unstable at high temperatures. Third, the desulfurization reaction strengthens at higher temperatures, and it is likely that H_2S directly reacts with ZnO, thus decreasing the Sad on the sorbent surfaces.

  12. Can Deterrence Be Tailored? Strategic Forum, Number 225, January 2007

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bunn, M. E

    2007-01-01

    .... The Bush administration has outlined a concept for tailored deterrence to address the distinctive challenges posed by advanced military competitors, regional powers armed with weapons of mass destruction (WMD...

  13. Development of Inorganic Solar Cells by Nanotechnology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yafei Zhang; Huijuan Geng; Zhihua Zhou; Jiang Wu; Zhiming Wang; Yaozhong Zhang; Zhongli Li; Liying Zhang; Zhi Yang; Huey Liang Hwang

    2012-01-01

    Inorganic solar cells, as durable photovoltaic devices for harvesting electric energy from sun light,have received tremendous attention due to the fear of exhausting the earth’s energy resources and damaging the living environment due to greenhouse gases. Some recent developments in nanotechnology have opened up new avenues for more relevant inorganic solar cells produced by new photovoltaic conversion concepts and effective solar energy harvesting nanostructures. In this review, the multiple exciton generation effect solar cells, hot carrier solar cells, one dimensional material constructed asymmetrical schottky barrier arrays, noble nanoparticle induced plasmonic enhancement, and light trapping nanostructured semiconductor solar cells are highlighted.

  14. Separation of fission products using inorganic exchangers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murthy, T.S.; Balasubramanian, K.R.; Rao, K.L.N.; Venkatachalam, R.; Varma, R.N.

    1981-01-01

    This paper describes the separation of long lived fission products like caesium-137, strontium-90 using inorganic exchangers ammonium phosphomolybdate and zirconium antimonate. A revised flow sheet is proposed for the sequential separation of these isotopes using the above two compounds. This is a modification of the earlier scheme developed which involved the use of four inorganic exchangers namely ammonium phosphomolybdate, manganese dioxide, zirconium antimonate and polyantimonic acid. The elution of the adsorbed elements like cerium, strontium, and sodium has been studied and it has been possible to elute these using different eluting agents. (author)

  15. Chronic inorganic mercury induced peripheral neuropathy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chu, C.-C.; Huang, C.-C.; Ryu, S.-J. [Chang Gung Memorial Hospital and Chang Gung University, Dept. of Neurology, Tapei (Taiwan, Province of China); Wu, T.-N. [Executive Yuan, Dept. of Health, Surveillance and Quarantine Service, Taipei (Taiwan, Province of China)

    1998-12-01

    We report the clinical features, electrophysiological studies, and morphometric analysis of sural nerve pathology in a patient with polyneuropathy due to inorganic mercury intoxication. He developed slowly progressive generalized paralysis of all limbs after 3 months ingestion of herb drugs which contained mercuric sulfate. Electrophysiologic studies revealed axonal polyneuropathy involving both motor and sensory fibers. Sural nerve biopsy demonstrated axonal degeneration with demyelination and a predominant loss of large myelinated fibers. His muscle strength showed only mild improvement after 2 years` follow-up. We concluded that inorganic mercury exposure may induce severe axonal sensorimotor polyneuropathy in humans and that neurological deficits may persist in severe cases. (au) 21 refs.

  16. Effects of tailoring ingredients in auditory persuasive health messages on fruit and vegetable intake

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elbert, Sarah P.; Dijkstra, Arie; Rozema, Andrea

    2017-01-01

    Objective: Health messages can be tailored by applying different tailoring ingredients, among which personalisation, feedback and adaptation. This experiment investigated the separate effects of these tailoring ingredients on behaviour in auditory health persuasion. Furthermore, the moderating

  17. Improvement of CaO-based sorbent performance for CO{sub 2} looping cycles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vasilije Manovic; Edward J. Anthony [CANMET Energy Technology Centre-Ottawa, Ottawa, ON (Canada)

    2009-07-01

    This paper presents research on CO{sub 2} capture by lime-based looping cycles. This is a new and promising technology that may help in mitigation of global warming and climate change caused primarily by the use of fossil fuels. The intensity of the anticipated changes urgently requires solutions such as the developing technologies for CO{sub 2} capture, especially those based on CaO looping cycles. This technology is at the pilot plant demonstration stage and there are still significant challenges that require solutions. The technology is based on a dual fluidized bed reactor which contains a carbonator - a unit for CO{sub 2} capture, and a calciner - a unit for CaO regeneration. The major technology components are well known from other technologies and easily applicable. However, even though CaO is a very good candidate as a solid CO{sub 2} carrier, its performance in a practical system still has significant limitations. Thus, research on CaO performance is critical and this paper discusses some of the more important problems and potential solutions that are being examined at CETC-O. To date, the most promising methods were reactivation of spent sorbent by steam, thermal pretreatment of sorbent, and doping, most likely with Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}. The combination of these methods, including pelletization, should provide us with enhanced sorbent performance. 75 refs., 19 figs.

