WorldWideScience

Sample records for tackling alcohol misuse

  1. Tackling drug and alcohol misuse in Brazil: priorities and challenges for nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rassool, G H; Villar-Luis, M

    2004-12-01

    To provide an overview of the extent of drug and alcohol misuse in Brazil and the policies and approaches in tackling substance misuse. An examination of the challenges facing the nursing profession in working with substance misusers is presented. Alcohol, cocaine, and cannabis are the most commonly misused psychoactive substances in Brazil. One of the biggest public health problems is the interface between the misuse of psychoactive substances and HIV prevalence and other sexually transmitted diseases. Findings from a recent study suggest that undergraduate nurses in Brazil are not adequately prepared in the care and management of substance misuse problems. The nursing profession in Brazil faces numerous challenges in the development of professional competence of nurses in this field. A strategy proposed is the creation of regional centres in Brazil to study the integration of substance use and misuse in the nursing undergraduate curriculum and the giving of specific support in teaching and research to nurse teachers. Nurses have a key role to play in the early recognition, assessment, prevention, and treatment of substance misuse.

  2. Tackling alcohol misuse: purchasing patterns affected by minimum pricing for alcohol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludbrook, Anne; Petrie, Dennis; McKenzie, Lynda; Farrar, Shelley

    2012-01-01

    Alcohol consumption is associated with a range of health and social harms that increase with the level of consumption. Policy makers are interested in effective and cost-effective interventions to reduce alcohol consumption and associated harms. Economic theory and research evidence demonstrate that increasing price is effective at the population level. Price interventions that target heavier consumers of alcohol may be more effective at reducing alcohol-related harms with less impact on moderate consumers. Minimum pricing per unit of alcohol has been proposed on this basis but concerns have been expressed that 'moderate drinkers of modest means' will be unfairly penalized. If those on low incomes are disproportionately affected by a policy that removes very cheap alcohol from the market, the policy could be regressive. The effect on households' budgets will depend on who currently purchases cheaper products and the extent to which the resulting changes in prices will impact on their demand for alcohol. This paper focuses on the first of these points. This paper aims to identify patterns of purchasing of cheap off-trade alcohol products, focusing on income and the level of all alcohol purchased. Three years (2006-08) of UK household survey data were used. The Expenditure and Food Survey provides comprehensive 2-week data on household expenditure. Regression analyses were used to investigate the relationships between the purchase of cheap off-trade alcohol, household income levels and whether the household level of alcohol purchasing is categorized as moderate, hazardous or harmful, while controlling for other household and non-household characteristics. Predicted probabilities and quantities for cheap alcohol purchasing patterns were generated for all households. The descriptive statistics and regression analyses indicate that low-income households are not the predominant purchasers of any alcohol or even of cheap alcohol. Of those who do purchase off-trade alcohol

  3. Alcohol Misuse and Multiple Sexual Partners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahrzad Bazargan-Hejazi, PhD

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: We examine the association between self-reported alcohol misuse and alcohol usewithin 2 hours of having sex and the number of sexual partners among a sample of African-Americanand Latino emergency department (ED patients.Methods: Cross-sectional data were collected prospectively from a randomized sample of all EDpatients during a 5-week period. In face-to-face interviews, subjects were asked to report their alcoholuse and number of sexual partners in the past 12 months. Data were analyzed using multiple variablenegative binomial regression models, and effect modification was assessed through inclusion ofinteraction terms.Results: The 395 study participants reported an average of 1.4 (standard error¼0.11 sexual partnersin the past 12 months, 23% reported misusing alcohol, and 28% reported consuming alcohol beforesex. There was no statistically significant association between alcohol misuse and the number ofsexual partners; however, alcohol before sex was associated with a larger number of sexual partners inthe past year. Moreover, among those who misused alcohol, participants who reported alcohol beforesex were 3 times more likely to report a higher number of sexual partners (risk ratio¼3.2; confidenceinterval [CI]¼1.9–5.6. The association between alcohol use before sex and number of sexual partnersis dependent upon whether a person has attributes of harmful drinking over the past 12 months.Overall, alcohol use before sex increases the number of sexual partners, but the magnitude of thiseffect is significantly increased among alcohol misusers.Conclusion: Alcohol misusers and those who reported having more than 1 sexual partner were morelikely to cluster in the same group, ie, those who used alcohol before sex. Efforts to reduce the burdenof sexually transmitted diseases, including human immunodeficiency virus, and other consequences ofrisky sexual behavior in the ED population should be cognizant of the interplay of alcohol and

  4. Physician's information about alcohol problems at hospitalisation of alcohol misusers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, S D; Gluud, C

    1992-01-01

    Information was gathered on recognition and treatment of alcohol problems in the primary and secondary health sectors, the latter represented by a department of hepatology. The general practitioner finds in most cases (18/26, 69%) that it is relevant to advise about a patient's alcohol misuse...... on admission forms when the patient previously has been discharged from another department with this diagnosis. However, if the patient has not previously been hospitalised due to alcohol misuse, information on the diagnosis is only rarely (30/114, 26%) available. This difference is highly significant (P = 0.......0001). The case-recording hospital physician at admission recognises 73% of alcohol misusers who are admitted with a non-alcohol-related diagnosis. When the patient had been evaluated by both the admitting physician and the case-recording hospital physician, information on the alcohol problem occurred...

  5. 14 CFR 120.19 - Misuse of alcohol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Misuse of alcohol. 120.19 Section 120.19... AND OPERATORS FOR COMPENSATION OR HIRE: CERTIFICATION AND OPERATIONS DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING PROGRAM Air Traffic Controllers § 120.19 Misuse of alcohol. (a) This section applies to covered employees who...

  6. 14 CFR 120.37 - Misuse of alcohol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Misuse of alcohol. 120.37 Section 120.37... AND OPERATORS FOR COMPENSATION OR HIRE: CERTIFICATION AND OPERATIONS DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING PROGRAM... Under § 91.147 of This Chapter and Safety-Sensitive Employees § 120.37 Misuse of alcohol. (a) General...

  7. Prospective risk factors for alcohol misuse in late adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellickson, S L; Tucker, J S; Klein, D J; McGuigan, K A

    2001-11-01

    This longitudinal study investigated Grade-7 and Grade-10 risk factors for alcohol misuse at Grade 12. Alcohol misuse was conceptualized as problem-related drinking (e.g., missing school), high-risk drinking (e.g., drunk driving) and high consumption. Prospective analyses using two-part models predicted any alcohol misuse and the amount of misuse (given that some has occurred) for over 4,200 (52% male) participants in the RAND Adolescent Panel Study. Predictor variables were demographics, substance use and exposure, prodrug attitudes, rebelliousness and deviant behavior, self-esteem, family structure and relations, and grades. Grade-7 predictors of alcohol misuse 5 years later included early drinking onset, parental drinking, future intentions to drink, cigarette offers, difficulty resisting pressures to smoke, being white, being male, having an older sibling, deviant behavior and poor grades. By Grade 10, predictors of alcohol misuse 2 years later included drinking and marijuana use by self and peers, future intentions to drink, difficulty resisting pressures to drink and use marijuana, being male, coming from a disrupted family and deviant behavior. Somewhat different predictors were identified for problem-related, high-risk and high consumption drinking, emphasizing the importance of investigating multiple dimensions of misuse. The high social acceptability of alcohol use makes prevention difficult. Curbing alcohol misuse may be a more attainable goal than preventing any use. These results indicate that predictors of misuse in late adolescence can be identified by Grade 7 and are generally visible and modifiable. Prevention efforts should begin by early adolescence, address both familial and peer influences to drink and use other substances, and take into account problems that predict alcohol misuse (e.g., poor academic performance and early deviant behavior).

  8. Alcohol and drug misuse, abuse, and dependence in women veterans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoggatt, Katherine J; Jamison, Andrea L; Lehavot, Keren; Cucciare, Michael A; Timko, Christine; Simpson, Tracy L

    2015-01-01

    We conducted a systematic literature review on substance misuse, abuse, and dependence in women veterans, including National Guard/reserve members. We identified 837 articles published between 1980 and 2013. Of 56 included studies, 32 reported rates of alcohol misuse, binge drinking, or other unhealthy alcohol use not meeting diagnostic criteria for abuse or dependence, and 33 reported rates of drug misuse or diagnosed alcohol or drug use disorders. Rates ranged from 4% to 37% for alcohol misuse and from 7% to 25% for binge drinking; among Veterans Health Administration (VA) health-care system outpatients, rates ranged from 3% to 16% for substance use disorder. Studies comparing women veterans and civilians reported no clear differences in binge or heavy drinking. Substance misuse rates were generally lower among women veterans than men veterans. Substance misuse was associated with higher rates of trauma, psychiatric and medical conditions, and increased mortality and suicide rates. Most studies included only VA patients, and many used only VA medical record data; therefore, the reported substance misuse rates likely do not reflect true prevalence. Rates also varied by assessment method, source of data, and the subgroups studied. Further efforts to develop epidemiologically valid prevalence estimates are needed to capture the true health burden of substance misuse in women veterans, particularly those not using VA care. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health 2015. This work is written by (a) US Government employee(s) and is in the public domain in the US.

  9. Predicting Alcohol Misuse Among College Students in the US and South Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sang-Yeon; Ahn, Seokhoon; Lim, Tae-Seop

    2015-01-01

    This study examines contributing factors of alcohol misuse among college students in South Korea and the U.S. Exploratory factor analyses (EFA) on measurements of alcohol expectancy, alcohol efficacy, and accommodation resulted in social and personal causes for alcohol misuse. Social causes alone predicted alcohol misuse for both countries. Social factors constituted a much stronger predictor of alcohol misuse among South Korean students than among American students. Practical implications for effective deterrence of student binge drinking are discussed.

  10. Adolescent Alcohol Consumption in Romania: A Blueprint for Measuring Alcohol (mis)Use

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Hoof, Joris Jasper; Moll, Marit

    2012-01-01

    In order to address the issues of adolescent alcohol (mis)use in Romanian cities and to develop local alcohol prevention policies comprised of interventions aimed at reducing alcohol consumption and alcohol related problems, information on the prevalence of alcohol use and relevant related topics is

  11. 14 CFR 91.1047 - Drug and alcohol misuse education program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Drug and alcohol misuse education program... Ownership Operations Program Management § 91.1047 Drug and alcohol misuse education program. (a) Each... instructor, or aircraft maintenance duties with drug and alcohol misuse education. (b) No program manager may...

  12. A Covariance Structure Model Test of Antecedents of Adolescent Alcohol Misuse and a Prevention Effort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dielman, T. E.; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Questionnaires were administered to 4,157 junior high school students to determine levels of alcohol misuse, exposure to peer use and misuse of alcohol, susceptibility to peer pressure, internal health locus of control, and self-esteem. Conceptual model of antecendents of adolescent alcohol misuse and effectiveness of a prevention effort was…

  13. The social costs of alcohol misuse in Estonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saar, Indrek

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to estimate the social costs of alcohol misuse in Estonia in 2006. Using a prevalence-based cost-of-illness approach, both direct and indirect costs were considered, including tangible costs associated with health care, criminal justice, rescue services, damage to property, premature mortality, incarceration, incapability of working due to illnesses, and lower labor productivity. The results show that alcohol misuse cost Estonia more than EUR 200 million in 2006. The costs involved are estimated to represent 1.6% of the gross domestic product (GDP), which is relatively high in comparison with many other countries. In addition, the state receives less receipts from the alcohol excise tax than the costs that it incurs as a consequence of alcohol misuse, which points to the existence of economic inefficiency with respect to the alcohol market. The results of this study suggest that there is definitely a need for further cost-benefit analysis to reach a conclusion regarding the possible utility of government intervention. Copyright 2008 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  14. Misuse of social media marketing by alcohol companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zakirhusain A Shaikh

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aims: Epidemiological transition in the form of noncommunicable diseases (NCDs now becoming the main cause of mortality and morbidity is very much evident even in developing countries like India. Alcohol is an important risk factor for NCD. The use of alcohol is increasing especially in young people and women. This increased use can be attributed to aggressive and innovative marketing by alcohol, in spite of and due to restrictions on its marketing. Social media, in recent times, has been misused by alcohol companies for marketing their products legally, due to legal loophole. The present study examined the reach of alcohol companies on social media and the marketing strategies used by them. Design, Settings, Participants: Facebook, Twitter and YouTube were explored for accounts and content by alcohol companies for marketing their product. Policies of social media sites pertaining to alcohol marketing were also studied. Measurements: Alcohol marketing was measured in terms of content posted by alcohol companies, use of direct or surrogate advertisement and engagement with users. Findings: Alcohol companies have been conveniently using social media to target young urban population with direct and surrogate advertisements of their products. Current social media policies and laws are ineffective in controlling it. Conclusions: Amendment of laws pertaining to alcohol marketing to include social media also in its ambit is necessary. Social media sites should revise their policies to prevent alcohol marketing and promotion especially to underaged users.

  15. A Multidimensional Model of Mothers’ Perceptions of Parent Alcohol Socialization and Adolescent Alcohol Misuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ennett, Susan T.; Jackson, Christine; Cole, Veronica T.; Haws, Susan; Foshee, Vangie A.; Reyes, Heathe Luz McNaughton; Burns, Alison Reimuller; Cox, Melissa J.; Cai, Li

    2015-01-01

    We assessed a multidimensional model of parent alcohol socialization in which key socialization factors were considered simultaneously to identify combinations of factors that increase or decrease risk for development of adolescent alcohol misuse. Of interest was the interplay between putative risk and protective factors, such as whether the typically detrimental effects on youth drinking of parenting practices tolerant of some adolescent alcohol use are mitigated by an effective overall approach to parenting and parental modeling of modest alcohol use. The sample included 1,530 adolescents and their mothers; adolescents’ mean age was 13.0 (SD = .99) at the initial assessment. Latent profile analysis was conducted of mothers’ reports of their attitude toward teen drinking, alcohol-specific parenting practices, parental alcohol use and problem use, and overall approach to parenting. The profiles were used to predict trajectories of adolescent alcohol misuse from early to middle adolescence. Four profiles were identified: two profiles reflected conservative alcohol-specific parenting practices and two reflected alcohol-tolerant practices, all in the context of other attributes. Alcohol misuse accelerated more rapidly from grade 6 through 10 in the two alcohol-tolerant compared with conservative profiles. Results suggest that maternal tolerance of some youth alcohol use, even in the presence of dimensions of an effective parenting style and low parental alcohol use and problem use, is not an effective strategy for reducing risky adolescent alcohol use. PMID:26415053

  16. A multidimensional model of mothers' perceptions of parent alcohol socialization and adolescent alcohol misuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ennett, Susan T; Jackson, Christine; Cole, Veronica T; Haws, Susan; Foshee, Vangie A; Reyes, Heathe Luz McNaughton; Burns, Alison Reimuller; Cox, Melissa J; Cai, Li

    2016-02-01

    We assessed a multidimensional model of parent alcohol socialization in which key socialization factors were considered simultaneously to identify combinations of factors that increase or decrease risk for development of adolescent alcohol misuse. Of interest was the interplay between putative risk and protective factors, such as whether the typically detrimental effects on youth drinking of parenting practices tolerant of some adolescent alcohol use are mitigated by an effective overall approach to parenting and parental modeling of modest alcohol use. The sample included 1,530 adolescents and their mothers; adolescents' mean age was 13.0 (SD = .99) at the initial assessment. Latent profile analysis was conducted of mothers' reports of their attitude toward teen drinking, alcohol-specific parenting practices, parental alcohol use and problem use, and overall approach to parenting. The profiles were used to predict trajectories of adolescent alcohol misuse from early to middle adolescence. Four profiles were identified: 2 profiles reflected conservative alcohol-specific parenting practices and 2 reflected alcohol-tolerant practices, all in the context of other attributes. Alcohol misuse accelerated more rapidly from Grade 6 through 10 in the 2 alcohol-tolerant compared with conservative profiles. Results suggest that maternal tolerance of some youth alcohol use, even in the presence of dimensions of an effective parenting style and low parental alcohol use and problem use, is not an effective strategy for reducing risky adolescent alcohol use. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  17. Alcohol misuse and gateway theory: a longitudinal study among adolescents in Switzerland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrense-Dias, Yara; Berchtold, André; Akre, Christina; Surís, Joan-Carles

    2016-04-11

    Adolescence is a transitory and exploratory stage during which risky behaviors such as substance use take place. This study aims to assess the characteristics and predictive risk factors of alcohol misuse among adolescents. A sample of 621 youths was followed from ages 14 to 16 years in Switzerland between spring 2012 (T0) and spring 2014 (T1). Participants were divided into two groups according to their alcohol misuse evolution: those who increased it (Misusers) and those who decreased or never experimented it (Non-misusers). The final sample consisted of 574 adolescents. At T0, participants reported demographic data, substance use data and emotional well-being. A multivariate regression was performed to assess the explanatory variables of alcohol misuse at T1 using Non-misusers as the reference category. Alcohol misuse in the previous month increased dramatically from 2.4% (T0) to 29.2% (T1). At the bivariate level, alcohol misuse was associated with residence, use of alcohol, tobacco and cannabis. Compared to Non-misusers, Misusers were significantly more likely to live in a rural area (aOR: 1.75 [1.1:2.8]), use cannabis (aOR: 3.2 [1.0:9.8]) and have consumed alcohol (aOR: 2.65 [1.6:4.3]) at T0. Alcohol misuse increases dramatically with age. However, the only demographic difference between groups was that young adolescents living in rural areas were more likely to misuse alcohol. Moreover, having consumed alcohol without drunkenness and using cannabis at age 14 years predicted alcohol misuse at age 16 years. This finding is in line with the reverse gateway theory, where cannabis use precedes the use of legal substances.

  18. 49 CFR 655.12 - Required elements of an anti-drug use and alcohol misuse program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Required elements of an anti-drug use and alcohol... and alcohol misuse program. An anti-drug use and alcohol misuse program shall include the following: (a) A statement describing the employer's policy on prohibited drug use and alcohol misuse in the...

  19. Diagnosis of alcohol misuse and alcoholic liver disease among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Alcohol related hepatocellular liver injury was assessed using aspartate aminotransferase, and alanine aminotransferase levels. A combination of CAGE score ≥2 and De Ritis ratio ≥2 defined alcoholic liver disease (ALD). Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV), and viral hepatitis B and C serologies were evaluated in all ...

  20. 49 CFR 655.11 - Requirement to establish an anti-drug use and alcohol misuse program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... use and alcohol misuse program. Each employer shall establish an anti-drug use and alcohol misuse... 49 Transportation 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Requirement to establish an anti-drug use and alcohol misuse program. 655.11 Section 655.11 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation...

  1. A multi-faceted intervention to reduce alcohol misuse and harm amongst sports people in Ireland: A controlled trial.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Farrell, Anne

    2017-08-07

    Alcohol misuse and harm are more prevalent amongst sports people than non-sports people. Few studies have trialled interventions to address alcohol misuse for this group. The study aimed to test the effectiveness of an intervention to reduce alcohol misuse and related harms amongst amateur sports people in Ireland.

  2. Personality disorder traits, family environment, and alcohol misuse: a multivariate behavioural genetic analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, K L; Vernon, P A; Livesley, W J

    2000-06-01

    This study seeks to estimate the extent to which a common genetic and environmental basis is shared between (i) traits delineating specific aspects of antisocial personality and alcohol misuse, and (ii) childhood family environments, traits delineating broad domains of personality pathology and alcohol misuse. Postal survey data were collected from monozygotic and dizygotic twin pairs. Twin pairs were recruited from Vancouver, British Columbia and London, Ontario, Canada using newspaper advertisements, media stories and twin clubs. Data obtained from 324 monozygotic and 335 dizygotic twin pairs were used to estimate the extent to which traits delineating specific antisocial personality traits and alcohol misuse shared a common genetic and environmental aetiology. Data from 81 monozygotic and 74 dizygotic twin pairs were used to estimate the degree to which traits delineating personality pathology, childhood family environment and alcohol misuse shared a common aetiology. Current alcohol misuse and personality pathology were measured using scales contained in the self-report Dimensional Assessment of Personality Pathology. Perceptions of childhood family environment were measured using the self-report Family Environment Scale. Multivariate genetic analyses showed that a subset of traits delineating components of antisocial personality (i.e. grandiosity, attention-seeking, failure to adopt social norms, interpersonal violence and juvenile antisocial behaviours) are influenced by genetic factors in common to alcohol misuse. Genetically based perceptions of childhood family environment had little relationship with alcohol misuse. Heritable personality factors that influence the perception of childhood family environment play only a small role in the liability to alcohol misuse. Instead, liability to alcohol misuse is related to genetic factors common a specific subset of antisocial personality traits describing conduct problems, narcissistic and stimulus

  3. Association of Alcohol Misuse With Sexual Identity and Sexual Behavior in Women Veterans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehavot, Keren; Williams, Emily C; Millard, Steven P; Bradley, Katharine A; Simpson, Tracy L

    2016-01-28

    Sexual minority women report greater alcohol misuse than heterosexual women in the general population, with more pronounced differences found among younger age groups. It is unknown whether these differences exist among women veterans. We evaluated differences in alcohol misuse across two dimensions of sexual orientation (identity and behavior) among women veterans, and examined whether these differences were modified by age. Women veterans were recruited via the internet to participate in an online survey. Participants provided information on their self-reported sexual identity and behavior and responded to the validated 3-item Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test-Consumption questionnaire (AUDIT-C). Regression models were used to compare the prevalence of alcohol misuse (AUDIT-C ≥ 3) and severity (AUDIT-C scores) across sexual identity and behavior and to test effect modification by age. Among the 702 participants (36% lesbian/bisexual), prevalence and severity of alcohol misuse varied by both sexual identity and behavior, but there were significant interactions with age. Prevalence and severity of alcohol misuse were higher among relatively younger self-identified lesbians compared to heterosexual women. Similarly, both prevalence and severity of alcohol misuse were generally higher among younger women who had any sex with women compared to those who had sex only with men. In this online study of women veterans, younger sexual minority women were more likely to screen positive for alcohol misuse, and they had more severe alcohol misuse, than their heterosexual counterparts. Prevention and treatment efforts focused specifically on sexual minority women veterans may be needed.

  4. The relationship between DSM-5 PTSD symptom clusters and alcohol misuse among military veterans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walton, Jessica L; Raines, Amanda M; Cuccurullo, Lisa-Ann J; Vidaurri, Desirae N; Villarosa-Hurlocker, Margo C; Franklin, C L

    2018-01-01

    Prior research has revealed a strong relationship between Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) and alcohol misuse. However, previous attempts to understand nuanced associations between PTSD symptom clusters and alcohol misuse within military veteran samples have produced mixed results. In an attempt to better understand the associations between PTSD and alcohol misuse, the current study examined the unique relationships between the newly classified Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (DSM-5) PTSD symptom clusters and alcohol misuse in an outpatient sample of military veterans seeking treatment for PTSD and Substance Use Disorders. Veterans (N = 100) were administered a brief battery of self-report questionnaires prior to receiving psychological services to aid in diagnostic assessment and treatment planning. Hierarchical regression analyses revealed that PTSD intrusions (cluster B), negative alterations in cognition and mood (cluster D), and arousal/reactivity (cluster E) symptoms were associated with alcohol misuse. The positive association between alcohol misuse and PTSD symptom severity is consistent with a broader body of literature demonstrating the co-occurrence of these disorders, particularly in military samples. Increased alcohol consumption may interfere with current front-line treatments for PTSD, which encourages patients to experience a full range of emotions. As such, future research should explore the impact of substance use on the effectiveness of trauma focused treatments in the alleviation of DSM-5 PTSD symptoms. (Am J Addict 2018;27:23-28). © 2017 American Academy of Addiction Psychiatry.

  5. Alcohol misuse, depressive symptoms, and HIV/STI risks of US Hispanic women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCabe, Brian E; Schaefer Solle, Natasha; Peragallo Montano, Nilda; Mitrani, Victoria B

    2017-10-01

    Alcohol misuse and depressive symptoms have been linked to HIV/STI risk, but studies have rarely included Hispanic women, who have over four times greater HIV incidence than white, non-Hispanic women. Understanding the connections among alcohol misuse, depressive symptoms, and HIV/STI risks may suggest ways to meet specific needs of Hispanic women. This study's objective is to examine the relationships among alcohol misuse, depressive symptoms, and seven HIV/STI risk factors. Five hundred forty-eight US Hispanic women with intake data from a randomized trial were assessed for alcohol misuse (CAGE) and depressive symptoms (CES-D). GZLM and path analyses tested relationships between alcohol misuse or depressive symptoms and HIV/STI risk factors. Self-efficacy and condom use were not related to alcohol misuse or depressive symptoms, but only 15% of women reported consistent condom use. After controlling for demographics, women with alcohol misuse had significantly more perceived HIV/STI risk (OR = 2.15) and better HIV/STI knowledge (β = -.54); and women with depressive symptoms had significantly more perceived HIV/STI risk (OR = 1.76) and worse HIV/STI knowledge (β = .37). Interventions to increase condom use for Hispanic women are needed, regardless of mental disorders. Working with Hispanic women with alcohol misuse or depressive symptoms presents a need (and opportunity) to address issues directly related to HIV/STI risk. Women's health practitioners have an excellent opportunity to reach women by implementing regular screening programs in clinics that serve Hispanic women. For women with high depressive symptoms, poor HIV/STI knowledge should also be addressed. Future studies should test whether integrated and tailored risk reduction interventions affect these factors and lower HIV/STI risk for Hispanic women.

  6. The Alcohol Intervention Training Program (AITP: A response to alcohol misuse in the farming community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricciardelli Lina A

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Farm men and women in Australia have higher levels of problematic alcohol use than their urban counterparts and experience elevated health risks associated with excessive alcohol consumption. The Sustainable Farm Families (SFF program has worked successfully with farm men and women to address health, well- being and safety and has identified that further research and training is required to understand and address alcohol misuse behaviours. This project will add an innovative component to the program by training health professionals working with farm men and women to discuss and respond to alcohol-related physical and mental health problems. Methods/Design A mixed method design with multi-level evaluation will be implemented following the development and delivery of a training program (The Alcohol Intervention Training Program {AITP} for Sustainable Farm Families health professionals. Pre-, post- and follow-up surveys will be used to assess both the impact of the training on the knowledge, confidence and skills of the health professionals to work with alcohol misuse and associated problems, and the impact of the training on the attitudes, behaviour and mental health of farm men and women who participate in the SFF project. Evaluations will take a range of forms including self-rated outcome measures and interviews. Discussion The success of this project will enhance the health and well-being of a critical population, the farm men and women of Australia, by producing an evidence-based strategy to assist them to adopt more positive alcohol-related behaviours that will lead to better physical and mental health.

  7. Prevalence of alcohol misuse among men and women undergoing major noncardiac surgery in the Veterans Affairs health care system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bradley, Katharine A; Rubinsky, Anna D; Sun, Haili

    2012-01-01

    Patients who screen positive for alcohol misuse on the Alcohol Use Disorder Identification Test Consumption Questionnaire (AUDIT-C ≥5 points) have significantly increased postoperative complications. Severe alcohol misuse (AUDIT-C ≥9 points) is associated with increased postoperative health care...

  8. Training and experience of nurses in responding to alcohol misuse in rural communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Alison J; Mellor, David; McCabe, Marita P; Ricciardelli, Lina A; Brumby, Susan A; Head, Alexandra; Mercer-Grant, Catherine

    2013-07-01

    Alcohol misuse by farmers continues to challenge rural nurses. This article reports on the experiences of Australian nurses participating in the Alcohol Intervention Training Program (AITP). Qualitative interviews of 15 rural and remote nurses. Semi-structured phone interviews were utilized to assess the response to and implementation of the AITP-an intervention designed to build nurses' knowledge, confidence and skills when responding to alcohol misuse. It comprises practical and theoretical components and was designed for rural and remote settings where nurses encounter alcohol misuse. Nurses found the training provided new-or built on existing-knowledge of alcohol misuse and offered practical hands-on "real life" skills. A range of workplace and personal situations where the content of the training was now being utilized were identified, and future use anticipated. Barriers to using the new knowledge and skills included both rural and generic issues. Constructive feedback to increasingly target the training to rural settings was recommended. The AITP is an effective training program. It can be further tailored to meet common needs of rural and remote nurses working with farmers who misuse alcohol, while recognizing diversity in rural practice. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Effects of Assault Type on Cognitive Behaviour Therapy for Coexisting Depression and Alcohol Misuse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kylie A. Bailey

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Although assault exposure is common in mental health and substance misusing populations, screening for assaults in treatment settings is frequently overlooked. This secondary analysis explored the effects of past sexual (SA and physical (PA assault on depression, alcohol misuse, global functioning and attrition in the Depression and Alcohol Integrated and Single focussed Intervention (DAISI project, whose participants (N = 278 received cognitive behaviour therapy (CBT for their depression and/or alcohol misuse. Of the 278 DAISI participants, 220 consented to screening for past assault (either by a stranger or non-stranger at baseline. Depression, alcohol, and global functioning assessments were administered at baseline and 3, 12, 24, and 36 months post baseline. A between-group analysis was used to assess differences between SA and No SA, and PA and No PA groupings, on adjusted mean treatment outcomes across all assessment periods. SA and PA participants had similar mean symptom reductions compared to No SA and No PA participants except for lower depression and global functioning change scores at the 12-month follow-up. People with coexisting depression and alcohol misuse reporting SA or PA can respond well to CBT for depression and alcohol misuse. However, follow-up is recommended in order to monitor fluctuations in outcomes.

  10. Prescription Stimulant Misuse, Alcohol Abuse, and Disordered Eating among College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Rose Marie; Oswald, Barbara B.; Galante, Marina

    2016-01-01

    The misuse of prescription stimulants (MPS), risky drinking, and drunkorexia are current public health concerns. The present study assessed the prevalence of MPS and drunkorexia using an online survey. Specifically, we examined alcohol consumption, the Rutgers Alcohol Problem Index, Compensatory Eating and Behaviors in Response to Alcohol…

  11. Alcohol misuse in patients with psoriasis: identification and relationship to disease severity and psychological distress.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    McAleer, M A

    2012-02-01

    BACKGROUND: Moderate to severe psoriasis is associated with increased alcohol intake and excessive mortality from alcohol-related causes. Alcohol biomarkers provide an objective measure of alcohol consumption. Carbohydrate-deficient transferrin (CDT) is the single most sensitive and specific alcohol biomarker. OBJECTIVES: To assess alcohol consumption in a cohort of patients with moderate to severe psoriasis using standard alcohol screening questionnaires and biomarkers. We investigated whether there was an association between alcohol intake, anxiety, depression and disease severity. METHODS: Consecutive patients with chronic plaque psoriasis were recruited and completed a range of anonymized assessments. Psoriasis severity, anxiety and depression, and the impact of psoriasis on quality of life were assessed. Alcohol screening questionnaires were administered. Blood specimens were taken and gamma-glutamyltransferase (gammaGT) and CDT were measured. RESULTS: A total of 135 patients completed the study. Using validated questionnaires, between 22% and 32% had difficulties with alcohol. Seven per cent had CDT > 1.6% indicating a heavy alcohol intake. The Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT) questionnaire was superior to other validated questionnaires in detecting alcohol misuse. There were no significant associations between measures of excessive alcohol consumption and disease severity. Excessive alcohol intake as measured by the CAGE questionnaire was associated with increased depression (P = 0.001) but other measures of alcohol excess did not correlate with psychological distress. Men had significantly more difficulties with alcohol than women (P < 0.001). CONCLUSION: Alcohol misuse is common in patients with moderate to severe psoriasis. Screening with the AUDIT questionnaire and CDT may allow the identification of patients who are misusing alcohol and allow appropriate intervention.

  12. Alcohol misuse in Greece: a 15-year experience from a specialized outpatient service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pomini, V; Mellos, L; Paparrigopoulos, T; Liappas, J

    2014-01-01

    Alcohol use in Greece is traditionally diffused among its population. According to general population surveys, three out of four Greeks aged 12-64 referred to alcohol consumption during the last year and 10% reported at least one episode of alcohol abuse during the last month. Furthermore, the large majority of young people aged 13-18 reported lifetime use of alcohol and 14.8% of them reported more than three episodes of alcohol abuse during the last month. Apparently, cultural factors have influenced the pattern of alcohol consumption and the ensuing alcohol-related problems during the last two decades. The "Athena" Service is an outpatient therapeutic unit for the management of substance misusers and their families. It is a specialized abstinence-oriented service that does not administer substance substitutes; mental health professionals of the service work as a multidisciplinary team. Motivational approaches, individual cognitive-behavioural psychotherapy and family interventions of a systemic orientation are the principal therapeutic techniques applied. Adjunctive medication is prescribed whenever mild to moderate concomitant psychopathology is detected. Support measures such as provisional use of medication, use of antagonistic agents or brief hospitalization can be provided if deemed necessary. No strict time limits are applied regarding treatment duration and discharge from the program. During the period 1998-2013, a total of 1511 individuals with alcohol-related problems addressed the service. The changing pattern of substance misuse over the last fifteen years can be summarized as follows: (a) there is a gradually increasing number of women misusing substances; (b) there is an increasing proportion of young adults reporting multi-substance use with concurrent psychiatric disorders; (c) there is an increasing proportion of young adults regularly using/misusing substances; (d) there is a decreasing proportion of middle-aged individuals presenting with

  13. Applications of virtual reality in individuals with alcohol misuse: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghiţă, Alexandra; Gutiérrez-Maldonado, José

    2018-06-01

    Alcohol use and misuse have been intensively studied, due to their negative consequences in the general population. Evidence-based literature emphasizes that alcohol craving plays a crucial role in the development and maintenance of alcohol-drinking patterns. Many individuals develop Alcohol Use Disorders (AUD); significantly, after treatment many also experience relapses, in which alcohol craving has been repeatedly implicated. Cue-exposure therapy (CET) has been widely used in the treatment of alcohol misuse, but the results are inconsistent. Virtual reality (VR) can add effectiveness to cue-exposure techniques by providing multiple variables and inputs that enable personalized alcohol use assessment and treatment. The aim of this review was to examine the applications of virtual reality in individuals who misuse alcohol. We conducted an exhaustive literature search of the Web of Science, Scopus, Embase, Google Scholar, and PsycInfo databases, using as search items terms such as "alcohol" and its derivates, and virtual reality. We identified 13 studies on alcohol craving that implemented virtual reality as an assessment or treatment tool. The studies that incorporate VR present clear limitations. First, no clinical trials were conducted to explore the efficacy of the VR as a treatment tool; nor were there any studies of the generalization of craving responses in the real world, or of the long-term effects of VR treatment. Despite these limitations, the studies included showed consistent results as regards eliciting and reducing alcohol craving. We suggest that VR shows promise as a tool for the assessment and treatment of craving among individuals with alcohol misuse. Further studies implementing VR in the field of alcohol consumption are now required. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. An Economic Perspective on Personality Traits and Alcohol Misuse: Evidence from the Health and Retirement Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kessler, Asia Sikora; Maclean, Johanna Catherine

    2015-06-01

    Recent economic work suggests a role for personality traits in determining socioeconomic outcomes. Much of this work has considered labor market outcomes, human capital accumulation, and, to some extent, health outcomes. No economic studies have explored the role of the Big Five taxonomy in alcohol use and misuse. Given defining characteristics of the Big Five, they are plausibly linked with these outcomes. Alcohol misuse is associated with large social costs through healthcare costs, traffic fatalities, violence, and reduced labor market productivity. Thus, understanding risk factors for such use is warranted. To investigate the associations between the Big Five, and measures of alcohol use and alcohol misuse. We obtain data on older adults 50 years and older from the Health and Retirement Study (HRS). Our outcomes include one measure of use (any use) and two measures of misuse (heavy drinking and binge drinking). Comparing across different measures of alcohol consumption can shed light on whether the Big Five are related to moderate alcohol use that need not impose social costs or alcohol misuse that may indeed impose such costs. A randomly selected sub-set of respondents completed a self-administered questionnaire developed for the Midlife Development Inventory in either the 2006 or 2008 round of the HRS. We use information collected in this instrument to generate our independent variables of primary interest: agreeableness, openness, extraversion, neuroticism, and conscientiousness traits. We find that the Big Five personality traits are linked with measures of both alcohol use and alcohol misuse. We observe substantial heterogeneity in the associations by personality traits. Specifically, agreeableness is associated with increased risk for alcohol use/misuse while extraversion and openness are negatively associated with risk for these patterns of alcohol consumption. We find no evidence that neuroticism or contentiousness predict alcohol use and misuse. We

  15. Comparison of Student Self-Reported and Administrative Data regarding Intercession into Alcohol Misuse among College Freshmen Dormitory Residents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novik, Melinda G.; Boekeloo, Bradley O.

    2013-01-01

    Intercession into collegiate alcohol misuse by the Department of Resident Life (DRL) in freshmen dormitories at one large Mid-Atlantic, diverse, public university was examined. Freshmen dormitory resident drinkers (n = 357), 71% of whom reported alcohol misuse, were surveyed. Student self-report and DRL documentation, respectively, revealed that…

  16. Pilot study of traumatic brain injury and alcohol misuse among service members.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogner, Jennifer; French, Louis M; Lange, Rael T; Corrigan, John D

    2015-01-01

    Explore relationships among traumatic brain injury (TBI), substance misuse and other mental health disorders in US service members and to identify risk factors for substance misuse. Service members (n = 93 in final sample) injured while deployed to Operation Enduring Freedom or Operation Iraqi Freedom. Longitudinal survey at 6 and 12 months post-intake. The following measures were used: problem substance use, Alcohol Expectancies Questionnaire-III, MINI International Neuropsychiatric Interview Substance Abuse Modules, Ohio State University TBI Identification Method, Neurobehavioural Symptom Inventory, Rivermead Post-Concussion Symptoms Questionnaire, Buss-Perry Aggression Questionnaire, Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder Checklist-Civilian Version, Beck Depression Inventory-II, Beck Anxiety Inventory. More severe TBI and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms at 6 months post-enrolment were associated with decreased odds of substance misuse 12 months after study enrolment. Alcohol expectancies and incurring a TBI at a younger age increased the odds of substance misuse. While the ability to generalize the current findings to a larger population is limited, the results provide direction for future studies on the prevention and treatment of substance misuse following TBI. The unexpected protective effect of more severe TBI may result from prospective attention to the injury and its consequences. Greater preventive benefit may result from identifying more service members with elevated risk. Lifetime history of TBI and alcohol expectancies may be candidate indicators for greater attention.

  17. Correlates of lifetime alcohol misuse among older community residents in Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blay, Sergio Luis; Fillenbaum, Gerda G.; Andreoli, Sergio Baxter; Gastal, Fabio Leite

    2009-01-01

    Background Little is known about the sociodemographic correlates and health effects associated with lifetime alcohol misuse in community resident elderly in Brazil. Method Data came from a representative sample of 6961 residents aged 60+ in the State of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. The structured interview included a five-item lifetime alcohol use questionnaire addressing abuse and dependence, and enquiry regarding sociodemographic characteristics, lifestyle and social support, and health conditions. Results Of the sample, 10.6% (25.3% men, 2.9% women) endorsed at least one lifetime alcohol misuse question. Controlled analyses comparing a gradient of alcohol misuse (none, one, more than one item endorsed), found that men, people age 60–69 (compared to older persons), and tobacco users were more likely to endorse alcohol misuse items. Persons reporting lower income, and of nonWhite race/ethnicity did not differ from their comparison groups with respect to endorsing one item, but they were more likely to endorse two or more items. Endorsing more than one item was associated with impaired activities of daily living, the presence of respiratory problems and psychiatric disorder, but was protective against vascular conditions. Conclusions Major lifetime alcohol misuse (defined as endorsing more than one of five items reflecting alcohol abuse or dependence) is more common in certain sociodemographic groups (men, younger elderly, lower income, nonWhites). With the exception of vascular conditions, it is associated with smoking, poorer functional status, respiratory problems, and psychiatric disorder. Endorsing only one item has a reduced association, significant only for male gender, smoking, and psychiatric disorder. PMID:19141169

  18. Universal alcohol misuse prevention programmes for children and adolescents: Cochrane systematic reviews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foxcroft, David R; Tsertsvadze, Alexander

    2012-05-01

    Alcohol misuse by young people causes significant health and social harm, including death and disability. Therefore, prevention of youth alcohol misuse is a policy aim in many countries. Our aim was to examine the effectiveness of (1) school-based, (2) family-based and (3) multi-component universal alcohol misuse prevention programmes in children and adolescents. Three Cochrane systematic reviews were performed: searches in MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsycINFO, Project CORK and the Cochrane Register of Controlled Trials up to July 2010, including randomised trials evaluating universal alcohol misuse prevention programmes in school, family or multiple settings in youths aged 18 years or younger. Two independent reviewers identified eligible studies and any discrepancies were resolved via discussion. A total of 85 trials were included in the reviews of school (n = 53), family (n = 12) and multi-component (n = 20) programmes. Meta-analysis was not performed due to study heterogeneity. Most studies were conducted in North America. Risk of bias assessment revealed problems related to inappropriate unit of analysis, moderate to high attrition, selective outcome reporting and potential confounding. Certain generic psychosocial and life skills school-based programmes were effective in reducing alcohol use in youth. Most family-based programmes were effective. There was insufficient evidence to conclude that multiple interventions provided additional benefit over single interventions. In these Cochrane reviews, some school, family or multi-component prevention programmes were shown to be effective in reducing alcohol misuse in youths. However, these results warrant a cautious interpretation, since bias and/or contextual factors may have affected the trial results. Further research should replicate the most promising studies identified in these reviews and pay particular attention to content and context factors through rigorous evaluation.

  19. Development of an Adolescent Alcohol Misuse Intervention Based on the Prototype Willingness Model: A Delphi Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Emma; Martin, Jilly; Foxcroft, David

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to report on the use of the Delphi method to gain expert feedback on the identification of behaviour change techniques (BCTs) and development of a novel intervention to reduce adolescent alcohol misuse, based on the Prototype Willingness Model (PWM) of health risk behaviour. Design/methodology/approach: Four…

  20. Alcohol misuse in the general hospital: some hard facts.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Bradshaw, P

    2012-02-03

    AIMS: To examine (1) the prevalence of alcohol use disorders in adult general hospital inpatients; (2) the accuracy of documentation in relation to alcohol use. METHODS: A total of 210 random patients were interviewed out of 1,448 consecutive new admissions to CUH over 7 days. Case notes were reviewed for 206 (98%). Alcohol consumption was assessed using the Fast Alcohol Screening Test (FAST) and weekly drinking diary. FAST-positive (and a random sample of FAST-negative) patients then had a standardized interview. RESULTS: A total of 82% admitted for drinking alcohol. Among them 22% were drinking in excess of guidelines, 9% had DSM-IV Alcohol Abuse and 7% dependence. The sensitivity and specificity of the FAST for detecting those drinking above guidelines were 89 and 94% and for detecting a DSM-IV diagnosis was 100 and 73%. The majority of case notes contained inadequate information about alcohol intake. CONCLUSION: Alcohol use disorders are common and often undetected in the general hospital setting.

  1. Physical dating violence among adolescents and young adults with alcohol misuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Vijay; Epstein-Ngo, Quyen; Cunningham, Rebecca M; Stoddard, Sarah A; Chermack, Stephen T; Walton, Maureen A

    2015-08-01

    This study determined prevalence and correlates of physical dating violence (victimization or aggression) among male and female youth with alcohol misuse and seeking emergency department (ED) care. Patients age 14-20 seeking care at a single large university-based ED completed a computerized, self-administered, cross-sectional survey. Measures included demographics, alcohol and substance use, mental health problems, health service use, peer influences, parent support, and community involvement. Bivariate and multivariate regression assessed physical dating violence correlates. Among 842 male and female youth seeking ED care who screened positive for alcohol misuse, 22.3% (n=188) reported dating violence in the past year. Multivariate analyses showed variables associated with dating violence were female gender (AOR 2.17, CI 1.46-3.22), Caucasian race (AOR 0.59, CI 0.37-0.93), receipt of public assistance (AOR 1.82, CI 1.16-2.87), AUDIT Score (AOR 1.06, CI 1.02-1.10), older age of drinking onset (AOR 0.86, CI 0.77-0.96), suicidal ideation or attempt (AOR 1.95, CI 1.13-3.37), frequency of ED visits (AOR 1.22, CI 1.05-1.46), negative peer influences (AOR 1.05, CI 1.01-1.10), and positive peer influences (AOR 0.86, CI 0.80-0.93). Nearly 1 in 4 youth with alcohol misuse seeking ED care report dating violence. Key correlates of dating violence included alcohol use severity, suicidal ideation, ED services, and peer influences. Evidence-based dating violence interventions addressing these correlates are needed for youth with alcohol misuse seeking ED care. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Alcohol, Tobacco, and Other Drug Misuse Prevention and Cessation Programming for Alternative High School Youth: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sussman, Steve; Arriaza, Bridget; Grigsby, Timothy J.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Relative to youth in regular high schools, alternative high school (AHS) youth are at high risk for alcohol, tobacco, and other drug (ATOD) misuse. Prevention and cessation efforts are needed for this population. Methods: A systematic, exhaustive literature search was completed to identify ATOD misuse prevention and cessation research…

  3. Alcohol use and misuse: What are the contributions of occupation and work organization conditions?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marchand Alain

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This research examines the specific contribution of occupation and work organization conditions to alcohol use and misuse. It is based on a social-action model that takes into account agent personality, structures of daily life, and macro social structures. Methods Data come from a representative sample of 10,155 workers in Quebec, Canada. Multinomial regression models corrected for sample design effect have been used to predict low-risk and high-risk drinking compared to non-drinkers. The contribution of occupation and work organization conditions (skill used, decision authority, physical and psychological demands, hours worked, irregular work schedule, harassment, unionization, job insecurity, performance pay, prestige have been adjusted for family situation, social network outside the workplace, and individual characteristics. Results Compared to non-qualified blue-collars, both low-risk and high-risk drinking are associated with qualified blue-collars, semi-qualified white-collars, and middle managers; high-risk drinking is associated with upper managers. For constraints-resources related to work organization conditions, only workplace harassment is an important determinant of both low-risk and high-risk drinking, but it is modestly moderated by occupation. Family situation, social support outside work, and personal characteristics of individuals are also associated with alcohol use and misuse. Non-work factors mediated/suppressed the role of occupation and work organization conditions. Conclusion Occupation and workplace harassment are important factors associated with alcohol use and misuse. The results support the theoretical model conceptualizing alcohol use and misuse as being the product of stress caused by constraints and resources brought to bear simultaneously by agent personality, structures of daily life, and macro social structures. Occupational alcohol researchers must expand their theoretical perspectives to

  4. Alcohol use and misuse: what are the contributions of occupation and work organization conditions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchand, Alain

    2008-09-24

    This research examines the specific contribution of occupation and work organization conditions to alcohol use and misuse. It is based on a social-action model that takes into account agent personality, structures of daily life, and macro social structures. Data come from a representative sample of 10,155 workers in Quebec, Canada. Multinomial regression models corrected for sample design effect have been used to predict low-risk and high-risk drinking compared to non-drinkers. The contribution of occupation and work organization conditions (skill used, decision authority, physical and psychological demands, hours worked, irregular work schedule, harassment, unionization, job insecurity, performance pay, prestige) have been adjusted for family situation, social network outside the workplace, and individual characteristics. Compared to non-qualified blue-collars, both low-risk and high-risk drinking are associated with qualified blue-collars, semi-qualified white-collars, and middle managers; high-risk drinking is associated with upper managers. For constraints-resources related to work organization conditions, only workplace harassment is an important determinant of both low-risk and high-risk drinking, but it is modestly moderated by occupation. Family situation, social support outside work, and personal characteristics of individuals are also associated with alcohol use and misuse. Non-work factors mediated/suppressed the role of occupation and work organization conditions. Occupation and workplace harassment are important factors associated with alcohol use and misuse. The results support the theoretical model conceptualizing alcohol use and misuse as being the product of stress caused by constraints and resources brought to bear simultaneously by agent personality, structures of daily life, and macro social structures. Occupational alcohol researchers must expand their theoretical perspectives to avoid erroneous conclusions about the specific role of the

  5. Prevention of alcohol misuse among children, youths and young adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Korczak, Dieter

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Despite many activities to prevent risky alcohol consumption among adolescents and young adults there is an increase of alcohol intoxications in the group of ten to twenty year old juveniles. Objectives: This report gives an overview about the recent literature as well as the German federal prevention system regarding activities concerning behavioral and policy prevention of risky alcohol consumption among children, adolescents and young adults. Furthermore, effective components of prevention activities are identified and the efficiency and efficacy of ongoing prevention programs is evaluated. Methods: A systematic literature review is done in 34 databases using Bool’sche combinations of the key words alcohol, prevention, treatment, children, adolescents and young adults. Results: 401 studies were found and 59 studies were selected for the health technology assessment (HTA. Most of the studies are done in USA, nine in Germany. A family strengthening program, personalized computer based intervention at schools, colleges and universities, brief motivational interventions and policy elements like increase of prices and taxes proved effective. Discussion: Among the 59 studies there are three meta-analyses, 15 reviews, 17 randomized controlled trials (RCT and 18 cohort studies. Despite the overall high quality of the study design, many of them have methodological weaknesses (missing randomization, missing or too short follow-ups, not clearly defined measurement parameters. The transferability of US-results to the German context is problematic. Only a few prevention activities reach a sustainable reduction of frequency and/or amount of alcohol consumption. Conclusion: The HTA-report shows the need to develop specific and target group focused prevention activities for the German situation. Essential for that is the definition of target goals (reduction of consumption, change of behaviour as well as the definition and empirical validation

  6. Prevention of alcohol misuse among children, youths and young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korczak, Dieter; Steinhauser, Gerlinde; Dietl, Markus

    2011-01-01

    Despite many activities to prevent risky alcohol consumption among adolescents and young adults there is an increase of alcohol intoxications in the group of ten to twenty year old juveniles. This report gives an overview about the recent literature as well as the German federal prevention system regarding activities concerning behavioral and policy prevention of risky alcohol consumption among children, adolescents and young adults. Furthermore, effective components of prevention activities are identified and the efficiency and efficacy of ongoing prevention programs is evaluated. A systematic literature review is done in 34 databases using Bool'sche combinations of the key words alcohol, prevention, treatment, children, adolescents and young adults. 401 studies were found and 59 studies were selected for the health technology assessment (HTA). Most of the studies are done in USA, nine in Germany. A family strengthening program, personalized computer based intervention at schools, colleges and universities, brief motivational interventions and policy elements like increase of prices and taxes proved effective. Among the 59 studies there are three meta-analyses, 15 reviews, 17 randomized controlled trials (RCT) and 18 cohort studies. Despite the overall high quality of the study design, many of them have methodological weaknesses (missing randomization, missing or too short follow-ups, not clearly defined measurement parameters). The transferability of US-results to the German context is problematic. Only a few prevention activities reach a sustainable reduction of frequency and/or amount of alcohol consumption. The HTA-report shows the need to develop specific and target group focused prevention activities for the German situation. Essential for that is the definition of target goals (reduction of consumption, change of behaviour) as well as the definition and empirical validation of risky alcohol consumption. The efficacy of prevention activities should be proven

  7. Alcohol misuse, drinking contexts and intimate partner violence in St. Petersburg, Russia: results from a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Skochilov Roman V

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Alcohol misuse has been linked to intimate partner violence (IPV. However, this association is not usually examined in Russia. Moreover, more investigation is required as to whether specific drinking contexts are also associated with IPV. The objectives of this study are: to investigate whether alcohol misuse is associated with IPV and to further examine whether specific drinking contexts among drinkers are associated with IPV. Methods A questionnaire was used to collect information on demographics, health status, alcohol use, and violence involving sexual partners among 440 participants who were recruited from an STI (sexually transmitted infection clinic center in St. Petersburg, Russia for a cross-sectional study from 2008 to 2009. Multivariate logistic regression was used for analysis. Results Overall, 47.0% participants were classified as misusing alcohol and 7.2% participants perpetrated IPV in the past three months. Participants with alcohol misuse were 3.28 times (OR: 3.28; 95% CI: 1.34-8.04 as likely as those without alcohol misuse to perpetrate IPV. Among participants who had consumed alcohol in the past three months, those who usually drank on the streets or in parks (OR: 5.62; 95% CI: 1.67-18.90 were more likely to perpetrate IPV. Conclusions Both alcohol misuse and certain drinking contexts (e.g., drinking on the streets or at parks were associated with IPV. The association between drinking contexts and IPV needs further investigation, as do the underlying mechanisms for this association. IPV prevention initiatives might benefit from reducing alcohol misuse. Drinking contexts such as drinking on the streets or at parks as well as the factors related to the use of alcohol in these contexts may also need to be addressed.

  8. Tackling risky alcohol consumption in sport: a cluster randomised controlled trial of an alcohol management intervention with community football clubs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kingsland, Melanie; Wolfenden, Luke; Tindall, Jennifer; Rowland, Bosco C; Lecathelinais, Christophe; Gillham, Karen E; Dodds, Pennie; Sidey, Maree N; Rogerson, John C; McElduff, Patrick; Crundall, Ian; Wiggers, John H

    2015-10-01

    An increased prevalence of risky alcohol consumption and alcohol-related harm has been reported for members of sporting groups and at sporting venues compared with non-sporting populations. While sports clubs and venues represent opportune settings to implement strategies to reduce such risks, no controlled trials have been reported. The purpose of the study was to examine the effectiveness of an alcohol management intervention in reducing risky alcohol consumption and the risk of alcohol-related harm among community football club members. A cluster randomised controlled trial of an alcohol management intervention was undertaken with non-elite, community football clubs and their members in New South Wales, Australia. Risky alcohol consumption (5+ drinks) at the club and risk of alcohol-related harm using the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT) were measured at baseline and postintervention. Eighty-eight clubs participated in the trial (n=43, INTERVENTION; n=45, CONTROL) and separate cross-sectional samples of club members completed the baseline (N=1411) and postintervention (N=1143) surveys. Postintervention, a significantly lower proportion of intervention club members reported: risky alcohol consumption at the club ( 19%; 24%; OR: 0.63 (95% CI 0.40 to 1.00); p=0.05); risk of alcohol-related harm ( 38%; 45%; OR: 0.58 (95% CI 0.38 to 0.87); psports officiating, enhancing club-based alcohol management interventions could make a substantial contribution to reducing the burden of alcohol misuse in communities. ACTRN12609000224224. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  9. Drinking Motives as Mediators of the Associations between Reinforcement Sensitivity and Alcohol Misuse and Problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph eStuder

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Alcohol may be used and misused for different reasons, i.e. to enhance positive affect and to cope with negative affect. These to pathways are thought to depend on two distinct and relatively stable neurobiological systems: the behavioral activation (BAS; i.e. fun seeking, drive, reward responsiveness and behavioral inhibition (BIS systems. This study investigates the associations of BAS and BIS sensitivity with risky single-occasion drinking and alcohol use disorder in a representative sample of 5,362 young Swiss men. In order to better understand the contribution of more proximal motivational factors in the associations of BIS and BAS with alcohol outcomes, mediations via drinking motives (i.e. enhancement, social, coping, conformity was also tested.Risky single-occasion drinking and alcohol use disorder were positively associated with fun seeking and negatively with reward responsiveness. Drive was negatively associated with risky single-occasion drinking. BIS was positively associated with alcohol use disorder and negatively with risky single-occasion drinking. Positive associations of fun seeking with risky single-occasion drinking and alcohol use disorder were partially mediated mainly by enhancement motives. Negative association of drive with risky single-occasion drinking was partially mediated by conformity motives. The negative reward responsiveness –alcohol use disorder association was partially mediated, whereas the negative reward responsiveness –risky single-occasion drinking association was fully mediated, mainly by coping and enhancement motives. The positive BIS–alcohol use disorder association was fully mediated mainly by coping motives. Fun seeking constitutes a risk factor, whereas drive and reward responsiveness constitute protective factors against alcohol misuse and disorder. BIS constitutes a protective factor against risky single-occasion drinking and a risk factor for alcohol use disorder. The results of the

  10. Enhancing the efficacy of computerized feedback interventions for college alcohol misuse: An exploratory randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Mary Beth; Leavens, Eleanor L; Meier, Ellen; Lombardi, Nathaniel; Leffingwell, Thad R

    2016-02-01

    Personalized feedback interventions (PFIs) have been associated with decreased alcohol consumption and related problems among college students; however, the necessary and sufficient components responsible for efficacy remain unclear. The present study investigated the relative efficacy of 3 computerized PFIs with differing content, the content-specific mechanisms of change within PFIs, and the moderating roles of comparison orientation and baseline risk in intervention outcomes. College students (N = 212) reporting alcohol use in a typical week completed an assessment prior to randomization (norms PFI, enhanced PFI, choice PFI, assessment only) and 1 month postintervention. Participants who received a PFI reported greater decreases in alcohol use, peak blood alcohol concentration (BAC), related problems, and perceptions of typical students' drinking than those in the control group. Neither tendency to compare oneself with others nor baseline risk moderated outcomes. PFIs influenced weekly alcohol use indirectly through changes in descriptive normative perceptions and alcohol-related consequences indirectly through changes in peak BAC. Computerized PFIs are more effective than assessment alone in decreasing alcohol use and related problems among college students. Normative comparisons may be sufficient to elicit behavior change, and inclusion of select additional components may not yield significant improvements in outcomes. However, the consistent benefit of including feedback on physical and monetary costs of drinking and moderation strategies, although nonsignificant, may warrant the negligible increase in time and money required to provide such information electronically. Computerized PFIs seem to be an ideal first step to the prevention and treatment of college alcohol misuse. (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  11. Associations of Drug Use, Violence, and Depressive Symptoms with Sexual Risk Behaviors Among Women with Alcohol Misuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kristen; Hutton, Heidi E; Lesko, Catherine R; Monroe, Anne K; Alvanzo, Anika; McCaul, Mary E; Chander, Geetanjali

    2018-05-18

    Alcohol misuse is associated with increased human immunodeficiency virus sexual risk behaviors by women. Drug use, intimate partner violence (IPV), and depressive symptoms frequently co-occur, are well-recognized alcohol misuse comorbidities, and may interact to increase risk behaviors. Using a syndemic framework we examined associations between drug use, IPV, and depressive symptoms and sexual risk behaviors by 400 women with alcohol misuse attending an urban sexually transmitted infections clinic. Participants completed computer-assisted interviews querying drug use, IPV, and depressive symptoms and sexual risk behavior outcomes-unprotected sex under the influence of alcohol, sex for drugs/money, and number of lifetime sexual partners. We used multivariable analysis to estimate prevalence ratios (PR) for independent and joint associations between drug use, IPV, and depressive symptoms and our outcomes. To investigate synergy between risk factors we calculated the relative excess prevalence owing to interaction for all variable combinations. In multivariable analysis, drug use, IPV, and depressive symptoms alone and in combination were associated with higher prevalence/count of risk behaviors compared with women with alcohol misuse alone. The greatest prevalence/count occurred when all three were present (unprotected sex under the influence of alcohol [PR, 2.6; 95% confidence interval, 1.3-4.9]), sex for money or drugs [PR, 2.6; 95% confidence interval, 1.7-4.2], and number of lifetime partners [PR, 3.2; 95% confidence interval, 1.9-5.2]). Drug use, IPV, and depressive symptoms did not interact synergistically to increase sexual risk behavior prevalence. A higher prevalence of sexual risk behaviors by women with alcohol misuse combined with drug use, IPV, and depressive symptoms supports the need for alcohol interventions addressing these additional comorbidities. Copyright © 2018 Jacobs Institute of Women's Health. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Decreased risk of alcohol dependence and/or misuse in women with high self-assertiveness and leadership abilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hensing, G; Spak, F; Thundal, K L; Ostlund, A

    2003-01-01

    To analyse dimensions of gender identity and its association to psychiatric disorders and alcohol consumption. The study was performed in two stages: an initial screening (n = 8335) for alcohol consumption, followed by a structured psychiatric interview (n = 1054). The Masculinity/Femininity-Questionnaire was used as an indicator of gender identity. The final study group included 836 women. Leadership, caring, self-assertiveness and emotionality were dimensions of gender identity found in a factor analysis. Low self-assertiveness, high emotionality and to some extent low leadership were associated with increased odds for having bipolar disorders, severe anxiety disorders and alcohol dependence and misuse. Low self-assertiveness and high emotionality were not only associated with alcohol dependence and misuse, but also with high episodic drinking. There was an association between some of the dimensions of gender identity and psychiatric disorders and alcohol consumption. Further attention is needed in both clinical work and research.

  13. Study design to develop and pilot-test a web intervention for partners of military service members with alcohol misuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osilla, Karen Chan; Pedersen, Eric R; Gore, Kristie; Trail, Thomas; Howard, Stefanie Stern

    2014-09-02

    Alcohol misuse among military service members from the recent conflicts in Iraq and Afghanistan is over two times higher compared to misuse in the civilian population. Unfortunately, in addition to experiencing personal consequences from alcohol misuse, partners and family members of alcohol-misusing service members also suffer in negative ways from their loved one's drinking. These family members represent important catalysts for helping their loved ones identify problem drinking and overcoming the barriers to seeking care. This paper describes the protocol to a pilot study evaluating a 4-session, web-based intervention (WBI) for concerned partners (CPs) of service members with alcohol misuse. The WBI will be adapted from the Community Reinforcement and Family Training (CRAFT) intervention. In the first phase, we will develop and beta-test the WBI with 15-20 CPs. In the second phase, we will randomize CPs to WBI (n = 50) or to delayed-WBI (n = 50) and evaluate the impact of the WBI on CPs' perceptions of service member help-seeking and drinking, as well as the CP's well-being and relationship satisfaction 3 months after the intervention. In the third phase, we will recruit 15-20 service members whose partners have completed the study. We will interview the service members to learn how the CP-focused WBI affected them and to assess whether they would be receptive to a follow-on WBI module to help them. This project has the potential to benefit a large population of military service members who may be disproportionately affected by recent conflicts and whose drinking misuse would otherwise go undetected and untreated. It also develops a new prevention model that does not rely on service members or partners attending a hospital or clinical facility to access care. NCT02073825.

  14. The Influence of Parental Emotional Neglect on Assault Victims Seeking Treatment for Depressed Mood and Alcohol Misuse: A Pilot Study

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    Kylie A. Bailey

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This study explores the relationship between reported parental emotional neglect when a child, assault type experienced, posttraumatic stress symptoms (PTSS, depression, and alcohol consumption in treatment seekers for comorbid depressive symptoms and alcohol misuse. Participants (n = 220 with concurrent depression and alcohol misuse were recruited from the DAISI (Depression and Alcohol Integrated and Single-focussed Interventions project. Assault type and PTSS were retrospectively assessed by the Posttraumatic Stress Diagnostic Scale. The Measure of Parenting Style is a self-report measure that retrospectively assessed emotional neglect experienced as a child. An exploratory factor analysis using the tetrachoric correlation matrix (applying principal factor extraction with a varimax rotation identified the two assault factors of sexual assault (SA and physical assault (PA. A path analysis revealed that Maternal Emotional Neglect increased the impact of PTSS and depression. Paternal Emotional Neglect increased the impact of PA on PTSS and alcohol dependence symptoms. There appears to be differential effects of assault type and Maternal/Paternal emotional neglect on depression and alcohol misuse, suggesting that parenting roles serve distinct protective functions.

