WorldWideScience

Sample records for tagged photon method

  1. Nuclear studies with tagged photons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Axel, P.

    1979-01-01

    First, the photon tagging technique will be described schematically, and a brief history of photon tagging will be given, including the 20 year development of this technique at Illinois. In the second part some typical operating conditions will be indicated for our tagged photon facility. The final section of this paper will illustrate some types of experiments by showing data obtained recently. (KBE) 891 KBE/KBE 892 ARA

  2. Polarized tagged photons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maximon, L.C.; Ganz, Eric; Aniel, Thierry; Miniac, Arlette de.

    1982-03-01

    We consider in detail the differential cross section for polarized bremsstrahlung for angles and energies in the range of interest for a tagging system and derive a high energy, small angle approximation for this cross section. We use these approximations to determine the maxima and minima of the cross sections for these two polarization states, dσperpendicular and dσparallel, and to evaluate these cross sections at the extrema. It is shown that both dσperpendicular and dσparallel have a very sharp dip in the region of small momentum transfers. However, their behavior in the region of the dip, as a function of the azimuthal angle phi, is quite different over most of the photon spectrum. The cross section dσperpendicular behaves similarly to the cross section for unpolarized photons in that as phi increases, the sharp dip vanishes, the minimum fuses with the second maximum, and the cross section then has only a single maximum. In contrast, the sharp dip in the cross section dσparallel remains as phi increases. Coulomb corrections to the Born approximation are considered, and do not fill in these dips

  3. A beam profile monitor for a tagged photon beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arends, J.; Breuer, M.; Dahmen, H.D.; Detemple, P.; Noeldeke, G.; Schneider, W.; Zucht, B.

    1990-10-01

    A beam profile monitor for electron and photon beams is described, which operates at the low intensities encountered in a tagged bremsstrahlung beam environment, typically 10 10 electrons/s and 10 7 photons/s. The method is based on a wire scanner and utilizes the presence of a tagging spectrometer. The accuracy of the measurements can be tuned in a wide range (at the expense of measuring time) to meet the requirements set by the actual beam size. Examples of measured electron and photon beam profiles at the tagged photon beam of the PHOENICS experiment at the electron stretcher ring ELSA are given. (orig.)

  4. A beam profile monitor for a tagged photon beam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arends, J.; Breuer, M.; Dahmen, H.D.; Detemple, P.; Noeldeke, G.; Schneider, W.; Zucht, B.

    1990-10-01

    A beam profile monitor for electron and photon beams is described, which operates at the low intensities encountered in a tagged bremsstrahlung beam environment, typically 10{sup 10} electrons/s and 10{sup 7} photons/s. The method is based on a wire scanner and utilizes the presence of a tagging spectrometer. The accuracy of the measurements can be tuned in a wide range (at the expense of measuring time) to meet the requirements set by the actual beam size. Examples of measured electron and photon beam profiles at the tagged photon beam of the PHOENICS experiment at the electron stretcher ring ELSA are given. (orig.).

  5. Beam profile monitors for a tagged photon beam facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arends, J.; Breuer, M.; Dahmen, H.D.; Detemple, P.; Schneider, W.; Urban, D.; Zucht, B.

    1991-01-01

    A beam profile monitor for electron and photon beams is described, which operates at the low intensities encountered in a tagged bremsstrahlung beam environment, typically 10 10 electrons/s and 10 7 photons/s. The method is based on a wire scanner and utilizes the presence of a tagging spectrometer. The accuracy of the measurements can be tuned in a wide range to meet the requirements set by the actual beam parameters. Examples of measured electron and photon beam profiles at the tagged photon beam of the PHOENICS experiment at the electron stretcher ring ELSA in Bonn are given. (orig.)

  6. Studies and comparisons of two photon-tagging systems for the production of monochromatic photon beams for photonuclear experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aniel, Thierry.

    1982-06-01

    The performance of photon beams obtained by two different tagging processes (tagging of ''hard'' annihilation photons with ''soft'' associated photons, tagging of bremstrahlung photons with associated electrons) on the same facility was studied. The two processes are described and experimental results on the characteristics of the resulting beams given. The respective advantages of both methods are compared with one another and with those of a quasi-monochromatic beam obtained by the in-flight annihilation of a positron beam. A development based on the second process is then studied together with its applications to photonuclear physics [fr

  7. 200-MeV bremsstrahlung tagged photon beams at Sendai

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirose, K.; Chiba, M.; Inoue, M.; Kanda, H.; Kimura, R.; Kino, K.; Kobayashi, Y.; Konno, O.; Maeda, K.; Miyase, H.; Miyamoto, A.; Ohtsuki, T.; Saito, A.; Suda, T.; Takahashi, K.; Tamae, T.; Terasaki, Y.; Terasawa, T.; Tsubota, H.; Tsuruta, T.; Utoyama, M.; Yuuki, H.; Yamaguchi, Y.; Yamazaki, H.

    2006-01-01

    A new beam line for photonuclear reaction experiments using tagged photons has been constructed to take advantage of the completion of the 1.2-GeV STretcher Booster (STB) ring at the Laboratory of Nuclear Science (LNS), Tohoku University. A photon tagging system was installed at the end of the new beam line. It provides bremsstrahlung tagged photon beams in an energy range from 0.2E 0 to 0.8E 0 MeV at the incident electron energy E 0 with an energy resolution of ΔE/E∼10 -2 . The tagged photon intensity I= 6 photons/s is available for typical photonuclear reaction experiments. We introduce the basic parameters of the tagged photons by showing the commissioning data

  8. Further development of NEPTUN photon tagging facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Symochko, Dmytro; Arnould, Michaela; Aumann, Thomas; Baumann, Martin; Pietralla, Norbert; Scheit, Heiko; Semmler, Diego; Walz, Christopher [Institut fuer Kernphysik, Darmstadt Univ. (Germany)

    2016-07-01

    The low-energy photon tagging facility NEPTUN at the superconducting Darmstadt linear accelerator (SDALINAC) has been constructed with the aim to study the photoabsorption cross section of the nuclei in the energy regions of Pygmy Dipole and Giant Dipole Resonances. Recently it went through the series of commissioning runs, which proved the concept and the ability of NEPTUN to tag the discreet nuclear states. Also, based on the results of the commissioning, major upgrade was developed to optimize the setup. Upgraded tagger will be able to operate with 60 MeV electron beam and will have extended focal plane with energy bite of more than 10 MeV. After completion of upgrade it will be possible to perform total dipole response measurement in the energy region 5-35 MeV for one target using only 2-3 settings of the spectrometer. Presentation will focus on the analysis results of commissioning runs and details of the proposed upgrade plan.

  9. Photon tagging; considerations for an ELFE DESY proposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mackenzie, J.A.

    1996-01-01

    Photon Tagging in the 5-15 GeV region is considered. The advantage of performing exclusive measurements in relation to obtainable photon flux in described. Finally some technical problems in relation to implementing a photon beam in the framework of the ELFE at DESY proposal are discussed. (author)

  10. The bremsstrahlung tagged photon beam in Hall B at JLab

    CERN Document Server

    Sober, D I; Longhi, A; Matthews, S K; O'Brien, J T; Berman, B L; Briscoe, W J; Cole, P L; Connelly, J P; Dodge, W R; Murphy, L Y; Philips, S A; Dugger, M K; Lawrence, D; Ritchie, B G; Smith, E S; Lambert, J M; Anciant, E; Audit, G; Auger, T; Marchand, C; Klusman, M; Napolitano, J; Khandaker, M A; Salgado, C W; Sarty, A J

    2000-01-01

    We describe the design and commissioning of the photon tagging beamline installed in experimental Hall B at the Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (JLab). This system can tag photon energies over a range from 20% to 95% of the incident electron energy, and is capable of operation with beam energies up to 6.1 GeV. A single dipole magnet is combined with a hodoscope containing two planar arrays of plastic scintillators to detect energy-degraded electrons from a thin bremsstrahlung radiator. The first layer of 384 partially overlapping small scintillators provides photon energy resolution, while the second layer of 61 larger scintillators provides the timing resolution necessary to form a coincidence with the corresponding nuclear interaction triggered by the tagged photon. The definitions of overlap channels in the first counter plane and of geometric correlation between the two planes are determined using digitized time information from the individual counters. Auxiliary beamline devices are briefl...

  11. Photon-tagged and B-meson-tagged b-jet production at the LHC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinrui Huang

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Tagged jet measurements in high energy hadronic and nuclear reactions provide constraints on the energy and parton flavor origin of the parton shower that recoils against the tagging particle. Such additional insight can be especially beneficial in illuminating the mechanisms of heavy flavor production in proton–proton collisions at the LHC and their modification in the heavy ion environment, which are not fully understood. With this motivation, we present theoretical results for isolated-photon-tagged and B-meson-tagged b-jet production at sNN=5.1 TeV for comparison to the upcoming lead–lead data. We find that photon-tagged b-jets exhibit smaller momentum imbalance shift in nuclear matter, and correspondingly smaller energy loss, than photon-tagged light flavor jets. Our results show that B-meson tagging is most effective in ensuring that the dominant fraction of recoiling jets originate from prompt b-quarks. Interestingly, in this channel the large suppression of the cross section is not accompanied by a significant momentum imbalance shift.

  12. Cross section and linear polarization of tagged photons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asai, J.; Caplan, H.S.; Skopik, D.M.; DelBianco, W.; Maximon, L.C.

    1988-01-01

    Formulae for bremsstrahlung cross sections and polarizations are usually presented in coordinate systems not very suitable for application by experimental physicists to devices such as photon-tagging monochromators. In this paper the transformations between the different coordinate systems are presented, along with examples of the calculated cross sections and polarizations in a form convenient from the experimental standpoint. These examples also give the predicted characteristics of the photon tagger currently under construction at the Saskatchewan Accelerator Laboratory. (16 refs., 19 figs., tab.)

  13. The tagged photon beam polarization of the jet target experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bianchi, N.; Muccifora, V.

    1989-01-01

    The applicability of the residual electron selection method to the tagging method of the jet target laboratory has been studied. With this end in view the behaviour of the polarized bremsstrahlung cross section in the range considered has been analysed, while the polarization increase by means of the RES has been evaluated. The vertical conditions of the focusing of the tagging spectrometer as a function of energy have been determined. Finally the gamma beam density and the tagging efficiency have been calculated

  14. Imaging high energy photons with PILATUS II at the tagged photon beam at MAX-lab

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, V. [School of Physics, University of Melbourne, Parkville 3010 (Australia)], E-mail: leev@physics.unimelb.edu.au; Peake, D.J.; Sobott, B. [School of Physics, University of Melbourne, Parkville 3010 (Australia); Schroeder, B. [MAX-lab, Lund University, Lund (Sweden); Broennimann, Ch. [DECTRIS Ltd., Baden (Switzerland); Henrich, B. [Paul Scherrer Institut, 5232 Villigen PSI (Switzerland); Hansen, K. [MAX-lab, Lund University, Lund (Sweden); O' Keefe, G.J. [Centre for PET, Austin Hospital, Heidelberg, Victoria 3084 (Australia); School of Physics, University of Melbourne, Parkville 3010 (Australia); Taylor, G.N. [School of Physics, University of Melbourne, Parkville 3010 (Australia); Boland, M.J. [Australian Synchrotron, Clayton, Victoria 3168 (Australia); School of Physics, University of Melbourne, Parkville 3010 (Australia); Thompson, M.N.; Rassool, R.P. [School of Physics, University of Melbourne, Parkville 3010 (Australia)

    2009-05-21

    In photonuclear experiments precise location of the photon beam relative to the experimental sample is critical. Previously used techniques such as using photographic film to identify the position, intensity and centroid of the beam is time-consuming and a faster method is required. PILATUS is a single-photon-counting pixel detector developed at the Paul Scherrer Institute (PSI), Switzerland. It is a silicon-based, two-dimensional detector with a large dynamic range and zero readout noise. Designed as an X-ray detector, its optimal quantum efficiency is between 3 and 30 keV. This paper reports measurements carried out at the MAX-lab tagged photon facility in Lund, Sweden. The beam endpoint energy of approximately 200 MeV is far above the designed optimal energy detection range of PILATUS, and provides a critical test of the use of PILATUS under high energy conditions. The detector was placed in the photon beam and images were taken both downstream of other experiments, and in close range of a 19 mm collimator. The successful measurements demonstrate the versatility and robustness of the detector and provide an effective way of quickly and accurately monitoring beam position and profile in real time.

  15. Photon-tagged measurements of jet quenching with ATLAS

    CERN Document Server

    Perepelitsa, Dennis; The ATLAS collaboration

    2018-01-01

    Events containing a high transverse momentum (pT) prompt photon offer a useful tool to study the dynamics of the hot, dense medium produced in heavy ion collisions. Because photons do not carry color charge, they are unaffected by the medium, and thus provide information about the momentum, direction, and flavor (quark or gluon) of the associated hard-scattered parton before it begins to shower and become quenched. In particular, the presence of a high-pT photon can be used to select pp and Pb+Pb events with the same configuration before quenching, limiting the effects of selection biases present in other jet measurements. The large statistics pp and Pb+Pb data delivered by the LHC in 2015 thus allow for a detailed study of photon-tagged jet quenching effects, such as the overall parton energy loss and modified structure of the component of the shower which remains correlated with the initial parton direction (e.g. in cone). These can be explored as a function of photon pT, centrality, and reaction plane. In ...

  16. The photon tagging facility for the Crystal-Barrel/TAPS experiment at ELSA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fornet-Ponse, Kathrin

    2009-11-01

    With the CBELASA/TAPS experiment in the framework of the SFB/TR 16 measurements of single- and double-polarization observables in the photoporoduction were performed. The energy of the high-energetic, polarized photon beams required for this, is determined by means of a so-called tagging system. In the framework of this thesis such a tagging system was constructed. It allows the energy tagging of the photons in an energy range from 0.021.E 0 to 0.871.E 0 with a time resolution of σ=0.240 ns and an energy resolution from 0.1%.E 0 to 0.4%.E 0 . The reached time resolution allows to use the tagging system as time reference for the remaining experimental components. For the calculation of cross sections the knowledge of the photon flux at the experimental target is necessary. Thereby the photon definition probability P γ plays a central role, which indicates, with which probability for a signal from the tagging system the corresponding photon in the γ beam at the production target is present. It could be found a prescription for the determination of P γ , which yields at tagging rates from 1 MHz to 10 MHz consistent results. A relative systematic error for P γ was determined. Furthermore the effects of collimation and divergence of the photon beam on the number of the really in the experiment available photons and by this on the maximally reachable P γ were extensively studied and experimental observations explained. [de

  17. Study of KS0 pair production in single-tag two-photon collisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masuda, M.; Uehara, S.; Watanabe, Y.; Adachi, I.; Ahn, J. K.; Aihara, H.; Al Said, S.; Asner, D. M.; Atmacan, H.; Aulchenko, V.; Aushev, T.; Ayad, R.; Babu, V.; Badhrees, I.; Bansal, V.; Behera, P.; Berger, M.; Bhardwaj, V.; Bhuyan, B.; Biswal, J.; Bondar, A.; Bonvicini, G.; Bozek, A.; Bračko, M.; Červenkov, D.; Chen, A.; Cheon, B. G.; Chilikin, K.; Cho, K.; Choi, Y.; Choudhury, S.; Cinabro, D.; Czank, T.; Dash, N.; Di Carlo, S.; Doležal, Z.; Drásal, Z.; Dutta, D.; Eidelman, S.; Epifanov, D.; Fast, J. E.; Ferber, T.; Fulsom, B. G.; Garg, R.; Gaur, V.; Gabyshev, N.; Garmash, A.; Gelb, M.; Giri, A.; Goldenzweig, P.; Guido, E.; Haba, J.; Hayasaka, K.; Hayashii, H.; Hedges, M. T.; Hou, W.-S.; Iijima, T.; Inami, K.; Inguglia, G.; Ishikawa, A.; Itoh, R.; Iwasaki, M.; Iwasaki, Y.; Jacobs, W. W.; Jaegle, I.; Jin, Y.; Joo, K. K.; Julius, T.; Kang, K. H.; Karyan, G.; Kawasaki, T.; Kichimi, H.; Kiesling, C.; Kim, D. Y.; Kim, H. J.; Kim, J. B.; Kim, K. T.; Kim, S. H.; Kodyš, P.; Kotchetkov, D.; Križan, P.; Kroeger, R.; Krokovny, P.; Kulasiri, R.; Kuzmin, A.; Kwon, Y.-J.; Lee, I. S.; Lee, S. C.; Li, L. K.; Li, Y.; Li Gioi, L.; Libby, J.; Liventsev, D.; Lubej, M.; Luo, T.; Matsuda, T.; Matvienko, D.; Merola, M.; Miyabayashi, K.; Miyata, H.; Mizuk, R.; Mohanty, G. B.; Moon, H. K.; Mori, T.; Mussa, R.; Nakao, M.; Nakazawa, H.; Nanut, T.; Nath, K. J.; Natkaniec, Z.; Nayak, M.; Niiyama, M.; Nisar, N. K.; Nishida, S.; Ogawa, S.; Okuno, S.; Ono, H.; Onuki, Y.; Pakhlov, P.; Pakhlova, G.; Pal, B.; Park, H.; Paul, S.; Pedlar, T. K.; Pestotnik, R.; Piilonen, L. E.; Ritter, M.; Rostomyan, A.; Russo, G.; Sakai, Y.; Salehi, M.; Sandilya, S.; Santelj, L.; Sanuki, T.; Savinov, V.; Schneider, O.; Schnell, G.; Schwanda, C.; Seidl, R.; Seino, Y.; Senyo, K.; Seon, O.; Sevior, M. E.; Shebalin, V.; Shen, C. P.; Shibata, T.-A.; Shimizu, N.; Shiu, J.-G.; Shwartz, B.; Sokolov, A.; Solovieva, E.; Starič, M.; Strube, J. F.; Sumihama, M.; Sumiyoshi, T.; Takizawa, M.; Tamponi, U.; Tanida, K.; Tenchini, F.; Teramoto, Y.; Uchida, M.; Uglov, T.; Unno, Y.; Uno, S.; Urquijo, P.; Van Hulse, C.; Varner, G.; Vinokurova, A.; Vorobyev, V.; Vossen, A.; Wang, B.; Wang, C. H.; Wang, M.-Z.; Wang, P.; Wang, X. L.; Watanabe, M.; Widmann, E.; Won, E.; Ye, H.; Yuan, C. Z.; Yusa, Y.; Zakharov, S.; Zhang, Z. P.; Zhilich, V.; Zhukova, V.; Zhulanov, V.; Zupanc, A.; Belle Collaboration

    2018-03-01

    We report a measurement of the cross section for KS0 pair production in single-tag two-photon collisions, γ*γ →KS0KS0, for Q2 up to 30 GeV2 , where Q2 is the negative of the invariant mass squared of the tagged photon. The measurement covers the kinematic range 1.0 GeV partial decay widths of the χc 0 and χc 2 mesons are measured as a function of Q2 based on 10 candidate events in total.

  18. Method and apparatus for manufacturing gas tags

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gross, K.C.; Laug, M.T.

    1996-01-01

    For use in the manufacture of gas tags employed in a gas tagging failure detection system for a nuclear reactor, a plurality of commercial feed gases each having a respective noble gas isotopic composition are blended under computer control to provide various tag gas mixtures having selected isotopic ratios which are optimized for specified defined conditions such as cost. Using a new approach employing a discrete variable structure rather than the known continuous-variable optimization problem, the computer controlled gas tag manufacturing process employs an analytical formalism from condensed matter physics known as stochastic relaxation, which is a special case of simulated annealing, for input feed gas selection. For a tag blending process involving M tag isotopes with N distinct feed gas mixtures commercially available from an enriched gas supplier, the manufacturing process calculates the cost difference between multiple combinations and specifies gas mixtures which approach the optimum defined conditions. The manufacturing process is then used to control tag blending apparatus incorporating tag gas canisters connected by stainless-steel tubing with computer controlled valves, with the canisters automatically filled with metered quantities of the required feed gases. 4 figs

  19. TOPAS 1 - construction and test of a scintillation counter hodoscope for the tagging of bremsstrahlung photons for the SAPHIR detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Merkel, R.

    1989-09-01

    The development of a tagging-hodoscope for the SAPHIR-detector at the stretcher ring ELSA in Bonn is described. The hodoscope covers the energy range 2.175 GeV γ 0 =3.500 GeV. 24 scintillation counters are used for the determination of the photon energy, giving a resolution of ΔE γ =25 MeV. The tagging method requires a good coincidence timing resoluting τ between the tagging hodoscope and the detector for the photon-induced reactions in order to keep the accidental coincidences low. The timing information is given by 8 fast timing counters (40 mm thick), covering 5 up to 7 energy channels each. Fluctuations of the timing signal which result from different impact-locations on the timing counter, due to different light travelling distances, are corrected by the energy defining counters. The timing-component (8 timing counters) is commpleted and tested. The results of first mesurements show an upper limit of σ=250 psec for the resolution of 7 coincidences out of 45 possible channels in the tagging hodscope. These results are obtained with a preliminary adjustment of the SAPHIR beam-line and with a not yet optimized signal to noize ratio in the extracted beam. We hope to obtain a σ<200 psec under optimized conditions. (orig.)

  20. Jet-Tagged Back-Scattering Photons for Quark Gluon Plasma Tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fries, Rainer J. [Cyclotron Institute and Department of Physics and Astronomy, Texas A and M University, College Station, TX 77845 (United States); De, Somnath; Srivastava, Dinesh K. [Variable Energy Cyclotron Centre, 1/AF, Bidhan Nagar, Kolkata – 700064 (India)

    2013-05-02

    Direct photons are important probes for quark gluon plasma created in high energy nuclear collisions. Various sources of direct photons in nuclear collisions are known, each of them endowed with characteristic information about the production process. However, it has been challenging to separate direct photon sources through measurements of single inclusive photon spectra and photon azimuthal asymmetry. Here we explore a method to identify photons created from the back-scattering of high momentum quarks off quark gluon plasma. We show that the correlation of back-scattering photons with a trigger jet leads to a signal that should be measurable at RHIC and LHC.

  1. The tagged photon beam facility at the Bonn 500 MeV synchrotron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arends, J.; Eyink, J.; Hartmann, H.; Hegerath, A.; Mecking, B.; Ros, H.

    1982-01-01

    A facility for the investigation of medium energy photonuclear reactions is described. A bremsstrahlung tagging system produces a precisely known flux of monochromatic photons in the energy range between 100 and 450 MeV. Resolution and intensity of the system are given. Photoemitted particles can be detected in various large solid angle detectors. The performance of the facility and future developments are discussed. (orig.)

  2. Data Acquisition Software for Experiments at the MAMI-C Tagged Photon Facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oussena, Baya; Annand, John

    2013-10-01

    Tagged-photon experiments at Mainz use the electron beam of the MAMI (Mainzer MIcrotron) accelerator, in combination with the Glasgow Tagged Photon Spectrometer. The AcquDAQ DAQ system is implemented in the C + + language and makes use of CERN ROOT software libraries and tools. Electronic hardware is characterized in C + + classes, based on a general purpose class TDAQmodule and implementation in an object-oriented framework makes the system very flexible. The DAQ system provides slow control and event-by-event readout of the Photon Tagger, the Crystal Ball 4-pi electromagnetic calorimeter, central MWPC tracker and plastic-scintillator, particle-ID systems and the TAPS forward-angle calorimeter. A variety of front-end controllers running Linux are supported, reading data from VMEbus, FASTBUS and CAMAC systems. More specialist hardware, based on optical communication systems and developed for the COMPASS experiment at CERN, is also supported. AcquDAQ also provides an interface to configure and control the Mainz programmable trigger system, which uses FPGA-based hardware developed at GSI. Currently the DAQ system runs at data rates of up to 3MB/s and, with upgrades to both hardware and software later this year, we anticipate a doubling of that rate. This work was supported in part by the U.S. DOE Grant No. DE-FG02-99ER41110.

  3. Double-Tag Events in Two-Photon Collisions at LEP

    CERN Document Server

    Achard, P.; Aguilar-Benitez, M.; Alcaraz, J.; Alemanni, G.; Allaby, J.; Aloisio, A.; Alviggi, M.G.; Anderhub, H.; Andreev, Valery P.; Anselmo, F.; Arefev, A.; Azemoon, T.; Aziz, T.; Bagnaia, P.; Bajo, A.; Baksay, G.; Baksay, L.; Baldew, S.V.; Banerjee, S.; Banerjee, Sw.; Barczyk, A.; Barillere, R.; Bartalini, P.; Basile, M.; Batalova, N.; Battiston, R.; Bay, A.; Becattini, F.; Becker, U.; Behner, F.; Bellucci, L.; Berbeco, R.; Berdugo, J.; Berges, P.; Bertucci, B.; Betev, B.L.; Biasini, M.; Biglietti, M.; Biland, A.; Blaising, J.J.; Blyth, S.C.; Bobbink, G.J.; Bohm, A.; Boldizsar, L.; Borgia, B.; Bottai, S.; Bourilkov, D.; Bourquin, M.; Braccini, S.; Branson, J.G.; Brochu, F.; Buijs, A.; Burger, J.D.; Burger, W.J.; Cai, X.D.; Capell, M.; Cara Romeo, G.; Carlino, G.; Cartacci, A.; Casaus, J.; Cavallari, F.; Cavallo, N.; Cecchi, C.; Cerrada, M.; Chamizo, M.; Chang, Y.H.; Chemarin, M.; Chen, A.; Chen, G.; Chen, G.M.; Chen, H.F.; Chen, H.S.; Chiefari, G.; Cifarelli, L.; Cindolo, F.; Clare, I.; Clare, R.; Coignet, G.; Colino, N.; Costantini, S.; de la Cruz, B.; Cucciarelli, S.; van Dalen, J.A.; de Asmundis, R.; Deglon, P.; Debreczeni, J.; Degre, A.; Deiters, K.; della Volpe, D.; Delmeire, E.; Denes, P.; DeNotaristefani, F.; De Salvo, A.; Diemoz, M.; Dierckxsens, M.; van Dierendonck, D.; Dionisi, C.; Dittmar, M.; Doria, A.; Dova, M.T.; Duchesneau, D.; Duinker, P.; Echenard, B.; Eline, A.; El Mamouni, H.; Engler, A.; Eppling, F.J.; Ewers, A.; Extermann, P.; Falagan, M.A.; Falciano, S.; Favara, A.; Fay, J.; Fedin, O.; Felcini, M.; Ferguson, T.; Fesefeldt, H.; Fiandrini, E.; Field, J.H.; Filthaut, F.; Fisher, P.H.; Fisher, W.; Fisk, I.; Forconi, G.; Freudenreich, K.; Furetta, C.; Galaktionov, Iouri; Ganguli, S.N.; Garcia-Abia, Pablo; Gataullin, M.; Gentile, S.; Giagu, S.; Gong, Z.F.; Grenier, Gerald Jean; Grimm, O.; Gruenewald, M.W.; Guida, M.; van Gulik, R.; Gupta, V.K.; Gurtu, A.; Gutay, L.J.; Haas, D.; Hatzifotiadou, D.; Hebbeker, T.; Herve, Alain; Hirschfelder, J.; Hofer, H.; Hohlmann, M.; Holzner, G.; Hou, S.R.; Hu, Y.; Jin, B.N.; Jones, Lawrence W.; de Jong, P.; Josa-Mutuberria, I.; Kafer, D.; Kaur, M.; Kienzle-Focacci, M.N.; Kim, J.K.; Kirkby, Jasper; Kittel, W.; Klimentov, A.; Konig, A.C.; Kopal, M.; Koutsenko, V.; Kraber, M.; Kraemer, R.W.; Krenz, W.; Kruger, A.; Kunin, A.; Ladron de Guevara, P.; Laktineh, I.; Landi, G.; Lebeau, M.; Lebedev, A.; Lebrun, P.; Lecomte, P.; Lecoq, P.; Le Coultre, P.; Le Goff, J.M.; Leiste, R.; Levtchenko, P.; Li, C.; Likhoded, S.; Lin, C.H.; Lin, W.T.; Linde, F.L.; Lista, L.; Liu, Z.A.; Lohmann, W.; Longo, E.; Lu, Y.S.; Lubelsmeyer, K.; Luci, C.; Luminari, L.; Lustermann, W.; Ma, W.G.; Malgeri, L.; Malinin, A.; Mana, C.; Mangeol, D.; Mans, J.; Martin, J.P.; Marzano, F.; Mazumdar, K.; McNeil, R.R.; Mele, S.; Merola, L.; Meschini, M.; Metzger, W.J.; Mihul, A.; Milcent, H.; Mirabelli, G.; Mnich, J.; Mohanty, G.B.; Muanza, G.S.; Muijs, A.J.M.; Musicar, B.; Musy, M.; Nagy, S.; Natale, S.; Napolitano, M.; Nessi-Tedaldi, F.; Newman, H.; Niessen, T.; Nisati, A.; Kluge, Hannelies; Ofierzynski, R.; Organtini, G.; Palomares, C.; Pandoulas, D.; Paolucci, P.; Paramatti, R.; Passaleva, G.; Patricelli, S.; Paul, Thomas Cantzon; Pauluzzi, M.; Paus, C.; Pauss, F.; Pedace, M.; Pensotti, S.; Perret-Gallix, D.; Petersen, B.; Piccolo, D.; Pierella, F.; Pioppi, M.; Piroue, P.A.; Pistolesi, E.; Plyaskin, V.; Pohl, M.; Pojidaev, V.; Pothier, J.; Prokofev, D.O.; Prokofiev, D.; Quartieri, J.; Rahal-Callot, G.; Rahaman, M.A.; Raics, P.; Raja, N.; Ramelli, R.; Rancoita, P.G.; Ranieri, R.; Raspereza, A.; Razis, P.; Ren, D.; Rescigno, M.; Reucroft, S.; Riemann, S.; Riles, Keith; Roe, B.P.; Romero, L.; Rosca, A.; Rosier-Lees, S.; Roth, Stefan; Rosenbleck, C.; Roux, B.; Rubio, J.A.; Ruggiero, G.; Rykaczewski, H.; Sakharov, A.; Saremi, S.; Sarkar, S.; Salicio, J.; Sanchez, E.; Sanders, M.P.; Schafer, C.; Schegelsky, V.; Schmidt-Kaerst, S.; Schmitz, D.; Schopper, H.; Schotanus, D.J.; Schwering, G.; Sciacca, C.; Servoli, L.; Shevchenko, S.; Shivarov, N.; Shoutko, V.; Shumilov, E.; Shvorob, A.; Siedenburg, T.; Son, D.; Spillantini, P.; Steuer, M.; Stickland, D.P.; Stoyanov, B.; Straessner, A.; Sudhakar, K.; Sultanov, G.; Sun, L.Z.; Sushkov, S.; Suter, H.; Swain, J.D.; Szillasi, Z.; Tang, X.W.; Tarjan, P.; Tauscher, L.; Taylor, L.; Tellili, B.; Teyssier, D.; Timmermans, Charles; Ting, Samuel C.C.; Ting, S.M.; Tonwar, S.C.; Toth, J.; Tully, C.; Tung, K.L.; Ulbricht, J.; Valente, E.; Van de Walle, R.T.; Veszpremi, V.; Vesztergombi, G.; Vetlitsky, I.; Vicinanza, D.; Viertel, G.; Villa, S.; Vivargent, M.; Vlachos, S.; Vodopianov, I.; Vogel, H.; Vogt, H.; Vorobev, I.; Vorobyov, A.A.; Wadhwa, M.; Wallraff, W.; Wang, X.L.; Wang, Z.M.; Weber, M.; Wienemann, P.; Wilkens, H.; Wynhoff, S.; Xia, L.; Xu, Z.Z.; Yamamoto, J.; Yang, B.Z.; Yang, C.G.; Yang, H.J.; Yang, M.; Yeh, S.C.; Zalite, A.; Zalite, Yu.; Zhang, Z.P.; Zhao, J.; Zhu, G.Y.; Zhu, R.Y.; Zhuang, H.L.; Zichichi, A.; Zilizi, G.; Zimmermann, B.; Zoller, M.

    2002-01-01

    Double-tag events in two-photon collisions are studied using the L3 detector at LEP centre-of-mass energies from root(s)=189 GeV to 209 GeV. The cross sections of the e+e- -> e+e- hadrons and gamma*gamma* -> hadrons processes are measured as a function of the photon virtualities, Q2_1 and Q2_2, of the two-photon mass, W_gammagamma, and of the variable Y=ln(W2_gammagamma/(Q_1Q_2)), for an average photon virtuality = 16 GeV2. The results are in agreement with next-to-leading order calculations for the process gamma*gamma* -> q qbar in the interval 2 <= Y <= 5. An excess is observed in the interval 5 < Y <= 7, corresponding to W_gammagamma greater than 40 GeV . This may be interpreted as a sign of resolved photon QCD processes or the onset of BFKL phenomena.

  4. 3He(γ,pd) cross sections with tagged photons below the Δ resonance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kolb, N.R.; Cairns, E.B.; Hackett, E.D.; Korkmaz, E.; Nakano, T.; Opper, A.K.; Quraan, M.A.; Rodning, N.L.; Rozon, F.M.; Asai, J.; Feldman, G.; Hallin, E.; O'Rielly, G.V.; Pywell, R.E.; Skopik, D.M.

    1994-01-01

    The reaction cross section for 3 He(γ,pd) has been measured using the Saskatchewan-Alberta Large Acceptance Detector (SALAD) with tagged photons in the energy range from 166 to 213 MeV. The energy and angle of the proton and the deuteron were measured with SALAD while the tagger determined the photon energy. Differential cross sections have been determined for 40 degree p * <150 degree. The results are in agreement with the Bonn and Saclay photodisintegration measurements. The most recent photodisintegration measurement performed at Bates is higher by a factor of 1.3, which is just within the combined errors of the experiments. The proton capture results differ by a factor of 1.7 from the present experiment. Comparisons are made with microscopic calculations of the cross sections

  5. 3He(γ,pd) cross sections with tagged photons below the Δ resonance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolb, N. R.; Cairns, E. B.; Hackett, E. D.; Korkmaz, E.; Nakano, T.; Opper, A. K.; Quraan, M. A.; Rodning, N. L.; Rozon, F. M.; Asai, J.; Feldman, G.; Hallin, E.; O'rielly, G. V.; Pywell, R. E.; Skopik, D. M.

    1994-05-01

    The reaction cross section for 3He(γ,pd) has been measured using the Saskatchewan-Alberta Large Acceptance Detector (SALAD) with tagged photons in the energy range from 166 to 213 MeV. The energy and angle of the proton and the deuteron were measured with SALAD while the tagger determined the photon energy. Differential cross sections have been determined for 40°<θ*p<150°. The results are in agreement with the Bonn and Saclay photodisintegration measurements. The most recent photodisintegration measurement performed at Bates is higher by a factor of 1.3, which is just within the combined errors of the experiments. The proton capture results differ by a factor of 1.7 from the present experiment. Comparisons are made with microscopic calculations of the cross sections.

  6. Double π production on the deuteron with the energy-tagged photon beam of the spectrometer facility for photon-induced reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Merkel, R.

    1992-11-01

    Within the framework of this thesis it has been achieved to complete the tagging system TOPAS 1 including all aspects of hardware, software and calibration procedures. In addition, TOPAS 1, has been integrated into SAPHIR successfully, thus adding an indispensable tool for making physical measurements. Initial data analysis of the double Pion production at the Deuteron proved the basic function and usability of the tagging system in measuring total cross sections, also comprising their dependence on photon energy. (orig.) [de

  7. Application of cine MRI-tagging method to aortic dessection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshioka, Kunihiro; Takahashi, Tsuneo; Kamata, Hiroyuki; Kikuchi, Kenichi; Yamaguchi, Kojiro.

    1992-01-01

    For the evaluation of aortic dissection, ECG-gated SE or cine MR imaging has been usually performed. However, detection of slow flow in the false lumen and differentiation between mural thrombus and slow flow are sometimes difficult. Because paradoxical enhancement due to slow blood flow simulates thrombus. We performed cine MR imaging with persaturation tagging, which clearly showed differentiation between thrombus and paradoxical enhancement. We concluded that cine MR imaging with tagging method was useful to evaluate the slow flow and thrombus in the false lumen. (author)

  8. Multiple tag labeling method for DNA sequencing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathies, R.A.; Huang, X.C.; Quesada, M.A.

    1995-07-25

    A DNA sequencing method is described which uses single lane or channel electrophoresis. Sequencing fragments are separated in the lane and detected using a laser-excited, confocal fluorescence scanner. Each set of DNA sequencing fragments is separated in the same lane and then distinguished using a binary coding scheme employing only two different fluorescent labels. Also described is a method of using radioisotope labels. 5 figs.

  9. The recent single tag two photon experiments at PETRA and the issue of quark charges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Godbole, R.M.; Pati, J.C.; Rindani, S.D.; Jayaraman, T.; Rajasekaran, G.

    1983-11-01

    The data of recent single-tag-two-photon experiments indicating noticeable excess in (R-tildesub(γγ))sup(jet) over fractionally charged quark-parton model-predictions is studied from the point of view of its implications on the gauge integer charge quark model. Focussing attention on the region of psub(T) exceeding about 3 GeV, where higher order QCD and non-perturbative effects might be expected to be small, it is noted that this excess and its Q 2 dependence can be attributed to the presence of a colour component in the electromagnetic current provided the effective mass of the gluon lies between about 150 to 350 MeV. Accurate measurements of R-tildesub(γγ) in the high psub(T) region (psub(T)>or approx.5 GeV) are crucial for an unambiguous distinction between fcq and gauge-icq models. (author)

  10. 3He(γ,pp)n cross sections with tagged photons below the Δ resonance energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolb, N. R.; Feldman, G.; O'rielly, G. V.; Pywell, R. E.; Skopik, D. M.; Hackett, E. D.; Quraan, M. A.; Rodning, N. L.

    1996-11-01

    Cross sections have been measured for the 3He(γ,pp)n reaction with tagged photons in the range Eγ =161-208 MeV using the Saskatchewan-Alberta Large Acceptance Detector (SALAD). The protons were detected over a range of polar angles of 40°-140° and azimuthal angles of 0°-360° with an energy threshold of 40 MeV. Comparisons are made with a microscopic calculation which includes one-, two-, and three-nucleon absorption mechanisms. One- and two-nucleon processes, including final-state interactions, are unable to account for the measured cross sections. The addition of three-nucleon absorption diagrams gives roughly the right strength, but the distribution in phase space is in disagreement with the data.

  11. 3He(γ,pp)n cross sections with tagged photons below the Δ resonance energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kolb, N.R.; Feldman, G.; ORielly, G.V.; Pywell, R.E.; Skopik, D.M.; Hackett, E.D.; Quraan, M.A.; Rodning, N.L.

    1996-01-01

    Cross sections have been measured for the 3 He(γ,pp)n reaction with tagged photons in the range E γ =161 endash 208 MeV using the Saskatchewan-Alberta Large Acceptance Detector (SALAD). The protons were detected over a range of polar angles of 40 degree endash 140 degree and azimuthal angles of 0 degree endash 360 degree with an energy threshold of 40 MeV. Comparisons are made with a microscopic calculation which includes one-, two-, and three-nucleon absorption mechanisms. One- and two-nucleon processes, including final-state interactions, are unable to account for the measured cross sections. The addition of three-nucleon absorption diagrams gives roughly the right strength, but the distribution in phase space is in disagreement with the data. copyright 1996 The American Physical Society

  12. A Novel Image Tag Completion Method Based on Convolutional Neural Transformation

    KAUST Repository

    Geng, Yanyan; Zhang, Guohui; Li, Weizhi; Gu, Yi; Liang, Ru-Ze; Liang, Gaoyuan; Wang, Jingbin; Wu, Yanbin; Patil, Nitin; Wang, Jing-Yan

    2017-01-01

    In the problems of image retrieval and annotation, complete textual tag lists of images play critical roles. However, in real-world applications, the image tags are usually incomplete, thus it is important to learn the complete tags for images. In this paper, we study the problem of image tag complete and proposed a novel method for this problem based on a popular image representation method, convolutional neural network (CNN). The method estimates the complete tags from the convolutional filtering outputs of images based on a linear predictor. The CNN parameters, linear predictor, and the complete tags are learned jointly by our method. We build a minimization problem to encourage the consistency between the complete tags and the available incomplete tags, reduce the estimation error, and reduce the model complexity. An iterative algorithm is developed to solve the minimization problem. Experiments over benchmark image data sets show its effectiveness.

  13. A Novel Image Tag Completion Method Based on Convolutional Neural Transformation

    KAUST Repository

    Geng, Yanyan

    2017-10-24

    In the problems of image retrieval and annotation, complete textual tag lists of images play critical roles. However, in real-world applications, the image tags are usually incomplete, thus it is important to learn the complete tags for images. In this paper, we study the problem of image tag complete and proposed a novel method for this problem based on a popular image representation method, convolutional neural network (CNN). The method estimates the complete tags from the convolutional filtering outputs of images based on a linear predictor. The CNN parameters, linear predictor, and the complete tags are learned jointly by our method. We build a minimization problem to encourage the consistency between the complete tags and the available incomplete tags, reduce the estimation error, and reduce the model complexity. An iterative algorithm is developed to solve the minimization problem. Experiments over benchmark image data sets show its effectiveness.

  14. Proposal of measuring the mechanisms of nuclear excitation leading to fission with the ADONE jet-target tagged photon beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lucherini, V.; Bianchi, N.; De Sanctis, E.; Guaraldo, C.; Levi Sandri, P.; Muccifora, V.; Polli, E.; Reolon, A.R.; Aiello, S.; De Filippo, E.; Lanzano', G.; Lo Nigro, S.; Milone, C.; Pagano, A.; Botvina, A.S.; Iljinov, A.S.; Mebel, M.V.

    1990-01-01

    The mechanisms of excitation with subsequent fission of heavy nuclei can be conveniently studied by means of photons, since this probe is able to interact deeply inside the nucleus. We propose the use of the (200-1200 MeV) tagged photon beam from the ADONE Jet Target in order to study the mass-energy and total momentum distributions of fission fragments, to obtain experimental information on the configurations (excitation energy and nucleonic composition) of produced compound nuclei and on their decay channels

  15. One of the three multiwire proportional chambers used in the photon tagging system at the Omega spectrometer

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1976-01-01

    The momentum of incoming electrons, generated by SPS beams, is determined by magnets before they are directed onto a foil. The tagging system, a magnet and the MWPCs then determines the electron momentum after the foil and the difference between the two measurements gives the momentum of the photon which is heading for the spectrometer. The MWPCs were built in Daresburyand coupled with new CERN read0ut electronics.

  16. Brush-Painting and Photonic Sintering of Copper Oxide and Silver Inks on Wood and Cardboard Substrates to Form Antennas for UHF RFID Tags

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erja Sipilä

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Additive deposition of inks with metallic inclusions provides compelling means to embed electronics into versatile structures. The need to integrate electronics into environmentally friendly components and structures increases dramatically together with the increasing popularity of the Internet of Things. We demonstrate a novel brush-painting method for depositing copper oxide and silver inks directly on wood and cardboard substrates and discuss the optimization of the photonic sintering process parameters for both materials. The optimized parameters were utilized to manufacture passive ultra high frequency (UHF radio frequency identification (RFID tag antennas. The results from wireless testing show that the RFID tags based on the copper oxide and silver ink antennas on wood substrate are readable from ranges of 8.5 and 11 meters, respectively, and on cardboard substrate from read ranges of 8.5 and 12 meters, respectively. These results are well sufficient for many future wireless applications requiring remote identification with RFID.

  17. Photonic crystal scintillators and methods of manufacture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, Ricardo D.; Sexton, Lindsay T.; Fuentes, Roderick E.; Cortes-Concepcion, Jose

    2015-08-11

    Photonic crystal scintillators and their methods of manufacture are provided. Exemplary methods of manufacture include using a highly-ordered porous anodic alumina membrane as a pattern transfer mask for either the etching of underlying material or for the deposition of additional material onto the surface of a scintillator. Exemplary detectors utilizing such photonic crystal scintillators are also provided.

  18. Photofission and electrofission by virtual photon methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Onley, D.S.

    1985-01-01

    A survey on photofission and electrofission using virtual photon methods is presented. Some explicit calculations with these methods are shown and applications to heavy nucleus reactions followed of comparison with experiments, mostly electrofission, are also shown. (L.C.) [pt

  19. Parameters of explosives detection through tagged neutron method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bagdasaryan, Kh.E.; Batyaev, V.F.; Belichenko, S.G., E-mail: consul757@mail.ru; Bestaev, R.R.; Gavryuchenkov, A.V.; Karetnikov, M.D.

    2015-06-01

    The potentialities of tagged neutron method (TNM) for explosives detection are examined on the basis of an idealized geometrical model. The model includes ING-27 14 MeV neutron generator with a built-in α-detector, a LYSO γ-detector and samples of material to be identified of approximately 0.3 kg each: explosives imitators (trinitrotoluene - TNT, tetryl, RDX and ammonium nitrate), legal materials (sugar, water, silk and polyethylene). The samples were unshielded or shielded by a paper layer of various thicknesses. The experimental data were interpreted by numerical simulation using a Poisson distribution of signals with the statistical parameters defined experimentally. The detection parameters were obtained by a pattern classification theory and a Bayes classifier.

  20. Compound FDTD method for silicon photonics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abbas Olyaee

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Attempt to manufacture photonics devices on silicon requires theoretical and numerical prediction. This essay presents Compound FDTD (C-FDTD method for comprehensive simulation of silicon photonics devices. Although this method is comprehensive, it maintains conventional Yee algorithm. The method involves variation of refractive index due to nonlinear effects. With the help of this simulator, refractive index change due to free-carriers created through two photon absorption and Kerr effect in silicon waveguide is considered. Results indicate how to choose pump pulse shape to optimum operation of active photonics devices. Also conductivity variation of Si waveguide due to change in free-carrier density is studied. By considering variations in conductivity profile, we are able to design better schemes for sweep free carriers away with reverse bias or nonlinear photovoltaic effect for fast devices and Raman amplifiers.

  1. Selective Two-Photon Absorptive Resonance Femtosecond-Laser Electronic-Excitation Tagging (STARFLEET) Velocimetry in Flow and Combustion Diagnostics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Naibo; Halls, Benjamin R.; Stauffer, Hans U.; Roy, Sukesh; Danehy, Paul M.; Gord, James R.

    2016-01-01

    Selective Two-Photon Absorptive Resonance Femtosecond-Laser Electronic-Excitation Tagging (STARFLEET), a non-seeded ultrafast-laser-based velocimetry technique, is demonstrated in reactive and non-reactive flows. STARFLEET is pumped via a two-photon resonance in N2 using 202.25-nm 100-fs light. STARFLEET greatly reduces the per-pulse energy required (30 µJ/pulse) to generate the signature FLEET emission compared to the conventional FLEET technique (1.1 mJ/pulse). This reduction in laser energy results in less energy deposited in the flow, which allows for reduced flow perturbations (reactive and non-reactive), increased thermometric accuracy, and less severe damage to materials. Velocity measurements conducted in a free jet of N2 and in a premixed flame show good agreement with theoretical velocities and further demonstrate the significantly less-intrusive nature of STARFLEET.

  2. Jet-Tagged Back-Scattering Photons For Quark Gluon Plasma Tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fries, Rainer J., E-mail: rjfries@comp.tamu.edu [Cyclotron Institute and Department of Physics and Astronomy, Texas A and M University, College Station, TX 77845 (United States); De, S. [Cyclotron Institute and Department of Physics and Astronomy, Texas A and M University, College Station, TX 77845 (United States); Variable Energy Cyclotron Centre, 1/AF, Bidhan Nagar, Kolkata - 700064 (India); Srivastava, D.K. [Variable Energy Cyclotron Centre, 1/AF, Bidhan Nagar, Kolkata - 700064 (India)

    2013-08-15

    Several sources of direct photons are known to contribute to the total photon yield in high energy nuclear collisions. All of these photons carry characteristic and important information on the initial nuclei or the hot and dense fireball created in the collision. We investigate the possibility to separate photons from back-scattering of high momentum quarks off quark gluon plasma from other sources. Their unique kinematics can be utilized through high energy jet triggers on the away-side. We discuss the basic idea and estimate the feasibility of such a measurement at RHIC and LHC.

  3. The photon tagging system of the PHOENICS-experiment at ELSA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Detemple, P.; Althoff, K.H.; Anton, G.; Arends, J.; Bock, A.; Breuer, M.; Buechler, K.; Noeldeke, G.; Serwazi, M.; Schneider, W.; Urban, D.; Zucht, B. (Physikalisches Inst. der Univ. Bonn (Germany))

    1992-10-01

    This paper describes the setup and the first test of the tagging systems of the PHOENICS experiment at the electron stretcher ELSA in Bonn. The system covers the energy range k = 200-950 MeV simultaneously with an energy resolution of 5-10 MeV (FWHM). The tagging system is in operation since early 1990 and has been successfully used in first measurements of [gamma]p [yields] [pi][sup +]n and for [eta]-production from proton and deuterium targets. (orig.).

  4. The photon tagging system of the PHOENICS-experiment at ELSA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Detemple, P.; Althoff, K.H.; Anton, G.; Arends, J.; Bock, A.; Breuer, M.; Buechler, K.; Noeldeke, G.; Serwazi, M.; Schneider, W.; Urban, D.; Zucht, B.

    1992-01-01

    This paper describes the setup and the first test of the tagging systems of the PHOENICS experiment at the electron stretcher ELSA in Bonn. The system covers the energy range k = 200-950 MeV simultaneously with an energy resolution of 5-10 MeV (FWHM). The tagging system is in operation since early 1990 and has been successfully used in first measurements of γp → π + n and for η-production from proton and deuterium targets. (orig.)

  5. Single photon imaging and timing array sensor apparatus and method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, R. Clayton

    2003-06-24

    An apparatus and method are disclosed for generating a three-dimension image of an object or target. The apparatus is comprised of a photon source for emitting a photon at a target. The emitted photons are received by a photon receiver for receiving the photon when reflected from the target. The photon receiver determines a reflection time of the photon and further determines an arrival position of the photon on the photon receiver. An analyzer is communicatively coupled to the photon receiver, wherein the analyzer generates a three-dimensional image of the object based upon the reflection time and the arrival position.

  6. A method for characterizing photon radiation fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whicker, J.J.; Hsu, H.H.; Hsieh, F.H.; Borak, T.B.

    1999-01-01

    Uncertainty in dosimetric and exposure rate measurements can increase in areas where multi-directional and low-energy photons (< 100 keV) exist because of variations in energy and angular measurement response. Also, accurate measurement of external exposures in spatially non-uniform fields may require multiple dosimetry. Therefore, knowledge of the photon fields in the workplace is required for full understanding of the accuracy of dosimeters and instruments, and for determining the need for multiple dosimeters. This project was designed to develop methods to characterize photon radiation fields in the workplace, and to test the methods in a plutonium facility. The photon field at selected work locations was characterized using TLDs and a collimated NaI(Tl) detector from which spatial variations in photon energy distributions were calculated from measured spectra. Laboratory results showed the accuracy and utility of the method. Field measurement results combined with observed work patterns suggested the following: (1) workers are exposed from all directions, but not isotropically, (2) photon energy distributions were directionally dependent, (3) stuffing nearby gloves into the glovebox reduced exposure rates significantly, (4) dosimeter placement on the front of the chest provided for a reasonable estimate of the average dose equivalent to workers' torsos, (5) justifiable conclusions regarding the need for multiple dosimetry can be made using this quantitative method, and (6) measurements of the exposure rates with ionization chambers pointed with open beta windows toward the glovebox provided the highest measured rates, although absolute accuracy of the field measurements still needs to be assessed

  7. The recent single-tag two-photon experiments at PETRA and the issue of quark charges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Godbole, R.M.; Pati, J.C.; Rindani, S.D.; Jayaraman, T.; Rajasekaran, G.

    1984-01-01

    The data of recent single-tag two-photon experiments indicating noticeable excess in (R tildesub(γγ))sup(jet) over fractionally charged quark-parton model-predictions is studied from the point of view of its implications on the gauge integer charge quark model. Focusing attention on the region of psub(T) exceeding about 3 GeV, where higher order QCD and non-perturbative effects might be expected to be small. It is noted that this excess and its Q 2 dependence can be attributed to the presence of a colour component in the electromagnetic current provided the effective mass of the gluon lies between about 150 to 350 MeV. Accurate measurements of R tildesub(γγ) in the high psub(T) region (psub(T) > or approx. 5 GeV) are crucial for an unambiguous distinction between fcq and gauge-icq models. (orig.)

  8. Production of η, η' and f1(1285)-mesons in tagged and untagged two-photon reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peters, J.H.

    1990-08-01

    In this thesis the formation of the pseudoscalar mesons η η' and of the axial vector meson f 1 (1285) has been studied in tagged and untagged two-photon reactions with the CELLO detector. In the untagged mode the production of the pseudoscalar meson η' was studied in the π + π - γ final state. The radiative width was determined to be Γ γγ (η') = 3.62 ± 0.15 ± 0.47 keV. One major source of background in the π + π - γ-final state in the incompletely reconstructed decay of the a 2 (1320) into π + π - π 0 . A combined fit to the η' and a 2 mass spectrum yields a radiative width for the a 2 (1320) of Γ γγ (a 2 (1320)) = 0.97 ± 0.09 ± 0.20 keV. In the single tag mode the Q 2 -development of the pseudoscalar-γγ * -transition form factor was measured. For the η' this measurement was performed in the decay modes η' → ργ, η' → η →γγ π + π - and η' → ηsub(→π + π - -(π 0 /γ))π + π - . The Q 2 -developed of the form factor is described by a pole-form 1/(1+Q 2 /Λ 2 ) with a mass of Λsub(η') = 0.794 ± 0.044 GeV. The coresponding measurement for the η was performed in the decay modes η → π + π - π 0 and π + π - γ. Here as well the Q 2 -dependence can be described with a pole form for the form factor. The pole mass obtained by a fit is Λ η = 0.839 ± 0.063 GeV. The coupling of spin-1 mesons to two photons cannot be measured in the untagged mode. Their radiative width is zero at Q 2 = 0. Instead , a Q 2 -independent coupling strength Γ can be determined in the single tag mode. This quantity was measured for the f 1 (1285) in the ηπ + π - -final state to be Γsub(γγ * ) Cahn (f 1 (1285)) = 4.4 ± 2.1 ± 1.2 keV in the frame-work of the Cahn-model which relates the two possible independent cross sections σ LT and σ TT governing this process. (orig./HSI)

  9. Simulation calculations on the construction of the energy-tagged photon beam as well as development and test of the side drift chambers of the Bonn SAPHIR detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jahnen, T.

    1990-01-01

    The SAPHIR-detector is built up at the continuous photon beam of the Electron Stretcher and Accelerator ELSA in Bonn. The equipment is designed for investigations of reactions with more then two particles in the final state and for photon energies up to 3.5 GeV. A tagging-system determines the energy of the Bremsstrahlung-photons and a set-up of five large driftchambers measures the tracks of the charged particles. This work describes a program which was used to develop the best design of the tagging-hodoscope. In a second part the tests of the planar side-chambers and their evaluation is described. These measurements were carried out to fix the gasfilling and the parameters of the best working point. It is shown, that the chambers can reach a resolution of σ≤200 μm. (orig.) [de

  10. Method of remote powering and detecting multiple UWB passive tags in an RFID system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dowla, Farid U [Castro Valley, CA; Nekoogar, Faranak [San Ramon, CA; Benzel, David M [Livermore, CA; Dallum, Gregory E [Livermore, CA; Spiridon, Alex [Palo Alto, CA

    2012-05-29

    A new Radio Frequency Identification (RFID), tracking, powering apparatus/system and method using coded Ultra-wideband (UWB) signaling is introduced. The proposed hardware and techniques disclosed herein utilize a plurality of passive UWB transponders in a field of an RFID-radar system. The radar system itself enables multiple passive tags to be remotely powered (activated) at about the same time frame via predetermined frequency UWB pulsed formats. Once such tags are in an activated state, an UWB radar transmits specific "interrogating codes" to put predetermined tags in an awakened status. Such predetermined tags can then communicate by a unique "response code" so as to be detected by an UWB system using radar methods.

  11. Four Pion Final States with Tagged Photons at Electron Positron Colliders

    CERN Document Server

    Czyz, H

    2001-01-01

    A Monte Carlo generator has been constructed to simulate the reaction e^+e^- \\to \\gamma + 4 \\pi, where the photon is assumed to be observed in the detector. Isospin relations between the amplitudes governing tau decays into four pions and electron positron annihilation into four pions respectively have been found which allow to determine all four modes after the amplitude for the \\pi^+\\pi^-2\\pi^0 channel has been fixed. The kinematic breaking of these isospin relations as a consequence of the \\pi^- -- \\pi^0 mass difference has also been investigated. The program is constructed in analogy to an earlier one simulating e^+e^- \\to \\gamma + 2 \\pi. However, it does not include final state radiation from the charged pions. Additional collinear photon radiation has been incorporated with the technique of structure functions. Predictions are presented for cms energies of 1GeV, 3GeV and 10GeV, corresponding to the energies of DAPHNE, BEBC and of B-meson factories. Using this program it is demonstrated that, even after ...

  12. Measuring $\\sigma(e^+ e^- \\to hadrons)$ with Tagged Photons at Electron Positron Colliders

    CERN Document Server

    Kühn, J H

    2001-01-01

    A Monte Carlo generator has been constructed to simulate the reaction e+ e- --> gamma + 2 pions and gamma + 4 pions, where the photon is assumed to be observed in the detector. Predictions are presented for cms energies of 1GeV, 3GeV and 10GeV, corresponding to the energies of DAPHNE, BEBC and of B-meson factories. The event rates are sufficiently high to allow for a precise measurement of R(Q^2) in the region of Q between approximately 1GeV and 2.5GeV. Estimates for the kinematic breaking of isospin relations between different channels as a consequence of the mass difference between charged and neutral pions are given.

  13. Ultra compact spectrometer apparatus and method using photonic crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ting, David Z. (Inventor); Hill, Cory J. (Inventor); Bandara, Sumith V. (Inventor); Gunapala, Sarath D. (Inventor)

    2009-01-01

    The present invention is directed to methods of photonic crystal formation, and to methods and apparatus for using such photonic crystals, particularly in conjunction with detector arrays. Photonic crystal parameters and detector array parameters are compared to optimize the selection and orientation of a photonic crystal shape. A photonic crystal is operatively positioned relative to a plurality of light sensors. The light sensors can be separated by a pitch distance and positioned within one half of the pitch distance of an exit surface of the photonic crystals.

  14. A comparative evaluation of three methods used to tag South African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tagging effects and loss rates of 60 Roman Chrysoblephus laticeps tagged with dart tags with barbs (D-tags), T-bar filaments (T-tags) and visible implant fluorescent elastomer (VIFE) tags were investigated. The fish were tagged and monitored in a controlled tank experiment over a period of 198 days. Application technique ...

  15. Efficient protein production method for NMR using soluble protein tags with cold shock expression vector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayashi, Kokoro; Kojima, Chojiro

    2010-01-01

    The E. coli protein expression system is one of the most useful methods employed for NMR sample preparation. However, the production of some recombinant proteins in E. coli is often hampered by difficulties such as low expression level and low solubility. To address these problems, a modified cold-shock expression system containing a glutathione S-transferase (GST) tag, the pCold-GST system, was investigated. The pCold-GST system successfully expressed 9 out of 10 proteins that otherwise could not be expressed using a conventional E. coli expression system. Here, we applied the pCold-GST system to 84 proteins and 78 proteins were successfully expressed in the soluble fraction. Three other cold-shock expression systems containing a maltose binding protein tag (pCold-MBP), protein G B1 domain tag (pCold-GB1) or thioredoxin tag (pCold-Trx) were also developed to improve the yield. Additionally, we show that a C-terminal proline tag, which is invisible in 1 H- 15 N HSQC spectra, inhibits protein degradation and increases the final yield of unstable proteins. The purified proteins were amenable to NMR analyses. These data suggest that pCold expression systems combined with soluble protein tags can be utilized to improve the expression and purification of various proteins for NMR analysis.

  16. Efficient protein production method for NMR using soluble protein tags with cold shock expression vector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hayashi, Kokoro [Fujifilm Corporation, Analysis Technology Center (Japan); Kojima, Chojiro, E-mail: kojima@protein.osaka-u.ac.j [Nara Institute of Science and Technology (NAIST), Graduate School of Biological Sciences (Japan)

    2010-11-15

    The E. coli protein expression system is one of the most useful methods employed for NMR sample preparation. However, the production of some recombinant proteins in E. coli is often hampered by difficulties such as low expression level and low solubility. To address these problems, a modified cold-shock expression system containing a glutathione S-transferase (GST) tag, the pCold-GST system, was investigated. The pCold-GST system successfully expressed 9 out of 10 proteins that otherwise could not be expressed using a conventional E. coli expression system. Here, we applied the pCold-GST system to 84 proteins and 78 proteins were successfully expressed in the soluble fraction. Three other cold-shock expression systems containing a maltose binding protein tag (pCold-MBP), protein G B1 domain tag (pCold-GB1) or thioredoxin tag (pCold-Trx) were also developed to improve the yield. Additionally, we show that a C-terminal proline tag, which is invisible in {sup 1}H-{sup 15}N HSQC spectra, inhibits protein degradation and increases the final yield of unstable proteins. The purified proteins were amenable to NMR analyses. These data suggest that pCold expression systems combined with soluble protein tags can be utilized to improve the expression and purification of various proteins for NMR analysis.

  17. Construction, test, and operation of an energy-tagged photon beam at the PHOENICS experiment of the Bonn electron stretcher facility ELSA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Detemple, P.

    1990-10-01

    This report describes the photon tagging facility of the PHOENICS-Experiment at the Bonn Electron Stretcher and Accelerator ELSA. The system is designed for primary electron energies up to E 0 = 1.2 GeV and covers a broad energy range k/E 0 = 20-95% simultaneously with an average energy resolution Δk/E 0 =7.5%. The tagging spectrometer consists of a single dipole magnet with a strong radial field gradient, which provides focussing properties in the deflection plane over a wide energy range. The tagging hodoscope consists of an array of 128 thin energy defining scintillation counters and an additional set of 16 thick backing counters for improved timing resolution and background rejection. The main properties were determined experimentally. The spot size of the primary electron beam at the radiator is ≅ 1 mm (σ), the photon beam spot size at a distance of 2 m from the radiator is ≅ 2 mm. The average tagging efficiency, measured with a total absorbing NaI-detector, is about 90%. The mean photon energies corresponding to the 128 energy defining counters were experimentally determined and found to be in good agreement with the design values. The tagging system has been used in a first experiment with the PHOENICS-Detector, the measurement of the differential cross section for the reaction γp→π + n, which was performed in order to test and calibrate the whole detector system. The data shows good agreement with other experiments. (orig.) [de

  18. Construction of γπ0 spectrometer and photon tagging facility at Bates Linear Accelerator. Final report, July 31, 1979-July 31, 1980

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Booth, E.C.

    1981-08-01

    The funds provided under Contract No. DE-AC02-79ER10486 were totally expended for hardware and supplies required by two related devices at the Bates Linear Accelerator. These were a photon tagging facility and a γπ 0 spectrometer in Beam Line C of the new South Experimental Hall. Construction was begun in November of 1979 and both systems became fully operational in the summer of 1981. Preliminary data was taken in 1980 with a prototype γπ 0 spectrometer will be carried out in the fall of 1981 and spring of 1982. The photon tagging system has been used successfully to calibrate the γπ 0 spectrometer for the BU - MIT collaboration and to test a lead glass detector system for Brandeis University

  19. Cyanine-based probe\\tag-peptide pair fluorescence protein imaging and fluorescence protein imaging methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayer-Cumblidge, M. Uljana; Cao, Haishi

    2013-01-15

    A molecular probe comprises two arsenic atoms and at least one cyanine based moiety. A method of producing a molecular probe includes providing a molecule having a first formula, treating the molecule with HgOAc, and subsequently transmetallizing with AsCl.sub.3. The As is liganded to ethanedithiol to produce a probe having a second formula. A method of labeling a peptide includes providing a peptide comprising a tag sequence and contacting the peptide with a biarsenical molecular probe. A complex is formed comprising the tag sequence and the molecular probe. A method of studying a peptide includes providing a mixture containing a peptide comprising a peptide tag sequence, adding a biarsenical probe to the mixture, and monitoring the fluorescence of the mixture.

  20. Associated Particle Tagging (APT) in Magnetic Spectrometers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jordan, David V.; Baciak, James E.; Stave, Sean C.; Chichester, David; Dale, Daniel; Kim, Yujong; Harmon, Frank

    2012-10-16

    alpha-particle spectrometer concept, and outlines challenges involved in the magnetic field design. Tagged photon interrogation: • We investigated a method for discriminating fissile from benign cargo-material response to an energy-tagged photon beam. The method relies upon coincident detection of the tagged photon and a photoneutron or photofission neutron produced in the target material. The method exploits differences in the shape of the neutron production cross section as a function of incident photon energy in order to discriminate photofission yield from photoneutrons emitted by non-fissile materials. Computational tests of the interrogation method as applied to material composition assay of a simple, multi-layer target suggest that the tagged-photon information facilitates precise (order 1% thickness uncertainty) reconstruction of the constituent thicknesses of fissile (uranium) and high-Z (Pb) constituents of the test targets in a few minutes of photon-beam exposure. We assumed an 18-MeV endpoint tagged photon beam for these simulations. • The report addresses several candidate design and data analysis issues for beamline infrastructure required to produce a tagged photon beam in a notional AI-dedicated facility, including the accelerator and tagging spectrometer.

  1. Modules and methods for all photonic computing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultz, David R.; Ma, Chao Hung

    2001-01-01

    A method for all photonic computing, comprising the steps of: encoding a first optical/electro-optical element with a two dimensional mathematical function representing input data; illuminating the first optical/electro-optical element with a collimated beam of light; illuminating a second optical/electro-optical element with light from the first optical/electro-optical element, the second optical/electro-optical element having a characteristic response corresponding to an iterative algorithm useful for solving a partial differential equation; iteratively recirculating the signal through the second optical/electro-optical element with light from the second optical/electro-optical element for a predetermined number of iterations; and, after the predetermined number of iterations, optically and/or electro-optically collecting output data representing an iterative optical solution from the second optical/electro-optical element.

  2. The photon tagging facility for the Crystal-Barrel/TAPS experiment at ELSA; Die Photonenmarkierungsanlage fuer das Crystal-Barrel/TAPS-Experiment an ELSA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fornet-Ponse, Kathrin

    2009-11-15

    With the CBELASA/TAPS experiment in the framework of the SFB/TR 16 measurements of single- and double-polarization observables in the photoporoduction were performed. The energy of the high-energetic, polarized photon beams required for this, is determined by means of a so-called tagging system. In the framework of this thesis such a tagging system was constructed. It allows the energy tagging of the photons in an energy range from 0.021.E{sub 0} to 0.871.E{sub 0} with a time resolution of {sigma}=0.240 ns and an energy resolution from 0.1%.E{sub 0} to 0.4%.E{sub 0}. The reached time resolution allows to use the tagging system as time reference for the remaining experimental components. For the calculation of cross sections the knowledge of the photon flux at the experimental target is necessary. Thereby the photon definition probability P{sub {gamma}} plays a central role, which indicates, with which probability for a signal from the tagging system the corresponding photon in the {gamma} beam at the production target is present. It could be found a prescription for the determination of P{sub {gamma}}, which yields at tagging rates from 1 MHz to 10 MHz consistent results. A relative systematic error for P{sub {gamma}} was determined. Furthermore the effects of collimation and divergence of the photon beam on the number of the really in the experiment available photons and by this on the maximally reachable P{sub {gamma}} were extensively studied and experimental observations explained. [German] Mit dem CBELSA/TAPS-Experiment werden im Rahmen des SFB/TR 16 Messungen von Einfach- und Doppelpolarisationsobservablen in der Photoproduktion durchgefuehrt. Die hochenergetischen, polarisierten Photonenstrahlen werden ueber den Bremsstrahlungsprozess erzeugt. Die Energie der Photonen bestimmt sich aus der Differenz zwischen der Elektronenergie vor (E{sub 0}) und nach (E{sub e{sup -}}) dem Bremsstrahlungsprozess. Dies erfordert den Nachweis der Sekundaerelektronen mit Hilfe

  3. A touch probe method of operating an implantable RFID tag for orthopedic implant identification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiaoyu; Berger, J Lee; Ogirala, Ajay; Mickle, Marlin H

    2013-06-01

    The major problem in operating an implantable radio-frequency identification (RFID) tag embedded on an orthopedic implant is low efficiency because of metallic interference. To improve the efficiency, this paper proposes a method of operating an implantable passive RFID tag using a touch probe at 13.56 MHz. This technology relies on the electric field interaction between two pairs of electrodes, one being a part of the touch probe placed on the surface of tissue and the other being a part of the tag installed under the tissue. Compared with using a conventional RFID antenna such as a loop antenna, this method has a better performance in the near field operation range to reduce interference with the orthopedic implant. Properly matching the touch probe and the tag to the tissue and the implant reduces signal attenuation and increases the overall system efficiency. The experiments have shown that this method has a great performance in the near field transcutaneous operation and can be used for orthopedic implant identification.

