WorldWideScience

Sample records for tackle sizeable problems

  1. Tackling the take-or-pay problem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jackson, Kim.

    1997-01-01

    Centrica, the gas sales, trading and services company previously part of British Gas plc, has renegotiated a number of its take-or-pay contracts with North Sea gas producers since the end of 1996. The contracts - a legacy of the British Gas monopoly era - had placed an increasing financial burden on the company as it was effectively forced to pay above-market prices for gas which it did not always want to take, while trying to remain competitive in a market where an ever growing number of independent gas suppliers were offering low-cost supplies. The author looks at how Centrica has tackled its take-or-pay problem. (author)

  2. Tenderfooting: Tackling the Problems of Freshman Writers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hobbs, Valerie; Rex-Kerish, Lesley

    1986-01-01

    University of California writing instructors must teach poorly prepared freshmen how to survive English classes and how to adapt the skills they learn to the rest of their university writing assignments. Reading, thinking, organizing, and stylistic problems are discussed. (MLW)

  3. Tackling the increasing problem of malnutrition in older persons

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, Marjolein; Volkert, D.; Corish, C.; Geisler, C.; Groot, de C.P.G.M.; Cruz-Jentoft, A.J.; Lohrmann, C.; O'Connor, E.M.; Schindler, K.; Schueren, van der D.E.

    2017-01-01

    In order to tackle the increasing problem of malnutrition (i.e. protein-energy malnutrition) in the older population, the Joint Action Malnutrition in the Elderly (MaNuEL) Knowledge Hub has been recently launched as part of the Strategic Research Agenda of the Joint Programming Initiative (JPI) A

  4. Tackling the increasing problem of malnutrition in older persons

    OpenAIRE

    Visser, Marjolein; Volkert, D.; Corish, C.; Geisler, C.; Groot, de, C.P.G.M.; Cruz-Jentoft, A.J.; Lohrmann, C.; O'Connor, E.M.; Schindler, K.; Schueren, van der, D.E.

    2017-01-01

    In order to tackle the increasing problem of malnutrition (i.e. protein-energy malnutrition) in the older population, the Joint Action Malnutrition in the Elderly (MaNuEL) Knowledge Hub has been recently launched as part of the Strategic Research Agenda of the Joint Programming Initiative (JPI) A Healthy Diet for a Healthy Life (HDHL). This paper introduces this new European initiative and describes its objectives and design. The MaNuEL consortium consists of 22 research groups from seven cou...

  5. Healthy children, healthy nation — tackling the obesity problem ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    26 avr. 2016 ... ... in early childhood to tackle poor diets and inadequate physical activity, however, can have a huge impact on children's health well into adulthood. ... racines, les tubercules et les bananes sont des cultures vivrières vendues ...

  6. Tackling the premature convergence problem in Monte-Carlo localization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kootstra, Gert; de Boer, Bart

    Monte-Carlo localization uses particle filtering to estimate the position of the robot. The method is known to suffer from the loss of potential positions when there is ambiguity present in the environment. Since many indoor environments are highly symmetric, this problem of premature convergence is

  7. An approach to tackle visual display unit user health problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCallum, H.M.; Heaton, B.

    1992-01-01

    Reported health hazards from video display units (VDUs) vary from headaches to miscarriage and there is some concern that health problems experienced by VDU users could be associated with extra-low-frequency (ELF) electromagnetic field emissions. While investigating an individual case of 'VDU Syndrome' a procedure was developed which could be used to investigate and evaluate other complaints of a similar type. A relationship between the number of hours monitor work and severity of symptoms was observed along with a cyclic nature to the operator's sensitivity to VDU work. (author)

  8. Agricultural vehicles and rural road safety: tackling a persistent problem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaarsma, Catharinus F; De Vries, Jasper R

