WorldWideScience

Sample records for tagged banana promoter

  1. High oxygen levels promote peel spotting in banana fruit

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maneenuam, T.; Ketsa, S.; Doorn, van W.G.

    2007-01-01

    We studied the effect of high oxygen on early peel spotting in `Sucrier¿ bananas held at 25 °C and 90% RH. Fruit first ripened to colour index 3¿4 (about as yellow as green) and were then held in containers with a continuous gas flow of 18 ± 2 kPa (control) or 90 ± 2 kPa oxygen. High oxygen promoted

  2. Tobacco arabinogalactan protein NtEPc can promote banana (Musa AAA) somatic embryogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shu, H; Xu, L; Li, Z; Li, J; Jin, Z; Chang, S

    2014-12-01

    Banana is an important tropical fruit worldwide. Parthenocarpy and female sterility made it impossible to improve banana varieties through common hybridization. Genetic transformation for banana improvement is imperative. But the low rate that banana embryogenic callus was induced made the transformation cannot be performed in many laboratories. Finding ways to promote banana somatic embryogenesis is critical for banana genetic transformation. After tobacco arabinogalactan protein gene NtEPc was transformed into Escherichia coli (DE3), the recombinant protein was purified and filter-sterilized. A series of the sterilized protein was added into tissue culture medium. It was found that the number of banana immature male flowers developing embryogenic calli increased significantly in the presence of NtEPc protein compared with the effect of the control medium. Among the treatments, explants cultured on medium containing 10 mg/l of NtEPc protein had the highest chance to develop embryogenic calli. The percentage of lines that developed embryogenic calli on this medium was about 12.5 %. These demonstrated that NtEPc protein can be used to promote banana embryogenesis. This is the first paper that reported that foreign arabinogalactan protein (AGP) could be used to improve banana somatic embryogenesis.

  3. Growth Promotion and Disease Suppression Ability of a Streptomyces sp. CB-75 from Banana Rhizosphere Soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yufeng; Zhou, Dengbo; Qi, Dengfeng; Gao, Zhufen; Xie, Jianghui; Luo, Yanping

    2018-01-01

    An actinomycete strain, CB-75, was isolated from the soil of a diseased banana plantation in Hainan, China. Based on phenotypic and molecular characteristics, and 99.93% sequence similarity with Streptomyces spectabilis NBRC 13424 (AB184393), the strain was identified as Streptomyces sp. This strain exhibited broad-spectrum antifungal activity against 11 plant pathogenic fungi. Type I polyketide synthase (PKS-I) and non-ribosomal peptide synthetase (NRPS) were detected, which were indicative of the antifungal compounds that Streptomyces sp. CB-75 could produce. An ethyl acetate extract from the strain exhibited the lowest minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) against Colletotrichum musae (ATCC 96167) (0.78 μg/ml) and yielded the highest antifungal activity against Colletotrichum gloeosporioides (ATCC 16330) (50.0 μg/ml). Also, spore germination was significantly inhibited by the crude extract. After treatment with the crude extract of Streptomyces sp. CB-75 at the concentration 2 × MIC, the pathogenic fungi showed deformation, shrinkage, collapse, and tortuosity when observed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). By gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) of the crude extract, 18 chemical constituents were identified; (Z)-13-docosenamide was the major constituent. Pot experiments showed that the incidence of banana seedlings was reduced after using Streptomyces sp. CB-75 treatment. The disease index was 10.23, and the prevention and control effect was 83.12%. Furthermore, Streptomyces sp. CB-75 had a growth-promoting effect on banana plants. The chlorophyll content showed 88.24% improvement, the leaf area, root length, root diameter, plant height, and stem showed 88.24, 90.49, 136.17, 61.78, and 50.98% improvement, respectively, and the shoot fresh weight, root fresh weight, shoot dry weight, and root dry weight showed 82.38, 72.01, 195.33, and 113.33% improvement, respectively, compared with treatment of fermentation broth without Streptomyces sp. CB-75

  4. Differential transcriptional regulation of banana sucrose phosphate synthase gene in response to ethylene, auxin, wounding, low temperature and different photoperiods during fruit ripening and functional analysis of banana SPS gene promoter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy Choudhury, Swarup; Roy, Sujit; Das, Ranjan; Sengupta, Dibyendu N

    2008-12-01

    Sucrose phosphate synthase (SPS) (EC 2.3.1.14) is the key regulatory component in sucrose formation in banana (Musa acuminata subgroup Cavendish, cv Giant governor) fruit during ripening. This report illustrates differential transcriptional responses of banana SPS gene following ethylene, auxin, wounding, low temperature and different photoperiods during ripening in banana fruit. Whereas ethylene strongly stimulated SPS transcript accumulation, auxin and cold treatment only marginally increased the abundance of SPS mRNA level, while wounding negatively regulated SPS gene expression. Conversely, SPS transcript level was distinctly increased by constant exposure to white light. Protein level, enzymatic activity of SPS and sucrose synthesis were substantially increased by ethylene and increased exposure to white light conditions as compared to other treatments. To further study the transcriptional regulation of SPS in banana fruit, the promoter region of SPS gene was cloned and some cis-acting regulatory elements such as a reverse GCC-box ERE, two ARE motifs (TGTCTC), one LTRE (CCGAA), a GAGA-box (GAGA...) and a GATA-box LRE (GATAAG) were identified along with the TATA and CAAT-box. DNA-protein interaction studies using these cis-elements indicated a highly specific cis-trans interaction in the banana nuclear extract. Furthermore, we specifically studied the light responsive characteristics of GATA-box containing synthetic as well as native banana SPS promoter. Transient expression assays using banana SPS promoter have also indicated the functional importance of the SPS promoter in regulating gene expression. Together, these results provide insights into the transcriptional regulation of banana SPS gene in response to phytohormones and other environmental factors during fruit ripening.

  5. Development and application of sequence-tagged microsatellite site (STMS) markers in chickpea (Cicer arietinum), banana (Musa spp.) and their major pathogens, Ascochyta rabiei and Mycosphaerella fijiensis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winter, P.; Kaemmer, D.; Paff, T.; Geistlinger, J.; Neu, C.; Kahl, G.

    2001-01-01

    DNA markers of various kinds have found widespread application in many facets of plant breeding and plant pathogen control. Yet another marker type, sequence-tagged microsatellite (STMS) markers, provides the markers of choice for nearly every crop because of their co-dominant nature, reliability, ease of application and high polymorphic information content. We report here on the development of a whole set of STMS markers and the respective, selected primer sequences for two important crops, chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) and banana (Musa acuminata), and for their most devastating fungal pathogens, Ascochyta rabiei and Mycosphaerella fijiensis, respectively. These markers were generated either by direct screening of size-selected genomic libraries with microsatellite-complementary oligonucleotides, or by enrichment of DNA fragments containing microsatellite sequences. A total of 69 markers for chickpea, 15 markers for M. acuminata, 19 markers for A rabiei and 11 markers for M. fijiensis, selected on the basis of their high information content and ease of use are presented here. These can be applied for mapping of the respective genomes, for various population studies, and cultivar and isolate identification. We further demonstrate that several of these markers can potentially be applied across species boundaries and thus could increase the marker repertoire also for other species of the genus Cicer, Musa and for Ascochyta-type pathogens of bean, and potentially also of lentil and pea. (author)

  6. Tryptophan end-tagging for promoted lipopolysaccharide interactions and anti-inflammatory effects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Singh, Shalini; Datta, Aritreyee; Schmidtchen, Artur

    2017-01-01

    killing than unmodified KYE21. Analogously, W-tagging promotes binding to E. coli LPS and to its endotoxic lipid A moiety. Furthermore, WWWKYE21 causes more stable peptide/LPS complexes than KYE21, as evidenced by detailed NMR studies, adopting a pronounced helical conformation, with a large hydrophobic...

  7. Identification of a novel promoter from banana aquaporin family gene (MaTIP1;2) which responses to drought and salt-stress in transgenic Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Shun; Xu, Yi; Huang, Dongmei; Miao, Hongxia; Liu, Juhua; Jia, Caihong; Hu, Wei; Valarezo, Ana Valeria; Xu, Biyu; Jin, Zhiqiang

    2018-07-01

    Drought and salt stresses often affect plant growth and crop yields. Identification of promoters involved in drought and salt stress responses is of great significance for genetic improvement of crop resistance. Our previous studies showed that aquaporin can respond to drought and salt stresses, but its promoter has not yet been reported in plants. In the present study, cis-acting elements of MaAQP family member promoters were systematically analyzed in banana. Expression of MaTIP1; 2 was induced by drought and salt stresses but not sensitive to cold stress, waterlogging stress, or mechanical damage, and its promoter contained five stress-related cis-acting elements. The MaTIP1; 2 promoter (841 bp upstream of translation initiation site) from banana (Musa acuminata L. AAA group cv. Brazilian) was isolated through genome walking polymerase chain reaction, and found to contain a TATA Box, CAAT box, ABRE element, CCGTCC box, CGTCA motif, and TCA element. Transformation of the MaTIP1; 2 promoter into Arabidopsis to assess its function indicated that it responds to both drought and salt stress treatments. These results suggest that MaTIP1; 2 utilization may improve drought and salt stresses resistance of the transgenic plants by promoting banana aquaporin expression. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  8. Study on Banana Cooperatives in Hainan Province

    OpenAIRE

    Huang, Huide; Zhang, Wanzhen; Liu, Enping; Zhang, Xizhu

    2013-01-01

    This paper gives an overview of the distribution, member scale, production and operation of banana cooperatives in Hainan Province, and points out the market risk and natural risk faced by the production of banana cooperatives in Hainan Province. In order to promote the banana cooperatives to form new agricultural management system integrating organization and intensification, this paper puts forth the production and operation recommendations, such as joint production of banana cooperatives, ...

  9. Better bananas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-01-01

    This is a public relations film describing problems associated with the genetic improvement of bananas and plantains. These fruit and food crops have a large economic and nutritional value for tropical regions. The vulnerability of bananas to disease epidemics urgently requires breeding for resistance to black Sigatoka (leaf spot disease). The joint FAO/IAEA division has initiated a programme and developed a biotechnological strategy for genetic improvement of bananas and plantains

  10. A Triple Helix Strategy for Promoting SME Development: The Case of a Dried Banana Community Enterprise in Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuwawutto, Sauwapa; Smitinont, Thitapha; Charoenanong, Numtip; Yokakul, Nattaka; Chatratana, Sonchai; Zawdie, Girma

    2010-01-01

    This paper examines the university-industry-government relationship as a mechanism for enhancing the efficiency and competitiveness of small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs). The case of a community enterprise producing dried banana products in the north of Thailand is used to demonstrate the significance of the Triple Helix model for business…

  11. Constitutive and stress-inducible overexpression of a native aquaporin gene (MusaPIP2;6) in transgenic banana plants signals its pivotal role in salt tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sreedharan, Shareena; Shekhawat, Upendra K Singh; Ganapathi, Thumballi R

    2015-05-01

    High soil salinity constitutes a major abiotic stress and an important limiting factor in cultivation of crop plants worldwide. Here, we report the identification and characterization of a aquaporin gene, MusaPIP2;6 which is involved in salt stress signaling in banana. MusaPIP2;6 was firstly identified based on comparative analysis of stressed and non-stressed banana tissue derived EST data sets and later overexpression in transgenic banana plants was performed to study its tangible functions in banana plants. The overexpression of MusaPIP2;6 in transgenic banana plants using constitutive or inducible promoter led to higher salt tolerance as compared to equivalent untransformed control plants. Cellular localization assay performed using transiently transformed onion peel cells indicated that MusaPIP2;6 protein tagged with green fluorescent protein was translocated to the plasma membrane. MusaPIP2;6-overexpressing banana plants displayed better photosynthetic efficiency and lower membrane damage under salt stress conditions. Our results suggest that MusaPIP2;6 is involved in salt stress signaling and tolerance in banana.

  12. Research on Risks and Forecasting Countermeasures of Hainan Banana Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Yan-qun; Zeng, Xiao-hong; Fang, Jia

    2011-01-01

    Based on the overviews of the current conditions of Hainan banana industry, the research makes an analysis of the risks faced by Hainan banana industry. They are respectively marketing risks, natural risks, information risks and production risks. In order to promote a sustainable and rapid development of Hainan banana industry, Countermeasures are proposed in the research. The first is to strengthen the leading organization of forecasting mechanisms on banana industry. The second is to establ...

  13. Transgenic approaches for development of disease resistance in banana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shekhawat, Upendra K.S.; Ghag, Siddhesh B.; Ganapathi, Thumballi R.

    2014-01-01

    Banana (Musa spp.) is an important food and cash crop worldwide. Diseases and pests pose the most serious constraint to banana cultivation. Among the diseases, Fusarium wilt and Banana Bunchy Top Virus (BBTV) are the most important economically. We have explored different transgenic approaches for development of efficient resistance in banana against these two diseases. For countering Fusarium wilt, we have over expressed Petunia floral defensins using a strong constitutive promoter in transgenic banana plants. We have also tested a host induced gene silencing strategy targeting two vital fungal genes to obtain Fusarium resistant banana plants. For development of BBTV resistant banana plants also, we have used a host-induced gene silencing approach utilizing the full and partial coding sequence of the viral replication initiation protein. Successful bioassays performed in controlled greenhouse conditions have shown the efficacy of using these strategies to develop disease resistant banana plants. (author)

  14. Banana MaMADS transcription factors are necessary for fruit ripening and molecular tools to promote shelf-life and food security

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genetic solutions to postharvest crop loss can reduce cost and energy inputs while increasing food security, especially for banana (Musa acuminata), which is a significant component of worldwide food commerce. We have functionally characterized two banana E class (SEPALLATA3 [SEP3]) MADS box genes, ...

  15. Billfish Tagging

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The SWFSC's constituent-based Billfish Tagging Program began in 1963 and since that time has provided conventional spaghetti type tags and tagging supplies to...

  16. Tag questions Tag questions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Brazil

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available The so-called 'tag' structures of English have received a lot of attention in language teaching programmes, attention that is not hard to justify when one considers the problems and anxiety they can occasion for many foreign learners. Most teachers one speaks to seem fairly willing to agree, however, that traditional treatments of the topic leave much to be desired. It happens, also, that, when considered collectively, the tags and some related phenomena have a special heoretical interest. For they constitute a field in which it seems essential to bring together insights that derive from the study of several aspects of linguistic organisation, aspects which in some recent work have been held to need distinctive kinds of descriptive category to handle. Traditional treatments have found it necessary to recognise different syntactic types (e.g. 'same polarity' and 'reversed polarity' tags and ifferent intonational treatments ("falling'and 'rising' tag; while the way the communicative significance of the various permutations is described normally requires reference to the expectations they signal regarding the immediately following behaviour of the other party (in the common phrase, 'What kind of answer they expect'. This last consideration places the matter squarely in the arena of recent work on the analysis of interactive discourse. The so-called 'tag' structures of English have received a lot of attention in language teaching programmes, attention that is not hard to justify when one considers the problems and anxiety they can occasion for many foreign learners. Most teachers one speaks to seem fairly willing to agree, however, that traditional treatments of the topic leave much to be desired. It happens, also, that, when considered collectively, the tags and some related phenomena have a special heoretical interest. For they constitute a field in which it seems essential to bring together insights that derive from the study of several aspects

  17. Fermentation of Foc TR4-infected bananas and Trichoderma spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, J; Li, B; Liu, S W; Biswas, M K; Liu, S; Wei, Y R; Zuo, C W; Deng, G M; Kuang, R B; Hu, C H; Yi, G J; Li, C Y

    2016-10-17

    Fusarium wilt (also known as Panama disease) is one of the most destructive banana diseases, and greatly hampers the global production of bananas. Consequently, it has been very detrimental to the Chinese banana industry. An infected plant is one of the major causes of the spread of Fusarium wilt to nearby regions. It is essential to develop an efficient and environmentally sustainable disease control method to restrict the spread of Fusarium wilt. We isolated Trichoderma spp from the rhizosphere soil, roots, and pseudostems of banana plants that showed Fusarium wilt symptoms in the infected areas. Their cellulase activities were measured by endoglucanase activity, β-glucosidase activity, and filter paper activity assays. Safety analyses of the Trichoderma isolates were conducted by inoculating them into banana plantlets. The antagonistic effects of the Trichoderma spp on the Fusarium pathogen Foc tropical Race 4 (Foc TR4) were tested by the dual culture technique. Four isolates that had high cellulase activity, no observable pathogenicity to banana plants, and high antagonistic capability were identified. The isolates were used to biodegrade diseased banana plants infected with GFP-tagged Foc TR4, and the compost was tested for biological control of the infectious agent; the results showed that the fermentation suppressed the incidence of wilt and killed the pathogen. This study indicates that Trichoderma isolates have the potential to eliminate the transmission of Foc TR4, and may be developed into an environmentally sustainable treatment for controlling Fusarium wilt in banana plants.

  18. Urban consumer willingness to pay for introduced dessert bananas ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... therefore have a market potential. It is recommended that market development activities including organising and training farmers in improved agronomic methods, handling bananas for local markets; and promotional studies of the introduced dessert bananas among the urban consumers be done to widen their demand.

  19. Response of banana cultivars to banana weevil attack | Kiggundu ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    East African Highland Bananas (EAHB) (Musa AAA, 'Matooke' group) are a major staple food in the East African region. However, banana weevil (Cosmopolites sorllidus) is a major production constraint to bananas and may cause damage levels of up to 100%. Pesticides can effectively control banana weevil but these are ...

  20. Micropropagation of banana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaçar, Yıldız Aka; Faber, Ben

    2012-01-01

    Banana (Musa spp. AAA) is propagated vegetatively and can be rapidly and efficiently propagated by micropropagation. Conventional micropropagation techniques, however, may be too costly for commercial purposes. Our laboratory has found that depending on the combination of culture vessel and gelling agent more economic methods can be chosen for successfully micropropagating banana.

  1. Bananas go paraelectric

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loidl, A; Krohns, S; Hemberger, J; Lunkenheimer, P

    2008-01-01

    Using a banana as an example, we demonstrate how the ferroelectric-like hysteresis loops measured in inhomogeneous, conducting materials can easily be identified as non-intrinsic. With simple experiments, the response of a banana to electric fields is revealed as characteristic for an inhomogeneous paraelectric ion conductor. Not even absolute beginners in dielectrics should identify this biological matter as ferroelectric. (viewpoint)

  2. Bananas and plantains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-01-01

    The film shows the germplasm diversity within the Genus Musa and the evolution of cultivated forms of bananas and plantains. Cultivation history and geographical distribution are depicted; features of plant morphology and the floral biology are demonstrated. Economic and nutritional impact and importance of bananas and plantains for developing countries are briefly discussed. The second part of the film surveys problems in the propagation and genetic improvement of bananas and plantains: fruits of these vegetatively propagated plants are usually seedless which complicate the application of conventional plant breeding methods. In-vitro techniques are shown to be useful for plant propagation and germplasm conservation. Cross breeding with some semi-sterile clones of bananas has not led so far to lines which are resistant to the most harmful diseases, e.g. panama disease, black sigatoka. The Joint FAO/IAEA division has initiated an in-vitro mutation breeding programme to improve disease resistance in bananas

  3. Transgenic banana plants overexpressing a native plasma membrane aquaporin MusaPIP1;2 display high tolerance levels to different abiotic stresses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sreedharan, Shareena; Shekhawat, Upendra K S; Ganapathi, Thumballi R

    2013-10-01

    Water transport across cellular membranes is regulated by a family of water channel proteins known as aquaporins (AQPs). As most abiotic stresses like suboptimal temperatures, drought or salinity result in cellular dehydration, it is imperative to study the cause-effect relationship between AQPs and the cellular consequences of abiotic stress stimuli. Although plant cells have a high isoform diversity of AQPs, the individual and integrated roles of individual AQPs in optimal and suboptimal physiological conditions remain unclear. Herein, we have identified a plasma membrane intrinsic protein gene (MusaPIP1;2) from banana and characterized it by overexpression in transgenic banana plants. Cellular localization assay performed using MusaPIP1;2::GFP fusion protein indicated that MusaPIP1;2 translocated to plasma membrane in transformed banana cells. Transgenic banana plants overexpressing MusaPIP1;2 constitutively displayed better abiotic stress survival characteristics. The transgenic lines had lower malondialdehyde levels, elevated proline and relative water content and higher photosynthetic efficiency as compared to equivalent controls under different abiotic stress conditions. Greenhouse-maintained hardened transgenic plants showed faster recovery towards normal growth and development after cessation of abiotic stress stimuli, thereby underlining the importance of these plants in actual environmental conditions wherein the stress stimuli is often transient but severe. Further, transgenic plants where the overexpression of MusaPIP1;2 was made conditional by tagging it with a stress-inducible native dehydrin promoter also showed similar stress tolerance characteristics in in vitro and in vivo assays. Plants developed in this study could potentially enable banana cultivation in areas where adverse environmental conditions hitherto preclude commercial banana cultivation. © 2013 Society for Experimental Biology, Association of Applied Biologists and John Wiley & Sons

  4. The Banana Genome Hub

    Science.gov (United States)

    Droc, Gaëtan; Larivière, Delphine; Guignon, Valentin; Yahiaoui, Nabila; This, Dominique; Garsmeur, Olivier; Dereeper, Alexis; Hamelin, Chantal; Argout, Xavier; Dufayard, Jean-François; Lengelle, Juliette; Baurens, Franc-Christophe; Cenci, Alberto; Pitollat, Bertrand; D’Hont, Angélique; Ruiz, Manuel; Rouard, Mathieu; Bocs, Stéphanie

    2013-01-01

    Banana is one of the world’s favorite fruits and one of the most important crops for developing countries. The banana reference genome sequence (Musa acuminata) was recently released. Given the taxonomic position of Musa, the completed genomic sequence has particular comparative value to provide fresh insights about the evolution of the monocotyledons. The study of the banana genome has been enhanced by a number of tools and resources that allows harnessing its sequence. First, we set up essential tools such as a Community Annotation System, phylogenomics resources and metabolic pathways. Then, to support post-genomic efforts, we improved banana existing systems (e.g. web front end, query builder), we integrated available Musa data into generic systems (e.g. markers and genetic maps, synteny blocks), we have made interoperable with the banana hub, other existing systems containing Musa data (e.g. transcriptomics, rice reference genome, workflow manager) and finally, we generated new results from sequence analyses (e.g. SNP and polymorphism analysis). Several uses cases illustrate how the Banana Genome Hub can be used to study gene families. Overall, with this collaborative effort, we discuss the importance of the interoperability toward data integration between existing information systems. Database URL: http://banana-genome.cirad.fr/ PMID:23707967

  5. Alcohol from bananas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hammond, J.B.; Egg, Richard; Coble, C.G. [Texas A and M Univ., College Station, TX (United States). Dept. of Agricultural Engineering; Diggins, Drew

    1996-04-01

    Laboratory studies were conducted to assess the ethanol production potential from waste bananas. Over a 10-day ripening period, there was a 9% loss of fresh weight by day 6 and a 15% loss by day 10. Ethanol yields from normal ripe bananas were: whole fruit - 0.091, pulp -0.082, and peel -0.006 l/kg of whole fruit. Ripeness effects on ethanol yield were measured as green - 0.090, normal ripe - 0.082, and overripe - 0.069 l/kg of green whole bananas. Enzymatic hydrolysis was necessary for maximum yields. Dilution water was not essential for effective fermentation. Waste parameters of the banana stillage were measured. (Author)

  6. Natural Radioactivity in Bananas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zagatto, V. A. B.; Medina, N. H.; Okuno, E.; Umisedo, N. K.

    2008-08-01

    The content of 40K natural radionuclide in bananas (Musa sapientum) from the Vale do Ribeira region, São Paulo, Brazil, has been measured. We have collected several samples of bananas prata and nanica, its peels, leaves, and also different soils where the banana tree was planted, such as soil with a standard amount of fertilizer, the fertilizer itself and also soil without fertilizer for comparison. We have used the gamma-ray spectroscopy technique with a NaI(T1) crystal inside a 12 cm thick lead shield to detect the gamma-radiation. The results indicate that only part of the available potassium is absorbed by the plant, which is mainly concentrated in the banana peel.

  7. Natural Radioactivity in Bananas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zagatto, V. A. B.; Medina, N. H.; Okuno, E.; Umisedo, N. K.

    2008-01-01

    The content of 40 K natural radionuclide in bananas (Musa sapientum) from the Vale do Ribeira region, Sao Paulo, Brazil, has been measured. We have collected several samples of bananas prata and nanica, its peels, leaves, and also different soils where the banana tree was planted, such as soil with a standard amount of fertilizer, the fertilizer itself and also soil without fertilizer for comparison. We have used the gamma-ray spectroscopy technique with a NaI(T1) crystal inside a 12 cm thick lead shield to detect the gamma-radiation. The results indicate that only part of the available potassium is absorbed by the plant, which is mainly concentrated in the banana peel

  8. Tag team simulation: An innovative approach for promoting active engagement of participants and observers during group simulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levett-Jones, Tracy; Andersen, Patrea; Reid-Searl, Kerry; Guinea, Stephen; McAllister, Margaret; Lapkin, Samuel; Palmer, Lorinda; Niddrie, Marian

    2015-09-01

    Active participation in immersive simulation experiences can result in technical and non-technical skill enhancement. However, when simulations are conducted in large groups, maintaining the interest of observers so that they do not disengage from the learning experience can be challenging. We implemented Tag Team Simulation with the aim of ensuring that both participants and observers had active and integral roles in the simulation. In this paper we outline the features of this innovative approach and provide an example of its application to a pain simulation. Evaluation was conducted using the Satisfaction with Simulation Experience Scale. A total of 444 year nursing students participated from a population of 536 (response rate 83%). Cronbach's alpha for the Scale was .94 indicating high internal consistency. The mean satisfaction score for participants was 4.63 compared to 4.56 for observers. An independent sample t test revealed no significant difference between these scores (t (300) = -1.414, p = 0.16). Tag team simulation is an effective approach for ensuring observers' and participants' active involvement during group-based simulations and one that is highly regarded by students. It has the potential for broad applicability across a range of leaning domains both within and beyond nursing. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. The radurisation of bananas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huyzers, C.J.; Basson, R.

    1985-01-01

    Early studies on the radurisation of bananas indicated that this commodity did not benefit substantially from the treatment. This work, which was carried out at Pelindaba, indicated a low threshold dose for radiation damage and little shelf-life extension at this dose. In a second study carried out at Tzaneen more promising results were obtained. The reason for the differences seemed to be due to the time between harvesting and treatment which was much shorter in the Tzaneen study. Consequently it was decided to undertake a third and much larger trial in which the bananas would be treated in Tzaneen and then dispatched to Pretoria for storage and evaluation by a joint Nucor/Banana Board team. Parameters investigated included colour, firmness (by penatrometer testing) and sensory qualities. The bananas were stored for various periods at 15 o C, ripened by exposure to ethylene gas under commerical conditons and then stored at ambient temperature for the remainder of the experiment. Bananas we re irradiated at various doses between 0,3 kGy and 1,5kGy and were compared with control batches which were stored under the same conditions

  10. The "Blue Banana" Revisited

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Faludi, A.K.F.

    2015-01-01

    This essay is about the “Blue Banana”. Banana is the name given subsequently by others to a Dorsale européenne (European backbone) identified empirically by Roger Brunet. In a background study to the Communication of the European Commission ‘Europe 2000’, Klaus Kunzmann and Michael Wegener put

  11. Positive signature-tagged mutagenesis in Pseudomonas aeruginosa: tracking patho-adaptive mutations promoting airways chronic infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irene Bianconi

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The opportunistic pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa can establish life-long chronic infections in the airways of cystic fibrosis (CF patients. Persistent lifestyle is established with P. aeruginosa patho-adaptive variants, which are clonal with the initially-acquired strains. Several reports indicated that P. aeruginosa adapts by loss-of-function mutations which enhance fitness in CF airways and sustain its clonal expansion during chronic infection. To validate this model of P. aeruginosa adaptation to CF airways and to identify novel genes involved in this microevolution, we designed a novel approach of positive-selection screening by PCR-based signature-tagged mutagenesis (Pos-STM in a murine model of chronic airways infection. A systematic positive-selection scheme using sequential rounds of in vivo screenings for bacterial maintenance, as opposed to elimination, generated a list of genes whose inactivation increased the colonization and persistence in chronic airways infection. The phenotypes associated to these Pos-STM mutations reflect alterations in diverse aspects of P. aeruginosa biology which include lack of swimming and twitching motility, lack of production of the virulence factors such as pyocyanin, biofilm formation, and metabolic functions. In addition, Pos-STM mutants showed altered invasion and stimulation of immune response when tested in human respiratory epithelial cells, indicating that P. aeruginosa is prone to revise the interaction with its host during persistent lifestyle. Finally, sequence analysis of Pos-STM genes in longitudinally P. aeruginosa isolates from CF patients identified signs of patho-adaptive mutations within the genome. This novel Pos-STM approach identified bacterial functions that can have important clinical implications for the persistent lifestyle and disease progression of the airway chronic infection.

  12. Ply tensile properties of banana stem and banana bunch fibres

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2012-03-01

    Mar 1, 2012 ... BANANA BUNCH FIBRES REINFORCED NATURAL RUBBER. COMPOSITE ... National Institute for Interdisciplinary Science and Technology, (NIIST) CSIR Trivandrum, India. ..... Handbook of Ceramics and Composites,. Vol.

  13. Response of banana hybrids to the banana weevil (Cosmopolites ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ACSS

    Response of banana hybrids to the banana weevil (Cosmopolites sordidus Germar) .... A number of physical and chemical factors are .... The total number of weevils trapped were then counted and recorded. Agronomic characteristics. Bunch weight, girth and height. In addition to corm damage assesment, data was also ...

  14. Banana Gold: Problem or Solution?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, Garnet

    1992-01-01

    Since 1955, the British banana industry has dominated the lives of the Caribs and other peoples in Dominica. Banana growing supplants other economic activities, including local food production; toxic chemicals and fertilizers pollute the land; community is dwindling; suicide is common; and child labor diminishes school attendance. (SV)

  15. Combating the Sigatoka disease complex on banana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banana is the fourth most important staple food in the world behind rice, wheat and maize, with more than 100 million tons produced annually. Although the majority of bananas produced are consumed locally, banana export is a multi-billion dollar business. Bananas are grown in more than 100 countri...

  16. Optimization of biogas production from banana peels: Effect of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PROMOTING ACCESS TO AFRICAN RESEARCH ... The matooke processing industry being set up by the Presidential Initiative on Banana Industrial Development ... a solution to that waste, but information on the pre-treatment of the matooke peel waste is inadequate. ... EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT

  17. Yellowtail Tagging Data (MRDBS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Yellowtail Flounder Tagging Program began in 2003 and works with commercial fishermen to tag and release yellowtaiI flounder with pink and yellow disc tags or...

  18. The antagonistic effect of Banana bunchy top virus multifunctional protein B4 against Fusarium oxysporum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuang, Jun; Coates, Christopher J; Mao, Qianzhuo; Wu, Zujian; Xie, Lianhui

    2016-06-01

    The viral-induced banana bunchy top disease and the fungal-induced banana blight are two major causes of concern for industrial scale production of bananas. Banana blight is particularly troublesome, affecting ∼80% of crops worldwide. Strict guidelines and protocols are in place in order to ameliorate the effects of this devastating disease, yet little success has been achieved. From the data presented here, we have found that Banana bunchy top virus (BBTV)-infected bananas are more resistant to Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense (Foc). BBTV appears to be antagonistic towards Foc, thus improving the survivability of plants against blight. The BBTV suppressor of RNA silencing, namely protein B4, displays fungicidal properties in vitro. Furthermore, transgenic tomatoes expressing green fluorescent protein (GFP)-tagged protein B4 demonstrate enhanced resistance to F. oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici (Fol). Differential gene expression analysis indicates that increased numbers of photogenesis-related gene transcripts are present in dark-green leaves of B4-GFP-modified tomato plants relative to those found in WT plants. Conversely, the transcript abundance of immunity-related genes is substantially lower in transgenic tomatoes compared with WT plants, suggesting that plant defences may be influenced by protein B4. This viral-fungal interaction provides new insights into microbial community dynamics within a single host and has potential commercial value for the breeding of transgenic resistance to Fusarium-related blight/wilt. © 2016 BSPP AND JOHN WILEY & SONS LTD.

  19. Beyond the double banana

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosenzweig, Ivana; Fogarasi, András; Johnsen, Birger

    2014-01-01

    PURPOSE: To investigate whether extending the 10-20 array with 6 electrodes in the inferior temporal chain and constructing computed montages increases the diagnostic value of ictal EEG activity originating in the temporal lobe. In addition, the accuracy of computer-assisted spectral source......). Spectral source analysis used source montage to calculate density spectral array, defining the earliest oscillatory onset. From this, phase maps were calculated for localization. The reference standard was the decision of the multidisciplinary epilepsy surgery team on the seizure onset zone. Clinical...... performance was compared with the double banana (longitudinal bipolar montage, 10-20 array). RESULTS: Adding the inferior temporal electrode chain, computed montages (reference free, common average, and source derivation), and voltage maps significantly increased the sensitivity. Phase maps had the highest...

  20. In vitro digestibility of banana starch cookies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bello-Pérez, Luis A; Sáyago-Ayerdi, Sonia G; Méndez-Montealvo, Guadalupe; Tovar, Juscelino

    2004-01-01

    Banana starch was isolated and used for preparation of two types of cookies. Chemical composition and digestibility tests were carried out on banana starch and the food products, and these results were compared with corn starch. Ash, protein, and fat levels in banana starch were higher than in corn starch. The high ash amount in banana starch could be due to the potassium content present in this fruit. Proximal analysis was similar between products prepared with banana starch and those based on corn starch. The available starch content of the banana starch preparation was 60% (dmb). The cookies had lower available starch than the starches while banana starch had lower susceptibility to the in vitro alpha-amylolysis reaction. Banana starch and its products had higher resistant starch levels than those made with corn starch.

  1. Gillnet Tag Program

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Certain fishery management programs require vessels to obtain gillnet tags to be used with their gillnet gear. Gillnet tag data is a collection of requests and...

  2. Cooperative Tagging Center (CTC)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Cooperative Tagging Center (CTC) began as the Cooperative Game Fish Tagging Program (GTP) at Woods Hole Oceanographic Institute (WHOI) in 1954. The GTP was...

  3. North Pacific Albacore Tagging

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Conventional tagging data are available from 1971 to 1996. Electronic tagging data are available from 2000 to present. The data are managed by SWFSC in Access...

  4. Tagging vs. Controlled Vocabulary

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bogers, Toine; Petras, Vivien

    2015-01-01

    The popularity of social tagging has sparked a great deal of debate on whether tags could replace or improve upon professional metadata as descriptors of books and other information objects. In this paper we present a large-scale empirical comparison of the contributions of individual information...... that tags and controlled vocabulary terms do not actually outperform each other consistently, but seem to provide complementary contributions: some information needs are best addressed using controlled vocabulary terms whereas other are best addressed using tags....

  5. Cutaneous skin tag

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skin tag; Acrochordon; Fibroepithelial polyp ... have diabetes. They are thought to occur from skin rubbing against skin. ... The tag sticks out of the skin and may have a short, narrow stalk connecting it to the surface of the skin. Some skin tags are as long as ...

  6. Towards Universal Semantic Tagging

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abzianidze, Lasha; Bos, Johan

    2017-01-01

    The paper proposes the task of universal semantic tagging---tagging word tokens with language-neutral, semantically informative tags. We argue that the task, with its independent nature, contributes to better semantic analysis for wide-coverage multilingual text. We present the initial version of

  7. Loss of Serglycin Promotes Primary Tumor Growth and Vessel Functionality in the RIP1-Tag2 Mouse Model for Spontaneous Insulinoma Formation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Hamilton

    Full Text Available The serglycin proteoglycan is mainly expressed by hematopoietic cells where the major function is to retain the content of storage granules and vesicles. In recent years, expression of serglycin has also been found in different forms of human malignancies and a high serglycin expression level has been correlated with a more migratory and invasive phenotype in the case of breast cancer and nasopharyngeal carcinoma. Serglycin has also been implicated in the development of the tumor vasculature in multiple myeloma and hepatocellular carcinoma where reduced expression of serglycin was correlated with a less extensive vasculature. To further investigate the contribution of serglycin to tumor development, we have used the immunocompetent RIP1-Tag2 mouse model of spontaneous insulinoma formation crossed into serglycin deficient mice. For the first time we show that serglycin-deficiency affects orthotopic primary tumor growth and tumor vascular functionality of late stage carcinomas. RIP1-Tag2 mice that lack serglycin develop larger tumors with a higher proliferative activity but unaltered apoptosis compared to normal RIP1-Tag2 mice. The absence of serglycin also enhances the tumor vessel functionality, which is better perfused than in tumors from serglycin wild type mice. The presence of the pro-angiogenic modulators vascular endothelial growth factor and hepatocyte growth factor were decreased in the serglycin deficient mice which suggests a less pro-angiogenic environment in the tumors of these animals. Taken together, we conclude that serglycin affects multiple aspects of spontaneous tumor formation, which strengthens the theory that serglycin acts as an important mediator in the formation and progression of tumors.

  8. Antioxidant activity of banana flavonoids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vijayakumar, S; Presannakumar, G; Vijayalakshmi, N R

    2008-06-01

    The antioxidant activity of flavonoids from banana (Musa paradisiaca) was studied in rats fed normal as well as high fat diets. Concentrations of peroxidation products namely malondialdehyde, hydroperoxides and conjugated diens were significantly decreased whereas the activities of catalase and superoxide dismutase were enhanced significantly. Concentrations of glutathione were also elevated in the treated animals.

  9. Extracting Tag Hierarchies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tibély, Gergely; Pollner, Péter; Vicsek, Tamás; Palla, Gergely

    2013-01-01

    Tagging items with descriptive annotations or keywords is a very natural way to compress and highlight information about the properties of the given entity. Over the years several methods have been proposed for extracting a hierarchy between the tags for systems with a "flat", egalitarian organization of the tags, which is very common when the tags correspond to free words given by numerous independent people. Here we present a complete framework for automated tag hierarchy extraction based on tag occurrence statistics. Along with proposing new algorithms, we are also introducing different quality measures enabling the detailed comparison of competing approaches from different aspects. Furthermore, we set up a synthetic, computer generated benchmark providing a versatile tool for testing, with a couple of tunable parameters capable of generating a wide range of test beds. Beside the computer generated input we also use real data in our studies, including a biological example with a pre-defined hierarchy between the tags. The encouraging similarity between the pre-defined and reconstructed hierarchy, as well as the seemingly meaningful hierarchies obtained for other real systems indicate that tag hierarchy extraction is a very promising direction for further research with a great potential for practical applications. Tags have become very prevalent nowadays in various online platforms ranging from blogs through scientific publications to protein databases. Furthermore, tagging systems dedicated for voluntary tagging of photos, films, books, etc. with free words are also becoming popular. The emerging large collections of tags associated with different objects are often referred to as folksonomies, highlighting their collaborative origin and the “flat” organization of the tags opposed to traditional hierarchical categorization. Adding a tag hierarchy corresponding to a given folksonomy can very effectively help narrowing or broadening the scope of search

  10. Extracting tag hierarchies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gergely Tibély

    Full Text Available Tagging items with descriptive annotations or keywords is a very natural way to compress and highlight information about the properties of the given entity. Over the years several methods have been proposed for extracting a hierarchy between the tags for systems with a "flat", egalitarian organization of the tags, which is very common when the tags correspond to free words given by numerous independent people. Here we present a complete framework for automated tag hierarchy extraction based on tag occurrence statistics. Along with proposing new algorithms, we are also introducing different quality measures enabling the detailed comparison of competing approaches from different aspects. Furthermore, we set up a synthetic, computer generated benchmark providing a versatile tool for testing, with a couple of tunable parameters capable of generating a wide range of test beds. Beside the computer generated input we also use real data in our studies, including a biological example with a pre-defined hierarchy between the tags. The encouraging similarity between the pre-defined and reconstructed hierarchy, as well as the seemingly meaningful hierarchies obtained for other real systems indicate that tag hierarchy extraction is a very promising direction for further research with a great potential for practical applications. Tags have become very prevalent nowadays in various online platforms ranging from blogs through scientific publications to protein databases. Furthermore, tagging systems dedicated for voluntary tagging of photos, films, books, etc. with free words are also becoming popular. The emerging large collections of tags associated with different objects are often referred to as folksonomies, highlighting their collaborative origin and the "flat" organization of the tags opposed to traditional hierarchical categorization. Adding a tag hierarchy corresponding to a given folksonomy can very effectively help narrowing or broadening the scope of

  11. Extracting tag hierarchies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tibély, Gergely; Pollner, Péter; Vicsek, Tamás; Palla, Gergely

    2013-01-01

    Tagging items with descriptive annotations or keywords is a very natural way to compress and highlight information about the properties of the given entity. Over the years several methods have been proposed for extracting a hierarchy between the tags for systems with a "flat", egalitarian organization of the tags, which is very common when the tags correspond to free words given by numerous independent people. Here we present a complete framework for automated tag hierarchy extraction based on tag occurrence statistics. Along with proposing new algorithms, we are also introducing different quality measures enabling the detailed comparison of competing approaches from different aspects. Furthermore, we set up a synthetic, computer generated benchmark providing a versatile tool for testing, with a couple of tunable parameters capable of generating a wide range of test beds. Beside the computer generated input we also use real data in our studies, including a biological example with a pre-defined hierarchy between the tags. The encouraging similarity between the pre-defined and reconstructed hierarchy, as well as the seemingly meaningful hierarchies obtained for other real systems indicate that tag hierarchy extraction is a very promising direction for further research with a great potential for practical applications. Tags have become very prevalent nowadays in various online platforms ranging from blogs through scientific publications to protein databases. Furthermore, tagging systems dedicated for voluntary tagging of photos, films, books, etc. with free words are also becoming popular. The emerging large collections of tags associated with different objects are often referred to as folksonomies, highlighting their collaborative origin and the "flat" organization of the tags opposed to traditional hierarchical categorization. Adding a tag hierarchy corresponding to a given folksonomy can very effectively help narrowing or broadening the scope of search. Moreover

  12. Intermittent fasting promotes prolonged associative interactions during synaptic tagging/capture by altering the metaplastic properties of the CA1 hippocampal neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dasgupta, Ananya; Kim, Joonki; Manakkadan, Anoop; Arumugam, Thiruma V; Sajikumar, Sreedharan

    2017-12-19

    Metaplasticity is the inherent property of a neuron or neuronal population to undergo activity-dependent changes in neural function that modulate subsequent synaptic plasticity. Here we studied the effect of intermittent fasting (IF) in governing the interactions of associative plasticity mechanisms in the pyramidal neurons of rat hippocampal area CA1. Late long-term potentiation and its associative mechanisms such as synaptic tagging and capture at an interval of 120 min were evaluated in four groups of animals, AL (Ad libitum), IF12 (daily IF for 12 h), IF16 (daily IF for 16 h) and EOD (every other day IF for 24 h). IF had no visible effect on the early or late plasticity but it manifested a critical role in prolonging the associative interactions between weak and strong synapses at an interval of 120 min in IF16 and EOD animals. However, both IF12 and AL did not show associativity at 120 min. Plasticity genes such as Bdnf and Prkcz, which are well known for their expressions in late plasticity and synaptic tagging and capture, were significantly upregulated in IF16 and EOD in comparison to AL. Specific inhibition of brain derived neurotropic factor (BDNF) prevented the prolonged associativity expressed in EOD. Thus, daily IF for 16 h or more can be considered to enhance the metaplastic properties of synapses by improving their associative interactions that might translate into animprovedmemoryformation. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  13. Effects of covering highland banana stumps with soil on banana weevil Cosmopolites sordidus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) oviposition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Masanza, M.; Gold, C.S.; Huis, van A.; Ragama, P.E.

    2005-01-01

    The effect of covering post-harvest banana stumps with soil on banana weevil Cosmopolites sordidus (Germar) oviposition levels was investigated at three locations, Sendusu, Kawanda Agricultural Research Institute (KARI) and Ntungamo district of southwestern Uganda. In the first experiment

  14. Marketing of banana and banana products in Uganda: Results of a rapid rural appraisal

    OpenAIRE

    Digges, Philip

    1994-01-01

    This report concerns a survey undertaken by NRI in Uganda during September and December 1993, which sought to characterise the banana and banana beer marketing systems. The study follows on from the recommendations of the Banana Based Cropping System Rapid Rural Appraisal (1991), and focuses upon the Kampala market.

  15. Production of ethyl alcohol from bananas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, R.L.; Towns, T.

    1983-12-01

    The production of ethyl alcohol from waste bananas presents many special problems. During cooking, matting of the latex fibers from the banana peel recongeal when cooled and left untreated. This problem has been addressed by Alfaro by the use of CaC1/sub 2/. Separation of solids prior to distillation of the mashes in an economical fashion and use of the by product are also of concern to banana processors.

  16. Modifying Bananas: From Transgenics to Organics?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Dale

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Bananas are one of the top ten world food crops. Unlike most other major food crops, bananas are difficult to genetically improve. The challenge is that nearly all banana cultivars and landraces are triploids, with high levels of male and female infertility. There are a number of international conventional breeding programs and many of these are developing new cultivars. However, it is virtually impossible to backcross bananas, thus excluding the possibility of introgressing new traits into a current cultivar. The alternative strategy is to “modify” the cultivar itself. We have been developing the capacity to modify Cavendish bananas and other cultivars for both disease resistance and enhanced fruit quality. Initially, we were using transgenes; genes that were derived from species outside of the Musa or banana genus. However, we have recently incorporated two banana genes (cisgenes into Cavendish; one to enhance the level of pro-vitamin A and the other to increase the resistance to Panama disease. Modified Cavendish with these cisgenes have been employed in a field trial. Almost certainly, the next advance will be to edit the Cavendish genome, to generate the desired traits. As these banana cultivars are essentially sterile, transgene flow and the outcrossing of modified genes into wild Musa species. are highly unlikely and virtually impossible in other triploid cultivars. Therefore, genetic changes in bananas may be compatible with organic farming.

  17. Enhancing banana weevil ( Cosmopolites sordidus ) resistance by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Enhancing banana weevil (Cosmopolites sordidus) resistance by plant genetic modification: A perspective. Andrew Kiggundu, Michael Pillay, Altus Viljoen, Clifford Gold, Wilberforce Tushemereirwe, Karl Kunert ...

  18. Improved tolerance toward fungal diseases in transgenic Cavendish banana (Musa spp. AAA group) cv. Grand Nain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vishnevetsky, Jane; White, Thomas L; Palmateer, Aaron J; Flaishman, Moshe; Cohen, Yuval; Elad, Yigal; Velcheva, Margarita; Hanania, Uri; Sahar, Nachman; Dgani, Oded; Perl, Avihai

    2011-02-01

    The most devastating disease currently threatening to destroy the banana industry worldwide is undoubtedly Sigatoka Leaf spot disease caused by Mycosphaerella fijiensis. In this study, we developed a transformation system for banana and expressed the endochitinase gene ThEn-42 from Trichoderma harzianum together with the grape stilbene synthase (StSy) gene in transgenic banana plants under the control of the 35S promoter and the inducible PR-10 promoter, respectively. The superoxide dismutase gene Cu,Zn-SOD from tomato, under control of the ubiquitin promoter, was added to this cassette to improve scavenging of free radicals generated during fungal attack. A 4-year field trial demonstrated several transgenic banana lines with improved tolerance to Sigatoka. As the genes conferring Sigatoka tolerance may have a wide range of anti-fungal activities we also inoculated the regenerated banana plants with Botrytis cinerea. The best transgenic lines exhibiting Sigatoka tolerance were also found to have tolerance to B. cinerea in laboratory assays.

  19. Social Interactions in Growing Bananas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Van Den Broeck, Katleen; Dercon, Stefan

    This paper analyses whether agricultural information flows give rise to social learning effects in banana cultivation in Nyakatoke, a small Tanzanian village. Based on a village census, full information is available on socio-economic characteristics and banana production of farmer kinship members......, neighbours and informal insurance group members. This allows a test for social learning within these groups and the identification of different types of social effects. Controlling for exogenous group characteristics, the effect of group behaviour on individual farmer output is studied. The results show...... that social effects are strongly dependent on the definition of the reference group. It emerges that no social effects are found in distance based groups, exogenous social effects linked to group education exist in informal insurance groups, and only kinship related groups generate the endogenous social...

  20. Tags on healthcare information websites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lykke, Marianne; Ådland, Marit Kristine

    2018-01-01

    This paper explores tags and tagging behaviour on health information websites using an empirical, user-oriented, exploratory case study. Taggers and editors were interviewed about tags and tagging, while taggers solved tasks that included applying tags to a website. This qualitative data...... articles, request information, and value article content. Some of these show that tags are not only not only topical descriptions, but communicative by intent. This result can potentially inform the design of tagging features....

  1. Combined effects of pectic enzymes on the degradation of pectin polysaccharides of banana fruit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jheng, G.; Jiang, Y.; Ghen, Y.; Yang, S.

    2011-01-01

    Pectin polysaccharide is one of the major components of the primary cellular wall in the middle lamella of plant tissues. The degradation of pectin polysaccharide contributes to fruit softening. In this study, water-soluble pectin (WSP) and acid-soluble pectin (ASP) were isolated from pulp tissues of banana fruit at various ripening stages, and combinations of the enzymes such as polygalcturonase (PG), pectin methylesterase (PME) and beta-galactosidase (beta-Gal) were used to investigate the effect on the degradation of WSP and ASP. PG promoted the degradation of pectin polysaccharides, especially in ASP. An enhanced effect of the degradation of WSP and ASP from various ripening banana fruit was observed in the presence of PME. In addition, beta-Gal accelerated slightly the degradation of WSP and ASP in the presence of PG. Overall, PG, PME and beta-Gal can coordinate to promote the degradation of pectin polysaccharides of banana fruit, resulting in fruit softening. (author)

  2. Diseases threatening banana biodiversity in Uganda ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Recent on station and on-farm studies suggest the major diseases threatening banana biodiversity in Uganda include: 1)Black sigatoka which severely affects all East African Highland (EA-AAA) banana cultivars and a range of introduced genotypes; 2) Fusarium wilt which affects several introduced genotypes though all EA ...

  3. Banana (Musa. spp.) strain HD-1 appraisal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Longyan, G.; Xinguo, L.; Lingxia, W.; Xuefei, J.

    2016-01-01

    Being one of the important tropical and subtropical fruit trees, banana (Musa spp.) belongs to the family Musaceae and the order Scitaminae with two genera, Musa and Ensete. In a field survey, research team has discovered a potential banana mutant strain HD-1 with a sound economic value. The results of the finding are as follows: based on Simmonds classification, the pseudostem of banana strain HD-1 is relatively short and purplish red; its upright outward petiole groove has red edges and wraps its pseudostem loosely. Its ploidy is 3, AAA type. Karyotype analysis shows that the number of chromosomes is 33, the karyotype formula is 2n=3x=33=2L + 3 M2 + 4 M1 + 2 S, HD-1 is classified as 1B type. With the help of ISSR molecular markers, we find thatbanana HD-1 has the closest relationship with Pubei and Tianbao dwarf banana; the similarity coefficient is 0.81. In an artificial simulation tests of cold, drought and salt resistance environment changes of physiological and biochemical indexes indicate that HD-1 exhibits stronger defense capability than Brazil banana. By way of inoculation with injury of root dipping method, we respectively treat two kinds of banana seedlings inoculated Banana Fusarium wilt race 4 small species. The results show that their resistance evaluation scores are 3 and 4, disease levels are susceptible and high sensitivity respectively. We conclude that HD-1 has stronger resistance ability to Fusarium wilt than Brazil banana. (author)

  4. 33 CFR 117.263 - Banana River.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Banana River. 117.263 Section 117.263 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Florida § 117.263 Banana River. (a) The draw of the Mathers (SR...

  5. Market opportunities for Ugandan banana products: National ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mo

    the decade between 1991 and 2001, banana consumption has increased by three ... obtain only 17 % of the retail price per bunch of banana, whereas the rest ..... The Middle and Far East will experience the biggest growth rates in terms of ...

  6. Banana orchard inventory using IRS LISS sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishant, Nilay; Upadhayay, Gargi; Vyas, S. P.; Manjunath, K. R.

    2016-04-01

    Banana is one of the major crops of India with increasing export potential. It is important to estimate the production and acreage of the crop. Thus, the present study was carried out to evolve a suitable methodology for estimating banana acreage. Area estimation methodology was devised around the fact that unlike other crops, the time of plantation of banana is different for different farmers as per their local practices or conditions. Thus in order to capture the peak signatures, biowindow of 6 months was considered, its NDVI pattern studied and the optimum two months were considered when banana could be distinguished from other competing crops. The final area of banana for the particular growing cycle was computed by integrating the areas of these two months using LISS III data with spatial resolution of 23m. Estimated banana acreage in the three districts were 11857Ha, 15202ha and 11373Ha for Bharuch, Anand and Vadodara respectively with corresponding accuracy of 91.8%, 90% and 88.16%. Study further compared the use of LISS IV data of 5.8m spatial resolution for estimation of banana using object based as well as per-pixel classification and the results were compared with statistical reports for both the approaches. In the current paper we depict the various methodologies to accurately estimate the banana acreage.

  7. PIT Tagging Anurans

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCreary, Brome

    2008-01-01

    The following video demonstrates a procedure to insert a passive integrated transponder (PIT) tag under the skin of an anuran (frog or toad) for research and monitoring purposes. Typically, a 12.5 mm tag (0.5 in.) is used to uniquely identify individual anurans as smal as 40 mm (1.6 in.) in length from snout to vent. Smaller tags are also available and allow smaller anurans to be tagged. The procedure does not differ for other sizes of tages or other sizes of anurans. Anyone using this procedure should ensure that the tag is small enough to fit easily behind the sacral hump of the anuran, as shown in this video.