  4. Measurement of liquid sheet using laser tagging method by photochromic dye

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosli, Nurrina Binti; Amagai, Kenji

    2014-12-01

    Liquid atomization system has been extensively applied as the most significant process in many industrial fields. In the internal combustion engine, the combustion phenomenon is strongly influenced by the spray characteristics of the fuel given by the atomization process. In order to completely understand the whole atomization process, a detail investigation of relations between the liquid jet characteristics and the breakup phenomenon is required. In this study, a non-intrusive method called as laser tagging method by photochromic dye has been developed with aim to study the breakup process of liquid sheet in detail, covering from the behavior in film until disintegrated into ligament and droplets. The laser tagging method by photochromic dye is based on a shift in the absorption spectrum of photochromic dye molecules tagged by ultraviolet laser. The shift results a color change at the tagged region of liquid containing the dye. In this study, the motions of the dye traces were analyzed as the liquid surface velocity. As a result, liquid sheet was found to keep its velocity constantly in film before suddenly increase around broken point. However, it then decreased after broken into droplets. By forming a set of four points of dye traces on the liquid sheet, the change of relative position of the set enabled the measurement of deformation and rotational motion of the liquid sheet. As a result, the normal strain of the liquid sheet parallel to the flow direction depended on the flow behavior of ligament formation.

  5. Development of chelate tagging method of protein at low temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oida, Shigeru; Sekiya, Keizo

    1999-01-01

    This study aimed at development of a protein labelling method at a low temperature, available for functional proteins, such as antibodies and enzymes mostly unstable at high temperatures. A solution of anti-mouse IgG antibody added with EDTA was incubated with 51 CrCl 3 at 4degC for 24 hours. After stopping the reaction with 100-fold amount of EDTA-2Na, the solution was fractionated into antibody fraction and metal fraction by HPLC. After incubation, non-specific Cr adsorption on the antibody in no relation to the chelate reagent was chased with 10-fold amount of CrCl 3 . To remove free Cr, the sample solution was incubated with 10 to 50-fold ICB-EDTA solution containing N,N-dimethyl-formamide. Then, the amount of Cr-labelling on the antibody was determined. In Western-blotting, chick actin was applied onto SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. One part of the lane was stained with brilliant-blue and the other was transferred on nitrocellulose membrane by semi-dry method and stained with panceau-S. Anti-actin monoclonal antibody and anti-mouse IgG antibody were used as the first antibody and the second one, respectively. When incubated with ICB-EDTA for 3 days, labelling reached the maximum level. Although labelling of the second antibody was performed with maleimido-C 3 -benzyl EDTA and 45 Ca as a substitute for 51 Cr, the rate of labelling was lower than the rate for a combination of ICB-EDTA and 51 Cr. Autoradiography of the anti-mouse IgG preparation after SDS-acrylamide gel electrophoresis revealed that radioactivity was detected on the site of H-chain but not L-chain. This indicates that 51 Cr labelling of protein is stable even under the conditions of SDS denaturation. (M.N.)

  6. Multivariate analysis methods to tag b quark events at LEP/SLC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brandl, B.; Falvard, A.; Guicheney, C.; Henrard, P.; Jousset, J.; Proriol, J.

    1992-01-01

    Multivariate analyses are applied to tag Z → bb-bar events at LEP/SLC. They are based on the specific b-event shape caused by the large b-quark mass. Discriminant analyses, classification trees and neural networks are presented and their performances are compared. It is shown that the neural network approach, due to its non-linearity, copes best with the complexity of the problem. As an example for an application of the developed methods the measurement of Γ(Z → bb-bar) is discussed. The usefulness of methods based on the global event shape is limited by the uncertainties introduced by the necessity of event simulation. As solution a double tag method is presented which can be applied to many tasks of LEP/SLC heavy flavour physics. (author) 29 refs.; 6 figs.; 1 tab

  7. Fission of 209 Bi by 60-270 MeV tagged photons: cross section measurement and analysis of photo fissility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Terranova, M.L.; Tavares, O.A.P.

    1996-07-01

    Tagged photons produced by the ROKK-2 facility have been used to measure the photofission cross section of 209 Bi in the energy range 60-270 MeV. Photofission events were detected by using a nuclear fragment detector designed for fission experiments, based on multiwire spark counters. Fissility values have been deduced and compared with available data obtained in other laboratories by using monochromatic photons. These data, together with early measurements obtained near photofission threshold, have been analysed in the framework of a two-step model which considers the primary photo interaction occurring via the quasi-deuteron and/or photo mesonic processes, followed by a mechanism of evaporation-fission competition for the excited residual nucleus. The model was found to reproduce the main experimental features of 209 Bi photo fissility up to 300 MeV. (author). 52 refs., 7 figs., 2 tabs

  8. A Photon Free Method to Solve Radiation Transport Equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, B

    2006-01-01

    The multi-group discrete-ordinate equations of radiation transfer is solved for the first time by Newton's method. It is a photon free method because the photon variables are eliminated from the radiation equations to yield a N group XN direction smaller but equivalent system of equations. The smaller set of equations can be solved more efficiently than the original set of equations. Newton's method is more stable than the Semi-implicit Linear method currently used by conventional radiation codes

  9. A high-speed, reconfigurable, channel- and time-tagged photon arrival recording system for intensity-interferometry and quantum optics experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girish, B. S.; Pandey, Deepak; Ramachandran, Hema

    2017-08-01

    We present a compact, inexpensive multichannel module, APODAS (Avalanche Photodiode Output Data Acquisition System), capable of detecting 0.8 billion photons per second and providing real-time recording on a computer hard-disk, of channel- and time-tagged information of the arrival of upto 0.4 billion photons per second. Built around a Virtex-5 Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) unit, APODAS offers a temporal resolution of 5 nanoseconds with zero deadtime in data acquisition, utilising an efficient scheme for time and channel tagging and employing Gigabit ethernet for the transfer of data. Analysis tools have been developed on a Linux platform for multi-fold coincidence studies and time-delayed intensity interferometry. As illustrative examples, the second-order intensity correlation function ( g 2) of light from two commonly used sources in quantum optics —a coherent laser source and a dilute atomic vapour emitting spontaneously, constituting a thermal source— are presented. With easy reconfigurability and with no restriction on the total record length, APODAS can be readily used for studies over various time scales. This is demonstrated by using APODAS to reveal Rabi oscillations on nanosecond time scales in the emission of ultracold atoms, on the one hand, and, on the other hand, to measure the second-order correlation function on the millisecond time scales from tailored light sources. The efficient and versatile performance of APODAS promises its utility in diverse fields, like quantum optics, quantum communication, nuclear physics, astrophysics and biology.

  10. MATLAB-aided teaching and learning in optics and photonics using the methods of computational photonics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Zhili; Li, Xiaoyan; Zhu, Daqing; Pu, Jixiong

    2017-08-01

    Due to the nature of light fields of laser waves and pulses as vector quantities with complex spatial distribution and temporal dependence, the optics and photonics courses have always been difficult to teach and learn without the support of graphical visualization, numerical simulations and hands-on experiments. One of the state-of-the-art method of computational photonics, the finite-difference time-domain(FDTD) method, is applied with MATLAB simulations to model typical teaching cases in optics and photonics courses. The obtained results with graphical visualization in the form of animated pictures allow students to more deeply understand the dynamic process of light interaction with classical optical structures. The discussed teaching methodology is aimed to enhance the teaching effectiveness of optics and photonics courses and arousing the students' learning interest.

  11. Advanced photon counting applications, methods, instrumentation

    CERN Document Server

    Kapusta, Peter; Erdmann, Rainer

    2015-01-01

    This volume focuses on Time-Correlated Single Photon Counting (TCSPC), a powerful tool allowing luminescence lifetime measurements to be made with high temporal resolution, even on single molecules. Combining spectrum and lifetime provides a "fingerprint" for identifying such molecules in the presence of a background. Used together with confocal detection, this permits single-molecule spectroscopy and microscopy in addition to ensemble measurements, opening up an enormous range of hot life science applications such as fluorescence lifetime imaging (FLIM) and measurement of Förster Resonant Energy Transfer (FRET) for the investigation of protein folding and interaction. Several technology-related chapters present both the basics and current state-of-the-art, in particular of TCSPC electronics, photon detectors and lasers. The remaining chapters cover a broad range of applications and methodologies for experiments and data analysis, including the life sciences, defect centers in diamonds, super-resolution micr...

  12. Method to deterministically study photonic nanostructures in different experimental instruments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Husken, B.H.; Woldering, L.A.; Blum, Christian; Tjerkstra, R.W.; Vos, Willem L.

    2009-01-01

    We describe an experimental method to recover a single, deterministically fabricated nanostructure in various experimental instruments without the use of artificially fabricated markers, with the aim to study photonic structures. Therefore, a detailed map of the spatial surroundings of the

  13. A kinematic fit method for all-photon events

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Du Shuxian; Yuan Changzheng; Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing

    2006-01-01

    An improved kinematic fit method is developed for analyzing all-photon events, where the interaction point is unknown. The fitting algorithm is checked with Monte Carlo samples to ensure that the fitting program works properly. This is applied to the Monte Carlo simulated ψ(2S) decays. A higher efficiency is achieved. This method can be generally applied to analyzing all-photon events at electron-positron collider. (authors)

  14. PINP: a new method of tagging neuronal populations for identification during in vivo electrophysiological recording.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susana Q Lima

    Full Text Available Neural circuits are exquisitely organized, consisting of many different neuronal subpopulations. However, it is difficult to assess the functional roles of these subpopulations using conventional extracellular recording techniques because these techniques do not easily distinguish spikes from different neuronal populations. To overcome this limitation, we have developed PINP (Photostimulation-assisted Identification of Neuronal Populations, a method of tagging neuronal populations for identification during in vivo electrophysiological recording. The method is based on expressing the light-activated channel channelrhodopsin-2 (ChR2 to restricted neuronal subpopulations. ChR2-tagged neurons can be detected electrophysiologically in vivo since illumination of these neurons with a brief flash of blue light triggers a short latency reliable action potential. We demonstrate the feasibility of this technique by expressing ChR2 in distinct populations of cortical neurons using two different strategies. First, we labeled a subpopulation of cortical neurons-mainly fast-spiking interneurons-by using adeno-associated virus (AAV to deliver ChR2 in a transgenic mouse line in which the expression of Cre recombinase was driven by the parvalbumin promoter. Second, we labeled subpopulations of excitatory neurons in the rat auditory cortex with ChR2 based on projection target by using herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV1, which is efficiently taken up by axons and transported retrogradely; we find that this latter population responds to acoustic stimulation differently from unlabeled neurons. Tagging neurons is a novel application of ChR2, used in this case to monitor activity instead of manipulating it. PINP can be readily extended to other populations of genetically identifiable neurons, and will provide a useful method for probing the functional role of different neuronal populations in vivo.

  15. PIT-tagging method for small fishes: A case study using sandeel ( Ammodytes tobianus )

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Michelle Grace Pinto; Deurs, Mikael van; Butts, Ian

    2017-01-01

    Passive integrated transponder (PIT) tags are commonly used to assess fish movement for use in fisheries management. Here, we investigated physiological and behavioral effects of tagging on sandeels (Ammodytes tobianus) using PIT tags constituting 2.1 ± 0.9% of their body weight. Swimming stamina...

  16. A Novel Method for Mining SaaS Software Tag via Community Detection in Software Services Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Li; Li, Bing; Pan, Wei-Feng; Peng, Tao

    The number of online software services based on SaaS paradigm is increasing. However, users usually find it hard to get the exact software services they need. At present, tags are widely used to annotate specific software services and also to facilitate the searching of them. Currently these tags are arbitrary and ambiguous since mostly of them are generated manually by service developers. This paper proposes a method for mining tags from the help documents of software services. By extracting terms from the help documents and calculating the similarity between the terms, we construct a software similarity network where nodes represent software services, edges denote the similarity relationship between software services, and the weights of the edges are the similarity degrees. The hierarchical clustering algorithm is used for community detection in this software similarity network. At the final stage, tags are mined for each of the communities and stored as ontology.

  17. Billfish Tagging

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The SWFSC's constituent-based Billfish Tagging Program began in 1963 and since that time has provided conventional spaghetti type tags and tagging supplies to...

  18. Electron and Photon ID

    CERN Document Server

    Hryn'ova, Tetiana; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    The identification of prompt photons and the rejection of background coming mostly from photons from hadron decays relies on the high granularity of the ATLAS calorimeter. The electron identification used in ATLAS for run 2 is based on a likelihood discrimination to separate isolated electron candidates from candidates originating from photon conversions, hadron misidentification and heavy flavor decays. In addition, isolation variables are used as further handles to separate signal and background. Several methods are used to measure with data the efficiency of the photon identification requirements, to cover a broad energy spectrum. At low energy, photons from radiative Z decays are used. In the medium energy range, similarities between electrons and photon showers are exploited using Z->ee decays. At high energy, inclusive photon samples are used. The measurement of the efficiencies of the electron identification and isolation cuts are performed with the data using tag and probe techniques with large statis...

  19. X-ray photon-in/photon-out methods for chemical imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marcus, Matthew A.

    2010-03-24

    Most interesting materials in nature are heterogeneous, so it is useful to have analytical techniques with spatial resolution sufficient to resolve these heterogeneities.This article presents the basics of X-ray photon-in/photon-out chemical imaging. This family of methods allows one to derive images reflectingthe chemical state of a given element in a complex sample, at micron or deep sub-micron scale. X-ray chemical imaging is relatively non-destructiveand element-selective, and requires minimal sample preparation. The article presents the basic concepts and some considerations of data takingand data analysis, along with some examples.

  20. Tag questions Tag questions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Brazil

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available The so-called 'tag' structures of English have received a lot of attention in language teaching programmes, attention that is not hard to justify when one considers the problems and anxiety they can occasion for many foreign learners. Most teachers one speaks to seem fairly willing to agree, however, that traditional treatments of the topic leave much to be desired. It happens, also, that, when considered collectively, the tags and some related phenomena have a special heoretical interest. For they constitute a field in which it seems essential to bring together insights that derive from the study of several aspects of linguistic organisation, aspects which in some recent work have been held to need distinctive kinds of descriptive category to handle. Traditional treatments have found it necessary to recognise different syntactic types (e.g. 'same polarity' and 'reversed polarity' tags and ifferent intonational treatments ("falling'and 'rising' tag; while the way the communicative significance of the various permutations is described normally requires reference to the expectations they signal regarding the immediately following behaviour of the other party (in the common phrase, 'What kind of answer they expect'. This last consideration places the matter squarely in the arena of recent work on the analysis of interactive discourse. The so-called 'tag' structures of English have received a lot of attention in language teaching programmes, attention that is not hard to justify when one considers the problems and anxiety they can occasion for many foreign learners. Most teachers one speaks to seem fairly willing to agree, however, that traditional treatments of the topic leave much to be desired. It happens, also, that, when considered collectively, the tags and some related phenomena have a special heoretical interest. For they constitute a field in which it seems essential to bring together insights that derive from the study of several aspects

  1. Dispersive photonic crystals from the plane wave method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guevara-Cabrera, E.; Palomino-Ovando, M.A. [Facultad de Ciencias Físico Matemáticas, Benemérita Universidad Autónoma de Puebla, Apdo. Post. 165, Puebla, Pue. 72000, México (Mexico); Flores-Desirena, B., E-mail: bflores@fcfm.buap.mx [Facultad de Ciencias Físico Matemáticas, Benemérita Universidad Autónoma de Puebla, Apdo. Post. 165, Puebla, Pue. 72000, México (Mexico); Gaspar-Armenta, J.A. [Departamento de Investigación en Física de la Universidad de Sonora Apdo, Post 5-088, Hermosillo Sonora 83190, México (Mexico)

    2016-03-01

    Nowadays photonic crystals are widely used in many different applications. One of the most used methods to compute their band structure is the plane wave method (PWM). However, it can only be applied directly to non-dispersive media and be extended to systems with a few model dielectric functions. We explore an extension of the PWM to photonic crystals containing dispersive materials, that solves an eigenvalue equation for the Bloch wave vectors. First we compare our calculation with analytical results for one dimensional photonic crystals containing Si using experimental values of its optical parameters, and obtainig very well agreement, even for the spectrum region with strong absorption. Then, using the same method, we computed the band structure for a two dimensional photonic crystal without absorption, formed by an square array of MgO cylinders in air. The optical parameters for MgO were modeled with the Lorentz dielectric function. Finally, we studied an array of MgO cylinders in a metal, using Drude model without absorption, for the metal dielectric function. For this last case, we study the gap–midgap ratio as a function of the filling fraction for both the square and triangular lattice. The gap–midgap ratio is larger for the triangular lattice, with a maximum value of 10% for a filling fraction of 0.6. Our results show that the method can be applied to dispersive materials, and then to a wide range of applications where photonic crystals can be used.

  2. Comparison of different dose calculation methods for irregular photon fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zakaria, G.A.; Schuette, W.

    2000-01-01

    In this work, 4 calculation methods (Wrede method, Clarskon method of sector integration, beam-zone method of Quast and pencil-beam method of Ahnesjoe) are introduced to calculate point doses in different irregular photon fields. The calculations cover a typical mantle field, an inverted Y-field and different blocked fields for 4 and 10 MV photon energies. The results are compared to those of measurements in a water phantom. The Clarkson and the pencil-beam method have been proved to be the methods of equal standard in relation to accuracy. Both of these methods are being distinguished by minimum deviations and applied in our clinical routine work. The Wrede and beam-zone methods deliver useful results to central beam and yet provide larger deviations in calculating points beyond the central axis. (orig.) [de

  3. Observation of medium induced modifications of jet fragmentation in PbPb collisions using isolated-photon-tagged jets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sirunyan, Albert M; et al.

    2018-01-15

    Measurements of fragmentation functions for jets associated with an isolated photon are presented for the first time in pp and PbPb collisions. The analysis uses data collected with the CMS detector at the CERN LHC at a nucleon-nucleon center-of-mass energy of 5.02 TeV. Fragmentation functions are obtained for jets with p$_\\mathrm{T}^\\text{jet} >$ 30 GeV in events containing an isolated photon with p$_\\mathrm{T}^\\gamma>$ 60 GeV, using charged tracks with transverse momentum p$_\\mathrm{T}^\\text{trk} >$ 1 GeV in a cone around the jet axis. The association with an isolated photon constrains the initial p$_\\mathrm{T}$ and azimuthal angle of the parton whose shower produced the jet. For central PbPb collisions, modifications of the jet fragmentation functions are observed when compared to those measured in pp collisions, while no significant differences are found in the 50% most peripheral collisions. Jets in central PbPb events show an excess (depletion) of low (high) p$_\\mathrm{T}$ particles, with a transition around 3 GeV.

  4. Observation of medium induced modifications of jet fragmentation in PbPb collisions using isolated-photon-tagged jets

    CERN Document Server

    Sirunyan, Albert M; CMS Collaboration; Adam, Wolfgang; Ambrogi, Federico; Asilar, Ece; Bergauer, Thomas; Brandstetter, Johannes; Brondolin, Erica; Dragicevic, Marko; Erö, Janos; Escalante Del Valle, Alberto; Flechl, Martin; Friedl, Markus; Fruehwirth, Rudolf; Ghete, Vasile Mihai; Grossmann, Johannes; Hrubec, Josef; Jeitler, Manfred; König, Axel; Krammer, Natascha; Krätschmer, Ilse; Liko, Dietrich; Madlener, Thomas; Mikulec, Ivan; Pree, Elias; Rad, Navid; Rohringer, Herbert; Schieck, Jochen; Schöfbeck, Robert; Spanring, Markus; Spitzbart, Daniel; Taurok, Anton; Waltenberger, Wolfgang; Wittmann, Johannes; Wulz, Claudia-Elisabeth; Zarucki, Mateusz; Chekhovsky, Vladimir; Mossolov, Vladimir; Suarez Gonzalez, Juan; De Wolf, Eddi A; Di Croce, Davide; Janssen, Xavier; Lauwers, Jasper; Van De Klundert, Merijn; Van Haevermaet, Hans; Van Mechelen, Pierre; Van Remortel, Nick; Abu Zeid, Shimaa; Blekman, Freya; D'Hondt, Jorgen; De Bruyn, Isabelle; De Clercq, Jarne; Deroover, Kevin; Flouris, Giannis; Lontkovskyi, Denys; Lowette, Steven; Marchesini, Ivan; Moortgat, Seth; Moreels, Lieselotte; Python, Quentin; Skovpen, Kirill; Tavernier, Stefaan; Van Doninck, Walter; Van Mulders, Petra; Van Parijs, Isis; Beghin, Diego; Bilin, Bugra; Brun, Hugues; Clerbaux, Barbara; De Lentdecker, Gilles; Delannoy, Hugo; Dorney, Brian; Fasanella, Giuseppe; Favart, Laurent; Goldouzian, Reza; Grebenyuk, Anastasia; Kalsi, Amandeep Kaur; Lenzi, Thomas; Luetic, Jelena; Maerschalk, Thierry; Marinov, Andrey; Seva, Tomislav; Starling, Elizabeth; Vander Velde, Catherine; Vanlaer, Pascal; Vannerom, David; Yonamine, Ryo; Zenoni, Florian; Cornelis, Tom; Dobur, Didar; Fagot, Alexis; Gul, Muhammad; Khvastunov, Illia; Poyraz, Deniz; Roskas, Christos; Salva Diblen, Sinem; Trocino, Daniele; Tytgat, Michael; Verbeke, Willem; Vit, Martina; Zaganidis, Nicolas; Bakhshiansohi, Hamed; Bondu, Olivier; Brochet, Sébastien; Bruno, Giacomo; Caputo, Claudio; Caudron, Adrien; David, Pieter; De Visscher, Simon; Delaere, Christophe; Delcourt, Martin; Francois, Brieuc; Giammanco, Andrea; Komm, Matthias; Krintiras, Georgios; Lemaitre, Vincent; Magitteri, Alessio; Mertens, Alexandre; Musich, Marco; Piotrzkowski, Krzysztof; Quertenmont, Loic; Saggio, Alessia; Vidal Marono, Miguel; Wertz, Sébastien; Zobec, Joze; Aldá Júnior, Walter Luiz; Alves, Fábio Lúcio; Alves, Gilvan; Brito, Lucas; Correia Silva, Gilson; Hensel, Carsten; Moraes, Arthur; Pol, Maria Elena; Rebello Teles, Patricia; Belchior Batista Das Chagas, Ewerton; Carvalho, Wagner; Chinellato, Jose; Coelho, Eduardo; Melo Da Costa, Eliza; Da Silveira, Gustavo Gil; De Jesus Damiao, Dilson; Fonseca De Souza, Sandro; Huertas Guativa, Lina Milena; Malbouisson, Helena; Melo De Almeida, Miqueias; Mora Herrera, Clemencia; Mundim, Luiz; Nogima, Helio; Sanchez Rosas, Luis Junior; Santoro, Alberto; Sznajder, Andre; Thiel, Mauricio; Tonelli Manganote, Edmilson José; Torres Da Silva De Araujo, Felipe; Vilela Pereira, Antonio; Ahuja, Sudha; Bernardes, Cesar Augusto; Tomei, Thiago; De Moraes Gregores, Eduardo; Mercadante, Pedro G; Novaes, Sergio F; Padula, Sandra; Romero Abad, David; Ruiz Vargas, José Cupertino; Aleksandrov, Aleksandar; Hadjiiska, Roumyana; Iaydjiev, Plamen; Misheva, Milena; Rodozov, Mircho; Shopova, Mariana; Sultanov, Georgi; Dimitrov, Anton; Litov, Leander; Pavlov, Borislav; Petkov, Peicho; Fang, Wenxing; Gao, Xuyang; Yuan, Li; Ahmad, Muhammad; Bian, Jian-Guo; Chen, Guo-Ming; Chen, He-Sheng; Chen, Mingshui; Chen, Ye; Jiang, Chun-Hua; Leggat, Duncan; Liao, Hongbo; Liu, Zhenan; Romeo, Francesco; Shaheen, Sarmad Masood; Spiezia, Aniello; Tao, Junquan; Wang, Chunjie; Wang, Zheng; Yazgan, Efe; Zhang, Huaqiao; Zhao, Jingzhou; Ban, Yong; Chen, Geng; Li, Jing; Li, Qiang; Liu, Shuai; Mao, Yajun; Qian, Si-Jin; Wang, Dayong; Xu, Zijun; Zhang, Fengwangdong; Wang, Yi; Avila, Carlos; Cabrera, Andrés; Carrillo Montoya, Camilo Andres; Chaparro Sierra, Luisa Fernanda; Florez, Carlos; González Hernández, Carlos Felipe; Ruiz Alvarez, José David; Segura Delgado, Manuel Alejandro; Courbon, Benoit; Godinovic, Nikola; Lelas, Damir; Puljak, Ivica; Ribeiro Cipriano, Pedro M; Sculac, Toni; Antunovic, Zeljko; Kovac, Marko; Brigljevic, Vuko; Ferencek, Dinko; Kadija, Kreso; Mesic, Benjamin; Starodumov, Andrei; Susa, Tatjana; Ather, Mohsan Waseem; Attikis, Alexandros; Mavromanolakis, Georgios; Mousa, Jehad; Nicolaou, Charalambos; Ptochos, Fotios; Razis, Panos A; Rykaczewski, Hans; Finger, Miroslav; Finger Jr, Michael; Carrera Jarrin, Edgar; El-khateeb, Esraa; Ellithi Kamel, Ali; Mahmoud, Mohammed; Bhowmik, Sandeep; Dewanjee, Ram Krishna; Kadastik, Mario; Perrini, Lucia; Raidal, Martti; Veelken, Christian; Eerola, Paula; Kirschenmann, Henning; Pekkanen, Juska; Voutilainen, Mikko; Havukainen, Joona; Heikkilä, Jaana Kristiina; Jarvinen, Terhi; Karimäki, Veikko; Kinnunen, Ritva; Lampén, Tapio; Lassila-Perini, Kati; Laurila, Santeri; Lehti, Sami; Lindén, Tomas; Luukka, Panja-Riina; Mäenpää, Teppo; Siikonen, Hannu; Tuominen, Eija; Tuominiemi, Jorma; Tuuva, Tuure; Besancon, Marc; Couderc, Fabrice; Dejardin, Marc; Denegri, Daniel; Faure, Jean-Louis; Ferri, Federico; Ganjour, Serguei; Ghosh, Saranya; Givernaud, Alain; Gras, Philippe; Hamel de Monchenault, Gautier; Jarry, Patrick; Leloup, Clément; Locci, Elizabeth; Machet, Martina; Malcles, Julie; Negro, Giulia; Rander, John; Rosowsky, André; Sahin, Mehmet Özgür; Titov, Maksym; Abdulsalam, Abdulla; Amendola, Chiara; Antropov, Iurii; Baffioni, Stephanie; Beaudette, Florian; Busson, Philippe; Cadamuro, Luca; Charlot, Claude; Granier de Cassagnac, Raphael; Jo, Mihee; Kucher, Inna; Lisniak, Stanislav; Lobanov, Artur; Martin Blanco, Javier; Nguyen, Matthew; Ochando, Christophe; Ortona, Giacomo; Paganini, Pascal; Pigard, Philipp; Salerno, Roberto; Sauvan, Jean-Baptiste; Sirois, Yves; Stahl Leiton, Andre Govinda; Strebler, Thomas; Yilmaz, Yetkin; Zabi, Alexandre; Zghiche, Amina; Agram, Jean-Laurent; Andrea, Jeremy; Bloch, Daniel; Brom, Jean-Marie; Buttignol, Michael; Chabert, Eric Christian; Collard, Caroline; Conte, Eric; Coubez, Xavier; Drouhin, Frédéric; Fontaine, Jean-Charles; Gelé, Denis; Goerlach, Ulrich; Jansová, Markéta; Juillot, Pierre; Le Bihan, Anne-Catherine; Tonon, Nicolas; Van Hove, Pierre; Gadrat, Sébastien; Beauceron, Stephanie; Bernet, Colin; Boudoul, Gaelle; Chanon, Nicolas; Chierici, Roberto; Contardo, Didier; Depasse, Pierre; El Mamouni, Houmani; Fay, Jean; Finco, Linda; Gascon, Susan; Gouzevitch, Maxime; Grenier, Gérald; Ille, Bernard; Lagarde, Francois; Laktineh, Imad Baptiste; Lethuillier, Morgan; Mirabito, Laurent; Pequegnot, Anne-Laure; Perries, Stephane; Popov, Andrey; Sordini, Viola; Vander Donckt, Muriel; Viret, Sébastien; Zhang, Sijing; Toriashvili, Tengizi; Tsamalaidze, Zviad; Autermann, Christian; Feld, Lutz; Kiesel, Maximilian Knut; Klein, Katja; Lipinski, Martin; Preuten, Marius; Schomakers, Christian; Schulz, Johannes; Teroerde, Marius; Wittmer, Bruno; Zhukov, Valery; Albert, Andreas; Duchardt, Deborah; Endres, Matthias; Erdmann, Martin; Erdweg, Sören; Esch, Thomas; Fischer, Robert; Güth, Andreas; Hebbeker, Thomas; Heidemann, Carsten; Hoepfner, Kerstin; Knutzen, Simon; Merschmeyer, Markus; Meyer, Arnd; Millet, Philipp; Mukherjee, Swagata; Pook, Tobias; Radziej, Markus; Reithler, Hans; Rieger, Marcel; Scheuch, Florian; Teyssier, Daniel; Thüer, Sebastian; Flügge, Günter; Kargoll, Bastian; Kress, Thomas; Künsken, Andreas; Müller, Thomas; Nehrkorn, Alexander; Nowack, Andreas; Pistone, Claudia; Pooth, Oliver; Stahl, Achim; Aldaya Martin, Maria; Arndt, Till; Asawatangtrakuldee, Chayanit; Beernaert, Kelly; Behnke, Olaf; Behrens, Ulf; Bermúdez Martínez, Armando; Bin Anuar, Afiq Aizuddin; Borras, Kerstin; Botta, Valeria; Campbell, Alan; Connor, Patrick; Contreras-Campana, Christian; Costanza, Francesco; Diez Pardos, Carmen; Eckerlin, Guenter; Eckstein, Doris; Eichhorn, Thomas; Eren, Engin; Gallo, Elisabetta; Garay Garcia, Jasone; Geiser, Achim; Grados Luyando, Juan Manuel; Grohsjean, Alexander; Gunnellini, Paolo; Guthoff, Moritz; Harb, Ali; Hauk, Johannes; Hempel, Maria; Jung, Hannes; Kasemann, Matthias; Keaveney, James; Kleinwort, Claus; Korol, Ievgen; Krücker, Dirk; Lange, Wolfgang; Lelek, Aleksandra; Lenz, Teresa; Lipka, Katerina; Lohmann, Wolfgang; Mankel, Rainer; Melzer-Pellmann, Isabell-Alissandra; Meyer, Andreas Bernhard; Missiroli, Marino; Mittag, Gregor; Mnich, Joachim; Mussgiller, Andreas; Ntomari, Eleni; Pitzl, Daniel; Raspereza, Alexei; Savitskyi, Mykola; Saxena, Pooja; Shevchenko, Rostyslav; Stefaniuk, Nazar; Van Onsem, Gerrit Patrick; Walsh, Roberval; Wen, Yiwen; Wichmann, Katarzyna; Wissing, Christoph; Zenaiev, Oleksandr; Aggleton, Robin; Bein, Samuel; Blobel, Volker; Centis Vignali, Matteo; Dreyer, Torben; Garutti, Erika; Gonzalez, Daniel; Haller, Johannes; Hinzmann, Andreas; Hoffmann, Malte; Karavdina, Anastasia; Klanner, Robert; Kogler, Roman; Kovalchuk, Nataliia; Kurz, Simon; Marconi, Daniele; Meyer, Mareike; Niedziela, Marek; Nowatschin, Dominik; Pantaleo, Felice; Peiffer, Thomas; Perieanu, Adrian; Scharf, Christian; Schleper, Peter; Schmidt, Alexander; Schumann, Svenja; Schwandt, Joern; Sonneveld, Jory; Stadie, Hartmut; Steinbrück, Georg; Stober, Fred-Markus Helmut; Stöver, Marc; Tholen, Heiner; Troendle, Daniel; Usai, Emanuele; Vanhoefer, Annika; Vormwald, Benedikt; Akbiyik, Melike; Barth, Christian; Baselga, Marta; Baur, Sebastian; Butz, Erik; Caspart, René; Chwalek, Thorsten; Colombo, Fabio; De Boer, Wim; Dierlamm, Alexander; Faltermann, Nils; Freund, Benedikt; Friese, Raphael; Giffels, Manuel; Harrendorf, Marco Alexander; Hartmann, Frank; Heindl, Stefan Michael; Husemann, Ulrich; Kassel, Florian; Kudella, Simon; Mildner, Hannes; Mozer, Matthias Ulrich; Müller, Thomas; Plagge, Michael; Quast, Gunter; Rabbertz, Klaus; Schröder, Matthias; Shvetsov, Ivan; Sieber, Georg; Simonis, Hans-Jürgen; Ulrich, Ralf; Wayand, Stefan; Weber, Marc; Weiler, Thomas; Williamson, Shawn; Wöhrmann, Clemens; Wolf, Roger; Anagnostou, Georgios; Daskalakis, Georgios; Geralis, Theodoros; Kyriakis, Aristotelis; Loukas, Demetrios; Topsis-Giotis, Iasonas; Karathanasis, George; Kesisoglou, Stilianos; Panagiotou, Apostolos; Saoulidou, Niki; Tziaferi, Eirini; Kousouris, Konstantinos; Evangelou, Ioannis; Foudas, Costas; Gianneios, Paraskevas; Katsoulis, Panagiotis; Kokkas, Panagiotis; Mallios, Stavros; Manthos, Nikolaos; Papadopoulos, Ioannis; Paradas, Evangelos; Strologas, John; Triantis, Frixos A; Tsitsonis, Dimitrios; Csanad, Mate; Filipovic, Nicolas; Pasztor, Gabriella; Surányi, Olivér; Veres, Gabor Istvan; Bencze, Gyorgy; Hajdu, Csaba; Horvath, Dezso; Hunyadi, Ádám; Sikler, Ferenc; Veszpremi, Viktor; Vesztergombi, Gyorgy; Beni, Noemi; Czellar, Sandor; Karancsi, János; Makovec, Alajos; Molnar, Jozsef; Szillasi, Zoltan; Bartók, Márton; Raics, Peter; Trocsanyi, Zoltan Laszlo; Ujvari, Balazs; Choudhury, Somnath; Komaragiri, Jyothsna Rani; Bahinipati, Seema; Mal, Prolay; Mandal, Koushik; Nayak, Aruna; Sahoo, Deepak Kumar; Sahoo, Niladribihari; Swain, Sanjay Kumar; Bansal, Sunil; Beri, Suman Bala; Bhatnagar, Vipin; Chawla, Ridhi; Dhingra, Nitish; Kaur, Anterpreet; Kaur, Manjit; Kaur, Sandeep; Kumar, Ramandeep; Kumari, Priyanka; Mehta, Ankita; Singh, Jasbir; Walia, Genius; Kumar, Ashok; Shah, Aashaq; Bhardwaj, Ashutosh; Chauhan, Sushil; Choudhary, Brajesh C; Garg, Rocky Bala; Keshri, Sumit; Kumar, Ajay; Malhotra, Shivali; Naimuddin, Md; Ranjan, Kirti; Sharma, Ramkrishna; Bhardwaj, Rishika; Bhattacharya, Rajarshi; Bhattacharya, Satyaki; Bhawandeep, Bhawandeep; Bhowmik, Debabrata; Dey, Sourav; Dutt, Suneel; Dutta, Suchandra; Ghosh, Shamik; Majumdar, Nayana; Modak, Atanu; Mondal, Kuntal; Mukhopadhyay, Supratik; Nandan, Saswati; Purohit, Arnab; Rout, Prasant Kumar; Roy, Ashim; Roy Chowdhury, Suvankar; Sarkar, Subir; Sharan, Manoj; Singh, Bipen; Thakur, Shalini; Behera, Prafulla Kumar; Chudasama, Ruchi; Dutta, Dipanwita; Jha, Vishwajeet; Kumar, Vineet; Mohanty, Ajit Kumar; Netrakanti, Pawan Kumar; Pant, Lalit Mohan; Shukla, Prashant; Topkar, Anita; Aziz, Tariq; Dugad, Shashikant; Mahakud, Bibhuprasad; Mitra, Soureek; Mohanty, Gagan Bihari; Sur, Nairit; Sutar, Bajrang; Banerjee, Sudeshna; Bhattacharya, Soham; Chatterjee, Suman; Das, Pallabi; Guchait, Monoranjan; Jain, Sandhya; Kumar, Sanjeev; Maity, Manas; Majumder, Gobinda; Mazumdar, Kajari; Sarkar, Tanmay; Wickramage, Nadeesha; Chauhan, Shubhanshu; Dube, Sourabh; Hegde, Vinay; Kapoor, Anshul; Kothekar, Kunal; Pandey, Shubham; Rane, Aditee; Sharma, Seema; Chenarani, Shirin; Eskandari Tadavani, Esmaeel; Etesami, Seyed Mohsen; Khakzad, Mohsen; Mohammadi Najafabadi, Mojtaba; Naseri, Mohsen; Paktinat Mehdiabadi, Saeid; Rezaei Hosseinabadi, Ferdos; Safarzadeh, Batool; Zeinali, Maryam; Felcini, Marta; Grunewald, Martin; Abbrescia, Marcello; Calabria, Cesare; Colaleo, Anna; Creanza, Donato; Cristella, Leonardo; De Filippis, Nicola; De Palma, Mauro; Errico, Filippo; Fiore, Luigi; Iaselli, Giuseppe; Lezki, Samet; Maggi, Giorgio; Maggi, Marcello; Marangelli, Bartolomeo; Miniello, Giorgia; My, Salvatore; Nuzzo, Salvatore; Pompili, Alexis; Pugliese, Gabriella; Radogna, Raffaella; Ranieri, Antonio; Selvaggi, Giovanna; Sharma, Archana; Silvestris, Lucia; Venditti, Rosamaria; Verwilligen, Piet; Zito, Giuseppe; Abbiendi, Giovanni; Battilana, Carlo; Bonacorsi, Daniele; Borgonovi, Lisa; Braibant-Giacomelli, Sylvie; Campanini, Renato; Capiluppi, Paolo; Castro, Andrea; Cavallo, Francesca Romana; Chhibra, Simranjit Singh; Codispoti, Giuseppe; Cuffiani, Marco; Dallavalle, Gaetano-Marco; Fabbri, Fabrizio; Fanfani, Alessandra; Fasanella, Daniele; Giacomelli, Paolo; Grandi, Claudio; Guiducci, Luigi; Iemmi, Fabio; Marcellini, Stefano; Masetti, Gianni; Montanari, Alessandro; Navarria, Francesco; Perrotta, Andrea; Rossi, Antonio; Rovelli, Tiziano; Siroli, Gian Piero; Tosi, Nicolò; Albergo, Sebastiano; Costa, Salvatore; Di Mattia, Alessandro; Giordano, Ferdinando; Potenza, Renato; Tricomi, Alessia; Tuve, Cristina; Barbagli, Giuseppe; Chatterjee, Kalyanmoy; Ciulli, Vitaliano; Civinini, Carlo; D'Alessandro, Raffaello; Focardi, Ettore; Lenzi, Piergiulio; Meschini, Marco; Paoletti, Simone; Russo, Lorenzo; Sguazzoni, Giacomo; Strom, Derek; Viliani, Lorenzo; Benussi, Luigi; Bianco, Stefano; Fabbri, Franco; Piccolo, Davide; Primavera, Federica; Calvelli, Valerio; Ferro, Fabrizio; Ravera, Fabio; Robutti, Enrico; Tosi, Silvano; Benaglia, Andrea; Beschi, Andrea; Brianza, Luca; Brivio, Francesco; Ciriolo, Vincenzo; Dinardo, Mauro Emanuele; Fiorendi, Sara; Gennai, Simone; Ghezzi, Alessio; Govoni, Pietro; Malberti, Martina; Malvezzi, Sandra; Manzoni, Riccardo Andrea; Menasce, Dario; Moroni, Luigi; Paganoni, Marco; Pauwels, Kristof; Pedrini, Daniele; Pigazzini, Simone; Ragazzi, Stefano; Tabarelli de Fatis, Tommaso; Buontempo, Salvatore; Cavallo, Nicola; Di Guida, Salvatore; Fabozzi, Francesco; Fienga, Francesco; Iorio, Alberto Orso Maria; Khan, Wajid Ali; Lista, Luca; Meola, Sabino; Paolucci, Pierluigi; Sciacca, Crisostomo; Thyssen, Filip; Azzi, Patrizia; Bacchetta, Nicola; Benato, Lisa; Bisello, Dario; Boletti, Alessio; Carlin, Roberto; Checchia, Paolo; Dall'Osso, Martino; De Castro Manzano, Pablo; Dorigo, Tommaso; Dosselli, Umberto; Gasparini, Fabrizio; Gasparini, Ugo; Gozzelino, Andrea; Lacaprara, Stefano; Lujan, Paul; Margoni, Martino; Meneguzzo, Anna Teresa; Pozzobon, Nicola; Ronchese, Paolo; Rossin, Roberto; Simonetto, Franco; Tiko, Andres; Torassa, Ezio; Zanetti, Marco; Zotto, Pierluigi; Zumerle, Gianni; Braghieri, Alessandro; Magnani, Alice; Montagna, Paolo; Ratti, Sergio P; Re, Valerio; Ressegotti, Martina; Riccardi, Cristina; Salvini, Paola; Vai, Ilaria; Vitulo, Paolo; Alunni Solestizi, Luisa; Biasini, Maurizio; Bilei, Gian Mario; Cecchi, Claudia; Ciangottini, Diego; Fanò, Livio; Lariccia, Paolo; Leonardi, Roberto; Manoni, Elisa; Mantovani, Giancarlo; Mariani, Valentina; Menichelli, Mauro; Rossi, Alessandro; Santocchia, Attilio; Spiga, Daniele; Androsov, Konstantin; Azzurri, Paolo; Bagliesi, Giuseppe; Bianchini, Lorenzo; Boccali, Tommaso; Borrello, Laura; Castaldi, Rino; Ciocci, Maria Agnese; Dell'Orso, Roberto; Fedi, Giacomo; Giannini, Leonardo; Giassi, Alessandro; Grippo, Maria Teresa; Ligabue, Franco; Lomtadze, Teimuraz; Manca, Elisabetta; Mandorli, Giulio; Messineo, Alberto; Palla, Fabrizio; Rizzi, Andrea; Spagnolo, Paolo; Tenchini, Roberto; Tonelli, Guido; Venturi, Andrea; Verdini, Piero Giorgio; Barone, Luciano; Cavallari, Francesca; Cipriani, Marco; Daci, Nadir; Del Re, Daniele; Di Marco, Emanuele; Diemoz, Marcella; Gelli, Simone; Longo, Egidio; Margaroli, Fabrizio; Marzocchi, Badder; Meridiani, Paolo; Organtini, Giovanni; Paramatti, Riccardo; Preiato, Federico; Rahatlou, Shahram; Rovelli, Chiara; Santanastasio, Francesco; Amapane, Nicola; Arcidiacono, Roberta; Argiro, Stefano; Arneodo, Michele; Bartosik, Nazar; Bellan, Riccardo; Biino, Cristina; Cartiglia, Nicolo; Cenna, Francesca; Costa, Marco; Covarelli, Roberto; Degano, Alessandro; Demaria, Natale; Kiani, Bilal; Mariotti, Chiara; Maselli, Silvia; Migliore, Ernesto; Monaco, Vincenzo; Monteil, Ennio; Monteno, Marco; Obertino, Maria Margherita; Pacher, Luca; Pastrone, Nadia; Pelliccioni, Mario; Pinna Angioni, Gian Luca; Romero, Alessandra; Ruspa, Marta; Sacchi, Roberto; Shchelina, Ksenia; Sola, Valentina; Solano, Ada; Staiano, Amedeo; Traczyk, Piotr; Belforte, Stefano; Casarsa, Massimo; Cossutti, Fabio; Della Ricca, Giuseppe; Zanetti, Anna; Kim, Dong Hee; Kim, Gui Nyun; Kim, Min Suk; Lee, Jeongeun; Lee, Sangeun; Lee, Seh Wook; Moon, Chang-Seong; Oh, Young Do; Sekmen, Sezen; Son, Dong-Chul; Yang, Yu Chul; Kim, Hyunchul; Moon, Dong Ho; Oh, Geonhee; Brochero Cifuentes, Javier Andres; Goh, Junghwan; Kim, Tae Jeong; Cho, Sungwoong; Choi, Suyong; Go, Yeonju; Gyun, Dooyeon; Ha, Seungkyu; Hong, Byung-Sik; Jo, Youngkwon; Kim, Yongsun; Lee, Kisoo; Lee, Kyong Sei; Lee, Songkyo; Lim, Jaehoon; Park, Sung Keun; Roh, Youn; Almond, John; Kim, Junho; Kim, Jae Sung; Lee, Haneol; Lee, Kyeongpil; Nam, Kyungwook; Oh, Sung Bin; Radburn-Smith, Benjamin Charles; Seo, Seon-hee; Yang, Unki; Yoo, Hwi Dong; Yu, Geum Bong; Kim, Hyunyong; Kim, Ji Hyun; Lee, Jason Sang Hun; Park, Inkyu; Choi, Young-Il; Hwang, Chanwook; Lee, Jongseok; Yu, Intae; Dudenas, Vytautas; Juodagalvis, Andrius; Vaitkus, Juozas; Ahmed, Ijaz; Ibrahim, Zainol Abidin; Md Ali, Mohd Adli Bin; Mohamad Idris, Faridah; Wan Abdullah, Wan Ahmad Tajuddin; Yusli, Mohd Nizam; Zolkapli, Zukhaimira; Reyes-Almanza, Rogelio; Ramirez-Sanchez, Gabriel; Duran-Osuna, Cecilia; Castilla-Valdez, Heriberto; De La Cruz-Burelo, Eduard; Heredia-De La Cruz, Ivan; Rabadán-Trejo, Raúl Iraq; Lopez-Fernandez, Ricardo; Mejia Guisao, Jhovanny; Sánchez Hernández, Alberto; Carrillo Moreno, Salvador; Oropeza Barrera, Cristina; Vazquez Valencia, Fabiola; Eysermans, Jan; Pedraza, Isabel; Salazar Ibarguen, Humberto Antonio; Uribe Estrada, Cecilia; Morelos Pineda, Antonio; Krofcheck, David; Butler, Philip H; Ahmad, Ashfaq; Ahmad, Muhammad; Hassan, Qamar; Hoorani, Hafeez R; Saddique, Asif; Shah, Mehar Ali; Shoaib, Muhammad; Waqas, Muhammad; Bialkowska, Helena; Bluj, Michal; Boimska, Bozena; Frueboes, Tomasz; Górski, Maciej; Kazana, Malgorzata; Nawrocki, Krzysztof; Szleper, Michal; Zalewski, Piotr; Bunkowski, Karol; Byszuk, Adrian; Doroba, Krzysztof; Kalinowski, Artur; Konecki, Marcin; Krolikowski, Jan; Misiura, Maciej; Olszewski, Michal; Pyskir, Andrzej; Walczak, Marek; Bargassa, Pedrame; Beirão Da Cruz E Silva, Cristóvão; Di Francesco, Agostino; Faccioli, Pietro; Galinhas, Bruno; Gallinaro, Michele; Hollar, Jonathan; Leonardo, Nuno; Lloret Iglesias, Lara; Nemallapudi, Mythra Varun; Seixas, Joao; Strong, Giles; Toldaiev, Oleksii; Vadruccio, Daniele; Varela, Joao; Afanasiev, Serguei; Bunin, Pavel; Gavrilenko, Mikhail; Golutvin, Igor; Gorbunov, Ilya; Kamenev, Alexey; Karjavin, Vladimir; Lanev, Alexander; Malakhov, Alexander; Matveev, Viktor; Moisenz, Petr; Palichik, Vladimir; Perelygin, Victor; Shmatov, Sergey; Shulha, Siarhei; Skatchkov, Nikolai; Smirnov, Vitaly; Voytishin, Nikolay; Zarubin, Anatoli; Ivanov, Yury; Kim, Victor; Kuznetsova, Ekaterina; Levchenko, Petr; Murzin, Victor; Oreshkin, Vadim; Smirnov, Igor; Sosnov, Dmitry; Sulimov, Valentin; Uvarov, Lev; Vavilov, Sergey; Vorobyev, Alexey; Andreev, Yuri; Dermenev, Alexander; Gninenko, Sergei; Golubev, Nikolai; Karneyeu, Anton; Kirsanov, Mikhail; Krasnikov, Nikolai; Pashenkov, Anatoli; Tlisov, Danila; Toropin, Alexander; Epshteyn, Vladimir; Gavrilov, Vladimir; Lychkovskaya, Natalia; Popov, Vladimir; Pozdnyakov, Ivan; Safronov, Grigory; Spiridonov, Alexander; Stepennov, Anton; Stolin, Viatcheslav; Toms, Maria; Vlasov, Evgueni; Zhokin, Alexander; Aushev, Tagir; Bylinkin, Alexander; Chadeeva, Marina; Parygin, Pavel; Philippov, Dmitry; Polikarpov, Sergey; Popova, Elena; Rusinov, Vladimir; Andreev, Vladimir; Azarkin, Maksim; Dremin, Igor; Kirakosyan, Martin; Rusakov, Sergey V; Terkulov, Adel; Baskakov, Alexey; Belyaev, Andrey; Boos, Edouard; Demiyanov, Andrey; Ershov, Alexander; Gribushin, Andrey; Kodolova, Olga; Korotkikh, Vladimir; Lokhtin, Igor; Miagkov, Igor; Obraztsov, Stepan; Petrushanko, Sergey; Savrin, Viktor; Snigirev, Alexander; Vardanyan, Irina; Blinov, Vladimir; Shtol, Dmitry; Skovpen, Yuri; Azhgirey, Igor; Bayshev, Igor; Bitioukov, Sergei; Elumakhov, Dmitry; Godizov, Anton; Kachanov, Vassili; Kalinin, Alexey; Konstantinov, Dmitri; Mandrik, Petr; Petrov, Vladimir; Ryutin, Roman; Sobol, Andrei; Troshin, Sergey; Tyurin, Nikolay; Uzunian, Andrey; Volkov, Alexey; Babaev, Anton; Adzic, Petar; Cirkovic, Predrag; Devetak, Damir; Dordevic, Milos; Milosevic, Jovan; Alcaraz Maestre, Juan; Bachiller, Irene; Barrio Luna, Mar; Cerrada, Marcos; Colino, Nicanor; De La Cruz, Begona; Delgado Peris, Antonio; Fernandez Bedoya, Cristina; Fernández Ramos, Juan Pablo; Flix, Jose; Fouz, Maria Cruz; Gonzalez Lopez, Oscar; Goy Lopez, Silvia; Hernandez, Jose M; Josa, Maria Isabel; Moran, Dermot; Pérez-Calero Yzquierdo, Antonio María; Puerta Pelayo, Jesus; Redondo, Ignacio; Romero, Luciano; Senghi Soares, Mara; Triossi, Andrea; Álvarez Fernández, Adrian; Albajar, Carmen; de Trocóniz, Jorge F; Cuevas, Javier; Erice, Carlos; Fernandez Menendez, Javier; Gonzalez Caballero, Isidro; González Fernández, Juan Rodrigo; Palencia Cortezon, Enrique; Sanchez Cruz, Sergio; Vischia, Pietro; Vizan Garcia, Jesus Manuel; Cabrillo, Iban Jose; Calderon, Alicia; Chazin Quero, Barbara; Duarte Campderros, Jordi; Fernandez, Marcos; Fernández Manteca, Pedro José; Garcia-Ferrero, Juan; García Alonso, Andrea; Gomez, Gervasio; Lopez Virto, Amparo; Marco, Jesus; Martinez Rivero, Celso; Martinez Ruiz del Arbol, Pablo; Matorras, Francisco; Piedra Gomez, Jonatan; Prieels, Cédric; Rodrigo, Teresa; Ruiz-Jimeno, Alberto; Scodellaro, Luca; Trevisani, Nicolò; Vila, Ivan; Vilar Cortabitarte, Rocio; Abbaneo, Duccio; Akgun, Bora; Auffray, Etiennette; Baillon, Paul; Ball, Austin; Barney, David; Bendavid, Joshua; Bianco, Michele; Bocci, Andrea; Botta, Cristina; Camporesi, Tiziano; Castello, Roberto; Cepeda, Maria; Cerminara, Gianluca; Chapon, Emilien; Chen, Yi; D'Enterria, David; Dabrowski, Anne; Daponte, Vincenzo; David Tinoco Mendes, Andre; De Gruttola, Michele; De Roeck, Albert; Deelen, Nikkie; Dobson, Marc; Du Pree, Tristan; Dünser, Marc; Dupont, Niels; Elliott-Peisert, Anna; Everaerts, Pieter; Fallavollita, Francesco; Franzoni, Giovanni; Fulcher, Jonathan; Funk, Wolfgang; Gigi, Dominique; Gilbert, Andrew; Gill, Karl; Glege, Frank; Gulhan, Doga; Hegeman, Jeroen; Innocente, Vincenzo; Jafari, Abideh; Janot, Patrick; Karacheban, Olena; Kieseler, Jan; Knünz, Valentin; Kornmayer, Andreas; Kortelainen, Matti J; Krammer, Manfred; Lange, Clemens; Lecoq, Paul; Lourenco, Carlos; Lucchini, Marco Toliman; Malgeri, Luca; Mannelli, Marcello; Martelli, Arabella; Meijers, Frans; Merlin, Jeremie Alexandre; Mersi, Stefano; Meschi, Emilio; Milenovic, Predrag; Moortgat, Filip; Mulders, Martijn; Neugebauer, Hannes; Ngadiuba, Jennifer; Orfanelli, Styliani; Orsini, Luciano; Pape, Luc; Perez, Emmanuel; Peruzzi, Marco; Petrilli, Achille; Petrucciani, Giovanni; Pfeiffer, Andreas; Pierini, Maurizio; Pitters, Florian Michael; Rabady, Dinyar; Racz, Attila; Reis, Thomas; Rolandi, Gigi; Rovere, Marco; Sakulin, Hannes; Schäfer, Christoph; Schwick, Christoph; Seidel, Markus; Selvaggi, Michele; Sharma, Archana; Silva, Pedro; Sphicas, Paraskevas; Stakia, Anna; Steggemann, Jan; Stoye, Markus; Tosi, Mia; Treille, Daniel; Tsirou, Andromachi; Veckalns, Viesturs; Verweij, Marta; Zeuner, Wolfram Dietrich; Bertl, Willi; Caminada, Lea; Deiters, Konrad; Erdmann, Wolfram; Horisberger, Roland; Ingram, Quentin; Kaestli, Hans-Christian; Kotlinski, Danek; Langenegger, Urs; Rohe, Tilman; Wiederkehr, Stephan Albert; Backhaus, Malte; Bäni, Lukas; Berger, Pirmin; Casal, Bruno; Dissertori, Günther; Dittmar, Michael; Donegà, Mauro; Dorfer, Christian; Grab, Christoph; Heidegger, Constantin; Hits, Dmitry; Hoss, Jan; Kasieczka, Gregor; Klijnsma, Thomas; Lustermann, Werner; Mangano, Boris; Marionneau, Matthieu; Meinhard, Maren Tabea; Meister, Daniel; Micheli, Francesco; Musella, Pasquale; Nessi-Tedaldi, Francesca; Pandolfi, Francesco; Pata, Joosep; Pauss, Felicitas; Perrin, Gaël; Perrozzi, Luca; Quittnat, Milena; Reichmann, Michael; Sanz Becerra, Diego Alejandro; Schönenberger, Myriam; Shchutska, Lesya; Tavolaro, Vittorio Raoul; Theofilatos, Konstantinos; Vesterbacka Olsson, Minna Leonora; Wallny, Rainer; Zhu, De Hua; Aarrestad, Thea Klaeboe; Amsler, Claude; Canelli, Maria Florencia; De Cosa, Annapaola; Del Burgo, Riccardo; Donato, Silvio; Galloni, Camilla; Hreus, Tomas; Kilminster, Benjamin; Pinna, Deborah; Rauco, Giorgia; Robmann, Peter; Salerno, Daniel; Schweiger, Korbinian; Seitz, Claudia; Takahashi, Yuta; Zucchetta, Alberto; Candelise, Vieri; Chang, Yu-Hsiang; Cheng, Kai-yu; Doan, Thi Hien; Jain, Shilpi; Khurana, Raman; Kuo, Chia-Ming; Lin, Willis; Pozdnyakov, Andrey; Yu, Shin-Shan; Kumar, Arun; Chang, Paoti; Chao, Yuan; Chen, Kai-Feng; Chen, Po-Hsun; Fiori, Francesco; Hou, George Wei-Shu; Hsiung, Yee; Liu, Yueh-Feng; Lu, Rong-Shyang; Paganis, Efstathios; Psallidas, Andreas; Steen, Arnaud; Tsai, Jui-fa; Asavapibhop, Burin; Kovitanggoon, Kittikul; Singh, Gurpreet; Srimanobhas, Norraphat; Bakirci, Mustafa Numan; Bat, Ayse; Boran, Fatma; Damarseckin, Serdal; Demiroglu, Zuhal Seyma; Dozen, Candan; Eskut, Eda; Girgis, Semiray; Gokbulut, Gul; Guler, Yalcin; Hos, Ilknur; Kangal, Evrim Ersin; Kara, Ozgun; Kiminsu, Ugur; Oglakci, Mehmet; Onengut, Gulsen; Ozdemir, Kadri; Ozturk, Sertac; Polatoz, Ayse; Sunar Cerci, Deniz; Tok, Ufuk Guney; Turkcapar, Semra; Zorbakir, Ibrahim Soner; Zorbilmez, Caglar; Karapinar, Guler; Ocalan, Kadir; Yalvac, Metin; Zeyrek, Mehmet; Gülmez, Erhan; Kaya, Mithat; Kaya, Ozlem; Tekten, Sevgi; Yetkin, Elif Asli; Agaras, Merve Nazlim; Atay, Serhat; Cakir, Altan; Cankocak, Kerem; Komurcu, Yildiray; Grynyov, Boris; Levchuk, Leonid; Ball, Fionn; Beck, Lana; Brooke, James John; Burns, Douglas; Clement, Emyr; Cussans, David; Davignon, Olivier; Flacher, Henning; Goldstein, Joel; Heath, Greg P; Heath, Helen F; Kreczko, Lukasz; Newbold, Dave M; Paramesvaran, Sudarshan; Sakuma, Tai; Seif El Nasr-storey, Sarah; Smith, Dominic; Smith, Vincent J; Belyaev, Alexander; Brew, Christopher; Brown, Robert M; Calligaris, Luigi; Cieri, Davide; Cockerill, David JA; Coughlan, John A; Harder, Kristian; Harper, Sam; Linacre, Jacob; Olaiya, Emmanuel; Petyt, David; Shepherd-Themistocleous, Claire; Thea, Alessandro; Tomalin, Ian R; Williams, Thomas; Womersley, William John; Auzinger, Georg; Bainbridge, Robert; Bloch, Philippe; Borg, Johan; Breeze, Shane; Buchmuller, Oliver; Bundock, Aaron; Casasso, Stefano; Citron, Matthew; Colling, David; Corpe, Louie; Dauncey, Paul; Davies, Gavin; Della Negra, Michel; Di Maria, Riccardo; Haddad, Yacine; Hall, Geoffrey; Iles, Gregory; James, Thomas; Lane, Rebecca; Laner, Christian; Lyons, Louis; Magnan, Anne-Marie; Malik, Sarah; Mastrolorenzo, Luca; Matsushita, Takashi; Nash, Jordan; Nikitenko, Alexander; Palladino, Vito; Pesaresi, Mark; Raymond, David Mark; Richards, Alexander; Rose, Andrew; Scott, Edward; Seez, Christopher; Shtipliyski, Antoni; Summers, Sioni; Tapper, Alexander; Uchida, Kirika; Vazquez Acosta, Monica; Virdee, Tejinder; Wardle, Nicholas; Winterbottom, Daniel; Wright, Jack; Zenz, Seth Conrad; Cole, Joanne; Hobson, Peter R; Khan, Akram; Kyberd, Paul; Morton, Alexander; Reid, Ivan; Teodorescu, Liliana; Zahid, Sema; Borzou, Ahmad; Call, Kenneth; Dittmann, Jay; Hatakeyama, Kenichi; Liu, Hongxuan; Pastika, Nathaniel; Smith, Caleb; Bartek, Rachel; Dominguez, Aaron; Buccilli, Andrew; Cooper, Seth; Henderson, Conor; Rumerio, Paolo; West, Christopher; Arcaro, Daniel; Avetisyan, Aram; Bose, Tulika; Gastler, Daniel; Rankin, Dylan; Richardson, Clint; Rohlf, James; Sulak, Lawrence; Zou, David; Benelli, Gabriele; Cutts, David; Hadley, Mary; Hakala, John; Heintz, Ulrich; Hogan, Julie Managan; Kwok, Ka Hei Martin; Laird, Edward; Landsberg, Greg; Lee, Jangbae; Mao, Zaixing; Narain, Meenakshi; Pazzini, Jacopo; Piperov, Stefan; Sagir, Sinan; Syarif, Rizki; Yu, David; Band, Reyer; Brainerd, Christopher; Breedon, Richard; Burns, Dustin; Calderon De La Barca Sanchez, Manuel; Chertok, Maxwell; Conway, John; Conway, Rylan; Cox, Peter Timothy; Erbacher, Robin; Flores, Chad; Funk, Garrett; Ko, Winston; Lander, Richard; Mclean, Christine; Mulhearn, Michael; Pellett, Dave; Pilot, Justin; Shalhout, Shalhout; Shi, Mengyao; Smith, John; Stolp, Dustin; Taylor, Devin; Tos, Kyle; Tripathi, Mani; Wang, Zhangqier; Bachtis, Michail; Bravo, Cameron; Cousins, Robert; Dasgupta, Abhigyan; Florent, Alice; Hauser, Jay; Ignatenko, Mikhail; Mccoll, Nickolas; Regnard, Simon; Saltzberg, David; Schnaible, Christian; Valuev, Vyacheslav; Bouvier, Elvire; Burt, Kira; Clare, Robert; Ellison, John Anthony; Gary, J William; Ghiasi Shirazi, Seyyed Mohammad Amin; Hanson, Gail; Karapostoli, Georgia; Kennedy, Elizabeth; Lacroix, Florent; Long, Owen Rosser; Olmedo Negrete, Manuel; Paneva, Mirena Ivova; Si, Weinan; Wang, Long; Wei, Hua; Wimpenny, Stephen; Yates, Brent; Branson, James G; Cittolin, Sergio; Derdzinski, Mark; Gerosa, Raffaele; Gilbert, Dylan; Hashemi, Bobak; Holzner, André; Klein, Daniel; Kole, Gouranga; Krutelyov, Vyacheslav; Letts, James; Masciovecchio, Mario; Olivito, Dominick; Padhi, Sanjay; Pieri, Marco; Sani, Matteo; Sharma, Vivek; Simon, Sean; Tadel, Matevz; Vartak, Adish; Wasserbaech, Steven; Wood, John; Würthwein, Frank; Yagil, Avraham; Zevi Della Porta, Giovanni; Amin, Nick; Bhandari, Rohan; Bradmiller-Feld, John; Campagnari, Claudio; Dishaw, Adam; Dutta, Valentina; Franco Sevilla, Manuel; Gouskos, Loukas; Heller, Ryan; Incandela, Joe; Ovcharova, Ana; Qu, Huilin; Richman, Jeffrey; Stuart, David; Suarez, Indara; Yoo, Jaehyeok; Anderson, Dustin; Bornheim, Adolf; Bunn, Julian; Dutta, Irene; Lawhorn, Jay Mathew; Newman, Harvey B; Nguyen, Thong; Pena, Cristian; Spiropulu, Maria; Vlimant, Jean-Roch; Wilkinson, Richard; Xie, Si; Zhang, Zhicai; Zhu, Ren-Yuan; Andrews, Michael Benjamin; Ferguson, Thomas; Mudholkar, Tanmay; Paulini, Manfred; Russ, James; Sun, Menglei; Vogel, Helmut; Vorobiev, Igor; Weinberg, Marc; Cumalat, John Perry; Ford, William T; Jensen, Frank; Johnson, Andrew; Krohn, Michael; Leontsinis, Stefanos; MacDonald, Emily; Mulholland, Troy; Stenson, Kevin; Wagner, Stephen Robert; Alexander, James; Chaves, Jorge; Cheng, Yangyang; Chu, Jennifer; Dittmer, Susan; Mcdermott, Kevin; Mirman, Nathan; Patterson, Juliet Ritchie; Quach, Dan; Rinkevicius, Aurelijus; Ryd, Anders; Skinnari, Louise; Soffi, Livia; Tan, Shao Min; Tao, Zhengcheng; Thom, Julia; Tucker, Jordan; Wittich, Peter; Zientek, Margaret; Abdullin, Salavat; Albrow, Michael; Alyari, Maral; Apollinari, Giorgio; Apresyan, Artur; Apyan, Aram; Banerjee, Sunanda; Bauerdick, Lothar AT; Beretvas, Andrew; Berryhill, Jeffrey; Bhat, Pushpalatha C; Bolla, Gino; Burkett, Kevin; Butler, Joel Nathan; Canepa, Anadi; Cerati, Giuseppe Benedetto; Cheung, Harry; Chlebana, Frank; Cremonesi, Matteo; Duarte, Javier; Elvira, Victor Daniel; Freeman, Jim; Gecse, Zoltan; Gottschalk, Erik; Gray, Lindsey; Green, Dan; Grünendahl, Stefan; Gutsche, Oliver; Hanlon, Jim; Harris, Robert M; Hasegawa, Satoshi; Hirschauer, James; Hu, Zhen; Jayatilaka, Bodhitha; Jindariani, Sergo; Johnson, Marvin; Joshi, Umesh; Klima, Boaz; Kreis, Benjamin; Lammel, Stephan; Lincoln, Don; Lipton, Ron; Liu, Miaoyuan; Liu, Tiehui; Lopes De Sá, Rafael; Lykken, Joseph; Maeshima, Kaori; Magini, Nicolo; Marraffino, John Michael; Mason, David; McBride, Patricia; Merkel, Petra; Mrenna, Stephen; Nahn, Steve; O'Dell, Vivian; Pedro, Kevin; Prokofyev, Oleg; Rakness, Gregory; Ristori, Luciano; Savoy-Navarro, Aurore; Schneider, Basil; Sexton-Kennedy, Elizabeth; Soha, Aron; Spalding, William J; Spiegel, Leonard; Stoynev, Stoyan; Strait, James; Strobbe, Nadja; Taylor, Lucas; Tkaczyk, Slawek; Tran, Nhan Viet; Uplegger, Lorenzo; Vaandering, Eric Wayne; Vernieri, Caterina; Verzocchi, Marco; Vidal, Richard; Wang, Michael; Weber, Hannsjoerg Artur; Whitbeck, Andrew; Wu, Weimin; Acosta, Darin; Avery, Paul; Bortignon, Pierluigi; Bourilkov, Dimitri; Brinkerhoff, Andrew; Carnes, Andrew; Carver, Matthew; Curry, David; Field, Richard D; Furic, Ivan-Kresimir; Gleyzer, Sergei V; Joshi, Bhargav Madhusudan; Konigsberg, Jacobo; Korytov, Andrey; Kotov, Khristian; Ma, Peisen; Matchev, Konstantin; Mei, Hualin; Mitselmakher, Guenakh; Shi, Kun; Sperka, David; Terentyev, Nikolay; Thomas, Laurent; Wang, Jian; Wang, Sean-Jiun; Yelton, John; Joshi, Yagya Raj; Linn, Stephan; Markowitz, Pete; Rodriguez, Jorge Luis; Ackert, Andrew; Adams, Todd; Askew, Andrew; Hagopian, Sharon; Hagopian, Vasken; Johnson, Kurtis F; Kolberg, Ted; Martinez, German; Perry, Thomas; Prosper, Harrison; Saha, Anirban; Santra, Arka; Sharma, Varun; Yohay, Rachel; Baarmand, Marc M; Bhopatkar, Vallary; Colafranceschi, Stefano; Hohlmann, Marcus; Noonan, Daniel; Roy, Titas; Yumiceva, Francisco; Adams, Mark Raymond; Apanasevich, Leonard; Berry, Douglas; Betts, Russell Richard; Cavanaugh, Richard; Chen, Xuan; Evdokimov, Olga; Gerber, Cecilia Elena; Hangal, Dhanush Anil; Hofman, David Jonathan; Jung, Kurt; Kamin, Jason; Sandoval Gonzalez, Irving Daniel; Tonjes, Marguerite; Trauger, Hallie; Varelas, Nikos; Wang, Hui; Wu, Zhenbin; Zhang, Jingyu; Bilki, Burak; Clarida, Warren; Dilsiz, Kamuran; Durgut, Süleyman; Gandrajula, Reddy Pratap; Haytmyradov, Maksat; Khristenko, Viktor; Merlo, Jean-Pierre; Mermerkaya, Hamit; Mestvirishvili, Alexi; Moeller, Anthony; Nachtman, Jane; Ogul, Hasan; Onel, Yasar; Ozok, Ferhat; Penzo, Aldo; Snyder, Christina; Tiras, Emrah; Wetzel, James; Yi, Kai; Blumenfeld, Barry; Cocoros, Alice; Eminizer, Nicholas; Fehling, David; Feng, Lei; Gritsan, Andrei; Maksimovic, Petar; Roskes, Jeffrey; Sarica, Ulascan; Swartz, Morris; Xiao, Meng; You, Can; Al-bataineh, Ayman; Baringer, Philip; Bean, Alice; Boren, Samuel; Bowen, James; Castle, James; Khalil, Sadia; Kropivnitskaya, Anna; Majumder, Devdatta; Mcbrayer, William; Murray, Michael; Rogan, Christopher; Royon, Christophe; Sanders, Stephen; Schmitz, Erich; Tapia Takaki, Daniel; Wang, Quan; Ivanov, Andrew; Kaadze, Ketino; Maravin, Yurii; Mohammadi, Abdollah; Saini, Lovedeep Kaur; Skhirtladze, Nikoloz; Rebassoo, Finn; Wright, Douglas; Baden, Drew; Baron, Owen; Belloni, Alberto; Eno, Sarah Catherine; Feng, Yongbin; Ferraioli, Charles; Hadley, Nicholas John; Jabeen, Shabnam; Jeng, Geng-Yuan; Kellogg, Richard G; Kunkle, Joshua; Mignerey, Alice; Ricci-Tam, Francesca; Shin, Young Ho; Skuja, Andris; Tonwar, Suresh C; Abercrombie, Daniel; Allen, Brandon; Azzolini, Virginia; Barbieri, Richard; Baty, Austin; Bauer, Gerry; Bi, Ran; Brandt, Stephanie; Busza, Wit; Cali, Ivan Amos; D'Alfonso, Mariarosaria; Demiragli, Zeynep; Gomez Ceballos, Guillelmo; Goncharov, Maxim; Harris, Philip; Hsu, Dylan; Hu, Miao; Iiyama, Yutaro; Innocenti, Gian Michele; Klute, Markus; Kovalskyi, Dmytro; Lee, Yen-Jie; Levin, Andrew; Luckey, Paul David; Maier, Benedikt; Marini, Andrea Carlo; Mcginn, Christopher; Mironov, Camelia; Narayanan, Siddharth; Niu, Xinmei; Paus, Christoph; Roland, Christof; Roland, Gunther; Salfeld-Nebgen, Jakob; Stephans, George; Sumorok, Konstanty; Tatar, Kaya; Velicanu, Dragos; Wang, Jing; Wang, Ta-Wei; Wyslouch, Bolek; Benvenuti, Alberto; Chatterjee, Rajdeep Mohan; Evans, Andrew; Hansen, Peter; Hiltbrand, Joshua; Kalafut, Sean; Kubota, Yuichi; Lesko, Zachary; Mans, Jeremy; Nourbakhsh, Shervin; Ruckstuhl, Nicole; Rusack, Roger; Turkewitz, Jared; Wadud, Mohammad Abrar; Acosta, John Gabriel; Oliveros, Sandra; Avdeeva, Ekaterina; Bloom, Kenneth; Claes, Daniel R; Fangmeier, Caleb; Golf, Frank; Gonzalez Suarez, Rebeca; Kamalieddin, Rami; Kravchenko, Ilya; Monroy, Jose; Siado, Joaquin Emilo; Snow, Gregory R; Stieger, Benjamin; Dolen, James; Godshalk, Andrew; Harrington, Charles; Iashvili, Ia; Nguyen, Duong; Parker, Ashley; Rappoccio, Salvatore; Roozbahani, Bahareh; Alverson, George; Barberis, Emanuela; Freer, Chad; Hortiangtham, Apichart; Massironi, Andrea; Morse, David Michael; Orimoto, Toyoko; Teixeira De Lima, Rafael; Wamorkar, Tanvi; Wang, Bingran; Wisecarver, Andrew; Wood, Darien; Bhattacharya, Saptaparna; Charaf, Otman; Hahn, Kristan Allan; Mucia, Nicholas; Odell, Nathaniel; Schmitt, Michael Henry; Sung, Kevin; Trovato, Marco; Velasco, Mayda; Bucci, Rachael; Dev, Nabarun; Hildreth, Michael; Hurtado Anampa, Kenyi; Jessop, Colin; Karmgard, Daniel John; Kellams, Nathan; Lannon, Kevin; Li, Wenzhao; Loukas, Nikitas; Marinelli, Nancy; Meng, Fanbo; Mueller, Charles; Musienko, Yuri; Planer, Michael; Reinsvold, Allison; Ruchti, Randy; Siddireddy, Prasanna; Smith, Geoffrey; Taroni, Silvia; Wayne, Mitchell; Wightman, Andrew; Wolf, Matthias; Woodard, Anna; Alimena, Juliette; Antonelli, Louis; Bylsma, Ben; Durkin, Lloyd Stanley; Flowers, Sean; Francis, Brian; Hart, Andrew; Hill, Christopher; Ji, Weifeng; Ling, Ta-Yung; Liu, Bingxuan; Luo, Wuming; Winer, Brian L; Wulsin, Howard Wells; Cooperstein, Stephane; Driga, Olga; Elmer, Peter; Hardenbrook, Joshua; Hebda, Philip; Higginbotham, Samuel; Kalogeropoulos, Alexis; Lange, David; Luo, Jingyu; Marlow, Daniel; Mei, Kelvin; Ojalvo, Isabel; Olsen, James; Palmer, Christopher; Piroué, Pierre; Stickland, David; Tully, Christopher; Malik, Sudhir; Norberg, Scarlet; Barker, Anthony; Barnes, Virgil E; Das, Souvik; Folgueras, Santiago; Gutay, Laszlo; Jones, Matthew; Jung, Andreas Werner; Khatiwada, Ajeeta; Miller, David Harry; Neumeister, Norbert; Peng, Cheng-Chieh; Qiu, Hao; Schulte, Jan-Frederik; Sun, Jian; Wang, Fuqiang; Xiao, Rui; Xie, Wei; Cheng, Tongguang; Parashar, Neeti; Stupak, John; Chen, Zhenyu; Ecklund, Karl Matthew; Freed, Sarah; Geurts, Frank JM; Guilbaud, Maxime; Kilpatrick, Matthew; Li, Wei; Michlin, Benjamin; Padley, Brian Paul; Roberts, Jay; Rorie, Jamal; Shi, Wei; Tu, Zhoudunming; Zabel, James; Zhang, Aobo; Bodek, Arie; de Barbaro, Pawel; Demina, Regina; Duh, Yi-ting; Ferbel, Thomas; Galanti, Mario; Garcia-Bellido, Aran; Han, Jiyeon; Hindrichs, Otto; Khukhunaishvili, Aleko; Lo, Kin Ho; Tan, Ping; Verzetti, Mauro; Ciesielski, Robert; Goulianos, Konstantin; Mesropian, Christina; Agapitos, Antonis; Chou, John Paul; Gershtein, Yuri; Gómez Espinosa, Tirso Alejandro; Halkiadakis, Eva; Heindl, Maximilian; Hughes, Elliot; Kaplan, Steven; Kunnawalkam Elayavalli, Raghav; Kyriacou, Savvas; Lath, Amitabh; Montalvo, Roy; Nash, Kevin; Osherson, Marc; Saka, Halil; Salur, Sevil; Schnetzer, Steve; Sheffield, David; Somalwar, Sunil; Stone, Robert; Thomas, Scott; Thomassen, Peter; Walker, Matthew; Delannoy, Andrés G; Heideman, Joseph; Riley, Grant; Rose, Keith; Spanier, Stefan; Thapa, Krishna; Bouhali, Othmane; Castaneda Hernandez, Alfredo; Celik, Ali; Dalchenko, Mykhailo; De Mattia, Marco; Delgado, Andrea; Dildick, Sven; Eusebi, Ricardo; Gilmore, Jason; Huang, Tao; Kamon, Teruki; Mueller, Ryan; Pakhotin, Yuriy; Patel, Rishi; Perloff, Alexx; Perniè, Luca; Rathjens, Denis; Safonov, Alexei; Tatarinov, Aysen; Ulmer, Keith; Akchurin, Nural; Damgov, Jordan; De Guio, Federico; Dudero, Phillip Russell; Faulkner, James; Gurpinar, Emine; Kunori, Shuichi; Lamichhane, Kamal; Lee, Sung Won; Mengke, Tielige; Muthumuni, Samila; Peltola, Timo; Undleeb, Sonaina; Volobouev, Igor; Wang, Zhixing; Greene, Senta; Gurrola, Alfredo; Janjam, Ravi; Johns, Willard; Maguire, Charles; Melo, Andrew; Ni, Hong; Padeken, Klaas; Sheldon, Paul; Tuo, Shengquan; Velkovska, Julia; Xu, Qiao; Arenton, Michael Wayne; Barria, Patrizia; Cox, Bradley; Hirosky, Robert; Joyce, Matthew; Ledovskoy, Alexander; Li, Hengne; Neu, Christopher; Sinthuprasith, Tutanon; Wang, Yanchu; Wolfe, Evan; Xia, Fan; Harr, Robert; Karchin, Paul Edmund; Poudyal, Nabin; Sturdy, Jared; Thapa, Prakash; Zaleski, Shawn; Brodski, Michael; Buchanan, James; Caillol, Cécile; Carlsmith, Duncan; Dasu, Sridhara; Dodd, Laura; Duric, Senka; Gomber, Bhawna; Grothe, Monika; Herndon, Matthew; Hervé, Alain; Hussain, Usama; Klabbers, Pamela; Lanaro, Armando; Levine, Aaron; Long, Kenneth; Loveless, Richard; Rekovic, Vladimir; Ruggles, Tyler; Savin, Alexander; Smith, Nicholas; Smith, Wesley H; Woods, Nathaniel

    2018-01-01

    Measurements of fragmentation functions for jets associated with an isolated photon are presented for the first time in pp and PbPb collisions. The analysis uses data collected with the CMS detector at the CERN LHC at a nucleon-nucleon center-of-mass energy of 5.02 TeV. Fragmentation functions are obtained for jets with ${p_{\\mathrm{T}}}^{\\text{jet}} > $ 30 GeV/$c$ in events containing an isolated photon with ${p_{\\mathrm{T}}}^{\\gamma} > $ 60 GeV/$c$, using charged tracks with transverse momentum $ {p_{\\mathrm{T}}}^{\\text{trk}} > $ 1 GeV/$c$ in a cone around the jet axis. The association with an isolated photon constrains the initial ${p_{\\mathrm{T}}}$ and azimuthal angle of the parton whose shower produced the jet. For central PbPb collisions, modifications of the jet fragmentation functions are observed when compared to those measured in pp collisions, while no significant differences are found in the 50\\% most peripheral collisions. Jets in central PbPb events show an excess (depletion) of low (high) $ {p_...