    2014-01-01

    Crashes involving agricultural vehicles (AVs) on public roads are an increasing road safety problem. We aim to analyze developments in the appearance and severity of these accidents, identify influencing factors, and draw lessons for possible interventions for accident prevention within the context of modern mechanized agriculture. To analyze developments in the appearance of accidents we use a subset of accidents with AVs involved on public roads in The Netherlands aggregated per year for 1987-2010. To identify and explore preventive measures we use an in-depth study of the Dutch Safety Board. With a study of international literature we put our findings in a wider context. During this time span, Dutch annual averages show 15 registered fatal accidents involving AVs, 93 with hospitalization and 137 with slight injuries. For nonfatal accidents, the numbers are decreasing over time. This decrease is proportionate to the reduction in the total number of traffic victims. For fatalities, however, the number is stable, increasing its proportion in all traffic fatalities from 1 in 1987 to 2 percent in 2010. Related to the number of inhabitants, this number is 2 times the value in the UK and 3 times the value in the United States. Influencing factors can be related to the 3 road system components (AV, driver, and infrastructure). Weak points for AVs are the view from the driver's seat, visibility at night, permitted vehicle width, and crash aggressivity (large kinetic energy of the AV) that is transferred to other road users in case of a collision. Important factors identified for the driver are poor risk perception and high risk acceptance, in combination with speeding, dysfunctional use such as the use of AVs as modes of transport to and from school, and driving on public roads without protecting or removing protruding and sharp components. For infrastructure, the focus is on road design and separation of AVs from other motor vehicles. Lessons to be learned follow from

  9. Tackling wicked problems in infection prevention and control: a guideline for co-creation with stakeholders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne F. G. van Woezik

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Infection prevention and control can be seen as a wicked public health problem as there is no consensus regarding problem definition and solution, multiple stakeholders with different needs and values are involved, and there is no clear end-point of the problem-solving process. Co-creation with stakeholders has been proposed as a suitable strategy to tackle wicked problems, yet little information and no clear step-by-step guide exist on how to do this. The objectives of this study were to develop a guideline to assist developers in tackling wicked problems using co-creation with stakeholders, and to apply this guideline to practice with an example case in the field of infection prevention and control. Methods A mixed-method approach consisting of the integration of both quantitative and qualitative research was used. Relevant stakeholders from the veterinary, human health, and public health sectors were identified using a literature scan, expert recommendations, and snowball sampling. The stakeholder salience approach was used to select key stakeholders based on 3 attributes: power, legitimacy, and urgency. Key values of stakeholders (N = 20 were derived by qualitative semi-structured interviews and quantitatively weighted and prioritized using an online survey. Results Our method showed that stakeholder identification and analysis are prerequisites for understanding the complex stakeholder network that characterizes wicked problems. A total of 73 stakeholders were identified of which 36 were selected as potential key stakeholders, and only one was seen as a definite stakeholder. In addition, deriving key stakeholder values is a necessity to gain insights into different problem definitions, solutions and needs stakeholders have regarding the wicked problem. Based on the methods used, we developed a step-by-step guideline for co-creation with stakeholders when tackling wicked problems. Conclusions The mixed

  10. Tackling wicked problems in infection prevention and control: a guideline for co-creation with stakeholders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Woezik, Anne F G; Braakman-Jansen, Louise M A; Kulyk, Olga; Siemons, Liseth; van Gemert-Pijnen, Julia E W C

    2016-01-01

    Infection prevention and control can be seen as a wicked public health problem as there is no consensus regarding problem definition and solution, multiple stakeholders with different needs and values are involved, and there is no clear end-point of the problem-solving process. Co-creation with stakeholders has been proposed as a suitable strategy to tackle wicked problems, yet little information and no clear step-by-step guide exist on how to do this. The objectives of this study were to develop a guideline to assist developers in tackling wicked problems using co-creation with stakeholders, and to apply this guideline to practice with an example case in the field of infection prevention and control. A mixed-method approach consisting of the integration of both quantitative and qualitative research was used. Relevant stakeholders from the veterinary, human health, and public health sectors were identified using a literature scan, expert recommendations, and snowball sampling. The stakeholder salience approach was used to select key stakeholders based on 3 attributes: power, legitimacy, and urgency. Key values of stakeholders (N = 20) were derived by qualitative semi-structured interviews and quantitatively weighted and prioritized using an online survey. Our method showed that stakeholder identification and analysis are prerequisites for understanding the complex stakeholder network that characterizes wicked problems. A total of 73 stakeholders were identified of which 36 were selected as potential key stakeholders, and only one was seen as a definite stakeholder. In addition, deriving key stakeholder values is a necessity to gain insights into different problem definitions, solutions and needs stakeholders have regarding the wicked problem. Based on the methods used, we developed a step-by-step guideline for co-creation with stakeholders when tackling wicked problems. The mixed-methods guideline presented here provides a systematic, transparent method to

