Fernández-Reiriz, M. J.; Navarro, J. M.; Cisternas, B. A.; Babarro, J. M. F.; Labarta, U.
We analyzed absorption efficiency (AE) and digestive enzyme activity (amylase, cellulase complex, and laminarinase) of the infaunal bivalve Tagelus dombeii originating from two geographic sites, Corral-Valdivia and Melinka-Aysén, which have different long-term paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP) exposure rates. We report the effects of past feeding history (origin) on T. dombeii exposed to a mixed diet containing the toxic dinoflagellate Alexandrium catenella and another dinoflagellate-free control diet over a 12-day period in the laboratory. Absorption efficiency values of T. dombeii individuals that experienced PSP exposure in their habitat (Melinka-Aysén) remained unchanged during exposure to toxic food in the laboratory. In contrast, T. dombeii from a non-PSP exposure field site (Corral-Valdivia) showed a significant reduction in AE with toxic exposure time. This study established that the amylase and cellulase complexes were the most important enzymes in the digestive glands of Tagelus from both sites. The temporal evolution of enzymatic activity under toxic diet was fitted to exponential (amylase and cellulase) and to a logarithmic (laminarinase) models. In all fits, we found significant effect of origin in the model parameters. At the beginning of the experiment, higher enzymatic activity was observed for clams from Corral-Valdivia. The amylase activity decreased with time exposure for individuals from Corral and increased for individuals from Melinka. Cellulase activity did not vary over time for clams from Corral, but increased for individuals from Melinka and laminarinase activity decreased over time for individuals from Corral and remained unchanged over time for Melinka. A feeding history of exposure to the dinoflagellate A. catenella was reflected in the digestive responses of both T. dombeii populations.
E. van Eck
Full Text Available Galilee and Jerusalem as narratological toponyms in the Gospel of Mark: A continuation of the Lohmeyer-Lightfoot-Marxsen chain By means of a narratological examination of the Gospel of Mark the role of the toponyms Galilee and Jerusalem as localities of interest is pointed out. It is argued that as such they are important conveyers of the ideological perspective of the narrator. The article furthermore enters into the debate surrounding the redaktiomgeschichtliche contribution of Willi Marxsen on this topic. A narratological examination of the Gospel of Mark reveals further links in the Lohmeyer-Lightfoot-Marxsen chain of thought, although at times correctives are suggested.
Cristian Fonseca Rodríguez
Full Text Available La extracción del mejillón Tagelus peruvianus representa una actividad económica complementaria de los pescadores artesanales, es una de las especies de mayor pesca y consumo ya que son una fuente importante de proteína, minerales y vitaminas esenciales para la población humana. Por lo tanto, se estudió la variación estacional de su composición proximal, índice de condición y contenido energético. Mensualmente, entre noviembre de 2007 y octubre de 2008, se recolectaron de 35 a 40 especímenes. La composición proximal se determinó siguiendo la metodología recomendada por la AOAC. Los resultados mostraron que el índice de condición disminuyó en los meses de diciembre, enero y mayo, lo que indica que hay dos periodos de desove y una fase de reposo gonadal. El componente principal del mejillón es la proteína (61.9±4.3%, seguido de carbohidratos (15.7±2.4%, cenizas (14.0±1.9% y lípidos (8.5±1.7%. El contenido calórico promedio fue de 5.0±0.1kcal/g. La disminución en los valores de proteínas, lípidos y calorías coinciden con los periodos de desove. Se puede concluir que T. peruvianus presenta valores nutricionales óptimos para el consumo humano, por su bajo contenido de grasa y su aceptable contenido proteico.Seasonal variation in proximate composition of mussels Tagelus peruvianus (Bivalvia: Solecurtidae from the Gulf of Nicoya, Puntarenas, Costa Rica. Marine bivalves are a very important food source for human consumption, and species that has not been of traditional use as a fishery resource are gaining interest. Seasonal variation in proximate composition, condition index and energy or caloric content of the mussel Tagelus peruvianus were studied in the Gulf of Nicoya, Puntarenas, Costa Rica. From November 2007 to October 2008, a total of 35 to 40 specimens per month were collected. The proximate composition using the AOAC methods was determined. Results showed that the condition index during December, January and May
Cristian Fonseca Rodríguez
Full Text Available La extracción del mejillón Tagelus peruvianus representa una actividad económica complementaria de los pescadores artesanales, es una de las especies de mayor pesca y consumo ya que son una fuente importante de proteína, minerales y vitaminas esenciales para la población humana. Por lo tanto, se estudió la variación estacional de su composición proximal, índice de condición y contenido energético. Mensualmente, entre noviembre de 2007 y octubre de 2008, se recolectaron de 35 a 40 especímenes. La composición proximal se determinó siguiendo la metodología recomendada por la AOAC. Los resultados mostraron que el índice de condición disminuyó en los meses de diciembre, enero y mayo, lo que indica que hay dos periodos de desove y una fase de reposo gonadal. El componente principal del mejillón es la proteína (61.9±4.3%, seguido de carbohidratos (15.7±2.4%, cenizas (14.0±1.9% y lípidos (8.5±1.7%. El contenido calórico promedio fue de 5.0±0.1kcal/g. La disminución en los valores de proteínas, lípidos y calorías coinciden con los periodos de desove. Se puede concluir que T. peruvianus presenta valores nutricionales óptimos para el consumo humano, por su bajo contenido de grasa y su aceptable contenido proteico.
Full Text Available Distribution patterns of species and the causes driving its distribution have always been central questions in ecology, as well as the mechanisms determining species composition and structure of biological assemblages. In the present work the distribution patterns of the macrofauna associated with Saccorhiza polyschides holdfasts along the western coast of Iberian Peninsula was studied. The aims of this work were to evaluate (i the role of Saccorhiza polyschides holdfasts as suitable habitat for littoral macrofauna, (ii the influence of latitude on the colonization patterns, and (iii to examine the processes determining these colonization patterns. This study took place at three different locations along the western coast of Iberian Peninsula, Ferrol (Galicia, northern Spain, Viana do Castelo (northern Portugal and Figueira da Foz (central Portugal. Sampling of macrofaunal organisms was held by scuba diving and eight samples were collected on the nearshore rocky subtidal zone of each site. All species were identified to the highest taxonomic level possible. Similarity analyses (Cluster and NMDS showed the separation of the sampling sites in two different groups: one corresponding to the northern limits of the study area (Ferrol and another corresponding to the two Portuguese sampling sites (Viana do Castelo and Figueira da Foz. The results showed that Saccorhiza polyschides provides a suitable habitat for 107 species, mainly small crustaceans like amphipods and molluscs. The inner species partitioning of samples suggests the additional influence of the exposure degree of each sampling area. The observed colonization patterns are consistent with habitats with high level of environmental stress, which could be related to the seasonal instability of holdfasts.