  5. Photonics

    CERN Document Server

    Andrews, David L

    2015-01-01

    Discusses the basic physical principles underlying Biomedical Photonics, spectroscopy and microscopy This volume discusses biomedical photonics, spectroscopy and microscopy, the basic physical principles underlying the technology and its applications. The topics discussed in this volume are: Biophotonics; Fluorescence and Phosphorescence; Medical Photonics; Microscopy; Nonlinear Optics; Ophthalmic Technology; Optical Tomography; Optofluidics; Photodynamic Therapy; Image Processing; Imaging Systems; Sensors; Single Molecule Detection; Futurology in Photonics. Comprehensive and accessible cov

  6. Photonics

    CERN Document Server

    Andrews, David L

    2015-01-01

    Discusses the basic physical principles underlying the technology instrumentation of photonics This volume discusses photonics technology and instrumentation. The topics discussed in this volume are: Communication Networks; Data Buffers; Defense and Security Applications; Detectors; Fiber Optics and Amplifiers; Green Photonics; Instrumentation and Metrology; Interferometers; Light-Harvesting Materials; Logic Devices; Optical Communications; Remote Sensing; Solar Energy; Solid-State Lighting; Wavelength Conversion Comprehensive and accessible coverage of the whole of modern photonics Emphas

  7. Photonics

    CERN Document Server

    Andrews, David L

    2015-01-01

    Discusses the basic physical principles underlying thescience and technology of nanophotonics, its materials andstructures This volume presents nanophotonic structures and Materials.Nanophotonics is photonic science and technology that utilizeslight/matter interactions on the nanoscale where researchers arediscovering new phenomena and developing techniques that go wellbeyond what is possible with conventional photonics andelectronics.The topics discussed in this volume are: CavityPhotonics; Cold Atoms and Bose-Einstein Condensates; Displays;E-paper; Graphene; Integrated Photonics; Liquid Cry

  8. Photonics

    CERN Document Server

    Andrews, David L

    2015-01-01

    This book covers modern photonics accessibly and discusses the basic physical principles underlying all the applications and technology of photonicsThis volume covers the basic physical principles underlying the technology and all applications of photonics from statistical optics to quantum optics. The topics discussed in this volume are: Photons in perspective; Coherence and Statistical Optics; Complex Light and Singular Optics; Electrodynamics of Dielectric Media; Fast and slow Light; Holography; Multiphoton Processes; Optical Angular Momentum; Optical Forces, Trapping and Manipulation; Pol

  9. Numerical methods for modeling photonic-crystal VCSELs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dems, Maciej; Chung, Il-Sug; Nyakas, Peter

    2010-01-01

    We show comparison of four different numerical methods for simulating Photonic-Crystal (PC) VCSELs. We present the theoretical basis behind each method and analyze the differences by studying a benchmark VCSEL structure, where the PC structure penetrates all VCSEL layers, the entire top-mirror DBR...... to the effective index method. The simulation results elucidate the strength and weaknesses of the analyzed methods; and outline the limits of applicability of the different models....

  10. Cyanine-based probe\\tag-peptide pair for fluorescence protein imaging and fluorescence protein imaging methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayer-Cumblidge, M Uljana [Richland, WA; Cao, Haishi [Richland, WA

    2010-08-17

    A molecular probe comprises two arsenic atoms and at least one cyanine based moiety. A method of producing a molecular probe includes providing a molecule having a first formula, treating the molecule with HgOAc, and subsequently transmetallizing with AsCl.sub.3. The As is liganded to ethanedithiol to produce a probe having a second formula. A method of labeling a peptide includes providing a peptide comprising a tag sequence and contacting the peptide with a biarsenical molecular probe. A complex is formed comprising the tag sequence and the molecular probe. A method of studying a peptide includes providing a mixture containing a peptide comprising a peptide tag sequence, adding a biarsenical probe to the mixture, and monitoring the fluorescence of the mixture.

  11. Investigation and realization of an automatic device for the control and test of a photon tagging system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fallou, J.L.

    1987-12-01

    An intelligent control/test equipment for a monoenergetic photon production system was developed. The device enables simulations to be done outside experimental runs. Operation can be entirely automatic, or controlled by the experimenters. The device is modular and conforms to CAMAC standards. The architecture of the system is based around a local bus which comprises a central unit and its memory; a programmable pulse generator; a switching circuit to test and control the various paths; and a unit to communicate with the acquisition system [fr

  12. Computational methods of electron/photon transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mack, J.M.

    1983-01-01

    A review of computational methods simulating the non-plasma transport of electrons and their attendant cascades is presented. Remarks are mainly restricted to linearized formalisms at electron energies above 1 keV. The effectiveness of various metods is discussed including moments, point-kernel, invariant imbedding, discrete-ordinates, and Monte Carlo. Future research directions and the potential impact on various aspects of science and engineering are indicated

  13. Extracting Tag Hierarchies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tibély, Gergely; Pollner, Péter; Vicsek, Tamás; Palla, Gergely

    2013-01-01

    Tagging items with descriptive annotations or keywords is a very natural way to compress and highlight information about the properties of the given entity. Over the years several methods have been proposed for extracting a hierarchy between the tags for systems with a "flat", egalitarian organization of the tags, which is very common when the tags correspond to free words given by numerous independent people. Here we present a complete framework for automated tag hierarchy extraction based on tag occurrence statistics. Along with proposing new algorithms, we are also introducing different quality measures enabling the detailed comparison of competing approaches from different aspects. Furthermore, we set up a synthetic, computer generated benchmark providing a versatile tool for testing, with a couple of tunable parameters capable of generating a wide range of test beds. Beside the computer generated input we also use real data in our studies, including a biological example with a pre-defined hierarchy between the tags. The encouraging similarity between the pre-defined and reconstructed hierarchy, as well as the seemingly meaningful hierarchies obtained for other real systems indicate that tag hierarchy extraction is a very promising direction for further research with a great potential for practical applications. Tags have become very prevalent nowadays in various online platforms ranging from blogs through scientific publications to protein databases. Furthermore, tagging systems dedicated for voluntary tagging of photos, films, books, etc. with free words are also becoming popular. The emerging large collections of tags associated with different objects are often referred to as folksonomies, highlighting their collaborative origin and the “flat” organization of the tags opposed to traditional hierarchical categorization. Adding a tag hierarchy corresponding to a given folksonomy can very effectively help narrowing or broadening the scope of search

  14. Extracting tag hierarchies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gergely Tibély

    Full Text Available Tagging items with descriptive annotations or keywords is a very natural way to compress and highlight information about the properties of the given entity. Over the years several methods have been proposed for extracting a hierarchy between the tags for systems with a "flat", egalitarian organization of the tags, which is very common when the tags correspond to free words given by numerous independent people. Here we present a complete framework for automated tag hierarchy extraction based on tag occurrence statistics. Along with proposing new algorithms, we are also introducing different quality measures enabling the detailed comparison of competing approaches from different aspects. Furthermore, we set up a synthetic, computer generated benchmark providing a versatile tool for testing, with a couple of tunable parameters capable of generating a wide range of test beds. Beside the computer generated input we also use real data in our studies, including a biological example with a pre-defined hierarchy between the tags. The encouraging similarity between the pre-defined and reconstructed hierarchy, as well as the seemingly meaningful hierarchies obtained for other real systems indicate that tag hierarchy extraction is a very promising direction for further research with a great potential for practical applications. Tags have become very prevalent nowadays in various online platforms ranging from blogs through scientific publications to protein databases. Furthermore, tagging systems dedicated for voluntary tagging of photos, films, books, etc. with free words are also becoming popular. The emerging large collections of tags associated with different objects are often referred to as folksonomies, highlighting their collaborative origin and the "flat" organization of the tags opposed to traditional hierarchical categorization. Adding a tag hierarchy corresponding to a given folksonomy can very effectively help narrowing or broadening the scope of

  15. Extracting tag hierarchies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tibély, Gergely; Pollner, Péter; Vicsek, Tamás; Palla, Gergely

    2013-01-01

    Tagging items with descriptive annotations or keywords is a very natural way to compress and highlight information about the properties of the given entity. Over the years several methods have been proposed for extracting a hierarchy between the tags for systems with a "flat", egalitarian organization of the tags, which is very common when the tags correspond to free words given by numerous independent people. Here we present a complete framework for automated tag hierarchy extraction based on tag occurrence statistics. Along with proposing new algorithms, we are also introducing different quality measures enabling the detailed comparison of competing approaches from different aspects. Furthermore, we set up a synthetic, computer generated benchmark providing a versatile tool for testing, with a couple of tunable parameters capable of generating a wide range of test beds. Beside the computer generated input we also use real data in our studies, including a biological example with a pre-defined hierarchy between the tags. The encouraging similarity between the pre-defined and reconstructed hierarchy, as well as the seemingly meaningful hierarchies obtained for other real systems indicate that tag hierarchy extraction is a very promising direction for further research with a great potential for practical applications. Tags have become very prevalent nowadays in various online platforms ranging from blogs through scientific publications to protein databases. Furthermore, tagging systems dedicated for voluntary tagging of photos, films, books, etc. with free words are also becoming popular. The emerging large collections of tags associated with different objects are often referred to as folksonomies, highlighting their collaborative origin and the "flat" organization of the tags opposed to traditional hierarchical categorization. Adding a tag hierarchy corresponding to a given folksonomy can very effectively help narrowing or broadening the scope of search. Moreover

  16. Studies of top tagging identification methods and development of a new heavy object tagger

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lapsien, Tobias

    2016-05-01

    At the Large Hadron Collider (LHC), precision tests of the standard model of particle physics and searches for new phenomena are performed. To make optimal use of the proton-proton collisions delivered by the LHC and its increasing collision rate, both the detectors and the reconstruction algorithms have to be optimized. The identification of heavy quarks is a key component in many measurements. This thesis describes a hardware and a software project which both aim at improving the identification of heavy quarks. In the first part of this thesis, the Phase 1 upgrade of the CMS pixel detector is introduced. One of the main motivations of the replacement of the Pixel detector is the improved b jet identification at large collision rates. The Phase 1 upgrade involves several production and calibration steps. An X-ray calibration procedure has been developed and the corresponding experimental setup is described. Measurements show that the calibration of the pixel modules is temperature independent and can be performed at room temperature. The stability of the setup is tested in order to fulfill the requirements for mass production of the pixel modules. A method to stabilize the calibration is introduced which is shown to reduce the systematic uncertainty. In the second part, algorithms to identify heavily boosted top quarks (''top tagger'') are described and their performance is compared. The OptimalR HEP top tagger and the shower deconstruction tagger show a better performance than existing tagging algorithms. They can be used in Run II with increased centre-of-mass energies of 13 and 14 TeV. It is also shown that existing top tagging algorithms can be improved by the usage of multivariate analysis methods. New algorithms are commissioned using CMS data with a centre-of-mass energy of 8 TeV, corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 19.7 fb -1 . In order to validate these new algorithms in data, two selections are made to measure the efficiency

  17. Study of charm production mechanisms at the Fermilab Tagged Photon Spectrometer: γBe yields D anti D x and γA yields psi x

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nash, T.

    1987-03-01

    This paper describes recent work on charm photoproduction mechanisms based on data from Experiment 691 at the Fermilab Tagged Photon Spectrometer. Preliminary results on open charm production in the energy range 80 to 190 GeV are reported based on a preliminary analysis of 3000 charm events, comprising 30% of the data sample. These results include fits to P perpendicular and X/sub F/ distributions, a measurement of the total charm production cross section on Be and its increase with energy from 100 to 200 GeV, as well as a measurement of the relative fraction of anti D, D, and D* production. Also reported is data based on a special closed geometry run to study the A dependence of psi photoproduction. For the first time in a single experiment, relative cross sections on H, Be, Fe and Pb for both the coherent and incoherent components of the signal have been measured with reduced systematic errors and these results are reported here

  18. Method to fabricate a tilted logpile photonic crystal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, John D.; Sweatt, William C.

    2010-10-26

    A method to fabricate a tilted logpile photonic crystal requires only two lithographic exposures and does not require mask repositioning between exposures. The mask and photoresist-coated substrate are spaced a fixed and constant distance apart using a spacer and the stack is clamped together. The stack is then tilted at a crystallographic symmetry angle (e.g., 45 degrees) relative to the X-ray beam and rotated about the surface normal until the mask is aligned with the X-ray beam. The stack is then rotated in plane by a small stitching angle and exposed to the X-ray beam to pattern the first half of the structure. The stack is then rotated by 180.degree. about the normal and a second exposure patterns the remaining half of the structure. The method can use commercially available DXRL scanner technology and LIGA processes to fabricate large-area, high-quality tilted logpile photonic crystals.

  19. Characterization of Fabricated Photonic Crystal Fibers Using Effective Index Method

    OpenAIRE

    Faramarz E. Seraji

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, the characteristics of photonic crystal fibers (PCFs), which have been experimentally determined in the last few years in Iran's Telecom Research Center are analyzed and compared theoretically using an effective index method. The PCFs under investigation are fabricated with a high speed drawing process that has not yet been reported elsewhere. It was shown that at higher wavelengths in PCFs; the light field is confined in the core where in shorter wavelengths the field spread...

  20. Advanced Numerical and Theoretical Methods for Photonic Crystals and Metamaterials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felbacq, Didier

    2016-11-01

    This book provides a set of theoretical and numerical tools useful for the study of wave propagation in metamaterials and photonic crystals. While concentrating on electromagnetic waves, most of the material can be used for acoustic (or quantum) waves. For each presented numerical method, numerical code written in MATLAB® is presented. The codes are limited to 2D problems and can be easily translated in Python or Scilab, and used directly with Octave as well.

  1. TagDust2: a generic method to extract reads from sequencing data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lassmann, Timo

    2015-01-28

    Arguably the most basic step in the analysis of next generation sequencing data (NGS) involves the extraction of mappable reads from the raw reads produced by sequencing instruments. The presence of barcodes, adaptors and artifacts subject to sequencing errors makes this step non-trivial. Here I present TagDust2, a generic approach utilizing a library of hidden Markov models (HMM) to accurately extract reads from a wide array of possible read architectures. TagDust2 extracts more reads of higher quality compared to other approaches. Processing of multiplexed single, paired end and libraries containing unique molecular identifiers is fully supported. Two additional post processing steps are included to exclude known contaminants and filter out low complexity sequences. Finally, TagDust2 can automatically detect the library type of sequenced data from a predefined selection. Taken together TagDust2 is a feature rich, flexible and adaptive solution to go from raw to mappable NGS reads in a single step. The ability to recognize and record the contents of raw reads will help to automate and demystify the initial, and often poorly documented, steps in NGS data analysis pipelines. TagDust2 is freely available at: http://tagdust.sourceforge.net .

  2. Study of an efficient application of the tagged bremsstrahlung in double-polarization experiments in the GeV range and the use of the inelastic electron scattering under extremely forward angles as alternative to the tagged bremsstrahlung

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Konrad, M.

    2006-03-01

    For the preparation of photonic probes for hadron physics the determination of energy and polarization of the photons is essential. In this dissertation in a first part a possibility of the determination of the degree of polarization by use of the asymmetry observables is presented. In a second part a possibility isd discussed to perform an energy and polarization tagging of nearly real photons in electron scattering under small Q 2 . By this method it should be possible to tag billions of photons per second

  3. Almost real photons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujii, H.

    1977-01-01

    High energy photon-proton scattering is expected to bring an important information on strong and electromagnetic interaction, and is discussed in this paper. When the ''mass'' of the photon is less than that of the lightest hadron, it is said ''the photon is almost real''. The photon energy is sufficiently high to check the energy dependence of the gamma-proton total cross section, even in the first stage of TRISTAN. The tagging system consists of four multi-wire proportional chambers (MWPC) and a lead glass Cerenkov counter. The energy of scattered electrons is determined with the Cerenkov counter. The equivalent-photon approximation is a useful method to obtain the counting rates. The estimation of the counting rate was made under the expected value of the total cross section. The estimated counting rate is strong enough for the experiment of the gamma-proton total cross section measurement. (Kato, T.)

  4. Absorbed dose determination in photon fields using the tandem method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marques Pachas, J.F.

    1999-01-01

    The purpose of this work is to develop an alternative method to determine the absorbed dose and effective energy of photons with unknown spectral distributions. It includes a 'tandem' system that consists of two thermoluminescent dosemeters with different energetic dependence. LiF: Mg, Ti, CaF 2 : Dy thermoluminescent dosemeters and a Harshaw 3500 reading system are employed. Dosemeters are characterized with 90 Sr- 90 Y, calibrated with the energy of 60 Co and irradiated with seven different qualities of x-ray beams, suggested by ANSI No. 13 and ISO 4037. The answers of each type of dosemeter are adjusted to a function that depends on the effective energy of photons. The adjustment is carried out by means of the Rosenbrock minimization algorithm. The mathematical model used for this function includes five parameters and has a gauss and a straight line. Results show that the analytical functions reproduce the experimental data of the answers, with a margin of error of less than 5%. The reason of the answers of the CaF 2 : Dy and LiF: Mg, Ti, according to the energy of the radiation, allows us to establish the effective energy of photons and the absorbed dose, with a margin of error of less than 10% and 20% respectively

  5. Novel Concrete Temperature Monitoring Method Based on an Embedded Passive RFID Sensor Tag.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yongsheng; Deng, Fangming; He, Yigang; Li, Bing; Liang, Zhen; Zhou, Shuangxi

    2017-06-22

    This paper firstly introduces the importance of temperature control in concrete measurement, then a passive radio frequency identification (RFID) sensor tag embedded for concrete temperature monitoring is presented. In order to reduce the influences of concrete electromagnetic parameters during the drying process, a T-type antenna is proposed to measure the concrete temperature at the required depth. The proposed RFID sensor tag is based on the EPC generation-2 ultra-high frequency (UHF) communication protocol and operates in passive mode. The temperature sensor can convert the sensor signals to corresponding digital signals without an external reference clock due to the adoption of phase-locked loop (PLL)-based architecture. Laboratory experimentation and on-site testing demonstrate that our sensor tag embedded in concrete can provide reliable communication performance in passive mode. The maximum communicating distance between reader and tag is 7 m at the operating frequency of 915 MHz and the tested results show high consistency with the results tested by a thermocouple.

  6. Simple purification method for a recombinantly expressed native His-tag-free aminopeptidase A from Lactobacillus delbrueckii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stressler, Timo; Tanzer, Coralie; Ewert, Jacob; Claaßen, Wolfgang; Fischer, Lutz

    2017-03-01

    The aminopeptidase A (PepA; EC 3.4.11.7) is an intracellular exopeptidase present in lactic acid bacteria. The PepA cleaves glutamyl/aspartyl residues from the N-terminal end of peptides and can, therefore, be applied for the production of protein hydrolysates with an increased amount of these amino acids, which results in a savory taste (umami). The first PepA from a lactobacilli strain was recombinantly expressed in Escherichia coli in a recently published study and harbored a C-terminal His 6 -tag for easier purification. Due to the fact that a His-tag might influence the properties of an enzyme, a simple purification method for the non-His-tagged PepA was required. Surprisingly, the PepA precipitated at a very low ammonium sulfate concentration of 5%. Unusual for a precipitating step, the purity of PepA was over 95% and the obtained activity yield was 110%. The high purity allows biochemical characterization and kinetic investigation. As a result, the optimum pH (6.0-6.5) and temperature (60-65 °C) were comparable to the His 6 -tag harboring PepA; the K M value was at 0.79 mM slightly lower compared to 1.21 mM, respectively. Since PepA is a homo dodecamer, it has a high molecular mass of approximately 480 kDa. Therefore, a subsequent preparative size-exclusion chromatography (SEC) step seemed promising. The PepA after SEC was purified to homogeneity. In summary, the simple two-step purification method presented can be applied to purify high amounts of PepA that will allow the performance of experiments in the future to crystalize PepA for the first time. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Method to deterministically study photonic nanostructures in different experimental instruments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Husken, B H; Woldering, L A; Blum, C; Vos, W L

    2009-01-01

    We describe an experimental method to recover a single, deterministically fabricated nanostructure in various experimental instruments without the use of artificially fabricated markers, with the aim to study photonic structures. Therefore, a detailed map of the spatial surroundings of the nanostructure is made during the fabrication of the structure. These maps are made using a series of micrographs with successively decreasing magnifications. The graphs reveal intrinsic and characteristic geometric features that can subsequently be used in different setups to act as markers. As an illustration, we probe surface cavities with radii of 65 nm on a silica opal photonic crystal with various setups: a focused ion beam workstation; a scanning electron microscope (SEM); a wide field optical microscope and a confocal microscope. We use cross-correlation techniques to recover a small area imaged with the SEM in a large area photographed with the optical microscope, which provides a possible avenue to automatic searching. We show how both structural and optical reflectivity data can be obtained from one and the same nanostructure. Since our approach does not use artificial grids or markers, it is of particular interest for samples whose structure is not known a priori, like samples created solely by self-assembly. In addition, our method is not restricted to conducting samples.

  8. A Measurement of $R_{b}$ using a Double Tagging Method

    CERN Document Server

    Abbiendi, G.; Alexander, G.; Allison, John; Altekamp, N.; Anderson, K.J.; Anderson, S.; Arcelli, S.; Asai, S.; Ashby, S.F.; Axen, D.; Azuelos, G.; Ball, A.H.; Barberio, E.; Barlow, Roger J.; Bartoldus, R.; Batley, J.R.; Baumann, S.; Bechtluft, J.; Behnke, T.; Bell, Kenneth Watson; Bella, G.; Bellerive, A.; Bentvelsen, S.; Bethke, S.; Betts, S.; Biebel, O.; Biguzzi, A.; Bird, S.D.; Blobel, V.; Bloodworth, I.J.; Bobinski, M.; Bock, P.; Bohme, J.; Bonacorsi, D.; Boutemeur, M.; Braibant, S.; Bright-Thomas, P.; Brigliadori, L.; Brown, Robert M.; Burckhart, H.J.; Burgard, C.; Burgin, R.; Capiluppi, P.; Carnegie, R.K.; Carter, A.A.; Carter, J.R.; Chang, C.Y.; Charlton, David G.; Chrisman, D.; Ciocca, C.; Clarke, P.E.L.; Clay, E.; Cohen, I.; Conboy, J.E.; Cooke, O.C.; Couyoumtzelis, C.; Coxe, R.L.; Cuffiani, M.; Dado, S.; Dallavalle, G.Marco; Davis, R.; De Jong, S.; del Pozo, L.A.; De Roeck, A.; Desch, K.; Dienes, B.; Dixit, M.S.; Dubbert, J.; Duchovni, E.; Duckeck, G.; Duerdoth, I.P.; Eatough, D.; Estabrooks, P.G.; Etzion, E.; Evans, H.G.; Fabbri, F.; Fanti, M.; Faust, A.A.; Fiedler, F.; Fierro, M.; Fleck, I.; Folman, R.; Furtjes, A.; Futyan, D.I.; Gagnon, P.; Gary, J.W.; Gascon, J.; Gascon-Shotkin, S.M.; Gaycken, G.; Geich-Gimbel, C.; Giacomelli, G.; Giacomelli, P.; Gibson, V.; Gibson, W.R.; Gingrich, D.M.; Glenzinski, D.; Goldberg, J.; Gorn, W.; Grandi, C.; Gross, E.; Grunhaus, J.; Gruwe, M.; Hanson, G.G.; Hansroul, M.; Hapke, M.; Harder, K.; Hargrove, C.K.; Hartmann, C.; Hauschild, M.; Hawkes, C.M.; Hawkings, R.; Hemingway, R.J.; Herndon, M.; Herten, G.; Heuer, R.D.; Hildreth, M.D.; Hill, J.C.; Hillier, S.J.; Hobson, P.R.; Hocker, James Andrew; Homer, R.J.; Honma, A.K.; Horvath, D.; Hossain, K.R.; Howard, R.; Huntemeyer, P.; Igo-Kemenes, P.; Imrie, D.C.; Ishii, K.; Jacob, F.R.; Jawahery, A.; Jeremie, H.; Jimack, M.; Jones, C.R.; Jovanovic, P.; Junk, T.R.; Karlen, D.; Kartvelishvili, V.; Kawagoe, K.; Kawamoto, T.; Kayal, P.I.; Keeler, R.K.; Kellogg, R.G.; Kennedy, B.W.; Klier, A.; Kluth, S.; Kobayashi, T.; Kobel, M.; Koetke, D.S.; Kokott, T.P.; Kolrep, M.; Komamiya, S.; Kowalewski, Robert V.; Kress, T.; Krieger, P.; von Krogh, J.; Kuhl, T.; Kyberd, P.; Lafferty, G.D.; Lanske, D.; Lauber, J.; Lautenschlager, S.R.; Lawson, I.; Layter, J.G.; Lazic, D.; Lee, A.M.; Lellouch, D.; Letts, J.; Levinson, L.; Liebisch, R.; List, B.; Littlewood, C.; Lloyd, A.W.; Lloyd, S.L.; Loebinger, F.K.; Long, G.D.; Losty, M.J.; Ludwig, J.; Lui, D.; Macchiolo, A.; Macpherson, A.; Mader, W.; Mannelli, M.; Marcellini, S.; Markopoulos, C.; Martin, A.J.; Martin, J.P.; Martinez, G.; Mashimo, T.; Mattig, Peter; McDonald, W.John; McKenna, J.; Mckigney, E.A.; McMahon, T.J.; McPherson, R.A.; Meijers, F.; Menke, S.; Merritt, F.S.; Mes, H.; Meyer, J.; Michelini, A.; Mihara, S.; Mikenberg, G.; Miller, D.J.; Mir, R.; Mohr, W.; Montanari, A.; Mori, T.; Nagai, K.; Nakamura, I.; Neal, H.A.; Nellen, B.; Nisius, R.; O'Neale, S.W.; Oakham, F.G.; Odorici, F.; Ogren, H.O.; Oreglia, M.J.; Orito, S.; Palinkas, J.; Pasztor, G.; Pater, J.R.; Patrick, G.N.; Patt, J.; Perez-Ochoa, R.; Petzold, S.; Pfeifenschneider, P.; Pilcher, J.E.; Pinfold, J.; Plane, David E.; Poffenberger, P.; Polok, J.; Przybycien, M.; Rembser, C.; Rick, H.; Robertson, S.; Robins, S.A.; Rodning, N.; Roney, J.M.; Roscoe, K.; Rossi, A.M.; Rozen, Y.; Runge, K.; Runolfsson, O.; Rust, D.R.; Sachs, K.; Saeki, T.; Sahr, O.; Sang, W.M.; Sarkisian, E.K.G.; Sbarra, C.; Schaile, A.D.; Schaile, O.; Scharf, F.; Scharff-Hansen, P.; Schieck, J.; Schmitt, B.; Schmitt, S.; Schoning, A.; Schroder, Matthias; Schumacher, M.; Schwick, C.; Scott, W.G.; Seuster, R.; Shears, T.G.; Shen, B.C.; Shepherd-Themistocleous, C.H.; Sherwood, P.; Siroli, G.P.; Sittler, A.; Skuja, A.; Smith, A.M.; Snow, G.A.; Sobie, R.; Soldner-Rembold, S.; Sproston, M.; Stahl, A.; Stephens, K.; Steuerer, J.; Stoll, K.; Strom, David M.; Strohmer, R.; Surrow, B.; Talbot, S.D.; Tanaka, S.; Taras, P.; Tarem, S.; Teuscher, R.; Thiergen, M.; Thomson, M.A.; von Torne, E.; Torrence, E.; Towers, S.; Trigger, I.; Trocsanyi, Z.; Tsur, E.; Turcot, A.S.; Turner-Watson, M.F.; Van Kooten, Rick J.; Vannerem, P.; Verzocchi, M.; Voss, H.; Wackerle, F.; Wagner, A.; Ward, C.P.; Ward, D.R.; Watkins, P.M.; Watson, A.T.; Watson, N.K.; Wells, P.S.; Wermes, N.; White, J.S.; Wilson, G.W.; Wilson, J.A.; Wyatt, T.R.; Yamashita, S.; Yekutieli, G.; Zacek, V.; Zer-Zion, D.

    1999-01-01

    The fraction of Z to bbbar events in hadronic Z decays has been measured by the OPAL experiment using the data collected at LEP between 1992 and 1995. The Z to bbbar decays were tagged using displaced secondary vertices, and high momentum electrons and muons. Systematic uncertainties were reduced by measuring the b-tagging efficiency using a double tagging technique. Efficiency correlations between opposite hemispheres of an event are small, and are well understood through comparisons between real and simulated data samples. A value of Rb = 0.2178 +- 0.0011 +- 0.0013 was obtained, where the first error is statistical and the second systematic. The uncertainty on Rc, the fraction of Z to ccbar events in hadronic Z decays, is not included in the errors. The dependence on Rc is Delta(Rb)/Rb = -0.056*Delta(Rc)/Rc where Delta(Rc) is the deviation of Rc from the value 0.172 predicted by the Standard Model. The result for Rb agrees with the value of 0.2155 +- 0.0003 predicted by the Standard Model.

  9. System and method for clock synchronization and position determination using entangled photon pairs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shih, Yanhua (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    A system and method for clock synchronization and position determination using entangled photon pairs is provided. The present invention relies on the measurement of the second order correlation function of entangled states. Photons from an entangled photon source travel one-way to the clocks to be synchronized. By analyzing photon registration time histories generated at each clock location, the entangled states allow for high accuracy clock synchronization as well as high accuracy position determination.

  10. Modeling photonic crystal waveguides with noncircular geometry using green function method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uvarovaa, I.; Tsyganok, B.; Bashkatov, Y.; Khomenko, V.

    2012-01-01

    Currently in the field of photonics is an acute problem fast and accurate simulation photonic crystal waveguides with complex geometry. This paper describes an improved method of Green's functions for non-circular geometries. Based on comparison of selected efficient numerical method for finding the eigenvalues for the Green's function method for non-circular holes chosen effective method for our purposes. Simulation is realized in Maple environment. The simulation results confirmed experimentally. Key words: photonic crystal, waveguide, modeling, Green function, complex geometry

  11. A "shotgun" method for tracing the birth locations of sheep from flock tags, applied to scrapie surveillance in Great Britain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birch, Colin P D; Del Rio Vilas, Victor J; Chikukwa, Ambrose C

    2010-09-01

    Movement records are often used to identify animal sample provenance by retracing the movements of individuals. Here we present an alternative method, which uses the same identity tags and movement records as are used to retrace movements, but ignores individual movement paths. The first step uses a simple query to identify the most likely birth holding for every identity tag included in a database recording departures from agricultural holdings. The second step rejects a proportion of the birth holding locations to leave a list of birth holding locations that are relatively reliable. The method was used to trace the birth locations of sheep sampled for scrapie in abattoirs, or on farm as fallen stock. Over 82% of the sheep sampled in the fallen stock survey died at the holding of birth. This lack of movement may be an important constraint on scrapie transmission. These static sheep provided relatively reliable birth locations, which were used to define criteria for selecting reliable traces. The criteria rejected 16.8% of fallen stock traces and 11.9% of abattoir survey traces. Two tests provided estimates that selection reduced error in fallen stock traces from 11.3% to 3.2%, and in abattoir survey traces from 8.1% to 1.8%. This method generated 14,591 accepted traces of fallen stock from samples taken during 2002-2005 and 83,136 accepted traces from abattoir samples. The absence or ambiguity of flock tag records at the time of slaughter prevented the tracing of 16-24% of abattoir samples during 2002-2004, although flock tag records improved in 2005. The use of internal scoring to generate and evaluate results from the database query, and the confirmation of results by comparison with other database fields, are analogous to methods used in web search engines. Such methods may have wide application in tracing samples and in adding value to biological datasets. Crown Copyright 2010. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. A simple and stable method of tagging Agrobacterium fabrum C58 for environmental monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meriam BOURI

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Agrobacterium fabrum is one of the eleven Agrobacterium spp. complex species that has been observed to carry a Ti plasmid and induce crown gall, a disease causing significant damage to economically important perennial agricultural crops. Members of this species complex, including A. fabrum, are morphologically indistinguishable from one another on culture media and are known to grow together in soil and within host galls. Consequently, the tracking of this species in its natural environment requires a cautious approach to tagging strains without altering any of their ecologically important traits. A gentamicin resistant cassette (aacC1 was inserted, by homologous recombination, into a non-coding region of the A. fabrum C58 chromosome between the genes atu1182 and atu1183. The resultant strain did not show any significant in vitro growth differences compared to the wild-type strain, and the marker was stable in rich medium, both with and without selective pressure. The mutant/marked strain was indistinguishable from the parental strain for ability to induce galls, grow in bulk soil and colonize the rhizosphere of tomato plants. Easy, precise, safe and stable tagging of the A. fabrum C58 genome facilitates environmental population surveys by either simple selection or direct detection by PCR. This methodology provides understanding of the ecology of this species complex as an integral part of managing the soil microbiota for improved crown gall management.

  13. Flavour Tagging at LHCb

    CERN Multimedia

    Grabalosa Gandara, M

    2009-01-01

    To do precise CP violation measurements, the most possible accurate knowledge of the flavour at production of the reconstructed B meson is required. This poster summarizes the flavour tagging performances for the LHCb experiment. We use same side an opposite side algorithms to establish wheter the meson contained a b or a b\\bar quark. The final decision is obtained through a combination of several methods. The use of control channels, decays to a flavour specific final state, will allow to determine the wrong tag fraction \\omega (the probability of a tag to be wrong), which can be used as input for the determination of CKM unitary triangle angles.

  14. Condensed history Monte Carlo methods for photon transport problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhan, Katherine; Spanier, Jerome

    2007-01-01

    We study methods for accelerating Monte Carlo simulations that retain most of the accuracy of conventional Monte Carlo algorithms. These methods - called Condensed History (CH) methods - have been very successfully used to model the transport of ionizing radiation in turbid systems. Our primary objective is to determine whether or not such methods might apply equally well to the transport of photons in biological tissue. In an attempt to unify the derivations, we invoke results obtained first by Lewis, Goudsmit and Saunderson and later improved by Larsen and Tolar. We outline how two of the most promising of the CH models - one based on satisfying certain similarity relations and the second making use of a scattering phase function that permits only discrete directional changes - can be developed using these approaches. The main idea is to exploit the connection between the space-angle moments of the radiance and the angular moments of the scattering phase function. We compare the results obtained when the two CH models studied are used to simulate an idealized tissue transport problem. The numerical results support our findings based on the theoretical derivations and suggest that CH models should play a useful role in modeling light-tissue interactions

  15. Method to produce acetyldiacylglycerols (ac-TAGs) by expression of an acetyltransferase gene isolated from Euonymus alatus (burning bush)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Durrett, Timothy; Ohlrogge, John; Pollard, Michael

    2016-05-03

    The present invention relates to novel diacylglycerol acyltransferase genes and proteins, and methods of their use. In particular, the invention describes genes encoding proteins having diacylglycerol acetyltransferase activity, specifically for transferring an acetyl group to a diacylglycerol substrate to form acetyl-Triacylglycerols (ac-TAGS), for example, a 3-acetyl-1,2-diacyl-sn-glycerol. The present invention encompasses both native and recombinant wild-type forms of the transferase, as well as mutants and variant forms. The present invention also relates to methods of using novel diacylglycerol acyltransferase genes and proteins, including their expression in transgenic organisms at commercially viable levels, for increasing production of 3-acetyl-1,2-diacyl-sn-glycerols in plant oils and altering the composition of oils produced by microorganisms, such as yeast, by increasing ac-TAG production. Additionally, oils produced by methods of the present inventions comprising genes and proteins are contemplated for use as biodiesel fuel, in polymer production and as naturally produced food oils with reduced calories.

  16. Single-photon source engineering using a Modal Method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gregersen, Niels

    Solid-state sources of single indistinguishable photons are of great interest for quantum information applications. The semiconductor quantum dot embedded in a host material represents an attractive platform to realize such a single-photon source (SPS). A near-unity efficiency, defined as the num...... nanowire SPSs...

  17. Method for universal detection of two-photon polarization entanglement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartkiewicz, Karol; Horodecki, Paweł; Lemr, Karel; Miranowicz, Adam; Życzkowski, Karol

    2015-03-01

    Detecting and quantifying quantum entanglement of a given unknown state poses problems that are fundamentally important for quantum information processing. Surprisingly, no direct (i.e., without quantum tomography) universal experimental implementation of a necessary and sufficient test of entanglement has been designed even for a general two-qubit state. Here we propose an experimental method for detecting a collective universal witness, which is a necessary and sufficient test of two-photon polarization entanglement. It allows us to detect entanglement for any two-qubit mixed state and to establish tight upper and lower bounds on its amount. A different element of this method is the sequential character of its main components, which allows us to obtain relatively complicated information about quantum correlations with the help of simple linear-optical elements. As such, this proposal realizes a universal two-qubit entanglement test within the present state of the art of quantum optics. We show the optimality of our setup with respect to the minimal number of measured quantities.

  18. Effect of background dielectric on TE-polarized photonic bandgap of metallodielectric photonic crystals using Dirichlet-to-Neumann map method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sedghi, Aliasghar; Rezaei, Behrooz

    2016-11-20

    Using the Dirichlet-to-Neumann map method, we have calculated the photonic band structure of two-dimensional metallodielectric photonic crystals having the square and triangular lattices of circular metal rods in a dielectric background. We have selected the transverse electric mode of electromagnetic waves, and the resulting band structures showed the existence of photonic bandgap in these structures. We theoretically study the effect of background dielectric on the photonic bandgap.

  19. Metallic dielectric photonic crystals and methods of fabrication

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chou, Jeffrey Brian; Kim, Sang-Gook

    2016-12-20

    A metallic-dielectric photonic crystal is formed with a periodic structure defining a plurality of resonant cavities to selectively absorb incident radiation. A metal layer is deposited on the inner surfaces of the resonant cavities and a dielectric material fills inside the resonant cavities. This photonic crystal can be used to selectively absorb broadband solar radiation and then reemit absorbed radiation in a wavelength band that matches the absorption band of a photovoltaic cell. The photonic crystal can be fabricated by patterning a sacrificial layer with a plurality of holes, into which is deposited a supporting material. Removing the rest of the sacrificial layer creates a supporting structure, on which a layer of metal is deposited to define resonant cavities. A dielectric material then fills the cavities to form the photonic crystal.

  20. Metallic dielectric photonic crystals and methods of fabrication

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chou, Jeffrey Brian; Kim, Sang-Gook

    2017-12-05

    A metallic-dielectric photonic crystal is formed with a periodic structure defining a plurality of resonant cavities to selectively absorb incident radiation. A metal layer is deposited on the inner surfaces of the resonant cavities and a dielectric material fills inside the resonant cavities. This photonic crystal can be used to selectively absorb broadband solar radiation and then reemit absorbed radiation in a wavelength band that matches the absorption band of a photovoltaic cell. The photonic crystal can be fabricated by patterning a sacrificial layer with a plurality of holes, into which is deposited a supporting material. Removing the rest of the sacrificial layer creates a supporting structure, on which a layer of metal is deposited to define resonant cavities. A dielectric material then fills the cavities to form the photonic crystal.

  1. A Phos-tag-based magnetic-bead method for rapid and selective separation of phosphorylated biomolecules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsunehiro, Masaya; Meki, Yuma; Matsuoka, Kanako; Kinoshita-Kikuta, Emiko; Kinoshita, Eiji; Koike, Tohru

    2013-04-15

    A simple and efficient method based on magnetic-bead technology has been developed for the separation of phosphorylated and nonphosphorylated low-molecular-weight biomolecules, such as nucleotides, phosphorylated amino acids, or phosphopeptides. The phosphate-binding site on the bead is an alkoxide-bridged dinuclear zinc(II) complex with 1,3-bis(pyridin-2-ylmethylamino)propan-2-olate (Phos-tag), which is linked to a hydrophilic cross-linked agarose coating on a magnetic core particle. All steps for the phosphate-affinity separation are conducted in buffers of neutral pH with 50 μL of the magnetic beads in a 1.5-mL microtube. The entire separation protocol for phosphomonoester-type compounds, from addition to elution, requires less than 12 min per sample if the buffers and the zinc(II)-bound Phos-tag magnetic beads have been prepared in advance. The phosphate-affinity magnetic beads are reusable at least 15 times without a decrease in their phosphate-binding ability and they are stable for three months in propan-2-ol. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. The method of impedance transformation for electromagnetic waves propagating in one-dimension plasma photonic crystal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yao, Jingfeng; Yuan, Chengxun, E-mail: yuancx@hit.edu.cn, E-mail: zhouzx@hit.edu.cn; Gao, Ruilin; Jia, Jieshu; Wang, Ying; Zhou, Zhongxiang, E-mail: yuancx@hit.edu.cn, E-mail: zhouzx@hit.edu.cn; Wang, Xiaoou [Department of Physics, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150001 (China); Wu, Jian [National Key Laboratory of Electromagnetic Environment (LEME), China Research Institute of Radio Wave Propagation, Beijing 102206 (China); Li, Hui [Department of Physics, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150001 (China); National Key Laboratory of Electromagnetic Environment (LEME), China Research Institute of Radio Wave Propagation, Beijing 102206 (China)

    2016-08-15

    This study focuses on the transmission of normal-incidence electromagnetic waves in one-dimensional plasma photonic crystals. Using the Maxwell's equations in a medium, a method that is based on the concept of impendence is employed to perform the simulation. The accuracy of the method was evaluated by simulating a one-layer plasma and conventional photonic crystal. In frequency-domain, the transmission and reflection coefficients in the unmagnetized plasma photonic crystal were calculated, and the influence factors on plasma photonic crystals including dielectric constants of dielectric, spatial period, filling factor, plasma frequency, and collision frequency were studied.

  3. Numerical Methods for the Design and Analysis of Photonic Crystal Fibres

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roberts, John

    2008-01-01

    The numerical methods available for calculating the electromagnetic mode properties of photonic crystal fibres are reviewed. The preferred schemes for analyzing TIR guiding and band gap guiding fibres are contrasted.......The numerical methods available for calculating the electromagnetic mode properties of photonic crystal fibres are reviewed. The preferred schemes for analyzing TIR guiding and band gap guiding fibres are contrasted....

  4. Method to map individual electromagnetic field components inside a photonic crystal

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Denis, T.; Reijnders, B.; Lee, J.H.H.; van der Slot, Petrus J.M.; Vos, Willem L.; Boller, Klaus J.

    2012-01-01

    We present a method to map the absolute electromagnetic field strength inside photonic crystals. We apply the method to map the dominant electric field component Ez of a two-dimensional photonic crystal slab at microwave frequencies. The slab is placed between two mirrors to select Bloch standing

  5. A novel method for polarization squeezing with Photonic Crystal Fibers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Milanovic, Josip; Lassen, Mikael Østergaard; Andersen, Ulrik Lund

    2010-01-01

    Photonic Crystal Fibers can be tailored to increase the effective Kerr nonlinearity, while producing smaller amounts of excess noise compared to standard silicon fibers. Using these features of Photonic Crystal Fibers we create polarization squeezed states with increased purity compared to standa...... Stokes parameter squeezing of −3.9 ±0.3dB and anti-squeezing of 16.2 ±0.3dB....

  6. The use of external electronic tags on fish: an evaluation of tag retention and tagging effects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jepsen, Niels; Thorstad, Eva B.; Havn, Torgeir

    2015-01-01

    External tagging of fish with electronic tags has been used for decades for a wide range of marine and freshwater species. In the early years of fish telemetry research, it was the most commonly used attachment method, but later internal implants became preferred. Recently, the number of telemetry...... unsuitable for surgical implantation, or when using tags with sensors recording the external environment. The most commonly reported problems with external tags are tissue damage, premature tag loss, and decreased swimming capacity, but the effects are highly context dependent and species specific. Reduced......, but particularly there are few studies on predation risk, social interactions, and studies distinguishing capture and handling effects from tagging effects. For PSATs, especially those that are large relative to fish size, there are particular problems with a high proportion of premature tag losses, reduced...

  7. A novel method for inferring RFID tag reader recordings into clinical events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Yung-Ting; Syed-Abdul, Shabbir; Tsai, Chung-You; Li, Yu-Chuan

    2011-12-01

    Nosocomial infections (NIs) are among the important indicators used for evaluating patients' safety and hospital performance during accreditation of hospitals. NI rate is higher in Intensive Care Units (ICUs) than in the general wards because patients require intense care involving both invasive and non-invasive clinical procedures. The emergence of Superbugs is motivating health providers to enhance infection control measures. Contact behavior between health caregivers and patients is one of the main causes of cross infections. In this technology driven era remote monitoring of patients and caregivers in the hospital setting can be performed reliably, and thus is in demand. Proximity sensing using radio frequency identification (RFID) technology can be helpful in capturing and keeping track on all contact history between health caregivers and patients for example. This study intended to extend the use of proximity sensing of radio frequency identification technology by proposing a model for inferring RFID tag reader recordings into clinical events. The aims of the study are twofold. The first aim is to set up a Contact History Inferential Model (CHIM) between health caregivers and patients. The second is to verify CHIM with real-time observation done at the ICU ward. A pre-study was conducted followed by two study phases. During the pre-study proximity sensing of RFID was tested, and deployment of the RFID in the Clinical Skill Center in one of the medical centers in Taiwan was done. We simulated clinical events and developed CHIM using variables such as duration of time, frequency, and identity (tag) numbers assigned to caregivers. All clinical proximity events are classified into close-in events, contact events and invasive events. During the first phase three observers were recruited to do real time recordings of all clinical events in the Clinical Skill Center with the deployed automated RFID interaction recording system. The observations were used to verify

  8. Three-dimensional ordered particulate structures: Method to retrieve characteristics from photonic band gap data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miskevich, Alexander A.; Loiko, Valery A.

    2015-01-01

    A method to retrieve characteristics of ordered particulate structures, such as photonic crystals, is proposed. It is based on the solution of the inverse problem using data on the photonic band gap (PBG). The quasicrystalline approximation (QCA) of the theory of multiple scattering of waves and the transfer matrix method (TMM) are used. Retrieval of the refractive index of particles is demonstrated. Refractive indices of the artificial opal particles are estimated using the published experimental data. - Highlights: • A method to retrieve characteristics of photonic crystals is proposed. • The method is based on the inverse problem solution using the photonic band gap data. • Retrieval of the refractive index of photonic crystal particles is demonstrated. • Retrieval results show inhomogeneous distribution of synthetic opal particle pores

  9. Fabrication of photonic crystals on several kinds of semiconductor materials by using focused-ion beam method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Xingsheng; Chen Hongda; Xiong Zhigang; Jin Aizi; Gu Changzhi; Cheng Bingying; Zhang Daozhong

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, we introduced the fabrication of photonic crystals on several kinds of semiconductor materials by using focused-ion beam machine, it shows that the method of focused-ion beam can fabricate two-dimensional photonic crystal and photonic crystal device efficiently, and the quality of the fabricated photonic crystal is high. Using the focused-ion beam method, we fabricate photonic crystal wavelength division multiplexer, and its characteristics are analyzed

  10. Silicon-based photonic crystals fabricated using proton beam writing combined with electrochemical etching method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dang, Zhiya; Breese, Mark Bh; Recio-Sánchez, Gonzalo; Azimi, Sara; Song, Jiao; Liang, Haidong; Banas, Agnieszka; Torres-Costa, Vicente; Martín-Palma, Raúl José

    2012-07-23

    A method for fabrication of three-dimensional (3D) silicon nanostructures based on selective formation of porous silicon using ion beam irradiation of bulk p-type silicon followed by electrochemical etching is shown. It opens a route towards the fabrication of two-dimensional (2D) and 3D silicon-based photonic crystals with high flexibility and industrial compatibility. In this work, we present the fabrication of 2D photonic lattice and photonic slab structures and propose a process for the fabrication of 3D woodpile photonic crystals based on this approach. Simulated results of photonic band structures for the fabricated 2D photonic crystals show the presence of TE or TM gap in mid-infrared range.

  11. Photonic polymer-blend structures and method for making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, Michael D.

    2004-06-29

    The present invention comprises the formation of photonic polymer-blend structures having tunable optical and mechanical properties. The photonic polymer-blend structures comprise monomer units of spherical microparticles of a polymer-blend material wherein the spherical microparticles have surfaces partially merged with one another in a robust inter-particle bond having a tunable inter-particle separation or bond length sequentially attached in a desired and programmable architecture. The photonic polymer-blend structures of the present invention can be linked by several hundred individual particles sequentially linked to form complex three-dimensional structures or highly ordered two-dimensional arrays of 3D columns with 2D spacing.

  12. Comparison of Different Numerical Methods for Quality Factor Calculation of Nano and Micro Photonic Cavities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Taghizadeh, Alireza; Mørk, Jesper; Chung, Il-Sug

    2014-01-01

    Four different numerical methods for calculating the quality factor and resonance wavelength of a nano or micro photonic cavity are compared. Good agreement was found for a wide range of quality factors. Advantages and limitations of the different methods are discussed.......Four different numerical methods for calculating the quality factor and resonance wavelength of a nano or micro photonic cavity are compared. Good agreement was found for a wide range of quality factors. Advantages and limitations of the different methods are discussed....

  13. Social Tagging of Mission Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norris, Jeffrey S.; Wallick, Michael N.; Joswig, Joseph C.; Powell, Mark W.; Torres, Recaredo J.; Mittman, David S.; Abramyan, Lucy; Crockett, Thomas M.; Shams, Khawaja S.; Fox, Jason M.; hide

    2010-01-01

    Mars missions will generate a large amount of data in various forms, such as daily plans, images, and scientific information. Often, there is a semantic linkage between images that cannot be captured automatically. Software is needed that will provide a method for creating arbitrary tags for this mission data so that items with a similar tag can be related to each other. The tags should be visible and searchable for all users. A new routine was written to offer a new and more flexible search option over previous applications. This software allows users of the MSLICE program to apply any number of arbitrary tags to a piece of mission data through a MSLICE search interface. The application of tags creates relationships between data that did not previously exist. These tags can be easily removed and changed, and contain enough flexibility to be specifically configured for any mission. This gives users the ability to quickly recall or draw attention to particular pieces of mission data, for example: Give a semantic and meaningful description to mission data; for example, tag all images with a rock in them with the tag "rock." Rapidly recall specific and useful pieces of data; for example, tag a plan as"driving template." Call specific data to a user s attention; for example, tag a plan as "for:User." This software is part of the MSLICE release, which was written in Java. It will run on any current Windows, Macintosh, or Linux system.

  14. Processing multiphoton states through operation on a single photon: Methods and applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin Qing; He Bing; Bergou, Janos A.; Ren, Yuhang

    2009-01-01

    Multiphoton states are widely applied in quantum information technology. By the methods presented in this paper, the structure of a multiphoton state in the form of multiple single-photon qubit products can be mapped to a single-photon qudit, which could also be in a separable product with other photons. This makes possible the manipulation of such multiphoton states by processing single-photon states. The optical realization of unknown qubit discrimination [B. He, J. A. Bergou, and Y.-H. Ren, Phys. Rev. A 76, 032301 (2007)] is simplified with the transformation methods. Another application is the construction of quantum logic gates, where the inverse transformations back to the input state spaces are also necessary. We especially show that the modified setups to implement the transformations can realize the deterministic multicontrol gates (including Toffoli gate) operating directly on the products of single-photon qubits.

  15. Measurement of the differential cross section of the reaction γp→π+n at the energy-tagged photon beam of the PHOENICS experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buechler, K.

    1991-10-01

    At the Bonn Electron Strecherring ELSA the differential cross section for the reaction γp → π + n was measured. The measurement was performed with the PHOENICS detector, which consists of a bremsstrahlung tagging system and a hadron detector with large angular acceptance. The experiment covered a kinematic region of 210 MeV ≤ E γ ≤ 960 MeV and 35deg π , CMS ≤ 135deg. The data are in good agreement with other experiments. They are also compared with the results of a recent partial wave analysis and with the predictions of a constituent quark model in the first resonance region. (orig.) [de

  16. Flavour tagging performance in LHCb

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grabalosa Gandara, Marc

    2009-01-01

    To do precise CP violation measurements, the best possible determination of the flavour of the B-meson is necessary. This report summarizes the flavour tagging performances for the LHCb experiment. The flavour tagging is obtained through a combination of several methods, based on different signatures. The use of control channels, which are decays to flavour-specific final states, will allow to determine the wrong tag fraction ω (the probability of a tag to be wrong), which can be used as an input for the determination of CKM unitarity triangle angles.

  17. Analysis of Monte Carlo methods for the simulation of photon transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlsson, G.A.; Kusoffsky, L.

    1975-01-01

    In connection with the transport of low-energy photons (30 - 140 keV) through layers of water of different thicknesses, various aspects of Monte Carlo methods are examined in order to improve their effectivity (to produce statistically more reliable results with shorter computer times) and to bridge the gap between more physical methods and more mathematical ones. The calculations are compared with results of experiments involving the simulation of photon transport, using direct methods and collision density ones (J.S.)

  18. Update on photon-photon collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arteaga-Romero, N.; Cochard, G.; Ong, S.; Amiens Univ., 80; Carimalo, C.; Kessler, P.; Nicolaidis, A.; Parisi, J.; Courau, A.

    1980-03-01

    This report is the continuation of the 'Update' of last year (L.P.C. 79-03, March 1979, in French). In Part I, the structure functions of the photon in QCD are examined. It is shown that, while large psub(T) hadron production is similar to some extent in γγ collisions and in hadron-hadron collisions, the point-like nature of the photon introduces new terms which are entirely calculable, providing new means to test the dynamics of strong interactions. In Part II, problems of analysis in γγ experiments are discussed. The pros and cons of various options with regard to the measurement of outgoing electrons (non-tagging, finite-angle tagging, tagging at 0 0 ) are compared. It is shown that (a) non-tagging may be applied to the study of a limited number of processes only; (b) finite-angle tagging counters allow for various possibilities (double-tagging, single-tagging, double anti-tagging), but none of them is entirely satisfactory; (c) the ideal measurement is double tagging at 0 0 , provided the problem of bremsstrahlung saturation of the tagging counters can be solved

  19. Exploring the Long Tail of Social Media Tags

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kordumova, S.; van Gemert, J.; Snoek, C.G.M.; Tian, Q.; Sebe, N.; Qi, G.-J.; Huet, B.; Hong, R.; Liu, X.

    2016-01-01

    There are millions of users who tag multimedia content, generating a large vocabulary of tags. Some tags are frequent, while other tags are rarely used following a long tail distribution. For frequent tags, most of the multimedia methods that aim to automatically understand audio-visual content,

  20. Study of an efficient application of the tagged bremsstrahlung in double-polarization experiments in the GeV range and the use of the inelastic electron scattering under extremely forward angles as alternative to the tagged bremsstrahlung; Studie eines effizienten Einsatzes der markierten Bremsstrahlung bei Doppelpolarisationsexperimenten im GeV-Bereich und der Nutzung der inelastischen Elektronstreuung unter extremen Vorwaertswinkeln als Alternative zur markierten Bremsstrahlung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Konrad, M.

    2006-03-15

    For the preparation of photonic probes for hadron physics the determination of energy and polarization of the photons is essential. In this dissertation in a first part a possibility of the determination of the degree of polarization by use of the asymmetry observables is presented. In a second part a possibility isd discussed to perform an energy and polarization tagging of nearly real photons in electron scattering under small Q{sup 2}. By this method it should be possible to tag billions of photons per second.

  1. Antenna for passive RFID tags

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiopu, Paul; Manea, Adrian; Cristea, Ionica; Grosu, Neculai; Vladescu, Marian; Craciun, Anca-Ileana; Craciun, Alexandru

    2015-02-01

    Minuscule devices, called RFID tags are attached to objects and persons and emit information which positioned readers may capture wirelessly. Many methods of identification have been used, but that of most common is to use a unique serial number for identification of person or object. RFID tags can be characterized as either active or passive [1,2]. Traditional passive tags are typically in "sleep" state until awakened by the reader's emitted field. In passive tags, the reader's field acts to charge the capacitor that powers the badge and this can be a combination of antenna and barcodes obtained with SAW( Surface Acoustic Wave) devices [1,2,3] . The antenna in an RFID tag is a conductive element that permits the tag to exchange data with the reader. The paper contribution are targeted to antenna for passive RFID tags. The electromagnetic field generated by the reader is somehow oriented by the reader antenna and power is induced in the tag only if the orientation of the tag antenna is appropriate. A tag placed orthogonal to the reader yield field will not be read. This is the reason that guided manufacturers to build circular polarized antenna capable of propagating a field that is alternatively polarized on all planes passing on the diffusion axis. Passive RFID tags are operated at the UHF frequencies of 868MHz (Europe) and 915MHz (USA) and at the microwave frequencies of 2,45 GHz and 5,8 GHz . Because the tags are small dimensions, in paper, we present the possibility to use circular polarization microstrip antenna with fractal edge [2].

  2. Photon detector configured to employ the Gunn effect and method of use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cich, Michael J

    2015-03-17

    Embodiments disclosed herein relate to photon detectors configured to employ the Gunn effect for detecting high-energy photons (e.g., x-rays and gamma rays) and methods of use. In an embodiment, a photon detector for detecting high-energy photons is disclosed. The photon detector includes a p-i-n semiconductor diode having a p-type semiconductor region, an n-type semiconductor region, and a compensated i-region disposed between the p-type semiconductor region and the n-type semiconductor region. The compensated i-region and has a width of about 100 .mu.m to about 400 .mu.m and is configured to exhibit the Gunn effect when the p-i-n semiconductor diode is forward biased a sufficient amount. The compensated i-region is doped to include a free carrier concentration of less than about 10.sup.10 cm.sup.-3.

  3. Well logging method and apparatus using a continuous energy spectrum photon source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turcotte, R.E.

    1976-01-01

    In accordance with an illustrative embodiment of the present invention, a method and apparatus for logging an earth formation of interest is disclosed in which repetitive bursts of a continuous energy spectrum of photons are emitted that penetrate the media surrounding a borehole traversing the earth formation. Thereafter, indications of photons resulting from the interaction of the emitted photons and the surrounding media are obtained, each indication being obtained at a different separation from the source along the axis of the borehole. Finally, the indications are compared to determine representations of a characteristic of the media surrounding the borehole. According to one aspect of the present invention, at least one of the indications is the result of annihilation photons produced by the interaction of the emitted photons and the surrounding media

  4. Three-dimensional ordered particulate structures: Method to retrieve characteristics from photonic band gap data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miskevich, Alexander A.; Loiko, Valery A.

    2015-01-01

    A method to retrieve characteristics of ordered particulate structures, such as photonic crystals, is proposed. It is based on the solution of the inverse problem using data on the photonic band gap (PBG). The quasicrystalline approximation (QCA) of the theory of multiple scattering of waves and the transfer matrix method (TMM) are used. Retrieval of the refractive index of particles is demonstrated. Refractive indices of the artificial opal particles are estimated using the published experimental data.

  5. Improvement of the photon flux measurement at the BGO-OD experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kohl, Katrin [Physikalisches Institut, Universitaet Bonn (Germany); Collaboration: BGO-OD-Collaboration

    2016-07-01

    The BGO-OD experiment at the ELSA accelerator facility at Bonn investigates the internal reaction mechanisms of the nucleon, using an energy tagged bremsstrahlung photon beam. Absolute normalisation of the beam flux is required for cross section determination. In this talk the measurement principle is presented, and an improved method of the photon flux monitoring of the experiment is introduced.