  11. Five decades of tackling models for stiff fluid dynamics problems a scientific autobiography

    CERN Document Server

    Zeytounian, Radyadour Kh

    2014-01-01

    Rationality - as opposed to 'ad-hoc' - and asymptotics - to emphasize the fact that perturbative methods are at the core of the theory - are the two main concepts associated with the Rational Asymptotic Modeling (RAM) approach in fluid dynamics when the goal is to specifically provide useful models accessible to numerical simulation via high-speed computing. This approach has contributed to a fresh understanding of Newtonian fluid flow problems and has opened up new avenues for tackling real fluid flow phenomena, which are known to lead to very difficult mathematical and numerical problems irrespective of turbulence. With the present scientific autobiography the author guides the reader through his somewhat non-traditional career; first discovering fluid mechanics, and then devoting more than fifty years to intense work in the field. Using both personal and general historical contexts, this account will be of benefit to anyone interested in the early and contemporary developments of an important branch of the...

  12. Potential and Challenges of Web-based Collective Intelligence to Tackle Societal Problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Birutė Pitrėnaitė-Žilėnienė

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose – to research what are conditions and challenges for collective intelligence (hereinafter – CI, i.e., emerging applying social technologies, to tackle societal problems. Several objectives were set in order to achieve the goal: to analyze the scientific concepts of CI and its contents; to summarize possibilities and challenges of application of CI in largescale online argumentation; following theoretical attitudes towards CI, to analyze Lithuanian praxis of application of CI technologies in large-scale online argumentation.Methodology – the methods of document analysis and content analysis of virtual community projects were applied. Theoretical analysis enabled recognition of CI phenomena and the variety of interpretations on CI as well as preconditions and difficulties to be tackled in order to ensure effective application of CI technologies in the processes of different policies design and/or societal problem solving. Having theoretical analysis as a base, the authors researched how the theoretical frameworks correspond to practices of Lithuanian virtual community projects, which are oriented to identification and analysis of relevant problems that communities are facing.Findings – scientific documents analysis demonstrates the variety of possible interpretations of CI. Such interpretations depend on the researcher’s attitudes towards this phenomenon: some authors explain CI in a very broad sense not including the aspects of social technologies. However, in the last decades, with the emergence of the Internet, social technologies have become concurrent dimension of CI. The main principles of Web-based CI are geographically spread users and a big number of them. Materialization of these principles ensures variety of elements needed for emerging of CI. There are diverse web-based mediums, where CI is being developed. However, not all of them ensure collective action, which is obligatory for CI. Researchers have analyzed

  13. FOREWORD: Tackling inverse problems in a Banach space environment: from theory to applications Tackling inverse problems in a Banach space environment: from theory to applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuster, Thomas; Hofmann, Bernd; Kaltenbacher, Barbara

    2012-10-01

    Inverse problems can usually be modelled as operator equations in infinite-dimensional spaces with a forward operator acting between Hilbert or Banach spaces—a formulation which quite often also serves as the basis for defining and analyzing solution methods. The additional amount of structure and geometric interpretability provided by the concept of an inner product has rendered these methods amenable to a convergence analysis, a fact which has led to a rigorous and comprehensive study of regularization methods in Hilbert spaces over the last three decades. However, for numerous problems such as x-ray diffractometry, certain inverse scattering problems and a number of parameter identification problems in PDEs, the reasons for using a Hilbert space setting seem to be based on conventions rather than an appropriate and realistic model choice, so often a Banach space setting would be closer to reality. Furthermore, non-Hilbertian regularization and data fidelity terms incorporating a priori information on solution and noise, such as general Lp-norms, TV-type norms, or the Kullback-Leibler divergence, have recently become very popular. These facts have motivated intensive investigations on regularization methods in Banach spaces, a topic which has emerged as a highly active research field within the area of inverse problems. Meanwhile some of the most well-known regularization approaches, such as Tikhonov-type methods requiring the solution of extremal problems, and iterative ones like the Landweber method, the Gauss-Newton method, as well as the approximate inverse method, have been investigated for linear and nonlinear operator equations in Banach spaces. Convergence with rates has been proven and conditions on the solution smoothness and on the structure of nonlinearity have been formulated. Still, beyond the existing results a large number of challenging open questions have arisen, due to the more involved handling of general Banach spaces and the larger variety