Full Text Available A survey about the pollution level of the Cachoeira and Santana Rivers (Ilheus, Bahia, Brazil was performed for a quarter, through the assessment of the microbiological quality of water and seafood (Crassostrea rhizophorae - oyster and Tagelus plebeius - razor clam extracted from these rivers. Traditional indicators of pollution such as total coliforms (Ct and thermtolerant coliforms (CT, and total count of micro-organisms, with isolation and identification of Enterobacteriaceae were determined in rivers samples, which exhibited different levels of faecal pollution. An amount of 68 micro-organisms was isolated, distributed in ten species, among them, Salmonella typhi, Escherichia coli and Shigella sp., warning about the risk of consuming these shellfish in nature, even when there is accordance with the laws established for CT. The bivalve prospection to monitor pollution levels was not effective considering CT detection in oysters and moapens. There was also the highest contamination degree in the Cachoeira River, which is used for water distribution in the region and as livelihood source through extractive activities for the riverside population.
Perry, M.C.; Osenton, P.C.; Wells-Berlin, A. M.; Kidwell, D.M.
Food selection among Atlantic Coast seaducks during 1999-2005 was determined from hunter-killed ducks and compared to data from historic food habits file (1885-1985) for major migrational and wintering areas in the Atlantic Flyway. Food selection was determined by analyses of the gullet (esophagus and proventriculus) and gizzard of 860 ducks and summarized by aggregate percent for each species. When sample size was adequate comparisons were made among age and sex groupings and also among local sites in major habitat areas. Common eiders in Maine and the Canadian Maritimes fed predominantly (53%) on the blue mussel (Mytilus edulis). Scoters in Massachusetts, Maine, and the Canadian Maritimes fed predominantly on the blue mussel (46%), Atlantic jackknife clam (Ensis directus; 19%), and Atlantic surf clam (Spisula solidissima; 15%), whereas scoters in the Chesapeake Bay fed predominantly on hooked mussel (Ischadium recurvum; 42%), the stout razor clam (Tagelus plebeius; 22%), and dwarf surf clam (Mulinia lateralis; 15%). The amethyst gem clam (Gemma gemma) was the predominant food (45%) of long-tailed ducks in Chesapeake Bay. Buffleheads and common goldeneyes fed on a mixed diet of mollusks and soft bodied invertebrates (amphipods, isopods and polychaetes). No major differences were noticed between the sexes in regard to food selection in any of the wintering areas. Comparisons to historic food habits in all areas failed to detect major differences. However, several invertebrate species recorded in historic samples were not found in current samples and two invasive species (Atlantic Rangia, Rangia cuneata and green crab, Carcinas maenas) were recorded in modem samples, but not in historic samples. Benthic sampling in areas where seaducks were collected showed a close correlation between consumption and availability. Each seaduck species appears to fill a unique niche in regard to feeding ecology, although there is much overlap of prey species selected. Understanding
International comparison of Cd content in a quality control material of Navajuelas (Tagelus dombeii) determined by anodic stripping voltammetry, atomic absorption spectrometry and neutron activation analysis
Queirolo, F.; Forschungszentrum Juelich GmbH; Universidad de Extremadura, Badajoz; Ostapczuk, P.; Valenta, P.; Stegen, S.; Universidad de Extremadura, Badajoz; Marin, C.; Vinagre, F.; Sanchez, A.
The determination of Cd was performed by neutron activation analysis (NAA), atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS) with flame or in the electrothermal mode and anodic stripping voltammetry in the differential pulse mode (DPASV) and the square wave mode (SWASV). (orig./EF)
Alves Rômulo RN
Full Text Available Abstract Molluscs have been for a long time a very important food resource for humans. Therefore, oysters, clams, and mussels are highly required at seafood markets. Like any commercial food, it is necessary that molluscs present good quality standards, concerning some criteria such as amount of meat and appearance. In bivalves, condition index or fattening index is considered a satisfactory method for estimating the amount of meat related to the shell cavity. Molluscs gatherers of Paraíba State coast, northeastern Brazil, state that molluscan meat production increases during spring tide (designated by them as maré de lançamento in opposition to the meat decrease which happens during neap tide (maré de quebramento (they are designated technically in Portuguese as maré de sizígia and maré de quadratura, respectively. Weperformed a survey on the production of unha-de-velho or 'oldman'snail' (Tagelus plebeius caught by molluscs gatherers in the estuary of River Paraíba do Norte, by observing locally their work, applying questionnaires, searching for a possible scientific relation of that molluscs condition to the gatherers empirical statement. Thus, we estimatedthe molluscs condition index through the method of solids percentage determination. We studied their work and the molluscs condition index during a full lunar-tide cycle. Determinations were carried out between 2nd September and 20th October, 1998, through 20 catches performed to obtain condition index from 400 bivalves. We observed that several biotic and abiotic ecological factors, namely reproduction cycle, biochemical components variations, animal size, and even parasitism, may affect the animal condition index. Despite this aspect, our present results confirmed a high overlapping (80% of the condition index curve with lunar-tide cycle, in agreement with the gatherers statement. Although we recognize the need for formulating and testing other hypotheses, we consider a priori that
in Rommel. A Narrative and Pictorial History, by Richard D. Law and Craig W. H. Luther, ISBN 0-912138-20-3, R. James Bender Publishing, San Jose...1Minem aauetr Gefeclit geaetzt. gez. Andrea . Hw.ipt~mann and Btl. Kdr. ob erleutnt;&rit- BREACHING THE "DEVIL’S GARDEN" Operation Liglqfoot F-49 7...51` Semi-Motorized Mixed Engineer Battalion (battaglione delgenio e di colleganmenti) (CPT Alberti , assigned 12/323 as of 22 Aug) 15"’ Semi
Full Text Available In this article, we describe part of an action research project carried out during a classroom-based art course at a higher education institution. We gave the students themed collaborative drawing assignments, with the purpose of achieving a rich picture of what they associated with the notion of “going to the opera”. They completed assignments before and after attending a guided tour and a ballet performance at a famous opera house. We aimed to address two main research questions: a How can the students’ understanding of opera and ballet develop through their experience of a ballet performance? and b How can drawing activities in the classroom support collaborative learning and the students’ personal development? The data gathered involved three main elements: 1 the rich pictures themselves, 2 the teachers’ observations of the students and 3 the students’ reflections on the process. The study points towards a significant transformation of the students’ representation of the concept of opera, as illustrated in their drawings. We discuss how the students’ drawings may reflect their development in terms of attitude and their newly acquired knowledge of an artistic genre they knew little about, and suggest new avenues for further research.
Civitavecchia. This school had been established at the end of March 1940 and organized by an Oberst Steiner of the German Army. The Guastatori were taught to...Jallschirmpioniere (airborne combat engineers), detached from Major Rudolf Witzig’s I 11 (Korps) Fallschirmpioniere Battalion to Ramcke’s brigade...F, Annex 2. Major Rudolf Witzig, Knight’s Cross winner for leading the famous reduction of Fort Eben Emael, later commanded the 21" tallschirmpionier
Active principle from Moringa oleifera Lam leaves effective against two leukemias and a hepatocarcinoma. Mutasim M. Khalafalla, Eltayb Abdellatef, Hussain Mohammed Dafalla, Amr A. Nassrallah, Khalid M. Aboul-Enein, David A. Lightfoot, Fadl E. El-Deeb, Hany A. El-Shemy ...