  6. Finite element method analysis of band gap and transmission of two-dimensional metallic photonic crystals at terahertz frequencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Degirmenci, Elif; Landais, Pascal

    2013-10-20

    Photonic band gap and transmission characteristics of 2D metallic photonic crystals at THz frequencies have been investigated using finite element method (FEM). Photonic crystals composed of metallic rods in air, in square and triangular lattice arrangements, are considered for transverse electric and transverse magnetic polarizations. The modes and band gap characteristics of metallic photonic crystal structure are investigated by solving the eigenvalue problem over a unit cell of the lattice using periodic boundary conditions. A photonic band gap diagram of dielectric photonic crystal in square lattice array is also considered and compared with well-known plane wave expansion results verifying our FEM approach. The photonic band gap designs for both dielectric and metallic photonic crystals are consistent with previous studies obtained by different methods. Perfect match is obtained between photonic band gap diagrams and transmission spectra of corresponding lattice structure.

  7. Photonic band structures solved by a plane-wave-based transfer-matrix method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhi-Yuan; Lin, Lan-Lan

    2003-04-01

    Transfer-matrix methods adopting a plane-wave basis have been routinely used to calculate the scattering of electromagnetic waves by general multilayer gratings and photonic crystal slabs. In this paper we show that this technique, when combined with Bloch's theorem, can be extended to solve the photonic band structure for 2D and 3D photonic crystal structures. Three different eigensolution schemes to solve the traditional band diagrams along high-symmetry lines in the first Brillouin zone of the crystal are discussed. Optimal rules for the Fourier expansion over the dielectric function and electromagnetic fields with discontinuities occurring at the boundary of different material domains have been employed to accelerate the convergence of numerical computation. Application of this method to an important class of 3D layer-by-layer photonic crystals reveals the superior convergency of this different approach over the conventional plane-wave expansion method.

  8. Photonic band structures solved by a plane-wave-based transfer-matrix method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Zhiyuan; Lin Lanlan

    2003-01-01

    Transfer-matrix methods adopting a plane-wave basis have been routinely used to calculate the scattering of electromagnetic waves by general multilayer gratings and photonic crystal slabs. In this paper we show that this technique, when combined with Bloch's theorem, can be extended to solve the photonic band structure for 2D and 3D photonic crystal structures. Three different eigensolution schemes to solve the traditional band diagrams along high-symmetry lines in the first Brillouin zone of the crystal are discussed. Optimal rules for the Fourier expansion over the dielectric function and electromagnetic fields with discontinuities occurring at the boundary of different material domains have been employed to accelerate the convergence of numerical computation. Application of this method to an important class of 3D layer-by-layer photonic crystals reveals the superior convergency of this different approach over the conventional plane-wave expansion method

  9. A Monte Carlo method using octree structure in photon and electron transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ogawa, K.; Maeda, S.

    1995-01-01

    Most of the early Monte Carlo calculations in medical physics were used to calculate absorbed dose distributions, and detector responses and efficiencies. Recently, data acquisition in Single Photon Emission CT (SPECT) has been simulated by a Monte Carlo method to evaluate scatter photons generated in a human body and a collimator. Monte Carlo simulations in SPECT data acquisition are generally based on the transport of photons only because the photons being simulated are low energy, and therefore the bremsstrahlung productions by the electrons generated are negligible. Since the transport calculation of photons without electrons is much simpler than that with electrons, it is possible to accomplish the high-speed simulation in a simple object with one medium. Here, object description is important in performing the photon and/or electron transport using a Monte Carlo method efficiently. The authors propose a new description method using an octree representation of an object. Thus even if the boundaries of each medium are represented accurately, high-speed calculation of photon transport can be accomplished because the number of voxels is much fewer than that of the voxel-based approach which represents an object by a union of the voxels of the same size. This Monte Carlo code using the octree representation of an object first establishes the simulation geometry by reading octree string, which is produced by forming an octree structure from a set of serial sections for the object before the simulation; then it transports photons in the geometry. Using the code, if the user just prepares a set of serial sections for the object in which he or she wants to simulate photon trajectories, he or she can perform the simulation automatically using the suboptimal geometry simplified by the octree representation without forming the optimal geometry by handwriting

  10. A novel method of rapidly modeling optical properties of actual photonic crystal fibres

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li-Wen, Wang; Shu-Qin, Lou; Wei-Guo, Chen; Hong-Lei, Li

    2010-01-01

    The flexible structure of photonic crystal fibre not only offers novel optical properties but also brings some difficulties in keeping the fibre structure in the fabrication process which inevitably cause the optical properties of the resulting fibre to deviate from the designed properties. Therefore, a method of evaluating the optical properties of the actual fibre is necessary for the purpose of application. Up to now, the methods employed to measure the properties of the actual photonic crystal fibre often require long fibre samples or complex expensive equipments. To our knowledge, there are few studies of modeling an actual photonic crystal fibre and evaluating its properties rapidly. In this paper, a novel method, based on the combination model of digital image processing and the finite element method, is proposed to rapidly model the optical properties of the actual photonic crystal fibre. Two kinds of photonic crystal fibres made by Crystal Fiber A/S are modeled. It is confirmed from numerical results that the proposed method is simple, rapid and accurate for evaluating the optical properties of the actual photonic crystal fibre without requiring complex equipment. (rapid communication)

  11. CONFERENCE: Photon-photon collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1983-01-01

    Despite being difficult to observe, photon-photon collisions have opened up a range of physics difficult, or even impossible, to access by other methods. The progress which has been made in this field was evident at the fifth international workshop on photon-photon collisions, held in Aachen from 13-16 April and attended by some 120 physicists

  12. Jet shapes for isolated photon-tagged jets in PbPb and pp collisions at $\\sqrt{s_\\mathrm{NN}}=5.02~\\mathrm{TeV}$

    CERN Document Server

    CMS Collaboration

    2018-01-01

    The modification of jet shapes in PbPb collision, relative to those in pp collision, is studied for jets associated with an isolated photon, using data collected with the CMS detector at the CERN LHC at a nucleon-nucleon center-of-mass energy of $5.02~\\mathrm{TeV}$. Jet shapes are constructed in annuli around the axes of jets of transverse momentum $p_\\mathrm{T}^\\mathrm{jet} > 30~{\\rm Ge\\hspace{-.08em}V\\hspace{-0.16em}}/\\hspace{-0.08em}c $ that are associated with an isolated photon of $p_\\mathrm{T}^\\gamma > 60~{\\rm Ge\\hspace{-.08em}V\\hspace{-0.16em}}/\\hspace{-0.08em}c $, using charged particles of $p_\\mathrm{T}^\\mathrm{trk} > 1~{\\rm Ge\\hspace{-.08em}V\\hspace{-0.16em}}/\\hspace{-0.08em}c $. The jet shape distributions are consistent between peripheral PbPb collisions and pp collisions, and they become more different for more central PbPb collisions. The modifications are indicative of a larger fraction of the jet momenta being carried at larger distances from the jet axes, following the interaction between the...

  13. K-edge energy-based calibration method for photon counting detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Yongshuai; Ji, Xu; Zhang, Ran; Li, Ke; Chen, Guang-Hong

    2018-01-01

    In recent years, potential applications of energy-resolved photon counting detectors (PCDs) in the x-ray medical imaging field have been actively investigated. Unlike conventional x-ray energy integration detectors, PCDs count the number of incident x-ray photons within certain energy windows. For PCDs, the interactions between x-ray photons and photoconductor generate electronic voltage pulse signals. The pulse height of each signal is proportional to the energy of the incident photons. By comparing the pulse height with the preset energy threshold values, x-ray photons with specific energies are recorded and sorted into different energy bins. To quantitatively understand the meaning of the energy threshold values, and thus to assign an absolute energy value to each energy bin, energy calibration is needed to establish the quantitative relationship between the threshold values and the corresponding effective photon energies. In practice, the energy calibration is not always easy, due to the lack of well-calibrated energy references for the working energy range of the PCDs. In this paper, a new method was developed to use the precise knowledge of the characteristic K-edge energy of materials to perform energy calibration. The proposed method was demonstrated using experimental data acquired from three K-edge materials (viz., iodine, gadolinium, and gold) on two different PCDs (Hydra and Flite, XCounter, Sweden). Finally, the proposed energy calibration method was further validated using a radioactive isotope (Am-241) with a known decay energy spectrum.

  14. Yellowtail Tagging Data (MRDBS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Yellowtail Flounder Tagging Program began in 2003 and works with commercial fishermen to tag and release yellowtaiI flounder with pink and yellow disc tags or...

  15. Restriction site extension PCR: a novel method for high-throughput characterization of tagged DNA fragments and genome walking.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiabing Ji

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Insertion mutant isolation and characterization are extremely valuable for linking genes to physiological function. Once an insertion mutant phenotype is identified, the challenge is to isolate the responsible gene. Multiple strategies have been employed to isolate unknown genomic DNA that flanks mutagenic insertions, however, all these methods suffer from limitations due to inefficient ligation steps, inclusion of restriction sites within the target DNA, and non-specific product generation. These limitations become close to insurmountable when the goal is to identify insertion sites in a high throughput manner. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We designed a novel strategy called Restriction Site Extension PCR (RSE-PCR to efficiently conduct large-scale isolation of unknown genomic DNA fragments linked to DNA insertions. The strategy is a modified adaptor-mediated PCR without ligation. An adapter, with complementarity to the 3' overhang of the endonuclease (KpnI, NsiI, PstI, or SacI restricted DNA fragments, extends the 3' end of the DNA fragments in the first cycle of the primary RSE-PCR. During subsequent PCR cycles and a second semi-nested PCR (secondary RSE-PCR, touchdown and two-step PCR are combined to increase the amplification specificity of target fragments. The efficiency and specificity was demonstrated in our characterization of 37 tex mutants of Arabidopsis. All the steps of RSE-PCR can be executed in a 96 well PCR plate. Finally, RSE-PCR serves as a successful alternative to Genome Walker as demonstrated by gene isolation from maize, a plant with a more complex genome than Arabidopsis. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: RSE-PCR has high potential application in identifying tagged (T-DNA or transposon sequence or walking from known DNA toward unknown regions in large-genome plants, with likely application in other organisms as well.

  16. Comparison of a Label-Free Quantitative Proteomic Method Based on Peptide Ion Current Area to the Isotope Coded Affinity Tag Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young Ah Goo

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Recently, several research groups have published methods for the determination of proteomic expression profiling by mass spectrometry without the use of exogenously added stable isotopes or stable isotope dilution theory. These so-called label-free, methods have the advantage of allowing data on each sample to be acquired independently from all other samples to which they can later be compared in silico for the purpose of measuring changes in protein expression between various biological states. We developed label free software based on direct measurement of peptide ion current area (PICA and compared it to two other methods, a simpler label free method known as spectral counting and the isotope coded affinity tag (ICAT method. Data analysis by these methods of a standard mixture containing proteins of known, but varying, concentrations showed that they performed similarly with a mean squared error of 0.09. Additionally, complex bacterial protein mixtures spiked with known concentrations of standard proteins were analyzed using the PICA label-free method. These results indicated that the PICA method detected all levels of standard spiked proteins at the 90% confidence level in this complex biological sample. This finding confirms that label-free methods, based on direct measurement of the area under a single ion current trace, performed as well as the standard ICAT method. Given the fact that the label-free methods provide ease in experimental design well beyond pair-wise comparison, label-free methods such as our PICA method are well suited for proteomic expression profiling of large numbers of samples as is needed in clinical analysis.

  17. Classical reconstruction of interference patterns of position-wave-vector-entangled photon pairs by the time-reversal method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogawa, Kazuhisa; Kobayashi, Hirokazu; Tomita, Akihisa

    2018-02-01

    The quantum interference of entangled photons forms a key phenomenon underlying various quantum-optical technologies. It is known that the quantum interference patterns of entangled photon pairs can be reconstructed classically by the time-reversal method; however, the time-reversal method has been applied only to time-frequency-entangled two-photon systems in previous experiments. Here, we apply the time-reversal method to the position-wave-vector-entangled two-photon systems: the two-photon Young interferometer and the two-photon beam focusing system. We experimentally demonstrate that the time-reversed systems classically reconstruct the same interference patterns as the position-wave-vector-entangled two-photon systems.

  18. W/Top/Higgs-tagging in ATLAS

    CERN Document Server

    Norjoharuddeen, Nurfikri; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    We present updates of W, Top and Higgs tagging studies with the ATLAS detector. The performance of 2 variable taggers, HEPTopTagger and shower deconstruction are compared in Monte Carlo simulations. To asses the modelling of the taggers’ performance, the tagging efficiencies are measured, with the full 2015+2016 dataset, in semi-leptonic top quark pair events and the background rejections are measured in dijet and photon+jet topologies. Recent developments in subjet reconstruction techniques for high transverse momentum Higgs->bb tagging are also presented.

  19. Comparison of Five Computational Methods for Computing Q Factors in Photonic Crystal Membrane Cavities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Novitsky, Andrey; de Lasson, Jakob Rosenkrantz; Frandsen, Lars Hagedorn

    2017-01-01

    Five state-of-the-art computational methods are benchmarked by computing quality factors and resonance wavelengths in photonic crystal membrane L5 and L9 line defect cavities. The convergence of the methods with respect to resolution, degrees of freedom and number of modes is investigated. Specia...

  20. Iodine Tagging Velocimetry in a Mach 10 Wake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balla, Robert Jeffrey

    2013-01-01

    A variation on molecular tagging velocimetry (MTV) [1] designated iodine tagging velocimetry (ITV) is demonstrated. Molecular iodine is tagged by two-photon absorption using an Argon Fluoride (ArF) excimer laser. A single camera measures fluid displacement using atomic iodine emission at 206 nm. Two examples ofMTVfor cold-flowmeasurements areN2OMTV [2] and Femtosecond Laser Electronic Excitation Tagging [3]. These, like most MTV methods, are designed for atmospheric pressure applications. Neither can be implemented at the low pressures (0.1- 1 Torr) in typical hypersonic wakes. Of all the single-laser/singlecamera MTV approaches, only Nitric-Oxide Planar Laser Induced Fluorescence-based MTV [4] has been successfully demonstrated in a Mach 10 wake. Oxygen quenching limits transit times to 500 ns and accuracy to typically 30%. The present note describes the photophysics of the ITV method. Off-body velocimetry along a line is demonstrated in the aerothermodynamically important and experimentally challenging region of a hypersonic low-pressure near-wake in a Mach 10 air wind tunnel. Transit times up to 10 µs are demonstrated with conservative errors of 10%.

  1. Attenuation correction method for single photon emission CT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morozumi, Tatsuru; Nakajima, Masato [Keio Univ., Yokohama (Japan). Faculty of Science and Technology; Ogawa, Koichi; Yuta, Shinichi

    1983-10-01

    A correction method (Modified Correction Matrix method) is proposed to implement iterative correction by exactly measuring attenuation constant distribution in a test body, calculating a correction factor for every picture element, then multiply the image by these factors. Computer simulation for the comparison of the results showed that the proposed method was specifically more effective to an application to the test body, in which the rate of attenuation constant change is large, than the conventional correction matrix method. Since the actual measurement data always contain quantum noise, the noise was taken into account in the simulation. However, the correction effect was large even under the noise. For verifying its clinical effectiveness, the experiment using an acrylic phantom was also carried out. As the result, the recovery of image quality in the parts with small attenuation constant was remarkable as compared with the conventional method.

  2. Two-photon or higher-order absorbing optical materials and methods of use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marder, Seth (Inventor); Perry, Joseph (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    Compositions capable of simultaneous two-photon absorption and higher order absorptivities are provided. Compounds having a donor-pi-donor or acceptor-pi-acceptor structure are of particular interest, where the donor is an electron donating group, acceptor is an electron accepting group, and pi is a pi bridge linking the donor and/or acceptor groups. The pi bridge may additionally be substituted with electron donating or withdrawing groups to alter the absorptive wavelength of the structure. Also disclosed are methods of generating an excited state of such compounds through optical stimulation with light using simultaneous absorption of photons of energies individually insufficient to achieve an excited state of the compound, but capable of doing so upon simultaneous absorption of two or more such photons. Applications employing such methods are also provided, including controlled polymerization achieved through focusing of the light source(s) used.

  3. b-tagging in DELPHI at LEP

    CERN Document Server

    Abdallah, J; Adam, W; Adye, T; Adzic, P; Albrecht, T; Alderweireld, T; Alemany-Fernandez, R; Allmendinger, T; Allport, P P; Almehed, S; Amaldi, Ugo; Amapane, N; Amato, S; Anashkin, E; Andreazza, A; Andringa, S; Anjos, N; Antilogus, P; Apel, W D; Arnoud, Y; Ask, S; Åsman, B; Augustin, J E; Augustinus, A; Baillon, Paul; Ballestrero, A; Bambade, P; Barbier, R; Bardin, Dimitri Yuri; Barker, G; Baroncelli, A; Bates, M; Battaglia, Marco; Baubillier, M; Becks, K H; Begalli, M; Behrmann, A; Benekos, N C; Benvenuti, Alberto C; Bérat, C; Berggren, M; Berntzon, L; Bertrand, D; Besançon, M; Besson, N; Bibby, J; Biffi, P; Bloch, D; Blom, M; Bonesini, M; Boonekamp, M; Booth, P S L; Borisov, G; Botner, O; Bouquet, B; Bowcock, T J V; Boyko, I; Bracko, M; Branchini, P; Brenner, R; Brodet, E; Brückman, P; Brunet, J M; Bugge, L; Buschmann, P; Caccia, M; Calvi, M; Camporesi, T; Canale, V; Carena, F; Castro, N; Cavallo, F R; Chabaud, V; Chapkin, M M; Charpentier, P; Checchia, P; Chierici, R; Shlyapnikov, P; Chudoba, J; Chung, S U; Cieslik, K; Collins, P; Contri, R; Cosme, G; Cossutti, F; Costa, M J; Couchot, F; Crawley, B; Crennell, D J; Cuevas-Maestro, J; D'Almagne, B; D'Hondt, J; Dalmau, J; Da Silva, T; Da Silva, W; Della Ricca, G; De Angelis, A; de Boer, Wim; De Clercq, C; De Lotto, B; De Maria, N; De Min, A; De Paula, L S; Di Ciaccio, Lucia; Dijkstra, H; Di Simone, A; Doroba, K; Drees, J; Dris, M; Eigen, G; Ekelöf, T J C; Ellert, M; Elsing, M; Espirito-Santo, M C; Fanourakis, G K; Fassouliotis, D; Feindt, M; Fernández, J; Ferrer, A; Ferro, F; Flagmeyer, U; Föth, H; Fokitis, E; Fulda-Quenzer, F; Fuster, J A; Gandelman, M; García, C; Gavillet, P; Gazis, E N; Geralis, T; Gokieli, R; Golob, B; Gómez-Cadenas, J J; Gómez-Ceballos, G; Gonçalves, P; Graziani, E; Grosdidier, G; Grzelak, K; Guy, J; Haag, C; Hallgren, A; Hamacher, K; Hamilton, K; Hansen, J; Haug, S; Hauler, F; Hedberg, V; Hennecke, M; Hernando, J A; Herr, H; Heuser, J M; Holmgren, S O; Holt, P J; Houlden, M A; Hultqvist, K; Jackson, J N; Jalocha, P; Jarlskog, C; Jarlskog, G; Jarry, P; Jeans, D; Johansson, E K; Johansson, P D; Jonsson, P; Joram, C; Jungermann, L; Kapusta, F; Karlsson, M; Katsanevas, S; Katsoufis, E C; Keränen, R; Kernel, G; Kersevan, Borut P; Kiiskinen, A P; King, B T; Kjaer, N J; Kluit, P; Kokkinias, P; Kourkoumelis, C; Kuznetsov, O; Krumshtein, Z; Kucharczyk, M; Kucewicz, W; Kurowska, J; Lamsa, J; Leder, G; Ledroit, F; Leinonen, L; Leitner, R; Lemonne, J; Lepeltier, V; Lesiak, T; Liebig, W; Liko, D; Lipniacka, A; Lopes, J H; López, J M; Loukas, D; Lutz, P; Lyons, L; MacNaughton, J; Malek, A; Maltezos, S; Mandl, F; Marco, J; Marco, R; Maréchal, B; Margoni, M; Marin, J C; Mariotti, C; Markou, A; Martínez-Rivero, C; Martínez-Vidal, F; Masik, J; Mastroyiannopoulos, N; Matorras, F; Matteuzzi, C; Mazzucato, F; Mazzucato, M; McNulty, R; Meroni, C; Meyer, W T; Migliore, E; Mitaroff, W A; Mjörnmark, U; Moa, T; Moch, M; Mönig, K; Monge, R; Montenegro, J; Moraes, D; Moreno, S; Morettini, P; Müller, U; Münich, K; Mulders, M; Mundim, L; Murray, W; Muryn, B; Myatt, Gerald; Myklebust, T; Nassiakou, M; Navarria, Francesco Luigi; Nawrocki, K; Nicolaidou, R; Niezurawski, P; Nikolenko, M; Nomerotski, A; Norman, A; Nygren, A; Oblakowska-Mucha, A; Obraztsov, V F; Olshevskii, A G; Onofre, A; Orava, Risto; Österberg, K; Ouraou, A; Oyanguren, A; Paganoni, M; Paiano, S; Palacios, J P; Palka, H; Papadopoulou, T D; Pape, L; Parkes, C; Parodi, F; Parzefall, U; Passeri, A; Passon, O; Peralta, L; Perepelitsa, V F; Perrotta, A; Petrolini, A; Piedra, J; Pieri, L; Pierre, F; Pimenta, M; Piotto, E; Podobnik, T; Poireau, V; Pol, M E; Polok, G; Poropat, P; Pozdnyakov, V; Pukhaeva, N; Pullia, Antonio; Rames, J; Ramler, L; Read, A; Rebecchi, P; Rehn, J; Reid, D; Reinhardt, R; Renton, P B; Richard, F; Rídky, J; Rivero, M; Rodríguez, D; Romero, A; Ronchese, P; Rosenberg, E I; Roudeau, Patrick; Rovelli, T; Ruhlmann-Kleider, V; Ryabtchikov, D; Sadovskii, A; Salmi, L; Salt, J; Savoy-Navarro, A; Schwickerath, U; Segar, A; Sekulin, R L; Siebel, M; Sissakian, A N; Smadja, G; Smirnova, O G; Sokolov, A; Sopczak, A; Sosnowski, R; Spassoff, Tz; Stanitzki, M; Stavitski, I; Stocchi, A; Strauss, J; Stugu, B; Szczekowski, M; Szeptycka, M; Szumlak, T; Tabarelli de Fatis, T; Taffard, A C; Tegenfeldt, F; Timmermans, J; Tinti, N; Tkatchev, L G; Tobin, M; Todorovova, S; Tomaradze, A G; Tomé, B; Tonazzo, A; Tortosa, P; Travnicek, P; Treille, D; Trischuk, W; Tristram, G; Trochimczuk, M; Troncon, C; Turluer, M L; Tyapkin, I A; Tyapkin, P; Tyndel, M; Tzamarias, S; Uvarov, V; Valenti, G; van Dam, P; Van Eldik, J; Van Lysebetten, A; Van Remortel, N; Van Vulpen, I B; Vegni, G; Veloso, F; Venus, W A; Verbeure, F; Verdier, P; Verzi, V; Vilanova, D; Vitale, L; Vrba, V; Wahlen, H; Washbrook, A J; Weilhammer, Peter; Weiser, C; Wicke, D; Wickens, J H; Wilkinson, G; Winter, M; Witek, M; Yushchenko, O P; Zalewska-Bak, A; Zalewski, Piotr; Zavrtanik, D; Zimin, N I; Zinchenko, A I; Zupan, M

    2004-01-01

    The standard method used for tagging b-hadrons in the DELPHI experiment at the CERN LEP Collider is discussed in detail. The main ingredient of b-tagging is the impact parameters of tracks, which relies mostly on the vertex detector. Additional information, such as the mass of particles associated to a secondary vertex, significantly improves the selection efficiency and the background suppression. The paper describes various discriminating variables used for the tagging and the procedure of their combination. In addition, applications of b-tagging to some physics analyses, which depend crucially on the performance and reliability of b-tagging, are described briefly.

  4. The validity of the density scaling method in primary electron transport for photon and electron beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woo, M.K.; Cunningham, J.R.

    1990-01-01

    In the convolution/superposition method of photon beam dose calculations, inhomogeneities are usually handled by using some form of scaling involving the relative electron densities of the inhomogeneities. In this paper the accuracy of density scaling as applied to primary electrons generated in photon interactions is examined. Monte Carlo calculations are compared with density scaling calculations for air and cork slab inhomogeneities. For individual primary photon kernels as well as for photon interactions restricted to a thin layer, the results can differ significantly, by up to 50%, between the two calculations. However, for realistic photon beams where interactions occur throughout the whole irradiated volume, the discrepancies are much less severe. The discrepancies for the kernel calculation are attributed to the scattering characteristics of the electrons and the consequent oversimplified modeling used in the density scaling method. A technique called the kernel integration technique is developed to analyze the general effects of air and cork inhomogeneities. It is shown that the discrepancies become significant only under rather extreme conditions, such as immediately beyond the surface after a large air gap. In electron beams all the primary electrons originate from the surface of the phantom and the errors caused by simple density scaling can be much more significant. Various aspects relating to the accuracy of density scaling for air and cork slab inhomogeneities are discussed

  5. Photon technology. Hard photon technology; Photon technology. Hard photon gijutsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-03-01

    Research results of hard photon technology have been summarized as a part of novel technology development highly utilizing the quantum nature of photon. Hard photon technology refers to photon beam technologies which use photon in the 0.1 to 200 nm wavelength region. Hard photon has not been used in industry due to the lack of suitable photon sources and optical devices. However, hard photon in this wavelength region is expected to bring about innovations in such areas as ultrafine processing and material synthesis due to its atom selective reaction, inner shell excitation reaction, and spatially high resolution. Then, technological themes and possibility have been surveyed. Although there are principle proposes and their verification of individual technologies for the technologies of hard photon generation, regulation and utilization, they are still far from the practical applications. For the photon source technology, the laser diode pumped driver laser technology, laser plasma photon source technology, synchrotron radiation photon source technology, and vacuum ultraviolet photon source technology are presented. For the optical device technology, the multi-layer film technology for beam mirrors and the non-spherical lens processing technology are introduced. Also are described the reduction lithography technology, hard photon excitation process, and methods of analysis and measurement. 430 refs., 165 figs., 23 tabs.

  6. Application of the Arbitrarily High Order Method to Coupled Electron Photon Transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duo, Jose Ignacio

    2004-01-01

    This work is about the application of the Arbitrary High Order Nodal Method to coupled electron photon transport.A Discrete Ordinates code was enhanced and validated which permited to evaluate the advantages of using variable spatial development order per particle.The results obtained using variable spatial development and adaptive mesh refinement following an a posteriori error estimator are encouraging.Photon spectra for clinical accelerator target and, dose and charge depositio profiles are simulated in one-dimensional problems using cross section generated with CEPXS code.Our results are in good agreement with ONELD and MCNP codes

  7. Specific absorbed fractions of energy at various ages from internal photon sources: 1, Methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cristy, M.; Eckerman, K.F.

    1987-04-01

    Specific absorbed fractions (PHI's) in various organs of the body (target organs) from sources of monoenergetic photons in various other organs (source organs) are tabulated. This volume outlines various methods used to compute the PHI-values and describes how the ''best'' estimates recommended by us are chosen. These PHI-values can be used in calculating the photon component of the dose-equivalent rate in a given target organ from a given radionuclide that is present in a given source organ. The International Commission on Radiological Protection recognizes that the endosteal, or bone surface, cells are the tissue at risk for bone cancer. We have applied the dosimetry methods that Spiers and co-workers developed for beta-emitting radionuclides deposited in bone to follow the transport of secondary electrons that were freed by photon interactions through the microscopic structure of the skeleton. With these methods we can estimate PHI in the endosteal cells and can better estimate PHI in the active marrow; the latter is overestimated with the methods at photon energies below 200 keV. 41 refs., 25 figs., 23 tabs

  8. Photonic arbitrary waveform generator based on Taylor synthesis method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liao, Shasha; Ding, Yunhong; Dong, Jianji

    2016-01-01

    Arbitrary waveform generation has been widely used in optical communication, radar system and many other applications. We propose and experimentally demonstrate a silicon-on-insulator (SOI) on chip optical arbitrary waveform generator, which is based on Taylor synthesis method. In our scheme......, a Gaussian pulse is launched to some cascaded microrings to obtain first-, second- and third-order differentiations. By controlling amplitude and phase of the initial pulse and successive differentiations, we can realize an arbitrary waveform generator according to Taylor expansion. We obtain several typical...... waveforms such as square waveform, triangular waveform, flat-top waveform, sawtooth waveform, Gaussian waveform and so on. Unlike other schemes based on Fourier synthesis or frequency-to-time mapping, our scheme is based on Taylor synthesis method. Our scheme does not require any spectral disperser or large...

  9. Distribution of photon strength in nuclei by a method of two-step cascades

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Becvar, F.; Cejnar, P.; Kopecky, J.

    1990-01-01

    The applicability of sum-coincidence measurements of two-step cascade γ-ray spectra to the determination of photon strength functions at intermediate γ-ray energies (3 or 4 MeV) is discussed. An experiment based on thermal neutron capture in Nd was undertaken at the Brookhaven National Laboratory High Flux Beam Reactor to test this model. To understand the role of various uncertainties in similar experiments a series of model calculations was performed. We present an analysis of our experimental data which demonstrates the high sensitivity of the method to E1 and M1 photon strength functions. Our experimental data are in sharp contradiction to those expected from an E1 photon strength distributed according to the classical Lorentzian form with an energy invariant damping width. An alternative distribution of Kadmenskij et al., which violates Brink's Hypothesis, is strongly preferred. 13 refs., 5 figs

  10. PREFACE: I International Scientific School Methods of Digital Image Processing in Optics and Photonics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurov, I. P.; Kozlov, S. A.

    2014-09-01

    The first international scientific school "Methods of Digital Image Processing in Optics and Photonics" was held with a view to develop cooperation between world-class experts, young scientists, students and post-graduate students, and to exchange information on the current status and directions of research in the field of digital image processing in optics and photonics. The International Scientific School was managed by: Saint Petersburg National Research University of Information Technologies, Mechanics and Optics (ITMO University) - Saint Petersburg (Russia) Chernyshevsky Saratov State University - Saratov (Russia) National research nuclear University "MEPHI" (NRNU MEPhI) - Moscow (Russia) The school was held with the participation of the local chapters of Optical Society of America (OSA), the Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers (SPIE) and IEEE Photonics Society. Further details, including topics, committees and conference photos are available in the PDF

  11. Gas tagging system development in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sekiguchi, N.; Rindo, H.; Akiyama, T.; Miyazawa, T.; Heki, H.

    1981-05-01

    The Gas tagging method has been considered to be most desirable for a failed fuel location system for the fast breeder reactor, regarding the component reduction in the reactor vessel and rapid location during reactor operation. The gas tagging system has been designed by referring to R and D results obtained in Japan and other countries. The designed system is comprised of tag gas filling pins, cover gas sampling system, tag gas recovery and enrichment system, tag gas analyzer and system control and data handling computers. The main specifications for this system have been decided as follows; 1) Main function is location of failed fuels in core and a part of blanket region, 2) Identification capability is each subassembly, 3) Time for identification is within a few days, 4) Continuous operation with automatic start at fuel failure, 5) Detection sensitivity must cover both gas leak and pin burst. In designing the gas tagging system, the following R and D items were selected; 1) System design study, 2) Tag gas capsule development, 3) Modeling the tag gas behavior in reactor primary cooling system, 4) Tag gas recovery and enrichment system, 5) Computer code development for tag gas isotope ratio change estimation. Details of the Japanese gas tagging system development appear in this paper. (author)

  12. Mechanical modulation method for ultrasensitive phase measurements in photonics biosensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patskovsky, S; Maisonneuve, M; Meunier, M; Kabashin, A V

    2008-12-22

    A novel polarimetry methodology for phase-sensitive measurements in single reflection geometry is proposed for applications in optical transduction-based biological sensing. The methodology uses altering step-like chopper-based mechanical phase modulation for orthogonal s- and p- polarizations of light reflected from the sensing interface and the extraction of phase information at different harmonics of the modulation. We show that even under a relatively simple experimental arrangement, the methodology provides the resolution of phase measurements as low as 0.007 deg. We also examine the proposed approach using Total Internal Reflection (TIR) and Surface Plasmon Resonance (SPR) geometries. For TIR geometry, the response appears to be strongly dependent on the prism material with the best values for high refractive index Si. The detection limit for Si-based TIR is estimated as 10(-5) in terms Refractive Index Units (RIU) change. SPR geometry offers much stronger phase response due to a much sharper phase characteristics. With the detection limit of 3.2*10(-7) RIU, the proposed methodology provides one of best sensitivities for phase-sensitive SPR devices. Advantages of the proposed method include high sensitivity, simplicity of experimental setup and noise immunity as a result of a high stability modulation.

  13. Microplanktonic community structure in a coastal system relative to a Phaeocystis bloom inferred from morphological and tag pyrosequencing methods.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sébastien Monchy

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Massive phytoplankton blooms, like the recurrent Phaeocystis proliferation observed every year in the Eastern English Channel (EEC, have a significant influence on the overall planktonic community structure and their food web dynamics. As well as being an important area for local fisheries, the EEC is an ideal ecosystem for work on microbial diversity. This is because, although its environmental context is relatively complex, it is reasonably well understood due to several years of monitoring and morphological observations of its planktonic organisms. The objective of our study was to better understand the under-explored microbial eukaryotic diversity relative to the Phaeocystis bloom. METHODOLOGY AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The community structure of microplankton (diatoms, haptophytes, ciliates and dinoflagellates was studied through morphological observations and tag pyrosequencing. During the annual Phaeocystis spring bloom, the phytoplankton biomass increased by 34-fold, while the microzooplankton biomass showed a 4-fold increase, representing on average about 4.6% of the biomass of their phytoplankton prey. Tag pyrosequencing unveiled an extensive diversity of Gymnodiniaceae, with G. spirale and G. fusiformis representing the most abundant reads. An extended diversity of Phaeocystales, with partial 18S rDNA genes sequence identity as low as 85% was found, with taxa corresponding to P. globosa, but also to unknown Phaeocystaceae. CONCLUSIONS: Morphological analyses and pyrosequencing were generally in accordance with capturing frequency shifts of abundant taxa. Tag pyrosequencing allowed highlighting the maintenance of microplankton diversity during the Phaeocystis bloom and the increase of the taxa presenting low number of reads (minor taxa along with the dominant ones in response to biotic and/or abiotic changing conditions. Although molecular approaches have enhanced our perception on diversity, it has come to light that the

  14. On the absorbed dose determination method in high energy photon beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scarlat, F.; Scarisoreanu, A.; Oane, M.; Mitru, E.; Avadanei, C.

    2008-01-01

    The absorbed dose determination method in water, based on standards of air kerma or exposure in high energy photon beams generated by electron with energies in the range of 1 MeV to 50 MeV is presented herein. The method is based on IAEA-398, AAPM TG-51, DIN 6800-2, IAEA-381, IAEA-277 and NACP-80 recommendations. The dosimetry equipment is composed of UNIDOS T 10005 electrometer and different ionization chambers calibrated in air kerma method in a Co 60 beam. Starting from the general formalism showed in IAEA-381, the determination of absorbed dose in water, under reference conditions in high energy photon beams, is given. This method was adopted for the secondary standard dosimetry laboratory (SSDL) in NILPRP-Bucharest

  15. The use of photon correlation spectroscopy method for determining diffusion coefficient in brine and herring flesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shumanova M.V.

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The process fish salting has been studied by the method of photon correlation spectroscopy; the distribution of salt concentration in the solution and herring flesh with skin has been found, diffusion coefficients and salt concentrations used for creating a mathematical model of the salting technology have been worked out; the possibility of determination by this method the coefficient of dynamic viscosity of solutions and different media (minced meat etc. has been considered

  16. Comparison between different dispersion engineering methods in slow light photonic crystal waveguides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Fengwen; Jensen, Jakob Søndergaard; Sigmund, Ole

    2011-01-01

    This paper compares the performance of different dispersion engineering methods in slow light photonic crystal waveguides, i.e., geometrical parameter optimization and topology optimization. In both methods, the design robustness is enforced by considering the dilated, intermediate and eroded...... that waveguides with optimized hole sizes and positions can be efficient for dispersion engineering but that large improvements are possible if irregular geometries are allowed using topology optimization....

  17. Dose calculation methods in photon beam therapy using energy deposition kernels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahnesjoe, A.

    1991-01-01

    The problem of calculating accurate dose distributions in treatment planning of megavoltage photon radiation therapy has been studied. New dose calculation algorithms using energy deposition kernels have been developed. The kernels describe the transfer of energy by secondary particles from a primary photon interaction site to its surroundings. Monte Carlo simulations of particle transport have been used for derivation of kernels for primary photon energies form 0.1 MeV to 50 MeV. The trade off between accuracy and calculational speed has been addressed by the development of two algorithms; one point oriented with low computional overhead for interactive use and one for fast and accurate calculation of dose distributions in a 3-dimensional lattice. The latter algorithm models secondary particle transport in heterogeneous tissue by scaling energy deposition kernels with the electron density of the tissue. The accuracy of the methods has been tested using full Monte Carlo simulations for different geometries, and found to be superior to conventional algorithms based on scaling of broad beam dose distributions. Methods have also been developed for characterization of clinical photon beams in entities appropriate for kernel based calculation models. By approximating the spectrum as laterally invariant, an effective spectrum and dose distribution for contaminating charge particles are derived form depth dose distributions measured in water, using analytical constraints. The spectrum is used to calculate kernels by superposition of monoenergetic kernels. The lateral energy fluence distribution is determined by deconvolving measured lateral dose distributions by a corresponding pencil beam kernel. Dose distributions for contaminating photons are described using two different methods, one for estimation of the dose outside of the collimated beam, and the other for calibration of output factors derived from kernel based dose calculations. (au)

  18. Methodologies for Improved Tag Cloud Generation with Clustering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leginus, Martin; Dolog, Peter; Lage, Ricardo Gomes

    2012-01-01

    Tag clouds are useful means for navigation in the social web systems. Usually the systems implement the tag cloud generation based on tag popularity which is not always the best method. In this paper we propose methodologies on how to combine clustering into the tag cloud generation to improve...... coverage and overlap. We study several clustering algorithms to generate tag clouds. We show that by extending cloud generation based on tag popularity with clustering we slightly improve coverage. We also show that if the cloud is generated by clustering independently of the tag popularity baseline we...

  19. Comparison of preconditioned generalized conjugate gradient methods to two-dimensional neutron and photon transport equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, G.S.

    1997-01-01

    We apply and compare the preconditioned generalized conjugate gradient methods to solve the linear system equation that arises in the two-dimensional neutron and photon transport equation in this paper. Several subroutines are developed on the basis of preconditioned generalized conjugate gradient methods for time-independent, two-dimensional neutron and photon transport equation in the transport theory. These generalized conjugate gradient methods are used. TFQMR (transpose free quasi-minimal residual algorithm), CGS (conjuage gradient square algorithm), Bi-CGSTAB (bi-conjugate gradient stabilized algorithm) and QMRCGSTAB (quasi-minimal residual variant of bi-conjugate gradient stabilized algorithm). These sub-routines are connected to computer program DORT. Several problems are tested on a personal computer with Intel Pentium CPU. (author)

  20. Gillnet Tag Program

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Certain fishery management programs require vessels to obtain gillnet tags to be used with their gillnet gear. Gillnet tag data is a collection of requests and...

  1. Cooperative Tagging Center (CTC)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Cooperative Tagging Center (CTC) began as the Cooperative Game Fish Tagging Program (GTP) at Woods Hole Oceanographic Institute (WHOI) in 1954. The GTP was...

  2. North Pacific Albacore Tagging

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Conventional tagging data are available from 1971 to 1996. Electronic tagging data are available from 2000 to present. The data are managed by SWFSC in Access...

  3. Tagging vs. Controlled Vocabulary

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bogers, Toine; Petras, Vivien

    2015-01-01

    The popularity of social tagging has sparked a great deal of debate on whether tags could replace or improve upon professional metadata as descriptors of books and other information objects. In this paper we present a large-scale empirical comparison of the contributions of individual information...... that tags and controlled vocabulary terms do not actually outperform each other consistently, but seem to provide complementary contributions: some information needs are best addressed using controlled vocabulary terms whereas other are best addressed using tags....

  4. Using Interference to Block RFID Tags

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krigslund, Rasmus; Popovski, Petar; Pedersen, Gert Frølund

    We propose a novel method to block RFID tags from responding, using intentional interference. We focus on the experimental evaluation, where we impose interference on the download and uplink, respectively. The results are positive, where modulated CCI shows most effective to block a tag.......We propose a novel method to block RFID tags from responding, using intentional interference. We focus on the experimental evaluation, where we impose interference on the download and uplink, respectively. The results are positive, where modulated CCI shows most effective to block a tag....

  5. Cutaneous skin tag

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skin tag; Acrochordon; Fibroepithelial polyp ... have diabetes. They are thought to occur from skin rubbing against skin. ... The tag sticks out of the skin and may have a short, narrow stalk connecting it to the surface of the skin. Some skin tags are as long as ...

  6. Towards Universal Semantic Tagging

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abzianidze, Lasha; Bos, Johan

    2017-01-01

    The paper proposes the task of universal semantic tagging---tagging word tokens with language-neutral, semantically informative tags. We argue that the task, with its independent nature, contributes to better semantic analysis for wide-coverage multilingual text. We present the initial version of

  7. Application of the Monte Carlo method in calculation of energy-time distribution from a pulsed photon source in homogeneous air environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ilic, R.D.; Vojvodic, V.I.; Orlic, M.P.

    1981-01-01

    The stochastic nature of photon interactions with matter and the characteristics of photon transport through real materials, are very well suited for applications of the Monte Carlo method in calculations of the energy-space distribution of photons. Starting from general principles of the Monte Carlo method, physical-mathematical model of photon transport from a pulsed source is given for the homogeneous air environment. Based on that model, a computer program is written which is applied in calculations of scattered photons delay spectra and changes of the photon energy spectrum. Obtained results provide the estimation of the timespace function of the electromagnetic field generated by photon from a pulsed source. (author)

  8. Disposable photonic integrated circuits for evanescent wave sensors by ultra-high volume roll-to-roll method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aikio, Sanna; Hiltunen, Jussi; Hiitola-Keinänen, Johanna; Hiltunen, Marianne; Kontturi, Ville; Siitonen, Samuli; Puustinen, Jarkko; Karioja, Pentti

    2016-02-08

    Flexible photonic integrated circuit technology is an emerging field expanding the usage possibilities of photonics, particularly in sensor applications, by enabling the realization of conformable devices and introduction of new alternative production methods. Here, we demonstrate that disposable polymeric photonic integrated circuit devices can be produced in lengths of hundreds of meters by ultra-high volume roll-to-roll methods on a flexible carrier. Attenuation properties of hundreds of individual devices were measured confirming that waveguides with good and repeatable performance were fabricated. We also demonstrate the applicability of the devices for the evanescent wave sensing of ambient refractive index. The production of integrated photonic devices using ultra-high volume fabrication, in a similar manner as paper is produced, may inherently expand methods of manufacturing low-cost disposable photonic integrated circuits for a wide range of sensor applications.

  9. Space-Varying Iterative Restoration of Diffuse Optical Tomograms Reconstructed by the Photon Average Trajectories Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kravtsenyuk Olga V

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The possibility of improving the spatial resolution of diffuse optical tomograms reconstructed by the photon average trajectories (PAT method is substantiated. The PAT method recently presented by us is based on a concept of an average statistical trajectory for transfer of light energy, the photon average trajectory (PAT. The inverse problem of diffuse optical tomography is reduced to a solution of an integral equation with integration along a conditional PAT. As a result, the conventional algorithms of projection computed tomography can be used for fast reconstruction of diffuse optical images. The shortcoming of the PAT method is that it reconstructs the images blurred due to averaging over spatial distributions of photons which form the signal measured by the receiver. To improve the resolution, we apply a spatially variant blur model based on an interpolation of the spatially invariant point spread functions simulated for the different small subregions of the image domain. Two iterative algorithms for solving a system of linear algebraic equations, the conjugate gradient algorithm for least squares problem and the modified residual norm steepest descent algorithm, are used for deblurring. It is shown that a gain in spatial resolution can be obtained.

  10. Space-Varying Iterative Restoration of Diffuse Optical Tomograms Reconstructed by the Photon Average Trajectories Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir V. Lyubimov

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The possibility of improving the spatial resolution of diffuse optical tomograms reconstructed by the photon average trajectories (PAT method is substantiated. The PAT method recently presented by us is based on a concept of an average statistical trajectory for transfer of light energy, the photon average trajectory (PAT. The inverse problem of diffuse optical tomography is reduced to a solution of an integral equation with integration along a conditional PAT. As a result, the conventional algorithms of projection computed tomography can be used for fast reconstruction of diffuse optical images. The shortcoming of the PAT method is that it reconstructs the images blurred due to averaging over spatial distributions of photons which form the signal measured by the receiver. To improve the resolution, we apply a spatially variant blur model based on an interpolation of the spatially invariant point spread functions simulated for the different small subregions of the image domain. Two iterative algorithms for solving a system of linear algebraic equations, the conjugate gradient algorithm for least squares problem and the modified residual norm steepest descent algorithm, are used for deblurring. It is shown that a 27% gain in spatial resolution can be obtained.

  11. mIMT-visHTS: A novel method for multiplexing isobaric mass tagged datasets with an accompanying visualization high throughput screening tool for protein profiling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricchiuto, Piero; Iwata, Hiroshi; Yabusaki, Katsumi; Yamada, Iwao; Pieper, Brett; Sharma, Amitabh; Aikawa, Masanori; Singh, Sasha A

    2015-10-14

    Isobaric mass tagging (IMT) methods enable the analysis of thousands of proteins simultaneously. We used tandem mass tagging reagents (TMT™) to monitor the relative changes in the proteome of the mouse macrophage cell line RAW264.7 at the same six time points after no stimulation (baseline phenotype), stimulation with interferon gamma (pro-inflammatory phenotype) or stimulation with interleukin-4 (anti-inflammatory phenotype). The combined TMT datasets yielded nearly 12,000 protein profiles for comparison. To facilitate this large analysis, we developed a novel method that combines or multiplexes the separate IMT (mIMT) datasets into a single super dataset for subsequent model-based clustering and co-regulation analysis. Specially designed visual High Throughput Screening (visHTS) software screened co-regulated proteins. visHTS generates an interactive and visually intuitive color-coded bullseye plot that enables users to browse the cluster outputs and identify co-regulated proteins. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. An investigation of b/barb-quark flavor tagging methods in lepton + charm events at √s=1.8 TeV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rakitine, Alexandre Y.; CDF Collaboration

    2000-04-01

    ``Jet Charge'', ``Same Side'' and ``Soft Lepton'' tagging methods were studied to determine the b/barb-quark flavor of B-mesons at the time of production. A sample of almost 10,000 B_u,d arrow l D^(*) X decays collected during the 1992-1995 run was analyzed. Six decay signatures were reconstructed. The efficacy of the tagging methods was demonstrated by revealing the time-dependent flavor oscillations of B^0-mesons and measuring their frequency. We thank the Fermilab staff and the technical staffs of the participating institutions for their vital contributions. This work was supported by the U.S. Department of Energy and National Science Foundation; the Italian Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare; the Ministry of Education, Science and Culture of Japan; the Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada; the National Science Council of the Republic of China; and the A. P. Sloan Foundation. Supported by U.S. DOE under contract DE-AC02-76ER03069.

  13. Statistical method for resolving the photon-photoelectron-counting inversion problem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Jinlong; Li Tiejun; Peng, Xiang; Guo Hong

    2011-01-01

    A statistical inversion method is proposed for the photon-photoelectron-counting statistics in quantum key distribution experiment. With the statistical viewpoint, this problem is equivalent to the parameter estimation for an infinite binomial mixture model. The coarse-graining idea and Bayesian methods are applied to deal with this ill-posed problem, which is a good simple example to show the successful application of the statistical methods to the inverse problem. Numerical results show the applicability of the proposed strategy. The coarse-graining idea for the infinite mixture models should be general to be used in the future.

  14. Analysis of photonic band-gap (PBG) structures using the FDTD method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tong, M.S.; Cheng, M.; Lu, Y.L.

    2004-01-01

    In this paper, a number of photonic band-gap (PBG) structures, which are formed by periodic circuit elements printed oil transmission-line circuits, are studied by using a well-known numerical method, the finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) method. The results validate the band-stop filter...... behavior of these structures, and the computed results generally match well with ones published in the literature. It is also found that the FDTD method is a robust, versatile, and powerful numerical technique to perform such numerical studies. The proposed PBG filter structures may be applied in microwave...

  15. Graph based techniques for tag cloud generation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leginus, Martin; Dolog, Peter; Lage, Ricardo Gomes

    2013-01-01

    Tag cloud is one of the navigation aids for exploring documents. Tag cloud also link documents through the user defined terms. We explore various graph based techniques to improve the tag cloud generation. Moreover, we introduce relevance measures based on underlying data such as ratings...... or citation counts for improved measurement of relevance of tag clouds. We show, that on the given data sets, our approach outperforms the state of the art baseline methods with respect to such relevance by 41 % on Movielens dataset and by 11 % on Bibsonomy data set....

  16. Monitoring Arthrobacter protophormiae RKJ100 in a 'tag and chase' method during p-nitrophenol bio-remediation in soil microcosms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, Gunjan; Pandey, Janmejay; Jain, Rakesh K

    2006-05-01

    Monitoring of micro-organisms released deliberately into the environment is essential to assess their movement during the bio-remediation process. During the last few years, DNA-based genetic methods have emerged as the preferred method for such monitoring; however, their use is restricted in cases where organisms used for bio-remediation are not well characterized or where the public domain databases do not provide sufficient information regarding their sequence. For monitoring of such micro-organisms, alternate approaches have to be undertaken. In this study, we have specifically monitored a p-nitrophenol (PNP)-degrading organism, Arthrobacter protophormiae RKJ100, using molecular methods during PNP degradation in soil microcosm. Cells were tagged with a transposon-based foreign DNA sequence prior to their introduction into PNP-contaminated microcosms. Later, this artificially introduced DNA sequence was PCR-amplified to distinguish the bio-augmented organism from the indigenous microflora during PNP bio-remediation.

  17. A new method for detecting hemoglobin directly in whole blood using photon attenuation techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Medhat, M.E.

    2014-01-01

    The objective of the proposed work is focused on measuring iron concentration directly in whole blood as tool for estimating hemoglobin and anemic conditions in patients across the world. The investigated method depends on theory of photon attenuation through transmission of low energy in whole blood sample. The mathematical expressions for calculating hemoglobin and iron deficit on blood using photon attenuation are derived. Calculations are carried out for estimating concentration of iron in blood samples taken from children, adults and old patients and therefore measuring their hemoglobin and iron deficit from normal values. Theoretical mass attenuation coefficient values were obtained using the XCOM program. A high-resolution gamma-ray spectrometry based on high purity germanium detector was employed to measure attenuation of strongly collimated monoenergetic gamma beam through blood samples. (author)

  18. Polarizable Embedded RI-CC2 Method for Two-Photon Absorption Calculations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hršak, Dalibor; Khah, Alireza Marefat; Christiansen, Ove

    2015-01-01

    We present a novel polarizable embedded resolution-of-identity coupled cluster singles and approximate doubles (PERI-CC2) method for calculation of two-photon absorption (TPA) spectra of large molecular systems. The method was benchmarked for three types of systems: a water-solvated molecule...... of formamide, a uracil molecule in aqueous solution, and a set of mutants of the channelrhodopsin (ChR) protein. The first test case shows that the PERI-CC2 method is in excellent agreement with the PE-CC2 method and in good agreement with the PE-CCSD method. The uracil test case indicates that the effects...... of hydrogen bonding on the TPA of a chromophore with the nearest environment is well-described with the PERI-CC2 method. Finally, the ChR calculation shows that the PERI-CC2 method is well-suited and efficient for calculations on proteins with medium-sized chromophores....

  19. Simple and efficient methods for the accurate evaluation of patterning effects in ultrafast photonic switches

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xu, Jing; Ding, Yunhong; Peucheret, Christophe

    2011-01-01

    Although patterning effects (PEs) are known to be a limiting factor of ultrafast photonic switches based on semiconductor optical amplifiers (SOAs), a simple approach for their evaluation in numerical simulations and experiments is missing. In this work, we experimentally investigate and verify...... as well as the operation bit rate. Furthermore, a simple and effective method for probing the maximum PEs is demonstrated, which may relieve the computational effort or the experimental difficulties associated with the use of long PRBSs for the simulation or characterization of SOA-based switches. Good...... agrement with conventional PRBS characterization is obtained. The method is suitable for quick and systematic estimation and optimization of the switching performance....

  20. Internally readable identifying tag

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jefferts, K.B.; Jefferts, E.R.

    1980-01-01

    A method of identifying non-metallic objects by means of X-ray equipment is described in detail. A small metal pin with a number of grooves cut in a pre-determined equi-spaced pattern is implanted into the non-metallic object and by decoding the groove patterns using X-ray equipment, the object is uniquely identified. A specific example of such an application is in studying the migratory habits of fish. The pin inserted into the snout of the fish is 0.010 inch in diameter, 0.040 inch in length with 8 possible positions for grooves if spaced 0.005 inch apart. With 6 of the groove positions available for data, the capacity is 2 6 or 64 combinations; clearly longer pins would increase the data capacity. This method of identification is a major advance over previous techniques which necessitated destruction of the fish in order to recover the identification tag. (UK)

  1. Vector boson tagged jets and jet substructure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vitev Ivan

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In these proceedings, we report on recent results related to vector boson-tagged jet production in heavy ion collisions and the related modification of jet substructure, such as jet shapes and jet momentum sharing distributions. Z0-tagging and γ-tagging of jets provides new opportunities to study parton shower formation and propagation in the quark-gluon plasma and has been argued to provide tight constrains on the energy loss of reconstructed jets. We present theoretical predictions for isolated photon-tagged and electroweak boson-tagged jet production in Pb+Pb collisions at √sNN = 5.02 TeV at the LHC, addressing the modification of their transverse momentum and transverse momentum imbalance distributions. Comparison to recent ATLAS and CMS experimental measurements is performed that can shed light on the medium-induced radiative corrections and energy dissipation due to collisional processes of predominantly quark-initiated jets. The modification of parton splitting functions in the QGP further implies that the substructure of jets in heavy ion collisions may differ significantly from the corresponding substructure in proton-proton collisions. Two such observables and the implication of tagging on their evaluation is also discussed.

  2. Flavour Tagging Algorithms and Performances in LHCb

    CERN Document Server

    Calvi, M; Musy, M

    2007-01-01

    In this note we describe the general characteristics of the LHCb flavour tagging algorithms and summarize the tagging performances on the Monte Carlo samples generated for the Data Challenge 2004 in different decay channels. We also discuss some systematics effects and possible methods to extract the mistag fraction in real data.

  3. Analysis of Leaky Modes in Photonic Crystal Fibers Using the Surface Integral Equation Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jung-Sheng Chiang

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available A fully vectorial algorithm based on the surface integral equation method for the modelling of leaky modes in photonic crystal fibers (PCFs by solely solving the complex propagation constants of characteristic equations is presented. It can be used for calculations of the complex effective index and confinement losses of photonic crystal fibers. As complex root examination is the key technique in the solution, the new algorithm which possesses this technique can be used to solve the leaky modes of photonic crystal fibers. The leaky modes of solid-core PCFs with a hexagonal lattice of circular air-holes are reported and discussed. The simulation results indicate how the confinement loss by the imaginary part of the effective index changes with air-hole size, the number of rings of air-holes, and wavelength. Confinement loss reductions can be realized by increasing the air-hole size and the number of air-holes. The results show that the confinement loss rises with wavelength, implying that the light leaks more easily for longer wavelengths; meanwhile, the losses are decreased significantly as the air-hole size d/Λ is increased.

  4. Statistical noise with the weighted backprojection method for single photon emission computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murayama, Hideo; Tanaka, Eiichi; Toyama, Hinako.

    1985-01-01

    The weighted backprojection (WBP) method and the radial post-correction (RPC) method were compared with other several attenuation correction methods for single photon emission computed tomography by computer simulation. These methods are the pre-correction method with arithmetic means of opposing projections, the post-correction method with a correction matrix, and the inverse attenuated Randon transform method. Statistical mean square noise in a reconstructed image was formulated, and was displayed two-dimensionally for typical simulated phantoms. The noise image for the WBP method was dependent on several parameters, namely, size of an attenuating object, distribution of activity, the attenuation coefficient, and choise of the reconstruction index, k and position of the reconstruction origin. The noise image for the WBP method with k=0 was almost the same for the RPC method. It has been shown that position of the reconstruction origin has to be chosen appropriately in order to improve the noise properties of the reconstructed image for the WBP method as well as the RPC method. Comparision of the different attenuation correction methods accomplished by using both the reconstructed images and the statistical noise images with the same mathematical phantom and convolving function concluded that the WBP method and the RPC method were more amenable to any radioisotope distributions than the other methods, and had the advantage of flexibility to improve image noise of any local positions. (author)

  5. Comparison of direct boiling method with commercial kits for extracting fecal microbiome DNA by Illumina sequencing of 16S rRNA tags.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Xin; Yu, Ke-Qiang; Deng, Guan-Hua; Jiang, Yun-Xia; Wang, Yu; Zhang, Guo-Xia; Zhou, Hong-Wei

    2013-12-01

    Low cost and high throughput capacity are major advantages of using next generation sequencing (NGS) techniques to determine metagenomic 16S rRNA tag sequences. These methods have significantly changed our view of microorganisms in the fields of human health and environmental science. However, DNA extraction using commercial kits has shortcomings of high cost and time constraint. In the present study, we evaluated the determination of fecal microbiomes using a direct boiling method compared with 5 different commercial extraction methods, e.g., Qiagen and MO BIO kits. Principal coordinate analysis (PCoA) using UniFrac distances and clustering showed that direct boiling of a wide range of feces concentrations gave a similar pattern of bacterial communities as those obtained from most of the commercial kits, with the exception of the MO BIO method. Fecal concentration by boiling method affected the estimation of α-diversity indices, otherwise results were generally comparable between boiling and commercial methods. The operational taxonomic units (OTUs) determined through direct boiling showed highly consistent frequencies with those determined through most of the commercial methods. Even those for the MO BIO kit were also obtained by the direct boiling method with high confidence. The present study suggested that direct boiling could be used to determine the fecal microbiome and using this method would significantly reduce the cost and improve the efficiency of the sample preparation for studying gut microbiome diversity. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Comparison of preconditioned generalized conjugate gradient methods to two-dimensional neutron and photon transport equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, G.S.; Yang, D.Y.

    1998-01-01

    We apply and compare the preconditioned generalized conjugate gradient methods to solve the linear system equation that arises in the two-dimensional neutron and photon transport equation in this paper. Several subroutines are developed on the basis of preconditioned generalized conjugate gradient methods for time-independent, two-dimensional neutron and photon transport equation in the transport theory. These generalized conjugate gradient methods are used: TFQMR (transpose free quasi-minimal residual algorithm) CGS (conjugate gradient square algorithm), Bi-CGSTAB (bi-conjugate gradient stabilized algorithm) and QMRCGSTAB (quasi-minimal residual variant of bi-conjugate gradient stabilized algorithm). These subroutines are connected to computer program DORT. Several problems are tested on a personal computer with Intel Pentium CPU. The reasons to choose the generalized conjugate gradient methods are that the methods have better residual (equivalent to error) control procedures in the computation and have better convergent rate. The pointwise incomplete LU factorization ILU, modified pointwise incomplete LU factorization MILU, block incomplete factorization BILU and modified blockwise incomplete LU factorization MBILU are the preconditioning techniques used in the several testing problems. In Bi-CGSTAB, CGS, TFQMR and QMRCGSTAB method, we find that either CGS or Bi-CGSTAB method combined with preconditioner MBILU is the most efficient algorithm in these methods in the several testing problems. The numerical solution of flux by preconditioned CGS and Bi-CGSTAB methods has the same result as those from Cray computer, obtained by either the point successive relaxation method or the line successive relaxation method combined with Gaussian elimination

  7. Tags on healthcare information websites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lykke, Marianne; Ådland, Marit Kristine

    2018-01-01

    This paper explores tags and tagging behaviour on health information websites using an empirical, user-oriented, exploratory case study. Taggers and editors were interviewed about tags and tagging, while taggers solved tasks that included applying tags to a website. This qualitative data...... articles, request information, and value article content. Some of these show that tags are not only not only topical descriptions, but communicative by intent. This result can potentially inform the design of tagging features....

  8. Multiply excited molecules produced by photon and electron interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Odagiri, T.; Kouchi, N.

    2006-01-01

    The photon and electron interactions with molecules resulting in the formation of multiply excited molecules and the subsequent decay are subjects of great interest because the independent electron model and Born-Oppenheimer approximation are much less reliable for the multiply excited states of molecules than for the ground and lower excited electronic states. We have three methods to observe and investigate multiply excited molecules: 1) Measurements of the cross sections for the emission of fluorescence emitted by neutral fragments in the photoexcitation of molecules as a function of incident photon energy [1-3], 2) Measurements of the electron energy-loss spectra tagged with the fluorescence photons emitted by neutral fragments [4], 3) Measurements of the cross sections for generating a pair of photons in absorption of a single photon by a molecule as a function of incident photon energy [5-7]. Multiply excited states degenerate with ionization continua, which make a large contribution in the cross section curve involving ionization processes. The key point of our methods is hence that we measure cross sections free from ionization. The feature of multiply excited states is noticeable in such a cross section curve. Recently we have measured: i) the cross sections for the emission of the Lyman- fluorescence in the photoexcitation of CH 4 as a function of incident photon energy in the range 18-51 eV, ii) the electron energy-loss spectrum of CH 4 tagged with the Lyman-photons at 80 eV incident electron energy and 10 electron scattering angle in the range of the energy loss 20-45 eV, in order to understand the formation and decay of the doubly excited methane in photon and electron interactions. [8] The results are summarized in this paper and the simultaneous excitation of two electrons by electron interaction is compared with that by photon interaction in terms of the oscillator strength. (authors)

  9. Detector Motion Method to Increase Spatial Resolution in Photon-Counting Detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Daehee; Park, Kyeongjin; Lim, Kyung Taek; Cho, Gyuseong [Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Daejon (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-03-15

    Medical imaging requires high spatial resolution of an image to identify fine lesions. Photoncounting detectors in medical imaging have recently been rapidly replacing energy-integrating detectors due to the former's high spatial resolution, high efficiency and low noise. Spatial resolution in a photon counting image is determined by the pixel size. Therefore, the smaller the pixel size, the higher the spatial resolution that can be obtained in an image. However, detector redesigning is required to reduce pixel size, and an expensive fine process is required to integrate a signal processing unit with reduced pixel size. Furthermore, as the pixel size decreases, charge sharing severely deteriorates spatial resolution. To increase spatial resolution, we propose a detector motion method using a large pixel detector that is less affected by charge sharing. To verify the proposed method, we utilized a UNO-XRI photon-counting detector (1-mm CdTe, Timepix chip) at the maximum X-ray tube voltage of 80 kVp. A similar spatial resolution of a 55-μm-pixel image was achieved by application of the proposed method to a 110-μm-pixel detector with a higher signal-to-noise ratio. The proposed method could be a way to increase spatial resolution without a pixel redesign when pixels severely suffer from charge sharing as pixel size is reduced.

  10. Comparing the hierarchy of author given tags and repository given tags in a large document archive

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tibély, Gergely; Pollner, Péter; Palla, Gergely

    2016-10-01

    Folksonomies - large databases arising from collaborative tagging of items by independent users - are becoming an increasingly important way of categorizing information. In these systems users can tag items with free words, resulting in a tripartite item-tag-user network. Although there are no prescribed relations between tags, the way users think about the different categories presumably has some built in hierarchy, in which more special concepts are descendants of some more general categories. Several applications would benefit from the knowledge of this hierarchy. Here we apply a recent method to check the differences and similarities of hierarchies resulting from tags given by independent individuals and from tags given by a centrally managed repository system. The results from our method showed substantial differences between the lower part of the hierarchies, and in contrast, a relatively high similarity at the top of the hierarchies.

  11. Sentinel lymph node detection by an optical method using scattered photons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tellier, Franklin; Ravelo, Rasata; Simon, Hervé; Chabrier, Renée; Steibel, Jérôme; Poulet, Patrick

    2010-01-01

    We present a new near infrared optical probe for the sentinel lymph node detection, based on the recording of scattered photons. A two wavelengths setup was developed to improve the detection threshold of an injected dye: the Patent Blue V dye. The method used consists in modulating each laser diode at a given frequency. A Fast Fourier Transform of the recorded signal separates both components. The signal amplitudes are used to compute relative Patent Blue V concentration. Results on the probe using phantoms model and small animal experimentation exhibit a sensitivity threshold of 3.2 µmol/L, which is thirty fold better than the eye visible threshold. PMID:21258517

  12. The photon structure function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berger, C.

    1984-01-01

    In principle we have to distinguish between three cases: In no-tag experiments, none of the outgoing leptons e + e - is detected. The photon flux is completely dominated by transversely polarized photons, which are practically on-mass-shell. In single-tag experiments, either the outgoing e - or e + is detected in a forward spectrometer. Sometimes the tagging information is only used for separating a multihadronic twophoton final state from e + e - annihilation states. On the other hand, the information from the forward detectors can be used to investigate the Q 2 behaviour of the cross-section. A combination of tagging on one side with antitagging on the other allows an easy interpretation of the results in terms of electron scattering off a real photon target. In double-tag experiments, both outgoing leptons are measured. In principle, the full kinematical structure of the process can be studied, but we are still a long way from starting to tackle this difficult task

  13. DESIGN, SYNTHESIS, AND APPLICATION OF THE TRIMETHOPRIM-BASED CHEMICAL TAG FOR LIVE CELL IMAGING

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jing, Chaoran; Cornish, Virginia W.

    2013-01-01

    Over the past decade chemical tags have been developed to complement the use of fluorescent proteins in live cell imaging. Chemical tags retain the specificity of protein labeling achieved with fluorescent proteins through genetic encoding, but provide smaller, more robust tags and modular use of organic fluorophores with high photon-output and tailored functionalities. The trimethoprim-based chemical tag (TMP-tag) was initially developed based on the high affinity interaction between E.coli dihydrofolatereductase and the antibiotic trimethoprim and subsequently rendered covalent and fluorogenic via proximity-induced protein labeling reactions. To date, the TMP-tag is one of the few chemical tags that enable intracellular protein labeling and high-resolution live cell imaging. Here we describe the general design, chemical synthesis, and application of TMP-tag for live cell imaging. Alternative protocols for synthesizing and using the covalent and the fluorogenic TMP-tags are also included. PMID:23839994

  14. Nuclear-optical methods for production of polarized photons with energies of a few hundred GeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ispiryan, K.A.; Ispiryan, M.K.

    1985-01-01

    The absorption coefficients of linearly polarized photons passing through a crystal in parallel to its crystallographic planes are calculated. The methods of determination of the obtainable degree of polarization as well as of the intensity losses for the cases when non-polarized photon beams pass through various crystals in parallel to the planes (110) are described. The energy dependence of the thickness of the quarter-wave plate crystals transforming the linear polarization of the beam into circular one is obtained

  15. PIT Tagging Anurans

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCreary, Brome

    2008-01-01

    The following video demonstrates a procedure to insert a passive integrated transponder (PIT) tag under the skin of an anuran (frog or toad) for research and monitoring purposes. Typically, a 12.5 mm tag (0.5 in.) is used to uniquely identify individual anurans as smal as 40 mm (1.6 in.) in length from snout to vent. Smaller tags are also available and allow smaller anurans to be tagged. The procedure does not differ for other sizes of tages or other sizes of anurans. Anyone using this procedure should ensure that the tag is small enough to fit easily behind the sacral hump of the anuran, as shown in this video.

  16. Sentiment topic mining based on comment tags

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Daohai; Liu, Xue; Li, Juan; Fan, Mingyue

    2018-03-01

    With the development of e-commerce, various comments based on tags are generated, how to extract valuable information from these comment tags has become an important content of business management decisions. This study takes HUAWEI mobile phone tags as an example using the sentiment analysis and topic LDA mining method. The first step is data preprocessing and classification of comment tag topic mining. And then make the sentiment classification for comment tags. Finally, mine the comments again and analyze the emotional theme distribution under different sentiment classification. The results show that HUAWEI mobile phone has a good user experience in terms of fluency, cost performance, appearance, etc. Meanwhile, it should pay more attention to independent research and development, product design and development. In addition, battery and speed performance should be enhanced.