  14. Tackling wicked problems in infection prevention and control : a guideline for co-creation with stakeholders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Woezik, Anne F. G.; Braakman-Jansen, Louise M. A.; Kulyk, Olga; Siemons, Liseth; van Gemert-Pijnen, Julia E. W. C.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Infection prevention and control can be seen as a wicked public health problem as there is no consensus regarding problem definition and solution, multiple stakeholders with different needs and values are involved, and there is no clear end-point of the problem-solving process.

  15. Tackling wicked problems in infection prevention and control: a guideline for co-creation with stakeholders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Woezik, Anne; Braakman-Jansen, Louise Marie Antoinette; Kulyk, Olga Anatoliyivna; Tjin-Kam-Jet-Siemons, Liseth; van Gemert-Pijnen, Julia E.W.C.

    2016-01-01

    Background Infection prevention and control can be seen as a wicked public health problem as there is no consensus regarding problem definition and solution, multiple stakeholders with different needs and values are involved, and there is no clear end-point of the problem-solving process.

  16. Effectively Tackling Reinsurance Problems by Using Evolutionary and Swarm Intelligence Algorithms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sancho Salcedo-Sanz

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper is focused on solving different hard optimization problems that arise in the field of insurance and, more specifically, in reinsurance problems. In this area, the complexity of the models and assumptions considered in the definition of the reinsurance rules and conditions produces hard black-box optimization problems (problems in which the objective function does not have an algebraic expression, but it is the output of a system (usually a computer program, which must be solved in order to obtain the optimal output of the reinsurance. The application of traditional optimization approaches is not possible in this kind of mathematical problem, so new computational paradigms must be applied to solve these problems. In this paper, we show the performance of two evolutionary and swarm intelligence techniques (evolutionary programming and particle swarm optimization. We provide an analysis in three black-box optimization problems in reinsurance, where the proposed approaches exhibit an excellent behavior, finding the optimal solution within a fraction of the computational cost used by inspection or enumeration methods.

  17. Tackling wicked problems: how theories of agency can provide new insights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varpio, Lara; Aschenbrener, Carol; Bates, Joanna

    2017-04-01

    This paper reviews why and how theories of agency can be used as analytical lenses to help health professions education (HPE) scholars address our community's wicked problems. Wicked problems are those that resist clear problem statements, defy traditional analysis approaches, and refuse definitive resolution (e.g. student remediation, assessments of professionalism, etc.). We illustrate how theories of agency can provide new insights into such challenges by examining the application of these theories to one particular wicked problem in HPE: interprofessional education (IPE). After searching the HPE literature and finding that theories of agency had received little attention, we borrowed techniques from narrative literature reviews to search databases indexing a broad scope of disciplines (i.e. ERIC, Web of Science, Scopus, MEDLINE and PubMed) for publications (1994-2014) that: (i) examined agency, or (ii) incorporated an agency-informed analytical perspective. The lead author identified the theories of agency used in these articles, and reviewed the texts on agency cited therein and the original sources of each theory. We identified 10 theories of agency that we considered to be applicable to HPE's wicked problems. To select a subset of theories for presentation in this paper, we discussed each theory in relation to some of HPE's wicked problems. Through debate and reflection, we unanimously agreed on the applicability of a subset of theories for illuminating HPE's wicked problems. This subset is described in this paper. We present four theories of agency: Butler's post-structural formulation; Giddens' sociological formulation; cultural historical activity theory's formulation, and Bandura's social cognitive psychology formulation. We introduce each theory and apply each to the challenges of engaging in IPE. Theories of agency can inform HPE scholarship in novel and generative ways. Each theory offers new insights into the roots of wicked problems and means for