  18. Cesium removal demonstration utilizing crystalline silicotitanate sorbent for processing Melton Valley Storage Tank supernate: Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walker, J.F. Jr.; Taylor, P.A.; Cummins, R.L. [and others

    1998-03-01

    This report provides details of the Cesium Removal Demonstration (CsRD), which was conducted at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) on radioactive waste from the Melton Valley Storage Tanks. The CsRD was the first large-scale use of state-of-the-art sorbents being developed by private industry for the selective removal of cesium and other radionuclides from liquid wastes stored across the DOE complex. The crystalline silicotitanate sorbent used in the demonstration was chosen because of its effectiveness in laboratory tests using bench-scale columns. The demonstration showed that the cesium could be removed from the supernate and concentrated on a small-volume, solid waste form that would meet the waste acceptance criteria for the Nevada Test Site. During this project, the CsRD system processed > 115,000 L (30,000 gal) of radioactive supernate with minimal operational problems. Sluicing, drying, and remote transportation of the sorbent, which could not be done on a bench scale, were successfully demonstrated. The system was then decontaminated to the extent that it could be contact maintained with the use of localized shielding only. By utilizing a modular, transportable design and placement within existing facilities, the system can be transferred to different sites for reuse. The initial unit has now been removed from the process building and is presently being reinstalled for use in baseline operations at ORNL.

  19. Mechanochemically Activated, Calcium Oxide-Based, Magnesium Oxide-Stabilized Carbon Dioxide Sorbents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurlov, Alexey; Broda, Marcin; Hosseini, Davood; Mitchell, Sharon J; Pérez-Ramírez, Javier; Müller, Christoph R

    2016-09-08

    Carbon dioxide capture and storage (CCS) is a promising approach to reduce anthropogenic CO2 emissions and mitigate climate change. However, the costs associated with the capture of CO2 using the currently available technology, that is, amine scrubbing, are considered prohibitive. In this context, the so-called calcium looping process, which relies on the reversible carbonation of CaO, is an attractive alternative. The main disadvantage of naturally occurring CaO-based CO2 sorbents, such as limestone, is their rapid deactivation caused by thermal sintering. Here, we report a scalable route based on wet mechanochemical activation to prepare MgO-stabilized, CaO-based CO2 sorbents. We optimized the synthesis conditions through a fundamental understanding of the underlying stabilization mechanism, and the quantity of MgO required to stabilize CaO could be reduced to as little as 15 wt %. This allowed the preparation of CO2 sorbents that exceed the CO2 uptake of the reference limestone by 200 %. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. The role of graphene-based sorbents in modern sample preparation techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Toffoli, Ana Lúcia; Maciel, Edvaldo Vasconcelos Soares; Fumes, Bruno Henrique; Lanças, Fernando Mauro

    2018-01-01

    The application of graphene-based sorbents in sample preparation techniques has increased significantly since 2011. These materials have good physicochemical properties to be used as sorbent and have shown excellent results in different sample preparation techniques. Graphene and its precursor graphene oxide have been considered to be good candidates to improve the extraction and concentration of different classes of target compounds (e.g., parabens, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon, pyrethroids, triazines, and so on) present in complex matrices. Its applications have been employed during the analysis of different matrices (e.g., environmental, biological and food). In this review, we highlight the most important characteristics of graphene-based material, their properties, synthesis routes, and the most important applications in both off-line and on-line sample preparation techniques. The discussion of the off-line approaches includes methods derived from conventional solid-phase extraction focusing on the miniaturized magnetic and dispersive modes. The modes of microextraction techniques called stir bar sorptive extraction, solid phase microextraction, and microextraction by packed sorbent are discussed. The on-line approaches focus on the use of graphene-based material mainly in on-line solid phase extraction, its variation called in-tube solid-phase microextraction, and on-line microdialysis systems. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.