  15. Cost-effectiveness of motivational intervention with significant others for patients with alcohol misuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shepard, Donald S; Lwin, Aung K; Barnett, Nancy P; Mastroleo, Nadine; Colby, Suzanne M; Gwaltney, Chad; Monti, Peter M

    2016-05-01

    To estimate the incremental cost, cost-effectiveness and benefit-cost ratio of incorporating a significant other (SO) into motivational intervention for alcohol misuse. We obtained economic data from the one year with the intervention in full operation for patients in a recent randomized trial. The underlying trial took place at a major urban hospital in the United States. The trial randomized 406 (68.7% male) eligible hazardous drinkers (196 during the economic study) admitted to the emergency department or trauma unit. The motivational interview condition consisted of one in-person session featuring personalized normative feedback. The significant other motivational interview condition comprised one joint session with the participant and SO in which the SO's perspective and support were elicited. We ascertained activities across 445 representative time segments through work sampling (including staff idle time), calculated the incremental cost in per patient of incorporating an SO, expressed the results in 2014 US$, incorporated quality and mortality effects from a closely related trial and derived the cost per quality-adjusted life-year (QALY) gained. From a health system perspective, the incremental cost per patient of adding an SO was $341.09 [95% confidence interval (CI) = $244.44-437.74]. The incremental cost per year per hazardous drinker averted was $3623 (CI = $1777-22,709), the cost per QALY gained $32,200 (CI = $15,800-201,700), and the benefit-cost ratio was 4.73 (95% CI = 0.7-9.66). If adding an SO into the intervention strategy were concentrated during the hours with highest risk or in a trauma unit, it would become even more cost-beneficial. Using criteria established by the World Health Organization (cost-effectiveness below the country's gross domestic product per capita), incorporating a significant other into a patient's motivational intervention for alcohol misuse is highly cost-effective. © 2015 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  16. Screening and behavioral counseling interventions in primary care to reduce alcohol misuse: U.S. preventive services task force recommendation statement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moyer, Virginia A

    2013-08-06

    Update of the 2004 U.S. Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF) recommendation statement on screening and behavioral counseling interventions in primary care to reduce alcohol misuse. The USPSTF reviewed new evidence on the effectiveness of screening for alcohol misuse for improving health outcomes, the accuracy of various screening approaches, the effectiveness of various behavioral counseling interventions for improving intermediate or long-term health outcomes, the harms of screening and behavioral counseling interventions, and influences from the health care system that promote or detract from effective screening and counseling interventions for alcohol misuse. These recommendations apply to adolescents aged 12 to 17 years and adults aged 18 years or older. These recommendations do not apply to persons who are actively seeking evaluation or treatment of alcohol misuse. The USPSTF recommends that clinicians screen adults aged 18 years or older for alcohol misuse and provide persons engaged in risky or hazardous drinking with brief behavioral counseling interventions to reduce alcohol misuse. (Grade B recommendation)The USPSTF concludes that the current evidence is insufficient to assess the balance of benefits and harms of screening and behavioral counseling interventions in primary care settings to reduce alcohol misuse in adolescents. (I statement)

  17. Social norms information for alcohol misuse in university and college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foxcroft, David R; Moreira, Maria Teresa; Almeida Santimano, Nerissa M L; Smith, Lesley A

    2015-12-29

    Drinking is influenced by youth perceptions of how their peers drink. These perceptions are often incorrect, overestimating peer drinking norms. If inaccurate perceptions can be corrected, young people may drink less. To determine whether social norms interventions reduce alcohol-related negative consequences, alcohol misuse or alcohol consumption when compared with a control (ranging from assessment only/no intervention to other educational or psychosocial interventions) among university and college students. The following electronic databases were searched up to July 2015: the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (The Cochrane Library), MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsycINFO. The Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL) only to March 2008. Reference lists of included studies and review articles were manually searched. No restriction based on language or date was applied. Randomised controlled trials or cluster-randomised controlled trials that compared a social normative intervention versus no intervention, alcohol education leaflet or other 'non-normative feedback' alcohol intervention and reported on alcohol consumption or alcohol-related problems in university or college students. We used standard methodological procedures as expected by Cochrane. Each outcome was analysed by mode of delivery: mailed normative feedback (MF); web/computer normative feedback (WF); individual face-to-face normative feedback (IFF); group face-to-face normative feedback (GFF); and normative marketing campaign (MC). A total of 70 studies (44,958 participants) were included in the review, and 63 studies (42,784 participants) in the meta-analyses. Overall, the risk of bias assessment showed that these studies provided moderate or low quality evidence.Outcomes at four or more months post-intervention were of particular interest to assess when effects were sustained beyond the immediate short term. We have reported pooled effects across delivery modes

  18. Alcoholism Risk Reduction in France: A Modernised Approach Related to Alcohol Misuse Disorders

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    Georges Brousse

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available During many years in France, risk reduction strategies for substance abuse concerned prevention strategies in the general population or interventions near users of illicit substances. In this spirit, the reduction of consumption only concerned opiate addicts. With regard to alcohol, the prevention messages relative to controlled consumption were difficult to transmit because of the importance of this product in the culture of the country. In addition, methods of treatment of alcoholism rested on the dogma of abstinence. Several factors have recently led to an evolution in the treatment of alcohol use disorders integrating the reduction of consumption in strategies. Strategies for reducing consumption should aim for consumption below recommended thresholds (two drinks per day for women, three for the men or, at least, in that direction. It must also be supported by pharmacotherapy and psychotherapy, which offer possibilities. Failure to manage reduction will allow the goals to be revisited and to reconsider abstinence. Finally this evolution or revolution is a new paradigm carried in particular by a pragmatic approach of the disease and new treatments. The aims of this article are to give elements of comprehension relating to the evolution of the practices in France in prevention and treatment of alcohol use disorders and in particular with regard to the reduction of consumption.

  19. What are the implications for policy makers? A systematic review of the cost-effectiveness of screening and brief interventions for alcohol misuse in primary care.

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    Colin eAngus

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available IntroductionThe efficacy of screening and brief interventions (SBI for excessive alcohol use in primary care is well established; however evidence on their cost-effectiveness is limited. A small number of previous reviews have concluded that SBI programmes are likely to be cost-effective, but these results are equivocal and important questions around the cost-effectiveness implications of key policy decisions such as staffing choices for delivery of SBIs and the intervention duration remain unanswered. MethodsStudies reporting both the costs and a measure of health outcomes of programmes combining screening and brief interventions in primary care were identified by searching MEDLINE, EMBASE, Econlit, the Cochrane Library Database (including NHS EED, CINAHL, PsycINFO, Assia and the Social Science Citation Index and Science Citation Index via Web of Knowledge. Included studies have been stratified both by delivery staff and intervention duration and assessed for quality using the Drummond checklist for economic evaluations.ResultsThe search yielded a total of 23 papers reporting the results of 22 distinct studies. There was significant heterogeneity in methods and outcome measures between studies; however almost all studies reported SBI programmes to be cost-effective. There was no clear evidence that either the duration of the intervention or the delivery staff used had a substantial impact on this result.ConclusionThis review provides strong evidence that SBI programmes in primary care are a cost-effective option for tackling alcohol misuse.

  20. Personalised normative feedback for preventing alcohol misuse in university students: Solomon three-group randomised controlled trial.

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    Maria T Moreira

    Full Text Available Young people tend to over-estimate peer group drinking levels. Personalised normative feedback (PNF aims to correct this misperception by providing information about personal drinking levels and patterns compared with norms in similar aged peer groups. PNF is intended to raise motivation for behaviour change and has been highlighted for alcohol misuse prevention by the British Government Behavioural Insight Team. The objective of the trial was to assess the effectiveness of PNF with college students for the prevention of alcohol misuse.Solomon three-group randomised controlled trial. 1751 students, from 22 British Universities, allocated to a PNF group, a normal control group, or a delayed measurement control group to allow assessment of any measurement effects. PNF was provided by email. Participants completed online questionnaires at baseline, 6- and 12-months (only 12-months for the delayed measurement controls. Drinking behaviour measures were (i alcohol disorders; (ii frequency; (iii typical quantity, (iv weekly consumption; (v alcohol-related problems; (vi perceived drinking norms; and (vii positive alcohol expectancies. Analyses focused on high-risk drinkers, as well as all students, because of research evidence for the prevention paradox in student drinkers.Follow-up rates were low, with only 50% and 40% responding at 6- and 12-months, respectively, though comparable to similar European studies. We found no evidence for any systematic attrition bias. Overall, statistical analyses with the high risk sub-sample, and for all students, showed no significant effects of the intervention, at either time-point, in a completed case analysis and a multiple imputation analysis.We found no evidence for the effectiveness of PNF for the prevention of alcohol misuse and alcohol-related problems in a UK student population.Controlled-Trials.com ISRCTN30784467.

  1. Telephonic screening and brief intervention for alcohol misuse among workers contacting the employee assistance program: A feasibility study.

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    McPherson, Tracy L; Goplerud, Eric; Derr, Dennis; Mickenberg, Judy; Courtemanche, Sherry

    2010-11-01

    Substantial empirical support exists for alcohol screening, brief intervention, and referral to treatment (SBIRT) in medical, but not non-medical settings such as the workplace. Workplace settings remain underutilised for delivering evidenced-based health services. This research aims to translate medical research into behavioural health-care practice in a telephonic call centre acting as a point of entry into an Employee Assistance Program (EAP). The goal of the study is to examine the feasibility of implementing routine telephonic alcohol SBIRT in an EAP call centre and assess whether routine SBIRT results in increased identification of workers who misuse alcohol. The design was pretest-posttest, one-group, pre-experimental. An alcohol SBIRT program developed based on World Health Organization recommendations was implemented in one EAP call centre serving one large employer. Workers were offered screening using the Alcohol Use Disorder Identification Test (AUDIT) during intake, brief counselling using motivational interviewing, referral to counselling, and follow-up. At 5 months, 93% of workers contacting the EAP completed the AUDIT-C: 40% prescreened positive and 52% went on to screen at moderate or high risk for an alcohol problem. Overall identification rate (18%) approached general US population estimates. Most agreed to follow-up and three-quarters set an appointment for face-to-face counselling. Integration of routine alcohol SBIRT into EAP practice is feasible in telephonic delivery systems and increases identification and opportunity for brief motivational counselling. When SBIRT is seamlessly integrated workers are willing to answer questions about alcohol and participate in follow-up.[McPherson TL, Goplerud E, Derr D, Mickenberg J, Courtemanche S. Telephonic screening and brief intervention for alcohol misuse among workers contacting the employee assistance program: A feasibility study. © 2010 Australasian Professional Society on Alcohol and other Drugs.

  2. Early Intervention to Reduce Alcohol Misuse and Abuse in the Ohio Army National Guard

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-09-01

    PTSD, depression , 7 suicidality , lowered resilience and work performance.  Studies consistently find that substantial number of Guard members misuse...including PTSD, depression , suicidality , lowered resilience and work performance.  Studies consistently find that substantial number of Guard members misuse...Guard members that contributes to and complicates other problems including PTSD, depression , suicidality , lowered resilience and work performance

  3. Universal screening for alcohol misuse in acute medical admissions is feasible and identifies patients at high risk of liver disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westwood, Greta; Meredith, Paul; Atkins, Susan; Greengross, Peter; Schmidt, Paul E; Aspinall, Richard J

    2017-09-01

    Many people who die from alcohol related liver disease (ARLD) have a history of recurrent admissions to hospital, representing potential missed opportunities for intervention. Universal screening for alcohol misuse has been advocated but it is not known if this is achievable or effective at detecting individuals at high risk of ARLD. We systematically screened all admissions to the Acute Medical Unit (AMU) of a large acute hospital using an electronic data capture system in real time. Patients at an increasing risk of alcohol harm were referred for either brief intervention (BI) or further assessment by an Alcohol Specialist Nursing Service (ASNS). Additional data were recorded on admission diagnoses, alcohol unit consumption, previous attendances, previous admissions, length of stay and mortality. Between July 2011 and March 2014, there were 53,165 admissions and 48,211 (90.68%) completed screening. Of these, 1,122 (2.3%) were classified as "increasing", and 1,921 (4.0%) as "high" risk of alcohol harm. High risk patients had more hospital admissions in the three previous years (average 4.74) than the low (3.00) and increasing (2.92) risk groups (prisk patients also had more frequent emergency department (ED) attendances (7.68) than the lower (2.64) and increasing (3.81) groups (prisk group were seen by the ASNS and 1,135 (81.2%) had an Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT) score over 20 with 527 (37.8%) recording the maximum value of 40. Compared to the other groups, high risk patients had a distinct profile of admissions with the most common diagnoses being mental health disorders, gastro-intestinal bleeding, poisoning and liver disease. Universal screening of admissions for alcohol misuse is feasible and identifies a cohort with frequent ED attendances, recurrent admissions and an elevated risk of ARLD. An additional group of patients at an increasing risk of alcohol harm can be identified in a range of common presentations. These patients can be

  4. Responsibility without legal authority? Tackling alcohol-related health harms through licensing and planning policy in local government.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martineau, F P; Graff, H; Mitchell, C; Lock, K

    2014-09-01

    The power to influence many social determinants of health lies within local government sectors that are outside public health's traditional remit. We analyse the challenges of achieving health gains through local government alcohol control policies, where legal and professional practice frameworks appear to conflict with public health action. Current legislation governing local alcohol control in England and Wales is reviewed and analysed for barriers and opportunities to implement effective population-level health interventions. Case studies of local government alcohol control practices are described. Addressing alcohol-related health harms is constrained by the absence of a specific legal health licensing objective and differences between public health and legal assessments of the relevance of health evidence to a specific place. Local governments can, however, implement health-relevant policies by developing local evidence for alcohol-related health harms; addressing cumulative impact in licensing policy statements and through other non-legislative approaches such as health and non-health sector partnerships. Innovative local initiatives-for example, minimum unit pricing licensing conditions-can serve as test cases for wider national implementation. By combining the powers available to the many local government sectors involved in alcohol control, alcohol-related health and social harms can be tackled through existing local mechanisms. © The Author 2013. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Faculty of Public Health.

  5. Inequalities in the distribution of the costs of alcohol misuse in Scotland: a cost of illness study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Marjorie C; Ludbrook, Anne; Jaffray, Mariesha A

    2012-01-01

    To examine the distribution of the costs of alcohol misuse across Scotland in 2009/2010, in relation to deprivation. A cost of illness approach was used. Alcohol-related harmful effects were assessed for inclusion using a literature review. This was based upon the following categories: direct healthcare costs, intangible health costs, social care costs, crime costs and labour and productivity costs. An analysis of secondary data supplemented by a literature review was carried out to quantify each harmful effect, determine its value and provide an estimate of the distribution by deprivation. The deprivation distributions used were area measures (primarily the Scottish Index of Multiple Deprivation). The overall cost was £7457 million. Two alcohol harmful effects were not included in the overall cost by deprivation due to a lack of data. These were 'children's social work and hearing system' and the criminal justice system costs from 'alcohol-specific offences'. The included alcohol harmful effects demonstrated that 40.41% of the total cost arose from the 20% most deprived areas. The intangible cost category was the largest category (78.65%). The study found that the burden of alcohol harmful effects is greater in deprived groups and these burdens do not simply arise from deprived groups but are also experienced more by these groups. The study was limited by a lack of data availability in certain areas, leading to less-precise cost estimates.

  6. Differences in Characteristics and Treatment Received among Depressed Adolescent Psychiatric Outpatients with and without Co-Occuring Alcohol Misuse: A 1-Year Follow-Up Study

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    Tiia Pirkola

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. We aimed at examining the differences between depressed psychiatric adolescent outpatients with and without cooccurring alcohol misuse in psychosocial background, clinical characteristics, and treatment received during one-year followup. Furthermore, we investigated factors related to nonattendance at treatment. Materials and Methods. Consecutive 156 adolescent (13–19 years psychiatric outpatients with a unipolar depressive disorder at baseline were interviewed using structured measures at baseline and at 12 months. Alcohol misuse was defined as having an AUDIT score of 8 or more points. The outpatients received “treatment as usual” of clinically defined duration. Results. Among depressive outpatients, poor parental support, parental alcohol use and decreased attendance at treatment associated with alcohol misuse. The severity of alcohol use as measured by AUDIT-score was the strongest factor independently predicting nonattendance at treatment in multivariate analysis. Conclusions. Alcohol misuse indicates family problems, has a deleterious effect on treatment attendance, and should be taken into account when managing treatment for depressive adolescent outpatients.

  7. Brief intervention for alcohol misuse in people attending sexual health clinics: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial

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    Sanatinia Rahil

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Over the last 30 years the number of people who drink alcohol at harmful levels has increased in many countries. There have also been large increases in rates of sexually transmitted infections. Available evidence suggests that excessive alcohol consumption and poor sexual health may be linked. The prevalence of harmful alcohol use is higher among people attending sexual health clinics than in the general population, and a third of those attending clinics state that alcohol use affects whether they have unprotected sex. Previous research has demonstrated that brief intervention for alcohol misuse in other medical settings can lead to behavioral change, but the clinical- and cost-effectiveness of this intervention on sexual behavior have not been examined. Methods We will conduct a two parallel-arm, randomized trial. A consecutive sample of people attending three sexual health clinics in London and willing to participate in the study will be screened for excessive alcohol consumption. Participants identified as drinking excessively will then be allocated to either active treatment (Brief Advice and referral for Brief Intervention or control treatment (a leaflet on healthy living. Randomization will be via an independent and remote telephone randomization service and will be stratified by study clinic. Brief Advice will comprise feedback on the possible health consequences of excessive alcohol consumption, written information about alcohol and the offer of an appointment for further assessment and Brief Intervention. Follow-up data on alcohol use, sexual behavior, health related quality of life and service use will be collected by a researcher masked to allocation status six months later. The primary outcome for the study is mean weekly alcohol consumption during the previous three months, and the main secondary outcome is the proportion of participants who report unprotected sex during this period. Discussion Opportunistic

  8. Cost-effectiveness of screening and referral to an alcohol health worker in alcohol misusing patients attending an accident and emergency department: a decision-making approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrett, Barbara; Byford, Sarah; Crawford, Mike J; Patton, Robert; Drummond, Colin; Henry, John A; Touquet, Robin

    2006-01-04

    We present the cost and cost-effectiveness of referral to an alcohol health worker (AHW) and information only control in alcohol misusing patients. The study was a pragmatic randomised controlled trial conducted from April 2001 to March 2003 in an accident and emergency department (AED) in a general hospital in London, England. A total of 599 adults identified as drinking hazardously according to the Paddington Alcohol Test were randomised to referral to an alcohol health worker who delivered a brief intervention (n = 287) or to an information only control (n = 312). Total societal costs, including health and social services costs, criminal justice costs and productivity losses, and clinical measures of alcohol consumption were measured. Levels of drinking were observably lower in those referred to an AHW at 12 months follow-up and statistically significantly lower at 6 months follow-up. Total costs were not significantly different at either follow-up. Referral to AHWs in an AED produces favourable clinical outcomes and does not generate a significant increase in cost. A decision-making approach revealed that there is at least a 65% probability that referral to an AHW is more cost-effective than the information only control in reducing alcohol consumption among AED attendees with a hazardous level of drinking.

  9. Interaction effects between the 5-hydroxy tryptamine transporter-linked polymorphic region (5-HTTLPR) genotype and family conflict on adolescent alcohol use and misuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jueun; Park, Aesoon; Glatt, Stephen J; Eckert, Tanya L; Vanable, Peter A; Scott-Sheldon, Lori A J; Carey, Kate B; Ewart, Craig K; Carey, Michael P

    2015-02-01

    To investigate whether the effects of family conflict on adolescent drinking differed as a function of 5-hydroxy tryptamine transporter-linked polymorphic region (5-HTTLPR) genotype cross-sectionally and prospectively in two independent samples of adolescents. Path analysis and multi-group analysis of two prospective datasets were conducted. United States and United Kingdom. Sample 1 was 175 adolescents in the United States (mean age = 15 at times 1 and 2 with a 6-month interval); Sample 2 was 4916 adolescents in the United Kingdon (mean age = 12 at time 1 and 15 at time 2). In both samples, demographics, tri-allelic 5-HTTLPR genotype and perceived family conflict were assessed at time 1. Alcohol use (frequency of drinking) and alcohol misuse (frequency of intoxication, frequency of drinking three or more drinks, maximum number of drinks) were assessed at times 1 and 2. A significant gene-environment interaction on alcohol misuse at time 1 was found in both sample 1 (β = 0.57, P = 0.001) and sample 2 (β = 0.19, P = 0.01), indicating that the 5-HTTLPR low-activity allele carriers exposed to higher levels of family conflict were more likely to engage in alcohol misuse than non-carriers. A significant gene-environment interaction effect on change in alcohol misuse over time was found only in sample 1 (β = 0.48, P = 0.04) but not in sample 2. Compared with non-carriers, adolescents carrying the 5-HTTLPR low-activity allele are more susceptible to the effects of family conflict on alcohol misuse. © 2014 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  10. Impulsivity, impulsive and reflective processes and the development of alcohol use and misuse in adolescents and young adults

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    Reinout Wiers

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper contrasts dual-process and personality approaches in the prediction of addictive behaviors and related risk behaviors. In dual-process models, behavior is described as the joint outcome of qualitatively different “impulsive” (or associative and “reflective” processes. There are important individual differences regarding both types of processes, and the relative strength of both in a specific situation is influenced by prior behavior and state variables (e.g., fatigue, alcohol use. From this perspective, a specific behavior (e.g., alcohol misuse can be predicted by the combined indices of the behavior-related impulsive processes (e.g., associations with alcohol, and reflective processes, including the ability to refrain from a motivationally salient action. Personality approaches have reported that general traits such as impulsivity predict addictive behaviors. Here we contrast these two approaches, with supplementary analyses on four datasets. We hypothesized that trait impulsivity can predict specific risky behaviors, but that its predictive power disappears once specific behavior-related associations, indicators of executive functioning, and their interaction are entered into the equation. In all four studies the observed interaction between specific associations and Executive Control (EC was robust: trait impulsivity did not diminish the prediction of alcohol use by the interaction. Trait impulsivity was not always related to alcohol use, and when it was, the predictive power disappeared after entering the interaction between behavior-specific associations and EC in one study, but not in the other. These findings are interpreted in relation to the validity of the measurements used, which leads to a more refined hypothesis.

  11. The CAP study, evaluation of integrated universal and selective prevention strategies for youth alcohol misuse: study protocol of a cluster randomized controlled trial

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    Newton Nicola C

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Alcohol misuse amongst young people is a serious concern. The need for effective prevention is clear, yet there appear to be few evidenced-based programs that prevent alcohol misuse and none that target both high and low-risk youth. The CAP study addresses this gap by evaluating the efficacy of an integrated approach to alcohol misuse prevention, which combines the effective universal internet-based Climate Schools program with the effective selective personality-targeted Preventure program. This article describes the development and protocol of the CAP study which aims to prevent alcohol misuse and related harms in Australian adolescents. Methods/Design A cluster randomized controlled trial (RCT is being conducted with Year 8 students aged 13 to 14-years-old from 27 secondary schools in New South Wales and Victoria, Australia. Blocked randomisation was used to assign schools to one of four groups; Climate Schools only, Preventure only, CAP (Climate Schools and Preventure, or Control (alcohol, drug and health education as usual. The primary outcomes of the trial will be the uptake and harmful use of alcohol and alcohol related harms. Secondary outcomes will include alcohol and cannabis related knowledge, cannabis related harms, intentions to use, and mental health symptomatology. All participants will complete assessments on five occasions; baseline; immediately post intervention, and at 12, 24 and 36 months post baseline. Discussion This study protocol presents the design and current implementation of a cluster RCT to evaluate the efficacy of the CAP study; an integrated universal and selective approach to prevent alcohol use and related harms among adolescents. Compared to students who receive the stand-alone universal Climate Schools program or alcohol and drug education as usual (Controls, we expect the students who receive the CAP intervention to have significantly less uptake of alcohol use, a reduction in average

  12. Time Trends and Policy Gaps: The Case of Alcohol Misuse Among Adolescents in Lebanon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghandour, Lilian; Afifi, Rima; Fares, Sonia; El Salibi, Noura; Rady, Alissar

    2015-01-01

    Monitoring studies are crucial for informing and reforming local policies. Using the Lebanon 2005 and 2011 Global School-based Student Health Surveys (GSHS), alcohol time trends were described, policy gaps were identified, and harm reduction policy recommendations were made. In 2005 and 2011, 100 (n = 5109 students) and 44 (n = 2784 students) middle schools were surveyed, respectively. Self-reported cross-sectional data on alcohol use among 7-9th graders in private and public schools was collected including 30-day prevalence, lifetime drunkenness, alcohol-related problems, and sources of alcohol. In 2011, the majority (87%) had alcohol before turning 14. Between 2005 and 2011, past 30-day alcohol use had increased by 40% and lifetime drunkenness by 50% in the total sample (122% among females with a narrowing in the gender gap). Drinking was regular for more than a third of the past 30-day drinkers (drank two or more drinks on the days they drank). Male adolescents were more likely to obtain alcohol from "stores" or "through their friends" whereas females' main source was their "family." One in twenty reported experiencing alcohol-related problems (e.g., getting into fights with family/friends and skipping school). Conclusion/Importance: Evidence-informed policy implications include enforcing a minimum legal drinking age, regulating alcohol advertising, and marketing particularly those targeting youth and women, and ensuring the availability of youth-friendly services. Public messages to increase awareness among all stakeholders including youth, their parents, and larger community are also needed.

  13. Unrecorded alcohol in Rio de Janeiro: assessing its misusers through Respondent Driven Sampling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Boni, Raquel Brandini; Bertoni, Neilane; Bastos, Leonardo Soares; Bastos, Francisco I

    2014-06-01

    Around 20-30% of alcohol use in low and middle-income countries is estimated to come from unrecorded sources, but little is known about the characteristics of its consumers. The aim of this study was to obtain information about users of unrecorded alcohol and describe factors associated with its frequent use. A cross-sectional study, using Respondent Driven Sampling (RDS), was conducted in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil in 2010. Individuals aged 18-65 who reported binge drinking in the last 12 months were recruited to participate in a structured interview. Three sources of unrecorded alcohol use were assessed: home-made/unrecorded; perfumes/lotions; and "medicinal" products (compounds made of herbs and local spirits). 343 individuals were recruited and 303 were interviewed. The sample comprised mostly of men (n=256) from low socioeconomic strata, with a mean age of 38.8 (±12). Most individuals (71.8%) reported to have used more than one variety of unrecorded alcohol, which was found to be associated with: being older than 31 (OR 2.21; CI 95% 1.05-4.80), an AUDIT score >20 (OR 11.21; CI 95% 4.56-30.96), having used crack/cocaine (OR 2.29; CI 95% 1.02-5.21), and having received treatment for alcohol addiction in the last 12 months (OR 3.64; CI 95% 1.25-13.49). Most unrecorded alcohol users were disadvantaged polysubstance users. Assessing unrecorded alcohol use has important clinical implications and should be screened for among crack/powder cocaine and alcohol-dependent patients. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Steps Towards Alcohol Misuse Prevention Programme (STAMPP): a school-based and community-based cluster randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKay, Michael; Agus, Ashley; Cole, Jonathan; Doherty, Paul; Foxcroft, David; Harvey, Séamus; Murphy, Lynn; Percy, Andrew; Sumnall, Harry

    2018-03-09

    To assess the effectiveness of a combined classroom curriculum and parental intervention (the Steps Towards Alcohol Misuse Prevention Programme (STAMPP)), compared with alcohol education as normal (EAN), in reducing self-reported heavy episodic drinking (HED) and alcohol-related harms (ARHs) in adolescents. 105 high schools in Northern Ireland (NI) and in Scotland. Schools were stratified by free school meal provision. Schools in NI were also stratified by school type (male/female/coeducational). Eligible students were in school year 8/S1 (aged 11-12 years) at baseline (June 2012). A classroom-based alcohol education intervention, coupled with a brief alcohol intervention for parents/carers. PRIMARY OUTCOMES: (1) The prevalence of self-reported HED in the previous 30 days and (2) the number of self-reported ARHs in the previous 6 months. Outcomes were assessed using two-level random intercepts models (logistic regression for HED and negative binomial for number of ARHs). At 33 months, data were available for 5160 intervention and 5073 control students (HED outcome), and 5234 and 5146 students (ARH outcome), respectively. Of those who completed a questionnaire at either baseline or 12 months (n=12 738), 10 405 also completed the questionnaire at 33 months (81.7%). Fewer students in the intervention group reported HED compared with EAN (17%vs26%; OR=0.60, 95% CI 0.49 to 0.73), with no significant difference in the number of self-reported ARHs (incident rate ratio=0.92, 95% CI 0.78 to 1.05). Although the classroom component was largely delivered as intended, there was low uptake of the parental component. There were no reported adverse effects. Results suggest that STAMPP could be an effective programme to reduce HED prevalence. While there was no significant reduction in ARH, it is plausible that effects on harms would manifest later. ISRCTN47028486; Post-results. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article

  15. 76 FR 12559 - Antidrug and Alcohol Misuse Prevention Programs for Personnel Engaged in Specified Aviation...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-08

    ... Machining and N welding of ground support parts for planes. Manufacturing & N precision grinding and testing... governing drug and alcohol testing to clarify that each person who performs a safety-sensitive function for a regulated employer by contract, including bysubcontract at any tier, is subject to testing. DATES...

  16. 76 FR 40798 - Antidrug and Alcohol Misuse Prevention Programs for Personnel Engaged in Specified Aviation...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-12

    ... Machining and N welding of ground support parts for planes. Manufacturing & N precision grinding and testing... directly for an employer, including contractors and subcontractors, is subject to drug and alcohol testing... testing regulations by amending the definition of employee (67 FR 9366, 9377, Feb. 28, 2002). The FAA...

  17. Gender Differences in Psychosocial Risk and Protective Factors for Adolescent Alcohol Use and Misuse in Jamaica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P Whitehorne-Smith

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The present study sought to determine if there were gender differences in the impact of five psychosocial risk and protective factors for adolescent alcohol use. The five factors considered by the study were family relationships, self-esteem, peer pressure, religious involvement and school performance. Method: This was a cross-sectional quantitative study which utilized a 96-item self-administered questionnaire. The questionnaire captured key demographic and alcohol-related information. It also consisted of three standardized scales: the Cernkovich and Giordano’s Family Relationship Scale, Rosenberg Self-esteem Scale and the CAGE questionnaire. Data were collected from students 12−18 years old in three schools in the Kingston and St Andrew area in Jamaica. Results: There were 240 participants in the study, 121 males and 119 females. The findings revealed that there were no significant differences between male and female adolescent alcohol use in the last 30 days. There was also no significant difference between male and female adolescent risk of substance abuse. Logistic regression analysis of risk factor for each gender revealed that for males, their family relationship, peer pressure and self-esteem were significant predictors for alcohol use, while for females, peer pressure and school performance were significant predictors for alcohol use. Religious involvement was not found to be a significant protective factor for either gender. Conclusion: Gender differences in risk and protective factors exist among Jamaican adolescents. Further research needs to be done to determine the extent of these differences which need to be considered in the development of prevention and intervention programmes.

  18. Targeting Alcohol Misuse: A Promising Strategy for Reducing Military Sexual Assaults?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    aggressive in general (i.e., outside the laboratory), have antisocial characteristics, and endorse more feelings of anger and hostility toward others...conducted using a validated measure, such as the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT; Babor and Grant, 1989), AUDIT-C (Bradley et al...Factors for Rape, Physical Assault and Posttraumatic Stress Disorder in Women: Examination of Differential Multivariate Relationships,” Journal of

  19. Early Intervention to Reduce Alcohol Misuse and Abuse in the Ohio Army National Guard

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-09-01

    daily alcohol use, physical activity and stress • Weekly planners that can assist them in using tools to reduce their drinking and meet daily goals...1, 2015. A summary of his presentation is as follows: 1. Research Questions & Hypotheses a. AIM 1: Compare the Smartphone (SP)-BI and EUC conditions...changing mobile health field, with dramatic increases in the use of smartphone technologies, we are developing and testing an eHealth mobile phone app for

  20. A review of implicit and explicit substance self-concept as a predictor of alcohol and tobacco use and misuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindgren, Kristen P; Neighbors, Clayton; Gasser, Melissa L; Ramirez, Jason J; Cvencek, Dario

    2017-05-01

    This paper provides an overview of the self-concept as it relates to substance use. Self-concept has a long history in psychological theory and research; however, substance self-concept (e.g., viewing one's self as a drinker or smoker) is an understudied area of research with the potential to expand existing conceptualizations of substance use, addiction, and prevention and treatment efforts, and should receive greater research attention. First, we review and provide a theoretical framework of substance self-concept that draws from dual process models and distinguishes between implicit and explicit self-concept. Next, we summarize key findings related to substance use in the extant literature, focusing on alcohol and tobacco (smoking). Across both substances, there is converging evidence that substance self-concept is associated with substance use outcomes, including quantity and frequency of use and problems associated with use, and that change in substance self-concept is associated with recovery from substance misuse. Recommendations for the substance self-concept research agenda include routine assessment of substance self-concept, expanded use of implicit measures, investigation of moderators of substance self-concept, and targeting substance self-concept directly in prevention and intervention efforts. Ultimately, we suggest that substance self-concept is a promising, but understudied, construct. Greater research attention to substance self-concept could clarify its potential as an important risk factor for hazardous use and addiction as well as its utility as a prevention and treatment target.

  1. Cognitive enhancement therapy improves fronto-limbic regulation of emotion in alcohol and/or cannabis misusing schizophrenia: a preliminary study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica Ann Wojtalik

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Individuals with schizophrenia who misuse substances are burdened with impairments in emotion regulation. Cognitive Enhancement Therapy (CET may address these problems by enhancing prefrontal brain function. A small sample of outpatients with schizophrenia and alcohol and/or cannabis substance use problems participating in an 18-month randomized trial of CET (n = 10 or usual care (n = 4 completed post-treatment functional neuroimaging using an emotion regulation task. General linear models explored CET effects on brain activity in emotional neurocircuitry. Individuals treated with CET had significantly greater activation in broad regions of the prefrontal cortex, limbic and striatal systems implicated in emotion regulation compared to usual care. Differential activation favoring CET in prefrontal regions and the insula mediated behavioral improvements in emotional processing. Our data lend preliminary support of CET effects on neuroplasticity in fronto-limbic and striatal circuitries which mediate emotion regulation in people with schizophrenia and comorbid substance misuse problems.

  2. Effect of Middle School Interventions on Alcohol Misuse and Abuse in Mexican American High School Adolescents: Five-Year Follow-up of a Randomized Clinical Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzales, Nancy A; Jensen, Michaeline; Tein, Jenn Yun; Wong, Jessie J; Dumka, Larry E; Mauricio, Anne Marie

    2018-03-21

    Substance abuse preventive interventions frequently target middle school students and demonstrate efficacy to prevent early onset and use of alcohol and illicit drugs. However, evidence of sustained results to prevent later patterns of alcohol misuse and more serious alcohol abuse disorders has been lacking, particularly for US Latino populations. To test whether a universal middle school prevention program can reduce the frequency of alcohol misuse and rates of alcohol use disorder 5 years after implementation with a Mexican American sample. A previous randomized clinical trial was conducted with 516 Mexican American 7th graders and at least 1 parent who identified as having Mexican origin. Three annual cohorts of families were recruited from rosters of 4 middle schools and randomized to the 9-session Bridges/Puentes family-focused group intervention or a workshop control condition. Recruitment, screening, pretest, and randomization occurred in the same academic year for each cohort: 2003-2004, 2004-2005, and 2005-2006. Data acquisition for the follow-up assessments of late-adolescent alcohol misuse and abuse, which were not included in the initial randomized clinical trial, was conducted from September 2009 to September 2014; analysis was conducted between August 2016 and July 2017. In this assessment, 420 children (81.4%) of the sample were included, when the majority were in their final year of high school. The 9-session Bridges/Puentes intervention integrated youth, parent, and family intervention sessions that were delivered in the spring semester at each school, with separate groups for English-dominant vs Spanish-dominant families. The control workshop was offered during the same semester at each school, also in English and Spanish. Primary outcomes were diagnostic assessment of lifetime alcohol use disorder in the 12th grade, 5 years after the intervention, based on the Diagnostic Interview Schedule for Children and past-year frequency of alcohol use

  3. Psychological interventions for the treatment of depression, anxiety, alcohol misuse or anger in armed forces veterans and their families: systematic review and meta-analysis protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Shea, Luke; Watkins, Ed; Farrand, Paul

    2017-06-15

    Evidence highlights a high prevalence of common mental health disorders in armed forces veterans and their families, with depression, anxiety, alcohol misuse and anger being more common than PTSD. This paper presents a protocol for a systematic review and meta-analysis to identify existing randomised controlled trial (RCT) research testing the effectiveness of psychological interventions for these difficulties in armed forces veterans and their family members. Electronic databases (CENTRAL, PsycInfo, MEDLINE, CINAHL, The Cochrane Register of Clinical Trials, EMBASE and ASSIA) will be searched to identify suitable studies for inclusion in the review supplemented by forward and backward reference checking, grey literature searches and contact with subject authors. Research including armed forces veterans and their family members will be included in the review with research including serving personnel or individuals under the age of 18 being excluded. Few RCTs examining the treatment of depression, anxiety, alcohol misuse or anger exist in armed forces veterans to date. The primary outcome will be symptomatic change following intervention for these difficulties. The secondary outcomes will include methodological aspects of interest such as discharge type and recruitment setting if data permits. In the event that the number of studies identified is too low to undertake a meta-analysis, a narrative review will be conducted. Quality assessment will be undertaken using the Cochrane Collaboration Tool and Cochran's Q statistic calculated to test for heterogeneity as suggested by the Cochrane handbook. The review will examine the findings of existing intervention research for depression, anxiety, alcohol misuse or anger in armed forces veterans and their families, along with any effect sizes that may exist. PROSPERO CRD42016036676.

  4. Alcohol Misuse and Associations with Childhood Maltreatment and Out-of-Home Placement among Urban Two-Spirit American Indian and Alaska Native People

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Nicole P.; Duran, Bonnie M.; Walters, Karina L.; Pearson, Cynthia R.; Evans-Campbell, Tessa A.

    2014-01-01

    This study examined associations between alcohol misuse and childhood maltreatment and out-of-home placement among urban lesbian, gay, and bisexual (referred to as two-spirit) American Indian and Alaska Native adults. In a multi-site study, data were obtained from 294 individuals who consumed alcohol during the past year. The results indicated that 72.3% of men and 62.4% of women engaged in hazardous and harmful alcohol use and 50.8% of men and 48.7% of women met criteria for past-year alcohol dependence. The most common types of childhood maltreatment were physical abuse among male drinkers (62.7%) and emotional abuse (71.8%) among female drinkers. Men and women reported high percentages of out-of-home placement (39% and 47%, respectively). Logistic multiple regressions found that for male drinkers boarding school attendance and foster care placement were significant predictors of past-year alcohol dependence. For female drinkers, being adopted was significantly associated with a decreased risk of past-year drinking binge or spree. Dose-response relationships, using number of childhood exposures as a predictor, were not significant. The results highlight the need for alcohol and violence prevention and intervention strategies among urban two-spirit individuals. PMID:25317980

  5. Alcohol Misuse and Associations with Childhood Maltreatment and Out-of-Home Placement among Urban Two-Spirit American Indian and Alaska Native People

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicole P. Yuan

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This study examined associations between alcohol misuse and childhood maltreatment and out-of-home placement among urban lesbian, gay, and bisexual (referred to as two-spirit American Indian and Alaska Native adults. In a multi-site study, data were obtained from 294 individuals who consumed alcohol during the past year. The results indicated that 72.3% of men and 62.4% of women engaged in hazardous and harmful alcohol use and 50.8% of men and 48.7% of women met criteria for past-year alcohol dependence. The most common types of childhood maltreatment were physical abuse among male drinkers (62.7% and emotional abuse (71.8% among female drinkers. Men and women reported high percentages of out-of-home placement (39% and 47%, respectively. Logistic multiple regressions found that for male drinkers boarding school attendance and foster care placement were significant predictors of past-year alcohol dependence. For female drinkers, being adopted was significantly associated with a decreased risk of past-year drinking binge or spree. Dose-response relationships, using number of childhood exposures as a predictor, were not significant. The results highlight the need for alcohol and violence prevention and intervention strategies among urban two-spirit individuals.

  6. Effectiveness of the Strengthening Families Programme 10–14 in Poland for the prevention of alcohol and drug misuse: protocol for a randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Okulicz-Kozaryn Katarzyna

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Alcohol and other drug use and misuse is a significant problem amongst Polish youth. The SFP10-14 is a family-based prevention intervention that has positive results in US trials, but questions remain about the generalizability of these results to other countries and settings. Methods/Design A cluster randomized controlled trial in community settings across Poland. Communities will be randomized to a SFP10-14 trial arm or to a control arm. Recruitment and consent of families, and delivery of the SFP10-14, will be undertaken by community workers. The primary outcomes are alcohol and other drug use and misuse. Secondary (or intermediate outcomes include parenting practices, parent–child relations, and child problem behaviour. Interview-based questionnaires will be administered at baseline, 12 and 24 months. Discussion The trial will provide information about the effectiveness of the SFP10-14 in Poland. Trial registration International Standard Randomised Controlled Trial Number: ISRCTN89673828

  7. The influence of combat and interpersonal trauma on PTSD, depression, and alcohol misuse in U.S. Gulf War and OEF/OIF women veterans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassija, Christina M; Jakupcak, Matthew; Maguen, Shira; Shipherd, Jillian C

    2012-04-01

    The present study evaluated the impact of combat and interpersonal trauma exposure in a sample of 115 U.S. women veterans from Gulf War I and the Iraq and Afghanistan wars on 3 postdeployment trauma-related mental health outcomes: posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms (PSS), depressive symptom severity (DSS), and alcohol misuse. Patients presenting for healthcare services at a Veterans Affairs postdeployment health specialty clinic completed screening questionnaires that assessed combat exposure, lifetime interpersonal trauma history of childhood neglect, physical, or sexual abuse, and adult sexual and physical assault. In a regression model, combat exposure was the only significant independent variable associated with PSS, DSS, and alcohol misuse (β = .42, .27 and B = 1.58, respectively) even after adding lifetime interpersonal assault exposure to the model. Results highlight the negative effects of combat exposure on treatment-seeking women veterans' postdeployment mental health. Incorporating combat exposure into routine screening procedures for Gulf War and Iraq and Afghanistan war women veterans can aid in mental health treatment planning. Copyright © 2012 International Society for Traumatic Stress Studies.

  8. Preventing alcohol misuse in young people aged 9-11 years through promoting family communication: an exploratory evaluation of the Kids, Adults Together (KAT Programme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Segrott Jeremy

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Alcohol misuse by young people is an important public health issue, and has led to the development of a range of prevention interventions. Evidence concerning the most effective approaches to intervention design and implementation is limited. Parental involvement in school-based interventions is important, but many programmes fail to recruit large numbers of parents. This paper reports findings from an exploratory evaluation of a new alcohol misuse prevention programme - Kids, Adults Together (KAT, which comprised a classroom component, engagement with parents through a fun evening for families with children aged 9-11 years, and a DVD. The evaluation aimed to establish the programme's theoretical basis, explore implementation processes and acceptability, and identify plausible precursors of the intended long-term outcomes. Methods Documentary analysis and interviews with key personnel examined the programme's development. Classroom preparation and KAT family events in two schools were observed. Focus groups with children, and interviews with parents who attended KAT family events were held immediately after programme delivery, and again after three months. Interviews with head teachers and with teachers who delivered the classroom preparation were conducted. Follow-up interviews with programme personnel were undertaken. Questionnaires were sent to parents of all children involved in classroom preparation. Results KAT achieved high levels of acceptability and involvement among both children and parents. Main perceived impacts of the programme were increased pro-social communication within families (including discussions about harmful parental alcohol consumption, heightened knowledge and awareness of the effects of alcohol consumption and key legal and health issues, and changes in parental drinking behaviours. Conclusions KAT demonstrated promise as a prevention intervention, primarily through its impact on knowledge and

  9. Parenting Programmes for Preventing Tobacco, Alcohol or Drugs Misuse in Children Less than 18: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrie, Jane; Bunn, Frances; Byrne, Geraldine

    2007-01-01

    We conducted a systematic review of controlled studies of parenting programmes to prevent tobacco, alcohol or drug abuse in children less than 18. We searched Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, specialized Register of Cochrane Drugs and Alcohol Group, Pub Med, psych INFO, CINALH and SIGLE. Two reviewers independently screened studies,…

  10. Representations of Codeine Misuse on Instagram: Content Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherian, Roy; Westbrook, Marisa; Ramo, Danielle

    2018-01-01

    Background Prescription opioid misuse has doubled over the past 10 years and is now a public health epidemic. Analysis of social media data may provide additional insights into opioid misuse to supplement the traditional approaches of data collection (eg, self-report on surveys). Objective The aim of this study was to characterize representations of codeine misuse through analysis of public posts on Instagram to understand text phrases related to misuse. Methods We identified hashtags and searchable text phrases associated with codeine misuse by analyzing 1156 sequential Instagram posts over the course of 2 weeks from May 2016 to July 2016. Content analysis of posts associated with these hashtags identified the most common themes arising in images, as well as culture around misuse, including how misuse is happening and being perpetuated through social media. Results A majority of images (50/100; 50.0%) depicted codeine in its commonly misused form, combined with soda (lean). Codeine misuse was commonly represented with the ingestion of alcohol, cannabis, and benzodiazepines. Some images highlighted the previously noted affinity between codeine misuse and hip-hop culture or mainstream popular culture images. Conclusions The prevalence of codeine misuse images, glamorizing of ingestion with soda and alcohol, and their integration with mainstream, popular culture imagery holds the potential to normalize and increase codeine misuse and overdose. To reduce harm and prevent misuse, immediate public health efforts are needed to better understand the relationship between the potential normalization, ritualization, and commercialization of codeine misuse. PMID:29559422

  11. Mouse and human genetic analyses associate kalirin with ventral striatal activation during impulsivity and with alcohol misuse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yolanda ePeña-Oliver

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Impulsivity is associated with a spectrum of psychiatric disorders including drug addiction. To investigate genetic associations with impulsivity and initiation of drug taking, we took a two-step approach. First, we identified genes whose expression level in prefrontal cortex, striatum and accumbens were associated with impulsive behaviour in the 5-choice serial reaction time task across 10 BXD recombinant inbred (BXD RI mouse strains and their progenitor C57BL/6J and DBA2/J strains. Behavioural data were correlated with regional gene expression using GeneNetwork (www.genenetwork.org, to identify 44 genes whose probability of association with impulsivity exceeded a false discovery rate of <0.05. We then interrogated the IMAGEN database of 1423 adolescents for potential associations of SNPs in human homologues of those genes identified in the mouse study, with brain activation during impulsive performance in the Monetary Incentive Delay task, and with novelty seeking scores from the Temperament and Character Inventory, as well as alcohol-experience. There was a significant overall association between the human homologues of impulsivity-related genes and percentage of premature responses in the MID task and with fMRI BOLD-response in ventral striatum (VS during reward anticipation. In contrast, no significant association was found between the polygenic scores and anterior cingulate cortex activation. Univariate association analyses revealed that the G allele (major of the intronic SNP rs6438839 in the KALRN gene was significantly associated with increased VS activation. Additionally, the A-allele (minor of KALRN intronic SNP rs4634050, belonging to the same haplotype block, was associated with increased frequency of binge drinking.

  12. Representations of Codeine Misuse on Instagram: Content Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherian, Roy; Westbrook, Marisa; Ramo, Danielle; Sarkar, Urmimala

    2018-03-20

    Prescription opioid misuse has doubled over the past 10 years and is now a public health epidemic. Analysis of social media data may provide additional insights into opioid misuse to supplement the traditional approaches of data collection (eg, self-report on surveys). The aim of this study was to characterize representations of codeine misuse through analysis of public posts on Instagram to understand text phrases related to misuse. We identified hashtags and searchable text phrases associated with codeine misuse by analyzing 1156 sequential Instagram posts over the course of 2 weeks from May 2016 to July 2016. Content analysis of posts associated with these hashtags identified the most common themes arising in images, as well as culture around misuse, including how misuse is happening and being perpetuated through social media. A majority of images (50/100; 50.0%) depicted codeine in its commonly misused form, combined with soda (lean). Codeine misuse was commonly represented with the ingestion of alcohol, cannabis, and benzodiazepines. Some images highlighted the previously noted affinity between codeine misuse and hip-hop culture or mainstream popular culture images. The prevalence of codeine misuse images, glamorizing of ingestion with soda and alcohol, and their integration with mainstream, popular culture imagery holds the potential to normalize and increase codeine misuse and overdose. To reduce harm and prevent misuse, immediate public health efforts are needed to better understand the relationship between the potential normalization, ritualization, and commercialization of codeine misuse. ©Roy Cherian, Marisa Westbrook, Danielle Ramo, Urmimala Sarkar. Originally published in JMIR Public Health and Surveillance (http://publichealth.jmir.org), 20.03.2018.

  13. Substance misuse prevention as corporate social responsibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radacsi, Gergely; Hardi, Peter

    2014-03-01

    All sectors of society should be involved in reducing substance misuse, including businesses. However, the business sector is typically involved only to the extent that their products compel them to be (e.g., alcohol producers promoting responsible alcohol consumption). This article examines why business participation has been limited and how embedding prevention within a framework of health promotion could increase participation. It reviews both Hungarian and international cases, concluding that although corporate social responsibility (CSR) offers a framework to approach substance misuse reduction, a different perception of the role of the business sector is necessary to make it viable.

  14. Assessment of generalizability, applicability and predictability (GAP) for evaluating external validity in studies of universal family-based prevention of alcohol misuse in young people: systematic methodological review of randomized controlled trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez-Hermida, Jose Ramon; Calafat, Amador; Becoña, Elisardo; Tsertsvadze, Alexander; Foxcroft, David R

    2012-09-01

    To assess external validity characteristics of studies from two Cochrane Systematic Reviews of the effectiveness of universal family-based prevention of alcohol misuse in young people. Two reviewers used an a priori developed external validity rating form and independently assessed three external validity dimensions of generalizability, applicability and predictability (GAP) in randomized controlled trials. The majority (69%) of the included 29 studies were rated 'unclear' on the reporting of sufficient information for judging generalizability from sample to study population. Ten studies (35%) were rated 'unclear' on the reporting of sufficient information for judging applicability to other populations and settings. No study provided an assessment of the validity of the trial end-point measures for subsequent mortality, morbidity, quality of life or other economic or social outcomes. Similarly, no study reported on the validity of surrogate measures using established criteria for assessing surrogate end-points. Studies evaluating the benefits of family-based prevention of alcohol misuse in young people are generally inadequate at reporting information relevant to generalizability of the findings or implications for health or social outcomes. Researchers, study authors, peer reviewers, journal editors and scientific societies should take steps to improve the reporting of information relevant to external validity in prevention trials. © 2012 The Authors. Addiction © 2012 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  15. The efficacy of a brief intervention to reduce alcohol misuse in patients with HIV in South Africa: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huis in ’t Veld Diana

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Alcohol abuse comes with risks for increased morbidity and mortality among patients with HIV. This study aims to determine the prevalence of alcohol use and other risk factors in a sample of primary care patients with HIV in South Africa and to assess a brief intervention to reduce the use of alcohol in this group. Methods/Design A single-blinded randomized controlled trial is designed to determine the efficacy of a brief intervention to reduce hazardous alcohol use in patients with HIV. The study will be carried out on out-patients with HIV in two primary healthcare HIV clinics near Pretoria, South Africa. Alcohol use will be assessed with the Alcohol Use Disorder Identification Test questionnaire. Other data that will be collected relate to health-related quality of life, depression, sexual behavior, internalized AIDS stigma, HIV-related information and adherence to antiretroviral therapy (self-reported 7-day recall of missed doses, Visual Analog Scale and pill count. The intervention consists of a brief counseling session to reduce alcohol risk; the control group receives a health education leaflet. Discussion The findings will be important in the public health setting. If the intervention proves to be efficient, it could potentially be incorporated into the HIV care policy of the Ministry of Health. Trial registration Pan African Clinical trial Registry: PACTR201202000355384

  16. Alcohol-related interpretation bias in alcohol-dependent patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Woud, M.L.; Pawelczack, S.; Rinck, M.; Lindenmeyer, J.; Souren, P.M.; Wiers, R.W.H.J.; Becker, E.S.

    2014-01-01

    Background Models of addictive behaviors postulate that implicit alcohol-related memory associations and biased interpretation processes contribute to the development and maintenance of alcohol misuse and abuse. The present study examined whether alcohol-dependent patients (AP) show an

  17. Factors influencing tackle injuries in rugby union football

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garraway, W. M.; Lee, A. J.; Macleod, D. A.; Telfer, J. W.; Deary, I. J.; Murray, G. D.

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To assess the influence of selected aspects of lifestyle, personality, and other player related factors on injuries in the tackle. To describe the detailed circumstances in which these tackles occurred. METHODS: A prospective case-control study was undertaken in which the tackling and tackled players ("the cases") involved in a tackle injury were each matched with "control" players who held the same respective playing positions in the opposing teams. A total of 964 rugby matches involving 71 senior clubs drawn from all districts of the Scottish Rugby Union (SRU) were observed by nominated linkmen who administered self report questionnaires to the players identified as cases and controls. Information on lifestyle habits, match preparation, training, and coaching experience was obtained. A validated battery of psychological tests assessed players' trait anger and responses to anger and hostility. The circumstances of the tackles in which injury occurred were recorded by experienced SRU coaching staff in interviews with involved players after the match. RESULTS: A total of 71 tackle injury episodes with correct matching of cases and controls were studied. The following player related factors did not contribute significantly to tackle injuries: alcohol consumption before the match, feeling "below par" through minor illness, the extent of match preparation, previous coaching, or practising tackling. Injured and non- injured players in the tackle did not differ in their disposition toward, or expression of, anger or hostility. Some 85% of tackling players who were injured were three quarters, and 52% of injuries occurred when the tackle came in behind the tackled player or within his peripheral vision. Either the tackling or tackled player was sprinting or running in all of these injury episodes. One third of injuries occurred in differential speed tackles--that is, when one player was travelling much faster than the other at impact. The player with the lower

  18. Tackling in Youth Football.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-11-01

    American football remains one of the most popular sports for young athletes. The injuries sustained during football, especially those to the head and neck, have been a topic of intense interest recently in both the public media and medical literature. The recognition of these injuries and the potential for long-term sequelae have led some physicians to call for a reduction in the number of contact practices, a postponement of tackling until a certain age, and even a ban on high school football. This statement reviews the literature regarding injuries in football, particularly those of the head and neck, the relationship between tackling and football-related injuries, and the potential effects of limiting or delaying tackling on injury risk. Copyright © 2015 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  19. Impact of an alcohol misuse intervention for health care workers --2: Employee assistance programme utilization, on-the-job injuries, job loss and health services utilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapham, Sandra C; McMillan, Garnett; Gregory, Cindy

    2003-01-01

    We evaluated the effects of an enhanced substance misuse (SM) prevention/early intervention programme on referrals to an employee assistance programme, health care utilization rates, on-the-job injury rates and job termination rates among health care professionals employed in a managed care organization. The intervention was implemented at one site, with the remaining sites serving as the comparison group. Existing data from hospital databases were used to compare events occurring in the periods before and after initiation of the intervention. To account for baseline differences in age, gender and job class, logistic regression models produced adjusted means for events per employee month-at-risk. We found that employee assistance referrals and non-SM-related in-patient hospitalizations increased significantly post-intervention, while rates of total out-patient SM-related visits decreased at both the intervention and comparison sites post-intervention. There was a small, statistically significant decrease in the monthly rate (OR = 0.92) of non-SM out-patient utilization at the intervention site, once the intervention was in place. No differences potentially attributable to the intervention were detected in job turnover or injury rates. We conclude that, while the intervention did not appear to affect health care utilization for SM-related problems, it was associated with increased referrals for employee assistance.

  20. The Long-Term Cost to the UK NHS and Social Services of Different Durations of IV Thiamine (Vitamin B1) for Chronic Alcohol Misusers with Symptoms of Wernicke's Encephalopathy Presenting at the Emergency Department.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Edward C F; Stanley, George; Mirza, Zulfiquar

    2016-04-01

    Wernicke's encephalopathy (WE) is an acute neuropsychiatric condition caused by depleted intracellular thiamine, most commonly arising in chronic alcohol misusers, who may present to emergency departments (EDs) for a variety of reasons. Guidelines recommend a minimum 5-day course of intravenous (IV) thiamine in at-risk patients unless WE can be excluded. To estimate the cost impact on the UK public sector (NHS and social services) of a 5-day course of IV thiamine, vs a 2- and 10-day course, in harmful or dependent drinkers presenting to EDs. A Markov chain model compared expected prognosis of patients under alternative admission strategies over 35 years. Model inputs were derived from a prospective cohort study, expert opinion via structured elicitation and NHS costing databases. Costs (2012/2013 price year) were discounted at 3.5 %. Increasing treatment from 2 to 5 days increased acute care costs but reduced the probability of disease progression and thus reduced the expected net costs by GBP87,000 per patient (95 % confidence interval GBP19,300 to GBP172,300) over 35 years. Increasing length of stay to optimize IV thiamine replacement will place additional strain on acute care but has potential UK public sector cost savings. Social services and the NHS should explore collaborations to realise both the health benefits to patients and savings to the public purse.

  1. Substance Misuse in the Psychiatric Emergency Service; A Descriptive Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yves Chaput

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Substance misuse is frequently encountered in the psychiatric emergency service (PES and may take many forms, ranging from formal DSM-IV diagnoses to less obvious entities such as hazardous consumption. Detecting such patients using traditional screening instruments has proved problematic. We therefore undertook this study to more fully characterize substance misuse in the PES and to determine whether certain variables might help better screen these patients. We used a prospectively acquired database of over 18,000 visits made to four PESs during a 2-year period in the province of Quebec, Canada. One of the variables acquired was a subjective rating by the nursing staff as to whether substance misuse was a contributing factor to the visit (graded as direct, indirect, or not at all. Substance misuse accounted for 21% of all diagnoses and alcohol was the most frequent substance used. Patients were divided into those with primary (PSM, comorbid (CSM or no substance misuse (NSM. Depressive disorders were the most frequent primary diagnoses in CSM, whereas personality and substance misuse disorders were frequent secondary diagnoses in PSM. Although many variables significantly differentiated the three groups, few were sufficiently detailed to be used as potential screening tools. Those situations that did have sufficient details included those with a previous history of substance misuse, substance misuse within 48 hours of the visit, and visits graded by the nursing staff as being directly and/or indirectly related to substance misuse. Variables related to substance misuse itself were the primary predictors of PSM and, less significantly, CSM. The nursing staff rating, although promising, was obtained in less than 30% of all visits, rendering its practical use difficult to assess.

  2. Subtypes of nonmedical prescription drug misuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCabe, Sean Esteban; Boyd, Carol J.; Teter, Christian J.

    2010-01-01

    This study used three characteristics (i.e., motive, route of administration, and co-ingestion with alcohol) of nonmedical prescription drug misuse across four separate classes (i.e., pain, sedative/anxiety, sleeping and stimulant medications) to examine subtypes and drug related problems. A Web survey was self-administered by a randomly selected sample of 3,639 undergraduate students attending a large Midwestern 4-year U.S. university. Self-treatment subtypes were characterized by motives consistent with the prescription drug's pharmaceutical main indication, oral only routes of administration, and no co-ingestion with alcohol. Recreational subtypes were characterized by recreational motives, oral or non-oral routes, and co-ingestion. Mixed subtypes consisted of other combinations of motives, routes, and co-ingestion. Among those who reported nonmedical prescription drug misuse, approximately 13% were classified into the recreational subtype, while 39% were in the self-treatment subtype, and 48% were in the mixed subtype. There were significant differences in the subtypes in terms of gender, race and prescription drug class. Approximately 50% of those in subtypes other than self-treatment screened positive for drug abuse. The odds of substance use and abuse were generally lower among self-treatment subtypes than other subtypes. The findings indicate subtypes should be considered when examining nonmedical prescription drug misuse, especially for pain medication. PMID:19278795

  3. Substance misuse in Aboriginal Australians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gracey, M

    1998-01-01

    Australia's Aborigines lived in isolation from the rest of humanity as successful hunter-gatherers for tens of thousands of years. That isolation ended abruptly with British colonization in the late 18th century and was followed by a traumatic 200 years for Aborigines who are now seriously disadvantaged, socio-economically and in terms of their health standards. It has often been assumed that the Aborigines had no access to psychotropic substances before permanent European contact but several pieces of evidence dispute this view. The history of Aboriginal contact with and usage of intoxicating substances, including alcohol, is extremely complex and affected by a maze of restrictive government policies. These interact with a wide range of other Federal and State policies which have changed rapidly since the late 1960s when Aborigines were first granted the franchise; access to unrestricted drinking followed soon afterwards. Today Aborigines suffer disproportionately to other Australians from the physical and social consequences of excess alcohol consumption, tobacco usage, petrol and other solvent sniffing, usage of marijuana, amphetamines, cocaine and heroin, as well as other drugs. The Aboriginal population is dispersed in cities, towns, fringe settlements, rural and remote areas over this vast continent and there are different patterns of drug usage from place to place. This review attempts to synthesize some of this information in order to give an overview to the history, background, current status of substance misuse by Aborigines as well as some strategies being used to try to overcome this serious problem.

  4. Grasping the thistle: The role of alcohol brief interventions in Scottish alcohol policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Lesley J C; Mackinnon, Donna

    2010-11-01

    Scotland has experienced a substantial rise in alcohol-related harm, which is now one of the biggest public health challenges it faces. Alcohol problems in Scotland are described along with national alcohol policy response in addressing them. The role of a program of Alcohol Brief Interventions is discussed therein. In Scotland, considerable proportions of the population are drinking hazardously or harmfully, common across different age and socioeconomic groups. Rising consumption has been set in wider environmental changes with alcohol becoming more available and affordable. Scotland has had one of the fastest growing chronic liver disease mortality rates in the world at a time when rates in most of Western Europe are falling. Scotland's alcohol policy has an explicit aim to reduce population consumption and includes legislative measures to tackle price and availability. A national program to deliver Alcohol Brief Interventions for hazardous drinkers is a key plank of this wider strategy. A portfolio of studies will monitor and evaluate national policy and, through contribution analysis, describe the role Alcohol Brief Interventions play in reducing alcohol misuse. Effective alcohol policy recognises that determinants of health not only lie at individual level, but include wider social, environmental and economic factors. Scotland's policy is addressing these determinants with both population-based and population-targeted interventions. Scotland has a serious problem with alcohol. A comprehensive, evidence-based, resourced alcohol policy is being implemented, which will need continual review to ensure it remains anchored in evidence while maintaining its ambition.[Graham LJC, MacKinnon D. GRASPING THE THISTLE: The role of alcohol brief interventions in Scottish alcohol policy. © 2010 Australasian Professional Society on Alcohol and other Drugs.

  5. Childhood Adversities and Substance Misuse Among the Incarcerated: Implications for Treatment and Practice in Correctional Settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marotta, Phillip L

    2017-05-12

    Incarcerated populations have high rates of childhood adversities and substance use problems. Moreover, childhood adversities are well-documented predictors of substance misuse. To investigate the impact of childhood sexual and physical abuse, caregiver abuse of drugs or alcohol, and time spent in foster care on several substance misuse outcomes. Data comes from a sample of 16,043 incarcerated men and women in the United States Survey of Inmates in State and Federal Facilities. Bivariate analyses revealed differences by sex in childhood adversities and socioeconomic characteristics. Logistic regression analyses assessed the data for a link between childhood adversities and substance misuse after adjusting for other variables. Analyses were stratified by sex to show differences in predictors of substance misuse between men and women. Childhood adversities increased the risk of many substance misuse outcomes. The prevalence of physical abuse, sexual abuse, foster care, and caretaker abuse of drugs or alcohol were greatest for inmates who reported injecting and sharing drugs. Growing up with a caregiver that used drugs or alcohol was a consistent predictor of increased risk of substance misuse for men and women. However, childhood sexual abuse increased risk for only women. Inmates who experience physical abuse, sexual abuse, foster care involvement and caretakers who use drugs and alcohol are at an increased risk of substance misuse, injecting drug use and syringe sharing. Implications suggest correctional HIV prevention and substance misuse programs must address unresolved trauma and important gender differences.

  6. Youth social behaviour and network therapy (Y-SBNT): adaptation of a family and social network intervention for young people who misuse alcohol and drugs - a randomised controlled feasibility trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Judith; Toner, Paul; Day, Ed; Back, Donna; Brady, Louca-Mai; Fairhurst, Caroline; Renwick, Charlotte; Templeton, Lorna; Akhtar, Shabana; Lloyd, Charlie; Li, Jinshuo; Cocks, Kim; Ambegaokar, Sangeeta; Parrott, Steve; McArdle, Paul; Gilvarry, Eilish; Copello, Alex

    2017-03-01

    Family interventions appear to be effective at treating young people's substance misuse. However, implementation of family approaches in UK services is low. This study aimed to demonstrate the feasibility of recruiting young people to an intervention based on an adaptation of adult social behaviour and network therapy. It also sought to involve young people with experience of using substance misuse services in the research process. To demonstrate the feasibility of recruiting young people to family and social network therapy and to explore ways in which young people with experience of using substance misuse services could be involved in a study of this nature. A pragmatic, two-armed, randomised controlled open feasibility trial. Two UK-based treatment services for young people with substance use problems, with recruitment taking place from May to November 2014. Young people aged 12-18 years, newly referred and accepted for structured interventions for drug and/or alcohol problems. A remote, web-based computer randomisation system allocated young people to adapted youth social behaviour and network therapy (Y-SBNT) or treatment as usual (TAU). Y-SBNT participants were intended to receive up to six 50-minute sessions over a maximum of 12 weeks. TAU participants continued to receive usual care delivered by their service. Feasibility was measured by recruitment rates, retention in treatment and follow-up completion rates. The main clinical outcome was the proportion of days on which the main problem substance was used in the preceding 90-day period as captured by the Timeline Follow-Back interview at 3 and 12 months. In total, 53 young people were randomised (Y-SBNT, n  = 26; TAU, n  = 27) against a target of 60 (88.3%). Forty-two young people attended at least one treatment session [Y-SBNT 22/26 (84.6%); TAU 20/27 (74.1%)]; follow-up rates were 77.4% at month 3 and 73.6% at month 12. Data for nine young people were missing at both months 3 and 12, so the main

  7. Codeine misuse and dependence in South Africa: Perspectives of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1 Alcohol, Tobacco and Other Drug Research Unit, South African Medical ... A semi-structured interview comprising 20 questions (8 qualitative ... report on OTC and prescription-only medicines produced by the .... [17] Codeine misusers in rural areas in particular face many ... patients in SA, compared with 30% for Ireland.