  17. Accuracy limits of the equivalent field method for irregular photon fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanz, Dario Esteban

    2002-01-01

    A mathematical approach is developed to evaluate the accuracy of the equivalent field method using basic clinical photon beam data. This paper presents an analytical calculation of dose errors arising when field equivalencies, calculated at a certain reference depth, are translated to other depths. The phantom scatter summation is expressed as a Riemann-Stieltjes integral and two categories of irregular fields are introduced: uniform and multiform. It is shown that multiform fields produce errors whose magnitudes are nearly twice those corresponding to uniform fields in extreme situations. For uniform field shapes, the maximum, local, relative dose errors, when the equivalencies are calculated at 10 cm depth on the central axis and translated to a depth of 30 cm, are 3.8% and 8.8% for 6 MV and cobalt-60 photon beams, respectively. In terms of maximum dose those errors are within 1-2%. This supports the conclusion that the equivalencies between rectangular fields, which are examples of uniform fields, are applicable to dose ratio functions irrespective of beam energy. However, the magnitude of such errors could be of importance when assessing the exit dose for in vivo monitoring. This work provides a better understanding of the influence of the irregular field shapes on the accuracy of the equivalent field method. (author)

  18. Analysis of reproducibility of the single photon tomography reconstruction by the method of singular value decomposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Devaux, J.Y.; Mazelier, L.; Lefkopoulos, D.

    1997-01-01

    We have earlier shown that the method of singular value decomposition (SVD) allows the image reconstruction in single-photon-tomography with precision higher than the classical method of filtered back-projections. Actually, the establishing of an elementary response matrix which incorporates both the photon attenuation phenomenon, the scattering, the translation non-invariance principle and the detector response, allows to take into account the totality of physical parameters of acquisition. By an non-consecutive optimized truncation of the singular values we have obtained a significant improvement in the efficiency of the regularization of bad conditioning of this problem. The present study aims at verifying the stability of this truncation under modifications of acquisition conditions. Two series of parameters were tested, first, those modifying the geometry of acquisition: the influence of rotation center, the asymmetric disposition of the elementary-volume sources against the detector and the precision of rotation angle, and secondly, those affecting the correspondence between the matrix and the space to be reconstructed: the effect of partial volume and a noise propagation in the experimental model. For the parameters which introduce a spatial distortion, the alteration of reconstruction has been, as expected, comparable to that observed with the classical reconstruction and proportional with the amplitude of shift from the normal one. In exchange, for the effect of partial volume and of noise, the study of truncation signature revealed a variation in the optimal choice of the conserved singular values but with no effect on the global precision of reconstruction

  19. Method to optimize optical switch topology for photonic network-on-chip

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Ting; Jia, Hao

    2018-04-01

    In this paper, we propose a method to optimize the optical switch by substituting optical waveguide crossings for optical switching units and an optimizing algorithm to complete the optimization automatically. The functionality of the optical switch remains constant under optimization. With this method, we simplify the topology of optical switch, which means the insertion loss and power consumption of the whole optical switch can be effectively minimized. Simulation result shows that the number of switching units of the optical switch based on Spanke-Benes can be reduced by 16.7%, 20%, 20%, 19% and 17.9% for the scale from 4 × 4 to 8 × 8 respectively. As a proof of concept, the experimental demonstration of an optimized six-port optical switch based on Spanke-Benes structure by means of silicon photonics chip is reported.

  20. Sub-bandgap photonic base current method for characterization of interface states at heterointerfaces in heterojunction bipolar transistors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shin, H. T.; Kim, K. H.; Kim, K. S.

    2004-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a novel photonic base current analysis method to characterize the interface states in heterojunction bipolar transistors (HBTs) by using the photonic I-V characteristics under sub-bandgap photonic excitation. For the photonic current-voltage characterization of HBTs, an optical source with a photon energy less than the bandgap energy of Al 0.3 Ga 0.7 As and GaAs (E ph = 0.95 eV g,AlGaAs = 1.79 eV, E g,GaAs = 1.45 eV) is employed for the characterization of the interface states distributed in the photo-responsive energy band (E C - 0.95 ≤ E it ≤ E C ) in emitter-base heterojunction at HBTs. The proposed novel method, which is applied to bipolar junction transistors for the first time, is simple, and an accurate analysis of interface traps in HBTs is possible. By using the photonic base-current and the dark-base-current, we qualitatively analyze the interface trap at the Al 0.3 Ga 0.7 As/GaAs heterojunction interface in HBTs.

  1. APPECT: An Approximate Backbone-Based Clustering Algorithm for Tags

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zong, Yu; Xu, Guandong; Jin, Pin

    2011-01-01

    algorithm for Tags (APPECT). The main steps of APPECT are: (1) we execute the K-means algorithm on a tag similarity matrix for M times and collect a set of tag clustering results Z={C1,C2,…,Cm}; (2) we form the approximate backbone of Z by executing a greedy search; (3) we fix the approximate backbone...... as the initial tag clustering result and then assign the rest tags into the corresponding clusters based on the similarity. Experimental results on three real world datasets namely MedWorm, MovieLens and Dmoz demonstrate the effectiveness and the superiority of the proposed method against the traditional...... Agglomerative Clustering on tagging data, which possess the inherent drawbacks, such as the sensitivity of initialization. In this paper, we instead make use of the approximate backbone of tag clustering results to find out better tag clusters. In particular, we propose an APProximate backbonE-based Clustering...

  2. An analysis of MCNP cross-sections and tally methods for low-energy photon emitters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demarco, John J; Wallace, Robert E; Boedeker, Kirsten

    2002-04-21

    Monte Carlo calculations are frequently used to analyse a variety of radiological science applications using low-energy (10-1000 keV) photon sources. This study seeks to create a low-energy benchmark for the MCNP Monte Carlo code by simulating the absolute dose rate in water and the air-kerma rate for monoenergetic point sources with energies between 10 keV and 1 MeV. The analysis compares four cross-section datasets as well as the tally method for collision kerma versus absorbed dose. The total photon attenuation coefficient cross-section for low atomic number elements has changed significantly as cross-section data have changed between 1967 and 1989. Differences of up to 10% are observed in the photoelectric cross-section for water at 30 keV between the standard MCNP cross-section dataset (DLC-200) and the most recent XCOM/NIST tabulation. At 30 keV, the absolute dose rate in water at 1.0 cm from the source increases by 7.8% after replacing the DLC-200 photoelectric cross-sections for water with those from the XCOM/NIST tabulation. The differences in the absolute dose rate are analysed when calculated with either the MCNP absorbed dose tally or the collision kerma tally. Significant differences between the collision kerma tally and the absorbed dose tally can occur when using the DLC-200 attenuation coefficients in conjunction with a modern tabulation of mass energy-absorption coefficients.

  3. 50 CFR 635.33 - Archival tags.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... landing; furnish all requested information regarding the location and method of capture; and, as... recovery of the tag by a NMFS scientist, enforcement agent, or other person designated in writing by NMFS...

  4. Unexploded Ordnance identification—A gamma-ray spectral analysis method for Carbon, Nitrogen and Oxygen signals following tagged neutron interrogation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitra, S.; Dioszegi, I.

    2012-01-01

    A novel gamma-ray spectral analysis method has been demonstrated to optimally extract the signals of the signature elements of explosives, carbon (C), nitrogen (N) and oxygen (O) from 57–155 mm projectiles following tagged neutron interrogation with 14 MeV neutrons. The method was implemented on Monte Carlo simulated, synthetic spectra of Unexploded Ordnance (UXO) that contained high explosive fillers (Composition B, TNT or Explosive D) within steel casings of appropriate thicknesses. The analysis technique defined three broad regions-of-interest (ROI) between 4–7.5 MeV of a spectrum and from a system of three equations for the three unknowns namely C, N and O, the maximum counts from each of these elements were extracted. Unlike conventional spectral analysis techniques, the present method included the Compton continuum under a spectrum. For a neutron output of ∼2×10 7 ns −1 and using four 12.7 cm diameter×12.7 cm NaI(Tl) detectors, the C/N and C/O gamma-ray counts ratios of the explosive fillers were vastly different from that of an inert substance like sand. Conversion of the counts ratios to elemental ratios could further discriminate the different types of explosive fillers. The interrogation time was kept at ten minutes for each projectile.

  5. Detection of uranium with a wireless sensing method by using salophen as receptor and magnetic nanoparticles as signal-amplifying tags

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miao Yang; Lifu Liao; Guangliang Zhang; Bo He; Xilin Xiao; Yingwu Lin; Changming Nie

    2013-01-01

    A new wireless sensing method for the detection of uranium in water samples has been reported in this paper. The method is based on a sandwich-type detection strategy. Salophen, a tetradentate ligand of uranyl ion, was immobilized on the surface of the polyurethane-protected magnetoelastic sensor as receptor for the capture of uranyl ion. The phosphorylated polyvinyl alcohol coated magnetic Fe 3 O 4 nanoparticles were used as signal-amplifying tags of uranyl ion. In a procedure of determining uranium, firstly uranyl ion in sample solution was captured on the sensor surface. Then the captured uranyl bound the nanoparticle through its coordination with the phosphate group. The amount of uranium was detected through the measure of the resonance frequency shift caused by the enhanced mass loading on the sensor surface. A linear range was found to be 0.2-20.0 μg/L under optimal conditions with a detection limit of 0.11 μg/L. The method has been applied to determine uranium in environmental water samples with the relative standard deviations of 2.1-3.6 % and the recoveries of 98.0-101.5 %. The present technique is one of the most suitable techniques for assay of uranium at trace level in environmental water samples collected from different sources. (author)

  6. RFID Label Tag Design for Metallic Surface Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ki Hwan Eom

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes a metal mount RFID tag that works reliably on metallic surfaces. The method proposes the use of commercial label type RFID tags with 2.5 mm thick Styrofoam103.7 with a relative permittivity of 1.03 attached on the back of the tag. In order to verify the performance of the proposed method, we performed experiments on an electric transformer supply chain system. The experimental results showed that the proposed tags can communicate with readers from a distance of 2 m. The recognition rates are comparable to those of commercial metallic mountable tags.

  7. A high energy photon beam derived from neutral strange particle decay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reibel, K.; Ruchti, R.

    1982-01-01

    Conventional methods for generating photon beams include: tagged beams in which the photons are derived from electron bremsstrahlung in a radiator target; and broad band beams in which the photons are derived from π/sup 0/ decay - the hadronic component (n, K/sub s//sup 0/) accompanying such a beam is usually suppressed by passage of the beam through a low Z (D/sub 2/) filter. Although one can generate high energy photons by these techniques, the major drawback to these beams is that the photon energy spectrum obtained is peaked at very low E/sub γ/. (Recall that the bremsstrahlung spectrum falls as 1/k). With very high energy proton beams (20 TeV/c), one can image other alternatives for photon beam design. The authors consider one such option here

  8. Voxel-Based Spatial Filtering Method for Canopy Height Retrieval from Airborne Single-Photon Lidar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hao Tang

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Airborne single-photon lidar (SPL is a new technology that holds considerable potential for forest structure and carbon monitoring at large spatial scales because it acquires 3D measurements of vegetation faster and more efficiently than conventional lidar instruments. However, SPL instruments use green wavelength (532 nm lasers, which are sensitive to background solar noise, and therefore SPL point clouds require more elaborate noise filtering than other lidar instruments to determine canopy heights, particularly in daytime acquisitions. Histogram-based aggregation is a commonly used approach for removing noise from photon counting lidar data, but it reduces the resolution of the dataset. Here we present an alternate voxel-based spatial filtering method that filters noise points efficiently while largely preserving the spatial integrity of SPL data. We develop and test our algorithms on an experimental SPL dataset acquired over Garrett County in Maryland, USA. We then compare canopy attributes retrieved using our new algorithm with those obtained from the conventional histogram binning approach. Our results show that canopy heights derived using the new algorithm have a strong agreement with field-measured heights (r2 = 0.69, bias = 0.42 m, RMSE = 4.85 m and discrete return lidar heights (r2 = 0.94, bias = 1.07 m, RMSE = 2.42 m. Results are consistently better than height accuracies from the histogram method (field data: r2 = 0.59, bias = 0.00 m, RMSE = 6.25 m; DRL: r2 = 0.78, bias = −0.06 m and RMSE = 4.88 m. Furthermore, we find that the spatial-filtering method retains fine-scale canopy structure detail and has lower errors over steep slopes. We therefore believe that automated spatial filtering algorithms such as the one presented here can support large-scale, canopy structure mapping from airborne SPL data.

  9. A midway forward-adjoint coupling method for neutron and photon Monte Carlo transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serov, I.V.; John, T.M.; Hoogenboom, J.E.

    1999-01-01

    The midway Monte Carlo method for calculating detector responses combines a forward and an adjoint Monte Carlo calculation. In both calculations, particle scores are registered at a surface to be chosen by the user somewhere between the source and detector domains. The theory of the midway response determination is developed within the framework of transport theory for external sources and for criticality theory. The theory is also developed for photons, which are generated at inelastic scattering or capture of neutrons. In either the forward or the adjoint calculation a so-called black absorber technique can be applied; i.e., particles need not be followed after passing the midway surface. The midway Monte Carlo method is implemented in the general-purpose MCNP Monte Carlo code. The midway Monte Carlo method is demonstrated to be very efficient in problems with deep penetration, small source and detector domains, and complicated streaming paths. All the problems considered pose difficult variance reduction challenges. Calculations were performed using existing variance reduction methods of normal MCNP runs and using the midway method. The performed comparative analyses show that the midway method appears to be much more efficient than the standard techniques in an overwhelming majority of cases and can be recommended for use in many difficult variance reduction problems of neutral particle transport

  10. Automated vehicle identification tags in San Antonio : lessons learned from the metropolitan model deployment initiative : unique method for collecting arterial travel speed information

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-10-01

    This report demonstrates a unique solution to the challenge of providing accurate, timely estimates of arterial travel times to the motoring public. In particular, it discusses the lessons learned in deploying the Vehicle Tag Project in San Antonio, ...

  11. Tagged Vector Contour (TVC)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — The Kansas Tagged Vector Contour (TVC) dataset consists of digitized contours from the 7.5 minute topographic quadrangle maps. Coverage for the state is incomplete....

  12. Field analysis of TE and TM modes in photonic crystal Bragg fibers by transmission matrix method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Hosseini Farzad

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available In this article, we considered the field analysis in photonic crystal Bragg fibers. We apply the method of transmission matrix to calculater the dispersion curves, the longitudinal wave number over wave number versus incident wavelength, and the field distributions of TE and TM modes in the Bragg fiber. Our analysis shows that the field of guided modes is confined in the core and can exist only in particular wavelength bands corresponding to the band-gap of the periodic structure of the clad. From another point of view, light confinement is due to Bragg reflection from high-and low-refractive index layers of the clad. Also, the diagram of average angular frequency with respect to average longitudinal wave number is plotted so that the band gap regions of the clad are clearly observed.

  13. Cleaning method of aluminium surface by argon discharge for photon factory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mizuno, Hajime; Yamaguchi, Hiroshi; Watabe, Hiromi; Horikoshi, Gen-ichi; Mathewson, A.G.

    1978-01-01

    In the Photon Factory program of High Energy Research Laboratory, in which the electron storage ring as a photon source stores the electron beam of 2.5 GeV and 500 mA, beam intensity the probability of gas discharge from the inner surface of doughnut wall due to electron bombardment (for 100 eV electorns) must be limited to 1 x 10 -6 or less, according to the estimation by A.G. Mathewson and others. The pressure inside the ring can be maintained at 1 x 10 -9 Torr only with the above probability value. The standard surface treatment of degreasing and evacuation for 24 hours with heating at 150 deg. C can be of no practical use. Since the ion bombardment of surfaces by argon glow discharge is effective for decreasing the probability, the reduction of the probability by argon discharge cleaning was measured with the surface of aluminium, which is planned to be used as the doughnut material. Two methods were employed for the measurement; the one is analysis of gases being discharged, by introducting them to the analyzing chamber during argon discharge and the other is the measurement of the probability when bombardment with electrons of 100 eV is applied, after stopping argon introduction and evacuating after argon discharge had been performed for a definite period. As a result, the probability of approximately 2 x 10 -5 at the beginning of electron beam incidence was obtained by adding argon discharge cleaning to the standard method. This is estimated to correspondent to approximately 25 mA of beam intensity, which is equivalent to 1/20 of the planned value. (Wakatsuki, Y.)

  14. Occurrence of two-photon absorption saturation in Ag nanocolloids, prepared by chemical reduction method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rahulan, K. Mani, E-mail: krahul.au@gmail.com [Department of Physics, Anna University, Chennai (India); Ganesan, S. [Department of Physics, Anna University, Chennai (India); Aruna, P., E-mail: aruna@annauniv.edu [Department of Physics, Anna University, Chennai (India)

    2012-09-01

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Ag nanocolloids were synthesized via chemical reduction method. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The molecules of PVP play an important role in growth and agglomeration of silver nanocolloids. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Saturation behaviour followed by two photon absorption was responsible for good optical limiting characteristics in these nanocolloids. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The nonlinear optical parameters calculated from the data showed that these materials could be used as efficient optical limiters. - Abstract: Silver nanocolloids stabilized with polyvinyl pyrrolidone (PVP) have been prepared from (AgNO{sub 3}) by a chemical reduction method, involving the intermediate preparation of (Ag{sub 2}O) colloidal dispersions in the presence of sodium dodecycle sulfate as a surfactant and formaldehyde as reducing agent. The molecules of PVP play an important role in growth and agglomeration of silver nanocolloids. The formation of Ag nanocolloids was studied from the UV-vis absorption characteristics. An energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) spectrum and X-ray diffraction peak of the nanoparticles showed the highly crystalline nature of silver structure. The particle size was found to be 40 nm as analyzed from Field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM). The nonlinear optical and optical limiting properties of these nanoparticle dispersions were studied by using the Z-scan technique at 532 nm. Experimental results show that the Ag nanocolloids possess strong optical limiting effect, originated from absorption saturation followed by two-photon mechanism. The data show that Ag nanocolloids have great potential for nonlinear optical devices.

  15. Bowel sparing in pediatric cranio-spinal radiotherapy: a comparison of combined electron and photon and helical TomoTherapy techniques to a standard photon method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harron, Elizabeth; Lewis, Joanne

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the dose to organs at risk (OARs) from different craniospinal radiotherapy treatment approaches available at the Northern Centre for Cancer Care (NCCC), with a particular emphasis on sparing the bowel. Method: Treatment plans were produced for a pediatric medulloblastoma patient with inflammatory bowel disease using 3D conformal 6-MV photons (3DCP), combined 3D 6-MV photons and 18-MeV electrons (3DPE), and helical photon TomoTherapy (HT). The 3DPE plan was a modification of the standard 3DCP technique, using electrons to treat the spine inferior to the level of the diaphragm. The plans were compared in terms of the dose-volume data to OARs and the nontumor integral dose. Results: The 3DPE plan was found to give the lowest dose to the bowel and the lowest nontumor integral dose of the 3 techniques. However, the coverage of the spine planning target volume (PTV) was least homogeneous using this technique, with only 74.6% of the PTV covered by 95% of the prescribed dose. HT was able to achieve the best coverage of the PTVs (99.0% of the whole-brain PTV and 93.1% of the spine PTV received 95% of the prescribed dose), but delivered a significantly higher integral dose. HT was able to spare the heart, thyroid, and eyes better than the linac-based techniques, but other OARs received a higher dose. Conclusions: Use of electrons was the best method for reducing the dose to the bowel and the integral dose, at the expense of compromised spine PTV coverage. For some patients, HT may be a viable method of improving dose homogeneity and reducing selected OAR doses.

  16. DICOM involving XML path-tag

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Qiang; Yao, Zhihong; Liu, Lei

    2011-03-01

    Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine (DICOM) is a standard for handling, storing, printing, and transmitting information in medical imaging. XML (Extensible Markup Language) is a set of rules for encoding documents in machine-readable form which has become more and more popular. The combination of these two is very necessary and promising. Using XML tags instead of numeric labels in DICOM files will effectively increase the readability and enhance the clear hierarchical structure of DICOM files. However, due to the fact that the XML tags rely heavily on the orders of the tags, the strong data dependency has a lot of influence on the flexibility of inserting and exchanging data. In order to improve the extensibility and sharing of DICOM files, this paper introduces XML Path-Tag to DICOM. When a DICOM file is converted to XML format, adding simple Path-Tag into the DICOM file in place of complex tags will keep the flexibility of a DICOM file while inserting data elements and give full play to the advantages of the structure and readability of an XML file. Our method can solve the weak readability problem of DICOM files and the tedious work of inserting data into an XML file. In addition, we set up a conversion engine that can transform among traditional DICOM files, XML-DCM and XML-DCM files involving XML Path-Tag efficiently.

  17. Soil-N tagging - a method for measurement of biological nitrogen fixation in cereal-legume intercropping system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patra, D.D.; Subbiah, B.V.; Sachdev, M.S.

    1985-01-01

    The quantitative estimates of atmospheric dinitrogen fixed by the legume crop and transferred to the associated cereal in cereal-legume intercropping system of maize-cowpea and wheat-gram using soil and fertilizer nitrogen labelling with 15 N have been reported. The estimates of N-fixation have been compared with the similar data from A-value method. Under field conditions sole cropped cowpea fixed 53.7 per cent of its total N uptake while as intercrop with maize fixed 43.5 per cent. Maize crop got 27.6 per cent of its total N uptake by transference of the nitrogen fixed by the intercropped cowpea. In the wheat-gram intercropping system the corresponding values under greenhouse conditions were 35.0, 44.8 and 20.2 per cent, respectively. (author)

  18. An in vitro tag-and-modify protein sample generation method for single-molecule fluorescence resonance energy transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamadani, Kambiz M; Howe, Jesse; Jensen, Madeleine K; Wu, Peng; Cate, Jamie H D; Marqusee, Susan

    2017-09-22

    Biomolecular systems exhibit many dynamic and biologically relevant properties, such as conformational fluctuations, multistep catalysis, transient interactions, folding, and allosteric structural transitions. These properties are challenging to detect and engineer using standard ensemble-based techniques. To address this drawback, single-molecule methods offer a way to access conformational distributions, transient states, and asynchronous dynamics inaccessible to these standard techniques. Fluorescence-based single-molecule approaches are parallelizable and compatible with multiplexed detection; to date, however, they have remained limited to serial screens of small protein libraries. This stems from the current absence of methods for generating either individual dual-labeled protein samples at high throughputs or protein libraries compatible with multiplexed screening platforms. Here, we demonstrate that by combining purified and reconstituted in vitro translation, quantitative unnatural amino acid incorporation via AUG codon reassignment, and copper-catalyzed azide-alkyne cycloaddition, we can overcome these challenges for target proteins that are, or can be, methionine-depleted. We present an in vitro parallelizable approach that does not require laborious target-specific purification to generate dual-labeled proteins and ribosome-nascent chain libraries suitable for single-molecule FRET-based conformational phenotyping. We demonstrate the power of this approach by tracking the effects of mutations, C-terminal extensions, and ribosomal tethering on the structure and stability of three protein model systems: barnase, spectrin, and T4 lysozyme. Importantly, dual-labeled ribosome-nascent chain libraries enable single-molecule co-localization of genotypes with phenotypes, are well suited for multiplexed single-molecule screening of protein libraries, and should enable the in vitro directed evolution of proteins with designer single-molecule conformational

  19. Beauty-jet tagging using the track counting method in pp collisions with ALICE at the LHC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feldkamp, Linus [Westfaelische Wilhelms-Universitaet Muenster (Germany); Collaboration: ALICE-Collaboration

    2016-07-01

    Charm and beauty quarks, produced in the early stage of heavy-ion collisions, are ideal probes to study the characteristics of the hot and dense deconfined medium (Quark-Gluon Plasma) formed in these collisions. The radiative energy loss of high energy partons interacting with the medium is expected to be larger for gluons than for quarks, and to depend on the quark mass, with beauty quarks losing less energy than charm quarks, light quarks and gluons. Therefore, a comparison of the modification in the momentum distribution or possibly in the jet shape of beauty-jets with that of light flavour or c-jets in Pb-Pb collisions relative to pp collisions allows to investigate the mass dependence of the energy loss. It also allows to study the redistribution of the lost energy and possible modifications to b-quark fragmentation in the medium. The track counting method exploits the large rφ-impact parameters, d{sub 0}, of B-meson decay products to identify beauty-jets. The signed rφ-impact parameter, d{sub 0} = sign(vector d{sub 0} . vector p{sub jet}) d{sub 0}, is calculated for each track in the jet cone, where vector d{sub 0} is pointing away from the primary vertex. The distribution of the n-th largest d{sub 0} in a jet is sensitive to the flavor of the hadronizing parton and allows to select jets coming form beauty on a statistical basis. In this contribution, we give an overview of the beauty jet measurement using the track counting method with ALICE in pp collisions at √(s) = 7 TeV that will serve as baseline reference for future energy loss studies.

  20. Overview of experimental progress on understanding photon strength functions with an emphasis of the Oslo method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krticka, Milan

    2015-10-01

    The so-called Photon Strength Functions (PSFs) for different multipolarities are, together with the Nuclear Level Density (NLD) the key entities describing the statistical γ-decay of nucleus. It is well known that PSFs at energies above the threshold for particle emission are well described by the Lorentzian shape of the Giant Electric Dipole Resonance (GEDR). On the other hand, shapes of RSFs at the low-energy tail of GEDR are known rather poorly. Information on the PSFs at the GEDR tail can be obtained from several different experimental techniques. They will be summarized and the most important ones briefly introduced in this contribution. Special emphasis will be put on the so-called Oslo method which allows simultaneous extraction of the NLD and the PSFs from particle- γ coincidence measurements. This method has been used for determining the NLD and the PSFs in many nuclei in A ~ 45- 240 range during past years. Examples of the most interesting results obtained with this method will be shown. The results will be compared to information on the PSFs available from other experimental techniques. The strengths and the weaknesses of the method will be thoroughly discussed.

  1. Four-layer DOI PET detectors using a multi-pixel photon counter array and the light sharing method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishikido, Fumihiko; Inadama, Naoko; Yoshida, Eiji; Murayama, Hideo; Yamaya, Taiga

    2013-01-01

    Silicon photomultipliers (SiPMs) provide many advantages for PET detectors, such as their high internal gain, high photon detection efficiency and insensitivity to magnetic fields. The number of detectable scintillation photons of SiPMs, however, is limited by the number of microcells. Therefore, pulse height of PET detectors using SiPMs is saturated when large numbers of scintillation photons enter the SiPM pixels. On the other hand, we previously presented a depth-of-interaction (DOI) encoding method that is based on the light sharing method. Since our encoding method detects scintillation photons with multiple readout pixels, the saturation effect can be suppressed. We constructed two prototype four-layer DOI detectors using a SiPM array and evaluated their performances. The two prototype detectors consisted of four layers of a 6×6 array of Lu 2(1−x) Y 2x SiO 5 (LYSO) crystals and a SiPM (multi-pixel photon detector, MPPC, Hamamatsu Photonics K.K.) array of 4×4 pixels. The size of each LYSO crystal element was 1.46 mm×1.46 mm×4.5 mm and all surfaces of the crystal elements were chemically etched. We used two types of MPPCs. The first one had 3600 microcells and high photon detection efficiency (PDE). The other one had 14,400 microcells and lower PDE. In the evaluation experiment, all the crystals of the detector using the MPPC which had the high PDE were clearly identified. The respective energy and timing resolutions of lower than 15% and 1.0 ns were achieved for each crystal element. No saturation of output signals was observed in the 511 keV energy region due to suppression of the saturation effect by detecting scintillation photons with several MPPC pixels by the light sharing method. -- Highlights: •We constructed and evaluated four-layer DOI detectors by the light sharing method using a MPPC array. •The detectors using two types of the MPPC array were compared. •The energy and timing resolutions of lower than 15% and 1.0 ns were achieved for

  2. Four-layer DOI PET detectors using a multi-pixel photon counter array and the light sharing method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nishikido, Fumihiko, E-mail: funis@nirs.go.jp; Inadama, Naoko; Yoshida, Eiji; Murayama, Hideo; Yamaya, Taiga

    2013-11-21

    Silicon photomultipliers (SiPMs) provide many advantages for PET detectors, such as their high internal gain, high photon detection efficiency and insensitivity to magnetic fields. The number of detectable scintillation photons of SiPMs, however, is limited by the number of microcells. Therefore, pulse height of PET detectors using SiPMs is saturated when large numbers of scintillation photons enter the SiPM pixels. On the other hand, we previously presented a depth-of-interaction (DOI) encoding method that is based on the light sharing method. Since our encoding method detects scintillation photons with multiple readout pixels, the saturation effect can be suppressed. We constructed two prototype four-layer DOI detectors using a SiPM array and evaluated their performances. The two prototype detectors consisted of four layers of a 6×6 array of Lu{sub 2(1−x)}Y{sub 2x}SiO{sub 5} (LYSO) crystals and a SiPM (multi-pixel photon detector, MPPC, Hamamatsu Photonics K.K.) array of 4×4 pixels. The size of each LYSO crystal element was 1.46 mm×1.46 mm×4.5 mm and all surfaces of the crystal elements were chemically etched. We used two types of MPPCs. The first one had 3600 microcells and high photon detection efficiency (PDE). The other one had 14,400 microcells and lower PDE. In the evaluation experiment, all the crystals of the detector using the MPPC which had the high PDE were clearly identified. The respective energy and timing resolutions of lower than 15% and 1.0 ns were achieved for each crystal element. No saturation of output signals was observed in the 511 keV energy region due to suppression of the saturation effect by detecting scintillation photons with several MPPC pixels by the light sharing method. -- Highlights: •We constructed and evaluated four-layer DOI detectors by the light sharing method using a MPPC array. •The detectors using two types of the MPPC array were compared. •The energy and timing resolutions of lower than 15% and 1.0 ns were

  3. Dark-lumen MR colonography with fecal tagging: a comparison of water enema and air methods of colonic distension for detecting colonic neoplasms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez Gomez, Sonia; Pages Llinas, Mario; Juan Garcia, Carmen de; Rimola Gibert, Jordi; Ayuso Colella, Juan R.; Ayuso Colella, Carmen; Castells Garangou, Antoni; Bordas Alsina, Josep M.

    2008-01-01

    The purpose was to evaluate MR colonography (MRC) with barium fecal tagging in detecting colorectal pathology and to determine how air-based and water-based colonic distension influences MRC. We studied 83 patients with high risk of colonic neoplasms. All received oral barium sulfate for colonic preparation before unenhanced and enhanced T1-weighted gradient-echo MRC using either water (n=54) or air (n=29) for colonic distension. Fecal tagging, distension, and artifacts were recorded. All patients underwent conventional colonoscopy within 2 weeks of MRC; the techniques were compared for detection of malignant neoplasms and polyps ≥1 cm, 6-9 mm, and ≤5 mm. Fecal tagging was ''good'' in 76% of the colonic segments in water-distended patients and 46% of air-distended patients. The degree of distension was ''good'' in 90.7% of water-distended patients and 44% of air-distended patients. Severe artifacts were present in 15% air-distended patients and 0.3% of water-distended patients. Both water-distended and air-distended MRC detected all malignant neoplasms and polyps ≥1 cm, but more air-distended MRC were excluded for poor quality. MRC with fecal tagging is useful for detecting lesions ≥1 cm. Air distension was inferior to water distension in most aspects. Water-based colonic distension should be used for barium-tagging MRC. (orig.)

  4. Photonic time crystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Lunwu; Xu, Jin; Wang, Chengen; Zhang, Jianhua; Zhao, Yuting; Zeng, Jing; Song, Runxia

    2017-12-07

    When space (time) translation symmetry is spontaneously broken, the space crystal (time crystal) forms; when permittivity and permeability periodically vary with space (time), the photonic crystal (photonic time crystal) forms. We proposed the concept of photonic time crystal and rewritten the Maxwell's equations. Utilizing Finite Difference Time Domain (FDTD) method, we simulated electromagnetic wave propagation in photonic time crystal and photonic space-time crystal, the simulation results show that more intensive scatter fields can obtained in photonic time crystal and photonic space-time crystal.

  5. Predicting floods with Flickr tags.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tkachenko, Nataliya; Jarvis, Stephen; Procter, Rob

    2017-01-01

    Increasingly, user generated content (UGC) in social media postings and their associated metadata such as time and location stamps are being used to provide useful operational information during natural hazard events such as hurricanes, storms and floods. The main advantage of these new sources of data are twofold. First, in a purely additive sense, they can provide much denser geographical coverage of the hazard as compared to traditional sensor networks. Second, they provide what physical sensors are not able to do: By documenting personal observations and experiences, they directly record the impact of a hazard on the human environment. For this reason interpretation of the content (e.g., hashtags, images, text, emojis, etc) and metadata (e.g., keywords, tags, geolocation) have been a focus of much research into social media analytics. However, as choices of semantic tags in the current methods are usually reduced to the exact name or type of the event (e.g., hashtags '#Sandy' or '#flooding'), the main limitation of such approaches remains their mere nowcasting capacity. In this study we make use of polysemous tags of images posted during several recent flood events and demonstrate how such volunteered geographic data can be used to provide early warning of an event before its outbreak.

  6. Experimental method for investigating γd→pn photodisintegration reaction on the linearly polarized photon beam of the Erevan synchrotron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agababyan, K.Sh.; Adamyan, F.V.; Ajrapetyan, A.V.

    1985-01-01

    The experimental method for measuring the asymmetry of the γd → pn photodisintegration reaction on the linearly polarized photon beam of the Erevan synchrotron is described. The results of Monte Carlo calculations, the calibration of apparatus, the procedure of measurements and experimental data processing are repored

  7. Comparison of four computational methods for computing Q factors and resonance wavelengths in photonic crystal membrane cavities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Lasson, Jakob Rosenkrantz; Frandsen, Lars Hagedorn; Burger, Sven

    2016-01-01

    We benchmark four state-of-the-art computational methods by computing quality factors and resonance wavelengths in photonic crystal membrane L5 and L9 line defect cavities.The convergence of the methods with respect to resolution, degrees of freedom and number ofmodes is investigated. Special att...... attention is paid to the influence of the size of the computational domain. Convergence is not obtained for some of the methods, indicating that some are moresuitable than others for analyzing line defect cavities....

  8. A simplified spherical harmonic method for coupled electron-photon transport calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Josef, J.A.

    1996-12-01

    In this thesis we have developed a simplified spherical harmonic method (SP N method) and associated efficient solution techniques for 2-D multigroup electron-photon transport calculations. The SP N method has never before been applied to charged-particle transport. We have performed a first time Fourier analysis of the source iteration scheme and the P 1 diffusion synthetic acceleration (DSA) scheme applied to the 2-D SP N equations. Our theoretical analyses indicate that the source iteration and P 1 DSA schemes are as effective for the 2-D SP N equations as for the 1-D S N equations. Previous analyses have indicated that the P 1 DSA scheme is unstable (with sufficiently forward-peaked scattering and sufficiently small absorption) for the 2-D S N equations, yet is very effective for the 1-D S N equations. In addition, we have applied an angular multigrid acceleration scheme, and computationally demonstrated that it performs as well for the 2-D SP N equations as for the 1-D S N equations. It has previously been shown for 1-D S N calculations that this scheme is much more effective than the DSA scheme when scattering is highly forward-peaked. We have investigated the applicability of the SP N approximation to two different physical classes of problems: satellite electronics shielding from geomagnetically trapped electrons, and electron beam problems. In the space shielding study, the SP N method produced solutions that are accurate within 10% of the benchmark Monte Carlo solutions, and often orders of magnitude faster than Monte Carlo. We have successfully modeled quasi-void problems and have obtained excellent agreement with Monte Carlo. We have observed that the SP N method appears to be too diffusive an approximation for beam problems. This result, however, is in agreement with theoretical expectations

  9. On a new method to compute photon skyshine doses around radiotherapy facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Falcao, R.; Facure, A. [Comissao Nacional de Eenrgia Nuclear, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Xavier, A. [PEN/Coppe -UFRJ, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil)

    2006-07-01

    Full text of publication follows: Nowadays, in a great number of situations constructions are raised around radiotherapy facilities. In cases where the constructions would not be in the primary x-ray beam, 'skyshine' radiation is normally accounted for. The skyshine method is commonly used to to calculate the dose contribution from scattered radiation in such circumstances, when the roof shielding is projected considering there will be no occupancy upstairs. In these cases, there will be no need to have the usual 1,5-2,0 m thick ceiling, and the construction costs can be considerably reduced. The existing expression to compute these doses do not accomplish to explain mathematically the existence of a shadow area just around the outer room walls, and its growth, as we get away from these walls. In this paper we propose a new method to compute photon skyshine doses, using geometrical considerations to find the maximum dose point. An empirical equation is derived, and its validity is tested using M.C.N.P. 5 Monte Carlo calculation to simulate radiotherapy rooms configurations. (authors)

  10. Two-Photon Polymerization Metrology: Characterization Methods of Mechanisms and Microstructures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher N. LaFratta

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The ability to create complex three-dimensional microstructures has reached an unprecedented level of sophistication in the last 15 years. For the most part, this is the result of a steady development of the additive manufacturing technique named two-photon polymerization (TPP. In a short amount of time, TPP has gone from being a microfabrication novelty employed largely by laser specialists to a useful tool in the hands of scientists and engineers working in a wide range of research fields including microfluidics. When used in combination with traditional microfabrication processes, TPP can be employed to add unique three-dimensional components to planar platforms, thus enabling the realization of lab-on-a-chip solutions otherwise impossible to create. To take full advantage of TPP, an in-depth understanding is required of the materials photochemistry and the fabricated microstructures’ mechanical and chemical properties. Thus, we review methods developed so far to investigate the underling mechanism involved during TPP and analytical methods employed to characterize TPP microstructures. Furthermore, we will discuss potential opportunities for using optofluidics and lab-on-a-chip systems for TPP metrology.

  11. Single photon emission computed tomography using a regularizing iterative method for attenuation correction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soussaline, Francoise; Cao, A.; Lecoq, G.

    1981-06-01

    An analytically exact solution to the attenuated tomographic operator is proposed. Such a technique called Regularizing Iterative Method (RIM) belongs to the iterative class of procedures where a priori knowledge can be introduced on the evaluation of the size and shape of the activity domain to be reconstructed, and on the exact attenuation distribution. The relaxation factor used is so named because it leads to fast convergence and provides noise filtering for a small number of iteractions. The effectiveness of such a method was tested in the Single Photon Emission Computed Tomography (SPECT) reconstruction problem, with the goal of precise correction for attenuation before quantitative study. Its implementation involves the use of a rotating scintillation camera based SPECT detector connected to a mini computer system. Mathematical simulations of cylindical uniformly attenuated phantoms indicate that in the range of a priori calculated relaxation factor a fast converging solution can always be found with a (contrast) accuracy of the order of 0.2 to 4% given that numerical errors and noise are or not, taken into account. The sensitivity of the (RIM) algorithm to errors in the size of the reconstructed object and in the value of the attenuation coefficient μ was studied, using the same simulation data. Extreme variations of +- 15% in these parameters will lead to errors of the order of +- 20% in the quantitative results. Physical phantoms representing a variety of geometrical situations were also studied

  12. Analyzing the photonic band gaps in two-dimensional plasma photonic crystals with fractal Sierpinski gasket structure based on the Monte Carlo method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Hai-Feng, E-mail: hanlor@163.com [College of Optoelectronic Engineering, Nanjing University of Posts and Telecommunications, Nanjing, 210023 ,China (China); Key Laboratory of Radar Imaging and Microwave Photonics (Nanjing Univ. Aeronaut. Astronaut.), Ministry of Education, Nanjing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Nanjing, 210016 (China); Liu, Shao-Bin [Key Laboratory of Radar Imaging and Microwave Photonics (Nanjing Univ. Aeronaut. Astronaut.), Ministry of Education, Nanjing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Nanjing, 210016 (China)

    2016-08-15

    In this paper, the properties of photonic band gaps (PBGs) in two types of two-dimensional plasma-dielectric photonic crystals (2D PPCs) under a transverse-magnetic (TM) wave are theoretically investigated by a modified plane wave expansion (PWE) method where Monte Carlo method is introduced. The proposed PWE method can be used to calculate the band structures of 2D PPCs which possess arbitrary-shaped filler and any lattice. The efficiency and convergence of the present method are discussed by a numerical example. The configuration of 2D PPCs is the square lattices with fractal Sierpinski gasket structure whose constituents are homogeneous and isotropic. The type-1 PPCs is filled with the dielectric cylinders in the plasma background, while its complementary structure is called type-2 PPCs, in which plasma cylinders behave as the fillers in the dielectric background. The calculated results reveal that the enough accuracy and good convergence can be obtained, if the number of random sampling points of Monte Carlo method is large enough. The band structures of two types of PPCs with different fractal orders of Sierpinski gasket structure also are theoretically computed for a comparison. It is demonstrate that the PBGs in higher frequency region are more easily produced in the type-1 PPCs rather than in the type-2 PPCs. Sierpinski gasket structure introduced in the 2D PPCs leads to a larger cutoff frequency, enhances and induces more PBGs in high frequency region. The effects of configurational parameters of two types of PPCs on the PBGs are also investigated in detail. The results show that the PBGs of the PPCs can be easily manipulated by tuning those parameters. The present type-1 PPCs are more suitable to design the tunable compacted devices.

  13. Inclusive Flavour Tagging Algorithm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Likhomanenko, Tatiana; Derkach, Denis; Rogozhnikov, Alex

    2016-01-01

    Identifying the flavour of neutral B mesons production is one of the most important components needed in the study of time-dependent CP violation. The harsh environment of the Large Hadron Collider makes it particularly hard to succeed in this task. We present an inclusive flavour-tagging algorithm as an upgrade of the algorithms currently used by the LHCb experiment. Specifically, a probabilistic model which efficiently combines information from reconstructed vertices and tracks using machine learning is proposed. The algorithm does not use information about underlying physics process. It reduces the dependence on the performance of lower level identification capacities and thus increases the overall performance. The proposed inclusive flavour-tagging algorithm is applicable to tag the flavour of B mesons in any proton-proton experiment. (paper)

  14. Photon-photon interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gilman, F.J.

    1980-01-01

    A brief summary of the present status of photon-photon interactions is presented. Stress is placed on the use of two-photon collisions to test present ideas on the quark constituents of hadrons and on the theory of strong interactions

  15. Differential profiling of breast cancer plasma proteome by isotope-coded affinity tagging method reveals biotinidase as a breast cancer biomarker

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Un-Beom; Ahn, Younghee; Lee, Jong Won; Kim, Yong-Hak; Kim, Joon; Yu, Myeong-Hee; Noh, Dong-Young; Lee, Cheolju

    2010-01-01

    Breast cancer is one of the leading causes of women's death worldwide. It is important to discover a reliable biomarker for the detection of breast cancer. Plasma is the most ideal source for cancer biomarker discovery since many cells cross-communicate through the secretion of soluble proteins into blood. Plasma proteomes obtained from 6 breast cancer patients and 6 normal healthy women were analyzed by using the isotope-coded affinity tag (ICAT) labeling approach and tandem mass spectrometry. All the plasma samples used were depleted of highly abundant 6 plasma proteins by immune-affinity column chromatography before ICAT labeling. Several proteins showing differential abundance level were selected based on literature searches and their specificity to the commercially available antibodies, and then verified by immunoblot assays. A total of 155 proteins were identified and quantified by ICAT method. Among them, 33 proteins showed abundance changes by more than 1.5-fold between the plasmas of breast cancer patients and healthy women. We chose 5 proteins for the follow-up confirmation in the individual plasma samples using immunoblot assay. Four proteins, α1-acid glycoprotein 2, monocyte differentiation antigen CD14, biotinidase (BTD), and glutathione peroxidase 3, showed similar abundance ratio to ICAT result. Using a blind set of plasmas obtained from 21 breast cancer patients and 21 normal healthy controls, we confirmed that BTD was significantly down-regulated in breast cancer plasma (Wilcoxon rank-sum test, p = 0.002). BTD levels were lowered in all cancer grades (I-IV) except cancer grade zero. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve of BTD was 0.78. Estrogen receptor status (p = 0.940) and progesterone receptor status (p = 0.440) were not associated with the plasma BTD levels. Our study suggests that BTD is a potential serological biomarker for the detection of breast cancer

  16. Analysis of tag-position bias in MPSS technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rattray Magnus

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Massively Parallel Signature Sequencing (MPSS technology was recently developed as a high-throughput technology for measuring the concentration of mRNA transcripts in a sample. It has previously been observed that the position of the signature tag in a transcript (distance from 3' end can affect the measurement, but this effect has not been studied in detail. Results We quantify the effect of tag-position bias in Classic and Signature MPSS technology using published data from Arabidopsis, rice and human. We investigate the relationship between measured concentration and tag-position using nonlinear regression methods. The observed relationship is shown to be broadly consistent across different data sets. We find that there exist different and significant biases in both Classic and Signature MPSS data. For Classic MPSS data, genes with tag-position in the middle-range have highest measured abundance on average while genes with tag-position in the high-range, far from the 3' end, show a significant decrease. For Signature MPSS data, high-range tag-position genes tend to have a flatter relationship between tag-position and measured abundance. Thus, our results confirm that the Signature MPSS method fixes a substantial problem with the Classic MPSS method. For both Classic and Signature MPSS data there is a positive correlation between measured abundance and tag-position for low-range tag-position genes. Compared with the effects of mRNA length and number of exons, tag-position bias seems to be more significant in Arabadopsis. The tag-position bias is reflected both in the measured abundance of genes with a significant tag count and in the proportion of unexpressed genes identified. Conclusion Tag-position bias should be taken into consideration when measuring mRNA transcript abundance using MPSS technology, both in Classic and Signature MPSS methods.

  17. The physics of photons and neutrons with applications of deuterium labeling methods to polymers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wignall, G.D.

    1986-12-01

    Over the past decade small-angle neutron scattering (SANS), has found numerous applications in the fields of biology, polymer science, physical chemistry, materials science, metallurgy, colloids, and solid state physics. A number of excellent references are available which contain basic neutron scattering theory though these text books reflect the origins of the technique and the examples are largely drawn from physics e.g., single crystals, simple liquids, monatomic gases, liquid metals, magnetic materials, etc. in view of the large numbers of nonspecialists who are increasingly using neutron scattering, the need has become apparent for presentations which can provide rapid access to the method without unnecessary detail and mathematical rigor. This article is meant to serve as a general introduction to the symposium ''Scattering Deformation and Fracture in Polymers,'' and is intended to aid potential users who have a general scientific background, but no specialist knowledge of scattering, to apply the technique to provide new information in areas of their own particular interests. In view of space limitations, the general theory will be given in the case for neutron scattering and analogies and differences with photon scattering (x-rays) will be pointed out at the appropriate point. 90 refs., 6 figs

  18. Bandgap optimization of two-dimensional photonic crystals using semidefinite programming and subspace methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Men, H.; Nguyen, N.C.; Freund, R.M.; Parrilo, P.A.; Peraire, J.

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we consider the optimal design of photonic crystal structures for two-dimensional square lattices. The mathematical formulation of the bandgap optimization problem leads to an infinite-dimensional Hermitian eigenvalue optimization problem parametrized by the dielectric material and the wave vector. To make the problem tractable, the original eigenvalue problem is discretized using the finite element method into a series of finite-dimensional eigenvalue problems for multiple values of the wave vector parameter. The resulting optimization problem is large-scale and non-convex, with low regularity and non-differentiable objective. By restricting to appropriate eigenspaces, we reduce the large-scale non-convex optimization problem via reparametrization to a sequence of small-scale convex semidefinite programs (SDPs) for which modern SDP solvers can be efficiently applied. Numerical results are presented for both transverse magnetic (TM) and transverse electric (TE) polarizations at several frequency bands. The optimized structures exhibit patterns which go far beyond typical physical intuition on periodic media design.

  19. Neutron radiography imaging with 2-dimensional photon counting method and its problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ikeda, Y.; Kobayashi, H.; Niwa, T.; Kataoka, T.

    1988-01-01

    A ultra sensitive neutron imaging system has been deviced with a 2-dimensional photon counting camara (ARGUS 100). The imaging system is composed by a 2-dimensional single photon counting tube and a low background vidicon followed with an image processing unit and frame memories. By using the imaging system, electronic neutron radiography (NTV) has been possible under the neutron flux less than 3 x 10 4 n/cm 2 ·s. (author)

  20. Personalization of tagging systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Wang (Jun); M. Clements (Maarten); J. Yang; A.P. de Vries (Arjen); M.J.T. Reinders

    2010-01-01

    htmlabstractSocial media systems have encouraged end user participation in the Internet, for the purpose of storing and distributing Internet content, sharing opinions and maintaining relationships. Collaborative tagging allows users to annotate the resulting user-generated content, and enables

  1. TagPad

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bornoe, Nis; Barkhuus, Louise

    2013-01-01

    The area of cyberinfrastructures has looked extensively at research within the natural sciences, however, the social sciences have been largely overlooked in terms of novel data collection and analysis systems. We developed a probe tool, TagPad, to look at the process for social science data...

  2. Application of the Monte Carlo method to the study of the response of an organic liquid scintillator irradiated by photons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dupre, Corinne.

    1982-10-01

    The Monte Carlo method was applied to simulate the transport of a photon beam in an organic liquid scintillation detector. The interactions of secondary gamma rays and electrons with the detector and its peripheral materials components such as the pyrex glass container are included. The pulse height spectra and the detectors efficiency are compared with calculated and measured results. Calculations and programmation methods are presented in the same way as results concerning cobalt and cesium sources [fr

  3. Nanoporous hard data: optical encoding of information within nanoporous anodic alumina photonic crystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Abel; Law, Cheryl Suwen; Pereira, Taj; Losic, Dusan

    2016-04-21

    Herein, we present a method for storing binary data within the spectral signature of nanoporous anodic alumina photonic crystals. A rationally designed multi-sinusoidal anodisation approach makes it possible to engineer the photonic stop band of nanoporous anodic alumina with precision. As a result, the transmission spectrum of these photonic nanostructures can be engineered to feature well-resolved and selectively positioned characteristic peaks across the UV-visible spectrum. Using this property, we implement an 8-bit binary code and assess the versatility and capability of this system by a series of experiments aiming to encode different information within the nanoporous anodic alumina photonic crystals. The obtained results reveal that the proposed nanosized platform is robust, chemically stable, versatile and has a set of unique properties for data storage, opening new opportunities for developing advanced nanophotonic tools for a wide range of applications, including sensing, photonic tagging, self-reporting drug releasing systems and secure encoding of information.

  4. Ontologies and tag-statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tibély, Gergely; Pollner, Péter; Vicsek, Tamás; Palla, Gergely

    2012-05-01

    Due to the increasing popularity of collaborative tagging systems, the research on tagged networks, hypergraphs, ontologies, folksonomies and other related concepts is becoming an important interdisciplinary area with great potential and relevance for practical applications. In most collaborative tagging systems the tagging by the users is completely ‘flat’, while in some cases they are allowed to define a shallow hierarchy for their own tags. However, usually no overall hierarchical organization of the tags is given, and one of the interesting challenges of this area is to provide an algorithm generating the ontology of the tags from the available data. In contrast, there are also other types of tagged networks available for research, where the tags are already organized into a directed acyclic graph (DAG), encapsulating the ‘is a sub-category of’ type of hierarchy between each other. In this paper, we study how this DAG affects the statistical distribution of tags on the nodes marked by the tags in various real networks. The motivation for this research was the fact that understanding the tagging based on a known hierarchy can help in revealing the hidden hierarchy of tags in collaborative tagging systems. We analyse the relation between the tag-frequency and the position of the tag in the DAG in two large sub-networks of the English Wikipedia and a protein-protein interaction network. We also study the tag co-occurrence statistics by introducing a two-dimensional (2D) tag-distance distribution preserving both the difference in the levels and the absolute distance in the DAG for the co-occurring pairs of tags. Our most interesting finding is that the local relevance of tags in the DAG (i.e. their rank or significance as characterized by, e.g., the length of the branches starting from them) is much more important than their global distance from the root. Furthermore, we also introduce a simple tagging model based on random walks on the DAG, capable of

  5. Ontologies and tag-statistics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tibély, Gergely; Vicsek, Tamás; Pollner, Péter; Palla, Gergely

    2012-01-01

    Due to the increasing popularity of collaborative tagging systems, the research on tagged networks, hypergraphs, ontologies, folksonomies and other related concepts is becoming an important interdisciplinary area with great potential and relevance for practical applications. In most collaborative tagging systems the tagging by the users is completely ‘flat’, while in some cases they are allowed to define a shallow hierarchy for their own tags. However, usually no overall hierarchical organization of the tags is given, and one of the interesting challenges of this area is to provide an algorithm generating the ontology of the tags from the available data. In contrast, there are also other types of tagged networks available for research, where the tags are already organized into a directed acyclic graph (DAG), encapsulating the ‘is a sub-category of’ type of hierarchy between each other. In this paper, we study how this DAG affects the statistical distribution of tags on the nodes marked by the tags in various real networks. The motivation for this research was the fact that understanding the tagging based on a known hierarchy can help in revealing the hidden hierarchy of tags in collaborative tagging systems. We analyse the relation between the tag-frequency and the position of the tag in the DAG in two large sub-networks of the English Wikipedia and a protein-protein interaction network. We also study the tag co-occurrence statistics by introducing a two-dimensional (2D) tag-distance distribution preserving both the difference in the levels and the absolute distance in the DAG for the co-occurring pairs of tags. Our most interesting finding is that the local relevance of tags in the DAG (i.e. their rank or significance as characterized by, e.g., the length of the branches starting from them) is much more important than their global distance from the root. Furthermore, we also introduce a simple tagging model based on random walks on the DAG, capable of

  6. Vector-vector production in photon-photon interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ronan, M.T.

    1988-01-01

    Measurements of exclusive untagged /rho/ 0 /rho/ 0 , /rho//phi/, K/sup *//bar K//sup */, and /rho/ω production and tagged /rho/ 0 /rho/ 0 production in photon-photon interactions by the TPC/Two-Gamma experiment are reviewed. Comparisons to the results of other experiments and to models of vector-vector production are made. Fits to the data following a four quark model prescription for vector meson pair production are also presented. 10 refs., 9 figs

  7. Fabrication method to create high-aspect ratio pillars for photonic coupling of board level interconnects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debaes, C.; Van Erps, J.; Karppinen, M.; Hiltunen, J.; Suyal, H.; Last, A.; Lee, M. G.; Karioja, P.; Taghizadeh, M.; Mohr, J.; Thienpont, H.; Glebov, A. L.

    2008-04-01

    An important challenge that remains to date in board level optical interconnects is the coupling between the optical waveguides on printed wiring boards and the packaged optoelectronics chips, which are preferably surface mountable on the boards. One possible solution is the use of Ball Grid Array (BGA) packages. This approach offers a reliable attachment despite the large CTE mismatch between the organic FR4 board and the semiconductor materials. Collimation via micro-lenses is here typically deployed to couple the light vertically from the waveguide substrate to the optoelectronics while allowing for a small misalignment between board and package. In this work, we explore the fabrication issues of an alternative approach in which the vertical photonic connection between board and package is governed by a micro-optical pillar which is attached both to the board substrate and to the optoelectronic chips. Such an approach allows for high density connections and small, high-speed detector footprints while maintaining an acceptable tolerance between board and package. The pillar should exhibit some flexibility and thus a high-aspect ratio is preferred. This work presents and compares different fabrication methods and applies different materials for such high-aspect ratio pillars. The different fabrication methods are: photolithography, direct laser writing and deep proton writing. The selection of optical materials that was investigated is: SU8, Ormocers, PU and a multifunctional acrylate polymer. The resulting optical pillars have diameters ranging from 20um up to 80um, with total heights ranging between 30um and 100um (symbol for micron). The aspect-ratio of the fabricated structures ranges from 1.5 to 5.

  8. An advanced method of contributing emissions to short-lived chemical species (OH and HO2: the TAGGING 1.1 submodel based on the Modular Earth Submodel System (MESSy 2.53

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. S. Rieger

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available To mitigate the human impact on climate change, it is essential to determine the contribution of emissions to the concentration of trace gases. In particular, the source attribution of short-lived species such as OH and HO2 is important as they play a crucial role for atmospheric chemistry. This study presents an advanced version of a tagging method for OH and HO2 (HOx which attributes HOx concentrations to emissions. While the former version (V1.0 only considered 12 reactions in the troposphere, the new version (V1.1, presented here, takes 19 reactions in the troposphere into account. For the first time, the main chemical reactions for the HOx chemistry in the stratosphere are also regarded (in total 27 reactions. To fully take into account the main HO2 source by the reaction of H and O2, the tagging of the H radical is introduced. In order to ensure the steady-state assumption, we introduce rest terms which balance the deviation of HOx production and loss. This closes the budget between the sum of all contributions and the total concentration. The contributions to OH and HO2 obtained by the advanced tagging method V1.1 deviate from V1.0 in certain source categories. For OH, major changes are found in the categories biomass burning, biogenic emissions and methane decomposition. For HO2, the contributions differ strongly in the categories biogenic emissions and methane decomposition. As HOx reacts with ozone (O3, carbon monoxide (CO, reactive nitrogen compounds (NOy, non-methane hydrocarbons (NMHCs and peroxyacyl nitrates (PAN, the contributions to these species are also modified by the advanced HOx tagging method V1.1. The contributions to NOy, NMHC and PAN show only little change, whereas O3 from biogenic emissions and methane decomposition increases in the tropical troposphere. Variations for CO from biogenic emissions and biomass burning are only found in the Southern Hemisphere.

  9. Thermal field theory in a layer: Applications of thermal field theory methods to the propagation of photons in a two-dimensional electron sheet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nieves, Jose F.

    2010-01-01

    We apply the thermal field theory methods to study the propagation of photons in a plasma layer, that is a plasma in which the electrons are confined to a two-dimensional plane sheet. We calculate the photon self-energy and determine the appropriate expression for the photon propagator in such a medium, from which the properties of the propagating modes are obtained. The formulas for the photon dispersion relations and polarization vectors are derived explicitly in some detail for some simple cases of the thermal distributions of the charged particle gas, and appropriate formulas that are applicable in more general situations are also given.

  10. Development of techniques for tagging precursor and essential chemicals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swansiger, W.A.; Shepodd, T.J. [Sandia National Labs., Livermore, CA (United States); Phillips, M.L.F. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1994-01-01

    The ability to identify the manufacturers and distributors of chemicals seized in raids of illicit drug labs would be of great value in controlling the diversion of these chemicals. We developed a tagging scheme based on the addition of sub-ppM concentrations of various combinations of rare-earth elements to the target chemicals and evaluated a number of techniques for detecting the tags. We developed soluble tags for tagging liquids and selected Inductively Coupled Plasma-Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS) as the preferred detection technique. We developed insoluble tags for tagging solids and developed methods to analyze them and mix them into solid precursors. We have successfully demonstrated the tagging of several solvents and two of the precursor chemicals used in one of the most popular clandestine methamphetamine syntheses (ephedrine reacting with hydriodic acid/red phosphorus). The tagging scheme is capable of yielding tens of thousands of signatures (using holmium as an internal standard and up to 9 rare-earths at up to 3 concentrations yields 3{sup 9} {minus} 1 = 19,682 signatures) and is applicable to most of the chemicals on the precursor and essential chemicals list. In the concentrations employed, the tags are safe enough to be added to pharmaceuticals and cheap enough to tag tanker loads of chemicals.

  11. Reshaping of computational system for dosimetry in neutron and photons radiotherapy based in stochastic methods - SISCODES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trindade, Bruno Machado

    2011-02-01

    This work shows the remodeling of the Computer System for Dosimetry of Neutrons and Photons in Radiotherapy Based on Stochastic Methods . SISCODES. The initial description and status, the alterations and expansions (proposed and concluded), and the latest system development status are shown. The SISCODES is a system that allows the execution of a 3D computational planning in radiation therapy, based on MCNP5 nuclear particle transport code. The SISCODES provides tools to build a patient's voxels model, to define a treatment planning, to simulate this planning, and to view the results of the simulation. The SISCODES implements a database of tissues, sources and nuclear data and an interface to access then. The graphical SISCODES modules were rewritten or were implemented using C++ language and GTKmm library. Studies about dose deviations were performed simulating a homogeneous water phantom as analogue of the human body in radiotherapy planning and a heterogeneous voxel phantom, pointing out possible dose miscalculations. The Soft-RT and PROPLAN computer codes that do interface with SISCODES are described. A set of voxels models created on the SISCODES are presented with its respective sizes and resolutions. To demonstrate the use of SISCODES, examples of radiation therapy and dosimetry simulations for prostate and heart are shown. Three protocols were simulated on the heart voxel model: Sm-153 filled balloon and P-32 stent, to prevent angioplasty restenosis; and Tl-201 myocardial perfusion, to imaging. Teletherapy with 6MV and 15MV beams were simulated to the prostate, and brachytherapy with I-125 seeds. The results of these simulations are shown on isodose curves and on dose-volume histograms. The SISCODES shows to be a useful tool for research of new radiation therapy treatments and, in future, can also be useful in medical practice. At the end, future improvements are proposed. I hope this work can contribute to develop more effective radiation therapy

  12. Review of Two-Photon Interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Urner, David

    2004-01-01

    Presented are recent results of two-photon interactions. Topics include photon structure functions, inclusive hadron production, differential cross sections derived from tagged γγ fusion events and results in exclusive hadron production, particularly the observations of the η'c

  13. Implementation of a Monte Carlo method to model photon conversion for solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Canizo, C. del; Tobias, I.; Perez-Bedmar, J.; Pan, A.C.; Luque, A.

    2008-01-01

    A physical model describing different photon conversion mechanisms is presented in the context of photovoltaic applications. To solve the resulting system of equations, a Monte Carlo ray-tracing model is implemented, which takes into account the coupling of the photon transport phenomena to the non-linear rate equations describing luminescence. It also separates the generation of rays from the two very different sources of photons involved (the sun and the luminescence centers). The Monte Carlo simulator presented in this paper is proposed as a tool to help in the evaluation of candidate materials for up- and down-conversion. Some application examples are presented, exploring the range of values that the most relevant parameters describing the converter should have in order to give significant gain in photocurrent

  14. Qualitative Simulation of Photon Transport in Free Space Based on Monte Carlo Method and Its Parallel Implementation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xueli Chen

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available During the past decade, Monte Carlo method has obtained wide applications in optical imaging to simulate photon transport process inside tissues. However, this method has not been effectively extended to the simulation of free-space photon transport at present. In this paper, a uniform framework for noncontact optical imaging is proposed based on Monte Carlo method, which consists of the simulation of photon transport both in tissues and in free space. Specifically, the simplification theory of lens system is utilized to model the camera lens equipped in the optical imaging system, and Monte Carlo method is employed to describe the energy transformation from the tissue surface to the CCD camera. Also, the focusing effect of camera lens is considered to establish the relationship of corresponding points between tissue surface and CCD camera. Furthermore, a parallel version of the framework is realized, making the simulation much more convenient and effective. The feasibility of the uniform framework and the effectiveness of the parallel version are demonstrated with a cylindrical phantom based on real experimental results.

  15. Photon and proton activation analysis of iron and steel standards using the internal standard method coupled with the standard addition method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masumoto, K.; Hara, M.; Hasegawa, D.; Iino, E.; Yagi, M.

    1997-01-01

    The internal standard method coupled with the standard addition method has been applied to photon activation analysis and proton activation analysis of minor elements and trace impurities in various types of iron and steel samples issued by the Iron and Steel Institute of Japan (ISIJ). Samples and standard addition samples were once dissolved to mix homogeneously, an internal standard and elements to be determined and solidified as a silica-gel to make a similar matrix composition and geometry. Cerium and yttrium were used as an internal standard in photon and proton activation, respectively. In photon activation, 20 MeV electron beam was used for bremsstrahlung irradiation to reduce matrix activity and nuclear interference reactions, and the results were compared with those of 30 MeV irradiation. In proton activation, iron was removed by the MIBK extraction method after dissolving samples to reduce the radioactivity of 56 Co from iron via 56 Fe(p, n) 56 Co reaction. The results of proton and photon activation analysis were in good agreement with the standard values of ISIJ. (author)

  16. Photon-photon collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burke, D.L.

    1982-10-01

    Studies of photon-photon collisions are reviewed with particular emphasis on new results reported to this conference. These include results on light meson spectroscopy and deep inelastic e#betta# scattering. Considerable work has now been accumulated on resonance production by #betta##betta# collisions. Preliminary high statistics studies of the photon structure function F 2 /sup #betta#/(x,Q 2 ) are given and comments are made on the problems that remain to be solved

  17. Photon-photon collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haissinski, J.

    1986-06-01

    The discussions presented in this paper deal with the following points: distinctive features of gamma-gamma collisions; related processes; photon-photon elastic scattering in the continuum and γγ →gg; total cross section; γγ → V 1 V 2 (V=vector meson); radiative width measurements and light meson spectroscopy; exclusive channels at large /t/; jets and inclusive particle distribution in γγ collisions; and, the photon structure function F γ 2

  18. Photon-photon colliders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sessler, A.M.

    1995-04-01

    Since the seminal work by Ginsburg, et at., the subject of giving the Next Linear Collider photon-photon capability, as well as electron-positron capability, has drawn much attention. A 1990 article by V.I. Teinov describes the situation at that time. In March 1994, the first workshop on this subject was held. This report briefly reviews the physics that can be achieved through the photon-photon channel and then focuses on the means of achieving such a collider. Also reviewed is the spectrum of backscattered Compton photons -- the best way of obtaining photons. We emphasize the spectrum actually obtained in a collider with both polarized electrons and photons (peaked at high energy and very different from a Compton spectrum). Luminosity is estimated for the presently considered colliders, and interaction and conversion-point geometries are described. Also specified are laser requirements (such as wavelength, peak power, and average power) and the lasers that might be employed. These include conventional and free-electron lasers. Finally, we describe the R ampersand D necessary to make either of these approaches viable and explore the use of the SLC as a test bed for a photon-photon collider of very high energy

  19. A Hybrid Probabilistic Model for Unified Collaborative and Content-Based Image Tagging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Ning; Cheung, William K; Qiu, Guoping; Xue, Xiangyang

    2011-07-01

    The increasing availability of large quantities of user contributed images with labels has provided opportunities to develop automatic tools to tag images to facilitate image search and retrieval. In this paper, we present a novel hybrid probabilistic model (HPM) which integrates low-level image features and high-level user provided tags to automatically tag images. For images without any tags, HPM predicts new tags based solely on the low-level image features. For images with user provided tags, HPM jointly exploits both the image features and the tags in a unified probabilistic framework to recommend additional tags to label the images. The HPM framework makes use of the tag-image association matrix (TIAM). However, since the number of images is usually very large and user-provided tags are diverse, TIAM is very sparse, thus making it difficult to reliably estimate tag-to-tag co-occurrence probabilities. We developed a collaborative filtering method based on nonnegative matrix factorization (NMF) for tackling this data sparsity issue. Also, an L1 norm kernel method is used to estimate the correlations between image features and semantic concepts. The effectiveness of the proposed approach has been evaluated using three databases containing 5,000 images with 371 tags, 31,695 images with 5,587 tags, and 269,648 images with 5,018 tags, respectively.

  20. Engineering [Ln(DPA){sub 3}]{sup 3-} binding sites in proteins: a widely applicable method for tagging proteins with lanthanide ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jia Xinying; Yagi, Hiromasa; Su Xuncheng; Stanton-Cook, Mitchell; Huber, Thomas; Otting, Gottfried, E-mail: gottfried.otting@anu.edu.au [Australian National University, Research School of Chemistry (Australia)

    2011-08-15

    Paramagnetic relaxation enhancements from unpaired electrons observed in nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectra present powerful long-range distance restraints. The most frequently used paramagnetic tags, however, are tethered to the protein via disulfide bonds, requiring proteins with single cysteine residues for covalent attachment. Here we present a straightforward strategy to tag proteins site-specifically with paramagnetic lanthanides without a tether and independent of cysteine residues. It relies on preferential binding of the complex between three dipicolinic acid molecules (DPA) and a lanthanide ion (Ln{sup 3+}), [Ln(DPA){sub 3}]{sup 3-}, to a pair of positively charged amino acids whose charges are not compensated by negatively charged residues nearby. This situation rarely occurs in wild-type proteins, allowing the creation of specific binding sites simply by introduction of positively charged residues that are positioned far from glutamate or aspartate residues. The concept is demonstrated with the hnRNPLL RRM1 domain. In addition, we show that histidine- and arginine-tags present binding sites for [Ln(DPA){sub 3}]{sup 3-}.

  1. Photon Differentials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schjøth, Lars; Frisvad, Jeppe Revall; Erleben, Kenny

    2007-01-01

    illumination features. This is often not desirable as these may lose clarity or vanish altogether. We present an accurate method for reconstruction of indirect illumination with photon mapping. Instead of reconstructing illumination using classic density estimation on finite points, we use the correlation...

  2. Quantum-Gravity Based Photon Dispersion in Gamma-Ray Bursts: The Detection Problem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Norris, Jay P.; Scargle, Jeffrey D.

    2007-01-01

    Gamma-ray bursts at cosmological distances offer a time-varying signal that can be used to search for energy-dependent photon dispersion effects. We show that short bursts with narrow pulse structures at high energies will offer the least ambiguous tests for energy-dependent dispersion effects. We discuss quantitative methods to search for such effects in time-tagged photon data. Utilizing observed gamma-ray burst profiles extrapolated to GeV energies, as may expected to be observed by GLAST, we also demonstrate the extent to which these methods can be used as an empirical exploration of quantum gravity formalisms

  3. Quantum photonics

    CERN Document Server

    Pearsall, Thomas P

    2017-01-01

    This textbook employs a pedagogical approach that facilitates access to the fundamentals of Quantum Photonics. It contains an introductory description of the quantum properties of photons through the second quantization of the electromagnetic field, introducing stimulated and spontaneous emission of photons at the quantum level. Schrödinger’s equation is used to describe the behavior of electrons in a one-dimensional potential. Tunneling through a barrier is used to introduce the concept of non­locality of an electron at the quantum level, which is closely-related to quantum confinement tunneling, resonant tunneling, and the origin of energy bands in both periodic (crystalline) and aperiodic (non-crystalline) materials. Introducing the concepts of reciprocal space, Brillouin zones, and Bloch’s theorem, the determination of electronic band structure using the pseudopotential method is presented, allowing direct computation of the band structures of most group IV, group III-V, and group II-VI semiconducto...