Hunger and the Elderly. Joint Hearing before the Domestic Task Force of the Select Committee on Hunger and the Select Committee on Aging. House of Representatives, Ninety-Ninth Congress, Second Session.
Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. House Select Committee on Aging.
This document contains witness testimonies and prepared statements from the Congressional hearing called to examine the issue of hunger and the elderly. Opening statements are included from Representatives Dennis Hertel, Mickey Leland, Jim Lightfoot, John McCain, Leon Panetta, Thomas Ridge, Marge Roukema, Edward Roybal, and Bill Schuette. William…
Swanson 1967; Macdonald 1967; Long and Wood. Keywords. Deccan Traps; lava flows; volcanism; isotherm; cooling history. J. Earth Syst. Sci. 115, No. ...... Kilauea Volcanic island of Hawaii; J. Geophys. Res. 103. 27,303–27,323. Lightfoot ...
... Disabilities, 34, 76-80. Lightfoot, E., Hill, K., & LaLiberte, T. (2010). The inclusion of disability as a... DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION [CFDA: 84.133A-09] Proposed Priorities: Disability in the Family AGENCY... Disability and Rehabilitation Research Projects and Centers Program administered by NIDRR. Specifically, this...
US president Donald Trump has signed an executive order to re-establish the US National Space Council. The 12-member council will include key government officials with an interest in space exploration, including NASA’s acting administrator Robert Lightfoot and the secretaries of state, commerce and defence.
Revista de Documentacao de Estudos em Linguistica Teorica e Aplicada (DELTA): Novos Estudos em Gamatica Gerativa (Journal of Documentary Studies in Theoretical and Applied Linguistics [DELTA]: New Studies in Generative Grammar).
Revista de Documentacao de Estudos em Linguistica Teorica e Aplicada, 2000
This issue contains the following articles: "Resumption and Last Resort" (Joseph Aoun); "Existentials, A-Chains, and Reconstruction" (Norbert Hornstein); "How Long Was the Nineteenth Century" (David Lightfoot); "Formal Features and Parameter Setting: A View From Portuguese Past Participles and Romance Future…
chest radiograph will almost always exhibit a widened mediastinal contour that includes unilat- eral or bilateral hilar enlargement , as. well as...express B-Iactamase variants, peni - cillinases and cephalosporinases, which would undermine a lone-penicillin therapy (Lightfoot et ai., 1990
Joaquín Villalba Álvarez
Full Text Available Throughout Latinity it is a common opinion the intensive force of some preverbs like per- or prae-, when they form modified adjectives (seuerus-perseuerus. This paper tries to analyse such type of adjectives in the works of Tacitus. After explaining the origin of these formations (seemingly proceeding from the sermo plebeius, and their different phases of creation in Latin literature, we review aH the forms found in Tacitus (eight with per- and seventeen with prae-, in order to examine their superlative force, their uis intentiua.
Nicolet, K J; Chong-Seng, K M; Pratchett, M S; Willis, B L; Hoogenboom, M O
Infectious diseases not regulated by host density, such as vector-borne diseases, have the potential to drive population declines and extinctions. Here we test the vector potential of the snail Drupella sp. and butterflyfish Chaetodon plebeius for two coral diseases, black band (BBD) and brown band (BrB) disease. Drupella transmitted BrB to healthy corals in 40% of cases immediately following feeding on infected corals, and even in 12% of cases 12 and 24 hours following feeding. However, Drupella was unable to transmit BBD in either transmission treatment. In a field experiment testing the vector potential of naturally-occurring fish assemblages, equivalent numbers of caged and uncaged coral fragments became infected with either BrB, BBD or skeletal eroding band, indicating that corallivorous fish were unlikely to have caused transmission. In aquaria, C. plebeius did not transmit either BBD or BrB, even following extended feeding on both infected and healthy nubbins. A literature review confirmed only four known coral disease vectors, all invertebrates, corroborating our conclusion that polyp-feeding fishes are unlikely to be vectors of coral diseases. This potentially because polyp-feeding fishes produce shallow lesions, not allowing pathogens to invade coral tissues. In contrast, corallivorous invertebrates that create deeper feeding scars increase pathogens transmission.
confidence in his government, which narrowly succeeded.21 Additionally, both Chancellor Schröder and then-Foreign Minister Joschka Fischer were instrumental...support within international institutions. Foreign Minister Fischer in particular labored to coordinate a common European position as well as...Damon M. Wilson, and Jeff Lightfoot, Anchoring the Alliance (Washington, DC: Atlantic Council of the United States, 2012 33 Sebastian Schulte
Motto, Andrea Marie
Eldora, Neethi and Seraphina are three young women who work as science interpreters at a large metropolitan museum. Each woman began her tenure at the age of 15, as part of an employment program for low-income and minority youth, and have since grown to become leaders within the program. Using autoethnography (Ellis, 2004) and portraiture (Lawrence-Lightfoot and Hoffman Davis, 1997), I explore the rich cultures and histories that each woman brings to her work, present stories that counter the...
catches birds on the wing; eats some insects ; nests on the ground on ledges. Rallus longirostris levipes light-footed clapper rail E E Occupies and...nests in saltmarsh habitats; feeds in shallow water and on mudflats; diet comprised of small fish, crabs, crayfish, insects and some plants; nests in...occidentalis western yellow- billed cuckoo none E Likes to nest in riparian thickets of willows and cottonwoods with understory of nettles , wild grapes or
De Gregori, I.; Delgado, D.; Pinochet, H.; Gras, N.; Thieck, M.; Munoz, L.; Bruhn, C.; Navarrete, G.
Chile is a well known producer and exporter of shell fish. These seafoods, like other specimens of marine origin, are susceptible to environmental and other contaminations like trace elements, including toxicants. Therefore adequate analytical quality assurance is mandatory before accepting analytical results. In this context, use of at least 2 independent methods of determination and validation with certified reference materials (CRM) provides acceptable criteria for judging the reliability of the data. This paper describes sample treatments and analytical procedures for Cd, Cu and Hg determinations in mollusc samples. Three independent analytical techniques, namely differential pulse anodic stripping voltammetry, neutron activation analysis and atomic absorption spectrometry, were used. CRM standards of the IAEA, NIST and BCR were analyzed to evaluate quality assurance. Following the quality control phase, the concentrations of cadmium, copper, and mercury in fresh and canned mollusc samples Tagelus dombeii and Semelle solida (Navajuelas and Almejas chilenas respectively) from different locations were determined. (author). 32 refs.; 4 figs.; 7 tabs
Full Text Available The authors summarize data for 18 species of Rhopalocera to complete knowledge of their distribution and biology in Comunidad Valenciana and Teruel province. These species have been selected for two reasons: 1 Danaus plexippus (Linnaeus, 1758, Erebia meolans (de Prunner, 1798, Polyommatus (Meleageria daphnis (Denis & Schiffermüller, 1775, Laeosopis roboris (Esper, 1789, Nordmannia acaciae (Fabricius, 1787 and Plebeius hespericus (Rambur, 1839 are new records for Comunidad Valenciana and 2 Euchloe belemia (Esper, 1800, Pieris mannii (Mayer, 1851, Zegris eupheme (Esper, 1804, Colotis evagore (Klug, 1829, Aporia crataegi (Linnaeus 1758, Erebia epistygne (Hübner, 1819, Melitaea cinxia (Linnaeus, 1758, Libythea celtis (Laicharting, 1782, Glaucopsyche (Iolana iolas (Ochsenheimer, 1816, Scolitantides orion (Pallas, 1771, Neozephyrus quercus (Linnaeus, 1758 and Plebeius (Aricia morronensis Ribbe, 1910, for these species, known distribution is considerably extended and interesting data about their biology are provided.