  8. Conceitos introdutórios de economia da saúde e o impacto social do abuso de álcool Introductory concepts of health economics and the social impact of the alcohol misuse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edilaine Moraes

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available A sociedade brasileira arca, atualmente, com um elevado custo econômico frente aos problemas decorrentes do uso abusivo de álcool. No Brasil, estudos econômicos relacionados ao abuso e/ou dependência química são escassos ou inexistentes, embora exista uma grande limitação de recursos e enormes problemas de saúde decorrentes. Este artigo tem como objetivo introduzir aos profissionais da saúde conceitos fundamentais da Economia da Saúde, tais como: avaliação econômica completa e incompleta, custo da doença, comparação de custos, tipos de avaliação (custo-minimização, custo-efetividade, custo-utility e custo-benefício, pontos de vista da análise (do paciente, da Instituição de Saúde, do Ministério da Saúde ou da sociedade, tipos de custos (diretos, indiretos e intangíveis e outros. Além disso, serão descritos alguns dados de pesquisas sobre o impacto do consumo de álcool na sociedade brasileira. Não pretendemos esgotar os assuntos tratados, mas sim, enfatizar a necessidade de pesquisas nacionais que aliem a avaliação econômica à dependência alcoólica, tendo por finalidade propiciar o maior ganho de saúde possível, com a menor utilização dos escassos recursos destinados ao sistema saúde, na busca de maior eficiência.Brazilian society bears high economic costs in view of the problems resulting from the alcohol consumption. There is a lack of economic studies into alcohol misuse or dependence in Brazil due to the limited financial resources, despite the huge health problems the country has been facing. This paper aims to introduce basic concepts of Heath Economics to health care practitioners, such as: Complete and Incomplete Economic Evaluation, Disease Costs, Cost Comparison, Types of Evaluation (cost-minimisation, cost-effectiveness, cost-utility, and cost-benefice, Point of View Analysis (from patient, health institution, Ministry of Health, or society, Types of Costs (direct, indirect and intangible

  9. Alcohol

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... because that's how many accidents occur. What Is Alcoholism? What can be confusing about alcohol is that ... develop a problem with it. Sometimes, that's called alcoholism (say: al-kuh-HOL - ism) or being an ...

  10. Alcohol

    Science.gov (United States)

    If you are like many Americans, you drink alcohol at least occasionally. For many people, moderate drinking ... risky. Heavy drinking can lead to alcoholism and alcohol abuse, as well as injuries, liver disease, heart ...

  11. Alcohol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Navarro Junior, L.

    1988-01-01

    The alcohol production as a secondary energy source, the participation of the alcohol in Brazilian national economic and social aspects are presented. Statistical data of alcohol demand compared with petroleum by-products and electricity are also included. (author)

  12. Treatment of substance misuse in older women: using a brief intervention model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finfgeld-Connett, Deborah L

    2004-08-01

    Alcohol and benzodiazepine misuse is a significant problem in older women for a number of reasons such as physiological changes, outdated prescribing practices, and failure to identify hazardous use. In addition, treatment barriers involving the health-care system, conflicting information, and ageism also exist. Substance misuse among older women is predicted to become a bigger problem as the baby boom generation ages. Brief interventions that consist of assessment, feedback, responsibility, advice, menu, empathy, and self-efficacy, or A-FRAMES, have the potential to reduce alcohol and benzodiazepine misuse among older women in a cost-effective manner.

  13. Alcohol screening and risk of postoperative complications in male VA patients undergoing major non-cardiac surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bradley, Katharine A; Rubinsky, Anna D; Sun, Haili

    2011-01-01

    Patients who misuse alcohol are at increased risk for surgical complications. Four weeks of preoperative abstinence decreases the risk of complications, but practical approaches for early preoperative identification of alcohol misuse are needed....

  14. Alcohol‐related interpretation bias in alcohol-dependent patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Woud, M.L.; Pawelczak, S.; Rinck, M.; Lindenmeyer, J.; Souren, P.; Wiers, R.W.; Becker, E.S.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Models of addictive behaviors postulate that implicit alcohol-related memory associations and biased interpretation processes contribute to the development and maintenance of alcohol misuse and abuse. The present study examined whether alcohol-dependent patients (AP) show an

  15. The mental health and substance misuse needs of male ex-armed forces personnel in prison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wainwright, Verity; Lennox, Charlotte; McDonnell, Sharon; Shaw, Jenny; Senior, Jane

    2018-01-01

    Ex-armed forces personnel constitute the largest known occupational group in prison but there is little evidence regarding their mental health, or substance misuse, needs. A total of 105 participants were interviewed and measures assessing symptoms of common mental health (CMH) problems and substance misuse were completed along with a review of their health care records. Forty (38%) participants screened for current CMH problems (CCMH) and high levels of dual symptomology and alcohol misuse were assessed. Thirty-nine (37%) had a mental health diagnosis recorded, most commonly for post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), depression and personality disorder. Those who screened for a CCMH problem were more likely to have pre-service vulnerability to negative health outcomes and those with dual symptomology were more likely to have experienced deployment during their service. Findings suggest the mental health needs of this group are similar to the general prison population. Potentially higher prevalences of PTSD and alcohol misuse may direct service provision.

  16. Prescription opioid use: Patient characteristics and misuse in community pharmacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cochran, Gerald; Bacci, Jennifer L; Ylioja, Thomas; Hruschak, Valerie; Miller, Sharon; Seybert, Amy L; Tarter, Ralph

    2016-01-01

    Opioid pain medication misuse is a major concern for US public health. The purpose of this article is to: 1) describe the demographic and physical, behavioral, and mental health characteristics of patients who fill opioid medications in community pharmacy settings; and 2) describe the extent of opioid medication misuse behaviors among these patients. We recruited and screened a convenience sample of patients with the use of a tablet computer-based assessment protocol that examined behavioral, mental, and physical health. Descriptive and inferential statistics were calculated to describe respondents and their opioid medication misuse and health characteristics. Patients were screened in 2 urban and 2 rural community pharmacies in southwestern Pennsylvania. Survey participants were adult patients filling opioid pain medications who were not currently receiving treatment for a cancer diagnosis. None. Validated screening measures included the Prescription Opioid Misuse Index, Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test C, Short Form 12, Drug Abuse Screening Test 10, Primary Care Post-traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) screen, and the Patient Health Questionnaire 2. A total of 333 patients were screened (71.2% response rate). Nearly the entire population reported pain above and general health below national norms. Hydrocodone (19.2%) and morphine (20.8%) were found to be the medications with the highest rates of misuse-with hydrocodone having more than 4 times higher odds of misuse compared with other medications (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] 4.48, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.1-17.4). Patients with positive screens for illicit drug use (AOR 8.07, 95% CI 2.7-24.0), PTSD (AOR 5.88, 95% CI 2.3-14.7), and depression (AOR 2.44, 95% CI 1.0-5.9) also had significantly higher odds for misuse compared with those with negative screening results. These findings provide important foundational data that suggest implementation of regular opioid misuse screening protocols within

  17. [Alcohol].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zima, T

    1996-07-14

    Alcohol is one of the most widely used addictive substances. It can be assumed that everybody encounters alcohol--ethanol in various forms and concentrations in the course of their lives. A global and social problem of our civilization is alcohol consumption which has a rising trend. Since 1989 the consumption of alcoholic beverages is rising and the mean annual consumption of concentrated ethanol per head is cea 10 litres. In ethanol abuse the organism is damaged not only by ethanol alone but in particular by substances formed during its metabolism. Its detailed knowledge is essential for the knowledge and investigations of the metabolic and toxic effect of ethanol on the organism. Ingested alcohol is in 90-98% eliminated from the organism by three known metabolic pathways: 1-alcohol dehydrogenase, 2-the microsomal ethanol oxidizing system and 3-catalase. Alcohol is a frequent important risk factor of serious "diseases of civilization" such as IHD, hypertension, osteoporosis, neoplastic diseases. Cirrhosis of the liver and chronic pancreatitis are the well known diseases associated with alcohol ingestion and also their most frequent cause. It is impossible to list all organs and diseases which develop as a result of alcohol consumption. It is important to realize that regular and "relatively" small amounts in the long run damage the organism and may be even fatal.

  18. Substance Misuse and Substance use Disorders: Why do they Matter in Healthcare?

    OpenAIRE

    MCLELLAN, A. THOMAS

    2017-01-01

    This paper first introduces important conceptual and practical distinctions among three key terms: substance “use,” “misuse,” and “disorders” (including addiction), and goes on to describe and quantify the important health and social problems associated with these terms. National survey data are presented to summarize the prevalence and varied costs associated with misuse of alcohol, illegal drugs, and prescribed medications in the United States.

  19. Misuse of car safety seats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bull, M J; Stroup, K B; Gerhart, S

    1988-01-01

    Correct use of car seats for small children is essential to prevent serious injuries and death from automotive accidents. Failure to use a car seat properly can contribute to serious injury or death of a child. A case study in which misuse of a car seat occurred is reported. The infant died of hemorrhage and shock secondary to liver laceration which resulted from excessive pressure over the abdomen sustained on impact. Surveys of car seat use for small children prior to and following a child restraint law are also reported. Observers noted types of car seats and specific forms of misuse. Survey results suggest that parents are more likely to misuse car seats for infants than toddlers. Medical professionals can reinforce the importance of proper car seat use by incorporating specific car seat use questions into the patient interview and by providing educational materials.

  20. Tackling racism in the NHS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dean, Erin

    2016-11-30

    Essential facts Trade union Unite has developed a policy briefing on a new toolkit to combat racism in the NHS. It can help nurses and other staff tackle racial discrimination in health, with black and minority ethnic (BME) nurses often treated unequally compared with their white colleagues.

  1. Alcohol

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... created when grains, fruits, or vegetables are fermented . Fermentation is a process that uses yeast or bacteria to change the sugars in the food into alcohol. Fermentation is used to produce many necessary items — everything ...

  2. "You can never work with addictions in isolation": Addressing intimate partner violence perpetration by men in substance misuse treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radcliffe, Polly; Gilchrist, Gail

    2016-10-01

    Studies have shown rates of IPV-perpetration among men in substance misuse treatment at rates far higher than the general population. There is poor evidence for the effectiveness of IPV perpetrator programmes. An analysis of drugs and alcohol policy documents 1998-2015 was conducted using discourse analysis to examine how English drug and alcohol policy has addressed IPV among substance misusers. Transcripts of interviews with 20 stake holders were analysed thematically. How policy 'frames' IPV-perpetration among drug and alcohol misusers has implications for service provision. IPV has increasingly been framed in terms of its implications for child safeguarding, and has been 'folded in' to policies targeting Troubled Families. With increasing 'localism' in English drug and alcohol policy there has been little specification of services for substance misusing IPV-perpetrators. Policy and literature produced by IPV perpetrator and victim organisations has framed IPV-perpetration as an individual choice with intoxication as a post hoc excuse for violence with limited implications for effective service development. Interviews with stake holders indicate a range of understandings/explanations for IPV among substance misusing men. Stake holders suggest that not all staff have the confidence or skills to ask men about their relationships and that there are few referral routes for substance misusing men who seek help for their IPV perpetration. There are gaps and contradictions in the extent to which English drug and alcohol policy has sought to address IPV-perpetration among substance misusers. Recent National Institute for Health and Care Excellence guidance provide an opportunity to include domestic abuse training for all front line social care staff including in the substance misuse sector. There is a need for further research into effective services for substance misusing perpetrators and the development of training for front-line staff. Copyright © 2016 The Authors

  3. Substance misuse and sexual function in adolescents with chronic diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araújo, Priscila; Carvalho, Márcio Guilherme Nunes; van Weelden, Marlon; Lourenço, Benito; Queiroz, Lígia Bruni; Silva, Clovis Artur

    2016-09-01

    To evaluate alcohol/tobacco and/or illicit drug misuse in Chronic Diseases (CDs). A cross-sectional study with 220 CDs adolescents and 110 healthy controls including: demographic/anthropometric data; puberty markers; modified questionnaire evaluating sexual function, alcohol/smoking/illicit drug misuse and bullying; and the physician-conducted CRAFFT (car/relax/alone/forget/friends/trouble) screen tool for substance abuse/dependence high risk. The frequencies of alcohol/tobacco and/or illicit drug use were similar in both groups (30% vs. 34%, p=0.529), likewise the frequencies of bullying (42% vs. 41%, p=0.905). Further analysis solely in CDs patients that used alcohol/tobacco/illicit drug versus those that did not use showed that the median current age [15 (11-18) vs. 14 (10-18) years, p<0.0001] and education years [9 (5-14) vs. 8 (3-12) years, p<0.0001] were significant higher in substance use group. The frequencies of Tanner 5 (p<0.0001), menarche (p<0.0001) and spermarche (p=0.001) were also significantly higher in patients with CDs that used alcohol/tobacco/illicit, likewise sexual activity (23% vs. 3%, p<0.0001). A trend of a low frequency of drug therapy was observed in patients that used substances (70% vs. 82%, p=0.051). A positive correlation was observed between CRAFFT score and current age in CD patients (p=0.005, r=+0.189) and controls (p=0.018, r=+0.226). A later age was evidenced in CDs patients that reported licit/ilicit drug misuse. In CDs adolescent, substance use was more likely to have sexual intercourse. Our study reinforces that these patients should be systematically screened by pediatricians for drug related health behavioral patterns. Copyright © 2015 Sociedade de Pediatria de São Paulo. Publicado por Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  4. Alcohol

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to do. Wondering if adding a glass of wine or beer might help lower your blood glucose if it is high? The effects of alcohol can be unpredictable and it is not recommended as a treatment for high blood glucose. The risks likely outweigh any benefit that may be seen in blood glucose alone. ...

  5. Suicide Ideation, Alcohol Consumption, Motives, and Related Problems: Exploring the Association in College Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gauthier, Jami M; Witte, Tracy K; Correia, Christopher J

    2017-04-01

    Previous findings on the relationship between suicide ideation (SI) and alcohol misuse among college students are inconsistent, leading to conflicting clinical implications. We aimed to clarify this relationship in order to determine the utility of regarding alcohol misuse as a risk factor for SI in this population. Unselected college students (N = 545) completed an online survey including measures of alcohol consumption, problems, drinking motives, SI, and related variables. Our results suggest alcohol misuse is not a correlate of SI among college students; therefore, one should not assume that students who misuse alcohol are necessarily at increased risk for SI. © 2016 The American Association of Suicidology.

  6. Genetic polymorphisms in alcohol-metabolizing enzymes and chronic pancreatitis.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verlaan, M.; Morsche, R.H.M. te; Roelofs, H.M.J.; Laheij, R.J.F.; Jansen, J.B.M.J.; Peters, W.H.M.; Drenth, J.P.H.

    2004-01-01

    AIMS: Alcohol misuse is now regarded as an important risk factor for development of chronic pancreatitis (CP). However, not every alcohol misuser develops CP and it therefore might be suggested that susceptibility could be further influenced by inter-individual variations in the activities of

  7. Tackle injuries in professional Rugby Union.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quarrie, Kenneth L; Hopkins, Will G

    2008-09-01

    The tackle is the most dangerous facet of play in rugby union, but little is known about risk factors for tackle injuries. To estimate the injury risk associated with various characteristics of tackles in professional rugby union matches. Descriptive epidemiology study. All 140 249 tackles in 434 professional matches were coded from video recordings for height and direction of tackle on the ball carrier, speed of tackler, and speed of ball carrier; injuries were coded for various characteristics, including whether the tackler or ball carrier required replacement or only on-field assessment. There were 1348 injury assessments requiring only on-field treatment and 211 requiring player replacement. The inciting event and medical outcomes were matched to video records for 281 injuries. Injuries were most frequently the result of high or middle tackles from the front or side, but rate of injury per tackle was higher for tackles from behind than from the front or side. Ball carriers were at highest risk from tackles to the head-neck region, whereas tacklers were most at risk when making low tackles. The impact of the tackle was the most common cause of injury, and the head was the most common site, but an important mechanism of lower limb injuries was loading with the weight of another player. Rates of replacement increased with increasing player speed. Strategies for reducing tackle injuries without radically changing the contact nature of the sport include further education of players about safe tackling and minor changes to laws for the height of the tackle.

  8. Alcohol and the young: how does the press face the problem?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Concina

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: alcohol is an important component of the Mediterranean diet and its moderate use is protective against cardiovascular risk. Binge drinking, i.e. the heavy consumption of alcohol over a short period of time, is the main consumption pattern of young people in Western countries and may lead to severe toxic effects in many organs. Mass media often address the issue by suggesting prevention measures; however, they may also have the unintended effect of encouraging alcohol misuse. This study aims to assess how the Italian press faces excessive alcohol consumption in young people, comparing the messages given by the press with scientific recommendations.Methods: articles published by the 6 best-selling Italian newspapers and the 4 best-selling Italian magazines were collected from October 15th to November 14th 2009. Medline database, governmental and non-governmental sources were searched for scientific recommendations regarding primary prevention of alcohol misuse. Press articles were described and analysed by filling out a predefined form.Results: fourteen newspaper articles regarding alcohol were found, 79% belonging to the news section. Six quotations of scientific recommendations were found: two about drink-driving, two about raising public awareness, one about Monitoring and Evaluation, and one about community and workplace action.Conclusions: scientific recommendations were often inadequately reported by the Italian press. The most covered recommendations, designed driver and public educational intervention, are also the least effective according to international literature. Therefore, a further effort is needed to tackle this issue in a more scientifically sound way.

  9. Social and Cultural Contexts of Alcohol Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudhinaraset, May; Wigglesworth, Christina; Takeuchi, David T.

    2016-01-01

    Alcohol use and misuse account for 3.3 million deaths every year, or 6 percent of all deaths worldwide. The harmful effects of alcohol misuse are far reaching and range from individual health risks, morbidity, and mortality to consequences for family, friends, and the larger society. This article reviews a few of the cultural and social influences on alcohol use and places individual alcohol use within the contexts and environments where people live and interact. It includes a discussion of macrolevel factors, such as advertising and marketing, immigration and discrimination factors, and how neighborhoods, families, and peers influence alcohol use. Specifically, the article describes how social and cultural contexts influence alcohol use/misuse and then explores future directions for alcohol research. PMID:27159810

  10. Screening for current opioid misuse and associated risk factors among patients with chronic nonalcoholic pancreatitis pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barth, Kelly S; Balliet, Wendy; Pelic, Christine M; Madan, Alok; Malcolm, Robert; Adams, David; Morgan, Katherine; Owczarski, Stefanie; Borckardt, Jeffrey J

    2014-08-01

    The objective of this study is to assess clinical variables that may be associated with risk for opioid misuse in individuals with chronic pancreatitis. This study utilized a descriptive, quasi-experimental, cross sectional design. Three hundred seven individuals with nonalcoholic chronic pancreatitis engaged in chronic opioid therapy for pain presented to an outpatient specialty clinic at an academic medical center. Participants completed the Current Opioid Misuse Measure (COMM), Brief Pain Inventory (BPI), Short Form (SF)-12 Quality of Life Measure, Center for Epidemiological Studies 10-item Depression Scale (CESD), and a single item asking about current alcohol use. Mean scores on the CESD, COMM, BPI, SF-12, and factors associated with opioid misuse measures from regression analyses were the outcome measures. Mean scores on the CESD, COMM, BPI pain-on-average item, and the SF-12 physical and psychological quality of life factors (t scores) were 11.2 (standard deviation [SD] = 6.7), 8.5 (SD = 7.3), 4.8 (SD = 2.8), 39.7 (SD = 7.0), and 45 (SD = 9.0), respectively. Descriptive analyses revealed that 55% of participants scored above the clinical cutoff for depression on the CESD, and 39% scored above the cutoff for opioid misuse concerns on the COMM. Regression analyses identified several factors associated with higher opioid misuse measure scores, including increased depressive symptoms from the CESD (β = 0.38, P factors accounted for 37% of the variance in current opioid misuse scores. Depression, quality of life, pain intensity and alcohol use may be good candidate variables for prospective studies to determine clinical risk factors for opioid misuse among patients with pancreatitis. Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. UNICORN: Misuse detection for UNICOS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christoph, G.G; Jackson, K.A.; Neuman, M.C.; Siciliano, C.L.B.; Simmonds, D.D.; Stallings, C.A.; Thompson, J.L.

    1995-03-29

    An effective method for detecting computer misuse is the automatic auditing and analysis of on-line user activity. This activity is reflected in the system audit record, by changes in the vulnerability posture of the system configuration, and in other evidence found through active testing of the system. In 1989 we started developing an automatic misuse detection system for the Integrated Computing Network (ICN) at Los Alamos National Laboratory. Since 1990 this system has been operational, monitoring a variety of network systems and services. We call it the Network Anomaly Detection and Intrusion Reporter, or NADIR. During the last year and a half, we expanded NADIR to include processing of audit and activity records for the Cray UNICOS operating system. This new component is called the UNICOS Real-time NADIR, or UNICORN. UNICORN summarizes user activity and system configuration information in statistical profiles. In near real-time, it can compare current activity to historical profiles and test activity against expert rules that express our security policy and define improper or suspicious behavior. It reports suspicious behavior to security auditors and provides tools to aid in follow-up investigations. UNICORN is currently operational on four Crays in Los Alamos` main computing network, the ICN.

  12. Alcohol Abuse and Other Psychiatric Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Psychiatric Disorders Other Substance Abuse HIV/AIDS Other Psychiatric Disorders In the current Diagnostic and Statistical Manual ... and other substance use disorders are defined as psychiatric disorders. Many individuals who misuse alcohol also abuse ...

  13. Tentativa de suicídio entre pacientes com uso nocivo de bebidas alcoólicas internados em hospital geral Suicide attempt amongst patients with alcohol misuse admitted to a general hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Dantas Lima

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Detectar fatores associados a histórico de tentativa de suicídio (TS em pacientes internados em hospital geral que fazem uso nocivo de bebidas alcoólicas. MÉTODO: 4.352 pacientes admitidos consecutivamente foram avaliados utilizando-se um rastreamento do qual constavam as escalas AUDIT (Alcohol Use Disorder Identification Test e HAD (Escala Hospitalar de Ansiedade e Depressão. Fixando-se histórico de tentativa de suicídio ao longo da vida como variável dependente, foram realizados testes do qui-quadrado e regressão logística múltipla. RESULTADOS: Uso nocivo de álcool (AUDIT > 8 foi detectado em 423 pacientes. Dentre eles, 60 (14,2% apresentavam sintomas de depressão (HAD > 8 e 34 (8% tinham histórico de TS. Este se associou a ser adulto jovem [razão de chance (RC = 3,4], depressão (RC = 6,6, uso pregresso de psicofármaco (RC = 7 e ter SIDA (RC = 24. CONCLUSÃO: Os resultados fortalecem a necessidade de detectar e tratar adequadamente condições que, combinadas, aumentam consideravelmente o risco de suicídio.OBJECTIVE: To detect factors associated to previous suicide attempt among patients admitted to a general hospital who presented harmful alcohol drinking pattern. METHOD: 4.352 patients consecutively admitted were screened by means of the AUDIT (Alcohol Use Disorder Identification Test and HAD (Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale. Qui-squared tests and multiple logistic regression were performed. RESULTS: 423 individuals presented alcohol harmful use or dependence (AUDIT > 8, 60 (14.2% of which had depression (HAD > 8 and 34 (8% previous suicide attempt. The latter was more frequent among young adults [odds ratio (OR = 3.4], those who were depressed (OR = 6.6, had previously taken psychotropic medicines (OR = 7 and had AIDS (OR = 24. CONCLUSION: Our findings reinforce the need for detection and adequate treatment of conditions that, when together, strongly increase the suicide risk.

  14. Alcohol and cirrhosis: dose--response or threshold effect?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kamper-Jørgensen, Mads; Grønbaek, Morten; Tolstrup, Janne

    2004-01-01

    BACKGROUND/AIMS: General population studies have shown a strong association between alcohol intake and death from alcoholic cirrhosis, but whether this is a dose-response or a threshold effect remains unknown, and the relation among alcohol misusers has not been studied. METHODS: A cohort of 6152...... alcohol misusing men and women aged 15-83 were interviewed about drinking pattern and social issues and followed for 84,257 person-years. Outcome was alcoholic cirrhosis mortality. Data was analyzed by means of Cox-regression models. RESULTS: In this large prospective cohort study of alcohol misusers...... there was a 27 fold increased mortality from alcoholic cirrhosis in men and a 35 fold increased mortality from alcoholic cirrhosis in women compared to the Danish population. Number of drinks per day was not significantly associated with death from alcoholic cirrhosis, since there was no additional risk of death...

  15. Tackling unsafe abortion in Mauritius.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyong'o, D; Oodit, G

    1996-01-01

    Despite a contraceptive prevalence rate of 75% Mauritius has a high incidence of unsafe abortions because of unprotected intercourse experienced by many young women in a rapidly industrializing environment. The Mauritius Family Planning Association (MFPA) tackled the issue of unsafe abortion in 1993. Abortion is illegal in the country, and the Catholic Church also strongly opposes modern family planning methods, thus the use of withdrawal and/or calendar methods have been increasing. The MFPA organized an advocacy symposium in 1993 on unsafe abortion with the result of revealing the pressure the Church was exerting relative to abortion and contraceptives. The advocacy campaign of the MFPA consists of having abortion legalized on health grounds and improving family planning services, especially for young unmarried women and men. The full support of the media was secured on the abortion issue: articles appeared, meetings were attended by the press, and public relations support was also received from them. The MFPA worked closely with parliamentarians. A motion was tabled in 1994 in the National Assembly which called for legalization of abortion on health grounds, but the Church squelched its debate. In March 1994 MFPA hosted the IPPF African Regional Conference on Unsafe Abortion in Mauritius with the participation of over 100 representatives from 20 countries, and subsequently a second motion was tabled without parliamentary debate. The deliberations were covered by the media and the Ministry of Women's Rights recognized abortion as an urgent issue as outlined in a white paper prepared for the Fourth World Conference on Women held in Beijing in 1995. The campaign changed the policy climate favorably making the public more conscious of unsafe abortion. The Ministry of Health decided to collect more data and the newly elected government seems to be more open about this issue.

  16. Substance Misuse and Substance use Disorders: Why do they Matter in Healthcare?

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLellan, A Thomas

    2017-01-01

    This paper first introduces important conceptual and practical distinctions among three key terms: substance "use," "misuse," and "disorders" (including addiction), and goes on to describe and quantify the important health and social problems associated with these terms. National survey data are presented to summarize the prevalence and varied costs associated with misuse of alcohol, illegal drugs, and prescribed medications in the United States. With this as background, the paper then describes historical views, perspectives, and efforts to deal with substance misuse problems in the United States and discusses how basic, clinical, and health service research, combined with recent changes in healthcare legislation and financing, have set the stage for a more effective, comprehensive public health approach.

  17. Health Consequences of Drug Misuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Alcohol Club Drugs Cocaine Fentanyl Hallucinogens Inhalants Heroin Marijuana MDMA (Ecstasy/Molly) Methamphetamine Opioids Over-the-Counter Medicines Prescription Medicines Steroids (Anabolic) Synthetic Cannabinoids (K2/Spice) Synthetic Cathinones (Bath Salts) Tobacco/ ...

  18. Global issues in volatile substance misuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dell, Colleen Anne; Gust, Steven W; MacLean, Sarah

    2011-01-01

    This special issue of Substance Use & Misuse addresses the public health issue of volatile substance misuse (VSM), the inhalation of gases or vapors for psychoactive effects, assessing the similarities and differences in the products misused, patterns, prevalence, etiologies, and impacts of VSM by examining it through sociocultural epidemiology, neuroscience, and interventions research. The Canadian, US, and Australian guest editors contend that, when compared with other drugs used at a similar prevalence, VSM has attracted relatively little research effort. The authors and editors call for further research to develop evidence-based policies and comprehensive interventions that respect culture and context-specific knowledge.

  19. Advances on functional neuroimaging in substance misuse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lv Rongbin; Liu Xingdang; Han Mei

    2009-01-01

    Over the past decade, functional neuroimaging has contributed greatly to our knowledge about the neuropharmacology of substance misuse in man. In this review, discussed the application and the progress of the positron emission tomography, single photon emission computed tomography and functional magnetic resonance imaging in the substance misuse. After reading some papers, found that the dopamine transporter was significantly decreased in the brain of subjects with heroin abuse. Also observed a significant decrease of regional cerebral blood flow in bilateral cerebral frontal lobes, temporal lobes, the insula and the ipsilateral basal nuclei in substance misuse subjects. Taken together, functional images will lead the direction in future research formedication development of addiction treatment. (authors)

  20. Tackling the undeclared economy in Croatia

    OpenAIRE

    Williams, C.C.; Baric, M.

    2013-01-01

    To evaluate how undeclared work is being tackled in Croatia this paper reports an\\ud e-survey and in-depth interviews with key stakeholders in Croatia. It is revealed\\ud that, compared with the European Economic Area countries, Croatia has a weak\\ud institutional infrastructure for tackling undeclared work and pursues a narrower\\ud range of policy measures. The outcome is a call to develop a single body to better\\ud coordinate actions to tackle the undeclared economy in Croatia and for a shif...

  1. Substance misuse subtypes among women convicted of homicide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Melo Nunes, Adriana; Baltieri, Danilo Antonio

    2013-01-01

    The proportion of women incarcerated is growing at a faster pace than that for men. The reasons for this important increase have been mainly attributed to drug-using lifestyle and drug-related offenses. About half of female inmates have history of substance misuse and one third demonstrate high impulsiveness levels. The objectives of this study were to (a) identify subtypes of alcohol and drug problems and impulsiveness among women convicted of homicide, and (b) examine the association between psychosocial and criminological features and the resulting clusters. Data come from 158 female inmates serving a sentence for homicide in the Penitentiary of Sant'Ana in São Paulo State, Brazil. Latent class analysis was used to group participants into substance misuse and impulsiveness classes. Two classes were identified: nonproblematic (cluster 1: 54.53%, n = 86) and problematic (cluster 2: 45.57%, n = 72) ones. After controlling for several psychosocial and criminological variables, cluster 2 inmates showed an earlier beginning of criminal activities and a lower educational level than their counterparts. To recognize the necessities of specific groups of female offenders is crucial for the development of an adequate system of health politics and for the decrease of criminal recidivism among those offenders who have shown higher risk.

  2. Demographic and Mental Health Characteristics of Individuals Who Present to Community Health Clinics With Substance Misuse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Praise O. Iyiewuare

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Community health clinics (CHCs are an opportune setting to identify and treat substance misuse. This study assessed the characteristics of patients who presented to a CHC with substance misuse. Methods: Personnel at a large CHC administered a 5-question screener to patients between June 3, 2014, and January 15, 2016, to assess past 3-month alcohol use, prescription opioid misuse, or illicit drug use. We stratified screen-positive patients into 4 diagnostic groups: (1 probable alcohol use disorder (AUD and no comorbid opioid use disorder (OUD; (2 probable heroin use disorder; (3 probable prescription OUD, with or without comorbid AUD; and (4 no probable substance use disorder. We describe substance use and mental health characteristics of screen-positive patients and compare the characteristics of patients in the diagnostic groups. Results: Compared to the clinic population, screen-positive patients (N = 733 included more males ( P < .0001 and had a higher prevalence of probable bipolar disorder ( P < .0001 and schizophrenia ( P < .0001. Eighty-seven percent of screen-positive patients had probable AUD or OUD; only 7% were currently receiving substance use treatment. The prescription opioid and heroin groups had higher rates of past bipolar disorder and consequences of mental health conditions than the alcohol only or no diagnosis groups ( P < .0001. Conclusions: Patients presenting to CHCs who screen positive for alcohol or opioid misuse have a high likelihood of having an AUD or OUD, with or without a comorbid serious mental illness. Community health clinics offering substance use treatment may be an important resource for addressing unmet need for substance use treatment and comorbid mental illness.

  3. School and work status, drug-free workplace protections, and prescription drug misuse among Americans ages 15-25.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Ted; Novak, Scott P; Galvin, Deborah M; Spicer, Rebecca S; Cluff, Laurie; Kasat, Sandeep

    2015-03-01

    We assessed the prevalence and characteristics of prescription drug misuse among youth ages 15-25 to examine differences by student and employment status, and associations with workplace antidrug policies and programs. Multivariate logistic regressions analyzed associations in weighted data on the 20,457 young adults in the combined 2004-2008 National Surveys on Drug Use and Health. Demographic controls included sex, race, community size, and age group. After we accounted for demographic controls, at ages 15-25, students were less likely than nonstudents to misuse prescription drugs. Segmenting student from nonstudent groups, working consistently was associated with a further reduction in misuse for those ages 18-25. When we controlled for demographics and substance use history, both Employee Assistance Program (EAP) services and awareness that one's employer had a drug-free workplace policy were associated with significantly lower misuse of prescription drugs (OR = 0.85 for each program, 95% CI [0.73, 1.00] and [0.72, 1.00]). Associations of workplace antidrug policies and programs with marijuana use and with Diagnostic and Statistical Manual for Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, criteria for alcohol abuse and dependence contrasted sharply with these patterns. All four aspects were significantly associated with lower marijuana use. None was associated with problem drinking. Protective effects of drug-free workplace policy and EAPs persist after other substance use was controlled for. Comparing the effects of workplace programs on illicit drug use and problem drinking versus prescription misuse suggests that those protective associations do not result from selection bias. Thus, drug-free workplace policies and EAPs appear to help protect younger workers against prescription misuse. If workplace substance use disorder programs focused prevention messages and interventions on prescription drug misuse, their impact on misuse might increase.

  4. Adaptive coping strategies of affected family members of a relative with substance misuse: A qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCann, Terence V; Lubman, Dan I

    2018-01-01

    To explore the coping strategies used by affected family members of a relative with substance misuse. Families play an important role in supporting a relative with substance misuse. However, the experience often has an adverse effect on their general well-being, the extent of which depends largely on their coping strategies. An interpretative phenomenological analysis study. Data were collected between January - December 2015. Semistructured, audio-recorded qualitative interviews were conducted with 31 affected family members. Three main themes and related subthemes were abstracted from the data illustrating how participants coped with their relative's substance misuse: (1) Seeking timely access to evidence-based information; (2) Enhancing personal coping strategies and (3) Accessing informal and formal support. Greater investment is needed in support services for affected family members, particularly in regional and rural areas. A wide range of accessible evidence-based information and informal and formal support, including telephone and online support, is needed to assist them to cope in this crucial support-giving role. Affected family members need to adopt a flexible set of coping strategies while supporting a relative with substance misuse. Family and friends, alcohol and other drug services, mental health nurses and other clinicians have a critical role providing emotional, instrumental and educational support to affected family members to enhance their adaptive coping strategies. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. ASSOCIATION OF GUTKA/CANNABIS MISUSE AND DEVELOPMENT OF MENTAL DISORDERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramesh Babu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: History of drug abuse which included Gutka/cannabis and not alcohol intake has been found in psychiatric patients attending Psychiatry outpatients. AIMS: To find out prevalence of cannabis/Gutka misuse among psychiatric patients , to find out socio - demographic variables , and pattern of psychiatric disorders among cannabis/g utka misusers. METHOD: Out of 150 psychiatric patients 18 were identified for cannabis/gutka misuse. These patients were examined and categorized according to socio - demographic characteristics and types of mental disorders diagnosed by using DSM - IV. RESULT S: Most of the psychiatric patients who had history of cannabis/Gutka intake were male (96.4% and 76% were in age group of 15 - 35 years. 48.6% bipolar type - 1 , 23% schizophreniform psychosis , 14% had drug induced psychosis and 1.4% psychosis NOS patients we re found in this study. CONCLUSIONS: Young male patients were more commonly involved in drug misuse and most of them belong to rural area.

  6. Communication and Supervision of Alcohol in the Family: Parental Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherriff, Nigel; Cox, Louise; Coleman, Lester; Roker, Debi

    2008-01-01

    It is now well acknowledged that parents can have a central role in supporting sensible alcohol use and reducing alcohol misuse amongst young people. However, little research has considered how communication and supervision in relation to alcohol actually takes place within the family. Drawing upon interviews with the parents of young people aged…

  7. Baltimore District Tackles High Suspension Rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maxwell, Lesli A.

    2007-01-01

    This article reports on how the Baltimore District tackles its high suspension rates. Driven by an increasing belief that zero-tolerance disciplinary policies are ineffective, more educators are embracing strategies that do not exclude misbehaving students from school for offenses such as insubordination, disrespect, cutting class, tardiness, and…

  8. Tackling the high burden of blindness

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... care delivery, and tackling the five major eye conditions that contribute to most blindness could reduce the current burden of blindness. This would open the window for addressing glaucoma, diabetic retinopathy, and macula degeneration which are the new emerging global consequences of non-communicable diseases.

  9. Changes in Patient-Reported Alcohol-Related Advice Following Veterans Health Administration Implementation of Brief Alcohol Interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chavez, Laura J; Williams, Emily C; Lapham, Gwen T; Rubinsky, Anna D; Kivlahan, Daniel R; Bradley, Katharine A

    2016-05-01

    Brief alcohol interventions are recommended for primary care patients who screen positive for alcohol misuse, but implementation is challenging. The U.S. Veterans Health Administration (Veterans Affairs [VA]) implemented brief interventions for patients with alcohol misuse in 2008, and rates of brief interventions documented in the electronic medical record increased from 24% to 78% (2008-2011). This study examined whether an independent measure of brief interventions-patient-reported alcohol-related advice-also increased among VA outpatients who screened positive for alcohol misuse on a mailed survey. This retrospective cross-sectional study included VA outpatient respondents to the VA's Survey of Healthcare Experiences of Patients (SHEP; 2007-2011) who reported past-year alcohol use and answered a question about alcohol-related advice. Alcohol-related advice was defined as a report of past-year advice from a VA clinician to abstain from or reduce drinking. The adjusted prevalence of alcoholrelated advice among patients who screened positive for alcohol misuse (SHEP AUDIT-C ≥ 5) was estimated for each year. Among patients with alcohol misuse (n = 61,843), the adjusted prevalence of alcohol-related advice increased from 40.4% (95% CI [39.3%, 41.5%]) in 2007 to 55.5% (95% CI [53.3%, 57.8%]) in 2011. Rates of alcoholrelated advice increased significantly each year except the last. The VA's efforts to implement brief interventions were associated with increased patient-reported alcohol-related advice over time, with a majority of patients with alcohol misuse reporting its receipt. Other systems considering similar approaches to implementation may benefit from collecting patient-reported measures of brief interventions for an additional perspective on implementation.

  10. Alcohol misuse in patients attending a defence force general ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Results: Of the 658 patients approached, 40 (6%) declined to fill in the questionnaire. 42% of the 618 patients surveyed were ... 38,1% of male apprentices at the technical college and 40,0% of male current defence force members staying on the base scored 8 or more on the AUDIT. In the group scoring less than 8 on the ...

  11. Tackle mechanisms and match characteristics in women's elite football tournaments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tscholl, P; O'Riordan, D; Fuller, C W; Dvorak, J; Junge, A

    2007-08-01

    Several tools have been used for assessing risk situations and for gathering tackle information from international football matches for men but not for women. To analyse activities in women's football and to identify the characteristics and risk potentials of tackles. Retrospective video analysis. Video recordings of 24 representative matches from six women's top-level tournaments were analysed for tackle parameters and their risk potential. 3531 tackles were recorded. Tackles in which the tackling player came from the side and stayed on her feet accounted for nearly half of all challenges for the ball in which body contact occurred. 2.7% of all tackles were classified as risk situations, with sliding-in tackles from behind and the side having the highest risk potential. Match referees sanctioned sliding-in tackles more often than other tackles (20% v 17%, respectively). Tackle parameters did not change in the duration of a match; however, there was an increase in the number of injury risk situations and foul plays towards the end of each half. Match properties provide valuable information for a better understanding of injury situations in football. Staying on feet and jumping vertically tackle actions leading to injury were sanctioned significantly more times by the referee than those not leading to injury (pgame are not adequate or match referees in women's football are not able to distinguish between sliding-in tackles leading to and those not leading to injury.

  12. Alcoholism and Alcohol Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... their drinking causes distress and harm. It includes alcoholism and alcohol abuse. Alcoholism, or alcohol dependence, is a disease that causes ... the liver, brain, and other organs. Drinking during pregnancy can harm your baby. Alcohol also increases the ...

  13. [Pilot study on the prevalence of dual pathology in community mental health and substance misuse services in Madrid].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szerman Bolotner, Néstor; Arias Horcajadas, Francisco; Vega Astudillo, Pablo; Babín Vich, Francisco; Mesías Perez, Beatriz; Basurte Villamor, Ignacio; Morant, Consuelo; Ochoa Mangado, Enriqueta; Poyo Calvo, Félix

    2011-01-01

    To evaluate retrospectively the comorbidity of mental and addictive disorders in community mental health and substance misuse services in Madrid. The medical records of 400 patients from mental health and substance misuse services in Madrid were evaluated. Records were examined for the last 20 patients from each service unit. Dual pathology was constituted when a current diagnosis of mental and addictive disorders, excluding nicotine addiction, appeared on the patient's records. Prevalence of dual pathology was 34%. There were differences in the prevalence figures for the two kinds of service: 36.78% in substance misuse services, and 28.78% in mental health services. There was an association of dual diagnosis with alcohol or cocaine dependence, but not with opioid dependence. The mental disorders more prevalent in dually diagnosed than in non-dually diagnosed patients were mood disorders, personality disorders, and schizophrenia. There is a high prevalence of dual pathology in those seeking treatment, being higher in substance misuse services than in mental health services, and higher in patients with alcohol or cocaine dependence. These findings could be of help in the planning of care resource policies for these patients.

  14. Tackling the take-or-pay problem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jackson, Kim.

    1997-01-01

    Centrica, the gas sales, trading and services company previously part of British Gas plc, has renegotiated a number of its take-or-pay contracts with North Sea gas producers since the end of 1996. The contracts - a legacy of the British Gas monopoly era - had placed an increasing financial burden on the company as it was effectively forced to pay above-market prices for gas which it did not always want to take, while trying to remain competitive in a market where an ever growing number of independent gas suppliers were offering low-cost supplies. The author looks at how Centrica has tackled its take-or-pay problem. (author)

  15. ADHD symptoms, autistic traits, and substance use and misuse in adult Australian twins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Alwis, Duneesha; Agrawal, Arpana; Reiersen, Angela M; Constantino, John N; Henders, Anjali; Martin, Nicholas G; Lynskey, Michael T

    2014-03-01

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and autism spectrum disorder frequently co-occur. Several studies show increased risk of substance use disorders in ADHD, yet there is limited information related to how ADHD symptoms, autistic traits, and their combined effects are associated with nicotine, alcohol, and cannabis use and use disorders in the general population. Cross-sectional interview and self-report questionnaire data from 3,080 young adult Australian twins (mean age 31.9 years) were used to assess ADHD symptoms, autistic traits, substance use, and substance use disorders. Substance use disorders-based on Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, criteria-were assessed in the full sample as well as in those who reported substance use. Logistic regression analyses were used for comparing the associations between ADHD symptoms, autistic traits, substance use, and substance misuse after conduct disorder, sex, age, and zygosity were controlled for. Greater ADHD symptoms and autistic traits scores were associated with elevated levels of regular smoking; cannabis use; and nicotine, alcohol, and cannabis use disorders, even after conduct disorder was adjusted for. In contrast, for alcohol use, those with high autistic traits scores were less likely to report drinking to intoxication. However, upon initiation, and similar to the findings for nicotine and cannabis, they were at elevated risk for developing alcohol dependence. Increased liability to ADHD and elevated autistic traits scores were associated with substance use and misuse, with the exception of alcohol use. Given the social underpinnings of drinking, persons with autistic traits may be less likely to engage in it; however, upon engagement in drinking, their vulnerability to alcohol dependence is elevated.

  16. Advancing Research to Inform Practice within Community "supporting interventions for young people and families’ affected by substance misuse"

    OpenAIRE

    Murray, Denis Dominic

    2017-01-01

    Issues and trends in relation to substance misuse normally develop in the transitional phase of adolescence, as young people begin looking towards their peers for direction and are less subject to parental authority (1.2). Risk factors are predictors of the likelihood that an individual or group will be involved in activity leading to adverse consequences. Research indicates that some young people are beginning to initiate alcohol and drug use earlier than many adults suspect (3). In relation...

  17. Alcohol and Suicide: Neurobiological and Clinical Aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leo Sher

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Alcohol, primarily in the form of ethyl alcohol (ethanol, has occupied an important place in the history of humankind for at least 8,000 years. In most Western societies, at least 90% of people consume alcohol at some time during their lives, and 30% or more of drinkers develop alcohol-related problems. Severe alcohol-related life impairment, alcohol dependence (alcoholism, is observed at some time during their lives in about 10% of men and 3—5% of women. An additional 5—10% of each sex develops persistent, but less intense, problems that are diagnosed as alcohol abuse. It this review, neurobiological aspects of suicidal behavior in alcoholism is discussed. In individuals with comorbid depression and alcoholism, greater serotonergic impairment may be associated with higher risk of completed suicide. Dopaminergic dysfunction may play an important role in the pathophysiology of suicidal behavior in alcoholism. Brain damage and neurobehavioral deficits are associated with alcohol use disorders and may contribute to suicidal behavior in persons with alcohol dependence or abuse. Aggression/impulsivity and alcoholism severity affect risk for suicide among individuals with alcoholism. Major depressive episodes and stressful life events particularly, partner-relationship disruptions, may precipitate suicidal behavior in individuals with alcohol use disorders. Alcohol misuse and psychosocial adversity can combine to increase stress on the person, and, thereby, potentially, increase the risk for suicidal behavior. The management of suicidal patients with alcohol use disorders is also discussed. It is to be hoped that the efforts of clinicians will reduce morbidity and mortality associated with alcohol misuse.

  18. The manipulation of alcohol-related interpretation biases by means of Cognitive Bias Modification - Interpretation (CBM-I)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Woud, M.L.; Hutschemaekers, M.H.M.; Rinck, M.; Becker, E.S.

    2015-01-01

    Background and objectives: There is a large body of evidence demonstrating that alcohol abuse and misuse is characterized by alcohol-related interpretation biases (IBs). The present study tested whether alcohol-related IBs can be trained, and whether this has an effect on alcohol-related

  19. Culture and alcohol use: historical and sociocultural themes from 75 years of alcohol research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, Felipe Gonzalez; Barrera, Manuel; Mena, Laura A; Aguirre, Katherine M

    2014-01-01

    For the period of almost 75 years, we examined the literature for studies regarding the influences of culture on alcohol use and misuse. This review is a chronology of research articles published from 1940 to 2013. From a structured literature search with select criteria, 38 articles were identified and 34 reviewed. This analysis revealed a progression across this period of research from studies that began as descriptive ethnographic evaluations of one or more indigenous societies or cultural groups, evolving to studies using complex multivariate models to test cross-cultural effects in two or more cultural groups. Major findings across this period include the assertions that (a) a function of alcohol use may be to reduce anxiety, (b) certain cultural groups possess features of alcohol use that are not associated with negative consequences, (c) the disruptive effects of acculturative change and the stressors of new demands are associated with an increase in alcohol consumption, (d) cultural groups shape expectations about the effects of alcohol use and their definition of drunkenness, and (e) the hypothesized relationships of culture with alcohol use and misuse have been demonstrated in multivariate model analyses. Across this 75-year period, the early proposition that culture is an important and prominent correlate of alcohol use and misuse has persisted. Within the current era of alcohol studies, this proposition has been supported by multivariate model analyses. Thus, the proposition that culture might affect alcohol use remains prominent and is as relevant today as it was when it was first proposed nearly 75 years ago.

  20. Attitudes of college students toward mental illness stigma and the misuse of psychiatric medications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, Amanda M; Merlo, Lisa J

    2011-02-01

    Mental illness stigma remains a significant barrier to treatment. However, the recent increase in the medical and nonmedical use of prescription psychiatric medications among college students seems to contradict this phenomenon. This study explored students' attitudes and experiences related to psychiatric medications, as well as correlates of psychiatric medication misuse (ie, attitudes toward mental illness and beliefs about the efficacy of psychiatric medications). Data were collected anonymously via self-report questionnaires from April 2008 to February 2009. Measures included the Michigan Alcoholism Screening Test, the Drug Abuse Screening Test, Day's Mental Illness Stigma Scale, the Attitudes Toward Psychiatric Medication scale, and the Psychiatric Medication Attitudes Scale. Participants included 383 university students (59.2% female), recruited on the campus of a large state university or through online classes offered through the same university. High rates of psychiatric medication misuse were shown (13.8%) when compared to rates of medical use (6.8%), and students with prescriptions for psychiatric drugs were also more likely to be misusers (χ(2) = 20.60, P mental illness, including lower anxiety around the mentally ill (t = 3.26, P mental illness (t = -2.11, P mental illness, the appropriate use of psychiatric medications, and the potential consequences associated with abuse of these potent drugs. © Copyright 2011 Physicians Postgraduate Press, Inc.

  1. Sleep driving: sleepwalking variant or misuse of z-drugs?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pressman, Mark R

    2011-10-01

    Sleep driving is most often classified as a variant of sleepwalking, but should be distinguished from impaired driving due to misuse or abuse of sedative/hypnotic drugs. Z-drugs; zolpidem and zopiclone in particular, have been associated with the majority of reported cases of impaired driving. Numerous studies have found z-drugs in driving under influence (DUI) related police stops, arrests and accidents. Impaired drivers are reported to have 1) blood levels of z-drugs that exceed therapeutic ranges 2) failed to take the medication at the correct time or remain in bed for sufficient time and/or 3) combined z-drugs with other central nervous system (CNS) depressants and/or alcohol. Consistent with CNS depression, z-drug-impaired drivers may demonstrate cognitive function at low levels with drivers still able to understand and respond to questions while sleepwalkers are completely unable to understand or interact with police. Z-drug-impaired drivers are often severely physically impaired, unable to stand up or maintain balance while sleepwalkers are able to stand and walk unaided. Sleep driving and impaired driving due to z-drugs may overlap. Sleep driving and drug-impaired driving are statistically rare events, but due to the billions of doses prescribed each year may still result in numerous DUI related arrests and accidents. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Adolescent Substance Misusers with and without Delinquency: Death, Mental and Physical Disorders, and Criminal Convictions from Age 21 to 45.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larm, Peter; Silva, Teresa C; Hodgins, Sheilagh

    2015-12-01

    Little is known about adult outcomes of males who as adolescents sought treatment for alcohol misuse or drug use, and who additionally were engaging or not engaging in other forms of delinquency. Since the rates of negative outcomes vary in the general population, the study determined whether the sub-groups of clinic attendees fared differently as compared to males of the same age who had not sought treatment for substance misuse from age 21 to 45. Adolescent males who consulted the only substance misuse clinic in a Swedish city between 1968 and 1971 were divided into four groups: ALCOHOL no drug use, no criminal offending (n=52); ALCOHOL+D no drug use, plus criminal offending (n=105); DRUG use, no criminal offending (n=92); and DRUG+D plus criminal offending (n=474). These four groups were compared to a general population sample (GP) of males matched on age and birthplace, who did not seek treatment for SM in adolescence. National Swedish registers provided data on death, hospitalizations for substance misuse (SM), mental and physical disorders, and criminal convictions. Compared to the GP, and after controlling for co-occurring adult outcomes, ALCOHOL showed elevated risks for SM hospitalization and convictions for violent crimes, and DRUG showed elevated risks for SM hospitalization, convictions for non-violent crimes, and hospitalization for psychosis. ALCOHOL+D and DRUG+D showed increased risk for SM hospitalization, violent and non-violent convictions, and DRUG+D additionally, for death, and hospitalizations for psychosis and physical illness. Misuse of alcohol without drug use or other delinquency in adolescence was associated with increased risk for convictions for violent crimes during the subsequent 25 years, in addition to SM, while adolescent drug use without other forms of delinquency was associated with increased risks for convictions for non-violent crimes, hospitalizations for SM, and non-affective psychosis. Cannabis use, with and without

  3. The role of alcohol and drugs in homicides in England and Wales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Jenny; Hunt, Isabelle M; Flynn, Sandra; Amos, Tim; Meehan, Janet; Robinson, Jo; Bickley, Harriet; Parsons, Rebecca; McCann, Kerry; Burns, James; Kapur, Nav; Appleby, Louis

    2006-08-01

    The annual number of homicide convictions in England and Wales is increasing. Previous studies have highlighted the aetiological role of alcohol and drugs in homicide. To examine rates of alcohol and drug misuse and dependence in people convicted of homicide; the role of alcohol and drugs in the offence; the social and clinical characteristics of alcohol- and drug-related homicides; and the social and clinical characteristics of patients with dual diagnosis who commit homicide. A national clinical survey based on a 3-year (1996-9) consecutive sample of people convicted of homicide in England and Wales. Information on rates of alcohol and drug misuse/dependence, the role of alcohol and drugs in the offence and social and clinical characteristics of perpetrators were collected from psychiatric reports prepared for the court in homicide convictions. Detailed clinical information was gathered from questionnaires completed by mental health teams for those in contact with mental health services. Of the 1594 homicide perpetrators, more than one-third (42%) occurred in people with a history of alcohol misuse or dependence and 40% in people with a history of drug misuse or dependence. Alcohol or drug misuse played a contributory role in two-fifths of homicides. Alcohol played a major role in 52 (6%) and a minor role in 364 (39%) homicides. Drugs played a major role in six (1%) and a minor role in 138 (14%) homicides. Forty-two homicides (17%) were committed by patients with severe mental illness and substance misuse. Alcohol- and drug-related homicides were generally associated with male perpetrators who had a history of violence, personality disorders, mental health service contact and with stranger victims. Substance misuse contributes to the majority of homicides in England and Wales. A public health approach to homicide would highlight alcohol and drugs before severe mental illness.

  4. Misuse Case Driven Development of Secure Information Sharing for Coalition Environment

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Baek, Seung S

    2007-01-01

    .... This thesis uses misuse cases to identify such misuses of a sharing system. We show that an appropriate distributed role-based access control model imposed upon information brokers can prevent enumerate misuse cases...

  5. Codeine misuse and dependence in South Africa – learning from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background. Misuse of prescription and over-the-counter codeine-containing products is a global public health issue. Objectives. To investigate the extent of treatment demand related to the misuse of codeine or codeine dependence in South Africa (SA) and the profile of patients seeking treatment, so as to understand the ...

  6. Knowledge, Attitude and Opinion of Drug Misuse and Abuse by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    identification, prevention and management of drug misuse and abuse. Results: A total number .... problem among families/friends, a little more than one-quarter of students ..... treatment of over-the-counter drug misuse and abuse in community ...

  7. 49 CFR 655.49 - Refusal to submit to a drug or alcohol test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Refusal to submit to a drug or alcohol test. 655... TRANSIT ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION PREVENTION OF ALCOHOL MISUSE AND PROHIBITED DRUG USE IN TRANSIT OPERATIONS Types of Testing § 655.49 Refusal to submit to a drug or alcohol test. (a) Each...

  8. 'Getting into the spirit': Alcohol-related interpretation bias in heavy-drinking students

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Woud, M.L.; Fitzgerald, D.A.; Wiers, R.W.; Rinck, M.; Becker, E.S.

    2012-01-01

    Alcohol misuse is characterized by patterns of selective information processing. The present study investigated whether heavy- compared with light-drinking students, show evidence of an alcohol-related interpretation bias to ambiguous, alcohol-related cues. Toward this aim, participants were asked

  9. Understanding and Confronting Alcohol-Induced Risky Behavior among College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dornier, Lucien J.; Fauquier, Katharine J.; Field, April R.; Budden, Michael C.

    2010-01-01

    Confronting alcohol abuse is a challenge for most higher education institutions. Each year, students are admitted to hospitals for issues arising from the misuse of alcohol. The deaths of some engaged in alcohol related activities is especially worrisome. Factors such as age and financial standing could impact the likelihood of abuse. So-called…

  10. Homelessness and drug misuse in developing countries: A mathematical approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhunu, C. P.

    2014-06-01

    Homelessness and drug-misuse are known to exist like siamese twins. We present a model to capture the dynamics in the growth in the number of homeless (street kids and street adults) and drug misusers. The reproduction numbers of the model are determined and analyzed. Results from this study suggests that adult peer pressure plays a more significant role in the growth of drug-misuse and the number of street kids. This result suggests that in resource constrained settings intervention strategies should be tailor made to target adults whose behaviour influence others to misuse drugs and abuse children. Furthermore, numerical simulations show that homelessness and drug-misuse positively enhances, the growth of each other. Thus, to effectively control these two social problems require strategies targeting both of them.

  11. Alcohol Alert

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of Alcohol Consumption Alcohol's Effects on the Body Alcohol Use Disorder Fetal Alcohol Exposure Support & Treatment Alcohol Policy Special ... 466 KB] No. 81: Exploring Treatment Options for Alcohol Use Disorders [ PDF - 539K] No. 80: Alcohol and HIV/AIDS: ...

  12. Video Analysis of Primary Shoulder Dislocations in Rugby Tackles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maki, Nobukazu; Kawasaki, Takayuki; Mochizuki, Tomoyuki; Ota, Chihiro; Yoneda, Takeshi; Urayama, Shingo; Kaneko, Kazuo

    2017-06-01

    Characteristics of rugby tackles that lead to primary anterior shoulder dislocation remain unclear. To clarify the characteristics of tackling that lead to shoulder dislocation and to assess the correlation between the mechanism of injury and morphological damage of the glenoid. Case series; Level of evidence, 4. Eleven elite rugby players who sustained primary anterior shoulder dislocation due to one-on-one tackling between 2001 and 2014 were included. Using an assessment system, the tackler's movement, posture, and shoulder and head position were evaluated in each phase of tackling. Based on 3-dimensional computed tomography, the glenoid of the affected shoulder was classified into 3 types: intact, erosion, and bone defect. Orientation of the glenoid defect and presence of Hill-Sachs lesion were also evaluated. Eleven tackles that led to primary shoulder dislocation were divided into hand, arm, and shoulder tackle types based on the site at which the tackler contacted the ball carrier initially. In hand and arm tackles, the tackler's shoulder joint was forcibly moved to horizontal abduction by the impact of his upper limb, which appeared to result from an inappropriate approach to the ball carrier. In shoulder tackles, the tackler's head was lowered and was in front of the ball carrier at impact. There was no significant correlation between tackle types and the characteristics of bony lesions of the shoulder. Although the precise mechanism of primary anterior shoulder dislocation could not be estimated from this single-view analysis, failure of individual tackling leading to injury is not uniform and can be caused by 2 main factors: failure of approach followed by an extended arm position or inappropriate posture of the tackler at impact, such as a lowered head in front of the opponent. These findings indicate that injury mechanisms should be assessed for each type of tackle, as it is unknown whether external force to the glenoid is different in each mechanism

  13. Meat Consumption During Pregnancy and Substance Misuse Among Adolescent Offspring: Stratification of TCN2 Genetic Variants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hibbeln, Joseph R; SanGiovanni, John Paul; Golding, Jean; Emmett, Pauline M; Northstone, Kate; Davis, John M; Schuckit, Marc; Heron, Jon

    2017-11-01

    Reducing meat consumption is often advised; however, inadvertent nutritional deficiencies during pregnancy may result in residual neurodevelopmental harms to offspring. This study assessed possible effects of maternal diets in pregnancy on adverse substance use among adolescent offspring. Pregnant women and their 13-year-old offspring taking part in a prospective birth cohort study, the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC), provided Food Frequency Questionnaire data from which dietary patterns were derived using principal components analysis. Multivariable logistic regression models including potential confounders evaluated adverse alcohol, cannabis, and tobacco use of the children at 15 years of age. Lower maternal meat consumption was associated with greater problematic substance use among 15-year-old offspring in dose-response patterns. Comparing never to daily meat consumption after adjustment, risks were greater for all categories of problem substance use: alcohol, odds ratio OR = 1.75, 95% CI = (1.23, 2.56), p meat consumption disproportionally increased the risks of offspring substance misuse among mothers with optimally functional (homozygous) variants (rs1801198) of the gene transcobalamin 2 gene (TCN2) which encodes the vitamin B12 transport protein transcobalamin 2 implicating a causal role for cobalamin deficits. Functional maternal variants in iron metabolism were unrelated to the adverse substance use. Risks potentially attributable to cobalamin deficits during pregnancy include adverse adolescent alcohol, cannabis, and tobacco use (14, 37, and 23, respectively). Lower prenatal meat consumption was associated with increased risks of adolescent substance misuse. Interactions between TCN2 variant status and meat intake implicate cobalamin deficiencies. Copyright © 2017 by the Research Society on Alcoholism.

  14. Substance use and misuse in the Croatian Army Special Forces: prevalence and influencing factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damir Sekulic

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: In addition to being a serious health-hazard, substance-use-and-misuse (SUM in military forces negatively infl uences physical fi tness and army readiness. The aim of this study was to defi ne the prevalence of SUM, which includes cigarette smoking, alcohol consumption, and multiple SUM (i.e. practice of daily smoking and harmful alcohol drinking, and factors infl uencing SUM in the Croatian Special Army Forces (SAF. Materials and Methods: We studied 73 SAF members. A self-administered validated questionnaire was used to gather socio-demographic and military-professionrelated data, and SUM factors. The associations between studied variables were established by the Chi2 test, and forward conditional logistic regression (FCLR. Results: With less than 40% of daily smokers, smoking was within expected values. Almost 80% of the examinees reported no binge drinking, while 54% reported harmful drinking according to the Alcohol Use Disorders Identifi cation Test scale. Paternity and education level were negatively associated with daily smoking, while higher incidence of daily smoking was found for privates and those who practiced harmful drinking (all at p < 0.05. The FCLR demonstrated a higher risk of harmful alcohol consumption for younger commissioned offi cers (OR for military rank = 5.54, 95% CI: 2.19-13.99; OR for age = 0.85, 95% CI: 0.76-0.95. Conclusion: Although SUM incidence was not alarming compared to the overall population and the previously reported military data, additional efforts are necessary in order to decrease cigarette consumption. The study showed that protective/risk structure of the substance misuse in the military should be investigated specifi cally with regard to particular military services, corps, and socio-cultural environment.

  15. Malaysia urges ASEAN to tackle AIDS crisis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-08-07

    Urgent action is needed to fight the alarming spread of HIV/AIDS that infected 1.3 million people in Southeast Asia last year alone, Malaysia's foreign minister said July 24, 2000. Syed Hamid said the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) should tackle at regional and national level an epidemic that was taking its most drastic toll among the region's youth. "HIV/AIDS not only represents a major public health and social problem but is a serious challenge to development as well," Syed Hamid told the opening ceremony of ASEAN's 33rd annual foreign ministers' meeting. The crisis requires commitment at the "highest political level," he said, warning that HIV/AIDS could become a transnational problem within the 10-member group. Foreign ministers have recommended their leaders discuss the crisis later this year at an informal summit in Singapore and hold a summit on HIV/AIDS in conjunction with the 7th ASEAN Summit in Brunei next year. "I think people recognized the importance and the adverse impacts on our social development," Syed Hamid told reporters later. "I think it is a real issue that we cannot run away from." Among ASEAN members, Thailand, Cambodia, and Myanmar have some of the highest infection rates in Asia of HIV, the virus that causes AIDS. full text

  16. Tackling obesity requires efficient government policies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecchini Michele

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Changes in food supply and eating habits, combined with a dramatic fall in physical activity, have made obesity a global epidemic. Across OECD countries, one in two adults is currently overweight and one in six is obese. Children have not been spared, with up to one in three currently overweight. Obese people are more likely to develop diseases such as diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and cancer, and have a shorter life expectancy than people of normal weight. A prevention strategy combining health promotion campaigns, government regulation, counseling of individuals at risk in primary care, and paying special attention to the most vulnerable, would enhance population health at an affordable cost, with likely beneficial effects on health inequalities. Failure to implement such a strategy would impose heavy burdens on future generations. The new IJHPR paper by Ginsberg and Rosenberg illustrates how particular countries can assess alternative strategies for tackling obesity in a rigorous fashion. This is a commentary on http://www.ijhpr.org/content/1/1/17/

  17. Childhood socioeconomic status and longitudinal patterns of alcohol problems: Variation across etiological pathways in genetic risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barr, Peter B; Silberg, Judy; Dick, Danielle M; Maes, Hermine H

    2018-05-14

    Childhood socioeconomic status (SES) is an important aspect of early life environment associated with later life health/health behaviors, including alcohol misuse. However, alcohol misuse is modestly heritable and involves differing etiological pathways. Externalizing disorders show significant genetic overlap with substance use, suggesting an impulsivity pathway to alcohol misuse. Alcohol misuse also overlaps with internalizing disorders, suggesting alcohol is used to cope. These differing pathways could lead to different patterns over time and/or differential susceptibility to environmental conditions, such as childhood SES. We examine whether: 1) genetic risk for externalizing and internalizing disorders influence trajectories of alcohol problems across adolescence to adulthood, 2) childhood SES alters genetic risk these disorders on trajectories of alcohol problems, and 3) these patterns are consistent across sex. We find modest evidence of gene-environment interaction. Higher childhood SES increases the risk of alcohol problems in late adolescence/early adulthood, while lower childhood SES increases the risk of alcohol problems in later adulthood, but only among males at greater genetic risk of externalizing disorders. Females from lower SES families with higher genetic risk of internalizing or externalizing disorders have greater risk of developing alcohol problems. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Is urbanization a risk factor for substance misuse?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schifano, Fabrizio

    2008-07-01

    More than half of the world's population is living in urban areas, but the evidence about urban-rural differences in drug use is not clearly defined. The present paper aims to review the international literature addressing the role of urbanization and related parameters in association with substance misuse. In particular, the evidence of urbanization being a risk factor for substance misuse is examined. Although it has been suggested that substance misuse is typically a characteristic of large urban areas, this did not appear to be a consistent observation from the literature review. Furthermore, the urban context may offer a relative proximity of health services and prompter emergency intervention in case of overdose. Although more efforts have to be put into explaining substance misuse in general, identifying which characteristics of the urban context are modifiable, and under what circumstances, is an important theoretical, empirical, and public health question.