  8. A screening method for banana weevil ( Cosmopolites sordidus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The banana weevil (Cosmopolites sordidus Germar) is a serious pest in most banana-growing areas of the world. Host-plant resistance is considered to be the most feasible and sustainable method for its control. However, a quick and effective method for screening banana genotypes for resistance against the banana ...

  9. Banana (Musa spp) from peel to pulp: ethnopharmacology, source of bioactive compounds and its relevance for human health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Aline; Maraschin, Marcelo

    2015-02-03

    Banana is a fruit with nutritional properties and also with acclaimed therapeutic uses, cultivated widely throughout the tropics as source of food and income for people. Banana peel is known by its local and traditional use to promote wound healing mainly from burns and to help overcome or prevent a substantial number of illnesses, as depression. This review critically assessed the phytochemical properties and biological activities of Musa spp fruit pulp and peel. A survey on the literature on banana (Musa spp, Musaceae) covering its botanical classification and nomenclature, as well as the local and traditional use of its pulp and peel was performed. Besides, the current state of art on banana fruit pulp and peel as interesting complex matrices sources of high-value compounds from secondary metabolism was also approached. Dessert bananas and plantains are systematic classified into four sections, Eumusa, Rhodochlamys, Australimusa, and Callimusa, according to the number of chromosomes. The fruits differ only in their ploidy arrangement and a single scientific name can be given to all the edible bananas, i.e., Musa spp. The chemical composition of banana's peel and pulp comprise mostly carotenoids, phenolic compounds, and biogenic amines. The biological potential of those biomasses is directly related to their chemical composition, particularly as pro-vitamin A supplementation, as potential antioxidants attributed to their phenolic constituents, as well as in the treatment of Parkinson's disease considering their contents in l-dopa and dopamine. Banana's pulp and peel can be used as natural sources of antioxidants and pro-vitamin A due to their contents in carotenoids, phenolics, and amine compounds, for instance. For the development of a phytomedicine or even an allopathic medicine, e.g., banana fruit pulp and peel could be of interest as raw materials riches in beneficial bioactive compounds. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Flavour Tagging at LHCb

    CERN Multimedia

    Grabalosa Gandara, M

    2009-01-01

    To do precise CP violation measurements, the most possible accurate knowledge of the flavour at production of the reconstructed B meson is required. This poster summarizes the flavour tagging performances for the LHCb experiment. We use same side an opposite side algorithms to establish wheter the meson contained a b or a b\\bar quark. The final decision is obtained through a combination of several methods. The use of control channels, decays to a flavour specific final state, will allow to determine the wrong tag fraction \\omega (the probability of a tag to be wrong), which can be used as input for the determination of CKM unitary triangle angles.

  11. Radiation enhances shelf life of Nendra bananas without changing the lectin content of raw and steamed Nendra banana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coelho, Neil Renault; Nivas, Shashikiran; D'Souza, L.

    2016-01-01

    Our study shows that the shelf life of bananas is increased with low doses of radiation (300 Gy, 400 Gy, 500 Gy). However, there is no decrease in the lectin content. This improves the keeping quality of nendra bananas without affecting their lectin content. Hence, radiation can be used safely for the bananas distributed to HIV children. The present study was also to compare the lectin content of raw and steamed Nendra bananas with the gamma irradiated bananas

  12. Tagged Vector Contour (TVC)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — The Kansas Tagged Vector Contour (TVC) dataset consists of digitized contours from the 7.5 minute topographic quadrangle maps. Coverage for the state is incomplete....

  13. Carbon footprint of premium quality export bananas: case study in Ecuador, the world's largest exporter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iriarte, Alfredo; Almeida, Maria Gabriela; Villalobos, Pablo

    2014-02-15

    Nowadays, the new international market demands challenge the food producing countries to include the measurement of the environmental impact generated along the production process for their products. In order to comply with the environmentally responsible market requests the measurement of the greenhouse gas emissions of Ecuadorian agricultural goods has been promoted employing the carbon footprint concept. Ecuador is the largest exporter of bananas in the world. Within this context, this study is a first assessment of the carbon footprint of the Ecuadorian premium export banana (Musa AAA) using a considerable amount of field data. The system boundaries considered from agricultural production to delivery in a European destination port. The data collected over three years permitted identifying the hot spot stages. For the calculation, the CCaLC V3.0 software developed by the University of Manchester is used. The carbon footprint of the Ecuadorian export banana ranged from 0.45 to 1.04 kg CO2-equivalent/kg banana depending on the international overseas transport employed. The principal contributors to the carbon footprint are the on farm production and overseas transport stages. Mitigation and reduction strategies were suggested for the main emission sources in order to achieve sustainable banana production. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Expansion of banana (Musa acuminata) gene families involved in ethylene biosynthesis and signalling after lineage-specific whole-genome duplications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jourda, Cyril; Cardi, Céline; Mbéguié-A-Mbéguié, Didier; Bocs, Stéphanie; Garsmeur, Olivier; D'Hont, Angélique; Yahiaoui, Nabila

    2014-05-01

    Whole-genome duplications (WGDs) are widespread in plants, and three lineage-specific WGDs occurred in the banana (Musa acuminata) genome. Here, we analysed the impact of WGDs on the evolution of banana gene families involved in ethylene biosynthesis and signalling, a key pathway for banana fruit ripening. Banana ethylene pathway genes were identified using comparative genomics approaches and their duplication modes and expression profiles were analysed. Seven out of 10 banana ethylene gene families evolved through WGD and four of them (1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate synthase (ACS), ethylene-insensitive 3-like (EIL), ethylene-insensitive 3-binding F-box (EBF) and ethylene response factor (ERF)) were preferentially retained. Banana orthologues of AtEIN3 and AtEIL1, two major genes for ethylene signalling in Arabidopsis, were particularly expanded. This expansion was paralleled by that of EBF genes which are responsible for control of EIL protein levels. Gene expression profiles in banana fruits suggested functional redundancy for several MaEBF and MaEIL genes derived from WGD and subfunctionalization for some of them. We propose that EIL and EBF genes were co-retained after WGD in banana to maintain balanced control of EIL protein levels and thus avoid detrimental effects of constitutive ethylene signalling. In the course of evolution, subfunctionalization was favoured to promote finer control of ethylene signalling. © 2014 CIRAD New Phytologist © 2014 New Phytologist Trust.

  15. Phenylphenalenones Accumulate in Plant Tissues of Two Banana Cultivars in Response to Herbivory by the Banana Weevil and Banana Stem Weevil

    OpenAIRE

    H?lscher, Dirk; Buerkert, Andreas; Schneider, Bernd

    2016-01-01

    Phenylphenalenone-type compounds accumulated in the tissues of two banana cultivars—Musa acuminata cv. “Grande Naine” (AAA) and Musa acuminata × balbisiana Colla cv. “Bluggoe” (ABB)—when these were fed on by the banana weevil (Cosmopolites sordidus (Germ.) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae)) and the banana stem weevil (Odoiporus longicollis (Oliver) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae)). The chemical constituents of the banana material were separated by means of chromatographic techniques and identified by N...

  16. PROPOLIS EXTRACT IN POSTHARVEST CONSERVATION BANANA ' PRATA'

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FLÁVIA REGINA PASSOS

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT In the present work were evaluated the effects of propolis coatings of various botanical sources on quality traits of bananas cv. Prata (Musa sapientum L. stored at room temperature. ´Prata´ bananas were selected and submitted to five postharvest treatments: four coatings applied by immersion in propolis extracts at a concentration of 2.5% (w/v and a control (without coating. Propolis extracts were applied as 1 a wild type aqueous propolis extract, 2 a wild type hydroalcoholic propolis extract, 3 a rosemary green type hydroalcoholic propolis extract and 4 a red type hydroalcoholic propolis extract. The bananas were evaluated at three-day intervals along 12 days for fresh weight losses, flesh firmness, soluble solids (SS, titratable acidity (TA, the ratio SS/TA and pH. Sensory analyses were performed after three and six days of storage by 55 not trained panelists designed for acceptability. At the end of the twelve-day storage period, bananas coated either with the rosemary green hydroalcoholic extract or with the aqueous extract presented lower fresh weight losses in comparison to the bananas of the control treatment. No differences were determined in relation to flesh firmness and along the storage period TA values decreased and pH values increased in bananas of all treatments. SS contents increased towards the end of the storage period that, consequently, contributed to increases in the SS/TA ratio. The most significant increase in SS/TA ratio was determined in bananas coated with the red type hydroalcoholic extract. Taste panelists did not detect significant differences amongst coated and not coated cv. Prata bananas up to six days of storage.

  17. In vivo fertilization of banana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taliane Leila Soares

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research was to study the in vivo fertilization process of banana cultivars. The diploid hybrid (AA 091087-01 was the male progenitor. Flower samples were checked for fertilization from the first to the twentieth day after pollination. The size of the diploid ovules increased gradually at the beginning of the seed formation process. On the other hand, in the AAA triploids (Cavendish subgroup, the not fertilized ovules were aborted. In the AAB triploids (Prata subgroup some ovules were fertilized. The flowers of Grand Naine, Nanicão and 'Pacovan' cultivars presented necrosis in the distal part of the ovary on the first day after pollination. Necrosis can hinder pollen tube growth towards the ovule, which might be related to the low seed yield in 'Pacovan' cultivars and to the absence of seeds in the Cavendish subgroup cultivars.

  18. Nitrogen and potassium fertilization on ‘Caipira’ and ‘BRS Princesa’ bananas in the Ribeira Valley

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edson S. Nomura

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT ‘BRS Princesa’ (AAAB and ‘Caipira’ (AAA banana cultivars have similar sensorial features in comparison to the ‘Maçã’ banana. They are resistant to Panama disease, which allows them to grow in the Ribeira Valley, the largest banana plantation area in the São Paulo State. However, there is no information on how to fertilize crop under these edaphoclimatic conditions. This study aimed to evaluate the development and production of ‘Caipira’ and ‘BRS Princesa’ bananas, by applying four fertilization doses of N and K2O (no fertilization; 175 and 285 kg ha-1 year-1; 350 and 570 kg ha-1 year-1; 525 and 855 kg ha-1 year-1. The most adequate fertilizer recommendation for ‘Caipira’ and ‘BRS Princesa’ cultivars was 150% of the standard recommendation for banana (525 kg ha-1 year-1 of N and 855 kg ha-1 year-1 of K2O in both production cycles, promoting adequate growth and production, since most of the evaluated characteristics showed linear responses with the increase in the fertilization doses. ‘Caipira’ and ‘BRS Princesa’ require higher amounts of N and K than that recommended for the banana crop in the São Paulo State, in order to express their productive potential.

  19. Inclusive Flavour Tagging Algorithm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Likhomanenko, Tatiana; Derkach, Denis; Rogozhnikov, Alex

    2016-01-01

    Identifying the flavour of neutral B mesons production is one of the most important components needed in the study of time-dependent CP violation. The harsh environment of the Large Hadron Collider makes it particularly hard to succeed in this task. We present an inclusive flavour-tagging algorithm as an upgrade of the algorithms currently used by the LHCb experiment. Specifically, a probabilistic model which efficiently combines information from reconstructed vertices and tracks using machine learning is proposed. The algorithm does not use information about underlying physics process. It reduces the dependence on the performance of lower level identification capacities and thus increases the overall performance. The proposed inclusive flavour-tagging algorithm is applicable to tag the flavour of B mesons in any proton-proton experiment. (paper)

  20. Banana ethylene response factors are involved in fruit ripening through their interactions with ethylene biosynthesis genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Yun-yi; Chen, Jian-ye; Kuang, Jiang-fei; Shan, Wei; Xie, Hui; Jiang, Yue-ming; Lu, Wang-jin

    2013-05-01

    The involvement of ethylene response factor (ERF) transcription factor (TF) in the transcriptional regulation of ethylene biosynthesis genes during fruit ripening remains largely unclear. In this study, 15 ERF genes, designated as MaERF1-MaERF15, were isolated and characterized from banana fruit. These MaERFs were classified into seven of the 12 known ERF families. Subcellular localization showed that MaERF proteins of five different subfamilies preferentially localized to the nucleus. The 15 MaERF genes displayed differential expression patterns and levels in peel and pulp of banana fruit, in association with four different ripening treatments caused by natural, ethylene-induced, 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP)-delayed, and combined 1-MCP and ethylene treatments. MaERF9 was upregulated while MaERF11 was downregulated in peel and pulp of banana fruit during ripening or after treatment with ethylene. Furthermore, yeast-one hybrid (Y1H) and transient expression assays showed that the potential repressor MaERF11 bound to MaACS1 and MaACO1 promoters to suppress their activities and that MaERF9 activated MaACO1 promoter activity. Interestingly, protein-protein interaction analysis revealed that MaERF9 and -11 physically interacted with MaACO1. Taken together, these results suggest that MaERFs are involved in banana fruit ripening via transcriptional regulation of or interaction with ethylene biosynthesis genes.

  1. Molecular Characterization of Cocoa, Mango, Banana and Yam ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Molecular Characterization of Cocoa, Mango, Banana and Yam Isolates of Botryodiplodia theobromae in Ghana. ... A total of 25 fungal isolates were sampled from cocoa, mango, banana and yam within four ... HOW TO USE AJOL.

  2. Detection of banana streak virus (BSV) Tamil Nadu isolate (India ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Yomi

    2012-10-09

    641 003, Tamil Nadu, India. 2Department of Fruit Crops, ... Hence, attempts were made for diagnosis of BSV and to study the serological relationship with ... Among the five virus diseases of banana, disease caused by banana ...

  3. Value-adding post harvest processing of cooking bananas (Musa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Yomi

    2010-12-29

    Dec 29, 2010 ... It is estimated that more than 30% of the banana production are lost after harvest. The losses .... nutritional qualities are important factors in the production of banana flour and ..... Agriculture (IITA), Ibadan, Nigeria, VII, p. 166.

  4. Personalization of tagging systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Wang (Jun); M. Clements (Maarten); J. Yang; A.P. de Vries (Arjen); M.J.T. Reinders

    2010-01-01

    htmlabstractSocial media systems have encouraged end user participation in the Internet, for the purpose of storing and distributing Internet content, sharing opinions and maintaining relationships. Collaborative tagging allows users to annotate the resulting user-generated content, and enables

  5. TagPad

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bornoe, Nis; Barkhuus, Louise

    2013-01-01

    The area of cyberinfrastructures has looked extensively at research within the natural sciences, however, the social sciences have been largely overlooked in terms of novel data collection and analysis systems. We developed a probe tool, TagPad, to look at the process for social science data...

  6. Effect of fermented Banana peel on Broiler Carcass

    OpenAIRE

    Koni TNI

    2013-01-01

    This experiment was conducted to examine effect of inclusion of fermented banana peel by Rhyzopus oligosporus in diets on slaughter weight, carcass weight and carcass percentage, weight and percentage abdominal fat of broiler. The experiment was done based on Completely Randomized Design with four treatments and four replications and each replication consisted of six chickens. The treatment were R0 = without banana peel fermented, R1 = 5% banana peel fermented, R2 = 10% banana peel fermented...

  7. Ontologies and tag-statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tibély, Gergely; Pollner, Péter; Vicsek, Tamás; Palla, Gergely

    2012-05-01

    Due to the increasing popularity of collaborative tagging systems, the research on tagged networks, hypergraphs, ontologies, folksonomies and other related concepts is becoming an important interdisciplinary area with great potential and relevance for practical applications. In most collaborative tagging systems the tagging by the users is completely ‘flat’, while in some cases they are allowed to define a shallow hierarchy for their own tags. However, usually no overall hierarchical organization of the tags is given, and one of the interesting challenges of this area is to provide an algorithm generating the ontology of the tags from the available data. In contrast, there are also other types of tagged networks available for research, where the tags are already organized into a directed acyclic graph (DAG), encapsulating the ‘is a sub-category of’ type of hierarchy between each other. In this paper, we study how this DAG affects the statistical distribution of tags on the nodes marked by the tags in various real networks. The motivation for this research was the fact that understanding the tagging based on a known hierarchy can help in revealing the hidden hierarchy of tags in collaborative tagging systems. We analyse the relation between the tag-frequency and the position of the tag in the DAG in two large sub-networks of the English Wikipedia and a protein-protein interaction network. We also study the tag co-occurrence statistics by introducing a two-dimensional (2D) tag-distance distribution preserving both the difference in the levels and the absolute distance in the DAG for the co-occurring pairs of tags. Our most interesting finding is that the local relevance of tags in the DAG (i.e. their rank or significance as characterized by, e.g., the length of the branches starting from them) is much more important than their global distance from the root. Furthermore, we also introduce a simple tagging model based on random walks on the DAG, capable of

  8. Ontologies and tag-statistics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tibély, Gergely; Vicsek, Tamás; Pollner, Péter; Palla, Gergely

    2012-01-01

    Due to the increasing popularity of collaborative tagging systems, the research on tagged networks, hypergraphs, ontologies, folksonomies and other related concepts is becoming an important interdisciplinary area with great potential and relevance for practical applications. In most collaborative tagging systems the tagging by the users is completely ‘flat’, while in some cases they are allowed to define a shallow hierarchy for their own tags. However, usually no overall hierarchical organization of the tags is given, and one of the interesting challenges of this area is to provide an algorithm generating the ontology of the tags from the available data. In contrast, there are also other types of tagged networks available for research, where the tags are already organized into a directed acyclic graph (DAG), encapsulating the ‘is a sub-category of’ type of hierarchy between each other. In this paper, we study how this DAG affects the statistical distribution of tags on the nodes marked by the tags in various real networks. The motivation for this research was the fact that understanding the tagging based on a known hierarchy can help in revealing the hidden hierarchy of tags in collaborative tagging systems. We analyse the relation between the tag-frequency and the position of the tag in the DAG in two large sub-networks of the English Wikipedia and a protein-protein interaction network. We also study the tag co-occurrence statistics by introducing a two-dimensional (2D) tag-distance distribution preserving both the difference in the levels and the absolute distance in the DAG for the co-occurring pairs of tags. Our most interesting finding is that the local relevance of tags in the DAG (i.e. their rank or significance as characterized by, e.g., the length of the branches starting from them) is much more important than their global distance from the root. Furthermore, we also introduce a simple tagging model based on random walks on the DAG, capable of

  9. Dietary intervention with green dwarf banana flour (Musa sp AAA) prevents intestinal inflammation in a trinitrobenzenesulfonic acid model of rat colitis

    OpenAIRE

    Scarminio, Viviane [UNESP; Fruet, Andrea C. [UNESP; Witaicenis, Aline [UNESP; Rall, Vera L. M. [UNESP; Di Stasi, Luiz C. [UNESP

    2012-01-01

    Dietary products are among the therapeutic approaches used to modify intestinal microflora and to promote protective effects during the intestinal inflammatory process. Because the banana plant is rich in resistant starch, which is used by colonic microbiota for the anaerobic production of the short-chain fatty acids that serve as a major fuel source for colonocytes: first, green dwarf banana flour produces protective effects on the intestinal inflammation acting as a prebiotic and, second, c...

  10. 7 CFR 318.13-22 - Bananas from Hawaii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Bananas from Hawaii. 318.13-22 Section 318.13-22... SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE STATE OF HAWAII AND TERRITORIES QUARANTINE NOTICES Regulated Articles From Hawaii and the Territories § 318.13-22 Bananas from Hawaii. (a) Green bananas (Musa spp.) of the...

  11. Weed management in banana production: The use of Nelsonia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    During a survey of weeds in the Tiko banana plantations, the plant Nelsonia canescens (Lam.) Spreng was found to have invaded large areas of the plantation with no visible adverse effects on the banana crop. The effects of this Acanthaceae on banana yield parameters, snails' population and weed species diversity and ...

  12. I Have a Banana Tree in My Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Patricia A.

    2007-01-01

    When the banana is growing, the broadest part of the banana is located at the bottom, while the tapered end points upward. It appears upside down, however, from the banana tree's perspective, it is growing right side up. The author observes that the students in her classroom labeled by society as "at risk," are also, in a sense, "upside down."…

  13. Analysis of genetic variation in different banana ( Musa species ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The banana (Musa acuminata Colla) is considered as an important crop plant due to its high economic value as good dietary source. Here, we analyze the genetic relationship of four different banana varieties that are cultivated in south India. Random amplified polymorphic DNAs (RAPDs) fingerprinting of these banana ...

  14. Farmer evaluation of dried banana based products | Pekke | African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A farmer participatory evaluation of dried banana based products was conducted in various districts of Uganda. Bananas were dried using a tunnel solar dryer developed by Post Harvest Handling and Storage project (PHHS) of Kawanda Post-harvest Programme and improved by the National Banana Research ...

  15. Compositional changes in banana ( Musa ssp. ) fruits during ripening

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    overripe banana fruits, respectively. The results showed that the nutritional composition of banana pulp was diversely affected by ripening. Changes in mineral composition varied and were not consistent with the stages of ripeness. Bananas are considered a good source of Mg in the diet, and the data obtained herein ...

  16. Certain growth related attributes of bunchy top virus infected banana ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effect of banana bunchy top virus (BBTV) on morpho-physiological characteristics of banana (Musa sp.) cv., Basrai plants was assessed. Healthy and BBTV infected samples of banana were collected from its open fields and micro-propagated aseptically. These plantlets were established in wire-house for three months.

  17. Remote quality monitoring in the banana chain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jedermann, Reiner; Praeger, Ulrike; Geyer, Martin; Lang, Walter

    2014-06-13

    Quality problems occurring during or after sea transportation of bananas in refrigerated containers are mainly caused by insufficient cooling and non-optimal atmospheric conditions, but also by the heat generated by respiration activity. Tools to measure and evaluate these effects can largely help to reduce losses along the banana supply chain. The presented green life model provides a tool to predict the effect of deviating temperature, relative humidity, and CO2 and O2 gas concentrations on the storage stability of bananas. A second thermal model allows evaluation of the cooling efficiency, the effect of changes in packaging and stowage and the amount of respiration heat from the measured temperature curves. Spontaneous ripening causes higher respiration heat and CO2 production rate. The resulting risk for creation of hot spots increases in positions in which the respiration heat exceeds the available cooling capacity. In case studies on the transport of bananas from Costa Rica to Europe, we validated the models and showed how they can be applied to generate automated warning messages for containers with reduced banana green life or with temperature problems and also for remote monitoring of the ripening process inside the container.

  18. Olfactory responses of banana weevil predators to volatiles from banana pseudostem tissue and synthetic pheromone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tinzaara, W; Gold, C S; Dicke, M; van Huis, A

    2005-07-01

    As a response to attack by herbivores, plants can emit a variety of volatile substances that attract natural enemies of these insect pests. Predators of the banana weevil, Cosmopolites sordidus (Germar) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) such as Dactylosternum abdominale (Coleoptera: Hydrophilidae) and Pheidole megacephala (Hymenoptera: Formicidae), are normally found in association with weevil-infested rotten pseudostems and harvested stumps. We investigated whether these predators are attracted to such environments in response to volatiles produced by the host plant, by the weevil, or by the weevil plant complex. We evaluated predator responses towards volatiles from banana pseudostem tissue (synomones) and the synthetic banana weevil aggregation pheromone Cosmolure+ in a two-choice olfactometer. The beetle D. abdominale was attracted to fermenting banana pseudostem tissue and Cosmolure+, whereas the ant P. megacephala was attracted only to fermented pseudostem tissue. Both predators were attracted to banana pseudostem tissue that had been damaged by weevil larvae irrespective of weevil presence. Adding pheromone did not enhance predator response to volatiles from pseudostem tissue fed on by weevils. The numbers of both predators recovered with pseudostem traps in the field from banana mats with a pheromone trap were similar to those in pseudostem traps at different distance ranges from the pheromone. Our study shows that the generalist predators D. abdominale and P. megacephala use volatiles from fermented banana pseudostem tissue as the major chemical cue when searching for prey.

  19. Infestation of the banana root borer among different banana plant genotypes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Teixeira de Oliveira

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: In this study, we aimed to investigate Cosmopolites sordidus (Coleoptera: Dryophthoridae infestation among different banana genotypes in a commercial banana orchard over the course of 30 months. Banana root borer infestation was compared in 20 banana genotypes, including five varieties and 15 hybrids. Overall, we observed that 94.17% of pest infestation cases occurred in the cortex region, and only 5.83% occurred in the central cylinder. Genotypes least sensitive to infestation were the Prata Anã (AAB and Pacovan (AAB varieties, where no damage was recorded. Among the hybrid genotypes, PV 9401 and BRS Fhia 18 showed intermediate levels of sensitivity, while BRS Tropical hybrids (AAAB, PA 9401 (AAAB, BRS Vitoria (AAAB, YB 4203 (AAAB, and Bucaneiro (AAAA were the most sensitive to attack by banana root borer. This study demonstrated that the infestation of the banana root borer varies according banana plant genotype, and the utilization of less susceptible genotypes could reduce infestation rates of C. sordidus.

  20. Expression Study of Banana Pathogenic Resistance Genes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fenny M. Dwivany

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Banana is one of the world's most important trade commodities. However, infection of banana pathogenic fungi (Fusarium oxysporum race 4 is one of the major causes of decreasing production in Indonesia. Genetic engineering has become an alternative way to control this problem by isolating genes that involved in plant defense mechanism against pathogens. Two of the important genes are API5 and ChiI1, each gene encodes apoptosis inhibitory protein and chitinase enzymes. The purpose of this study was to study the expression of API5 and ChiI1 genes as candidate pathogenic resistance genes. The amplified fragments were then cloned, sequenced, and confirmed with in silico studies. Based on sequence analysis, it is showed that partial API5 gene has putative transactivation domain and ChiI1 has 9 chitinase family GH19 protein motifs. Data obtained from this study will contribute in banana genetic improvement.

  1. Physicochemical characterization of purple banana fiber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goncalves, A.P.B.; Guimaraes, D.H.; Miranda, C.S.; Oliveira, J.C.; Cruz, A.M.F.; Luporini, S.; Jose, N.M.

    2014-01-01

    Due to the environmental appeal that has grown in recent years, researches involving the use of renewable sources raw materials reaffirm this need. The vegetable fibers has excelled as promising materials with possibilities in different applications. The objective of this work is the evaluation of the physicochemical properties of banana fiber. These fibers were extracted from the banana pseudostem of a species not yet reported in the literature, Musa velutina, known as purple banana. For this experiment were used in natura fibers and processed fibers with NaOH 5% which were characterized by TGA, DSC, DRX and FTIR analysis. In the thermal analysis, both tested fibers showed good thermal properties. In DRX analysis, the processed fibers showed higher crystallinity. The use of these materials implies adding value to an agricultural waste in addition to being a more ecologically correct proposal. (author)

  2. Unfolding energetics and stability of banana lectin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Garima; Sinha, Sharmistha; Surolia, Avadhesha

    2008-08-01

    The unfolding pathway of banana lectin from Musa paradisiaca was determined by isothermal denaturation induced by the chaotrope GdnCl. The unfolding was found to be a reversible process. The data obtained by isothermal denaturation provided information on conformational stability of banana lectin. The high values of DeltaG of unfolding at various temperatures indicated the strength of intersubunit interactions. It was found that banana lectin is a very stable and denatures at high chaotrope concentrations only. The basis of the stability may be attributed to strong hydrogen bonds of the order 2.5-3.1 A at the dimeric interface along with the presence of water bridges. This is perhaps very unique example in proteins where subunit association is not a consequence of the predominance of hydrophobic interactions. (c) 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  3. Hydrolysis of alkaline pretreated banana peel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fatmawati, A.; Gunawan, K. Y.; Hadiwijaya, F. A.

    2017-11-01

    Banana peel is one of food wastes that are rich in carbohydrate. This shows its potential as fermentation substrate including bio-ethanol. This paper presented banana peel alkaline pretreatment and enzymatic hydrolysis. The pretreatment was intended to prepare banana peel in order to increase hydrolysis performance. The alkaline pretreatment used 10, 20, and 30% w/v NaOH solution and was done at 60, 70 and 80°C for 1 hour. The hydrolysis reaction was conducted using two commercial cellulose enzymes. The reaction time was varied for 3, 5, and 7 days. The best condition for pretreatment process was one conducted using 30% NaOH solution and at 80°C. This condition resulted in cellulose content of 90.27% and acid insoluble lignin content of 2.88%. Seven-day hydrolysis time had exhibited the highest reducing sugar concentration, which was7.2869 g/L.

  4. Biomethanation of banana peel and pineapple waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bardiya, N.; Somayaji, D.; Khanna, S. [Tata Energy Research Inst., New Delhi (India)

    1997-10-01

    Biomethanation of banana peel and pineapple wastes studied at various HRTs showed a higher rate of gas production at lower retention time. The lowest possible HRT for banana peel was 25 days, resulting in a maximum rate of gas production of 0.76 vol/vol/day with 36% substrate utilization, while pineapple-processing waste digesters could be operated at 10 days HRT, with a maximum rate of gas production of 0.93 vol/vol/day and 58% substrate utilization. For pineapple-processing waste lowering of retention time did not affect the methane content significantly; however, with banana peel an HRT below 25 days showed a drastic reduction in methane content. (author)

  5. Involvement of WRKY Transcription Factors in Abscisic-Acid-Induced Cold Tolerance of Banana Fruit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Dong-Lan; Ba, Liang-Jie; Shan, Wei; Kuang, Jian-Fei; Lu, Wang-Jin; Chen, Jian-Ye

    2017-05-10

    Phytohormone abscisic acid (ABA) and plant-specific WRKY transcription factors (TFs) have been implicated to play important roles in various stress responses. The involvement of WRKY TFs in ABA-mediated cold tolerance of economical fruits, such as banana fruit, however remains largely unknown. Here, we reported that ABA application could induce expressions of ABA biosynthesis-related genes MaNCED1 and MaNCED2, increase endogenous ABA contents, and thereby enhance cold tolerance in banana fruit. Four banana fruit WRKY TFs, designated as MaWRKY31, MaWRKY33, MaWRKY60, and MaWRKY71, were identified and characterized. All four of these MaWRKYs were nuclear-localized and displayed transactivation activities. Their expressions were induced by ABA treatment during cold storage. More importantly, the gel mobility shift assay and transient expression analysis revealed that MaWRKY31, MaWRKY33, MaWRKY60, and MaWRKY71 directly bound to the W-box elements in MaNCED1 and MaNCED2 promoters and activated their expressions. Taken together, our findings demonstrate that banana fruit WRKY TFs are involved in ABA-induced cold tolerance by, at least in part, increasing ABA levels via directly activating NECD expressions.

  6. Effect of fermented Banana peel on Broiler Carcass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koni TNI

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This experiment was conducted to examine effect of inclusion of fermented banana peel by Rhyzopus oligosporus in diets on slaughter weight, carcass weight and carcass percentage, weight and percentage abdominal fat of broiler. The experiment was done based on Completely Randomized Design with four treatments and four replications and each replication consisted of six chickens. The treatment were R0 = without banana peel fermented, R1 = 5% banana peel fermented, R2 = 10% banana peel fermented, R3 = 15% banana peel fermented. Data of the experiment were analyzed, using ANOVA and then continued with Duncan's Multiple Range Test. Result showed that level of fermented banana peel affected slaughter weight and carcass weight. However carcass persentage, weight and percentage of abdominal fat was not affected by treatment. Banana peel fermented by Rhizopus oligosporus could can be used maximally 10% in broiler ration.

  7. banana juice as an alternative energy source for banana in vitro

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ACSS

    2015-02-23

    Feb 23, 2015 ... Corresponding author: sbmukasa@caes.mak.ac.ug, sbmukasa@yahoo.com ... However, the cost of tissue culture grade energy sources is high, thus making tissue ..... Treatment (banana juice from different Cvs at 50 ml l-1).

  8. Olfactory responses of banana weevil predators to volatiles from banana pseudostem tissue and synthetic pheromone

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tinzaara, W.; Gold, C.S.; Dicke, M.; Huis, van A.

    2005-01-01

    As a response to attack by herbivores, plants can emit a variety of volatile substances that attract natural enemies of these insect pests. Predators of the banana weevil, Cosmopolites sordidus (Germar) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) such as Dactylosternum abdominale (Coleoptera: Hydrophilidae) and

  9. Substituting Wheat Flour with Banana Skin Flour from Mixture Various Skin Types of Banana on Making Donuts

    OpenAIRE

    Renny Futeri; Pharmayeni Pharmayeni

    2014-01-01

    Tropical forest plants is a very rich source of chemical compounds or bioactive efficacious . Many of the compounds potential as a source of raw materials in food processing . One is the banana plant , West Sumatra Padang and Bukittinggi is one area in Indonesia with banana . Generally people in West Sumatra just consume or eat the fruit and throw banana skin just because it is considered as waste ( waste banana peel ) . When the banana peel waste is left alone so do not rule out the possibil...

  10. The role of tag suggestions in folksonomies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bollen, D.G.F.M.; Halpin, H.

    2009-01-01

    Most tagging systems support the user in the tag selection process by providing tag suggestions, or recommendations, based on a popularity measurement of tags other users provided when tagging the same resource. The majority of theories and mathematical models of tagging found in the literature

  11. Tag-elese or The Language of Tags

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Simons

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The core "meme" of Web 2.0 from which almost all other memes radiated was: 'You control your own data' (O'Reilly, 2005, 3. Key instruments for this user control are tagging systems that allow users to freely assign keywords of their own choosing to Internet resources of their own making as well as to documents produced by others. Of course, freely chosen keywords tags do not necessarily follow prefixed taxonomies or classification systems. But going by the maxim that interaction creates similarity and similarity creates interaction, the idea - or hope - is, however, that the tagging practices of individual users will eventually converge into an emergent common vocabulary or folksonomy (Merholz, 2004; Shirky, 2005; Vander Wal, 2005b; Mika, 2007. It is far from clear, however, that free tagging systems will eventually yield controlled vocabularies, and there are many incentives for idiosyncratic, ambiguous, and inconsistent uses of tags. Left to themselves, free tagging systems seem to be too wild and too chaotic for any order to emerge. But are these free tagging systems really as "feral" as they seem to be, or do they only look uncontrolled because one has been looking for order in the wrong place? I have done a quick-and-dirty" analysis of Flickr's tag cloud. The concept was: if folksonomies encourage users to tap on their own vernacular, everyday natural language must somehow "guide" the tagging practices of users of tagging systems. Flickr's tag cloud has been choosen because it may teach us something about tagging systems and folksonomies, and not - or not primarily - because of what tags may tell us about pictures.

  12. Dietary intervention with green dwarf banana flour (Musa sp AAA) prevents intestinal inflammation in a trinitrobenzenesulfonic acid model of rat colitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scarminio, Viviane; Fruet, Andrea C; Witaicenis, Aline; Rall, Vera L M; Di Stasi, Luiz C

    2012-03-01

    Dietary products are among the therapeutic approaches used to modify intestinal microflora and to promote protective effects during the intestinal inflammatory process. Because the banana plant is rich in resistant starch, which is used by colonic microbiota for the anaerobic production of the short-chain fatty acids that serve as a major fuel source for colonocytes: first, green dwarf banana flour produces protective effects on the intestinal inflammation acting as a prebiotic and, second, combination of this dietary supplementation with prednisolone presents synergistic effects. For this, we used the trinitrobenzenesulphonic acid (TNBS) model of rat colitis. Our results revealed that the protective effect produced by a combination of 10% green dwarf banana flour with prednisolone was more pronounced than those promoted by a single administration of prednisolone or a diet containing 10% or 20% banana flour. This beneficial effect was associated with an improvement in the colonic oxidative status because the banana flour diet prevented the glutathione depletion and inhibited myeloperoxidase activity and lipid peroxidation. In addition, the intestinal anti-inflammatory activity was associated with an inhibition of alkaline phosphatase activity, a reduction in macroscopic and microscopic scores, and an extension of the lesions. In conclusion, the dietary use of the green dwarf banana flour constitutes an important dietary supplement and complementary medicine product to prevention and treatment of human inflammatory bowel disease. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Phenylphenalenones Accumulate in Plant Tissues of Two Banana Cultivars in Response to Herbivory by the Banana Weevil and Banana Stem Weevil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hölscher, Dirk; Buerkert, Andreas; Schneider, Bernd

    2016-08-25

    Phenylphenalenone-type compounds accumulated in the tissues of two banana cultivars-Musa acuminata cv. "Grande Naine" (AAA) and Musa acuminata × balbisiana Colla cv. "Bluggoe" (ABB)-when these were fed on by the banana weevil (Cosmopolites sordidus (Germ.) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae)) and the banana stem weevil (Odoiporus longicollis (Oliver) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae)). The chemical constituents of the banana material were separated by means of chromatographic techniques and identified by NMR spectroscopy. One new compound, 2-methoxy-4-phenylphenalen-1-one, was found exclusively in the corm material of "Bluggoe" that had been fed on by the weevils.

  14. Phenylphenalenones Accumulate in Plant Tissues of Two Banana Cultivars in Response to Herbivory by the Banana Weevil and Banana Stem Weevil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dirk Hölscher

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Phenylphenalenone-type compounds accumulated in the tissues of two banana cultivars—Musa acuminata cv. “Grande Naine” (AAA and Musa acuminata × balbisiana Colla cv. “Bluggoe” (ABB—when these were fed on by the banana weevil (Cosmopolites sordidus (Germ. (Coleoptera: Curculionidae and the banana stem weevil (Odoiporus longicollis (Oliver (Coleoptera: Curculionidae. The chemical constituents of the banana material were separated by means of chromatographic techniques and identified by NMR spectroscopy. One new compound, 2-methoxy-4-phenylphenalen-1-one, was found exclusively in the corm material of “Bluggoe” that had been fed on by the weevils.

  15. The use of external electronic tags on fish: an evaluation of tag retention and tagging effects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jepsen, Niels; Thorstad, Eva B.; Havn, Torgeir

    2015-01-01

    External tagging of fish with electronic tags has been used for decades for a wide range of marine and freshwater species. In the early years of fish telemetry research, it was the most commonly used attachment method, but later internal implants became preferred. Recently, the number of telemetry...... unsuitable for surgical implantation, or when using tags with sensors recording the external environment. The most commonly reported problems with external tags are tissue damage, premature tag loss, and decreased swimming capacity, but the effects are highly context dependent and species specific. Reduced......, but particularly there are few studies on predation risk, social interactions, and studies distinguishing capture and handling effects from tagging effects. For PSATs, especially those that are large relative to fish size, there are particular problems with a high proportion of premature tag losses, reduced...

  16. Social Tagging of Mission Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norris, Jeffrey S.; Wallick, Michael N.; Joswig, Joseph C.; Powell, Mark W.; Torres, Recaredo J.; Mittman, David S.; Abramyan, Lucy; Crockett, Thomas M.; Shams, Khawaja S.; Fox, Jason M.; hide

    2010-01-01

    Mars missions will generate a large amount of data in various forms, such as daily plans, images, and scientific information. Often, there is a semantic linkage between images that cannot be captured automatically. Software is needed that will provide a method for creating arbitrary tags for this mission data so that items with a similar tag can be related to each other. The tags should be visible and searchable for all users. A new routine was written to offer a new and more flexible search option over previous applications. This software allows users of the MSLICE program to apply any number of arbitrary tags to a piece of mission data through a MSLICE search interface. The application of tags creates relationships between data that did not previously exist. These tags can be easily removed and changed, and contain enough flexibility to be specifically configured for any mission. This gives users the ability to quickly recall or draw attention to particular pieces of mission data, for example: Give a semantic and meaningful description to mission data; for example, tag all images with a rock in them with the tag "rock." Rapidly recall specific and useful pieces of data; for example, tag a plan as"driving template." Call specific data to a user s attention; for example, tag a plan as "for:User." This software is part of the MSLICE release, which was written in Java. It will run on any current Windows, Macintosh, or Linux system.

  17. Review on postharvest technology of banana fruit

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    mu

    2013-02-13

    Feb 13, 2013 ... The aim of this review is in threefold: First, to explore the effect of different preharvest treatments on postharvest ... biochemical changes in banana during development, maturation, ripening and storage were reviewed. Third, postharvest ..... at full mature stage for local domestic market (Gowen,. 1995).

  18. introduction and evaluation of improved banana cultivars

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    jen

    important parameters in banana marketing thus the reason they were considered in this study. The data were analysed using Statistics Analysis. System (SAS) for analysis of variance (ANOVA) and means were separated by the Student-. Newman-Keuls test. RESULTS. The differences in growth parameters of the 10.

  19. Relative susceptibility of banana cultivars to Xanthomonas ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-10-19

    Oct 19, 2009 ... African Journal of Biotechnology Vol. 8 (20), pp. 5343-5350, 19 ... and Central Africa. The disease was first reported about. 40 years ago in Ethiopia on Ensete, which is closely related to banana (Yirgou et al., 1968). Outside Ethiopia,. BXW was ... Economic impact of the disease is manifested as result of ...

  20. Towards improving highland ban.anas

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The most fertile land races belonged to 'Nakabululu' and 'Nfuuka' clone sets. Viable seeds were obtained from several land races indicating that genetic improvement ofthese highland bananas through cross breeding is possible. The fertile Iandraces should be cross-pollinated with improved diploids to produce resistant ...

  1. Love Is Like a Squished Banana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Stephen

    1976-01-01

    An unemployed poet obtained a CETA public service job as a teacher's aide in Marin County, California, where he has guided elementary children's imaginative projects. His experiences are described. He has published a volume of the children's verse under the title "Love Is Like a Squished Banana." (AJ)

  2. Ecuadorian Banana Farms Should Consider Organic Banana with Low Price Risks in Their Land-Use Portfolios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, Luz Maria; Calvas, Baltazar; Knoke, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Organic farming is a more environmentally friendly form of land use than conventional agriculture. However, recent studies point out production tradeoffs that often prevent the adoption of such practices by farmers. Our study shows with the example of organic banana production in Ecuador that economic tradeoffs depend much on the approach of the analysis. We test, if organic banana should be included in economic land-use portfolios, which indicate how much of the land is provided for which type of land-use. We use time series data for productivity and prices over 30 years to compute the economic return (as annualized net present value) and its volatility (with standard deviation as risk measure) for eight crops to derive land-use portfolios for different levels of risk, which maximize economic return. We find that organic banana is included in land-use portfolios for almost every level of accepted risk with proportions from 1% to maximally 32%, even if the same high uncertainty as for conventional banana is simulated for organic banana. A more realistic, lower simulated price risk increased the proportion of organic banana substantially to up to 57% and increased annual economic returns by up to US$ 187 per ha. Under an assumed integration of both markets, for organic and conventional banana, simulated by an increased coefficient of correlation of economic return from organic and conventional banana (ρ up to +0.7), organic banana holds significant portions in the land-use portfolios tested only, if a low price risk of organic banana is considered. We conclude that uncertainty is a key issue for the adoption of organic banana. As historic data support a low price risk for organic banana compared to conventional banana, Ecuadorian farmers should consider organic banana as an advantageous land-use option in their land-use portfolios. PMID:25799506

  3. Hydrogen sulfide alleviates postharvest ripening and senescence of banana by antagonizing the effect of ethylene.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yun Ge

    Full Text Available Accumulating evidence shows that hydrogen sulfide (H2S acts as a multifunctional signaling molecule in plants, whereas the interaction between H2S and ethylene is still unclear. In the present study we investigated the role of H2S in ethylene-promoted banana ripening and senescence by the application of ethylene released from 1.0 g·L-1 ethephon solution or H2S with 1 mM sodium hydrosulfide (NaHS as the donor or in combination. Fumigation with ethylene was found to accelerate banana ripening and H2S treatment effectively alleviated ethylene-induced banana peel yellowing and fruit softening in parallel with decreased activity of polygalacturonase (PG. Ethylene+H2S treatment also delayed the decreases in chlorophyll and total phenolics, and increased the accumulation of flavonoid, whereas decreased the contents of carotenoid, soluble protein in banana peel and reducing sugar in pulp compared with ethylene treatment alone. Besides, ethylene+H2S treatment suppressed the accumulation of superoxide radicals (·O2-, hydrogen peroxide (H2O2 and malondialdehyde (MDA which accumulated highly in ethylene-treated banana peels. Furthermore H2S enhanced total antioxidant capacity in ethylene-treated banana peels with the 2,2'-azobis(3-ethylbenz-thiazoline-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS assay. The result of quantitative real-time PCR showed that the combined treatment of ethylene with H2S down-regulated the expression of ethylene synthesis genes MaACS1, MaACS2 and MaACO1 and pectate lyase MaPL compared with ethylene treatment, while the expression of ethylene receptor genes MaETR, MaERS1 and MaERS2 was enhanced in combination treatment compared with ethylene alone. In all, it can be concluded that H2S alleviates banana fruit ripening and senescence by antagonizing the effect of ethylene through reduction of oxidative stress and inhibition of ethylene signaling pathway.

  4. Hydrogen sulfide alleviates postharvest ripening and senescence of banana by antagonizing the effect of ethylene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Yun; Hu, Kang-Di; Wang, Sha-Sha; Hu, Lan-Ying; Chen, Xiao-Yan; Li, Yan-Hong; Yang, Ying; Yang, Feng; Zhang, Hua

    2017-01-01

    Accumulating evidence shows that hydrogen sulfide (H2S) acts as a multifunctional signaling molecule in plants, whereas the interaction between H2S and ethylene is still unclear. In the present study we investigated the role of H2S in ethylene-promoted banana ripening and senescence by the application of ethylene released from 1.0 g·L-1 ethephon solution or H2S with 1 mM sodium hydrosulfide (NaHS) as the donor or in combination. Fumigation with ethylene was found to accelerate banana ripening and H2S treatment effectively alleviated ethylene-induced banana peel yellowing and fruit softening in parallel with decreased activity of polygalacturonase (PG). Ethylene+H2S treatment also delayed the decreases in chlorophyll and total phenolics, and increased the accumulation of flavonoid, whereas decreased the contents of carotenoid, soluble protein in banana peel and reducing sugar in pulp compared with ethylene treatment alone. Besides, ethylene+H2S treatment suppressed the accumulation of superoxide radicals (·O2-), hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and malondialdehyde (MDA) which accumulated highly in ethylene-treated banana peels. Furthermore H2S enhanced total antioxidant capacity in ethylene-treated banana peels with the 2,2'-azobis(3-ethylbenz-thiazoline-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS) assay. The result of quantitative real-time PCR showed that the combined treatment of ethylene with H2S down-regulated the expression of ethylene synthesis genes MaACS1, MaACS2 and MaACO1 and pectate lyase MaPL compared with ethylene treatment, while the expression of ethylene receptor genes MaETR, MaERS1 and MaERS2 was enhanced in combination treatment compared with ethylene alone. In all, it can be concluded that H2S alleviates banana fruit ripening and senescence by antagonizing the effect of ethylene through reduction of oxidative stress and inhibition of ethylene signaling pathway.

  5. Antenna for passive RFID tags

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiopu, Paul; Manea, Adrian; Cristea, Ionica; Grosu, Neculai; Vladescu, Marian; Craciun, Anca-Ileana; Craciun, Alexandru

    2015-02-01

    Minuscule devices, called RFID tags are attached to objects and persons and emit information which positioned readers may capture wirelessly. Many methods of identification have been used, but that of most common is to use a unique serial number for identification of person or object. RFID tags can be characterized as either active or passive [1,2]. Traditional passive tags are typically in "sleep" state until awakened by the reader's emitted field. In passive tags, the reader's field acts to charge the capacitor that powers the badge and this can be a combination of antenna and barcodes obtained with SAW( Surface Acoustic Wave) devices [1,2,3] . The antenna in an RFID tag is a conductive element that permits the tag to exchange data with the reader. The paper contribution are targeted to antenna for passive RFID tags. The electromagnetic field generated by the reader is somehow oriented by the reader antenna and power is induced in the tag only if the orientation of the tag antenna is appropriate. A tag placed orthogonal to the reader yield field will not be read. This is the reason that guided manufacturers to build circular polarized antenna capable of propagating a field that is alternatively polarized on all planes passing on the diffusion axis. Passive RFID tags are operated at the UHF frequencies of 868MHz (Europe) and 915MHz (USA) and at the microwave frequencies of 2,45 GHz and 5,8 GHz . Because the tags are small dimensions, in paper, we present the possibility to use circular polarization microstrip antenna with fractal edge [2].

  6. Nuclear studies with tagged photons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Axel, P.

    1979-01-01

    First, the photon tagging technique will be described schematically, and a brief history of photon tagging will be given, including the 20 year development of this technique at Illinois. In the second part some typical operating conditions will be indicated for our tagged photon facility. The final section of this paper will illustrate some types of experiments by showing data obtained recently. (KBE) 891 KBE/KBE 892 ARA

  7. Buddy Tag CONOPS and Requirements.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brotz, Jay Kristoffer [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Deland, Sharon M. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-12-01

    This document defines the concept of operations (CONOPS) and the requirements for the Buddy Tag, which is conceived and designed in collaboration between Sandia National Laboratories and Princeton University under the Department of State Key VerificationAssets Fund. The CONOPS describe how the tags are used to support verification of treaty limitations and is only defined to the extent necessary to support a tag design. The requirements define the necessary functions and desired non-functional features of the Buddy Tag at a high level

  8. Flavour tagging performance in LHCb

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grabalosa Gandara, Marc

    2009-01-01

    To do precise CP violation measurements, the best possible determination of the flavour of the B-meson is necessary. This report summarizes the flavour tagging performances for the LHCb experiment. The flavour tagging is obtained through a combination of several methods, based on different signatures. The use of control channels, which are decays to flavour-specific final states, will allow to determine the wrong tag fraction ω (the probability of a tag to be wrong), which can be used as an input for the determination of CKM unitarity triangle angles.

  9. Xylem specific activation of 5’ upstream regulatory region of two NAC transcription factors (MusaVND6 and MusaVND7) in banana is regulated by SNBE-like sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-01-01

    Deposition of secondary cell wall in the xylem elements is controlled by a subgroup of NAC (NAM, ATAF, CUC) family, known as vascular-related NAC transcription factors (VNDs). In the present study, we analyzed the 5’ upstream regulatory region of two banana NAC transcription factors (MusaVND6 and MusaVND7) for tissue specific expression and presence of 19-bp secondary-wall NAC binding element (SNBE)-like motifs. Transgenic banana plants of Musa cultivar Rasthali harboring either PMusaVND7::GUS or PMusaVND6::GUS showed specific GUS (β-D-Glucuronidase) activity in cells of the xylem tissue. Approximately 1.2kb promoter region of either MusaVND6 or MusaVND7 showed presence of at least two SNBE-like motifs. This 1.2kb promoter region was retarded in a gel shift assay by three banana VND protein (VND1,VND2 and VND3). The banana VND1-VND3 could also retard the mobility of isolated SNBE-like motifs of MusaVND6 or MusaVND7 in a gel shift assay. Transcript levels of MusaVND6 and MusaVND7 were elevated in transgenic banana overexpressing either banana VND1, VND2 or VND3. Present study suggested a probable regulation of banana VND6 and VND7 expression through direct interaction of banana VND1- VND3 with SNBE-like motifs. Our study also indicated two promoter elements for possible utilization in cell wall modifications in plants especially banana, which is being recently considered as a potential biofuel crop. PMID:29438404

  10. Physicochemical evaluation of cooking and dessert bananas (Musa sp.) varieties

    OpenAIRE

    Rosales-Reynoso, O. Lidia; Agama-Acevedo, Edith; Aguirre-Cruz, Andres; Bello-Perez, Luis A.; Dufour, Dominique; Gibert, Olivier

    2014-01-01

    In México, banana (Musa sp.) varieties ate used for human consumption as well as for traditional medicine, but the literature lacks information on local diversity and functional justification for their use. Three varieties of dessert bananas (Valery, Morado, and Enano) and one cooking banana (Macho) were collected in a commercial farm in Tuxtepec, Oaxaca, México, at the agronomic maturity stage, and they were physically and chemically evaluated. A random sampling, ANOVA, and Tukey tests were ...

  11. LHCb Tag Collector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernández, Paloma Fuente; Clemencic, Marco; Cousin, Nicolas

    2011-01-01

    The LHCb physics software consists of hundreds of packages, each of which is developed by one or more physicists. When the developers have some code changes that they would like released, they commit them to the version control system, and enter the revision number into a database. These changes have to be integrated into a new release of each of the physics analysis applications. Tests are then performed by a nightly build system, which rebuilds various configurations of the whole software stack and executes a suite of run-time functionality tests. A Tag Collector system has been developed using solid standard technologies to cover both the use cases of developers and integration managers. A simple Web interface, based on an AJAX-like technology, is available. Integration with SVN and Nightly Build System, is possible via a Python API. Data are stored in a relational database with the help of an ORM (Object-Relational Mapping) library.

  12. Internally readable identifying tag

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jefferts, K.B.; Jefferts, E.R.