Se aporta información sobre 18 especies de ropalóceros presentes en la Comunidad Valenciana y provincia de Teruel. Algunas de estas especies se dan a conocer por vez primera de esta región, como es el caso de Danaus plexippus (Linnaeus, 1758, Erebia meolans (de Prunner, 1798, Polyommatus (Meleageria daphnis (Denis & Schiffermüller, 1775, Laeosopis roboris (Esper, 1789, Nordmannia acaciae (Fabricius, 1787 y Plebeius hespericus (Rambur, 1839. Para el resto se amplía considerablemente su distribución conocida y/o se acompaña de algunos comentarios de interés sobre su biología: Euchloe belemia (Esper, 1800, Pieris mannii (Mayer, 1851, Zegris eupheme (Esper, 1804, Colotis evagore (Klug, 1829, Aporia crataegi (Linnaeus 1758,
Baksi, Soham; Green, Chris
We specify formulas for computing the rate of decline in economy-wide energy intensity by aggregating its two determinants-technical efficiency improvements in the various sectors of the economy, and shifts in economic activity among these sectors. The formulas incorporate the interdependence between sectoral shares, and establish a one-to-one relation between sectoral output and energy shares. This helps to eliminate future energy intensity decline scenarios which involve implausible values of either sectoral share. An illustrative application of the formulas is provided, using within-sector efficiency improvement estimates suggested by Lightfoot-Green and Harvey
Hehemann, Jan-Hendrik; Kelly, Amelia G; Pudlo, Nicholas A; Martens, Eric C; Boraston, Alisdair B
Humans host an intestinal population of microbes--collectively referred to as the gut microbiome--which encode the carbohydrate active enzymes, or CAZymes, that are absent from the human genome. These CAZymes help to extract energy from recalcitrant polysaccharides. The question then arises as to if and how the microbiome adapts to new carbohydrate sources when modern humans change eating habits. Recent metagenome analysis of microbiomes from healthy American, Japanese, and Spanish populations identified putative CAZymes obtained by horizontal gene transfer from marine bacteria, which suggested that human gut bacteria evolved to degrade algal carbohydrates-for example, consumed in form of sushi. We approached this hypothesis by studying such a polysaccharide utilization locus (PUL) obtained by horizontal gene transfer by the gut bacterium Bacteroides plebeius. Transcriptomic and growth experiments revealed that the PUL responds to the polysaccharide porphyran from red algae, enabling growth on this carbohydrate but not related substrates like agarose and carrageenan. The X-ray crystallographic and biochemical analysis of two proteins encoded by this PUL, BACPLE_01689 and BACPLE_01693, showed that they are β-porphyranases belonging to glycoside hydrolase families 16 and 86, respectively. The product complex of the GH86 at 1.3 Å resolution highlights the molecular details of porphyran hydrolysis by this new porphyranase. Combined, these data establish experimental support for the argument that CAZymes and associated genes obtained from extrinsic microbes add new catabolic functions to the human gut microbiome.
For many animals, affiliative relationships such as pair bonds form the foundation of society, and are highly adaptive. Animal systems amenable for comparatively studying pair bonding are important for identifying underlying biological mechanisms, but mostly exist in mammals. Better establishing fish systems will enable comparison of pair bonding mechanisms across taxonomically distant lineages that may reveal general underlying principles. We examined the utility of wild butterflyfishes (f: Chaetodontidae; g: Chaetodon) for comparatively studying pair bonding. Stochastic character mapping inferred that within the family, pairing is ancestral, with at least seven independent transitions to group formation and seven transition to solitary behavior from the late Miocene to recent. In six sympatric and wide-spread species representing a clade with one ancestrally reconstructed transition from paired to solitary grouping, we then verified social systems at Lizard Island, Australia. In situ observations confirmed that Chaetodon baronessa, C. lunulatus, and C. vagabundus are predominantly pair bonding, whereas C. rainfordi, C. plebeius, and C. trifascialis are predominantly solitary. Even in the predominantly pair bonding species, C. lunulatus, a proportion of adults (15 %) are solitary. Importantly, inter- and intra-specific differences in social systems do not co-vary with other previously established attributes (geographic occurrence, parental care, diet, or territoriality). Hence, the proposed butterflyfish populations are promising for comparative analyses of pair bonding and its mechanistic underpinnings. Avenues for further developing the system are proposed, including determining whether the utility of these species applies across their geographic disruptions.
Ohlendorf, H.M.; Byron, E.R. [CH2M Hill, Sacramento, CA (United States); Freas, K.E. [CH2M Hill, San Jose, CA (United States); Casados, E.M.; Kidwell, J.J. [Naval Facilities Engineering Command, San Diego, CA (United States). SW Division
The authors conducted a study to determine whether environmental contaminants occurred in fish and invertebrates at concentrations that could be harmful to birds feeding in the estuarine salt marsh at Seal Beach National Wildlife Refuge (NWR), which is part of Naval Weapons Station (NWS) Seal Beach. Management of the refuge is focused primarily on endangered species, especially the light-footed clapper rail and the California least tern. Important food-chain organisms taken by rails (e.g., crabs and snails) and least terns (small fish) were sampled and analyzed for inorganic and organic contaminants that might be related to Navy activities at the Station. Results indicated that those contaminants are not likely to have lethal effects on rails or terns, although some chemicals (including cadmium, chromium, copper, lead, zinc and DDE) occurred at elevated concentrations in portions of the marsh. Possible sublethal effects also were evaluated and will be discussed.
Nowicki, Jessica P.