  19. Alcohol Expectancies Mediate and Moderate the Associations between Big Five Personality Traits and Adolescent Alcohol Consumption and Alcohol-Related Problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibáñez, Manuel I; Camacho, Laura; Mezquita, Laura; Villa, Helena; Moya-Higueras, Jorge; Ortet, Generós

    2015-01-01

    Personality and expectancies are relevant psychological factors for the development of adolescent alcohol use and misuse. The present study examined their direct, mediated and moderated effects on different drinking behaviors in adolescence. Personality domains of the five-factor model, positive and negative alcohol expectancies (AEs), alcohol use during the week and the weekend, and alcohol-related problems were assessed in a sample of 361 adolescents. Different personality dimensions were directly associated with specific alcohol outcomes: Extraversion, low Conscientiousness and low Openness were associated with weekend alcohol use; low Agreeableness was related to weekday use; whereas low Agreeableness, low Conscientiousness and Extraversion were associated with alcohol-related problems. In addition, positive AEs mediated the relationship between Extraversion and alcohol use, whereas both positive and negative expectancies mediated the association between Neuroticism and alcohol consumption and alcohol-related problems. Finally, both types of expectancies interacted with Extraversion to predict alcohol problems. Our results highlight the importance of examining the complex interplay of comprehensive personality models and AEs to gain a better understanding of the development of different alcohol use and misuse patterns in adolescence.

  20. Impulsivity and alcohol demand in relation to combined alcohol and caffeine use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amlung, Michael; Few, Lauren R; Howland, Jonathan; Rohsenow, Damaris J; Metrik, Jane; MacKillop, James

    2013-12-01

    Problematic alcohol use among college students continues to be a prominent concern in the United States, including the growing trend of consuming caffeinated alcoholic beverages (CABs). Epidemiologically, CAB use is associated with incremental risks from drinking, although these relationships could be due to common predisposing factors rather than specifically due to CABs. This study investigated the relationship between CAB use, alcohol misuse, and person-level characteristics, including impulsive personality traits, delayed reward discounting, and behavioral economic demand for alcohol use. Participants were 273 regularly drinking undergraduate students. Frequency of CAB use was assessed over the past month. A multidimensional assessment of impulsivity included the UPPS-P questionnaire, which measures positive and negative urgency, premeditation (lack thereof), perseverance (lack thereof), and sensation seeking (Lynam, Smith, Whiteside, & Cyders, 2007), and a validated questionnaire-based measure of delayed reward discounting. Demand was assessed via a hypothetical alcohol purchase task. Frequency of CAB consumption was significantly higher in men than in women and was also associated with higher impulsivity on the majority of the UPPS-P subscales, steeper delayed reward discounting, and greater demand for alcohol. Significant correlations between CAB use and both alcohol demand and lack of premeditation remained present after including level of alcohol misuse in partial correlations. In a hierarchical linear regression incorporating demographic, demand, and impulsivity variables, CAB frequency continued to be a significant predictor of hazardous alcohol use. These results suggest that although there are significant associations between CAB consumption and gender, impulsivity, and alcohol demand, CAB use continues to be associated with alcohol misuse after controlling for these variables.

  1. Powdered alcohol: Awareness and likelihood of use among a sample of college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vail-Smith, Karen; Chaney, Beth H; Martin, Ryan J; Don Chaney, J

    2016-01-01

    In March 2015, the Alcohol and Tobacco Tax and Trade Bureau approved the sale of Palcohol, the first powdered alcohol product to be marketed and sold in the U.S. Powdered alcohol is freeze-dried, and one individual-serving size packet added to 6 ounces of liquid is equivalent to a standard drink. This study assessed awareness of powered alcohol and likelihood to use and/or misuse powdered alcohol among college students. Surveys were administered to a convenience sample of 1,841 undergraduate students. Only 16.4% of respondents had heard of powdered alcohol. After being provided a brief description of powdered alcohol, 23% indicated that they would use the product if available, and of those, 62.1% also indicated likelihood of misusing the product (eg, snorting it, mixing it with alcohol). Caucasian students (OR = 1.5) and hazardous drinkers (based on AUDIT-C scores; OR = 4.7) were significantly more likely to indicate likelihood of use. Hazardous drinkers were also six times more likely to indicate likelihood to misuse the product. These findings can inform upstream prevention efforts in states debating bans on powdered alcohol. In states where powdered alcohol will soon be available, alcohol education initiatives should be updated to include information on the potential risks of use and be targeted to those populations most likely to misuse. This is the first peer-reviewed study to assess the awareness of and likelihood to use and/or misuse powdered alcohol, a potentially emerging form of alcohol. © American Academy of Addiction Psychiatry.

  2. Prevalence of psoriasis in patients with alcoholic liver disease.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Tobin, A M

    2012-02-01

    BACKGROUND: Excessive alcohol use has been implicated as a risk factor in the development of psoriasis, particularly in men. Despite this, little is known of the incidence or prevalence of psoriasis in patients who misuse alcohol. OBJECTIVE: To assess the prevalence of psoriasis in patients with alcoholic liver disease. METHODS: In total, 100 patients with proven alcoholic liver disease were surveyed for a history of psoriasis and a full skin examination was performed if relevant. RESULTS: Of the 100 patients, 15 reported a history of psoriasis and another 8 had evidence of current activity, suggesting a prevalence (past or present) of 15% in this group of patients. CONCLUSION: It would appear that the prevalence of psoriasis in patients who misuse alcohol is much higher than the 1-3% variously quoted in the general population.

  3. Tackle-injury epidemiology in koshuis rugby players at Stellenbosch ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Literature has shown a positive relationship with increased frequency of tackles and ... is redistributed between them at impact. Speed differentiation ..... should be accompanied by video analysis. Our current injury ... Laws of the game. Ireland:.

  4. Momentum and Kinetic Energy Before the Tackle in Rugby Union

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendricks, Sharief; Karpul, David; Lambert, Mike

    2014-01-01

    Understanding the physical demands of a tackle in match situations is important for safe and effective training, developing equipment and research. Physical components such as momentum and kinetic energy, and it relationship to tackle outcome is not known. The aim of this study was to compare momenta between ball-carrier and tackler, level of play (elite, university and junior) and position (forwards vs. backs), and describe the relationship between ball-carrier and tackler mass, velocity and momentum and the tackle outcome. Also, report on the ball-carrier and tackler kinetic energy before contact and the estimated magnitude of impact (energy distributed between ball-carrier and tackler upon contact). Velocity over 0.5 seconds before contact was determined using a 2-dimensional scaled version of the field generated from a computer alogorithm. Body masses of players were obtained from their player profiles. Momentum and kinetic energy were subsequently calculated for 60 tackle events. Ball-carriers were heavier than the tacklers (ball-carrier 100 ± 14 kg vs. tackler 93 ± 11 kg, d = 0.52, p = 0.0041, n = 60). Ball-carriers as forwards had a significantly higher momentum than backs (forwards 563 ± 226 Kg.m.s-1 n = 31 vs. backs 438 ± 135 Kg.m.s-1, d = 0.63, p = 0.0012, n = 29). Tacklers dominated 57% of tackles and ball-carriers dominated 43% of tackles. Despite the ball-carrier having a mass advantage before contact more frequently than the tackler, momentum advantage and tackle dominance between the ball-carrier and tackler was proportionally similar. These findings may reflect a characteristic of the modern game of rugby where efficiently heavier players (particularly forwards) are tactically predetermined to carry the ball in contact. Key Points First study to quantify momentum, kinetic energy, and magnitude of impact in rugby tackles across different levels in matches without a device attached to a player. Physical components alone, of either ball-carrier or

  5. Momentum and kinetic energy before the tackle in rugby union.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendricks, Sharief; Karpul, David; Lambert, Mike

    2014-09-01

    Understanding the physical demands of a tackle in match situations is important for safe and effective training, developing equipment and research. Physical components such as momentum and kinetic energy, and it relationship to tackle outcome is not known. The aim of this study was to compare momenta between ball-carrier and tackler, level of play (elite, university and junior) and position (forwards vs. backs), and describe the relationship between ball-carrier and tackler mass, velocity and momentum and the tackle outcome. Also, report on the ball-carrier and tackler kinetic energy before contact and the estimated magnitude of impact (energy distributed between ball-carrier and tackler upon contact). Velocity over 0.5 seconds before contact was determined using a 2-dimensional scaled version of the field generated from a computer alogorithm. Body masses of players were obtained from their player profiles. Momentum and kinetic energy were subsequently calculated for 60 tackle events. Ball-carriers were heavier than the tacklers (ball-carrier 100 ± 14 kg vs. tackler 93 ± 11 kg, d = 0.52, p = 0.0041, n = 60). Ball-carriers as forwards had a significantly higher momentum than backs (forwards 563 ± 226 Kg(.)m(.)s(-1) n = 31 vs. backs 438 ± 135 Kg(.)m(.)s(-1), d = 0.63, p = 0.0012, n = 29). Tacklers dominated 57% of tackles and ball-carriers dominated 43% of tackles. Despite the ball-carrier having a mass advantage before contact more frequently than the tackler, momentum advantage and tackle dominance between the ball-carrier and tackler was proportionally similar. These findings may reflect a characteristic of the modern game of rugby where efficiently heavier players (particularly forwards) are tactically predetermined to carry the ball in contact. Key PointsFirst study to quantify momentum, kinetic energy, and magnitude of impact in rugby tackles across different levels in matches without a device attached to a player.Physical components alone, of either ball

  6. Development of a rational scale to assess the harm of drugs of potential misuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nutt, David; King, Leslie A; Saulsbury, William; Blakemore, Colin

    2007-03-24

    Drug misuse and abuse are major health problems. Harmful drugs are regulated according to classification systems that purport to relate to the harms and risks of each drug. However, the methodology and processes underlying classification systems are generally neither specified nor transparent, which reduces confidence in their accuracy and undermines health education messages. We developed and explored the feasibility of the use of a nine-category matrix of harm, with an expert delphic procedure, to assess the harms of a range of illicit drugs in an evidence-based fashion. We also included five legal drugs of misuse (alcohol, khat, solvents, alkyl nitrites, and tobacco) and one that has since been classified (ketamine) for reference. The process proved practicable, and yielded roughly similar scores and rankings of drug harm when used by two separate groups of experts. The ranking of drugs produced by our assessment of harm differed from those used by current regulatory systems. Our methodology offers a systematic framework and process that could be used by national and international regulatory bodies to assess the harm of current and future drugs of abuse.

  7. Stigma of mental illness and substance misuse in sub-Saharan African migrants: A qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCann, Terence V; Renzaho, Andre; Mugavin, Janette; Lubman, Dan I

    2018-06-01

    Stigma of mental illness and substance misuse can deter help seeking, especially in immigrants who are often reluctant to seek help early for these issues. The aim of the present study was to explore the stigma experience surrounding mental illness and substance misuse, and its implications for improving help seeking, for youths and parents from sub-Saharan African immigrant communities. A qualitative, descriptive design was used. Individual interviews were undertaken with 28 youths, and focus group discussions were held with 41 parents and community leaders in Melbourne, Australia. The findings indicated that public stigma and self-stigma were common and deterred participants' help seeking within sub-Saharan African communities. There was concern about the consequences of disclosure. Personal shame, fear of community rejection, and being labelled a 'lunatic' deterred help seeking. Programmes are needed to address stigma, promote help seeking, and increase mental health knowledge. Mental health nurses and other clinicians in the mental health and alcohol and other drug fields can make an important contribution. Steps are needed to employ more sub-Saharan African immigrant clinicians to help increase help seeking from their communities. © 2017 Australian College of Mental Health Nurses Inc.

  8. Substance misuse and substance use disorders in sex offenders: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraanen, Fleur L; Emmelkamp, Paul M G

    2011-04-01

    Substance abuse has often been associated with committing sex offenses. In this article, the following will be reviewed: 1) studies that assessed substance abuse in sex offenders; 2) differences in substance abuse among different types of sex offenders; 3) differences in substance abuse between sex offenders and nonsexual offenders and substance abuse in the normal population; 4) sex offenders' intoxication at the time of the offense; and 5) differences in intoxication at the time of the offense among different types of sex offenders. Studies will be discussed according to the method they used to assess substance abuse, i.e., file research, screening instruments or semi-structured interviews. This review shows that about half of the sex offenders has a history of substance abuse, a quarter to half of the sex offenders has a history of alcohol misuse and that about one fifth to a quarter of the sex offenders has a history of drug misuse. Furthermore, about a quarter to half of the sex offenders appeared to be intoxicated at the time of the offense. The review results in recommendations for future research. Because of the high prevalence of substance abuse in sex offenders it is advisable to routinely screen for substance abuse and, if necessary, to treat substance abuse. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Perceived empowerment in people with a dual diagnosis of schizophrenia spectrum disorder and substance misuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berry, Katherine; Allott, Rory; Emsley, Richard; Ennion, Sarah; Barrowclough, Christine

    2014-03-01

    The aims of the present study were to validate a measure of empowerment in a British population of people with a dual diagnosis of schizophrenia and substance misuse and assess relationships between empowerment and other key outcomes. Patients participating in a large randomised control trial for Motivational Interviewing for Drug and Alcohol misuse in Schizophrenia or psychosis (MIDAS trial) completed measures of empowerment, symptoms, global functioning and substance use at baseline, 12- and 24-month follow-ups. A three factor model of empowerment: self-efficacy and control; power and anger; and activism provided the best fit of the data across all three time points. There was some evidence of associations between empowerment and both symptoms and global functioning, although these associations were not consistent across subscales. Changes in empowerment predicted changes in symptoms and functioning at follow-up. Empowerment is a broadly defined construct and its meaning may differ across different populations of people with severe and enduring mental health problems. Empowerment is a key component of recovery and should be assessed in treatments in addition to more traditional outcome measures of symptoms and functioning.

  10. Orosensory responsiveness and alcohol behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thibodeau, Margaret; Bajec, Martha; Pickering, Gary

    2017-08-01

    Consumption of alcoholic beverages is widespread through much of the world, and significantly impacts human health and well-being. We sought to determine the contribution of orosensation ('taste') to several alcohol intake measures by examining general responsiveness to taste and somatosensory stimuli in a convenience sample of 435 adults recruited from six cohorts. Each cohort was divided into quantiles based on their responsiveness to sweet, sour, bitter, salty, umami, metallic, and astringent stimuli, and the resulting quantiles pooled for analysis (Kruskal-Wallis ANOVA). Responsiveness to bitter and astringent stimuli was associated in a non-linear fashion with intake of all alcoholic beverage types, with the highest consumption observed in middle quantiles. Sourness responsiveness tended to be inversely associated with all measures of alcohol consumption. Regardless of sensation, the most responsive quantiles tended to drink less, although sweetness showed little relationship between responsiveness and intake. For wine, increased umami and metallic responsiveness tended to predict lower total consumption and frequency. A limited examination of individuals who abstain from all alcohol indicated a tendency toward higher responsiveness than alcohol consumers to sweetness, sourness, bitterness, and saltiness (biserial correlation), suggesting that broadly-tuned orosensory responsiveness may be protective against alcohol use and possibly misuse. Overall, these findings confirm the importance of orosensory responsiveness in mediating consumption of alcohol, and indicate areas for further research. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  11. [Madrid study on the prevalence and characteristics of outpatients with dual pathology in community mental health and substance misuse services].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arias, Francisco; Szerman, Nestor; Vega, Pablo; Mesias, Beatriz; Basurte, Ignacio; Morant, Consuelo; Ochoa, Enriqueta; Poyo, Félix; Babín, Francisco

    2013-01-01

    The objective was to quantify the prevalence of dual diagnosis and to evaluate the characteristics of these patients from community mental health and substance misuse services in Madrid. The sample consisted of 837 outpatients from Madrid, 208 from mental health services and 629 from substance misuse services. We used the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI) and Personality Disorder Questionnaire (PDQ4+) to evaluate disorders from axis I and II. It was considered that 517 (61.8%) patients had dual pathology (current diagnoses of axis I or II disorders and an addictive disorder): 36,1% in mental health services and 70,3% in substance misuse services. There were fewer males amongst the dual patients and it was also found that they had a worse employment situation, along with higher figures of alcohol and cannabis dependence than addicts without dual diagnoses (n=194). When comparing them with patients with mental disorder diagnoses only, excluding substance use disorder (n=126), there were differences in all socio-demographic characteristics analyzed, and dual patients were associated with diagnoses of bipolar disorder, agoraphobia, generalized anxiety disorder, post-traumatic stress disorder, and had more suicide risk and different personality disorders. Thus, dual pathology is higher in patients who are in treatment and have differential characteristics (higher suicide risk, worse employment situation) that suggest greater severity that could be of help in the planning of care resource policies for these patients.

  12. Study of morbidity in persons subjected to combined effect of low dose irradiation and alcohol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mashneva, N.I.; Zakharov, A.A.

    1990-01-01

    Materials related to study of morbidity in persons from one of the controled areas subjected to combined effect of low dose ionizing radiation and alcohol are presented. The group under control included persons living in the same area but not misusing alcohol. The morbidity analysis for the period of two years before the accident showed that the number of morbidity cases and days characterized by incapacity for work among 100 working persons was 1.2 and 1.35 times higher as compared to persons not misusing alcohol. Two years after the accident these values constitute 1.6 and 1.75 correspondingly. It is established on the basis of the dispensary examnations, that taking into account other equal conditions the number of morbidity cases related to cardiovasular deseases among the persons misusing alcohol increased (11 % against 6.8 % bycontrol). The number of other chronic morbidity cases does not differ from control values. 7 refs.; 2 tabs

  13. Momentum and Kinetic Energy Before the Tackle in Rugby Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharief Hendricks, David Karpul, Mike Lambert

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Understanding the physical demands of a tackle in match situations is important for safe and effective training, developing equipment and research. Physical components such as momentum and kinetic energy, and it relationship to tackle outcome is not known. The aim of this study was to compare momenta between ball-carrier and tackler, level of play (elite, university and junior and position (forwards vs. backs, and describe the relationship between ball-carrier and tackler mass, velocity and momentum and the tackle outcome. Also, report on the ball-carrier and tackler kinetic energy before contact and the estimated magnitude of impact (energy distributed between ball-carrier and tackler upon contact. Velocity over 0.5 seconds before contact was determined using a 2-dimensional scaled version of the field generated from a computer alogorithm. Body masses of players were obtained from their player profiles. Momentum and kinetic energy were subsequently calculated for 60 tackle events. Ball-carriers were heavier than the tacklers (ball-carrier 100 ± 14 kg vs. tackler 93 ± 11 kg, d = 0.52, p = 0.0041, n = 60. Ball-carriers as forwards had a significantly higher momentum than backs (forwards 563 ± 226 Kg.m.s-1 n = 31 vs. backs 438 ± 135 Kg.m.s-1, d = 0.63, p = 0.0012, n = 29. Tacklers dominated 57% of tackles and ball-carriers dominated 43% of tackles. Despite the ball-carrier having a mass advantage before contact more frequently than the tackler, momentum advantage and tackle dominance between the ball-carrier and tackler was proportionally similar. These findings may reflect a characteristic of the modern game of rugby where efficiently heavier players (particularly forwards are tactically predetermined to carry the ball in contact.

  14. Sleep Quality and Alcohol Risk in College Students: Examining the Moderating Effects of Drinking Motives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenney, Shannon R.; Paves, Andrew P.; Grimaldi, Elizabeth M.; LaBrie, Joseph W.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Sleep problems and alcohol misuse are common issues experienced by college students that can have detrimental effects on overall health. Previous work indicates a strong relationship between poor sleep quality and alcohol risk in this population. This study explored the moderating effect of drinking motives in the relationship between…

  15. Influence of Sports' Programs and Club Activities on Alcohol Use Intentions and Behaviors among Adolescent Males

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leaver-Dunn, Deidre; Turner, Lori; Newman, Brian M.

    2007-01-01

    In the United States, more than 70 percent of all deaths among youth and young adults each year are related to four causes: motor vehicle crashes, other unintentional injuries, homicide, and suicide. Alcohol misuse and abuse contribute to each of these behaviors. Alcohol is the most frequently consumed mind-altering substance among…

  16. Development of an Instrument to Assess Parent-College Child Communication Regarding Alcohol Use Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaney, Beth H.; Cremeens, Jennifer

    2013-01-01

    Background: Past research suggests that parent-child communication can serve as protective factors to reduce alcohol misuse among college-aged children. Purpose: This article presents the methodology used and preliminary findings for developing and validating an instrument to assess parent-college student communication regarding alcohol use.…

  17. Antibiotic misuse in the community--a contributor to resistance?

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Carey, B

    2012-02-03

    The problem of antibiotic resistance is associated with the indiscriminate usage of antibiotics. Efforts have been directed at encouraging the rational use of these drugs to reduce the volume of antibiotic consumption and decrease resistance rates. There is evidence to suggest that the misuse of antibiotics by patients may also contribute to the problem. We describe a survey of a random selection of patients attending a General Practitioners\\' surgery over a six week period in an effort to estimate the level of non-compliance to antibiotic therapy in the community. The results suggest that there may be a significant level of antibiotic misuse prevalent in the local community. We discuss these results and present evidence in the literature suggesting how antibiotic misuse may affect resistance in the community. The factors affecting patient compliance to therapy are outlined along with suggested measures to improve compliance among patients.

  18. There has been little progress in implementing comprehensive alcohol control strategies in Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peer, Nasheeta

    2017-11-01

    Alcohol is the most common substance of addiction and a threat not only to health but also to sustainable human development. Consequently, at least a 10% relative reduction in the harmful use of alcohol has been advocated by the World Health Organization (WHO). This perspective describes alcohol use in Africa, strategies to reduce harmful alcohol use, and the ability of African countries to meet this target. Although alcohol consumption in Africa was intermediate compared to other world regions, the total alcohol per capita among alcohol consumers was the second highest (19.5 liters); 19% of Sub-Saharan African men could be classified as binge drinkers. The alcohol industry is the key driver behind the uptake of alcohol use and misuse. The most cost-effective ways to reduce alcohol-related harm is to make alcohol less available and more expensive and to prohibit alcohol advertising. Most African countries have alcohol excise taxes, but these are not adjusted for inflation, meaning that the effectiveness of these taxes will likely decrease with time, leading to greater affordability. The majority of African countries do not have legally binding regulations for alcohol marketing. Alcohol misuse in Africa is not being addressed at a time when available strategies can efficiently and cost-effectively control alcohol-related harm.

  19. Access to environmental reward mediates the relation between posttraumatic stress symptoms and alcohol problems and craving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acuff, Samuel F; Luciano, Matthew T; Soltis, Kathryn E; Joyner, Keanan J; McDevitt-Murphy, Meghan; Murphy, James G

    2018-04-01

    Symptoms of posttraumatic stress (PTS) show significant comorbidity with alcohol use, but little is known about the mechanisms that might account for this comorbidity. Deficits in reward functioning have long been implicated in alcohol misuse and more recently in PTS reactions, but no study has examined whether reward deprivation may serve as a transdiagnostic risk factor for comorbid PTS-alcohol misuse. The current cross-sectional study sought to test the behavioral economic hypothesis that reward deprivation would be related to both PTS symptoms and alcohol problems, and would mediate the relation between PTS symptoms and alcohol problems in college students. We recruited a diverse sample of urban college students (N = 203, M age = 21.5 years, SD = 5.5; 79.5% female; 56.8% White, 28.1% Black, .9% Asian, 9.8% Multiracial) who endorsed both alcohol use and PTS symptoms. Reward deprivation (lack of access to, and ability to, experience reward) was related to alcohol problems, and a lack of access to reward was related to PTS symptoms. Furthermore, reward access mediated the relation between PTS symptoms and alcohol problems and craving, after controlling for alcohol use, age, gender, and race. These data provide preliminary support for behavioral economic models of alcohol comorbidity and suggest that treatments for combined PTS and alcohol misuse should attempt to reduce barriers to accessing natural rewards. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  20. The prevalence of alcohol consumption among undergraduates of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The prevalence of alcohol consumption among undergraduates of Imo State University Owerri, Nigeria. ... The health and social effects are so enormous as it predisposes to, and ... with friends and 15% to cool off tension in times of anxiety or depression. ... Keywords: Beer, consequences, friends, intake, misuse, students ...

  1. Over-the-counter and prescription medicine misuse in Cape Town ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Results. OTC and prescription medicine misuse places a burden on health and social services in South Africa. This is ... benzodiazepine misuse is psychological and physiological ... one of two categories: opioid analgesics (e.g. morphine and.

  2. 78 FR 14701 - Misuse of Internet Protocol (IP) Captioned Telephone Service; Telecommunications Relay Services...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-07

    ...] Misuse of Internet Protocol (IP) Captioned Telephone Service; Telecommunications Relay Services and..., the information collection associated with the Commission's Misuse of Internet Protocol (IP) Captioned...- 2235075, or email [email protected] . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: This document announces that, on...

  3. Using crowdsourcing to examine behavioral economic measures of alcohol value and proportionate alcohol reinforcement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Vanessa; Amlung, Michael; Kaplan, Brent A; Reed, Derek D; Petker, Tashia; MacKillop, James

    2017-08-01

    Online crowdsourcing websites such as Amazon's Mechanical Turk (MTurk) are increasingly being used in addictions research. However, there is a relative paucity of such research examining the validity of administering behavioral economic alcohol-related measures, via an online crowdsourcing platform. This study sought to validate an alcohol purchase task (APT) for assessing demand and a questionnaire measure of proportionate alcohol reinforcement, using an online sample of participants recruited via MTurk. Participants (N = 865, 59% female) were recruited via MTurk to complete the APT, proportionate alcohol reinforcement questionnaire, Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT), and demographics. Responses on the APT were highly systematic (crowdsourcing websites for investigating behavioral economic determinants of alcohol misuse. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  4. Tackling bogus self-employment: some lessons from Romania

    OpenAIRE

    Williams, C.C.; Horodnic, I.A.

    2017-01-01

    In recent years, recognition that bogus self-employment is rapidly growing, not least because of the advent of what has been called the ‘gig,’ ‘sharing’ or ‘collaborative’ economy, has led governments to search for ways to tackle this form of dependent self-employment that is widely viewed as diminishing the quality of working conditions. Until now, however, there have been few ex-post evaluations of policy initiatives that seek to tackle this phenomenon. Therefore, the aim of this paper is t...

  5. Prevalence and Correlates of Stimulant Medication Misuse among the Collegiate Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prosek, Elizabeth A.; Giordano, Amanda L.; Turner, Kori D.; Bevly, Cynthia M.; Reader, Emily A.; LeBlanc, Yvette; Molina, Citlali E.; Vera, Ryan A.; Garber, Sage Ann

    2018-01-01

    Misuse of stimulant medication is pervasive among college students. In this study, we surveyed undergraduate college students (N = 3,038) at a large-sized Southwestern university. We examined unique characteristics of students misusing stimulant medication with a prescription (n = 74) and those misusing without a prescription (n = 356). Both…

  6. Weaved into the cultural fabric: a qualitative exploration of alcohol consumption during pregnancy among tribal women in Odisha, India

    OpenAIRE

    Pati, Sanghamitra; Chauhan, Abhimanyu Singh; Mahapatra, Pranab; Hansdah, Devraj; Sahoo, Krushna Chandra; Pati, Sandipana

    2018-01-01

    Background Evidence-based research has documented the association between alcohol intake during pregnancy and increased risk of miscarriage, stillbirth and congenital birth defects. Alcohol consumption is a complex behavior whose origins lay in cultural norms and the social structure. In tribal communities in India, alcohol misuse among women is a public health problem. This study is intended to explore perceptions and beliefs among tribal women and the community towards alcohol consumption d...

  7. 22 CFR 1203.735-208 - Misuse of information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Misuse of information. 1203.735-208 Section 1203.735-208 Foreign Relations UNITED STATES INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT COOPERATION AGENCY EMPLOYEE... or in connection with Government employment which has not been made available to the general public. ...

  8. Antibiotic misuse in children by the primary care physicians - an ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    All Medical Officers were asked to fill up a preformed questionnaire and the parents/guardians were interviewed on their ideas about antibiotics. Data were analyzed by the statistical software ... Both medical officers and parents felt that base line investigations were unnecessary. Antibiotic misuse is quite common in this part ...

  9. Misuse of restraint systems for children in The Netherlands.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schoon, C.C. Huijskens, C.G. & Heijkamp, A.H.

    1993-01-01

    The Dutch Ministry of Transport and Public Works commissioned the SWOV Institute for Road Safety Research and TNO Road-Vehicles Research Institute to carry out a research project. The aim is to establish the extent and type of misuse of both child seats and standard seat belts. This paper deals only

  10. Predictors of topical steroid misuse among patrons of pharmacies in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background The misuse of topical steroids, i.e. the usage of these products for skin lightening, is a widespread phenomenon among African men and women. Studies have reported prevalence rates of 18.5% to 70% among participants. Though women constitute the majority of users, people of various age groups, ...

  11. Substance misuse in youth admitted to a psychiatric emergency unit ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    , A J Flisher, R Allin, J A Laubscher. Abstract. Objectives. To investigate the pattern of substance misuse in youth admitted to a psychiatric emergency unit of a 'major hospital, and to compare regular users of cannabis,methaqualone and ...

  12. Students' Source Misuse in Language Classrooms: Sharing Experiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fazel, Ismaeil; Kowkabi, Nasrin

    2013-01-01

    In this article we first provide a brief discussion of what is generally referred to as "student plagiarism," which we prefer to call "source misuse" or "inappropriate textual borrowing," and then provide some of the factors that may contribute to this problem in language classes. Moreover, we provide our views and…

  13. 17 CFR 2.3 - Prohibitions against misuse of seal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Prohibitions against misuse of seal. 2.3 Section 2.3 Commodity and Securities Exchanges COMMODITY FUTURES TRADING COMMISSION OFFICIAL... character, or with wrongful or fraudulent intent, using, buying, procuring, selling or transferring to...

  14. The effects of substance misuse on the personality traits of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The present study examined the effects of substance misuse on the personality traits of impulsivity and risky sexual decision-making. One hundred and one participants (101) were recruited via opportunist sampling, which comprise of 49 female, 52 male, 5 homosexual, 2 bisexual and 92 heterosexual with the mean age of ...

  15. Hypoglycaemia from misuse of oral hypoglycaemic agent in patients ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In conclusion, misuse of oral hypoglycaemic agents (OHA) to treat LUTS with subsequent presentation in hypoglycaemic coma should be of concern to the health care provider especially the urologist. It is of no benefit and constitutes drug abuse that should be discouraged. Keywords: drug abuse, hypoglycaemia, lower ...

  16. Misuse of topical corticosteroids: A clinical study of adverse effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vivek Kumar Dey

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Misuse of topical corticosteroids is a widespread phenomenon among young people in India, especially women. The practice is associated with significant adverse effects and poor awareness of these effects among the general public. Aim: This study was conducted to examine the misuse and adverse effects of topical corticosteroids among the people in Bastar region in Chhattisgarh state of India. Materials and Methods: Data collected from patients presenting with at least one of the adverse effects of topical corticosteroids as the chief complaint, from November 2010 to October 2011. Results: Out of the 6723 new patients, 379 (5.63% had presented with misuse and adverse effects of topical corticosteroids, of whom 78.89% were females. More than 65% of the patients were in the age group 10-29 years. The main reason for using the topical corticosteroids was to lighten skin colour and treat melasma and suntan. Acne (37.99% and telangiectasia (18.99% were the most common adverse effects noted. Conclusions: Misuse of topical corticosteroids has a huge impact on dermatological practice, leading to a significant proportion of visits to the dermatologist. This hydra-headed problem needs multi-dimensional interventions, involving educational, legal and managerial approaches with cooperation from different sectors of society.

  17. Examining the Interface between Substance Misuse and Intimate Partner Violence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregory L. Stuart

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available There is considerable theoretical and empirical support for a link between substance misuse and perpetration and victimization of intimate partner violence. This review briefly summarizes this literature and highlights current research that addresses the interface between treatment for substance abuse and intimate partner violence. Suggestions for future research and clinical implications are provided.

  18. Mind-Body Approaches to Prevention and Intervention for Alcohol and Other Drug Use/Abuse in Young Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Crystal L. Park

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Alcohol and other drug (AOD misuse is highly prevalent among young adults and creates myriad long-term problematic social, economic, and health consequences. Current treatments aimed at preventing or alleviating AOD misuse have demonstrated fairly inconsistent and weak effectiveness and, thus, are far from a complete solution. In this review, we describe the current state of AOD interventions for young adults and present an alternative emotion regulation framework for understanding AOD use/misuse. We then describe implications of this framework for interventions to promote healthier emotion regulation to successfully reduce AOD use/misuse. In particular, we assert that mind–body approaches, such as meditation, distress tolerance, and yoga, may promote emotion regulation skills that allow young adults to manage their stressful experiences and distressing emotions without AOD use. We review the available literature on mind–body interventions targeting AOD use/misuse in young adults and offer suggestions for future intervention development and research.

  19. Tackling drought stress: receptor-like kinases present new approaches

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marshall, A.; Aalen, R.B.; Audenaert, D.; Beeckman, T.; Broadley, M.R.; Butenko, M.A.; Caño-Delgado, A.I.; Vries, de S.C.; Dresselhaus, T.; Felix, G.; Graham, N.S.; Foulkes, J.; Granier, C.; Greb, T.; Grossniklaus, U.; Hammond, J.P.; Heidstra, R.; Hodgman, C.; Hothorn, M.; Inzé, D.; Østergaard, L.; Russinova, E.T.; Simon, R.; Skirycz, A.; Stahl, Y.; Zipfel, C.; Smet, De I.

    2012-01-01

    Global climate change and a growing population require tackling the reduction in arable land and improving biomass production and seed yield per area under varying conditions. One of these conditions is suboptimal water availability. Here, we review some of the classical approaches to dealing with

  20. Healthy children, healthy nation — tackling the obesity problem ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    26 avr. 2016 ... ... in early childhood to tackle poor diets and inadequate physical activity, however, can have a huge impact on children's health well into adulthood. ... racines, les tubercules et les bananes sont des cultures vivrières vendues ...

  1. Tackling the increasing problem of malnutrition in older persons

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, Marjolein; Volkert, D.; Corish, C.; Geisler, C.; Groot, de C.P.G.M.; Cruz-Jentoft, A.J.; Lohrmann, C.; O'Connor, E.M.; Schindler, K.; Schueren, van der D.E.

    2017-01-01

    In order to tackle the increasing problem of malnutrition (i.e. protein-energy malnutrition) in the older population, the Joint Action Malnutrition in the Elderly (MaNuEL) Knowledge Hub has been recently launched as part of the Strategic Research Agenda of the Joint Programming Initiative (JPI) A

  2. Tackling online inequality: Making digital platforms work for inclusive ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Tackling online inequality: Making digital platforms work for inclusive development. As they become an essential part of the digital experience, online platforms such as Facebook, Amazon, Uber, AirBnB, and Twitter are having a direct bearing on social inclusion and opportunity in many spheres of life for people around the ...

  3. Tackle-injury epidemiology in koshuis rugby players at Stellenbosch ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The tackle contributed to 61% of all injuries, making it the most dangerous phase of play. The tackler is more at risk than the ball carrier, especially for injuries to the face, with lacerations having the highest prevalence. For the ball carrier the location of the most injuries was the head, although joint sprains were the most ...

  4. The Role of Empathy in Preparing Teachers to Tackle Bullying

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Helena; Tubritt, John; Norman, James O'Higgins

    2018-01-01

    Much research on bullying behaviour in schools among students has been carried out since the 1970's, when Olweus started a large-scale project in Norway which is now generally regarded as the first scientific study on bullying. Yet, there has been little research on how teachers respond to reports of bullying and tackle bullying behaviour in…

  5. Tackling Work Related Stress in a National Health Service Trust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vick, Donna; Whyatt, Hilary

    2004-01-01

    The challenge of tackling the problem of coping with work related stress in a National Health Service (NHS) Trust was undertaken. Ideas were developed within the context of two different action learning sets and led to actions resulting in a large therapy Taster Session event and the establishment of a centre offering alternative therapies and…

  6. Brazilian study on substance misuse in adolescents: associated factors and adherence to treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silva Vilma A da

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: To investigate developmental and environmental factors associated to substance misuse in adolescents seen at a university day-hospital in Brazil and to verify the correlations between those factors and adherence to treatment. To compare factors associated to substance misuse in adolescents with the available scientific literature and to suggest specific preventive interventions for a national policy in Brazil. METHODS: Eighty-six adolescent's guardians were evaluated at admission to the service by using a semistructured interview including sociodemographic data, family relationship, perinatal and pregnancy histories, psychomotor and educational development, social relations, history of previous illnesses and family diseases, including drug abuse. RESULTS: The sample was predominantly male (90%. Adolescents referred from the criminal justice were older than those originating from other sources (16.4 x 15.4 years old p=.00. Forty-four percent of adolescents reported school failure, a level which is two times higher than Brazilian statistics. Forty percent of the sample had criminal involvement, mainly drug dealing. Cannabis was the most prevalent reported drug. Living with both parents was protective, delaying the age of initiation by one year. Domestic violence was more frequent among parents with illicit drugs abuse (38.1% x 12.5%, p<.05. Alcoholism and drug addiction in parents and relatives were about four times higher than those reported for the Brazilian population. No correlation was found between the investigated factors and adherence to treatment. CONCLUSION: Our results indicate that the programs must include treatment of adults and education of parents and parents to be. Withdrawal of treatment occurs in the first month, and seems to be related to factors extrinsic to the adolescent.

  7. Distress tolerance and physiological reactivity to stress predict women's problematic alcohol use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holzhauer, Cathryn Glanton; Wemm, Stephanie; Wulfert, Edelgard

    2017-06-01

    Research has shown that measures of reactivity to distress-including distress tolerance and physiological reactivity to stress-are dysregulated in women who misuse alcohol. These variables may interact and create a risk profile for young adult women, reflecting patterns of stress reactivity that confer a risk for alcohol misuse. The current study tested this hypothesis by examining the independent and interactive associations of subjective distress tolerance, behavioral distress tolerance, and physiological stress reactivity with women's alcohol misuse. The study was conducted with a sample of 91 college women recruited on a large northeastern university campus. Results showed that subjective levels of distress tolerance and physiological reactivity to stress (skin conductance reactivity, SCR), but not behavioral distress tolerance, were independently associated with alcohol misuse. In addition, subjective distress tolerance moderated the relationship between SCR and negative alcohol-related consequences. Specifically, women with low physiological reactivity (SCR) to a stressful task and greater urge to quickly rid themselves of distress (low subjective distress tolerance) endorsed a significantly greater number of adverse consequences from their alcohol use. These results extend prior findings by showing that, even among a nonclinical sample of women, lower stress reactivity in combination with low subjective distress tolerance is associated with increased risk for various drinking-related negative consequences. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  8. Alcohol Use and Firearm Violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Branas, Charles C; Han, SeungHoon; Wiebe, Douglas J

    2016-01-01

    Although the misuse of firearms is necessary to the occurrence of firearm violence, there are other contributing factors beyond simply firearms themselves that might also be modified to prevent firearm violence. Alcohol is one such key modifiable factor. To explore this, we undertook a 40-year (1975-2014) systematic literature review with meta-analysis. One large group of studies showed that over one third of firearm violence decedents had acutely consumed alcohol and over one fourth had heavily consumed alcohol prior to their deaths. Another large group of studies showed that alcohol was significantly associated with firearm use as a suicide means. Two controlled studies showed that gun injury after drinking, especially heavy drinking, was statistically significant among self-inflicted firearm injury victims. A small group of studies investigated the intersection of alcohol and firearms laws and alcohol outlets and firearm violence. One of these controlled studies found that off-premise outlets selling takeout alcohol were significantly associated with firearm assault. Additional controlled, population-level risk factor and intervention studies, including randomized trials of which only 1 was identified, are needed. Policies that rezone off-premise alcohol outlets, proscribe blood alcohol levels and enhance penalties for carrying or using firearms while intoxicated, and consider prior drunk driving convictions as a more precise criterion for disqualifying persons from the purchase or possession of firearms deserve further study. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  9. Alcohol consumption, hazardous drinking, and alcohol dependency among the population of Andaman and Nicobar Islands, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manimunda, Sathya Prakash; Sugunan, Attayuru Purushottaman; Thennarasu, Kandavelu; Pandian, Dhanasekara; Pesala, Kasturi S; Benegal, Vivek

    2017-01-01

    Harmful use of alcohol is one of the globally recognized causes of health hazards. There are no data on alcohol consumption from Andaman and Nicobar Islands. The objective of the study was to assess the prevalence and pattern of alcohol use among the population of Andaman and Nicobar Islands, India. A representative sample of 18,018 individuals aged ≥14 years were chosen by multistage random sampling and administered a structured instrument, a modified version of the Gender, Alcohol, and Culture: An International Study (GENACIS) which included sociodemographic details and Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT). The overall prevalence of alcohol consumption was 35% among males and over 6.0% in females, aged 14 and above. Two out of every five alcohol users fit into a category of hazardous drinkers. One-fourth of the total users (23%) are alcohol dependents. Both the hazardous drinking and dependent use are high among males compared to females. Almost 18.0% of male drinkers and 12.0% of female drinkers reported heavy drinking on typical drinking occasions. The predominant beverages consumed were in the category of homebrews such as toddy and handia. The present study highlights the magnitude of hazardous drinking and alcohol dependence in Andaman and Nicobar Islands, India and the complex sociocultural differences in the pattern of alcohol use. Based on the AUDIT data, among the population of Andaman and Nicobar Islands (aged 14 and above), one out of ten requires active interventions to manage the harmful impact of alcohol misuse.

  10. An automated computer misuse detection system for UNICOS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jackson, K.A.; Neuman, M.C.; Simmonds, D.D.; Stallings, C.A.; Thompson, J.L.; Christoph, G.G.

    1994-09-27

    An effective method for detecting computer misuse is the automatic monitoring and analysis of on-line user activity. This activity is reflected in the system audit record, in the system vulnerability posture, and in other evidence found through active testing of the system. During the last several years we have implemented an automatic misuse detection system at Los Alamos. This is the Network Anomaly Detection and Intrusion Reporter (NADIR). We are currently expanding NADIR to include processing of the Cray UNICOS operating system. This new component is called the UNICOS Realtime NADIR, or UNICORN. UNICORN summarizes user activity and system configuration in statistical profiles. It compares these profiles to expert rules that define security policy and improper or suspicious behavior. It reports suspicious behavior to security auditors and provides tools to aid in follow-up investigations. The first phase of UNICORN development is nearing completion, and will be operational in late 1994.

  11. Misuse and intrusion detection at Los Alamos National Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jackson, K.A.; Neuman, M.C.; Simmonds, D.D.; Stallings, C.A.; Thompson, J.L.; Christoph, G.G.

    1995-04-01

    An effective method for detecting computer misuse is the automatic auditing and analysis of on-line user activity. This activity is reflected in system audit records, in system vulnerability postures, and in other evidence found through active system testing. Since 1989 we have implemented a misuse and intrusion detection system at Los Alamos. This is the Network Anomaly Detection and Intrusion Reporter, or NADIR. NADIR currently audits a Kerberos distributed authentication system, file activity on a mass, storage system, and four Cray supercomputers that run the UNICOS operating system. NADIR summarizes user activity and system configuration in statistical profiles. It compares these profiles to expert rules that define security policy and improper or suspicious behavior. It reports suspicious behavior to security auditors and provides tools to aid in follow-up investigations, As NADIR is constantly evolving, this paper reports its development to date.

  12. Suboxone misuse along the opiate maintenance treatment pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furst, R Terry

    2013-01-01

    This study explores strategies that Suboxone misusers utilize while in drug treatment. Ethnographic interviews were conducted with 14 patients who had cycled in and out of Suboxone treatment. The objective of the study is to identify strategies implemented by patients who intermittently use opiates/opioids while in Suboxone treatment. Findings indicate that some patients serially stop and start treatment in a Harm Reduction setting in New York City. Many patients suggest that they manage their opiate/opioid dependency through a sequential use of Suboxone and heroin to avoid withdrawal and to continue their misuse of opiates/opioids. Results are discussed in conjunction with the difficulties inherent to substance abuse treatment and suggestions for improvement are offered.

  13. Effectiveness, efficiency and the use and misuse of radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sorby, A.W.

    1992-01-01

    Diagnosis, while central to scientific medicine, is nevertheless secondary to treatment, the real purpose of medical care. A brief summary of the extensive literature about the use and misuse of radiological tests is presented. Among the factors involved in the recent increases in diagnostic tests, briefly presented in this article, are the presence of the new modalities themselves, advances in understanding and treatment of diseases, an ageing population, medico-legal concerns, self referral and medical consumerism. 32 refs

  14. Best Practices and Innovations for Managing Codeine Misuse and Dependence

    OpenAIRE

    Norman, Ian J; Bergin, Michael; Parry, Charles D; Van Hout, Marie Claire

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE: Promoting and ensuring safe use of codeine containing medicines remains a public health issue given the rise in reporting of misuse and dependence particularly in countries where available over-the-counter (OTC). The aim of this unique study was to identify best practices in management of opioid abuse and dependence, particularly codeine, and innovations to meet challenges surrounding safe and compliant use, patient awareness-raising, reducing health harms and enhancing successful tr...

  15. The Role of Empathy in Preparing Teachers to Tackle Bullying

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helena R Murphy

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Much research on bullying behaviour in schools among students has been carried out since the 1970’s, when Olweus started a large-scale project in Norway which is now generally regarded as the first scientific study on bullying. Yet, there has been little research on how teachers respond to reports of bullying and tackle bullying behaviour in post-primary schools.  This paper reports on a preliminary study investigating teacher empathy levels and their preparedness for tackling bullying in a post-primary school in Ireland. There were two research questions central to this research.  The first looked at how empathic are teachers in this school? The second examined to what extent it prepares them for tackling bullying?  In answering these questions we relied on the Interpersonal Reactivity Index (IRI to gather data on empathy levels among teachers (n=10, with findings related to existing research in the field. The results showed that teacher empathy is an important factor in creating and maintaining a positive school climate, which in turn leads to a prevention of bullying situations.

  16. SpeckTackle: JavaScript charts for spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beisken, Stephan; Conesa, Pablo; Haug, Kenneth; Salek, Reza M; Steinbeck, Christoph

    2015-01-01

    Spectra visualisation from methods such as mass spectroscopy, infrared spectroscopy or nuclear magnetic resonance is an essential part of every web-facing spectral resource. The development of an intuitive and versatile visualisation tool is a time- and resource-intensive task, however, most databases use their own embedded viewers and new databases continue to develop their own viewers. We present SpeckTackle, a custom-tailored JavaScript charting library for spectroscopy in life sciences. SpeckTackle is cross-browser compatible and easy to integrate into existing resources, as we demonstrate for the MetaboLights database. Its default chart types cover common visualisation tasks following the de facto 'look and feel' standards for spectra visualisation. SpeckTackle is released under GNU LGPL to encourage uptake and reuse within the community. The latest version of the library including examples and documentation on how to use and extend the library with additional chart types is available online in its public repository.

  17. Well-being of medical students and their awareness on substance misuse: a cross-sectional survey in Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iqbal Saman

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective To investigate psychological well-being and substance abuse among medical students in Pakistan. Methods A cross-sectional questionnaire-based survey was conducted in six medical colleges across Pakistan. Final-year medical students were interviewed by either a postgraduate trainee in psychiatry or a consultant psychiatrist. Results A total of 540 medical students were approached; 342 participated and the response rate was 64.5%. Mean age was 23.73 years (SD 2.45 years; 52.5% were male and 90% single. Two out of every five respondents reported that work/study at medical school affected their personal health and well-being. A considerable proportion of students were aware of alcohol and smoking as coping strategies for stress in medical students. The main factors causing stress were heavy workload (47.4%, relationship with colleagues (13.5% and staff (11.9%. A total of 30% reported a history of depression and 15% among them had used an antidepressant. More than half were aware of depression in colleagues. The majority of respondents said that teaching provided on substance misuse in the areas of alcohol and illegal drugs, management/treatment of addiction, and models of addiction was poor. There was significant association (p = 0.044 between stress and awareness about alcohol as a coping strategy for stress among medical students. A significant negative association was also found between medical colleges in public sector (p = 0.052, female gender (p = 0.003 and well-being. Conclusion The majority of the medical students reported a negative impact of heavy workload on their psychological well-being. Significant numbers of medical students think that substance misuse is a coping strategy for stress. Teaching on addiction/addictive substances is poor at undergraduate level in Pakistani medical colleges.

  18. Sources of Prescriptions for Misuse by Adolescents: Differences in Sex, Ethnicity, and Severity of Misuse in a Population-Based Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schepis, Ty S.; Krishnan-Sarin, Suchitra

    2009-01-01

    A study found that adolescents who recently acquired medication by buying it had the worst risk profile among all medications classes in terms of concurrent substance use and the severity of prescription misuse. It is hoped that the findings could help identify subgroups of adolescents prescription misusers who are most vulnerable to consequences…

  19. Alcohol and labor supply: the case of Iceland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asgeirsdottir, Tinna Laufey; McGeary, Kerry Anne

    2009-10-01

    At a time when the government of Iceland is considering privatization of alcohol sales and a reduction of its governmental fees, it is timely to estimate the potential effects of this policy change. Given that the privatization of sales coupled with a tax reduction should lead to a decrease in the unit price of alcohol, one would expect the quantity consumed to increase. While it is of interest to project the impact of the proposed bill on the market for alcohol, another important consideration is the impact that increased alcohol consumption and, more specifically, probable alcohol misuse would have on other markets in Iceland. The only available study on this subject using Icelandic data yields surprising results. Tómasson et al. (Scand J Public Health 32:47-52, 2004) unexpectedly found no effect of probable alcohol abuse on sick leave. A logical next step would be to examine the effect of probable alcohol abuse on other important labor-market outcomes. Nationally representative survey data from 2002 allow for an analysis of probable misuse of alcohol and labor-supply choices. Labor-supply choices are considered with reference to possible effects of policies already in force, as well as proposed changes to current policies. Contrary to intuition, but in agreement with the previously mentioned Icelandic study, the adverse effects of probable misuse of alcohol on employment status or hours worked are not confirmed within this sample. The reasons for the results are unclear, although some suggestions are hypothesized. Currently, data to test those theories convincingly are not available.

  20. Drug misuse in sport: a New Zealand perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curtis, Andrew; Gerrard, David; Burt, Peter; Osborne, Hamish

    2015-12-04

    Drug misuse in elite sport is a world-wide phenomenon. This article explores the culture of contemporary sport, provides estimates of doping prevalence, discusses dietary supplementation and highlights major factors influencing high-performance athletes and their support personnel. The aim is to stimulate discussion, informed by the World Anti-Doping Code (WADC), which is particularly relevant to doctors caring for athletes. Online databases were searched for relevant peer-reviewed research from 2009 to 2015. Comparative New Zealand data have been included. Estimates of the prevalence of sports doping range from less than 1% to as high as 52%, dependent upon the demographics of the identified cohort. The culture of elite sport, personal stressors, competitive demands, financial reward and the influence of an 'entourage' of support personnel were identified as critical determinants of drug misuse. The culture of elite contemporary sport is seductive to many aspiring young athletes. To combat drug misuse, effective education should embody moral, ethical and clinical dangers, recognising the importance of support at times of increased athlete vulnerability. Inadvertent doping from product contamination is a recognised risk of unsupervised dietary supplementation. Doctors responsible for the care of high-performance athletes must be cognisant of these issues and the provisions of the WADC.

  1. Gratitude and Drug Misuse: Role of Coping as Mediator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Chi-Ching; Tong, Eddie M W

    2017-12-06

    Positive emotions, such as gratitude has been found to be beneficial to both physical and mental well-being but so far, drug misuse research has yet to identify important emotive predictors related to drug use. This study aimed to examine the relationship between gratitude and drug use among a group of drug misusers. It was hypothesized that greater dispositional gratitude was associated with lesser drug use through greater use of adaptive coping methods and lesser use of maladaptive coping methods. This study utilized a cross-sectional design to examine the relationship between gratitude, coping, and drug use among a sample of drug misusers (N = 105) at a drug rehabilitation center. Participants completed the gratitude questionnaire (GQ-6), the joy subscale of the Dispositional Positive Emotion Scale (DPES), the Brief COPE, and a questionnaire on their drug use. Data were collected in 2015. Mediation analysis supported the hypothesis and found that adaptive coping mediated the relationship between gratitude and drug use. However, mediation was not found for maladaptive coping. Additional analysis found that adaptive coping as a mediator was not found for joy. Results suggested that gratitude has utility in reducing drug use through the use of more adaptive coping strategies and this relationship was not simply due to positive affect. Interventions targeting drug use behavior could consider introducing gratitude to increase adaptive coping abilities to reduce drug use.

  2. Alcohol Demand, Future Orientation, and Craving Mediate the Relation Between Depressive and Stress Symptoms and Alcohol Problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soltis, Kathryn E; McDevitt-Murphy, Meghan E; Murphy, James G

    2017-06-01

    Elevated depression and stress have been linked to greater levels of alcohol problems among young adults even after taking into account drinking level. This study attempts to elucidate variables that might mediate the relation between symptoms of depression and stress and alcohol problems, including alcohol demand, future time orientation, and craving. Participants were 393 undergraduates (60.8% female, 78.9% White/Caucasian) who reported at least 2 binge-drinking episodes (4/5+ drinks for women/men, respectively) in the previous month. Participants completed self-report measures of stress and depression, alcohol demand, future time orientation, craving, and alcohol problems. In separate mediation models that accounted for gender, race, and weekly alcohol consumption, future orientation and craving significantly mediated the relation between depressive symptoms and alcohol problems. Alcohol demand, future orientation, and craving significantly mediated the relation between stress symptoms and alcohol problems. Heavy-drinking young adults who experience stress or depression are likely to experience alcohol problems, and this is due in part to elevations in craving and alcohol demand, and less sensitivity to future outcomes. Interventions targeting alcohol misuse in young adults with elevated levels of depression and stress should attempt to increase future orientation and decrease craving and alcohol reward value. Copyright © 2017 by the Research Society on Alcoholism.

  3. Lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) for alcoholism: meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krebs, Teri S; Johansen, Pål-Ørjan

    2012-07-01

    Assessments of lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) in the treatment of alcoholism have not been based on quantitative meta-analysis. Hence, we performed a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials in order to evaluate the clinical efficacy of LSD in the treatment of alcoholism. Two reviewers independently extracted the data, pooling the effects using odds ratios (ORs) by a generic inverse variance, random effects model. We identified six eligible trials, including 536 participants. There was evidence for a beneficial effect of LSD on alcohol misuse (OR, 1.96; 95% CI, 1.36-2.84; p = 0.0003). Between-trial heterogeneity for the treatment effects was negligible (I² = 0%). Secondary outcomes, risk of bias and limitations are discussed. A single dose of LSD, in the context of various alcoholism treatment programs, is associated with a decrease in alcohol misuse.

  4. ALCOHOL I

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Despite the increase in alcohol marketing activities by the transnational alcohol corporations in Nigeria .... were recorded with a digital device with ..... era (i.e., before alcohol industry was es- tablished in ..... university student drinking: A na-.

  5. Is There a Potential of Misuse for Venlafaxine and Bupropion?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabrizio Schifano

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Traditionally, studies on the non-medical use of pharmaceutical products have focused on controlled substances; e.g., opiates/opioids; and benzodiazepines. Although both bupropion and venlafaxine have been reported as being misused, only anecdotal reports have been made available so far. Hence, the European Monitoring Agency (EMA Adverse Drug Reactions (ADRs, misuse/abuse/dependence and withdrawal, venlafaxine- and bupropion-related, database was here analyzed.Methods: All EMA spontaneous reports relating to venlafaxine (2005–2016 and bupropion (2003–2016 notifications were here analyzed, to provide a descriptive analysis by source, gender, age, and type of report. The UK-based, 2000–2016, Yellow Card Scheme pharmacovigilance database, bupropion and venlafaxine withdrawal reports were compared as well with those pertaining to fluoxetine and paroxetine.Results: Out of 20,720 (bupropion and 47,516 (venlafaxine total number of ADRs, some 2,232 (10.8%, and 4,071 (8.5% misuse/abuse/dependence ADRs were respectively associated with bupropion and venlafaxine. Conversely, bupropion withdrawal-related ADRs were here reported in 299/20,720 (1.44% cases and in 914/47,516 (1.92% cases for venlafaxine. Overall, all bupropion and venlafaxine misuse-/abuse-/dependence- and withdrawal-ADRs were related to a respective number of 264 and 447 patients. According to the Proportional Reporting Ratio (PRR computation, in comparison with venlafaxine bupropion resulted to be more frequently misused/abused (PRR: 1.50, but less frequently associated with both dependence (PRR: 0.92 and withdrawal (PRR: 0.77 issues. Yellow Card Scheme data suggested that paroxetine and venlafaxine, in comparison with fluoxetine and bupropion, were associated with higher number of withdrawal-related reports.Conclusions: The dopaminergic, stimulant-like, bupropion activities may be associated with its possible recreational value. Present data may confirm that the occurrence

  6. Brief report: The Brief Alcohol Social Density Assessment (BASDA): convergent, criterion-related, and incremental validity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacKillop, James; Acker, John D; Bollinger, Jared; Clifton, Allan; Miller, Joshua D; Campbell, W Keith; Goodie, Adam S

    2013-09-01

    Alcohol misuse is substantially influenced by social factors, but systematic assessments of social network drinking are typically lengthy. The goal of the present study was to provide further validation of a brief measure of social network alcohol use, the Brief Alcohol Social Density Assessment (BASDA), in a sample of emerging adults. Specifically, the study sought to examine the BASDA's convergent, criterion, and incremental validity in relation to well-established measures of drinking motives and problematic drinking. Participants were 354 undergraduates who were assessed using the BASDA, the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT), and the Drinking Motives Questionnaire. Significant associations were observed between the BASDA index of alcohol-related social density and alcohol misuse, social motives, and conformity motives, supporting convergent validity. Criterion-related validity was supported by evidence that significantly greater alcohol involvement was present in the social networks of individuals scoring at or above an AUDIT score of 8, a validated criterion for hazardous drinking. Finally, the BASDA index was significantly associated with alcohol misuse above and beyond drinking motives in relation to AUDIT scores, supporting incremental validity. Taken together, these findings provide further support for the BASDA as an efficient measure of drinking in an individual's social network. Methodological considerations as well as recommendations for future investigations in this area are discussed.

  7. Moving alcohol prevention research forward-Part I: introducing a complex systems paradigm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apostolopoulos, Yorghos; Lemke, Michael K; Barry, Adam E; Lich, Kristen Hassmiller

    2018-02-01

    The drinking environment is a complex system consisting of a number of heterogeneous, evolving and interacting components, which exhibit circular causality and emergent properties. These characteristics reduce the efficacy of commonly used research approaches, which typically do not account for the underlying dynamic complexity of alcohol consumption and the interdependent nature of diverse factors influencing misuse over time. We use alcohol misuse among college students in the United States as an example for framing our argument for a complex systems paradigm. A complex systems paradigm, grounded in socio-ecological and complex systems theories and computational modeling and simulation, is introduced. Theoretical, conceptual, methodological and analytical underpinnings of this paradigm are described in the context of college drinking prevention research. The proposed complex systems paradigm can transcend limitations of traditional approaches, thereby fostering new directions in alcohol prevention research. By conceptualizing student alcohol misuse as a complex adaptive system, computational modeling and simulation methodologies and analytical techniques can be used. Moreover, use of participatory model-building approaches to generate simulation models can further increase stakeholder buy-in, understanding and policymaking. A complex systems paradigm for research into alcohol misuse can provide a holistic understanding of the underlying drinking environment and its long-term trajectory, which can elucidate high-leverage preventive interventions. © 2017 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  8. Identifying changes in the synaptic proteome of cirrhotic alcoholic superior frontal gyrus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etheridge, N; Mayfield, R D; Harris, R A; Dodd, P R

    2011-03-01

    Hepatic complications are a common side-effect of alcoholism. Without the detoxification capabilities of the liver, alcohol misuse induces changes in gene and protein expression throughout the body. A global proteomics approach was used to identify these protein changes in the brain. We utilised human autopsy tissue from the superior frontal gyrus (SFG) of six cirrhotic alcoholics, six alcoholics without comorbid disease, and six non-alcoholic non-cirrhotic controls. Synaptic proteins were isolated and used in two-dimensional differential in-gel electrophoresis coupled with mass spectrometry. Many expression differences were confined to one or other alcoholic sub-group. Cirrhotic alcoholics showed 99 differences in protein expression levels from controls, of which half also differed from non-comorbid alcoholics. This may reflect differences in disease severity between the sub-groups of alcoholics, or differences in patterns of harmful drinking. Alternatively, the protein profiles may result from differences between cirrhotic and non-comorbid alcoholics in subjects' responses to alcohol misuse. Ten proteins were identified in at least two spots on the 2D gel; they were involved in basal energy metabolism, synaptic vesicle recycling, and chaperoning. These post-translationally modified isoforms were differentially regulated in cirrhotic alcoholics, indicating a level of epigenetic control not previously observed in this disorder.

  9. The Effects of Verbal Instruction and Shaping to Improve Tackling by High School Football Players

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, Antonio M.; Pyles, David A.

    2013-01-01

    We evaluated verbal instruction and shaping using TAG (teaching with acoustical guidance) to improve tackling by 3 high school football players. Verbal instruction and shaping improved tackling for all 3 participants. In addition, performance was maintained as participants moved more quickly through the tackling procedure.

  10. Family Rejection as a Predictor of Suicide Attempts and Substance Misuse Among Transgender and Gender Nonconforming Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Augustus; Golub, Sarit A

    2016-06-01

    We examined associations between family rejection and risk of suicide attempts and substance misuse among a national sample of transgender and gender nonconforming adults. Data were drawn from the National Transgender Discrimination Survey (N = 6456). This secondary analysis was restricted to 3458 individuals who self-identified as transgender or gender nonconforming and provided complete data on study variables. We used multivariable logistic regression to examine health risks by level of reported family rejection (low/moderate/high), controlling for relevant sociodemographic characteristics. Overall, 42.3% of the sample reported a suicide attempt and 26.3% reported misusing drugs or alcohol to cope with transgender-related discrimination. After controlling for age, race/ethnicity, sex assigned at birth, binary gender identity, income, education, and employment status, family rejection was associated with increased odds of both behaviors. Odds increased significantly with increasing levels of family rejection. Family rejection related to gender identity is an understudied interpersonal stressor that may negatively affect health outcomes for transgender and gender nonconforming individuals. A better understanding of the role of close relationships in both risk and resilience for transgender individuals is critical in the development of effective public health interventions for this community.

  11. Non-sanctioning of illegal tackles in South African youth community rugby.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, J C; Boucher, S J; Lambert, M; Viljoen, W; Readhead, C; Hendricks, S; Kraak, W J

    2018-06-01

    The tackle event in rugby union ('rugby') contributes to the majority of players' injuries. Referees can reduce this risk by sanctioning dangerous tackles. A study in elite adult rugby suggests that referees only sanction a minority of illegal tackles. The aim of this study was to assess if this finding was similar in youth community rugby. Observational study. Using EncodePro, 99 South African Rugby Union U18 Youth Week tournament matches were coded between 2011 and 2015. All tackles were coded by a researcher and an international referee to ensure that laws were interpreted correctly. The inter- and intra-rater reliabilities were 0.97-1.00. A regression analysis compared the non-sanctioned rates over time. In total, 12 216 tackles were coded, of which less than 1% (n=113) were 'illegal'. The majority of the 113 illegal tackles were front-on (75%), high tackles (72%) and occurred in the 2nd/4th quarters (29% each). Of the illegal tackles, only 59% were sanctioned. The proportions of illegal tackles and sanctioning of these illegal tackles to all tackles improved by 0.2% per year from 2011-2015 (p<0.05). In these youth community rugby players, 59% of illegal tackles were not sanctioned appropriately. This was better than a previous study in elite adult rugby, where only 7% of illegal tackles were penalised. Moreover, the rates of illegal tackles and non-sanctioned illegal tackles both improved over time. However, it is critical that referees consistently enforce all laws to enhance injury prevention efforts. Further studies should investigate the reasons for non-sanctioning. Copyright © 2017 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Understanding Nonprescription and Prescription Drug Misuse in Late Adolescence/Young Adulthood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sasha A. Fleary

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study explored the extent to which nonprescription and prescription drugs misuse among adolescents/young adults are related to their perception that it is safer than illicit drugs, ease of access, and lower societal stigma. Adolescents/young adults (; , completed an online survey about their nonprescription and prescription drug misuse, other substance use, and correlates of use. Perceived risk, societal stigma, and access to nonprescription and prescription drugs were predictive of misuse. Results support program planners working towards targeting perceived risk and societal stigma in reducing misuse and the need to restrict and monitor access to nonprescription and prescription drugs for adolescents/young adults.