    1980-01-01

    A method of identifying non-metallic objects by means of X-ray equipment is described in detail. A small metal pin with a number of grooves cut in a pre-determined equi-spaced pattern is implanted into the non-metallic object and by decoding the groove patterns using X-ray equipment, the object is uniquely identified. A specific example of such an application is in studying the migratory habits of fish. The pin inserted into the snout of the fish is 0.010 inch in diameter, 0.040 inch in length with 8 possible positions for grooves if spaced 0.005 inch apart. With 6 of the groove positions available for data, the capacity is 2 6 or 64 combinations; clearly longer pins would increase the data capacity. This method of identification is a major advance over previous techniques which necessitated destruction of the fish in order to recover the identification tag. (UK)

  13. Characterisation of metabolic profile of banana genotypes, aiming at biofortified Musa spp. cultivars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borges, Cristine Vanz; Amorim, Vanusia Batista de Oliveira; Ramlov, Fernanda; Ledo, Carlos Alberto da Silva; Donato, Marcela; Maraschin, Marcelo; Amorim, Edson Perito

    2014-02-15

    The banana is an important, widely consumed fruit, especially in areas of rampant undernutrition. Twenty-nine samples were analysed, including 9 diploids, 13 triploids and 7 tetraploids, in the Active Germplasm Bank, at Embrapa Cassava & Fruits, to evaluate the bioactive compounds. The results of this study reveal the presence of a diversity of bioactive compounds, e.g., catechins; they are phenolic compounds with high antioxidant potential and antitumour activity. In addition, accessions with appreciable amounts of pVACs were identified, especially compared with the main cultivars that are currently marketed. The ATR-FTIR, combined with principal components analysis, identified accessions with distinct metabolic profiles in the fingerprint regions of compounds important for human health. Likewise, starch fraction characterisation allowed discrimination of accessions according to their physical, chemical, and functional properties. The results of this study demonstrate that the banana has functional characteristics endowing it with the potential to promote human health. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Generalized ripple-banana transport in a tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yushmanov, P.N.

    1983-01-01

    The paper considers the transport of banana particles in a rippled magnetic field over the entire energy range. It is shown that all familiar regimes of ripple transport - ripple-plateau, banana-drift and stochastic - can be described in a unified manner. The general expression obtained for the rippled fluxes of banana particles describes, apart from the already familiar regimes, also the as yet unstudied energy region between the drift and stochastic regimes. A generalized ripple-banana thermal conductivity coefficient, chisub(i)sup(RB), is calculated. (author)

  15. Engineering the ATLAS TAG Browser

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Q; The ATLAS collaboration

    2011-01-01

    ELSSI is a web-based event metadata (TAG) browser and event-level selection service for ATLAS. TAGs from all ATLAS physics and Monte Carlo data sets are routinely loaded into Oracle databases as an integral part of event processing. As data volumes increase, more and more sites are joining the distributed TAG data hosting topology[1]. Meanwhile, TAG content and database schemata continue to evolve as new user requirements and additional sources of metadata emerge. All of this has posed many challenges to the development of ELSSI, which must support vast amounts of TAG data while source, content, geographic locations, and user query patterns may change over time. In this paper, we describe some of the challenges encountered in the process of developing ELSSI, and the software engineering strategies adopted to address those challenges. Approaches to management of access to data, browsing, data rendering, query building, query validation, execution, connection management, and communication with auxiliary service...

  16. Engineering the ATLAS TAG Browser

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Q; The ATLAS collaboration

    2011-01-01

    ELSSI is a web-based event metadata (TAG) browser and event-level selection service for ATLAS. TAGs from all ATLAS physics and Monte Carlo data sets are routinely loaded into Oracle databases as an integral part of event processing. As data volumes increase, more and more sites are joining the distributed TAG data hosting topology. Meanwhile, TAG content and database schemata continue to evolve as new user requirements and additional sources of metadata emerge. All of this has posed many challenges to the development of ELSSI, which must support vast amounts of TAG data while source, content, geographic locations, and user query patterns may change over time. In this paper, we describe some of the challenges encountered in the process of developing ELSSI, and the software engineering strategies adopted to address those challenges. Approaches to management of access to data, browsing, data rendering, query building, query validation, execution, connection management, and communication with auxiliary services a...

  17. Suitability of banana peels for biogas production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meseguer, C.M.; Silesky, F.; Chacon, G.

    1983-01-01

    Banana (Musa cavendishii) peel in the ripe state (yellow with sufficient spots) has the potential to produce by anaerobic fermentation 0.22 plus or minus 0.03 cubic m biogas/kg dry material. Inhibition of the process can be prevented if the peel is pretreated by oxidation or if the process is carried out at approximately 35 degrees. The inoculate used must be acclimated to the medium.

  18. Physicochemical and sensorial quality of banana genotypes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronielli Cardoso Reis

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Despite the diversity of banana varieties in Brazil, only a few cultivars have the proper agronomic traits and fruit quality for commercial exploitation. This study aimed at evaluating the physicochemical traits and sensorial acceptance of banana genotypes, in order to identify those with potential for commercial growing. Six improved banana genotypes were assessed (BRS Maravilha, PC 0101, FHIA 18, TM 2803, YB 4203 and BRS Caipira, as well as three commercial cultivars (Grand Naine, Pacovan and Prata Anã. Analyses of peel and pulp color, peel thickness, pulp yield, moisture, pH, soluble solids, titratable acidity, total carotenoids and sensorial acceptance were performed. The BRS Maravilha, FHIA 18, YB 4203 and BRS Caipira genotypes presented physicochemical traits similar to the Grand Naine, Pacovan and Prata Anã commercial cultivars. The BRS Maravilha and TM 2803 genotypes had sensorial acceptance similar to the Prata Anã and Grand Naine cultivars, and are therefore promising for commercial growing, with the advantage of being resistant to the black Sigatoka and Panama disease.

  19. Regulation of Banana Phytoene Synthase (MaPSY) Expression, Characterization and Their Modulation under Various Abiotic Stress Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Navneet; Pandey, Ashutosh; Shivani; Kumar, Prateek; Pandey, Pankaj; Kesarwani, Atul K.; Mantri, Shrikant S.; Awasthi, Praveen; Tiwari, Siddharth

    2017-01-01

    Phytoene synthase (PSY) is a key regulatory enzyme of carotenoid biosynthesis pathway in plants. The present study examines the role of PSY in carotenogenesis and stress management in banana. Germplasm screening of 10 Indian cultivars showed that Nendran (3011.94 μg/100 g dry weight) and Rasthali (105.35 μg/100 g dry weight) contained the highest and lowest amounts of β-carotene, respectively in ripe fruit-pulp. Nendran ripe pulp also showed significantly higher antioxidant activity as compared to Rasthali. Meta-analysis of three banana PSY genes (MaPSY1, MaPSY2, and MaPSY3) was performed to identify their structural features, subcellular, and chromosomal localization in banana genome. The distinct expression patterns of MaPSY1, MaPSY2, and MaPSY3 genes were observed in various tissues, and fruit developmental stages of these two contrasting cultivars, suggesting differential regulation of the banana PSY genes. A positive correlation was observed between the expression of MaPSY1 and β-carotene accumulation in the ripe fruit-peel and pulp of Nendran. The presence of stress responsive cis-regulatory motifs in promoter region of MaPSY genes were correlated with the expression pattern during various stress (abscisic acid, methyl jasmonate, salicylic acid and dark) treatments. The positive modulation of MaPSY1 noticed under abiotic stresses suggested its role in plant physiological functions and defense response. The amino acid sequence analysis of the PSY proteins in contrasting cultivars revealed that all PSY comprises conserved domains related to enzyme activity. Bacterial complementation assay has validated the functional activity of six PSY proteins and among them PSY1 of Nendran (Nen-PSY1) gave the highest activity. These data provide new insights into the regulation of PSY expression in banana by developmental and stress related signals that can be explored in the banana improvement programs. PMID:28421096

  20. Atraso do amadurecimento de banana 'Maçã' pelo 1-MCP, aplicado previamente à refrigeração Ripening delay of 'Apple' banana submitted to 1-MCP, prevoiously applied to refrigeration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Costa Almeida

    2006-08-01

    'Apple' banana to 50 ppb of 1-MCP for 12 and 24 hours has retarded its ripening, it promoted undesirable changes in the fruit peel. So, 1-MCP application for 9 hours at 50 ppb, before cool storage, is a viable alternative to extend banana's commercialization period.

  1. Polarized tagged photons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maximon, L.C.; Ganz, Eric; Aniel, Thierry; Miniac, Arlette de.

    1982-03-01

    We consider in detail the differential cross section for polarized bremsstrahlung for angles and energies in the range of interest for a tagging system and derive a high energy, small angle approximation for this cross section. We use these approximations to determine the maxima and minima of the cross sections for these two polarization states, dσperpendicular and dσparallel, and to evaluate these cross sections at the extrema. It is shown that both dσperpendicular and dσparallel have a very sharp dip in the region of small momentum transfers. However, their behavior in the region of the dip, as a function of the azimuthal angle phi, is quite different over most of the photon spectrum. The cross section dσperpendicular behaves similarly to the cross section for unpolarized photons in that as phi increases, the sharp dip vanishes, the minimum fuses with the second maximum, and the cross section then has only a single maximum. In contrast, the sharp dip in the cross section dσparallel remains as phi increases. Coulomb corrections to the Born approximation are considered, and do not fill in these dips

  2. Quantum tagging for tags containing secret classical data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kent, Adrian

    2011-01-01

    Various authors have considered schemes for quantum tagging, that is, authenticating the classical location of a classical tagging device by sending and receiving quantum signals from suitably located distant sites, in an environment controlled by an adversary whose quantum information processing and transmitting power is potentially unbounded. All of the schemes proposed elsewhere in the literature assume that the adversary is able to inspect the interior of the tagging device. All of these schemes have been shown to be breakable if the adversary has unbounded predistributed entanglement. We consider here the case in which the tagging device contains a finite key string shared with distant sites but kept secret from the adversary, and show this allows the location of the tagging device to be authenticated securely and indefinitely. Our protocol relies on quantum key distribution between the tagging device and at least one distant site, and demonstrates a new practical application of quantum key distribution. It also illustrates that the attainable security in position-based cryptography can depend crucially on apparently subtle details in the security scenario considered.

  3. Temperature effects on peel spotting in "Sucrier banana" fruit

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Trakulnaleumsai, C.; Ketsa, S.; Doorn, van W.G.

    2006-01-01

    Banana fruit of the cultivar `Sucrier¿ (Musa acuminata, AA Group) develops peel spotting at a relatively early stage of development (when the peel is about as slightly more yellow than green). Holding ripening bananas at 15 and 18 °C instead of room temperature (26¿27 °C) only temporarily reduced

  4. Determinants of market production of cooking banana in Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The factors that influence farmers' decisions to produce cooking banana for market in southeast Nigeria were examined. Data were collected from a ... Results of the study indicate that about 80% of the farmers interviewed produce cooking banana both for household consumption and for sale. The proportion of cooking ...

  5. Small scale banana farmers' awareness level and adoption of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Descriptive statistics and binary logit regression were employed for data analyses. The results show that although majority of the farmers (96.67%) were aware of and had access to improved banana varieties, only 15.83% of them adopted the use of improved planting materials. Gros mitchel, Cavendish and sweet bananas ...

  6. Farmer acceptance of introduced banana genotypes in Uganda ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The same cultivars were acceptable mainly as dessert but also as cooking bananas during food shortages in central and western parts, especially, in areas where the growing of traditional cultivars is progressively declining. There was little interest in the new bananas in western parts of the country. Major considerations for ...

  7. Cultural control of banana weevils in Ntungamo, southwestern Uganda

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Okech, S.H.; Gold, C.S.; Bagamba, F.; Masanza, M.; Tushemereirwe, W.; Ssennyonga, J.

    2005-01-01

    The International Institute of Tropical Agriculture and the Uganda National Banana Research Programme tested and evaluated selected cultural management options for the banana weevil through on-farm farmer participatory research in Ntungamo district, Uganda between 1996 and 003. A farmer adoption

  8. Effects of relative humidity on banana fruit drop

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Saengpook, C.; Ketsa, S.; Doorn, van W.G.

    2007-01-01

    Commercial ripening of banana fruit occurs at high relative humidity (RH), which prevents browning of damaged skin areas. In experiments with ripening at high RH (94 ± 1%) the individual fruit (fingers) of `Sucrier¿ (Musa acuminata, AA Group) banana exhibited a high rate of drop. The falling off of

  9. REACTION OF Musa balbisiana TO BANANA BACTERIAL WILT ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prof. Adipala Ekwamu

    2Makerere University, Department of Agricultural Production, P. O. Box 7062, Kampala, Uganda. Corresponding author: kumalfred@gmail.com. (Received 7 February, 2012; accepted 3 September, 2013). ABSTRACT. Banana bacterial wilt (Xanthomonas campestris) is an emerging disease of bananas in Uganda.

  10. Ethical perception of human gene in transgenic banana | Amin ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Transgenic banana has been developed to prevent hepatitis B through vaccination. Its production seems to be an ideal alternative for cheaper vaccines. The objective of this paper is to assess the ethical perception of transgenic banana which involved the transfer of human albumin gene, and to compare their ethical ...

  11. Egg and banana sign of severe pulmonary arterial hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veean, Satyam; Nixon, William; Keshavamurthy, Jayanth

    2018-01-01

    The egg and banana sign can be seen on chest computed tomography (CT) in patients with severe pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH). It is identified by the presence of the pulmonary artery (PA) lateral to the aortic arch with the aortic arch being described as the banana and the PA as the egg.

  12. Agronomic performance of five banana cultivars under protected cultivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banana has been grown both in open-field and protected cultivation in Turkey. So far protected cultivation is very popular due to the high yield and quality. The objective of the study was to evaluate agronomic performance of five new banana cultivars under plastic greenhouse. ‘MA 13’, ‘Williams’, ‘...

  13. Leaf anatomy of genotypes of banana plant grown under coloured ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study aimed to evaluate the effect of spectral light quality on different anatomical features of banana tree plantlets grown under coloured shade nets. Banana plants of five genotypes obtained from micropropagation, were grown under white, blue, red and black nets, with shade of 50%, in a completely randomized ...

  14. Banana peel: A novel substrate for cellulase production under solid ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    These results indicated that banana peel provided necessary nutrients for cell growth and cellulase synthesis. It can be used as a potential substrate for cellulase production by T. viride GIM 3.0010 under solid-state fermentation. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on cellulase production using banana peel.

  15. Production and evaluation of precooked dehydrated unripe banana ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    No significant change in total aerobic counts or yeasts and moulds counts occurred in dehydrated banana slices packaged in 250 gauge polyethylene bags and stored at ambient temperature for 3 months. The slices were found to be high in starch (~68.5%) and minerals. When shallow fried, the dehydrated banana slices ...

  16. Development of an in vitro culture system adapted to banana ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-06-17

    Jun 17, 2009 ... The beneficial impact of arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi on banana nutrition and resistance against abiotic and biotic stresses is well documented. However, most studies were conducted under greenhouse or field conditions and none reported the life cycle of the AM fungi on banana roots. It is obvious ...

  17. Development of an in vitro culture system adapted to banana ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The beneficial impact of arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi on banana nutrition and resistance against abiotic and biotic stresses is well documented. However, most studies were conducted under greenhouse or field conditions and none reported the life cycle of the AM fungi on banana roots. It is obvious that any system ...

  18. Banana Xanthomonas wilt in Ethiopia: Occurrence and insect vector ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bacterial wilt caused by Xanthomonas vasicola pv. musacearum (Xvm) is an important disease of enset and banana in south and south-western Ethiopia where, the diversity of the insect fauna on banana inflorescences was unknown and the role of insects as vectors of the disease had not been studied. The objectives of ...

  19. Preliminary evaluation of improved banana varieties in Mozambique ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Banana (Musa spp.) production in Mozambique is largely confined to the Cavendish variety that is eaten as a dessert. On the other hand, banana is a staple food crop in many countries in sub-Saharan Africa. The introduction of a range of high yielding and disease resistant cooking and dessert varieties in Mozambique ...

  20. Eggshells – assisted hydrolysis of banana pulp for biogas production

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    KARAKANA

    In this study, pretreatment of banana pulp using eggshells in both calcined and un-calcined forms to examine the ... Key words: Anaerobic digestion, banana pulp hydrolysis biogas, eggshells. .... obtain fine powder. ..... using pig waste and cassava peels. ... from bioethanol waste: the effect of pH and urea addition to biogas.

  1. Genetic Diversity Among East African Highland Bananas For ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    There are 84 distinct cultivars of highland bananas (Musa spp.) in Uganda, grouped in five clone sets and it is not known which among these are female fertile. The objective of the study reported herein was to identify female fertile highland bananas that can be used in a cross breeding program and to determine the ...

  2. Screening of in vitro derived mutants of banana against nematodes ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The rest of the mutants namely Ro Im V4 6-1-2 and Si Im V4 6-2-5 were found to be susceptible to nematodes. The resistant and moderately resistant mutants of banana could be further used in breeding programmes as well as being recognized as potential cultivars of commerce. Key words: Banana, nematode, resistance, ...

  3. Evaluation of wound healing activity of extracts of plantain banana (Musa sapientum var. paradisiaca) in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agarwal, P K; Singh, A; Gaurav, K; Goel, Shalini; Khanna, H D; Goel, R K

    2009-01-01

    Plantain banana (M. sapientum var. paradisiaca, MS) has been shown to possess ulcer healing activity. The present work with plantain banana was undertaken with the premise that the drug promoting ulcer healing could have effect on wound healing also. Wound healing activity of MS was studied in terms of (i) percent wound contraction, epithelization period and scar area; (ii) wound breaking strength and (iii) on granulation tissue antioxidant status [estimation of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and reduced glutathione (GSH), free radical (lipid peroxidation, an indicator of tissue damage) and connective tissue formation and maturation (hexuronic acid, hydroxyproline and hexosamine levels)] in excision, incision and dead space wound models respectively. The rats were given graded doses (50-200 mg/kg/day) of aqueous (MSW) and methanolic (MSE) extracts of MS orally for a period of 10-21 days depending upon the type of study. Both extracts (100 mg/kg) when studied for incision and dead space wounds parameters, increased wound breaking strength and levels of hydroxyproline, hexuronic acid, hexosamine, superoxide dismutase, reduced glutathione in the granulation tissue and decreased percentage of wound area, scar area and lipid peroxidation when compared with the control group. Both the extracts showed good safety profile. Plantain banana thus, favoured wound healing which could be due to its antioxidant effect and on various wound healing biochemical parameters.

  4. Behavioral tagging of extinction learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Carvalho Myskiw, Jociane; Benetti, Fernando; Izquierdo, Iván

    2013-01-15

    Extinction of contextual fear in rats is enhanced by exposure to a novel environment at 1-2 h before or 1 h after extinction training. This effect is antagonized by administration of protein synthesis inhibitors anisomycin and rapamycin into the hippocampus, but not into the amygdala, immediately after either novelty or extinction training, as well as by the gene expression blocker 5,6-dichloro-1-beta-D-ribofuranosylbenzimidazole administered after novelty training, but not after extinction training. Thus, this effect can be attributed to a mechanism similar to synaptic tagging, through which long-term potentiation can be enhanced by other long-term potentiations or by exposure to a novel environment in a protein synthesis-dependent fashion. Extinction learning produces a tag at the appropriate synapses, whereas novelty learning causes the synthesis of plasticity-related proteins that are captured by the tag, strengthening the synapses that generated this tag.

  5. 33 CFR 334.570 - Banana River near Orsino, Fla.; restricted area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Banana River near Orsino, Fla... THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE DANGER ZONE AND RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.570 Banana River near Orsino, Fla.; restricted area. (a) The area. That part of Banana River N of the NASA Banana River...

  6. Strep-Tagged Protein Purification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maertens, Barbara; Spriestersbach, Anne; Kubicek, Jan; Schäfer, Frank

    2015-01-01

    The Strep-tag system can be used to purify recombinant proteins from any expression system. Here, protocols for lysis and affinity purification of Strep-tagged proteins from E. coli, baculovirus-infected insect cells, and transfected mammalian cells are given. Depending on the amount of Strep-tagged protein in the lysate, a protocol for batch binding and subsequent washing and eluting by gravity flow can be used. Agarose-based matrices with the coupled Strep-Tactin ligand are the resins of choice, with a binding capacity of up to 9 mg ml(-1). For purification of lower amounts of Strep-tagged proteins, the use of Strep-Tactin magnetic beads is suitable. In addition, Strep-tagged protein purification can also be automated using prepacked columns for FPLC or other liquid-handling chromatography instrumentation, but automated purification is not discussed in this protocol. The protocols described here can be regarded as an update of the Strep-Tag Protein Handbook (Qiagen, 2009). © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Banana Algebra: Compositional syntactic language extension

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Jacob; Brabrand, Claus; Christiansen, David Raymond

    2013-01-01

    We propose an algebra of languages and transformations as a means of compositional syntactic language extension. The algebra provides a layer of high-level abstractions built on top of languages (captured by context-free grammars) and transformations (captured by constructive catamorphisms...... algebra as presented in the paper is implemented as the Banana Algebra Tool which may be used to syntactically extend languages in an incremental and modular fashion via algebraic composition of previously defined languages and transformations. We demonstrate and evaluate the tool via several kinds...

  8. Editorial Tag Endogeneity for News Websites

    OpenAIRE

    Bruno Ribeiro; Ricardo Morla; Amílcar Correia

    2013-01-01

    Editors and journalists at some news websites label their articles with structure and content-related editorial tags. Each article can have more than one tag and each tag can be used in more than one article. A network of tags can be defined whose edges are all possible pairs of tags in each article. Because editorial tags relate to structure and content rather than individual articles, the analysis of a network of editorial tags could assist editorial decisions to prioritize types of content...

  9. Tempting To Tag: An Experimental Comparison Of Four Tagging Input Mechanisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Melenhorst

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Tagging helps achieve improved indexing and recommendation of resources (e.g., videos or pictures in large data collections. In order to reap the benefits of tagging, people must be persuaded to label the resources they consume. This paper reports on a study in which four different tagging input mechanisms and their effect on users' motivation to tag were compared. The mechanisms consisted of a standard tag input box, a chatbot-like environment, a bookmarking mechanism, and a "tag and vote" game. The results of our experiment show that the use of the nonstandard tagging input mechanisms does not affect users' motivation to tag. In some instances tagging mechanisms were found to distract users from their primary task: consuming resources. Persuading people to tag might be accomplished more effectively by using other motivating tagging mechanisms (e.g., tagging games, or motivation could be created by explaining the usefulness of tagging.

  10. Tagging the European eel Anguilla anguilla (L.) with coded wire tags

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomassen, S.; Pedersen, Michael Ingemann; Holdensgaard, G.

    2000-01-01

    The coded wire tag (CWT) system was examined as a possible tool for tagging European eels (Anguilla anguilla). Two size groups of eels (3.8 and 10.2 g) were tagged with CWTs in the dorsal musculature, Tag loss 28 days after tagging was 3.1% for the small and 0.7% for the large groups of eels...

  11. Identification of genes differentially expressed during ripening of banana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manrique-Trujillo, Sandra Mabel; Ramírez-López, Ana Cecilia; Ibarra-Laclette, Enrique; Gómez-Lim, Miguel Angel

    2007-08-01

    The banana (Musa acuminata, subgroup Cavendish 'Grand Nain') is a climacteric fruit of economic importance. A better understanding of the banana ripening process is needed to improve fruit quality and to extend shelf life. Eighty-four up-regulated unigenes were identified by differential screening of a banana fruit cDNA subtraction library at a late ripening stage. The ripening stages in this study were defined according to the peel color index (PCI). Unigene sequences were analyzed with different databases to assign a putative identification. The expression patterns of 36 transcripts confirmed as positive by differential screening were analyzed comparing the PCI 1, PCI 5 and PCI 7 ripening stages. Expression profiles were obtained for unigenes annotated as orcinol O-methyltransferase, putative alcohol dehydrogenase, ubiquitin-protein ligase, chorismate mutase and two unigenes with non-significant matches with any reported sequence. Similar expression profiles were observed in banana pulp and peel. Our results show differential expression of a group of genes involved in processes associated with fruit ripening, such as stress, detoxification, cytoskeleton and biosynthesis of volatile compounds. Some of the identified genes had not been characterized in banana fruit. Besides providing an overview of gene expression programs and metabolic pathways at late stages of banana fruit ripening, this study contributes to increasing the information available on banana fruit ESTs.

  12. Development of environmental friendly lost circulation material from banana peel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauki, Arina; Hasan, Nur â.€˜Izzati; Naimi, Fardelen Binti Md; Othman, Nur Hidayati

    2017-12-01

    Loss of expensive mud could lead to major financial problem in executing a drilling project and is one of the biggest problems that need to be tackled during drilling. Synthetic Based Mud (SBM) is the most stable state of the art drilling mud used in current drilling technologies. However, the problem with lost circulation is still inevitable. The focus of this project is to develop a new potential waste material from banana peel in order to combat lost circulation in SBM. Standard industrial Lost Circulation Material (LCM) is used to compare the performance of banana peel as LCM in SBM. The effects of different sizing of banana peels (600 micron, 300 micron and 100 micron) were studied on the rheological and filtration properties of SBM and the bridging performance of banana peel as LCM additive. The tests were conducted using viscometer, HTHP filter press and sand bed tester. Thermal analysis of banana peel was also studied using TGA. According to the results obtained, 300 and 100 micron size of banana peel LCM exhibited an improved bridging performance by 65% as compared to industrial LCM. However, banana peel LCM with the size of 600 micron failed to act as LCM due to the total invasion of mud into the sand bed.

  13. BIOMASS ACCUMULATION AND NUTRITION IN MICROPROPAGATED PLANTS OF THE BANANA ‘PRATA CATARINA’ UNDER BIOFERTILISERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EDER DE OLIVEIRA SANTOS

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Banana farming is an activity of great economic and social importance, and is carried out in most tropical countries. The aim of this work was to evaluate the biomass accumulation and levels of nitrogen (N, phosphorus (P, potassium (K, calcium (Ca and magnesium (Mg in micropropagated plants of the banana “Prata Catarina” during the acclimatization phase, under different types and doses of biofertilisers. The experimental design included randomised blocks in a 2 × 5 + (2 factorial scheme, with two types of liquid biofertilisers (bovine biofertiliser with anaerobic and aerobic fermentation and five biofertiliser doses (0.25, 0.50, 0.75, 1.00, and 1.25 L plant-1 week-1, as well as two additional treatments (control and recommended mineral fertilisation. The following variables were analysed: dry weight of the leaves and roots, and mineral element content (N, P, K, Ca, and Mg in different parts of the plant (leaf and root. During 90 days of acclimatization, the nutritional contribution of bovine biofertiliser with anaerobic fermentation was greater in comparison with the biofertiliser with aerobic fermentation and the control, but lower in comparison with mineral fertilisation. The 1000-mL dose of the biofertiliser with anaerobic fermentation promoted greater dry weight accumulation in the leaves and roots of the banana “Prata Catarina”. The biofertiliser with anaerobic fermentation promoted higher levels of N, K, and Ca in the leaves, whereas the biofertiliser with aerobic fermentation promoted higher levels of P in the leaves and roots.

  14. Batch biomethanation of banana trash and coir path

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deivanai, K.; Bai, R.K. [Madurai Kamaraj Univ. (India)

    1995-08-01

    Anaerobic digestion of banana trash and coir pith was carried out for a period of one month by batch digestion. During biomethanation reduction of total- and volatile-solids was, respectively, 25.3 and 39.6% in banana trash and 13.6 and 21.6% in coir pith. A production of 9.22 l and 1.69 l (per kg TS added) of biogas with average methane content of 72 and 80% was achieved from banana trash and coir pith, respectively. (author)

  15. Tissue culture regeneration and radiation induced mutagenesis in banana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kulkarni, V.M.; Ganapathi, T.R.

    2009-01-01

    Radiation induced mutagenesis is an important tool for banana genetic improvement. At BARC, protocols for shoo-tip multiplication of commercial banana varieties have been developed and transferred to user agencies for commercial production. Excellent embryogenic cell suspensions were established in banana cvs. Rasthali and Rajeli, and were maintained at low temperatures for long-term storage. Normal plantlets were successfully regenerated from these cell suspensions. The cell suspensions and shoot-tip cultures were gamma-irradiated for mutagenesis. The mutagenized populations were field screened and a few interesting mutants have been isolated. The existence of genetic variation was confirmed using DNA markers. Further evaluation of these mutants is in progress. (author)

  16. Tagging, Encoding, and Jones Optimality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Danvy, Olivier; Lopez, Pablo E. Martinez

    2003-01-01

    A partial evaluator is said to be Jones-optimal if the result of specializing a self-interpreter with respect to a source program is textually identical to the source program, modulo renaming. Jones optimality has already been obtained if the self-interpreter is untyped. If the selfinterpreter...... is typed, however, residual programs are cluttered with type tags. To obtain the original source program, these tags must be removed. A number of sophisticated solutions have already been proposed. We observe, however, that with a simple representation shift, ordinary partial evaluation is already Jones......-optimal, modulo an encoding. The representation shift amounts to reading the type tags as constructors for higherorder abstract syntax. We substantiate our observation by considering a typed self-interpreter whose input syntax is higher-order. Specializing this interpreter with respect to a source program yields...

  17. In vivo phosphorylation of a peptide tag for protein purification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goux, Marine; Fateh, Amina; Defontaine, Alain; Cinier, Mathieu; Tellier, Charles

    2016-05-01

    To design a new system for the in vivo phosphorylation of proteins in Escherichia coli using the co-expression of the α-subunit of casein kinase II (CKIIα) and a target protein, (Nanofitin) fused with a phosphorylatable tag. The level of the co-expressed CKIIα was controlled by the arabinose promoter and optimal phosphorylation was obtained with 2 % (w/v) arabinose as inductor. The effectiveness of the phosphorylation system was demonstrated by electrophoretic mobility shift assay (NUT-PAGE) and staining with a specific phosphoprotein-staining gel. The resulting phosphorylated tag was also used to purify the phosphoprotein by immobilized metal affinity chromatography, which relies on the specific interaction of phosphate moieties with Fe(III). The use of a single tag for both the purification and protein array anchoring provides a simple and straightforward system for protein analysis.

  18. The effects of banana peel preparations on the properties of banana peel dietary fibre concentrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phatcharaporn Wachirasiri

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Four different preparation methods of banana peel, dry milling, wet milling, wet milling and tap water washing, and wet milling and hot water washing were investigated on their effects on the chemical composition and properties of the banana peel dietary fibre concentrate (BDFC. The dry milling process gave the BDFC a significant higher fat, protein, and starch content than the wet milling process, resulting in a lower water holding capacity (WHC and oil holding capacity(OHC. Washing after wet milling could enhance the concentration of total dietary fibre by improving the removal of protein and fat. Washing with hot water after wet milling process caused a higher loss of soluble fibre fraction, resulting in a lower WHC and OHC of the obtained BDFC when compared to washing with tap water. Wet milling and tap water washing gave the BDFC the highest concentration of total and soluble dietary fibre, WHC and OHC.

  19. Tagging, Encoding, and Jones Optimality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Danvy, Olivier; López, Pablo Ernesto Martínes

    2003-01-01

    A partial evaluator is said to be Jones-optimal if the result of specializing a self-interpreter with respect to a source program is textually identical to the source program, modulo renaming. Jones optimality has already been obtained if the self-interpreter is untyped. If the selfinterpreter...... is typed, however, residual programs are cluttered with type tags. To obtain the original source program, these tags must be removed. A number of sophisticated solutions have already been proposed. We observe, however, that with a simple representation shift, ordinary partial evaluation is already Jones...

  20. WebTag: Web browsing into sensor tags over NFC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Echevarria, Juan Jose; Ruiz-de-Garibay, Jonathan; Legarda, Jon; Alvarez, Maite; Ayerbe, Ana; Vazquez, Juan Ignacio

    2012-01-01

    Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs) continue to overcome many of the challenges related to wireless sensor monitoring, such as for example the design of smarter embedded processors, the improvement of the network architectures, the development of efficient communication protocols or the maximization of the life cycle autonomy. This work tries to improve the communication link of the data transmission in wireless sensor monitoring. The upstream communication link is usually based on standard IP technologies, but the downstream side is always masked with the proprietary protocols used for the wireless link (like ZigBee, Bluetooth, RFID, etc.). This work presents a novel solution (WebTag) for a direct IP based access to a sensor tag over the Near Field Communication (NFC) technology for secure applications. WebTag allows a direct web access to the sensor tag by means of a standard web browser, it reads the sensor data, configures the sampling rate and implements IP based security policies. It is, definitely, a new step towards the evolution of the Internet of Things paradigm.

  1. Tempting to Tag : An Experimental Comparison of Four Tagging Input Mechanisms

    OpenAIRE

    Melenhorst, Mark; van Velsen, Lex

    2010-01-01

    Tagging helps achieve improved indexing and recommendation of resources (e.g., videos or pictures) in large data collections. In order to reap the benefits of tagging, people must be persuaded to label the resources they consume. This paper reports on a study in which four different tagging input mechanisms and their effect on users' motivation to tag were compared. The mechanisms consisted of a standard tag input box, a chatbot-like environment, a bookmarking mechanism, and a "tag and v...

  2. Characterization of an AGAMOUS-like MADS Box Protein, a Probable Constituent of Flowering and Fruit Ripening Regulatory System in Banana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy Choudhury, Swarup; Roy, Sujit; Nag, Anish; Singh, Sanjay Kumar; Sengupta, Dibyendu N.

    2012-01-01

    The MADS-box family of genes has been shown to play a significant role in the development of reproductive organs, including dry and fleshy fruits. In this study, the molecular properties of an AGAMOUS like MADS box transcription factor in banana cultivar Giant governor (Musa sp, AAA group, subgroup Cavendish) has been elucidated. We have detected a CArG-box sequence binding AGAMOUS MADS-box protein in banana flower and fruit nuclear extracts in DNA-protein interaction assays. The protein fraction in the DNA-protein complex was analyzed by mass spectrometry and using this information we have obtained the full length cDNA of the corresponding protein. The deduced protein sequence showed ∼95% amino acid sequence homology with MA-MADS5, a MADS-box protein described previously from banana. We have characterized the domains of the identified AGAMOUS MADS-box protein involved in DNA binding and homodimer formation in vitro using full-length and truncated versions of affinity purified recombinant proteins. Furthermore, in order to gain insight about how DNA bending is achieved by this MADS-box factor, we performed circular permutation and phasing analysis using the wild type recombinant protein. The AGAMOUS MADS-box protein identified in this study has been found to predominantly accumulate in the climacteric fruit pulp and also in female flower ovary. In vivo and in vitro assays have revealed specific binding of the identified AGAMOUS MADS-box protein to CArG-box sequence in the promoters of major ripening genes in banana fruit. Overall, the expression patterns of this MADS-box protein in banana female flower ovary and during various phases of fruit ripening along with the interaction of the protein to the CArG-box sequence in the promoters of major ripening genes lead to interesting assumption about the possible involvement of this AGAMOUS MADS-box factor in banana fruit ripening and floral reproductive organ development. PMID:22984496

  3. Banana Musa tissue culture plants enhanced by endophytic fungi

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mo

    Merging biotechnology with biological control: Banana Musa tissue culture plants enhanced by endophytic .... While working in the laminar flow cabinet, sterile filter papers were placed in ..... University of Bonn, Bonn, Germany. Niere, B., 2001.

  4. Policy Issues in the Structure, Conduct and Performance of Banana ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Madukwe

    **Department of Agricultural Economics University of Nigeria, Nsukka ... stated that banana is playing a crucial food security role in many developing countries. ... upon the infrastructure and social services of a country's towns and cities ...

  5. Influence of triadimefon on the growth and development of banana ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    dessert banana cultivars (Hindi, Basrai and Williams) were affected compared to the control. The optimum culture conditions for root formation were obtained in the case of sub-culturing. The excised shoot cultures into Murashige and Skoog ...

  6. Micropropagation of some Malaysian banana and plantain (Musa sp ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    2010-04-19

    Apr 19, 2010 ... As one of the origins of bananas, Malaysia has a great variety of them, that is, ... reduces contamination rate during micropropagation as compared to soil ..... 42. Faostat (2005). Food and Agricultural Organization of the United.

  7. urban consumer willingness to pay for introduced dessert bananas

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    National Agricultural Research Organization (NARO) P.O. Box 7065, Kampala, ... the introduced dessert bananas among the urban consumers be done to widen their demand. Key Words: Fusarium wilt, Gros Michel, hedonic model, Musa spp.

  8. Acetylation and characterization of banana (Musa paradisiaca) starch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bello-Pérez, L A; Contreras-Ramos, S M; Jìmenez-Aparicio, A; Paredes-López, O

    2000-01-01

    Banana native starch was acetylated and some of its functional properties were evaluated and compared to corn starch. In general, acetylated banana starch presented higher values in ash, protein and fat than corn acetylated starch. The modified starches had minor tendency to retrogradation assessed as % transmittance of starch pastes. At high temperature acetylated starches presented a water retention capacity similar to their native counterpart. The acetylation considerably increased the solubility of starches, and a similar behavior was found for swelling power. When freeze-thaw stability was studied, acetyl banana starch drained approximately 60% of water in the first and second cycles, but in the third and fourth cycles the percentage of separated water was low. However, acetyl corn starch showed lower freeze-thaw stability than the untreated sample. The modification increased the viscosity of banana starch pastes.

  9. Influence of triadimefon on the growth and development of banana ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SAM

    2014-04-16

    Apr 16, 2014 ... cultures of the three-dessert banana cultivars (Hindi, Basrai and Williams) were affected compared to ..... includes reduce in surface area of leaves and .... reflect a type of particular stress conditions exhibit ... Emirates J. Food.

  10. Characterisation of colletotrichum species associated with anthracnose of banana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakaria, Latiffah; Sahak, Shamsiah; Zakaria, Maziah; Salleh, Baharuddin

    2009-12-01

    A total of 13 Colletotrichum isolates were obtained from different banana cultivars (Musa spp.) with symptoms of anthracnose. Colletotrichum isolates from anthracnose of guava (Psidium guajava) and water apple (Syzygium aqueum) were also included in this study. Based on cultural and morphological characteristics, isolates from banana and guava were identified as Colletotrichum musae and from water apple as Colletotrichum gloeosporiodes. Isolates of C. musae from banana and guava had similar banding patterns in a randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) analysis with four random primers, and they clustered together in a UPGMA analysis. C. gloeosporiodes from water apple was clustered in a separate cluster. Based on the present study, C. musae was frequently isolated from anthracnose of different banana cultivars and the RAPD banding patterns of C. musae isolates were highly similar but showed intraspecific variations.

  11. In Vivo Digestibility of Molasses-Treated Fresh Banana Leaves ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    treated fresh banana leaves in West African Dwarf sheep was conducted at the Teaching and Research Farm and Animal Nutrition Laboratory of the University of Dschang between August and September 2009. For this, six sheep were used and ...

  12. Sustainable Banana Production and Pesticides in Costa Rica | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Large multinational producers employ thousands of workers, who live near ... in the banana industry is high and constitutes a health hazard for the farm workers, ... and assess the effects of these levels on the health and neurodevelopment of ...

  13. Visually suboptimal bananas: How ripeness affects consumer expectation and perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Symmank, Claudia; Zahn, Susann; Rohm, Harald

    2018-01-01

    One reason for the significant amount of food that is wasted in developed countries is that consumers often expect visually suboptimal food as being less palatable. Using bananas as example, the objective of this study was to determine how appearance affects consumer overall liking, the rating of sensory attributes, purchase intention, and the intended use of bananas. The ripeness degree (RD) of the samples was adjusted to RD 5 (control) and RD 7 (more ripened, visually suboptimal). After preliminary experiments, a total of 233 participants were asked to judge their satisfaction with the intensity of sensory attributes that referred to flavor, taste, and texture using just-about-right scales. Subjects who received peeled samples were asked after tasting, whereas subjects who received unpeeled bananas judged expectation and, after peeling and tasting, perception. Expected overall liking and purchase intention were significantly lower for RD 7 bananas. Purchase intention was still significantly different between RD 5 and RD 7 after tasting, whereas no difference in overall liking was observed. Significant differences between RD 5 and RD 7 were observed when asking participants for their intended use of the bananas. Concerning the sensory attributes, penalty analysis revealed that only the firmness of the RD 7 bananas was still not just-about-right after tasting. The importance that consumers attribute to the shelf-life of food had a pronounced impact on purchase intention of bananas with different ripeness degree. In the case of suboptimal bananas, the results demonstrate a positive relationship between the sensory perception and overall liking and purchase intention. Convincing consumers that visually suboptimal food is still tasty is of high relevance for recommending different ways of communication. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Elucidating the resistance response of irradiated banana cv. Lakatan to banana bunchy top virus (BBTV) infection transmitted by the banana aphid Pentalonia nigronervosa Coquerol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dela Cueva, F.M.; Sison, M.L.J.; Dinglasan, E.G.; Damasco, O.P.

    2014-01-01

    Development of banana bunchy top virus (BBTV)-resistant banana variety Lakatan through gamma-irradiation had been successfully done as part of integrated management strategies against the disease. Ten irradiated Lakatan lines exhibited resistance to BBTV. Resistance of these lines was evaluated based on symptomatology and host-virus relationship. Insect colony development on Lakatan banana irradiated lines was monitored by artificially inoculating viruliferous banana aphids, Pentalonia nigronervosa, and counting the resulting number of aphids per plant at weekly intervals. Resistance to virus multiplication of Lakatan irradiated lines was characterized by quantifying the virus titer through Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA). Results showed that not all lines were suitable as hosts in establishing aphid population. The reaction of the mutant lines to the vector and the pathogen varied to some extent. Disease incidence in some cases was correlated with aphid preference. Disease incidence was significantly higher (50%) on lines that were preferred by aphids and lower (50%) in those that were not colonized. Some mutant lines with very low aphid colony count, however showed high BBTV incidence. Variability in the results could be affected by other factors such as the developmental stage of the plant and prevailing environmental conditions during the conduct of the experiment. Virus titer was also reduced on these mutant lines, thus reduced virus multiplication. Non-irradiated (control) Lakatan banana had comparably high population of aphids, high disease incidence, and high virus titer

  15. MECHANICAL CHARACTERIZATION AND ANALYSIS OF RANDOMLY DISTRIBUTED SHORT BANANA FIBER REINFORCED EPOXY COMPOSITES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. K. Misra

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Short banana fiber reinforced composites have been prepared in laboratory to determine mechanical properties. It has been observed that as soon as the percentage of the banana fiber increases slightly there is a tremendous increase in ultimate tensile strength, % of strain and young modulus of elasticity. Reinforcement of banana fibers in epoxy resin increases stiffness and decreases damping properties of the composites. Therefore, 2.468% banana fiber reinforced composite plate stabilizes early as compared to 7.7135 % banana fiber reinforced composite plate but less stiff as compared to 7.7135 % banana fiber reinforced composite plate

  16. Banana peel: an effective biosorbent for aflatoxins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shar, Zahid Hussain; Fletcher, Mary T; Sumbal, Gul Amer; Sherazi, Syed Tufail Hussain; Giles, Cindy; Bhanger, Muhammad Iqbal; Nizamani, Shafi Muhammad

    2016-05-01

    This work reports the application of banana peel as a novel bioadsorbent for in vitro removal of five mycotoxins (aflatoxins (AFB1, AFB2, AFG1, AFG2) and ochratoxin A). The effect of operational parameters including initial pH, adsorbent dose, contact time and temperature were studied in batch adsorption experiments. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and point of zero charge (pHpzc) analysis were used to characterise the adsorbent material. Aflatoxins' adsorption equilibrium was achieved in 15 min, with highest adsorption at alkaline pH (6-8), while ochratoxin has not shown any significant adsorption due to surface charge repulsion. The experimental equilibrium data were tested by Langmuir, Freundlich and Hill isotherms. The Langmuir isotherm was found to be the best fitted model for aflatoxins, and the maximum monolayer coverage (Q0) was determined to be 8.4, 9.5, 0.4 and 1.1 ng mg(-1) for AFB1, AFB2, AFG1 and AFG2 respectively. Thermodynamic parameters including changes in free energy (ΔG), enthalpy (ΔH) and entropy (ΔS) were determined for the four aflatoxins. Free energy change and enthalpy change demonstrated that the adsorption process was exothermic and spontaneous. Adsorption and desorption study at different pH further demonstrated that the sorption of toxins was strong enough to sustain pH changes that would be experienced in the gastrointestinal tract. This study suggests that biosorption of aflatoxins by dried banana peel may be an effective low-cost decontamination method for incorporation in animal feed diets.

  17. Biossorption of uranium on banana pith

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boniolo, Milena Rodrigues

    2008-01-01

    Banana pith was characterized by Fourier Transformed Infrared Spectroscopy and Scanning Electron Microscopy, and investigated as a low cost bio sorbent for the removal of uranium ions from nitric solutions. Influences variable as were studied: adsorbent particle size, contact time, pH and temperature were studied. The removal percentage was increased from 13 to 57% when the particle size was decreased from 6.000 to 0.074 mm. The determined contact time was 40 minutes with 60% mean removal. The removal was increased from 40 to 55% when the pH varied from 2 to 5. The Langmuir and Freundlich linear isotherm models were applied to describe the adsorption equilibrium. The kinetic of the process was studied using the pseudo-first order and pseudo-second order models. Thermodynamics parameters such as ΔG, ΔS and ΔH were calculated. In concentration range of 50 - 500 mg.L -1 , the adsorption process was described better by the Freundlich equation. The adsorption capacity at equilibrium of uranium ions was determined from the Langmuir equation, and it was found 11.50 mg.g -1 at 25 ± 2 deg C. The kinetic was better represented by the pseudo-second order model. The bio sorption process for uranium removal from the solutions was considered an exothermic reaction, and the values of ΔH and ΔS obtained were -9.61 kJ.mol''- 1 and 1.37 J.mol''- 1 , respectively. The values of the Gibbs free energy changed from -10.03 to -10.06 kJ.mol -1 when the temperature was increased from 30 to 50 deg C. This study showed the potential application of the banana pith as bio sorbent of uranium ions. (author)

  18. AMIDO RESISTENTE EM FARINHAS DE BANANA VERDE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dayana Portes RAMOS

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available

    Este trabalho teve por objetivo avaliar o teor de amido resistente (AR em farinhas de banana verde produzidas a partir de treze genótipos de bananeira. Para a produção da farinha foram separadas a 1ª, 3ª e 5ª pencas de cada genótipo, na qual cada penca correspondeu a uma repetição. Os frutos de cada penca no estádio 1 (casca completamente verde de maturação foram descascados manualmente, cortados em fatias circulares de 0,5 cm e desidratados em estufa com circulação de ar a 40ºC por 48 horas, sendo em seguida moídos. A análise de AR consistiu em um processo enzimático, calculando-se o conteúdo final pela concentração de glicose liberada. Os resultados foram submetidos à análise estatística e mostraram diferenças significativas para o teor de AR nas farinhas obtidas dos genótipos de bananeira, sendo que a farinha com maior teor de AR foi a produzida a partir do cultivar ‘Nam’ (40,25% e a menor pelo híbrido ‘Fhia 01’ (10,01%. Pode-se concluir que o conteúdo de AR varia em relação ao genótipo utilizado para a confecção da farinha e que a banana pode ser uma boa opção de estudo de alimento funcional.

  19. Physical and biochemical properties of green banana flour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suntharalingam, S; Ravindran, G

    1993-01-01

    Banana flour prepared from two cooking banana varieties, namely 'Alukehel' and 'Monthan', were evaluated for their physical and biochemical characteristics. The yields of flour averaged 31.3% for 'Alukehel' and 25.5% for 'Monthan'. The pH of the flour ranged from 5.4 to 5.7. The bulk density and particle size distribution were also measured. The average chemical composition (% dry matter) of the flours were as follows: crude protein, 3.2; crude fat, 1.3; ash, 3.7; neutral detergent fiber, 8.9; acid detergent fiber, 3.8; cellulose, 3.1; lignin, 1.0 and hemicellulose, 5.0. Carbohydrate composition indicated the flour to contain 2.8% soluble sugars, 70.0% starch and 12.0% non-starch polysaccharides. Potassium is the predominant mineral in banana flour. Fresh green banana is a good source of vitamin C, but almost 65% is lost during the preparation of flour. Oxalate content (1.1-1.6%) of banana flour is probably nutritionally insignificant. The overall results are suggestive of the potential of green bananas as a source of flour.

  20. Severity of banana leaf spot in an intercropping system in two cycles of banana Prata Anã

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valdeir Dias Gonçalves

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Prata Anã is the most planted banana cultivar in northern Minas Gerais, Brazil. It is however susceptible toseveral pathogens. This study was carried out to evaluate the disease severity of banana leaf spot in the Prata Anã cv. in thefirst and second cycle under six different planting systems. The randomized block experimental design was used with sixtreatments and four replications. In an evaluation of the severity of banana leaf spot, no disease symptoms were found onThap Maeo and Caipira. The evolution curve of the disease indicated seasonal effects in the first and second cycles. Theseverity of banana leaf spot was highest soon after the regional rainy period from November to March. A comparison of themeans of the evaluations indicated a reduction in disease severity from the first to the second cycle.

  1. Satellite Tags- Guam/CNMI EEZ

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Satellite tagging was implemented in 2013. Satellite tagging is conducted using a Dan Inject air rifle and deployment arrows designed by Wildlife Computers. Two...

  2. HMSRP Hawaiian Monk Seal Tag Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains records for all tags applied to Hawaiian monk seals since 1981. These tags were applied by PSD personnel and cooperating scientists as part of...

  3. Haplotypes of the TaGS5-A1 gene are associated with thousand-kernel weight in Chinese bread wheat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Sha Sha

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In previous work, we cloned TaGS5 gene and found the association of TaGS5-A1 alleles with agronomic traits. In this study, the promoter sequence of the TaGS5-A1 gene was isolated from bread wheat. Sequencing results revealed that a G insertion was found in position -1925 bp of the TaGS5-A1 gene (Reference to ATG, which occurred in the Sp1 domain of the promoter sequence. Combined with previous single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP in the TaGS5-A1 exon sequence, four genotypes were formed at the TaGS5-A1 locus and were designated as TaGS5-A1a-a, TaGS5-A1a-b, TaGS5-A1b-a, and TaGS5-A1b-b, respectively. Analysis of the association of TaGS5-A1 alleles with agronomic traits indicated that cultivars with the TaGS5-A1a-b allele possessed significantly higher thousand-kernel weight (TKW and lower plant height than cultivars with the TaGS5-A1a-a allele, and cultivars with the TaGS5-A1b-b allele showed higher TKW than cultivars with the TaGS5-A1b-a allele. The differences of these traits between the TaGS5-A1a-a and TaGS5-A1a-b alleles were larger than those of the TaGS5-A1b-a and TaGS5-A1b-b alleles, suggesting that the -1925G insertion plays the more important role in TaGS5-A1a genotypes than in TaGS5-A1b genotypes. qRT-PCR indicated that TaGS5-A1b-b possessed the significantly highest expression level among four TaGS5-A1 haplotypes in mature seeds and further showed a significantly higher expression level than TaGS5-A1b-a at five different developmental stages of the seeds, suggesting that high expression of TaGS5-A1 was positively associated with high TKW in bread wheat. This study could provide a relatively superior genotype in view of TKW in wheat breeding programs and could also provide important information for dissection of the regulatory mechanism of the yield-related traits.

  4. Desempenho de bananeiras consorciadas com leguminosas herbáceas perenes Banana plant performance intercropping with perennial herbaceous legumes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriano Perin

    2009-12-01

    the yield of banana cultivar Nanicão. The treatments were: forage groundnut (Arachis pintoi Krap. & Greg, tropical cudzu (Pueraria phaseoloides Benth., siratro (Macroptilium atropurpureum Urb., spontaneous vegetation (mainly Panicum maximum Jacq. and spontaneous vegetation + N-fertilizer. Banana plant vegetative development and yield attributes between April/1999 and August/2000 were assessed. In comparison to other treatments, bunch and hand weight were more positively influenced by tropical cudzu and siratro legumes employed as live coverage. All legumes promoted higher vegetative growth for banana plants (notably from the 6th month on, a greater number of leaves, and a higher proportion of harvested bunches in relation to spontaneous vegetation (with and without N-fertilizer. Siratro and tropical cudzu legumes promoted adequate conditions for the development of the banana plants, generating yield gains, and the elimination of the need of nitrogenous fertilization in the banana plantation. The beneficial potential of tropical cudzu and siratro legumes as live coverage intercropping with banana plants qualify these species as promising alternatives for soil fertility and banana nutrition.

  5. The effects of compost prepared from waste material of banana plants on the nutrient contents of banana leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doran, Ilhan; Sen, Bahtiyar; Kaya, Zülküf

    2003-10-01

    In this study, the possible utilization of removed shoots and plant parts of banana as compost after fruit harvest were investigated. Three doses (15-30-45 kg plan(-1)) of the compost prepared from the clone of Dwarf Cavendish banana were compared with Farmyard manure (50 kg plant(-1), Mineral fertilizers (180 g N + 150 g P + 335 g K plant(-1)) and Farmyard manure + Mineral fertilizers (25 kg FM + 180 g N + 150 g P + 335 g K plant(-1)) which determined positive effects on the nutrient contents of banana leaves. The banana plants were grown under a heated glasshouse and in a soil with physical and chemical properties suitable for banana growing. The contents of N, P, K and Mg in compost and in farmyard manure were found to be similar. Nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium contents of leaves in all applications except control, and Ca, Mg, Fe, Zn, Mn, Cu contents in all applications were determined between optimum levels of reference values. There were positive correlations among some nutrient contents of leaves, growth, yield and fruit quality characteristics. Farmyard manure, Farmyard manure + Mineral fertilizers and 45 kg plant(-1) of compost increased the nutrient contents of banana leaves. According to obtained results, 45 kg plant(-1) of compost was determined more suitable in terms of economical production and organic farming than the other fertiliser types.