For many animals, affiliative relationships such as pair bonds form the foundation of society and are highly adaptive. Animal systems amenable for comparatively studying pair bonding are important for identifying underlying biological mechanisms, but mostly exist in mammals. Better establishing fish systems will enable comparison of pair bonding mechanisms across taxonomically distant lineages that may reveal general underlying mechanistic principles. We examined the utility of wild butterflyfishes (f: Chaetodontidae; g: Chaetodon) for comparatively studying pair bonding. Using stochastic character mapping, we provide the first analysis of the evolutionary history of butterflyfish sociality, revealing that pairing is ancestral, with at least seven independent transitions to gregarious grouping and solitary behavior since the late Miocene. We then formally verified social systems in six sympatric and widespread species representing a clade with one ancestrally reconstructed transition from paired to solitary grouping at Lizard Island, Australia. In situ observations of the size, selective affiliation and aggression, fidelity, and sex composition of social groups confirmed that Chaetodon baronessa, C. lunulatus, and C. vagabundus are predominantly pair bonding, whereas C. rainfordi, C. plebeius, and C. trifascialis are predominantly solitary. Even in the predominantly pair bonding species, C. lunulatus, a proportion of adults (15%) are solitary. Importantly, inter- and intra-specific differences in social systems do not co-vary with other previously established attributes, including parental care. Hence, the proposed butterflyfish populations are promising for inter- and intra-species comparative analyses of pair bonding and its mechanistic underpinnings. Avenues for further developing the system are proposed, including determining whether the aforementioned utility of these species applies across their geographic disruptions.
Wang, Christina Yan
The world class Ni-Cu-PGE sulfide deposits associated with the Sudbury Igneous Complex (SIC) are quite unique on earth in the sense that the energy source and origin were triggered by a large meteorite impact event. The ore deposits in the SIC make up one of the largest Ni-Cu-PGE sulfide deposit camps in the world and have now been mined for over 100 years. This is the first complete reference book that focuses entirely on the SIC and covers the fields of economic geology, petrology, geochemistry and geophysics. The purpose of this book is to explore the linkage between sulfide and silicate magmas generated by the 1.85 Ga Sudbury impact event and to unite an understanding of the process of crustal melt sheet evolution with the formation of the magmatic sulfide mineralization. The author, Peter Lightfoot, has been based in Sudbury for 25 years. As a top scientist on magmatic Ni-Cu-PGE sulfide deposits and a Chief Geologist with the Brownfield Exploration group at Vale Base Metals, Peter has been positioned to develop and assemble the ideas presented in this book, which are perfectly balanced between industry and academia.
Kesler, D.H.; Newton, T.J.; Green, L.
The lengths of marked specimens of the freshwater mussel, Eastern Elliptio (Elliptio complanata [Lightfoot 1786]), were monitored annually in 3 lakes in Rhode Island, USA, from 1991 to 2005. Mussels growing in Worden Pond showed a change in mean shell length of only 4.3 mm over 14 y, whereas mussel growth in 2 nearby lakes was 3 to 8x greater than growth in Worden Pond over the same time period. L???, the length at which shell growth stops, was significantly different (p < 0.001) among lakes and ranged from 60.5 to 87.4 mm. Transplant experiments revealed that mussels moved to Worden Pond stopped growing, whereas mussels moved from Worden Pond to the 2 other lakes grew at rates similar to the rates observed for resident mussels in the 2 lakes. Standard water-quality measures did not explain the observed growth cessation and lower condition indices of mussels in Worden Pond. Our growth data are consistent with food limitation. The consistent slow growth of E. complanata in Worden Pond, without high mortality, and its ability to increase growth when placed in environments more favorable than Worden Pond, suggests both growth plasticity and longevity in these animals. ?? 2007 by The North American Benthological Society.
Bassingthwaighte, James B
The equations for transport of hydrophilic solutes through aqueous pores provide a fundamental basis for examining capillary-tissue exchange and water and solute flux through transmembrane channels, but the theory remains incomplete for ratios, alpha, of sphere diameters to pore diameters greater than 0.4. Values for permeabilities, P, and reflection coefficients, sigma, from Lewellen, working with Lightfoot et al., at alpha = 0.5 and 0.95, were combined with earlier values for alpha solute. The new expression for the diffusive hindrance is F'(alpha) = (1 - alpha2)(3/2) phi/[1 + 0.2 x alpha2 x (1 - alpha2)16], and for the drag factor is G'(alpha) = (1 - 2alpha(2)/3 - 0.20217 alpha5)/(1 - 0.75851 alpha5) - 0.0431[1 - (1 - alpha10)]. All of these converge monotonically to the correct limits at alpha = 1. These are the first expressions providing hydrodynamically based estimates of sigma(alpha) and P(alpha) over 0 < alpha < 1 They should be accurate to within 1-2%.
Sander, Aleksandra; Kardum, Jasna Prlić; Matijašić, Gordana; Žižek, Krunoslav
A term transport phenomena arises as a second paradigm at the end of 1950s with high awareness that there was a strong need to improve the scoping of chemical engineering science. At that point, engineers became highly aware that it is extremely important to take step forward from pure empirical description and the concept of unit operations only to understand the specific process using phenomenological equations that rely on three elementary physical processes: momentum, energy and mass transport. This conceptual evolution of chemical engineering was first presented with a well-known book of R. Byron Bird, Warren E. Stewart and Edwin N. Lightfoot, Transport Phenomena, published in 1960 . What transport phenomena are included in environmental engineering? It is hard to divide those phenomena through different engineering disciplines. The core is the same but the focus changes. Intention of the authors here is to present the transport phenomena that are omnipresent in treatment of various process streams. The focus in this chapter is made on the transport phenomena that permanently occur in mechanical macroprocesses of sedimentation and filtration for separation in solid-liquid particulate systems and on the phenomena of the flow through a fixed and a fluidized bed of particles that are immanent in separation processes in packed columns and in environmental catalysis. The fundamental phenomena for each thermal and equilibrium separation process technology are presented as well. Understanding and mathematical description of underlying transport phenomena result in scoping the separation processes in a way that ChEs should act worldwide.
Eddleton, Jeannine E.
Practical knowledge, as defined by Freema Elbaz (1983), is a complex, practically oriented set of understandings which teachers use to actively shape and direct their work. The goal of this study is the construction of a social science portrait that illuminates the practical knowledge of a large lecture professor of general chemistry at a public research university in the southeast. This study continues Elbaz's (1981) work on practical knowledge with the incorporation of a qualitative and intentionally interventionist methodology which "blurs the boundaries of aesthetics and empiricism in an effort to capture the complexity, dynamics, and subtlety of human experience and organizational life," (Lawrence-Lightfoot & Davis, 1997). This collection of interviews, observations, writings, and reflections is designed for an eclectic audience with the intent of initiating conversation on the topic of the large lecture and is a purposeful attempt to link research and practice. Social science portraiture is uniquely suited to this intersection of researcher and researched, the perfect combination of methodology and analysis for a project that is both product and praxis. The following research questions guide the study. • Are aspects of Elbaz's practical knowledge identifiable in the research conversations conducted with a large lecture college professor? • Is practical knowledge identifiable during observations of Patricia's large lecture? Freema Elbaz conducted research conversations with Sarah, a high school classroom and writing resource teacher who conducted much of her teaching work one on one with students. Patricia's practice differs significantly from Sarah's with respect to subject matter and to scale.