  13. Tackling the increasing problem of malnutrition in older persons

    OpenAIRE

    Visser, Marjolein; Volkert, D.; Corish, C.; Geisler, C.; Groot, de, C.P.G.M.; Cruz-Jentoft, A.J.; Lohrmann, C.; O'Connor, E.M.; Schindler, K.; Schueren, van der, D.E.

    2017-01-01

    In order to tackle the increasing problem of malnutrition (i.e. protein-energy malnutrition) in the older population, the Joint Action Malnutrition in the Elderly (MaNuEL) Knowledge Hub has been recently launched as part of the Strategic Research Agenda of the Joint Programming Initiative (JPI) A Healthy Diet for a Healthy Life (HDHL). This paper introduces this new European initiative and describes its objectives and design. The MaNuEL consortium consists of 22 research groups from seven cou...

  14. Black Alcoholism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watts, Thomas D.; Wright, Roosevelt

    1988-01-01

    Examines some aspects of the problem of alcoholism among Blacks, asserting that Black alcoholism can best be considered in an ecological, environmental, sociocultural, and public health context. Notes need for further research on alcoholism among Blacks and for action to reduce the problem of Black alcoholism. (NB)

  15. Interaction between dopamine D2 receptor genotype and parental rule-setting in adolescent alcohol use: evidence for a gene-parenting interaction.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zwaluw, C.S. van der; Engels, R.C.E.M.; Vermulst, A.A.; Franke, B.; Buitelaar, J.K.; Verkes, R.J.; Scholte, R.H.

    2010-01-01

    Association studies investigating the link between the dopamine D2 receptor gene (DRD2) and alcohol (mis)use have shown inconsistent results. This may be due to lack of attention for environmental factors. High levels of parental rule-setting are associated with lower levels of adolescent alcohol

  16. Quality of Sibling Relationship and Substance Misuse: A Comparative Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anastasia Tsamparli

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the current study is to examine the quality of sibling relationship in families with a sibling with substance misuse (SSU and compare the relationship to families with a sibling with no use (SNU. Thirty-six (36 families participated in the study (17 with SSU and 19 with SNU; N = 144. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 40 siblings (20 SNU and 20 SSU; 18-31 years old in order to qualitatively investigate the characteristics of the sibling relationship. The siblings were not identified with any psychopathology, according to SCL-90R. Moreover, we considered the family cohesion and adaptability, as identified by the FACES III (administered to the whole sample and the family constellation (including number of children, birth order, gender, family size, family structure, years of substance misuse and socioeconomic level. The results of the thematic analysis seem to support Furman and Buhrmester’s (1985 framework, in the context of SNU families. Nevertheless, when considering families with SSU the framework is enriched with a new axis: Loss/mourning. The substance misuse seems to provoke an overturn of the representation of the sibling relationship: the behavioral changes (i.e. disengagement of the sibling with drug use are experienced as a loss by the sibling non user, thus triggering the psychological process of ‘mourning’. Moreover, in these families, the sibling with no drug use seem to experience differential parenting, they feel neglected, angry and they take up a parental role towards the SSU, whom they experience as “sensitive” and “vulnerable”.

  17. Disordered eating, amenorrhea, and substance use and misuse among professional ballet dancers: Preliminary analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peric, Mia; Zenic, Natasa; Sekulic, Damir; Kondric, Miran; Zaletel, Petra

    2016-01-01

    Substance use and misuse (SUM), eating disorders (ED) and consequent amenorrhea (AM) occur frequently in professional ballet dancing. The objective of this study has been to explore the prevalence and association between ED, AM and SUM in ballet. The sample comprised 21 ballet dancers, 23.1±4.5 years old, members of the professional National Ballet Ensemble from Croatia. Variables were collected by questionnaires examining SUM, occurrence of amenorrhea, and corresponding ballet-specific and socio-demographic factors (Questionnaire on Substance Use - QSU) and the level of ED (Brief Eating Disorder in Athletes Questionnaire - BEDA-Q). Smoking is prevalent in 40% of dancers (25% smoke on a daily basis), 36% often use analgesics, and 25% engage in binge drinking at least once a month. Smoking and binge drinking are less frequent in ballerinas with a higher academic level (r = 0.60 and r = 0.54 for binge drinking and smoking, respectively; p ballet should target dancers who consume alcohol to a greater extent. Future studies should specifically explore the less frequent consumption of analgesics among dancers who consume nutritional supplements. This work is available in Open Access model and licensed under a CC BY-NC 3.0 PL license.

  18. Quality of Sibling Relationship and Substance Misuse: A Comparative Study

    OpenAIRE

    Anastasia Tsamparli; Elvisa Frrokaj

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the current study is to examine the quality of sibling relationship in families with a sibling with substance misuse (SSU) and compare the relationship to families with a sibling with no use (SNU). Thirty-six (36) families participated in the study (17 with SSU and 19 with SNU; N = 144). Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 40 siblings (20 SNU and 20 SSU; 18-31 years old) in order to qualitatively investigate the characteristics of the sibling relationship. The siblings w...

  19. [Family Health Strategies to tackle violence involving adolescents].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieira Netto, Moysés Francisco; Deslandes, Suely Ferreira

    2016-05-01

    The Family Health Strategy (FHS) has an acknowledged potential for the promotion of health and the prevention of violence. This is an integrative bibliographic review with the aim of evaluating the performance of FHS professionals in tackling and preventing violence involving adolescents. It is an integrative review of dissertations and theses on healthcare published from 1994 to 2014. The collection of 17 dissertations and 2 doctoral theses reveals that these studies are recent. The FHS professionals acknowledge the vulnerability of adolescents to inflicting and being subject to violence, however the FHS proves ineffective in tackling and preventing such violence. The predominance of the medical technical care model, the deficiencies in Public Health education in professional training and the lack of institutional support are seen as the main obstacles. Many of these professionals are unaware of the files for notification of violence. The existence of family violence and criminal groups were the aspects most mentioned in the territories. The social representation of adolescents as being "problematic" and the lack of ESF actions that promote an increase youth leadership and empowerment were clearly detected.

  20. Acetabular fractures following rugby tackles: a case series

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morris Seamus

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Rugby is the third most popular team contact sport in the world and is increasing in popularity. In 1995, rugby in Europe turned professional, and with this has come an increased rate of injury. Case presentation In a six-month period from July to December, two open reduction and internal fixations of acetabular fractures were performed in young Caucasian men (16 and 24 years old who sustained their injuries after rugby tackles. Both of these cases are described as well as the biomechanical factors contributing to the fracture and the recovery. Acetabular fractures of the hip during sport are rare occurrences. Conclusion Our recent experience of two cases over a six-month period creates concern that these high-energy injuries may become more frequent as rugby continues to adopt advanced training regimens. Protective equipment is unlikely to reduce the forces imparted across the hip joint; however, limiting 'the tackle' to only two players may well reduce the likelihood of this life-altering injury.

  1. Acetabular fractures following rugby tackles: a case series

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Good, Daniel W

    2011-10-05

    Abstract Introduction Rugby is the third most popular team contact sport in the world and is increasing in popularity. In 1995, rugby in Europe turned professional, and with this has come an increased rate of injury. Case presentation In a six-month period from July to December, two open reduction and internal fixations of acetabular fractures were performed in young Caucasian men (16 and 24 years old) who sustained their injuries after rugby tackles. Both of these cases are described as well as the biomechanical factors contributing to the fracture and the recovery. Acetabular fractures of the hip during sport are rare occurrences. Conclusion Our recent experience of two cases over a six-month period creates concern that these high-energy injuries may become more frequent as rugby continues to adopt advanced training regimens. Protective equipment is unlikely to reduce the forces imparted across the hip joint; however, limiting \\'the tackle\\' to only two players may well reduce the likelihood of this life-altering injury.

  2. Disordered eating, amenorrhea, and substance use and misuse among professional ballet dancers: Preliminary analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mia Peric

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Substance use and misuse (SUM, eating disorders (ED and consequent amenorrhea (AM occur frequently in professional ballet dancing. The objective of this study has been to explore the prevalence and association between ED, AM and SUM in ballet. Material and Methods: The sample comprised 21 ballet dancers, 23.1±4.5 years old, members of the professional National Ballet Ensemble from Croatia. Variables were collected by questionnaires examining SUM, occurrence of amenorrhea, and corresponding ballet-specific and socio-demographic factors (Questionnaire on Substance Use – QSU and the level of ED (Brief Eating Disorder in Athletes Questionnaire – BEDA-Q. Results: Smoking is prevalent in 40% of dancers (25% smoke on a daily basis, 36% often use analgesics, and 25% engage in binge drinking at least once a month. Smoking and binge drinking are less frequent in ballerinas with a higher academic level (r = 0.60 and r = 0.54 for binge drinking and smoking, respectively; p < 0.05. Alcohol drinking is higher among dancers who consume analgesics more often and those with a higher BEDA-Q score (r = 0.53 and r = 0.54 for analgesics and BEDA-Q, respectively; p < 0.05. Amenorrhea is more prevalent among those dancers with a higher BEDA-Q score. Women who consume nutritional supplements are less likely to use analgesics (Mann Whitney U test = 2.11; p < 0.05. Conclusions: Efforts seeking to prevent ED in ballet should target dancers who consume alcohol to a greater extent. Future studies should specifically explore the less frequent consumption of analgesics among dancers who consume nutritional supplements. Med Pr 2016;67(1:21–27

  3. [Psychopathology of the misuse of Subutex®: The Popeye syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Békaert, J; Podevin, G

    2015-06-01

    High dose buprenorphine (HDB), commonly known as Subutex(®), is nowadays largely prescribed as a replacement therapy for major opiate dependence. Its sublingual administration allows a decrease in the withdrawal syndrome accompanying opiate abuse cessation. Over the past few decades, epidemiological data on people on replacement therapy have emphasized an increase in the misuse of Subutex(®) and more specifically intravenous injections of HDB. These growing practices pave the way to major physical consequences or even death. Several studies have highlighted the infectious, vascular, venous and arterial (pseudo-aneurysm) complications stemming from this habit. Among the possible vascular complications, we can notice the presence of abscess, venous thrombosis, phlegmons, skin necrosis, cellulite, and profound and superficial thrombophlebitis at injection sites. These can evolve into chronic edemas of the tips and subcutaneous nodules. The Popeye syndrome is one of the possible complications of this misuse. This syndrome is characterized by the swelling of both sides of the forearms and hands. These edemas tend to become persistent and to be paired with tissue changes such as skin thickening. Besides, the increase in the hands volume can occur bilaterally or sometimes in an asymmetrical way, accentuated on the hand of the non-dominant limb. This syndrome does not decrease, or just a little, after the stoppage of injections. It can have a psychological, social, psychopathological and esthetic impact. In this article, we will focus on the clinical case of a 43-year-old man, who is hospitalized in an addictology unit for massive injections of HDB. This patient suffers from a Popeye syndrome as well as from an alcoholic dependence. Following the description of psychopathological disorders, our analysis will originate from a clarification relative to the specificities of the practice of intravenous HDB injection to better sharpen the understanding of these misuses in

  4. Gender differences in the relationship between alcohol use and depressive symptoms in St. Petersburg, Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhan, Weihai; Shaboltas, Alla V.; Skochilov, Roman V.; Kozlov, Andrei P.; Krasnoselskikh, Tatiana V.; Abdala, Nadia

    2012-01-01

    Background Gender differences in the relationship between alcohol use and depressive symptoms are inconsistent, and few studies have addressed this issue in Russia. Because this finding may have important implications for interventions to reduce alcohol misuse or alcohol related problems in Russia, we conducted a study to investigate whether the association between alcohol use and depressive symptoms differs by gender at high risk for HIV. Methods We used the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT) and the 10-item Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale to measure alcohol use and depressive symptoms among 307 patients who attended a clinic for sexually transmitted infections in St. Petersburg, Russia. Logistic regression models were applied for the analysis. Results The comparison of data between men and women revealed a significant quadratic term of alcohol use and significant interactions between alcohol use and gender on depressive symptoms. Men with an AUDIT score in the first and fourth quartiles were more likely to report depressive symptoms in comparison to men in the second quartile. Their odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were 7.54 (2.00–28.51) and 5.06 (1.31–19.63), respectively. Among women, a linear trend was observed such that those who misused alcohol were three times more likely to have depressive symptoms than those who did not misuse alcohol (OR = 3.03, 95% CI, 1.05–8.80). Conclusion The association between alcohol use and depressive symptoms differed by gender. Additional research is needed to investigate this relationship in Russia. Strategies to reduce alcohol-related problems in Russia may need to consider these differences. PMID:23240098

  5. Friendship Context Matters: Examining the Domain Specificity of Alcohol and Depression Socialization Among Adolescents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Giletta, M.; Scholte, R.H.J.; Prinstein, M.J.; Engels, R.C.M.E.; Rabaglietti, E.; Burk, W.J.

    2012-01-01

    Driven by existing socialization theories, this study describes specific friendship contexts in which peer influence of alcohol misuse and depressive symptoms occurs. In the fall and spring of the school year, surveys were administered to 704 Italian adolescents (53 % male, M (age) = 15.53) enrolled

  6. Selected sociodemographic factors and related differences in patterns of alcohol use among university students in Slovakia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sebena, Rene; Orosova, Olga; Mikolajczyk, Rafael T.; van Dijk, Jitse P.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Alcohol use and misuse and their relation to sociodemograhic factors are well studied among university students in Western European countries and the USA, but less is known about students in Eastern Europe. The historical past as communistic countries might have affected the social life

  7. Alcohol dependence as a chronic pain disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egli, Mark; Koob, George F.; Edwards, Scott

    2013-01-01

    Dysregulation of pain neurocircuitry and neurochemistry has been increasingly recognized as playing a critical role in a diverse spectrum of diseases including migraine, fibromyalgia, depression, and PTSD. Evidence presented here supports the hypothesis that alcohol dependence is among the pathologies arising from aberrant neurobiological substrates of pain. In this review, we explore the possible influence of alcohol analgesia and hyperalgesia in promoting alcohol misuse and dependence. We examine evidence that neuroanatomical sites involved in the negative emotional states of alcohol dependence also play an important role in pain transmission and may be functionally altered under chronic pain conditions. We also consider possible genetic links between pain transmission and alcohol dependence. We propose an allostatic load model in which episodes of alcohol intoxication and withdrawal, traumatic stressors, and injury are each capable of dysregulating an overlapping set of neural substrates to engender sensory and affective pain states that are integral to alcohol dependence and comorbid conditions such as anxiety, depression, and chronic pain. PMID:22975446

  8. Alcohol consumption and attitudes towards banning alcohol sales on campus among European university students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stock, C; Mikolajczyk, R; Bloomfield, K; Maxwell, A E; Ozcebe, H; Petkeviciene, J; Naydenova, V; Marin-Fernandez, B; El-Ansari, W; Krämer, A

    2009-02-01

    The European Commission's new health strategy for improving health at the European Union (EU) level includes tackling alcohol consumption. This study aimed to assess the prevalence of alcohol consumption and problem drinking, as well as students' attitudes towards banning the sale of alcohol on campus. In total, 5826 students from universities in seven European countries (Denmark, Germany, Spain, Lithuania, Poland, Bulgaria and Turkey) took part in this cross-sectional study. A self-administered questionnaire assessed sociodemographic information, frequency of alcohol consumption, problem drinking and attitudes towards banning the sale of alcohol on campus. The highest prevalence of drinking alcohol more than once per week was reported in Bulgarian (males 46%, females 64%) and Spanish students (males 59%, females 64%). Among those students who drank alcohol (n=3170), problem drinking (CAGE score >1) was found in 24% of males and 13% of females. Male gender, depressive moods and a low importance of good grades at university were risk factors for drinking alcohol more than once per week as well as for problem drinking. There were substantial country differences in the proportion of students who would support a ban of alcohol sales on campus (23% in Denmark, 88% in Poland). Support for a ban was higher among female students and among students who drank alcohol once or less per week. Problem drinking is a concern among students in many European countries, especially among males. Students' support for banning the sale of alcohol on campus varies between countries and should be considered in developing EU policy.

  9. Characteristics of Adolescents and Young Adults with ADHD Who Divert or Misuse Their Prescribed Medications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilens, Timothy E.; Gignac, Martin; Swezey, Allison; Monuteaux, Michael C.; Biederman, Joseph

    2006-01-01

    Objective: Little is known about the risks and characteristics of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) patients who misuse or divert their stimulant medications. As part of a 10-year longitudinal study of youths with ADHD, the authors evaluated medication diversion or misuse at the last follow-up period. Method: Structured psychiatric…

  10. 32 CFR 147.15 - Guideline M-Misuse of Information technology systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Guideline M-Misuse of Information technology... CLASSIFIED INFORMATION Adjudication § 147.15 Guideline M—Misuse of Information technology systems. (a) The... ability to properly protect classified systems, networks, and information. Information Technology Systems...

  11. Allostatic dysregulation of natural reward processing in prescription opioid misuse: autonomic and attentional evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garland, Eric L; Froeliger, Brett; Howard, Matthew O

    2015-02-01

    Chronic pain patients who misuse prescription opioids may suffer from allostatic dysregulation of natural reward processing. Hence, this study examined whether prescription opioid misusers with chronic pain (n=72) evidenced decreased natural reward responsiveness relative to non-misusers with chronic pain (n=26). Subjects completed a dot probe task containing pain-related, opioid-related, and natural reward stimuli while attentional bias (AB) scores and heart rate variability (HRV) responses were assessed. Compared to non-misusers, misusers evidenced significantly more attenuated HRV responses to opioid, pain, and natural reward cues presented during the dot probe task. These significant between-groups differences in HRV were largest during attention to natural reward cues, but became non-significant in a sensitivity analysis controlling for opioid dosing. In addition, non-misusers evidenced an AB toward natural reward cues, whereas misusers did not. Findings suggest that opioid misusers exhibit attentional and autonomic deficits during reward processing. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Acute Psychotic Symptoms due to Benzydamine Hydrochloride Abuse with Alcohol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yahya Ayhan Acar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Benzydamine hydrochloride is a locally acting nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug. Benzydamine hydrochloride overdose can cause stimulation of central nervous system, hallucinations, and psychosis. We presented a young man with psychotic symptoms due to benzydamine hydrochloride abuse. He received a total dose of 1000 mg benzydamine hydrochloride with alcohol for its hallucinative effects. Misuse of benzydamine hydrochloride must be considered in differential diagnosis of first-episode psychosis and physicians should consider possibility of abuse in prescribing.

  13. The role of alcohol in identity construction among LGBT people: a qualitative study

    OpenAIRE

    Emslie, Carol; Lennox, Jemma; Ireland, Lana

    2017-01-01

    Research suggests that alcohol use and misuse are higher among lesbian, gay and bisexual than heterosexual populations, yet the social context of drinking in sexual minority communities has rarely been examined. To explore lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender (LGBT) people's relationship with alcohol, we conducted seven focus groups (N = 33) with pre-existing groups of friends and work colleagues (18 to 52 years) in Scotland, UK. We identified and analysed patterns in our data using themati...

  14. Tackle characteristics and injury in a cross section of rugby union football.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIntosh, Andrew S; Savage, Trevor N; McCrory, Paul; Fréchède, Bertrand O; Wolfe, Rory

    2010-05-01

    The tackle is the game event in rugby union most associated with injury. This study's main aims were to measure tackle characteristics from video using a qualitative protocol, to assess whether the characteristics differed by level of play, and to measure the associations between tackle characteristics and injury. A cohort study was undertaken. The cohort comprised male rugby players in the following levels: younger than 15 yr, 18 yr, and 20 yr, grade, and elite (Super 12 and Wallabies). All tackle events and technique characteristics were coded in 77 game halves using a standardized qualitative protocol. Game injuries and missed-game injuries were identified and correlated with tackle events. A total of 6618 tackle events, including 81 resulting in a game injury, were observed and coded in the 77 game halves fully analyzed (145 tackle events per hour). An increase in the proportion of active shoulder tackles was observed from younger than 15 yr (13%) to elite (31%). Younger players engaged in more passive tackles and tended to stay on their feet more than experienced players. Younger than 15 yr rugby players had a significantly lower risk of tackle game injury compared with elite players. No specific tackle technique was observed to be associated with a significantly increased risk of game injury. There was a greater risk of game injury associated with two or more tacklers involved in the tackle event, and the greatest risk was associated with simultaneous contact by tacklers, after adjusting for level of play. Tackle characteristics differed between levels of play. The number of tacklers and the sequence of tackler contact with the ball carrier require consideration from an injury prevention perspective.

  15. Summary of the 2016 Alcohol and Immunology Research Interest Group (AIRIG) meeting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boule, Lisbeth A; Ju, Cynthia; Agudelo, Marisela; Parira, Tiyash; Cannon, Abigail; Davis, Booker; Eby, Jonathan; Cresci, Gail; Samuelson, Derrick R; Shukla, Pradeep; Alrefai, Waddah A; Sureshchandra, Suhas; Pandey, Subhash C; Schnabl, Bernd; Curtis, Brenda J; Wyatt, Todd A; Choudhry, Mashkoor A; Kovacs, Elizabeth J

    2018-02-01

    On November 18, 2016 the 21st annual Alcohol and Immunology Research Interest Group (AIRIG) meeting was held at the Center for Translational Research and Education at Loyola University Chicago's Health Sciences Campus in Maywood, IL. The 2016 meeting focused broadly on alcohol and inflammation, epigenetics, and the microbiome. The four plenary sessions of the meeting were Alcohol, Inflammation, and Immunity; Alcohol and Epigenetics; Alcohol, Transcriptional Regulation, and Epigenetics; and Alcohol, Intestinal Mucosa, and the Gut Microbiome. Presentations in all sessions of the meeting explored putative underlying causes for chronic diseases and mortality associated with alcohol consumption, shedding light on future work and potential therapeutic targets to alleviate the negative effects of alcohol misuse. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Peer, social media, and alcohol marketing influences on college student drinking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberson, Angela A; McKinney, Cliff; Walker, Courtney; Coleman, Ashley

    2018-07-01

    To investigate how alcohol marketing and peers may promote college students' alcohol use through social media. College students (N = 682) aged 18 to 22 years from a large Southern university completed paper surveys in April 2014. Structural equation modeling was used to investigate relationships among variables as well as moderation by gender and race. Drinking behavior was directly related to perceived norms and attitudes toward alcohol that develop, in part, from direct and indirect interactions with their online and offline peers, as well as engagement with alcohol-related content on social media. Gender and ethnicity moderated some effects. College student drinking is influenced by friends' alcohol-related content posted on social networking sites and by greater engagement with traditional and online alcohol marketing. College campus alcohol misuse interventions should include components to counter peer influences and alcohol marketing on social media.

  17. The Efficacy of Disulfiram for the Treatment of Alcohol Use Disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Charlotte H; Pedersen, Bolette; Tønnesen, Hanne

    2011-01-01

    Background: Alcohol use disorders (AUD) involving hazardous, harmful, and addictive misuse of alcohol are widespread in most parts of the world. The aim of this study was to review the effect of disulfiram in the treatment of patients with AUD. The effect of disulfiram was evaluated according...... to the primary outcome of an intake of alcohol below 30 and 20 g/d for men and women, respectively, as well as secondary outcomes such as days until relapse, alcohol intake, and numbers of drinking days. Methods: A systematic review of the literature was conducted using MEDLINE, EMBASE, and Cochrane Central...

  18. Tackling Drought Stress: RECEPTOR-LIKE KINASES Present New Approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Alex; Aalen, Reidunn B.; Audenaert, Dominique; Beeckman, Tom; Broadley, Martin R.; Butenko, Melinka A.; Caño-Delgado, Ana I.; de Vries, Sacco; Dresselhaus, Thomas; Felix, Georg; Graham, Neil S.; Foulkes, John; Granier, Christine; Greb, Thomas; Grossniklaus, Ueli; Hammond, John P.; Heidstra, Renze; Hodgman, Charlie; Hothorn, Michael; Inzé, Dirk; Østergaard, Lars; Russinova, Eugenia; Simon, Rüdiger; Skirycz, Aleksandra; Stahl, Yvonne; Zipfel, Cyril; De Smet, Ive

    2012-01-01

    Global climate change and a growing population require tackling the reduction in arable land and improving biomass production and seed yield per area under varying conditions. One of these conditions is suboptimal water availability. Here, we review some of the classical approaches to dealing with plant response to drought stress and we evaluate how research on RECEPTOR-LIKE KINASES (RLKs) can contribute to improving plant performance under drought stress. RLKs are considered as key regulators of plant architecture and growth behavior, but they also function in defense and stress responses. The available literature and analyses of available transcript profiling data indeed suggest that RLKs can play an important role in optimizing plant responses to drought stress. In addition, RLK pathways are ideal targets for nontransgenic approaches, such as synthetic molecules, providing a novel strategy to manipulate their activity and supporting translational studies from model species, such as Arabidopsis thaliana, to economically useful crops. PMID:22693282

  19. More iPhone 3 Development Tackling IPhone SDK 3

    CERN Document Server

    LaMarche, Jeff

    2010-01-01

    Interested in iPhone development? Want to learn more? Whether you're a self-taught iPhone development genius or have just made your way through the pages of Beginning iPhone 3 Development, we have the perfect book for you. More iPhone 3 Development: Tackling iPhone SDK 3 digs deeper into Apple's latest SDK. Best-selling authors Dave Mark and Jeff LaMarche explain concepts as only they can, covering topics like Core Data, peer-to-peer networking using GameKit and network streams, working with data from the web, MapKit, in-application e-mail, and more. All the concepts and APIs are clearly prese

  20. Differences in prevalence of prescription opiate misuse among rural and urban probationers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Havens, Jennifer R; Oser, Carrie B; Leukefeld, Carl G; Webster, J Matthew; Martin, Steven S; O'Connell, Daniel J; Surratt, Hilary L; Inciardi, James A

    2007-01-01

    We compared the prevalence of prescription opiate misuse among 2 cohorts of felony probationers (N = 1525). Multiple logistic regression was utilized to determine the independent correlates of prescription opiate misuse among rural (n = 782) and urban (n = 743) probationers participating in an HIV-intervention study. After adjustment for differences in demographic and drug use characteristics, rural participants were almost five times more likely than their urban counterparts to have misused prescription opiates. The prevalence of prescription opiate misuse was significantly higher among the rural probationers; however, given the paucity of illicit opiates and relatively recent emergence of prescription opiates in rural areas, rural substance abuse treatment may be ill-prepared to treat prescription opiate misuse.

  1. Anabolic Steroid Misuse Among US Adolescent Boys: Disparities by Sexual Orientation and Race/Ethnicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blashill, Aaron J; Calzo, Jerel P; Griffiths, Scott; Murray, Stuart B

    2017-02-01

    To examine the prevalence of anabolic steroid misuse among US adolescent boys as a function of sexual orientation and race/ethnicity. We analyzed boys from the 2015 Youth Risk Behavior Survey (n = 6248; mean age = 16), a representative sample of US high school students. Lifetime prevalence of anabolic steroid misuse was dichotomized as never versus 1 or more times. Sexual minority boys reported elevated misuse compared with heterosexual boys, within each level of race/ethnicity. Black, Hispanic, and White sexual minority boys reported misuse at approximately 25%, 20%, and 9%, respectively. Sexual orientation health disparities in anabolic steroid misuse disproportionally affect Black and Hispanic sexual minority adolescent boys, but more research is needed to understand the mechanisms driving these disparities.

  2. Overlooked and underestimated? Problematic alcohol use in clients recovering from drug dependence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staiger, Petra K; Richardson, Ben; Long, Caroline M; Carr, Victoria; Marlatt, G Alan

    2013-07-01

    Despite recognition of the harms related to alcohol misuse and its potential to interfere substantially with sustained recovery from drug dependency, research evaluating drug treatment outcomes has not addressed the issue comprehensively. It has been overlooked possibly because treatment research has been framed according to the primary drug of choice, rather than investigating the interactions between different combinations of drugs and/or alcohol use. This paper reports on a systematic review investigating whether concurrent alcohol use could impede recovery from illicit drug use in two potential ways: first, alcohol could become a substitute addiction and/or secondly, alcohol misuse post-treatment may place an individual at risk for relapse to their primary drug problem. A systematic search of four relevant databases was undertaken to identify peer-reviewed, quantitative drug treatment outcome studies that reported alcohol use pre-, post-treatment and follow-up. The search revealed 567 papers, of which 13 were assessed as fulfilling the key inclusion criteria.The review indicated inconsistent and therefore inconclusive support for the substitution hypothesis. However, the data revealed consistent support for the hypothesis that alcohol use increases relapse to drug use. (i) The potential negative impact of alcohol misuse on drug treatment outcomes remains under-researched and overlooked; (ii) alcohol consumption post-drug treatment may increase the likelihood that an individual will relapse to their primary drug; (ii) existing evidence regarding the substitution hypothesis is inconclusive, although there was an indication that a subgroup of participants will be vulnerable to alcohol becoming the primary addiction instead of drugs. We argue that future drug treatment outcome studies need to include detailed analysis of the influence of alcohol use pre- and post-drug treatment. © 2012 The Authors, Addiction © 2012 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  3. Family violence, employment status, welfare benefits, and alcohol drinking in the United States: what is the relation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, E; Lasch, K; Chandra, P; Lee, J

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVES—This study examined the contribution of employment status, welfare benefits, alcohol use, and other individual, and contextual factors to physical aggression during marital conflict.
METHODS—Logistic regression models were used to analyse panel data collected in the National Survey of Families and Households in 1987 and 1992. A total of 4780 married or cohabiting persons re-interviewed in 1992 were included in the analysis. Domestic violence was defined as reporting that both partners were physically violent during arguments.
RESULTS—It was found that non-employed respondents are not at greater risk of family violence in comparison with employed respondents, after controlling for alcohol misuse, income, education, age, and other factors; however, employed persons receiving welfare benefits are at significantly higher risk. Alcohol misuse, which remains a predictor of violence even after controlling for other factors, increases the risk of family violence while satisfaction with social support from family and friends decreases it.
CONCLUSION—These results underscore the important effect of alcohol misuse on domestic violence, and the need to monitor the potential impact of welfare reform on domestic violence.


Keywords: family violence; alcohol misuse; employment status; welfare benefits PMID:11160171

  4. Monitoring Technology Misuse & Abuse: A Five-Step Plan for Creating a Digital Citizenship Program in Your School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribble, Mike S.; Bailey, Gerald D.

    2004-01-01

    Over the last two years, it has become evident that a behavior pattern of misuse and abuse with respect to technology is beginning to emerge in society. This outbreak of technology misuse and abuse is documented in continual news coverage on TV, in newspapers and on the Internet--both inside and outside of schools. The endless list of misuse and…

  5. Alcohol Advertising

    OpenAIRE

    Trkovská, Jana

    2017-01-01

    The thesis concerns itself with alcohol advertising. Alcohol is the most widespread habit-forming substance, yet its consumption is permitted in most countries all around the world, possibly restricted by the age of consumers only. Drinking alcohol cannot be either regulated or prohibited today. It has become commonplace for the majority of our lives. Being aware of its apparent risks, however, there is an effort to regulate at least alcohol advertising. The main objective of this work was to...

  6. Protocol for a cluster-randomised controlled trial evaluating the impact of a preschool-based capacity building intervention on intimate partner violence and substance misuse in Sri Lanka.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lokuge, Kamalini; Wallace, Polly; Subasinghe, Kalini; Thurber, Katherine; De Silva, Tissa; Clarke, Naomi; Waas, Dulshika; Liyanage, Nisansala; Attygalle, Udena; Carron-Arthur, Bradley; Rodrigo, Kalyana; Banks, Emily; D'Este, Cate; Rajapakse, Thilini

    2018-05-02

    Past research has identified links between intimate partner violence (IPV) and alcohol misuse and poverty in Sri Lanka. Services that address substance misuse are amongst the few interventions shown to reduce IPV in settings similar to Sri Lanka. This paper describes the protocol for a study examining the impact of a preschool-based capacity building intervention on the prevalence of IPV and substance misuse in parents with children attending preschools, including uptake of available government services. The study is a cluster randomised controlled trial. Government-managed preschools (n = 34) in Galle and Colombo municipalities  will be randomly assigned to an intervention (n = 17) or control group (n = 17). Parents with children attending these preschools will be recruited to participate. The study intervention will build the capacity of selected community volunteers (parents) and preschool teachers in the provision of information and support to families affected by IPV and substance misuse. This intervention is directed at improving uptake, access and coordination of existing services. Data will be collected from all parents, and teachers in the intervention group, pre-intervention and 10 months post-intervention. The primary outcome for this study is experience of IPV amongst mothers of preschool-attending children. Secondary outcomes are substance misuse amongst fathers, measured via the locally adapted Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test and Drug Abuse Screening Test; and awareness and uptake of services for these issues measured through locally-relevant tools. Demographic information and satisfaction with the intervention will also be assessed. By intervening through preschools we aim to support high-risk families early enough to arrest the cycle of violence that results in children themselves becoming victims and perpetrators of such violence. The innovative project design will reach the most vulnerable sections of the community and will

  7. Supporting Parents to Reduce the Misuse of Alcohol by Young People

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Bernadette; Snow, Pamela

    2010-01-01

    The majority of parents report that they believe they have an important role in shaping adolescents' values and behaviours in relation to drinking, but they also report that they need more support in this area. Education, welfare, health, youth and other professionals have an important role in providing services to young people and/or their…

  8. Early Intervention to Reduce Alcohol Misuse and Abuse in the Ohio Army National Guard

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-01

    Investigator ix. Richard McCormick, PhD – Independent Consultant x. Carla Conroy, MPH, Case Western Reserve University – Research Manager xi. Brittany ...Serrano provided administrative support during this reporting period. Name: Brittany Brownrigg Project Role: Data Coordinator Researcher Identifier...the feasibility of gene (stress-related) by environment (CA) interactions on promoting changes in brain function (amygdala and mPFC response to

  9. PowerPoint Use and Misuse in Digital Innovation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ciriello, Raffaele; Richter, Alexander; Schwabe, Gerhard

    2015-01-01

    insights into PowerPoint use and misuse through an ethnographically informed field study of employee-driven innovation inside a multinational European banking software provider. Drawing on primary data consisting of 62 interviews, 41 slide decks, and longitudinal series of observations and workshops......PowerPoint continues to permeate the presentation genre in general and business communication in particular. Whereas PowerPoint’s role in organizational practices has caught increasing research interest, research on PowerPoint in digital innovation is still scarce. This study provides comprehensive......, the paper illustrates how deeply entangled PowerPoint is in digital innovation. Our in-depth analysis of PowerPoint use at different innovation process stages suggests that the tool cannot be simply regarded as beneficial or detrimental for innovation. Instead, we provide a revised dialectical examination...

  10. Practice implications and recommendations for managing codeine misuse and dependence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bergin Michael

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Codeine, a weak opiate, requires increased pharmacovigilance relating to availability, heterogeneous nature of misuse, dependence and associated harm. A scoping review of literature on codeine was conducted using Arksey & O’Malley’s framework (1. Databases searched included PubMed, EBSCO Host, Science Direct, EMBASE, PsycINFO, Cochrane library and Medline from 1994 to 2014. Follow-up search strategies involved hand searching and searching of pharmaceutical, health, medical and drug related websites. Initial zscreening identified 3,105 articles with 475 meeting the inclusion criteria. Eight broad categories organised the literature, data charting and qualitative synthesis. This paper presents implications for practice and makes recommendations to address these issues. Themes identified relate to raising public and practitioner awareness, risk management, dispensing practices and monitoring and surveillance of codeine. Evidence to inform law enforcement, drug surveillance, public health initiatives, harm reduction approaches, pharmacy, clinical and treatment practices is warranted.

  11. The use and misuse of moral distress in neonatology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prentice, Trisha M; Gillam, Lynn; Davis, Peter G; Janvier, Annie

    2018-02-01

    The neonatal intensive care unit is recognized as a stressful environment; the nature of caring for sick babies with uncertain outcomes and the need to make difficult decisions results in a work place where moral distress is prevalent. According to the prevailing definition, moral distress occurs when the provider believes that what is "done" is not the right course of action, with an element of constraint: the provider has no choice but to act this way. This can lead to adverse outcomes, including burnout and a change of career. Traditionally, moral distress was considered to represent a misuse of power that forced nurses (typically) to provide burdensome treatments they believed not in the patient's best interests. Today, with shared decision-making, it is rare for physicians to act in a purely paternalistic fashion and impose management strategies on a team and parents. However, in the grey zones, it is not unusual for individuals with different values to disagree on a course of treatment. Healthcare professionals across all disciplines may feel constrained despite there being no identified misuse of power. We argue for a broader understanding of moral distress and an awareness that maladaptive responses to moral distress may result in "transference" of moral distress on to other healthcare professionals and even on to the families of babies for whom we have a duty of care. Strategies for dealing with moral distress exist. An appreciation of these dynamics will enable providers to reduce the negative impacts of moral distress while also using it as a vehicle for constructive discussion and progressive thought that will better serve our patients and our colleagues. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Alcoholic fermentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Colin, P

    1961-01-04

    The addition of C/sub 6-10/ alcohols to the fermenting sugar solutions, increased the yield of alcohol by 1.5 to 5%. The best additives were (additive, % additive in sugar solution, % increased in yield of alcohol): hexanol, 0.03, 2.5; heptanol, 0.05, 3; nonanol, 0.01, 3; 2-ethylbutanol, 0.05, 4; 2-ethylhexanol, 0.05, 5; a mixture of C/sub 7-9/ alcohols from the Oxo synthesis, 0.05, 4.5, and a mixture of C/sub 10/ alcohols 0.05, 3.

  13. Heavy drinking, impulsivity and attentional narrowing following alcohol cue exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hicks, Joshua A; Fields, Sherecce; Davis, William E; Gable, Philip A

    2015-08-01

    Research shows that alcohol-related stimuli have the propensity to capture attention among individuals motivated to consume alcohol. Research has further demonstrated that impulsive individuals are especially prone to this type of attentional bias. Recently, it is suggested that alcohol cue exposure can also produce a general narrowing of attention consistent with the activation of approach motivational states. Based on previous models of addiction and recent research on the activation of approach motivational states, we predicted that impulsive individuals would demonstrate a constriction of attentional focus in response to alcohol cue exposure. Participants (n = 392) completed a task assessing attentional breadth in response to alcohol and non-alcohol cues, followed by measures of alcohol use and impulsivity. The findings revealed that impulsivity scores predicted narrowing of attentional scope following the presentation of alcohol cues for heavier drinkers but not for light drinkers. These results suggest that impulsive individuals who drink more heavily demonstrate a narrowing of attention in the presence of alcohol-related incentive cues. Implications for how these findings might account for the link between impulsivity and alcohol use and misuse are discussed.

  14. Tackle technique and tackle-related injuries in high-level South African Rugby Union under-18 players: real-match video analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burger, Nicholas; Lambert, Michael I; Viljoen, Wayne; Brown, James C; Readhead, Clint; Hendricks, Sharief

    2016-08-01

    The high injury rate associated with rugby union is primarily due to the tackle, and poor contact technique has been identified as a risk factor for injury. We aimed to determine whether the tackle technique proficiency scores were different in injurious tackles versus tackles that did not result in injury using real-match scenarios in high-level youth rugby union. Injury surveillance was conducted at the under-18 Craven Week tournaments (2011-2013). Tackle-related injury information was used to identify injury events in the match video footage and non-injury events were identified for the injured player cohort. Injury and non-injury events were scored for technique proficiency and Cohen's effect sizes were calculated and the Student t test (p<0.05) was performed to compare injury versus non-injury scores. The overall mean score for front-on ball-carrier proficiency was 7.17±1.90 and 9.02±2.15 for injury and non-injury tackle events, respectively (effect size=moderate; p<0.05). The overall mean score for side/behind ball-carrier proficiency was 4.09±2.12 and 7.68±1.72 for injury and non-injury tackle events, respectively (effect size=large; p<0.01). The overall mean score for front-on tackler proficiency was 7.00±1.95 and 9.35±2.56 for injury and non-injury tackle events, respectively (effect size=moderate; p<0.05). The overall mean score for side/behind tackler proficiency was 5.47±1.60 and 8.14±1.75 for injury and non-injury tackle events, respectively (effect size=large; p<0.01). Higher overall mean and criterion-specific tackle-related technique scores were associated with a non-injury outcome. The ability to perform well during tackle events may decrease the risk of injury and may manifest in superior performance. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  15. Reality Television Programs Are Associated With Illegal Drug Use and Prescription Drug Misuse Among College Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fogel, Joshua; Shlivko, Alexander

    2016-01-02

    Reality television watching and social media use are popular activities. Reality television can include mention of illegal drug use and prescription drug misuse. To determine if reality television and social media use of Twitter are associated with either illegal drug use or prescription drug misuse. Survey of 576 college students in 2011. Independent variables included watching reality television (social cognitive theory), parasocial interaction (parasocial interaction theory), television hours watched (cultivation theory), following a reality television character on Twitter, and demographics. Outcome variables were illegal drug use and prescription drug misuse. Watching reality television and also identifying with reality TV program characters were each associated with greater odds for illegal drug use. Also, following a reality TV character on Twitter had greater odds for illegal drug use and also in one analytical model for prescription drug misuse. No support was seen for cultivation theory. Those born in the United States had greater odds for illegal drug use and prescription drug misuse. Women and Asians had lower odds for illegal drug use. African Americans and Asians had lower odds for prescription drug misuse. Physicians, psychologists, and other healthcare practitioners may find it useful to include questions in their clinical interview about reality television watching and Twitter use. Physician and psychology groups, public health practitioners, and government health agencies should consider discussing with television broadcasting companies the potential negative impact of including content with illegal drugs and prescription drug misuse on reality television programs.

  16. Preliminary research informing policy on remote alcohol monitoring in criminal justice: the Scottish experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodall, Christine A; Neville, Fergus G; Williams, Damien J; Donnelly, Peter D

    2016-11-01

    To explore the views of Scottish offenders on the impact of alcohol on their experience of offending and their lives in general. Furthermore, to explore their views on the concept of remote alcohol monitoring (RAM) as a way to address alcohol misuse upon liberation from prison. A convenience sample of 12 serving offenders participated in one of three focus groups. Data were analysed using the principles of thematic analysis. Analysis of the data revealed the significant impact of alcohol on the lives of the participants. Key themes included the amount and frequency of alcohol consumption; the association of alcohol with harm; the association of alcohol with offending; the previous attempts to reduce alcohol consumption and possible reasons for failure; and the views of participants on the utility of RAM in relation to crime prevention. Participants had significant issues with alcohol misuse prior to incarceration that had impacted on their offending and resulted in both health and social harms. Participants were generally positive but pragmatic about RAM, recognising that technology alone may not be enough to change deeply ingrained and addictive behaviours.

  17. Factors influencing recording of drug misuse in primary care: a qualitative study of GPs in England.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies-Kershaw, Hilary; Petersen, Irene; Nazareth, Irwin; Stevenson, Fiona

    2018-04-01

    Drug misuse is a serious public health problem. Evidence from previous epidemiological studies show that GPs are recording drug misuse in electronic patient records (EPR). However, although the recording trends are similar to national surveys, recording rates are much lower. To explore the factors that influence GPs to record drug misuse in the EPR, and to gain a clearer understanding of the gap between the amount of drug misuse recorded in primary care and that in national surveys and other studies. A semi-structured qualitative interview study of GPs working in general practices across England. Purposive sampling was employed to recruit 12 GPs, both with and without a special interest in drug misuse, from across England. Semi-structured face-to-face interviews were conducted to consider whether and why GPs record drug misuse, which methods GPs use for recording, GPs' actions if a patient asks for the information not to be recorded, and GPs' actions if they think a patient misuses drugs but does not disclose the information. Resulting data were analysed using a combination of inductive and deductive thematic analysis. The complexity of asking about drug misuse preceded GPs' decision to record. They described how the context of the general practice protocols, interaction between GP and patient, and the questioning process affected whether, how, and in which circumstances they asked about drug use. This led to GPs making a clinical decision on whether, who, and how to record in the EPR. When making decisions about whether or not to record drug misuse, GPs face complex choices. Aside from their own views, they reported feelings of pressure from the general practice environment in which they worked and their clinical commissioning group, as well as government policies. © British Journal of General Practice 2018.

  18. Prescription pain reliever misuse and levels of pain impairment: 3-year course in a nationally representative outpatient sample of US adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Novak SP

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Scott P Novak,1 Cristie Glasheen,1 Carl L Roland,2 1Behavioral Health Epidemiology, RTI International, 2Clinical Sciences and Outcomes Evidence, Pfizer Inc., Durham, NC, USA Background: The primary aim of this work was to present the prevalence data from the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (NESARC, a representative 3-year longitudinal survey (ages 18+ years that captured information on patterns of self-reported pain interference and prescription pain reliever misuse. A second aim was to assess the degree to which the risk of various types of opioid misuse (onset, desistance, and incidence of dependence was related to the longitudinal course of self-reported pain interference over the 3-year period. Methods: We used a two-wave, nationally representative sample of adults (aged 18+ years in which the baseline data were collected during 2001–2002 and a single follow-up was obtained ~3 years later (2004–2005 with 34,332 respondents with complete data on study variables for both waves. Results: Our findings indicated that ~10% reported high pain interference in the past month at each wave. There was tremendous stability in levels of pain, with ~5% reporting consistent levels of high impairment over the 3-year study, a proxy for chronic pain. Levels of pain were more strongly associated with prescription pain reliever misuse concurrently rather than prospectively, and the association was largely linear, with the likelihood of misuse increasing with levels of pain. Finally, health service factors were also prominent predictors of onset, but not the outcomes, of desistance or transitions to problem use. Conclusion: This study is the first to use a nationally representative sample with measures of pain and drug use history collected over an extended period. These results may help provide clinicians with an understanding that the risk of misuse is greatest when pain is active and may help guide the selection of

  19. Which Classes of Prescription Drugs Are Commonly Misused?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Alcohol Club Drugs Cocaine Fentanyl Hallucinogens Inhalants Heroin Marijuana MDMA (Ecstasy/Molly) Methamphetamine Opioids Over-the-Counter Medicines Prescription Medicines Steroids (Anabolic) Synthetic Cannabinoids (K2/Spice) Synthetic Cathinones (Bath Salts) Tobacco/ ...

  20. Free radicals in alcoholic myopathy: indices of damage and preventive studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preedy, Victor R; Adachi, Junko; Asano, Migiwa; Koll, Michael; Mantle, David; Niemela, Onni; Parkkila, Seppo; Paice, Alistair G; Peters, Timothy; Rajendram, Rajkumar; Seitz, Helmut; Ueno, Yasuhiro; Worrall, Simon

    2002-04-15

    Chronic alcoholic myopathy affects up to two-thirds of all alcohol misusers and is characterized by selective atrophy of Type II (glycolytic, fast-twitch, anaerobic) fibers. In contrast, the Type I fibers (oxidative, slow-twitch, aerobic) are relatively protected. Alcohol increases the concentration of cholesterol hydroperoxides and malondialdehyde-protein adducts, though protein-carbonyl concentration levels do not appear to be overtly increased and may actually decrease in some studies. In alcoholics, plasma concentrations of alpha-tocopherol may be reduced in myopathic patients. However, alpha-tocopherol supplementation has failed to prevent either the loss of skeletal muscle protein or the reductions in protein synthesis in alcohol-dosed animals. The evidence for increased oxidative stress in alcohol-exposed skeletal muscle is thus inconsistent. Further work into the role of ROS in alcoholic myopathy is clearly warranted.

  1. Adaptive Online Sequential ELM for Concept Drift Tackling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arif Budiman

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A machine learning method needs to adapt to over time changes in the environment. Such changes are known as concept drift. In this paper, we propose concept drift tackling method as an enhancement of Online Sequential Extreme Learning Machine (OS-ELM and Constructive Enhancement OS-ELM (CEOS-ELM by adding adaptive capability for classification and regression problem. The scheme is named as adaptive OS-ELM (AOS-ELM. It is a single classifier scheme that works well to handle real drift, virtual drift, and hybrid drift. The AOS-ELM also works well for sudden drift and recurrent context change type. The scheme is a simple unified method implemented in simple lines of code. We evaluated AOS-ELM on regression and classification problem by using concept drift public data set (SEA and STAGGER and other public data sets such as MNIST, USPS, and IDS. Experiments show that our method gives higher kappa value compared to the multiclassifier ELM ensemble. Even though AOS-ELM in practice does not need hidden nodes increase, we address some issues related to the increasing of the hidden nodes such as error condition and rank values. We propose taking the rank of the pseudoinverse matrix as an indicator parameter to detect “underfitting” condition.

  2. Tackling childhood obesity: the importance of understanding the context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knai, Cécile; McKee, Martin

    2010-12-01

    Recommendations to tackle major health problems such as childhood obesity may not be appropriate if they fail to take account of the prevailing socio-political, cultural and economic context. We describe the development and application of a qualitative risk analysis approach to identify non-scientific considerations framing the policy response to obesity in Denmark and Latvia. Interviews conducted with key stakeholders in Denmark and Latvia, undertaken following a review of relevant literature on obesity and national policies. A qualitative risk analysis model was developed to help explain the findings in the light of national context. Non-scientific considerations that appeared to influence the response to obesity include the perceived relative importance of childhood obesity; the nature of stakeholder relations and its impact on decision-making; the place of obesity on the policy agenda; the legitimacy of the state to act for population health and views on alliances between public and private sectors. Better recognition of the exogenous factors affecting policy-making may lead to a more adequate policy response. The development and use of a qualitative risk analysis model enabled a better understanding of the contextual factors and processes influencing the response to childhood obesity in each country.

  3. Tackling HIV Persistence: Pharmacological versus CRISPR-Based Shock Strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darcis, Gilles; Das, Atze T; Berkhout, Ben

    2018-03-29

    Jan Svoboda studied aspects of viral latency, in particular with respect to disease induction by avian RNA tumor viruses, which were later renamed as part of the extended retrovirus family. The course of retroviral pathogenesis is intrinsically linked to their unique property of integrating the DNA copy of the retroviral genome into that of the host cell, thus forming the provirus. Retroviral latency has recently become of major clinical interest to allow a better understanding of why we can effectively block the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) in infected individuals with antiviral drugs, yet never reach a cure. We will discuss HIV-1 latency and its direct consequence-the formation of long-lasting HIV-1 reservoirs. We next focus on one of the most explored strategies in tackling HIV-1 reservoirs-the "shock and kill" strategy-which describes the broadly explored pharmacological way of kicking the latent provirus, with subsequent killing of the virus-producing cell by the immune system. We furthermore present how the clustered regularly interspaced palindromic repeats (CRISPR) and associated protein (Cas) system can be harnessed to reach the same objective by reactivating HIV-1 gene expression from latency. We will review the benefits and drawbacks of these different cure strategies.

  4. Confusion and abdominal symptoms following a rugby tackle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ioannides, Demetris; Davies, Madeleine; Kluzek, Stefan

    2017-09-23

    A 19-year-old man was sent to the emergency department following a pitch-side assessment for suspected concussion, unexplained upper abdominal tenderness and vomiting, following a high-impact tackle during a rugby match. A Focussed Assessment with Sonography for Trauma (FAST) scan performed in the emergency department suggested intra-abdominal free fluid, and subsequent head and abdominal CT imaging showed no intracranial lesion but confirmed a significant haemoperitoneum due to large splenic tear and bleeding. An emergency splenectomy was performed, which confirmed the rupture of an enlarged spleen with blood loss of almost 2 L into the peritoneal cavity. The patient made a full recovery following surgery. A subsequent histological examination revealed granulomatous inflammation characteristic of infectious mononucleosis. This unique case illustrates that physically fit patients with early hypovolaemic shock can present with symptoms mimicking concussion. © BMJ Publishing Group Ltd (unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  5. Views on alternative forums for effectively tackling climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hjerpe, Mattias; Nasiritousi, Naghmeh

    2015-09-01

    This year (2015) marks the 21st formal anniversary of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) and in December a new climate treaty is expected to be reached. Yet, the UNFCCC has not been successful in setting the world on a path to meet a target to prevent temperatures rising by more than 2 °C above pre-industrial levels. Meanwhile, other forums, such as the G20 and subnational forums, have increasingly become sites of climate change initiatives. There has, however, so far been no systematic evaluation of what forums climate change policymakers and practitioners perceive to be needed to effectively tackle climate change. Drawing on survey data from two recent UNFCCC Conference of the Parties (COP), we show that there exists an overall preference for state-led, multilateral forums. However, preferences starkly diverge between respondents from different geographical regions and no clear alternative to the UNFCCC emerges. Our results highlight difficulties in coordinating global climate policy in a highly fragmented governance landscape.

  6. Tackling Critical Catalytic Residues in Helicobacter pylori L-Asparaginase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maristella Maggi

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Bacterial asparaginases (amidohydrolases, EC 3.5.1.1 are important enzymes in cancer therapy, especially for Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia. They are tetrameric enzymes able to catalyze the deamination of L-ASN and, to a variable extent, of L-GLN, on which leukemia cells are dependent for survival. In contrast to other known L-asparaginases, Helicobacter pylori CCUG 17874 type II enzyme (HpASNase is cooperative and has a low affinity towards L-GLN. In this study, some critical amino acids forming the active site of HpASNase (T16, T95 and E289 have been tackled by rational engineering in the attempt to better define their role in catalysis and to achieve a deeper understanding of the peculiar cooperative behavior of this enzyme. Mutations T16E, T95D and T95H led to a complete loss of enzymatic activity. Mutation E289A dramatically reduced the catalytic activity of the enzyme, but increased its thermostability. Interestingly, E289 belongs to a loop that is very variable in L-asparaginases from the structure, sequence and length point of view, and which could be a main determinant of their different catalytic features.

  7. Alcohol, microbiome, life style influence alcohol and non-alcoholic organ damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neuman, Manuela G; French, Samuel W; Zakhari, Samir; Malnick, Stephen; Seitz, Helmut K; Cohen, Lawrence B; Salaspuro, Mikko; Voinea-Griffin, Andreea; Barasch, Andrei; Kirpich, Irina A; Thomes, Paul G; Schrum, Laura W; Donohue, Terrence M; Kharbanda, Kusum K; Cruz, Marcus; Opris, Mihai

    2017-02-01

    This paper is based upon the "8th Charles Lieber's Satellite Symposium" organized by Manuela G. Neuman at the Research Society on Alcoholism Annual Meeting, on June 25, 2016 at New Orleans, Louisiana, USA. The integrative symposium investigated different aspects of alcohol-induced liver disease (ALD) as well as non-alcohol-induced liver disease (NAFLD) and possible repair. We revealed the basic aspects of alcohol metabolism that may be responsible for the development of liver disease as well as the factors that determine the amount, frequency and which type of alcohol misuse leads to liver and gastrointestinal diseases. We aimed to (1) describe the immuno-pathology of ALD, (2) examine the role of genetics in the development of alcoholic hepatitis (ASH) and NAFLD, (3) propose diagnostic markers of ASH and non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), (4) examine age and ethnic differences as well as analyze the validity of some models, (5) develop common research tools and biomarkers to study alcohol-induced effects, 6) examine the role of alcohol in oral health and colon and gastrointestinal cancer and (7) focus on factors that aggravate the severity of organ-damage. The present review includes pre-clinical, translational and clinical research that characterizes ALD and NAFLD. Strong clinical and experimental evidence lead to recognition of the key toxic role of alcohol in the pathogenesis of ALD with simple fatty infiltrations and chronic alcoholic hepatitis with hepatic fibrosis or cirrhosis. These latter stages may also be associated with a number of cellular and histological changes, including the presence of Mallory's hyaline, megamitochondria, or perivenular and perisinusoidal fibrosis. Genetic polymorphisms of ethanol metabolizing enzymes and cytochrome p450 (CYP) 2E1 activation may change the severity of ASH and NASH. Other risk factors such as its co-morbidities with chronic viral hepatitis in the presence or absence of human deficiency virus were discussed

  8. Sport-related achievement motivation and alcohol outcomes: an athlete-specific risk factor among intercollegiate athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weaver, Cameron C; Martens, Matthew P; Cadigan, Jennifer M; Takamatsu, Stephanie K; Treloar, Hayley R; Pedersen, Eric R

    2013-12-01

    Intercollegiate athletes report greater alcohol consumption and more alcohol-related problems than their non-athlete peers. Although college athletes share many of the same problems faced by non-athletes, there are some consequences that are unique to athletes. Studies have demonstrated that alcohol negatively affects athletic performance including increased dehydration, impeded muscle recovery, and increased risk for injury. Beyond risk factors for alcohol misuse that may affect college students in general, research has begun to examine risk factors that are unique to collegiate athletes. For example, research has found that off-season status, the leadership role, and athlete-specific drinking motives are associated with increased alcohol use. Given these findings, it is possible that other athlete-specific variables influence alcohol misuse. One such variable may be sport achievement orientation. The purpose of the current study was to examine the relationship between sport achievement orientation and alcohol outcomes. Given previous research regarding seasonal status and gender, these variables were examined as moderators. Varsity athletes (n=263) completed the Sport Orientation Questionnaire, which assesses sport-related achievement orientation on three scales (Competitiveness, Win Orientation, and Goal Orientation). In addition, participants completed measures of alcohol use and alcohol-related problems. Results indicated that Competitiveness, Win Orientation, and Goal Orientation were all significantly associated with alcohol use, but not alcohol-related problems. Moreover, these relationships were moderated by seasonal status and gender. These interactions, clinical implications, and limitations are discussed. © 2013.

  9. Parental alcohol dependence and the transmission of adolescent behavioral disinhibition: a study of adoptive and non-adoptive families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Serena M; Keyes, Margaret; Malone, Stephen M; Elkins, Irene; Legrand, Lisa N; Iacono, William G; McGue, Matt

    2009-04-01

    To examine the genetic and environmental influences of parental alcoholism on offspring disinhibited behavior. We compared the effect of parental alcoholism history on offspring in adoptive and non-adoptive families. In families with a history of parental alcohol dependence, we examined the effect of exposure to parental alcoholism symptoms during the life-time of the adolescent. Setting Assessments occurred at the University of Minnesota from 1998 to 2004. Adolescents adopted in infancy were ascertained systematically from records of three private Minnesota adoption agencies; non-adopted adolescents were ascertained from Minnesota birth records. Adolescents and their rearing parents participated in in-person assessments. For adolescents, measures included self- reports of delinquency, deviant peers, substance use, antisocial attitudes and personality. For parents, we conducted DSM-IV clinical assessments of alcohol abuse and dependence. A history of parental alcohol dependence was associated with higher levels of disinhibition only when adolescents were related biologically to their rearing parents. Within families with a history of parental alcoholism, exposure to parental alcohol misuse during the life-time of the adolescent was associated with increased odds of using alcohol in adopted adolescents only. These findings suggest that the association between a history of parental alcohol dependence and adolescent offspring behavioral disinhibition is attributable largely to genetic rather than environmental transmission. We also obtained some evidence for parental alcohol misuse as a shared environmental risk factor in adoptive families.

  10. Alcohol use among amateur sportsmen in Ireland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenny Susan C

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The objective of this study was to establish baseline data on alcohol consumption patterns, behaviours and harms among amateur sportsmen in the Republic of Ireland. Findings The study presents findings from the baseline survey for a cluster randomised controlled trial to evaluate the effectiveness of a community intervention programme to reduce problem alcohol use among a representative sample of Gaelic Athletic Association (GAA clubs in two counties in the Republic of Ireland. Self reported alcohol use, prevalence of binge drinking, AUDIT scores and alcohol-related harms were assessed in amateur GAA sportsmen aged 16 years and over. Nine hundred and sixty (960 players completed questionnaires (72% response rate. Mean age was 24.0 years (S.D. 5.2. Of those aged 18 years or over, 75% had post-primary education; most (864, 90% were current drinkers and 8.2% were regular smokers. The self-reported average yearly alcohol consumption was 12.5 litres. Almost one third (31% of current drinkers reported drinking over the recommended limit of 21 standard drinks per week and just over half (54.3% reported drinking 6 or more standard drinks in a row at least once a week (regular binge drinking. Of those who (self completed the Alcohol Use Disorder Identification Test (AUDIT questionnaire, three-quarters (74.7% had a score of 8 or more; 11.5% had a score of 20 or above warranting referral for diagnostic evaluation and treatment. Almost all (87.6% of the 864 drinkers reported experiencing at least one harm due to their drinking. These alcohol misuse outcomes were higher than those found in a nationally representative sample of males of a similar age. There were strong associations between regular binge drinking and reporting harms such as being in a fight (adjusted odds ratio (OR 2.02, p Conclusions These male amateur sportsmen reported high rates of alcohol consumption and alcohol-related harm.

  11. Clinician identification of elevated symptoms of depression among individuals seeking treatment for substance misuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hobden, Breanne; Carey, Mariko; Bryant, Jamie; Sanson-Fisher, Rob; Oldmeadow, Christopher

    2017-12-01

    Depression is common among those experiencing alcohol and other drug (AOD) disorders. It has been suggested that identifying depressive symptoms among this group is important for case management. Despite this, there is a lack of research examining how well clinicians perform this task within this setting. To determine the: (i) accuracy of clinician identified elevated symptoms of depression among clients seeking treatment for AOD misuse as compared to a standardized self-report psychiatric screening tool; and (ii) clinician and client characteristics associated with accurate identification of elevated symptoms of depression. The study used a descriptive cohort design. Participants from two Australian AOD outpatient clinics reported demographic data and completed the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9) to identify elevated symptoms of depression. Clinicians were asked to indicate the presence or absence of depression for individual clients. Client and clinician data were compared. Sensitivity of clinician identified elevated symptoms of depression, compared with the PHQ-9, was moderate at 73.0% (95% CI=63.7, 81.0) and specificity was low with 49.5% (95% CI=39.9, 61.2) accurately identified as not having elevated symptoms of depression. AOD clinicians' years' of experience, clients' main substance and length of treatment were associated with accuracy of identification. Clinicians identify elevated symptoms of depression with moderate accuracy amongst individuals with AOD disorders. There is a tendency to over-identify which may contribute to inaccuracies. Routine screening may assist in improving identification of depressive symptoms and place greater focus on mental health comorbidities. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Paralysis due to the high tackle - a black spot South African rugby ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The high tackle around the neck is illegal but still commonplace in South African rugby. An analysis of 40 rugby players who sustained spinal cord injury during the period 1985 1989 revealed that 8 were injured by a high tackle. The case histories and radiographs of these 8 players were analysed. The majority sustained ...

  13. AUDIT-C scores as a scaled marker of mean daily drinking, alcohol use disorder severity, and probability of alcohol dependence in a U.S. general population sample of drinkers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubinsky, Anna D; Dawson, Deborah A; Williams, Emily C; Kivlahan, Daniel R; Bradley, Katharine A

    2013-08-01

    Brief alcohol screening questionnaires are increasingly used to identify alcohol misuse in routine care, but clinicians also need to assess the level of consumption and the severity of misuse so that appropriate intervention can be offered. Information provided by a patient's alcohol screening score might provide a practical tool for assessing the level of consumption and severity of misuse. This post hoc analysis of data from the 2001 to 2002 National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (NESARC) included 26,546 U.S. adults who reported drinking in the past year and answered additional questions about their consumption, including Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test-Consumption questionnaire (AUDIT-C) alcohol screening. Linear or logistic regression models and postestimation methods were used to estimate mean daily drinking, the number of endorsed alcohol use disorder (AUD) criteria ("AUD severity"), and the probability of alcohol dependence associated with each individual AUDIT-C score (1 to 12), after testing for effect modification by gender and age. Among eligible past-year drinkers, mean daily drinking, AUD severity, and the probability of alcohol dependence increased exponentially across increasing AUDIT-C scores. Mean daily drinking ranged from alcohol dependence ranged from used to estimate patient-specific consumption and severity based on age, gender, and alcohol screening score. This information could be integrated into electronic decision support systems to help providers estimate and provide feedback about patient-specific risks and identify those patients most likely to benefit from further diagnostic assessment. Copyright © 2013 by the Research Society on Alcoholism.