  6. Banana peel culture as an indigenous medium for easy identification of late-sporulation human fungal pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kindo, A J; Tupaki-Sreepurna, A; Yuvaraj, M

    2016-01-01

    Fungi are increasing in incidence as human pathogens and newer and rarer species are continuously being encountered. Identifying these species from growth on regular culture media may be challenging due to the absence of typical features. An indigenous and cheap medium, similar to the natural substrate of these fungi, was standardised in our laboratory as an aid to species identification in a conventional laboratory setting. Ripe banana peel pieces, sterilised in an autoclave at 121°C temperature and 15 lbs pressure for 15 min promoted good growth of hyphae and pycnidia or acervuli in coelomycetes, flabelliform and medusoid fruiting bodies of basidiomycetes and fruit bodies such as cleistothecium in ascomycetes. The growth from the primary isolation medium was taken and inoculated onto the pieces of double-autoclaved ripe banana peel pieces in a sterile glass Petri dish with some moisture (sprinkles of sterile distilled water). A few sterile coverslips were placed randomly inside the Petri dish for the growing fungus to stick on to it. The plates were kept at room temperature and left undisturbed for 15-20 days. At a time, one coverslip was taken out and placed on a slide with lactophenol cotton blue and focused under the microscope to look for fruit bodies. Lasiodiplodia theobromae, Macrophomina phaseolina, Nigrospora sphaerica, Chaetomium murorum, Nattrassia mangiferae and Schizophyllum commune were identified by characteristic features from growth on banana peel culture. Banana peel culture is a cheap and effective medium resembling the natural substrate of fungi and is useful for promoting characteristic reproductive structures that aid identification.

  7. Identifying novel genes in C. elegans using SAGE tags

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Nansheng

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite extensive efforts devoted to predicting protein-coding genes in genome sequences, many bona fide genes have not been found and many existing gene models are not accurate in all sequenced eukaryote genomes. This situation is partly explained by the fact that gene prediction programs have been developed based on our incomplete understanding of gene feature information such as splicing and promoter characteristics. Additionally, full-length cDNAs of many genes and their isoforms are hard to obtain due to their low level or rare expression. In order to obtain full-length sequences of all protein-coding genes, alternative approaches are required. Results In this project, we have developed a method of reconstructing full-length cDNA sequences based on short expressed sequence tags which is called sequence tag-based amplification of cDNA ends (STACE. Expressed tags are used as anchors for retrieving full-length transcripts in two rounds of PCR amplification. We have demonstrated the application of STACE in reconstructing full-length cDNA sequences using expressed tags mined in an array of serial analysis of gene expression (SAGE of C. elegans cDNA libraries. We have successfully applied STACE to recover sequence information for 12 genes, for two of which we found isoforms. STACE was used to successfully recover full-length cDNA sequences for seven of these genes. Conclusions The STACE method can be used to effectively reconstruct full-length cDNA sequences of genes that are under-represented in cDNA sequencing projects and have been missed by existing gene prediction methods, but their existence has been suggested by short sequence tags such as SAGE tags.

  8. Caracterização da farinha de banana verde Green banana flour characterization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonia de Maria Borges

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho objetivou a obtenção, a caracterização físico-química e o controle microbiológico durante o processamento da farinha de banana (Musa spp. verde, cv. Prata, visando o seu aproveitamento na panificação, produtos dietéticos e alimentos infantis. Para obtenção da farinha, os frutos foram cortados, imersos em metabissulfito de sódio, desidratados e triturados, sendo em seguida, feitas as seguintes determinações: umidade; extrato etéreo; proteína bruta; fibra bruta; cinzas; fração glicídica; amido; valor calórico; pH; acidez total titulável; vitamina C; macrominerais (K, P, Ca, Mg, S e N; microminerais (B, Cu, Mn, Zn e Fe; coliformes a 45 °C; fungos filamentosos e leveduras; Bacillus cereus; Salmonella sp.; Staphylococcus aureus; e contagem de aeróbios mesófilos. Os resultados indicaram que a banana 'Prata' verde é viável para o processo de obtenção da farinha de banana, tendo em vista que é rica em amido, proteína, potássio, fósforo, magnésio, zinco, cobre e tem um alto valor calórico. O pH, a acidez total titulável e a vitamina C estão compatíveis com os valores encontrados em outras farinhas. Quanto ao uso de boas práticas no processamento, a farinha encontra-se dentro do padrão microbiológico ideal e, portanto, está apta para o consumo.The objective of the present study was the physicochemical characterization and the microbiological control during the processing of the green banana flour (Musa spp., Prata cultivar, aiming at the use of the flour in bread-making, dietary products and children's food. To obtain the flour, the fruits were cut, immersed in sodium meta-bisulfite, dehydrated, and ground. The following criteria were determined: humidity; ethereal extract; raw protein; raw fiber; ash; glicidic fraction; starch; caloric value; pH; total titratable acidity; vitamin C; macrominerals (K, P, Ca, Mg, S and N; microminerals (B, Cu, Mn, Zn and Fe; coliforms at 45 °C; filamentous

  9. ATLAS boosted object tagging 2

    CERN Document Server

    Caudron, Julien; The ATLAS collaboration

    2015-01-01

    A detailed study into the optimal techniques for identifying boosted hadronically decaying W or Z bosons is presented. Various algorithms for reconstructing, grooming and tagging bosonic jets are compared for W bosons with a wide range of transverse momenta using 8 TeV data and 8 TeV and 13 TeV MC simulations. In addition, given that a hadronic jet has been identified as resulting from the hadronic decay of a W or Z, a technique is developed to discriminate between W and Z bosons. The modeling of the tagging variables used in this technique is studied using 8 TeV pp collision data and systematic uncertainties for the tagger efficiency and fake rates are evaluated.

  10. Characterization of Heavy metals from banana farming soils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, Dian; Huang, Cheng He; Huang, Dong Yi [College of Agronomy, Hainan University, Haikou City, Hainan Province (China); Ouyang, Ying [Department of Water Resources, St. Johns River Water Management District, Palatka, FL (United States)

    2010-06-15

    There is a growing public concern about the contamination of heavy metals in agricultural soils in China due to the increasingly applications of chemical fertilizers and pesticides during the last two decades. This study characterized the variability of heavy metals, including copper (Cu), zinc (Zn), lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd), and nickel (Ni), from the banana farming soils in western Hainan Island, China. Five banana farms from different locations in the island were selected to collect 69 mixed-soil samples in this study. Experimental data showed that concentrations of Cu ranged from 3.38 to 54.52, Zn from 24.0 to 189.8, Pb from 15.98 to 58.42, Cd from 0.43 to 3.21, and Ni from 3.47 to 121.86 mg kg{sup -1} dry wt. In general, concentrations of the heavy metals varied with metal species and changed from location to location, which occurred presumably due to the variations of soil parent materials and to a certain extent due to the use of different types of agrochemicals. Our study further revealed that concentrations of Cu and Zn were higher in the banana farming soils than in the natural (control) soils among all of the five locations, whereas mixed results were observed for Pb, Cd, and Ni in both the banana farming and control soils, depending on the locations. Comparisons of the heavy metal concentrations with the Chinese Soil Quality Standards (CSQSs) showed that Cu, Zn, and Pb contents were lower but Cd and Ni contents were higher in the banana farming soils than the Class II standard of the CSQSs. Results suggested that accumulation of Cu, Zn, and Pb in the soils is safe for banana fruit production, whereas accumulation of Cd and Ni in the same soils could potentially pose threats to banana fruit safety. (Abstract Copyright [2010], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  11. Armazenamento refrigerado de banana 'Prata Anã' proveniente de cachos com 16, 18 e 20 semanas Refrigerated storage of 'Prata Anã' banana originating from 16, 18 e 20 week-old bunches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramilo Nogueira Martins

    2007-10-01

    and 20th weeks after the floral emission. From the clusters picked, the second bunches was used, separated in clusters with 5 fruits, washed and weighed (18 kg. Soon after, the fruits were wrapped with polyethylene packing of low density with 50mm of thickness under partial vacuum, conditioned in cardboard boxes and distributed on palets. After being wrapped and put on paletes, the fruits were transported to EPAMIG/CTNM, where they were stored in refrigeration chambers at 10 and 12ºC with a relative humidity of 95% for a period of 35 days, being analyzed before and after the refrigeration. The storage of 'Prata Anã' bananas, coming from 16, 18 and 20 week-old bunches, for 35 days at temperatures of 10 and 12ºC of did not promote "chilling injury" in the fruits. The 10ºC temperature was more effective in preventing the evolution of the coloration of the peel of bananas coming from 18 week-old bunches than the 12ºC temperature, while temperatures of 10 and 12ºC were equally efficient in the contention of the change of color of bananas coming from 16 week-old bunches. Fruits coming from 20 week-old bunches matured non-uniformly during refrigerated storage.

  12. Solar drying system for tropical fruits and a model for drying bananas in a static column dryer; Sistema de secagem solar para frutos tropicais e modelagem da secagem de banana em um secador de coluna estatica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costa, Antonio Raimundo da Silva

    2008-01-15

    An electric solar dryer consisting of a solar collector, a drying chamber, an exhaust fan and a fan to promote forced hot air convection were projected, built and tested . Banana drying experiments were also carried out in a static column dryer to model the drying and to obtain parameters that can be used as a first approximation in the modeling of an electric solar dryer, depending on the similarity of the experimental conditions between the two drying systems. From the banana drying experiments conducted in the static column dryer, we obtained food weight data as a function of aqueous concentration and temperature. Simplified mathematical models of the banana drying were made, based on Fick's and Fourier's second equations, which were tested with the experimental data. We determined and/or modeled parameters such as banana moisture content, density, thin layer drying curves, equilibrium moisture content, molecular diffusivity of the water in banana D{sub AB}, extemal mass transfer coefficient k{sub M}, specific heat C{sub p}, thermal conductivity k, latent heat of water evaporation in the food L{sub food}, time to heat food, and minimum energy and power required to heat the food and evaporate the water. When we considered the shrinkage of radius R of a banana, the calculated values of D{sub AB} and k{sub M} generally better represent the phenomenon of water diffusion in a solid. The latent heat of water evaporation in the food L{sub food} calculated by modeling is higher than the latent heat of pure water evaporation L{sub water}. The values calculated for D{sub AB} and K{sub M} that best represent the drying were obtained with the analytical model of the present paper. These values had good agreement with those assessed with a numeric model described in the literature, in which convective boundary condition and food shrinkage are considered. Using parameters such as C{sub p}, D{sub AB}, k, k{sub M} and L{sub food}, one can elaborate the preliminary

  13. Predicting floods with Flickr tags.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tkachenko, Nataliya; Jarvis, Stephen; Procter, Rob

    2017-01-01

    Increasingly, user generated content (UGC) in social media postings and their associated metadata such as time and location stamps are being used to provide useful operational information during natural hazard events such as hurricanes, storms and floods. The main advantage of these new sources of data are twofold. First, in a purely additive sense, they can provide much denser geographical coverage of the hazard as compared to traditional sensor networks. Second, they provide what physical sensors are not able to do: By documenting personal observations and experiences, they directly record the impact of a hazard on the human environment. For this reason interpretation of the content (e.g., hashtags, images, text, emojis, etc) and metadata (e.g., keywords, tags, geolocation) have been a focus of much research into social media analytics. However, as choices of semantic tags in the current methods are usually reduced to the exact name or type of the event (e.g., hashtags '#Sandy' or '#flooding'), the main limitation of such approaches remains their mere nowcasting capacity. In this study we make use of polysemous tags of images posted during several recent flood events and demonstrate how such volunteered geographic data can be used to provide early warning of an event before its outbreak.

  14. Approximation properties of haplotype tagging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dreiseitl Stephan

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs are locations at which the genomic sequences of population members differ. Since these differences are known to follow patterns, disease association studies are facilitated by identifying SNPs that allow the unique identification of such patterns. This process, known as haplotype tagging, is formulated as a combinatorial optimization problem and analyzed in terms of complexity and approximation properties. Results It is shown that the tagging problem is NP-hard but approximable within 1 + ln((n2 - n/2 for n haplotypes but not approximable within (1 - ε ln(n/2 for any ε > 0 unless NP ⊂ DTIME(nlog log n. A simple, very easily implementable algorithm that exhibits the above upper bound on solution quality is presented. This algorithm has running time O((2m - p + 1 ≤ O(m(n2 - n/2 where p ≤ min(n, m for n haplotypes of size m. As we show that the approximation bound is asymptotically tight, the algorithm presented is optimal with respect to this asymptotic bound. Conclusion The haplotype tagging problem is hard, but approachable with a fast, practical, and surprisingly simple algorithm that cannot be significantly improved upon on a single processor machine. Hence, significant improvement in computatational efforts expended can only be expected if the computational effort is distributed and done in parallel.

  15. b-tagging in DELPHI at LEP

    CERN Document Server

    Abdallah, J; Adam, W; Adye, T; Adzic, P; Albrecht, T; Alderweireld, T; Alemany-Fernandez, R; Allmendinger, T; Allport, P P; Almehed, S; Amaldi, Ugo; Amapane, N; Amato, S; Anashkin, E; Andreazza, A; Andringa, S; Anjos, N; Antilogus, P; Apel, W D; Arnoud, Y; Ask, S; Åsman, B; Augustin, J E; Augustinus, A; Baillon, Paul; Ballestrero, A; Bambade, P; Barbier, R; Bardin, Dimitri Yuri; Barker, G; Baroncelli, A; Bates, M; Battaglia, Marco; Baubillier, M; Becks, K H; Begalli, M; Behrmann, A; Benekos, N C; Benvenuti, Alberto C; Bérat, C; Berggren, M; Berntzon, L; Bertrand, D; Besançon, M; Besson, N; Bibby, J; Biffi, P; Bloch, D; Blom, M; Bonesini, M; Boonekamp, M; Booth, P S L; Borisov, G; Botner, O; Bouquet, B; Bowcock, T J V; Boyko, I; Bracko, M; Branchini, P; Brenner, R; Brodet, E; Brückman, P; Brunet, J M; Bugge, L; Buschmann, P; Caccia, M; Calvi, M; Camporesi, T; Canale, V; Carena, F; Castro, N; Cavallo, F R; Chabaud, V; Chapkin, M M; Charpentier, P; Checchia, P; Chierici, R; Shlyapnikov, P; Chudoba, J; Chung, S U; Cieslik, K; Collins, P; Contri, R; Cosme, G; Cossutti, F; Costa, M J; Couchot, F; Crawley, B; Crennell, D J; Cuevas-Maestro, J; D'Almagne, B; D'Hondt, J; Dalmau, J; Da Silva, T; Da Silva, W; Della Ricca, G; De Angelis, A; de Boer, Wim; De Clercq, C; De Lotto, B; De Maria, N; De Min, A; De Paula, L S; Di Ciaccio, Lucia; Dijkstra, H; Di Simone, A; Doroba, K; Drees, J; Dris, M; Eigen, G; Ekelöf, T J C; Ellert, M; Elsing, M; Espirito-Santo, M C; Fanourakis, G K; Fassouliotis, D; Feindt, M; Fernández, J; Ferrer, A; Ferro, F; Flagmeyer, U; Föth, H; Fokitis, E; Fulda-Quenzer, F; Fuster, J A; Gandelman, M; García, C; Gavillet, P; Gazis, E N; Geralis, T; Gokieli, R; Golob, B; Gómez-Cadenas, J J; Gómez-Ceballos, G; Gonçalves, P; Graziani, E; Grosdidier, G; Grzelak, K; Guy, J; Haag, C; Hallgren, A; Hamacher, K; Hamilton, K; Hansen, J; Haug, S; Hauler, F; Hedberg, V; Hennecke, M; Hernando, J A; Herr, H; Heuser, J M; Holmgren, S O; Holt, P J; Houlden, M A; Hultqvist, K; Jackson, J N; Jalocha, P; Jarlskog, C; Jarlskog, G; Jarry, P; Jeans, D; Johansson, E K; Johansson, P D; Jonsson, P; Joram, C; Jungermann, L; Kapusta, F; Karlsson, M; Katsanevas, S; Katsoufis, E C; Keränen, R; Kernel, G; Kersevan, Borut P; Kiiskinen, A P; King, B T; Kjaer, N J; Kluit, P; Kokkinias, P; Kourkoumelis, C; Kuznetsov, O; Krumshtein, Z; Kucharczyk, M; Kucewicz, W; Kurowska, J; Lamsa, J; Leder, G; Ledroit, F; Leinonen, L; Leitner, R; Lemonne, J; Lepeltier, V; Lesiak, T; Liebig, W; Liko, D; Lipniacka, A; Lopes, J H; López, J M; Loukas, D; Lutz, P; Lyons, L; MacNaughton, J; Malek, A; Maltezos, S; Mandl, F; Marco, J; Marco, R; Maréchal, B; Margoni, M; Marin, J C; Mariotti, C; Markou, A; Martínez-Rivero, C; Martínez-Vidal, F; Masik, J; Mastroyiannopoulos, N; Matorras, F; Matteuzzi, C; Mazzucato, F; Mazzucato, M; McNulty, R; Meroni, C; Meyer, W T; Migliore, E; Mitaroff, W A; Mjörnmark, U; Moa, T; Moch, M; Mönig, K; Monge, R; Montenegro, J; Moraes, D; Moreno, S; Morettini, P; Müller, U; Münich, K; Mulders, M; Mundim, L; Murray, W; Muryn, B; Myatt, Gerald; Myklebust, T; Nassiakou, M; Navarria, Francesco Luigi; Nawrocki, K; Nicolaidou, R; Niezurawski, P; Nikolenko, M; Nomerotski, A; Norman, A; Nygren, A; Oblakowska-Mucha, A; Obraztsov, V F; Olshevskii, A G; Onofre, A; Orava, Risto; Österberg, K; Ouraou, A; Oyanguren, A; Paganoni, M; Paiano, S; Palacios, J P; Palka, H; Papadopoulou, T D; Pape, L; Parkes, C; Parodi, F; Parzefall, U; Passeri, A; Passon, O; Peralta, L; Perepelitsa, V F; Perrotta, A; Petrolini, A; Piedra, J; Pieri, L; Pierre, F; Pimenta, M; Piotto, E; Podobnik, T; Poireau, V; Pol, M E; Polok, G; Poropat, P; Pozdnyakov, V; Pukhaeva, N; Pullia, Antonio; Rames, J; Ramler, L; Read, A; Rebecchi, P; Rehn, J; Reid, D; Reinhardt, R; Renton, P B; Richard, F; Rídky, J; Rivero, M; Rodríguez, D; Romero, A; Ronchese, P; Rosenberg, E I; Roudeau, Patrick; Rovelli, T; Ruhlmann-Kleider, V; Ryabtchikov, D; Sadovskii, A; Salmi, L; Salt, J; Savoy-Navarro, A; Schwickerath, U; Segar, A; Sekulin, R L; Siebel, M; Sissakian, A N; Smadja, G; Smirnova, O G; Sokolov, A; Sopczak, A; Sosnowski, R; Spassoff, Tz; Stanitzki, M; Stavitski, I; Stocchi, A; Strauss, J; Stugu, B; Szczekowski, M; Szeptycka, M; Szumlak, T; Tabarelli de Fatis, T; Taffard, A C; Tegenfeldt, F; Timmermans, J; Tinti, N; Tkatchev, L G; Tobin, M; Todorovova, S; Tomaradze, A G; Tomé, B; Tonazzo, A; Tortosa, P; Travnicek, P; Treille, D; Trischuk, W; Tristram, G; Trochimczuk, M; Troncon, C; Turluer, M L; Tyapkin, I A; Tyapkin, P; Tyndel, M; Tzamarias, S; Uvarov, V; Valenti, G; van Dam, P; Van Eldik, J; Van Lysebetten, A; Van Remortel, N; Van Vulpen, I B; Vegni, G; Veloso, F; Venus, W A; Verbeure, F; Verdier, P; Verzi, V; Vilanova, D; Vitale, L; Vrba, V; Wahlen, H; Washbrook, A J; Weilhammer, Peter; Weiser, C; Wicke, D; Wickens, J H; Wilkinson, G; Winter, M; Witek, M; Yushchenko, O P; Zalewska-Bak, A; Zalewski, Piotr; Zavrtanik, D; Zimin, N I; Zinchenko, A I; Zupan, M

    2004-01-01

    The standard method used for tagging b-hadrons in the DELPHI experiment at the CERN LEP Collider is discussed in detail. The main ingredient of b-tagging is the impact parameters of tracks, which relies mostly on the vertex detector. Additional information, such as the mass of particles associated to a secondary vertex, significantly improves the selection efficiency and the background suppression. The paper describes various discriminating variables used for the tagging and the procedure of their combination. In addition, applications of b-tagging to some physics analyses, which depend crucially on the performance and reliability of b-tagging, are described briefly.

  16. Cover cropping alters the diet of arthropods in a banana plantation: a metabarcoding approach.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregory Mollot

    Full Text Available Plant diversification using cover crops may promote natural regulation of agricultural pests by supporting alternative prey that enable the increase of arthropod predator densities. However, the changes in the specific composition of predator diet induced by cover cropping are poorly understood. Here, we hypothesized that the cover crop can significantly alter the diet of predators in agroecosystems. The cover crop Brachiaria decumbens is increasingly used in banana plantations to control weeds and improve physical soil properties. In this paper, we used a DNA metabarcoding approach for the molecular analysis of the gut contents of predators (based on mini-COI to identify 1 the DNA sequences of their prey, 2 the predators of Cosmopolites sordidus (a major pest of banana crops, and 3 the difference in the specific composition of predator diets between a bare soil plot (BSP and a cover cropped plot (CCP in a banana plantation. The earwig Euborellia caraibea, the carpenter ant Camponotus sexguttatus, and the fire ant Solenopsis geminata were found to contain C. sordidus DNA at frequencies ranging from 1 to 7%. While the frequencies of predators positive for C. sordidus DNA did not significantly differ between BSP and CCP, the frequency at which E. caraibea was positive for Diptera was 26% in BSP and 80% in CCP; the frequency at which C. sexguttatus was positive for Jalysus spinosus was 14% in BSP and 0% in CCP; and the frequency at which S. geminata was positive for Polytus mellerborgi was 21% in BSP and 3% in CCP. E. caraibea, C. sexguttatus and S. geminata were identified as possible biological agents for the regulation of C. sordidus. The detection of the diet changes of these predators when a cover crop is planted indicates the possible negative effects on pest regulation if predators switch to forage on alternative prey.

  17. Cover cropping alters the diet of arthropods in a banana plantation: a metabarcoding approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mollot, Gregory; Duyck, Pierre-François; Lefeuvre, Pierre; Lescourret, Françoise; Martin, Jean-François; Piry, Sylvain; Canard, Elsa; Tixier, Philippe

    2014-01-01

    Plant diversification using cover crops may promote natural regulation of agricultural pests by supporting alternative prey that enable the increase of arthropod predator densities. However, the changes in the specific composition of predator diet induced by cover cropping are poorly understood. Here, we hypothesized that the cover crop can significantly alter the diet of predators in agroecosystems. The cover crop Brachiaria decumbens is increasingly used in banana plantations to control weeds and improve physical soil properties. In this paper, we used a DNA metabarcoding approach for the molecular analysis of the gut contents of predators (based on mini-COI) to identify 1) the DNA sequences of their prey, 2) the predators of Cosmopolites sordidus (a major pest of banana crops), and 3) the difference in the specific composition of predator diets between a bare soil plot (BSP) and a cover cropped plot (CCP) in a banana plantation. The earwig Euborellia caraibea, the carpenter ant Camponotus sexguttatus, and the fire ant Solenopsis geminata were found to contain C. sordidus DNA at frequencies ranging from 1 to 7%. While the frequencies of predators positive for C. sordidus DNA did not significantly differ between BSP and CCP, the frequency at which E. caraibea was positive for Diptera was 26% in BSP and 80% in CCP; the frequency at which C. sexguttatus was positive for Jalysus spinosus was 14% in BSP and 0% in CCP; and the frequency at which S. geminata was positive for Polytus mellerborgi was 21% in BSP and 3% in CCP. E. caraibea, C. sexguttatus and S. geminata were identified as possible biological agents for the regulation of C. sordidus. The detection of the diet changes of these predators when a cover crop is planted indicates the possible negative effects on pest regulation if predators switch to forage on alternative prey.

  18. Separation and identification of Musa acuminate Colla (banana) leaf proteins by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Y; Qi, Y X; Zhang, H; Zhang, H Q; Pu, J J; Xie, Y X

    2013-12-19

    To establish a proteomic reference map of Musa acuminate Colla (banana) leaf, we separated and identified leaf proteins using two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (2D-PAGE) and mass spectrometry (MS). Tryptic digests of 44 spots were subjected to peptide mass fingerprinting (PMF) by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF) MS. Three spots that were not identified by MALDI-TOF MS analysis were identified by searching against the NCBInr, SwissProt, and expressed sequence tag (EST) databases. We identified 41 unique proteins. The majority of the identified leaf proteins were found to be involved in energy metabolism. The results indicate that 2D-PAGE is a sensitive and powerful technique for the separation and identification of Musa leaf proteins. A summary of the identified proteins and their putative functions is discussed.

  19. Gas tagging system development in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sekiguchi, N.; Rindo, H.; Akiyama, T.; Miyazawa, T.; Heki, H.

    1981-05-01

    The Gas tagging method has been considered to be most desirable for a failed fuel location system for the fast breeder reactor, regarding the component reduction in the reactor vessel and rapid location during reactor operation. The gas tagging system has been designed by referring to R and D results obtained in Japan and other countries. The designed system is comprised of tag gas filling pins, cover gas sampling system, tag gas recovery and enrichment system, tag gas analyzer and system control and data handling computers. The main specifications for this system have been decided as follows; 1) Main function is location of failed fuels in core and a part of blanket region, 2) Identification capability is each subassembly, 3) Time for identification is within a few days, 4) Continuous operation with automatic start at fuel failure, 5) Detection sensitivity must cover both gas leak and pin burst. In designing the gas tagging system, the following R and D items were selected; 1) System design study, 2) Tag gas capsule development, 3) Modeling the tag gas behavior in reactor primary cooling system, 4) Tag gas recovery and enrichment system, 5) Computer code development for tag gas isotope ratio change estimation. Details of the Japanese gas tagging system development appear in this paper. (author)

  20. Secure passive RFID tag with seal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nekoogar, Faranak; Reynolds, Matthew; Lefton, Scott; Dowla, Farid; Twogood, Richard

    2017-11-14

    A secure passive RFID tag system comprises at least one base station and at least one passive RFID tag. The tag includes a fiber optic cable with the cable ends sealed within the tag and the middle portion forming an external loop. The loop may be secured to at least portions of an object. The tag transmits and receives an optical signal through the fiber optic cable, and the cable is configured to be damaged or broken in response to removal or tampering attempts, wherein the optical signal is significantly altered if the cable is damaged or broken. The tag transmits the optical signal in response to receiving a radio signal from the base station and compares the transmitted optical signal to the received optical signal. If the transmitted optical signal and the received optical signal are identical, the tag transmits an affirmative radio signal to the base station.

  1. A Simple Diffraction Experiment Using Banana Stem as a Natural Grating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aji, Mahardika Prasetya; Karunawan, Jotti; Chasanah, Widyastuti Rochimatun; Nursuhud, Puji Iman; Wiguna, Pradita Ajeng; Sulhadi

    2017-01-01

    A simple diffraction experiment was designed using banana stem as natural grating. Coherent beams of lasers with wavelengths of 632.8 nm and 532 nm that pass through banana stem produce periodic diffraction patterns on a screen. The diffraction experiments were able to measure the distances between the slit of the banana stem, i.e. d = (28.76 ±…

  2. Host plant odours enhance the responses of adult banana weevil to the synthetic aggregation pheromone Cosmolure+

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tinzaara, W.; Gold, C.S.; Dicke, M.; Huis, van A.; Ragama, P.E.

    2007-01-01

    Attraction of adult banana weevil, Cosmopolites sordidus to volatiles from banana pseudostem tissue and the synthetic pheromone Cosmolure+ presented singly or in combination, was studied in the laboratory and in the field. Olfactometric studies in the laboratory showed that 50 g of fermented banana

  3. Evaluation of Information and Communication Technology Utilization by Small Holder Banana Farmers in Gatanga District, Kenya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mwombe, Simon O. L.; Mugivane, Fred I.; Adolwa, Ivan S.; Nderitu, John H.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: The study was carried out to identify information communication technologies (ICTs) used in production and marketing of bananas, to determine factors influencing intensity of use of ICT tools and to assess whether use of ICT has a significant influence on adoption of tissue culture bananas by small-scale banana farmers in Gatanga…

  4. Plantio irrigado de bananeiras resistentes à Sigatoka-negra consorciado com culturas anuais Irrigated banana resistant to black Sigatoka, with annual intercrops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ildeu de Souza

    2010-03-01

    July 2007, in a 3 x 5 randomized block design with split plots. The plots consisted of three banana varieties (Pacovan Ken, Caipira and Thap Maeo and subplots of four interim crops (common bean Pearl, okra Dart, watermelon Crimson Sweet and cowpea, with three replications and a control (banana without intercrop. Altogether 756 banana plants were considered, in 45 plots, using 6 central banana plants per plot, representing the main crop. The intercrops were planted in the banana interrows, in those with and those without the irrigation pipeline. The banana and intercrops were planted in the same period. Banana plants were spaced 3.0 m between rows and 2.0 m between plants and irrigated by microsprinklers spaced 6 m apart. Vegetative and reproductive characteristics of the banana varieties were evaluated in the 1st cycle. No significant effect of the crops on the banana varieties was observed, except for the traits number of days from planting to flowering and number of days from planting to harvest of the banana varieties. The cowpea use promoted delay at the crop cycle of three varieties of banana plants Pacovan Ken, Caipira e Thap Maeo.

  5. Production of Banana Fiber Yarns for Technical Textile Reinforced Composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zaida Ortega

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Natural fibers have been used as an alternative to synthetic ones for their greener character; banana fibers have the advantage of coming from an agricultural residue. Fibers have been extracted by mechanical means from banana tree pseudostems, as a strategy to valorize banana crops residues. To increase the mechanical properties of the composite, technical textiles can be used as reinforcement, instead of short fibers. To do so, fibers must be spun and woven. The aim of this paper is to show the viability of using banana fibers to obtain a yarn suitable to be woven, after an enzymatic treatment, which is more environmentally friendly. Extracted long fibers are cut to 50 mm length and then immersed into an enzymatic bath for their refining. Conditions of enzymatic treatment have been optimized to produce a textile grade of banana fibers, which have then been characterized. The optimum treating conditions were found with the use of Biopectinase K (100% related to fiber weight at 45 °C, pH 4.5 for 6 h, with bath renewal after three hours. The first spinning trials show that these fibers are suitable to be used for the production of yarns. The next step is the weaving process to obtain a technical fabric for composites production.

  6. Comparative analysis of pigments in red and yellow banana fruit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Xiumin; Cheng, Sihua; Liao, Yinyin; Huang, Bingzhi; Du, Bing; Zeng, Wei; Jiang, Yueming; Duan, Xuewu; Yang, Ziyin

    2018-01-15

    Color is an important characteristic determining the fruit value. Although ripe bananas usually have yellow peels, several banana cultivars have red peels. As details of the pigments in banana fruits are unknown, we investigated these pigments contents and compositions in the peel and pulp of red cultivar 'Hongjiaowang' and yellow cultivar 'Baxijiao' by UPLC-PDA-QTOF-MS and HPLC-PDA techniques. The 'Hongjiaowang' peel color was mainly determined by the presence of anthocyanin-containing epidermal cells. Rutinoside derivatives of cyanidin, peonidin, petunidin, and malvidin were unique to the red peel, and possibly responsible for the red color. 'Hongjiaowang' contained higher total content of carotenoids than 'Baxijiao' in both pulp and peel. Lutein, α-carotene, and β-carotene were main carotenoids, which might play a more important role than flavonoids in producing the yellow banana color owing to the properties and distribution in the fruit. The information will help us understand a complete profile of pigments in banana. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Ethanol production of banana shell and cassava starch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monsalve G, John F; Medina de Perez, Victoria Isabel; Ruiz colorado, Angela Adriana

    2006-01-01

    In this work the acid hydrolysis of the starch was evaluated in cassava and the cellulose shell banana and its later fermentation to ethanol, the means of fermentation were adjusted for the microorganisms saccharomyces cerevisiae nrrl y-2034 and zymomonas mobilis cp4. The banana shell has been characterized, which possesses a content of starch, cellulose and hemicelluloses that represent more than 80% of the shell deserve the study of this as source of carbon. The acid hydrolysis of the banana shell yield 20g/l reducing sugar was obtained as maximum concentration. For the cassava with 170 g/l of starch to ph 0.8 in 5 hours complete conversion is achieved to you reducing sugars and any inhibitory effect is not noticed on the part of the cultivations carried out with banana shell and cassava by the cyanide presence in the cassava and for the formation of toxic compounds in the acid hydrolysis the cellulose in banana shell. For the fermentation carried out with saccharomyces cerevisiae a concentration of ethanol of 7.92± 0.31% it is achieved and a considerable production of ethanol is not appreciated (smaller than 0.1 g/l) for none of the means fermented with zymomonas mobilis

  8. Antioxidant and Antihyperglycemic Properties of Three Banana Cultivars (Musa spp.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adedayo, Bukola C; Oboh, Ganiyu; Oyeleye, Sunday I; Olasehinde, Tosin A

    2016-01-01

    Background . This study sought to investigate the antioxidant and antihyperglycemic properties of Musa sapientum (Latundan banana) (MSL), Musa acuminata (Cavendish banana) (MAC), and Musa acuminate (Red Dacca) (MAR). Materials and Methods. The sugar, starch, amylose, and amylopectin contents and glycemic index (GI) of the three banana cultivars were determined. Furthermore, total phenol and vitamin C contents and α -amylase and α -glucosidase inhibitory effects of banana samples were also determined. Results . MAC and MAR had the highest starch, amylose, and amylopectin contents and estimated glycemic index (eGI) with no significant different while MSL had the lowest. Furthermore, MAR (1.07 mg GAE/g) had a higher total phenol content than MAC (0.94 mg GAE/g) and MSL (0.96 mg GAE/g), while there was no significant difference in the vitamin C content. Furthermore, MAR had the highest α -amylase (IC 50 = 3.95 mg/mL) inhibitory activity while MAC had the least (IC 50 = 4.27 mg/mL). Moreover, MAC and MAR inhibited glucosidase activity better than MSL (IC 50 3.47 mg/mL). Conclusion . The low sugar, GI, amylose, and amylopectin contents of the three banana cultivars as well as their α -amylase and α -glucosidase inhibitory activities could be possible mechanisms and justification for their recommendation in the management of type-2 diabetes.

  9. Production of bioethanol using agricultural waste: banana pseudo stem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Snehal Ingale

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available India is amongst the largest banana (Musa acuminata producing countries and thus banana pseudo stem is commonly available agricultural waste to be used as lignocellulosic substrate. Present study focuses on exploitation of banana pseudo stem as a source for bioethanol production from the sugars released due to different chemical and biological pretreatments. Two fungal strains Aspergillus ellipticus and Aspergillus fumigatus reported to be producing cellulolytic enzymes on sugarcane bagasse were used under co-culture fermentation on banana pseudo stem to degrade holocellulose and facilitate maximum release of reducing sugars. The hydrolysate obtained after alkali and microbial treatments was fermented by Saccharomyces cerevisiae NCIM 3570 to produce ethanol. Fermentation of cellulosic hydrolysate (4.1 g% gave maximum ethanol (17.1 g/L with yield (84% and productivity (0.024 g%/h after 72 h. Some critical aspects of fungal pretreatment for saccharification of cellulosic substrate using A. ellipticus and A. fumigatus for ethanol production by S. cerevisiae NCIM 3570 have been explored in this study. It was observed that pretreated banana pseudo stem can be economically utilized as a cheaper substrate for ethanol production.

  10. Light Makes a Surface Banana-Bond Split: Photodesorption of Molecular Hydrogen from RuO 2 (110)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henderson, Michael A.; Mu, Rentao; Dahal, Arjun; Lyubinetsky, Igor; Dohnálek, Zdenek; Glezakou, Vassiliki-Alexandra; Rousseau, Roger

    2016-07-20

    The coordination of H2 to a metal center via polarization of its bond electron density, known as a Kubas complex, is the means by which H2 chemisorbs at Ru4+ sites on the rutile RuO2(110) surface. This distortion of electron density off an interatomic axis is often described as a ‘banana-bond.’ We show that the Ru-H2 banana-bond can be destabilized, and split, using visible light. Photodesorption of H2 (or D2) is evident by mass spectrometry and scanning tunneling microscopy. From time-dependent density functional theory, the key optical excitation splitting the Ru-H2 banana-bond involves an interband transition in RuO2 which effectively diminishes its Lewis acidity, and thereby weakening the Kubas complex. Such excitations are not expected to affect adsorbates on RuO2 given its metallic properties. Therefore, this common thermal co-catalyst employed in promoting water splitting is, itself, photo-active in the visible.

  11. Relative susceptibility of Musa genotypes to banana bunchy top disease in Cameroon and implication for disease management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banana bunchy top disease (BBTD) is a serious threat to banana and plantain (Musa spp.) production. BBTD is caused by the Banana bunchy top virus (BBTV, genus Babuvirus) which is spread through infected plant propagules and banana aphid, Pentalonia nigronervosa. A high level of resistance to BBTD in...

  12. Evolution of endogenous sequences of banana streak virus: what can we learn from banana (Musa sp.) evolution?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gayral, Philippe; Blondin, Laurence; Guidolin, Olivier; Carreel, Françoise; Hippolyte, Isabelle; Perrier, Xavier; Iskra-Caruana, Marie-Line

    2010-07-01

    Endogenous plant pararetroviruses (EPRVs) are viral sequences of the family Caulimoviridae integrated into the nuclear genome of numerous plant species. The ability of some endogenous sequences of Banana streak viruses (eBSVs) in the genome of banana (Musa sp.) to induce infections just like the virus itself was recently demonstrated (P. Gayral et al., J. Virol. 83:6697-6710, 2008). Although eBSVs probably arose from accidental events, infectious eBSVs constitute an extreme case of parasitism, as well as a newly described strategy for vertical virus transmission in plants. We investigated the early evolutionary stages of infectious eBSV for two distinct BSV species-GF (BSGFV) and Imové (BSImV)-through the study of their distribution, insertion polymorphism, and structure evolution among selected banana genotypes representative of the diversity of 60 wild Musa species and genotypes. To do so, the historical frame of host evolution was analyzed by inferring banana phylogeny from two chloroplast regions-matK and trnL-trnF-as well as from the nuclear genome, using 19 microsatellite loci. We demonstrated that both BSV species integrated recently in banana evolution, circa 640,000 years ago. The two infectious eBSVs were subjected to different selective pressures and showed distinct levels of rearrangement within their final structure. In addition, the molecular phylogenies of integrated and nonintegrated BSVs enabled us to establish the phylogenetic origins of eBSGFV and eBSImV.

  13. Banana leaf and glucose mineralization and soil organic matter in microhabitats of banana plantations under long-term pesticide use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blume, Elena; Reichert, José Miguel

    2015-06-01

    Soil organic matter (SOM) and microbial activity are key components of soil quality and sustainability. In the humid tropics of Costa Rica 3 pesticide regimes were studied-fungicide (low input); fungicide and herbicide (medium input); and fungicide, herbicide, and nematicide (high input)-under continuous banana cultivation for 5 yr (young) or 20 yr (old) in 3 microhabitats-nematicide ring around plants, litter pile of harvested banana, and bare area between litter pile and nematicide ring. Soil samples were incubated sequentially in the laboratory: unamended, amended with glucose, and amended with ground banana leaves. Soil organic matter varied with microhabitat, being greatest in the litter pile, where microbes had the greatest basal respiration with ground banana leaf, whereas microbes in the nematicide ring had the greatest respiration with glucose. These results suggest that soil microbes adapt to specific microhabitats. Young banana plantations had similar SOM compared with old plantations, but the former had greater basal microbial respiration in unamended and in glucose-amended soil and greater first-order mineralization rates in glucose-amended soil, thus indicating soil biological quality decline over time. High pesticide input did not decrease microbial activity or mineralization rate in surface soil. In conclusion, microbial activity in tropical volcanic soil is highly adaptable to organic and inorganic inputs. © 2015 SETAC.

  14. Green banana pasta: an alternative for gluten-free diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zandonadi, Renata Puppin; Botelho, Raquel Braz Assunção; Gandolfi, Lenora; Ginani, Janini Selva; Montenegro, Flávio Martins; Pratesi, Riccardo

    2012-07-01

    The objective of this study was to develop and analyze a gluten-free pasta made with green banana flour. The study was divided into five steps: preparation/selection, chemical, sensory, technological, and statistical analysis. The modified sample presented greater acceptance (84.5% for celiac individuals and 61.2% for nonceliac) than standard samples (53.6% for nonceliac individuals). There was no significant difference between the modified and the standard samples in terms of appearance, aroma, flavor, and overall quality. The modified pastas presented approximately 98% less lipids. Green bananas are considered a subproduct of low commercial value with little industrial use. The possibility of developing gluten-free products with green banana flour can expand the product supply for people with celiac disease and contribute to a more diverse diet. Copyright © 2012 Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Hyperspectral imaging system for disease scanning on banana plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ochoa, Daniel; Cevallos, Juan; Vargas, German; Criollo, Ronald; Romero, Dennis; Castro, Rodrigo; Bayona, Oswaldo

    2016-05-01

    Black Sigatoka (BS) is a banana plant disease caused by the fungus Mycosphaerella fijiensis. BS symptoms can be observed at late infection stages. By that time, BS has probably spread to other plants. In this paper, we present our current work on building an hyper-spectral (HS) imaging system aimed at in-vivo detection of BS pre-symptomatic responses in banana leaves. The proposed imaging system comprises a motorized stage, a high-sensitivity VIS-NIR camera and an optical spectrograph. To capture images of the banana leaf, the stage's speed and camera's frame rate must be computed to reduce motion blur and to obtain the same resolution along both spatial dimensions of the resulting HS cube. Our continuous leaf scanning approach allows imaging leaves of arbitrary length with minimum frame loss. Once the images are captured, a denoising step is performed to improve HS image quality and spectral profile extraction.

  16. Biosynthesis of CdS nanoparticles in banana peel extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Guang Ju; Li, Shuo Hao; Zhang, Yu Cang; Fu, Yun Zhi

    2014-06-01

    Cadmium sulfide (CdS) nanoparticles (NPs) were synthesized by using banana peel extract as a convenient, non-toxic, eco-friendly 'green' capping agent. Cadmium nitrate and sodium sulfide are main reagents. A variety of CdS NPs are prepared through changing reaction conditions (banana extracts, the amount of banana peel extract, solution pH, concentration and reactive temperature). The prepared CdS colloid displays strong fluorescence spectrum. X-ray diffraction analysis demonstrates the successful formation of CdS NPs. Fourier transform infra-red (FTIR) spectrogram indicates the involvement of carboxyl, amine and hydroxyl groups in the formation of CdS NPs. Transmission electron microscope (TEM) result reveals that the average size of the NPs is around 1.48 nm.

  17. Endophytic bacterial diversity in banana 'Prata Anã' (Musa spp. roots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzane A. Souza

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The genetic diversity of endophytic bacteria in banana 'Prata Anã' roots was characterized. Two hundred and one endophytic bacteria were isolated, 151 of which were classified as Gram-positive and 50 as Gram-negative. No hypersensitivity response was observed in any of the isolates. The rep-PCR technique generated different molecular profiles for each primer set (REP, ERIC and BOX. Fifty readable loci were obtained and all of the fragments were polymorphic. Amplified ribosomal DNA restriction analysis (ARDRA of the isolates based on cleavage with four restriction enzymes yielded 45 polymorphic bands and no monomorphic bands. PCR amplified the nifH gene in 24 isolates. 16S rDNA sequencing of the 201 bacterial isolates yielded 102 high-quality sequences. Sequence analyses revealed that the isolates were distributed among ten bacterial genera (Agrobacterium, Aneurinibacillus, Bacillus, Enterobacter, Klebsiella, Lysinibacillus, Micrococcus, Paenibacillus, Rhizobium and Sporolactobacillus and included 15 species. The greatest number of isolates belonged to the genus Bacillus. The bacteria identified in this study may be involved in promoting growth, phosphate solubilization, biological control and nitrogen fixation in bananas.

  18. The nematicidal effect of camellia seed cake on root-knot nematode Meloidogyne javanica of banana.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiujuan Yang

    Full Text Available Suppression of root-knot nematodes is crucially important for maintaining the worldwide development of the banana industry. Growing concerns about human and environmental safety have led to the withdrawal of commonly used nematicides and soil fumigants, thus motivating the development of alternative nematode management strategies. In this study, Meloidogyne javanica was isolated, and the nematicidal effect of Camellia seed cake on this pest was investigated. The results showed that in dish experiments, Camellia seed cake extracts under low concentration (2 g/L showed a strong nematicidal effect. After treatment for 72 h, the eggs of M. javanica were gradually dissolved, and the intestine of the juveniles gradually became indistinct. Nematicidal compounds, including saponins identified by HPLC-ESI-MS and 8 types of volatile compounds identified by GC-MS, exhibited effective nematicidal activities, especially 4-methylphenol. The pot experiments demonstrated that the application of Camellia seed cake suppressed M. javanica, and promoted the banana plant growth. This study explored an effective nematicidal agent for application in soil and revealed its potential mechanism of nematode suppression.

  19. Gamma radiation effects on the viscosity of green banana flour

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uehara, Vanessa B.; Inamura, Patricia Y.; Mastro, Nelida L. Del

    2009-01-01

    Banana (Musa sp) is a tropical fruits with great acceptability among consumers and produced in Brazil in a large scale. Bananas are not being as exploited as they could be in prepared food, and research could stimulate greater interest from industry. The viscosity characteristics and a product consistency can determine its acceptance by the consumer. Particularly the starch obtained from green banana had been studied from the nutritional point of view since the concept of Resistant Starch was introduced. Powder RS with high content of amylose was included in an approved food list with alleged functional properties in Brazilian legislation. Ionizing radiation can be used as a public health intervention measure for the control of food-borne diseases. Radiation is also a very convenient tool for polymer materials modification through degradation, grafting and crosslinking. In this work the influence of ionizing radiation on the rheological behavior of green banana pulp was investigated. Samples of green banana pulp flour were irradiated in a 60 Co Gammacell 220 (AECL) with doses of 0 kGy,1 kGy, 3 kGy, 5 kGy and 10 kGy in glass recipients. After irradiation 3% and 5% aqueous dilution were prepared and viscosity measurements performed in a Brooksfield, model DVIII viscometer using spindle SC4-18 and SC4-31. There was a reduction of the initial viscosity of the samples as a consequence of radiation processing, being the reduction inversely proportional to the flour concentration. The polysaccharide content of the banana starch seems to be degraded by radiation in solid state as shown by the reduction of viscosity as a function of radiation dose. (author)

  20. Scalable Faceted Ranking in Tagging Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orlicki, José I.; Alvarez-Hamelin, J. Ignacio; Fierens, Pablo I.

    Nowadays, web collaborative tagging systems which allow users to upload, comment on and recommend contents, are growing. Such systems can be represented as graphs where nodes correspond to users and tagged-links to recommendations. In this paper we analyze the problem of computing a ranking of users with respect to a facet described as a set of tags. A straightforward solution is to compute a PageRank-like algorithm on a facet-related graph, but it is not feasible for online computation. We propose an alternative: (i) a ranking for each tag is computed offline on the basis of tag-related subgraphs; (ii) a faceted order is generated online by merging rankings corresponding to all the tags in the facet. Based on the graph analysis of YouTube and Flickr, we show that step (i) is scalable. We also present efficient algorithms for step (ii), which are evaluated by comparing their results with two gold standards.

  1. Building Tag Clouds in Perl and PHP

    CERN Document Server

    Bumgardner, Jim

    2006-01-01

    Tag clouds are everywhere on the web these days. First popularized by the web sites Flickr, Technorati, and del.icio.us, these amorphous clumps of words now appear on a slew of web sites as visual evidence of their membership in the elite corps of "Web 2.0." This PDF analyzes what is and isn't a tag cloud, offers design tips for using them effectively, and then goes on to show how to collect tags and display them in the tag cloud format. Scripts are provided in Perl and PHP. Yes, some have said tag clouds are a fad. But as you will see, tag clouds, when used properly, have real merits. More

  2. Understanding why users tag: A survey of tagging motivation literature and results from an empirical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strohmaier, Markus; Körner, Christian; Kern, Roman

    2012-12-01

    While recent progress has been achieved in understanding the structure and dynamics of social tagging systems, we know little about the underlying user motivations for tagging, and how they influence resulting folksonomies and tags. This paper addresses three issues related to this question. (1) What distinctions of user motivations are identified by previous research, and in what ways are the motivations of users amenable to quantitative analysis? (2) To what extent does tagging motivation vary across different social tagging systems? (3) How does variability in user motivation influence resulting tags and folksonomies? In this paper, we present measures to detect whether a tagger is primarily motivated by categorizing or describing resources, and apply these measures to datasets from seven different tagging systems. Our results show that (a) users' motivation for tagging varies not only across, but also within tagging systems, and that (b) tag agreement among users who are motivated by categorizing resources is significantly lower than among users who are motivated by describing resources . Our findings are relevant for (1) the development of tag-based user interfaces, (2) the analysis of tag semantics and (3) the design of search algorithms for social tagging systems.

  3. Learner Corpora without Error Tagging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rastelli, Stefano

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The article explores the possibility of adopting a form-to-function perspective when annotating learner corpora in order to get deeper insights about systematic features of interlanguage. A split between forms and functions (or categories is desirable in order to avoid the "comparative fallacy" and because – especially in basic varieties – forms may precede functions (e.g., what resembles to a "noun" might have a different function or a function may show up in unexpected forms. In the computer-aided error analysis tradition, all items produced by learners are traced to a grid of error tags which is based on the categories of the target language. Differently, we believe it is possible to record and make retrievable both words and sequence of characters independently from their functional-grammatical label in the target language. For this purpose at the University of Pavia we adapted a probabilistic POS tagger designed for L1 on L2 data. Despite the criticism that this operation can raise, we found that it is better to work with "virtual categories" rather than with errors. The article outlines the theoretical background of the project and shows some examples in which some potential of SLA-oriented (non error-based tagging will be possibly made clearer.

  4. Banana production systems: identification of alternative systems for more sustainable production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellamy, Angelina Sanderson

    2013-04-01

    Large-scale, monoculture production systems dependent on synthetic fertilizers and pesticides, increase yields, but are costly and have deleterious impacts on human health and the environment. This research investigates variations in banana production practices in Costa Rica, to identify alternative systems that combine high productivity and profitability, with reduced reliance on agrochemicals. Farm workers were observed during daily production activities; 39 banana producers and 8 extension workers/researchers were interviewed; and a review of field experiments conducted by the National Banana Corporation between 1997 and 2002 was made. Correspondence analysis showed that there is no structured variation in large-scale banana producers' practices, but two other banana production systems were identified: a small-scale organic system and a small-scale conventional coffee-banana intercropped system. Field-scale research may reveal ways that these practices can be scaled up to achieve a productive and profitable system producing high-quality export bananas with fewer or no pesticides.

  5. Chemical and physical characterization of Musa sepientum and Musa balbisiana fibers of banana tree

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Albinante, Sandra R.; Pacheco, Elen B.A.V.; Visconte, Leila L.Y.; Batista, Luciano do N.

    2011-01-01

    This study aimed to characterize the fibers of cavendish and silver banana trunks (Musa sepientum and Musa balbisiana, respectively) concerning their density, lignin and moisture contents, and chemical structure by using the techniques of infrared spectroscopy and low field solid state nuclear magnetic resonance, NMR. From NMR analysis, it was possible to observe the morphological differences between cavendish and silver types of banana fibers. FTIR technique did not allow the observation of any important difference in the banana fibers spectra. The cavendish banana fiber showed higher moisture and lignin contents than the silver banana fiber The NMR technique showed that relaxation times for silver banana fiber were higher than those for cavendish banana fiber, which can be credited to the lower moisture content values found in the silver fibers. (author)

  6. B-tagging in CMS at LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Cucciarelli, S

    2003-01-01

    This report provides a review of the main algorithms for offline inclusive b-tagging developed within the CMS community. Two b-tag algorithms, one based on the impact parameter measurement and the other based on the secondary vertices are discussed. The performance of these algorithms are presented for several jet transverse energies and pseudorapidity regions. An additional decay length based b-tag is also described and its preliminary performance is presented. (4 refs) .

  7. Sensor-based material tagging system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vercellotti, L.C.; Cox, R.W.; Ravas, R.J.; Schlotterer, J.C.

    1991-01-01

    Electronic identification tags are being developed for tracking material and personnel. In applying electronic identification tags to radioactive materials safeguards, it is important to measure attributes of the material to ensure that the tag remains with the material. The addition of a microcontroller with an on-board analog-to-digital converter to an electronic identification tag application-specific integrated-circuit has been demonstrated as means to provide the tag with sensor data. Each tag is assembled into a housing, which serves as a scale for measuring the weight of a paint-can-sized container and its contents. Temperature rise of the can above ambient is also measured, and a piezoelectric detector detects disturbances and immediately puts the tag into its alarm and beacon mode. Radiation measurement was also considered, but the background from nearby containers was found to be excessive. The sensor-based tagging system allows tracking of the material in cans as it is stored in vaults or is moved through the manufacturing process. The paper presents details of the sensor-based material tagging system and describes a demonstration system

  8. Graph based techniques for tag cloud generation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leginus, Martin; Dolog, Peter; Lage, Ricardo Gomes

    2013-01-01

    Tag cloud is one of the navigation aids for exploring documents. Tag cloud also link documents through the user defined terms. We explore various graph based techniques to improve the tag cloud generation. Moreover, we introduce relevance measures based on underlying data such as ratings...... or citation counts for improved measurement of relevance of tag clouds. We show, that on the given data sets, our approach outperforms the state of the art baseline methods with respect to such relevance by 41 % on Movielens dataset and by 11 % on Bibsonomy data set....