  18. Tackling pseudosymmetry problems in electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) analyses of perovskite structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mariani, Elisabetta; Kaercher, Pamela; Mecklenburgh, Julian; Wheeler, John

    2016-04-01

    Perovskite minerals form an important mineral group that has applications in Earth science and emerging alternative energy technologies, however crystallographic quantification of these minerals with electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) is not accurate due to pseudosymmetry problems. The silicate perovskite Bridgmanite, (Mg,Fe)SiO3, is understood to be the dominant phase in the Earth's lower mantle. Gaining insight into its physical and rheological properties is therefore vital to understand the dynamics of the Earth's deep interior. Rock deformation experiments on analogue perovskite phases, for example (Ca,Sr)TiO3, combined with quantitative microstructural analyses of the recovered samples by EBSD, yield datasets that can reveal what deformation mechanisms may dominate the flow of perovskite in the lower mantle. Additionally, perovskite structures have important technological applications as new, suitable cathodes for the operation of more efficient and environmentally-friendly solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC). In recent years they have also been recognised as a potential substitute for silicon in the next generation of photovoltaic cells for the construction of economic and energy efficient solar panels. EBSD has the potential to be a valuable tool for the study of crystal orientations achieved in perovskite substrates as crystal alignment has a direct control on the properties of these materials. However, perovskite structures currently present us with challenges during the automated indexing of Kikuchi bands in electron backscatter diffraction patterns (EBSPs). Such challenges are represented by the pseudosymmetric character of perovskites, where atoms are subtly displaced (0.005 nm to 0.05 nm) from their higher symmetry positions. In orthorhombic Pbnm perovskites, for example, pseudosymmetry may be evaluated from the c/a unit cell parameter ratio, which is very close to 1. Two main types of distortions from the higher symmetry structure are recognised: a

  19. Tackling racism as a "wicked" public health problem: Enabling allies in anti-racism praxis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Came, Heather; Griffith, Derek

    2018-02-01

    Racism is a "wicked" public health problem that fuels systemic health inequities between population groups in New Zealand, the United States and elsewhere. While literature has examined racism and its effects on health, the work describing how to intervene to address racism in public health is less developed. While the notion of raising awareness of racism through socio-political education is not new, given the way racism has morphed into new narratives in health institutional settings, it has become critical to support allies to make informing efforts to address racism as a fundamental cause of health inequities. In this paper, we make the case for anti-racism praxis as a tool to address inequities in public health, and focus on describing an anti-racism praxis framework to inform the training and support of allies. The limited work on anti-racism rarely articulates the unique challenges or needs of allies or targets of racism, but we seek to help fill that gap. Our anti-racism praxis for allies includes five core elements: reflexive relational praxis, structural power analysis, socio-political education, monitoring and evaluation and systems change approaches. We recognize that racism is a modifiable determinant of health and racial inequities can be eliminated with the necessary political will and a planned system change approach. Anti-racism praxis provides the tools to examine the interconnection and interdependence of cultural and institutional factors as a foundation for examining where and how to intervene to address racism. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Tackling a Problem School.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowe, Robert B.; Gervais, Robert L.

    1984-01-01

    Case study of a new principal who turns around an elementary school with a misbehaving student body and and apathetic staff by setting, publicizing, and consistently enforcing clear rules; documenting infractions; involving parents; encouraging student responsibility; and requiring lesson plans. (DCS)

  1. The Role of Labour Inspectorates in Tackling the Psychosocial Risks at Work in Europe: Problems and Perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimitrios Toukas

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Significant changes in the past year have taken place in the world of work that are bringing new challenges with regard to employee safety and health. These changes have led to emerging psychosocial risks (PSRs at work. The risks are primarily linked to how work is designed, organized, and managed, and to the economic and social frame of work. These factors have increased the level of work-related stress and can lead to serious deterioration in mental and physical health. In tackling PSRs, the European labor inspectorates can have an important role by enforcing preventive and/or corrective interventions in the content and context of work. However, to improve working conditions, unilateral interventions in the context and content of work are insufficient and require adopting a common strategy to tackle PSRs, based on a holistic approach. The implementation of a common strategy by the European Labor Inspectorate for tackling PSRs is restricted by the lack of a common legislative frame with regard to PSR evaluation and management, the different levels of labor inspectors' training, and the different levels of employees' and employers' health and safety culture.