  14. THE STUDY OF HEART MUSCLE IN CHRONIC ALCOHOLICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Girish M

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Alcohol affects many organs, especially the liver, pancreas and brain. Although, the beneficial effects of mild or moderate ethanol consumption have been implied with respect to coronary artery disease, excessive ethanol consumption can result in Alcoholic Heart Muscle Disease (AHMD. AIMS Alcohol consumption, mainly arrack, is common social problem in Mangalore. This study has been undertaken to assess the effects of alcohol on cardiovascular system. MATERIALS AND METHODS Thirty patient with history of consumption of about 6 units of alcohol per day for at least 5 days a week for at least 5 years who were admitted to Government Wenlock Hospital, Attavar K.M.C. and University Medical Centre, Mangalore, were selected as case and studied. RESULTS Alcohol intake is predominantly observed in males, majority of alcoholic had high blood pressure, serum levels of CPK-MB and LDH are elevated in chronic alcoholic patients, left ventricular hypertrophy, premature ventricular contraction and sinus tachycardia were common findings in the electrocardiograms of chronic alcoholic patients and development of alcoholic heart muscle disease is directly proportional to the quantity and duration of alcohol intake. CONCLUSION Overall, the present study has found high morbidity from chronic alcohol consumption highlighting the need for preventive measures to tackle this preventable hazard.

  15. Alcohol policy and taxation in South Africa: an examination of the economic burden of alcohol tax.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ataguba, John Ele-Ojo

    2012-01-01

    Alcohol consumption accounts for over 4% of the global burden of disease and an even higher figure in developing countries. Several policies have been proposed to curb the negative impact of alcohol misuse. Apart from South Africa, which has witnessed a rapid development in alcohol policy, such policies are poorly developed in most African countries. South Africa uses taxation as a policy lever, in line with international evidence, to reduce alcohol consumption. However, the problem of alcohol abuse still exists. The objective of this article is to present an analysis of alcohol tax incidence for the first time in South Africa. This was done for each category of alcohol tax (wines, spirits, beer and traditional brew [sorghum beer]) and for alcohol tax as a whole. The paper also uses the results to point to the areas where a greater understanding of the issues surrounding alcohol abuse needs to be developed. Data were drawn from the 2005/06 South African Income and Expenditure Survey. Reported expenditures on alcohol beverages were used to obtain the tax component paid by households. This was done under certain assumptions relating to alcohol content and the price per litre of alcohol. Per adult equivalent consumption expenditure was used as the measure of relative living standards and concentration curves and Kakwani indices to assess relative progressivity of alcohol taxes. Statistical dominance tests were also performed. Most sorghum beer and malt beer drinkers were in the poorer quintiles. The reverse was the case for wines and spirits. Overall, alcohol tax in South Africa was regressive (Kakwani index -0.353). The individual categories were found to be regressive. The most regressive tax was that on sorghum beer (Kakwani index -1.01); the least regressive was that on spirits (Kakwani index -0.09), although this was not statistically significant at conventional levels. These results were confirmed by the test of dominance. In South Africa, there has been a

  16. A Comparison of Proliferation Resistance Measures of Misuse Scenarios Using a Markov Approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yue, M.; Cheng, L.-Y.; Bari, R.

    2008-01-01

    Misuse of declared nuclear facilities is one of the important proliferation threats. The robustness of a facility against these threats is characterized by a number of proliferation resistance (PR) measures. This paper evaluates and compares PR measures for several misuse scenarios using a Markov model approach to implement the pathway analysis methodology being developed by the PR and PP (Proliferation Resistance and Physical Protection) Expert Group. Different misue strategies can be adopted by a proliferator and each strategy is expected to have different impacts on the proliferator's success. Selected as the probabilistic measure to represent proliferation resistance, the probabilities of the proliferator's success of misusing a hypothetical ESFR (Example Sodium Fast Reactor) facility system are calculated using the Markov model based on the pathways constructed for individual misuse scenarios. Insights from a comparison of strategies that are likely to be adopted by the proliferator are discussed in this paper.

  17. "Codeine Is My Helper": Misuse of and Dependence on Codeine-Containing Medicines in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Hout, Marie Claire; Rich, Eileen; Dada, Siphokazi; Bergin, Michael

    2017-02-01

    Misuse of codeine-containing medicines is an emerging global public health concern. The majority of research has been conducted in developed countries (European Members States, Australia, the United States). This study aimed to gain an understanding of unique individual and collective experiences of trajectories of codeine misuse and dependence in South Africa. In-depth interviews were conducted with a purposive sample of adult codeine misusers and dependents ( n = 25). Narratives were analyzed using the empirical phenomenological psychological five-step method. Nine themes with 63 categories emerged, with two additional high levels of abstraction. Findings are illustrated: participant profile and product preferences, motives for use, transitioning to misuse and dependence, pharmacy purchasing and alternative sourcing routes, effects and withdrawal experiences, help-seeking and treatment experiences, and strategies for prevention. The study underscores the need for continued support for enhanced patient awareness of risk of habit forming use and related health consequences and professional pharmacovigilance.

  18. Antimicrobial Peptides: A Promising Therapeutic Strategy in Tackling Antimicrobial Resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuti, Ramya; Goud, Nerella S; Saraswati, A Prasanth; Alvala, Ravi; Alvala, Mallika

    2017-01-01

    Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) has posed a serious threat to global public health and it requires immediate action, preferably long term. Current drug therapies have failed to curb this menace due to the ability of microbes to circumvent the mechanisms through which the drugs act. From the drug discovery point of view, the majority of drugs currently employed for antimicrobial therapy are small molecules. Recent trends reveal a surge in the use of peptides as drug candidates as they offer remarkable advantages over small molecules. Newer synthetic strategies like organometalic complexes, Peptide-polymer conjugates, solid phase, liquid phase and recombinant DNA technology encouraging the use of peptides as therapeutic agents with a host of chemical functions, and tailored for specific applications. In the last decade, many peptide based drugs have been successfully approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA). This success can be attributed to their high specificity, selectivity and efficacy, high penetrability into the tissues, less immunogenicity and less tissue accumulation. Considering the enormity of AMR, the use of Antimicrobial Peptides (AMPs) can be a viable alternative to current therapeutics strategies. AMPs are naturally abundant allowing synthetic chemists to develop semi-synthetics peptide molecules. AMPs have a broad spectrum of activity towards microbes and they possess the ability to bypass the resistance induction mechanisms of microbes. The present review focuses on the potential applications of AMPs against various microbial disorders and their future prospects. Several resistance mechanisms and their strategies have also been discussed to highlight the importance in the current scenario. Breakthroughs in AMP designing, peptide synthesis and biotechnology have shown promise in tackling this challenge and has revived the interest of using AMPs as an important weapon in fighting AMR. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries

  19. Antenatal smoking and substance-misuse, infant and newborn response to hypoxia

    OpenAIRE

    Ali, Kamal; Rosser, Thomas; Bhat, Ravindra; Wolff, Kim; Hannam, Simon; Rafferty, Gerrard F.; Greenough, Anne

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: To determine at the peak age for sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) the ventilatory response to hypoxia of infants whose mothers substance misused in pregnancy (SM infants), or smoked during pregnancy (S mothers) and controls whose mothers neither substance misused or smoked. In addition, we compared the ventilatory response to hypoxia during the neonatal period and peak age of SIDS. Working hypothesis: Infants of S or SM mothers compared to control infants would have a poorer ve...

  20. 16 CFR 23.19 - Misuse of the word “pearl.”

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Misuse of the word âpearl.â 23.19 Section 23... JEWELRY, PRECIOUS METALS, AND PEWTER INDUSTRIES § 23.19 Misuse of the word “pearl.” (a) It is unfair or deceptive to use the unqualified word “pearl” or any other word or phrase of like meaning to describe...

  1. 16 CFR 23.25 - Misuse of the word “gem.”

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Misuse of the word âgem.â 23.25 Section 23... JEWELRY, PRECIOUS METALS, AND PEWTER INDUSTRIES § 23.25 Misuse of the word “gem.” (a) It is unfair or deceptive to use the word “gem” to describe, identify, or refer to a ruby, sapphire, emerald, topaz, or...

  2. Motivations for Prescription Drug Misuse among Young Adults: Considering Social and Developmental Contexts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LeClair, Amy; Kelly, Brian C; Pawson, Mark; Wells, Brooke E; Parsons, Jeffrey T

    As part of a larger study on prescription drug misuse among young adults active in urban nightlife scenes, we examined participants' motivations for misuse. Prescription painkillers, stimulants and sedatives were the primary substances of interest. Participants were recruited from nightlife venues in New York using time-space sampling. Subjects completed a mixed-methods assessment at project research offices. The data presented here are from a subsample of 70 qualitative interviews conducted during the baseline assessment. We identified experimentation and a "work hard, play hard" ethos as key motivations for misusing prescription drugs and argue that these motivations are specific, though not necessarily unique, to the participants' social location as young adults. These findings highlight the role of life stage and social context in the misuse of prescription drugs. Future studies of prescription drug misuse should pay attention to the larger social contexts in which users are embedded and, therefore, make decisions about how and why to misuse. Moving beyond the very broad concepts of "recreation" and "self-medication" presently established in the research, policies targeting young adults may want to tailor intervention efforts based on motivations.

  3. Volatile substance misuse : clinical considerations, neuropsychopharmacology and potential role of pharmacotherapy in management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garland, Eric L; Howard, Matthew O

    2012-11-01

    Volatile substance misuse is among the most prevalent and toxic forms of psychoactive drug use, and often results in highly deleterious social, psychological and medical consequences. The prevalence of this pernicious form of substance misuse owes in part to the fact that volatile substances of misuse are ubiquitous in the natural environment. Commonly misused commercial products include glue, shoe polish, nail polish remover, butane lighter fluid, gasoline and computer duster spray. National samples of volatile substance misusers tend to exhibit high rates of psychiatric problems and antisocial behaviour. In addition, cognitive impairments and affective dysregulation are often observed among these individuals. Volatile substances exert their complex neuropharmacological effects on dopaminergic, glutamatergic, GABAergic and serotoninergic receptor systems, as well as on cell membranes and ion channels. Concomitantly, pharmacotherapies for volatile substance abuse might profitably target a number of mechanisms, including reward circuitry in the brain, symptoms of craving and withdrawal, neuropsychiatric and emotional impairments that promote volatile substance abuse, and cognitive enhancement to rectify deficits in executive function. This review details the modes of use, subjective effects, epidemiology, adverse consequences, neuropsychopharmacology and drug treatment of volatile substance misuse, and discusses the potential role of novel forms of pharmacological intervention for this oft-overlooked public health threat of epidemic proportions.

  4. Collegiate misuse of prescription stimulants: examining differences in self-worth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giordano, Amanda L; Prosek, Elizabeth A; Reader, Emily A; Bevly, Cynthia M; Turner, Kori D; LeBlanc, Yvette N; Vera, Ryan A; Molina, Citlali E; Garber, Sage Ann

    2015-02-01

    Prescription stimulant medication is commonly used to treat attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). However, stimulant medication misuse is a prevalent problem among the college population. There is limited research on psychological factors associated with collegiate nonmedical stimulant misuse. To examine the association between college students' self-worth and stimulant medication misuse. A quantitative study implemented during the 2013-2014 academic year in which we utilized a convenience sample of undergraduate students at a public university. College students (N = 3,038) completed an electronic survey packet including a stimulant use index and the Contingencies of Self-Worth Scale. We conducted descriptive discriminant analysis (DDA) to measure the associations between four groups: Nonusers, Appropriate Users, Nonprescribed Misusuers, and Prescribed Users. Significant differences in contingencies of self-worth existed between the four groups of students. Specifically, external contingencies of self-worth, such as appearance and approval, were associated with stimulant medication misuse, whereas, internal contingencies of self-worth, such as God's love and virtue, were associated with nonuse and appropriate prescribed use. Conclusions/Importance: The findings of the current study suggested contingencies of self-worth partially explain prescription stimulant misuse among the collegiate population. Addressing self-worth may be helpful in the treatment of stimulant misuse with college students.

  5. Emanations and 'induced' radioactivity: from mystery to (mis)use

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kolar, Z.I.

    1999-01-01

    The natural Rn isotopes were discovered within the period 1899-1902 and at that time referred to as emanations because they came out (emanated) of sources/materials containing actinium, thorium and radium, respectively. The (somewhat mysterious) emanations appeared to disintegrate into radioactive decay products which by depositing at solid surfaces gave rise to 'induced' radioactivity i.e. radioactive substances with various half-lives. Following the discovery of the emanations the volume of the research involving them and their disintegration products grew steeply. The identity of a number of these radioactive products was soon established. Radium emanation was soon used as a source of RaD ( 210 Pb) to be applied as an 'indicator' (radiotracer) for lead in a study on the solubility of lead sulphide and lead chromate. Moreover, radium and its emanation were introduced into the medical practice. Inhaling radon and drinking radon-containing water became an accepted medicinal use (or misuse?) of that gas. Shortly after the turn of the century, the healing (?) action of natural springs (spas) was attributed to their radium emanation, i.e. radon. Bathing in radioactive spring water and drinking it became very popular. Even today, bathing in radon-containing water is still a common medical treatment in Jachymov, Czech Republic. (author)

  6. The use and misuse of statistical methodologies in pharmacology research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marino, Michael J

    2014-01-01

    Descriptive, exploratory, and inferential statistics are necessary components of hypothesis-driven biomedical research. Despite the ubiquitous need for these tools, the emphasis on statistical methods in pharmacology has become dominated by inferential methods often chosen more by the availability of user-friendly software than by any understanding of the data set or the critical assumptions of the statistical tests. Such frank misuse of statistical methodology and the quest to reach the mystical αstatistical training. Perhaps more critically, a poor understanding of statistical tools limits the conclusions that may be drawn from a study by divorcing the investigator from their own data. The net result is a decrease in quality and confidence in research findings, fueling recent controversies over the reproducibility of high profile findings and effects that appear to diminish over time. The recent development of "omics" approaches leading to the production of massive higher dimensional data sets has amplified these issues making it clear that new approaches are needed to appropriately and effectively mine this type of data. Unfortunately, statistical education in the field has not kept pace. This commentary provides a foundation for an intuitive understanding of statistics that fosters an exploratory approach and an appreciation for the assumptions of various statistical tests that hopefully will increase the correct use of statistics, the application of exploratory data analysis, and the use of statistical study design, with the goal of increasing reproducibility and confidence in the literature. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  7. Volatile substance misuse deaths in Washington State, 2003-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ossiander, Eric M

    2015-01-01

    Volatile substance misuse (VSM - also known as huffing or sniffing) causes some deaths, but because there are no specific cause-of-death codes for VSM, these deaths are rarely tabulated. Count and describe VSM deaths occurring in Washington State during 2003-2012. We used the textual cause-of-death information on death certificates to count VSM-associated deaths that occurred in Washington State during 2003-2012. We extracted records that contained words suggesting either a method of inhalation or a substance commonly used for VSM, and reviewed those records to identify deaths on which the inhalation of a volatile substance was mentioned. We conducted a descriptive analysis of those deaths. Fifty-six deaths involving VSM occurred in Washington State during 2003-2012. VSM deaths occurred primarily among adults age 20 and over (91%), males (88%), and whites (93%). Twelve different chemicals were associated with deaths, but 1 of them, difluoroethane, was named on 30 death certificates (54%), and its involvement increased during the study period. Gas duster products were named as the source of difluoroethane for 12 deaths; no source was named for the other 18 difluoroethane deaths. Most VSM deaths occurred among white male adults, and gas duster products containing difluoroethane were the primary source of inhalants. Approaches to deter VSM, such as the addition of bitterants to gas dusters, should be explored.

  8. Antenatal substance misuse and smoking and newborn hypoxic challenge response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Kamal; Rossor, Thomas; Bhat, Ravindra; Wolff, Kim; Hannam, Simon; Rafferty, Gerrard F; Peacock, Janet L; Greenough, Anne

    2016-03-01

    Infants of smoking (S) and substance misusing (SM) mothers have an increased risk of sudden infant death syndrome. The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that infants of SM or S mothers compared with infants of non-SM, non-smoking mothers (controls) would have a poorer ventilatory response to hypoxia, which was particularly marked in the SM infants. Physiological study. Tertiary perinatal centre. 21 SM; 21 S and 19 control infants. Infants were assessed before maternity/neonatal unit discharge. Maternal and infant urine samples were tested for cotinine, cannabinoids, opiates, amphetamines, methadone, cocaine and benzodiazepines. During quiet sleep, the infants were switched from breathing room air to 15% oxygen and changes in minute volume were assessed. The SM infants had a greater mean increase (p=0.028, p=0.034, respectively) and a greater magnitude of decline (pventilatory response to a hypoxic challenge. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  9. An exploratory study of the relationship between parental attitudes and behaviour and young people's consumption of alcohol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Segrott Jeremy

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Concern is growing regarding frequent and excessive misuse of alcohol by young people. The average age at which young people in Europe start to drink is twelve and a half, and during the last decade, the quantity of alcohol consumed by younger adolescents in the UK has increased. Families are known to play an important role in shaping young people's alcohol misuse, although family risk and protective factors associated with misuse in a UK context are in need of further investigation. Methods The study used a cross-sectional design, involving secondary analyses of self-completion questionnaire responses from 6,628 secondary school children (i.e. aged 11-16 years, from 12 schools within an urban location in Wales. Items relating to family functioning and perceived parental attitudes were first subjected to factor analysis. Associations of family closeness and conflict, parental monitoring and attitudes and family history of substance misuse with children's self reported alcohol consumption were examined using logistic regression analyses. Results Approximately three quarters of respondents reported having tried alcohol, most of whom had first tried alcohol aged 12 or under. Parental monitoring and family closeness were positively correlated with one another and were both associated with significantly lower levels of drinking behaviours. Family violence and conflict, more liberal parental attitudes towards substance use and towards alcohol and petty crime, and family history of substance misuse were positively correlated with one another and with higher levels of drinking behaviours. Parental monitoring was identified as the family functioning factor most consistently associated with drinking behaviour in multivariate analyses. Conclusions Significant relationships were found between young people's drinking behaviours and perceptions of risk and protective factors in the family environment. Parental monitoring was strongly

  10. An exploratory study of the relationship between parental attitudes and behaviour and young people's consumption of alcohol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Graham F; Rothwell, Heather; Segrott, Jeremy

    2010-04-22

    Concern is growing regarding frequent and excessive misuse of alcohol by young people. The average age at which young people in Europe start to drink is twelve and a half, and during the last decade, the quantity of alcohol consumed by younger adolescents in the UK has increased. Families are known to play an important role in shaping young people's alcohol misuse, although family risk and protective factors associated with misuse in a UK context are in need of further investigation. The study used a cross-sectional design, involving secondary analyses of self-completion questionnaire responses from 6,628 secondary school children (i.e. aged 11-16 years), from 12 schools within an urban location in Wales. Items relating to family functioning and perceived parental attitudes were first subjected to factor analysis. Associations of family closeness and conflict, parental monitoring and attitudes and family history of substance misuse with children's self reported alcohol consumption were examined using logistic regression analyses. Approximately three quarters of respondents reported having tried alcohol, most of whom had first tried alcohol aged 12 or under. Parental monitoring and family closeness were positively correlated with one another and were both associated with significantly lower levels of drinking behaviours. Family violence and conflict, more liberal parental attitudes towards substance use and towards alcohol and petty crime, and family history of substance misuse were positively correlated with one another and with higher levels of drinking behaviours. Parental monitoring was identified as the family functioning factor most consistently associated with drinking behaviour in multivariate analyses. Significant relationships were found between young people's drinking behaviours and perceptions of risk and protective factors in the family environment. Parental monitoring was strongly associated with family closeness and appeared to form one part of a

  11. Reducing risk for illicit drug use and prescription drug misuse: High school gay-straight alliances and lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heck, Nicholas C; Livingston, Nicholas A; Flentje, Annesa; Oost, Kathryn; Stewart, Brandon T; Cochran, Bryan N

    2014-04-01

    Previous research suggests that lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) youth are at elevated risk for using illicit drugs and misusing prescription drugs relative to heterosexual youth. Previous research also indicates that LGBT youth who attend high schools with a gay-straight alliance (GSA) report having fewer alcohol problems and lower levels of cigarette smoking. The present study investigates whether the absence of a GSA is associated with risk for illicit drug use and prescription drug misuse in a sample of 475 LGBT high school students (M age=16.79) who completed an online survey. After controlling for demographic variables and risk factors associated with illicit drug use, the results of 12 logistic regression analyses revealed that LGBT youth attending a high school without a GSA evidenced increased risk for using cocaine (adjusted odds ratio [adjOR]=3.11; 95% confidence interval [95% CI]=1.23-7.86), hallucinogens (adjOR=2.59; 95% CI=1.18-5.70), and marijuana (adjOR=2.22; 95% CI=1.37-3.59) relative to peers attending a high school with a GSA. Youth without a GSA also evidenced increased risk for the misuse of ADHD medication (adjOR=2.00; 95% CI=1.02-3.92) and prescription pain medication (adjOR=2.00; 95% CI=1.10-3.65). These findings extend the research base related to GSAs and further demonstrate the importance of providing LGBT youth with opportunities for socialization and support within the school setting. Important limitations of the present study are reviewed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Does player time-in-game affect tackle technique in elite level rugby union?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tierney, Gregory J; Denvir, Karl; Farrell, Garreth; Simms, Ciaran K

    2018-02-01

    It has been hypothesised that fatigue may be a major factor in tackle-related injury risk in rugby union and hence more injuries occur in the later stages of a game. The aim of this study is to identify changes in ball carrier or tackler proficiency characteristics, using elite level match video data, as player time-in-game increases. Qualitative observational cohort study. Three 2014/15 European Rugby Champions Cup games were selected for ball carrier and tackler proficiency analysis. Analysis was only conducted on players who started and remained on the field for the entire game. A separate analysis was conducted on 10 randomly selected 2014/15 European Rugby Champions Cup/Pro 12 games to assess the time distribution of tackles throughout a game. A Chi-square test and one-way way ANOVA with post-hoc testing was conducted to identify significant differences (p<0.05) for proficiency characteristics and tackle counts between quarters in the game, respectively. Player time-in-game did not affect tackle proficiency for both the ball carrier and tackler. Any results that showed statistical significance did not indicate a trend of deterioration in proficiency with increased player time-in-game. The time distribution of tackles analysis indicated that more tackles occurring in the final quarter of the game than the first (p=0.04) and second (p=<0.01). It appears that player time-in-game does not affect tackler or ball carrier tackle technique proficiency at the elite level. More tackles occurring in the final quarter of a game provides an alternative explanation to more tackle-related injuries occurring at this stage. Copyright © 2017 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. An investigation of shoulder forces in active shoulder tackles in rugby union football.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usman, Juliana; McIntosh, Andrew S; Fréchède, Bertrand

    2011-11-01

    In rugby union football the tackle is the most frequently executed skill and one most associated with injury, including shoulder injury to the tackler. Despite the importance of the tackle, little is known about the magnitude of shoulder forces in the tackle and influencing factors. The objectives of the study were to measure the shoulder force in the tackle, as well as the effects of shoulder padding, skill level, side of body, player size, and experimental setting on shoulder force. Experiments were conducted in laboratory and field settings using a repeated measures design. Thirty-five participants were recruited to the laboratory and 98 to the field setting. All were male aged over 18 years with rugby experience. The maximum force applied to the shoulder in an active shoulder tackle was measured with a custom built forceplate incorporated into a 45 kg tackle bag. The overall average maximum shoulder force was 1660 N in the laboratory and 1997 N in the field. This difference was significant. The shoulder force for tackling without shoulder pads was 1684 N compared to 1635 N with shoulder pads. There was no difference between the shoulder forces on the dominant and non-dominant sides. Shoulder force reduced with tackle repetition. No relationship was observed between player skill level and size. A substantial force can be applied to the shoulder and to an opponent in the tackle. This force is within the shoulder's injury tolerance range and is unaffected by shoulder pads. Copyright © 2011 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Effectiveness of policy changes to reduce harm from unrecorded alcohol in Russia between 2005 and now.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neufeld, Maria; Rehm, Jürgen

    2018-01-01

    Consumption of unrecorded alcohol (alcohol that is not taxed and reflected in official statistics, but consumed as a beverage) has been identified as one of the main contributors to alcohol-attributable premature mortality in Russia. The problem was highlighted by a recent a mass poisoning with surrogate alcohol occurred in the Siberian city of Irkutsk. Based on key publications and legislative documents, a narrative review was undertaken about alcohol-related harm reduction policies in Russia for the period between 2005 and 2017, as well as the impact of these policies on the recorded and unrecorded alcohol consumption and alcohol market. Various policy measures mainly targeting availability and price of recorded and unrecorded alcohol have been introduced since 2005, which generally coincided with the decreases in alcohol-related mortality observed at that time. However, regulations on medicinal and cosmetic products have remained inconsistent providing the foundations for the continued existence of a legal industry of surrogates with broad availability and misuse. The Russian experiences of introducing alcohol policies demonstrate that there are effective measures to reduce unrecorded alcohol consumption and attributable harm. The government's multi-level strategy of alcohol consumption and harm reduction should be pursued stringently and all the possible loop-holes for producers, sellers and distributors of illegal and/or unrecorded alcohol should be eliminated or at least critically reduced. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Can nurse education in the postpartum period reduce car seat misuse among newborns?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Steven C; Gallo, Karen; Saleheen, Hassan; Lapidus, Garry

    2013-10-01

    Despite national, state, and hospital policies that require newborns to be transported in correctly used child safety seats (CSSs), significant CSS misuse frequently occurs among newborn infants. The objective of this study was to evaluate a comprehensive educational CSS training program for nurses and parents in a maternal/newborn unit. In the preintervention phase, we conducted a survey among maternal/newborn unit nurses in a large urban teaching hospital to measure CSS knowledge, attitude, and practice. We then enrolled 60 maternal-newborn dyads at discharge to survey maternal CSS knowledge and observe the CSS misuse rate. Our intervention phase included a 1-hour "mandatory" nurse CSS education classroom session, a nurse hands-on CSS demonstration and practice in a mother's room. During the postintervention phase, we enrolled 70 maternal-newborn dyads at discharge to survey maternal CSS knowledge and observe change in CSS misuse rate. In the preintervention phase, 43 (73%) of 59 eligible nurses completed the survey, and 47 (80%) of 59 completed the CSS education and training program. In the preintervention CSS survey, 23% of the nurses reported that education is part of their routine, 44% have CSS educational materials, 32% feel comfortable providing CSS education to parents, 12% feel CSS trained, 25% have time, 84% identify that CSS misuse is a problem, and 16% received CSS training.Enrolled mothers reflect maternal/newborn unit demographics as follows: maternal mean age of 29 years (range, 16-48 years), white (54%), black (11%), Hispanic origin (28%), English as primary language (83%), high school degree (31%), college degree (30%), Medicaid (23%), and private insurance (65%).Of 70 postintervention mothers, 44% reported receiving no nurse education, 21% reported receiving a brochure only, and 31% reported receiving nurse education. CSS misuse among mothers who received registered nurse education was not reduced compared with mother's who received a brochure

  16. Isopropanol alcohol poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubbing alcohol poisoning; Isopropyl alcohol poisoning ... Isopropyl alcohol can be harmful if it is swallowed or gets in the eyes. ... These products contain isopropanol: Alcohol swabs Cleaning supplies ... Rubbing alcohol Other products may also contain isopropanol.

  17. Alcohol Energy Drinks

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home / About Addiction / Alcohol / Alcohol Energy Drinks Alcohol Energy Drinks Read 33960 times font size decrease font size increase font size Print Email Alcohol energy drinks (AEDs) or Caffeinated alcoholic beverages (CABs) are ...

  18. Alcohol and pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drinking alcohol during pregnancy; Fetal alcohol syndrome - pregnancy; FAS - fetal alcohol syndrome ... lead to lifelong damage. DANGERS OF ALCOHOL DURING PREGNANCY Drinking a lot of alcohol during pregnancy can ...

  19. NIAAA Alcohol Treatment Navigator

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... What to Know About Alcohol Treatment What Is Alcohol Use Disorder (AUD)? What Types of Alcohol Treatment Are Available? ... What to Know About Alcohol Treatment What is alcohol use disorder (AUD)? A health condition that can improve with ...

  20. TPH2 polymorphisms and alcohol-related suicide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zupanc, Tomaž; Pregelj, Peter; Tomori, Martina; Komel, Radovan; Paska, Alja Videtič

    2011-02-18

    Substantial evidence from family, twin, and adoption studies corroborates implication of genetic and environmental factors, as well as their interactions, on suicidal behavior and alcoholism risk. Serotonergic disfunction seems to be involved in the pathophysiology of substance abuse, and has also an important role in suicidal behavior. Recent studies of the tryptophan hydroxylase 2 showed mild or no association with suicide and alcohol-related suicide. We performed SNP and alcohol analysis on 388 suicide victims and 227 controls. The results showed association between suicide (Pχ²=0.043) and alcohol-related suicide (Pχ²=0.021) for SNP Rs1843809. A tendency for association was determined also for polymorphism Rs1386493 (Pχ²=0.055) and alcohol-related suicide. Data acquired from psychological autopsies in a subsample of suicide victims (n=79) determined more impulsive behavior (Pχ²=0.016) and verbal aggressive behavior (Pχ²=0.025) in the subgroup with alcohol misuse or dependency. In conclusion, our results suggest implication of polymorphisms in suicide and alcohol-related suicide, but further studies are needed to clarify the interplay among serotonergic system disfunction, suicide, alcohol dependence, impulsivity and the role of TPH2 enzyme. © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. The relation of family violence, employment status, welfare benefits, and alcohol drinking in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Eunice; Lasch, Kathryn E; Chandra, Pinky; Lee, Jennifer

    2001-01-01

    Objective To examine the contribution of employment status, welfare benefits, alcohol use, and other individual and contextual factors to physical aggression during marital conflict. Methods Logistic regression models were used to analyze panel data collected in the National Survey of Families and Households in 1987 and 1992. A total of 4,780 married or cohabiting persons reinterviewed in 1992 were included in the analysis. Domestic violence was defined as reporting that both partners were physically violent during arguments. Results Unemployed respondents are not at greater risk of family violence than employed respondents, after alcohol misuse, income, education, age, and other factors are controlled for; however, employed persons receiving welfare benefits are at significantly higher risk. Alcohol misuse, which remains a predictor of violence even after other factors are controlled for, increases the risk of family violence, and satisfaction with social support from family and friends is associated with its decrease. Conclusions Alcohol misuse has an important effect on domestic violence, and the potential impact of welfare reform on domestic violence needs to be monitored. PMID:11342506

  2. Comparison of Alcohol Use Disorder Screens During College Athlete Pre-Participation Evaluations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majka, Erek; Graves, Travis; Diaz, Vanessa A; Player, Marty S; Dickerson, Lori M; Gavin, Jennifer K; Wessell, Andrea

    2016-05-01

    The US Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF) recommends screening adults for alcohol misuse, a challenge among young adults who may not have regular primary care. The pre-participation evaluation (PPE) provides an opportunity for screening, but traditional screening tools require extra time in an already busy visit. The objective of this study was to compare the 10-item Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT) with a single-question alcohol misuse screen in a population of college-aged athletes. This cross-sectional study was performed during an athletic PPE clinic at a college in the Southeastern United States among athletes ages 18 years and older. Written AUDIT and single-question screen "How many times in the past year have you had X or more drinks in a day?" (five for men, four for women) asked orally were administered to each participant. Sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values for the single-question screen were compared to AUDIT. A total of 225 athletes were screened; 60% were female; 29% screened positive by AUDIT; 59% positive by single-question instrument. Males were more likely to screen positive by both methods. Compared to the AUDIT, the brief single-question screen had 92% sensitivity for alcohol misuse and 55% specificity. The negative predictive value of the single-question screen was 95% compared to AUDIT. A single-question screen for alcohol misuse in college-aged athletes had a high sensitivity and negative predictive value compared to the more extensive AUDIT screen. Ease of administration of this screening tool is ideal for use within the pre-participation physical among college-aged athletes who may not seek regular medical care.

  3. Misuse of booster cushions - an observation study of children's performance during buckling up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osvalder, Anna-Lisa; Bohman, Katarina

    2008-10-01

    Booster cushions are effective tools to protect children from injuries in car crashes, but there remains a large amount of misuse. The aim of this study was to assess potential misuse of booster cushions in an observational laboratory study, and to identify whether booster cushion design, age or clothing had any effect. 130 Swedish children from the ages of 4-12 years participated. Each child buckled up on an integrated and on an aftermarket booster cushion in the rear seat. The older children also buckled up with seat belt only. Interviews, observations and body measurements were performed. Time to buckle up and amount of belt slack were registered. Photographs were taken to document misuse. Results showed that 77% failed to perform correct belt routing on the aftermarket cushion, independent of age, although they were familiar with this system. The misuse rate for the integrated cushion was only 4%. No misuse was found for seat belt only. Few children tightened the belt. The belt slack increased when wearing winter jackets. This indicates the importance of adding pretensioners to the rear seat. Sled tests with HIII&TNO 6y dummies were also performed for the most frequent misuse situations found. The main conclusion is that an integrated booster cushion has many advantages compared to an aftermarket cushion regarding both safety and comfort. It is easy and quick to handle, has few possibilities for misuse, has an intuitive design, the buckling up sequence is equal to buckling up with an ordinary seat belt, and younger children can buckle up correctly.

  4. Our use, misuse, and abandonment of a concept: Whither habitat?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirk, David Anthony; Park, Allysia C; Smith, Adam C; Howes, Briar J; Prouse, Brigid K; Kyssa, Naschelly G; Fairhurst, Elizabeth N; Prior, Kent A

    2018-04-01

    The foundational concept of habitat lies at the very root of the entire science of ecology, but inaccurate use of the term compromises scientific rigor and communication among scientists and nonscientists. In 1997, Hall, Krausman & Morrison showed that 'habitat' was used correctly in only 55% of articles. We ask whether use of the term has been more accurate since their plea for standardization and whether use varies across the broader range of journals and taxa in the contemporary literature (1998-2012). We searched contemporary literature for 'habitat' and habitat-related terms, ranking usage as either correct or incorrect, following a simplified version of Hall et al.'s definitions. We used generalized linear models to compare use of the term in contemporary literature with the papers reviewed by Hall et al. and to test the effects of taxa, journal impact in the contemporary articles and effects due to authors that cited Hall et al. Use of the term 'habitat' has not improved; it was still only used correctly about 55% of the time in the contemporary data. Proportionately more correct uses occurred in articles that focused on animals compared to ones that included plants, and papers that cited Hall et al. did use the term correctly more often. However, journal impact had no effect. Some habitat terms are more likely to be misused than others, notably 'habitat type', usually used to refer to vegetation type, and 'suitable habitat' or 'unsuitable habitat', which are either redundant or nonsensical by definition. Inaccurate and inconsistent use of the term can lead to (1) misinterpretation of scientific findings; (2) inefficient use of conservation resources; (3) ineffective identification and prioritization of protected areas; (4) limited comparability among studies; and (5) miscommunication of science-based findings. Correct usage would improve communication with scientists and nonscientists, thereby benefiting conservation efforts, and ecology as a science.

  5. The premises is the premise: understanding off- and on-premises alcohol sales outlets to improve environmental alcohol prevention strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chinman, Matthew; Burkhart, Q; Ebener, Patricia; Fan, Cha-Chi; Imm, Pamela; Osilla, Karen Chan; Paddock, Susan M; Wright, Annie

    2011-06-01

    Environmental strategies to prevent the misuse of alcohol among youth--e.g., use of public policies to restrict minors' access to alcohol--have been shown to reduce underage drinking. However, implementation of policy changes often requires public and private partnerships. One way to support these partnerships is to better understand the target of many of the environmental strategies, which is the alcohol sales outlet. Knowing more about how off-premises outlets (e.g., liquor and convenience stores) and on-premises outlets (e.g., bars and restaurants) are alike and different could help community-based organizations better tailor, plan, and implement their environmental strategies and strengthen partnerships between the public and commercial sectors. We conducted a survey of managerial or supervisory staff and/or owners of 336 off- and on-premises alcohol outlets in six counties in South Carolina, comparing these two outlet types on their preferences regarding certain alcohol sales practices, beliefs toward underage drinking, alcohol sales practices, and outcomes. Multilevel logistic regression showed that while off- and on-premises outlets did have many similarities, off-premises outlets appear to engage in more practices designed to prevent sales of alcohol to minors than on-premises outlets. The relationship between certain Responsible Beverage Service (RBS) practices and outcomes varied by outlet type. This study furthers the understanding of the differences between off- and on-premises alcohol sales outlets and offers options for increasing and tailoring environmental prevention efforts to specific settings.

  6. Alcoholism and alcohol drinking habits predicted from alcohol dehydrogenase genes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tolstrup, J.S.; Nordestgaard, Børge; Rasmussen, S.

    2008-01-01

    Alcohol is degraded primarily by alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) wherein genetic variation that affects the rate of alcohol degradation is found in ADH1B and ADH1C. It is biologically plausible that these variations may be associated with alcohol drinking habits and alcoholism. By genotyping 9080 whi...

  7. Technical determinants of tackle and ruck performance in International rugby union.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendricks, Sharief; van Niekerk, Tiffany; Sin, Drew Wade; Lambert, Mike; den Hollander, Steve; Brown, James; Maree, Willie; Treu, Paul; Till, Kevin; Jones, Ben

    2018-03-01

    The most frequently occurring contact events in rugby union are the tackle and ruck. The ability repeatedly to engage and win the tackle and ruck has been associated with team success. To win the tackle and ruck, players have to perform specific techniques. These techniques have not been studied at the highest level of rugby union. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to identify technical determinants of tackle and ruck performance at the highest level of rugby union. A total of 4479 tackle and 2914 ruck events were coded for the Six Nations and Championship competitions. Relative risk ratio (RR), the ratio of the probability of an outcome occurring when a characteristic was observed (versus the non-observed characteristic), was determined using multinomial logistic regression. Executing front-on tackles reduced the likelihood of offloads and tackle breaks in both competitions (Six Nations RR 3.0 Behind tackle, 95% confidence interval [95% CI]: 1.9-4.6, effect size [ES] = large, P < 0.001); Championship RR 2.9 Jersey tackle, 95% CI: 1.3-6.4, ES = moderate, P = 0.01). Fending during contact increased the chances of offloading and breaking the tackle in both competitions (Six Nations RR 4.5 Strong, 95% CI: 2.2-9.2, ES = large, P = P < 0.001; Championship RR 5.1 Moderate, 95% CI: 3.5-7.4, ES = large, P < 0.001). For the ruck, actively placing the ball increased the probability of maintaining possession (Six Nations RR 2.2, 95% CI: 1.1-4.3, ES = moderate, P = 0.03); Championship RR 4.0, 95% CI: 1.3-11.8, ES = large, P = 0.01). The techniques identified in this study should be incorporated and emphasised during training to prepare players for competition. Furthermore, these techniques need to be added to coaching manuals for the tackle and ruck.

  8. Alcohol Intolerance

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... ingredients commonly found in alcoholic beverages, especially in beer or wine, can cause intolerance reactions. These include: Sulfites or other preservatives Chemicals, grains or other ingredients Histamine, a byproduct of fermentation or brewing In some cases, reactions can be ...

  9. Alcohol Poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... than eight breaths a minute) Irregular breathing (a gap of more than 10 seconds between breaths) Blue- ... about alcohol by their parents and who report close relationships with their parents are less likely to ...

  10. Alcoholic neuropathy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Frequently inspecting the feet and shoes to reduce injury caused by pressure or objects in the shoes Guarding the extremities to prevent injury from pressure Alcohol must be stopped to prevent ...

  11. How to tackle stigma and bias: Lessons from childhood diseases and disabilities

    OpenAIRE

    Hennessy, Eilis

    2014-01-01

    This paper considers the importance of tackling the stigma of obesity and focuses particularly on what is known about the way in which stigma develops.  Stigma is considered as a complex construct comprising attitudes, prejudices and discriminatory behaviour.  In light of this conceptualisation of stigma, a range of anti-stigma interventions are discussed that have been designed to tackle the stigma associated with epilepsy, Tourette's syndrome, obesity and mental disorders. The paper conside...

  12. Design of a Robust Stair Climbing Compliant Modular Robot to Tackle Overhang on Stairs

    OpenAIRE

    Bhole, Ajinkya; Turlapati, Sri Harsha; S, Rajashekhar V.; Dixit, Jay; Shah, Suril V.; Krishna, K Madhava

    2016-01-01

    This paper discusses the concept and parameter design of a Robust Stair Climbing Compliant Modular Robot, capable of tackling stairs with overhangs. Modifying the geometry of the periphery of the wheels of our robot helps in tackling overhangs. Along with establishing a concept design, robust design parameters are set to minimize performance variation. The Grey-based Taguchi Method is adopted for providing an optimal setting for the design parameters of the robot. The robot prototype is shown...

  13. Domestic violence, parental substance misuse and the decision to substantiate child maltreatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Victor, Bryan G; Grogan-Kaylor, Andrew; Ryan, Joseph P; Perron, Brian E; Gilbert, Terri Ticknor

    2018-05-01

    Families that experience domestic violence and parental substance misuse are disproportionately involved with the child welfare system. Prior research suggests that child protective services (CPS) caseworkers are more likely to substantiate maltreatment allegations when domestic violence and parental substance misuse are identified during the investigation, pointing to one possible mechanism for this disproportionate involvement. While previous studies have relied on nationally representative data sets, the current study used administrative records from a large Midwestern child welfare agency that accounts for state-level variation in child welfare policy and practice. A total of 501,060 substantiation decisions made between 2009 and 2013 were examined to assess the influence of caseworker-perceived domestic violence and parental substance misuse on the decision to substantiate reported maltreatment. Results from multilevel modeling suggest that the identification of domestic violence and parental substance misuse during an investigation significantly increased the probability that an allegation would be substantiated. The implication of these findings for child welfare practice are considered in light of the fact that many child welfare agencies do not consider exposure to domestic violence and parental substance misuse in and of themselves to constitute child maltreatment. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. U.S. Marines' Perceptions of Environmental Factors Associated With Alcohol Binge Drinking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodruff, Susan I; Hurtado, Suzanne L; Simon-Arndt, Cynthia M

    2018-02-07

    Alcohol misuse, in particular binge drinking, is a serious concern among military personnel because it is strongly associated with adverse consequences and has a deleterious effect on readiness. Although most alcohol misuse studies have focused on individual risk factors, studies are increasingly examining environmental influences and strategies for reducing alcohol risks. The purpose of this study is to address gaps in what is known about how service members' perceptions of environmental factors are related to binge drinking in the U.S. Marine Corps. The relationship between Marines' self-reports of environmental factors and alcohol binge drinking was assessed in this correlational study using data from three large Marine Corps installations drawn from the Department of Defense 2011 Health Related Behaviors Survey of Active Duty Military Personnel (N = 2,933). We proposed several directional hypotheses based on existing civilian and military studies of alcohol use and misuse, as well as health behavior theory. Agreement with the statements that alcoholic beverages cost too much, that drinking might negatively affect one's military career, and that one's immediate supervisor and installation discourage alcohol use were independently associated with decreased odds of binge drinking (i.e., protective factors). Perceptions that alcoholic beverages are difficult to get was particularly protective; the odds of having binged were lower for participants who endorsed this belief than for those who did not. Perceptions that drinking is part of being in one's unit was a risk factor for binge drinking (odds ratio = 1.29). Even after accounting for strong sociodemographic correlates, binge drinking was independently associated with a number of environmentally oriented perceptions. Beliefs that alcohol is affordable and easy to access were the strongest environmental correlates of increased risk of binge drinking. Addressing the threat alcohol misuse poses to both Marines and

  15. Alcohol Alert: Genetics of Alcoholism

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... daily rhythm for various functions (e.g., body temperature or blood pressure) that is controlled by certain “ ... A special section delves more deeply into specific classes of genes and their relationship to alcoholism. The ...

  16. Online alcohol interventions: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Angela; Kavanagh, David; Stallman, Helen; Klein, Britt; Kay-Lambkin, Frances; Proudfoot, Judy; Drennan, Judy; Connor, Jason; Baker, Amanda; Hines, Emily; Young, Ross

    2010-12-19

    There has been a significant increase in the availability of online programs for alcohol problems. A systematic review of the research evidence underpinning these programs is timely. Our objective was to review the efficacy of online interventions for alcohol misuse. Systematic searches of Medline, PsycINFO, Web of Science, and Scopus were conducted for English abstracts (excluding dissertations) published from 1998 onward. Search terms were: (1) Internet, Web*; (2) online, computer*; (3) alcohol*; and (4) E\\effect*, trial*, random* (where * denotes a wildcard). Forward and backward searches from identified papers were also conducted. Articles were included if (1) the primary intervention was delivered and accessed via the Internet, (2) the intervention focused on moderating or stopping alcohol consumption, and (3) the study was a randomized controlled trial of an alcohol-related screen, assessment, or intervention. The literature search initially yielded 31 randomized controlled trials (RCTs), 17 of which met inclusion criteria. Of these 17 studies, 12 (70.6%) were conducted with university students, and 11 (64.7%) specifically focused on at-risk, heavy, or binge drinkers. Sample sizes ranged from 40 to 3216 (median 261), with 12 (70.6%) studies predominantly involving brief personalized feedback interventions. Using published data, effect sizes could be extracted from 8 of the 17 studies. In relation to alcohol units per week or month and based on 5 RCTs where a measure of alcohol units per week or month could be extracted, differential effect sizes to posttreatment ranged from 0.02 to 0.81 (mean 0.42, median 0.54). Pre-post effect sizes for brief personalized feedback interventions ranged from 0.02 to 0.81, and in 2 multi-session modularized interventions, a pre-post effect size of 0.56 was obtained in both. Pre-post differential effect sizes for peak blood alcohol concentrations (BAC) ranged from 0.22 to 0.88, with a mean effect size of 0.66. The available

  17. Multiple and substitute addictions involving prescription drugs misuse among 12th graders: gateway theory revisited with Market Basket Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayawardene, Wasantha Parakrama; YoussefAgha, Ahmed Hassan

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to identify the sequential patterns of drug use initiation, which included prescription drugs misuse (PDM), among 12th-grade students in Indiana. The study also tested the suitability of the data mining method Market Basket Analysis (MBA) to detect common drug use initiation sequences in large-scale surveys. Data from 2007 to 2009 Annual Surveys of Alcohol, Tobacco, and Other Drug Use by Indiana Children and Adolescents were used for this study. A close-ended, self-administered questionnaire was used to ask adolescents about the use of 21 substance categories and the age of first use. "Support%" and "confidence%" statistics of Market Basket Analysis detected multiple and substitute addictions, respectively. The lifetime prevalence of using any addictive substance was 73.3%, and it has been decreasing during past few years. Although the lifetime prevalence of PDM was 19.2%, it has been increasing. Males and whites were more likely to use drugs and engage in multiple addictions. Market Basket Analysis identified common drug use initiation sequences that involved 11 drugs. High levels of support existed for associations among alcohol, cigarettes, and marijuana, whereas associations that included prescription drugs had medium levels of support. Market Basket Analysis is useful for the detection of common substance use initiation sequences in large-scale surveys. Before initiation of prescription drugs, physicians should consider the adolescents' risk of addiction. Prevention programs should address multiple addictions, substitute addictions, common sequences in drug use initiation, sex and racial differences in PDM, and normative beliefs of parents and adolescents in relation to PDM.

  18. Faculty buy-in to teach alcohol and drug use screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puskar, Kathy; Mitchell, Ann M; Kane, Irene; Hagle, Holly; Talcott, Kimberly S

    2014-09-01

    Educating nursing faculty about the use of an evidence-based practice to screen and intervene earlier along the continuum of alcohol and other drug use, misuse, and dependence is essential in today's health care arena. Misuse of alcohol and other drugs is a significant problem for both individual health and societal economic welfare. The purpose of this article is to describe nursing faculty buy-in for the implementation of an evidence-based addiction training program at a university-based school of nursing. Derived from an academic-community partnership, the training program results suggest implications for continuing education and curriculum innovation in schools of nursing and clinical practice. The training content presented can be used in continuing education for nursing faculty across all types of nursing school programs and professional nursing staff employed in multiple settings. The training program was funded by the Health Resources and Services Administration.

  19. Race-Ethnicity and Prescription Drug Misuse: Does Self-esteem Matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broman, Clifford L; Miller, Paula K; Jackson, Emmanuel

    2015-01-01

    The research here investigates race-ethnicity and self-esteem in the misuse of prescription drugs. While there has been much research into the demographic factors that predict prescription drug misuse (PDM), we lack a full accounting of psychosocial factors of possible importance in influencing patterns of race-ethnicity and PDM. One possible influence is self-esteem. We use data from the National Longitudinal Survey on Adolescent Health to investigate race-ethnicity, PDM and self-esteem. Findings indicate first that race-ethnicity is significant is PDM. Secondly, results indicate that self-esteem is important in understanding patterns of prescription drug misuse among young adults, but only among whites.

  20. Subtypes of adolescent sedative/anxiolytic misusers: A latent profile analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Martin T; Howard, Matthew O; McCabe, Sean Esteban

    2010-10-01

    Few empirically-based taxonomies of nonmedical prescription drug misusers have been published. This study used latent profile analysis (LPA) to identify classes of adolescent sedative/anxiolytic misusers. Interviews assessing substance use, psychiatric symptoms, antisocial traits/behavior, and traumatic life experiences were conducted with 723 Missouri youth in residential care for antisocial behavior. Sedative/anxiolytic misusers (N=247) averaged 15.8 (S.D.=1.1) years of age; a majority were male (83.8%), White (70.0%), and resided in rural/small town areas (53.8%). LPA yielded a three-class solution. Class 1 (59.1%) was comprised of youth with significantly lower levels of currently distressing psychiatric symptoms, fewer lifetime traumatic experiences, less problematic substance use histories, less frequent antisocial behavior, and less impulsivity than youth in Classes 2 and 3. Class 2 (11.3%) youth had high levels of currently distressing psychiatric symptoms and more frequent antisocial behavior compared to youth in Classes 1 and 3. Class 3 (29.5%) youth evidenced levels of psychiatric and behavioral problems that were intermediate to those of Class 1 and 2 youth. Frequency of sedative/anxiolytic misuse was significantly higher in Classes 2 and 3 compared to Class 1. Members of Class 2 and Class 3 also had the highest levels of psychiatric symptoms for which sedatives/anxiolytics are commonly prescribed. Significant differences between classes were observed across a range of health, mental health, personality, and behavioral variables. Adolescents who misused prescription sedatives/anxiolytics evidenced significant heterogeneity across measures of psychiatric and behavioral dysfunction. Youth with comparatively high levels of anxiety and depression reported significantly more intensive sedative/anxiolytic misuse than their counterparts and may be at high risk for sedative/anxiolytic abuse and dependence. 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Medical use, medical misuse, and nonmedical use of prescription opioids: results from a longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCabe, Sean Esteban; West, Brady T; Boyd, Carol J

    2013-05-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the prevalence and patterns associated with past-year medical use, medical misuse, and nonmedical use of prescription opioids (NMUPO) among adolescents over a 2-year time period and to examine substance abuse, sleeping problems, and physical pain symptoms associated with these patterns of medical use, medical misuse, and NMUPO. A Web-based survey was self-administered by a longitudinal sample of 2050 middle and high school students in 2009-2010 (Year 1) and again in 2010-2011 (Year 2). The study was set in 2 southeastern Michigan school districts. The longitudinal sample consisted of 50% females, 67% Whites, 28% African-Americans, and 5% from other racial/ethnic categories. Main outcome measures were past-year medical use, medical misuse, and NMUPO. Of those reporting appropriate medical use of prescription opioids in Year 1, approximately 34% continued medical use in Year 2. Of those reporting past-year NMUPO in Year 1, approximately 25% continued NMUPO in Year 2. Appropriate medical use and NMUPO for pain relief was more prevalent among girls than boys. Multiple logistic regression analyses indicated that the odds of a positive screen for substance abuse in Year 2 were greater for adolescents who reported medical misuse or NMUPO for non-pain-relief motives in Year 1 compared with those who did not use prescription opioids. The findings indicate an increased risk for substance abuse among adolescents who report medical misuse or NMUPO for non-pain-relief motives over time. The findings have important clinical implications for interventions to reduce medical misuse and NMUPO among adolescents. Copyright © 2013 International Association for the Study of Pain. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Medical Use, Medical Misuse, and Nonmedical Use of Prescription Opioids: Results from a Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCabe, Sean Esteban; West, Brady T.; Boyd, Carol J.

    2013-01-01

    Objective To examine the prevalence and patterns associated with past-year medical use, medical misuse, and nonmedical use of prescription opioids (NMUPO) among adolescents over a two-year time period and to examine substance abuse, sleeping problems, and physical pain symptoms associated with these patterns of medical use, medical misuse, and NMUPO. Design A Web-based survey was self-administered by a longitudinal sample of 2,050 middle and high school students in 2009–2010 (Year 1) and again in 2010–2011 (Year 2). Setting Two southeastern Michigan school districts. Participants The longitudinal sample consisted of 50% females, 67% Whites, 28% African- Americans, and 5% from other racial/ethnic categories. Main Outcome Measures Past-year medical use, medical misuse, and NMUPO. Results Of those reporting appropriate medical use of prescription opioids in Year 1, approximately 34% continued medical use in Year 2. Of those reporting past-year NMUPO in Year 1, approximately 25% continued NMUPO in Year 2. Appropriate medical use and NMUPO for pain relief was more prevalent among girls than boys. Multiple logistic regression analyses indicated that the odds of a positive screen for substance abuse in Year 2 were greater for adolescents who reported medical misuse or NMUPO for non-pain relief motives in Year 1 compared with those who did not use prescription opioids. Conclusions The findings indicate an increased risk for substance abuse among adolescents who report medical misuse or NMUPO for non-pain relief motives over time. The findings have important clinical implications for interventions to reduce medical misuse and NMUPO among adolescents. PMID:23433943

  3. The links between ethnicity, cultural identity and alcohol use, abuse and dependence in a New Zealand birth cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marie, Dannette; Fergusson, David M; Boden, Joseph M

    2012-01-01

    To examine the role of ethnicity and cultural identity in alcohol use and misuse in a birth cohort of over 1000 young people. Data on ethnicity, cultural identification, alcohol use, alcohol abuse/dependence (AAD), socio-economic factors and childhood adversity were gathered as part of a longitudinal study of a New Zealand birth cohort (the Christchurch Health and Development Study). Those reporting Māori ethnicity had rates of alcohol use and AAD that were 1.47-1.63 times higher than the rates found in the non-Māori people. However, there was little evidence to suggest that rates of alcohol use and AAD differed according to Māori cultural identity. Generalized estimating equation regression analyses adjusting for socio-economic disadvantage and childhood adversity slightly reduced the magnitude of these associations, but they remained statistically significant [AAD: odds ratio = 1.52; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.11-2.10; consumption: incidence rate ratio = 1.31; 95% CI: 1.13-1.52]. (a) Māori ethnicity was found to be associated with modestly increased risks of alcohol use and AAD (b) the higher rates of alcohol use and AAD among the Māori members of the cohort could not be explained by a combination of socio-economic factors and greater exposure to environmental factors known to influence the risk of alcohol use and misuse.

  4. Preconception care: caffeine, smoking, alcohol, drugs and other environmental chemical/radiation exposure

    OpenAIRE

    Lassi, Zohra S; Imam, Ayesha M; Dean, Sohni V; Bhutta, Zulfiqar A

    2014-01-01

    Introduction As providing health education, optimizing nutrition, and managing risk factors can be effective for ensuring a healthy outcome for women and her yet un-conceived baby, external influences play a significant role as well. Alcohol, smoking, caffeine use and other similar lifestyle factors, have now become an integral part of the daily life of most men and women, who use/misuse one or more of these harmful substances regularly despite knowledge of their detrimental effects. The adve...

  5. Social Networks and Sexual Orientation Disparities in Tobacco and Alcohol Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatzenbuehler, Mark L; McLaughlin, Katie A; Xuan, Ziming

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to examine whether the composition of social networks contributes to sexual orientation disparities in substance use and misuse. Method: Data were obtained from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health), a nationally representative cohort study of adolescents (N = 20,745). Wave 1 collected extensive information about the social networks of participants through peer nomination inventories. Results: Same- and both-sex–attracted youths had higher frequency/quantity of tobacco use in their peer networks than did opposite-sex–attracted youths, and both-sex–attracted youths had higher frequency/quantity of alcohol use and misuse in their peer networks than opposite-sex–attracted youths. Among same- and both-sex–attracted youths, greater frequency/quantity of tobacco use in one’s social network predicted greater use of cigarettes. In addition, greater frequency/quantity of peers’ drinking and drinking to intoxication predicted more alcohol use and alcohol misuse in the both-sex–attracted group. These social network factors mediated sexual orientation–related disparities in tobacco use for both- and same-sex–attracted youths. Moreover, sexual orientation disparities in alcohol misuse were mediated by social network characteristics for the same-sex and both-sex–attracted youths. Importantly, sexual minority adolescents were no more likely to have other sexual minorities in their social networks than were sexual majority youths, ruling out an alternative explanation for our results. Conclusions: These findings highlight the importance of social networks as correlates of substance use behaviors among sexual minority youths and as potential pathways explaining sexual orientation disparities in substance use outcomes. PMID:25486400

  6. Adult attention deficit hyperactivity disorder symptom profiles and concurrent problems with alcohol and cannabis: sex differences in a representative, population survey

    OpenAIRE

    Kolla, Nathan J.; van der Maas, Mark; Toplak, Maggie E.; Erickson, Patricia G.; Mann, Robert E.; Seeley, Jane; Vingilis, Evelyn

    2016-01-01

    Background Adult attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) shows a robust association with alcohol and cannabis misuse, and these relationships are expressed differently in males and females. Manifestation of specific ADHD symptom profiles, even in the absence of the full disorder, may also be related to problems with alcohol and cannabis, although these relationships have not been investigated in epidemiological studies. To address this question, we studied the sex-specific association...

  7. Abused, confused, and misused words a writer's guide to usage, spelling, grammar, and sentence structure

    CERN Document Server

    Embree, Mary

    2012-01-01

    Have you been putting bullion in your soup? Is incorrect spelling starting to have a negative affect on your term papers? Do you wonder what someone is inferring when they tell you to pick up a dictionary? These are just a few of the commonly misunderstood words discussed and explained in Abused, Confused, and Misused Words, an entertaining and informative look at the ever-changing nature of the English language. An alphabetical list of words that are frequently misspelled or misused is accompanied by a style guide to usage rules that tells you how and why

  8. Substance misuse prevention and economic analysis: challenges and opportunities regarding international utility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guyll, Max; Spoth, Richard; Cornish, Marilyn A

    2012-01-01

    Economic analyses of substance misuse prevention assess the intervention cost necessary to achieve a particular outcome, and thereby provide an additional dimension for evaluating prevention programming. This article reviews several types of economic analysis, considers how they can be applied to substance misuse prevention, and discusses challenges to enhancing their international relevance, particularly their usefulness for informing policy decisions. Important first steps taken to address these challenges are presented, including the disease burden concept and the development of generalized cost-effectiveness, advances that facilitate international policy discussions by providing a common framework for evaluating health care needs and program effects.

  9. Childhood ADHD and conduct disorder as independent predictors of male alcohol dependence at age 40

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knop, Joachim; Penick, Elizabeth C; Nickel, Elizabeth J

    2009-01-01

    of alcohol misuse was examined. Method: Subjects were selected from a Danish birth cohort (9,125), which included 223 sons of alcoholic fathers (high risk) and 106 matched sons of nonalcoholic fathers (low risk). These subjects have been studied systematically over the past 40 years. They were evaluated...... in their teens (n = 238), later as adults at age 30 (n = 241), and more recently at age 40 (n = 202). At 19-year/20-year follow-ups, an ADHD scale was derived from teacher ratings and a CD scale was derived from a social worker interview. At 30-year and 40-year follow-ups, a psychiatrist used structured...... interviews and criteria from the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Third Edition, Revised, to quantify lifetime alcoholism severity and to diagnose alcohol-use disorder. Of the original subjects, 110 had complete data for the two childhood measures and the adult alcoholism outcomes...

  10. Credit Card Misuse, Money Attitudes, and Compulsive Buying Behaviors: A Comparison of Internal and External Locus of Control (LOC) Consumers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Stevie

    2009-01-01

    This study examined attitudinal and behavioral differences between internal and external locus of control (LOC) consumers on credit card misuse, the importance of money, and compulsive buying. Using multiple analysis of variance and separate analyses of variance, internal LOC consumers were found to have lower scores on credit card misuse and…

  11. Differences in the Association between Depression and Opioid Misuse in Chronic Low Back Pain versus Chronic Pain at Other Locations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arpana Jaiswal

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Patients with chronic pain and depression are more likely to develop opioid abuse compared to patients without depression. It is not known if this association differs by pain location. We compared the strength of association between depression and opioid misuse in patients with chronic low back pain (CLBP vs. chronic pain of other location (CPOL. Chart abstracted data was obtained from 166 patients seeking care in a family medicine clinic. Depression was measured by the PHQ-9 and opioid misuse was measured using the Current Opioid Misuse Measure. Pain severity and interference questions came from the Brief Pain Inventory. Cross-tabulations were computed to measure the association between depression and opioid misuse stratified on pain location. Exploratory logistic regression modeled the association between depression and opioid misuse after adjusting for pain location and pain severity and interference. Depression was significantly associated with opioid misuse in CPOL but not in CLBP. Regression results indicate pain interference partly accounts for the depression–opioid misuse association. These preliminary results from a small patient sample suggest depression may co-occur with opioid misuse more often in CPOL than in CLBP. Further research is needed to compare this comorbidity in specific pain diagnoses such as arthritis, fibromyalgia and CLBP.

  12. 15 CFR 30.71 - False or fraudulent reporting on or misuse of the Automated Export System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false False or fraudulent reporting on or misuse of the Automated Export System. 30.71 Section 30.71 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations... REGULATIONS Penalties § 30.71 False or fraudulent reporting on or misuse of the Automated Export System. (a...

  13. 16 CFR 23.16 - Misuse of the words “brilliant” and “full cut.”

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Misuse of the words âbrilliantâ and âfull cut.â 23.16 Section 23.16 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION GUIDES AND TRADE PRACTICE RULES GUIDES FOR THE JEWELRY, PRECIOUS METALS, AND PEWTER INDUSTRIES § 23.16 Misuse of the words...

  14. Development and validation of the alcohol Expectancy Questionnaire Short Form (EQ-SF).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mezquita, Laura; Camacho, Laura; Suso-Ribera, Carlos; Ortet, Generós; Ibáñez, Manuel I

    2018-01-15

    Alcohol expectancies are proximal variables to alcohol use and misuse. In recent decades, different measures have been developed to assess this construct. One of the most frequently used and recommended instruments is the Expectancy Questionnaire (EQ; Leigh y Stacy, 1993). Our aim is to develop a short version of the EQ (EQ-SF) for suitable use in time-limited administrations. Two samples, adolescents (N = 514, 57.20% females) and adults (N = 548, 61.50% females), completed the EQ together with alcohol-use measures. Different item selection strategies were applied to select the 24 items. The EQ-SF structure was explored using confirmatory factor analysis, and measurement invariance was tested running a multi-group analysis comparing groups by sex and age. Reliability was tested using Cronbach's alpha and omega coefficients. Concurrent validity was investigated with regression analyses. The EQ-SF showed acceptable between-groups measurement invariance. Alphas and omegas ranged from .77 to .93. Positive expectancies predicted both alcohol use and alcohol-related problems. Negative expectancies predicted alcohol-related problems. Sex and age moderated these associations. Males with high positive alcohol expectancies showed higher alcohol consumption than females, while adults with high negative alcohol expectancies showed greater alcohol-related problems than adolescents. Different evidence on the validity and reliability of the EQ-SF suggest that it is a suitable instrument to assess alcohol expectancies in the Spanish population.

  15. Using autopsy brain tissue to study alcohol-related brain damage in the genomic age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutherland, Greg T; Sheedy, Donna; Kril, Jillian J

    2014-01-01

    The New South Wales Tissue Resource Centre at the University of Sydney, Australia, is one of the few human brain banks dedicated to the study of the effects of chronic alcoholism. The bank was affiliated in 1994 as a member of the National Network of Brain Banks and also focuses on schizophrenia and healthy control tissue. Alcohol abuse is a major problem worldwide, manifesting in such conditions as fetal alcohol syndrome, adolescent binge drinking, alcohol dependency, and alcoholic neurodegeneration. The latter is also referred to as alcohol-related brain damage (ARBD). The study of postmortem brain tissue is ideally suited to determining the effects of long-term alcohol abuse, but it also makes an important contribution to understanding pathogenesis across the spectrum of alcohol misuse disorders and potentially other neurodegenerative diseases. Tissue from the bank has contributed to 330 peer-reviewed journal articles including 120 related to alcohol research. Using the results of these articles, this review chronicles advances in alcohol-related brain research since 2003, the so-called genomic age. In particular, it concentrates on transcriptomic approaches to the pathogenesis of ARBD and builds on earlier reviews of structural changes (Harper et al. Prog Neuropsychopharmacol Biol Psychiatry 2003;27:951) and proteomics (Matsumoto et al. Expert Rev Proteomics 2007;4:539). Copyright © 2013 by the Research Society on Alcoholism.