  9. Flavour Tagging developments within the LHCb experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Grabalosa, Marc

    Flavour Tagging at the LHCb experiment is a fundamental tool for the measurement of B oscillations and the study of CP violation. This document explains the development of different tagging techniques and the different strategies used to combine them to determine the flavour of the B meson as precisely as possible. The response of the tagging algorithms also needs to be optimized and calibrated. Both procedures are described using the available LHCb datasets corresponding to various integrated luminosities. First results on the tagging performances are shown for different control channels and physics measurements.

  10. Using Interference to Block RFID Tags

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krigslund, Rasmus; Popovski, Petar; Pedersen, Gert Frølund

    We propose a novel method to block RFID tags from responding, using intentional interference. We focus on the experimental evaluation, where we impose interference on the download and uplink, respectively. The results are positive, where modulated CCI shows most effective to block a tag.......We propose a novel method to block RFID tags from responding, using intentional interference. We focus on the experimental evaluation, where we impose interference on the download and uplink, respectively. The results are positive, where modulated CCI shows most effective to block a tag....

  11. Discharge residence of TLD tagged fish

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Romberg, G.P.; Prepejchal, W.

    1974-01-01

    Although visual observations suggested that fish remained in the discharge for considerable periods, temperature-sensitive tags indicated the majority of fish spend less than 50 hr or 10 percent of the time at discharge temperatures. During 1974 a second fish tagging study was conducted, using temperature-sensitive tags to yield discharge residence times of Lake Michigan salmonids at Point Beach thermal discharge. Preliminary results revealed that many fish tag values were close to Unit I line indicating that calculated maximum discharge residence times for these fish will be nearly 100 percent of the elapsed time

  12. Local and neighboring patch conditions alter sex-specific movement in banana weevils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carval, Dominique; Perrin, Benjamin; Duyck, Pierre-François; Tixier, Philippe

    2015-12-01

    Understanding the mechanisms underlying the movements and spread of a species over time and space is a major concern of ecology. Here, we assessed the effects of an individual's sex and the density and sex ratio of conspecifics in the local and neighboring environment on the movement probability of the banana weevil, Cosmopolites sordidus. In a "two patches" experiment, we used radiofrequency identification tags to study the C. sordidus movement response to patch conditions. We showed that local and neighboring densities of conspecifics affect the movement rates of individuals but that the density-dependent effect can be either positive or negative depending on the relative densities of conspecifics in local and neighboring patches. We demonstrated that sex ratio also influences the movement of C. sordidus, that is, the weevil exhibits nonfixed sex-biased movement strategies. Sex-biased movement may be the consequence of intrasexual competition for resources (i.e., oviposition sites) in females and for mates in males. We also detected a high individual variability in the propensity to move. Finally, we discuss the role of demographic stochasticity, sex-biased movement, and individual heterogeneity in movement on the colonization process.

  13. Biossorption of uranium on banana pith; Biossorcao de uranio nas cascas de banana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boniolo, Milena Rodrigues

    2008-07-01

    Banana pith was characterized by Fourier Transformed Infrared Spectroscopy and Scanning Electron Microscopy, and investigated as a low cost bio sorbent for the removal of uranium ions from nitric solutions. Influences variable as were studied: adsorbent particle size, contact time, pH and temperature were studied. The removal percentage was increased from 13 to 57% when the particle size was decreased from 6.000 to 0.074 mm. The determined contact time was 40 minutes with 60% mean removal. The removal was increased from 40 to 55% when the pH varied from 2 to 5. The Langmuir and Freundlich linear isotherm models were applied to describe the adsorption equilibrium. The kinetic of the process was studied using the pseudo-first order and pseudo-second order models. Thermodynamics parameters such as {delta}G, {delta}S and {delta}H were calculated. In concentration range of 50 - 500 mg.L{sup -1}, the adsorption process was described better by the Freundlich equation. The adsorption capacity at equilibrium of uranium ions was determined from the Langmuir equation, and it was found 11.50 mg.g{sup -1} at 25 {+-} 2 deg C. The kinetic was better represented by the pseudo-second order model. The bio sorption process for uranium removal from the solutions was considered an exothermic reaction, and the values of {delta}H and {delta}S obtained were -9.61 kJ.mol''-{sup 1} and 1.37 J.mol''-{sup 1}, respectively. The values of the Gibbs free energy changed from -10.03 to -10.06 kJ.mol{sup -1} when the temperature was increased from 30 to 50 deg C. This study showed the potential application of the banana pith as bio sorbent of uranium ions. (author)

  14. Biossorption of uranium on banana pith; Biossorcao de uranio nas cascas de banana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boniolo, Milena Rodrigues

    2008-07-01

    Banana pith was characterized by Fourier Transformed Infrared Spectroscopy and Scanning Electron Microscopy, and investigated as a low cost bio sorbent for the removal of uranium ions from nitric solutions. Influences variable as were studied: adsorbent particle size, contact time, pH and temperature were studied. The removal percentage was increased from 13 to 57% when the particle size was decreased from 6.000 to 0.074 mm. The determined contact time was 40 minutes with 60% mean removal. The removal was increased from 40 to 55% when the pH varied from 2 to 5. The Langmuir and Freundlich linear isotherm models were applied to describe the adsorption equilibrium. The kinetic of the process was studied using the pseudo-first order and pseudo-second order models. Thermodynamics parameters such as {delta}G, {delta}S and {delta}H were calculated. In concentration range of 50 - 500 mg.L{sup -1}, the adsorption process was described better by the Freundlich equation. The adsorption capacity at equilibrium of uranium ions was determined from the Langmuir equation, and it was found 11.50 mg.g{sup -1} at 25 {+-} 2 deg C. The kinetic was better represented by the pseudo-second order model. The bio sorption process for uranium removal from the solutions was considered an exothermic reaction, and the values of {delta}H and {delta}S obtained were -9.61 kJ.mol''-{sup 1} and 1.37 J.mol''-{sup 1}, respectively. The values of the Gibbs free energy changed from -10.03 to -10.06 kJ.mol{sup -1} when the temperature was increased from 30 to 50 deg C. This study showed the potential application of the banana pith as bio sorbent of uranium ions. (author)

  15. Pós colheita de bananas-maçã submetidas ao 1-MCP e armazenadas á temperatura ambiente Postharvest of 'apple' banana submetted to 1-MCP and storage in room temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Carla Marque Pinheiro

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Bananas da cultivar Maçã foram adquiridas no estádio dois de coloração da casca (verde maturos e submetidas à ação de 1-MCP. O 1-MCP foi aplicado por 12 horas nas seguintes concentrações: 0 (controle, 50, 100, 150, 200 hL.L-1. Após aplicação, os frutos foram armazenados à temperatura ambiente (temperatura média 20ºC ± 1 e umidade relativa 80% ± 5 e avaliados à medida que atingiam os graus 3, 5 e 7 de coloração da casca. O tratamento com 1-MCP atrasou o início do amadurecimento de bananas-maçã armazenadas sob temperatura ambiente, baseado nas primeiras mudanças de coloração da casca. A aplicação de 1-MCP em bananas-maçã, ditou maiores valores de perda de massa e relação polpa/casca (nos graus 5 e 7 de coloração da casca. O 1-MCP, nas doses 100, 150 e 200 hL.L-1 de 1-MCP promoveu desverdecimento desuniforme e tonalidade avermelhada na casca. O tratamento 50 hL.L-1 de 1-MCP é o mais adequado, por promover a extensão da vida pós-colheita de bananas-maçã da cultivar armazenadas sob temperatura ambiente sem afetar a coloração da casca dos frutos, apresentando qualidade, baseando-se na cor da casca, firmeza, acidez titulável, pH e sólidos solúveis, semelhante ao controle.Mature green 'Apple' bananas were submitted to five concentrations of 1-MCP (0, 50, 100, 150 and 200 hL.L-1 for 12 hours. After treatment, the fruits were stored at room temperature (20ºC ± 1 and 80% ± 5 RH and analyzed at 3,5 and 7 color degree of peel. The treatment with 1-MCP delayed the start of the ripening based in the first changes of peel color. The treatment of 'Apple' bananas with 1-MCP promoted higher values of mass loss and pulp/peel ratio (5 and 7 degrees of color peel. The fruits treated with 100, 150 and 200 nL.L-1 of 1-MCP showed heterogeneous degreening and development of red color on the peel. 1-MCP at 50 nL.L-1 was the most appropriated treatment for promoting the extension of postharvest life of 'Apple' bananas stored

  16. Assessment of insect invaders of decaying banana and plantain ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Insect invaders of decaying banana and plantain pseudo stems in Umuagwo, Ohaji-Egbema, Imo State were investigated in randomly selected crop plots near living homes (<500 m) and far from living homes (.500m). Investigation was done by the use of trapping systems, dissections of cut decaying pseudo stems and ...

  17. Review on postharvest technology of banana fruit | Hailu | African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    These include disinfecting, packaging and storage temperature. Pre- and postharvest treatments were found to have an effect on postharvest quality of banana, suggesting that postharvest quality of produce subjected to preharvest treatments should be assessed from a quality improvement, maintenance and consumer ...

  18. Banana peel: A novel substrate for cellulase production under solid ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    use

    2011-12-05

    Dec 5, 2011 ... The feasibility of using banana peel for the production of cellulase by Trichoderma viride GIM 3.0010 in solid-state fermentation was evaluated in this study. The effect of incubation time, incubation temperature, initial moisture content of the medium, inoculum size and supplementation of carbon sources ...

  19. Effect of gamma irradiation on Hom Tong banana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1971-01-01

    This report contains research on the use of gamma irradiation to retard the ripening and extend the shelf life of bananas. The major concerns were the effects that irradiation would have on the nutritional content, the organoleptic properties and the pigment of the fruit

  20. In vitro multiplication of banana (Musa sp.) cv. Grand Naine

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SAM

    2014-07-02

    Jul 2, 2014 ... with IAA 2.00 mg/l resulted in maximum establishment of cultures in lesser time. MS medium + BAP. 4.00 mg/l + ... is, Musa acuminata (Malaysia) and Musa balbsiana. (India) (Georget et al., 2000). Banana plantlets produced.

  1. Banana (Musa spp.) Production Characteristics and Performance in Uganda

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bagamba, F.; Burger, C.P.J.; Tushemereirwe, W.K.

    2010-01-01

    The highland cooking banana (Musa spp., AAA-EA genome) is the most important crop in the East African Great Lakes region. In Uganda, production has expanded and productivity increased in the country’s southwest and declined in the Central region where the crop has traditional roots. Analyzing crop

  2. Household uses of the banana plant in eastern Democratic Republic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SARAH

    2015-11-30

    Nov 30, 2015 ... use of other banana plant parts other than the fruit pulp, has been widely reported. This has not been ... prevalent uses across plant parts included use for mulch and compost, feed for livestock, construction materials, ropes for ... pharmaceutical and the food industry (Oliveira et al.,. 2007). In Malaysia and ...

  3. Molecular diagnostics for the Sigatoka disease complex of banana

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arzanlou, M.; Abeln, E.C.A.; Kema, G.H.J.; Waalwijk, C.; Carlier, J.; Crous, P.W.

    2007-01-01

    The Sigatoka disease complex of banana involves three related ascomycetous fungi, Mycosphaerella fijiensis, M. musicola, and M. eumusae. The exact distribution of these three species and their disease epidemiology remain unclear, because their symptoms and life cycles are rather similar. Disease

  4. Sequencing the Major Mycosphaerella Pathogens of Wheat and Banana

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kema, G.H.J.

    2009-01-01

    Mycosphaerella is one of the largest genera of plant-pathogenic fungi with more than 1,000 named species, many of which are important pathogens causing leaf spotting diseases in a wide variety of crops including cereals, citrus, banana, eucalypts, soft fruits and horticultural crops. A few species

  5. Sequencing the Major Mycosphaerella Pathogens of Wheat and Banana

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kema, G.H.; Dunkle, L.D.; Churchill, A.C.; Carlier, J.; James, A.; Souza, M.T.; Crous, P.W.; Roux, N.; Lee, T.A. van der; Wiitenberg, A.; Lindquist, E.; Grigoriev, I.; Bristow, J.; Goodwin, S.B.

    2007-01-01

    Mycosphaerella is one of the largest genera of plant pathogenic fungi with more than 1,000 named species, many of which are important pathogens causing leaf spotting diseases in a wide variety of crops including cereals, citrus, banana, eucalypts, soft fruits, and horticultural crops. A few species

  6. Factors influencing the diffusion of cooking banana in Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    As an interim measure in combating the incidence of black Sigatoka disease on plantain, the International Institute of Tropical Agriculture introduced cooking banana in Southeast Nigeria in the late 1980s. This was multiplied and distributed to farmers through the extension systems of both governmental and ...

  7. Did backcrossing contribute to the origin of hybrid edible bananas?

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    De Langhe, E.; Hřibová, Eva; Carpentier, S.; Doležel, Jaroslav; Swennen, R.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 106, č. 6 (2010), s. 849-857 ISSN 0305-7364 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA600380703 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50380511 Keywords : Backcrossing * banana * breeding Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 3.388, year: 2010

  8. Factors driving the adoption of cooking banana processing and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    As part of efforts in realising her aim of introducing cooking banana into Nigeria, the International Institute of Tropical Agriculture (IITA) mounted training and awareness campaigns on its utilisation in collaboration with Shell and Agip Oil companies between 1991 and 1997. This study looked into the adoption profile of the ...

  9. Fabrication of Biomembrane from Banana Stem for Lead Removal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afianti Sulastri

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Heavy metal (i.e. lead (Pb is one of the environmental issues recently due to its danger for human health. Therefore, strategy for removing Pb from waste water treatment is important. One of the prospective methods to remove Pb is membrane biofilter. Here, the purpose of this study was to prepare the membrane biofilter for Pb removal process. In this study, membrane biofilter was produced from banana stem. Banana stem was selected because of its abundant availability   in Indonesia. And, for somewhat, this banana stem can be environmental problems (become waste since Indonesia is one of the top producers in the world. In short of the experimental procedure, we conducted three steps of experiments: (1 Preparation of microbial cellulose using Acetobacter xylinum using banana stem for a main source; (2 Synthesis of cellulose acetate; and (3 Preparation of biomembrane from obtained cellulose acetate. To produce membrane biofilter, the cellulose acetate was dissolved into dichloromethane to form a dope solution. Then, the doped solution was printed in Petri dish. Some biomembrane properties were characterized for identification, i.e. infrared spectra, electron microscope, and elemental analysis. Experimental results showed that we succeeded to prepare biomembrane with a pore size of 5 μm. The filtration efficiency of our prepared membrane was 93.7% of Pb when using Pb with a concentration of 10 ppm.

  10. Banana-shaped molecules derived from substituted isophthalic acids

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Different precursors inducing the bending angle of the banana-shaped molecules. Figure 2. ... Pramana – J. Phys., Vol. 61, No. 2, August ... isotropic liquid; N: nematic; SmA: smectic A; SmC: smectic C. For other phase assign- ments, see text.

  11. Household uses of the banana plant in eastern Democratic Republic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SARAH

    2015-11-30

    Nov 30, 2015 ... ... food, feed and medicine. Other uses included extraction of fibre, arts and crafts and use as medicine. .... used banana peels as livestock feed was not significantly different (P ≤ 0.05). ..... Glass Fiber Woven Fabric-Reinforced Polyester. Composite. Journal ... chemical resistance of natural fibres reinforced.

  12. Nutrient-enhancement of Matooke banana for improved nutrient ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A total of 173 PLHIVregistered with Rakai Health Science Project were chosen and interviewed using structured questionnaires to determine the current contribution of banana to the household food security. Nutrient intake data were collected using Gibson s 24-hour recall method and food frequency questionnaires.

  13. Physiological and biochemical changes during banana ripening and finger drop

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Imsabai, W.; Ketsa, S.; Doorn, van W.G.

    2006-01-01

    Fruit drop of banana is due to breaking at the junction of the pedicel and pulp, and we found no true abscission zone. The breakage seems therefore due to weakening of the peel. We investigated pectin hydrolysis and some properties at the rupture zone, using `Hom Thong` (Musa acuminata, AAA Group)

  14. Hot water treatments delay cold-induced banana peel blackening

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Promyou, S.; Ketsa, S.; Doorn, van W.G.

    2008-01-01

    Banana fruit of cv. Gros Michel (Musa acuminata, AAA Group, locally called cv. Hom Thong) and cv. Namwa (Musa x paradisiaca, ABB Group) were immersed for 5, 10 and 15 min in water at 42 degrees C, or in water at 25 degrees C (control), and were then stored at 4 degrees C. Hot water treatment for 15

  15. A molecular diagnostic for tropical race 4 of the banana

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dita Rodriguez, M.A.; Waalwijk, C.; Buddenhagen, I.W.; Souza, M.T.; Kema, G.H.J.

    2010-01-01

    This study analysed genomic variation of the translation elongation factor 1 (TEF-1) and the intergenic spacer region (IGS) of the nuclear ribosomal operon of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense (Foc) isolates, from different banana production areas, representing strains within the known races,

  16. Effects of potassium deficiency, drought and weevils on banana ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mo

    yields, but the mean benefit-cost ratio is still low (1.6) when N and P fertilizer costs ... high. We recommend testing the use of mulch to decrease drought risk and enhance fertilizer use efficiency. ... Bananas are a major food and cash crop in.

  17. Banana-shaped molecules derived from substituted isophthalic acids

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In this paper we present a review of five-rings banana-shaped molecules derived from isophthalic acids. This study deals with about a hundred compounds and most of them have not been published. By a combination of several linking groups and different selected substituents either on the outer rings or on the central core ...

  18. Agronomic performance of introduced banana varieties in lowlands ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Most of Rwandan banana cultivars are low-yielding and susceptible to pests and diseases. High yielding and pest/disease resistant varieties have been obtained in advanced breeding centers recently. Introduction, evaluation and adoption of such varieties by local producers may be one of the options to boost yields.

  19. Lipophilic phytochemicals from banana fruits of several Musa species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilela, Carla; Santos, Sónia A O; Villaverde, Juan J; Oliveira, Lúcia; Nunes, Alberto; Cordeiro, Nereida; Freire, Carmen S R; Silvestre, Armando J D

    2014-11-01

    The chemical composition of the lipophilic extract of ripe pulp of banana fruit from several banana cultivars belonging to the Musa acuminata and Musa balbisiana species (namely 'Chinese Cavendish', 'Giant Cavendish', 'Dwarf Red', 'Grand Nain', 'Eilon', 'Gruesa', 'Silver', 'Ricasa', 'Williams' and 'Zelig') was studied by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry for the first time. The banana cultivars showed similar amounts of lipophilic extractives (ca. 0.4% of dry material weight) as well as qualitative chemical compositions. The major groups of compounds identified in these fractions were fatty acids and sterols making up 68.6-84.3% and 11.1-28.0%, respectively, of the total amount of lipophilic components. Smaller amounts of long chain aliphatic alcohols and α-tocopherol were also identified. These results are a relevant contribution for the valorisation of these banana cultivars as sources of valuable phytochemicals (ω-3 and ω-6 fatty acids, and sterols) with well-established beneficial nutritional and health effects. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Evaluation of genetic diversity between 27 banana cultivars (Musa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cultivated bananas (Musa spp.) are mostly diploid or triploid cultivars with various combinations of the A and B genomes inherited from their diploid ancestors Musa acuminata Colla. and Musa balbisiana. Colla. respectively. Random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) markers were used to establish the relatedness of 27 ...

  1. Factors Affecting Utilization of Cooking Banana among Households ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study investigated factors affecting utilization of cooking banana among households in Oguta area of Imo State, Nigeria. Data were collected from 84 randomly selected respondents from six communities in the study area who were administered with structured questionnaire. Data analysis was by use of descriptive ...

  2. Prospects and determinants of adoption of IITA plantain and banana ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    High yielding and disease resistant plantain and banana hybrids and its associated technologies generated by IITA to combat the menace of black Sigatoka disease (Mycosphaerella fijiensis) were massively disseminated in year 2000. Since the hybrids were slightly different from the existing varieties in fruit size there was ...

  3. Efficient regeneration of the endangered banana cultivar 'Virupakshi ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Plantlets of the banana cultivar 'Virupakshi' (AAB) were regenerated from somatic embryos derived from embryogenic cells of calli from immature male flower explants. Induction of calli from explants was favored by a relatively moderate concentration of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) (4 mg/L), high concentrations of ...

  4. Anthelmintic effects of dried ground banana plant leaves ( Musa spp ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Helminths is a endoparasites that cause the major losses for profitable sheep production in Brazil. The increased development of resistant strains of endoparasites have enforced the search for sustainable alternatives. The aim of this paper was to provide information about endoparasites control with banana ...

  5. Characteristics of micro-propagated banana (Musa spp.) cultures ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    2011-05-23

    May 23, 2011 ... was conducted to assess the effect of NaCl and PEG separately as well as in combination on plant micro- propagation efficiency of banana (Musa spp.) cv., Basrai. In this experiment, 4-weeks old plantlets of the 3rd sub- culture with well propagation on MS2b nutrient were sub- cultured on three differentially ...

  6. Root activity pattern of banana under irrigated and rain conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sobhana, A.; Aravindakshan, M.; Wahid, P.A.

    1989-01-01

    Root morphology by excavation method and root activity pattern by 32 P soil-injection technique have been studied in banana var., Nendran under rainfed/irrigated conditions. The number of roots, length and diameter of roots and dry weight of roots were found to be more for the rainfed banana crop compared to the irrigated. The results of the radiotracer studies indicated that about 60 per cent of the active roots of irrigated banana lie within 20 cm distance and about 90 per cent of the total root activity is found within 40 cm distance from the plant. In the case of rainfed crop about 85 per cent of the active roots were found within a radius of 40 cm around the plant. Active roots were found to be more concentrated at 15 to 30 cm depth under rainfed conditions while the density of active roots was more or less uniform along the profile upto a dpeth of 60 cm in irrigated banana. (author). 4 refs., 3 figs

  7. Strategy to increase Barangan Banana production in Kabupaten Deli Serdang

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adhany, I.; Chalil, D.; Ginting, R.

    2018-02-01

    This study was conducted to analyze internal and external factors in increasing Barangan Banana production in Kabupaten Deli Serdang. Samples were determined by snowball sampling technique and purposive sampling method. Using SWOT analysis method, this study found that there were 6 internal strategic factors and 9 external strategic factors. Among that strategic factors, support for production facilities appears as the most important internal strategic factor, while the demand for Barangan Banana. as the most important external strategic factor. Based on the importance and existing condition of these strategic factors, using support for production facilities and realization of supporting facilities with farming experience are the strategies covering strength-opportunity (SO), organizing mentoring to meet the demand for Barangan Banana are the strategies covering weakness-opportunity (WO), making use of funding support and subsidies to widen the land, using tissue culture seeds and facilities and infrastructures are the strategies covering strength-threat (ST), increas the funding support to widen the land, the use of tissue culture seeds and facilities and infrastructures are the strategies covering weakness-threat (WT) are discussed and proposed to increase Barangan Banana productivity in Kabupaten Deli Serdang.

  8. Sheep fed with banana leaf hay reduce ruminal protozoa population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freitas, Cláudio Eduardo Silva; Duarte, Eduardo Robson; Alves, Dorismar David; Martinele, Isabel; D'Agosto, Marta; Cedrola, Franciane; de Moura Freitas, Angélica Alves; Dos Santos Soares, Franklin Delano; Beltran, Makenzi

    2017-04-01

    A ciliate protozoa suppression can reduce methane production increasing the energy efficiency utilization by ruminants. The physicochemical characteristics of rumen fluid and the profile of the rumen protozoa populations were evaluated for sheep fed banana leaf hay in replacement of the Cynodon dactylon cv. vaqueiro hay. A total of 30 male sheep were raised in intensive system during 15 days of adaptation and 63 days of experimental period. The animals were distributed in a completely randomized design that included six replicates of five treatments with replacement levels (0, 25, 50, 75, and 100%) of the grass vaquero for the banana leaf hay. Samples of fluid were collected directly from the rumen with sterile catheters. Color, odor, viscosity, and the methylene blue reduction potential (MBRP) were evaluated and pH estimated using a digital potentiometer. After decimal dilutions, counts of genus protozoa were performed in Sedgewick Rafter chambers. The averages of pH, MBRP, color, odor, and viscosity were not influenced by the inclusion of the banana leaf hay. However, the total number of protozoa and Entodinium spp. population significantly decreased at 75 and 100% inclusions of banana leaf hay as roughage.

  9. Investigation of waste banana peels and radish leaves for their ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article is mainly based on the production of biodiesel and bioethanol from waste banana peels and radish leaves. The oily content from both the samples were converted to biodiesel by acid catalyzed and base catalyzed transesterification using methanol and ethanol. The biodiesel so obtained was subjected to ...

  10. Optimization of in vitro multiplication for exotic banana (Musa spp ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    win7

    2015-06-17

    Jun 17, 2015 ... drought stress and plants diseases, the banana production in Pakistan has ..... evaluated that hormonal response is specific genotypic dependent. ... BAP 4.0 mg/L-1 in interaction with 1.0 mg/L-1 IAA was suggested as optimal ...

  11. Metal analyses of ash derived alkalis from banana and plantain ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The objective of this work was to determine the metal content of plantain and banana peels ash derived alkali and the possibility of using it as alternate and cheap source of alkali in soap industry. This was done by ashing the peels and dissolving it in de-ionised water to achieve the corresponding hydroxides with pH above ...

  12. Coculture fermentation of banana agro-waste to ethanol by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Banana is a major cash crop of many regions generating good amount of waste after harvest. This agro waste which is left for natural degradation is used as substrate for single step ethanol fermentation by thermophilic, cellulolytic, ethanologenic Clostridium thermocellum CT2, a new culture isolated from elephant ...

  13. Engineering the ATLAS TAG Browser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Qizhi

    2011-01-01

    ELSSI is a web-based event metadata (TAG) browser and event-level selection service for ATLAS. In this paper, we describe some of the challenges encountered in the process of developing ELSSI, and the software engineering strategies adopted to address those challenges. Approaches to management of access to data, browsing, data rendering, query building, query validation, execution, connection management, and communication with auxiliary services are discussed. We also describe strategies for dealing with data that may vary over time, such as run-dependent trigger decision decoding. Along with examples, we illustrate how programming techniques in multiple languages (PHP, JAVASCRIPT, XML, AJAX, and PL/SQL) have been blended to achieve the required results. Finally, we evaluate features of the ELSSI service in terms of functionality, scalability, and performance.

  14. To tag or not to tag: animal welfare, conservation and stakeholder considerations in fish tracking studies that use electronic tags

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cooke, Steven J.; Nguyen, Vivian M.; Murchie, Karen J.; Thiem, Jason D.; Donaldson, Michael R.; Hinch, Scott G.; Brown, Richard S.; Fisk, Aaron

    2013-11-01

    The advent and widespread adoption of electronic tags (including biotelemetry and biologging devices) for tracking animals has provided unprecedented information on the biology, management, and conservation of fish in the world’s oceans and inland waters. However, use of these tools is not without controversy. Even when scientific and management objectives may best be achieved using electronic tags, it is increasingly important to further consider other factors such as the welfare of tagged animals (i.e., the role of training and science-based surgical guidelines, anesthetic use, inability to maintain sterile conditions in field environments), the ethics of tagging threatened species vs. using surrogates, stakeholder perspectives on tagging (including aboriginals), as well as use of data emanating from such studies (e.g., by fishers to facilitate exploitation). Failure to do so will have the potential to create conflict and undermine scientific, management and public confidence in the use of this powerful tool. Indeed, there are already a number of examples of where tracking studies using electronic tags have been halted based on concerns raised by researchers, authorities, or stakeholders. Here we present a candid evaluation of several factors that should be considered when determining when to tag or not to tag fish with electronic devices. It is not our objective to judge the merit of previous studies. Rather, we hope to stimulate debate and discussion regarding the use of electronic tags to study fish. Relatedly, there is a need for more research to address these questions (e.g., what level of cleanliness is needed when conducting surgeries, what type of training should be required for fish surgery) including human dimensions studies to understand perspectives of different actors including society as a whole with respect to tagging and tracking studies.

  15. Exploring the Long Tail of Social Media Tags

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kordumova, S.; van Gemert, J.; Snoek, C.G.M.; Tian, Q.; Sebe, N.; Qi, G.-J.; Huet, B.; Hong, R.; Liu, X.

    2016-01-01

    There are millions of users who tag multimedia content, generating a large vocabulary of tags. Some tags are frequent, while other tags are rarely used following a long tail distribution. For frequent tags, most of the multimedia methods that aim to automatically understand audio-visual content,

  16. Method and apparatus for manufacturing gas tags

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gross, K.C.; Laug, M.T.

    1996-01-01

    For use in the manufacture of gas tags employed in a gas tagging failure detection system for a nuclear reactor, a plurality of commercial feed gases each having a respective noble gas isotopic composition are blended under computer control to provide various tag gas mixtures having selected isotopic ratios which are optimized for specified defined conditions such as cost. Using a new approach employing a discrete variable structure rather than the known continuous-variable optimization problem, the computer controlled gas tag manufacturing process employs an analytical formalism from condensed matter physics known as stochastic relaxation, which is a special case of simulated annealing, for input feed gas selection. For a tag blending process involving M tag isotopes with N distinct feed gas mixtures commercially available from an enriched gas supplier, the manufacturing process calculates the cost difference between multiple combinations and specifies gas mixtures which approach the optimum defined conditions. The manufacturing process is then used to control tag blending apparatus incorporating tag gas canisters connected by stainless-steel tubing with computer controlled valves, with the canisters automatically filled with metered quantities of the required feed gases. 4 figs

  17. Flavour Tagging Algorithms and Performances in LHCb

    CERN Document Server

    Calvi, M; Musy, M

    2007-01-01

    In this note we describe the general characteristics of the LHCb flavour tagging algorithms and summarize the tagging performances on the Monte Carlo samples generated for the Data Challenge 2004 in different decay channels. We also discuss some systematics effects and possible methods to extract the mistag fraction in real data.

  18. Evaluation of PIT-tagging in cyprinids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skov, Christian; Brodersen, J.; Brönmark, C.

    2005-01-01

    Laboratory and field experiments were used to investigate how different marking procedures, with 23 mm PIT (passive integrated transponders) - tags. affected mortality, body condition and tag expulsion in small roach Rutilus rutilus and rudd Scardinus erythrophthalmus (117 to 163 mm total length...

  19. Tagging behaviour with support from controlled vocabulary

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lykke, Marianne; Høj, Anne Lyhne; Madsen, Line Nørgaard

    2011-01-01

    ) and an enhanced tagging system (experimental system) that additionally offers suggestions from the Dewey Decimal Classification system (DDC). In the experimental study twenty-eight political students completed four tagging tasks, each comprising fifteen documents. The focus was to examine how suggestions from...

  20. Activation tagging of the two closely linked genes LEP and VAS independently affects vascular cell number

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van der Graaff, Eric; Hooykaas, Paul J J; Keller, Beat

    2002-01-01

    report that in addition to this leafy petiole phenotype, the size of the vascular bundles is increased in all aerial organs in let as a result of an increase in the number of xylem, phloem (pro)cambial and pericycle cells. This vascular phenotype is caused by activation tagging of the two genes VASCULAR......-promoting factor. The activation tagging of VAS only resulted in a specific increase in phloem (pro)cambial and pericycle cells. We conclude that activation tagging of LEP and VAS results in additive phenotypes. Insertional mutants for LEP and VAS display wild-type vascular development, indicating the relevance...... of activation tagging for functional analysis of novel genes involved in plant development....

  1. Behavioral tagging is a general mechanism of long-term memory formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballarini, Fabricio; Moncada, Diego; Martinez, Maria Cecilia; Alen, Nadia; Viola, Haydée

    2009-08-25

    In daily life, memories are intertwined events. Little is known about the mechanisms involved in their interactions. Using two hippocampus-dependent (spatial object recognition and contextual fear conditioning) and one hippocampus-independent (conditioned taste aversion) learning tasks, we show that in rats subjected to weak training protocols that induce solely short term memory (STM), long term memory (LTM) is promoted and formed only if training sessions took place in contingence with a novel, but not familiar, experience occurring during a critical time window around training. This process requires newly synthesized proteins induced by novelty and reveals a general mechanism of LTM formation that begins with the setting of a "learning tag" established by a weak training. These findings represent the first comprehensive set of evidences indicating the existence of a behavioral tagging process that in analogy to the synaptic tagging and capture process, need the creation of a transient, protein synthesis-independent, and input specific tag.

  2. Notes on SAW Tag Interrogation Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barton, Richard J.

    2010-01-01

    We consider the problem of interrogating a single SAW RFID tag with a known ID and known range in the presence of multiple interfering tags under the following assumptions: (1) The RF propagation environment is well approximated as a simple delay channel with geometric power-decay constant alpha >/= 2. (2) The interfering tag IDs are unknown but well approximated as independent, identically distributed random samples from a probability distribution of tag ID waveforms with known second-order properties, and the tag of interest is drawn independently from the same distribution. (3) The ranges of the interfering tags are unknown but well approximated as independent, identically distributed realizations of a random variable rho with a known probability distribution f(sub rho) , and the tag ranges are independent of the tag ID waveforms. In particular, we model the tag waveforms as random impulse responses from a wide-sense-stationary, uncorrelated-scattering (WSSUS) fading channel with known bandwidth and scattering function. A brief discussion of the properties of such channels and the notation used to describe them in this document is given in the Appendix. Under these assumptions, we derive the expression for the output signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) for an arbitrary combination of transmitted interrogation signal and linear receiver filter. Based on this expression, we derive the optimal interrogator configuration (i.e., transmitted signal/receiver filter combination) in the two extreme noise/interference regimes, i.e., noise-limited and interference-limited, under the additional assumption that the coherence bandwidth of the tags is much smaller than the total tag bandwidth. Finally, we evaluate the performance of both optimal interrogators over a broad range of operating scenarios using both numerical simulation based on the assumed model and Monte Carlo simulation based on a small sample of measured tag waveforms. The performance evaluation results not only

  3. Sentiment topic mining based on comment tags

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Daohai; Liu, Xue; Li, Juan; Fan, Mingyue

    2018-03-01

    With the development of e-commerce, various comments based on tags are generated, how to extract valuable information from these comment tags has become an important content of business management decisions. This study takes HUAWEI mobile phone tags as an example using the sentiment analysis and topic LDA mining method. The first step is data preprocessing and classification of comment tag topic mining. And then make the sentiment classification for comment tags. Finally, mine the comments again and analyze the emotional theme distribution under different sentiment classification. The results show that HUAWEI mobile phone has a good user experience in terms of fluency, cost performance, appearance, etc. Meanwhile, it should pay more attention to independent research and development, product design and development. In addition, battery and speed performance should be enhanced.

  4. Application of Cold Storage for Raja Sere Banana (Musa acuminata colla)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crismas, S. R. S.; Purwanto, Y. A.; Sutrisno

    2018-05-01

    Raja Sere is one of the indigenous banana cultivars in Indonesia. This cultivar has a yellow color when ripen, small size and sweet taste. Traditionally, the growers market this banana cultivar to the market without any treatment to delay the ripening process. Banana fruits are commonly being harvested at the condition of hard green mature. At this condition of hard green mature, banana fruits can be stored for a long-term period. The objective of this study was to examine the effect of cold storage on the quality of raja sere banana that stored at 13°C. Banana fruits cultivar Raja Sere were harvested from local farmer field at the condition of hard green mature (about 14 weeks age after the flower bloom). Fifteen bunches of banana were stored in cold storage with a temperature of 13°C for 0, 3, 6, 9, and 12 days, respectively. For the control, room temperature storage (28°C) was used. At a storage period, samples of banana fruits ripened in the ripening chamber by injecting 100 ppm of ethylene gas at 25°C for 24 hours. The quality parameters namely respiration rate, hardness, total soluble solids (TSS), change in color, and weight loss were measured. For those banana fruits stored at room temperature, the shelf-life of banana was only reached up to 6 days. For those banana fruits stored in cold storage, the condition of banana fruits was reached up to 12 days. After cold storage and ripening, the third day measurement was the optimal time for bananas to be consumed which indicated by the yellow color (lightness value = 68.51, a* = 4.74 and value b* = 62.63), TSS 24.30 °Brix and hardness 0.48 kgf, weight loss about 7.53-16.45% and CO2 respiration rate of 100.37 mLCO2 / kg.hr.

  5. Distribution, timing of attack, and oviposition of the banana weevil, Cosmopolites sordidus, on banana crop residues in Uganda

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Masanza, M.; Gold, C.S.; Huis, van A.

    2005-01-01

    Crop sanitation (removal and chopping of residue corms and pseudostems following plant harvest) has been recommended as a 'best bet' means of reducing banana weevil, Cosmopolites sordidus (Germar) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), populations. However, it has been unclear when such practices should be

  6. Phylogeny of Banana Streak Virus reveals recent and repetitive endogenization in the genome of its banana host (Musa sp.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gayral, Philippe; Iskra-Caruana, Marie-Line

    2009-07-01

    Banana streak virus (BSV) is a plant dsDNA pararetrovirus (family Caulimoviridae, genus badnavirus). Although integration is not an essential step in the BSV replication cycle, the nuclear genome of banana (Musa sp.) contains BSV endogenous pararetrovirus sequences (BSV EPRVs). Some BSV EPRVs are infectious by reconstituting a functional viral genome. Recent studies revealed a large molecular diversity of episomal BSV viruses (i.e., nonintegrated) while others focused on BSV EPRV sequences only. In this study, the evolutionary history of badnavirus integration in banana was inferred from phylogenetic relationships between BSV and BSV EPRVs. The relative evolution rates and selective pressures (d(N)/d(S) ratio) were also compared between endogenous and episomal viral sequences. At least 27 recent independent integration events occurred after the divergence of three banana species, indicating that viral integration is a recent and frequent phenomenon. Relaxation of selective pressure on badnaviral sequences that experienced neutral evolution after integration in the plant genome was recorded. Additionally, a significant decrease (35%) in the EPRV evolution rate was observed compared to BSV, reflecting the difference in the evolution rate between episomal dsDNA viruses and plant genome. The comparison of our results with the evolution rate of the Musa genome and other reverse-transcribing viruses suggests that EPRVs play an active role in episomal BSV diversity and evolution.

  7. Tagged at first listen: an examination of social tagging practices in a music recommender system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Audrey Laplante

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/1518-2924.2015v20nesp1p33 Social tagging has become a very common way to index different types of resources on the web. Less prevalent in music than in other domains, social tagging is nevertheless used in a popular recommender system, Last.fm. Although the number of publications on tagging and folksonomies has exploded in the last few years, music tagging is still not well studied. In this paper, we present a study of tagging practices of Last.fm users. We examine the social tagging of songs during the first three months after their release. Our analysis shows that the release of a song triggers a burst in tagging activity that lasts two weeks, after what it decreases sharply and then remains fairly constant for the next ten weeks. We also find that a majority of songs do not get tagged during the first week and that tagging was positively related to popularity. Finally, we find that tags that have been frequently applied to a given song are more likely to be genre related, shorter in length, and relatively objective than tags that have been applied only once.

  8. Bag3-induced autophagy is associated with degradation of JCV oncoprotein, T-Ag.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilker Kudret Sariyer

    Full Text Available JC virus, JCV, is a human neurotropic polyomavirus whose replication in glial cells causes the fatal demyelinating disease progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML. In addition, JCV possesses oncogenic activity and expression of its transforming protein, large T-antigen (T-Ag, in several experimental animals induces tumors of neural origin. Further, the presence of JCV DNA and T-Ag have been repeatedly observed in several human malignant tissues including primitive neuroectodermal tumors and glioblastomas. Earlier studies have demonstrated that Bag3, a member of the Bcl-2-associated athanogene (Bag family of proteins, which is implicated in autophagy and apoptosis, is downregulated upon JCV infection of glial cells and that JCV T-Ag is responsible for suppressing the activity of the BAG3 promoter. Here, we investigated the possible impact of Bag3 on T-Ag expression in JCV-infected human primary glial cells as well as in cells derived from T-Ag-induced medulloblastoma in transgenic animals. Results from these studies revealed that overexpression of Bag3 drastically decreases the level of T-Ag expression by inducing the autophagic degradation of the viral protein. Interestingly, this event leads to the inhibition of JCV infection of glial cells, suggesting that the reduced levels of T-antigen seen upon the overexpression of Bag3 has a biological impact on the viral lytic cycle. Results from protein-protein interaction studies showed that T-Ag and Bag3 physically interact with each other through the zinc-finger of T-Ag and the proline rich domains of Bag3, and this interaction is important for the autophagic degradation of T-Ag. Our observations open a new avenue of research for better understanding of virus-host interaction by investigating the interplay between T-Ag and Bag3, and their impact on the development of JCV-associated diseases.

  9. Bag3-induced autophagy is associated with degradation of JCV oncoprotein, T-Ag.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sariyer, Ilker Kudret; Merabova, Nana; Patel, Prem Kumer; Knezevic, Tijana; Rosati, Alessandra; Turco, Maria C; Khalili, Kamel

    2012-01-01

    JC virus, JCV, is a human neurotropic polyomavirus whose replication in glial cells causes the fatal demyelinating disease progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML). In addition, JCV possesses oncogenic activity and expression of its transforming protein, large T-antigen (T-Ag), in several experimental animals induces tumors of neural origin. Further, the presence of JCV DNA and T-Ag have been repeatedly observed in several human malignant tissues including primitive neuroectodermal tumors and glioblastomas. Earlier studies have demonstrated that Bag3, a member of the Bcl-2-associated athanogene (Bag) family of proteins, which is implicated in autophagy and apoptosis, is downregulated upon JCV infection of glial cells and that JCV T-Ag is responsible for suppressing the activity of the BAG3 promoter. Here, we investigated the possible impact of Bag3 on T-Ag expression in JCV-infected human primary glial cells as well as in cells derived from T-Ag-induced medulloblastoma in transgenic animals. Results from these studies revealed that overexpression of Bag3 drastically decreases the level of T-Ag expression by inducing the autophagic degradation of the viral protein. Interestingly, this event leads to the inhibition of JCV infection of glial cells, suggesting that the reduced levels of T-antigen seen upon the overexpression of Bag3 has a biological impact on the viral lytic cycle. Results from protein-protein interaction studies showed that T-Ag and Bag3 physically interact with each other through the zinc-finger of T-Ag and the proline rich domains of Bag3, and this interaction is important for the autophagic degradation of T-Ag. Our observations open a new avenue of research for better understanding of virus-host interaction by investigating the interplay between T-Ag and Bag3, and their impact on the development of JCV-associated diseases.

  10. Pop-up Archival Transmitting (PAT) fish tag data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The cooperative tagging center (CTC) began deploying electronic tags in 2002. To date over 300 tags have been deployed. The following species have been monitored:...

  11. Biomass waste-to-energy valorisation technologies: a review case for banana processing in Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gumisiriza, Robert; Hawumba, Joseph Funa; Okure, Mackay; Hensel, Oliver

    2017-01-01

    Uganda's banana industry is heavily impeded by the lack of cheap, reliable and sustainable energy mainly needed for processing of banana fruit into pulp and subsequent drying into chips before milling into banana flour that has several uses in the bakery industry, among others. Uganda has one of the lowest electricity access levels, estimated at only 2-3% in rural areas where most of the banana growing is located. In addition, most banana farmers have limited financial capacity to access modern solar energy technologies that can generate sufficient energy for industrial processing. Besides energy scarcity and unreliability, banana production, marketing and industrial processing generate large quantities of organic wastes that are disposed of majorly by unregulated dumping in places such as swamps, thereby forming huge putrefying biomass that emit green house gases (methane and carbon dioxide). On the other hand, the energy content of banana waste, if harnessed through appropriate waste-to-energy technologies, would not only solve the energy requirement for processing of banana pulp, but would also offer an additional benefit of avoiding fossil fuels through the use of renewable energy. The potential waste-to-energy technologies that can be used in valorisation of banana waste can be grouped into three: Thermal (Direct combustion and Incineration), Thermo-chemical (Torrefaction, Plasma treatment, Gasification and Pyrolysis) and Biochemical (Composting, Ethanol fermentation and Anaerobic Digestion). However, due to high moisture content of banana waste, direct application of either thermal or thermo-chemical waste-to-energy technologies is challenging. Although, supercritical water gasification does not require drying of feedstock beforehand and can be a promising thermo-chemical technology for gasification of wet biomass such as banana waste, it is an expensive technology that may not be adopted by banana farmers in Uganda. Biochemical conversion technologies are

  12. Evaluation of Banana Hypersensitivity Among a Group of Atopic Egyptian Children: Relation to Parental/Self Reports

    OpenAIRE

    El-Sayed, Zeinab A.; El-Ghoneimy, Dalia H.; El-Shennawy, Dina; Nasser, Manar W.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate the frequency of banana sensitization and allergy among a group of atopic Egyptian children in relation to parental/self reports. Methods This is a case-control study included 2 groups of allergic children with and without history of banana allergy, each included 40 patients. They were subjected to skin prick test (SPT) using commercial banana allergen extract and prick-prick test (PPT) using raw banana, in addition to measuring the serum banana-specific IgE. Oral banana c...

  13. Characterization of a new pathovar of Agrobacterium vitis causing banana leaf blight in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Siliang; Long, Mengling; Fu, Gang; Lin, Shanhai; Qin, Liping; Hu, Chunjin; Cen, Zhenlu; Lu, Jie; Li, Qiqin

    2015-01-01

    A new banana leaf blight was found in Nanning city, China, during a 7-year survey (2003-2009) of the bacterial diseases on banana plants. Eight bacterial strains were isolated from affected banana leaves, and identified as an intraspecific taxon of Agrobacterium vitis based on their 16S rDNA sequence similarities with those of 37 randomly selected bacterial strains registered in GenBank database. The representative strain Ag-1 was virulent on banana leaves and shared similar growth and biochemical reactions with the reference strain IAM14140 of A. vitis. The strains causing banana leaf blight were denominated as A. vitis pv. musae. The traditional A. vitis strains virulent to grapevines were proposed to be revised as A. vitis pv. vitis. This is the first record of a new type of A. vitis causing banana leaf blight in China. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  14. DICOM involving XML path-tag

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Qiang; Yao, Zhihong; Liu, Lei

    2011-03-01

    Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine (DICOM) is a standard for handling, storing, printing, and transmitting information in medical imaging. XML (Extensible Markup Language) is a set of rules for encoding documents in machine-readable form which has become more and more popular. The combination of these two is very necessary and promising. Using XML tags instead of numeric labels in DICOM files will effectively increase the readability and enhance the clear hierarchical structure of DICOM files. However, due to the fact that the XML tags rely heavily on the orders of the tags, the strong data dependency has a lot of influence on the flexibility of inserting and exchanging data. In order to improve the extensibility and sharing of DICOM files, this paper introduces XML Path-Tag to DICOM. When a DICOM file is converted to XML format, adding simple Path-Tag into the DICOM file in place of complex tags will keep the flexibility of a DICOM file while inserting data elements and give full play to the advantages of the structure and readability of an XML file. Our method can solve the weak readability problem of DICOM files and the tedious work of inserting data into an XML file. In addition, we set up a conversion engine that can transform among traditional DICOM files, XML-DCM and XML-DCM files involving XML Path-Tag efficiently.

  15. Folksonomia: a linguagem das tags

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana de Assis

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A radicalização do potencial colaborativo da web atual aponta uma tendência de personalização da recuperação da informação através de ferramentas que exploram a linguagem natural na representação e no compartilhamento de conteúdos ao longo das redes sociais. Tal configuração sócio-técnica traz desafios aos profissionais da informação tanto para a descrição e compreensão dos fenômenos informacionais que ocorrem neste âmbito, quanto para a elaboração de produtos e serviços voltados para um usuário que se apresenta cada vez mais como sujeito informacional ao assumir um papel ativo diante da complexidade que caracteriza a organização da informação em contextos digitais. Este artigo apresenta conclusões de pesquisa, relacionadas às analises da linguagem utilizada em três ambientes colaborativos que utilizam a folksonomia (Social Tagging Systems. A partir de uma perspectiva fundamentada na Semiótica e na Análise de Redes Sociais, são identificadas e descritas as principais manifestações da linguagem gerada e compartilhada pelas redes sociais através destes ambientes.

  16. Ky'osimba Onaanya: Understanding Productivity of East African Highland Banana

    OpenAIRE

    Taulya, G.

    2016-01-01

    Over 30 million people in East Africa depend on East African highland bananas for food and income. The bananas are grown with limited additions of nutrients and no irrigation, despite widespread poor soil fertility and regular dry seasons. This thesis describes the effect of increasing rainfall and application of potassium and nitrogen fertilizers on banana growth and yields. In areas that receive less than 1100 mm of rainfall per year, additional rainfall increases yields by 65%. Application...

  17. W/Top/Higgs-tagging in ATLAS

    CERN Document Server

    Norjoharuddeen, Nurfikri; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    We present updates of W, Top and Higgs tagging studies with the ATLAS detector. The performance of 2 variable taggers, HEPTopTagger and shower deconstruction are compared in Monte Carlo simulations. To asses the modelling of the taggers’ performance, the tagging efficiencies are measured, with the full 2015+2016 dataset, in semi-leptonic top quark pair events and the background rejections are measured in dijet and photon+jet topologies. Recent developments in subjet reconstruction techniques for high transverse momentum Higgs->bb tagging are also presented.

  18. TaGS5-3A, a grain size gene selected during wheat improvement for larger kernel and yield.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Lin; Li, Tian; Hao, Chenyang; Wang, Yuquan; Chen, Xinhong; Zhang, Xueyong

    2016-05-01

    Grain size is a dominant component of grain weight in cereals. Earlier studies have shown that OsGS5 plays a major role in regulating both grain size and weight in rice via promotion of cell division. In this study, we isolated TaGS5 homoeologues in wheat and mapped them on chromosomes 3A, 3B and 3D. Temporal and spatial expression analysis showed that TaGS5 homoeologues were preferentially expressed in young spikes and developing grains. Two alleles of TaGS5-3A, TaGS5-3A-T and TaGS5-3A-G were identified in wheat accessions, and a functional marker was developed to discriminate them. Association analysis revealed that TaGS5-3A-T was significantly correlated with larger grain size and higher thousand kernel weight. Biochemical assays showed that TaGS5-3A-T possesses a higher enzymatic activity than TaGS5-3A-G. Transgenic rice lines overexpressing TaGS5-3A-T also exhibited larger grain size and higher thousand kernel weight than TaGS5-3A-G lines, and the transcript levels of cell cycle-related genes in TaGS5-3A-T lines were higher than those in TaGS5-3A-G lines. Furthermore, systematic evolution analysis in diploid, tetraploid and hexaploid wheat showed that TaGS5-3A underwent strong artificial selection during wheat polyploidization events and the frequency changes of two alleles demonstrated that TaGS5-3A-T was favoured in global modern wheat cultivars. These results suggest that TaGS5-3A is a positive regulator of grain size and its favoured allele TaGS5-3A-T exhibits a larger potential application in wheat high-yield breeding. © 2015 Society for Experimental Biology, Association of Applied Biologists and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. The influence of gamma irradiation on shelf-life extension of banana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tiravat, K.

    1971-01-01

    Effect of various doses of gamma radiation on shelf-life extension of Hom Tong banana stored at 17 0 C, 20 0 C, and 23 0 C was described. Irradiated banana stored at 20 0 C and 23 0 C did not show any retardation in ripening. Doses from 20-40 Krad appeared to delay ripening of the banana stored at 17 0 C for 3-5 days. No significant difference in weight losses between irradiated and non-irradiated banana was detected during storage

  20. Nitrogen and potassium fertilization on 'Caipira' and 'BRS Princesa' bananas in the Ribeira Valley.

    OpenAIRE

    NOMURA, E. S.; CUQUEL, F. L.; DAMATTO JUNIOR, E. R.; FUZITANI, E. J.; BORGES, A. L.; SAES, L. A.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT ‘BRS Princesa’ (AAAB) and ‘Caipira’ (AAA) banana cultivars have similar sensorial features in comparison to the ‘Maçã’ banana. They are resistant to Panama disease, which allows them to grow in the Ribeira Valley, the largest banana plantation area in the São Paulo State. However, there is no information on how to fertilize crop under these edaphoclimatic conditions. This study aimed to evaluate the development and production of ‘Caipira’ and ‘BRS Princesa’ bananas, by applying four ...

  1. Effect of chitosan nanoparticles and pectin content on mechanical properties and water vapor permeability of banana puree films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martelli, Milena R; Barros, Taís T; de Moura, Márcia R; Mattoso, Luiz H C; Assis, Odilio B G

    2013-01-01

    Puree prepared from over-ripe peeled bananas was used as raw material for films processing in a laboratory padder. Pectin and glycerol as plasticizer were added in small concentrations and chitosan nanoparticles (88.79 ± 0.42 nm medium size) incorporated at 0.2% (dry weight basis) as reinforcement material. The mechanical properties, water vapor transmission, thermal stability, and scanning electron microscopy of fractured film surfaces were characterized. Both pectin and glycerol demonstrated an important role in promoting elongation and film handability as was expected. The incorporation of nanoparticles promoted noticeable improvement of the mechanical properties and acted in reducing the water vapor permeation rate, by 21% for films processed with pectin and up to 38% for films processed without pectin, when compared to the control (puree films with no pectin and nanoparticles additions). Microscopic observation revealed a denser matrix when nanoparticles are incorporated into the films. The development of films from fruit purees head to a new strategy for plastic processing from natural resources. The over-ripe or even waste banana can be adequately prepared for batch films processed with reasonable mechanical and barrier properties, suitable for applications in the food segment. The addition of small fractions of chitosan nanoparticles, form nanocomposites enhancing mechanical and thermal stability broadening potential film applications. © 2012 Institute of Food Technologists®

  2. Comparative Performance of Acoustic-tagged and PIT-tagged Juvenile Salmonids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hockersmith, Eric E.; Brown, Richard S.; Liedtke, Theresa L.