  4. Multi-Photon Absorption Spectra: A Comparison Between Transmittance Change and Fluorescence Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-05-21

    AFRL-OSR-VA-TR-2015-0134 multi-photon absorption spectra Cleber Mendonca INSTITUTO DE FISICA DE SAO CARLOS Final Report 05/21/2015 DISTRIBUTION A...5f. WORK UNIT NUMBER 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) Instituto de Fisica de Sao Carlos - Universidade de Sao Paulo Av

  5. A solution algorithm for calculating photon radiation fields with the aid of the Monte Carlo method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zappe, D.

    1978-04-01

    The MCTEST program and its subroutines for the solution of the Boltzmann transport equation is presented. The program renders possible to calculate photon radiation fields of point or plane gamma sources. After changing two subroutines the calculation can also be carried out for the case of directed incidence of radiation on plane shields of iron or concrete. (author)

  6. Photon strength function in the Hf-181 nucleus by method of two-step cascade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le Hong Khiem

    2003-01-01

    The applicability of sum-coincidence measurements of two-step cascade gamma ray spectra determining Photon Strength Function (PSF) of Hf-181 induced from Hf-180 (n,2γ) Hf-181 reaction is presented. Up to 80% intensity of the primary gamma ray transitions in a wide energy range have been deduced and compared to model calculation. (author)

  7. Tag cloud generation for results of multiple keywords queries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leginus, Martin; Dolog, Peter; Lage, Ricardo Gomes

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we study tag cloud generation for retrieved results of multiple keyword queries. It is motivated by many real world scenarios such as personalization tasks, surveillance systems and information retrieval tasks defined with multiple keywords. We adjust the state-of-the-art tag cloud...... generation techniques for multiple keywords query results. Consequently, we conduct the extensive evaluation on top of three distinct collaborative tagging systems. The graph-based methods perform significantly better for the Movielens and Bibsonomy datasets. Tag cloud generation based on maximal coverage...

  8. Photonic Paint Developed with Metallic Three-Dimensional Photonic Crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Po; Williams, John D.

    2012-01-01

    This work details the design and simulation of an inconspicuous photonic paint that can be applied onto an object for anticounterfeit and tag, track, and locate (TTL) applications. The paint consists of three-dimensional metallic tilted woodpile photonic crystals embedded into a visible and infrared transparent polymer film, which can be applied to almost any surface. The tilted woodpile photonic crystals are designed with a specific pass band detectable at nearly all incident angles of light. When painted onto a surface, these crystals provide a unique reflective infra-red optical signature that can be easily observed and recorded to verify the location or contents of a package.

  9. The role of tag suggestions in folksonomies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bollen, D.G.F.M.; Halpin, H.

    2009-01-01

    Most tagging systems support the user in the tag selection process by providing tag suggestions, or recommendations, based on a popularity measurement of tags other users provided when tagging the same resource. The majority of theories and mathematical models of tagging found in the literature

  10. Diffusion Based Photon Mapping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schjøth, Lars; Fogh Olsen, Ole; Sporring, Jon

    2007-01-01

    . To address this problem we introduce a novel photon mapping algorithm based on nonlinear anisotropic diffusion. Our algorithm adapts according to the structure of the photon map such that smoothing occurs along edges and structures and not across. In this way we preserve the important illumination features......, while eliminating noise. We call our method diffusion based photon mapping....

  11. Diffusion Based Photon Mapping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schjøth, Lars; Olsen, Ole Fogh; Sporring, Jon

    2006-01-01

    . To address this problem we introduce a novel photon mapping algorithm based on nonlinear anisotropic diffusion. Our algorithm adapts according to the structure of the photon map such that smoothing occurs along edges and structures and not across. In this way we preserve the important illumination features......, while eliminating noise. We call our method diffusion based photon mapping....

  12. Tag-elese or The Language of Tags

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Simons

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The core "meme" of Web 2.0 from which almost all other memes radiated was: 'You control your own data' (O'Reilly, 2005, 3. Key instruments for this user control are tagging systems that allow users to freely assign keywords of their own choosing to Internet resources of their own making as well as to documents produced by others. Of course, freely chosen keywords tags do not necessarily follow prefixed taxonomies or classification systems. But going by the maxim that interaction creates similarity and similarity creates interaction, the idea - or hope - is, however, that the tagging practices of individual users will eventually converge into an emergent common vocabulary or folksonomy (Merholz, 2004; Shirky, 2005; Vander Wal, 2005b; Mika, 2007. It is far from clear, however, that free tagging systems will eventually yield controlled vocabularies, and there are many incentives for idiosyncratic, ambiguous, and inconsistent uses of tags. Left to themselves, free tagging systems seem to be too wild and too chaotic for any order to emerge. But are these free tagging systems really as "feral" as they seem to be, or do they only look uncontrolled because one has been looking for order in the wrong place? I have done a quick-and-dirty" analysis of Flickr's tag cloud. The concept was: if folksonomies encourage users to tap on their own vernacular, everyday natural language must somehow "guide" the tagging practices of users of tagging systems. Flickr's tag cloud has been choosen because it may teach us something about tagging systems and folksonomies, and not - or not primarily - because of what tags may tell us about pictures.

  13. Security Techniques for Prevention of Rank Manipulation in Social Tagging Services including Robotic Domains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Okkyung Choi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available With smartphone distribution becoming common and robotic applications on the rise, social tagging services for various applications including robotic domains have advanced significantly. Though social tagging plays an important role when users are finding the exact information through web search, reliability and semantic relation between web contents and tags are not considered. Spams are making ill use of this aspect and put irrelevant tags deliberately on contents and induce users to advertise contents when they click items of search results. Therefore, this study proposes a detection method for tag-ranking manipulation to solve the problem of the existing methods which cannot guarantee the reliability of tagging. Similarity is measured for ranking the grade of registered tag on the contents, and weighted values of each tag are measured by means of synonym relevance, frequency, and semantic distances between tags. Lastly, experimental evaluation results are provided and its efficiency and accuracy are verified through them.

  14. Security techniques for prevention of rank manipulation in social tagging services including robotic domains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Okkyung; Jung, Hanyoung; Moon, Seungbin

    2014-01-01

    With smartphone distribution becoming common and robotic applications on the rise, social tagging services for various applications including robotic domains have advanced significantly. Though social tagging plays an important role when users are finding the exact information through web search, reliability and semantic relation between web contents and tags are not considered. Spams are making ill use of this aspect and put irrelevant tags deliberately on contents and induce users to advertise contents when they click items of search results. Therefore, this study proposes a detection method for tag-ranking manipulation to solve the problem of the existing methods which cannot guarantee the reliability of tagging. Similarity is measured for ranking the grade of registered tag on the contents, and weighted values of each tag are measured by means of synonym relevance, frequency, and semantic distances between tags. Lastly, experimental evaluation results are provided and its efficiency and accuracy are verified through them.

  15. DEEP code to calculate dose equivalents in human phantom for external photon exposure by Monte Carlo method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamaguchi, Yasuhiro

    1991-01-01

    The present report describes a computer code DEEP which calculates the organ dose equivalents and the effective dose equivalent for external photon exposure by the Monte Carlo method. MORSE-CG, Monte Carlo radiation transport code, is incorporated into the DEEP code to simulate photon transport phenomena in and around a human body. The code treats an anthropomorphic phantom represented by mathematical formulae and user has a choice for the phantom sex: male, female and unisex. The phantom can wear personal dosimeters on it and user can specify their location and dimension. This document includes instruction and sample problem for the code as well as the general description of dose calculation, human phantom and computer code. (author)

  16. Top tagging with deep neural networks [Vidyo

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2017-01-01

    Recent literature on deep neural networks for top tagging has focussed on image based techniques or multivariate approaches using high level jet substructure variables. Here, we take a sequential approach to this task by using anordered sequence of energy deposits as training inputs. Unlike previous approaches, this strategy does not result in a loss of information during pixelization or the calculation of high level features. We also propose new preprocessing methods that do not alter key physical quantities such as jet mass. We compare the performance of this approach to standard tagging techniques and present results evaluating the robustness of the neural network to pileup.

  17. Application of discrete ordinates and Monte Carlo methods to transport of photons from environmental sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryman, J.C.; Eckerman, K.F.; Shultis, J.K.; Faw, R.E.; Dillman, L.T.

    1996-01-01

    Federal Guidance Report No. 12 tabulates dose coefficients for external exposure to photons and electrons emitted by radionuclides distributed in air, water, and soil. Although the dose coefficients of this report are based on previously developed dosimetric methodologies, they are derived from new, detailed calculations of energy and angular distributions of the radiations incident on the body and the transport of these radiations within the body. Effort was devoted to expanding the information available for assessment of radiation dose from radionuclides distributed on or below the surface of the ground. A companion paper (External Exposure to Radionuclides in Air, Water, and Soil) discusses the significance of the new tabulations of coefficients and provides detiled comparisons to previously published values. This paper discusses details of the photon transport calculations

  18. Methods and devices for maintaining a resonant wavelength of a photonic microresonator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Adam; Zortman, William A.

    2015-07-14

    A photonic microresonator incorporates a localized heater element within a section of an optical bus waveguide that is in proximity to the resonator structure. The application of an adjustable control voltage to the heater element provides a localized change in the refractive index value of the bus waveguide, compensating for temperature-induced wavelength drift and maintaining a stabilized value of the microresonator's resonant wavelength.

  19. Social Tagging in a Scholarly Digital Library Environment: Users' Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noorhidawati, A.; Hanum, N. Fariza; Zohoorian-Fooladi, N.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: This paper reports an exploratory study examining how users participate in social tagging activities in a scholarly digital library environment to learn about their motivations, behaviour, and practices. Method: This study was conducted in two phases: a survey to investigate usage and attitudes of social tagging tool, and a…

  20. Development of a New Delivery and Attachment System for Tagging Large Cetaceans

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Harvey, James

    1997-01-01

    .... We developed a new method of delivering tags for placement on large whales. Sea lions were trained to carry a harness and attached camera system along with carrying a suction-cup tag in a mouth piece...

  1. An Extended-Tag-Induced Matrix Factorization Technique for Recommender Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huirui Han

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Social tag information has been used by recommender systems to handle the problem of data sparsity. Recently, the relationships between users/items and tags are considered by most tag-induced recommendation methods. However, sparse tag information is challenging to most existing methods. In this paper, we propose an Extended-Tag-Induced Matrix Factorization technique for recommender systems, which exploits correlations among tags derived by co-occurrence of tags to improve the performance of recommender systems, even in the case of sparse tag information. The proposed method integrates coupled similarity between tags, which is calculated by the co-occurrences of tags in the same items, to extend each item’s tags. Finally, item similarity based on extended tags is utilized as an item relationship regularization term to constrain the process of matrix factorization. MovieLens dataset and Book-Crossing dataset are adopted to evaluate the performance of the proposed algorithm. The results of experiments show that the proposed method can alleviate the impact of tag sparsity and improve the performance of recommender systems.

  2. Buddy Tag CONOPS and Requirements.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brotz, Jay Kristoffer [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Deland, Sharon M. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-12-01

    This document defines the concept of operations (CONOPS) and the requirements for the Buddy Tag, which is conceived and designed in collaboration between Sandia National Laboratories and Princeton University under the Department of State Key VerificationAssets Fund. The CONOPS describe how the tags are used to support verification of treaty limitations and is only defined to the extent necessary to support a tag design. The requirements define the necessary functions and desired non-functional features of the Buddy Tag at a high level

  3. Robust method for investigating nitrogen metabolism of 15N labeled amino acids using AccQ•Tag ultra performance liquid chromatography-photodiode array-electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry: application to a parasitic plant-plant interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaudin, Zachary; Cerveau, Delphine; Marnet, Nathalie; Bouchereau, Alain; Delavault, Philippe; Simier, Philippe; Pouvreau, Jean-Bernard

    2014-01-21

    An AccQ•Tag ultra performance liquid chromatography-photodiode array-electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry (AccQ•Tag-UPLC-PDA-ESI-MS) method is presented here for the fast, robust, and sensitive quantification of (15)N isotopologue enrichment of amino acids in biological samples, as for example in the special biotic interaction between the cultivated specie Brassica napus (rapeseed) and the parasitic weed Phelipanche ramosa (broomrape). This method was developed and validated using amino acid standard solutions containing (15)N amino acid isotopologues and/or biological unlabeled extracts. Apparatus optimization, limits of detection and quantification, quantification reproducibility, and calculation method of (15)N isotopologue enrichment are presented. Using this method, we could demonstrate that young parasite tubercles assimilate inorganic nitrogen as (15)N-ammonium when supplied directly through batch incubation but not when supplied by translocation from host root phloem, contrary to (15)N2-glutamine. (15)N2-glutamine mobility from host roots to parasite tubercles followed by its low metabolism in tubercles suggests that the host-derived glutamine acts as an important nitrogen containing storage compound in the young tubercle of Phelipanche ramosa.

  4. Simulation of neutron transport process, photons and charged particles within the Monte Carlo method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Androsenko, A.A.; Androsenko, P.A.; Artamonov, S.N.; Bolonkina, G.V.; Lomtev, V.L.; Pupko, S.V.

    1991-01-01

    Description is given to the program system BRAND designed for the accurate solution of non-stationary transport equation of neutrons, photons and charged particles in the conditions of real three-dimensional geometry. An extensive set of local and non-local estimates provides an opportunity of calculating a great set of linear functionals normally being of interest in the calculation of reactors, radiation protection and experiment simulation. The process of particle interaction with substance is simulated on the basis of individual non-group data on each isotope of the composition. 24 refs

  5. Processing method of images obtained during the TESIS/CORONAS-PHOTON experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuzin, S. V.; Shestov, S. V.; Bogachev, S. A.; Pertsov, A. A.; Ulyanov, A. S.; Reva, A. A.

    2011-04-01

    In January 2009, the CORONAS-PHOTON spacecraft was successfully launched. It includes a set of telescopes and spectroheliometers—TESIS—designed to image the solar corona in soft X-ray and EUV spectral ranges. Due to features of the reading system, to obtain physical information from these images, it is necessary to preprocess them, i.e., to remove the background, correct the white field, level, and clean. The paper discusses the algorithms and software developed and used for the preprocessing of images.

  6. Modelling of neutron and photon transport in iron and concrete radiation shieldings by the Monte Carlo method - Version 2

    CERN Document Server

    Žukauskaite, A; Plukiene, R; Plukis, A

    2007-01-01

    Particle accelerators and other high energy facilities produce penetrating ionizing radiation (neutrons and γ-rays) that must be shielded. The objective of this work was to model photon and neutron transport in various materials, usually used as shielding, such as concrete, iron or graphite. Monte Carlo method allows obtaining answers by simulating individual particles and recording some aspects of their average behavior. In this work several nuclear experiments were modeled: AVF 65 – γ-ray beams (1-10 MeV), HIMAC and ISIS-800 – high energy neutrons (20-800 MeV) transport in iron and concrete. The results were then compared with experimental data.

  7. Specific absorbed fractions of electrons and photons for Rad-HUMAN phantom using Monte Carlo method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Wen; Hu Liqin; Cheng Mengyun; Long Pengcheng

    2015-01-01

    The specific absorbed fractions (SAF) for self- and cross-irradiation are effective tools for the internal dose estimation of inhalation and ingestion intakes of radionuclides. A set of SAFs of photons and electrons were calculated using the Rad-HUMAN phantom, which is a computational voxel phantom of a Chinese adult female that was created using the color photographic image of the Chinese Visible Human (CVH) data set by the FDS Team. The model can represent most Chinese adult female anatomical characteristics and can be taken as an individual phantom to investigate the difference of internal dose with Caucasians. In this study, the emission of mono-energetic photons and electrons of 10 keV to 4 MeV energy were calculated using the Monte Carlo particle transport calculation code MCNP. Results were compared with the values from ICRP reference and ORNL models. The results showed that SAF from the Rad-HUMAN have similar trends but are larger than those from the other two models. The differences were due to the racial and anatomical differences in organ mass and inter-organ distance. The SAFs based on the Rad-HUMAN phantom provide an accurate and reliable data for internal radiation dose calculations for Chinese females. (authors)

  8. The calibration method for personal dosimetry system in photon and neutron radiation fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trousil, J; Plichta, J [CSOD, Prague (Czech Republic); Nikodemova, D [SOD, Bratislava (Slovakia)

    1996-12-31

    The type testing of dosimetry system was performed with standard photon radiation fields within the energy range 15 keV to 1.25 MeV and electron radiation fields within the range 0.2 MeV to 3 MeV. For type testing of neutron dosimeters {sup 252}Cf and {sup 241}Am-Be radionuclide neutron sources was used, as well as a 14 MeV neutron generator. The neutron sources moderated by various moderating and absorbing materials was also used. The routine calibration of individual photon dosemeters was carried out using a {sup 137}Cs calibration source in the air kerma quality in the dose range 0.2 mGy to 6 Gy. The type testing of neutron dosemeters was performed in collaboration with Nueherberg laboratory on neutron generator with neutron energies -.57; 1.0;; 5.3 and 15.1 MeV. The fading and angular dependence testing was also included in the tests of both dosemeter systems. (J.K.).

  9. LHCb Tag Collector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernández, Paloma Fuente; Clemencic, Marco; Cousin, Nicolas

    2011-01-01

    The LHCb physics software consists of hundreds of packages, each of which is developed by one or more physicists. When the developers have some code changes that they would like released, they commit them to the version control system, and enter the revision number into a database. These changes have to be integrated into a new release of each of the physics analysis applications. Tests are then performed by a nightly build system, which rebuilds various configurations of the whole software stack and executes a suite of run-time functionality tests. A Tag Collector system has been developed using solid standard technologies to cover both the use cases of developers and integration managers. A simple Web interface, based on an AJAX-like technology, is available. Integration with SVN and Nightly Build System, is possible via a Python API. Data are stored in a relational database with the help of an ORM (Object-Relational Mapping) library.

  10. Study of mast cell count in skin tags

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zaher Hesham

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Skin tags or acrochordons are common tumors of middle-aged and elderly subjects. They consist of loose fibrous tissue and occur mainly on the neck and major flexures as small, soft, pedunculated protrusions. Objectives: The aim was to compare the mast cells count in skin tags to adjacent normal skin in diabetic and nondiabetic participants in an attempt to elucidate the possible role of mast cells in the pathogenesis of skin tags. Participants and Methods: Thirty participants with skin tags were divided into group I (15 nondiabetic participants and group II (15 diabetic participants. Three biopsies were obtained from each participant: a large skin tag, a small skin tag and adjacent normal skin. Mast cell count from all the obtained sections was carried out, and the mast cell density was expressed as the average mast cell count/high power field (HPF. Results: A statistically significant increase in mast cells count in skin tags in comparison to normal skin was detected in group I and group II. There was no statistically significant difference between mast cell counts in skin tags of both the groups. Conclusion: Both the mast cell mediators and hyperinsulinemia are capable of inducing fibroblast proliferation and epidermal hyperplasia that are the main pathologic abnormalities seen in all types of skin tags. However, the presence of mast cells in all examined skin tags regardless of diabetes and obesity may point to the possible crucial role of mast cells in the etiogenesis of skin tags through its interaction with fibroblasts and keratinocytes.

  11. Photon absorptiometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valkema, R.; Blokland, J.A.K.; Papapoulos, S.E.; Bijvoet, O.L.M.; Pauwels, E.K.J.

    1989-01-01

    Osteoporosis is a significant health problem in the western world, with important medical, social and economical consequences. Prevention and treatment require reliable methods for in vivo monitoring of the bone mineral content (BMC) and its change in time. This paper presents an overview of currently used radiological methods, based on photon absorptiometry, and their clinical applications. With recent methods based on dual energy X-ray absorptiometry accurate and precise measurements of axial BMC can be obtained. Whether this improvements allows reliable detection of small changes in BMC remains to be investigated. (Author). 95 refs.; 1 tab

  12. Methyl-CpG island-associated genome signature tags

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn, John J

    2014-05-20

    Disclosed is a method for analyzing the organismic complexity of a sample through analysis of the nucleic acid in the sample. In the disclosed method, through a series of steps, including digestion with a type II restriction enzyme, ligation of capture adapters and linkers and digestion with a type IIS restriction enzyme, genome signature tags are produced. The sequences of a statistically significant number of the signature tags are determined and the sequences are used to identify and quantify the organisms in the sample. Various embodiments of the invention described herein include methods for using single point genome signature tags to analyze the related families present in a sample, methods for analyzing sequences associated with hyper- and hypo-methylated CpG islands, methods for visualizing organismic complexity change in a sampling location over time and methods for generating the genome signature tag profile of a sample of fragmented DNA.

  13. Photon-photon collisions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brodsky, S.J.

    1985-01-01

    The study of photon-photon collisions has progressed enormously, stimulated by new data and new calculational tools for QCD. In the future we can expect precise determinations of ..cap alpha../sub s/ and ..lambda../sup ms/ from the ..gamma..*..gamma.. ..-->.. ..pi../sup 0/ form factor and the photon structure function, as well as detailed checks of QCD, determination of the shape of the hadron distribution amplitudes from ..gamma gamma.. ..-->.. H anti H, reconstruction of sigma/sub ..gamma gamma../ from exclusive channels at low W/sub ..gamma gamma../, definitive studies of high p/sub T/ hadron and jet production, and studies of threshold production of charmed systems. Photon-photon collisions, along with radiative decays of the psi and UPSILON, are ideal for the study of multiquark and gluonic resonances. We have emphasized the potential for resonance formation near threshold in virtually every hadronic exclusive channel, including heavy quark states c anti c c anti c, c anti c u anti u, etc. At higher energies SLC, LEP, ...) parity-violating electroweak effects and Higgs production due to equivalent Z/sup 0/ and W/sup + -/ beams from e ..-->.. eZ/sup 0/ and e ..-->.. nu W will become important. 44 references.

  14. Photon-photon collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brodsky, S.J.

    1985-01-01

    The study of photon-photon collisions has progressed enormously, stimulated by new data and new calculational tools for QCD. In the future we can expect precise determinations of α/sub s/ and Λ/sup ms/ from the γ*γ → π 0 form factor and the photon structure function, as well as detailed checks of QCD, determination of the shape of the hadron distribution amplitudes from γγ → H anti H, reconstruction of sigma/sub γγ/ from exclusive channels at low W/sub γγ/, definitive studies of high p/sub T/ hadron and jet production, and studies of threshold production of charmed systems. Photon-photon collisions, along with radiative decays of the psi and UPSILON, are ideal for the study of multiquark and gluonic resonances. We have emphasized the potential for resonance formation near threshold in virtually every hadronic exclusive channel, including heavy quark states c anti c c anti c, c anti c u anti u, etc. At higher energies SLC, LEP, ...) parity-violating electroweak effects and Higgs production due to equivalent Z 0 and W +- beams from e → eZ 0 and e → nu W will become important. 44 references

  15. Photon-photon collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Field, J.H.

    1984-01-01

    The current status, both theoretical and experimental, of two photon collision physics is reviewed with special emphasis on recent experimental results from e + e - storage rings. After a complete presentation of the helicity amplitude formalism for the general process e + e - → Xe + e - , various approximations (transverse photon, Weisaecker Williams) are discussed. Beam polarisation effects and radiative corrections are also briefly considered. A number of specific processes, for which experimental results are now available, are then described. In each case existing theoretical prediction are confronted with experimental results. The processes described include single resonance production, lepton and hadron pair production, the structure functions of the photon, the production of high Psub(T) jets and the total photon photon cross section. In the last part of the review the current status of the subject is summarised and some comments are made on future prospects. These include both extrapolations of current research to higher energy machines (LEP, HERA) as well as a brief mention of both the technical realisation and the physics interest of the real γγ and eγ collisions which may be possible using linear electron colliders in the 1 TeV energy range

  16. Engineering the ATLAS TAG Browser

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Q; The ATLAS collaboration

    2011-01-01

    ELSSI is a web-based event metadata (TAG) browser and event-level selection service for ATLAS. TAGs from all ATLAS physics and Monte Carlo data sets are routinely loaded into Oracle databases as an integral part of event processing. As data volumes increase, more and more sites are joining the distributed TAG data hosting topology[1]. Meanwhile, TAG content and database schemata continue to evolve as new user requirements and additional sources of metadata emerge. All of this has posed many challenges to the development of ELSSI, which must support vast amounts of TAG data while source, content, geographic locations, and user query patterns may change over time. In this paper, we describe some of the challenges encountered in the process of developing ELSSI, and the software engineering strategies adopted to address those challenges. Approaches to management of access to data, browsing, data rendering, query building, query validation, execution, connection management, and communication with auxiliary service...

  17. Engineering the ATLAS TAG Browser

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Q; The ATLAS collaboration

    2011-01-01

    ELSSI is a web-based event metadata (TAG) browser and event-level selection service for ATLAS. TAGs from all ATLAS physics and Monte Carlo data sets are routinely loaded into Oracle databases as an integral part of event processing. As data volumes increase, more and more sites are joining the distributed TAG data hosting topology. Meanwhile, TAG content and database schemata continue to evolve as new user requirements and additional sources of metadata emerge. All of this has posed many challenges to the development of ELSSI, which must support vast amounts of TAG data while source, content, geographic locations, and user query patterns may change over time. In this paper, we describe some of the challenges encountered in the process of developing ELSSI, and the software engineering strategies adopted to address those challenges. Approaches to management of access to data, browsing, data rendering, query building, query validation, execution, connection management, and communication with auxiliary services a...

  18. A method for photon beam Monte Carlo multileaf collimator particle transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siebers, Jeffrey V.; Keall, Paul J.; Kim, Jong Oh; Mohan, Radhe

    2002-09-01

    Monte Carlo (MC) algorithms are recognized as the most accurate methodology for patient dose assessment. For intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) delivered with dynamic multileaf collimators (DMLCs), accurate dose calculation, even with MC, is challenging. Accurate IMRT MC dose calculations require inclusion of the moving MLC in the MC simulation. Due to its complex geometry, full transport through the MLC can be time consuming. The aim of this work was to develop an MLC model for photon beam MC IMRT dose computations. The basis of the MC MLC model is that the complex MLC geometry can be separated into simple geometric regions, each of which readily lends itself to simplified radiation transport. For photons, only attenuation and first Compton scatter interactions are considered. The amount of attenuation material an individual particle encounters while traversing the entire MLC is determined by adding the individual amounts from each of the simplified geometric regions. Compton scatter is sampled based upon the total thickness traversed. Pair production and electron interactions (scattering and bremsstrahlung) within the MLC are ignored. The MLC model was tested for 6 MV and 18 MV photon beams by comparing it with measurements and MC simulations that incorporate the full physics and geometry for fields blocked by the MLC and with measurements for fields with the maximum possible tongue-and-groove and tongue-or-groove effects, for static test cases and for sliding windows of various widths. The MLC model predicts the field size dependence of the MLC leakage radiation within 0.1% of the open-field dose. The entrance dose and beam hardening behind a closed MLC are predicted within +/-1% or 1 mm. Dose undulations due to differences in inter- and intra-leaf leakage are also correctly predicted. The MC MLC model predicts leaf-edge tongue-and-groove dose effect within +/-1% or 1 mm for 95% of the points compared at 6 MV and 88% of the points compared at 18 MV

  19. A method for photon beam Monte Carlo multileaf collimator particle transport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siebers, Jeffrey V. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Medical College of Virginia Hospitals, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, VA (United States)]. E-mail: jsiebers@vcu.edu; Keall, Paul J.; Kim, Jong Oh; Mohan, Radhe [Department of Radiation Oncology, Medical College of Virginia Hospitals, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, VA (United States)

    2002-09-07

    Monte Carlo (MC) algorithms are recognized as the most accurate methodology for patient dose assessment. For intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) delivered with dynamic multileaf collimators (DMLCs), accurate dose calculation, even with MC, is challenging. Accurate IMRT MC dose calculations require inclusion of the moving MLC in the MC simulation. Due to its complex geometry, full transport through the MLC can be time consuming. The aim of this work was to develop an MLC model for photon beam MC IMRT dose computations. The basis of the MC MLC model is that the complex MLC geometry can be separated into simple geometric regions, each of which readily lends itself to simplified radiation transport. For photons, only attenuation and first Compton scatter interactions are considered. The amount of attenuation material an individual particle encounters while traversing the entire MLC is determined by adding the individual amounts from each of the simplified geometric regions. Compton scatter is sampled based upon the total thickness traversed. Pair production and electron interactions (scattering and bremsstrahlung) within the MLC are ignored. The MLC model was tested for 6 MV and 18 MV photon beams by comparing it with measurements and MC simulations that incorporate the full physics and geometry for fields blocked by the MLC and with measurements for fields with the maximum possible tongue-and-groove and tongue-or-groove effects, for static test cases and for sliding windows of various widths. The MLC model predicts the field size dependence of the MLC leakage radiation within 0.1% of the open-field dose. The entrance dose and beam hardening behind a closed MLC are predicted within {+-}1% or 1 mm. Dose undulations due to differences in inter- and intra-leaf leakage are also correctly predicted. The MC MLC model predicts leaf-edge tongue-and-groove dose effect within {+-}1% or 1 mm for 95% of the points compared at 6 MV and 88% of the points compared at 18 MV

  20. Measuring the b-tagging efficiency in ATLAS data at √(s)=8 TeV and √(s)=13 TeV using the p{sup rel}{sub T}-method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burmeister, Ingo

    2017-07-01

    This thesis presents the first measurement of the b-tagging efficiency ε{sub b} with the p{sub T}{sup rel}-method under Run 2 conditions at the ATLAS experiment. The measurement has been performed for semi-leptonically decaying b-hadrons with a muon in the final state. This has been achieved by selecting events with a muon associated to a jet by a cone based matching algorithm. The p{sub T}{sup rel}-variable is sensitive to the mass of the weakly decaying particle and is therefore sensitive to the jet-flavor. Exploiting this dependence, the flavor fractions are determined with a log-likelihood template fit to the p{sub T}{sup rel}-distribution in the tagged and untagged jet samples determined by the algorithm and operating point under study. The dataset used for this study corresponds to an integrated luminosity of 11.6 fb{sup -1} of proton-proton-collisions taken with the ATLAS detector at √(s)=13 TeV center of mass energy. In addition, ε{sub b} has been measured for algorithms on trigger level using the p{sub T}{sup rel}-method. This has been conducted in a set of proton-proton-collisions recorded at the ATLAS experiment at √(s)=8 TeV center of mass energy. Here, a conditional calibration depending on off-line tagger decisions has been utilized.

  1. Measuring the b-tagging efficiency in ATLAS data at √(s)=8 TeV and √(s)=13 TeV using the prelT-method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burmeister, Ingo

    2017-01-01

    This thesis presents the first measurement of the b-tagging efficiency ε b with the p T rel -method under Run 2 conditions at the ATLAS experiment. The measurement has been performed for semi-leptonically decaying b-hadrons with a muon in the final state. This has been achieved by selecting events with a muon associated to a jet by a cone based matching algorithm. The p T rel -variable is sensitive to the mass of the weakly decaying particle and is therefore sensitive to the jet-flavor. Exploiting this dependence, the flavor fractions are determined with a log-likelihood template fit to the p T rel -distribution in the tagged and untagged jet samples determined by the algorithm and operating point under study. The dataset used for this study corresponds to an integrated luminosity of 11.6 fb -1 of proton-proton-collisions taken with the ATLAS detector at √(s)=13 TeV center of mass energy. In addition, ε b has been measured for algorithms on trigger level using the p T rel -method. This has been conducted in a set of proton-proton-collisions recorded at the ATLAS experiment at √(s)=8 TeV center of mass energy. Here, a conditional calibration depending on off-line tagger decisions has been utilized.

  2. Can Global Visual Features Improve Tag Recommendation for Image Annotation?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oge Marques

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Recent advances in the fields of digital photography, networking and computing, have made it easier than ever for users to store and share photographs. However without sufficient metadata, e.g., in the form of tags, photos are difficult to find and organize. In this paper, we describe a system that recommends tags for image annotation. We postulate that the use of low-level global visual features can improve the quality of the tag recommendation process when compared to a baseline statistical method based on tag co-occurrence. We present results from experiments conducted using photos and metadata sourced from the Flickr photo website that suggest that the use of visual features improves the mean average precision (MAP of the system and increases the system's ability to suggest different tags, therefore justifying the associated increase in complexity.

  3. Serotype determination of Salmonella by xTAG assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Zhibei; Zheng, Wei; Wang, Haoqiu; Pan, Jincao; Pu, Xiaoying

    2017-10-01

    Currently, no protocols or commercial kits are available to determine the serotypes of Salmonella by using Luminex MAGPIX®. In this study, an xTAG assay for serotype determination of Salmonella suitable for Luminex MAGPIX® is described and 228 Salmonella isolates were serotype determined by this xTAG assay. The xTAG assay consists of two steps: 1) Multiplex PCR to amplify simultaneously O, H and Vi antigen genes of Salmonella, and 2) Magplex-TAG™ microsphere hybridization to identify accurately the specific PCR products of different antigens. Compared with the serotyping results of traditional serum agglutination test, the sensitivity and specificity of the xTAG assay were 95.1% and 100%, respectively. The agreement rate of these two assays was 95.2%. Compared with Luminex xMAP® Salmonella Serotyping Assay (SSA) kit, the advantages of this xTAG assay are: First, the magnetic beads make it applicable to both the Luminex®100/200™ and MAGPIX® systems. Second, only primers rather than both primers and probes are needed in the xTAG assay, and the process of coupling antigen-specific oligonucleotide probes to beads is circumvented, which make the xTAG assay convenient to be utilized by other laboratories. The xTAG assay may serve as a rapid alternative or complementary method for traditional Salmonella serotyping tests, especially for laboratories that utilize the MAGPIX® systems. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Measuring and Predicting Tag Importance for Image Retrieval.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shangwen; Purushotham, Sanjay; Chen, Chen; Ren, Yuzhuo; Kuo, C-C Jay

    2017-12-01

    Textual data such as tags, sentence descriptions are combined with visual cues to reduce the semantic gap for image retrieval applications in today's Multimodal Image Retrieval (MIR) systems. However, all tags are treated as equally important in these systems, which may result in misalignment between visual and textual modalities during MIR training. This will further lead to degenerated retrieval performance at query time. To address this issue, we investigate the problem of tag importance prediction, where the goal is to automatically predict the tag importance and use it in image retrieval. To achieve this, we first propose a method to measure the relative importance of object and scene tags from image sentence descriptions. Using this as the ground truth, we present a tag importance prediction model to jointly exploit visual, semantic and context cues. The Structural Support Vector Machine (SSVM) formulation is adopted to ensure efficient training of the prediction model. Then, the Canonical Correlation Analysis (CCA) is employed to learn the relation between the image visual feature and tag importance to obtain robust retrieval performance. Experimental results on three real-world datasets show a significant performance improvement of the proposed MIR with Tag Importance Prediction (MIR/TIP) system over other MIR systems.

  5. Novel cleavage of reductively aminated glycan-tags by N-bromosuccinimide to regenerate free, reducing glycans

    OpenAIRE

    Song, Xuezheng; Johns, Brian A.; Ju, Hong; Lasanajak, Yi; Zhao, Chunmei; Smith, David F.; Cummings, Richard D.

    2013-01-01

    Glycans that are fluorescently tagged by reductive amination have been useful for functional glycomic studies. However, the existing tags can introduce unwanted properties to the glycans and complicate structural and functional studies. Here we describe a facile method using N-bromosuccinimide (NBS) to remove the tags and efficiently regenerate free reducing glycans. The regenerated free reducing glycans can be easily analyzed by routine mass spectrometry or re-tagged with different tags for ...

  6. Design and Analysis of Salmonid Tagging Studies in the Columbia Basin, Volume XXI; A Summary of Methods for Conducting Salmonid Fry Mark-Recapture Studies for Estimating Survival in Tributaries, Technical Report 2005-2006.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skalski, John

    2007-02-01

    Productivity and early fry survival can have a major influence on the dynamics of fish stocks. To investigate the early life history of fish, numerous methods have been developed or adapted to these much smaller fish. Some of the marking techniques provide individual identification; many others, only class identification. Some of the tagging techniques require destructive sampling to identify a mark; other methods permit benign examination and rerelease of captured fish. Sixteen alternative release-recapture designs for conducting fry survival investigations were examined. Eleven approaches were found capable of estimating survival parameters; five were not. Of those methods capable of estimating fry survival, five required unique marks, four required batch-specific marks, and two approaches required remarking and rereleasing captured fry. No approach based on a simple batch mark was capable of statistically estimating survival.

  7. Using an Explicit Emission Tagging Method in Global Modeling of Source-Receptor Relationships for Black Carbon in the Arctic: Variations, Sources and Transport Pathways

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Hailong; Rasch, Philip J.; Easter, Richard C.; Singh, Balwinder; Zhang, Rudong; Ma, Po-Lun; Qian, Yun; Ghan, Steven J.; Beagley, Nathaniel

    2014-11-27

    We introduce an explicit emission tagging technique in the Community Atmosphere Model to quantify source-region-resolved characteristics of black carbon (BC), focusing on the Arctic. Explicit tagging of BC source regions without perturbing the emissions makes it straightforward to establish source-receptor relationships and transport pathways, providing a physically consistent and computationally efficient approach to produce a detailed characterization of the destiny of regional BC emissions and the potential for mitigation actions. Our analysis shows that the contributions of major source regions to the global BC burden are not proportional to the respective emissions due to strong region-dependent removal rates and lifetimes, while the contributions to BC direct radiative forcing show a near-linear dependence on their respective contributions to the burden. Distant sources contribute to BC in remote regions mostly in the mid- and upper troposphere, having much less impact on lower-level concentrations (and deposition) than on burden. Arctic BC concentrations, deposition and source contributions all have strong seasonal variations. Eastern Asia contributes the most to the wintertime Arctic burden. Northern Europe emissions are more important to both surface concentration and deposition in winter than in summer. The largest contribution to Arctic BC in the summer is from Northern Asia. Although local emissions contribute less than 10% to the annual mean BC burden and deposition within the Arctic, the per-emission efficiency is much higher than for major non-Arctic sources. The interannual variability (1996-2005) due to meteorology is small in annual mean BC burden and radiative forcing but is significant in yearly seasonal means over the Arctic. When a slow aging treatment of BC is introduced, the increase of BC lifetime and burden is source-dependent. Global BC forcing-per-burden efficiency also increases primarily due to changes in BC vertical distributions. The

  8. Sex identification and PIT-tagging: tools and prospects for studying intersexual differences in freshwater fishes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hulthén, K.; Chapman, B.B.; Nilsson, P.A.

    2014-01-01

    the probability of survival within the size range tagged (119–280 m ), nor were there differences in timing of migration the following season between individuals sexed and tagged in spring and individuals tagged in autumn (i.e. outside the reproductive period). Also, a similar per cent of R. rutilus sexed...... and tagged in spring and tagged in autumn migrated the following season (34·5 and 34·7%). Moreover, long-term recapture data revealed no significant differences in body condition between R. rutilus individuals sexed and tagged in spring, individuals tagged in autumn and unmanipulated individuals....... The observed sex ratio of recaptured fish did not differ from the expected values of equal recapture rates between males and females. Hence, there is no observable evidence for an adverse effect of tagging close to the reproductive period and therefore this method is suitable for studying intersexual...

  9. The simultaneous neutron and photon interrogation method for fissile and non-fissile element separation in radioactive waste drums

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jallu, F.; Lyoussi, A.; Passard, C.; Payan, E.; Recroix, H.; Nurdin, G.; Buisson, A.; Allano, J.

    2000-01-01

    Measuring α-emitters such as ( 234,235,236,238 U, 238,239,240,242,244 Pu, 237 Np, 241,243 Am, ...), in solid radioactive waste allows us to quantify the α-activity in a drum and then to classify it. The simultaneous photon and neutron interrogation experiment (SIMPHONIE) method dealt with in this paper, combines both active neutron interrogation and induced photofission interrogation techniques simultaneously. Its purpose is to quantify fissile ( 235 U, 239,241 Pu, ...) and non-fissile ( 236,238 U, 238,240 Pu, ...) elements separately in only one measurement. This paper presents the principle of the method, the experimental setup, and the first experimental results obtained using the DGA/ETCA Linac and MiniLinatron pulsed linear electron accelerators located at Arcueil, France. First studies were carried out with U and Pu bare samples

  10. Band structure of one-dimensional doped photonic crystal with three level atoms using the Fresnel coefficients method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jafari, A.; Rahmat, A.; Bakkeshizadeh, S.

    2018-01-01

    We consider a one-dimensional photonic crystal (1DPC) composed of double-layered dielectrics. Electric permittivity and magnetic permeability of this crystal depends on the incident electromagnetic wave frequency. We suppose that three level atoms have been added to the second layer of each dielectric and this photonic crystal (PC) has been doped. These atoms can be added to the layer with different rates. In this paper, we have calculated and compared the band structure of the mentioned PC considering the effect of added atoms to the second layer with different rates through the Fresnel coefficients method. We find out that according to the effective medium theory, the electric permittivity of the second layer changes. Also the band structure of PC for both TE and TM polarizations changes, too. The width of bandgaps related to “zero averaged refractive index” and “Bragg” increases. Moreover, new gap branches appear in new frequencies at both TE and TM polarizations. In specific state, two branches of “zero permittivity” gap appear in the PC band structure related to TM polarization. With increasing the amount of the filling rate of total volume with three level atoms, we observe a lot of changes in the PC band structure.

  11. Application of structural symmetries in the plane-wave-based transfer-matrix method for three-dimensional photonic crystal waveguides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Zhiyuan; Ho Kaiming

    2003-01-01

    The plane-wave-based transfer-matrix method (TMM) exhibits a peculiar advantage of being capable of solving eigenmodes involved in an infinite photonic crystal and electromagnetic (EM) wave propagation in finite photonic crystal slabs or even semi-infinite photonic crystal structures within the same theoretical framework. In addition, this theoretical approach can achieve much improved numerical convergency in solution of photonic band structures than the conventional plane-wave expansion method. In this paper we employ this TMM in combination with a supercell technique to handle two important kinds of three-dimensional (3D) photonic crystal waveguide structures. The first one is waveguides created in a 3D layer-by-layer photonic crystal that possesses a complete band gap, the other more popular one is waveguides built in a two-dimensional photonic crystal slab. These waveguides usually have mirror-reflection symmetries in one or two directions perpendicular to their axis. We have taken advantage of these structural symmetries to reduce the numerical burden of the TMM solution of the guided modes. The solution to the EM problems under these mirror-reflection symmetries in both the real space and the plane-wave space is discussed in a systematic way and in great detail. Both the periodic boundary condition and the absorbing boundary condition are employed to investigate structures with or without complete 3D optical confinement. The fact that the EM field components investigated in the TMM are collinear with the symmetric axes of the waveguide brings great convenience and clarity in exploring the eigenmode symmetry in both the real space and the plane-wave space. The classification of symmetry involved in the guided modes can help people to better understand the coupling of the photonic crystal waveguides with external channels such as dielectric slab or wire waveguides

  12. Implementation and development of methods for quantification of cerebral blood flow in absolute units using single Photon Emission Tomography (SPECT)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diaz Moreno, Rogelio Manuel; Sanchez Catasus, Carlos; Aguila Ruiz, Angel; Samper, J; Llibre, J.

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this work was to implement the graphical and spectral methods of quantification of cerebral blood flow in absolute units with Single photon emission computered tomography and compare the results of its application. Also, a third method was developed to calculate blood flow, modifying the spectral method. The obtained flow values were 43.6 + 6.1 ml/min/100 g; 43.3+ 8.2 ml/min/100 g and 43.0+4.7 ml/min/100 g, respectively. We conclude that these methods are easy, non invasive and can be made in our country's technological conditions. The main innovation in this work was the modification of the spectral method, with which it is possible to avoid some of the difficulties arisen in the other methods. Also, the use of the software allows high reproducibility and efficiency on the process. These methods can become a valuable tool to enhance clinical diagnosis and important biomedical research. (Author)

  13. Equi-frequency contour of photonic crystals with the extended Dirichlet-to-Neumann wave vector eigenvalue equation method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang Bin; Zhang Yejing; Wang Yufei; Liu Anjin; Zheng Wanhua

    2012-01-01

    We present the extended Dirichlet-to-Neumann wave vector eigenvalue equation (DtN-WVEE) method to calculate the equi-frequency contour (EFC) of square lattice photonic crystals (PhCs). With the extended DtN-WVEE method and Snell's law, the effective refractive index of the mode with a circular EFC can be obtained, which is further validated with the refractive index weighted by the electric field or magnetic field. To further verify the EFC calculated by the DtN-WVEE method, the finite-difference time-domain method is also used. Compared with other wave vector eigenvalue equation methods that calculate EFC directly, the size of the eigenmatrix used in the DtN-WVEE method is much smaller, and the computation time is significantly reduced. Since the DtN-WVEE method solves wave vectors for given arbitrary frequencies, it can also find applications in studying the optical properties of a PhC with dispersive, lossy and magnetic materials. (paper)

  14. Quantification of Fissile Materials by Photon Activation Method in a Highly Shielded Enclosure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dighe, P.M.; Pithawa, C.K.; Goswami, A.; Dixit, K.P.; Mittal, K.C.; Sunil, C.; Sarkar, P.K.; Mukhopadhyay, P.K.; Patil, R.K.; Srivastava, G.P.; Ganesan, S.; Venugopal, V.

    2010-01-01

    For active and non-destructive quantitative identification of heavily shielded fissile materials, photo fission is one of the most often used techniques. High energy photon beams can be conveniently generated with the help of electron LINACs. 10MeV energy electron LINACs are extensively used for various industrial applications such as food irradiation, X-ray radiography, etc. The radiological safety consideration favours the use of electron beam of upto 10 MeV energy. The photonuclear data available on 10 MeV end point energy is very scarce. The present paper gives the results of our initial experiments carried out using natural uranium samples at 10 MeV LINAC facility. Water cooled tantalum target converter was used to produce intense Bremsstrahlung to induce photofission in the samples. Neutron detection system consists of six numbers of high sensitivity Helium-3 proportional counters and gamma detection system consists of two numbers of 76 mm diameter BGO scintillators. Delayed neutron and delayed gamma radiations were measured and analyzed. The mass to count rate relationship has been established for both delayed neutron and gamma radiations. Delayed gamma decay constants of natural uranium have been derived for the 10 MeV end point energy. (author)

  15. Quantum tagging for tags containing secret classical data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kent, Adrian

    2011-01-01

    Various authors have considered schemes for quantum tagging, that is, authenticating the classical location of a classical tagging device by sending and receiving quantum signals from suitably located distant sites, in an environment controlled by an adversary whose quantum information processing and transmitting power is potentially unbounded. All of the schemes proposed elsewhere in the literature assume that the adversary is able to inspect the interior of the tagging device. All of these schemes have been shown to be breakable if the adversary has unbounded predistributed entanglement. We consider here the case in which the tagging device contains a finite key string shared with distant sites but kept secret from the adversary, and show this allows the location of the tagging device to be authenticated securely and indefinitely. Our protocol relies on quantum key distribution between the tagging device and at least one distant site, and demonstrates a new practical application of quantum key distribution. It also illustrates that the attainable security in position-based cryptography can depend crucially on apparently subtle details in the security scenario considered.

  16. Photonic band gap engineering in 2D photonic crystals

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Department of Applied Physics, Delhi College of Engineering, Faculty of Technology. (University of ... Photonic crystal; photonic band gap; plane-wave expansion method. PACS Nos 71.20 .... Numerical analysis and results. To obtain the ...

  17. Search for the Higgs boson in the ZH→v$\\bar{v}$b$\\bar{b}$ channel: Development of a b-tagging method based on soft muons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jamin, David [Univ. of the Mediterranean, Marseille (France)

    2010-09-30

    In the Standard Model of particle physics, the Higgs boson generates elementary particle masses. Current theoretical and experimental constraints lead to a Higgs boson mass between 114.4 and 158 GeV with 95% confidence level. Moreover, Tevatron has recently excluded the mass ranges between 100 and 109 GeV, 158 and 175 GeV with 95% confidence level. These results gives a clear indication to search for a Higgs boson at low mass. The D0 detector is located near Chicago, at the Tevatron, a proton-antiproton collider with an energy in the center of mass of 1.96 TeV. The topic of this thesis is the search for a Higgs boson in association with a Z boson. This channel is sensitive to low mass Higgs boson (<135 GeV) which has a branching ratio H → bb varies between 50% and 90% in this mass range. The decay channel ZH → v$\\bar{v}$b$\\bar{b}$ studied has in the final state 2 heavy-flavor jets and some missing transverse energy due to escaping neutrinos. The heavy-flavor jets identification ('b-tagging') is done with a new algorithm (SLTNN) developed specifically for semi-leptonic decay of b quarks. The Higgs boson search analysis was performed with 3 fb-1 of data. The use of SLTNN increases by 10% the Higgs boson signal efficiency. The global analysis sensitivity improvement, however, is rather low (<1%) after taking into account the backgrounds and systematic uncertainties.

  18. Behavioral tagging of extinction learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Carvalho Myskiw, Jociane; Benetti, Fernando; Izquierdo, Iván

    2013-01-15

    Extinction of contextual fear in rats is enhanced by exposure to a novel environment at 1-2 h before or 1 h after extinction training. This effect is antagonized by administration of protein synthesis inhibitors anisomycin and rapamycin into the hippocampus, but not into the amygdala, immediately after either novelty or extinction training, as well as by the gene expression blocker 5,6-dichloro-1-beta-D-ribofuranosylbenzimidazole administered after novelty training, but not after extinction training. Thus, this effect can be attributed to a mechanism similar to synaptic tagging, through which long-term potentiation can be enhanced by other long-term potentiations or by exposure to a novel environment in a protein synthesis-dependent fashion. Extinction learning produces a tag at the appropriate synapses, whereas novelty learning causes the synthesis of plasticity-related proteins that are captured by the tag, strengthening the synapses that generated this tag.

  19. Device-free object tracking using passive tags

    CERN Document Server

    Han, Jinsong; Zhao, Kun; Jiang, Zhiping

    2014-01-01

    This SpringerBrief examines the use of cheap commercial passive RFID tags to achieve accurate device-free object-tracking. It presents a sensitive detector, named Twins, which uses a pair of adjacent passive tags to detect uncooperative targets (such as intruders). Twins leverages a newly observed phenomenon called critical state that is caused by interference among passive tags.The author expands on the previous object tracking methods, which are mostly device-based, and reveals a new interference model and their extensive experiments for validation. A prototype implementation of the Twins-ba

  20. Flavor Tagging at Tevatron incl. calibration and control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moulik, T.; /Kansas U.

    2007-01-01

    This report summarizes the flavor tagging techniques developed at the CDF and D0 experiments. Flavor tagging involves identification of the B meson flavor at production, whether its constituent is a quark or an anti-quark. It is crucial for measuring the oscillation frequency of neutral B mesons, both in the B{sup 0} and B{sub S} system. The two experiments have developed their unique approaches to flavor tagging, using neural networks, and likelihood methods to disentangle tracks from b decays from other tracks. This report discusses these techniques and the measurement of B{sup 0} mixing, as a means to calibrate the taggers.

  1. Tub-Tag Labeling; Chemoenzymatic Incorporation of Unnatural Amino Acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helma, Jonas; Leonhardt, Heinrich; Hackenberger, Christian P R; Schumacher, Dominik

    2018-01-01

    Tub-tag labeling is a chemoenzymatic method that enables the site-specific labeling of proteins. Here, the natural enzyme tubulin tyrosine ligase incorporates noncanonical tyrosine derivatives to the terminal carboxylic acid of proteins containing a 14-amino acid recognition sequence called Tub-tag. The tyrosine derivative carries a unique chemical reporter allowing for a subsequent bioorthogonal modification of proteins with a great variety of probes. Here, we describe the Tub-tag protein modification protocol in detail and explain its utilization to generate labeled proteins for advanced applications in cell biology, imaging, and diagnostics.

  2. ARGUS. The scintillating fibre tagging detector of the BGO-OD experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alef, Stefan; Reitz, Bjoern-Eric [Physikalisches Institut, Nussallee 12, 53115 Bonn (Germany); Collaboration: BGO-OD-Collaboration

    2015-07-01

    The BGO-OD experiment at the ELSA accelerator in Bonn is built to investigate baryon-resonances using meson-photoproduction off the nucleon. The photons are produced from the electron beam via bremsstrahlung. Linearly polarized photons are obtained by coherent scattering off a crystal. The degree of polarization is obtained from the measured energy spectrum of the electrons. At the moment the energy resolution is limited by the current tagging system. Therefore an additional tagging detector consisting of scintillating fibres was constructed. A short overview of the detector and its properties along with some preliminary first results is shown.

  3. Low dose out-of-field radiotherapy, part 2: Calculating the mean photon energy values for the out-of-field photon energy spectrum from scattered radiation using Monte Carlo methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skrobala, A; Adamczyk, S; Kruszyna-Mochalska, M; Skórska, M; Konefał, A; Suchorska, W; Zaleska, K; Kowalik, A; Jackowiak, W; Malicki, J

    2017-08-01

    During radiotherapy, leakage from the machine head and collimator expose patients to out-of-field irradiation doses, which may cause secondary cancers. To quantify the risks of secondary cancers due to out-of-field doses, it is first necessary to measure these doses. Since most dosimeters are energy-dependent, it is essential to first determine the type of photon energy spectrum in the out-of-field area. The aim of this study was to determine the mean photon energy values for the out-of-field photon energy spectrum for a 6 MV photon beam using the GEANT 4-Monte Carlo method. A specially-designed large water phantom was simulated with a static field at gantry 0°. The source-to-surface distance was 92cm for an open field size of 10×10cm2. The photon energy spectra were calculated at five unique positions (at depths of 0.5, 1.6, 4, 6, 8, and 10cm) along the central beam axis and at six different off-axis distances. Monte Carlo simulations showed that mean radiation energy levels drop rapidly beyond the edge of the 6 MV photon beam field: at a distance of 10cm, the mean energy level is close to 0.3MeV versus 1.5MeV at the central beam axis. In some cases, the energy level actually increased even as the distance from the field edge increased: at a depth of 1.6cm and 15cm off-axis, the mean energy level was 0.205MeV versus 0.252MeV at 20cm off-axis. The out-of-field energy spectra and dose distribution data obtained in this study with Monte Carlo methods can be used to calibrate dosimeters to measure out-of-field radiation from 6MV photons. Copyright © 2017 Société française de radiothérapie oncologique (SFRO). Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.

  4. Complex-envelope alternating-direction-implicit FDTD method for simulating active photonic devices with semiconductor/solid-state media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Gurpreet; Ravi, Koustuban; Wang, Qian; Ho, Seng-Tiong

    2012-06-15

    A complex-envelope (CE) alternating-direction-implicit (ADI) finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) approach to treat light-matter interaction self-consistently with electromagnetic field evolution for efficient simulations of active photonic devices is presented for the first time (to our best knowledge). The active medium (AM) is modeled using an efficient multilevel system of carrier rate equations to yield the correct carrier distributions, suitable for modeling semiconductor/solid-state media accurately. To include the AM in the CE-ADI-FDTD method, a first-order differential system involving CE fields in the AM is first set up. The system matrix that includes AM parameters is then split into two time-dependent submatrices that are then used in an efficient ADI splitting formula. The proposed CE-ADI-FDTD approach with AM takes 22% of the time as the approach of the corresponding explicit FDTD, as validated by semiconductor microdisk laser simulations.

  5. Modeling of neutron and photon transport in iron and concrete radiation shields by using Monte Carlo method

    CERN Document Server

    Žukauskaitėa, A; Plukienė, R; Ridikas, D

    2007-01-01

    Particle accelerators and other high energy facilities produce penetrating ionizing radiation (neutrons and γ-rays) that must be shielded. The objective of this work was to model photon and neutron transport in various materials, usually used as shielding, such as concrete, iron or graphite. Monte Carlo method allows obtaining answers by simulating individual particles and recording some aspects of their average behavior. In this work several nuclear experiments were modeled: AVF 65 (AVF cyclotron of Research Center of Nuclear Physics, Osaka University, Japan) – γ-ray beams (1-10 MeV), HIMAC (heavy-ion synchrotron of the National Institute of Radiological Sciences in Chiba, Japan) and ISIS-800 (ISIS intensive spallation neutron source facility of the Rutherford Appleton laboratory, UK) – high energy neutron (20-800 MeV) transport in iron and concrete. The calculation results were then compared with experimental data.compared with experimental data.

  6. A calculational method of photon dose equivalent based on the revised technical standards of radiological protection law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, Shun-ichi; Suzuki, Tomoo

    1991-03-01

    The effective conversion factor for photons from 0.03 to 10 MeV were calculated to convert the absorbed dose in air to the 1 cm, 3 mm, and 70 μm depth dose equivalents behind iron, lead, concrete, and water shields up to 30 mfp thickness. The effective conversion factor changes slightly with thickness of the shields and becomes nearly constant at 5 to 10 mfp. The difference of the effective conversion factor was less than 2% between plane normal and point isotropic geometries. It is suggested that the present method, making the data base of the exposure buildup factors useful, would be very effective as compared to a new evaluation of the dose equivalent buildup factors. 5 refs., 7 figs., 22 tabs

  7. Strep-Tagged Protein Purification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maertens, Barbara; Spriestersbach, Anne; Kubicek, Jan; Schäfer, Frank

    2015-01-01

    The Strep-tag system can be used to purify recombinant proteins from any expression system. Here, protocols for lysis and affinity purification of Strep-tagged proteins from E. coli, baculovirus-infected insect cells, and transfected mammalian cells are given. Depending on the amount of Strep-tagged protein in the lysate, a protocol for batch binding and subsequent washing and eluting by gravity flow can be used. Agarose-based matrices with the coupled Strep-Tactin ligand are the resins of choice, with a binding capacity of up to 9 mg ml(-1). For purification of lower amounts of Strep-tagged proteins, the use of Strep-Tactin magnetic beads is suitable. In addition, Strep-tagged protein purification can also be automated using prepacked columns for FPLC or other liquid-handling chromatography instrumentation, but automated purification is not discussed in this protocol. The protocols described here can be regarded as an update of the Strep-Tag Protein Handbook (Qiagen, 2009). © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Using gEUD based plan analysis method to evaluate proton vs. photon plans for lung cancer radiation therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Zhiyan; Zou, Wei J; Chen, Ting; Yue, Ning J; Jabbour, Salma K; Parikh, Rahul; Zhang, Miao

    2018-03-01

    The goal of this study was to exam the efficacy of current DVH based clinical guidelines draw from photon experience for lung cancer radiation therapy on proton therapy. Comparison proton plans and IMRT plans were generated for 10 lung patients treated in our proton facility. A gEUD based plan evaluation method was developed for plan evaluation. This evaluation method used normal lung gEUD(a) curve in which the model parameter "a" was sampled from the literature reported value. For all patients, the proton plans delivered lower normal lung V 5 Gy with similar V 20 Gy and similar target coverage. Based on current clinical guidelines, proton plans were ranked superior to IMRT plans for all 10 patients. However, the proton and IMRT normal lung gEUD(a) curves crossed for 8 patients within the tested range of "a", which means there was a possibility that proton plan would be worse than IMRT plan for lung sparing. A concept of deficiency index (DI) was introduced to quantify the probability of proton plans doing worse than IMRT plans. By applying threshold on DI, four patients' proton plan was ranked inferior to the IMRT plan. Meanwhile if a threshold to the location of curve crossing was applied, 6 patients' proton plan was ranked inferior to the IMRT plan. The contradictory ranking results between the current clinical guidelines and the gEUD(a) curve analysis demonstrated there is potential pitfalls by applying photon experience directly to the proton world. A comprehensive plan evaluation based on radio-biological models should be carried out to decide if a lung patient would really be benefit from proton therapy. © 2018 The Authors. Journal of Applied Clinical Medical Physics published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of American Association of Physicists in Medicine.

  9. One-loop calculations of photon splitting in a relativistic quantum plasma by the Green function method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Lya Insera, V.; Ferrer, Eh.; Shabad, A.E.

    1986-01-01

    Homogeneous and isotopic plasma of electrons and positrons is considered. Coefficients of covariant expansion of three-photon vertex in one-loop approximation of a technique of the Green temperature functions have been calculated and as a result amplitudes of different processes probability with the participation of three photons giving the data on the polarization state probability of incoming and outgoing photons in the splitting process. Sequences of all exact symmetries, which must be accomplished for vertex tensor, have been checked from calculational results. A case of charge-symmetrical plasma and a special case of photon collinearity have been considered

  10. New all-optical method for measuring molecular permanent dipole moment difference using two-photon absorption spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rebane, A.; Drobizhev, M.; Makarov, N.S.; Beuerman, E.; Tillo, S.; Hughes, T.

    2010-01-01

    Stark effect, in combination with spectral hole burning and single-molecule spectroscopy, has been a fruitful technique to study permanent electric dipole moment of molecules in condensed phase. However, because measuring Stark shifts relies on external fields and narrow line- or hole-widths, the applicability of this method at ambient conditions required by most biological systems has remained limited. Here we demonstrate a new all-optical method for measuring the molecular dipole moment difference between ground and excited states using two-photon absorption (2PA) spectroscopy. We show that the value and orientation of the static dipole moment difference can be determined from the corresponding absolute 2PA cross-section. We use this new method to determine for the first time the strength of local electric field E loc =0.1-1.0x10 8 V/cm inside beta-barrel of Fruit series of red fluorescent proteins. Because our method does not rely on external field and is applicable in liquid solutions, it is well suited for the study of biological systems.

  11. Numerical method to optimize the polar-azimuthal orientation of infrared superconducting-nanowire single-photon detectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Csete, Mária; Sipos, Áron; Najafi, Faraz; Hu, Xiaolong; Berggren, Karl K

    2011-11-01

    A finite-element method for calculating the illumination-dependence of absorption in three-dimensional nanostructures is presented based on the radio frequency module of the Comsol Multiphysics software package (Comsol AB). This method is capable of numerically determining the optical response and near-field distribution of subwavelength periodic structures as a function of illumination orientations specified by polar angle, φ, and azimuthal angle, γ. The method was applied to determine the illumination-angle-dependent absorptance in cavity-based superconducting-nanowire single-photon detector (SNSPD) designs. Niobium-nitride stripes based on dimensions of conventional SNSPDs and integrated with ~ quarter-wavelength hydrogen-silsesquioxane-filled nano-optical cavity and covered by a thin gold film acting as a reflector were illuminated from below by p-polarized light in this study. The numerical results were compared to results from complementary transfer-matrix-method calculations on composite layers made of analogous film-stacks. This comparison helped to uncover the optical phenomena contributing to the appearance of extrema in the optical response. This paper presents an approach to optimizing the absorptance of different sensing and detecting devices via simultaneous numerical optimization of the polar and azimuthal illumination angles. © 2011 Optical Society of America

  12. Intermolecular dynamics studied by paramagnetic tagging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu Xingfu; Keizers, Peter H. J. [Leiden University, Institute of Chemistry (Netherlands); Reinle, Wolfgang; Hannemann, Frank; Bernhardt, Rita [Universitaet des Saarlandes, Naturwissenschaftlich-Technische Fakultaet III, Institut fuer Biochemie (Germany); Ubbink, Marcellus [Leiden University, Institute of Chemistry (Netherlands)], E-mail: m.ubbink@chem.leidenuniv.nl

    2009-04-15

    Yeast cytochrome c and bovine adrenodoxin form a dynamic electron transfer complex, which is a pure encounter complex. It is demonstrated that the dynamic nature of the interaction can readily be probed by using a rigid lanthanide tag attached to cytochrome c. The tag, Caged Lanthanide NMR Probe 5, induces pseudocontact shifts and residual dipolar couplings and does not perturb the binding interface. Due to the dynamics in the complex, residual dipolar couplings in adrenodoxin are very small. Simulation shows that cytochrome c needs to sample a large part of the surface of adrenodoxin to explain the small degree of alignment observed for adrenodoxin. The applied method provides a simple and straightforward way to observe dynamics in protein complexes or domain-domain mobility without the need for external alignment media.

  13. Intermolecular dynamics studied by paramagnetic tagging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Xingfu; Keizers, Peter H. J.; Reinle, Wolfgang; Hannemann, Frank; Bernhardt, Rita; Ubbink, Marcellus

    2009-01-01

    Yeast cytochrome c and bovine adrenodoxin form a dynamic electron transfer complex, which is a pure encounter complex. It is demonstrated that the dynamic nature of the interaction can readily be probed by using a rigid lanthanide tag attached to cytochrome c. The tag, Caged Lanthanide NMR Probe 5, induces pseudocontact shifts and residual dipolar couplings and does not perturb the binding interface. Due to the dynamics in the complex, residual dipolar couplings in adrenodoxin are very small. Simulation shows that cytochrome c needs to sample a large part of the surface of adrenodoxin to explain the small degree of alignment observed for adrenodoxin. The applied method provides a simple and straightforward way to observe dynamics in protein complexes or domain-domain mobility without the need for external alignment media

  14. Editorial Tag Endogeneity for News Websites

    OpenAIRE

    Bruno Ribeiro; Ricardo Morla; Amílcar Correia

    2013-01-01

    Editors and journalists at some news websites label their articles with structure and content-related editorial tags. Each article can have more than one tag and each tag can be used in more than one article. A network of tags can be defined whose edges are all possible pairs of tags in each article. Because editorial tags relate to structure and content rather than individual articles, the analysis of a network of editorial tags could assist editorial decisions to prioritize types of content...

  15. A robust method for determining the absorbed dose to water in a phantom for low-energy photon radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schneider, T, E-mail: thorsten.schneider@ptb.de [Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB), 38116 Braunschweig (Germany)

    2011-06-07

    The application of more and more low-energy photon radiation in brachytherapy-either in the form of low-dose-rate radioactive seeds such as Pd-103 or I-125 or in the form of miniature x-ray tubes-has induced greater interest in determining the absorbed dose to water in water in this energy range. As it seems to be hardly feasible to measure the absorbed dose with calorimetric methods in this low energy range, ionometric methods are the preferred choice. However, the determination of the absorbed dose to water in water by ionometric methods is difficult in this energy range. With decreasing energy, the relative uncertainty of the photon cross sections increases and as the mass energy transfer coefficients show a steep gradient, the spectra of the radiation field must be known precisely. In this work two ionometric methods to determine the absorbed dose to water are evaluated with respect to their sensitivity to the uncertainties of the spectra and of the atomic database. The first is the measurement of the air kerma free in air and the application of an MC-based conversion factor to the absorbed dose to water. The second is the determination of the absorbed dose to water by means of an extrapolation chamber as an integral part of a phantom. In the complementing MC-calculations, two assortments of spectra each of which is based on a separate unfolding procedure were used as well as two kinds of databases: the standard PEGS and the recently implemented NIST database of EGSnrc. Experimental results were obtained by using a parallel-plate graphite extrapolation chamber and a free-air chamber. In the case when the water kerma in a phantom is determined from the measurements of air kerma free in air, differences in the order of 10% were found, according to which the database or the kind of spectrum is used. In contrast to this, for the second method, the differences found were about 0.5%.

  16. Tempting To Tag: An Experimental Comparison Of Four Tagging Input Mechanisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Melenhorst

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Tagging helps achieve improved indexing and recommendation of resources (e.g., videos or pictures in large data collections. In order to reap the benefits of tagging, people must be persuaded to label the resources they consume. This paper reports on a study in which four different tagging input mechanisms and their effect on users' motivation to tag were compared. The mechanisms consisted of a standard tag input box, a chatbot-like environment, a bookmarking mechanism, and a "tag and vote" game. The results of our experiment show that the use of the nonstandard tagging input mechanisms does not affect users' motivation to tag. In some instances tagging mechanisms were found to distract users from their primary task: consuming resources. Persuading people to tag might be accomplished more effectively by using other motivating tagging mechanisms (e.g., tagging games, or motivation could be created by explaining the usefulness of tagging.

  17. MVP/GMVP II, MC Codes for Neutron and Photon Transport Calc. based on Continuous Energy and Multigroup Methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    A - Description of program or function: (1) Problems to be solved: MVP/GMVP can solve eigenvalue and fixed-source problems. The multigroup code GMVP can solve forward and adjoint problems for neutron, photon and neutron-photon coupled transport. The continuous-energy code MVP can solve only the forward problems. Both codes can also perform time-dependent calculations. (2) Geometry description: MVP/GMVP employs combinatorial geometry to describe the calculation geometry. It describes spatial regions by the combination of the 3-dimensional objects (BODIes). Currently, the following objects (BODIes) can be used. - BODIes with linear surfaces: half space, parallelepiped, right parallelepiped, wedge, right hexagonal prism; - BODIes with quadratic surface and linear surfaces: cylinder, sphere, truncated right cone, truncated elliptic cone, ellipsoid by rotation, general ellipsoid; - Arbitrary quadratic surface and torus. The rectangular and hexagonal lattice geometry can be used to describe the repeated geometry. Furthermore, the statistical geometry model is available to treat coated fuel particles or pebbles for high temperature reactors. (3) Particle sources: The various forms of energy-, angle-, space- and time-dependent distribution functions can be specified. (4) Cross sections: The ANISN-type PL cross sections or the double-differential cross sections can be used in the multigroup code GMVP. On the other hand, the specific cross section libraries are used in the continuous-energy code MVP. The libraries are generated from the evaluated nuclear data (JENDL-3.3, ENDF/B-VI, JEF-3.0 etc.) by using the LICEM code. The neutron cross sections in the unresolved resonance region are described by the probability table method. The neutron cross sections at arbitrary temperatures are available for MVP by just specifying the temperatures in the input data. (5) Boundary conditions: Vacuum, perfect reflective, isotropic reflective (white), periodic boundary conditions can be

  18. A wireless sensor tag platform for container security and integrity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amaya, Ivan A.; Cree, Johnathan V.; Mauss, Fredrick J.