  16. Do alcohol excise taxes affect traffic accidents? Evidence from Estonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saar, Indrek

    2015-01-01

    This article examines the association between alcohol excise tax rates and alcohol-related traffic accidents in Estonia. Monthly time series of traffic accidents involving drunken motor vehicle drivers from 1998 through 2013 were regressed on real average alcohol excise tax rates while controlling for changes in economic conditions and the traffic environment. Specifically, regression models with autoregressive integrated moving average (ARIMA) errors were estimated in order to deal with serial correlation in residuals. Counterfactual models were also estimated in order to check the robustness of the results, using the level of non-alcohol-related traffic accidents as a dependent variable. A statistically significant (P traffic accidents was disclosed under alternative model specifications. For instance, the regression model with ARIMA (0, 1, 1)(0, 1, 1) errors revealed that a 1-unit increase in the tax rate is associated with a 1.6% decrease in the level of accidents per 100,000 population involving drunk motor vehicle drivers. No similar association was found in the cases of counterfactual models for non-alcohol-related traffic accidents. This article indicates that the level of alcohol-related traffic accidents in Estonia has been affected by changes in real average alcohol excise taxes during the period 1998-2013. Therefore, in addition to other measures, the use of alcohol taxation is warranted as a policy instrument in tackling alcohol-related traffic accidents.

  17. Specific tackling situations affect the biomechanical demands experienced by rugby union players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seminati, Elena; Cazzola, Dario; Preatoni, Ezio; Trewartha, Grant

    2017-03-01

    Tackling in Rugby Union is an open skill which can involve high-speed collisions and is the match event associated with the greatest proportion of injuries. This study aimed to analyse the biomechanics of rugby tackling under three conditions: from a stationary position, with dominant and non-dominant shoulder, and moving forward, with dominant shoulder. A specially devised contact simulator, a 50-kg punch bag instrumented with pressure sensors, was translated towards the tackler (n = 15) to evaluate the effect of laterality and tackling approach on the external loads absorbed by the tackler, on head and trunk motion, and on trunk muscle activities. Peak impact force was substantially higher in the stationary dominant (2.84 ± 0.74 kN) than in the stationary non-dominant condition (2.44 ± 0.64 kN), but lower than in the moving condition (3.40 ± 0.86 kN). Muscle activation started on average 300 ms before impact, with higher activation for impact-side trapezius and non-impact-side erector spinae and gluteus maximus muscles. Players' technique for non-dominant-side tackles was less compliant with current coaching recommendations in terms of cervical motion (more neck flexion and lateral bending in the stationary non-dominant condition) and players could benefit from specific coaching focus on non-dominant-side tackles.

  18. Adult attention deficit hyperactivity disorder symptom profiles and concurrent problems with alcohol and cannabis: sex differences in a representative, population survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolla, Nathan J; van der Maas, Mark; Toplak, Maggie E; Erickson, Patricia G; Mann, Robert E; Seeley, Jane; Vingilis, Evelyn

    2016-02-27

    Adult attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) shows a robust association with alcohol and cannabis misuse, and these relationships are expressed differently in males and females. Manifestation of specific ADHD symptom profiles, even in the absence of the full disorder, may also be related to problems with alcohol and cannabis, although these relationships have not been investigated in epidemiological studies. To address this question, we studied the sex-specific associations of ADHD symptomatology with problematic alcohol and cannabis use in a representative sample of adults aged 18 years and older residing in Ontario, Canada. Data were obtained from the Centre for Addiction and Mental Health Monitor, an ongoing cross-sectional telephone survey, between January 2011 and December 2013. Respondents (n =  5080) reported on current ADHD symptomatology, measured using the Adult ADHD Self-Report Version 1.1 Screener (ASRS-V1.1) and four additional items, and alcohol and cannabis use, which were measured using the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT) and the Alcohol, Smoking and Substance Involvement Screening Test (ASSIST), respectively. Logistic regression analyses were conducted in men and women to test the association of each ADHD symptom cluster (hyperactivity, inattentiveness, impulsivity) with problematic alcohol and cannabis use. After controlling for age, education, and comorbid internalizing and externalizing psychopathology, hyperactive symptoms were associated with problematic alcohol use in both men and women and with problematic cannabis use in men. Impulsive symptoms were independently associated with problematic cannabis use in men. By contrast, inattentive symptomatology predicted problems with alcohol and cannabis only in women. In all models, age was negatively associated with substance misuse and externalizing behavior was positively correlated and the strongest predictor of hazardous alcohol and cannabis use. ADHD symptom

  19. Price Elasticity of Alcohol Demand in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Santosh

    2017-05-01

    Using a household survey conducted in 2014, this study estimates price elasticity of demand (PED) for beer, country liquor and spirits in India. Ordinary least-square models were used to estimate the responsiveness in alcohol demand due to price change. A large number of control variables were included to adjust for potential confounding in the model. Inter-district variation in alcohol consumption is adjusted for by including district fixed effects. Alcohol prices are negatively associated with demand for alcoholic beverages. The PED ranged from -0.14 for spirits to -0.46 for country liquor. Low level of education was positively associated with spirits consumption. The magnitude of elasticity varied by rural-urban, education and gender. Results indicate that a policy mix of price controls and awareness campaigns would be most effective in tackling the adverse effects of harmful drinking in India. The demand for beer, country liquor and spirits is negatively associated with its own price. The elasticity estimates ranged from -0.14 for spirits to -0.44 for country liquor. The elasticity estimates varied by rural-urban, gender and by education levels of the drinkers. © The Author 2017. Medical Council on Alcohol and Oxford University Press. All rights reserved

  20. Over-, under- and misuse of pain treatment in Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dietl, Markus

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The HTA-report (Health Technology Assessment deals with over- and undertreatment of pain therapy. Especially in Germany chronic pain is a common reason for the loss of working hours and early retirement. In addition to a reduction in quality of life for the affected persons, chronic pain is therefore also an enormous economic burden for society. Objectives: Which diseases are in particular relevant regarding pain therapy? What is the social-medical care situation regarding pain facilities in Germany? What is the social-medical care situation in pain therapy when comparing on international level? Which effects, costs or cost-effects can be seen on the micro-, meso- and macro level with regard to pain therapy? Among which social-medical services in pain therapy is there is an over- or undertreatment with regard to the micro-, meso- and macro level? Which medical and organisational aspects that have an effect on the costs and/or cost-effectiveness have to be particularly taken into account with regard to pain treatment/chronic pain? What is the influence of the individual patient's needs (micro level in different situations of pain (e. g. palliative situation on the meso- and macro level? Which social-medical and ethical aspects for an adequate treatment of chronic pain on each level have to be specially taken into account? Is the consideration of these aspects appropriate to avoid over- or undertreatment? Are juridical questions included in every day care of chronic pain patients, mainly in palliative care? On which level can appropriate interventions prevent over- or undertreatment? Methods: A systematic literature research is done in 35 databases. In the HTA, reviews, epidemiological and clinical studies and economic evaluations are included which report about pain therapy and in particular palliative care in the years 2005 till 2010. Results: 47 studies meet the inclusion criteria. An undertreatment of acupuncture, over- and misuse

  1. Over-, under- and misuse of pain treatment in Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietl, Markus; Korczak, Dieter

    2011-04-19

    The HTA-report (Health Technology Assessment) deals with over- and undertreatment of pain therapy. Especially in Germany chronic pain is a common reason for the loss of working hours and early retirement. In addition to a reduction in quality of life for the affected persons, chronic pain is therefore also an enormous economic burden for society. Which diseases are in particular relevant regarding pain therapy?What is the social-medical care situation regarding pain facilities in Germany?What is the social-medical care situation in pain therapy when comparing on international level?Which effects, costs or cost-effects can be seen on the micro-, meso- and macro level with regard to pain therapy?Among which social-medical services in pain therapy is there is an over- or undertreatment with regard to the micro-, meso- and macro level?Which medical and organisational aspects that have an effect on the costs and/or cost-effectiveness have to be particularly taken into account with regard to pain treatment/chronic pain?What is the influence of the individual patient's needs (micro level) in different situations of pain (e. g. palliative situation) on the meso- and macro level?Which social-medical and ethical aspects for an adequate treatment of chronic pain on each level have to be specially taken into account?Is the consideration of these aspects appropriate to avoid over- or undertreatment?Are juridical questions included in every day care of chronic pain patients, mainly in palliative care?On which level can appropriate interventions prevent over- or undertreatment? A systematic literature research is done in 35 databases. In the HTA, reviews, epidemiological and clinical studies and economic evaluations are included which report about pain therapy and in particular palliative care in the years 2005 till 2010. 47 studies meet the inclusion criteria. An undertreatment of acupuncture, over- and misuse with regard to opiate prescription and an overuse regarding

  2. Control substances and alcohol use and testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Przybylski, J.L.

    1994-07-01

    The Omnibus Transportation Employee Testing Act was signed into law in October of 1991. The Omnibus Transportation Employee Testing Act of 1991 required the United States Department of Transportation (DOT) to enact regulations requiring the testing of employees that perform ``safety sensitive functions`` for illegal controlled substance use and alcohol misuse. The Transportation Management Division, Office of Environmental Restoration and Waste Management (TMD/EM-261), United States Department of Energy (DOE), Training Program Manager is committed to promoting the availability of the necessary information to those affected members of the Department of Energy (DOE) community in an effort to attain the highest possible level of regulatory compliance and to enhance the safety of each individual in the workplace.

  3. Overview of Alcohol Consumption

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of Alcohol Consumption Alcohol's Effects on the Body Alcohol Use Disorder Fetal Alcohol Exposure Support & Treatment Alcohol Policy Special ... experience alcohol’s longer-term effects, which can include: Alcohol use disorder Health problems Increased risk for certain cancers In ...

  4. Marketing and alcohol-related traffic fatalities: impact of alcohol advertising targeting minors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Ryan C; Geller, E Scott

    2009-10-01

    Alcohol-related youth traffic fatalities continue as a major public-health concern. While state and federal laws can be useful in tackling this problem, the efficacy of many laws has not been empirically demonstrated. We examined the impact of state laws prohibiting alcohol advertising to target minors. Using statistics obtained from the Fatality Analysis Reporting System (FARS), youth alcohol-related, single-vehicle, driver traffic fatalities were compared by state as a function of whether the state has a law prohibiting alcohol advertising that targets minors. Overall, states possessing this law experienced 32.9% fewer of the above specified traffic fatalities. DISCUSSION AND IMPACT ON INDUSTRY: The results suggest that not only are youth drinking rates affected by alcohol advertisements targeting youth, but also drink-driving behaviors. Indeed, we estimate that if this type of legislation were adopted in the 26 states that do not prohibit targeting of minors with alcohol advertising, then 400 youth lives could be saved annually.

  5. The alcohol use disorders identification test (AUDIT: validation of a Nepali version for the detection of alcohol use disorders and hazardous drinking in medical settings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pradhan Bickram

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Alcohol problems are a major health issue in Nepal and remain under diagnosed. Increase in consumption are due to many factors, including advertising, pricing and availability, but accurate information is lacking on the prevalence of current alcohol use disorders. The AUDIT (Alcohol Use Disorder Identification Test questionnaire developed by WHO identifies individuals along the full spectrum of alcohol misuse and hence provides an opportunity for early intervention in non-specialty settings. This study aims to validate a Nepali version of AUDIT among patients attending a university hospital and assess the prevalence of alcohol use disorders along the full spectrum of alcohol misuse. Methods This cross-sectional study was conducted in patients attending the medicine out-patient department of a university hospital. DSM-IV diagnostic categories (alcohol abuse and alcohol dependence were used as the gold standard to calculate the diagnostic parameters of the AUDIT. Hazardous drinking was defined as self reported consumption of ≥21 standard drink units per week for males and ≥14 standard drink units per week for females. Results A total of 1068 individuals successfully completed the study. According to DSM-IV, drinkers were classified as follows: No alcohol problem (n=562; 59.5%, alcohol abusers (n= 78; 8.3% and alcohol dependent (n=304; 32.2%. The prevalence of hazardous drinker was 67.1%. The Nepali version of AUDIT is a reliable and valid screening tool to identify individuals with alcohol use disorders in the Nepalese population. AUDIT showed a good capacity to discriminate dependent patients (with AUDIT ≥11 for both the gender and hazardous drinkers (with AUDIT ≥5 for males and ≥4 for females. For alcohol dependence/abuse the cut off values was ≥9 for both males and females. Conclusion The AUDIT questionnaire is a good screening instrument for detecting alcohol use disorders in patients attending a university

  6. The Inchworm and the Nightingale: On the (Mis)use of Data in Music Teacher Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Mitchell

    2015-01-01

    The music education profession is faced with two serious problems regarding the (mis)use of data in music teacher evaluation. The first has to do with the quality and kinds of data that music teachers have been forced to use; the second is concerned with how these data are being used in the music teacher evaluation process. The evidence I will use…

  7. Opioid addiction and misuse in adult and adolescent patients with cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinkerton, Ross; Hardy, Janet R

    2017-06-01

    In the context of a therapeutic opioid epidemic, particularly in the USA, where increasingly stringent screening for 'at risk' individuals and close monitoring of opioid prescription and use is strongly recommended, the issue of misuse within the cancer population must be addressed. Most patients with advanced cancer will have pain requiring opioid therapy at some stage during their disease course. In the majority, this will provide good pain relief with no short- or longer-term adverse sequelae. A subset will present with substance misuse issues that will influence management and prescribing practice. The potential ethical issues of limiting effective analgesia on the basis of addiction risk or history must be acknowledged. Both a judgemental or 'relaxed' approach to such patients is problematic. Ignoring the situation will not be in the patient's best interest, but an undue focus on this aspect may damage therapeutic relationships with clinicians and adversely affect a holistic approach to care. Clinical practitioners must be aware of the risk factors for opioid misuse and in patients who are not under palliative care consider screening prior to commencing opioids. Clinicians must be able to manage and monitor those identified as having an opioid misuse problem. © 2017 Royal Australasian College of Physicians.

  8. An Examination of the Situational Factors Associated with the Misuse of Prescription Analgesics among College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallucci, Andrew R.; Wynveen, Chris; Hackman, Christine; Meyer, Andrew; Usdan, Stuart

    2014-01-01

    The current study examined the effect that students' educational environment has on the prevalence and motivations associated with the misuse of prescription analgesics (MPA). A sample of 893 undergraduate students was recruited from one religiously affiliated private university and one public university in the Southern United States. Participants…

  9. Methylphenidate Transdermal System in Adults with Past Stimulant Misuse: An Open-Label Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    McRae-Clark, Aimee L.; Brady, Kathleen T.; Hartwell, Karen J.; White, Kathleen; Carter, Rickey E.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: This 8-week, open-label trial assessed the efficacy of methylphenidate transdermal system (MTS) in 14 adult individuals diagnosed with ADHD and with a history of stimulant misuse, abuse, or dependence. Method: The primary efficacy endpoint was the Wender-Reimherr Adult ADHD Scale (WRAADS), and secondary efficacy endpoints included the…

  10. Life Skills Training: Preventing Substance Misuse by Enhancing Individual and Social Competence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botvin, Gilbert J.; Griffin, Kenneth W.

    2014-01-01

    Research concerning the etiology and prevention of substance misuse has led to the development of preventive interventions that are theory-based and effective. One such approach, Life Skills Training (LST), targets key etiologic factors using a conceptual framework derived from social learning theory and problem behavior theory. LST has been…

  11. Use and misuse of data in advocacy, media and opinion polls in Africa

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article offers a reflective perspective of the uses and misuses of data and statistics in public communication and development as a construct of democracy. It begins by situating data use in light of the “big data” revolution characterised by devolution and globalisation of information. Drawing on illustrations from advocacy ...

  12. A pharmaco-epidemiological survey of the use and misuse of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A pharmaco-epidemiological survey was carried out to determine the most used and misused antibiotics in selected veterinary clinics and farms in three urban cities in the southwest and south-south geopolitical zones of Nigeria. In all, 55 respondents comprising 40 veterinary doctors, 9 animal health workers and 6 farmers ...

  13. Identifying rural-urban differences in the predictors of emergency ambulance service demand and misuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Ho Ting; Lin, Teng-Kang; Lin, Jen-Jia

    2018-06-13

    This study aims to assess rural-urban differences in the predictors of emergency ambulance service (EAS) demand and misuse in New Taipei City. Identifying the predictors of EAS demand will help the EAS service managing authority in formulating focused policies to maintain service quality. Over 160,000 electronic EAS usage records were used with a negative binomial regression model to assess rural-urban differences in the predictors of EAS demand and misuse. The factors of 1) ln-transformed population density, 2) percentage of residents who completed up to junior high school education, 3) accessibility of hospitals without an emergency room, and 4) accessibility of EAS were found to be predictors of EAS demand in rural areas, whereas only the factor of percentage of people aged above 65 was found to predict EAS demand in urban areas. For EAS misuse, only the factor of percentage of low-income households was found to be a predictor in rural areas, whereas no predictor was found in the urban areas. Results showed that the factors predicting EAS demand and misuse in rural areas were more complicated compared to urban areas and, therefore, formulating EAS policies for rural areas based on the results of urban studies may not be appropriate. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  14. Endemic nosocomial infections and misuse of antibiotics in a maternity hospital in Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilal, Naser Eldin; Gedebou, Messele; Al-Ghamdi, Saleh

    2002-02-01

    Patients admitted during a 6-month period to a maternity hospital in Saudi Arabia were studied for nosocomial infections and misuse of antibiotics. Patient history and diagnosis on admission and subsequent clinical and laboratory data were analysed. Infection developing from 72 h after admission was considered nosocomial. Therapeutic and prophylactic data as recorded on the patients' charts were assessed for possible misuse of antibiotics. Of 3439 patients, 136 (4.0%) developed nosocomial infection: 2.0%, 8.9% and 37.7% in obstetric, gynaecologic and nursery patients, respectively. Infections among adults were mostly found in the urinary (44.4%) and lower genital (33.3%) tracts. Among newborns, over 70% of cases were eye and ear (29.8%), skin (26.2%) and blood (19.0%) infections. Gram-negative bacteria caused 65.7% of the infections. Over 90% of the bacterial isolates were multidrug-resistant. About 24% of patients received single or multiple antibiotics; 57.2% were misused. The minimal hospital cost estimate for both nosocomial infections and misused antibiotics was US $318,705. The findings of this study, the first of its type in this region, should prompt improved infection control measures as well as educational and antibiotic restriction interventions.

  15. Sign my e-petition to make changes to misuse of drugs act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffiths, Matt

    2012-02-29

    My medicines management article (reflections February 8) highlighted legal muddles over the prescription of controlled drugs. The Medicines Act was amended four years ago to allow independent nurse prescribers to prescribe almost all controlled drugs. But the Misuse of Drugs Act needs to amended to make this legally possible.

  16. The Use of Cohesive Devices in News Language: Overuse, Underuse or Misuse?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Zihan

    2015-01-01

    Many studies have found EFL/ESL learners over/under/misuse linking adverbials. Because their use is specific to genre and register (Biber et al., 1999), and news writing is a compulsory course for EFL journalism majors at many Chinese universities, this study investigates their usage patterns in news and suggests teaching material design for the…

  17. 26 CFR 48.6715-1 - Penalty for misuse of dyed fuel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...) MISCELLANEOUS EXCISE TAXES MANUFACTURERS AND RETAILERS EXCISE TAXES Refunds and Other Administrative Provisions of Special Application to Retailers and Manufacturers Taxes § 48.6715-1 Penalty for misuse of dyed... other liquid (other than diesel fuel or kerosene ) that contains the type and amount of dye and marker...

  18. The Nonuse, Misuse, and Proper Use of Pilot Studies in Experimental Evaluation Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westlund, Erik; Stuart, Elizabeth A.

    2017-01-01

    This article discusses the nonuse, misuse, and proper use of pilot studies in experimental evaluation research. The authors first show that there is little theoretical, practical, or empirical guidance available to researchers who seek to incorporate pilot studies into experimental evaluation research designs. The authors then discuss how pilot…

  19. General Practitioners' Management of Psychostimulant Drug Misuse: Implications for Education and Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alkhamis, Ahmed; Matheson, Catriona; Bond, Christine

    2009-01-01

    Aims: To provide baseline data regarding GPs' knowledge, experience, and attitudes toward the management of PsychoStimulant Drug Misuse (PSDM) patients to inform future education and training initiatives. Methods: A structured cross-sectional postal questionnaire was developed following initial content setting interviews, piloted then sent to a…

  20. Training Nurses in Cognitive Assessment: Uses and Misuses of the Mini-Mental State Examination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koder, Deborah-Anne; Klahr, Amanda

    2010-01-01

    The Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) is one of the most commonly used instruments to screen for cognitive deficits within the hospital setting. However training in how to administer this widely used tool is scarce with little, if any, formal training for nursing staff. Scores are also often misused with over reliance on results and cut-offs to…

  1. 78 FR 8090 - Misuse of Internet Protocol (IP) Captioned Telephone Service; Telecommunications Relay Services...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-05

    ... equipment and software used in conjunction with their service have captions turned off as the default... equipment and software used in conjunction with their service have a default setting of captions off, so...] Misuse of Internet Protocol (IP) Captioned Telephone Service; Telecommunications Relay Services and...

  2. 78 FR 8032 - Misuse of Internet Protocol (IP) Captioned Telephone Service; Telecommunications Relay Services...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-05

    ... providers to ensure that equipment and software used in conjunction with their service have a default...] Misuse of Internet Protocol (IP) Captioned Telephone Service; Telecommunications Relay Services and Speech-to-Speech Services for Individuals With Hearing and Speech Disabilities AGENCY: Federal...

  3. Exploring the victimization‒early substance misuse relationship: In search of moderating and mediating effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walters, Glenn D; Espelage, Dorothy L

    2018-07-01

    This study was designed to address two research questions. The first research question asked whether physical abuse victimization at the hands of parents/guardians, bullying victimization at the hands of peers, and the abuse x bullying interaction encouraged early involvement in substance misuse. The second research question inquired as to whether the victimization‒substance misuse relationship was mediated by variables proposed by various theories and research studies-specifically, cognitive impulsivity, negative affect, and low self-esteem. A moderated mediation hypothesis was tested in a group of 865 (417 boys, 448 girls) schoolchildren from the Illinois Study of Bullying and Sexual Violence who were 10 to 15 years of age at the time of initial contact. A path analysis performed with three waves of data revealed that physical abuse and bullying victimization predicted substance misuse with mediation by cognitive impulsivity, but there was no evidence of moderation. On the basis of these results, it was concluded that victimization, whether through parental physical abuse or peer bullying, increases cognitive impulsivity, and that cognitive impulsivity, in turn, encourages early involvement in substance misuse. The practical implications of these results are that interventions designed to counter cognitive impulsivity and encourage cognitive control may be effective in preventing children traumatized by physical abuse and bullying from entering the early stages of a drug or substance using lifestyle. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Integrative Interventions for Men with Concurrent Substance Misuse and Trauma: Roles for Mindfulness and Masculinities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, Durwin B.; Kelly, Mary Theresa

    2012-01-01

    Men experience higher lifetime trauma rates than women, and they use and misuse substances at rates far exceeding women. Men are also reported to experience significantly higher lifetime rates of comorbid posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and substance use disorder (SUD) than women. Although there is agreement in the clinical field of trauma…

  5. Mechanisms and Factors Associated With Tackle-Related Injuries in South African Youth Rugby Union Players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burger, Nicholas; Lambert, Mike Ian; Viljoen, Wayne; Brown, James Craig; Readhead, Clint; den Hollander, Steve; Hendricks, Sharief

    2017-02-01

    The majority of injuries in rugby union occur during tackle events. The mechanisms and causes of these injuries are well established in senior rugby union. To use information from an injury database and assess video footage of tackle-related injuries in youth rugby union matches to identify environmental factors and mechanisms that are potentially confounding to these injuries. Descriptive epidemiological study. Injury surveillance was conducted at the under-18 Craven Week rugby tournament. Tackle-related injury information was used to identify injury events in match video footage (role-matched noninjury tackle events were identified for the cohort of injured players). Events were coded using match situational variables (precontact, contact, and postcontact). Relative risk ratio (RRR; ratio of probability of an injury or noninjury outcome occurring when a characteristic was observed) was reported by use of logistic regression. In comparison with the first quarter, injury risk was greater in the third (RRR = 9.75 [95% CI, 1.71-55.64]; P = .010) and fourth quarters (RRR = 6.97 [95% CI, 1.09-44.57]; P = .040) for ball carriers and in the fourth quarter (RRR = 9.63 [95% CI, 1.94-47.79]; P = .006) for tacklers. Ball carriers were less likely to be injured when they were aware of impending contact (RRR = 0.14 [95% CI, 0.03-0.66]; P = .012) or when they executed a moderate fend (hand-off) (RRR = 0.22 [95% CI, 0.06-0.84]; P = .026). Tacklers were less likely to be injured when performing shoulder tackles (same side as leading leg) in comparison to an arm-only tackle (RRR = 0.02 [95% CI, 0.001-0.79]; P = .037). Ball carriers (RRR = 0.09 [95% CI, 0.01-0.89]; P = .040) and tacklers (RRR = 0.02 [95% CI, 0.001-0.32]; P =.006) were less likely to be injured when initial contact was made with the tackler's shoulder/arm instead of his head/neck. The relative risk of tackle-related injury was higher toward the end of matches. Incorrect technique may contribute to increased injury

  6. Moving alcohol prevention research forward-Part II: new directions grounded in community-based system dynamics modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apostolopoulos, Yorghos; Lemke, Michael K; Barry, Adam E; Lich, Kristen Hassmiller

    2018-02-01

    Given the complexity of factors contributing to alcohol misuse, appropriate epistemologies and methodologies are needed to understand and intervene meaningfully. We aimed to (1) provide an overview of computational modeling methodologies, with an emphasis on system dynamics modeling; (2) explain how community-based system dynamics modeling can forge new directions in alcohol prevention research; and (3) present a primer on how to build alcohol misuse simulation models using system dynamics modeling, with an emphasis on stakeholder involvement, data sources and model validation. Throughout, we use alcohol misuse among college students in the United States as a heuristic example for demonstrating these methodologies. System dynamics modeling employs a top-down aggregate approach to understanding dynamically complex problems. Its three foundational properties-stocks, flows and feedbacks-capture non-linearity, time-delayed effects and other system characteristics. As a methodological choice, system dynamics modeling is amenable to participatory approaches; in particular, community-based system dynamics modeling has been used to build impactful models for addressing dynamically complex problems. The process of community-based system dynamics modeling consists of numerous stages: (1) creating model boundary charts, behavior-over-time-graphs and preliminary system dynamics models using group model-building techniques; (2) model formulation; (3) model calibration; (4) model testing and validation; and (5) model simulation using learning-laboratory techniques. Community-based system dynamics modeling can provide powerful tools for policy and intervention decisions that can result ultimately in sustainable changes in research and action in alcohol misuse prevention. © 2017 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  7. Matching Diabetes and Alcoholism: Oxidative Stress, Inflammation, and Neurogenesis Are Commonly Involved

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge M. Barcia

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Diabetes and alcohol misuse are two of the major challenges in health systems worldwide. These two diseases finally affect several organs and systems including the central nervous system. Hippocampus is one of the most relevant structures due to neurogenesis and memory-related processing among other functions. The present review focuses on the common profile of diabetes and ethanol exposure in terms of oxidative stress and proinflammatory and prosurvival recruiting transcription factors affecting hippocampal neurogenesis. Some aspects around antioxidant strategies are also included. As a global conclusion, the present review points out some common hits on both diseases giving support to the relations between alcohol intake and diabetes.

  8. Alcohol use among amateur sportsmen in Ireland.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Farrell, Anne M

    2010-11-18

    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: The objective of this study was to establish baseline data on alcohol consumption patterns, behaviours and harms among amateur sportsmen in the Republic of Ireland. FINDINGS: The study presents findings from the baseline survey for a cluster randomised controlled trial to evaluate the effectiveness of a community intervention programme to reduce problem alcohol use among a representative sample of Gaelic Athletic Association (GAA) clubs in two counties in the Republic of Ireland. Self reported alcohol use, prevalence of binge drinking, AUDIT scores and alcohol-related harms were assessed in amateur GAA sportsmen aged 16 years and over. Nine hundred and sixty (960) players completed questionnaires (72% response rate). Mean age was 24.0 years (S.D. 5.2). Of those aged 18 years or over, 75% had post-primary education; most (864, 90%) were current drinkers and 8.2% were regular smokers. The self-reported average yearly alcohol consumption was 12.5 litres. Almost one third (31%) of current drinkers reported drinking over the recommended limit of 21 standard drinks per week and just over half (54.3 %) reported drinking 6 or more standard drinks in a row at least once a week (regular binge drinking). Of those who (self) completed the Alcohol Use Disorder Identification Test (AUDIT) questionnaire, three-quarters (74.7%) had a score of 8 or more; 11.5% had a score of 20 or above warranting referral for diagnostic evaluation and treatment. Almost all (87.6%) of the 864 drinkers reported experiencing at least one harm due to their drinking. These alcohol misuse outcomes were higher than those found in a nationally representative sample of males of a similar age. There were strong associations between regular binge drinking and reporting harms such as being in a fight (adjusted odds ratio (OR) 2.02, p<0.001), missing time from work or college (adjusted OR 1.39, p=0.04) or being in an accident (adjusted OR 1.78, p=0.04). CONCLUSIONS: These male amateur

  9. Hospital Admission and Criminality Associated with Substance Misuse in Young Refugees - A Swedish National Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manhica, Hélio; Gauffin, Karl; Almqvist, Ylva B; Rostila, Mikael; Hjern, Anders

    2016-01-01

    High rates of mental health problems have been described in young refugees, but few studies have been conducted on substance misuse. This study aimed to investigate the patterns of hospital care and criminality associated with substance misuse in refugees who settled in Sweden as teenagers. Gender stratified Cox regression models were used to estimate the risks of criminal convictions and hospital care associated with substance misuse from national Swedish data for 2005-2012. We focused on 22,992 accompanied and 5,686 unaccompanied refugees who were aged 13-19 years when they settled in Sweden and compared them with 1 million native Swedish youths from the same birth cohort. The risks of criminal conviction associated with substance misuse increased with the length of residency in male refugees, after adjustment for age and domicile. The hazard ratios (HRs) were 5.21 (4.39-6.19) for unaccompanied and 3.85 (3.42-4.18) for accompanied refugees after more than 10 years of residency, compared with the native population. The risks were slightly lower for hospital care, at 2.88 (2.18-3.79) and 2.52(2.01-3.01) respectively. Risks were particularly pronounced for male refugees from the Horn of Africa and Iran. The risks for all male refugees decreased substantially when income was adjusted for. Young female refugees had similar risks to the general population. The risks of criminality and hospital care associated with substance misuse in young male refugees increased with time of residency in Sweden and were associated with a low level of income compared with the native Swedish population. Risks were similar in accompanied and unaccompanied refugees.

  10. Baking soda misuse as a home remedy: case experience of the California Poison Control System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Abri, S A; Kearney, T

    2014-02-01

    Baking soda is a common household product promoted by the manufacturer as an antacid. It contains sodium bicarbonate and has the potential for significant toxicity when ingested in excessive amounts. Characterizing the patterns and outcomes from the misuse of baking soda as a home remedy can guide the clinical assessment and preventative counselling of patients at risk for use of this product. We conducted a retrospective review of all symptomatic cases involving ingestion and misuse of a baking soda powder product that were reported to the California Poison Control System between the years 2000 and 2012. Of the 192 cases we identified, 55·8% were female, ages ranged 2 months to 79 years, and the most common reasons for misuse included antacid (60·4%), 'beat a urine drug test' (11·5%) and treat a UTI (4·7%). Most cases (55·2%) had significant symptoms warranting a medical evaluation, whereas 12 patients required hospital admission developed either electrolyte imbalances, metabolic alkalosis or respiratory depression. Misuse of baking soda can result in serious electrolyte and acid/base imbalances. Patients at highest risk of toxicity may include those who chronically use an antacid, those who use the method to 'beat' urine drug screens, pregnant women and young children. Self-treatment with baking soda as a home remedy may also mask or delay medical care thereby complicating or exacerbating an existing medical problem. We suggest that healthcare providers counsel high-risk patients about the potential complications of misuse of baking soda as a home remedy. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Perceptions of Harm and Reasons for Misuse of Prescription Opioid Drugs and Reasons for Not Seeking Treatment for Physical or Emotional Pain Among a Sample of College Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenne, Deric R; Hamilton, Kelsey; Birmingham, Lauren; Oglesby, Willie H; Fischbein, Rebecca L; Delahanty, Douglas L

    2017-01-02

    Since the early 1990s, the United States has seen a significant increase in the prevalence of prescription opioid misuse. Despite benefits prescription opioids provide, misuse can be fatal. The current study was designed to investigate the prevalence of prescription opioid misuse, perceived harm of misuse, and reasons for misuse for physical or emotional pain instead of seeking professional medical or mental health treatment. Survey data were collected in the fall of 2013 via an online survey to a random sample of 668 students from a public Midwestern university. Lifetime prevalence of prescription opioid misuse was 9.5%. Misusers of prescription opioid drugs generally reported lower ratings of perceived harm as compared to individuals not reporting misuse of prescription opioid drugs. Primary reasons for misuse of prescription opioid drugs was to relieve pain (33.9%), "to feel good/get high" (23.2%) and experimentation (21.4%). Lifetime misuse of a prescription opioid drug for physical or emotional pain was reported by 8.1% and 2.2% of respondents, respectively. Primary reasons for misuse for physical pain included because pain was temporary, immediate relief was needed, and no health insurance/financial resources. Primary reasons for misuse for emotional pain included not wanting others to find out, embarrassment and fear. Conclusions/Importance: Reasons for misuse of prescription opioid drugs vary by type of prescription opioid drug. Reasons for not seeking treatment that ultimately lead to misuse, vary by type of pain being treated and may be important considerations in the effort to stem the misuse of prescription opioid drugs among college students.

  12. Executive dysfunctions as a good predictor of misuse of respiratory inhalers among hospitalized patients: a prospective survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voulhoux, Lucie; Cremer, Gérald; Spinewine, Anne; de Saint-Hubert, Marie; Amant, Fabienne; Sohy, Carine; Schoevaerdts, Didier

    2017-09-01

    The objectives of the study are to determine the prevalence and potential risk factors of misuse of respiratory inhalers among hospitalized patients admitted at the CHU UcL Namur, site Godinne. Using a cross-sectional design, patients using respiratory inhalers since more than 7 days were recruited from a database established by the hospital pharmacy. Inhaler technique was assessed using a standardised check-list and graded misuse as major or minor errors using previously published criteria. Demographic and clinical data were prospectively collected using standardised tools. Among the 100 consecutive patients selected for the study (median of age: 68 years), the prevalence of misuse was 40%. According to univariate analysis, main risk factors of misuse were age, executive dysfunction, a low grip strength, a low level of manual dexterity and the type of inhaler used. The best predictor of misuse according to multivariate analysis was executive dysfunction as assessed by the BREF scale (batterie rapide d'efficience frontale) (adjusted odds ratio: 1.35 [CI95%: 1.11-1.64]; p: 0.002). A BREF score ≤ 12/18 was associated with a six-fold increase of respiratory inhaler misuse risk. We conclude that executive dysfunction is associated with a higher risk of respiratory inhalers misuse. A short screening of executive function, using the BREF scale, before starting respiratory inhaler may improve the selection of inhaler devices and therefore the compliance to treatment.

  13. Prescription Opioid Misuse Among Rural Community Pharmacy Patients: Pilot Study for Screening and Implications for Future Practice and Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cochran, Gerald T; Engel, Rafael J; Hruschak, Valerie J; Tarter, Ralph E

    2017-10-01

    Opioid misuse imposes a disproportionately heavy burden on individuals living in rural areas. Community pharmacy has the potential to expand and coordinate with health professionals to identify and intervene with those who misuse opioids. Rural and urban community pharmacy patients were recruited in this pilot project to describe and compare patterns of opioid misuse. We administered a health screening survey in 4 community pharmacies among patients filling opioid medications. Univariate statistics were used to assess differences in health characteristics and opioid medication misuse behaviors between rural and urban respondents. Multivariable statistics were used to identify risk factors associated with rural and urban opioid misuse. A total of 333 participants completed the survey. Participants in rural settings had poorer overall health, higher pain levels, lower education, and a higher rate of unemployment compared to patients in urban pharmacies. Rural respondents with illicit drug use (adjustable odds ratio [aOR]: 14.34, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 2.16-95.38), posttraumatic stress disorder (aOR: 5.44, 95% CI = 1.52-19.50), and ≤high school education (aOR: 6.68, 95% CI = 1.06-42.21) had increased risk for opioid misuse. Community pharmacy represents a promising resource for potential identification of opioid misuse, particularly in rural communities. Continued research must extend these findings and work to establish collaborative services in rural settings.

  14. The use of alcohol in the population of adolescents and young adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dragišić-Labaš Slađana

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the author dealt with the presentation of the international and national research studies findings on the use of alcohol among young people. She pays a special attention to the knowledge of the micro-and macro-social factors that increase the risk of (misuse of alcohol among young people. The majority of studies, almost without exception, indicate that social and personal disorganization has a direct causal effect, or enhancing factors in the development of various forms of risky behavior, including alcoholism. On the other hand, it appeared that the global use of alcohol among adolescents growing. This opened up a whole range of issues, of which two are particularly important: the price that society devotes to repair the personal consequences of (misuse of alcohol, and, with this aspect closely related primary and tertiary preventive strategies. Finally, in dealing with this issue, the author thought about the so called transitional social context in which our young people grow up as a potential risk, and prevention strategies that are available to us.

  15. Liver damage caused by hepatitis C viral infection and ethyl alcohol consumption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kostić Velimir

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Hepatitis C virus infection (HCV is a complex disease, most commonly chronicle (80-85%. The aim of this research was to determinate the level of the liver damage in the patients cansed by HCV in conjunction with consuming ethyl alcohol. Methods. The research included 15 patients with chronic HCV infection supported by the misuse of ethyl alcohol, as well. The diagnosis of C infection hepatitis was proved using the ELISA test and PCR method. Results. The results of the study showed the liver damage by both HCV infection and ethyl alcohol, which was verified by the presence of biochemical changes and patohystological processing of the patients (liver biopsy and prosection. Patohystological changes were at the level of liver cirrhosis and carcinoma (2 patients. There was a signficant difference between the two subgroups (p < 0.001 regarding the examined values γ-GT, PLT and PTV. The basic therapeutic procedure was to introduce this category of patients into alcohol abstinence, and, in a few patients, to apply the antivirus therapy, as well. Conclusion. Based on the number of the examined patients (n = 15, we could conclude that a prolonged ethyl alcohol misuse with the presence of HCV infection was in a correlation with the liver disease progression.

  16. Envelopments: immersion in and emergence from drug misuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weegmann, Martin; Khantzian, Edward J

    2011-01-01

    Contemporary psychodynamic therapists, as contrasted with early ones, are more active and interactive, less dependent on interpretations, and more focused on affects, self-regulation, and interpersonal relations, with a premium placed on the therapeutic alliance. Evidence supports the utility and effectiveness of the psychodynamic paradigm. Two cases are presented that demonstrate how a well-trained psychodynamic therapist is able to effectively apply such an approach to individuals with substance use disorders, in one instance a client in early treatment still immersed in her addictions, and, in the second case a client in early abstinence emerging from a long standing dependency on alcohol and cocaine. The case material highlights the special sensitivities and practices required to address predisposing factors and resulting consequences associated with addictive disorders. Reflections by the therapist and the clients provide a basis to consider the nature of the clients' addictive involvements, a rationale for the therapist's interventions, and how client vulnerabilities are addressed in their attempts to recover from their addictions.

  17. Reappraisal deficits promote craving and emotional distress among chronic pain patients at risk for prescription opioid misuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garland, Eric L; Hanley, Adam W; Bedford, Carter E; Zubieta, Jon-Kar; Howard, Matthew O; Nakamura, Yoshio; Donaldson, Gary W; Froeliger, Brett

    2018-06-04

    A subset of chronic pain patients misuse prescription opioids as a means of regulating negative emotions. However, opioid misuse may result in deficits in emotion regulation strategies like reappraisal by virtue of the deleterious effects of chronic opioid exposure. The aim of this study was to characterize differences in reappraisal use among chronic pain patients at risk for opioid misuse and those who report taking opioids as prescribed. A sample of 127 pain patients receiving chronic opioid analgesic pharmacotherapy were classified as at risk for opioid misuse (n = 62) or taking opioids as prescribed (n = 65) using the Current Opioid Misuse Measure (COMM). The Emotion Regulation Questionnaire (ERQ) characterized use of emotion regulation strategies including reappraisal and expressive suppression. Participants also reported levels of opioid craving, emotional distress, and pain severity. Patients at risk for opioid misuse reported significantly less reappraisal use (M = 25.31, SD = 7.33) than those who reportedly took opioids as prescribed (M = 30.28, SD = 7.50), p<.001, but did differ with regard to suppression strategies. Reduced reappraisal use was associated with higher opioid craving and emotional distress that mediated the association between reappraisal deficits and opioid misuse risk. Further, there was a significant indirect effect of opioid misuse on emotional distress via reappraisal use. Opioid misuse risk was associated with reduced use of reappraisal, which in turn was associated with dysregulated negative emotions and increased appetitive drive towards consuming opioids. Studying individual differences in emotion regulation may yield efficacious intervention and prevention approaches to stem the rising tide of the prescription opioid crisis.

  18. Evaluating Behavioral Skills Training to Teach Safe Tackling Skills to Youth Football Players

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tai, Sharayah S. M.; Miltenberger, Raymond G.

    2017-01-01

    With concussion rates on the rise for football players, there is a need for further research to increase skills and decrease injuries. Behavioral skills training is effective in teaching a wide variety of skills but has yet to be studied in the sports setting. We evaluated behavioral skills training to teach safer tackling techniques to six…

  19. Are elementary school teachers prepared to tackle bullying? : A pilot study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oldenburg, Beau; Bosman, Rie; Veenstra, Rene

    The aim of this pilot study was to investigate to what extent elementary school teachers were prepared to tackle bullying. Interview data from 22 Dutch elementary school teachers (M age=43.3, 18 classrooms in eight schools) were combined with survey data from 373 students of these teachers (M

  20. Beyond Individual Behaviour Change: The Role of Power, Knowledge and Strategy in Tackling Climate Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenis, Anneleen; Mathijs, Erik

    2012-01-01

    Individual behaviour change is fast becoming a kind of "holy grail" to tackle climate change, in environmental policy, the environmental movement and academic literature. This is contested by those who claim that social structures are the main problem and who advocate collective social action. The objective of the research presented in…

  1. Paralysis due to the high tackle - a black spot South African rugby

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1991-05-18

    May 18, 1991 ... hyper-extension during a tackle from the rear. Disturbingly, 4 of the 8 players sustained ·complete permanent paralysis. This was consequent upon the orthopaedic injuries sustained. - specifically facet dislocations or 'tear-drop' fractures, both injuries carrying with them a high risk of serious spinal cord.

  2. Tackling the climate targets set by the Paris Agreement (COP 21 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tackling the climate targets set by the Paris Agreement (COP 21): Green leadership empowers public hospitals to overcome obstacles and challenges in a ... To improve commitment from all involved roleplayers, political leadership, supportive government policies and financial funding is mandatory, or public hospitals will ...

  3. Subjective effects, misuse, and adverse effects of osmotic-release methylphenidate treatment in adolescent substance abusers with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winhusen, Theresa M; Lewis, Daniel F; Riggs, Paula D; Davies, Robert D; Adler, Lenard A; Sonne, Susan; Somoza, Eugene C

    2011-10-01

    Psychostimulants are effective treatments for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) but may be associated with euphoric effects, misuse/diversion, and adverse effects. These risks are perceived by some clinicians to be greater in substance-abusing adolescents relative to non-substance-abusing adults. The present study evaluates the subjective effects, misuse/diversion, and adverse effects associated with the use of osmotic-release oral system methylphenidate (OROS-MPH), relative to placebo, for treating ADHD in adolescents with a substance use disorder (SUD) as a function of substance use severity and compared these risks with those associated with the treatment of ADHD in adults without a non-nicotine SUD. Datasets from two randomized placebo-controlled trials of OROS-MPH for treating ADHD, one conducted with 303 adolescents (13-18) with at least one non-nicotine SUD and one with 255 adult smokers (18-55), were analyzed. Outcome measures included the Massachusetts General Hospital Liking Scale, self-reported medication compliance, pill counts, and adverse events (AEs). Euphoric effects and misuse/diversion of OROS-MPH were not significantly affected by substance use severity. The euphoric effects of OROS-MPH did not significantly differ between the adolescent and adult samples. Adults rated OROS-MPH as more effective in treating ADHD, whereas adolescents reported feeling more depressed when taking OROS-MPH. The adolescents lost more pills relative to the adults regardless of treatment condition, which suggests the importance of careful medication monitoring. Higher baseline use of alcohol and cannabis was associated with an increased risk of experiencing a treatment-related AE in OROS-MPH, but baseline use did not increase the risk of serious AEs or of any particular category of AE and the adolescents did not experience more treatment-related AEs relative to the adults. With good monitoring, and in the context of substance abuse treatment, OROS-MPH can

  4. Characterizing spouse/partner depression and alcohol problems over the course of military deployment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erbes, Christopher R; Kramer, Mark; Arbisi, Paul A; DeGarmo, David; Polusny, Melissa A

    2017-04-01

    Spouse/partners of military personnel demonstrate elevated levels of distress during military deployments, yet there is insufficient information about courses of adjustment over time. The current study identified trajectories of depression and alcohol use problems and predictors of those trajectories across the deployment cycle. National Guard soldiers (N = 1973) and spouses/intimate partners (N = 1020) completed assessments of risk/protective factors and baseline measures of mental health functioning 2 to 5 months prior to soldiers' 1-year deployments (Time 1) to Kuwait/Iraq in support of Operation New Dawn or Afghanistan in support of Operation Enduring Freedom. Partners' mental health was reassessed at 4 months (Time 2) and 8 months (Time 3) after soldiers deployed, and both spouses/partners and soldiers were reassessed 2-3 months postdeployment (Time 4). Latent class growth modeling of partner depression symptoms over time revealed 4 groups: Resilience (79.9%), Deployment Distress (8.9%), Anticipatory Distress (8.4%), and Post-Deployment Distress (2.7%). Three alcohol misuse trajectories were identified: Resilience (91.3%), Deployment Onset (5.4%), and Deployment Desistance (3.3%). Predeployment predictors of partners' depression symptom trajectories varied by group and included soldier reports of stressors and social support and partner levels of neuroticism, introversion, disconstraint, and reported stressors. Predeployment predictors of alcohol misuse trajectories varied by group, and included soldier levels of alcohol misuse as well as partner neuroticism, disconstraint, and family readiness. Delineating and predicting trajectories of partner adjustment can allow for better targeted interventions toward those most at risk for heightened distress or alcohol problems over the deployment cycle. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  5. Influence of Fatigue on Tackling Ability in Rugby League Players: Role of Muscular Strength, Endurance, and Aerobic Qualities.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tim J Gabbett

    Full Text Available This study investigated the influence of repeated high-intensity effort exercise on tackling ability in rugby league players, and determined the relationship between physical qualities and tackling ability under fatigued conditions in these athletes. Eleven semi-professional rugby league players underwent measurements of speed (10 m and 40 m sprint, upper-body strength (4 repetition maximum [RM] bench press and weighted chin-up, upper-body muscular endurance (body mass maximum repetition chin-up, body mass maximum repetition dips, lower-body strength (4RM squat, and estimated maximal aerobic power (multi-stage fitness test. Tackling ability was assessed using a standardized one-on-one tackling test, before, during, and following four bouts of repeated high-intensity effort (RHIE exercise. The relationship between physical qualities and fatigue-induced decrements in tackling ability were determined using Pearson product moment correlation coefficients. Each cycle of the RHIE protocol induced progressive reductions in tackling ability. A moderate reduction (Effect Size = ~-1.17 ± 0.60, -34.1 ± 24.3% in tackling ability occurred after the fourth cycle of the RHIE protocol. Players with greater relative lower-body strength (i.e. 4RM squat/kg had the best tackling ability under fatigued conditions (r = 0.72, p = 0.013. There were no significant relationships between tackling ability under fatigued conditions and any other physical quality. These findings suggest that lower-body strength protects against fatigue-induced decrements in tackling ability. The development of lower-body strength should be a priority to facilitate the development of robust tackling skills that are maintained under fatigue.

  6. Prescription opioid related misuse, harms, diversion and interventions in Canada: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Benedikt; Argento, Elena

    2012-07-01

    The non-medical use of and harms related to prescription opioid (PO) analgesics - key medications to treat severe and chronic pain - are an emerging public health concern globally. PO use is proportionally highest in North America, where, consequently, nonmedical PO use (NMPOU) and morbidity/mortality are high and well documented for the United States. Canada is the country with the second highest PO consumption rate in the world - with steeper recent increases in PO use than the US - mainly driven by substantial increases in the use of strong opioids (e.g., oxycodone). Indications and select data of NMPOU and PO-related morbidity and mortality have emerged in recent years, yet a systematic and comprehensive collection of relevant data to characterize the phenomenon in Canada does not exist. This paper comprehensively reviews the available data in Canada regarding NMPOU, and PO-related harms, diversion, and interventions, and discusses implications for interventions and policy. Narrative literature/data review. Canada. Publicly available data and information - either from journal publications, "grey literature" (e.g., government/technical reports) or Web sites reporting relevant data on Canada - were searched and narratively reviewed. Indicators on NMPOU and PO-related harms in Canada are highly fragmented, and not nearly as systematic and comprehensive as they are in the US; virtually no national statistics/data are collected. Available -largely provincial/local - data indicate that PO misuse is increasingly common in key populations, including general adult and student populations, street-drug users, First Nations/Aboriginal Peoples, and correctional populations. Co-morbidities - e.g., pain, mental health problems, polysubstance use - among people reporting NMPOU appear to be high. Substance use treatment admissions for those with problematic PO use have risen substantially where reported. Opioid-related mortality (and oxycodone-related mortality, specifically

  7. Alcoholism and Suicide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Alec; Linnoila, Markku

    1986-01-01

    Reviews knowledge about suicide in alcoholism: how commonly suicide among alcoholics occurs; which alcoholics commit suicide and why; suicide among alcoholic women and alcoholic physicians; possible predisposing biological factors; possible linkages with depression, adverse life events, and personality disorder; and future research and directions.…

  8. Tackling Unemployment

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2014-01-31

    Jan 31, 2014 ... Unemployment is synonymous to 'joblessness' and it breeds generalized hardship in life, helplessness, lack of social security, idleness, poverty, depression, suicidal tendencies, loss of self esteem, diseases like hypertension, and dependency even in very minor responsibilities. It has also been implicated ...

  9. Are the Public Health Responsibility Deal alcohol pledges likely to improve public health? An evidence synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knai, Cécile; Petticrew, Mark; Durand, Mary Alison; Eastmure, Elizabeth; Mays, Nicholas

    2015-08-01

    The English Public Health Responsibility Deal (RD) is a public-private partnership involving voluntary pledges between industry, government and other actors in various areas including alcohol, and designed to improve public health. This paper reviews systematically the evidence underpinning four RD alcohol pledges. We conducted a systematic review of reviews of the evidence underpinning interventions proposed in four RD alcohol pledges, namely alcohol labelling, tackling underage alcohol sales, advertising and marketing alcohol, and alcohol unit reduction. In addition, we included relevant studies of interventions where these had not been covered by a recent review. We synthesized the evidence from 14 reviews published between 2002 and 2013. Overall, alcohol labelling is likely to be of limited effect on consumption: alcohol unit content labels can help consumers assess the alcohol content of drinks; however, labels promoting drinking guidelines and pregnancy warning labels are unlikely to influence drinking behaviour. Responsible drinking messages are found to be ambiguous, and industry-funded alcohol prevention campaigns can promote drinking instead of dissuading consumption. Removing advertising near schools can contribute to reducing underage drinking; however, community mobilization and law enforcement are most effective. Finally, reducing alcohol consumption is more likely to occur if there are incentives such as making lower-strength alcohol products cheaper. The most effective evidence-based strategies to reduce alcohol-related harm are not reflected consistently in the RD alcohol pledges. The evidence is clear that an alcohol control strategy should support effective interventions to make alcohol less available and more expensive. © 2015 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  10. Testing the Social Interaction Learning Model's Applicability to Adolescent Substance Misuse in an Australian Context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehus, Christopher J; Doty, Jennifer; Chan, Gary; Kelly, Adrian B; Hemphill, Sheryl; Toumbourou, John; McMorris, Barbara J

    2018-03-06

    Parents and peers both influence the development of adolescent substance misuse, and the Social Interaction Learning (SIL) model provides a theoretical explanation of the paths through which this occurs. The SIL model has primarily been tested with conduct outcomes and in US samples. This study adds to the literature by testing the SIL model with four substance use outcomes in a sample of Australian youth. We used structural equation modeling to test the fit of the SIL model to a longitudinal sample (n = 907) of students recruited in grade 5 in Victoria, Australia participating in the International Youth Development Study, who were resurveyed in grades 6 and 10. The model fit was good (χ2(95) = 248.52, p role in the formation of adolescent peer relations that influence substance misuse and identifies etiological pathways that can guide the targets of prevention. The SIL pathways appear robust to the Australian social and policy context.

  11. Misuse of "Power" and Other Mechanical Terms in Sport and Exercise Science Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winter, Edward M; Abt, Grant; Brookes, F B Carl; Challis, John H; Fowler, Neil E; Knudson, Duane V; Knuttgen, Howard G; Kraemer, William J; Lane, Andrew M; van Mechelen, Willem; Morton, R Hugh; Newton, Robert U; Williams, Clyde; Yeadon, M R

    2016-01-01

    Despite the Système International d'Unitès (SI) that was published in 1960, there continues to be widespread misuse of the terms and nomenclature of mechanics in descriptions of exercise performance. Misuse applies principally to failure to distinguish between mass and weight, velocity and speed, and especially the terms "work" and "power." These terms are incorrectly applied across the spectrum from high-intensity short-duration to long-duration endurance exercise. This review identifies these misapplications and proposes solutions. Solutions include adoption of the term "intensity" in descriptions and categorizations of challenge imposed on an individual as they perform exercise, followed by correct use of SI terms and units appropriate to the specific kind of exercise performed. Such adoption must occur by authors and reviewers of sport and exercise research reports to satisfy the principles and practices of science and for the field to advance.

  12. PEPFAR support of alcohol-HIV prevention activities in Namibia and Botswana: a framework for investigation, implementation and evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glenshaw, M; Deluca, N; Adams, R; Parry, C; Fritz, K; Du Preez, V; Voetsch, K; Lekone, P; Seth, P; Bachanas, P; Grillo, M; Kresina, T F; Pick, B; Ryan, C; Bock, N

    2016-01-01

    The association between harmful use of alcohol and HIV infection is well documented. To address this dual epidemic, the US President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR) developed and implemented a multi-pronged approach primarily in Namibia and Botswana. We present the approach and preliminary results of the public health investigative and programmatic activities designed, initiated and supported by PEPFAR to combat the harmful use of alcohol and its association as a driver of HIV morbidity and mortality from 2008 to 2013. PEPFAR supported comprehensive alcohol programming using a matrix model approach that combined the socio-ecological framework and the Alcohol Misuse Prevention and Intervention Continuum. This structure enabled seven component objectives: (1) to quantify harmful use of alcohol through rapid assessments; (2) to develop and evaluate alcohol-based interventions; (3) to promote screening programs and alcohol abuse resource services; (4) to support stakeholder networks; (5) to support policy interventions and (6) structural interventions; and (7) to institutionalize universal prevention messages. Targeted PEPFAR support for alcohol activities resulted in several projects to address harmful alcohol use and HIV. Components are graphically conceptualized within the matrix model, demonstrating the intersections between primary, secondary and tertiary prevention activities and individual, interpersonal, community, and societal factors. Key initiative successes included leveraging alcohol harm prevention activities that enabled projects to be piloted in healthcare settings, schools, communities, and alcohol outlets. Primary challenges included the complexity of multi-sectorial programming, varying degrees of political will, and difficulties monitoring outcomes over the short duration of the program.

  13. Alcohol policy in a Russian region: a stakeholder analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gil, Artyom; Polikina, Olga; Koroleva, Natalia; Leon, David A; McKee, Martin

    2010-10-01

    Male life expectancy in the Russian Federation, at 60 years, is the lowest in Europe. Several factors contribute to this situation, but hazardous consumption of alcohol is especially a key factor. We undertook a stakeholder analysis in a typical Russian region located on the western side of the Urals. Organizations with a stake in alcohol policy in the region were identified by snowball sampling and information on their position and influence on alcohol policy was elicited from interviews with key informants. Their interests and influence were mapped and their relationships plotted. Twenty-nine stakeholder organizations were identified and 43 interviews were conducted with their staff. The most influential actors were the Federal and regional governments, large beer producers and manufacturers of strong alcohols. However, the majority of organizations that might be expected to play a role in developing or implementing alcohol control policies were almost entirely disengaged and fragmented. No evidence was found of an existing or emerging multi-sectoral coalition for developing alcohol policy to improve health. Organizations that might be expected to contribute to tackling hazardous drinking had little understanding of what might be effective. While stakeholders with an interest in maintaining or increasing alcohol consumption are engaged and influential, those who might seek to reduce it either take a very narrow perspective or are disengaged from the policy agenda. There is a need to mobilize actors who might contribute to effective policies while challenging those who can block them.

  14. Alcoholic Liver Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... may be increased in women because their digestive system may be less able to process alcohol, thus increasing the amount of alcohol reaching the liver. Genetic makeup Genetic makeup is thought to be involved because alcoholic liver disease often ...

  15. Alcohol Use Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Depression Screening Substance Abuse Screening Alcohol Use Screening Alcohol Use Screening (AUDIT-C) - Instructions The following questions ... this tool, there is also text-only version . Alcohol Use Screening (AUDIT-C) - Manual Instructions The following ...

  16. Alcohol Use Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... alcohol use disorder” or AUD. AUD is a chronic relapsing brain disease characterized by compulsive alcohol use, loss of control over alcohol intake, and a negative emotional state when not using. ...

  17. The impact of tackle football injuries on the American healthcare system with a neurological focus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael J McGinity

    Full Text Available Recent interest in the study of concussion and other neurological injuries has heightened awareness of the medical implications of American tackle football injuries amongst the public.Using the National Emergency Department Sample (NEDS and the National Inpatient Sample (NIS, the largest publicly available all-payer emergency department and inpatient healthcare databases in the United States, we sought to describe the impact of tackle football injuries on the American healthcare system by delineating injuries, specifically neurological in nature, suffered as a consequence of tackle football between 2010 and 2013.The NEDS and NIS databases were queried to collect data on all patients presented to the emergency department (ED and/or were admitted to hospitals with an ICD code for injuries related to American tackle football between the years 2010 and 2013. Subsequently those with football-related neurological injuries were abstracted using ICD codes for concussion, skull/face injury, intracranial injury, spine injury, and spinal cord injury (SCI. Patient demographics, length of hospital stay (LOS, cost and charge data, neurosurgical interventions, hospital type, and disposition were collected and analyzed.A total of 819,000 patients presented to EDs for evaluation of injuries secondary to American tackle football between 2010 and 2013, with 1.13% having injuries requiring inpatient admission (average length of stay 2.4 days. 80.4% of the ED visits were from the pediatric population. Of note, a statistically significant increase in the number of pediatric concussions over time was demonstrated (OR = 1.1, 95% CI 1.1 to 1.2. Patients were more likely to be admitted to trauma centers, teaching hospitals, the south or west regions, or with private insurance. There were 471 spinal cord injuries and 1,908 total spine injuries. Ten patients died during the study time period. The combined ED and inpatient charges were $1.35 billion.Injuries related to

  18. The impact of tackle football injuries on the American healthcare system with a neurological focus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGinity, Michael J; Grandhi, Ramesh; Michalek, Joel E; Rodriguez, Jesse S; Trevino, Aron M; McGinity, Ashley C; Seifi, Ali

    2018-01-01

    Recent interest in the study of concussion and other neurological injuries has heightened awareness of the medical implications of American tackle football injuries amongst the public. Using the National Emergency Department Sample (NEDS) and the National Inpatient Sample (NIS), the largest publicly available all-payer emergency department and inpatient healthcare databases in the United States, we sought to describe the impact of tackle football injuries on the American healthcare system by delineating injuries, specifically neurological in nature, suffered as a consequence of tackle football between 2010 and 2013. The NEDS and NIS databases were queried to collect data on all patients presented to the emergency department (ED) and/or were admitted to hospitals with an ICD code for injuries related to American tackle football between the years 2010 and 2013. Subsequently those with football-related neurological injuries were abstracted using ICD codes for concussion, skull/face injury, intracranial injury, spine injury, and spinal cord injury (SCI). Patient demographics, length of hospital stay (LOS), cost and charge data, neurosurgical interventions, hospital type, and disposition were collected and analyzed. A total of 819,000 patients presented to EDs for evaluation of injuries secondary to American tackle football between 2010 and 2013, with 1.13% having injuries requiring inpatient admission (average length of stay 2.4 days). 80.4% of the ED visits were from the pediatric population. Of note, a statistically significant increase in the number of pediatric concussions over time was demonstrated (OR = 1.1, 95% CI 1.1 to 1.2). Patients were more likely to be admitted to trauma centers, teaching hospitals, the south or west regions, or with private insurance. There were 471 spinal cord injuries and 1,908 total spine injuries. Ten patients died during the study time period. The combined ED and inpatient charges were $1.35 billion. Injuries related to tackle

  19. The Prevalence of Anabolic Steroid Misuse and the Awareness about Its Negative Effects among Bodybuilders in Karaj City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Arazi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background & Aims: Regarding the increase in the misuse of anabolic steroids among young athletes particularly bodybuilding and power lifting athletes, this study aims to specify the degree of misuse prevalence anabolic steroid and the awareness of the side effects of such drugs among Karaj bodybuilders. Materials and Methods: This study is descriptive. All the bodybuilders of Karaj city was the participants of this research. The measurement instrument of this research was a questionnaire that contained 25 questions (7 questions were for background information, 9 questions were for awareness, 4 questions for attitudes about use of such drugs and the left 5 ones were for misuse prevalence that distributed among 320 bodybuilding athletes of different parts of Karaj. The response rate was 63.75% (240 persons from total 320 persons. At last, the current research output analyzed by the SPSS software and descriptive and inferential statistics. Results: The analysis showed that 62.7% of athletes that participated in the research used such drugs. Also, the data analysis showed that there was a meaningful relationship between the sport histories of the involved participants with misuse prevalence (p0.05. In addition to this, data analysis showed that there was a significant relationship between misuse prevalence and wrong attitudes about anabolic steroid (p< 0.05. The comparison of the current study results about the misuse of anabolic steroid with a similar research at 1382 showed 140% increase in the misuse of these drugs. Conclusion: This study indicates the high use of anabolic steroids among bodybuilders. According to this, we understand that the bodybuilders in Karaj don’t consult with specialist in this field get wrong information from unprofessional people. This leads the high misuse of such drugs. So, it is recommended to hold the prevention programs and athletes training about the side effects of anabolic steroids.

  20. 16 CFR 23.12 - Misuse of the words “flawless,” “perfect,” etc.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Misuse of the words âflawless,â âperfect,â... GUIDES FOR THE JEWELRY, PRECIOUS METALS, AND PEWTER INDUSTRIES § 23.12 Misuse of the words “flawless,” “perfect,” etc. (a) It is unfair or deceptive to use the word “flawless” to describe any diamond that...

  1. 16 CFR 23.26 - Misuse of the words “flawless,” “perfect,” etc.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Misuse of the words âflawless,â âperfect,â... GUIDES FOR THE JEWELRY, PRECIOUS METALS, AND PEWTER INDUSTRIES § 23.26 Misuse of the words “flawless,” “perfect,” etc. (a) It is unfair or deceptive to use the word “flawless” as a quality description of any...