    2008-02-01

    Numerous research tools and technologies are currently being used to evaluate fish passage and survival to determine the impacts of the Federal Columbia River Power System (FCRPS) on endangered and threatened juvenile salmonids, including PIT tags, balloon tags, hydroacoustic evaluations, radio telemetry, and acoustic telemetry. Each has advantages and disadvantages, but options are restricted in some situations because of limited capabilities of a specific technology, lack of detection capability downstream, or availability of adequate numbers of fish. However, there remains concern about the comparative effects of the tag or the tagging procedure on fish performance. The recently developed Juvenile Salmonid Acoustic Telemetry System (JSATS) acoustic transmitter is the smallest active acoustic tag currently available. The goal of this study was to determine whether fish tagged with the JSATS acoustic-telemetry tag can provide unbiased estimates of passage behavior and survival within the performance life of the tag. We conducted both field and laboratory studies to assess tag effects. For the field evaluation we released a total of 996 acoustic-tagged fish in conjunction with 21,026 PIT-tagged fish into the tailrace of Lower Granite Dam on 6 and 13 May. Travel times between release and downstream dams were not significantly different for the majority of the reaches between acoustic-tagged and PIT-tagged fish. In addition to the field evaluation, a series of laboratory experiments were conducted to determine if growth and survival of juvenile Chinook salmon surgically implanted with acoustic transmitters is different than untagged or PIT tagged juvenile Chinook salmon. Only yearling fish with integrated and non-integrated transmitters experienced mortalities, and these were low (<4.5%). Mortality among sub-yearling control and PIT-tag treatments ranged up to 7.7% while integrated and non-integrated treatments had slightly higher rates (up to 8.3% and 7

  3. Biochemical effects of gamma irradiation on banana fruits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Motaium, R.A.

    1980-01-01

    It is of important to study the extension of shelf-life at ambient temperature. This study would be of significant in the case of non- refrigerated transport, practices within the country and transhipment to distant countries. studies have therefore extended to assess the shelf-life of irradiated banana stored under-room temperature. Extension of shelf -life have been achieved by many methods, the most modern one is using gamma irradiation as a promising technology for developing nations. the aim of this investigation is to study the biochemical effects of gamma irradiation on G ros Michel m ature green banana fruits and also to determine the optimum dose level and the optimum storage conditions which resulted in, keeping the organoleptic qualities as it is and maximum extension in shelf-life

  4. Comparing the hierarchy of author given tags and repository given tags in a large document archive

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tibély, Gergely; Pollner, Péter; Palla, Gergely

    2016-10-01

    Folksonomies - large databases arising from collaborative tagging of items by independent users - are becoming an increasingly important way of categorizing information. In these systems users can tag items with free words, resulting in a tripartite item-tag-user network. Although there are no prescribed relations between tags, the way users think about the different categories presumably has some built in hierarchy, in which more special concepts are descendants of some more general categories. Several applications would benefit from the knowledge of this hierarchy. Here we apply a recent method to check the differences and similarities of hierarchies resulting from tags given by independent individuals and from tags given by a centrally managed repository system. The results from our method showed substantial differences between the lower part of the hierarchies, and in contrast, a relatively high similarity at the top of the hierarchies.

  5. User Interface Program for secure electronic tags

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cai, Y.; Koehl, E.R.; Carlson, R.D.; Raptis, A.C.

    1995-05-01

    This report summarizes and documents the efforts of Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) in developing a secure tag communication user interface program comprising a tag monitor and a communication tool. This program can perform the same functions as the software that was developed at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), but it is enhanced with a user-friendly screen. It represents the first step in updating the TRANSCOM Tracking System (TRANSCOM) by incorporating a tag communication screen menu into the main menu of the TRANSCOM user program. A working version of TRANSCOM, enhanced with ANL secure-tag graphics, will strongly support the Department of Energy Warhead Dismantlement/Special Nuclear Materials Control initiatives. It will allow commercial satellite tracking of the movements and operational activities of treaty-limited items and transportation vehicles throughout Europe and the former USSR, as well as the continental US

  6. Flavour Tagging with the LHCb experiment

    CERN Multimedia

    Birnkraut, Alex

    2015-01-01

    Measurements of flavour oscillations and time-dependent CP asymmetries in neutral B meson systems require knowledge of the b quark production flavour. This identification is performed by the Flavour Tagging.

  7. Magnetic vector field tag and seal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Roger G.; Garcia, Anthony R.

    2004-08-31

    One or more magnets are placed in a container (preferably on objects inside the container) and the magnetic field strength and vector direction are measured with a magnetometer from at least one location near the container to provide the container with a magnetic vector field tag and seal. The location(s) of the magnetometer relative to the container are also noted. If the position of any magnet inside the container changes, then the measured vector fields at the these locations also change, indicating that the tag has been removed, the seal has broken, and therefore that the container and objects inside may have been tampered with. A hollow wheel with magnets inside may also provide a similar magnetic vector field tag and seal. As the wheel turns, the magnets tumble randomly inside, removing the tag and breaking the seal.

  8. Expressed sequence tags (ESTs) and single nucleotide ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SERVER

    2008-02-19

    Feb 19, 2008 ... the discovery of the DNA, a new area of modern plant biotechnology begun. In plant ... Marker Assisted Breeding and Sequence Tagged Sites. (STS) are all in use in modern ...... and behaviour in the honey bee. Genome Res.

  9. 50 CFR 635.33 - Archival tags.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... landing; furnish all requested information regarding the location and method of capture; and, as... recovery of the tag by a NMFS scientist, enforcement agent, or other person designated in writing by NMFS...

  10. Folksonomia: a linguagem das tags

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana de Assis

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/1518-2924.2013v18n36p85   A radicalização do potencial colaborativo da web atual aponta uma tendência de personalização da recuperação da informação através de ferramentas que exploram a linguagem natural na representação e no compartilhamento de conteúdos ao longo das redes sociais. Tal configuração sócio-técnica traz desafios aos profissionais da informação tanto para a descrição e compreensão dos fenômenos informacionais que ocorrem neste âmbito, quanto para a elaboração de produtos e serviços voltados para um usuário que se apresenta cada vez mais como sujeito informacional ao assumir um papel ativo diante da complexidade que caracteriza a organização da informação em contextos digitais. Este artigo apresenta conclusões de pesquisa, relacionadas às analises da linguagem utilizada em três ambientes colaborativos que utilizam a folksonomia (Social Tagging Systems. A partir de uma perspectiva fundamentada na Semiótica e na Análise de Redes Sociais, são identificadas e descritas as principais manifestações da linguagem gerada e compartilhada pelas redes sociais através destes ambientes.

  11. Biological control of banana black Sigatoka disease with Trichoderma

    OpenAIRE

    Poholl Adan Sagratzki Cavero; Rogério Eiji Hanada; Luadir Gasparotto; Rosalee Albuquerque Coelho Neto; Jorge Teodoro de Souza

    2015-01-01

    Black Sigatoka disease caused by Mycosphaerella fijiensis is the most severe banana disease worldwide. The pathogen is in an invasive phase in Brazil and is already present in most States of the country. The potential of 29 isolates of Trichoderma spp. was studied for the control of black Sigatoka disease under field conditions. Four isolates were able to significantly reduce disease severity and were further tested in a second field experiment. Isolate 2.047 showed the best results in both f...

  12. Interaction of Spatially Localized LHW with Banana Particles

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Krlín, Ladislav; Fuchs, Vladimír; Pánek, Radomír; Papřok, Richard; Seidl, Jakub

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 1, č. 3 (2014), s. 166-168 ISSN 2336-2626. [SPPT 2014 - 26th Symposium on Plasma Physics and Technology/26./. Prague, 16.06.2014-19.06.2014] R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP205/11/2341 Institutional support: RVO:61389021 Keywords : anomalous acceleration * stochasticity * lower hybrid waves * banana particles * tokamaks Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics http://fyzika.feld.cvut.cz/misc/ppt/articles/2014/krlin.pdf

  13. Manual transportation within the plot and physical damages to bananas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magalhães Mário Jorge Maia de

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The manual transportation of banana bunches within plots provokes physical damages to fruits compromising their quality. To assess the influence of the distance banana bunches travel on the shoulders of harvesters within the plot, on the incidence of physical damages present on the peel of fruits of the Nanicão cultivar, two experiments were carried out in the Vale do Ribeira region (SP, in sites with slope < 1%. Each experiment divided the plot in different distance bands, two of which were included in this study: one located far away from the collection roads (30-50 m and 80-100 m distance bands and another in an intermediate position (70-80 m and 130-150 m distance bands. For each distance band, six banana bunches of 36 mm gauged fruits were randomly sampled. Four banana hands were cut from the middle region of each bunch and ten fruits were assessed per hand, totaling 240 fruits per treatment. Bunches were harvested at the same maturity degree and those served as control were not transported. A total of 1440 fruits was assessed in the two experiments. The physical damages on the fruit surface were graded on a scale with 6 divisions: 0-0.25 cm²; 0.25-0.5 cm²; 0.5-1.0 cm²; 1.0-1.5 cm²; 1.5-2.0 cm²; 2.0-2.5 cm². The bunches transported on the shoulders of harvesters on distances over 70 m suffered increased (P < 0.01 damaged area. Most damages presented areas up to 0.5 cm².

  14. The radurisation of bananas under commercial conditions: Pt. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brodrick, H.T.; Strydom, G.J.

    1984-01-01

    In a large scale trial with bananas, a doubling of storage life in the ripening rooms (from 14 to 29 d) was achieved using irradiation treatment to an average dose of 0,85 kGy. Both colour development and fruit softening were significantly reduced in the irradiated fruits compared with the untreated batch. A slight phytotoxic effect to the fruit was noticed at the dose of 0,85 kGy

  15. b-flavour tagging in pp collisions

    CERN Multimedia

    Birnkraut, Alex

    2015-01-01

    An essential ingredient of all time-dependent CP violation studies of B mesons is the ability to tag the initial flavour of the B meson. The harsh environment of 7 and 8 TeV pp collisions makes this a particularly difficult enterprise. We report progresses in the flavour tagging of B0 and Bs mesons, including developments of novel techniques like the use of an opposite side charm tagger.

  16. Molecular diagnostics for the sigatoka disease complex of banana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arzanlou, Mahdi; Abeln, Edwin C A; Kema, Gert H J; Waalwijk, Cees; Carlier, Jean; Vries, Ineke de; Guzmán, Mauricio; Crous, Pedro W

    2007-09-01

    ABSTRACT The Sigatoka disease complex of banana involves three related ascomycetous fungi, Mycosphaerella fijiensis, M. musicola, and M. eumusae. The exact distribution of these three species and their disease epidemiology remain unclear, because their symptoms and life cycles are rather similar. Disease diagnosis in the Mycosphaerella complex of banana is based on the presence of host symptoms and fungal fruiting structures, which hamper preventive management strategies. In the present study, we have developed rapid and robust species-specific molecular-based diagnostic tools for detection and quantification of M. fijiensis, M. musicola, and M. eumusae. Conventional species-specific polymerase chain reaction (PCR) primers were developed based on the actin gene that detected DNA at as little as 100, 1, and 10 pg/mul from M. fijiensis, M. musicola, and M. eumusae, respectively. Furthermore, TaqMan real-time quantitative PCR assays were developed based on the beta-tubulin gene and detected quantities of DNA as low as 1 pg/mul for each Mycosphaerella sp. from pure cultures and DNA at 1.6 pg/mul per milligram of dry leaf tissue for M. fijiensis that was validated using naturally infected banana leaves.

  17. Ripening influences banana and plantain peels composition and energy content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emaga, Thomas Happi; Bindelle, Jérôme; Agneesens, Richard; Buldgen, André; Wathelet, Bernard; Paquot, Michel

    2011-01-01

    Musa sp. peels are widely used by smallholders as complementary feeds for cattle in the tropics. A study of the influence of the variety and the maturation stage of the fruit on fermentability and metabolisable energy (ME) content of the peels was performed using banana (Yangambi Km5) and plantain (Big Ebanga) peels at three stages of maturation in an in vitro model of the rumen. Peel samples were analysed for starch, free sugars and fibre composition. Samples were incubated in the presence of rumen fluid. Kinetics of gas production were modelled, ME content was calculated using prediction equation and short-chain fatty acids production and molar ratio were measured after 72 h of fermentation. Final gas production was higher in plantain (269-339 ml g(-1)) compared to banana (237-328 ml g(-1)) and plantain exhibited higher ME contents (8.9-9.7 MJ/kg of dry matter, DM) compared to banana (7.7-8.8 MJ/kg of DM). Butyrate molar ratio decreased with maturity of the peels. The main influence of the variety and the stage of maturation on all fermentation parameters as well as ME contents of the peels was correlated to changes in the carbohydrate fraction of the peels, including starch and fibre.

  18. Banana fertigation with treated sanitary wastewater: postharvest and microbiological quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo Fernando Santos Alves

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Sewage may serve as a source of water and nutrients for plants. In this study, the effects of fertigation with treated sanitary wastewater from Janaúba Sewage Treatment Plant were evaluated on the postharvest and microbiological quality of ‘Prata-Anã’ banana. A randomized block experimental design was used. Four concentrations of wastewater were tested (70, 130, 170, and 200% of 150 kg ha-1 sodium. A wastewater-free control treatment was used for comparison. Two crop cycles were assessed for postharvest and microbiological quality. The parameters measured included total soluble solids, titratable acidity, total soluble solids/titratable acidity ratio, pH, total coliforms, and fecal coliforms on both the peel and the pulp. In the first crop cycle, both soluble solids and fruit pulp pH decreased as wastewater level increased up to a maximum of 141.5%. These correlations were not observed in the second cycle. Wastewater management did not affect the titratable acidity of the soluble solids. The agricultural application of treated sanitary wastewater provided banana fruits with a microbiological profile similar to that obtained with the control (pure water and with mineral fertilizers. A microbial balance is necessary to maintain the nutritional status of the banana crop.

  19. PROTOCOL FOR HARVESTING ‘BRS PRINCESS’ BANANA FRUITS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LUIZ FERNANDO GANASSALI DE OLIVEIRA JUNIOR

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The aim of this study was to develop a protocol to determine the ideal harvest time for ‘BRS Princess’ banana, using the number of aborted bracts. The bananas were selected according to the number of aborted bracts since the flowering until the time of harvest, yield clusters with 90, 95, 100 and 105 aborted bracts. The physical and chemical analyzes were performed every 3 days on fruits: soluble solids, titratable acidity, weight loss, length and diameter, pH, firmness, skin color (CIELab and pectin enzyme activity. The statistical design was completely randomized in a 4x5 factorial, with 4 points and 5 periods of harvest analysis and data were evaluated using analysis of variance and regression. For all parameters, fruits harvested at 90 and 105 aborted bracts had unwanted changes in its metabolism when compared to the other treatments, while fruits harvested at 95 and 100 aborted bracts had the best post-harvest characteristics. This method was effective in determining the point of harvest in ‘BRS Princess’ banana fruits, since it allows to obtain fruit quality after storage, and is a simple and objective method.

  20. Mechanical properties of woven banana fibre reinforced epoxy composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sapuan, S.M.; Leenie, A.; Harimi, M.; Beng, Y.K.

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, the experiments of tensile and flexural (three-point bending) tests were carried out using natural fibre with composite materials (Musaceae/epoxy). Three samples prepared from woven banana fibre composites of different geometries were used in this research. From the results obtained, it was found that the maximum value of stress in x-direction is 14.14 MN/m 2 , meanwhile the maximum value of stress in y-direction is 3.398 MN/m 2 . For the Young's modulus, the value of 0.976 GN/m 2 in x-direction and 0.863 GN/m 2 in y-direction were computed. As for the case of three-point bending (flexural), the maximum load applied is 36.25 N to get the deflection of woven banana fibre specimen beam of 0.5 mm. The maximum stress and Young's modulus in x-direction was recorded to be 26.181 MN/m 2 and 2.685 GN/m 2 , respectively. Statistical analysis using ANOVA-one way has showed that the differences of results obtained from those three samples are not significant, which confirm a very stable mechanical behaviour of the composites under different tests. This shows the importance of this product and allows many researchers to develop an adequate system for producing a good quality of woven banana fibre composite which maybe used for household utilities

  1. Chemical compositions and glycemic responses to banana varieties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hettiaratchi, U P K; Ekanayake, S; Welihinda, J

    2011-06-01

    Chemical compositions and glycemic indices of four varieties of banana (Musa spp.) (kolikuttu-Silk AAB, embul-Mysore AAB, anamalu-Gros Michel AAA, seeni kesel-Pisang Awak ABB) were determined. Silk, Gros Michel, Pisang Awak and Mysore contained the highest percentages of starch (14%), sucrose (38%), free glucose (29%) and fructose (58%) as a percentage of the total available carbohydrate content respectively. Total dietary fiber contents of four varieties ranged from 2.7 to 5.3%. Glycemic indices of Silk, Mysore, Gros Michel and Pisang Awak were 61 ± 5, 61 ± 6, 67 ± 7, 69 ± 9 and can be categorized as low against white bread as the standard. A single banana of the four varieties elicited a low glycemic load. Thus, consumption of a banana from any of these varieties can be recommended as a snack for healthy or diabetic patients who are under dietary management or pharmacological drugs to regulate blood glucose responses in between meals.

  2. Adsorption of Cu, As, Pb and Zn by Banana Trunk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nurzulaifa Shaheera Erne Mohd Yasim; Zitty Sarah Ismail; Suhanom Mohd Zaki; Mohd Fahmi Abd Azis

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the effectiveness of banana trunk as an adsorbent in removal of heavy metals in aqueous solution. Functional groups of adsorbent were determined using Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). Batch experiments were conducted to determine the adsorption percentage of heavy metals (Cu, As, Pb and Zn). The optimum adsorption using banana trunk was based on pH difference, contact time and dosage. Adsorption percentage was found to be proportional to pH, contact time and dosage. Maximum adsorption percentage of Cu, As, Pb and Zn at pH 6, 100 minutes and 8 gram of dosage are 95.80 %, 75.40 %, 99.36 % and 97.24 %, respectively. Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms were used to determine the equilibrium state for heavy metals ion adsorption experiments. All equilibrium heavy metals were well explained by the Freundlich isotherm model with R"2= 0.9441, R"2= 0.8671, R"2= 0.9489 and R"2= 0.9375 for Cu, As, Pb and Zn respectively. It is concluded that banana trunk has considerable potential for the removal of heavy metals from aqueous solution. (author)

  3. Play with Me! Gender-Typed Social Play Behavior Analysis in Interactive Tag Games

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moreno, Alejandro; Poppe, R.W.; Heylen, Dirk K J

    2016-01-01

    Promoting social behavior is one of the key goals in interactive games. In this paper, we present an experimental study in the Interactive Tag Playground (ITP) to investigate whether social behaviors reported in literature can also be observed through automated analysis. We do this by analyzing

  4. Play with Me! Gender-Typed Social Play Behavior Analysis in Interactive Tag Games

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moreno Celleri, Alejandro Manuel; Poppe, Ronald Walter; Heylen, Dirk K.J.

    Promoting social behavior is one of the key goals in interactive games. In this paper, we present an experimental study in the Interactive Tag Playground (ITP) to investigate whether social behaviors reported in literature can also be observed through automated analysis. We do this by analyzing

  5. Vector boson tagged jets and jet substructure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vitev Ivan

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In these proceedings, we report on recent results related to vector boson-tagged jet production in heavy ion collisions and the related modification of jet substructure, such as jet shapes and jet momentum sharing distributions. Z0-tagging and γ-tagging of jets provides new opportunities to study parton shower formation and propagation in the quark-gluon plasma and has been argued to provide tight constrains on the energy loss of reconstructed jets. We present theoretical predictions for isolated photon-tagged and electroweak boson-tagged jet production in Pb+Pb collisions at √sNN = 5.02 TeV at the LHC, addressing the modification of their transverse momentum and transverse momentum imbalance distributions. Comparison to recent ATLAS and CMS experimental measurements is performed that can shed light on the medium-induced radiative corrections and energy dissipation due to collisional processes of predominantly quark-initiated jets. The modification of parton splitting functions in the QGP further implies that the substructure of jets in heavy ion collisions may differ significantly from the corresponding substructure in proton-proton collisions. Two such observables and the implication of tagging on their evaluation is also discussed.

  6. Clone tag detection in distributed RFID systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamaludin, Hazalila; Mahdin, Hairulnizam

    2018-01-01

    Although Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) is poised to displace barcodes, security vulnerabilities pose serious challenges for global adoption of the RFID technology. Specifically, RFID tags are prone to basic cloning and counterfeiting security attacks. A successful cloning of the RFID tags in many commercial applications can lead to many serious problems such as financial losses, brand damage, safety and health of the public. With many industries such as pharmaceutical and businesses deploying RFID technology with a variety of products, it is important to tackle RFID tag cloning problem and improve the resistance of the RFID systems. To this end, we propose an approach for detecting cloned RFID tags in RFID systems with high detection accuracy and minimal overhead thus overcoming practical challenges in existing approaches. The proposed approach is based on consistency of dual hash collisions and modified count-min sketch vector. We evaluated the proposed approach through extensive experiments and compared it with existing baseline approaches in terms of execution time and detection accuracy under varying RFID tag cloning ratio. The results of the experiments show that the proposed approach outperforms the baseline approaches in cloned RFID tag detection accuracy. PMID:29565982

  7. Clone tag detection in distributed RFID systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamaludin, Hazalila; Mahdin, Hairulnizam; Abawajy, Jemal H

    2018-01-01

    Although Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) is poised to displace barcodes, security vulnerabilities pose serious challenges for global adoption of the RFID technology. Specifically, RFID tags are prone to basic cloning and counterfeiting security attacks. A successful cloning of the RFID tags in many commercial applications can lead to many serious problems such as financial losses, brand damage, safety and health of the public. With many industries such as pharmaceutical and businesses deploying RFID technology with a variety of products, it is important to tackle RFID tag cloning problem and improve the resistance of the RFID systems. To this end, we propose an approach for detecting cloned RFID tags in RFID systems with high detection accuracy and minimal overhead thus overcoming practical challenges in existing approaches. The proposed approach is based on consistency of dual hash collisions and modified count-min sketch vector. We evaluated the proposed approach through extensive experiments and compared it with existing baseline approaches in terms of execution time and detection accuracy under varying RFID tag cloning ratio. The results of the experiments show that the proposed approach outperforms the baseline approaches in cloned RFID tag detection accuracy.

  8. A hypergraph model of social tagging networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Zi-Ke; Liu, Chuang

    2010-01-01

    The past few years have witnessed the great success of a new family of paradigms, so-called folksonomy, which allows users to freely associate tags with resources and efficiently manage them. In order to uncover the underlying structures and user behaviors in folksonomy, in this paper, we propose an evolutionary hypergraph model for explaining the emerging statistical properties. The present model introduces a novel mechanism that can not only assign tags to resources, but also retrieve resources via collaborative tags. We then compare the model with a real-world data set: Del.icio.us. Indeed, the present model shows considerable agreement with the empirical data in the following aspects: power-law hyperdegree distributions, negative correlation between clustering coefficients and hyperdegrees, and small average distances. Furthermore, the model indicates that most tagging behaviors are motivated by labeling tags on resources, and the tag plays a significant role in effectively retrieving interesting resources and making acquaintances with congenial friends. The proposed model may shed some light on the in-depth understanding of the structure and function of folksonomy

  9. Smart-tag Based Data Dissemination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonnet, Philippe; Beaufour, Allan; Leopold, Martin

    2002-01-01

    Monitoring wide, hostile areas requires disseminating data between fixed, disconnected clusters of sensor nodes. It is not always possible to install long-range radios in order to cover the whole area. We propose to leverage the movement of mobile individuals, equipped with smart-tags, to dissemi......-tag based data dissemination. We use simulation to study the characteristics of the model we propose. Finally, we present an implementation based on Bluetooth smart-tags.......Monitoring wide, hostile areas requires disseminating data between fixed, disconnected clusters of sensor nodes. It is not always possible to install long-range radios in order to cover the whole area. We propose to leverage the movement of mobile individuals, equipped with smart......-tags, to disseminate data across disconnected static nodes spread across a wide area. Static nodes and mobile smart-tags exchange data when they are in the vicinity of each other; smart-tags disseminate data as they move around. In this paper, we propose an algorithm for update propagation and a model for smart...

  10. From the track to the ocean: Using flow control to improve marine bio-logging tags for cetaceans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovani Fiore

    Full Text Available Bio-logging tags are an important tool for the study of cetaceans, but superficial tags inevitably increase hydrodynamic loading. Substantial forces can be generated by tags on fast-swimming animals, potentially affecting behavior and energetics or promoting early tag removal. Streamlined forms have been used to reduce loading, but these designs can accelerate flow over the top of the tag. This non-axisymmetric flow results in large lift forces (normal to the animal that become the dominant force component at high speeds. In order to reduce lift and minimize total hydrodynamic loading this work presents a new tag design (Model A that incorporates a hydrodynamic body, a channel to reduce fluid speed differences above and below the housing and wing to redirect flow to counter lift. Additionally, three derivatives of the Model A design were used to examine the contribution of individual flow control features to overall performance. Hydrodynamic loadings of four models were compared using computational fluid dynamics (CFD. The Model A design eliminated all lift force and generated up to ~30 N of downward force in simulated 6 m/s aligned flow. The simulations were validated using particle image velocimetry (PIV to experimentally characterize the flow around the tag design. The results of these experiments confirm the trends predicted by the simulations and demonstrate the potential benefit of flow control elements for the reduction of tag induced forces on the animal.

  11. Multi-Threaded DNA Tag/Anti-Tag Library Generator for Multi-Core Platforms

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-05-01

    base pair)  Watson ‐ Crick  strand pairs that bind perfectly within pairs, but poorly across pairs. A variety  of  DNA  strand hybridization metrics...AFRL-RI-RS-TR-2009-131 Final Technical Report May 2009 MULTI-THREADED DNA TAG/ANTI-TAG LIBRARY GENERATOR FOR MULTI-CORE PLATFORMS...TYPE Final 3. DATES COVERED (From - To) Jun 08 – Feb 09 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE MULTI-THREADED DNA TAG/ANTI-TAG LIBRARY GENERATOR FOR MULTI-CORE

  12. Improving Recommendations in Tag-based Systems with Spectral Clustering of Tag Neighbors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pan, Rong; Xu, Guandong; Dolog, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Tag as a useful metadata reflects the collaborative and conceptual features of documents in social collaborative annotation systems. In this paper, we propose a collaborative approach for expanding tag neighbors and investigate the spectral clustering algorithm to filter out noisy tag neighbors...... in order to get appropriate recommendation for users. The preliminary experiments have been conducted on MovieLens dataset to compare our proposed approach with the traditional collaborative filtering recommendation approach and naive tag neighbors expansion approach in terms of precision, and the result...... demonstrates that our approach could considerably improve the performance of recommendations....

  13. The use of aggregation pheromone to enhance dissemination of Beauveria bassiana for the control of the banana weevil in Uganda

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tinzaara, W.; Gold, C.S.; Dicke, M.; Huis, van A.; Nankinga, C.M.; Kagezi, G.H.; Ragama, P.E.

    2007-01-01

    Candidate strains of Beauveria bassiana were identified for use in integrated pest management of the banana weevil Cosmopolites sordidus. Horizontal field transmission of B. bassiana between banana weevils using different delivery systems, including aggregation pheromones, was investigated. We

  14. The influence of crop management on banana weevil, Cosmopolites sordidus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) populations and yield of highland cooking banana (cv. Atwalira) in Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rukazambuga, N D T M; Gold, C S; Gowen, S R; Ragama, P

    2002-10-01

    A field study was undertaken in Uganda using highland cooking banana (cv. Atwalira) to test the hypothesis that bananas grown under stressed conditions are more susceptible to attack by Cosmopolites sordidus (Germar). Four banana treatments were employed to create different levels of host-plant vitality: (1) high stress: intercrop with finger millet; (2) moderate stress: monoculture without soil amendments; (3) low stress: monoculture with manure; (4) high vigour: monoculture with continuous mulch and manure. Adult C. sordidus were released at the base of banana mats 11 months after planting and populations were monitored for three years using mark and recapture methods. Cosmopolites sordidus density was greatest in the mulched plots which may have reflected increased longevity and/or longer tenure time in moist soils. Lowest C. sordidus numbers were found in intercropped banana. Damage, estimated as percentage corm tissue consumed by larvae, was similar among treatments. However, the total amount of tissue consumed was greater in mulched banana than in other systems. Plants supporting the heaviest levels of C. sordidus damage displayed bunch size reductions of 40-55%. Banana yield losses ranged from 14-20% per plot with similar levels in the intercropped and mulched systems. Yield reductions, reported as t ha-1, were twice as high in the mulched system as in the intercrop. The results from this study indicate that C. sordidus problems are not confined to stressed banana systems or those with low levels of management, but that the weevil can also attain pest status in well-managed and productive banana stands.

  15. Cooking Banana Consumption Patterns in the Plantain-growing Area of Southeastern Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tshiunza, M.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Cooking bananas (Musa spp., ABB genome were intro-duced into Southeastern Nigeria by the International Institute of Tropical Agriculture (IITA in the mid-1980s as an interim measure to reduce the incidence of black sigatoka disease (caused by the fungus Mycosphaerel-la fijiensis Morelet on plantain. However, the people of this region were not familiar with their utilisation methods. To address this lack of the knowledge and thereby sustain cooking banana cultivation, IITA, in collaboration with the Shell Petroleum Development Company (SPDC and the Nigeria Agip OU Company (NAOC commenced a training campaign on cooking banana processing methods. This study examined the patterns of utilisation of cooking bananas ten years after the training took place and compared them with plantain. About 95 % of the households interviewed are consuming cooking banana, indicating a broad acceptance of the crop in the region. Overall, two ripening stages termed green and ripe are the most popular ripening stages for the consumption of both plantain and cooking banana, followed by partially ripe maturity stage. The most common forms of consumption for green plantain are, in decreasing order of importance, pottage, boiled, roasted, and fried. Green cooking banana is also mostly eaten in pottage and boiled forms, and less frequently in fried and pounded forms. Ripe plantain is mostly eaten in fried and pottage forms, while ripe cooking banana is mostly eaten in fried and raw forms. Partially ripe plantain is mostly eaten in pottage, fried, boiled, and roasted forms, while partially ripe cooking banana is eaten in fried, pottage and boiled forms. These results indicate that the consumption patterns of plantain and cooking banana are very similar. This similarity has greatly contributed to the rapid integration of cooking banana within the existing plantain consumption and cropping systems.

  16. Human-Centered Implicit Tagging: Overview and Perspectives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Soleymani, Mohammad; Pantic, Maja

    2012-01-01

    Tags are an effective form of metadata which help users to locate and browse multimedia content of interest. Tags can be generated by users (user-generated explicit tags), automatically from the content (content-based tags), or assigned automatically based on non-verbal behavioral reactions of users

  17. Overview of the recombinant proteins purification by affinity tags and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    From protein within isolation process which the same matter increases labor costs further and prevents application of these tags in industrial scale. Therefore proper replacement is emphasized for enzymatic removal of purification tags. Keywords: protein purification; recombinant proteins; self-cleavable tags; Intein tags; ...

  18. Annotating images by harnessing worldwide user-tagged photos

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Li, X.; Snoek, C.G.M.; Worring, M.

    2009-01-01

    Automatic image tagging is important yet challenging due to the semantic gap and the lack of learning examples to model a tag's visual diversity. Meanwhile, social user tagging is creating rich multimedia content on the Web. In this paper, we propose to combine the two tagging approaches in a

  19. Pectinase production by Aspergillus niger using banana (Musa balbisiana) peel as substrate and its effect on clarification of banana juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barman, Sumi; Sit, Nandan; Badwaik, Laxmikant S; Deka, Sankar C

    2015-06-01

    Optimization of substrate concentration, time of incubation and temperature for crude pectinase production from A. niger was carried out using Bhimkol banana (Musa balbisiana) peel as substrate. The crude pectinase produced was partially purified using ethanol and effectiveness of crude and partially purified pectinase was studied for banana juice clarification. The optimum substrate concentration, incubation time and temperature of incubation were 8.07 %, 65.82 h and 32.37 °C respectively, and the polygalacturonase (PG) activity achieved was 6.6 U/ml for crude pectinase. The partially purified enzyme showed more than 3 times of polygalacturonase activity as compared to the crude enzyme. The SDS-PAGE profile showed that the molecular weight of proteins present in the different pectinases varied from 34 to 42 kDa. The study further revealed that highest clarification was achieved when raw banana juice was incubated for 60 min with 2 % concentration of partially purified pectinase and the absorbance obtained was 0.10.

  20. Methodologies for Improved Tag Cloud Generation with Clustering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leginus, Martin; Dolog, Peter; Lage, Ricardo Gomes

    2012-01-01

    Tag clouds are useful means for navigation in the social web systems. Usually the systems implement the tag cloud generation based on tag popularity which is not always the best method. In this paper we propose methodologies on how to combine clustering into the tag cloud generation to improve...... coverage and overlap. We study several clustering algorithms to generate tag clouds. We show that by extending cloud generation based on tag popularity with clustering we slightly improve coverage. We also show that if the cloud is generated by clustering independently of the tag popularity baseline we...

  1. Associated Particle Tagging (APT) in Magnetic Spectrometers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jordan, David V.; Baciak, James E.; Stave, Sean C.; Chichester, David; Dale, Daniel; Kim, Yujong; Harmon, Frank

    2012-10-16

    Summary In Brief The Associated Particle Tagging (APT) project, a collaboration of Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), Idaho National Laboratory (INL) and the Idaho State University (ISU)/Idaho Accelerator Center (IAC), has completed an exploratory study to assess the role of magnetic spectrometers as the linchpin technology in next-generation tagged-neutron and tagged-photon active interrogation (AI). The computational study considered two principle concepts: (1) the application of a solenoidal alpha-particle spectrometer to a next-generation, large-emittance neutron generator for use in the associated particle imaging technique, and (2) the application of tagged photon beams to the detection of fissile material via active interrogation. In both cases, a magnetic spectrometer momentum-analyzes charged particles (in the neutron case, alpha particles accompanying neutron generation in the D-T reaction; in the tagged photon case, post-bremsstrahlung electrons) to define kinematic properties of the relevant neutral interrogation probe particle (i.e. neutron or photon). The main conclusions of the study can be briefly summarized as follows: Neutron generator: • For the solenoidal spectrometer concept, magnetic field strengths of order 1 Tesla or greater are required to keep the transverse size of the spectrometer smaller than 1 meter. The notional magnetic spectrometer design evaluated in this feasibility study uses a 5-T magnetic field and a borehole radius of 18 cm. • The design shows a potential for 4.5 Sr tagged neutron solid angle, a factor of 4.5 larger than achievable with current API neutron-generator designs. • The potential angular resolution for such a tagged neutron beam can be less than 0.5o for modest Si-detector position resolution (3 mm). Further improvement in angular resolution can be made by using Si-detectors with better position resolution. • The report documents several features of a notional generator design incorporating the

  2. Evidence for the presence of a female produced sex pheromone in the banana weevil, Cosmopolites sordidus Germar (Coleoptera: Curculionidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behavior-modifying chemicals such as pheromones and kairomones have great potential in pest management. Studies reported here investigated chemical cues involved in mating and aggregation behavior of banana weevil, Cosmopolites sordidus, a major insect pest of banana in every country where bananas a...

  3. "The Rotten Banana" Fires Back: The Story of a Danish Discourse of "Inclusive" Rurality in the Making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winther, Malene Brandt; Svendsen, Gunnar Lind Haase

    2012-01-01

    The popularity of a particular term--the Rotten Banana--has paralleled the one-sided centralisation of public services since the Danish Municipal Reform of 2007. The Rotten Banana denotes peripheral Denmark, which takes a geographically curved form that resembles a banana, and it symbolises the belief that rural areas are backward and (too)…

  4. A brief examination of optical tagging technologies.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ackermann, Mark R.; Cahill, Paul A. (Aspecular Optics, Dayton, OH); Drummond, Timothy J.; Wilcoxon, Jess Patrick

    2003-07-01

    Presented within this report are the results of a brief examination of optical tagging technologies funded by the Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) program at Sandia National Laboratories. The work was performed during the summer months of 2002 with total funding of $65k. The intent of the project was to briefly examine a broad range of approaches to optical tagging concentrating on the wavelength range between ultraviolet (UV) and the short wavelength infrared (SWIR, {lambda} < 2{micro}m). Tagging approaches considered include such things as simple combinations of reflective and absorptive materials closely spaced in wavelength to give a high contrast over a short range of wavelengths, rare-earth oxides in transparent binders to produce a narrow absorption line hyperspectral tag, and fluorescing materials such as phosphors, dies and chemically precipitated particles. One technical approach examined in slightly greater detail was the use of fluorescing nano particles of metals and semiconductor materials. The idea was to embed such nano particles in an oily film or transparent paint binder. When pumped with a SWIR laser such as that produced by laser diodes at {lambda}=1.54{micro}m, the particles would fluoresce at slightly longer wavelengths, thereby giving a unique signal. While it is believed that optical tags are important for military, intelligence and even law enforcement applications, as a business area, tags do not appear to represent a high on return investment. Other government agencies frequently shop for existing or mature tag technologies but rarely are interested enough to pay for development of an untried technical approach. It was hoped that through a relatively small investment of laboratory R&D funds, enough technologies could be identified that a potential customers requirements could be met with a minimum of additional development work. Only time will tell if this proves to be correct.

  5. Qualidade pós-colheita de banana Prata Anã armazenada sob diferentes condições Quality evaluation of post harvest banana 'Prata Anã'associated to packing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Letícia Viviani

    2007-01-01

    C and maintenance of the products at natural environment with no temperature control. The fruits of banana during the experiments were packed in three different packing ( wood box type "torito" with capacity for 18kg and cardboard wrapper, wood box type "½ caixa", with capacity for 13kg and cardboard box with capacity for 18kg. Physical or mechanical damages were, also, evaluated during the transport of the fruits from the packing house to the distribution center, and after acclimatization. Keeping the fruits at refrigerated environment increased the life storage in five days. The packing used did not promote difference in the conservation of the fruits, neither in the indicatives attributes of maturation and also in the increase of physical damages.

  6. Peptide-tagged proteins in aqueous two-phase systems

    OpenAIRE

    Nilsson, Anna

    2002-01-01

    This thesis deals with proteins containing peptide tags for improved partitioning in aqueous two-phase systems. Qualitatively the peptide-tagged protein partitioning could be predicted from peptide data, i.e. partitioning trends found for peptides were also found for the peptide-tagged proteins. However, full effect of the tag as expected from peptide partitioning was not found in the tagged protein. When alkyl-ethylene oxide surfactant was included in a two-polymer system, almost full effect...

  7. Tag and Neighbor based Recommender systems for Medical events

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bayyapu, Karunakar Reddy; Dolog, Peter

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents an extension of a multifactor recommendation approach based on user tagging with term neighbours. Neighbours of words in tag vectors and documents provide for hitting larger set of documents and not only those matching with direct tag vectors or content of the documents. Tag...... in the situations where the quality of tags is lower. We discuss the approach on the examples from the existing Medworm system to indicate the usefulness of the approach....

  8. Evaluation of visible implant elastomer tags in zebrafish (Danio rerio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Hohn

    2013-11-01

    The use of the visible implant elastomer (VIE tagging system in zebrafish (Danio rerio was examined. Two tag orientations (horizontal and vertical at the dorsal fin base were tested for tag retention, tag fragmentation and whether VIE tags affected growth and survival of juvenile zebrafish (1–4 month post hatch. Six tag locations (abdomen, anal fin base, caudal peduncle, dorsal fin base, pectoral fin base, isthmus and 5 tag colors (yellow, red, pink, orange, blue were evaluated for ease of VIE tag application and tag visibility in adult zebrafish. Long-term retention (1 year and multiple tagging sites (right and left of dorsal fin and pectoral fin base were examined in adult zebrafish. Lastly, survival of recombination activation gene 1−/− (rag1−/− zebrafish was evaluated after VIE tagging. The best tag location was the dorsal fin base, and the most visible tag color was pink. Growth rate of juvenile zebrafish was not affected by VIE tagging. Horizontal tagging is recommended in early stages of fish growth (1–2 months post hatch. VIE tags were retained for 1 year and tagging did not interfere with long-term growth and survival. There was no mortality associated with VIE tagging in rag1−/− zebrafish. The VIE tagging system is highly suitable for small-sized zebrafish. When familiar with the procedure, 120 adult zebrafish can be tagged in one hour. It does not increase mortality in adult zebrafish or interfere with growth in juvenile or adult zebrafish.

  9. Molecular Characterization of Geographically Different Banana bunchy top virus Isolates in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selvarajan, R; Mary Sheeba, M; Balasubramanian, V; Rajmohan, R; Dhevi, N Lakshmi; Sasireka, T

    2010-10-01

    Banana bunchy top disease (BBTD) caused by Banana bunchy top virus (BBTV) is one of the most devastating diseases of banana and poses a serious threat for cultivars like Hill Banana (Syn: Virupakshi) and Grand Naine in India. In this study, we have cloned and sequenced the complete genome comprised of six DNA components of BBTV infecting Hill Banana grown in lower Pulney hills, Tamil Nadu State, India. The complete genome sequence of this hill banana isolate showed high degree of similarity with the corresponding sequences of BBTV isolates originating from Lucknow, Uttar Pradesh State, India, and from Fiji, Egypt, Pakistan, and Australia. In addition, sixteen coat protein (CP) and thirteen replicase genes (Rep) sequences of BBTV isolates collected from different banana growing states of India were cloned and sequenced. The replicase sequences of 13 isolates showed high degree of similarity with that of South Pacific group of BBTV isolates. However, the CP gene of BBTV isolates from Shervroy and Kodaikanal hills of Tamil Nadu showed higher amino acid sequence variability compared to other isolates. Another hill banana isolate from Meghalaya state had 23 nucleotide substitutions in the CP gene but the amino acid sequence was conserved. This is the first report of the characterization of a complete genome of BBTV occurring in the high altitudes of India. Our study revealed that the Indian BBTV isolates with distinct geographical origins belongs to the South Pacific group, except Shervroy and Kodaikanal hill isolates which neither belong to the South Pacific nor the Asian group.

  10. Effect of thidiazuron on in vivo shoot proliferation of popular banana ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SARAH

    2014-09-30

    Sep 30, 2014 ... Mzuzu underscore the need for further studies to determine alternative best cytokine-based growth regulators. Key words: Thidiazuron, in vivo proliferation, Sucker growth, Banana. INTRODUCTION. In vivo macropropagation is an alternative technique for mass production of banana planting materials.

  11. Effect of age, female mating status and density on the banana weevil response to aggregation pheromone

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tinzaara, W.; Gold, C.S.; Dicke, M.; Huis, van A.; Ragama, P.E.

    2011-01-01

    The banana (Musa spp.) weevil (Cosmopolites sordidus (Germar) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) is a major pest in East Africa causing yield losses of up to 14 metric tonnes per hectare annually. Laboratory and field experiments were conducted to determine whether the response of the banana weevil,

  12. Effect of mulching on banana weevil movement relative to pheromone traps

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tinzaara, W.; Gold, C.S.; Dicke, M.; Huis, van A.; Ragama, P.E.

    2008-01-01

    Banana weevil (Cosmopolites sordidus) is a major pest in East Africa causing yield losses of up to 14 metric tonnes per hectare annually. A study was conducted in Uganda to determine the effect of mulching on banana (Musa spp. L.) weevil, Cosmopolites sordidus (Germar) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae),

  13. Arabidopsis and Musa cyclin D2 expressed in banana (cv. “Sukali ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Genetic transformation of banana is important because of its polyploidy, sterility and long generation time of most cultivars which limit conventional breeding. However, transformability and regeneration of transgenic lines remains low in bananas. This research reports on the potential of CycD2 genes to improve ...

  14. Effect of age, female mating status and density on the banana weevil ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The banana (Musa spp.) weevil (Cosmopolites sordidus (Germar) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) is a major pest in East Africa causing yield losses of up to 14 metric tonnes per hectare annually. Laboratory and field experiments were conducted to determine whether the response of the banana weevil, Cosmopolites sordidus ...

  15. Anti-nutrients and heavy metals in some new plantain and banana ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Plantain and banana flour are important raw material in the baking and confectionery industry, and complementary food formulation. Five new plantain and banana hybrids developed by the International Institute of Tropical Agriculture (IITA) at Highrainfall Station, Onne, Nigeria were screened for certain anti-nutritional ...

  16. 33 CFR 334.560 - Banana River at Patrick Air Force Base, Fla.; restricted area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Banana River at Patrick Air Force Base, Fla.; restricted area. 334.560 Section 334.560 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE DANGER ZONE AND RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.560 Banana...

  17. The Draft Genome Sequence of Mycosphaerella fijiensis, the Black Sigatoka Pathogen of Banana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mycosphaerella fijiensis is a fungal pathogen of banana and the causal agent of the devastating Black Sigatoka or black leaf streak disease. Its control requires weekly fungicide applications when bananas are grown under disease-conducive conditions, which mostly represent precarious tropical enviro...

  18. Exploring the Potential of Banana SAP as Dye for the Adinkra ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A study was carried out to explore the potential of banana sap as a dye for the Adinkra industry in Ghana. Pseudostem extract of banana and stem bark extract of Bridelia micratha were compared as dyeing stuff. A consumer preference study was also conducted to assess the acceptability of the products developed.

  19. Impacts of Climate Variability and Change on Banana Yields in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Climate variability and change are existing sets of conditions which affect crop productivity. An evaluation of their impacts on banana yield in the CDC-DelMonte Banana Project at Tiko is fundamental in conceiving adaptation strategies towards coping with, and minimizing their deleterious impacts for maximum productivity ...

  20. Attitudes, perceptions, and trust. Insights from a consumer survey regarding genetically modified banana in Uganda

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kikulwe, E.M.; Wesseler, J.H.H.; Falck-Zepeda, J.

    2011-01-01

    Genetically modified (GM) crops and food are still controversial. This paper analyzes consumers’ perceptions and institutional awareness and trust toward GM banana regulation in Uganda. Results are based on a study conducted among 421 banana-consuming households between July and August 2007. Results

  1. The banana (Musa acuminata) genome and the evolution of monocotyledonous plants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hont, D' A.; Denoeud, F.; Aury, J.M.; Kema, G.H.J.; Dita Rodriguez, M.A.; Waalwijk, C.

    2012-01-01

    Bananas (Musa spp.), including dessert and cooking types, are giant perennial monocotyledonous herbs of the order Zingiberales, a sister group to the well-studied Poales, which include cereals. Bananas are vital for food security in many tropical and subtropical countries and the most popular fruit

  2. Effect of crop sanitation on banana weevil Cosmopolites sordidus (Germar) populations and associated damage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Masanza, M.

    2003-01-01

    The banana weevil, Cosmopolites sordidus (Germar) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) is a serious pest of bananas. However, its ecology is not well elucidated especially in East Africa where plantations are up to 50 years old and are under various management and cropping systems. No single

  3. Ky’osimba Onaanya: understanding productivity of East African Highland banana

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Taulya, G.

    2015-01-01

    Over 30 million people in East Africa depend on East African highland bananas for food and income. The bananas are grown with limited additions of nutrients and no irrigation, despite widespread poor soil fertility and regular dry seasons. This thesis describes the effect of increasing rainfall

  4. Cereal bars produced with banana peel flour: evaluation of acceptability and sensory profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, Vania Silva; Conti-Silva, Ana Carolina

    2018-01-01

    A mixture design was used to investigate the effects of banana peel flour, rice flakes and oat flour on sensory acceptability of cereal bars, with subsequent evaluation of sensory profile of products identified as having high acceptability. Regions of greater response for acceptability of the cereal bars, which are dependent on the three investigated components, were found. Although having good acceptability, sensory profiles of cereal bars were different. A cereal bar with the lowest quantity of banana peel flour was described as having a higher amount of rice flakes, chewiness and crispness, while formulations with intermediate and highest quantities of banana peel flour were described by darker color, higher banana aroma and bitter taste. Contrary to expectations, banana flavor of cereal bar with highest quantity of banana peel flour was lower than cereal bars with intermediate quantities. Cereal bars were not different in terms of hardness and adhesiveness and they also had a similar sweet taste and oat flavor. The use of banana peel flour in production of cereal bars is feasible and, even with different sensory profiles, cereal bars with banana peel flour are acceptable, which may favor the development of new products for different market niches. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  5. EnTagRec : an enhanced tag recommendation system for software information sites

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, S.; Lo, D.; Vasilescu, B.N.; Serebrenik, A.

    2014-01-01

    Software engineers share experiences with modern technologies by means of software information sites, such as STACK OVERFLOW. These sites allow developers to label posted content, referred to as software objects, with short descriptions, known as tags. However, tags assigned to objects tend to be

  6. Tag-to-Tag Interference Suppression Technique Based on Time Division for RFID

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grishma Khadka

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Radio-frequency identification (RFID is a tracking technology that enables immediate automatic object identification and rapid data sharing for a wide variety of modern applications using radio waves for data transmission from a tag to a reader. RFID is already well established in technical areas, and many companies have developed corresponding standards and measurement techniques. In the construction industry, effective monitoring of materials and equipment is an important task, and RFID helps to improve monitoring and controlling capabilities, in addition to enabling automation for construction projects. However, on construction sites, there are many tagged objects and multiple RFID tags that may interfere with each other’s communications. This reduces the reliability and efficiency of the RFID system. In this paper, we propose an anti-collision algorithm for communication between multiple tags and a reader. In order to suppress interference signals from multiple neighboring tags, the proposed algorithm employs the time-division (TD technique, where tags in the interrogation zone are assigned a specific time slot so that at every instance in time, a reader communicates with tags using the specific time slot. We present representative computer simulation examples to illustrate the performance of the proposed anti-collision technique for multiple RFID tags.

  7. Topical tags vs non-topical tags : Towards a bipartite classification?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Basile, Valerio; Peroni, Silvio; Tamburini, Fabio; Vitali, Fabio

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we investigate whether it is possible to create a computational approach that allows us to distinguish topical tags (i.e. talking about the topic of a resource) and non-topical tags (i.e. describing aspects of a resource that are not related to its topic) in folksonomies, in a way that

  8. Extracting Usage Patterns and the Analysis of Tag Connection Dynamics within Collaborative Tagging Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel MICAN

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Collaborative tagging has become a very popular way of annotation, thanks to the fact that any entity may be labeled by any individual based on his own reason. In this paper we present the results of the case study carried out on the basis of data gathered at different time intervals from the social tagging system developed and implemented on Întelepciune.ro. Analyzing collective data referring to the way in which community members associate different tags, we have observed that between tags, links are formed which become increasingly stable with the passing of time. Following the application of methodology specific to network analysis, we have managed to extract information referring to tag popularity, their influence within the network and the degree to which a tag depends upon another. As such, we have succeeded in determining different semantic structures within the collective tagging system and see their evolution at different stages in time. Furthermore, we have pictured the way in which tag rec-ommendations can be executed and that they can be integrated within recommendation sys-tems. Thus, we will be able to identify experts and trustworthy content based on different cat-egories of interest.

  9. Sequence tagging reveals unexpected modifications in toxicoproteomics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dasari, Surendra; Chambers, Matthew C.; Codreanu, Simona G.; Liebler, Daniel C.; Collins, Ben C.; Pennington, Stephen R.; Gallagher, William M.; Tabb, David L.

    2010-01-01

    Toxicoproteomic samples are rich in posttranslational modifications (PTMs) of proteins. Identifying these modifications via standard database searching can incur significant performance penalties. Here we describe the latest developments in TagRecon, an algorithm that leverages inferred sequence tags to identify modified peptides in toxicoproteomic data sets. TagRecon identifies known modifications more effectively than the MyriMatch database search engine. TagRecon outperformed state of the art software in recognizing unanticipated modifications from LTQ, Orbitrap, and QTOF data sets. We developed user-friendly software for detecting persistent mass shifts from samples. We follow a three-step strategy for detecting unanticipated PTMs in samples. First, we identify the proteins present in the sample with a standard database search. Next, identified proteins are interrogated for unexpected PTMs with a sequence tag-based search. Finally, additional evidence is gathered for the detected mass shifts with a refinement search. Application of this technology on toxicoproteomic data sets revealed unintended cross-reactions between proteins and sample processing reagents. Twenty five proteins in rat liver showed signs of oxidative stress when exposed to potentially toxic drugs. These results demonstrate the value of mining toxicoproteomic data sets for modifications. PMID:21214251

  10. Electronic tagging and integrated product intelligence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swerdlow, Martin; Weeks, Brian

    1996-03-01

    The advent of 'intelligent,' electronic data bearing tags is set to revolutionize the way industrial and retail products are identified and tracked throughout their life cycles. The dominant system for unique identification today is the bar code, which is based on printed symbology and regulated by the International Article Numbering Association. Bar codes provide users with significant operational advantages and generate considerable added value to packaging companies, product manufacturers, distributors and retailers, across supply chains in many different sectors, from retailing, to baggage handling and industrial components, e.g., for vehicles or aircraft. Electronic tags offer the potential to: (1) record and store more complex data about the product or any modifications which occur during its life cycle; (2) access (and up-date) stored data in real time in a way which does not involve contact with the product or article; (3) overcome the limitations imposed by systems which rely on line-of-sight access to stored data. Companies are now beginning to consider how electronic data tags can be used, not only to improve the efficiency of their supply chain processes, but also to revolutionize the way they do business. This paper reviews the applications and business opportunities for electronic tags and outlines CEST's strategy for achieving an 'open' standard which will ensure that tags from different vendors can co-exist on an international basis.