  2. Factors and root causes of corporal punishment within home and family environment and how to tackle the problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neda Niknami

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Corporal punishment is one way of disciplining children which has been used by parents and child care takers over long centuries and there are still children who experience and fear violence. Studies indicate that corporal punishment is an important factor in the development of violent attitudes and actions and it has a devastating impact on an individual’s childhood and life. As a result, it has a detrimental effect on development of children and formation of proper norms of discipline. Furthermore, beating children as a factor involving risks can cause physical and psychological harms and even lead to a child‘s death. Thus, it violates the child fundamental rights such as inherent dignity. Nevertheless, corporal punishment is a legal and common practice in many countries and sometimes religion is used to justify its validity. Therefore, to tackle this concern and global problem, we need to identify its root causes and then take measures to eliminate all forms of it. This article is an attempt to explore the causes and consequences of corporal punishment of children and to offer solutions regarding how to tackle this problem. raise some misconceptions regarding the contradiction between domestic law and religious opinions on the matter with international law and may cast doubt on its international commitments. In addition to describing the legal status of corporal punishment of children, this study will reveal the position of the legal system of the Islamic Republic of Iran towards this important international document more than before. طرز رفتار بزرگسالان اثر عمیقی بر شخصیت کودکان و عادات کسب شده توسط آنها دارد. تنبیه بدنی به معنای استفاده از نیروی فیزیکی جهت ایجاد درد بدون صدمه، به منظور تربیت «تصحیح یا کنترل رفتار» کودک می‌باشد. تنبیه‌بدنی دارای اثرات

  3. Tackling Complex Emergency Response Solutions Evaluation Problems in Sustainable Development by Fuzzy Group Decision Making Approaches with Considering Decision Hesitancy and Prioritization among Assessing Criteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Xiao-Wen; Zhang, Jun-Ling; Zhao, Shu-Ping; Liang, Chang-Yong

    2017-10-02

    In order to be prepared against potential balance-breaking risks affecting economic development, more and more countries have recognized emergency response solutions evaluation (ERSE) as an indispensable activity in their governance of sustainable development. Traditional multiple criteria group decision making (MCGDM) approaches to ERSE have been facing simultaneous challenging characteristics of decision hesitancy and prioritization relations among assessing criteria, due to the complexity in practical ERSE problems. Therefore, aiming at the special type of ERSE problems that hold the two characteristics, we investigate effective MCGDM approaches by hiring interval-valued dual hesitant fuzzy set (IVDHFS) to comprehensively depict decision hesitancy. To exploit decision information embedded in prioritization relations among criteria, we firstly define an fuzzy entropy measure for IVDHFS so that its derivative decision models can avoid potential information distortion in models based on classic IVDHFS distance measures with subjective supplementing mechanism; further, based on defined entropy measure, we develop two fundamental prioritized operators for IVDHFS by extending Yager's prioritized operators. Furthermore, on the strength of above methods, we construct two hesitant fuzzy MCGDM approaches to tackle complex scenarios with or without known weights for decision makers, respectively. Finally, case studies have been conducted to show effectiveness and practicality of our proposed approaches.

  4. Tackling Complex Emergency Response Solutions Evaluation Problems in Sustainable Development by Fuzzy Group Decision Making Approaches with Considering Decision Hesitancy and Prioritization among Assessing Criteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-Wen Qi