Zamorano, Ruben; Marín, Michelle; Cabrera, Fabiola; Figueroa, Diego; Contreras, Cristóbal; Barriga, Andrés; Lagos, Néstor; García, Carlos
The aim of this study was to analyse and determine the composition of paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP) toxins and lipophilic toxins in the Region of Aysén, Chile, in wild endemic mussels (Mytilus chilensis, Venus antiqua, Aulacomya ater, Choromytilus chorus, Tagelus dombeii and Gari solida) and in two endemic carnivorous molluscs species (Concholepas concholepas and Argobuccinum ranelliforme). PSP-toxin contents were determined by using HPLC with fluorescence detection, while lipophilic toxins were determined by using LC-MS/MS. Mean concentrations for the total of PSP toxins were in the range 55-2505 μg saxitoxin-equivalent/100 g. The two most contaminated samples for PSP toxicity were bivalve Gari solida and carnivorous Argobuccinum ranelliforme with 2505 ± 101 and 1850 ± 137 μg saxitoxin-equivalent/100 g, respectively (p < 0.05). The lipophilic toxins identified were okadaic acid, dinophysistoxin-1 (DTX-1), azaspiracid-1 (AZA-1), pectenotoxin-2 (PTX-2) and yessotoxins (YTX). All analysed molluscs contained lipophilic toxins at levels ranging from 56 ± 4.8 to 156.1 ± 8.2 μg of okadaic acid-equivalent/kg shellfish together with YTX at levels ranging from 1.0 ± 0.1 to 18 ± 0.9 μg of YTX-equivalent/kg shellfish and AZA at levels ranging from 3.6 ± 0.2 to 31 ± 2.1 μg of AZA-equivalent/kg shellfish. Furthermore, different bivalves and gastropods differ in their capacity of retention of lipophilic toxins, as shown by the determination of their respective lipophilic toxins levels. In all the evaluated species, the presence of lipophilic toxins associated with biotransformation in molluscs and carnivorous gastropods was not identified, in contrast to the identification of PSP toxins, where the profiles identified in the different species are directly related to biotransformation processes. Thus, this study provides evidence that the concentration of toxins in the food intake of the evaluated species (Bivalvia and Gastropoda class) determines the degree of
García, Carlos; Pérez, Francisco; Contreras, Cristóbal; Figueroa, Diego; Barriga, Andrés; López-Rivera, Américo; Araneda, Oscar F; Contreras, Héctor R
Harmful algae blooms (HABs) are the main source of marine toxins in the aquatic environment surrounding the austral fjords in Chile. Huichas Island (Aysén) has an history of HABs spanning more than 30 years, but there is limited investigation of the bioaccumulation of marine toxins in the bivalves and gastropods from the Region of Aysén. In this study, bivalves (Mytilus chilenses, Choromytilus chorus, Aulacomya ater, Gari solida, Tagelus dombeii and Venus antiqua) and carnivorous gastropods (Argobuccinum ranelliformes and Concholepas concholepas) were collected from 28 sites. Researchers analysed the accumulation of STX-group toxins using a LC with a derivatisation post column (LC-PCOX), while lipophilic toxins (OA-group, azapiracids, pectenotoxins and yessotoxins) were analysed using LC-MS/MS with electrospray ionisation (+/-) in visceral (hepatopancreas) and non-visceral tissues (mantle, adductor muscle, gills and foot). Levels of STX-group and OA-group toxins varied among individuals from the same site. Among all tissue samples, the highest concentrations of STX-group toxins were noted in the hepatopancreas in V. antiqua (95 ± 0.1 μg STX-eq 100 g(-1)), T. dombeii (148 ± 1.4 μg STX-eq 100 g(-1)) and G. solida (3232 ± 5.2 μg STX-eq 100 g(-1); p concholepas (81 ± 0.7 μg STX-eq 100 g(-1)) and T. dombeii (114 ± 1.2 μg STX-eq 100 g(-1)). The highest variability of toxins was detected in G. solida, where high levels of carbamate derivatives were identified (GTXs, neoSTX and STX). In addition to the detected hydrophilic toxins, OA-group toxins were detected (OA and DTX-1) with an average ratio of ≈1:1. The highest levels of OA-group toxins were in the foot of C. concholepas, with levels of 400.3 ± 3.6 μg OA eq kg(-1) (p mantle > adductor muscle for the STX-group toxins and foot > digestive gland for the OA-group toxins. These results gave a better understanding of the variability and compartmentalisation of STX-group and OA-group toxins in different
Three new species: Grandicrepidula hemispherica (Nukumaruan, S Hawke's Bay), Pelicaria Granttaylori (Mangapanian-early Nukumaruan, Wanganui-Hawke's Bay), Pelicaria arahura (Waipipian-early Mangapanian, Westland and Hawke's Bay). Drawings of marine species in Smith's (1874) three plates of New Zealand molluscan types are republished. Further Australian molluscs in Wanganui Basin: Sabia australis (Lamarck), Clanculus plebejus (Philippi), both early Nukumaruan. Further northern New Zealand molluscs in Wanganui Basin: Stephopoma roseum (Quoy and Gaimard), OIS 13, 9. Distinctive gastropods extinct at end Nukumaruan: Struthiolaria frazeri (Hutton), Taxonia suteri (Marwick). Taniella planisuturalis (Marwick) (Opoitian-Nukumaruan, southern NZ) and Trivia (Ellatrivia) zealandica (Kirk) (Nukumaruan, Hawke's Bay-Wanganui; Castlecliffian, North Canterbury) occur in Castlecliffian (OIS 15?) rocks at Whakatane. Cantharidella tessellate (A. Adams) and Risellopsis varia (Hutton), formerly Haweran, are recorded from Nukumaruan and Castlecliffian rocks, respectively. New fossil late Nukumaruan-early Castlecliffian records listed from Mikonui-1 offshore well, Westland, include Malluvium calcareum (Suter) and 10 other species. Other biostratigraphically useful gastropods: Calliostoma (Maurea) nukumaruense (Laws) (Mangapanian-OIS 17); Argobuccinum pustulosum (Lightfoot), Semicassis labiate (Perry) (both earliest in OIS 7). New synonymy: Zeacumantus perplexus (Marshall and Murdoch) =Z. lutulentus (Kiener); Pelicaria vermis (Martyn) =all named Nukumaruan-Recent forms (other than P. rugosa (Marwick) and P. granttaylori n. sp.); Trivia flora Marwick =T.zealandica Kirk. Taxonomy revised: Zelippistes benhami (Suter) (OIS 13 and 9 at Wanganui), distinguished from Lippistes and Separatista; Stiracolpus species, informally; Maoricrypta profunda (Hutton), Waipipian-early Castlecliffian (- OIS 19); M. radiata (Hutton) (=incurva Zittel,=hochetteriana Woods, =wilckensi Finlay), (Middle Miocene
A systematic catalogue of butterflies of the former Soviet Union (Armenia, Azerbaijan, Belarus, Estonia, Georgia, Kyrgyzstan, Kazakhstan, Latvia, Lituania, Moldova, Russia, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, Ukraine, Uzbekistan) with special account to their type specimens (Lepidoptera: Hesperioidea, Papilionoidea).