  11. Tagging: An Organization Scheme for the Internet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marijke A. Visser

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available How should the information on the Internet be organized? This question and the possible solutions spark debates among people concerned with how we identify, classify, and retrieve Internet content. This paper discusses the benefits and the controversies of using a tagging system to organize Internet resources. Tagging refers to a classification system where individual Internet users apply labels, or tags, to digital resources. Tagging increased in popularity with the advent of Web 2.0 applications that encourage interaction among users. As more information is available digitally, the challenge to find an organizational system scalable to the Internet will continue to require forward thinking. Trained to ensure access to a range of informational resources, librarians need to be concerned with access to Internet content. Librarians can play a pivotal role by advocating for a system that supports the user at the moment of need. Tagging may just be the necessary system.

  12. Effect of green banana pulp on physicochemical and sensory properties of probiotic yoghurt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabete Lourenço da COSTA

    Full Text Available Abstract In order to investigate the potential of the green banana as a prebiotic, and for its content of resistant starch, fermented yogurts were produced by cultures composed of Lactobacillus delbrueckii, Streptococcus thermophilus, Bifidobacterium bifidum and Lactobacillus acidophilus as well as being enriched with three concentrations of industrialized green banana pulp (GBP (3%, 5% and 10% w/v. The green banana pulp added to the yogurt stimulated the multiplication of L. acidophilus after the first day of fermentation and B. bifidum after seven days in cold storage compared to the control that consisted of yogurt without the addition of green banana pulp. The dose-response effect was not observed; however, the results show that the green banana pulp has a prebiotic potential without interfering with either the physicochemical or sensorial characteristics.

  13. It is only a banana-Traveltime sensitivity kernels using the unwrapped phase

    KAUST Repository

    Djebbi, Ramzi; Alkhalifah, Tariq Ali

    2012-01-01

    Traveltime sensitivity kernels for finite-frequency traveltimes computed using the Born or Rytov approximations admits hallow banana shaped responses in the plane of propagation and a circular doughnut shaped responses in the cross section. This suggests that finite-frequency traveltimes are insensitive to velocity information along the infinite-frequency ray path, which is obviously inaccurate and creates a disconnect in the traveltime dependency on frequency. Using the instantaneous traveltime of the wavefield, which is capable of unwrapping the phase function, we obtain traveltime sensitivity kernels that have plain banana shape responses, with the thickness of the banana governed by the investigated frequency. This result confirms that the hallow banana shape is simply a result of the wrapping of the phase of the wavefield, in which Born nor Rytov approximations can properly deal with. The instantaneous traveltime can, thus, mitigate the nonlinearity problem encountered in finite-frequency traveltime inversions that may arise from these hallow banana sensitivity kernels.

  14. Effect of physiological harvest stages on the composition of bioactive compounds in Cavendish bananas*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruno Bonnet, Christelle; Hubert, Olivier; Mbeguie-A-Mbeguie, Didier; Pallet, Dominique; Hiol, Abel; Reynes, Max; Poucheret, Patrick

    2013-01-01

    The combined influence of maturation, ripening, and climate on the profile of bioactive compounds was studied in banana (Musa acuminata, AAA, Cavendish, cv. Grande Naine). Their bioactive compounds were determined by the Folin-Ciocalteu assay and high-performance thin layer chromatographic (HPTLC) method. The polyphenol content of bananas harvested after 400 degree days remained unchanged during ripening, while bananas harvested after 600 and 900 degree days exhibited a significant polyphenol increase. Although dopamine was the polyphenol with the highest concentration in banana peels during the green developmental stage and ripening, its kinetics differed from the total polyphenol profile. Our results showed that this matrix of choice (maturation, ripening, and climate) may allow selection of the banana (M. acuminata, AAA, Cavendish, cv. Grande Naine) status that will produce optimal concentrations of identified compounds with human health relevance. PMID:23549844

  15. Effects of Increasing Levels of Dietary Cooked and Uncooked Banana Meal on Growth Performance and Carcass Parameters of Broiler Chicken

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.S.B.M Atapattu* and T.S.M.S. Senevirathne

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Discarded banana is a valuable feed ingredient for poultry feed formulations. However, due to the presence of resistant starches, inclusion of more than 10% banana meal in poultry rations reduces the growth performance. The objective of this study was to determine whether higher levels of banana meal could be included in broiler diets if raw banana is cooked before being processed into meal. Discarded banana (Cavendish collected at harvesting was processed into two types of banana meals. Cooked banana meal was prepared by cooking banana at 100oC for 15 minutes and subsequent drying. Uncooked banana meal was prepared by drying at 800C for three days. Giving a 2 x 4 factorial arrangement, 144 broiler chicks in 48 cages received one of the eight experimental diets containing either cooked or uncooked banana meal at 0, 10, 20 or 30% ad libitum from day 21-42. Birds fed cooked banana meal were significantly heavier on day 28 and 35. Live weight on day 42, weight gain, feed intake or feed conversion efficiency were not affected either by the type or level of banana meal and their interaction. Cooked banana meal increased the weights of the crop and liver significantly. Weight of the small intestine, proventriculus, gizzard abdominal fat pad and the fat free tibia ash contents were not affected by the dietary treatments. It was concluded that uncooked banana meal produced using peeled raw banana can be included up to 30% in nutritionally balanced broiler finisher diets without any adverse effects on performance.

  16. Characterization of differential ripening pattern in association with ethylene biosynthesis in the fruits of five naturally occurring banana cultivars and detection of a GCC-box-specific DNA-binding protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choudhury, Swarup Roy; Roy, Sujit; Saha, Progya Paramita; Singh, Sanjay Kumar; Sengupta, Dibyendu N

    2008-07-01

    MA-ACS1 and MA-ACO1 are the two major ripening genes in banana and play crucial role in the regulation of ethylene production during ripening. Here, we report a comparative ripening pattern in five different naturally occurring banana cultivars namely Cavendish (AAA), Rasthali (AAB), Kanthali (AB), Poovan (AAB) and Monthan (ABB), which have distinct genome composition. We found a distinct variation in the climacteric ethylene production and in-vivo ACC oxidase activity level during the ripening stages in the five cultivars. We identified the cDNAs for MA-ACS1 and MA-ACO1 from the five cultivars and studied the transcript accumulation patterns of the two genes, which correlated well with the differential timing in the expression of these two genes during ripening. The GCC-box is one of the ethylene-responsive elements (EREs) found in the promoters of many ethylene-inducible genes. We have identified a GCC-box motif (putative ERE) in the promoters of MA-ACS1 and MA-ACO1 in banana cultivars. DNA-protein interaction studies revealed the presence of a GCC-box-specific DNA-binding activity in the fruit nuclear extract and such DNA-binding activity was enhanced following ethylene treatment. South-Western blotting revealed a 25-kDa nuclear protein that binds specifically to GCC-box DNA in the climacteric banana fruit. Together, these results indicate the probable involvement of the GCC-box motif as the cis-acting ERE in the regulation of MA-ACS1 and MA-ACO1 during ripening in banana fruits via binding of specific ERE-binding protein.

  17. Yield Perceptions, Determinants and Adoption Impact of on Farm Varietal Mixtures for Common Bean and Banana in Uganda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rose Nankya

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Crop variety mixtures (different varieties of a crop grown together in a single plot have been successfully deployed in pathogen and pest management for several crops including wheat, common bean and rice. Despite the available evidence, promotion of this approach has remained limited in many countries, including Uganda. The factors that influence farmers’ adoption of varietal mixtures for common bean and banana were assessed, as well as the perceptions of farmers on the effects of mixtures on yields, through household surveys and statistical modelling. A three-year yield increase in both common bean and banana varietal mixtures in farmer fields, of 5.2% and 28.6%, respectively, is realized using robust OLS estimates. The study reveals that accessing knowledge on the importance of crop varietal mixtures and the skills relating to the approach are crucial for their adoption. Location of the farm significantly determined the perceived yield change, which calls for more research into mixtures’ suitability under particular contexts in respect to compatibility of genotypes, management practices and appropriate acreage for maximum impact. The positive effects of mixtures on yields make it an effective bioeconomy strategy. Policies that minimize the adoption barriers could improve the adoption of crop varietal mixtures on a wider scale.

  18. Control of Cosmopolites sordidus (Coleoptera:Curculionidae with entomopathogenic fungi Beauveria bassiana and Metarhizium anisopliae in banana cultivation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco José Carvalho Moreira

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The continuous use of pesticides promotes rapid and effective reduction of pests, however, this practice entails the pests the possibility of developing resistance by subjecting the farmer to change product constantly increase the dose or even mix or use more toxic products. Being Cosmopolites sordidus one beetle nocturnal that affect the banana tree because their larvae open galleries in its rhizome and lower pseudostem, resulting in decline, overturning and death of the plant. In view of this and the population's awareness of this problem, the greater has been the participation of organic agriculture in food supply. In this context, this study aimed to evaluate the effect of two entomopathogenic fungi in control of C. sordidus in banana cultivation. The trial was held in lot E-104, the Irrigated Perimeter of Baixo Acaraú, in Marco, Ceará state. The statistical design was completely randomized, in factorial 2 x 5, two fungi (Beauveria bassiana and Metharizium anisopliae in five concentrations (0, 5, 10, 15 and 20 g L-1, 5 repetitions each. We evaluated the number of insects for bait in each evaluation and the total number of captured insects. It was found that the fungus B. bassiana was more effective in controlling C. sordidus. It was also observed that the higher concentrations of 10, 15 and 20 g L-1 were more effective. We conclude that the biological control with B. bassiana can be used, as is shown adapted to climatic conditions in the study area.

  19. Rhizobacteria in mycorrhizosphere improved plant health and yield of banana by offering proper nourishment and protection against diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phirke, Niteen V; Kothari, Raman M; Chincholkar, Sudhir B

    2008-12-01

    The corporate R&D banana orchards of Musa paradisiaca (dwarf Cavendish AAA, var. shrimanti) on a medium black alluvial soil with low nutrients harboured diversified species of vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizal (VAM) fungi. These fungi infected the roots severely (69.2%), showed elevated (69.8 g(-1) soil) spore density, increased soil bacterial density (245 x 10(8) cfu g(-1)), produced siderophores (58.2%) and reduced nematode population (2.3 g(-1)) in the mycorrhizosphere of plants for integrated plant nutrition management (IPNM) system as compared to traditional treatment of applying chemical fertilisers alone and other test treatments. The interactions of plant roots with native VAM and local and applied rhizobacteria in the matrix of soil conditioner enabled proper nourishment and protection of crop in IPNM treatment as compared to traditional way. Hence, exploitation of plant growth promoting rhizobacteria through judiciously designed IPNM system revealed the (a) relatively increased banana productivity (21.6%, 76 MT ha(-1)), (b) least occurrence of fusarial wilt and negligible evidence of Sigatoka, (c) saving of 50% chemical fertilisers and (d) permitted control over soil fertility in producer's favour over traditional cultivation practices. These findings are discussed in detail.

  20. Passive UHF RFID Tag for Multispectral Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo Escobedo

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This work presents the design, fabrication, and characterization of a passive printed radiofrequency identification tag in the ultra-high-frequency band with multiple optical sensing capabilities. This tag includes five photodiodes to cover a wide spectral range from near-infrared to visible and ultraviolet spectral regions. The tag antenna and circuit connections have been screen-printed on a flexible polymeric substrate. An ultra-low-power microcontroller-based switch has been included to measure the five magnitudes issuing from the optical sensors, providing a spectral fingerprint of the incident electromagnetic radiation from ultraviolet to infrared, without requiring energy from a battery. The normalization procedure has been designed applying illuminants, and the entire system was tested by measuring cards from a colour chart and sensing fruit ripening.

  1. Flavour tagging at the future linear collider

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hansen, S.X.

    2003-01-01

    High performance flavour tagging of jets containing heavy flavours is crucial for the studies planned for the future high energy e + e - Linear Collider (LC). Pixel detectors have proven to provide very powerful flavour identification, for this reason the Linear Collider Flavour Identification collaboration has decided to concentrate its R and D work for the future LC on a Charged Coupled Device pixel vertex detector, and study the flavour tagging performance of the design to optimize it. In this work we first evaluate the basic tracking performance. We then estimate the flavour tagging performance of the present detector layout, using a neural network approach. We conclude by studying the energy dependence of the performance

  2. DISTRIBUTION AND INCIDENCE LEAF DISEASES OF BANANA IN SEVERAL BANANA PRODUCTION CENTERS IN NORTH SUMATRA, WEST SUMATRA BENGKULU AND WEST JAVA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sahlan

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The research was aimed to determine the type, the distribution and the incidence of banana leaf diseases in several production centers in West Sumatra, Bengkulu, North Sumatra and West Java. Direct observations on banana orchards were conducted in some districts in Simalungun, Deli Serdang and Medan (North Sumatra, Tanah Datar, Limapuluh Kota, Agam, Pariaman and Pasaman (West Sumatra, Rejang Lebong and Kepahyang (Bengkulu, Sukabumi, Purwakarta and Subang (West Java from November to December 2006. Two banana orchards were randomly selected in each district. Plant population at the selected orchard was at least 100 plants. From each sampled orchard, if banana population consisted of similar or only one variety, 10 plants were randomly chosen according to wind direction. Meanwhile, when the banana varieties were varied, five plants were randomly selected. The result showed that Black Sigatoka and Eumusae leaf spot were found in West Sumatra, Bengkulu and North Sumatra at severity level of between 15 % to 62.31%, whilst speckle disease was mainly found in North Sumatra and in parts of West Sumatra at severity level of between 72,72% to 100% and 15 to 30%, respectively. Banana varieties that were primarily attacked by leaf diseases were Cavendish, Telor, Barangan and Emas.

  3. Mechanical properties of woven banana fibre reinforced epoxy composites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sapuan, S.M. [Department of Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 Serdang, Selangor (Malaysia)]. E-mail: sapuan@eng.upm.my; Leenie, A. [Department of Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 Serdang, Selangor (Malaysia); Harimi, M. [School of Engineering and Information Technology, Universiti Malaysia Sabah, 88999 Kota Kinabalu, Sabah (Malaysia); Beng, Y.K. [School of Engineering and Information Technology, Universiti Malaysia Sabah, 88999 Kota Kinabalu, Sabah (Malaysia)

    2006-07-01

    In this paper, the experiments of tensile and flexural (three-point bending) tests were carried out using natural fibre with composite materials (Musaceae/epoxy). Three samples prepared from woven banana fibre composites of different geometries were used in this research. From the results obtained, it was found that the maximum value of stress in x-direction is 14.14 MN/m{sup 2}, meanwhile the maximum value of stress in y-direction is 3.398 MN/m{sup 2}. For the Young's modulus, the value of 0.976 GN/m{sup 2} in x-direction and 0.863 GN/m{sup 2} in y-direction were computed. As for the case of three-point bending (flexural), the maximum load applied is 36.25 N to get the deflection of woven banana fibre specimen beam of 0.5 mm. The maximum stress and Young's modulus in x-direction was recorded to be 26.181 MN/m{sup 2} and 2.685 GN/m{sup 2}, respectively. Statistical analysis using ANOVA-one way has showed that the differences of results obtained from those three samples are not significant, which confirm a very stable mechanical behaviour of the composites under different tests. This shows the importance of this product and allows many researchers to develop an adequate system for producing a good quality of woven banana fibre composite which maybe used for household utilities.

  4. A Privacy Model for RFID Tag Ownership Transfer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xingchun Yang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The ownership of RFID tag is often transferred from one owner to another in its life cycle. To address the privacy problem caused by tag ownership transfer, we propose a tag privacy model which captures the adversary’s abilities to get secret information inside readers, to corrupt tags, to authenticate tags, and to observe tag ownership transfer processes. This model gives formal definitions for tag forward privacy and backward privacy and can be used to measure the privacy property of tag ownership transfer scheme. We also present a tag ownership transfer scheme, which is privacy-preserving under the proposed model and satisfies the other common security requirements, in addition to achieving better performance.

  5. Top tagging with deep neural networks [Vidyo

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2017-01-01

    Recent literature on deep neural networks for top tagging has focussed on image based techniques or multivariate approaches using high level jet substructure variables. Here, we take a sequential approach to this task by using anordered sequence of energy deposits as training inputs. Unlike previous approaches, this strategy does not result in a loss of information during pixelization or the calculation of high level features. We also propose new preprocessing methods that do not alter key physical quantities such as jet mass. We compare the performance of this approach to standard tagging techniques and present results evaluating the robustness of the neural network to pileup.

  6. Boron toxicity in banana (Musa AAA) plantations of Costa Rica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vargas, Alfonso; Serrano, Edgardo; Arias, Fulvio; Arias M, Oscar

    2007-01-01

    A marginal, irregular and continuous necrosis was observed in the leaves of in banana plants (Musa AAA, cvs. Grande Naine and Valery), This necrosis was developed from an irregular chlorotic area, from the edge towards the internal part of the leaf blade. The central portion of the leaf kept the original green color. Soil and foliar analyses showed that symptoms were caused by high boron concentrations, probably due to excessive soil or foliage applications of the nutriment, or to the effect of very frequent applications of boron during fertigation, combined with a decrease of calcium in the leaf. (author) [es

  7. Assessment of RNAi-induced silencing in banana (Musa spp.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dang, Tuong Vi T; Windelinckx, Saskia; Henry, Isabelle M; De Coninck, Barbara; Cammue, Bruno P A; Swennen, Rony; Remy, Serge

    2014-09-18

    In plants, RNA- based gene silencing mediated by small RNAs functions at the transcriptional or post-transcriptional level to negatively regulate target genes, repetitive sequences, viral RNAs and/or transposon elements. Post-transcriptional gene silencing (PTGS) or the RNA interference (RNAi) approach has been achieved in a wide range of plant species for inhibiting the expression of target genes by generating double-stranded RNA (dsRNA). However, to our knowledge, successful RNAi-application to knock-down endogenous genes has not been reported in the important staple food crop banana. Using embryogenic cell suspension (ECS) transformed with ß-glucuronidase (GUS) as a model system, we assessed silencing of gusAINT using three intron-spliced hairpin RNA (ihpRNA) constructs containing gusAINT sequences of 299-nt, 26-nt and 19-nt, respectively. Their silencing potential was analysed in 2 different experimental set-ups. In the first, Agrobacterium-mediated co-transformation of banana ECS with a gusAINT containing vector and an ihpRNA construct resulted in a significantly reduced GUS enzyme activity 6-8 days after co-cultivation with either the 299-nt and 19-nt ihpRNA vectors. In the second approach, these ihpRNA constructs were transferred to stable GUS-expressing ECS and their silencing potential was evaluated in the regenerated in vitro plants. In comparison to control plants, transgenic plants transformed with the 299-nt gusAINT targeting sequence showed a 4.5 fold down-regulated gusA mRNA expression level, while GUS enzyme activity was reduced by 9 fold. Histochemical staining of plant tissues confirmed these findings. Northern blotting used to detect the expression of siRNA in the 299-nt ihpRNA vector transgenic in vitro plants revealed a negative relationship between siRNA expression and GUS enzyme activity. In contrast, no reduction in GUS activity or GUS mRNA expression occurred in the regenerated lines transformed with either of the two gusAINT oligo target

  8. Banana regime pressure anisotropy in a bumpy cylinder magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia-Perciante, A.L.; Callen, J.D.; Shaing, K.C.; Hegna, C.C.

    2006-01-01

    The pressure anisotropy is calculated for a plasma in a bumpy cylindrical magnetic field in the low collisionality (banana) regime for small magnetic-field modulations (ε≡ΔB/2B parallel is then calculated and is shown to exceed the flux-surface-averaged parallel viscous force parallel > by a factor of O(1/ε). A high-frequency limit (ω>>ν) for the pressure anisotropy is also determined and the calculation is then extended to include the full frequency dependence by using an expansion in Cordey eigenfunctions

  9. Photon-tagged and B-meson-tagged b-jet production at the LHC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinrui Huang

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Tagged jet measurements in high energy hadronic and nuclear reactions provide constraints on the energy and parton flavor origin of the parton shower that recoils against the tagging particle. Such additional insight can be especially beneficial in illuminating the mechanisms of heavy flavor production in proton–proton collisions at the LHC and their modification in the heavy ion environment, which are not fully understood. With this motivation, we present theoretical results for isolated-photon-tagged and B-meson-tagged b-jet production at sNN=5.1 TeV for comparison to the upcoming lead–lead data. We find that photon-tagged b-jets exhibit smaller momentum imbalance shift in nuclear matter, and correspondingly smaller energy loss, than photon-tagged light flavor jets. Our results show that B-meson tagging is most effective in ensuring that the dominant fraction of recoiling jets originate from prompt b-quarks. Interestingly, in this channel the large suppression of the cross section is not accompanied by a significant momentum imbalance shift.

  10. Effect of banana pulp and peel flour on physicochemical properties and in vitro starch digestibility of yellow alkaline noodles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramli, Saifullah; Alkarkhi, Abbas F M; Shin Yong, Yeoh; Min-Tze, Liong; Easa, Azhar Mat

    2009-01-01

    The present study describes the utilization of banana--Cavendish (Musa acuminata L., cv cavendshii) and Dream (Musa acuminata colla. AAA, cv 'Berangan')--pulp and peel flours as functional ingredients in yellow alkaline noodles. Noodles were prepared by partial substitution of wheat flour with ripe banana pulp or peel flours. In most cases, the starch hydrolysis index, predicted glycaemic index (pGI) and physicochemical properties of cooked noodles were affected by banana flour addition. In general, the pGI values of cooked noodles were in the order; banana peel noodles banana pulp noodles peel flour was higher in total dietary fibre but lower in resistant starch contents than the pulp flour, the low pGI of banana peel noodles was mainly due to its high dietary fibre content. In conclusion, banana pulp and peel flour could be useful for controlling starch hydrolysis of yellow noodles, even though some physicochemical properties of the noodles were altered.

  11. Influence of ripeness of banana on the blood glucose and insulin response in type 2 diabetic subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermansen, K; Rasmussen, O; Gregersen, S; Larsen, S

    1992-10-01

    Banana is a popular and tasty fruit which often is restricted in the diet prescribed for diabetic patients owing to the high content of free sugars. However, in under-ripe bananas starch constitutes 80-90% of the carbohydrate content, which as the banana ripens changes into free sugars. To study the effect of ripening on the postprandial blood glucose and insulin responses to banana, 10 type 2 (non-insulin-dependent) diabetic subjects consumed three meals, consisting of 120 g under-ripe banana, 120 g over-ripe banana or 40 g white bread on separate days. The mean postprandial blood glucose response area to white bread (181 +/- 45 mmol l-1 x 240 min) was significantly higher compared with under-ripe banana (62 +/- 17 mmol l-1 x 240 min: p alfa-amylase in humans.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  12. A comparative evaluation of three methods used to tag South African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tagging effects and loss rates of 60 Roman Chrysoblephus laticeps tagged with dart tags with barbs (D-tags), T-bar filaments (T-tags) and visible implant fluorescent elastomer (VIFE) tags were investigated. The fish were tagged and monitored in a controlled tank experiment over a period of 198 days. Application technique ...

  13. Top Tagging by Deep Learning Algorithm

    CERN Document Server

    Akil, Ali

    2015-01-01

    In this report I will show the application of a deep learning algorithm on a Monte Carlo simulation sample to test its performance in tagging hadronic decays of boosted top quarks and compare what we get with the results of the application of some other algorithms.

  14. Semantic Tagging with Deep Residual Networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bjerva, Johannes; Plank, Barbara; Bos, Johan

    2016-01-01

    We propose a novel semantic tagging task, semtagging, tailored for the purpose of multilingual semantic parsing, and present the first tagger using deep residual networks (ResNets). Our tagger uses both word and character representations and includes a novel residual bypass architecture. We evaluate

  15. Krypton tagging velocimetry of an underexpanded jet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parziale, N J; Smith, M S; Marineau, E C

    2015-06-01

    In this work, we present the excitation/emission strategy, experimental setup, and results of an implementation of krypton tagging velocimetry (KTV). KTV is performed as follows: (i) seed a base flow with krypton; (ii) photosynthesize metastable krypton atoms with a frequency-doubled dye laser to form the tagged tracer; (iii) record the translation of the tagged metastable krypton by imaging the laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) that is produced with an additional dye laser. The principle strength of KTV, relative to other tagging velocimetry techniques, is the use of a chemically inert tracer. KTV results are presented for an underexpanded jet of three mixtures of varying Kr/N2 concentration. It is demonstrated that KTV can be used in gas mixtures of relatively low krypton mole fraction (0.5% Kr/99.5% N2), and the KTV data from that experiment are found to be in good agreement with an empirical fit found in the literature. We find that KTV is useful to perform instantaneous velocity measurements with metastable krypton as a chemically inert, dilute, long-lifetime tracer in gas-phase flows.

  16. Policy administration in tag-based authorization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Etalle, Sandro; Hinrichs, Timothy L.; Lee, Adam J.; Trivellato, Daniel; Zannone, Nicola

    2013-01-01

    Tag-Based Authorization (TBA) is a hybrid access control model that combines the ease of use of extensional access control models with the expressivity of logic-based formalisms. The main limitation of TBA is that it lacks support for policy administration. More precisely, it does not allow

  17. Effect of LED irradiation on the ripening and nutritional quality of postharvest banana fruit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jen-Yi; Xu, Fengying; Zhou, Weibiao

    2018-04-24

    With the ability to tailor wavelengths necessary to the photosynthetically active radiation spectrum of plant pigments, light-emitting diodes (LEDs) offer vast possibilities in horticultural lighting. The influence of LED light irradiation on major postharvest features of banana was investigated. Mature green bananas were treated daily with selected blue (464-474 nm), green (515-525 nm) and red (617-627 nm) LED lights for 8 days, and compared with non-illuminated control. The positive effect of LED lighting on the acceleration of ripening in bananas was greatest for blue, followed by red and green. Under the irradiation of LED lights, faster peel de-greening and flesh softening, and increased ethylene production and respiration rate in bananas were observed during storage. Furthermore, the accumulations of ascorbic acid, total phenols, and total sugars in banana fruit were enhanced by LED light exposure. LED light treatment can induce the ripening of bananas and improve their quality and nutrition potential. These findings might provide new chemical-free strategies to shorten the time to ripen banana after harvest by using LED light source. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  18. Bacterial Diseases of Bananas and Enset: Current State of Knowledge and Integrated Approaches Toward Sustainable Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guy Blomme

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Bacterial diseases of bananas and enset have not received, until recently, an equal amount of attention compared to other major threats to banana production such as the fungal diseases black leaf streak (Mycosphaerella fijiensis and Fusarium wilt (Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense. However, bacteria cause significant impacts on bananas globally and management practices are not always well known or adopted by farmers. Bacterial diseases in bananas and enset can be divided into three groups: (1 Ralstonia-associated diseases (Moko/Bugtok disease caused by Ralstonia solanacearum and banana blood disease caused by R. syzygii subsp. celebesensis; (2 Xanthomonas wilt of banana and enset, caused by Xanthomonas campestris pv. musacearum and (3 Erwinia-associated diseases (bacterial head rot or tip-over disease Erwinia carotovora ssp. carotovora and E. chrysanthemi, bacterial rhizome and pseudostem wet rot (Dickeya paradisiaca formerly E. chrysanthemi pv. paradisiaca. Other bacterial diseases of less widespread importance include: bacterial wilt of abaca, Javanese vascular wilt and bacterial fingertip rot (probably caused by Ralstonia spp., unconfirmed. This review describes global distribution, symptoms, pathogenic diversity, epidemiology and the state of the art for sustainable disease management of the major bacterial wilts currently affecting banana and enset.

  19. Effect of Banana Stalk Organic Fertilizer on the Growth of Chinese Cabbage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zheli; DING; Lina; HAN; Zhiqiang; JIN; Bizun; WANG; Huicai; ZENG; Wei; ZHENG; Yingdui; HE; Xiaoping; ZANG

    2016-01-01

    In order to solve the problem of waste disposal after banana harvest,we use banana stalk to produce banana stalk organic fertilizer,through a plot experiment. We compare the influence of normal organic fertilizer( Wanlubao) and banana stalk organic fertilizer as base fertilizers on Chinese cabbage growth,and evaluate the economic benefits of banana stalk organic fertilizer. The results show that organic fertilizer has little effect on water content and nutrient content of Chinese cabbage,but has significant effect on plant height and leaf width. Using organic fertilizer can increase the production of Chinese cabbage by 22. 50%- 43. 10%. With 6750 kg / ha normal organic fertilizer,Chinese cabbage gets the highest yield,which reaches 30135 kg / ha,followed by the treatment of 6750 kg / ha stalk organic fertilizer. At farmers’ conventional fertilization level( 4500 kg / ha),stalk organic fertilizer can increase the yield by more than 3. 50% in comparison with the normal organic fertilizer,and the economic benefit increases by 1800 yuan / ha. As a kind of banana waste cycling product,banana stalk organic fertilizer is of low cost and good effect,and can be used instead of normal organic fertilizer.

  20. Lipophilic extracts from banana fruit residues: a source of valuable phytosterols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Lúcia; Freire, Carmen S R; Silvestre, Armando J D; Cordeiro, Nereida

    2008-10-22

    The chemical composition of the lipophilic extracts of unripe pulp and peel of banana fruit 'Dwarf Cavendish' was studied by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Fatty acids, sterols, and steryl esters are the major families of lipophilic components present in banana tissues, followed by diacylglycerols, steryl glucosides, long chain fatty alcohols, and aromatic compounds. Fatty acids are more abundant in the banana pulp (29-90% of the total amount of lipophilic extract), with linoleic, linolenic, and oleic acids as the major compounds of this family. In banana peel, sterols represent about 49-71% of the lipophilic extract with two triterpenic ketones (31-norcyclolaudenone and cycloeucalenone) as the major components. The detection of high amounts of steryl esters (469-24405 mg/kg) and diacylglycerols (119-878 mg/kg), mainly present in the banana peel extract, explains the increase in the abundance of fatty acids and sterols after alkaline hydrolysis. Several steryl glucosides were also found in significative amounts (273-888 mg/kg), particularly in banana pulp (888 mg/kg). The high content of sterols (and their derivatives) in the 'Dwarf Cavendish' fruit can open new strategies for the valorization of the banana residues as a potential source of high-value phytochemicals with nutraceutical and functional food additive applications.

  1. Prediction of textural attributes using color values of banana (Musa sapientum) during ripening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaiswal, Pranita; Jha, Shyam Narayan; Kaur, Poonam Preet; Bhardwaj, Rishi; Singh, Ashish Kumar; Wadhawan, Vishakha

    2014-06-01

    Banana is an important sub-tropical fruit in international trade. It undergoes significant textural and color transformations during ripening process, which in turn influence the eating quality of the fruit. In present study, color ('L', 'a' and 'b' value) and textural attributes of bananas (peel, fruit and pulp firmness; pulp toughness; stickiness) were studied simultaneously using Hunter Color Lab and Texture Analyser, respectively, during ripening period of 10 days at ambient atmosphere. There was significant effect of ripening period on all the considered textural characteristics and color properties of bananas except color value 'b'. In general, textural descriptors (peel, fruit and pulp firmness; and pulp toughness) decreased during ripening except stickiness, while color values viz 'a' and 'b' increased with ripening barring 'L' value. Among various textural attributes, peel toughness and pulp firmness showed highest correlation (r) with 'a' value of banana peel. In order to predict textural properties using color values of banana, five types of equations (linear/polynomial/exponential/logarithmic/power) were fitted. Among them, polynomial equation was found to be the best fit (highest coefficient of determination, R(2)) for prediction of texture using color properties for bananas. The pulp firmness, peel toughness and pulp toughness showed R(2) above 0.84 with indicating its potentiality of the fitted equations for prediction of textural profile of bananas non-destructively using 'a' value.

  2. A study on effect of ATH on Euphorbia coagulum modified polyester banana fiber composite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumari, Sanju; Rai, Bhuvneshwar; Kumar, Gulshan

    2018-02-01

    Fiber reinforced polymer composites are used for building and structural applications due to their high strength. In conventional composites both the binder and the reinforcing fibers are synthetic or either one of the material is natural. In the present study coagulum of Euphorbia royleana has been used for replacing polyester resinas binder in polyester banana composite. Euphorbia coagulum (driedlatex) is rich in resinous mass (60-80%), which are terpenes and polyisoprene (10-20%). Effect of varying percentage of coagulum content on various physico-mechanical properties of polyester-banana composites has been studied. Since banana fiber is sensitive to water due to presence of polar group, banana composite undergoes delamination and deterioration under humid condition. Alkali treated banana fiber along with coagulum content has improved overall mechanical properties and reduction in water absorption. The best physico-mechanical properties have been achieved on replacing 40% of polyester resin by coagulum. An increase of 50% in bending strength, 30% bending modulus and 45% impact strength as well as 68% decrease in water absorption was observed. Incorporation of 20% ATH as flame retardant in coagulum modified banana polyester composite enhanced limiting oxygen index from 20.6 to 26.8% and smoke density reduced up to 40%. This study presents the possibility of utilization of renewable materials for environmental friendly composite development as well as to find out alternative feedstock for petroleum products. Developed Euphorbia latex modified banana polyester composites can have potential utility in hardboard, partition panel, plywood and automotive etc.

  3. Inventory of Musa paradisiaca L. (banana kepok in Lumajang regency, Malang regency, and Magelang regency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suhadi Suhadi

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Banana is fruit containing fairly high nutrition and provides quick reserve enegy. The crop grows in tropical area with average rainfall all the year and banana produces at any season. One of the bananas which has high value sale and high competable potency is subvariety of kepok banana. Kepok banana has various subvarieties, these subvarieties have the same morphologies but have different texture appearances thus uneasy to differenciate among them. The texture appearance determines the quality and price of the banana. Often the buyer makes a mistake in choosing subvariety of kepok he wants to, whereas the seller gives him the cheapiest subvariety of kepok. Methods we used was method of exploration using free exploration technique step by step without any certain path. There were two phases in the research namely the fi rst phase was carried out in field and the second phase was done in the laboratory. Subvarieties of kepok found in Lumajang Regency are 4 subcultivars, Malang Regency there are 3 and Magelang Regency are subcultivars subcultivars, The sequence of the qulity of kapok subcultivars are as follows, red kepok, yellow kepok, big (gede, gilo, gembrot kepok, and white kepok. Sugestion, organic ferlitilizer should be used in the fertilization of banana cultivation, and conservation of red kepok is highly required.

  4. Black leaf streak disease affects starch metabolism in banana fruit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saraiva, Lorenzo de Amorim; Castelan, Florence Polegato; Shitakubo, Renata; Hassimotto, Neuza Mariko Aymoto; Purgatto, Eduardo; Chillet, Marc; Cordenunsi, Beatriz Rosana

    2013-06-12

    Black leaf streak disease (BLSD), also known as black sigatoka, represents the main foliar disease in Brazilian banana plantations. In addition to photosynthetic leaf area losses and yield losses, this disease causes an alteration in the pre- and postharvest behavior of the fruit. The aim of this work was to investigate the starch metabolism of fruits during fruit ripening from plants infected with BLSD by evaluating carbohydrate content (i.e., starch, soluble sugars, oligosaccharides, amylose), phenolic compound content, phytohormones, enzymatic activities (i.e., starch phosphorylases, α- and β-amylase), and starch granules. The results indicated that the starch metabolism in banana fruit ripening is affected by BLSD infection. Fruit from infested plots contained unusual amounts of soluble sugars in the green stage and smaller starch granules and showed a different pattern of superficial degradation. Enzymatic activities linked to starch degradation were also altered by the disease. Moreover, the levels of indole-acetic acid and phenolic compounds indicated an advanced fruit physiological age for fruits from infested plots.

  5. Resistance selection on banana CV. Ambon Kuning Against Fusarium Wilt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sutarto, Ismiyarti; Meldia, Yeni; Jumjunidang

    1998-01-01

    This research was conducted in order to study the occurrence of mutation on irradiated plantlets and their resistance of plants of banana cv. Ambon Kuning against Fusarium wilt. Plantlets of banana cv. Ambon Kuning sized 5 cm were exposed to gamma rays at the doses 5 - 35 Gy intervals, then were subcultured for obtained M 1 V 5 plantlets. More over, the planlets were acclimatized and were planted in the field was already infected by Fasarium (f).culbense (FOC). The result indicated that irradiated plantlets of the doses 20 - 35 Gy were not able to survive up to 6 months after exposing to gamma rays. Abnormalities of M 1 V 5 plantlets originated from irradiated plantlets at the doses 10 and 15 Gy were shown on rossette plantlets with rigid and dark green leaves, and the formation of smooth mass morphologically shaped like calculus. The appearance of plant height and number of suckers of suckers of M 1 V 5 plants in the field was quite various. The number of survival plants after 8 moths planting was 8, 7, 15, and 28, respectively originated from untreated plants and irradiated plantlets at the doses 5, 10, and 15 Gy. After one year planting , only 2 plants were able to survive from irradiated plantlet at the dose 15 Gy. The plants could produce 27 plantlets obtained from culturing their shoot tips. Further study of these plantlets was needed in order create the stability of their resistance to FOC. (author)

  6. Post harvest changes gamma-irradiated banana Prata

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vilas Boas, E.V. de; Chitarra, A.B.; Chitarra, M.I.F.

    1996-01-01

    The effect of the gamma-irradiation was evaluated at 0.25 and 0.50 kGy, on the development of peel coloration, CO 2 and ethylene evolution, conversion of starch to sugars, pulp-to-peel ratio, pectic solubilization and activities of enzymes of the cell wall, pectin methylesterase (PME), and polygalacturonase (PG), during maturation of 'Prata' bananas. The gamma-irradiation did not affect the normal colour development of the fruits. An increase in the ethylene peak and a decrease in the CO 2 peak was observed. The gamma-irradiation did not affect the degradation of starch, while a delay in soluble sugar accumulation was noted on the 6 and 7 colour grades. The fruits subjected to 0.25 kGy had the highest increase in the pulp-to-peel relation, beginning with colour grade 5, due to a possible stress effect of that dose. An increase of pectin solubilization was observed. Higher PME activities were exhibited by irradiated fruits, although the gamma-irradiation suppressed the PG activity throughout the maturation period. The gamma-irradiation did not extend the post-harvest life of 'Prata' bananas. (author) [pt

  7. The use of tags and tag clouds to discern credible content in online health message forums.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Grady, Laura; Wathen, C Nadine; Charnaw-Burger, Jill; Betel, Lisa; Shachak, Aviv; Luke, Robert; Hockema, Stephen; Jadad, Alejandro R

    2012-01-01

    Web sites with health-oriented content are potentially harmful if inaccurate or inappropriate medical information is used to make health-related decisions. Checklists, rating systems and guidelines have been developed to help people determine what is credible, but recent Internet technologies emphasize applications that are collaborative in nature, including tags and tag clouds, where site users 'tag' or label online content, each using their own labelling system. Concepts such as the date, reference, author, testimonial and quotations are considered predictors of credible content. An understanding of these descriptive tools, how they relate to the depiction of credibility and how this relates to overall efforts to label data in relation to the semantic web has yet to emerge. This study investigates how structured (pre-determined) and unstructured (user-generated) tags and tag clouds with a multiple word search feature are used by participants to assess credibility of messages posted in online message forums. The targeted respondents were those using web sites message forums for disease self-management. We also explored the relevancy of our findings to the labelling or indexing of data in the context of the semantic web. Diabetes was chosen as the content area in this study, since (a) this is a condition with increasing prevalence and (b) diabetics have been shown to actively use the Internet to manage their condition. From January to March 2010 participants were recruited using purposive sampling techniques. A screening instrument was used to determine eligibility. The study consisted of a demographic and computer usage survey, a series of usability tests and an interview. We tested participants (N=22) on two scenarios, each involving tasks that assessed their ability to tag content and search using a tag cloud that included six structured credibility terms (statistics, date, reference, author, testimonial and quotations). MORAE Usability software (version 3

  8. Chemical composition and physicochemical properties of green banana (Musa acuminata x balbisiana Colla cv. Awak) flour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haslinda, W H; Cheng, L H; Chong, L C; Noor Aziah, A A

    2009-01-01

    Flour was prepared from peeled and unpeeled banana Awak ABB. Samples prepared were subjected to analysis for determination of chemical composition, mineral, dietary fibre, starch and total phenolics content, antioxidant activity and pasting properties. In general, flour prepared from unpeeled banana was found to show enhanced nutrition values with higher contents of mineral, dietary fibre and total phenolics. Hence, flour fortified with peel showed relatively higher antioxidant activity. On the other hand, better pasting properties were shown when banana flour was blended with peel. It was found that a relatively lower pasting temperature, peak viscosity, breakdown, final viscosity and setback were evident in a sample blended with peel.

  9. K40 y Cs137 in bananas exported from Costa Rica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loria, L. G.; Mora, P.; Badilla, M.

    1999-01-01

    Using low level gamma spectroscopy, the specific activity of K 4 0 and Cs 1 37 in banana samples is quantified during the period 1996-1998. The bananas were supplied by the export companies that operate in Costa Rica. The calculated derived intervention level (DIL) for Cs 1 37 was 4000 times greater than the specific activity measured in the fruit due to worldwide nuclear events. This result permits its free commercialization. Banana is an excellent source of potassium, since it was determined that each kg of the fruit has 3.8 g of this element. (Author) [es

  10. A Personalized Tag-Based Recommendation in Social Web Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Durao, Frederico; Dolog, Peter

    2009-01-01

    -based recommender system which suggests similar Web pages based on the similarity of their tags from a Web 2.0 tagging application. The proposed approach extends the basic similarity calculus with external factors such as tag popularity, tag representativeness and the affinity between user and tag. In order...... to study and evaluate the recommender system, we have conducted an experiment involving 38 people from 12 countries using data from Del.icio.us , a social bookmarking web system on which users can share their personal bookmarks......Tagging activity has been recently identified as a potential source of knowledge about personal interests, preferences, goals, and other attributes known from user models. Tags themselves can be therefore used for finding personalized recommendations of items. In this paper, we present a tag...

  11. APPECT: An Approximate Backbone-Based Clustering Algorithm for Tags

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zong, Yu; Xu, Guandong; Jin, Pin

    2011-01-01

    algorithm for Tags (APPECT). The main steps of APPECT are: (1) we execute the K-means algorithm on a tag similarity matrix for M times and collect a set of tag clustering results Z={C1,C2,…,Cm}; (2) we form the approximate backbone of Z by executing a greedy search; (3) we fix the approximate backbone...... as the initial tag clustering result and then assign the rest tags into the corresponding clusters based on the similarity. Experimental results on three real world datasets namely MedWorm, MovieLens and Dmoz demonstrate the effectiveness and the superiority of the proposed method against the traditional...... Agglomerative Clustering on tagging data, which possess the inherent drawbacks, such as the sensitivity of initialization. In this paper, we instead make use of the approximate backbone of tag clustering results to find out better tag clusters. In particular, we propose an APProximate backbonE-based Clustering...

  12. Ação do 1-metilciclopropeno (1-MCP na vida de prateleira da banana 'maçã' Action of 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP on shelf life of 'apple' banana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Carla Marques Pinheiro

    2005-04-01

    . The application of 50 etaL.L-1 of 1-MCP is the most proper for promoting the extension of shelf life of 'Apple' banana, keeping its quality based on total soluble sugar, total and soluble pectins, firmness analysis and external appearance in the end of storage.

  13. Group Discovery in a CollaborativeTagging System

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Zijian

    2007-01-01

    Tagging refers to the process of adding metadata to describe things by usingone or several words. Collaborative Tagging systems, which allow different webusers to tag web content like weblogs, pictures, and bookmarks and so on, haverecently gained great popularity on internet. There are already a greatvariety of debates on internet of the advantages and disadvantages ofcollaborative tagging systems from the aspect of information organizing. Inthis paper, we primarily focus on a collaborative ...

  14. Marketing de banana: preferências do consumidor quanto aos atributos de qualidade dos frutos Marketing of banana: consumer preferences relating to fruit quality attributes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando César Akira Urbano Matsuura

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available O Brasil produz aproximadamente seis milhões de toneladas por ano de banana (Musa spp., com consumo médio da ordem de 35 kg/ habitante / ano. A aceitação da banana deve-se, principalmente, a seus aspectos sensoriais, valor nutricional e conveniência. A identificação das necessidades e desejos dos clientes consiste em uma atividade crítica do marketing. O objetivo deste trabalho foi o de pesquisar as preferências do consumidor de um mercado local (município de Cruz das Almas - Estado da Bahia considerando os atributos de qualidade dos frutos frescos de banana madura. A metodologia utilizada foi a da pesquisa descritiva por método estatístico. Os dados foram coletados por questionário, na forma de entrevista pessoal com 400 pessoas. Os atributos de qualidade (variáveis questionados e avaliados foram relacionados com a aparência, cor, textura, aroma, sabor e vida útil esperada dos frutos de banana. De acordo com a preferência dos consumidores entrevistados, o fruto de banana maduro ideal deve apresentar características como: penca contendo 10 a 12 dedos (frutos, dedos de tamanho médio ou grande, diâmetro médio, quina presente, ausência de pintas pretas na casca, cor da polpa amarelo-clara ou média, textura firme, aroma e sabor de intensidade média, mediamente doce e vida útil de 7 a 10 dias em condição ambiente. O sabor, vida útil e aparência dos frutos de banana são considerados os mais importantes atributos na escolha ou compra da banana, segundo os consumidores entrevistados.Brazil has an approximate production of six million annual tons of banana (Musa spp., with a consumption close to 35 kg / inhabitant / year. The acceptance of the banana fruit is due, mainly, to its sensorial aspects, nutritional value and convenience. The identification of the customers' needs and desires consists of a critical activity of the marketing. The objective of this work was to research the consumer preferences of a local market (Cruz

  15. Learning tag relevance by neighbor voting for social image retrieval

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Li, X.; Snoek, C.G.M.; Worring, M.

    2008-01-01

    Social image retrieval is important for exploiting the increasing amounts of amateur-tagged multimedia such as Flickr images. Since amateur tagging is known to be uncontrolled, ambiguous, and personalized, a fundamental problem is how to reliably interpret the relevance of a tag with respect to the

  16. Incorporating user motivations to design for video tagging

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Velsen, Lex Stefan; Melenhorst, M.S.

    2009-01-01

    User video tagging can enhance the indexing of large collections of videos, or can provide the basis for personalizing output. However, before the benefits of tagging can be reaped, users must be motivated to provide videos with tags. This article describes a two-stage study that aimed at collecting

  17. Tags in Domain-Specific Sites - New Information?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steinhauer, Jeremy; Delcambre, Lois M.L.; Maier, David

    2011-01-01

    If researchers use tags in retrieval applications they might assume, implicitly, that tags represent novel information, e.g., when they attribute performance improvement in their retrieval algorithm(s) to the use of tags. In this work, we investigate whether this assumption is true. We focus on t...

  18. Bus and Tag Terminators for IBM system/360

    CERN Multimedia

    Control units were connected to the channels with "Bus and Tag" cable pairs. The bus cables carried the address and data information and the tag cables identified what data was on the bus. There were three general types of bus-and-tag cables produced by IBM.

  19. The Effects of Target Audience on Social Tagging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alsarhan, Hesham

    2013-01-01

    Online social bookmarking systems allow users to assign tags (i.e., keywords) to represent the content of resources. Research on the effects of target audience on social tagging suggests that taggers select different tags for themselves, their community (e.g., family, friends, colleagues), and the general public (Panke & Gaiser, 2009; Pu &…

  20. Key mediators modulating TAG synthesis and accumulation in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    the key mediators on TAG synthesis and accumulation, among which diacylglycerol acyltransferases (DGATs) is discussed for its clear role in TAG amount and composition. Furthermore TAG-accosiated proteins called oleosins are also discussed in depth due to their determination on the amount and size of oil bodies.

  1. Exploiting phase measurements of EPC Gen2 RFID tags

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huiting, J.; Flisijn, Hubert; Kokkeler, Andre B.J.; Smit, Gerardus Johannes Maria

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a 2d localization system for UHF RFID tags. By measuring the phase between the transmitted continuous wave and received backscatter from the tag at different frequencies, it is possible to estimate the distance between the reader and tag. By determining distance estimates to

  2. Synaptic Tagging, Evaluation of Memories, and the Distal Reward Problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papper, Marc; Kempter, Richard; Leibold, Christian

    2011-01-01

    Long-term synaptic plasticity exhibits distinct phases. The synaptic tagging hypothesis suggests an early phase in which synapses are prepared, or "tagged," for protein capture, and a late phase in which those proteins are integrated into the synapses to achieve memory consolidation. The synapse specificity of the tags is consistent with…

  3. Simulation of defoliation caused by Black Sigatoka in the yield and quality of banana 'Nanica ' fruits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Domingues Lima

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Defoliation caused by Black Sigatoka in yield and quality of banana 'Nanica' was stimulated in this study. A completely randomized 2x8 factorial design with six repetitions was used, in which period of bunch formation and number of leaves at flowering were established as factors. Plants for defoliation were selected on 04/05/2013 (Period 1, and on 07/01/2014 (Period 2. Six to to 13 leaves remained per plant by removing those with more than 50% of blade with injury or senescence. More appropriate climatic conditions before and after flowering, promoted greater mass accumulation in the bunch in Period 2. The increased number of leaves at flowering increased the length of the fruit and the mass of 4th hand, as well as the bunch mass and postharvest period. Defoliation is suggested only for non-functional leaves as well as the maintenance of at least 10 leaves per plant, independent of the period of bunch formation.

  4. A novel source of biofertilizer from feather biomass for banana cultivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurav, Ranjit G; Jadhav, Jyoti P

    2013-07-01

    Feather waste is a promising protein biomass available as by-product from poultry processing was found to be rich in peptides, amino acids, and minerals like nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, calcium, magnesium, iron, manganese, zinc, and copper. Soil and foliar application of these products, besides representing a sustainable solution to the problem of feather disposal, may also represent an effective strategy to tackle the environmental effluence. As a consequence, they were also found to be very attractive in elevating the protein, amino acids, reducing sugar, total chlorophyll, and proline content of plants. On the other side, fertilizing effect enhanced the antioxidant potential of banana fruit which was assessed using 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl, ferric reducing/antioxidant power, and N, N-dimethyl-p-phenylendiamine. This was associated with considerably higher antioxidant contents like total phenolics and flavonoids. Therefore, the application of this organic amendment could promote and improve the agro-ecosystem, human health; soil biological activities, and at the same time enhance the production of plant or products rich in bioactive substances.

  5. ''In vivo'' methodology for mutation induction in banana, cultivar ''Maca''

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tulmann Neto, A.; Domingues, E.T.; Alvarez, A.L.F.; Mendez, B.M.J.; Ando, A.