    2011-04-01

    Cargo containers onboard ships are widely used in the global supply chain. The need for container security is evidenced by the Container Security Initiative launched by the U.S. Bureau of Customs and Border Protection (CBP). One method of monitoring cargo containers is using low power wireless sensor tags. The wireless sensor tags are used to set up a network that is comprised of tags internal to the container and a central device. The sensor network reports alarms and other anomalies to a central device, which then relays the message to an outside network upon arrival at the destination port. This allows the port authorities to have knowledge of potential security or integrity issues before physically examining the container. Challenges of using wireless sensor tag networks for container security include battery life, size, environmental conditions, information security, and cost among others. PNNL developed an active wireless sensor tag platform capable of reporting data wirelessly to a central node as well as logging data to nonvolatile memory. The tags, operate at 2.4 GHz over an IEEE 802.15.4 protocol, and were designed to be distributed throughout the inside of a shipping container in the upper support frame. The tags are mounted in a housing that allows for simple and efficient installation or removal prior to, during, or after shipment. The distributed tags monitor the entire container volume. The sensor tag platform utilizes low power electronics and provides an extensible sensor interface for incorporating a wide range of sensors including chemical, biological, and environmental sensors.

  19. Tagging the European eel Anguilla anguilla (L.) with coded wire tags

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomassen, S.; Pedersen, Michael Ingemann; Holdensgaard, G.

    2000-01-01

    The coded wire tag (CWT) system was examined as a possible tool for tagging European eels (Anguilla anguilla). Two size groups of eels (3.8 and 10.2 g) were tagged with CWTs in the dorsal musculature, Tag loss 28 days after tagging was 3.1% for the small and 0.7% for the large groups of eels...

  20. Polychromatic photons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keller, Ole

    2002-01-01

    train quantum electrodynamics. A brief description of particle (photon) position operators is given, and it is shown that photons usually are only algebraically confined in an emission process. Finally, it is demonstrated that the profile of the birth domain of a radio-frequency photon emitted...

  1. On application of ion-photon emission method in spectral analysis of surface of different materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bazhin, A.I.; Buravlev, Yu.M.; Ryzhov, V.N.

    1983-01-01

    Possibilities of application of ion-photom emission (IPE) method for determining element composition of the aluminium bronzes surface and profiles of distribution of hydrogen and helium implanted in metals (Mon Wn Cun Aln OKh18N10T steel) by ion bombardment have been studied. As ion source duoplasmatron which permits to obtain ions of inert (helium, argon) and active (hydrogenn oxygen) gases with current density 0.1-1 mA/cm 2 in the beam and energy from 5 to 25 keV has been applied. The photomultiplier PEM-79 has been used as a detector of optical radiation arising in the course of ion bombardment of the sample. For spectra recording the two-coordinate recorder has been used. Calibration charts which permit to determine the concentration of the investigated elements with 3-5% accuracy are obtained. The method sensitivity depends on excitation energy of transition observed in the spectrum. By known volumetric element concentration in the sample one can determine its concentration on a sUrface without resorting to a calibration chart in the coUrse of target sputtering. It has been found that the target impurity sputtering coefficient becomes nonselective to their relatiVe content. At wide incidence angles of ion beam. In contrast to other excitation methods (arc, spark) the IPE method possesses locality which constitutes 1 μm at a quite simple method of ion beam focussing (single lens)

  2. Iodine Tagging Velocimetry and Mechanism in the Hypersonic Near Wake of a MultiPurpose Crew Vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balla, R. Jeffrey

    2013-01-01

    This study demonstrates a new molecular tagging velocimetry (MTV) method for velocity measurements of high speed flow. It demonstrates offbody Iodine Tagging Velocimetry (ITV) in the hypersonic near wake of a MultiPurpose Crew Vehicle (MPCV) model. Experiments are performed in the NASA-Langley 31-inch Mach 10 air wind tunnel. A 0.5% I2 / N2 mixture is seeded on the leeward backshell of the model using a pressure tap. I2 laser-induced fluorescence is excited along a 5.5 mm line using an ArF excimer laser near 193 nm. Results indicate I2 absorbs at least 2 photons to produce iodine ions and electrons. These recombine as the tagged region is displaced downstream to produce I (2P3/2) whose emission is monitored at 206 nm. Results at P0 = 2.41 MPa (350 psi), T0 = 990K, and 10 micro-sec transit times produce velocities from 630-820 m/sec across the I2 seeded jet at a distance of 38.2 mm (25.5 jet diameters) downstream from the jet orifice. Maximum wake jet velocities near the shear layer are 59% of freestream velocity.

  3. Volume integral method for investigation of plasmonic nanowaveguide structures and photonic crystals

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Lerer, A.M.; Donets, I.V.; Kalinchenko, Galina; Makhno, P.V.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 2, č. 1 (2014), s. 31-37 ISSN 2327-9125 Grant - others:ELI Beamlines(XE) CZ.1.05/1.1.00/02.0061 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : mathematical methods * subwavelength structures * nanostuctures Subject RIV: BH - Optics, Masers, Lasers

  4. Markov chain Monte Carlo methods for statistical analysis of RF photonic devices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Piels, Molly; Zibar, Darko

    2016-01-01

    uncertainty is shown to give unsatisfactory and incorrect results due to the nonlinear relationship between the circuit parameters and the measured data. Markov chain Monte Carlo methods are shown to provide superior results, both for individual devices and for assessing within-die variation...

  5. Photon activation method to the investigation of bioobjects content for juridical-biological examination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dikiy, N.P.; Dyachenko, A.F.; Lyashko, Yu.V.; Medvedeva, E.P.; Uvarov, V.L.; Borovlev, V.I.

    2009-01-01

    Possibilities of the use of nuclear-physical methods for definition of element composition of biological objects (hair of animals) with the target of receipt of additional evidentiary information at the decision of diagnostics and identification problems within the limits of forensic-biological examination are shown

  6. A multivariate approach to heavy flavour tagging with cascade training

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bastos, J; Liu, Y

    2007-01-01

    This paper compares the performance of artificial neural networks and boosted decision trees, with and without cascade training, for tagging b-jets in a collider experiment. It is shown, using a Monte Carlo simulation of WH→lνq q-bar events, that for a b-tagging efficiency of 50%, the light jet rejection power given by boosted decision trees without cascade training is about 55% higher than that given by artificial neural networks. The cascade training technique can improve the performance of boosted decision trees and artificial neural networks at this b-tagging efficiency level by about 35% and 80% respectively. We conclude that the cascade trained boosted decision trees method is the most promising technique for tagging heavy flavours at collider experiments

  7. Single tag for total carbohydrate analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anumula, Kalyan Rao

    2014-07-15

    Anthranilic acid (2-aminobenzoic acid, 2-AA) has the remarkable property of reacting rapidly with every type of reducing carbohydrate. Reactivity of 2-AA with carbohydrates in aqueous solutions surpasses all other tags reported to date. This unique capability is attributed to the strategically located -COOH which accelerates Schiff base formation. Monosaccharides, oligosaccharides (N-, O-, and lipid linked and glycans in secretory fluids), glycosaminoglycans, and polysaccharides can be easily labeled with 2-AA. With 2-AA, labeling is simple in aqueous solutions containing proteins, peptides, buffer salts, and other ingredients (e.g., PNGase F, glycosidase, and transferase reaction mixtures). In contrast, other tags require relatively pure glycans for labeling in anhydrous dimethyl sulfoxide-acetic acid medium. Acidic conditions are known to cause desialylation, thus requiring a great deal of attention to sample preparation. Simpler labeling is achieved with 2-AA within 30-60 min in mild acetate-borate buffered solution. 2-AA provides the highest sensitivity and resolution in chromatographic methods for carbohydrate analysis in a simple manner. Additionally, 2-AA is uniquely qualified for quantitative analysis by mass spectrometry in the negative mode. Analyses of 2-AA-labeled carbohydrates by electrophoresis and other techniques have been reported. Examples cited here demonstrate that 2-AA is the universal tag for total carbohydrate analysis. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Tagging, Encoding, and Jones Optimality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Danvy, Olivier; Lopez, Pablo E. Martinez

    2003-01-01

    A partial evaluator is said to be Jones-optimal if the result of specializing a self-interpreter with respect to a source program is textually identical to the source program, modulo renaming. Jones optimality has already been obtained if the self-interpreter is untyped. If the selfinterpreter...... is typed, however, residual programs are cluttered with type tags. To obtain the original source program, these tags must be removed. A number of sophisticated solutions have already been proposed. We observe, however, that with a simple representation shift, ordinary partial evaluation is already Jones......-optimal, modulo an encoding. The representation shift amounts to reading the type tags as constructors for higherorder abstract syntax. We substantiate our observation by considering a typed self-interpreter whose input syntax is higher-order. Specializing this interpreter with respect to a source program yields...

  9. Non-destructive determination of nitrogen in malting barleys by instrumental photon activation analysis and its comparison with the Dumas method

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Krausová, Ivana; Mizera, Jiří; Dostálek, P.; Řanda, Zdeněk

    2018-01-01

    Roč. 124, č. 1 (2018), s. 4-8 ISSN 0046-9750 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GBP108/12/G108 Institutional support: RVO:61389005 Keywords : nitrogen * instrumental photon activation analysis * Dumas method * malting barley Subject RIV: GM - Food Processing OBOR OECD: Food and beverages Impact factor: 0.859, year: 2016

  10. Correction method of nonlinearity due to logarithm operation for X-ray CT projection data with noise in photon-starved state

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iwamoto, Shin-ichiro; Shiozaki, Akira

    2007-01-01

    In the acquisition of projection data of X-ray CT, logarithm operation is indispensable. But noise distribution is nonlinearly projected by the logarithm operation, and this deteriorates the precision of CT number. This influence becomes particularly remarkable when only a few photons are caught with a detector. It generates a strong streak artifact (SA) in a reconstructed image. Previously we have clarified the influence of the nonlinearity by statistical analysis and proposed a correction method for such nonlinearity. However, there is a problem that the compensation for clamp processing cannot be performed and that the suppression of SA is not enough in photon shortage state. In this paper, we propose a new technique for correcting the nonlinearity due to logarithm operation for noisy data by combining the previously presented method and an adaptive filtering method. The technique performs an adaptive filtering only when the number of captured photons is very few. Moreover we quantitatively evaluate the influence of noise on the reconstructed image in the proposed method by the experiment using numerical phantoms. The experimental results show that there is less influence on spatial resolution despite suppressing SA effectively and that CT number are hardly dependent on the number of the incident photons. (author)

  11. Inkjet printed paper based frequency selective surfaces and skin mounted RFID tags : the interrelation between silver nanoparticle ink, paper substrate and low temperature sintering technique

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sanchez-Romaquera, V.; Wïnscher, S.; Turki, B.M.; Abbel, R.J.; Barbosa, S.; Tate, D.J.; Oyeka, D.; Batchelor, J.C.; Parker, E.A.; Schubert, U.S.; Yeates, S.G.

    2015-01-01

    Inkjet printing of functional frequency selective surfaces (FSS) and radio frequency identification (RFID) tags on commercial paper substrates using silver nanoparticle inks sintered using low temperature thermal, plasma and photonic techniques is reported. Printed and sintered FSS devices

  12. A simple method for the quantification of benzodiazepine receptors using iodine-123 iomazenil and single-photon emission tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ito, Hiroshi; Goto, Ryoui; Koyama, Masamichi; Kawashima, Ryuta; Ono, Shuichi; Sato, Kazunori; Fukuda, Hiroshi

    1996-01-01

    Iodine-123 iomazenil (Iomazenil) is a ligand for central type benzodiazepine receptors that is suitable for single-photon emission tomography (SPET). The purpose of this study was to develop a simple method for the quantification of its binding potential (BP). The method is based on a two-compartment model (K 1 , influx rate constant; k 2 ', efflux rate constant; V T '(=K 1 /k 2 '), the total distribution volumes relative to the total arterial tracer concentration), and requires two SPET scans and one blood sampling. For a given input function, the radioactivity ratio of the early to delayed scans can be considered to tabulate as a function of k 2 ', and a table lookup procedure provides the corresponding k 2 ' value, from which K 1 and V t ' values are then calculated. The arterial input function is obtained by calibration of the standard input function by the single blood sampling. SPET studies were performed on 14 patients with cerebrovascular diseases, dementia or brain tumours (mean age ±SD, 56.0±12.2). None of the patients had any heart, renal or liver disease. A dynamic SPET scan was performed following intravenous bolus injection of Iomazenil. A static SPET scan was performed at 180 min after injection. Frequent blood sampling from the brachial artery was performed on all subjects for determination of the arterial input function. Two-compartment model analysis was validated for calculation of the V T ' value of Iomazenil. Good correlations were observed between V T ' values calculated by three-compartment model analysis and those calculated by the present method, in which the scan time combinations (early scan/delayed scan) used were 15/180 min, 30/180 min or 45/180 min (all combinations: r=0.92), supporting the validity of this method. The present method is simple and applicable for clinical use. (orig.)

  13. Development and application of an automated analysis method for individual cerebral perfusion single photon emission tomography images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cluckie, Alice Jane

    2001-01-01

    Neurological images may be analysed by performing voxel by voxel comparisons with a group of control subject images. An automated, 3D, voxel-based method has been developed for the analysis of individual single photon emission tomography (SPET) scans. Clusters of voxels are identified that represent regions of abnormal radiopharmaceutical uptake. Morphological operators are applied to reduce noise in the clusters, then quantitative estimates of the size and degree of the radiopharmaceutical uptake abnormalities are derived. Statistical inference has been performed using a Monte Carlo method that has not previously been applied to SPET scans, or for the analysis of individual images. This has been validated for group comparisons of SPET scans and for the analysis of an individual image using comparison with a group. Accurate statistical inference was obtained independent of experimental factors such as degrees of freedom, image smoothing and voxel significance level threshold. The analysis method has been evaluated for application to cerebral perfusion SPET imaging in ischaemic stroke. It has been shown that useful quantitative estimates, high sensitivity and high specificity may be obtained. Sensitivity and the accuracy of signal quantification were found to be dependent on the operator defined analysis parameters. Recommendations for the values of these parameters have been made. The analysis method developed has been compared with an established method and shown to result in higher specificity for the data and analysis parameter sets tested. In addition, application to a group of ischaemic stroke patient SPET scans has demonstrated its clinical utility. The influence of imaging conditions has been assessed using phantom data acquired with different gamma camera SPET acquisition parameters. A lower limit of five million counts and standardisation of all acquisition parameters has been recommended for the analysis of individual SPET scans. (author)

  14. Studying the properties of photonic quasi-crystals by the scaling convergence method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ho, I-Lin; Ng, Ming-Yaw; Mai, Chien Chin; Ko, Peng Yu; Chang, Yia-Chung

    2013-01-01

    This work introduces the iterative scaling (or inflation) method to systematically approach and analyse the infinite structure of quasi-crystals. The resulting structures preserve local geometric orderings in order to prevent artificial disclination across the boundaries of super-cells, with realistic quasi-crystals coming out under high iteration (infinite super-cell). The method provides an easy way for decorations of quasi-crystalline lattices, and for compact reliefs with a quasi-periodic arrangement to underlying applications. Numerical examples for in-plane and off-plane properties of square-triangle quasi-crystals show fast convergence during iteratively geometric scaling, revealing characteristics that do not appear on regular crystals. (paper)

  15. Tissue-specific tagging of endogenous loci in Drosophila melanogaster

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kate Koles

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Fluorescent protein tags have revolutionized cell and developmental biology, and in combination with binary expression systems they enable diverse tissue-specific studies of protein function. However these binary expression systems often do not recapitulate endogenous protein expression levels, localization, binding partners and/or developmental windows of gene expression. To address these limitations, we have developed a method called T-STEP (tissue-specific tagging of endogenous proteins that allows endogenous loci to be tagged in a tissue specific manner. T-STEP uses a combination of efficient CRISPR/Cas9-enhanced gene targeting and tissue-specific recombinase-mediated tag swapping to temporally and spatially label endogenous proteins. We have employed this method to GFP tag OCRL (a phosphoinositide-5-phosphatase in the endocytic pathway and Vps35 (a Parkinson's disease-implicated component of the endosomal retromer complex in diverse Drosophila tissues including neurons, glia, muscles and hemocytes. Selective tagging of endogenous proteins allows, for the first time, cell type-specific live imaging and proteomics in complex tissues.

  16. Bio-photonic detection method for morphological analysis of anthracnose disease and physiological disorders of Diospyros kaki

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wijesinghe, Ruchire Eranga; Lee, Seung-Yeol; Ravichandran, Naresh Kumar; Shirazi, Muhammad Faizan; Moon, Byungin; Jung, Hee-Young; Jeon, Mansik; Kim, Jeehyun

    2017-04-01

    The pathological and physiological defects in various types of fruits lead to large amounts of economical waste. It is well recognized that internal fruit defects due to pathological infections and physiological disorders can be effectively visualized at an initial stage of the disease using a well-known bio-photonic detection method called optical coherence tomography (OCT). This work investigates the use of OCT for identifying the morphological variations of anthracnose (bitter rot) disease infected and physiologically disordered Diospyros kaki (Asian Persimmon) fruits. An experiment was conducted using fruit samples that were carefully selected from persimmon orchards. Depth-resolved images with a high axial resolution were acquired using 850-nm-based spectral-domain OCT (SD-OCT) system. The obtained exemplary high-resolution two-dimensional and volumetric three-dimensional images revealed complementary morphological differences between healthy and defected samples. Moreover, the obtained depth-profile analysis results confirmed the disappearance of the healthy cell layers among the healthy-infected boundary regions. Thus, the proposed method has the potential to increase the diagnostic accuracy of the OCT technique used in agricultural plantations.

  17. Limits on the photon mass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vasseur, G.

    1996-03-01

    Is the photon mass strictly null as it is told in quantum electrodynamics. In fact, a coherent theory can be build with a massive photon. Experiences have been regularly led to try to make obvious an eventual non null photon mass. Superior limits more and more strict have been found. Here is given a general survey of the consequences of a non null photon mass, different methods to measure it and the achieved limits. (author). 30 refs., 1 fig

  18. Tagging, Encoding, and Jones Optimality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Danvy, Olivier; López, Pablo Ernesto Martínes

    2003-01-01

    A partial evaluator is said to be Jones-optimal if the result of specializing a self-interpreter with respect to a source program is textually identical to the source program, modulo renaming. Jones optimality has already been obtained if the self-interpreter is untyped. If the selfinterpreter...... is typed, however, residual programs are cluttered with type tags. To obtain the original source program, these tags must be removed. A number of sophisticated solutions have already been proposed. We observe, however, that with a simple representation shift, ordinary partial evaluation is already Jones...

  19. WebTag: Web browsing into sensor tags over NFC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Echevarria, Juan Jose; Ruiz-de-Garibay, Jonathan; Legarda, Jon; Alvarez, Maite; Ayerbe, Ana; Vazquez, Juan Ignacio

    2012-01-01

    Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs) continue to overcome many of the challenges related to wireless sensor monitoring, such as for example the design of smarter embedded processors, the improvement of the network architectures, the development of efficient communication protocols or the maximization of the life cycle autonomy. This work tries to improve the communication link of the data transmission in wireless sensor monitoring. The upstream communication link is usually based on standard IP technologies, but the downstream side is always masked with the proprietary protocols used for the wireless link (like ZigBee, Bluetooth, RFID, etc.). This work presents a novel solution (WebTag) for a direct IP based access to a sensor tag over the Near Field Communication (NFC) technology for secure applications. WebTag allows a direct web access to the sensor tag by means of a standard web browser, it reads the sensor data, configures the sampling rate and implements IP based security policies. It is, definitely, a new step towards the evolution of the Internet of Things paradigm.

  20. AUTOMATIC TAGGING OF PERSIAN WEB PAGES BASED ON N-GRAM LANGUAGE MODELS USING MAPREDUCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeed Shahrivari

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Page tagging is one of the most important facilities for increasing the accuracy of information retrieval in the web. Tags are simple pieces of data that usually consist of one or several words, and briefly describe a page. Tags provide useful information about a page and can be used for boosting the accuracy of searching, document clustering, and result grouping. The most accurate solution to page tagging is using human experts. However, when the number of pages is large, humans cannot be used, and some automatic solutions should be used instead. We propose a solution called PerTag which can automatically tag a set of Persian web pages. PerTag is based on n-gram models and uses the tf-idf method plus some effective Persian language rules to select proper tags for each web page. Since our target is huge sets of web pages, PerTag is built on top of the MapReduce distributed computing framework. We used a set of more than 500 million Persian web pages during our experiments, and extracted tags for each page using a cluster of 40 machines. The experimental results show that PerTag is both fast and accurate

  1. Estudio comparativo de la estructura del bacterioplancton en aguas del Mar Argentino mediante el método de pirosecuenciación 454 tag A comparative study of bacterioplankton structure in Argentinian Sea waters by the 454 - tag pyrosequencing method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. R. Peressutti

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available El presente estudio brinda la primera información sobre diversidad y abundancia de las comunidades microbianas en dos ambientes del Mar Argentino obtenida mediante la técnica de pirosecuenciación tag ribosomal 454. Dentro del dominio Bacteria, se observaron más de 4 600 secuencias únicas a partir de 36 188 amplicones de tags y se identificaron 280 filotipos. Además, se detectaron cerca de 2 700 secuencias únicas a partir de más de 47 700 tags pertenecientes al dominio Archaea, lo que definió sólo 5 filotipos diferentes. La distancia de Jaccard presentó valores de 0,6 para bacterias y de 0,2 para arqueas, esto indica mayor diferencia entre las bacterias en los dos sitios. En el ambiente marino los filotipos más dominantes fueron Bacteroidetes Flavobacteriaceae, Proteobacteria Gammaproteobacteria, Proteobacteria Rhodobacteraceae y Proteobacteria Rickettsiales SAR11, mientras que en el estuario predominaron Pseudoalteromonadaceae Pseudoalteromonas, Proteobacteria Gammaproteobacteria, Proteobacteria Shewanella y Proteobacteria Rickettsiales SAR11. Los 2 filotipos de arqueas encontrados en mayor proporción fueron Archaea Euryarchaeota y Archaea Crenarchaeota. Las secuencias tag más numerosas representaron taxa caracterizados previamente, aunque también se halló un elevado número de filotipos de gran diversidad y de baja abundancia, que forman parte de la denominada "biosfera rara", aún no explorada, que pueden tener un papel ecológico crucial.The present study provides the first information about diversity and abundance of microbial communities in two environments of the Argentinian Sea by the 454 - tag pyrosequencing technique. We observed more than 4,600 unique bacterial sequences from 36,188 tag amplicons, forming 280 phylotypes. In addition, nearly 2,700 unique sequences from more than 47,700 tags identified as Archaea, defined only 5 different phylotypes. The Jaccard distance (0.6 for Bacteria and 0.2 for Archaea indicated

  2. Tempting to Tag : An Experimental Comparison of Four Tagging Input Mechanisms

    OpenAIRE

    Melenhorst, Mark; van Velsen, Lex

    2010-01-01

    Tagging helps achieve improved indexing and recommendation of resources (e.g., videos or pictures) in large data collections. In order to reap the benefits of tagging, people must be persuaded to label the resources they consume. This paper reports on a study in which four different tagging input mechanisms and their effect on users' motivation to tag were compared. The mechanisms consisted of a standard tag input box, a chatbot-like environment, a bookmarking mechanism, and a "tag and v...

  3. Calculation of Photonic decay width for meta-stable muonic symmetric ion in adiabatic representation method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gheisari, R.; Eskandari, M. R.

    2006-01-01

    Meta-stable symmetric ions ppμ * and ddμ * are formed in the collisions of the excited muonic atoms with the hydrogen isotopes. By dissociation of them, the muon transfers from 2s to 1s via the new channels. Considering the quantum electrodynamics field and employing the new wave functions, the matrix elements are simply integrated. In this method using the adiabatic representations, the photo-decay widths for the some of ppμ * and ddμ * states are variationally calculated. The decay rates for X-ray productions of the similar states are approximately same.

  4. Roadmap on biosensing and photonics with advanced nano-optical methods

    KAUST Repository

    Di Fabrizio, Enzo M.

    2016-05-10

    This roadmap, through the contributions of ten groups worldwide, contains different techniques, methods and materials devoted to sensing in nanomedicine. Optics is used in different ways in the detection schemes. Raman, fluorescence and infrared spectroscopies, plasmonics, second harmonic generation and optical tweezers are all used in applications from single molecule detection (both in highly diluted and in highly concentrated solutions) to single cell manipulation. In general, each optical scheme, through device miniaturization and electromagnetic field localization, exploits an intrinsic optical enhancement mechanism in order to increase the sensitivity and selectivity of the device with respect to the complex molecular construct. The materials used for detection include nanoparticles and nanostructures fabricated with different 2D and 3D lithographic methods. It is shown that sensitivity to a single molecule is already accessible whether the system under study is a single cell or a multitude of cells in a molecular mixture. Throughout the roadmap there is an attempt to foresee and to suggest future directions in this interdisciplinary field. © 2016 IOP Publishing Ltd.

  5. Roadmap on biosensing and photonics with advanced nano-optical methods

    KAUST Repository

    Di Fabrizio, Enzo M.; Schlü cker, Sebastian; Wenger, Jé rô me; Regmi, Raju; Rigneault, Hervé ; Calafiore, Giuseppe; West, Melanie; Cabrini, Stefano; Fleischer, Monika; van Hulst, Niek F; Garcia-Parajo, Maria F; Pucci, Annemarie; Cojoc, Dan; Hauser, Charlotte; Ni, Ming

    2016-01-01

    This roadmap, through the contributions of ten groups worldwide, contains different techniques, methods and materials devoted to sensing in nanomedicine. Optics is used in different ways in the detection schemes. Raman, fluorescence and infrared spectroscopies, plasmonics, second harmonic generation and optical tweezers are all used in applications from single molecule detection (both in highly diluted and in highly concentrated solutions) to single cell manipulation. In general, each optical scheme, through device miniaturization and electromagnetic field localization, exploits an intrinsic optical enhancement mechanism in order to increase the sensitivity and selectivity of the device with respect to the complex molecular construct. The materials used for detection include nanoparticles and nanostructures fabricated with different 2D and 3D lithographic methods. It is shown that sensitivity to a single molecule is already accessible whether the system under study is a single cell or a multitude of cells in a molecular mixture. Throughout the roadmap there is an attempt to foresee and to suggest future directions in this interdisciplinary field. © 2016 IOP Publishing Ltd.

  6. DNA tagged microparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farquar, George Roy; Leif, Roald N; Wheeler, Elizabeth

    2015-05-05

    A simulant that includes a carrier and DNA encapsulated in the carrier. Also a method of making a simulant including the steps of providing a carrier and encapsulating DNA in the carrier to produce the simulant.

  7. An inexpensive and simple method for thermally stable immobilization of DNA on an unmodified glass surface: UV linking of poly(T)10-poly(C)10-tagged DNA probes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guðnason, Haukur; Dufva, Hans Martin; Bang, Dang Duong

    2008-01-01

    be linked by UV light irradiation onto a plain, unmodified glass surface. Probes immobilized onto unmodified glass microscope slides performed similarly to probes bound to commercial amino-silane-coated slides and had comparable detection limits. The TC-tagged probes linked to unmodified glass did not show...... any significant decrease in hybridization performance after a 20 min incubation in water at 100 degrees C prior to rehybridization, indicating a covalent bond between the TC tag and unmodified glass. The probes were used in thermal minisequencing cycling reactions. Furthermore, the TC tag improved...

  8. Factors affecting volume calculation with single photon emission tomography (SPECT) method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, T.H.; Lee, K.H.; Chen, D.C.P.; Ballard, S.; Siegel, M.E.

    1985-01-01

    Several factors may influence the calculation of absolute volumes (VL) from SPECT images. The effect of these factors must be established to optimize the technique. The authors investigated the following on the VL calculations: % of background (BG) subtraction, reconstruction filters, sample activity, angular sampling and edge detection methods. Transaxial images of a liver-trunk phantom filled with Tc-99m from 1 to 3 μCi/cc were obtained in 64x64 matrix with a Siemens Rota Camera and MDS computer. Different reconstruction filters including Hanning 20,32, 64 and Butterworth 20, 32 were used. Angular samplings were performed in 3 and 6 degree increments. ROI's were drawn manually and with an automatic edge detection program around the image after BG subtraction. VL's were calculated by multiplying the number of pixels within the ROI by the slice thickness and the x- and y- calibrations of each pixel. One or 2 pixel per slice thickness was applied in the calculation. An inverse correlation was found between the calculated VL and the % of BG subtraction (r=0.99 for 1,2,3 μCi/cc activity). Based on the authors' linear regression analysis, the correct liver VL was measured with about 53% BG subtraction. The reconstruction filters, slice thickness and angular sampling had only minor effects on the calculated phantom volumes. Detection of the ROI automatically by the computer was not as accurate as the manual method. The authors conclude that the % of BG subtraction appears to be the most important factor affecting the VL calculation. With good quality control and appropriate reconstruction factors, correct VL calculations can be achieved with SPECT

  9. Study of hadronic final states from double tagged $gammagamma$ events at LEP

    CERN Document Server

    Heister, A.; Barate, R.; Bruneliere, R.; De Bonis, I.; Decamp, D.; Goy, C.; Jezequel, S.; Lees, J.P.; Martin, F.; Merle, E.; Minard, M.N.; Pietrzyk, B.; Trocme, B.; Bravo, S.; Casado, M.P.; Chmeissani, M.; Crespo, J.M.; Fernandez, E.; Fernandez-Bosman, M.; Garrido, L.; Martinez, M.; Pacheco, A.; Ruiz, H.; Colaleo, A.; Creanza, D.; De Filippis, N.; de Palma, M.; Iaselli, G.; Maggi, G.; Maggi, M.; Nuzzo, S.; Ranieri, A.; Raso, G.; Ruggieri, F.; Selvaggi, G.; Silvestris, L.; Tempesta, P.; Tricomi, A.; Zito, G.; Huang, X.; Lin, J.; Ouyang, Q.; Wang, T.; Xie, Y.; Xu, R.; Xue, S.; Zhang, J.; Zhang, L.; Zhao, W.; Abbaneo, D.; Barklow, T.; Buchmuller, O.; Cattaneo, M.; Clerbaux, B.; Drevermann, H.; Forty, R.W.; Frank, M.; Gianotti, F.; Hansen, J.B.; Harvey, J.; Hutchcroft, D.E.; Janot, P.; Jost, B.; Kado, M.; Mato, P.; Moutoussi, A.; Ranjard, F.; Rolandi, Gigi; Schlatter, D.; Sguazzoni, G.; Tejessy, W.; Teubert, F.; Valassi, A.; Videau, I.; Badaud, F.; Dessagne, S.; Falvard, A.; Fayolle, D.; Gay, P.; Jousset, J.; Michel, B.; Monteil, S.; Pallin, D.; Pascolo, J.M.; Perret, P.; Hansen, J.D.; Hansen, J.R.; Hansen, P.H.; Kraan, A.C.; Nilsson, B.S.; Kyriakis, A.; Markou, C.; Simopoulou, E.; Vayaki, A.; Zachariadou, K.; Blondel, A.; Brient, J.C.; Machefert, F.; Rouge, A.; Swynghedauw, M.; Tanaka, R.; Videau, H.; Ciulli, V.; Focardi, E.; Parrini, G.; Antonelli, A.; Antonelli, M.; Bencivenni, G.; Bossi, F.; Capon, G.; Cerutti, F.; Chiarella, V.; Laurelli, P.; Mannocchi, G.; Murtas, G.P.; Passalacqua, L.; Kennedy, J.; Lynch, J.G.; Negus, P.; O'Shea, V.; Thompson, A.S.; Wasserbaech, S.; Cavanaugh, R.; Dhamotharan, S.; Geweniger, C.; Hanke, P.; Hepp, V.; Kluge, E.E.; Putzer, A.; Stenzel, H.; Tittel, K.; Wunsch, M.; Beuselinck, R.; Cameron, W.; Davies, G.; Dornan, P.J.; Girone, M.; Hill, R.D.; Marinelli, N.; Nowell, J.; Rutherford, S.A.; Sedgbeer, J.K.; Thompson, J.C.; White, R.; Ghete, V.M.; Girtler, P.; Kneringer, E.; Kuhn, D.; Rudolph, G.; Bouhova-Thacker, E.; Bowdery, C.K.; Clarke, D.P.; Ellis, G.; Finch, A.J.; Foster, F.; Hughes, G.; Jones, R.W.L.; Pearson, M.R.; Robertson, N.A.; Smizanska, M.; van der Aa, O.; Delaere, C.; Leibenguth, G.; Lemaitre, V.; Blumenschein, U.; Holldorfer, F.; Jakobs, K.; Kayser, F.; Kleinknecht, K.; Muller, A.S.; Renk, B.; Sander, H.G.; Schmeling, S.; Wachsmuth, H.; Zeitnitz, C.; Ziegler, T.; Bonissent, A.; Coyle, P.; Curtil, C.; Ealet, A.; Fouchez, D.; Payre, P.; Tilquin, A.; Ragusa, R.; David, A.; Dietl, H.; Ganis, G.; Huttmann, K.; Lutjens, G.; Manner, W.; Moser, H.G.; Settles, R.; Villegas, M.; Wolf, G.; Boucrot, J.; Callot, O.; Davier, M.; Duflot, L.; Grivaz, J.F.; Heusse, P.; Jacholkowska, A.; Serin, L.; Veillet, J.J.; Azzurri, P.; Bagliesi, Giuseppe; Boccali, T.; Foa, L.; Giammanco, A.; Giassi, A.; Ligabue, F.; Messineo, A.; Palla, F.; Sanguinetti, G.; Sciaba, A.; Spagnolo, P.; Tenchini, R.; Venturi, A.; Verdini, P.G.; Awunor, O.; Blair, G.A.; Cowan, G.; Garcia-Bellido, A.; Green, M.G.; Jones, L.T.; Medcalf, T.; Misiejuk, A.; Strong, J.A.; Teixeira-Dias, P.; Clifft, R.W.; Edgecock, T.R.; Norton, P.R.; Tomalin, I.R.; Ward, J.J.; Bloch-Devaux, Brigitte; Boumediene, D.; Colas, P.; Fabbro, B.; Lancon, E.; Lemaire, M.C.; Locci, E.; Perez, P.; Rander, J.; Tuchming, B.; Vallage, B.; Konstantinidis, N.; Litke, A.M.; Taylor, G.; Booth, C.N.; Cartwright, S.; Combley, F.; Hodgson, P.N.; Lehto, M.; Thompson, L.F.; Boehrer, Armin; Brandt, S.; Grupen, C.; Hess, J.; Ngac, A.; Prange, G.; Borean, C.; Giannini, G.; He, H.; Putz, J.; Rothberg, J.; Armstrong, S.R.; Berkelman, Karl; Cranmer, K.; Ferguson, D.P.S.; Gao, Y.; Gonzalez, S.; Hayes, O.J.; Hu, H.; Jin, S.; Kile, J.; McNamara, P.A., III; Nielsen, J.; Pan, Y.B.; von Wimmersperg-Toeller, J.H.; Wiedenmann, W.; Wu, J.; Wu, Sau Lan; Wu, X.; Zobernig, G.; Dissertori, G.

    2003-01-01

    The interaction of virtual photons is investigated using double tagged gammagamma events with hadronic final states recorded by the ALEPH experiment at e^+e^- centre-of-mass energies between 188 and 209 GeV. The measured cross section is compared to Monte Carlo models, and to next-to-leading-order QCD and BFKL calculations.

  10. Quantitative mineral salt evaluation in the calcaneous bone using computed tomography, 125I-photon absorption and chemical analysis to compare the value of the individual methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hitzler, H.J.

    1983-01-01

    It was the aim of the study described here to verify the accuracy of two different methods for the quantitative evaluation of mineral salts, which were the 125I-photon absorption technique on the one hand and wholebody CT on the other hand. For this purpose, post-mortem examinations of 31 calcaneous bones were carried out to evaluate their individual mineral salt contents in vitro using either of the above-mentioned methods. The results obtained were subsequently contrasted with calcium concentrations determined by chemical analysis. A comparison of the individual mineral salt evaluations with the results from calcium analyses pointed to a highly significant correlation (p=0.001) for both methods under investigation. The same held for the correlation of findings from CT and the 125I-hydroxylapatite technique, where the level of significance was also p=0.001. The above statements must, however, be modified in as much as the mineral salt values measured by CT were consistently lower than those obtained on the basis of 125I-photon absorption. These deviations are chiefly attributable to the fact that the values provided by CT are more susceptible to influences from the fat contained in the bones. In 125I-photon absorption a special formula may be derived to allow for the bias occurring here, provided that the composition of the bone is known. To summarise, the relative advantages and drawbacks of CT and 125I-photon absorption are carefully balanced. Mineral salt evaluations by CT permit incipient losses to be ascertained even in the trunk. The 125I-photon absorption technique would appear to be the obvious method for any kind of follow-up examination in the peripheral skeleton, as it is easily reproducible and radiation exposure can be kept to minimum. (TRV) [de

  11. Facile control of silica nanoparticles using a novel solvent varying method for the fabrication of artificial opal photonic crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao, Weihong; Rigout, Muriel; Owens, Huw

    2016-01-01

    In this work, the Stöber process was applied to produce uniform silica nanoparticles (SNPs) in the meso-scale size range. The novel aspect of this work was to control the produced silica particle size by only varying the volume of the solvent ethanol used, whilst fixing the other reaction conditions. Using this one-step Stöber-based solvent varying (SV) method, seven batches of SNPs with target diameters ranging from 70 to 400 nm were repeatedly reproduced, and the size distribution in terms of the polydispersity index (PDI) was well maintained (within 0.1). An exponential equation was used to fit the relationship between the particle diameter and ethanol volume. This equation allows the prediction of the amount of ethanol required in order to produce particles of any target diameter within this size range. In addition, it was found that the reaction was completed in approximately 2 h for all batches regardless of the volume of ethanol. Structurally coloured artificial opal photonic crystals (PCs) were fabricated from the prepared SNPs by self-assembly under gravity sedimentation.

  12. Facile control of silica nanoparticles using a novel solvent varying method for the fabrication of artificial opal photonic crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Weihong; Rigout, Muriel; Owens, Huw

    2016-12-01

    In this work, the Stöber process was applied to produce uniform silica nanoparticles (SNPs) in the meso-scale size range. The novel aspect of this work was to control the produced silica particle size by only varying the volume of the solvent ethanol used, whilst fixing the other reaction conditions. Using this one-step Stöber-based solvent varying (SV) method, seven batches of SNPs with target diameters ranging from 70 to 400 nm were repeatedly reproduced, and the size distribution in terms of the polydispersity index (PDI) was well maintained (within 0.1). An exponential equation was used to fit the relationship between the particle diameter and ethanol volume. This equation allows the prediction of the amount of ethanol required in order to produce particles of any target diameter within this size range. In addition, it was found that the reaction was completed in approximately 2 h for all batches regardless of the volume of ethanol. Structurally coloured artificial opal photonic crystals (PCs) were fabricated from the prepared SNPs by self-assembly under gravity sedimentation.

  13. Facile control of silica nanoparticles using a novel solvent varying method for the fabrication of artificial opal photonic crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gao, Weihong [The University of Manchester, School of Materials (United Kingdom); Rigout, Muriel [University of Leeds, School of Design (United Kingdom); Owens, Huw, E-mail: Huw.Owens@manchester.ac.uk [The University of Manchester, School of Materials (United Kingdom)

    2016-12-15

    In this work, the Stöber process was applied to produce uniform silica nanoparticles (SNPs) in the meso-scale size range. The novel aspect of this work was to control the produced silica particle size by only varying the volume of the solvent ethanol used, whilst fixing the other reaction conditions. Using this one-step Stöber-based solvent varying (SV) method, seven batches of SNPs with target diameters ranging from 70 to 400 nm were repeatedly reproduced, and the size distribution in terms of the polydispersity index (PDI) was well maintained (within 0.1). An exponential equation was used to fit the relationship between the particle diameter and ethanol volume. This equation allows the prediction of the amount of ethanol required in order to produce particles of any target diameter within this size range. In addition, it was found that the reaction was completed in approximately 2 h for all batches regardless of the volume of ethanol. Structurally coloured artificial opal photonic crystals (PCs) were fabricated from the prepared SNPs by self-assembly under gravity sedimentation.

  14. Single-photon detector operating under extremely high background photon flux conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prochazka, Ivan; Sopko, Bruno; Blazej, Josef

    2009-01-01

    We are reporting our results in research and development in the field of avalanche semiconductor single-photon detectors and their application. Our goal was a development of a solid-state photon-counting detector capable of high-precision photon arrival time tagging in extremely harsh operating conditions. The background photon flux exceeding 10 9 photons per second hitting the detector active area should not avoid the useful signal detection and recognition on the signal level of units of photons per second. This is background photon flux about two orders of magnitude higher than what the conventional solid-state photon counters accept. The detection timing resolution should be better than 100 ps and the delay stability should be on picosecond level. We have developed and tested the active quenched and gated avalanche structure on silicon providing the required features in connection with the K14 detection chips. The detector is capable of gated operation under the conditions of background photon flux of 5x10 9 photons per second. The operational detector tolerates long term exposures to the input photon flux exceeding 10 15 photons (>1 mW) per second without damage.

  15. Improving the Ar I and II branching ratio calibration method: Monte Carlo simulations of effects from photon scattering/reflecting in hollow cathodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawler, J. E.; Den Hartog, E. A.

    2018-03-01

    The Ar I and II branching ratio calibration method is discussed with the goal of improving the technique. This method of establishing a relative radiometric calibration is important in ongoing research to improve atomic transition probabilities for quantitative spectroscopy in astrophysics and other fields. Specific suggestions are presented along with Monte Carlo simulations of wavelength dependent effects from scattering/reflecting of photons in a hollow cathode.

  16. MR Colonography with fecal tagging: Barium vs. barium ferumoxsil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Achiam, M.P.; Chabanova, E.; Logager, V.B.

    2008-01-01

    and Methods. Twenty patients referred to CC underwent dark lumen MRC prior to the colonoscopy. Two groups of patients received two different oral contrast agents (barium sulfate and barium sulfate/ferumoxsil) as a laxative-free fecal tagging prior to the MRC. After MRC, the contrast agent was rated...... qualitatively (with the standard method using contrast-to-wall ratio) and subjectively (using a visual analog scale [VAS]) by three different blinded observers. Results. Evaluated both qualitatively and subjectively, the tagging efficiency of barium sulfate/ferumoxsil was significantly better (P ... barium sulfate alone. The VAS method for evaluating the tagging efficiency of contrast agents showed a high correlation (observer 11, r = 0.91) to the standard method using contrast-to-wall ratio and also a high interclass correlation (observer 11 and III = 0.89/0.85). MRC found I of 22 (5%) polyps

  17. Photonic Hypercrystals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evgenii E. Narimanov

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available We introduce a new “universality class” of artificial optical media—photonic hypercrystals. These hyperbolic metamaterials, with periodic spatial variation of dielectric permittivity on subwavelength scale, combine the features of optical metamaterials and photonic crystals. In particular, surface waves supported by a hypercrystal possess the properties of both the optical Tamm states in photonic crystals and surface-plasmon polaritons at the metal-dielectric interface.

  18. Microwave photonics

    CERN Document Server

    Lee, Chi H

    2006-01-01

    Wireless, optical, and electronic networks continue to converge, prompting heavy research into the interface between microwave electronics, ultrafast optics, and photonic technologies. New developments arrive nearly as fast as the photons under investigation, and their commercial impact depends on the ability to stay abreast of new findings, techniques, and technologies. Presenting a broad yet in-depth survey, Microwave Photonics examines the major advances that are affecting new applications in this rapidly expanding field.This book reviews important achievements made in microwave photonics o

  19. Satellite Tags- Guam/CNMI EEZ

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Satellite tagging was implemented in 2013. Satellite tagging is conducted using a Dan Inject air rifle and deployment arrows designed by Wildlife Computers. Two...

  20. HMSRP Hawaiian Monk Seal Tag Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains records for all tags applied to Hawaiian monk seals since 1981. These tags were applied by PSD personnel and cooperating scientists as part of...

  1. Neural network tagging in a toy model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milek, Marko; Patel, Popat

    1999-01-01

    The purpose of this study is a comparison of Artificial Neural Network approach to HEP analysis against the traditional methods. A toy model used in this analysis consists of two types of particles defined by four generic properties. A number of 'events' was created according to the model using standard Monte Carlo techniques. Several fully connected, feed forward multi layered Artificial Neural Networks were trained to tag the model events. The performance of each network was compared to the standard analysis mechanisms and significant improvement was observed

  2. Categorical and Specificity Differences between User-Supplied Tags and Search Query Terms for Images. An Analysis of "Flickr" Tags and Web Image Search Queries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, EunKyung; Yoon, JungWon

    2009-01-01

    Introduction: The purpose of this study is to compare characteristics and features of user supplied tags and search query terms for images on the "Flickr" Website in terms of categories of pictorial meanings and level of term specificity. Method: This study focuses on comparisons between tags and search queries using Shatford's categorization…

  3. Neutron-induced photon production in MCNP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Little, R.C.; Seamon, R.E.

    1983-01-01

    An improved method of neutron-induced photon production has been incorporated into the Monte Carlo transport code MCNP. The new method makes use of all partial photon-production reaction data provided by ENDF/B evaluators including photon-production cross sections as well as energy and angular distributions of secondary photons. This faithful utilization of sophisticated ENDF/B evaluations allows more precise MCNP calculations for several classes of coupled neutron-photon problems

  4. HaloTag protein-mediated specific labeling of living cells with quantum dots

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    So, Min-kyung; Yao Hequan; Rao Jianghong

    2008-01-01

    Quantum dots emerge as an attractive alternative to small molecule fluorophores as fluorescent tags for in vivo cell labeling and imaging. This communication presents a method for specific labeling of live cells using quantum dots. The labeling is mediated by HaloTag protein expressed at the cell surface which forms a stable covalent adduct with its ligand (HaloTag ligand). The labeling can be performed in one single step with quantum dot conjugates that are functionalized with HaloTag ligand, or in two steps with biotinylated HaloTag ligand first and followed by streptavidin coated quantum dots. Live cell fluorescence imaging indicates that the labeling is specific and takes place at the cell surface. This HaloTag protein-mediated cell labeling method should facilitate the application of quantum dots for live cell imaging

  5. Combination of same-side with opposite-side flavour tagging

    CERN Document Server

    Calvo, M; Musy, M

    2010-01-01

    A considerable number of CP violation measurements require the most possible accurate knowledge of the flavour at production of the reconstructed $B$ meson. The performance of different flavour tagging methods will be measured from control channels. One of the possible tagging methods that can be used is the one known as $Same Side kaon$. In this note we present how to calibrate the response of the tagging algorithms using the data and combine the result with the so called $Opposite Side tagging$. Also trigger and selection effects are briefly discussed.

  6. Tag SNP selection via a genetic algorithm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahdevar, Ghasem; Zahiri, Javad; Sadeghi, Mehdi; Nowzari-Dalini, Abbas; Ahrabian, Hayedeh

    2010-10-01

    Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs) provide valuable information on human evolutionary history and may lead us to identify genetic variants responsible for human complex diseases. Unfortunately, molecular haplotyping methods are costly, laborious, and time consuming; therefore, algorithms for constructing full haplotype patterns from small available data through computational methods, Tag SNP selection problem, are convenient and attractive. This problem is proved to be an NP-hard problem, so heuristic methods may be useful. In this paper we present a heuristic method based on genetic algorithm to find reasonable solution within acceptable time. The algorithm was tested on a variety of simulated and experimental data. In comparison with the exact algorithm, based on brute force approach, results show that our method can obtain optimal solutions in almost all cases and runs much faster than exact algorithm when the number of SNP sites is large. Our software is available upon request to the corresponding author.

  7. Advanced processing methods to introduce and preserve dipole orientation in organic electro-optic materials for next generation photonic devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Su

    Organic electro-optic (E-O) materials have attracted considerable research attention in the past 20 years due to their rising potentials in a lot of novel photonic applications, such as high-speed telecommunication, terahertz generation and ultra-fast optical interconnections. Chapter 2 of this dissertation focuses on a barrier layer approach to improve the poling efficiency of electro-optic polymers. First of all, high conduction current from excessive charge injection is identified as a fundamental challenge of effective poling. After analyzing the conduction mechanism, we introduce a sol-gel derived thin titanium dioxide (TiO2) layer that can significantly block excessive charge injection and reduce the leakage current during high field poling. Ultralarge E-O coefficients, up to 160-350 pm/V at 1310 nm have been achieved by poling with such a barrier, which are 26%-40% higher than the results poled without such a TiO2 layer. This enhancement is explained by the suppressed charge injection and space charge accumulation by the insertion of the high injection barrier from the TiO2 barrier layer. In Chapter 3, the impact of the inserted barrier layer on the temporal alignment stability of E-O polymers is discussed. Considerable stability enhancement is confirmed using both standard 500-hour temporal alignment stability test at 85 °C and thermally stimulated discharge method. We suggest that the enhancement comes from improved stability of the screening charge. During poling the additional barrier layer helps to lower the injection and thus the space charge accumulation. And this reduced space charge accumulation further helps to replace the space charge part in the total formulation of screening charge with more stable interface trapped charge. We thus expand this knowledge to a group of other materials that can also block excessive charge injection and suppressed space charge accumulation, including dielectric polymers polyvinyl alcohol (PVA), poly(4-vinylphenol

  8. gPhoton: THE GALEX PHOTON DATA ARCHIVE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Million, Chase [Million Concepts LLC, P.O. Box 119, 141 Mary Street, Lemont, PA 16851 (United States); Fleming, Scott W.; Shiao, Bernie; Smith, Myron; Thompson, Randy; White, Richard L. [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Seibert, Mark [The Observatories of the Carnegie Institution of Washington, 813 Santa Barbara Street, Pasadena, CA 91101 (United States); Loyd, Parke [Laboratory for Atmospheric and Space Physics, Boulder, Colorado, 80309 (United States); Tucker, Michael [Dept. of Physics and Astronomy, Appalachian State University, Boone, NC 28608 (United States)

    2016-12-20

    gPhoton is a new database product and software package that enables analysis of GALEX ultraviolet data at the photon level. The project’s stand-alone, pure-Python calibration pipeline reproduces the functionality of the original mission pipeline to reduce raw spacecraft data to lists of time-tagged, sky-projected photons, which are then hosted in a publicly available database by the Mikulski Archive at Space Telescope. This database contains approximately 130 terabytes of data describing approximately 1.1 trillion sky-projected events with a timestamp resolution of five milliseconds. A handful of Python and command-line modules serve as a front end to interact with the database and to generate calibrated light curves and images from the photon-level data at user-defined temporal and spatial scales. The gPhoton software and source code are in active development and publicly available under a permissive license. We describe the motivation, design, and implementation of the calibration pipeline, database, and tools, with emphasis on divergence from prior work, as well as challenges created by the large data volume. We summarize the astrometric and photometric performance of gPhoton relative to the original mission pipeline. For a brief example of short time-domain science capabilities enabled by gPhoton, we show new flares from the known M-dwarf flare star CR Draconis. The gPhoton software has permanent object identifiers with the ASCL (ascl:1603.004) and DOI (doi:10.17909/T9CC7G). This paper describes the software as of version v1.27.2.

  9. In situ tagging technique for fishes provides insight into growth and movement of invasive lionfish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akins, John L; Morris, James A; Green, Stephanie J

    2014-10-01

    Information on fish movement and growth is primarily obtained through the marking and tracking of individuals with external tags, which are usually affixed to anesthetized individuals at the surface. However, the quantity and quality of data obtained by this method is often limited by small sample sizes owing to the time associated with the tagging process, high rates of tagging-related mortality, and displacement of tagged individuals from the initial capture location. To address these issues, we describe a technique for applying external streamer and dart tags in situ, which uses SCUBA divers to capture and tag individual fish on the sea floor without the use of anesthetic. We demonstrate this method for Indo-Pacific lionfish (Pterois volitans/P. miles), species which are particularly vulnerable to barotrauma when transported to and handled at the surface. To test our method, we tagged 161 individuals inhabiting 26 coral reef locations in the Bahamas over a period of 3 years. Our method resulted in no instances of barotrauma, reduced handling and recovery time, and minimal post-tagging release displacement compared with conventional ex situ tag application. Opportunistic resighting and recapture of tagged individuals reveals that lionfish exhibit highly variable site fidelity, movement patterns, and growth rates on invaded coral reef habitats. In total, 24% of lionfish were resighted between 29 and 188 days after tagging. Of these, 90% were located at the site of capture, while the remaining individuals were resighted between 200 m and 1.1 km from initial site of capture over 29 days later. In situ growth rates ranged between 0.1 and 0.6 mm/day. While individuals tagged with streamer tags posted slower growth rates with increasing size, as expected, there was no relationship between growth rate and fish size for individuals marked with dart tags, potentially because of large effects of tag presence on the activities of small bodied lionfish (i.e., lionfish

  10. Physics of photonic devices

    CERN Document Server

    Chuang, Shun Lien

    2009-01-01

    The most up-to-date book available on the physics of photonic devices This new edition of Physics of Photonic Devices incorporates significant advancements in the field of photonics that have occurred since publication of the first edition (Physics of Optoelectronic Devices). New topics covered include a brief history of the invention of semiconductor lasers, the Lorentz dipole method and metal plasmas, matrix optics, surface plasma waveguides, optical ring resonators, integrated electroabsorption modulator-lasers, and solar cells. It also introduces exciting new fields of research such as:

  11. Strained Silicon Photonics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ralf B. Wehrspohn

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available A review of recent progress in the field of strained silicon photonics is presented. The application of strain to waveguide and photonic crystal structures can be used to alter the linear and nonlinear optical properties of these devices. Here, methods for the fabrication of strained devices are summarized and recent examples of linear and nonlinear optical devices are discussed. Furthermore, the relation between strain and the enhancement of the second order nonlinear susceptibility is investigated, which may enable the construction of optically active photonic devices made of silicon.

  12. Steady-state free precession with myocardial tagging: CSPAMM in a single breathhold.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zwanenburg, Jaco J M; Kuijer, Joost P A; Marcus, J Tim; Heethaar, Robert M

    2003-04-01

    A method is presented that combines steady-state free precession (SSFP) cine imaging with myocardial tagging. Before the tagging preparation at each ECG-R wave, the steady-state magnetization is stored as longitudinal magnetization by an alpha/2 flip-back pulse. Imaging is continued immediately after tagging preparation, using linearly increasing startup angles (LISA) with a rampup over 10 pulses. Interleaved segmented k-space ordering is used to prevent artifacts from the increasing signal during the LISA rampup. First, this LISA-SSFP method was evaluated regarding ghost artifacts from the steady-state interruption by comparing LISA with an alpha/2 startup method. Next, LISA-SSFP was compared with spoiled gradient echo (SGRE) imaging, regarding tag contrast-to-noise ratio and tag persistence. The measurements were performed in phantoms and in six subjects applying breathhold cine imaging with tagging (temporal resolution 51 ms). The results show that ghost artifacts are negligible for the LISA method. Compared to the SGRE reference, LISA-SSFP was two times faster, with a slightly better tag contrast-to-noise. Additionally, the tags persisted 126 ms longer with LISA-SSFP than with SGRE imaging. The high efficiency of LISA-SSFP enables the acquisition of complementary tagged (CSPAMM) images in a single breathhold. Copyright 2003 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  13. The polarization modulation and fabrication method of two dimensional silica photonic crystals based on UV nanoimprint lithography and hot imprint.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Shuai; Niu, Chunhui; Liang, Liang; Chai, Ke; Jia, Yaqing; Zhao, Fangyin; Li, Ya; Zou, Bingsuo; Liu, Ruibin

    2016-10-04

    Based on a silica sol-gel technique, highly-structurally ordered silica photonic structures were fabricated by UV lithography and hot manual nanoimprint efforts, which makes large-scale fabrication of silica photonic crystals easy and results in low-cost. These photonic structures show perfect periodicity, smooth and flat surfaces and consistent aspect ratios, which are checked by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). In addition, glass substrates with imprinted photonic nanostructures show good diffraction performance in both transmission and reflection mode. Furthermore, the reflection efficiency can be enhanced by 5 nm Au nanoparticle coating, which does not affect the original imprint structure. Also the refractive index and dielectric constant of the imprinted silica is close to that of the dielectric layer in nanodevices. In addition, the polarization characteristics of the reflected light can be modulated by stripe nanostructures through changing the incident light angle. The experimental findings match with theoretical results, making silica photonic nanostructures functional integration layers in many optical or optoelectronic devices, such as LED and microlasers to enhance the optical performance and modulate polarization properties in an economical and large-scale way.

  14. Skin tags associated with obesity and diabetes mellitus in patients with chronic kidney disease

    OpenAIRE

    Sari Funda; Inci Ayca; Dolu Suleyman; Sari Ramazan

    2017-01-01

    Introduction/Objective. Both chronic kidney disease and skin tags are associated with similar cardiovascular risk factors such as obesity, diabetes mellitus, dyslipidemia, hypertension, etc. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of skin tags in patients with chronic kidney disease, and to assess the relationship between skin tags and cardiovascular risk factors such as diabetes, hypertension, dyslipidemia, obesity, and metabolic syndrome. Methods. We evaluated 358 patients [14...

  15. A method to measure the γ-ray content in VHE cosmic ray showers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cresti, M.; Peruzzo, L.; Pesci, A.; Saggion, A.; Sartori, G.; Angelini, F.; Bedeschi, F.; Bellazzini, R.; Bertolucci, E.; Chiarelli, G.; Mariotti, M.; Massai, M.M.; Menzione, A.; Smith, D.A.; Stefanini, A.; Zetti, F.; Scribano, A.; Bartoli, B.; Budinich, M.; Liello, F.; Milotti, E.; Biral, A.R.P.; Chinellato, J.A.; Turtelli, A.; Luksys, M.

    1991-01-01

    An experimental technique is presented to determine the effectiveness of methods to tag photon initiated air showers and reject hadron initiated ones. The technique is based on the rate reduction in the Moon direction. With a photon energy threshold below or equal to 1 TeV, with an angular resolution of a few mrad and being insensitive to visible light, the proposed CLUE detector allows a wide and original physics program. In particular the direct measurement of the fraction of primary photons in the continuum of the cosmic ray flux is feasible with adequate statistics in a few months of data taking. (orig.)

  16. ATLAS boosted object tagging 2

    CERN Document Server

    Caudron, Julien; The ATLAS collaboration

    2015-01-01

    A detailed study into the optimal techniques for identifying boosted hadronically decaying W or Z bosons is presented. Various algorithms for reconstructing, grooming and tagging bosonic jets are compared for W bosons with a wide range of transverse momenta using 8 TeV data and 8 TeV and 13 TeV MC simulations. In addition, given that a hadronic jet has been identified as resulting from the hadronic decay of a W or Z, a technique is developed to discriminate between W and Z bosons. The modeling of the tagging variables used in this technique is studied using 8 TeV pp collision data and systematic uncertainties for the tagger efficiency and fake rates are evaluated.

  17. Analysis of latent variance reduction methods in phase space Monte Carlo calculations for 6, 10 and 18 MV photons by using MCNP code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ezzati, A.O.; Sohrabpour, M.

    2013-01-01

    In this study, azimuthal particle redistribution (APR), and azimuthal particle rotational splitting (APRS) methods are implemented in MCNPX2.4 source code. First of all, the efficiency of these methods was compared to two tallying methods. The APRS is more efficient than the APR method in track length estimator tallies. However in the energy deposition tally, both methods have nearly the same efficiency. Latent variance reduction factors were obtained for 6, 10 and 18 MV photons as well. The APRS relative efficiency contours were obtained. These obtained contours reveal that by increasing the photon energies, the contours depth and the surrounding areas were further increased. The relative efficiency contours indicated that the variance reduction factor is position and energy dependent. The out of field voxels relative efficiency contours showed that latent variance reduction methods increased the Monte Carlo (MC) simulation efficiency in the out of field voxels. The APR and APRS average variance reduction factors had differences less than 0.6% for splitting number of 1000. -- Highlights: ► The efficiency of APR and APRS methods was compared to two tallying methods. ► The APRS is more efficient than the APR method in track length estimator tallies. ► In the energy deposition tally, both methods have nearly the same efficiency. ► Variance reduction factors of these methods are position and energy dependent.

  18. Tagging b quark events in ALEPH with neural networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Proriol, J.; Jousset, J.; Guicheney, C.; Falvard, A.; Henrard, P.; Pallin, D.; Perret, P.; Brandl, B.

    1991-01-01

    Comparison of different methods to tag b quark events are presented: multilayered perceptron (MLP), Learning Vector Quantization (LVQ), discriminant analysis, combination of any two of the above methods. The sample events come from the ALEPH Monte Carlo and data, from the 1990 ALEPH runs. (authors) 12 refs., 16 figs., 5 tabs

  19. Comparison of in Situ and ex Situ Methods for Synthesis of Two-Photon Polymerization Polymer Nanocomposites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qingchuan Guo

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This article reports about nanocomposites, which refractive index is tuned by adding TiO2 nanoparticles. We compare in situ/ex situ preparation of nanocomposites. Preparation procedure is described, properties of nanocomposites are compared, and especially we examine the applicability of two-photon polymerization (2PP of synthesized nanocomposites. All prepared samples exhibit suitable optical transparency at specific laser wavelengths. Three-dimensional structures were generated by means of two-photon polymerization effect induced by a femtosecond laser.

  20. Tri-Clustered Tensor Completion for Social-Aware Image Tag Refinement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Jinhui; Shu, Xiangbo; Qi, Guo-Jun; Li, Zechao; Wang, Meng; Yan, Shuicheng; Jain, Ramesh

    2017-08-01

    Social image tag refinement, which aims to improve tag quality by automatically completing the missing tags and rectifying the noise-corrupted ones, is an essential component for social image search. Conventional approaches mainly focus on exploring the visual and tag information, without considering the user information, which often reveals important hints on the (in)correct tags of social images. Towards this end, we propose a novel tri-clustered tensor completion framework to collaboratively explore these three kinds of information to improve the performance of social image tag refinement. Specifically, the inter-relations among users, images and tags are modeled by a tensor, and the intra-relations between users, images and tags are explored by three regularizations respectively. To address the challenges of the super-sparse and large-scale tensor factorization that demands expensive computing and memory cost, we propose a novel tri-clustering method to divide the tensor into a certain number of sub-tensors by simultaneously clustering users, images and tags into a bunch of tri-clusters. And then we investigate two strategies to complete these sub-tensors by considering (in)dependence between the sub-tensors. Experimental results on a real-world social image database demonstrate the superiority of the proposed method compared with the state-of-the-art methods.

  1. Approximation properties of haplotype tagging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dreiseitl Stephan

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs are locations at which the genomic sequences of population members differ. Since these differences are known to follow patterns, disease association studies are facilitated by identifying SNPs that allow the unique identification of such patterns. This process, known as haplotype tagging, is formulated as a combinatorial optimization problem and analyzed in terms of complexity and approximation properties. Results It is shown that the tagging problem is NP-hard but approximable within 1 + ln((n2 - n/2 for n haplotypes but not approximable within (1 - ε ln(n/2 for any ε > 0 unless NP ⊂ DTIME(nlog log n. A simple, very easily implementable algorithm that exhibits the above upper bound on solution quality is presented. This algorithm has running time O((2m - p + 1 ≤ O(m(n2 - n/2 where p ≤ min(n, m for n haplotypes of size m. As we show that the approximation bound is asymptotically tight, the algorithm presented is optimal with respect to this asymptotic bound. Conclusion The haplotype tagging problem is hard, but approachable with a fast, practical, and surprisingly simple algorithm that cannot be significantly improved upon on a single processor machine. Hence, significant improvement in computatational efforts expended can only be expected if the computational effort is distributed and done in parallel.

  2. Plastic-casting intrinsic-surface unique identifier (tag)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palm, R.G.; De Volpi, A.

    1995-04-01

    This report describes the development of an authenticated intrinsic-surf ace tagging method for unique- identification of controlled items. Although developed for control of items limited by an arms control treaty, this method has other potential applications to keep track of critical or high-value items. Each tag (unique-identifier) consists of the intrinsic, microscopic surface topography of a small designated area on a controlled item. It is implemented by making a baseline plastic casting of the designated tag area and usually placing a cover (for example, a bar-code label) over this area to protect the surface from environmental alteration. The plastic casting is returned to a laboratory and prepared for high-resolution scanning electron microscope imaging. Several images are digitized and stored for use as a standard for authentication of castings taken during future inspections. Authentication is determined by numerically comparing digital images. Commercially available hardware and software are used for this tag. Tag parameters are optimized, so unique casting images are obtained from original surfaces, and images obtained from attempted duplicate surfaces are detected. This optimization uses the modulation transfer function, a first principle of image analysis, to determine the parameters. Surface duplication experiments confirmed the optimization

  3. The study of electromagnetic wave propagation in photonic crystals via planewave based transfer (scattering) matrix method with active gain material applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ming

    In this dissertation, a set of numerical simulation tools are developed under previous work to efficiently and accurately study one-dimensional (1D), two-dimensional (2D), 2D slab and three-dimensional (3D) photonic crystal structures and their defects effects by means of spectrum (transmission, reflection, absorption), band structure (dispersion relation), and electric and/or magnetic fields distribution (mode profiles). Further more, the lasing property and spontaneous emission behaviors are studied when active gain materials are presented in the photonic crystal structures. First, the planewave based transfer (scattering) matrix method (TMM) is described in every detail along with a brief review of photonic crystal history (Chapter 1 and 2). As a frequency domain method, TMM has the following major advantages over other numerical methods: (1) the planewave basis makes Maxwell's Equations a linear algebra problem and there are mature numerical package to solve linear algebra problem such as Lapack and Scalapack (for parallel computation). (2) Transfer (scattering) matrix method make 3D problem into 2D slices and link all slices together via the scattering matrix (S matrix) which reduces computation time and memory usage dramatically and makes 3D real photonic crystal devices design possible; and this also makes the simulated domain no length limitation along the propagation direction (ideal for waveguide simulation). (3) It is a frequency domain method and calculation results are all for steady state, without the influences of finite time span convolution effects and/or transient effects. (4) TMM can treat dispersive material (such as metal at visible light) naturally without introducing any additional computation; and meanwhile TMM can also deal with anisotropic material and magnetic material (such as perfectly matched layer) naturally from its algorithms. (5) Extension of TMM to deal with active gain material can be done through an iteration procedure with gain

  4. Secure passive RFID tag with seal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nekoogar, Faranak; Reynolds, Matthew; Lefton, Scott; Dowla, Farid; Twogood, Richard

    2017-11-14

    A secure passive RFID tag system comprises at least one base station and at least one passive RFID tag. The tag includes a fiber optic cable with the cable ends sealed within the tag and the middle portion forming an external loop. The loop may be secured to at least portions of an object. The tag transmits and receives an optical signal through the fiber optic cable, and the cable is configured to be damaged or broken in response to removal or tampering attempts, wherein the optical signal is significantly altered if the cable is damaged or broken. The tag transmits the optical signal in response to receiving a radio signal from the base station and compares the transmitted optical signal to the received optical signal. If the transmitted optical signal and the received optical signal are identical, the tag transmits an affirmative radio signal to the base station.

  5. Photon technology. Hard photon technology; Photon technology. Hard photon gijutsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    For the application of photon to industrial technologies, in particular, a hard photon technology was surveyed which uses photon beams of 0.1-200nm in wavelength. Its features such as selective atom reaction, dense inner shell excitation and spacial high resolution by quantum energy are expected to provide innovative techniques for various field such as fine machining, material synthesis and advanced inspection technology. This wavelength region has been hardly utilized for industrial fields because of poor development of suitable photon sources and optical devices. The developmental meaning, usable time and issue of a hard photon reduction lithography were surveyed as lithography in ultra-fine region below 0.1{mu}m. On hard photon analysis/evaluation technology, the industrial use of analysis, measurement and evaluation technologies by micro-beam was viewed, and optimum photon sources and optical systems were surveyed. Prediction of surface and surface layer modification by inner shell excitation, the future trend of this process and development of a vacuum ultraviolet light source were also surveyed. 383 refs., 153 figs., 17 tabs.

  6. Inverse photon-photon processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carimalo, C.; Crozon, M.; Kesler, P.; Parisi, J.

    1981-12-01

    We here consider inverse photon-photon processes, i.e. AB → γγX (where A, B are hadrons, in particular protons or antiprotons), at high energies. As regards the production of a γγ continuum, we show that, under specific conditions the study of such processes might provide some information on the subprocess gg γγ, involving a quark box. It is also suggested to use those processes in order to systematically look for heavy C = + structures (quarkonium states, gluonia, etc.) showing up in the γγ channel. Inverse photon-photon processes might thus become a new and fertile area of investigation in high-energy physics, provided the difficult problem of discriminating between direct photons and indirect ones can be handled in a satisfactory way

  7. Radiation protection measurements with the variance-covariance method in the stray radiation fields from photon and proton therapy facilities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lillhök, J.; Persson, L.; Andersen, Claus E.