Korb, Stanislav K; Bolshakov, Lavr V
A catalogue of butterflies of Russia and adjacent countries is given, with special account to the name-bearing types depository. This catalogue contains data about 86 species (3 of them are questionable) of Hesperiidae (22 genera); 47 species of Papilionidae (14 genera); 89 species of Pieridae (5 of them are questionable) (15 genera); 1 species (1 genus) of Libytheinae(dae); 2 species of Danainae(dae) (2 genera); 160 species of Nymphalinae(dae) (1 of them is questionable) (23 genera); 259 species of Satyrinae(dae) (14 of them are questionable, mainly from genera Oeneis and Pseudochazara) (34 genera); 3 species of Riodinidae (2 genera); 318 species of Lycaenidae (11 of them are questionable, mainly from genera Neolycaena and Plebeius) (57 genera). In total: 965 species of butterflies, 174 genera, by countries: Armenia-244, Azerbaijan-225, Belarus-107, Estonia-113, Georgia-211, Kyrgyzstan-316, Kazakhstan-344, Latvia-115, Lituania-126, Moldova-87, Russia-522, Tajikistan-295, Turkmenistan-159, Ukraine-192, Uzbekistan-241. Detailed distribution and subspecific structure (if present) for every species is provided. Lectotypes of the following species-group taxa are designated: Hesperia poggei Lederer, 1858, Parnassius felderi Bremer, 1861, P. eversmanni Eversmann, 1851, P. boedromius Püngeler, 1901, Limenitis moltrechti Kardakov, 1928, L. sydyi Kindermann, 1853, L. amphyssa Ménétriès, 1859, L. doerriesi Staudinger, 1892, L. helmanni duplicata Staudinger, 1892, L. homeyeri Tancré, 1881, Argynnis penelope Staudinger, 1891, A. thore borealis Staudinger, 1861, Vanessa io geisha Stichel, , Melitaea maturna staudingeri Wnukowsky, 1929 (=uralensis Staudinger, 1871), M. didymina Staudinger, 1895, Papilio fascelis Esper, 1783, Thecla quercivora Staudinger, 1887, Lycaena orion var. ornata Staudinger, 1892. The following nomenclatural acts are established: Neolycaena submontana baitenovi (Zhdanko, 2011), comb. et stat.n. The following new synonymy is provided: Hesperia
considered to be an essential adjunct to Bird, Stewart, and Lightfoot's Transport Phenomena John Wiley and Sons, Inc., 1960. DG gives ample acknowledgment to his students and colleagues who contributed to the development of this new science of multiphase flow and the hydrodynamics of fluidization
Cason, Maggie A.
This investigation utilized life history methodology (Armstrong, 1987; Bogdan & Biklen, 1998; Lawrence-Lightfoot, 1977; Marshall & Rossman, 1995; Patton, 1987; Taylor & Bogdan; 1984) to examine lifelong science experiences of two elementary education teacher candidates at a land grant institution with a large, undergraduate teacher education program. Purposive sampling techniques (Bogdan & Biklen, 1998) led to the selection of two teacher candidates who reported high science anxiety when they began university coursework. The investigation focused on five broad questions: (a) What were key experiences in the elementary teacher education program which contributed to a positive change in attitude toward science? (b) What science experiences, in and out of school, did the teacher candidates encounter while they were in elementary school, junior high school, high school, and college? (c) How did the elementary education program's science course structure, professors, and field experiences contribute to the change in attitude toward science? (d) How much time was involved in the change in attitude toward science? and (e) What were the effects of the change in attitude on the teaching of science in the elementary classroom? Each candidate completed approximately twenty hours of interviews yielding rich descriptions of their lifelong science experiences. Data also included interviews with science and science education professors, journaling, and observations of student teaching experiences. Data analysis revealed four over-arching themes with implications for teacher educators. First, data showed the importance of relationship building between professors and teacher candidates. Professors must know and work with teacher candidates, and provide a structure that encourages question asking. Second, course structure including hands-on teaching strategies and students working in small groups over an extended period of time was vital. Third, integrating language arts with
Raats, Peter A. C.
By choosing to major in soil physics at Wageningen now exactly 60 years ago, I could combine my interest in exact sciences with my experience of growing up on a farm. I never regretted that choice. In the first twenty years, I profited much from close contacts with members of the immediate post-WW II generation of soil physicists (especially Jerry Bolt, Arnold Klute, Ed Miller, Champ Tanner, Wilford Gardner, John Philip, and Jan van Schilfgaarde), chemical engineers (especially at UW Madison the trio Bob Bird, Warren Stewart and Ed Lightfoot) and experts in continuum mechanics (especially at Johns Hopkins Clifford Truesdell and Jerald Ericksen). As graduate student at Illinois with Klute, to describe flow and transport theories in soil science I initially explored as possible framework thermodynamics of irreversible processes (TIP), but soon switched to the continuum theory of mixtures (CTM), initiated by Truesdell in 1957. In CTM, the balance of forces gave a rational basis for flux equations. CTM allowed me to deal with swelling/shrinkage, role of inertia, boundary conditions, and structured soils. Later, I did use TIP to deal with certain aspects of transfer of water and heat in soils and selective uptake of water and nutrients by plant roots. Recently, a variety of theories for upscaling from the pore scale to the Darcy scale have clarified the potential, limits and common ground of CTM and TIP. A great advantage of CTM is that it provides geometric tools suited for kinematic aspects of flow, transport, and growth/decay processes. In particular, the concept of material coordinates of the solid phase that I used in my PhD thesis to cope with large deformation due to swelling/shrinkage of soils, later also turned to be useful to deal with simultaneous shrinkage and decay in peat soils and compost heaps, and the growth of plant tissues. Also, by focusing on the material coordinates for the water, it became possible to describe transport of solutes in unsaturated
Kopp, R. E.; Kirschvink, J. L.; Newman, D. K.; Nash, C. Z.; Hilburn, I. A.
environment warmed by a CH4 greenhouse (3) should occur fairly rapidly, within ˜ 10 My. The trigger requires both the evolution of cyanobacteria and sufficiently high nutrient (mainly P) fluxes to allow O2 production to overwhelm reductant fluxes. P flux into the oceans in glaciated worlds correlates with increased continental weathering during glacial intervals (4). Thus, were cyanobacteria present during the Huronian glaciations, which predate 2.22 Ga (5), these glaciations should have triggered the oxygenation event. Instead, the oxygenation event seems to correlate with the Makganyene glaciation, at 2.22 Ga (6). The appearance of red beds in the Upper Timeball Hill formation directly underlying the Makganyene diamictite supports this interpretation. As would be expected from a glaciation associated with the destruction of a CH4 greenhouse, paleomagnetic data indicate the Makganyene glaciation was a global Snowball event (7). Cyanobacteria appear to have evolved in the short interval between the Huronian glaciations and the Makganyene glaciation. The lengthy delay between the earliest life on Earth and the appearance of cyanobacteria suggests that the oxygenic revolution was a fairly low probability event; planets with oxygenic biospheres may be quite rare. 1. J. L. Kirschvink et al., PNAS 97, 1400-1405 (2000). 2. J. Raymond et al., Science 298, 1616-1620 (2002). 3. A. A. Pavlov et al., JGR 105, 11981-11990 (2000). 4. K. B. F”llmi, Geology 23, 503-506 (1995). 5. S. R. Noble, P. C. Lightfoot, Can. J. Earth Sci. 29, 1424-1429 (1992). 6. D. H. Cornell et al., Precamb. Res. 79, 101-123 (1996). 7. D. A. Evans et al., Nature 386, 262-266 (1997).