    1990-01-01

    Full text: The ''Maca'' cultivar is a banana of high acceptability in the south west of Brazil. However, it is very susceptible to several diseases. Due to the difficulties in the application of the traditional plant breeding methods, the Radiation Genetics Section of CENA is utilising the ''in vivo'', and the ''in vitro'' mutation breeding approach. The ''in vivo'' methodology is based on the work of HAMILTON. This method is being utilised in Brazil for rapid banana propagation. Rhizomes (20 cm diameter) were obtained from young field grown plants before flower differentiation. In these rhizomes, only 5-6 leaf sheaths were retained, the others being removed. The rhizomes were maintained in a greenhouse in boxes with vermiculite, covered with plastic. After one week, all leaf sheaths were removed, until the exposure of the meristematic apex with about 2 mm size. This apex was cut off with a scalpel and a cross shaped cut (2,5 cm) was made. This stimulates the development of lateral buds. After four months, the meristematic apices of these new buds were cut off in the same way and immediately the rhizomes were irradiated with gamma rays. Around the eliminated lateral buds callus developed and new lateral buds were formed. The LD 50 in relation to the number of these new buds produced was around 30 Gy. According to the author of the original method, from the callus one can obtain axillary or adventitious buds. In the early stages it is possible, based on the shape, to distinguish both types. The advantage of utilising adventitious buds originating from only one cell to avoid chimerism is well known in mutation breeding. However, it is not certain whether this is the case in the present method. After detachment from rhizomes and rooting in soil, plants with 15-20 cm height were inoculated with Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. cubense. After 3 weeks the plants showed symptoms of the Panama disease and screening could be done at this stage. The total time between the removal of

  6. ''In vivo'' methodology for mutation induction in banana, cultivar ''Maca''

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tulmann Neto, A; Domingues, E T; Alvarez, A L.F.; Mendez, B M.J.; Ando, A [Centre for Nuclear Energy in Agriculture (CENA), University of Sao Paulo, Piracicaba, SP. (Brazil)

    1990-07-01

    Full text: The ''Maca'' cultivar is a banana of high acceptability in the south west of Brazil. However, it is very susceptible to several diseases. Due to the difficulties in the application of the traditional plant breeding methods, the Radiation Genetics Section of CENA is utilising the ''in vivo'', and the ''in vitro'' mutation breeding approach. The ''in vivo'' methodology is based on the work of HAMILTON. This method is being utilised in Brazil for rapid banana propagation. Rhizomes (20 cm diameter) were obtained from young field grown plants before flower differentiation. In these rhizomes, only 5-6 leaf sheaths were retained, the others being removed. The rhizomes were maintained in a greenhouse in boxes with vermiculite, covered with plastic. After one week, all leaf sheaths were removed, until the exposure of the meristematic apex with about 2 mm size. This apex was cut off with a scalpel and a cross shaped cut (2,5 cm) was made. This stimulates the development of lateral buds. After four months, the meristematic apices of these new buds were cut off in the same way and immediately the rhizomes were irradiated with gamma rays. Around the eliminated lateral buds callus developed and new lateral buds were formed. The LD{sub 50} in relation to the number of these new buds produced was around 30 Gy. According to the author of the original method, from the callus one can obtain axillary or adventitious buds. In the early stages it is possible, based on the shape, to distinguish both types. The advantage of utilising adventitious buds originating from only one cell to avoid chimerism is well known in mutation breeding. However, it is not certain whether this is the case in the present method. After detachment from rhizomes and rooting in soil, plants with 15-20 cm height were inoculated with Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. cubense. After 3 weeks the plants showed symptoms of the Panama disease and screening could be done at this stage. The total time between the

  7. Characterization of SV-40 Tag rats as a model to study prostate cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harper, Curt E; Patel, Brijesh B; Cook, Leah M; Wang, Jun; Shirai, Tomoyuki; Eltoum, Isam A; Lamartiniere, Coral A

    2009-01-01

    Prostate cancer is the second most frequently diagnosed cancer in men. Animal models that closely mimic clinical disease in humans are invaluable tools in the fight against prostate cancer. Recently, a Simian Virus-40 T-antigen (SV-40 Tag) targeted probasin promoter rat model was developed. This model, however, has not been extensively characterized; hence we have investigated the ontogeny of prostate cancer and determined the role of sex steroid receptor and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) signaling proteins in the novel SV-40 Tag rat. The SV-40 Tag rat was histopathologically characterized for time to tumor development, incidence and multiplicity and in the ventral, dorsal, lateral and anterior lobes of the prostate. Immunoassay techniques were employed to measure cell proliferation, apoptosis, and sex steroid receptor and growth factor signaling-related proteins. Steroid hormone concentrations were measured via coated well enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) kits. Prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia (PIN) and well-differentiated prostate cancer developed as early as 2 and 10 weeks of age, respectively in the ventral prostate (VP) followed by in the dorsolateral (DLP). At 8 weeks of age, testosterone and dihydrotestosterone (DHT) concentrations in SV-40 Tag rats were increased when compared to non-transgenic rats. High cell proliferation and apoptotic indices were found in VP and DLP of transgenic rats. Furthermore, we observed increased protein expression of androgen receptor, IGF-1, IGF-1 receptor, and extracellular signal-regulated kinases in the prostates of SV-40 Tag rats. The rapid development of PIN and prostate cancer in conjunction with the large prostate size makes the SV-40 Tag rat a useful model for studying prostate cancer. This study provides evidence of the role of sex steroid and growth factor proteins in prostate cancer development and defines appropriate windows of opportunity for preclinical trials and aids in the rational design of

  8. Transgenic Cavendish bananas with resistance to Fusarium wilt tropical race 4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dale, James; James, Anthony; Paul, Jean-Yves; Khanna, Harjeet; Smith, Mark; Peraza-Echeverria, Santy; Garcia-Bastidas, Fernando; Kema, Gert; Waterhouse, Peter; Mengersen, Kerrie; Harding, Robert

    2017-11-14

    Banana (Musa spp.) is a staple food for more than 400 million people. Over 40% of world production and virtually all the export trade is based on Cavendish banana. However, Cavendish banana is under threat from a virulent fungus, Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense tropical race 4 (TR4) for which no acceptable resistant replacement has been identified. Here we report the identification of transgenic Cavendish with resistance to TR4. In our 3-year field trial, two lines of transgenic Cavendish, one transformed with RGA2, a gene isolated from a TR4-resistant diploid banana, and the other with a nematode-derived gene, Ced9, remain disease free. Transgene expression in the RGA2 lines is strongly correlated with resistance. Endogenous RGA2 homologs are also present in Cavendish but are expressed tenfold lower than that in our most resistant transgenic line. The expression of these homologs can potentially be elevated through gene editing, to provide non-transgenic resistance.

  9. Detection of DNA methylation changes in micropropagated banana plants using methylation-sensitive amplification polymorphism (MSAP).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peraza-Echeverria, S; Herrera-Valencia, V A.; Kay, A -J.

    2001-07-01

    The extent of DNA methylation polymorphisms was evaluated in micropropagated banana (Musa AAA cv. 'Grand Naine') derived from either the vegetative apex of the sucker or the floral apex of the male inflorescence using the methylation-sensitive amplification polymorphism (MSAP) technique. In all, 465 fragments, each representing a recognition site cleaved by either or both of the isoschizomers were amplified using eight combinations of primers. A total of 107 sites (23%) were found to be methylated at cytosine in the genome of micropropagated banana plants. In plants micropropagated from the male inflorescence explant 14 (3%) DNA methylation events were polymorphic, while plants micropropagated from the sucker explant produced 8 (1.7%) polymorphisms. No DNA methylation polymorphisms were detected in conventionally propagated banana plants. These results demonstrated the usefulness of MSAP to detect DNA methylation events in micropropagated banana plants and indicate that DNA methylation polymorphisms are associated with micropropagation.

  10. In vitro mutation induction for resistance to Fusarium wilt in the banana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tulmann Neto, A; Mendes, B M.J.; Latado, R [Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura, Piracicaba, SP (Brazil); Cesar Santos, P dos; Boliani, A [Universidade Estadual Paulista, Ilha Solteira, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Agronomia

    1995-11-01

    In Brazil, which is one of the world`s principal banana production regions, almost all production is consumed within the country. Consumers show high preference for the cultivar Maca (AAB group). However, it is becoming increasingly difficult to produce bananas of this type because of their high susceptibility to Fusarium wilt, caused by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense. Sexual breeding, which consists of recombination and selection, is limited in the banana because of polyploidy and sterility. Spontaneous somatic mutations are an important source of new cultirvars, and mutation breeding might be particularly important to generate genetic variation. Because of this, the mutation breeding approach has been used in Brazil. The objective of this research was to induce gamma ray mutations for resistance or to increase the level of tolerance to Fusarium wilt in the banana cultivar Maca on the basis of screening under field conditions. 4 refs.

  11. Discrete Dynamical Systems Meet the Classic Monkey-and-the-Bananas Problem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gannon, Gerald E.; Martelli, Mario U.

    2001-01-01

    Presents a solution of the three-sailors-and-the-bananas problem and attempts a generalization. Introduces an interesting way of looking at the mathematics with an idea drawn from discrete dynamical systems. (KHR)

  12. Focused ion beam analysis of banana peel and its application for arsenate ion removal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Memon, J.R.

    2015-01-01

    Banana peel, a common fruit waste, has been investigated for its ability to remove arsenate ions from ground water as a function of pH, contact time, and initial metal ion concentration. Focused ion beam (FIB) analysis revealed the internal morphology of the banana peels. Arsenate ions were entered into micropores of banana peel. pH was seen to have no effect on the sorption process. Retained species were eluted using 5 mL of 2 M H/sub 2/SO/sub 4/. The kinetics of sorption were observed to follow the pseudo first order rate equation. The sorption data followed Freundlich and D-R isotherms. The energy value obtained from the D-R isotherms indicated that the sorption was physical in nature for arsenate species. Our study has shown that banana peel has the ability to remove arsenate species from ground water samples. (author)

  13. Mechanical and water absorption behaviour of banana/sisal reinforced hybrid composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Venkateshwaran, N.; ElayaPerumal, A.; Alavudeen, A.; Thiruchitrambalam, M.

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → It explores the utilization of waste banana fiber. → Improving the mechanical property by hybridization. → Results show its usefulness to low cost application. -- Abstract: The tensile, flexural, impact and water absorption tests were carried out using banana/epoxy composite material. Initially, optimum fiber length and weight percentage were determined. To improve the mechanical properties, banana fiber was hybridised with sisal fiber. This study showed that addition of sisal fiber in banana/epoxy composites of up to 50% by weight results in increasing the mechanical properties and decreasing the moisture absorption property. Morphological analysis was carried out to observe fracture behaviour and fiber pull-out of the samples using scanning electron microscope.

  14. Bio solids Application on Banana Production: Soil Chemical Properties and Plant Nutrition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teixeira, L.A.J; Berton, R.S.B; Coscione, A.R; Saes, L.A

    2011-01-01

    Bio solids are relatively rich in N, P, and S and could be used to substitute mineral fertilization for banana crop. A field experiment was carried out in a Yellow Oxisol to investigate the effects of bio solids application on soil chemical properties and on banana leaf's nutrient concentration during the first cropping cycle. Soil analysis (ph, organic matter, resin P, exchangeable Ca and K, available B, DTPA-extracted micro nutrients, and heavy metals) and index-leaf analysis (B, Cu, Fe, Mn, Zn, Cd, Cr, Ni, and Pb) were evaluated. Bio solids can completely substitute mineral N and P fertilizer to banana growth. Soil exchangeable K and leaf-K concentration must be monitored in order to avoid K deficiency in banana plants. No risk of heavy metal (Cr, Ni, Pb, and Cd) concentration increase in the index leaf was observed when bio solids were applied at the recommended N rate.

  15. Molecular Diagnostics in the Mycosphaerella Leaf Spot Disease Complex of Banana and for Radopholus similis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arzanlou, M.; Kema, G.H.J.; Waalwijk, C.; Carlier, I.; Vries, de P.M.; Guzmán, M.; Araya Vargas, M.; Helder, J.; Crous, P.W.

    2009-01-01

    Mycosphaerella leaf spots and nematodes threaten banana cultivation worldwide. The Mycosphaerella disease complex involves three related ascomycetous fungi: Mycosphaerella fijiensis, M. musicola and M. eumusae. The exact distribution of these three species and their disease epidemiology remain

  16. Biochemical and molecular tools reveal two diverse Xanthomonas groups in bananas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adriko, John; Aritua, V.; Mortensen, Carmen Nieves

    2016-01-01

    Xanthomonas campestris pv. musacearum (Xcm) causing the banana Xanthomonas wilt (BXW) disease has been the main xanthomonad associated with bananas in East and Central Africa based on phenotypic and biochemical characteristics. However, biochemical methods cannot effectively distinguish between...... pathogenic and non-pathogenic xanthomonads. In this study, gram-negative and yellow-pigmented mucoid bacteria were isolated from BXW symptomatic and symptomless bananas collected from different parts of Uganda. Biolog, Xcm-specific (GspDm), Xanthomonas vasicola species-specific (NZ085) and Xanthomonas genus......-specific (X1623) primers in PCR, and sequencing of ITS region were used to identify and characterize the isolates. Biolog tests revealed several isolates as xanthomonads. The GspDm and NZ085 primers accurately identified three isolates from diseased bananas as Xcm and these were pathogenic when re...

  17. Focused Ion Beam Analysis of Banana Peel and Its Application for Arsenate Ion Removal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamil R. Memon

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Banana peel, a common fruit waste, has been investigated for its ability to remove arsenate ions from ground water as a function of pH, contact time, and initial metal ion concentration. Focused ion beam (FIB analysis revealed the internal morphology of the banana peels. Arsenate ions were entered into micropores of banana peel. pH was seen to have no effect on the sorption process. Retained species were eluted using 5 mL of 2 M H2SO4. The kinetics of sorption were observed to follow the pseudo first order rate equation. The sorption data followed Freundlich and D-R isotherms. The energy value obtained from the D-R isotherms indicated that the sorption was physical in nature for arsenate species. Our study has shown that banana peel has the ability to remove arsenate species from ground water samples.

  18. [Banana peel: a possible source of infection in the treatment of nipple fissures].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novak, Franz Reis; de Almeida, João Aprígio Guerra; de Souza e Silva, Rosana

    2003-01-01

    To study the microbiology of banana peel being sold in the city of Rio de Janeiro, in an attempt to determine the possibility that the peel may represent a source of infection for women who use it to treat nipple fissures. The following microorganisms were studied in 20 banana peel samples: mesophiles, total coliforms, fecal coliforms, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, lipolytic and proteolytic microorganisms, molds and yeasts, lactic bacteria, and coagulase-positive staphylococcus. The microbiological analyses revealed the occurrence of several typical groups of microorganisms, with the following distribution of positive results being detected in banana peel samples: mesophiles, 100%; total coliforms, 20%; coagulase-positive staphylococcus, 25%; molds and yeasts, 30%; proteolytic microorganisms, 70%; lipolytic microorganisms, 30%, and lactic bacteria, 95%. Fecal coliforms and Pseudomonas aeruginosa were not isolated. The results show the presence of potentially pathogenic microorganisms in levels which could compromise the microbiological quality of the banana peel. Its use for the treatment of nipple fissures can initiate an infectious process.

  19. Physicochemical quality and antioxidant changes in ‘Leb Mue Nang’ banana fruit during ripening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pannipa Youryon

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The physicochemical and antioxidant changes of ‘Kluai Leb Mue Nang’ banana fruit (Musa AA group were investigated during ripening. The visual appearance, peel and pulp color, firmness, total soluble solids concentration (TSS, total acidity (TA and bioactive compounds of the fruit at three stages of ripening (mature green, ripe and overripe were monitored. Changes in both the peel and pulp color, texture, TSS and TA contents during banana ripening were similar to those of other banana fruits. Interestingly, the highest total antioxidants capacity and total phenols concentration were found in the ripe banana fruit. 2,2-Diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging activity remained constant and the highest total flavonoids concentration was found in the mature green fruit.

  20. Studies on physico-chemical changes during artificial ripening of banana (Musa sp) variety 'Robusta'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulkarni, Shyamrao Gururao; Kudachikar, V B; Keshava Prakash, M N

    2011-12-01

    Banana (Musa sp var 'Robusta') fruits harvested at 75-80% maturity were dip treated with different concentrations of ethrel (250-1,000 ppm) solution for 5 min. Ethrel at 500 ppm induced uniform ripening without impairing taste and flavour of banana. Untreated control banana fruits remained shriveled, green and failed to ripen evenly even after 8 days of storage. Fruits treated with 500 ppm of ethrel ripened well in 6 days at 20 ± 1 °C. Changes in total soluble solids, acidity, total sugars and total carotenoids showed increasing trends up to 6 days during ripening whereas fruit shear force values, pulp pH and total chlorophyll in peel showed decreasing trends. Sensory quality of ethrel treated banana fruits (fully ripe) were excellent with respect to external colour, taste, flavour and overall quality.

  1. Bacillus spp as a biological control agent against panama disease in banana

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Gumede, WHN

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available The decreased productivity levels in crop production as a consequence of disease infection have been a great concern amongst agricultural communities. A similar threat is facing the banana-cultivating community due to Panama disease. Panama disease...

  2. Treatment of banana and potato plants with a new antifungal composition (European patent specification)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stark, J.; Rijn, van F.T.J.; Krieken, van der W.M.; Stevens, L.H.

    2010-01-01

    International publication number: WO 2009/077613 (25.06.2009 Gazette 2009/26) The present invention relates to the treatment of banana and potato plants with a composition containing natamycin and at least one phosphite containing compound

  3. Natural Variation in Banana Varieties Highlights the Role of Melatonin in Postharvest Ripening and Quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Wei; Yang, Hai; Tie, Weiwei; Yan, Yan; Ding, Zehong; Liu, Yang; Wu, Chunlai; Wang, Jiashui; Reiter, Russel J; Tan, Dun-Xian; Shi, Haitao; Xu, Biyu; Jin, Zhiqiang

    2017-11-22

    This study aimed to investigate the role of melatonin in postharvest ripening and quality in various banana varieties with contrasting ripening periods. During the postharvest life, endogenous melatonin showed similar performance with ethylene in connection to ripening. In comparison to ethylene, melatonin was more correlated with postharvest banana ripening. Exogenous application of melatonin resulted in a delay of postharvest banana ripening. Moreover, this effect is concentration-dependent, with 200 and 500 μM treatments more effective than the 50 μM treatment. Exogenous melatonin also led to elevated endogenous melatonin content, reduced ethylene production through regulation of the expression of MaACO1 and MaACS1, and delayed sharp changes of quality indices. Taken together, this study highlights that melatonin is an indicator for banana fruit ripening in various varieties, and the repression of ethylene biosynthesis and postharvest ripening by melatonin can be used for biological control of postharvest fruit ripening and quality.

  4. Ion thermal conductivity and ion distribution function in the banana regime

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taguchi, Masayoshi

    1988-01-01

    A method for calculating the ion thermal conductivity and the ion distribution function in the banana regime is formulated for an axisymmetric toroidal plasma of arbitrary aspect ratio. A simple expression for this conductivity is also derived. (author)

  5. Extraction and characterization of proteins from banana (Musa Sapientum L) flower and evaluation of antimicrobial activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sitthiya, Kewalee; Devkota, Lavaraj; Sadiq, Muhammad Bilal; Anal, Anil Kumar

    2018-02-01

    Ultrasonic assisted alkaline extraction of protein from banana flower was optimized using response surface methodology. The extracted proteins were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and molecular weight distribution was determined by gel electrophoresis. The maximum protein yield of 252.25 mg/g was obtained under optimized extraction conditions: temperature 50 °C, 30 min extraction time and 1 M NaOH concentration. The alkaline extraction produced a significantly high protein yield compared to enzymatic extraction of banana flower. Chemical finger printing of proteins showed the presence of tyrosine, tryptophan and amide bonds in extracted protein. Alkaline and pepsin assisted extracted banana flower proteins showed characteristic bands at 40 and 10 kDA, respectively. The extracted proteins showed antibacterial effects against both gram positive and gram negative bacteria. The high protein content and antimicrobial activity indicate the potential applications of banana flower in the food and feed industry.

  6. Attitudes, perceptions, and trust. Insights from a consumer survey regarding genetically modified banana in Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kikulwe, Enoch M; Wesseler, Justus; Falck-Zepeda, Jose

    2011-10-01

    Genetically modified (GM) crops and food are still controversial. This paper analyzes consumers' perceptions and institutional awareness and trust toward GM banana regulation in Uganda. Results are based on a study conducted among 421 banana-consuming households between July and August 2007. Results show a high willingness to purchase GM banana among consumers. An explanatory factor analysis is conducted to identify the perceptions toward genetic modification. The identified factors are used in a cluster analysis that grouped consumers into segments of GM skepticism, government trust, health safety concern, and food and environmental safety concern. Socioeconomic characteristics differed significantly across segments. Consumer characteristics and perception factors influence consumers' willingness to purchase GM banana. The institutional awareness and trust varied significantly across segments as well. The findings would be essential to policy makers when designing risk-communication strategies targeting different consumer segments to ensure proper discussion and addressing potential concerns about GM technology. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Effect of gamma radiation treatment on some fungi causing storage diseases of banana fruits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    EL-Ashmawi, A.M.M.

    1982-01-01

    Banana is one of the most popular fruits in many tropical and sub-tropical countries. in recent years, the quality of egyptian banana markedly declined. A major factor contributing to this decline is the development of fruit rot, which is the most widely occurring disease either in the field or in storage. Different fungi attack banana fruits causing considerable losses. Most of the fungi responsible for post harvest rots of banana are usually carried from the field, on the surface of the fruit itself or in injured and rotting fruits causing severe rats during storage. These rots make the fruits difficult to handle and undesirable to the consumers. Botryodiplodia theobromae is known to be the most important pathogen responsible for the infection in storage

  8. Intermolecular dynamics studied by paramagnetic tagging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu Xingfu; Keizers, Peter H. J. [Leiden University, Institute of Chemistry (Netherlands); Reinle, Wolfgang; Hannemann, Frank; Bernhardt, Rita [Universitaet des Saarlandes, Naturwissenschaftlich-Technische Fakultaet III, Institut fuer Biochemie (Germany); Ubbink, Marcellus [Leiden University, Institute of Chemistry (Netherlands)], E-mail: m.ubbink@chem.leidenuniv.nl

    2009-04-15

    Yeast cytochrome c and bovine adrenodoxin form a dynamic electron transfer complex, which is a pure encounter complex. It is demonstrated that the dynamic nature of the interaction can readily be probed by using a rigid lanthanide tag attached to cytochrome c. The tag, Caged Lanthanide NMR Probe 5, induces pseudocontact shifts and residual dipolar couplings and does not perturb the binding interface. Due to the dynamics in the complex, residual dipolar couplings in adrenodoxin are very small. Simulation shows that cytochrome c needs to sample a large part of the surface of adrenodoxin to explain the small degree of alignment observed for adrenodoxin. The applied method provides a simple and straightforward way to observe dynamics in protein complexes or domain-domain mobility without the need for external alignment media.

  9. Intermolecular dynamics studied by paramagnetic tagging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Xingfu; Keizers, Peter H. J.; Reinle, Wolfgang; Hannemann, Frank; Bernhardt, Rita; Ubbink, Marcellus

    2009-01-01

    Yeast cytochrome c and bovine adrenodoxin form a dynamic electron transfer complex, which is a pure encounter complex. It is demonstrated that the dynamic nature of the interaction can readily be probed by using a rigid lanthanide tag attached to cytochrome c. The tag, Caged Lanthanide NMR Probe 5, induces pseudocontact shifts and residual dipolar couplings and does not perturb the binding interface. Due to the dynamics in the complex, residual dipolar couplings in adrenodoxin are very small. Simulation shows that cytochrome c needs to sample a large part of the surface of adrenodoxin to explain the small degree of alignment observed for adrenodoxin. The applied method provides a simple and straightforward way to observe dynamics in protein complexes or domain-domain mobility without the need for external alignment media

  10. Bananeiras consorciadas com leguminosas herbáceas perenes utilizadas como coberturas vivas Banana plants intercropped with perennial herbaceous legumes used as living mulches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Antonio Azevedo Espindola

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a produção de bananeiras consorciadas com as leguminosas herbáceas perenes - amendoim forrageiro (Arachis pintoi, cudzu tropical (Pueraria phaseoloides e siratro (Macroptilium atropurpureum. Os tratamentos-controle consistiram em vegetação espontânea com predomínio de Panicum maximum, e vegetação espontânea com adubação nitrogenada das bananeiras. Também foi avaliado o desenvolvimento vegetativo das bananeiras. Entre as coberturas avaliadas, a vegetação espontânea e o cudzu tropical apresentaram produções maiores de biomassa; o cudzu tropical proporcionou valores maiores para quantidades de N acumulado e derivado da fixação biológica. As leguminosas amendoim forrageiro, cudzu tropical e siratro proporcionaram desenvolvimento vegetativo mais rápido nas bananeiras consorciadas. Cudzu tropical e siratro promoveram maiores valores de peso dos cachos e das pencas. O uso das leguminosas avaliadas resulta em aumento da porcentagem de cachos colhidos e redução do tempo de colheita, além de proporcionar maior produtividade, quando comparado ao uso de vegetação espontânea.The objective of this work was to evaluate the yield of banana plants intercropped with the perennial herbaceous legumes forage groundnut (Arachis pintoi, tropical kudzu (Pueraria phaseoloides and siratro (Macroptilium atropurpureum. The control treatments were spontaneous vegetation (mainly Panicum maximum and spontaneous vegetation plus nitrogen fertilizer application to banana plants. The vegetative growth of banana plants was also evaluated. Among the treatments, spontaneous vegetation and tropical kudzu promoted the highest dry matter productions; tropical kudzu had the highest amounts of accumulated and fixed N. Forage groundnut, tropical kudzu and siratro promoted the fastest vegetative growth for banana plants in this intercropped system. Tropical kudzu and siratro promoted the highest values for bunch weight and

  11. Physics with tagged forward protons at RHIC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yip,K.

    2009-08-30

    The physics reach of the STAR detector at RHIC has been extended to include elastic and inelastic diffraction measurements with tagged forward protons. This program has started at RHIC in p+p collisions with a special optics run of {beta}* {approx} 21 m at STAR, at the center-of-mass energy {radical}s = 200 GeV during the last week of the RHIC 2009 run.

  12. Emotional Mining: Tagging Emoticons to Online News

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasinathan, Vinothini; Mustapha, Aida; Zhi Yong, Lee; Aida Zamnah, Z. A.

    2017-08-01

    This paper presents an emotion mining system, which assigns emoticons to newspaper articles into a pre-defined emotion category based on the underlying emotion in the news. Next, the system makes recommendation to the reader by tagging the news headline with the respective emoticons. Users are then able to decide whether to read the news based on the emoticons provided. The system also provides a filter for the users to choose the category of news to read following the emoticons.

  13. HPV Vaccine Safety PSA (:30) (No Tag)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    In this 30 second public service announcement, a mother talks about the importance of protecting 11-12 year-old boys and girls with HPV vaccination. No CDC tag at the end. (Una madre habla sobre la importancia de proteger a los niños y las niñas de 11 a 12 años con la vacuna contra el VPH.)

  14. Scanning Cargo Containers with Tagged Neutrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Viesti, G.; Botosso, C.; Fabris, D.; Lunardon, M.; Moretto, S.; Nebbia, G.; Pesente, S.; Zenoni, A.; Donzella, A.; Perot, B.; Carasco, C.; Bernard, S.; Mariani, A.; Szabo, J.-L.; Sannie, G.; Valkovic, V.; Sudac, D.; Nad, K.; Peerani, P.; Sequeira, V.

    2007-01-01

    A new Tagged Neutron Inspection System (TNIS) able to detect illicit materials such as explosives and narcotics in cargo containers has been developed within the EURopean Illicit TRAfficing Countermeasures Kit (EURITRACK) project. After the R and D phase, the inspection portal has been installed and commissioned at the Rijeka seaport in Croatia, where it has been operated in connection with the existing X-ray scanner for a first two-month demonstration campaign. Results obtained are presented and discussed in this paper

  15. TAG Oil hunting elephants in New Zealand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2005-01-01

    Calgary-based TAG Oil is an exploration company that manages 4.1 million acres of major producing oil and gas fields in New Zealand. The enormous Maui field, with 4 tcf of natural gas in place, has dominated the gas market in New Zealand by meeting nearly 90 per cent of the country's energy demand at costs much lower than world prices. However, the maturing field is in decline and will cease production by 2008. New gas field discoveries will only meet 60 per cent of the country's energy requirements for 5 additional years. Unless new large reserves of gas are discovered, the supply and demand situation will get worse. Lead time to place new production on-stream requires 5 to 10 years, which creates a large supply gap over the next decade. Public resistance to coal-fired power plants, new hydroelectric dams and nuclear power has left the country with no viable alternative to natural gas. TAG Oil has taken this unique opportunity to create value when gas demand is at its maximum and energy alternatives are at a minimum. This paper presented 8 reasons why New Zealand is a good place for petroleum investment. Most exploration has occurred in the Taranaki Basin, where only 130 exploration wells have been drilled. The rest of the sedimentary basins are essentially unexplored, although many exhibit oil seeps and have hydrocarbon potential. In 1998, an onshore gas discovery was made on the East Coast Basin. Sub-commercial discoveries have also been made in the offshore Canterbury and Great South basins. TAG Oil is focusing on shallow oil and gas pools in the Miocene reservoirs at Taranaki, as well as on deeper gas prospects in Tariki and Kapuni Sands. One of the challenges was a shortage of drilling rigs, so TAG is having a rig built in Calgary and shipped south. 2 figs

  16. Single tag for total carbohydrate analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anumula, Kalyan Rao

    2014-07-15

    Anthranilic acid (2-aminobenzoic acid, 2-AA) has the remarkable property of reacting rapidly with every type of reducing carbohydrate. Reactivity of 2-AA with carbohydrates in aqueous solutions surpasses all other tags reported to date. This unique capability is attributed to the strategically located -COOH which accelerates Schiff base formation. Monosaccharides, oligosaccharides (N-, O-, and lipid linked and glycans in secretory fluids), glycosaminoglycans, and polysaccharides can be easily labeled with 2-AA. With 2-AA, labeling is simple in aqueous solutions containing proteins, peptides, buffer salts, and other ingredients (e.g., PNGase F, glycosidase, and transferase reaction mixtures). In contrast, other tags require relatively pure glycans for labeling in anhydrous dimethyl sulfoxide-acetic acid medium. Acidic conditions are known to cause desialylation, thus requiring a great deal of attention to sample preparation. Simpler labeling is achieved with 2-AA within 30-60 min in mild acetate-borate buffered solution. 2-AA provides the highest sensitivity and resolution in chromatographic methods for carbohydrate analysis in a simple manner. Additionally, 2-AA is uniquely qualified for quantitative analysis by mass spectrometry in the negative mode. Analyses of 2-AA-labeled carbohydrates by electrophoresis and other techniques have been reported. Examples cited here demonstrate that 2-AA is the universal tag for total carbohydrate analysis. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. RFID Label Tag Design for Metallic Surface Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ki Hwan Eom

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes a metal mount RFID tag that works reliably on metallic surfaces. The method proposes the use of commercial label type RFID tags with 2.5 mm thick Styrofoam103.7 with a relative permittivity of 1.03 attached on the back of the tag. In order to verify the performance of the proposed method, we performed experiments on an electric transformer supply chain system. The experimental results showed that the proposed tags can communicate with readers from a distance of 2 m. The recognition rates are comparable to those of commercial metallic mountable tags.

  18. FRUIT JUICES AS AN ALTERNATIVE TECHNIQUE FOR CONSERVATION OF FRESH-CUT BANANA

    OpenAIRE

    ANDERSON ADRIANO MARTINS MELO; LEONARDO THOMAZ DINIZ; ADRIANO DO NASCIMENTO SIMÕES; ROLF PUSCHMANN

    2014-01-01

    Browning discoloration after cutting is detrimental for the quality of a number of fruits and vegetables, such as banana, apple, pear, potato, and some roots such as cassava, yam, and others. Browning and softening compromise banana after cut shelf-life in a few hours under cold storage. Therefore, anti-browning compounds have been applied to slices before packing. Some commonly used substances are calcium chloride, ascorbic acid, cysteine and citric acid, in immersed inchemical mixtures. Rec...

  19. Species of beetles (Coleoptera; Scarabaeidae associated to banana (Musa spp. in Ceballos, Ciego de Avila, Cuba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Luisa Sisne Luis

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available A white light trap was placed in bananas plantations, according to Sisne, 2009 and MINAG, 1985, in the Citric enterprise of Ciego de Ávila during the period between May and July of 2010 with the objective of determining the composition of genus and species of the order Coleoptera family Scarabaeidae associated to the agroecosystem. The species Cyclocephala cubana Chapin, Phyllophaga puberula Duval, and Phyllophaga patruelis Chev. are associated to bananas crops in these areas.

  20. Effectiveness of ambon banana stem juice as immunostimulatory against Aeromonas hydrophila infections in catfish Clarias gariepinus

    OpenAIRE

    Qorie Astria; Sri Nuryati; Kukuh Nirmala; Alimuddin Alimuddin

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Outbreaks of infectious diseases due to Aeromonas hydrophila in catfish can cause high death rates (80–100%). Fish disease control can be done using phytopharmaceutical to prevent or treat diseases of fish. One of the phytopharmaceutical that known to prevent the fish diseases is ambon banana stem Musa cavendishii var. dwarf Paxton. This study was conducted to test the effectiveness of catfish immersion using banana stem juice as an immunostimulant against bacterial infections A. hyd...

  1. Anti-nutrients and heavy metals in some new plantain and banana ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Plantain and banana flour are important raw material in the baking and confectionery industry, and complementary food formulation. Five new plantain and banana ... PITA\\'s 14, 24 and Agbagba contained 4.0x10-5% cyanide, while 4.0x10-5 was obtained for PITA\\'s 17, 26 and BITA 3. The phenolic content of PITA\\'s 14 and ...

  2. A Socio-Economic History of the International Banana Trade, 1870-1930

    OpenAIRE

    ABBOTT, Roderick

    2009-01-01

    The genesis, and even more the growth, of the international banana industry is intimately bound up with the development of steamships (from 1850 onwards) and with the spread of railway construction around the world. The coming of steam, which ensured consistent and swifter passage from the Caribbean and Central America to the United States, and later to Europe, meant that bananas could be delivered in good condition rather than rotten, as had happened in earlier days. Later, when refrigerated...

  3. Sulphate Potasium Extraction From Banana Stem Ash with Bleaching Earth Waste Liquid

    OpenAIRE

    Edahwati, Luluk

    2010-01-01

    Sulphate potassium is one of the important chemistry compound for industrial at our country, usually for fertilizerindustry. Therefore, necessary done sulphate potassium maker watchfulness from various ingredient that containsulphate potassium compound. Among others with extract banana stem ash. Watchfulness methodology that is withmix banana stem ash with aquadest (20 gram ash/1 water litre) in temperature 100oc during 30 minutes and stirringrotation 300 rpm. Ash extract that got reaction wi...

  4. Biology, etiology, and control of virus diseases of banana and plantain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, P Lava; Selvarajan, Ramasamy; Iskra-Caruana, Marie-Line; Chabannes, Matthieu; Hanna, Rachid

    2015-01-01

    Banana and plantain (Musa spp.), produced in 10.3 million ha in the tropics, are among the world's top 10 food crops. They are vegetatively propagated using suckers or tissue culture plants and grown almost as perennial plantations. These are prone to the accumulation of pests and pathogens, especially viruses which contribute to yield reduction and are also barriers to the international exchange of germplasm. The most economically important viruses of banana and plantain are Banana bunchy top virus (BBTV), a complex of banana streak viruses (BSVs) and Banana bract mosaic virus (BBrMV). BBTV is known to cause the most serious economic losses in the "Old World," contributing to a yield reduction of up to 100% and responsible for a dramatic reduction in cropping area. The BSVs exist as episomal and endogenous forms are known to be worldwide in distribution. In India and the Philippines, BBrMV is known to be economically important but recently the virus was discovered in Colombia and Costa Rica, thus signaling its spread into the "New World." Banana and plantain are also known to be susceptible to five other viruses of minor significance, such as Abaca mosaic virus, Abaca bunchy top virus, Banana mild mosaic virus, Banana virus X, and Cucumber mosaic virus. Studies over the past 100 years have contributed to important knowledge on disease biology, distribution, and spread. Research during the last 25 years have led to a better understanding of the virus-vector-host interactions, virus diversity, disease etiology, and epidemiology. In addition, new diagnostic tools were developed which were used for surveillance and the certification of planting material. Due to a lack of durable host resistance in the Musa spp., phytosanitary measures and the use of virus-free planting material are the major methods of virus control. The state of knowledge on BBTV, BBrMV, and BSVs, and other minor viruses, disease spread, and control are summarized in this review. © 2015 Elsevier Inc

  5. Repetitive part of the banana (Musa acuminata) genome investigated by low-depth 454 sequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hribová, Eva; Neumann, Pavel; Matsumoto, Takashi; Roux, Nicolas; Macas, Jirí; Dolezel, Jaroslav

    2010-09-16

    Bananas and plantains (Musa spp.) are grown in more than a hundred tropical and subtropical countries and provide staple food for hundreds of millions of people. They are seed-sterile crops propagated clonally and this makes them vulnerable to a rapid spread of devastating diseases and at the same time hampers breeding improved cultivars. Although the socio-economic importance of bananas and plantains cannot be overestimated, they remain outside the focus of major research programs. This slows down the study of nuclear genome and the development of molecular tools to facilitate banana improvement. In this work, we report on the first thorough characterization of the repeat component of the banana (M. acuminata cv. 'Calcutta 4') genome. Analysis of almost 100 Mb of sequence data (0.15× genome coverage) permitted partial sequence reconstruction and characterization of repetitive DNA, making up about 30% of the genome. The results showed that the banana repeats are predominantly made of various types of Ty1/copia and Ty3/gypsy retroelements representing 16 and 7% of the genome respectively. On the other hand, DNA transposons were found to be rare. In addition to new families of transposable elements, two new satellite repeats were discovered and found useful as cytogenetic markers. To help in banana sequence annotation, a specific Musa repeat database was created, and its utility was demonstrated by analyzing the repeat composition of 62 genomic BAC clones. A low-depth 454 sequencing of banana nuclear genome provided the largest amount of DNA sequence data available until now for Musa and permitted reconstruction of most of the major types of DNA repeats. The information obtained in this study improves the knowledge of the long-range organization of banana chromosomes, and provides sequence resources needed for repeat masking and annotation during the Musa genome sequencing project. It also provides sequence data for isolation of DNA markers to be used in genetic

  6. Banana NAC transcription factor MusaNAC042 is positively associated with drought and salinity tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tak, Himanshu; Negi, Sanjana; Ganapathi, T R

    2017-03-01

    Banana is an important fruit crop and its yield is hampered by multiple abiotic stress conditions encountered during its growth. The NAC (NAM, ATAF, and CUC) transcription factors are involved in plant response to biotic and abiotic stresses. In the present study, we studied the induction of banana NAC042 transcription factor in drought and high salinity conditions and its overexpression in transgenic banana to improve drought and salinity tolerance. MusaNAC042 expression was positively associated with stress conditions like salinity and drought and it encoded a nuclear localized protein. Transgenic lines of banana cultivar Rasthali overexpressing MusaNAC042 were generated by Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of banana embryogenic cells and T-DNA insertion was confirmed by PCR and Southern blot analysis. Our results using leaf disc assay indicated that transgenic banana lines were able to tolerate drought and high salinity stress better than the control plants and retained higher level of total chlorophyll and lower level of MDA content (malondialdehyde). Transgenic lines analyzed for salinity (250 mM NaCl) and drought (Soil gravimetric water content 0.15) tolerance showed higher proline content, better Fv/Fm ratio, and lower levels of MDA content than control suggesting that MusaNAC042 may be involved in responses to higher salinity and drought stresses in banana. Expression of several abiotic stress-related genes like those coding for CBF/DREB, LEA, and WRKY factors was altered in transgenic lines indicating that MusaNAC042 is an efficient modulator of abiotic stress response in banana.

  7. Banana Cultivar Mapping and Constraints Identification With Farmers in Southwest Kenya

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Onyago, M.; Makworo, S.; Njue, E.; Rees, D.

    1999-01-01

    Southwest Kenya is one of the major banana growing ares of Kenya and contributes about 40% of the country's production. Banana is an important crop in Kenya providing the small-scale resource poor farmers with food and the much-needed income. In southwest Kenya, Banana is a priority crop that is grown in a wide range of farms from backyard gardens to medium farms. Rapid Rural Appraisal (RRP) and Participatory Rural Appraisal (PRA) were conducted between January, 1996 and December 1997. The overall objective was to identify major constraints in specific areas, rank them with farmers and determine suitable interventions. The RRA and PRA revealed that farmers grow banana as a pure stand, intercropped with crops like maize, beans and groundnuts, in addition along the contour lines for soil conservation purpose. Diverse banana cultivars are grown in the region, of which some are localised while others are widespread. The major cultivars grown include 'Ekeganda', Kisukari', 'Ng'ombe' and 'Pisang Awak'. Pisang Awak was found prevalent in drier areas of Kendu Bay (LM 3 ) and very cold areas of Bomet (LH 1 ). Ekeganda is the most popular cooking type while Kisukari is a dessert type and is the second most popular banana cultivar in the region. Some of the constraints cut across the AEZs and include a complex of pests and diseases, poor orchard management, soil exhaustion because of land pressure, lack of superior cultivars and socioeconomic factors such as poor infrastructure. Panama disease, nematodes and banana weevil are prevalent at the medium and lower AEZs while moles are menace in the upper midlands and highland areas. To address some of the major constraints, on-farm banana cultivar evaluation trials were initiated in four AEZs namely LM 3-4 , LH 1 , UM 1 and LM 2 , respectively. Monitoring and evaluation of these cultivars by both researchers, extension and farmers is on-going

  8. Holographic entanglement entropy for hollow cones and banana shaped regions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dorn, Harald [Institut für Physik und IRIS Adlershof, Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin,Zum Großen Windkanal 6, D-12489 Berlin (Germany)

    2016-06-09

    We consider banana shaped regions as examples of compact regions, whose boundary has two conical singularities. Their regularised holographic entropy is calculated with all divergent as well as finite terms. The coefficient of the squared logarithmic divergence, also in such a case with internally curved boundary, agrees with that calculated in the literature for infinite circular cones with their internally flat boundary. For the otherwise conformally invariant coefficient of the ordinary logarithmic divergence an anomaly under exceptional conformal transformations is observed. The construction of minimal submanifolds, needed for the entanglement entropy of cones, requires fine-tuning of Cauchy data. Perturbations of such fine-tuning leads to solutions relevant for hollow cones. The divergent parts for the entanglement entropy of hollow cones are calculated. Increasing the difference between the opening angles of their outer and inner boundary, one finds a transition between connected solutions for small differences to disconnected solutions for larger ones.

  9. Structure analysis and laxative effects of oligosaccharides isolated from bananas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Juan; Huang, Hui Hua; Cheng, Yan Feng; Yang, Gong Ming

    2012-10-01

    Banana oligosaccharides (BOS) were extracted with water, and then separated and purified using column chromatography. Gel penetration chromatography was used to determine the molecular weights. Thin layer chromatogram and capillary electrophoresis were employed to analyze the monosaccharide composition. The indican bond and structure of the BOS molecule were determined using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and nuclear magnetic resonance. Results showed that BOS were probably composed of eight β-D-pyran glucose units linked with 1→6 indican bonds. The laxative effects of BOS were investigated in mice using the method described in "Handbook of Technical Standards for Testing and Assessment of Health Food in China." The length of the small intestine over which a carbon suspension solution advanced in mice treated with low-, middle-, and high-dose BOS was significantly greater than that in the model group, suggesting that BOS are effective in accelerating the movement of the small intestine.

  10. Biological control of banana black Sigatoka disease with Trichoderma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Poholl Adan Sagratzki Cavero

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Black Sigatoka disease caused by Mycosphaerella fijiensis is the most severe banana disease worldwide. The pathogen is in an invasive phase in Brazil and is already present in most States of the country. The potential of 29 isolates of Trichoderma spp. was studied for the control of black Sigatoka disease under field conditions. Four isolates were able to significantly reduce disease severity and were further tested in a second field experiment. Isolate 2.047 showed the best results in both field experiments and was selected for fungicide sensitivity tests and mass production. This isolate was identified as Trichoderma atroviride by sequencing fragments of the ITS region of the rDNA and tef-1α of the RNA polymerase. Trichoderma atroviride was as effective as the fungicide Azoxystrobin, which is recommended for controlling black Sigatoka. This biocontrol agent has potential to control the disease and may be scaled-up for field applications on rice-based solid fermentation

  11. Improvement of bananas (Musa cvs.) through in vitro anther culture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perea Dallos, M [Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Bogota (Colombia). Dept. de Biologia

    1995-06-01

    Agricultural products play a great role in the Colombian economy, and the banana is one of the most important. Since 1981, one of the more serious problems effecting production of this crop is the fungus Mycosphaerella fijensis sp. difformis, that causes black sigatoka disease. Most of the recent efforts to control this disease have been directed towards the identification of clones tolerant or resistant to this disease. One alternative approach is the use of anther culture to obtain resistant haploid plants. Diploid clones (Musa - AA) have been used as a model in this study. The results presented here identify the most appropriate stage of anther development for callus induction and proliferation, and treatments that reduce tissue browning. (author). 12 refs, 1 fig., 1 tab.

  12. Production and storage stability of non alcoholic banana beverage powder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mugula, J K; Lyimo, M H; Kessy, F L

    1994-02-01

    Powder for an instant, non-alcoholic beverage formulation was manufactured by sundrying and ovendrying of a popular dessert ('silk') banana variety. The reconstituted beverage was organoleptically acceptable. The effect of traditional sundrying on mats and ovendrying methods on product quality was investigated. Sundrying resulted in losses of Vitamin A, C and total sugar contents by 74, 91 and 63%, while ovendrying losses were 73, 90 and 62%, respectively. Nutrient losses during storage for three months in transparent polythene bags reached 93, 93 and 70% in sundried samples and 84, 99 and 55% in ovendried samples, respectively. The moisture content of sundried and ovendried samples increased by 12 and 17%, respectively, during storage. The increase in microbial load in this period was higher in sundried samples.

  13. 32-Channel banana-avg montage is better than 16-channel double banana montage to detect epileptiform discharges in routine EEGs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ochoa, Juan; Gonzalez, Walter; Bautista, Ramon; DeCerce, John

    2008-10-01

    We designed a study, comparing the yield of standard 16-channel longitudinal bipolar montage (double banana) versus a combined 32-channel longitudinal bipolar plus average referential montage (banana-plus), to detect epileptic abnormalities. We selected 25 consecutive routine EEG samples with a diagnosis of spike or sharp waves in the temporal regions and 25 consecutive focal slowing and 50 normal EEGs. A total of 100 samples were printed in both montages and randomized for reading. Thirty independent EEG readers blinded from the EEG diagnosis were invited to participate. Twenty-two readers successfully completed the test for a total of 4400 answers collected for analysis. The average sensitivity to detect epileptiform discharges for 16 and 32-channel montages was 36.5% and 61%, respectively (Pdouble banana montage. Residents and EEG fellows could improve EEG-reading accuracy if taught on a combined 32-channel montage.

  14. Natural Ecosystem Surrounding a Conventional Banana Crop Improves Plant Health and Fruit Quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florence P. Castelan

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Natural ecosystems near agricultural landscapes may provide rich environments for growing crops. However, the effect of a natural ecosystem on crop health and fruit quality is poorly understood. In the present study, it was investigated whether the presence of a natural ecosystem surrounding a crop area influences banana plant health and fruit postharvest behavior. Plants from two conventional banana crop areas with identical planting time and cultural practices were used; the only difference between banana crop areas is that one area was surrounded by a natural forest (Atlantic forest fragment (Near-NF, while the other area was inserted at the center of a conventional banana crop (Distant-NF. Results showed that bananas harvested from Near-NF showed higher greenlife and a more homogeneous profile during ripening compared to fruits harvested from Distant-NF. Differences in quality parameters including greenlife, carbohydrate profile, and pulp firmness between fruits harvested from Near-NF and Distant-NF are explained, at least partly, by differences in the balance of plant growth regulators (indole-3-acetic acid and abscisic acid in bananas during ripening. Furthermore, plants from Near-NF showed a lower severity index of black leaf streak disease (BLSD and higher levels of phenolic compounds in leaves compared to plants from Distant-NF. Together, the results provide additional evidence on how the maintenance of natural ecosystems near conventional crop areas could be a promising tool to improve plant health and fruit quality.

  15. Effect of chitosan coating and bamboo FSC (fruit storage chamber) to expand banana shelf life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pratiwi, Aksarani'Sa; Dwivany, Fenny M.; Larasati, Dwinita; Islamia, Hana Cahya; Martien, Ronny

    2015-09-01

    Chitosan has been widely used as fruit preserver and proven to extend the shelf life of many fruits, such as banana. However, banana producers and many industries in Indonesia still facing storage problems which may lead to mechanical damage of the fruits and ripening acceleration. Therefore, we have designed food storage chamber (FSC) based on bamboo material. Bamboo was selected because of material abundance in Indonesia, economically effective, and not causing an autocatalytic reaction to the ethylene gas produced by the banana. In this research, Cavendish banana that has reached the maturity level of mature green were coated with 1% chitosan and placed inside the FSC. As control treatments, uncoated banana was also placed inside the FSC as well as uncoated banana that were placed at open space. All of the treatments were placed at 25°C temperature and observed for 9 days. Water produced by respiration was reduced by the addition of charcoal inside a fabric pouch. The result showed that treatment using FSC and chitosan can delay ripening process.

  16. Identification of genes encoding granule-bound starch synthase involved in amylose metabolism in banana fruit.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongxia Miao

    Full Text Available Granule-bound starch synthase (GBSS is responsible for amylose synthesis, but the role of GBSS genes and their encoded proteins remains poorly understood in banana. In this study, amylose content and GBSS activity gradually increased during development of the banana fruit, and decreased during storage of the mature fruit. GBSS protein in banana starch granules was approximately 55.0 kDa. The protein was up-regulated expression during development while it was down-regulated expression during storage. Six genes, designated as MaGBSSI-1, MaGBSSI-2, MaGBSSI-3, MaGBSSI-4, MaGBSSII-1, and MaGBSSII-2, were cloned and characterized from banana fruit. Among the six genes, the expression pattern of MaGBSSI-3 was the most consistent with the changes in amylose content, GBSS enzyme activity, GBSS protein levels, and the quantity or size of starch granules in banana fruit. These results suggest that MaGBSSI-3 might regulate amylose metabolism by affecting the variation of GBSS levels and the quantity or size of starch granules in banana fruit during development or storage.

  17. Fermentative characteristics and nutritional value of elephant grass silage added with dehydrated banana peel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lara Maria Santos Brant

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the fermentative losses and nutritional value of elephant grass silages with the increasing of inclusion levels of dehydrated banana peel. The experiment was conducted in a completely randomized design, with six treatments and four replications, being the silage exclusively from elephant grass, and five levels of inclusion of banana peel to the elephant grass silage, as the following - 5; 10; 15; 20 and 25%, being added based on natural matter. The addition of the banana peel in the silage reduced linearly (p < 0.05 the pH, the ammoniacal nitrogen and the losses of the fermentative process. In addition, the inclusion of banana peel increased linearly (p < 0.05 the dry matter and non-fibrous carbohydrates. On the other hand, the neutral detergent fiber and the acid detergent fiber were linearly reduced with the inclusion of the banana peel (p < 0.05, but there was no change in the dry matter digestibility in situ. The inclusion of dehydrated banana peel in elephant grass silage reduces the losses of the fermentation process with more consistent results at the 25% inclusion level, however, it reduces the silage nutritional value due to fibrous and protein quality.

  18. Dietary fibre components and pectin chemical features of peels during ripening in banana and plantain varieties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Happi Emaga, Thomas; Robert, Christelle; Ronkart, Sébastien N; Wathelet, Bernard; Paquot, Michel

    2008-07-01

    The effects of the ripeness stage of banana (Musa AAA) and plantain (Musa AAB) peels on neutral detergent fibre, acid detergent fibre, cellulose, hemicelluloses, lignin, pectin contents, and pectin chemical features were studied. Plantain peels contained a higher amount of lignin but had a lower hemicellulose content than banana peels. A sequential extraction of pectins showed that acid extraction was the most efficient to isolate banana peel pectins, whereas an ammonium oxalate extraction was more appropriate for plantain peels. In all the stages of maturation, the pectin content in banana peels was higher compared to plantain peels. Moreover, the galacturonic acid and methoxy group contents in banana peels were higher than in plantain peels. The average molecular weights of the extracted pectins were in the range of 132.6-573.8 kDa and were not dependant on peel variety, while the stage of maturation did not affect the dietary fibre yields and the composition in pectic polysaccharides in a consistent manner. This study has showed that banana peels are a potential source of dietary fibres and pectins.

  19. Use of Banana (Musa acuminata Colla AAA) Peel Extract as an Antioxidant Source in Orange Juices.

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    Ortiz, Lucía; Dorta, Eva; Gloria Lobo, M; González-Mendoza, L Antonio; Díaz, Carlos; González, Mónica

    2017-03-01

    Using banana peel extract as an antioxidant in freshly squeezed orange juices and juices from concentrate was evaluated. Free radical scavenging capacity increased by adding banana peel extracts to both types of orange juice. In addition, remarkable increases in antioxidant capacity using 2,2'-azino-bis-(3-ethylbenzothiazoline)-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS) radical were observed when equal or greater than 5 mg of banana peel extract per ml of freshly squeezed juice was added. No clear effects were observed in the capacity to inhibit lipid peroxidation. Adding 5 mg banana peel extract per ml of orange juice did not substantially modify the physicochemical and sensory characteristics of either type of juice. However, undesirable changes in the sensory characteristics (in-mouth sensations and colour) were detected when equal or greater than 10 mg banana peel extract per ml of orange juice was added. These results confirm that banana peel is a promising natural additive that increases the capacity to scavenge free radicals of orange juice with acceptable sensory and physicochemical characteristics for the consumer.

  20. Agroforestry leads to shifts within the gammaproteobacterial microbiome of banana plants cultivated in Central America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Köberl, Martina; Dita, Miguel; Martinuz, Alfonso; Staver, Charles; Berg, Gabriele

    2015-01-01

    Bananas (Musa spp.) belong to the most important global food commodities, and their cultivation represents the world's largest monoculture. Although the plant-associated microbiome has substantial influence on plant growth and health, there is a lack of knowledge of the banana microbiome and its influencing factors. We studied the impact of (i) biogeography, and (ii) agroforestry on the banana-associated gammaproteobacterial microbiome analyzing plants grown in smallholder farms in Nicaragua and Costa Rica. Profiles of 16S rRNA genes revealed high abundances of Pseudomonadales, Enterobacteriales, Xanthomonadales, and Legionellales. An extraordinary high diversity of the gammaproteobacterial microbiota was observed within the endophytic microenvironments (endorhiza and pseudostem), which was similar in both countries. Enterobacteria were identified as dominant group of above-ground plant parts (pseudostem and leaves). Neither biogeography nor agroforestry showed a statistically significant impact on the gammaproteobacterial banana microbiome in general. However, indicator species for each microenvironment and country, as well as for plants grown in Coffea intercropping systems with and without agri-silvicultural production of different Fabaceae trees (Inga spp. in Nicaragua and Erythrina poeppigiana in Costa Rica) could be identified. For example, banana plants grown in agroforestry systems were characterized by an increase of potential plant-beneficial bacteria, like Pseudomonas and Stenotrophomonas, and on the other side by a decrease of Erwinia. Hence, this study could show that as a result of legume-based agroforestry the indigenous banana-associated gammaproteobacterial community noticeably shifted.