  2. Borderline personality disorder and regularly drinking alcohol before sex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Ronald G; Eaton, Nicholas R; Hu, Mei-Chen; Hasin, Deborah S

    2017-07-01

    Drinking alcohol before sex increases the likelihood of engaging in unprotected intercourse, having multiple sexual partners and becoming infected with sexually transmitted infections. Borderline personality disorder (BPD), a complex psychiatric disorder characterised by pervasive instability in emotional regulation, self-image, interpersonal relationships and impulse control, is associated with substance use disorders and sexual risk behaviours. However, no study has examined the relationship between BPD and drinking alcohol before sex in the USA. This study examined the association between BPD and regularly drinking before sex in a nationally representative adult sample. Participants were 17 491 sexually active drinkers from Wave 2 of the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions. Logistic regression models estimated effects of BPD diagnosis, specific borderline diagnostic criteria and BPD criterion count on the likelihood of regularly (mostly or always) drinking alcohol before sex, adjusted for controls. Borderline personality disorder diagnosis doubled the odds of regularly drinking before sex [adjusted odds ratio (AOR) = 2.26; confidence interval (CI) = 1.63, 3.14]. Of nine diagnostic criteria, impulsivity in areas that are self-damaging remained a significant predictor of regularly drinking before sex (AOR = 1.82; CI = 1.42, 2.35). The odds of regularly drinking before sex increased by 20% for each endorsed criterion (AOR = 1.20; CI = 1.14, 1.27) DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSIONS: This is the first study to examine the relationship between BPD and regularly drinking alcohol before sex in the USA. Substance misuse treatment should assess regularly drinking before sex, particularly among patients with BPD, and BPD treatment should assess risk at the intersection of impulsivity, sexual behaviour and substance use. [Thompson Jr RG, Eaton NR, Hu M-C, Hasin DS Borderline personality disorder and regularly drinking alcohol

  3. Abuse of Rachel Carson and Misuse of DDT Science in the Service of Environmental Deregulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jingxiang; Ward, Michael D; Kahr, Bart

    2017-08-14

    Fake news?? The contact insecticide DDT has been reappraised as a safe, life-saving compound by special interest groups committed to repealing environmental regulations. It is shown in this essay how some specific toxicological data has been misused by those aiming to disingenuously influence public policy. Graphic: Pestroy, a DDT-laced coating marketed in 1946 by Sherwin-Williams Research Laboratories. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. Prescription opioid misuse in the United States and the United Kingdom: cautionary lessons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weisberg, Daniel F; Becker, William C; Fiellin, David A; Stannard, Cathy

    2014-11-01

    In the United States, opioid analgesics have increasingly been prescribed in the treatment of chronic pain, and this trend has accompanied increasing rates of misuse and overdose. Lawmakers have responded with myriad policies to curb the growing epidemic of opioid misuse, and a global alarm has been sounded among countries wishing to avoid this path. In the United Kingdom, a similar trend of increasing opioid consumption, albeit at lower levels, has been observed without an increase in reported misuse or drug-related deaths. The comparison between these two countries in opioid prescribing and opioid overdose mortality underscores important features of prescribing, culture, and health systems that may be permissive or protective in the development of a public health crisis. As access to opioid medications increases around the world, it becomes vitally important to understand the forces impacting opioid use and misuse. Trends in benzodiazepine and methadone use in the UK as well as structural elements of the National Health Service may serve to buffer opioid-related harms in the face of increasing prescriptions. In addition, the availability and price of heroin, as well as the ease of access to opioid agonist treatment in the UK may limit the growth of the illicit market for prescription opioids. The comparison between the US and the UK in opioid consumption and overdose rates should serve as a call to action for UK physicians and policymakers. Basic, proactive steps in the form of surveillance - of overdoses, marketing practices, prescribers, and patients - and education programs may help avert a public health crisis as opioid prescriptions increase. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Codeine misuse and dependence in South Africa: Perspectives of addiction treatment providers

    OpenAIRE

    Parry, Charles; Rich, Eileen; Van Hout, Marie-Claire; Deluca, Paolo

    2017-01-01

    Background. General practitioners are referring patients with codeine-related problems to specialist treatment facilities, but little is known about the addiction treatment providers, the kinds of treatment they provide, and whether training or other interventions are needed to strengthen this sector.\\ud Objectives. To investigate the perspectives of addiction treatment providers regarding treatment for codeine misuse or dependence.\\ud Method. Twenty addiction treatment providers linked to th...

  6. Monitoring misuse of the WHO name and emblem in medicine promotion in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thawani, Vijay; Gharpure, Kunda

    2009-01-01

    The World Health Organisation has called for the ethical promotion of medicines. This study to monitor the misuse of the WHO name and emblem in medicine promotion in India found that the name or emblem of WHO has been used extensively for unethical promotion of drugs, nutritional supplements and consumer products in India. This unethical promotion is evident in advertisements, pharmaceutical indices and other publicity material.

  7. The downward spiral of chronic pain, prescription opioid misuse, and addiction: cognitive, affective, and neuropsychopharmacologic pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garland, Eric L; Froeliger, Brett; Zeidan, Fadel; Partin, Kaitlyn; Howard, Matthew O

    2013-12-01

    Prescription opioid misuse and addiction among chronic pain patients are emerging public health concerns of considerable significance. Estimates suggest that more than 10% of chronic pain patients misuse opioid analgesics, and the number of fatalities related to nonmedical or inappropriate use of prescription opioids is climbing. Because the prevalence and adverse consequences of this threat are increasing, there is a pressing need for research that identifies the biobehavioral risk chain linking chronic pain, opioid analgesia, and addictive behaviors. To that end, the current manuscript draws upon current neuropsychopharmacologic research to provide a conceptual framework of the downward spiral leading to prescription opioid misuse and addiction among chronic pain patients receiving opioid analgesic pharmacotherapy. Addictive use of opioids is described as the outcome of a cycle initiated by chronic pain and negative affect and reinforced by opioidergic-dopamingeric interactions, leading to attentional hypervigilance for pain and drug cues, dysfunctional connectivity between self-referential and cognitive control networks in the brain, and allostatic dysregulation of stress and reward circuitry. Implications for clinical practice are discussed; multimodal, mindfulness-oriented treatment is introduced as a potentially effective approach to disrupting the downward spiral and facilitating recovery from chronic pain and opioid addiction. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Assessment of the use and misuse of Cannabis sativa amongst some residents of Jos metropolis, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N S Jimam

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cannabis can be used for its medicinal properties when used appropriately. However, the misuse of the product can cause some unwanted effects such as psychological dependence, and therefore addiction. Objective: The objective of the study was to determine the extent of misuse of Cannabis sativa in Jos and environs. Materials and Methods: The use and misuse of C. sativa in Jos metropolis was studied using a structured self-administered questionnaire which was administered to 400 respondents in the metropolis. Result: The result showed that 59.9% of the participants were male while 40.1% were female with 88.2% of the population being youth between the ages of 20-35 years. The result also shows that at least 31.3% of the studied population had used C. sativa, for different reasons including among others: to boost confidence (11.4%, 5.1% take it to increase alertness, 5.1% take it to decrease fatigue, 0.3% take it to decrease stress, 5.4% take it to get high while 4% take it for other reasons. Conclusion: The result of the study showed an observed high incidence of C. sativa intake among the study population who were mostly youths for different purposes, including to: Boost confidence, feel high, increase alertness, and decrease fatigue. Similarly, a high percentage of the respondents said the drug is used for hair treatment.

  9. Ventilatory response to hypercarbia in newborns of smoking and substance-misusing mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Kamal; Wolff, Kim; Peacock, Janet L; Hannam, Simon; Rafferty, Gerrard F; Bhat, Ravindra; Greenough, Anne

    2014-07-01

    Infants of mothers who smoked (S) or substance misused (SM) during pregnancy have an increased risk of sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS). To test the hypothesis that infants of S and SM mothers compared with infants of non-substance-misusing, nonsmoking mothers (control subjects) would have a reduced ventilatory response to hypercarbia and that any reduction would be greater in the SM infants. Infants were assessed before maternity/neonatal unit discharge. Maternal and infant urine samples were obtained and tested for cotinine, cannabinoids, opiates, amphetamines, methadone, cocaine, and benzodiazepines. Respiratory flow and Vt were measured using a pneumotachograph inserted into a face mask placed over the infant's mouth and nose. The ventilatory responses to three levels of inspired carbon dioxide (0 [baseline], 2, and 4% CO2) were assessed. Twenty-three SM, 34 S, and 22 control infants were assessed. The birth weight of the control subjects was higher than the SM and S infants (P = 0.017). At baseline, SM infants had a higher respiratory rate (P = 0.003) and minute volume (P = 0.007) compared with control subjects and S infants. Both the SM and S infants had a lower ventilatory response to 2% (P ventilatory response to CO2 was lower in the SM infants compared with the S infants (P = 0.009). These results are consistent with infants of smoking mothers and substance misuse/smoking mothers having a dampened ventilatory response to hypercarbia, which is particularly marked in the latter group.

  10. Epidemiological methods for research with drug misusers: review of methods for studying prevalence and morbidity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dunn John

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Epidemiological studies of drug misusers have until recently relied on two main forms of sampling: probability and convenience. The former has been used when the aim was simply to estimate the prevalence of the condition and the latter when in depth studies of the characteristics, profiles and behaviour of drug users were required, but each method has its limitations. Probability samples become impracticable when the prevalence of the condition is very low, less than 0.5% for example, or when the condition being studied is a clandestine activity such as illicit drug use. When stratified random samples are used, it may be difficult to obtain a truly representative sample, depending on the quality of the information used to develop the stratification strategy. The main limitation of studies using convenience samples is that the results cannot be generalised to the whole population of drug users due to selection bias and a lack of information concerning the sampling frame. New methods have been developed which aim to overcome some of these difficulties, for example, social network analysis, snowball sampling, capture-recapture techniques, privileged access interviewer method and contact tracing. All these methods have been applied to the study of drug misuse. The various methods are described and examples of their use given, drawn from both the Brazilian and international drug misuse literature.

  11. Development of a resource allocation formula for substance misuse treatment services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Andrew; Hayhurst, Karen P; Whittaker, Will; Mason, Thomas; Sutton, Matt

    2017-11-23

    Funding for substance misuse services comprises one-third of Public Health spend in England. The current allocation formula contains adjustments for actual activity, performance and need, proxied by the Standardized Mortality Ratio for under-75s (SMR sector/Local Authority level. A third, person-based model incorporated predictors of costs at the individual level. Each model incorporated both needs and supply variables, with the relative effects of their inclusion assessed. Mean estimated annual cost (2013/14) per English Local Authority area was £5 032 802 (sd: 3 951 158). Costs for drug misuse treatment represented the majority (83%) of costs. Models achieved adjusted R-squared values of 0.522 (age-standardized), 0.533 (age-stratified over-18s), 0.232 (age-stratified under-18s) and 0.470 (person-based). Improvements can be made to the existing resource allocation formulae to better reflect population need. The person-based model permits inclusion of a range of needs variables, in addition to strong predictors of cost based on the receipt of treatment in the previous year. Adoption of this revised person-based formula for substance misuse would shift resources towards more deprived areas. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Faculty of Public Health. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com

  12. Who Benefits from Chronic Opioid Therapy? Rethinking the Question of Opioid Misuse Risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Huber

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Beginning in the late 1990s, a movement began within the pain management field focused upon the underutilization of opioids, thought to be a potentially safe and effective class of pain medication. Concern for addiction and misuse were present at the start of this shift within pain medicine, and an emphasis was placed on developing reliable and valid methods and measures of identifying those at risk for opioid misuse. Since that time, the evidence for the safety and effectiveness of chronic opioid therapy (COT has not been established. Rather, the harmful, dose-dependent deleterious effects have become clearer, including addiction, increased risk of injuries, respiratory depression, opioid induced hyperalgesia, and death. Still, many individuals on low doses of opioids for long periods of time appear to have good pain control and retain social and occupational functioning. Therefore, we propose that the question, “Who is at risk of opioid misuse?” should evolve to, “Who may benefit from COT?” in light of the current evidence.

  13. N-player mosquito net game: individual and social rationality in the misuse of insecticide-treated nets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honjo, Keita; Satake, Akiko

    2014-02-07

    Many governmental and non-governmental organizations have distributed insecticide-treated nets (ITNs) to malaria endemic areas, which contributed to the reduction of malaria deaths. However, some people in malaria endemic areas used ITNs for alternative purposes such as fishery and agriculture. It is unclear why people threatened by malaria misuse ITNs. Here we develop a N-player mosquito net game, and theoretically show that the misuse of ITNs might be underpinned by individual and social rationality. In the mosquito net game, each player uses ITNs for malaria prevention or alternative purposes. The proper ITN use decreases the probability of malaria infection, while the improper ITN use increases the player's labor productivity. Each player's expected payoff is influenced by other players' strategies. We found that the misuse of ITNs can be a Pareto efficient Nash equilibrium. The maximum number of players using ITNs for malaria prevention is limited by insecticidal effectiveness of ITNs and extra income from ITN misuse. Furthermore, we found that players in a low-income community are attracted to the misuse of ITNs even if the probability of malaria infection is high. Introduction of a tax on ITN misuse was shown to be effective to motivate the players to use ITNs for malaria prevention. Our results demonstrate that understanding decision making of people in malaria endemic areas is essential to design more effective malaria control programs. © 2013 Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders (FASDs): Alcohol Use Quiz

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Links to Other Websites About Us More CDC Alcohol Topics CDC Alcohol Portal Excessive Alcohol Use Binge ... of alcohol screening and counseling for all women Alcohol Use Quiz Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir ...

  15. Harm reduction-a systematic review on effects of alcohol reduction on physical and mental symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charlet, Katrin; Heinz, Andreas

    2017-09-01

    Based on the knowledge that alcohol misuse causes a multitude of diseases and increased mortality, this systematic review examines whether a reduction of the individual alcohol consumption can contribute to a minimization of health risks within a harm reduction approach. In fact, the reviewed 63 studies indicate that interventions aiming at alcohol reduction (including total abstinence as one possible therapeutic aim) indeed resulted in or were associated with positive effects in harmful, hazardous or alcohol-dependent drinkers. Major benefits were observed for reducing alcohol-associated injuries, recovery of ventricular heart function in alcoholic cardiomyopathy, blood pressure lowering, normalization of biochemical parameter, body weight reduction, histological improvement in pre-cirrhotic alcohol-related liver disease and slowed progression of an already existing alcohol-attributable liver fibrosis. Furthermore, reduced withdrawal symptoms, prevalence of psychiatric episodes and duration of in-patient hospital days, improvement of anxiety and depression symptoms, self-confidence, physical and mental quality of life, fewer alcohol-related adverse consequences as well as lower psychosocial stress levels and better social functioning can result from reduced alcohol intake. The reviewed literature demonstrated remarkable socioeconomic cost benefits in areas such as the medical health-care system or workforce productivity. Individuals with heightened vulnerability further benefit significantly from alcohol reduction (e.g. hypertension, hepatitis C, psychiatric co-morbidities, pregnancy, but also among adolescents and young adults). Concluding, the reviewed studies strongly support and emphasize the importance and benefits of early initial screening for problematic alcohol use followed by brief and other interventions in first contact medical health-care facilities to reduce alcohol intake. © 2016 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  16. VOICE OF THE STUDENTS: HOW CAN THE EU TAKE THE GLOBAL LEAD ON TACKLING CLIMATE CHANGE?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Costica MIHAI

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The EU has always been at the forefront of tackling environmental issues. This paper responds to the EU‟s „call for action‟ towards addressing the issue of climate change – a key priority for the European Commission in the 2030 policy perspective. The topic is addressed through a focus group that seeks to identify and disseminate possible approaches through which the EU can leverage its international „actorness‟ in negotiating a straightforward and binding global agreement for action in climate change mitigation. The focus group involves a sample of students, beneficiaries of an environmentally focused Jean Monnet teaching module (TAG-EU. The diverse academic background of the students (coming from social, natural and exact sciences provides a unique point of view in tackling this ardent issue and can bring valuable and interdisciplinary contributions to the discussion on climate change action.

  17. The evolution of policy and actions to tackle obesity in England.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jebb, S A; Aveyard, P N; Hawkes, C

    2013-11-01

    Tackling obesity has been a policy priority in England for more than 20 years. Two formal government strategies on obesity in 2008 and 2011 drew together a range of actions and developed new initiatives to fill perceived gaps. Today, a wide range of policies are in place, including support for breastfeeding and healthy weaning practices, nutritional standards in schools, restrictions on marketing foods high in fat, sugar and salt to children, schemes to boost participation in sport, active travel plans, and weight management services. Data from annual surveys show that the rate of increase in obesity has attenuated in recent years, but has not yet been reversed. This paper considers the actions taken and what is known about the impact of individual policies and the overarching strategy to tackle obesity in England. © 2013 The Authors. Obesity Reviews published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of the International Association for the Study of Obesity.

  18. Screening for alcohol use disorders and at-risk drinking in the general population: psychometric performance of three questionnaires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rumpf, Hans-Jürgen; Hapke, Ulfert; Meyer, Christian; John, Ulrich

    2002-01-01

    Most screening questionnaires are developed in clinical settings and there are few data on their performance in the general population. This study provides data on the area under the receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) curve, sensitivity, specificity, and internal consistency of the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT), the consumption questions of the AUDIT (AUDIT-C) and the Lübeck Alcohol Dependence and Abuse Screening Test (LAST) among current drinkers (n = 3551) of a general population sample in northern Germany. Alcohol dependence and misuse according to DSM-IV and at-risk drinking served as gold standards to assess sensitivity and specificity and were assessed with the Munich-Composite Diagnostic Interview (M-CIDI). AUDIT and LAST showed insufficient sensitivity for at-risk drinking and alcohol misuse using standard cut-off scores, but satisfactory detection rates for alcohol dependence. The AUDIT-C showed low specificity in all criterion groups with standard cut-off. Adjusted cut-points are recommended. Among a subsample of individuals with previous general hospital admission in the last year, all questionnaires showed higher internal consistency suggesting lower reliability in non-clinical samples. In logistic regression analyses, having had a hospital admission increased the sensitivity in detecting any criterion group of the LAST, and the number of recent general practice visits increased the sensitivity of the AUDIT in detecting alcohol misuse. Women showed lower scores and larger areas under the ROC curves. It is concluded that setting specific instruments (e.g. primary care or general population) or adjusted cut-offs should be used.

  19. What should be done to tackle ghostwriting in the medical literature?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gøtzsche, Peter C; Kassirer, Jerome P; Woolley, Karen L

    2009-01-01

    pharmaceutical companies hiring professional writers to produce papers promoting their products but hiding those contributions and instead naming academic physicians or scientists as the authors. To improve transparency, many editors' associations and journals allow professional medical writers to contribute...... to the writing of papers without being listed as authors provided their role is acknowledged. This debate examines how best to tackle ghostwriting in the medical literature from the perspectives of a researcher, an editor, and the professional medical writer....

  20. Tackling Complex Inequalities and Ecuador's Buen Vivir: Leaving No-one Behind and equality in diversity

    OpenAIRE

    Radcliffe, Sarah Anne

    2017-01-01

    Ecuador's postneoliberal policy of Buen Vivir seeks to reduce social inequality and tackle complex disadvantages associated with gender, location, race-ethnicity and other social differences. The paper analyses governmental Buen Vivir policy thinking and institutional arrangements to explore how Buen Vivir frameworks approach the constitutional commitment to equality in diversity, in light of the global Sustainable Development Goal of "Leaving No-one Behind" (LNOB). In many respects Ecuador ...

  1. European laws on compulsory commitment to care of persons suffering from substance use disorders or misuse problems- a comparative review from a human and civil rights perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Israelsson, Magnus; Nordlöf, Kerstin; Gerdner, Arne

    2015-08-28

    Laws on compulsory commitment to care (CCC) in mental health, social and criminal legislation for adult persons with alcohol and/or drug dependence or misuse problems are constructed to address different scenarios related to substance use disorders. This study examines how such CCC laws in European states vary in terms of legal rights, formal orders of decision and criteria for involuntary admission, and assesses whether three legal frameworks (criminal, mental and social law) equally well ensure human and civil rights. Thirty-nine laws, from 38 countries, were analysed. Respondents replied in web-based questionnaires concerning a) legal rights afforded the persons with substance use problems during commitment proceedings, b) sources of formal application, c) instances for decision on admission, and d) whether or not 36 different criteria could function as grounds for decisions on CCC according to the law in question. Analysis of a-c were conducted in bivariate cross-tabulations. The 36 criteria for admission were sorted in criteria groups based on principal component analysis (PCA). To investigate whether legal rights, decision-making authorities or legal criteria may discriminate between types of law on CCC, discriminant analyses (DA) were conducted. There are few differences between the three types of law on CCC concerning legal rights afforded the individual. However, proper safeguards of the rights against unlawful detention seem still to be lacking in some CCC laws, regardless type of law. Courts are the decision-making body in 80 % of the laws, but this varies clearly between law types. Criteria for CCC also differ between types of law, i.e. concerning who should be treated: dependent offenders, persons with substance use problems with acting out or aggressive behaviors, or other vulnerable persons with alcohol or drug problems. The study raises questions concerning whether various European CCC laws in relation to substance use disorder or misuse problems

  2. Abuse and Misuse of Selected Dietary Supplements Among Adolescents: a Look at Poison Center Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biggs, Jessica M; Morgan, Jill A; Lardieri, Allison B; Kishk, Omayma A; Klein-Schwartz, Wendy

    2017-01-01

    The use of dietary supplements has increased and is associated with adverse effects. Indications for use include recreation, body image concerns, mood enhancement, or control of medical conditions. The risk of adverse effects may be enhanced if agents are used improperly. The objective of this study was to determine the frequency of abuse and misuse of 4 dietary substances among adolescents reported nationally to poison centers. Secondary outcomes included an assessment of medical outcomes, clinical effects, location of treatments provided, and treatments administered. This descriptive retrospective review assessed data concerning the use of garcinia (Garcinia cambogia), guarana (Paullinia cupana), salvia (Salvia divinorum), and St John's wort (Hypericum perforatum) among adolescents reported nationally to poison centers from 2003 to 2014. Adolescents with a singlesubstance exposure to one of the substances of interest coded as intentional abuse or misuse were included. Poison center calls for drug information or those with unrelated clinical effects were excluded. Data were collected from the National Poison Data System. There were 84 cases: 7 cases of Garcinia cambogia, 28 Paullinia cupana, 23 Salvia divinorum, and 26 Hypericum perforatum. Garcinia cambogia was used more frequently by females (100% versus 0%), and Paullinia cupana and Salvia divinorum were used more frequently by males (61% versus 36% and 91% versus 9%, respectively). Abuse, driven by Salvia divinorum, was more common overall than misuse. Abuse was also more common among males than females (p <0.001). Use of these agents fluctuated over time. Overall, use trended down since 2010, except for Garcinia cambogia use. In 62 cases (73.8%), the medical outcome was minor or had no effect or was judged as nontoxic or minimally toxic. Clinical effects were most common with Paullinia cupana and Salvia divinorum. Treatment sites included emergency department (n = 33; 39.3%), non-healthcare facility (n = 24

  3. Tackling the Urban Informal Economy: Some Lessons from a Study of Europe’s Urban Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Colin C. WILLIAMS

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to evaluate themost effective way of tackling the urban informaleconomy. It has been recently argued that theconventional rational economic actor approach(which increases the costs of participating in theurban informal economy so that they outweighthe benefi ts should be replaced or complementedby a social actor approach which focusesupon improving tax morale. To evaluate the effectivenessof these supposedly alternative approachesto tackling the participation of urbanpopulations in the informal economy, we reportthe results of face-to-face interviews conductedin 2013 with 17,886 urban dwellers across the 28Member States of the EU. Multilevel logistic regressionanalysis reveals that both approachesare effective in signifi cantly reducing the urbanpopulation’s participation in the informal economy.When tax morale is high, however, the rationaleconomic actor approach of increasing thecosts has little impact on reducing the probabilityof engagement in the informal economy. The paperconcludes by calling for greater emphasis onimproving the tax morale of the urban populationso as to tackle the informal economy in the urbanareas of Europe and beyond.

  4. ADHD-specific stimulant misuse, mood, anxiety, and stress in college-age women at high risk for or with eating disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbs, Elise L.; Kass, Andrea E.; Eichen, Dawn M.; Fitzsimmons-Craft, Ellen E.; Trockel, Mickey; Wilfley, Denise E.; Taylor, C. Barr

    2016-01-01

    Objective To examine the misuse of ADHD-specific stimulants in a college population at high risk for or with clinical or subclinical eating disorders. Participants 448 college-age women ages 18–25 at high risk for or with a clinical or subclinical eating disorder. Methods Participants completed assessments of stimulant misuse and psychopathology from September 2009 - June 2010. Results Greater eating disorder pathology, objective binge eating, purging, eating disorder-related clinical impairment, depressive symptoms, perceived stress, and trait anxiety were associated with an increased likelihood of stimulant misuse. Subjective binge eating, excessive exercise, and dietary restraint were not associated with stimulant misuse. Conclusions ADHD-specific stimulant misuse is associated with eating disorder and comorbid pathology among individuals at high risk for or with clinical or subclinical eating disorders. Screening for stimulant misuse and eating disorder pathology may improve identification of college-age women who may be engaging in maladaptive behaviors and inform prevention efforts. PMID:26822019

  5. Fetal alcohol syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a baby when a mother drinks alcohol during pregnancy. Causes Using alcohol during pregnancy can cause the same risks as using alcohol in general. But it poses extra risks to the unborn baby. When a pregnant woman drinks ... use during pregnancy. Larger amounts of alcohol appear to increase the ...

  6. Turning to alcohol?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reiboro, S.K.

    1998-01-01

    Brazil is examining whether turning to alcohol could solve its problems. The fuel alcohol producers are lobbying hard for the government to increase the use of alcohol to fuel the country's cars. Not only does using alcohol reduce CO 2 , runs the argument, but the Kyoto agreement might just attract international financing for the project. (author)

  7. Clearinghouse: alcohol and poppers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-03-01

    Ten articles from magazines and journals are referenced on the subjects of alcohol and poppers. Topics include alcohol consumption and HIV/AIDS-related risky sexual behavior, alcohol and drug abuse, and self-esteem, gender, and alcohol use. Contact information is provided.

  8. Children of Alcoholics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krois, Deborah Helen

    Although alcoholism has long been considered a serious problem, the impact of parental alcoholism on children has only recently begun to receive attention from researchers and clinicians. A review of the empirical literature on children of alcoholics was conducted and it was concluded that children raised in an alcoholic family are at increased…

  9. Fetal Alcohol Exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... categories: 4 » Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS) » Partial FAS (pFAS) » Alcohol-Related Neurodevelopmental Disorder (ARND) » Alcohol-Related Birth ... either prenatally, after birth, or both Partial FAS (pFAS) Partial FAS (pFAS) involves prenatal alcohol exposure, and ...

  10. 1 A STUDY OF THE MISUSE OF SŪRATU YĀSĪN AMONG YORUBA ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    HP

    reciting or writing the Sūrah in the reverse sorting in order to tackle enemies. This is commonly ... strange incantations and bizarre constructions. It is then washed ... times, grinded bone of a dead person among other items are mixed with the.

  11. Internet Alcohol Marketing and Underage Alcohol Use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClure, Auden C; Tanski, Susanne E; Li, Zhigang; Jackson, Kristina; Morgenstern, Matthis; Li, Zhongze; Sargent, James D

    2016-02-01

    Internet alcohol marketing is not well studied despite its prevalence and potential accessibility and attractiveness to youth. The objective was to examine longitudinal associations between self-reported engagement with Internet alcohol marketing and alcohol use transitions in youth. A US sample of 2012 youths aged 15 to 20 was surveyed in 2011. An Internet alcohol marketing receptivity score was developed, based on number of positive responses to seeing alcohol advertising on the Internet, visiting alcohol brand Web sites, being an online alcohol brand fan, and cued recall of alcohol brand home page images. We assessed the association between baseline marketing receptivity and both ever drinking and binge drinking (≥6 drinks per occasion) at 1-year follow-up with multiple logistic regression, controlling for baseline drinking status, Internet use, sociodemographics, personality characteristics, and peer or parent drinking. At baseline, ever-drinking and binge-drinking prevalence was 55% and 27%, respectively. Many (59%) reported seeing Internet alcohol advertising, but few reported going to an alcohol Web site (6%) or being an online fan (3%). Higher Internet use, sensation seeking, having family or peers who drank, and past alcohol use were associated with Internet alcohol marketing receptivity, and a score of 1 or 2 was independently associated with greater adjusted odds of initiating binge drinking (odds ratio 1.77; 95% confidence interval, 1.13-2.78 and odds ratio 2.15; 95% confidence interval, 1.06-4.37 respectively) but not with initiation of ever drinking. Although high levels of engagement with Internet alcohol marketing were uncommon, most underage youths reported seeing it, and we found a prospective association between receptivity to this type of alcohol marketing and future problem drinking, making additional research and ongoing surveillance important. Copyright © 2016 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  12. Internet Alcohol Marketing and Underage Alcohol Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClure, Auden C.; Tanski, Susanne E.; Li, Zhigang; Jackson, Kristina; Morgenstern, Matthis; Li, Zhongze; Sargent, James D.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE Internet alcohol marketing is not well studied despite its prevalence and potential accessibility and attractiveness to youth. The objective was to examine longitudinal associations between self-reported engagement with Internet alcohol marketing and alcohol use transitions in youth. METHODS A US sample of 2012 youths aged 15 to 20 was surveyed in 2011. An Internet alcohol marketing receptivity score was developed, based on number of positive responses to seeing alcohol advertising on the Internet, visiting alcohol brand Web sites, being an online alcohol brand fan, and cued recall of alcohol brand home page images. We assessed the association between baseline marketing receptivity and both ever drinking and binge drinking (≥6 drinks per occasion) at 1-year follow-up with multiple logistic regression, controlling for baseline drinking status, Internet use, sociodemographics, personality characteristics, and peer or parent drinking. RESULTS At baseline, ever-drinking and binge-drinking prevalence was 55% and 27%, respectively. Many (59%) reported seeing Internet alcohol advertising, but few reported going to an alcohol Web site (6%) or being an online fan (3%). Higher Internet use, sensation seeking, having family or peers who drank, and past alcohol use were associated with Internet alcohol marketing receptivity, and a score of 1 or 2 was independently associated with greater adjusted odds of initiating binge drinking (odds ratio 1.77; 95% confidence interval, 1.13–2.78 and odds ratio 2.15; 95% confidence interval, 1.06–4.37 respectively) but not with initiation of ever drinking. CONCLUSIONS Although high levels of engagement with Internet alcohol marketing were uncommon, most underage youths reported seeing it, and we found a prospective association between receptivity to this type of alcohol marketing and future problem drinking, making additional research and ongoing surveillance important. PMID:26738886

  13. Misuse of prescription and illicit drugs among high-risk young adults in Los Angeles and New York

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen E. Lankenau

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Background. Prescription drug misuse among young adults is increasingly viewed as a public health concern, yet most research has focused on student populations and excluded high-risk groups. Furthermore, research on populations who report recent prescription drug misuse is limited. This study examined patterns of prescription drug misuse among high-risk young adults in Los Angeles (LA and New York (NY, which represent different local markets for illicit and prescription drugs. Design and Methods. Between 2009 and 2011, 596 young adults (16 to 25 years old who had misused prescription drugs within the past 90 days were interviewed in Los Angeles and New York. Sampling was stratified to enroll three groups of high-risk young adults: injection drug users (IDUs; homeless persons; and polydrug users. Results. In both sites, lifetime history of receiving a prescription for an opioid, tranquilizer, or stimulant was high and commonly preceded misuse. Moreover, initiation of opioids occurred before heroin and initiation of prescription stimulants happened prior to illicit stimulants. NY participants more frequently misused oxycodone, heroin, and cocaine, and LA participants more frequently misused codeine, marijuana, and methamphetamine. Combining prescription and illicit drugs during drug using events was commonly reported in both sites. Opioids and tranquilizers were used as substitutes for other drugs, e.g., heroin, when these drugs were not available. Conclusion. Patterns of drug use among high-risk young adults in Los Angeles and New York appear to be linked to differences in local markets in each city for illicit drugs and diverted prescription drugs.

  14. DoD Officials did Not Take Appropriate Action When Notified of Potential Travel Card Misuse at Casinos and Adult Entertainment Establishments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-08-30

    develop or derogatory information is discovered that could have an adverse impact on an individual’s clearance eligibility, the potentially derogatory...the 45-day requirement impacted management’s ability to take action now against the cardholder for travel card misuse at casinos, and no disciplinary... delinquency and misuse at the first command. However, no information about the cardholder’s travel card delinquency or misuse was sent to his next

  15. Determination of Ethyl Glucuronide in Hair for Detection of Alcohol Consumption in Patients After Liver Transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andresen-Streichert, Hilke; von Rothkirch, Gregor; Vettorazzi, Eik; Mueller, Alexander; Lohse, Ansgar W; Frederking, Dorothea; Seegers, Barbara; Nashan, Bjoern; Sterneck, Martina

    2015-08-01

    Early detection of alcohol misuse in orthotopic liver transplantation recipients is essential to offer patients support and prevent organ damage. Here, ethyl glucuronide, a metabolite of ethanol found in hair (hEtG), was evaluated for detection of alcohol consumption. In 104 transplant recipients, 31 with underlying alcoholic liver disease (ALD) and 73 with non-ALD, hEtG was determined in addition to the alcohol markers urine EtG, blood ethanol, methanol, and carbohydrate-deficient transferrin. Results were compared with patients' self-reports in a questionnaire and with physicians' assessments. By physicians' assessments, 22% of the patients were suspected of consuming alcohol regularly, although only 6% of the patients acknowledged consumption of a moderate or high amount of alcohol. By testing all markers except for hEtG, alcohol consumption was detected in 7% of the patients. When hEtG testing was added to the assessment, consumption was detected in 17% of the patients. Hair-EtG determination alone revealed chronic alcohol consumption of >10 g/d in 15% of the patients. ALD patients had a positive hEtG result significantly more often than non-ALD patients did (32% versus 8%; P = 0.003). Also, the concentration of hEtG was higher in ALD patients (P = 0.049) and revealed alcohol abuse with consumption of >60 g ethanol per day in 23% of ALD and 3% of non-ALD patients. Patients' self-reports and physicians' assessments had a low sensitivity of 27% and 67%, respectively, for detecting regular alcohol intake as indicated by hEtG. Hair-EtG determination improved the detection of liver transplant patients who used alcohol, and revealed regular alcohol consumption in 32% of ALD and 8% of non-ALD patients.

  16. Alcohol and Breastfeeding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haastrup, Maija Bruun; Pottegård, Anton; Damkier, Per

    2014-01-01

    While the harmful effects of alcohol during pregnancy are well-established, the consequences of alcohol intake during lactation have been far less examined. We reviewed available data on the prevalence of alcohol intake during lactation, the influence of alcohol on breastfeeding......, the pharmacokinetics of alcohol in lactating women and nursing infants and the effects of alcohol intake on nursing infants. A systematic search was performed in PubMed from origin to May 2013, and 41 publications were included in the review. Approximately half of all lactating women in Western countries consume...... alcohol while breastfeeding. Alcohol intake inhibits the milk ejection reflex, causing a temporary decrease in milk yield. The alcohol concentrations in breast milk closely resemble those in maternal blood. The amount of alcohol presented to nursing infants through breast milk is approximately 5...

  17. Polysubstance Abuse: Alcohol, Opioids and Benzodiazepines Require Coordinated Engagement by Society, Patients, and Physicians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ogbu, Uzor C

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC has published significant data trends related to substance abuse involving opioid pain relievers (OPR, benzodiazepines and alcohol in the United States. The CDC describes opioid misuse and abuse as an epidemic, with the use of OPR surpassing that of illicit drugs. Alcohol has also been a persistent problem and is associated with a number of emergency department visits and deaths independent of other substances. The use of these drugs in combination creates an additive effect with increased central nervous system suppression and a heightened risk of an overdose. We present a summary of the findings from the Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report (MMWR with commentary on strategies to combat prescription drug and alcohol abuse. [West J Emerg Med. 2015;16(1:76–79.

  18. Alcohol purchasing by ill heavy drinkers; cheap alcohol is no single commodity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gill, J; Chick, J; Black, H; Rees, C; O'May, F; Rush, R; McPake, B A

    2015-12-01

    Potential strategies to address alcohol misuse remain contentious. We aim to characterise the drink purchases of one population group: heavy drinkers in contact with Scottish health services. We contrast our findings with national sales data and explore the impact of socio-economic status on purchasing behaviour. Cross-sectional study comparing alcohol purchasing and consumption by heavy drinkers in Edinburgh and Glasgow during 2012. 639 patients with serious health problems linked to alcohol (recruited within NHS hospital clinics (in- and out-patient settings) 345 in Glasgow, 294 in Edinburgh) responded to a questionnaire documenting demographic data and last week's or a 'typical' weekly consumption (type, brand, volume, price, place of purchase). Scottish Index of Multiple Deprivation quintile was derived as proxy of sociodemographic status. Median consumption was 184.8 (IQR = 162.2) UK units/week paying a mean of 39.7 pence per alcohol unit (£0.397). Off-sales accounted for 95% of purchases with 85% of those purchase the majority of their drinks from off-sale settings seeking the cheapest drinks, often favouring local suppliers. While beer was popular, recent legislation impacting on the sale of multibuys may prevent the heaviest drinkers benefiting from the lower beer prices available in supermarkets. Non-etheless, drinkers were able to offset higher unit prices with cheaper drink types and maintain high levels of consumption. Whilst price is key, heavy drinkers are influenced by other factors and adapt their purchasing as necessary. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  19. Impulsivity but not sensation seeking is associated with opioid analgesic misuse risk in patients with chronic pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marino, Elise N; Rosen, Kristen D; Gutierrez, Antonio; Eckmann, Maxim; Ramamurthy, Somayaji; Potter, Jennifer Sharpe

    2013-05-01

    Impulsivity and sensation seeking have been associated with substance use disorders, including opioid use disorders. This pilot study sought to examine whether impulsivity and sensation seeking, as measured by the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale (BIS) and Sensation Seeking Scale (SSS), were associated with opioid analgesic misuse risk in chronic, low-back pain patients prescribed opioid analgesics. Participants were 42 chronic, low-back pain patients enrolled in a larger study examining problematic opioid analgesic use. Impulsivity was assessed using the BIS, sensation seeking was measured using the SSS, and opioid analgesic misuse risk was assessed using the Current Opioid Misuse Measure (COMM). Significant bivariate associations were found between the COMM and the following predictor variables: age and the three BIS subscales: Attentional Impulsiveness, Non-planning Impulsiveness, and Motor Impulsiveness. Using a multivariate linear regression, after controlling for age, the BIS subscales accounted for 29.0% of the variance in the COMM. Attentional Impulsiveness was the only significant BIS subscale. These results suggest a potential relationship between impulsivity, but not sensation seeking, and risk for opioid analgesic misuse. Impulsivity is not a prominent trait observed in chronic pain patients; however, it may be an important risk factor for opioid analgesic misuse for a subset of individuals with chronic pain. As such, these findings suggest that additional exploration of this potential risk factor is warranted. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  20. Antibiotic misuse in children by the primary care physicians--an Indian experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basu, S; Chatterjee, M; Chandra, P Kumar; Basu, S

    2008-03-01

    To determine the misuse of antibiotics in the Pediatric outpatients department' (OPD) of a busy teaching hospital and to ascertain the probable reasons behind it. Over a 6 months period, new cases primarily treated with antibiotics by Medical Officers (first contact physicians in Peadiatric Medicine and Surgery OPD) were recruited in the study after obtaining written consent from the parents. Various errors of antibiotic usage were noted. All Medical Officers were asked to fill up a preformed questionnaire and the parents/guardians were interviewed on their ideas about antibiotics. Data were analyzed by the statistical software SPSS 10. Antibiotics were prescribed in 2427 (84.9%) new patients. Misuse of antibiotics was documented in 36.8% patients (no indication in 35.3%, improper selection in 17.9% and incorrect dosage in 7.7%). All medical officers were aware that they overuse antibiotics. The various reasons sited were demand of the parents, reluctance to counsel due to patient overload, free supply of medicines from OPD and sympathetic grounds as follow up visits were uncertain. Majority of the parents/attendants belonged to poor socioeconomic status and did not have any idea regarding antibiotics. All parents wanted quick relief without hospitalization and only 2.3% were willing to revisit the OPD for the same illness. Both medical officers and parents felt that base line investigations were unnecessary. Antibiotic misuse is quite common in this part of the world. Irrational use was mostly seen in over-prescribing and improper selection of antibiotic. Poor socio-economic status and overcrowding of patients in OPD were the main responsible factors.

  1. Prospective study on antibiotics misuse among infants with upper respiratory infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Sayed, Manal F; Tamim, Hala; Jamal, Diana; Mumtaz, Ghina; Melki, Imad; Yunis, Khalid

    2009-06-01

    The judicious prescription of antibiotics has become a central focus of professional and public health measures to combat the spread of resistant organisms. A one-year multi-center prospective follow-up study of 1,320 healthy infants was conducted. The study aim was to determine the prevalence and identify the predictors of antibiotics misuse in viral respiratory illnesses among healthy infants in the first year of life. Infants born between August 2001 and February 2002 were recruited through the clinics and dispensaries of 117 pediatricians located in the Greater Beirut area of Lebanon. On each routine visit from birth until one year of life, pediatricians reported any episodes of upper respiratory tract infection (URTI; common cold) and bronchiolitis, as well as the treatment type, duration, and dose. Predictors that were considered included infant, maternal, and pediatrician characteristics. Of the 1,320 recruited infants, 770 (58.3%) had common cold or acute bronchiolitis on at least one occasion during the study period. Pediatricians prescribed antibiotics at least once in 21.4% of cases diagnosed as the common cold and 45.5% of cases of acute bronchiolitis. Logistic regression analysis revealed that antibiotics misuse was more common among infants born to mothers with lower educational levels (odds ratio [OR] = 1.6; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.1-2.3). Furthermore, pediatricians tend to prescribe antibiotics in dispensaries more often than in private clinics (OR = 1.4; 95% CI: 1.0-2.3). This study shows a substantial quantity of antibiotics prescriptions for common cold and acute bronchiolitis in our population. Our findings suggest that lower maternal education and pediatricians working in dispensaries (versus private clinics) are associated with increased antibiotics misuse.

  2. The Syndemic of Opioid Misuse, Overdose, HCV, and HIV: Structural-Level Causes and Interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perlman, David C; Jordan, Ashly E

    2018-04-01

    This article reviews the case for recognizing (1) the epidemics of opioid misuse, overdose, hepatitis C virus, and HIV as a syndemic and (2) the importance of examining and addressing structural factors in responses to this syndemic. We focus on the current syndemic in the US, but also consider data from other locations to highlight the issues existing and arising in various contexts. Advances in multi-level theory and statistical methods allow sound ecologic and multi-level analyses of the impact of structural factors on the syndemic. Studies of opioid misuse, overdoses, hepatitis C virus, and HIV demonstrate that area-level access to healthcare, medication-assisted treatment of opioid use disorders, sterile injection equipment, and overdose prevention with naloxone, as well as factors such as opioid marketing, income inequality, intensity of policing activities, and health care policies, are related to the prevalence of substance misuse, overdoses, infection risk, and morbidity. Structural variables can predict area-level vulnerability to the syndemic. The implementation of combined prevention and treatment interventions can control and reverse components of the syndemic. Recognizing and monitoring potent structural factors can facilitate the identification of areas at risk of vulnerability to the syndemic. Further, many structural factors are modifiable through intervention and policy to reduce structural vulnerability and create health-enabling environments. Evidence supports the immediate implementation of broader HCV and HIV testing and substance use screening, medication-assisted treatment, needle/syringe exchange programs, naloxone programs, increased population-level implementation of HCV treatment, and further attention to structural-level factors predicting, and contributing to, area-level vulnerability, such as degrees of opioid marketing, distribution, and prescribing.

  3. A prospective study of children aged children and are associated with restraint misuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skjerven-Martinsen, Marianne; Naess, Paal Aksel; Hansen, Trond Boye; Gaarder, Christine; Lereim, Inggard; Stray-Pedersen, Arne

    2014-12-01

    The implementation of the compulsory wearing of seat belts (SBs) for children and improvements in child restraint systems have reduced the number of deaths and severe injuries among children involved in motor vehicle (MV) collisions (MVCs). Establishing the characteristics predictive of such injuries may provide the basis for targeted safety campaigns and lead to a further reduction in mortality and morbidity among children involved in MVCs. This study performed a multidisciplinary investigation among child occupants involved in MVCs to elucidate injury mechanisms, evaluate the safety measures used and determine the characteristics that are predictive of injury. A prospective study was conducted of all child occupants aged interior of the MVs were investigated and the injured children were medically examined. Supplementary information was obtained from witnesses, the crash victims, police reports, medical records and reconstructions. Each case was reviewed by a multidisciplinary team to assess the mechanism of injury. In total, 158 child occupants involved in 100 MVCs were investigated, of which 27 (17%) exhibited Abbreviated Injury Scale (AIS) scores of 2+ injuries and 15 (9%) exhibited AIS 3+ injuries. None of the children died. Of those with AIS 2+ injuries (n=27), 89% (n=24) were involved in frontal impact collisions and 11% (3/27) were involved in side impacts. Multivariate analysis revealed that restraint misuse, age, the prevailing lighting conditions and ΔV were all independently correlated with AIS 2+ injuries. Safety errors were found in 74% (20/27) of those with AIS 2+ injuries and 93% (14/15) of those with AIS 3+ injuries. The most common safety error was misuse of restraints, and in particular loose and/or improperly positioned SBs. The risk of injury among child occupants is significantly higher when the child occupants are exposed to safety errors within the interior of the vehicle. Future campaigns should focus on the prevention of restraint misuse

  4. Codeine misuse and dependence in South Africa: Perspectives of addiction treatment providers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles D H Parry

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Background. General practitioners are referring patients with codeine-related problems to specialist treatment facilities, but little is known about the addiction treatment providers, the kinds of treatment they provide, and whether training or other interventions are needed to strengthen this sector. Objectives. To investigate the perspectives of addiction treatment providers regarding treatment for codeine misuse or dependence. Method. Twenty addiction treatment providers linked to the South African Community Epidemiology Network on Drug Use and the South African Addiction Medicine Society were contacted telephonically and asked 20 questions. Results. While many participants had received training in pharmacological management of individuals with opioid dependence, only two had received specific training on codeine management. Between half and two-thirds of the treatment settings they worked in provided detoxification, pharmacotherapy, psychosocial treatment and aftercare. Very few treatment settings offered long-term treatment for codeine misuse and dependence. Participants indicated that over half of their codeine patients entered treatment for intentional misuse for intoxication, and dependence resulting from excessive or long-term use. The main barriers to patients entering treatment were seen as denial of having a problem, not being ready for change, mental health problems, stigma, and affordability of treatment. Participants identified a need for further training in how to manage withdrawal and detoxification, treatment modalities including motivational interviewing, and relapse prevention. Conclusions. Gaps in training among treatment providers need to centre on how to manage withdrawal from codeine use and detoxification, motivational interviewing and relapse prevention. Interventions are needed to address barriers to entering treatment, including user denial.

  5. Alcohol screening and risk of postoperative complications in male VA patients undergoing major non-cardiac surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, Katharine A; Rubinsky, Anna D; Sun, Haili; Bryson, Chris L; Bishop, Michael J; Blough, David K; Henderson, William G; Maynard, Charles; Hawn, Mary T; Tønnesen, Hanne; Hughes, Grant; Beste, Lauren A; Harris, Alex H S; Hawkins, Eric J; Houston, Thomas K; Kivlahan, Daniel R

    2011-02-01

    Patients who misuse alcohol are at increased risk for surgical complications. Four weeks of preoperative abstinence decreases the risk of complications, but practical approaches for early preoperative identification of alcohol misuse are needed. To evaluate whether results of alcohol screening with the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test - Consumption (AUDIT-C) questionnaire-up to a year before surgery-were associated with the risk of postoperative complications. This is a cohort study. Male Veterans Affairs (VA) patients were eligible if they had major noncardiac surgery assessed by the VA's Surgical Quality Improvement Program (VASQIP) in fiscal years 2004-2006, and completed the AUDIT-C alcohol screening questionnaire (0-12 points) on a mailed survey within 1 year before surgery. One or more postoperative complication(s) within 30 days of surgery based on VASQIP nurse medical record reviews. Among 9,176 eligible men, 16.3% screened positive for alcohol misuse with AUDIT-C scores ≥ 5, and 7.8% had postoperative complications. Patients with AUDIT-C scores ≥ 5 were at significantly increased risk for postoperative complications, compared to patients who drank less. In analyses adjusted for age, smoking, and days from screening to surgery, the estimated prevalence of postoperative complications increased from 5.6% (95% CI 4.8-6.6%) in patients with AUDIT-C scores 1-4, to 7.9% (6.3-9.7%) in patients with AUDIT-Cs 5-8, 9.7% (6.6-14.1%) in patients with AUDIT-Cs 9-10 and 14.0% (8.9-21.3%) in patients with AUDIT-Cs 11-12. In fully-adjusted analyses that included preoperative covariates potentially in the causal pathway between alcohol misuse and complications, the estimated prevalence of postoperative complications increased significantly from 4.8% (4.1-5.7%) in patients with AUDIT-C scores 1-4, to 6.9% (5.5-8.7%) in patients with AUDIT-Cs 5-8 and 7.5% (5.0-11.3%) among those with AUDIT-Cs 9-10. AUDIT-C scores of 5 or more up to a year before surgery were

  6. Urban vs. rural differences in prescription opioid misuse among adults in the United States: informing region specific drug policies and interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rigg, Khary K; Monnat, Shannon M

    2015-05-01

    In the United States, prescription opioid misuse (POM) has increased dramatically over the past two decades. However, there are still questions regarding whether rural/urban differences in adult POM exist, and more important, which factors might be driving these differences. Using data from the 2011 and 2012 National Survey on Drug Use and Health, we conducted unadjusted and adjusted binary logistic regression analyses to determine the association between metropolitan status and POM. We found that urban adults were more likely to engage in POM compared to rural adults because of their higher use of other substances, including alcohol, cannabis, and other illicit and prescription drugs, and because of their greater use of these substances as children. This study fills an important gap in the literature by not only identifying urban/rural differences in POM, but by also pointing out factors that mediate those differences. Because patterns and predictors of POM can be unique to geographic region, this research is critical to informing tailored interventions and drug policy decisions. Specifically, these findings suggest that interventions should be aimed at urban illicit drug users and adults in manual labor occupations. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. On the instance of misuse of unprofitable energy prices under cartel law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schoening, M.

    1993-01-01

    The practice of fixing prices which do not cover the costs can on principle not be considered an instance of misuse pursuant to Articles 22 Section 4 Clause 2 No. 2, 103 Section 5 Clause 2 No. 2 of the GWB (cartel laws). If the authority for the supervision of cartels takes action against companies operating with unprofitable prices, this constitutes a violation not only of cartel law, but also of the constitution. The cartel authorities have no right to dismiss a dominating company's referral to poor business prospects on the ground that its business report is theoretically manipulable. Rather, the burden of proof of concealment is on the authorities. (orig.) [de

  8. Sadness, suicide, and drug misuse in Arkansas: results from the Youth Risk Behavior Survey 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaley, Sean; Mancino, Michael J; Messias, Erick

    2014-02-01

    Exposure to drugs is unfortunately common among high school students and its use has been linked to depression and suicide risk. We used the 2011 Arkansas Youth Risk Behavior Survey to estimate the prevalence of drug abuse and to measure its association with teen suicidality. Three types of substance misuse were reported by more than 10% of Arkansas high school students: cannabis (33.3% ever use). inhalants (18.7% ever use). and prescription drugs without a prescription (13.2% ever use). We found in all suicide outcomes a stronger association with prescription drug abuse, followed by inhalant abuse, then cannabis abuse.

  9. The Precautionary principle: its misunderstandings and misuses in relation to "GMOs".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tagliabue, Giovanni

    2016-06-25

    References to the Precautionary principle (PP) in relation to "GMOs" are commonplace. Those who oppose the DNA recombinant approach to create new agricultural products either have not read the PP (misunderstanding), or they want to exploit the PP for their propaganda while forcing it (misuse). Proponents of a stricter approach to the regulation of biotechnologies must forge a new expression, since the PP is something else - historically and theoretically. In any case, a legitimate very circumspect attitude, to be coherent, must be applied to each and every biotechnology, not only to "GMOs". Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Pervasive antibiotic misuse in the Cambodian community: antibiotic-seeking behaviour with unrestricted access

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chhorvoin Om

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Antibiotic misuse is widespread in resource-limited countries such as Cambodia where the burden of infectious diseases is high and access to antibiotics is unrestricted. We explored healthcare seeking behaviour related to obtaining antibiotics and drivers of antibiotic misuse in the Cambodian community. Methods In-depth interviews were held with family members of patients being admitted in hospitals and private pharmacies termed pharmacy attendants in the catchment areas of the hospitals. Nurses who run community primary healthcare centres located within the hospital catchment areas were invited to attend focus group discussions. Nvivo version 10 was used to code and manage thematic data analysis. Results We conducted individual interviews with 35 family members, 7 untrained pharmacy attendants and 3 trained pharmacists and 6 focus group discussions with 30 nurses. Self-medication with a drug-cocktail was widespread and included broad-spectrum antibiotics for mild illness. Unrestricted access to antibiotics was facilitated by various community enablers including pharmacies or drug outlets, nurse suppliers and unofficial village medical providers referred to as “village Pett” whose healthcare training has historically been in the field and not at university. These enablers supplied the community with various types of antibiotics including broad spectrum fluoroquinolones and cephalosporins. When treatment was perceived to be ineffective patients would prescriber-shop various suppliers who would unfailingly provide them with antibiotics. The main driver of the community’s demand for antibiotics was a mistaken belief in the benefits of antibiotics for a common cold, high temperature, pain, malaria and ‘Roleak’ which includes a broad catch-all for perceived inflammatory conditions. For severe illnesses, patients would attend a community healthcare centre, hospital, or when their finances permitted, a private prescriber

  11. Industry Responsibilities in Tackling Direct-to-Consumer Marketing of Unproven Stem Cell Treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Master, Z; Fu, W; Paciulli, D; Sipp, D

    2017-08-01

    The direct-to-consumer marketing of unproven stem cell interventions (SCIs) is a serious public health concern. Regulations and education have had modest impact, indicating that different actors must play a role to stop this unfettered market. We consider the role of the biotech industry in tackling unproven SCIs. Grounded in the concept of corporate social responsibility, we argue that biotech companies should screen consumers to ensure that products and services are being used appropriately and educate employees about unproven SCIs. © 2017 ASCPT.

  12. Alcohol and other drug use in older adults: results from a community needs assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loscalzo, Emily; Sterling, Robert C; Weinstein, Stephen P; Salzman, Brooke

    2017-12-01

    With the "Baby Boomer" generation reaching older adulthood, substance abuse treatment providers find themselves needing to address the unique needs of this population. Heavy drinking in adults ages 65 and over is strongly correlated with depression, anxiety, decreased social support, and poor health. However, while alcohol misuse has been shown to be predictive of a lower quality of life in older adults, the generalizability of these findings to urban dwelling, lower socioeconomic status individuals remains unclear. To identify potential treatment needs of this population, a city-funded needs assessment was conducted. Subjects were 249 individuals (44% male) who voluntarily completed measures of quality of life (QOL), depression, and substance abuse. Measures used included the Psychological General Well-Being Schedule, the Geriatric Depression Scale-15, and the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT). Alcohol or substance abuse was reported by over 20% of respondents, with 3.4% of respondents engaged in maladaptive alcohol use. Scores on the AUDIT were predictive of increased depression (r = - .209, p = .01), anxiety (r = - .201, p = .002), lower general well-being (r = - .154, p = .019), and decreased self-control (r = - .157, p = .017). A substantial percentage of the sample reported alcohol and substance misuse. Alcohol use was predictive of depression, global psychological distress, and decreased quality of life. This needs assessment reinforces findings from previous studies and addresses the added dimension of examining this in an urban, lower socioeconomic population.

  13. Prevalence and Factors Associated with Substance Use and Misuse among Kosovar Adolescents; Cross Sectional Study of Scholastic, Familial-, and Sports-Related Factors of Influence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tahiraj, Enver; Cubela, Mladen; Ostojic, Ljerka; Rodek, Jelena; Zenic, Natasa; Sekulic, Damir; Lesnik, Blaz

    2016-05-16

    Adolescence is considered to be the most important period for the prevention of substance use and misuse (SUM). The aim of this study was to investigate the problem of SUM and to establish potentially important factors associated with SUM in Kosovar adolescents. Multi-stage simple random sampling was used to select participants. At the end of their high school education, 980 adolescents (623 females) ages 17 to 19 years old were enrolled in the study. The prevalence of smoking, alcohol consumption (measured by Alcohol Use Disorder Identification Test-AUDIT), and illegal drug use (dependent variables), as well as socio-demographic, scholastic, familial, and sports-related factors (independent variables), were assessed. Boys smoke cigarettes more often than girls with daily-smoking prevalence of 16% among boys and 9% among girls (OR = 1.85, 95% = CI 1.25-2.75). The prevalence of harmful drinking (i.e., AUDIT scores of >10) is found to be alarming (41% and 37% for boys and girls, respectively; OR = 1.13, 95% CI = 0.87-1.48), while 17% of boys and 9% of girls used illegal drugs (OR = 2.01, 95% CI = 1.35-2.95). The behavioral grade (observed as: excellent-average-poor) is the factor that was most significantly correlated with SUM both in boys and girls, with lower behavioral grades among those adolescents who consume substances. In girls, lower maternal education levels were associated with a decreased likelihood of SUM, whereas sports achievement was negatively associated with risky drinking. In boys, sports achievement decreased the likelihood of daily smoking. Information on the factors associated with SUM should be disseminated among sports and school authorities.

  14. Prevalence and Factors Associated with Substance Use and Misuse among Kosovar Adolescents; Cross Sectional Study of Scholastic, Familial-, and Sports-Related Factors of Influence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enver Tahiraj

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Adolescence is considered to be the most important period for the prevention of substance use and misuse (SUM. The aim of this study was to investigate the problem of SUM and to establish potentially important factors associated with SUM in Kosovar adolescents. Multi-stage simple random sampling was used to select participants. At the end of their high school education, 980 adolescents (623 females ages 17 to 19 years old were enrolled in the study. The prevalence of smoking, alcohol consumption (measured by Alcohol Use Disorder Identification Test–AUDIT, and illegal drug use (dependent variables, as well as socio-demographic, scholastic, familial, and sports-related factors (independent variables, were assessed. Boys smoke cigarettes more often than girls with daily-smoking prevalence of 16% among boys and 9% among girls (OR = 1.85, 95% = CI 1.25–2.75. The prevalence of harmful drinking (i.e., AUDIT scores of >10 is found to be alarming (41% and 37% for boys and girls, respectively; OR = 1.13, 95% CI = 0.87–1.48, while 17% of boys and 9% of girls used illegal drugs (OR = 2.01, 95% CI = 1.35–2.95. The behavioral grade (observed as: excellent–average-poor is the factor that was most significantly correlated with SUM both in boys and girls, with lower behavioral grades among those adolescents who consume substances. In girls, lower maternal education levels were associated with a decreased likelihood of SUM, whereas sports achievement was negatively associated with risky drinking. In boys, sports achievement decreased the likelihood of daily smoking. Information on the factors associated with SUM should be disseminated among sports and school authorities.

  15. Global alcohol policy and the alcohol industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Peter

    2009-05-01

    The WHO is preparing its global strategy on alcohol, and, in so doing, has been asked to consult with the alcohol industry on ways it could contribute in reducing the harm done by alcohol. This review asks which is more effective in reducing harm: the regulatory approaches that the industry does not favour; or the educational approaches that it does favour. The current literature overwhelmingly finds that regulatory approaches (including those that manage the price, availability, and marketing of alcohol) reduce the risk of and the experience of alcohol-related harm, whereas educational approaches (including school-based education and public education campaigns) do not, with industry-funded education actually increasing the risk of harm. The alcohol industry should not be involved in making alcohol policy. Its involvement in implementing policy should be restricted to its role as a producer, distributor, and marketer of alcohol. In particular, the alcohol industry should not be involved in educational programmes, as such involvement could actually lead to an increase in harm.

  16. Improving Alcohol Screening for College Students: Screening for Alcohol Misuse amongst College Students with a Simple Modification to the CAGE Questionnaire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Purcell; El-Sabawi, Taleed; Cangin, Causenge

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To improve the CAGE (Cut down, Annoyed, Guilty, Eye opener) questionnaire's predictive accuracy in screening college students. Participants: The sample consisted of 219 midwestern university students who self-administered a confidential survey. Methods: Exploratory factor analysis, confirmatory factor analysis, receiver operating…

  17. The neuroeconomics of alcohol demand: an initial investigation of the neural correlates of alcohol cost-benefit decision making in heavy drinking men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacKillop, James; Amlung, Michael T; Acker, John; Gray, Joshua C; Brown, Courtney L; Murphy, James G; Ray, Lara A; Sweet, Lawrence H

    2014-07-01

    Neuroeconomics integrates concepts and methods from psychology, economics, and cognitive neuroscience to understand how the brain makes decisions. In economics, demand refers to the relationship between a commodity's consumption and its cost, and, in behavioral studies, high alcohol demand has been consistently associated with greater alcohol misuse. Relatively little is known about how the brain processes demand decision making, and the current study is an initial investigation of the neural correlates of alcohol demand among heavy drinkers. Using an event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) paradigm, participants (N=24) selected how much they would drink under varying levels of price. These choices determined access to alcohol during a subsequent bar laboratory self-administration period. During decisions to drink in general, greater activity was present in multiple distinct subunits of the prefrontal and parietal cortices. In contrast, during decisions to drink that were demonstrably affected by the cost of alcohol, significantly greater activation was evident in frontostriatal regions, suggesting an active interplay between cognitive deliberation and subjective reward value. These choices were also characterized by significant deactivation in default mode network regions, suggesting suppression resulting from greater cognitive load. Across choice types, the anterior insula was notably recruited in diverse roles, further implicating the importance of interoceptive processing in decision-making behavior. These findings reveal the neural signatures subserving alcohol cost-benefit decision making, providing a foundation for future clinical applications of this paradigm and extending this approach to understanding the neural correlates of demand for other addictive commodities.

  18. Consumo de alcohol alcoholismo

    OpenAIRE

    Rodríguez Páez, Pablo E.; Fundación Valle de Lili

    1999-01-01

    ¿Qué es el alcohol?/¿Cómo actual el alcohol en el organismo?/¿Qué efectos causa?/Efectos por el consumo crónico/¿El consumo de alcohol durante el embarazo afecta el embrión?/¿Qué otras consecuencias tiene el consumo de alcohol?/¿Cuándo se considera que una persona tiene problemas con su consumo de alcohol?/¿Cuándo se debe sospechar que alguien tiene problemas con el consumo de alcohol?/Características del saber beber adecuadamente?/¿Cuales son las alternativas de tratamiento para este problem...

  19. Alcoholic hepatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damgaard Sandahl, Thomas

    2014-10-01

    Alcoholic hepatitis (AH) is an acute inflammatory syndrome causing significant morbidity and mortality. The prognosis is strongly dependent on disease severity, as assessed by clinical scoring systems. Reliable epidemiological data as well as knowledge of the clinical course of AH are essential for planning and resource allocation within the health care system. Likewise, individual evaluation of risk is desirable in the clinical handling of patients with AH as it can guide treatment, improve patient information, and serve as strata in clinical trials. The present PhD thesis is based on three studies using a cohort of nearly 2000 patients diagnosed with AH in Denmark from 1999 to 2008 as a cohort, in a population-based study design. The aims of this thesis were as follows. (1) To describe the incidence and short- and long-term mortality, of AH in Denmark (Study I). (2) To validate and compare the ability of the currently available prognostic scores to predict mortality in AH (Study II). (3) To investigate the short- and long-term causes of death of patients with AH (Study III). During the study decade, the annual incidence rate in the Danish population rose from 37 to 46 per 106 for men and from 24 to 34 per 106 for women. Both short- and long-term mortality rose for men and women, and the increase in short-term mortality was attributable to increasing patient age and prevalence of cirrhosis. Our evaluation of the most commonly used prognostic scores for predicting the mortality of patients with AH showed that all scores performed similarly, with Area under the Receiver Operator Characteristics curves giving values between 0.74 and 0.78 for 28-day mortality assessed on admission. Our study on causes of death showed that in the short-term (thesis provides novel warranted epidemiological information about AH that shows increasing incidence and mortality rates. Consequently, it reiterates the fact that AH is a life-threatening disease and suggests that AH is an

  20. The effects of price and perceived quality on the behavioural economics of alcohol, amphetamine, cannabis, cocaine, and ecstasy purchases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goudie, Andrew J; Sumnall, Harry R; Field, Matt; Clayton, Hannah; Cole, Jon C

    2007-07-10

    Behavioural economic models of substance use describe the relationship between changes in unit price and consumption. However, these models rarely take account of the perceived quality (i.e. potency) of controlled drugs. Therefore we investigated the effects of both price and quality on the decision to purchase controlled drugs by polysubstance misusers. Forty current polysubstance misusers (29 males, 11 females; mean age 23.8) were recruited into the study. Participants were asked to hypothetically purchase drugs from a price list of alcohol, amphetamine, cannabis, cocaine and ecstasy at different levels of quality and price (i.e. better quality drugs cost more money). The disposable income available for those purchases was systematically varied in order to determine the impact of income on the decision to purchase drugs. Demand for both normal and strong alcohol was income inelastic. Demand for both poor and average quality cannabis and ecstasy was income inelastic, but demand for good quality cannabis and ecstasy was income elastic. The demand for poor quality cocaine was income inelastic, with the demand for both average and good quality cocaine being income elastic. Participants reported too few purchases of amphetamine, which precluded behavioural economic analysis. These results suggest that, like other goods, controlled drugs are purchased based upon the consumer's interpretations of their relative value. Therefore, it is probable that the purchase and subsequent use of controlled drugs by polysubstance misusers will be heavily influenced by the economic environment.