Brown, N.R.; Revankar, S.T.; Seker, V.; Downar, Th.J.
In the sulphur-iodine (S-I) cycle nuclear hydrogen generation scheme the chemical plant acts as the heat sink for the very high temperature nuclear reactor (VHTR). Thus, any accident which occurs in the chemical plant must feedback to the nuclear reactor. There are many different types of accidents which can occur in a chemical plant. These accidents include intra-reactor piping failure, inter-reactor piping failure, reaction chamber failure and heat exchanger failure. Since the chemical plant acts as the heat sink for the nuclear reactor, any of these accidents induce a loss-of-heat-sink accident in the nuclear reactor. In this paper, several chemical plant initiated accident scenarios are presented. The following accident scenarios are proposed: i) failure of the Bunsen chemical reactor; ii) product flow failure from either the H 2 SO 4 decomposition section or HI decomposition section; iii) reactant flow failure from either the H 2 SO 4 decomposition section or HI decomposition section; iv) rupture of a reaction chamber. Qualitative analysis of these accident scenarios indicates that each result in either partial or total loss of heat sink accidents for the nuclear reactor. These scenarios are reduced to two types: i) discharge rate limited accidents; ii) discontinuous reaction chamber accidents. A discharge rate limited rupture of the SO 3 decomposition section of the SI cycle is proposed and modelled. Since SO 3 decomposition occurs in the gaseous phase, critical flow out of the rupture is calculated assuming ideal gas behaviour. The accident scenario is modelled using a fully transient control volume model of the S-I cycle coupled to a THERMIX model of a 268 MW pebble bed modular reactor (PBMR-268) and a point kinetics model. The Bird, Stewart and Lightfoot source model for choked gas flows from a pressurised chamber was utilised as a discharge rate model. A discharge coefficient of 0.62 was assumed. Feedback due to the rupture is observed in the nuclear
make sense of school improvement for peace. Abstract: McClernon (1998 suggested that some insight into children's perceptions of the meaning of peace was essential if educators in Northern Ireland (N. Ireland were to avoid perpetuating the suspicion, bigotry and prejudice that had led to so much violence in the past. However, whilst children's understandings about peace and war had been the subject of developmental research for at least three decades, a critical review of the extant literature revealed a number of shortcomings. For example, only one study having an explicit focus on children's and adolescents' ideas about peace was identified in N. Ireland. Furthermore, in recent years, our understanding of human development has profited greatly from research focusing on the exploration of narrative and language as the principal means through which people make sense of themselves and their experiences (see Daiute and Lightfoot 2004. The extant research appeared to reflect none of this scholarship. Rather, it had been conducted within a “natural science" paradigm dominated by oversimplified theoretical underpinnings. The remainder of this paper sets out to develop these issues.
morphosyntaxe du verbe en ancien indien. Les deux articles suivants examinent des questions d’ordre morphologique aux- quelles se heurtent les langues entrant en contact : Georgia Zellou traite du cas du cir- confixe /ta...-t/ que l’arabe marocain a emprunté au berbère, tandis que Chikako Shigemori Bučar analyse le sort réservé aux emprunts japonais en slovène. L’axe diachronique est exploré principalement par les articles de Douglas Lightfoot, de Javier E. Díaz Vera et de Metka Furlan. D. Lightfoot examine la perti- nence de la notion d’affixoïde et evalue la « suffixoïdité » de l’élément germanique « -mann ». J. E. Díaz Vera décrit la lexicalisation, voire la grammaticalisation des verbes causatifs en ancien anglais. Metka Furlan se penche sur une relation « morpho- logique » archaïque rattachant le nom protoslave pol’e à l’adjectif hittite palhi-. Autour du dernier axe se réunissent les contributions qui examinent la frontière entre la morphologie et les disciplines linguistiques voisines, telles que la phonologie ou la syntaxe. Marc Plénat étudie en détail les contraintes morphologiques, syntaxiques et phonologiques pesant sur la liaison de l’adjectif au masculin singulier sur le nom en français. Janez Orešnik, fondateur de l’école ljubljanaise de la syntaxe naturelle, explore le comportement morphologique de l’impératif dans une perspective universelle. Mojca Schlamberger Brezar propose une étude contrastive, à partir des don- nées tirées de corpus monolingues et parallèles, de la grammaticalisation du gérondif et du participe en français et en slovène. L’article de Gašper Ilc applique la notionde« cycle de Jespersen » à la négation dans le slovène standard et dans les dialectes pannoniens. Mojca Smolej propose une étude fouillée de l’émergence des articles défini et indéfini dans le slovène parlé spontané.
/Yb is 2.7-3.2) demonstrates the most dramatic changes in its thickness (from 450 m on the west to 12 m on the east Lake Lama) and compositions (degree of contamination downs in this destination) . The next overlapping Gd basalts, Hakanchansky and Low Nadezhdinsky suits (widespread on the West) consist of very similar tholeiitic basalts. It is important to emphasize that Hk volcanic rocks are analogous to Nd1 tholeiits ones in terms of high HLE and LREE. In contrast them Tk basalts (TiO2=2-4 mas. %; Gd/Yb=1.3) contain normal LREE concentrations. The latter widespread to the west from Khantajsko-Rybninsky swell separated from Hk and Nd1 suits. Perhaps, during this period two types of magma flowed from different sources were separated in space. The first magma type (Nd) is close to average crust composition and differs significantly from other basalts (Tk-Sm). During the late period of magmatism all surface of plateau Putorana was covered by very similar low-Ti lavas and tuffs. Thus, according to the geological setting and geochemical features, 4 cycles of volcanism in the Noril'sk region can be distinguished: 1) Iv-Sv, 2) Gd, 3) Hk-Nd, 4) Tk, 5) Mr-Sm . What is a place of ore-bearing intrusions in this scenario? Due to the elevated weighted mean MgO content (10-12 mas.%) in the ore-bearing intrusions ( it is believed that the massifs with sulfide mineralization are comagmatic with high-Mg effusive rocks Gd, Tk or Nd suits. But their mineralogo-geochemical features are very different. An additional noril'sk type massifs intrude not only rocks of these suits but Nd and Mr too. So they crystallized from an own portion of magma. They might have been formed after the formation of all volcanic sequences. References 1.Lightfoot P.C. et al. // Contrib.Mineral.Petrology. 1993. V.114. P.171-188. 2.Krivolutskaya N.A., Rudakova A.V. // Geochemistry International. 2009. Vol. 47. No. 7. P. 635-656. 3.Sobolev A.V., Krivolutskaya N.A., Kuzmin D.V. // Petrology. 2009. V. 17. No. 3