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available In order to be prepared against potential balance-breaking risks affecting economic development, more and more countries have recognized emergency response solutions evaluation (ERSE as an indispensable activity in their governance of sustainable development. Traditional multiple criteria group decision making (MCGDM approaches to ERSE have been facing simultaneous challenging characteristics of decision hesitancy and prioritization relations among assessing criteria, due to the complexity in practical ERSE problems. Therefore, aiming at the special type of ERSE problems that hold the two characteristics, we investigate effective MCGDM approaches by hiring interval-valued dual hesitant fuzzy set (IVDHFS to comprehensively depict decision hesitancy. To exploit decision information embedded in prioritization relations among criteria, we firstly define an fuzzy entropy measure for IVDHFS so that its derivative decision models can avoid potential information distortion in models based on classic IVDHFS distance measures with subjective supplementing mechanism; further, based on defined entropy measure, we develop two fundamental prioritized operators for IVDHFS by extending Yager’s prioritized operators. Furthermore, on the strength of above methods, we construct two hesitant fuzzy MCGDM approaches to tackle complex scenarios with or without known weights for decision makers, respectively. Finally, case studies have been conducted to show effectiveness and practicality of our proposed approaches.

  5. We must tackle population problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hironaka, W

    1992-03-01

    Thank you Mr. Chairman, for the opportunity to speak out not only as a Japanese parliamentarian, but also as a member of GLOBE International, Global Legislators Organization for a Balanced Environment, consisting of legislators from the US Congress, EC Parliament, USSR Assembly and Japanese Diet who have joined together to compare, improve and coordinate our respective legislative activities in an effort to effectively address the complex issues surrounding environment and development. Mr. Chairman, world population--which reached 5.4 billion in mid-1991--is growing exponentially. According to 1 UNFPA report 3 people are born every second, a total of 250,000 people every day or 95-100 million people every year. At this rate, world population will reach 6.4 billion by year 2001, and if this rate continues to go unchecked, world population will reach 14-15 billion by the end of the 21st century. GLOBE is highly aware of the relationship between rapidly growing human populations, environmental degradation and sustainable development. We urge UNCED negotiators to address population growth rates and the integrally linked concerns of resource consumption levels, particularly in the industrialized world, in their search for solutions to the conflict between environment and development. Negotiators should also seriously consider ways in which to broaden educational and economic opportunities for women to ease population growth rates, and to alleviate poverty and stresses on the environment that result from population pressures. Social and economic factors must be integrated into population planning. It is saddening to note that almost 40,000 children die every day due to malnutrition, lack of fresh water and access to resources. Over 100 million children do not receive a primary education. Mr. Chairman, worldwide demand for a range of family planning services is increasing faster than supply. Recent studies indicate that if quality family planning information, training and services were made readily available by government and other groups, population rates would drop to manageable levels. Widespread access to family planning services is essential to population stabilization. The health of mothers, children and general quality of life is also improved through the implementation of family planning programs. At the present time many women cannot make use of the limited available services because of cultural constraints, lack of status and self-confidence. Unless complementary efforts are made to expand economic and educational opportunities for women, family planning and other reproductive health services will not reach their full potential for stabilizing population. Although family planning is an individual decision, and implementation of population programs is a sovereign matter in each country, I would urge developed countries to help their neighbors in developing countries who are in need of support for family planning and health services. Investment in family planning programs is 1 of the best ways to contribute to environmental protection and improvement. A greater portion of our foreign aid monies should be allocated for direct population assistance programs that will reach people at the grassroots level. To achieve this, a cooperative working relationship with local nongovernmental organization (NGOs) is essential. The members of GLOBE hope to facilitate cooperation between NGOs and governments so that we might stabilize human population. full text

  6. Tackling in Youth Football.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-11-01

    American football remains one of the most popular sports for young athletes. The injuries sustained during football, especially those to the head and neck, have been a topic of intense interest recently in both the public media and medical literature. The recognition of these injuries and the potential for long-term sequelae have led some physicians to call for a reduction in the number of contact practices, a postponement of tackling until a certain age, and even a ban on high school football. This statement reviews the literature regarding injuries in football, particularly those of the head and neck, the relationship between tackling and football-related injuries, and the potential effects of limiting or delaying tackling on injury risk. Copyright © 2015 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  7. Gating Systems for Sizeable Castings from Al Alloys Cast into Ceramic Moulds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Stachovec

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available In contrast to casting to conventional non-reusable “sand” moulds, for which calculating technique for an optimum design of the gating system is comparatively well-developed, a trial-and-error method is applied mostly for casting to ceramic shell moulds made by the investment casting technology. A technologist selects from gating systems of several types (that are standardized by the foundry mostly on the basis of experience. However, this approach is not sustainable with ever growing demands on quality of castings and also the economy of their fabrication as well as with new types of complex sizeable castings introduced to the production gradually (by new customers from the aircraft industry above all any more. The simulation software may be used as a possible tool for making the process of optimising gating systems more effective.