    2017-01-01

    , the dose-average lineal energy, the dose-average quality factor and the dose equivalent. The neutron component measured by the detectors at the proton beam was studied through Monte Carlo simulations using the code MCNP6. In the photon beam the stray absorbed dose ranged between 0.3 and 2.4 μGy per monitor...

  8. Final-photon polarization in the scattering of photons by high-energy electrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, J.; Choi, S.Y.; Ie, S.H.; Song, H.S.; Good, R.H. Jr.

    1987-01-01

    A general method for calculating the polarization of the outgoing photon beam in any reaction is presented. As an example the method is applied to the high-energy photon beam produced in Compton scattering of a laser beam by a high-energy electron beam. The Stokes parameters of the outgoing photon beam, relative to a unit vector normal to the photon momentum and including their dependence on the polarization of incident photon and electron beams, are obtained explicitly. It is expected that this method will be useful, both in photon production reactions and in the subsequent high-energy photon reactions

  9. Effects of calibration methods on quantitative material decomposition in photon-counting spectral computed tomography using a maximum a posteriori estimator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curtis, Tyler E; Roeder, Ryan K

    2017-10-01

    Advances in photon-counting detectors have enabled quantitative material decomposition using multi-energy or spectral computed tomography (CT). Supervised methods for material decomposition utilize an estimated attenuation for each material of interest at each photon energy level, which must be calibrated based upon calculated or measured values for known compositions. Measurements using a calibration phantom can advantageously account for system-specific noise, but the effect of calibration methods on the material basis matrix and subsequent quantitative material decomposition has not been experimentally investigated. Therefore, the objective of this study was to investigate the influence of the range and number of contrast agent concentrations within a modular calibration phantom on the accuracy of quantitative material decomposition in the image domain. Gadolinium was chosen as a model contrast agent in imaging phantoms, which also contained bone tissue and water as negative controls. The maximum gadolinium concentration (30, 60, and 90 mM) and total number of concentrations (2, 4, and 7) were independently varied to systematically investigate effects of the material basis matrix and scaling factor calibration on the quantitative (root mean squared error, RMSE) and spatial (sensitivity and specificity) accuracy of material decomposition. Images of calibration and sample phantoms were acquired using a commercially available photon-counting spectral micro-CT system with five energy bins selected to normalize photon counts and leverage the contrast agent k-edge. Material decomposition of gadolinium, calcium, and water was performed for each calibration method using a maximum a posteriori estimator. Both the quantitative and spatial accuracy of material decomposition were most improved by using an increased maximum gadolinium concentration (range) in the basis matrix calibration; the effects of using a greater number of concentrations were relatively small in

  10. Identifying novel genes in C. elegans using SAGE tags

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Nansheng

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite extensive efforts devoted to predicting protein-coding genes in genome sequences, many bona fide genes have not been found and many existing gene models are not accurate in all sequenced eukaryote genomes. This situation is partly explained by the fact that gene prediction programs have been developed based on our incomplete understanding of gene feature information such as splicing and promoter characteristics. Additionally, full-length cDNAs of many genes and their isoforms are hard to obtain due to their low level or rare expression. In order to obtain full-length sequences of all protein-coding genes, alternative approaches are required. Results In this project, we have developed a method of reconstructing full-length cDNA sequences based on short expressed sequence tags which is called sequence tag-based amplification of cDNA ends (STACE. Expressed tags are used as anchors for retrieving full-length transcripts in two rounds of PCR amplification. We have demonstrated the application of STACE in reconstructing full-length cDNA sequences using expressed tags mined in an array of serial analysis of gene expression (SAGE of C. elegans cDNA libraries. We have successfully applied STACE to recover sequence information for 12 genes, for two of which we found isoforms. STACE was used to successfully recover full-length cDNA sequences for seven of these genes. Conclusions The STACE method can be used to effectively reconstruct full-length cDNA sequences of genes that are under-represented in cDNA sequencing projects and have been missed by existing gene prediction methods, but their existence has been suggested by short sequence tags such as SAGE tags.

  11. Precision Electrophile Tagging in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Marcus J C; Urul, Daniel A; Chawla, Shivansh; Lin, Hong-Yu; Zhao, Yi; Haegele, Joseph A; Wang, Yiran; Aye, Yimon

    2018-01-16

    Adduction of an electrophile to privileged sensor proteins and the resulting phenotypically dominant responses are increasingly appreciated as being essential for metazoan health. Functional similarities between the biological electrophiles and electrophilic pharmacophores commonly found in covalent drugs further fortify the translational relevance of these small-molecule signals. Genetically encodable or small-molecule-based fluorescent reporters and redox proteomics have revolutionized the observation and profiling of cellular redox states and electrophile-sensor proteins, respectively. However, precision mapping between specific redox-modified targets and specific responses has only recently begun to be addressed, and systems tractable to both genetic manipulation and on-target redox signaling in vivo remain largely limited. Here we engineer transgenic Caenorhabditis elegans expressing functional HaloTagged fusion proteins and use this system to develop a generalizable light-controlled approach to tagging a prototypical electrophile-sensor protein with native electrophiles in vivo. The method circumvents issues associated with low uptake/distribution and toxicity/promiscuity. Given the validated success of C. elegans in aging studies, this optimized platform offers a new lens with which to scrutinize how on-target electrophile signaling influences redox-dependent life span regulation.

  12. A comparison of small-field tissue phantom ratio data generation methods for an Elekta Agility 6 MV photon beam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richmond, Neil; Brackenridge, Robert

    2014-01-01

    Tissue-phantom ratios (TPRs) are a common dosimetric quantity used to describe the change in dose with depth in tissue. These can be challenging and time consuming to measure. The conversion of percentage depth dose (PDD) data using standard formulae is widely employed as an alternative method in generating TPR. However, the applicability of these formulae for small fields has been questioned in the literature. Functional representation has also been proposed for small-field TPR production. This article compares measured TPR data for small 6 MV photon fields against that generated by conversion of PDD using standard formulae to assess the efficacy of the conversion data. By functionally fitting the measured TPR data for square fields greater than 4cm in length, the TPR curves for smaller fields are generated and compared with measurements. TPRs and PDDs were measured in a water tank for a range of square field sizes. The PDDs were converted to TPRs using standard formulae. TPRs for fields of 4 × 4cm(2) and larger were used to create functional fits. The parameterization coefficients were used to construct extrapolated TPR curves for 1 × 1 cm(2), 2 × 2-cm(2), and 3 × 3-cm(2) fields. The TPR data generated using standard formulae were in excellent agreement with direct TPR measurements. The TPR data for 1 × 1-cm(2), 2 × 2-cm(2), and 3 × 3-cm(2) fields created by extrapolation of the larger field functional fits gave inaccurate initial results. The corresponding mean differences for the 3 fields were 4.0%, 2.0%, and 0.9%. Generation of TPR data using a standard PDD-conversion methodology has been shown to give good agreement with our directly measured data for small fields. However, extrapolation of TPR data using the functional fit to fields of 4 × 4cm(2) or larger resulted in generation of TPR curves that did not compare well with the measured data. © 2013 Published by American Association of Medical Dosimetrists on behalf of American Association of Medical

  13. Photon generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivasan-Rao, Triveni

    2002-01-01

    A photon generator includes an electron gun for emitting an electron beam, a laser for emitting a laser beam, and an interaction ring wherein the laser beam repetitively collides with the electron beam for emitting a high energy photon beam therefrom in the exemplary form of x-rays. The interaction ring is a closed loop, sized and configured for circulating the electron beam with a period substantially equal to the period of the laser beam pulses for effecting repetitive collisions.

  14. Inclusive tagging of B-flavour at LHCb [Vidyo

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2017-01-01

    One of the most important procedure needed for the study of CP violation in Beauty sector is the tagging of the flavour of neutral B-mesons at production. The harsh environment of the Large Hadron Collider makes it particularly hard to succeed in this task. We present a proposal to upgrade current flavour tagging strategy in LHCb experiment. This strategy consists of inclusive tagging ensemble methods (i.e: the use inclusive information about the event without a firm selection rule), which are combined using a probabilistic model for each event. The probabilistic model uses all reconstructed tracks and secondary vertices to obtain well-determined probability of B flavour at production. Such approach reduces the dependence on the performance of lower level identification capacities and thus has the potential to increase the overall performance.

  15. Some algorithms of the events recognition in the Tagged Neutrino Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mukhin, S.A.

    1993-01-01

    Some algorithms of the events recognition in Tagged Neutrino Facility are described: the event localization in Bars neutrino detector, the off-line trigger, the reconstruction of events vertex, events reconstruction in Tagging Station. The programming package for realization of clusterization methods that have been used for mentioned algorithms realization is presented. 6 refs., 2 tabs

  16. A new RF tagging pulse based on the Frank poly-phase perfect sequence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laustsen, Christoffer; Greferath, Marcus; Ringgaard, Steffen

    2014-01-01

    Radio frequency (RF) spectrally selective multiband pulses or tagging pulses, are applicable in a broad range of magnetic resonance methods. We demonstrate through simulations and experiments a new phase-modulation-only RF pulse for RF tagging based on the Frank poly-phase perfect sequence...

  17. Tag-KEM from Set Partial Domain One-Way Permutations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abe, Masayuki; Cui, Yang; Imai, Hideki; Kurosawa, Kaoru

    Recently a framework called Tag-KEM/DEM was introduced to construct efficient hybrid encryption schemes. Although it is known that generic encode-then-encrypt construction of chosen ciphertext secure public-key encryption also applies to secure Tag-KEM construction and some known encoding method like OAEP can be used for this purpose, it is worth pursuing more efficient encoding method dedicated for Tag-KEM construction. This paper proposes an encoding method that yields efficient Tag-KEM schemes when combined with set partial one-way permutations such as RSA and Rabin's encryption scheme. To our knowledge, this leads to the most practical hybrid encryption scheme of this type. We also present an efficient Tag-KEM which is CCA-secure under general factoring assumption rather than Blum factoring assumption.

  18. Effective use of Monte Carlo methods for simulating photon transport with special reference to slab penetration problems in X-ray diagnostics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlsson, G.A.

    1981-01-01

    The analysis of Monte Carlo methods has been made in connection with a particular problem concerning the transport of low energy photons (30-140 keV) through layers of water with thicknesses between 5 and 20 cm. While not claiming to be a complete exposition of available Monte Carlo techniques, the methodological analyses are not restricted to this particular problem. The report describes in a general manner a number of methods which can be used in order to obtain results of greater precision in a fixed computing time. (Auth.)

  19. FDTD method for computing the off-plane band structure in a two-dimensional photonic crystal consisting of nearly free-electron metals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xiao Sanshui; He Sailing

    2002-12-01

    An FDTD numerical method for computing the off-plane band structure of a two-dimensional photonic crystal consisting of nearly free-electron metals is presented. The method requires only a two-dimensional discretization mesh for a given off-plane wave number k{sub z} although the off-plane propagation is a three-dimensional problem. The off-plane band structures of a square lattice of metallic rods with the high-frequency metallic model in the air are studied, and a complete band gap for some nonzero off-plane wave number k{sub z} is founded.

  20. FDTD method for computing the off-plane band structure in a two-dimensional photonic crystal consisting of nearly free-electron metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiao Sanshui; He Sailing

    2002-01-01

    An FDTD numerical method for computing the off-plane band structure of a two-dimensional photonic crystal consisting of nearly free-electron metals is presented. The method requires only a two-dimensional discretization mesh for a given off-plane wave number k z although the off-plane propagation is a three-dimensional problem. The off-plane band structures of a square lattice of metallic rods with the high-frequency metallic model in the air are studied, and a complete band gap for some nonzero off-plane wave number k z is founded

  1. Probing the SEB Sensitive Depth of a Power MOSFET Using a Two-Photon Absorption Laser Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauenstein, Jean-Marie; Liu, Sandra; Titus, Jeffrey L.; McMorrow, Dale; Casey, Megan C.; Buchner, Stephen P.; Warner, Jeffrey; Phan, Anthony M.; Topper, Alyson D.; Kim, Hak S.; hide

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents two-photon absorption test results on an engineering single-event burnout- (SEB-) sensitive power MOSFET to verify that the energy deposition/charge ionization in the highly-doped substrate does not contribute to SEB. It is shown that for a vertical power MOSFET, the SEB sensitive volume is the lightly doped epitaxial layer; the most sensitive region is under the polysllicon gate.

  2. Evaluation of early systolic flow pattern in left ventricle by tagging cine MRI in normal volunteers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakakura, Kazuyoshi; Anno, Naoko; Kondo, Takeshi

    1992-01-01

    The tagging method is a new technique, which permits to apply discretionary lines (tags) on MR images. To evaluate intra left ventricular (LV) flow pattern, we performed ECG-gated gradient field echo cine MRI using tagging method in five normal male volunteers, aged 22-42 years. The horizontal long axis view of LV was imaged by multiphasic field echo pulse sequence. The three parallel tags (basal, middle and apical portion) were established on the horizontal long axis view of LV just after the triggered QRS waves. And the initial two images (70 ms and 120 ms after the triggered QRS waves) were analyzed. On the two tags (middle and apical portion) of these three tags, we measured the distance of displacement of the tags on three points (the near site of IVS, middle portion and the near site of free wall) respectively. At 70 ms after the trigger point, the only tagged blood at the near site of free wall flowed toward the apex. At 120 ms after the trigger point, all the tagged blood flowed toward the outflow tract of LV. And the maximum blood flow velocity was observed at the near site of IVS on middle portion of LV (166.0 mm/s). These results coincided with earlier studies by Doppler echocardiography. But we could not observe intra LV blood flow patterns throughout one cardiac cycle in this pulse sequence, because the tags had flowed out from LV and had become unclear due to spin relaxation and mixing. We concluded that the tagging method was useful to evaluate intra left ventricular blood flow patterns in early systolic phase. (author)

  3. Scalable Faceted Ranking in Tagging Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orlicki, José I.; Alvarez-Hamelin, J. Ignacio; Fierens, Pablo I.

    Nowadays, web collaborative tagging systems which allow users to upload, comment on and recommend contents, are growing. Such systems can be represented as graphs where nodes correspond to users and tagged-links to recommendations. In this paper we analyze the problem of computing a ranking of users with respect to a facet described as a set of tags. A straightforward solution is to compute a PageRank-like algorithm on a facet-related graph, but it is not feasible for online computation. We propose an alternative: (i) a ranking for each tag is computed offline on the basis of tag-related subgraphs; (ii) a faceted order is generated online by merging rankings corresponding to all the tags in the facet. Based on the graph analysis of YouTube and Flickr, we show that step (i) is scalable. We also present efficient algorithms for step (ii), which are evaluated by comparing their results with two gold standards.

  4. Building Tag Clouds in Perl and PHP

    CERN Document Server

    Bumgardner, Jim

    2006-01-01

    Tag clouds are everywhere on the web these days. First popularized by the web sites Flickr, Technorati, and del.icio.us, these amorphous clumps of words now appear on a slew of web sites as visual evidence of their membership in the elite corps of "Web 2.0." This PDF analyzes what is and isn't a tag cloud, offers design tips for using them effectively, and then goes on to show how to collect tags and display them in the tag cloud format. Scripts are provided in Perl and PHP. Yes, some have said tag clouds are a fad. But as you will see, tag clouds, when used properly, have real merits. More

  5. Understanding why users tag: A survey of tagging motivation literature and results from an empirical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strohmaier, Markus; Körner, Christian; Kern, Roman

    2012-12-01

    While recent progress has been achieved in understanding the structure and dynamics of social tagging systems, we know little about the underlying user motivations for tagging, and how they influence resulting folksonomies and tags. This paper addresses three issues related to this question. (1) What distinctions of user motivations are identified by previous research, and in what ways are the motivations of users amenable to quantitative analysis? (2) To what extent does tagging motivation vary across different social tagging systems? (3) How does variability in user motivation influence resulting tags and folksonomies? In this paper, we present measures to detect whether a tagger is primarily motivated by categorizing or describing resources, and apply these measures to datasets from seven different tagging systems. Our results show that (a) users' motivation for tagging varies not only across, but also within tagging systems, and that (b) tag agreement among users who are motivated by categorizing resources is significantly lower than among users who are motivated by describing resources . Our findings are relevant for (1) the development of tag-based user interfaces, (2) the analysis of tag semantics and (3) the design of search algorithms for social tagging systems.

  6. Learner Corpora without Error Tagging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rastelli, Stefano

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The article explores the possibility of adopting a form-to-function perspective when annotating learner corpora in order to get deeper insights about systematic features of interlanguage. A split between forms and functions (or categories is desirable in order to avoid the "comparative fallacy" and because – especially in basic varieties – forms may precede functions (e.g., what resembles to a "noun" might have a different function or a function may show up in unexpected forms. In the computer-aided error analysis tradition, all items produced by learners are traced to a grid of error tags which is based on the categories of the target language. Differently, we believe it is possible to record and make retrievable both words and sequence of characters independently from their functional-grammatical label in the target language. For this purpose at the University of Pavia we adapted a probabilistic POS tagger designed for L1 on L2 data. Despite the criticism that this operation can raise, we found that it is better to work with "virtual categories" rather than with errors. The article outlines the theoretical background of the project and shows some examples in which some potential of SLA-oriented (non error-based tagging will be possibly made clearer.

  7. B-tagging in CMS at LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Cucciarelli, S

    2003-01-01

    This report provides a review of the main algorithms for offline inclusive b-tagging developed within the CMS community. Two b-tag algorithms, one based on the impact parameter measurement and the other based on the secondary vertices are discussed. The performance of these algorithms are presented for several jet transverse energies and pseudorapidity regions. An additional decay length based b-tag is also described and its preliminary performance is presented. (4 refs) .

  8. A Method for Extracting the Free Energy Surface and Conformational Dynamics of Fast-Folding Proteins from Single Molecule Photon Trajectories

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Single molecule fluorescence spectroscopy holds the promise of providing direct measurements of protein folding free energy landscapes and conformational motions. However, fulfilling this promise has been prevented by technical limitations, most notably, the difficulty in analyzing the small packets of photons per millisecond that are typically recorded from individual biomolecules. Such limitation impairs the ability to accurately determine conformational distributions and resolve sub-millisecond processes. Here we develop an analytical procedure for extracting the conformational distribution and dynamics of fast-folding proteins directly from time-stamped photon arrival trajectories produced by single molecule FRET experiments. Our procedure combines the maximum likelihood analysis originally developed by Gopich and Szabo with a statistical mechanical model that describes protein folding as diffusion on a one-dimensional free energy surface. Using stochastic kinetic simulations, we thoroughly tested the performance of the method in identifying diverse fast-folding scenarios, ranging from two-state to one-state downhill folding, as a function of relevant experimental variables such as photon count rate, amount of input data, and background noise. The tests demonstrate that the analysis can accurately retrieve the original one-dimensional free energy surface and microsecond folding dynamics in spite of the sub-megahertz photon count rates and significant background noise levels of current single molecule fluorescence experiments. Therefore, our approach provides a powerful tool for the quantitative analysis of single molecule FRET experiments of fast protein folding that is also potentially extensible to the analysis of any other biomolecular process governed by sub-millisecond conformational dynamics. PMID:25988351

  9. Sensor-based material tagging system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vercellotti, L.C.; Cox, R.W.; Ravas, R.J.; Schlotterer, J.C.

    1991-01-01

    Electronic identification tags are being developed for tracking material and personnel. In applying electronic identification tags to radioactive materials safeguards, it is important to measure attributes of the material to ensure that the tag remains with the material. The addition of a microcontroller with an on-board analog-to-digital converter to an electronic identification tag application-specific integrated-circuit has been demonstrated as means to provide the tag with sensor data. Each tag is assembled into a housing, which serves as a scale for measuring the weight of a paint-can-sized container and its contents. Temperature rise of the can above ambient is also measured, and a piezoelectric detector detects disturbances and immediately puts the tag into its alarm and beacon mode. Radiation measurement was also considered, but the background from nearby containers was found to be excessive. The sensor-based tagging system allows tracking of the material in cans as it is stored in vaults or is moved through the manufacturing process. The paper presents details of the sensor-based material tagging system and describes a demonstration system

  10. Flavour Tagging developments within the LHCb experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Grabalosa, Marc

    Flavour Tagging at the LHCb experiment is a fundamental tool for the measurement of B oscillations and the study of CP violation. This document explains the development of different tagging techniques and the different strategies used to combine them to determine the flavour of the B meson as precisely as possible. The response of the tagging algorithms also needs to be optimized and calibrated. Both procedures are described using the available LHCb datasets corresponding to various integrated luminosities. First results on the tagging performances are shown for different control channels and physics measurements.

  11. Discharge residence of TLD tagged fish

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Romberg, G.P.; Prepejchal, W.

    1974-01-01

    Although visual observations suggested that fish remained in the discharge for considerable periods, temperature-sensitive tags indicated the majority of fish spend less than 50 hr or 10 percent of the time at discharge temperatures. During 1974 a second fish tagging study was conducted, using temperature-sensitive tags to yield discharge residence times of Lake Michigan salmonids at Point Beach thermal discharge. Preliminary results revealed that many fish tag values were close to Unit I line indicating that calculated maximum discharge residence times for these fish will be nearly 100 percent of the elapsed time

  12. Optimization of tagged MRI for quantification of liver stiffness using computer simulated data.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serena Monti

    Full Text Available The heartbeat has been proposed as an intrinsic source of motion that can be used in combination with tagged Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI to measure displacements induced in the liver as an index of liver stiffness. Optimizing a tagged MRI acquisition protocol in terms of sensitivity to these displacements, which are in the order of pixel size, is necessary to develop the method as a quantification tool for staging fibrosis. We reproduced a study of cardiac-induced strain in the liver at 3T and simulated tagged MR images with different grid tag patterns to evaluate the performance of the Harmonic Phase (HARP image analysis method and its dependence on the parameters of tag spacing and grid angle. The Partial Volume Effect (PVE, T1 relaxation, and different levels of noise were taken into account. Four displacement fields of increasing intensity were created and applied to the tagged MR images of the liver. These fields simulated the deformation at different liver stiffnesses. An Error Index (EI was calculated to evaluate the estimation accuracy for various parameter values. In the absence of noise, the estimation accuracy of the displacement fields increased as tag spacings decreased. EIs for each of the four displacement fields were lower at 0° and the local minima of the EI were found to correspond to multiples of pixel size. The accuracy of the estimation decreased for increasing levels of added noise; as the level increased, the improved estimation caused by decreasing the tag spacing tended to zero. The optimal tag spacing turned out to be a compromise between the smallest tag period that is a multiple of the pixel size and is achievable in a real acquisition and the tag spacing that guarantees an accurate liver displacement measure in the presence of realistic levels of noise.

  13. Experimental investigations of micro-scale flow and heat transfer phenomena by using molecular tagging techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu, Hui; Jin, Zheyan; Lum, Chee; Nocera, Daniel; Koochesfahani, Manoochehr

    2010-01-01

    Recent progress made in the development of novel molecule-based flow diagnostic techniques, including molecular tagging velocimetry (MTV) and lifetime-based molecular tagging thermometry (MTT), to achieve simultaneous measurements of multiple important flow variables for micro-flows and micro-scale heat transfer studies is reported in this study. The focus of the work described here is the particular class of molecular tagging tracers that relies on phosphorescence. Instead of using tiny particles, especially designed phosphorescent molecules, which can be turned into long-lasting glowing marks upon excitation by photons of appropriate wavelength, are used as tracers for both flow velocity and temperature measurements. A pulsed laser is used to 'tag' the tracer molecules in the regions of interest, and the tagged molecules are imaged at two successive times within the photoluminescence lifetime of the tracer molecules. The measured Lagrangian displacement of the tagged molecules provides the estimate of the fluid velocity. The simultaneous temperature measurement is achieved by taking advantage of the temperature dependence of phosphorescence lifetime, which is estimated from the intensity ratio of the tagged molecules in the acquired two phosphorescence images. The implementation and application of the molecular tagging approach for micro-scale thermal flow studies are demonstrated by two examples. The first example is to conduct simultaneous flow velocity and temperature measurements inside a microchannel to quantify the transient behavior of electroosmotic flow (EOF) to elucidate underlying physics associated with the effects of Joule heating on electrokinematically driven flows. The second example is to examine the time evolution of the unsteady heat transfer and phase changing process inside micro-sized, icing water droplets, which is pertinent to the ice formation and accretion processes as water droplets impinge onto cold wind turbine blades

  14. A Fluorogenic TMP-tag for High Signal-to-Background Intracellular Live Cell Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jing, Chaoran

    2013-01-01

    Developed to compliment the use of fluorescent proteins in live cell imaging, chemical tags enjoy the benefit of modular incorporation of organic fluorophores, opening the possibility of high photon output and special photophysical properties. However, the theoretical challenge in using chemical tags as opposed to fluorescent proteins for high-resolution imaging is background noise from unbound and/or non-specifically bound ligand-fluorophore. We envisioned we could overcome this limit by engineering fluorogenic trimethoprim-based chemical tags (TMP-tags) in which the fluorophore is quenched until binding with E. coli dihydrofolate reductase (eDHFR) tagged protein displaces the quencher. Thus, we began by building a non-fluorogenic, covalent TMP-tag based on a proximity-induced reaction known to achieve rapid and specific labeling both in vitro and inside of living cells. Here we take the final step and render the covalent TMP-tag fluorogenic. In brief, we designed a trimeric TMP-fluorophore-quencher molecule (TMP-Q-Atto520) with the quencher attached to a leaving group that, upon TMP binding to eDHFR, would be cleaved by a cysteine residue (Cys) installed just outside the binding pocket of eDHFR. We present the in vitro experiments showing that the eDHFR:L28C nucleophile cleaves the TMP-Q-Atto520 rapidly and efficiently, resulting in covalent labeling and remarkable fluorescence enhancement. Most significantly, while only our initial design, TMP-Q-Atto520 achieved the demanding goal of not only labeling highly abundant, localized intracellular proteins, but also less abundant, more dynamic cytoplasmic proteins. These results suggest that fluorogenic TMP-tag can significantly impact highresolution live cell imaging and further establish the potential of proximity-induced reactivity and organic chemistry more broadly as part of the growing toolbox for synthetic biology and cell engineering. PMID:23745575

  15. Cloning and Expression of Ontak Immunotoxin Using Intein Tag

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SA Moosavizadeh

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Inteins (INT are internal parts of a number of proteins in yeast and some other unicellular eukaryotes, which can be separated from the immature protein during protein splicing process. After identifying the mechanism of intein action, applications of these sequences are be considered in the single- step purification of recombinant proteins and different intein tags were developed. The most important advantage of using intein tags in purification of recombinant proteins than other affinity tags is no requirement of expensive protease enzymes and following additional steps to remove protease that make intein tags economically are considered more important. In the present study, denileukin diftitox immunotoxin (brand name Ontak, be fused with an intein tag and it was inserted in pTXB1 plasmid. Methods: In this study, with respect to multiple cloning sites (MCS of pTXB1, specific primers were designed. Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR was performed and encoding sequence of ONTAK was cloned using restriction sites of NdeI and SapI. Recombinant vector (PTX-IDZ was transformed into E. coli strain ER2566 and expression of gene was studied. Results: The accuracy of recombinant construct was confirmed by PCR and enzymatic digestion. The produced recombinant proteins were confirmed by SDS-PAGE and Western blotting. Conclusion: Restriction site of SapI guarantees no additional residues incorporate in primary protein sequence. Also, the expression of this construct was analyzed in compare with fused protein to poly-His tag. According to the appropriate expression of fused protein in both constructs it was expected that one step- purification of considered drug protein will be success in the following steps.

  16. Development of a two photon microscope for tracking Drosophila larvae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karagyozov, Doycho; Mihovilovic Skanata, Mirna; Gershow, Marc

    Current in vivo methods for measuring neural activity in Drosophila larva require immobilization of the animal. Although we can record neural signals while stimulating the sensory organs, we cannot read the behavioral output because we have prevented the animal from moving. Many research questions cannot be answered without observation of neural activity in behaving (freely-moving) animals. We incorporated a Tunable Acoustic Gradient (TAG) lens into a two-photon microscope to achieve a 70kHz axial scan rate, enabling volumetric imaging at tens of hertz. We then implemented a tracking algorithm based on a Kalman filter to maintain the neurons of interest in the field of view and in focus during the rapid three dimensional motion of a free larva. Preliminary results show successful tracking of a neuron moving at speeds reaching 500 μm/s. NIH Grant 1DP2EB022359 and NSF Grant PHY-1455015.

  17. Optics of globular photonic crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gorelik, V S

    2007-01-01

    The results of experimental and theoretical studies of the optical properties of globular photonic crystals - new physical objects having a crystal structure with the lattice period exceeding considerably the atomic size, are presented. As globular photonic crystals, artificial opal matrices consisting of close-packed silica globules of diameter ∼200 nm were used. The reflection spectra of these objects characterising the parameters of photonic bands existing in these crystals in the visible spectral region are presented. The idealised models of the energy band structure of photonic crystals investigated in the review give analytic dispersion dependences for the group velocity and the effective photon mass in a globular photonic crystal. The characteristics of secondary emission excited in globular photonic crystals by monochromatic and broadband radiation are presented. The results of investigations of single-photon-excited delayed scattering of light observed in globular photonic crystals exposed to cw UV radiation and radiation from a repetitively pulsed copper vapour laser are presented. The possibilities of using globular photonic crystals as active media for lasing in different spectral regions are considered. It is proposed to use globular photonic crystals as sensitive sensors in optoelectronic devices for molecular analysis of organic and inorganic materials by the modern methods of laser spectroscopy. The results of experimental studies of spontaneous and stimulated globular scattering of light are discussed. The conditions for observing resonance and two-photon-excited delayed scattering of light are found. The possibility of accumulation and localisation of the laser radiation energy inside a globular photonic crystal is reported. (review)

  18. Photonic band gap engineering in 2D photonic crystals

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    -dimensional photonic crystals with square lattices composed of air holes in dielectric and vice versa i.e., dielectric rods in air, using the plane-wave expansion method are investigated. We then study, how the photonic band gap size is ...

  19. External tagging does not affect the feeding behavior of a coral reef fish, Chaetodon vagabundus (Pisces: Chaetodontidae)

    KAUST Repository

    Berumen, Michael L.

    2009-11-10

    Increasingly, the ability to recognize individual fishes is important for studies of population dynamics, ecology, and behavior. Although a variety of methods exist, external tags remain one of the most widely applied because they are both effective and cost efficient. However, a key assumption is that neither the tagging procedure nor the presence of a tag negatively affects the individual. While this has been demonstrated for relatively coarse metrics such as growth and survival, few studies have examined the impact of tags and tagging on more subtle aspects of behavior. We tagged adult vagabond butterflyfish (Chaetodon vagabundus) occupying a 30-ha insular reef in Kimbe Bay, Papua New Guinea, using a commonly-utilized t-bar anchor tag. We quantified and compared feeding behavior (bite rate), which is sensitive to stress, of tagged and untagged individuals over four separate sampling periods spanning 4 months post-tagging. Bite rates did not differ between tagged and untagged individuals at each sampling period and, combined with additional anecdotal observations of normal pairing behavior and successful reproduction, suggest that tagging did not adversely affect individuals. © Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2009.

  20. The calculation of dose from external photon exposures using reference human phantoms and Monte-Carlo methods. Pt. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kramer, R.; Zankl, M.; Williams, G.; Drexler, G.

    1982-12-01

    By the help of a Monte-Carlo program the dose that single organs, organ groups and bigger or smaller parts of body would receive on an average, caused by an irradiation definitely fixed by the geometry of irradiation and photon energy, can be determined. Thus the phantom in connection with the Monte-Carlo program can be used for several considerations as for example - calculation of dose from occupational exposures - calculation of dose from diagnostic procedures - calculation of dose from radiotherapy procedures. (orig.)

  1. Using sutures to attach miniature tracking tags to small bats for multimonth movement and behavioral studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castle, Kevin T; Weller, Theodore J; Cryan, Paul M; Hein, Cris D; Schirmacher, Michael R

    2015-07-01

    Determining the detailed movements of individual animals often requires them to carry tracking devices, but tracking broad-scale movement of small bats (system (GPS) tags and geolocating data loggers to small bats. We used monofilament, synthetic, absorbable sutures to secure GPS tags and data loggers to the skin of anesthetized big brown bats (Eptesicus fuscus) in Colorado and hoary bats (Lasiurus cinereus) in California. GPS tags and data loggers were sutured to 17 bats in this study. Three tagged bats were recaptured 7 months after initial deployment, with tags still attached; none of these bats showed ill effects from the tag. No severe injuries were apparent upon recapture of 6 additional bats that carried tags up to 26 days after attachment; however, one of the bats exhibited skin chafing. Use of absorbable sutures to affix small tracking devices seems to be a safe, effective method for studying movements of bats over multiple months, although additional testing is warranted. This new attachment method has the potential to quickly advance our understanding of small bats, particularly as more sophisticated miniature tracking devices (e.g., satellite tags) become available.

  2. Green photonics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quan, Frederic

    2012-01-01

    Photonics, the broad merger of electronics with the optical sciences, encompasses such a wide swath of technology that its impact is almost universal in our everyday lives. This is a broad overview of some aspects of the industry and their contribution to the ‘green’ or environmental movement. The rationale for energy conservation is briefly discussed and the impact of photonics on our everyday lives and certain industries is described. Some opinions from industry are presented along with market estimates. References are provided to some of the most recent research in these areas. (review article)

  3. The application of Monte Carlo method to electron and photon beams transport; Zastosowanie metody Monte Carlo do analizy transportu elektronow i fotonow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zychor, I. [Soltan Inst. for Nuclear Studies, Otwock-Swierk (Poland)

    1994-12-31

    The application of a Monte Carlo method to study a transport in matter of electron and photon beams is presented, especially for electrons with energies up to 18 MeV. The SHOWME Monte Carlo code, a modified version of GEANT3 code, was used on the CONVEX C3210 computer at Swierk. It was assumed that an electron beam is mono directional and monoenergetic. Arbitrary user-defined, complex geometries made of any element or material can be used in calculation. All principal phenomena occurring when electron beam penetrates the matter are taken into account. The use of calculation for a therapeutic electron beam collimation is presented. (author). 20 refs, 29 figs.

  4. Engineering the ATLAS TAG Browser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Qizhi

    2011-01-01

    ELSSI is a web-based event metadata (TAG) browser and event-level selection service for ATLAS. In this paper, we describe some of the challenges encountered in the process of developing ELSSI, and the software engineering strategies adopted to address those challenges. Approaches to management of access to data, browsing, data rendering, query building, query validation, execution, connection management, and communication with auxiliary services are discussed. We also describe strategies for dealing with data that may vary over time, such as run-dependent trigger decision decoding. Along with examples, we illustrate how programming techniques in multiple languages (PHP, JAVASCRIPT, XML, AJAX, and PL/SQL) have been blended to achieve the required results. Finally, we evaluate features of the ELSSI service in terms of functionality, scalability, and performance.

  5. To tag or not to tag: animal welfare, conservation and stakeholder considerations in fish tracking studies that use electronic tags

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cooke, Steven J.; Nguyen, Vivian M.; Murchie, Karen J.; Thiem, Jason D.; Donaldson, Michael R.; Hinch, Scott G.; Brown, Richard S.; Fisk, Aaron

    2013-11-01

    The advent and widespread adoption of electronic tags (including biotelemetry and biologging devices) for tracking animals has provided unprecedented information on the biology, management, and conservation of fish in the world’s oceans and inland waters. However, use of these tools is not without controversy. Even when scientific and management objectives may best be achieved using electronic tags, it is increasingly important to further consider other factors such as the welfare of tagged animals (i.e., the role of training and science-based surgical guidelines, anesthetic use, inability to maintain sterile conditions in field environments), the ethics of tagging threatened species vs. using surrogates, stakeholder perspectives on tagging (including aboriginals), as well as use of data emanating from such studies (e.g., by fishers to facilitate exploitation). Failure to do so will have the potential to create conflict and undermine scientific, management and public confidence in the use of this powerful tool. Indeed, there are already a number of examples of where tracking studies using electronic tags have been halted based on concerns raised by researchers, authorities, or stakeholders. Here we present a candid evaluation of several factors that should be considered when determining when to tag or not to tag fish with electronic devices. It is not our objective to judge the merit of previous studies. Rather, we hope to stimulate debate and discussion regarding the use of electronic tags to study fish. Relatedly, there is a need for more research to address these questions (e.g., what level of cleanliness is needed when conducting surgeries, what type of training should be required for fish surgery) including human dimensions studies to understand perspectives of different actors including society as a whole with respect to tagging and tracking studies.

  6. Modeling of photonic Crystal Fibres

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjarklev, Anders Overgaard; Broeng, Jes; Barkou, Stig Eigil

    1999-01-01

    Diferent theoretical models for analysis of photonic crystal fibres are reviewed and compaired. The methods span from simple scalar approaches to full-vectorial models using different mode-field decompositions. The specific advantages of the methods are evaluated.......Diferent theoretical models for analysis of photonic crystal fibres are reviewed and compaired. The methods span from simple scalar approaches to full-vectorial models using different mode-field decompositions. The specific advantages of the methods are evaluated....

  7. The use of filtering methods to compensate for constant attenuation in single-photon emission computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gullberg, G.T.; Budinger, T.F.

    1981-01-01

    A back projection of filtered projection (BKFIL) reconstruction algorithm is presented that is applicable to single-photon emission computed tomography (ECT) in the presence of a constant attenuating medium such as the brain. The filters used in transmission computed tomography (TCT)-comprised of a ramp multiplied by window functions-are modified so that the single-photon ECT filter is a function of the constant attenuation coefficient. The filters give good reconstruction results with sufficient angular and lateral sampling. With continuous samples the BKFIL algorithm has a point spread function that is the Hankel transform of the window function. The resolution and statistical properties of the filters are demonstrated by various simulations which assume an ideal detector response. Statistical formulas for the reconstructed image show that the square of the percent-root-mean-square (percent-rms) uncertainty of the reconstruction is inversely proportional to the total measured counts. The results indicate that constant attenuation can be compensated for by using an attenuation-dependent filter that reconstructs the transverse section reliably. Computer time requirements are two times that of conventional TCT or positron ECT and there is no increase in memory requirements

  8. CT colonography with rectal iodine tagging: Feasibility and comparison with oral tagging in a colorectal cancer screening population

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neri, Emanuele, E-mail: emanuele.neri@med.unipi.it [Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology – Department of Translational Research and New Technologies in Medicine and Surgery, University of Pisa (Italy); Mantarro, Annalisa; Faggioni, Lorenzo; Scalise, Paola; Bemi, Pietro; Pancrazi, Francesca [Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology – Department of Translational Research and New Technologies in Medicine and Surgery, University of Pisa (Italy); D’Ippolito, Giuseppe [Federal University of São Paulo – Sena Madureira 1500 – Vila Mariana, UNIFESP, São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Bartolozzi, Carlo [Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology – Department of Translational Research and New Technologies in Medicine and Surgery, University of Pisa (Italy)

    2015-09-15

    Highlights: • In the group receiving rectal tagging, mean per-polyp sensitivity, specificity were 96.1% and 95.3%; while in the group receiving oral tagging, mean per-polyp sensitivity, specificity were 89.4% and 95.8%. The difference between the two groups was not statistically significant (p = 0.549). • Rectal tagging can be an effective alternative to oral tagging. • Rectal tagging allowed greater patient acceptance and lower overall examination time. - Abstract: Purpose: To evaluate feasibility, diagnostic performance, patient acceptance, and overall examination time of CT colonography (CTC) performed through rectal administration of iodinated contrast material. Materials and methods: Six-hundred asymptomatic subjects (male:female = 270:330; mean 63 years) undergoing CTC for colorectal cancer screening on an individual basis were consecutively enrolled in the study. Out of them, 503 patients (group 1) underwent CTC with rectal tagging, of which 55 had a total of 77 colonic lesions. The remaining 97 patients (group 2) were randomly selected to receive CTC with oral tagging of which 15 had a total of 20 colonic lesions. CTC findings were compared with optical colonoscopy, and per-segment image quality was visually assessed using a semi-quantitative score (1 = poor, 2 = adequate, 3 = excellent). In 70/600 patients (11.7%), CTC was performed twice with both types of tagging over a 5-year follow-up cancer screening program. In this subgroup, patient acceptance was rated via phone interview two weeks after CTC using a semi-quantitative scale (1 = poor, 2 = fair, 3 = average, 4 = good, 5 = excellent). Results: Mean per-polyp sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values of CTC with rectal vs oral tagging were 96.1% (CI{sub 95%} 85.4 ÷ 99.3%) vs 89.4% (CI{sub 95%} 65.4 ÷ 98.1%), 95.3% (CI{sub 95%} 90.7 ÷ 97.8%) vs 95.8% (CI{sub 95%} 87.6 ÷ 98.9%), 86.0% (CI{sub 95%} 73.6 ÷ 93.3) vs 85.0% (CI{sub 95%} 61.1 ÷ 96.0%), and 98.8% (CI{sub 95

  9. CT colonography with rectal iodine tagging: Feasibility and comparison with oral tagging in a colorectal cancer screening population

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neri, Emanuele; Mantarro, Annalisa; Faggioni, Lorenzo; Scalise, Paola; Bemi, Pietro; Pancrazi, Francesca; D’Ippolito, Giuseppe; Bartolozzi, Carlo

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • In the group receiving rectal tagging, mean per-polyp sensitivity, specificity were 96.1% and 95.3%; while in the group receiving oral tagging, mean per-polyp sensitivity, specificity were 89.4% and 95.8%. The difference between the two groups was not statistically significant (p = 0.549). • Rectal tagging can be an effective alternative to oral tagging. • Rectal tagging allowed greater patient acceptance and lower overall examination time. - Abstract: Purpose: To evaluate feasibility, diagnostic performance, patient acceptance, and overall examination time of CT colonography (CTC) performed through rectal administration of iodinated contrast material. Materials and methods: Six-hundred asymptomatic subjects (male:female = 270:330; mean 63 years) undergoing CTC for colorectal cancer screening on an individual basis were consecutively enrolled in the study. Out of them, 503 patients (group 1) underwent CTC with rectal tagging, of which 55 had a total of 77 colonic lesions. The remaining 97 patients (group 2) were randomly selected to receive CTC with oral tagging of which 15 had a total of 20 colonic lesions. CTC findings were compared with optical colonoscopy, and per-segment image quality was visually assessed using a semi-quantitative score (1 = poor, 2 = adequate, 3 = excellent). In 70/600 patients (11.7%), CTC was performed twice with both types of tagging over a 5-year follow-up cancer screening program. In this subgroup, patient acceptance was rated via phone interview two weeks after CTC using a semi-quantitative scale (1 = poor, 2 = fair, 3 = average, 4 = good, 5 = excellent). Results: Mean per-polyp sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values of CTC with rectal vs oral tagging were 96.1% (CI 95% 85.4 ÷ 99.3%) vs 89.4% (CI 95% 65.4 ÷ 98.1%), 95.3% (CI 95% 90.7 ÷ 97.8%) vs 95.8% (CI 95% 87.6 ÷ 98.9%), 86.0% (CI 95% 73.6 ÷ 93.3) vs 85.0% (CI 95% 61.1 ÷ 96.0%), and 98.8% (CI 95% 95.3 ÷ 99.8%) vs 97.2% (CI 95% 89

  10. Study and development of a method allowing the identification of actinides inside nuclear waste packages, by active neutron or photon interrogation and delayed gamma-ray spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carrel, F.

    2007-10-01

    An accurate estimation of the alpha-activity of a nuclear waste package is necessary to select the best mode of storage. The main purpose of this work is to develop a non-destructive active method, based on the fission process and allowing the identification of actinides ( 235 U, 238 U, 239 Pu). These three elements are the main alpha emitters contained inside a package. Our technique is based on the detection of delayed gammas emitted by fission products. These latter are created by irradiation with the help of a neutron or photon beam. Performances of this method have been investigated after an Active Photon or Neutron Interrogation (INA or IPA). Three main objectives were fixed in the framework of this thesis. First, we measured many yields of photofission products to compensate the lack of data in the literature. Then, we studied experimental performances of this method to identify a given actinide ( 239 Pu in fission, 235 U in photofission) present in an irradiated mixture. Finally, we assessed the application of this technique on different mock-up packages for both types of interrogation (118 l mock-up package containing EVA in fission, 220 l mock-up package with a wall of concrete in photofission). (author)

  11. Precise material identification method based on a photon counting technique with correction of the beam hardening effect in X-ray spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kimoto, Natsumi; Hayashi, Hiroaki; Asahara, Takashi; Mihara, Yoshiki; Kanazawa, Yuki; Yamakawa, Tsutomu; Yamamoto, Shuichiro; Yamasaki, Masashi; Okada, Masahiro

    2017-01-01

    The aim of our study is to develop a novel material identification method based on a photon counting technique, in which the incident and penetrating X-ray spectra are analyzed. Dividing a 40 kV X-ray spectra into two energy regions, the corresponding linear attenuation coefficients are derived. We can identify the materials precisely using the relationship between atomic number and linear attenuation coefficient through the correction of the beam hardening effect of the X-ray spectra. - Highlights: • We propose a precise material identification method to be used as a photon counting system. • Beam hardening correction is important, even when the analysis is applied to the short energy regions in the X-ray spectrum. • Experiments using a single probe-type CdTe detector were performed, and Monte Carlo simulation was also carried out. • We described the applicability of our method for clinical diagnostic X-ray imaging in the near future.

  12. Evaluation of PIT-tagging in cyprinids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skov, Christian; Brodersen, J.; Brönmark, C.

    2005-01-01

    Laboratory and field experiments were used to investigate how different marking procedures, with 23 mm PIT (passive integrated transponders) - tags. affected mortality, body condition and tag expulsion in small roach Rutilus rutilus and rudd Scardinus erythrophthalmus (117 to 163 mm total length...

  13. Tagging behaviour with support from controlled vocabulary

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lykke, Marianne; Høj, Anne Lyhne; Madsen, Line Nørgaard

    2011-01-01

    ) and an enhanced tagging system (experimental system) that additionally offers suggestions from the Dewey Decimal Classification system (DDC). In the experimental study twenty-eight political students completed four tagging tasks, each comprising fifteen documents. The focus was to examine how suggestions from...

  14. Measurement of the hadronic structure function of the photon

    CERN Document Server

    Affholderbach, Klaus

    2000-01-01

    The hadronic structure function of the photon, Fγ 2 , is measured using a data sample of 52.9 pb−1, recorded with the ALEPH detector at the LEP storage ring in 1997. Approximately 2100 single-tag two-photon events at a centre-of-mass energy of √s ≈ 183GeV are selected from this data sample. The data are analysed in the two Q2 ranges from 7 to 24 and from 17 to 200 GeV2 with mean values of 13.7 and 56.5 GeV2 . The measured distributions of kinematic variables are compared to different model predictions, based on the HERWIG and PHOJET Monte Carlo generators. To determine Fγ 2(x,Q2), a two-dimensional unfolding method employing the principle of maximum entropy is used. In addition to the Bjorken variable x, the variable E17 is introduced, denoting the hadronic energy measured in the polar angle range below 17◦ and is also used in the unfolding. The two-dimensional unfolding method significantly reduces the systematic errors compared to one-dimensional methods which is shown by various unfolding tests. ...

  15. Photon Rao

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Volume 2 Issue 5 May 1997 pp 69-72 Feature Article. Molecule of the Month Molecular–Chameleon: Solvatochromism at its Iridescent Best! Photon Rao · More Details Fulltext PDF. Volume 16 Issue 12 December 2011 pp 1303-1306. Molecule of the Month - Molecular-Chameleon: Solvatochromism at its Iridescent Best!

  16. TOPAS 2 - a high-resolution tagging system at the Bonn SAPHIR detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rappenecker, G.

    1989-02-01

    For the SAPHIR-arrangement in Bonn a high resolving tagging system has been developed achieving an energy resolution of 2 MeV, covering the range of (0.94-0.34) E 0 photon energy (1.0 GeV 0 2 , ArCH 4 and ArC 2 H 6 in concern of performance, clustersize and coincidence width. (orig.)

  17. Notes on SAW Tag Interrogation Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barton, Richard J.

    2010-01-01

    We consider the problem of interrogating a single SAW RFID tag with a known ID and known range in the presence of multiple interfering tags under the following assumptions: (1) The RF propagation environment is well approximated as a simple delay channel with geometric power-decay constant alpha >/= 2. (2) The interfering tag IDs are unknown but well approximated as independent, identically distributed random samples from a probability distribution of tag ID waveforms with known second-order properties, and the tag of interest is drawn independently from the same distribution. (3) The ranges of the interfering tags are unknown but well approximated as independent, identically distributed realizations of a random variable rho with a known probability distribution f(sub rho) , and the tag ranges are independent of the tag ID waveforms. In particular, we model the tag waveforms as random impulse responses from a wide-sense-stationary, uncorrelated-scattering (WSSUS) fading channel with known bandwidth and scattering function. A brief discussion of the properties of such channels and the notation used to describe them in this document is given in the Appendix. Under these assumptions, we derive the expression for the output signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) for an arbitrary combination of transmitted interrogation signal and linear receiver filter. Based on this expression, we derive the optimal interrogator configuration (i.e., transmitted signal/receiver filter combination) in the two extreme noise/interference regimes, i.e., noise-limited and interference-limited, under the additional assumption that the coherence bandwidth of the tags is much smaller than the total tag bandwidth. Finally, we evaluate the performance of both optimal interrogators over a broad range of operating scenarios using both numerical simulation based on the assumed model and Monte Carlo simulation based on a small sample of measured tag waveforms. The performance evaluation results not only

  18. Tag-Based Social Image Search: Toward Relevant and Diverse Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Kuiyuan; Wang, Meng; Hua, Xian-Sheng; Zhang, Hong-Jiang

    Recent years have witnessed a great success of social media websites. Tag-based image search is an important approach to access the image content of interest on these websites. However, the existing ranking methods for tag-based image search frequently return results that are irrelevant or lack of diversity. This chapter presents a diverse relevance ranking scheme which simultaneously takes relevance and diversity into account by exploring the content of images and their associated tags. First, it estimates the relevance scores of images with respect to the query term based on both visual information of images and semantic information of associated tags. Then semantic similarities of social images are estimated based on their tags. Based on the relevance scores and the similarities, the ranking list is generated by a greedy ordering algorithm which optimizes Average Diverse Precision (ADP), a novel measure that is extended from the conventional Average Precision (AP). Comprehensive experiments and user studies demonstrate the effectiveness of the approach.

  19. Development of enclosure technique of tag gas for in-pile creep test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Izaki, Toru; Ichikawa, Shoichi; Soroi, Masatoshi; Ito, Chikara

    2004-01-01

    Outline of the enclosure technique of tag gas for in-pile creep test is stated. In order to carry out in-pile creep test, the sample can enclose tag gas before the test and then the sample is inserted into MARICO-2 (Material Testing Rig with Temperature Control) in FBR 'JOYO' MK-III for the irradiation test. Outline of in-pile creep test using tag gas, enclosure system of tag gas, detection of a part of broken sample and identification of sample are explained. 126-, 128-, 129-, 131-, 132-, and 134-Xe are used as tag gases. The samples are identified by RIMS (Laser Resonance Ionization Mass Spectroscopy) in ppt order. ODS ferritic steel will be tested by the method in the next step. (S.Y.)

  20. Time Series Neural Network Model for Part-of-Speech Tagging Indonesian Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanadi, Theo

    2018-03-01

    Part-of-speech tagging (POS tagging) is an important part in natural language processing. Many methods have been used to do this task, including neural network. This paper models a neural network that attempts to do POS tagging. A time series neural network is modelled to solve the problems that a basic neural network faces when attempting to do POS tagging. In order to enable the neural network to have text data input, the text data will get clustered first using Brown Clustering, resulting a binary dictionary that the neural network can use. To further the accuracy of the neural network, other features such as the POS tag, suffix, and affix of previous words would also be fed to the neural network.

  1. Photon and electron identification with the ATLAS detector

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(INSPIRE)INSPIRE-00431162; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    The identification of prompt photons and the rejection of background, originating mostly from photons from hadron decays, relies on the high granularity of the ATLAS calorimeter. The electron identification is based on a likelihood discriminant to separate isolated electron from background electron originating from photon conversions, hadron misidentification and heavy flavour decays. Additionally, isolation variables provide further handles to separate signal and background. The measurements of the efficiencies of the electron and photon identification and isolation selections are performed with data. Tag and probe techniques are used with Z$\\rightarrow$ee, J/$\\psi$ $\\rightarrow$ee and Z$\\rightarrow$l l$\\gamma$ decays. Inclusive photon samples are also used to measure photon identification efficiency.\\\\ The results of these measurement with the pp collisions data recorded in 2015 at $\\sqrt {s}$ = 13 TeV, corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 3.2 fb$^{-1}$, are presented. as well as a first look at 201...

  2. Characterization of a remote optical element with bi-photons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puhlmann, D.; Henkel, C.; Heuer, A.; Pieplow, G.; Menzel, R.

    2016-02-01

    We present a simple setup that exploits the interference of entangled photon pairs. ‘Signal’ photons are sent through a Mach-Zehnder-like interferometer, while ‘idlers’ are detected in a variable polarization state. Two-photon interference (in coincidence detection) is observed with very high contrast and for significant time delays between signal and idler detection events. This is explained by quantum erasure of the polarization tag and a delayed choice protocol involving a non-local virtual polarizer. The phase of the two-photon fringes is scanned by varying the path length in the signal beam or by rotating a birefringent crystal in the idler beam. We exploit this to characterize one beam splitter of the signal photon interferometer (reflection and transmission amplitudes including losses), using only information about coincidences and control parameters in the idler path. This is possible because our bi-photon state saturates the Greenberger-Yelin-Englert inequality between contrast and predictability.

  3. Design of a covert RFID tag network for target discovery and target information routing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Qihe; Narayanan, Ram M

    2011-01-01

    Radio frequency identification (RFID) tags are small electronic devices working in the radio frequency range. They use wireless radio communications to automatically identify objects or people without the need for line-of-sight or contact, and are widely used in inventory tracking, object location, environmental monitoring. This paper presents a design of a covert RFID tag network for target discovery and target information routing. In the design, a static or very slowly moving target in the field of RFID tags transmits a distinct pseudo-noise signal, and the RFID tags in the network collect the target information and route it to the command center. A map of each RFID tag's location is saved at command center, which can determine where a RFID tag is located based on each RFID tag's ID. We propose the target information collection method with target association and clustering, and we also propose the information routing algorithm within the RFID tag network. The design and operation of the proposed algorithms are illustrated through examples. Simulation results demonstrate the effectiveness of the design.

  4. Tagged at first listen: an examination of social tagging practices in a music recommender system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Audrey Laplante

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/1518-2924.2015v20nesp1p33 Social tagging has become a very common way to index different types of resources on the web. Less prevalent in music than in other domains, social tagging is nevertheless used in a popular recommender system, Last.fm. Although the number of publications on tagging and folksonomies has exploded in the last few years, music tagging is still not well studied. In this paper, we present a study of tagging practices of Last.fm users. We examine the social tagging of songs during the first three months after their release. Our analysis shows that the release of a song triggers a burst in tagging activity that lasts two weeks, after what it decreases sharply and then remains fairly constant for the next ten weeks. We also find that a majority of songs do not get tagged during the first week and that tagging was positively related to popularity. Finally, we find that tags that have been frequently applied to a given song are more likely to be genre related, shorter in length, and relatively objective than tags that have been applied only once.

  5. Photon strength functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergqvist, I.

    1976-01-01

    Methods for extracting photon strength functions are briefly discussed. We follow the Brink-Axel approach to relate the strength functions to the giant resonances observed in photonuclear work and summarize the available data on the E1, E2 and M1 resonances. Some experimental and theoretical problems are outlined. (author)

  6. Direct photon experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boeggild, H.

    1986-11-01

    The author reviews the experiments on direct photon production in hadronic collisions. After a description of the experimental methods for the study of such processes he presents some results on differential cross sections and the γ/π 0 ratio in π - p, π + p, pp, and anti pp processes as well as in reactions of π - , π + , and p on carbon. (HSI)

  7. Total photon absorption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlos, P.

    1985-01-01

    Experimental methods using real photon beams for measurements of total photonuclear absorption cross section σ(Tot : E/sub γ/) are recalled. Most recent σ(Tot : E/sub γ/)results for complex nuclei and in the nucleon resonance region are presented

  8. LinguaTag: an Emotional Speech Analysis Application

    OpenAIRE

    Cullen, Charlie; Vaughan, Brian; Kousidis, Spyros

    2008-01-01

    The analysis of speech, particularly for emotional content, is an open area of current research. Ongoing work has developed an emotional speech corpus for analysis, and defined a vowel stress method by which this analysis may be performed. This paper documents the development of LinguaTag, an open source speech analysis software application which implements this vowel stress emotional speech analysis method developed as part of research into the acoustic and linguistic correlates of emotional...

  9. Job optimization in ATLAS TAG-based distributed analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mambelli, M.; Cranshaw, J.; Gardner, R.; Maeno, T.; Malon, D.; Novak, M.

    2010-04-01

    The ATLAS experiment is projected to collect over one billion events/year during the first few years of operation. The efficient selection of events for various physics analyses across all appropriate samples presents a significant technical challenge. ATLAS computing infrastructure leverages the Grid to tackle the analysis across large samples by organizing data into a hierarchical structure and exploiting distributed computing to churn through the computations. This includes events at different stages of processing: RAW, ESD (Event Summary Data), AOD (Analysis Object Data), DPD (Derived Physics Data). Event Level Metadata Tags (TAGs) contain information about each event stored using multiple technologies accessible by POOL and various web services. This allows users to apply selection cuts on quantities of interest across the entire sample to compile a subset of events that are appropriate for their analysis. This paper describes new methods for organizing jobs using the TAGs criteria to analyze ATLAS data. It further compares different access patterns to the event data and explores ways to partition the workload for event selection and analysis. Here analysis is defined as a broader set of event processing tasks including event selection and reduction operations ("skimming", "slimming" and "thinning") as well as DPD making. Specifically it compares analysis with direct access to the events (AOD and ESD data) to access mediated by different TAG-based event selections. We then compare different ways of splitting the processing to maximize performance.

  10. Engineering Protein Hydrogels Using SpyCatcher-SpyTag Chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Xiaoye; Fang, Jie; Xue, Bin; Fu, Linglan; Li, Hongbin

    2016-09-12

    Constructing hydrogels from engineered proteins has attracted significant attention within the material sciences, owing to their myriad potential applications in biomedical engineering. Developing efficient methods to cross-link tailored protein building blocks into hydrogels with desirable mechanical, physical, and functional properties is of paramount importance. By making use of the recently developed SpyCatcher-SpyTag chemistry, we successfully engineered protein hydrogels on the basis of engineered tandem modular elastomeric proteins. Our resultant protein hydrogels are soft but stable, and show excellent biocompatibility. As the first step, we tested the use of these hydrogels as a drug carrier, as well as in encapsulating human lung fibroblast cells. Our results demonstrate the robustness of the SpyCatcher-SpyTag chemistry, even when the SpyTag (or SpyCatcher) is flanked by folded globular domains. These results demonstrate that SpyCatcher-SpyTag chemistry can be used to engineer protein hydrogels from tandem modular elastomeric proteins that can find applications in tissue engineering, in fundamental mechano-biological studies, and as a controlled drug release vehicle.

  11. Using DEDICOM for completely unsupervised part-of-speech tagging.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chew, Peter A.; Bader, Brett William; Rozovskaya, Alla (University of Illinois, Urbana, IL)

    2009-02-01

    A standard and widespread approach to part-of-speech tagging is based on Hidden Markov Models (HMMs). An alternative approach, pioneered by Schuetze (1993), induces parts of speech from scratch using singular value decomposition (SVD). We introduce DEDICOM as an alternative to SVD for part-of-speech induction. DEDICOM retains the advantages of SVD in that it is completely unsupervised: no prior knowledge is required to induce either the tagset or the associations of terms with tags. However, unlike SVD, it is also fully compatible with the HMM framework, in that it can be used to estimate emission- and transition-probability matrices which can then be used as the input for an HMM. We apply the DEDICOM method to the CONLL corpus (CONLL 2000) and compare the output of DEDICOM to the part-of-speech tags given in the corpus, and find that the correlation (almost 0.5) is quite high. Using DEDICOM, we also estimate part-of-speech ambiguity for each term, and find that these estimates correlate highly with part-of-speech ambiguity as measured in the original corpus (around 0.88). Finally, we show how the output of DEDICOM can be evaluated and compared against the more familiar output of supervised HMM-based tagging.

  12. A new method for studying the transport of gamma photons in various geological materials by combining the SSNTD technique with Monte Carlo simulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Misdaq, M.A.; Merzouki, A.; Bourzik, W.; Sfairi, T.

    2000-01-01

    The gamma dose rate due to the uranium and thorium series as well as the potassium 40 nuclei represents a large fraction of the total dose rate from the natural background. Natural gamma-activities of rock and soil samples collected from volcanic areas have been determined using gamma-ray spectrometry. The corresponding gamma dose rates in air have been measured by means of thermoluminescence (TL) dosimeters. Annual absorbed gamma dose rates have been evaluated in different soil samples belonging to an archaeological site by using experimental and calculational methods. Uranium and thorium contents in different geological samples have been determined by using CR-39 and LR-115 type II solid state nuclear track detectors (SSNTD) and calculating the probabilities for alpha particles emitted by the uranium and thorium series to reach and be registered on the SSNTD films. A new method has been developed based on calculating the self-absorption and transmission coefficients of the gamma photons emitted by the uranium and thorium families as well as the potassium 40 isotope for evaluating the gamma dose rate in the considered geological samples. Transport of gamma-photons across parallelepipedic blocks of the geological materials studied has been investigated. Gamma dose rates have been evaluated in the atmosphere of different geological deposits. (author)

  13. Pop-up Archival Transmitting (PAT) fish tag data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The cooperative tagging center (CTC) began deploying electronic tags in 2002. To date over 300 tags have been deployed. The following species have been monitored:...

  14. Photon Collider Physics with Real Photon Beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gronberg, J; Asztalos, S

    2005-01-01

    Photon-photon interactions have been an important probe into fundamental particle physics. Until recently, the only way to produce photon-photon collisions was parasitically in the collision of charged particles. Recent advances in short-pulse laser technology have made it possible to consider producing high intensity, tightly focused beams of real photons through Compton scattering. A linear e + e - collider could thus be transformed into a photon-photon collider with the addition of high power lasers. In this paper they show that it is possible to make a competitive photon-photon collider experiment using the currently mothballed Stanford Linear Collider. This would produce photon-photon collisions in the GeV energy range which would allow the discovery and study of exotic heavy mesons with spin states of zero and two

  15. Numerical Analysis of Index-Guiding Photonic Crystal Fibers with Low Confinement Loss and Ultra-Flattened Dispersion by FDFD Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Pourmahyabadi

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available In this article, perfectly matched layer (PML for the boundary treatment and an efficient compact two dimensional finite-difference frequency-domain (2-D FDFD method were combined to model photonic crystal fibers (PCF. For photonic crystal fibers, if we assume that the propagation constant along the propagation direction is fixed, three-dimensional hybrid guided modes can be calculated by using only a two-dimensional mesh. An index-guiding PCF with an array of air-holes surrounding the silica core region has special characteristics compared with conventional single-mode fibers (SMFs. Using this model, the fundamental characteristics of single mode photonic crystal fibers (SMPCFs such as confinement loss, bending loss, effective mode area and chromatic dispersion are numerically investigated. The results revealed that low confinement loss and zero-flattened chromatic dispersion can be obtained by varying the air-holes diameter of each ring along the PCF radius. In this work, an especial PCF with nearly zero-flattened dispersion (1.3 ps/nm/km over a wide wavelength range which covers O, E, S, C, L and U telecommunication wavelength bands and low confinement loss (0.06 dB/km at 1.55μm is designed. Macro-bending loss performance of the designed PCF is also studied and it is found that the fiber shows low bending losses for the smallest feasible bending radius of 5 mm. Also, it is revealed that the temperature sensitivity of PCFs is very low in compared with the conventional fibers.

  16. Robust Adaptive Photon Tracing using Photon Path Visibility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hachisuka, Toshiya; Jensen, Henrik Wann

    2011-01-01

    We present a new adaptive photon tracing algorithm which can handle illumination settings that are considered difficult for photon tracing approaches such as outdoor scenes, close-ups of a small part of an illuminated region, and illumination coming through a small gap. The key contribution in our...... algorithm is the use of visibility of photon path as the importance function which ensures that our sampling algorithm focuses on paths that are visible from the given viewpoint. Our sampling algorithm builds on two recent developments in Markov chain Monte Carlo methods: adaptive Markov chain sampling...... and replica exchange. Using these techniques, each photon path is adaptively mutated and it explores the sampling space efficiently without being stuck at a local peak of the importance function. We have implemented this sampling approach in the progressive photon mapping algorithm which provides visibility...

  17. Folksonomia: a linguagem das tags

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana de Assis

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A radicalização do potencial colaborativo da web atual aponta uma tendência de personalização da recuperação da informação através de ferramentas que exploram a linguagem natural na representação e no compartilhamento de conteúdos ao longo das redes sociais. Tal configuração sócio-técnica traz desafios aos profissionais da informação tanto para a descrição e compreensão dos fenômenos informacionais que ocorrem neste âmbito, quanto para a elaboração de produtos e serviços voltados para um usuário que se apresenta cada vez mais como sujeito informacional ao assumir um papel ativo diante da complexidade que caracteriza a organização da informação em contextos digitais. Este artigo apresenta conclusões de pesquisa, relacionadas às analises da linguagem utilizada em três ambientes colaborativos que utilizam a folksonomia (Social Tagging Systems. A partir de uma perspectiva fundamentada na Semiótica e na Análise de Redes Sociais, são identificadas e descritas as principais manifestações da linguagem gerada e compartilhada pelas redes sociais através destes ambientes.

  18. Satellite tagging and biopsy sampling of killer whales at subantarctic Marion Island: effectiveness, immediate reactions and long-term responses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryan R Reisinger

    Full Text Available Remote tissue biopsy sampling and satellite tagging are becoming widely used in large marine vertebrate studies because they allow the collection of a diverse suite of otherwise difficult-to-obtain data which are critical in understanding the ecology of these species and to their conservation and management. Researchers must carefully consider their methods not only from an animal welfare perspective, but also to ensure the scientific rigour and validity of their results. We report methods for shore-based, remote biopsy sampling and satellite tagging of killer whales Orcinus orca at Subantarctic Marion Island. The performance of these methods is critically assessed using 1 the attachment duration of low-impact minimally percutaneous satellite tags; 2 the immediate behavioural reactions of animals to biopsy sampling and satellite tagging; 3 the effect of researcher experience on biopsy sampling and satellite tagging; and 4 the mid- (1 month and long- (24 month term behavioural consequences. To study mid- and long-term behavioural changes we used multievent capture-recapture models that accommodate imperfect detection and individual heterogeneity. We made 72 biopsy sampling attempts (resulting in 32 tissue samples and 37 satellite tagging attempts (deploying 19 tags. Biopsy sampling success rates were low (43%, but tagging rates were high with improved tag designs (86%. The improved tags remained attached for 26±14 days (mean ± SD. Individuals most often showed no reaction when attempts missed (66% and a slight reaction-defined as a slight flinch, slight shake, short acceleration, or immediate dive-when hit (54%. Severe immediate reactions were never observed. Hit or miss and age-sex class were important predictors of the reaction, but the method (tag or biopsy was unimportant. Multievent trap-dependence modelling revealed considerable variation in individual sighting patterns; however, there were no significant mid- or long-term changes

  19. Simple method for sub-diffraction resolution imaging of cellular structures on standard confocal microscopes by three-photon absorption of quantum dots.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anje Sporbert

    Full Text Available This study describes a simple technique that improves a recently developed 3D sub-diffraction imaging method based on three-photon absorption of commercially available quantum dots. The method combines imaging of biological samples via tri-exciton generation in quantum dots with deconvolution and spectral multiplexing, resulting in a novel approach for multi-color imaging of even thick biological samples at a 1.4 to 1.9-fold better spatial resolution. This approach is realized on a conventional confocal microscope equipped with standard continuous-wave lasers. We demonstrate the potential of multi-color tri-exciton imaging of quantum dots combined with deconvolution on viral vesicles in lentivirally transduced cells as well as intermediate filaments in three-dimensional clusters of mouse-derived neural stem cells (neurospheres and dense microtubuli arrays in myotubes formed by stacks of differentiated C2C12 myoblasts.

  20. Linearly polarised photons at the BGO-OD experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bella, Andreas [Physikalisches Institut, Universitaet Bonn (Germany); Collaboration: BGO-OD-Collaboration

    2015-07-01

    The BGO-OD experiment, located at the ELSA accelerator of the University of Bonn, aims at the study of photoproduction reactions off the nucleon. A real, energy-tagged photon beam is produced via bremsstrahlung by irradiating a thin radiator with the electron beam provided by ELSA. Linear polarisation is obtained by coherent bremsstrahlung. This requires a crystal radiator; in our case a 570 μm thick diamond is used. The production mechanism of a linearly polarised photon beam via coherent bremsstrahlung, the determination of the degree of polarisation and first results obtained with a linearly polarised photon beam are shown in this talk.