  8. Sizeable magnetic circular dichroism of artificially precipitated Co clusters in amorphous carbon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. S. Hsu

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available This study examines sizeable magnetic circular dichroism (MCD in Co(20%-doped amorphous carbon (a-C films. While as-grown films exhibit a non-detectable MCD signal, films that undergo rapid thermal annealing (RTA at 600°C in a vacuum yield broad MCD spectra with a large amplitude of ∼3.9 × 104 deg/cm in saturation field 0.78 T at the σ-σ* gap transition (∼5.5 eV. In such films after RTA, the metastable Co-C bonding is decomposed and suitable Co nanoparticles/a-C interfaces are thus formed. Our results indicate that the large change in MCD is contributed from Co nanoparticles and associated with the spin-dependent electronic structure at the Co/a-C interfaces.

  9. Windscale: tackling the core of the problem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1987-01-01

    The decommissioning of the Windscale advanced gas-cooled reactor requires the design of a robot or manipulator to enter the reactor core and cut up the core into pieces that can then be loaded into concrete-filled boxes and disposed of as nuclear waste. Existing equipment is not entirely suitable so the machine is being designed specifically for the job. A British firm has been chosen to supply the equipment, which will have joy stick control, and will be delivered by mid 1988. Six months development work, then a year of trials will follow, before the dismantling process will start. The machine, its operation and the remote viewing provision are discussed. (U.K.)

  10. Tackling racism in the NHS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dean, Erin

    2016-11-30

    Essential facts Trade union Unite has developed a policy briefing on a new toolkit to combat racism in the NHS. It can help nurses and other staff tackle racial discrimination in health, with black and minority ethnic (BME) nurses often treated unequally compared with their white colleagues.

  11. Tackle injuries in professional Rugby Union.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quarrie, Kenneth L; Hopkins, Will G

    2008-09-01

    The tackle is the most dangerous facet of play in rugby union, but little is known about risk factors for tackle injuries. To estimate the injury risk associated with various characteristics of tackles in professional rugby union matches. Descriptive epidemiology study. All 140 249 tackles in 434 professional matches were coded from video recordings for height and direction of tackle on the ball carrier, speed of tackler, and speed of ball carrier; injuries were coded for various characteristics, including whether the tackler or ball carrier required replacement or only on-field assessment. There were 1348 injury assessments requiring only on-field treatment and 211 requiring player replacement. The inciting event and medical outcomes were matched to video records for 281 injuries. Injuries were most frequently the result of high or middle tackles from the front or side, but rate of injury per tackle was higher for tackles from behind than from the front or side. Ball carriers were at highest risk from tackles to the head-neck region, whereas tacklers were most at risk when making low tackles. The impact of the tackle was the most common cause of injury, and the head was the most common site, but an important mechanism of lower limb injuries was loading with the weight of another player. Rates of replacement increased with increasing player speed. Strategies for reducing tackle injuries without radically changing the contact nature of the sport include further education of players about safe tackling and minor changes to laws for the height of the tackle.

  12. Tackling Work Related Stress in a National Health Service Trust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vick, Donna; Whyatt, Hilary

    2004-01-01

    The challenge of tackling the problem of coping with work related stress in a National Health Service (NHS) Trust was undertaken. Ideas were developed within the context of two different action learning sets and led to actions resulting in a large therapy Taster Session event and the establishment of a centre offering alternative therapies and…

  13. Malaysia urges ASEAN to tackle AIDS crisis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-08-07

    Urgent action is needed to fight the alarming spread of HIV/AIDS that infected 1.3 million people in Southeast Asia last year alone, Malaysia's foreign minister said July 24, 2000. Syed Hamid said the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) should tackle at regional and national level an epidemic that was taking its most drastic toll among the region's youth. "HIV/AIDS not only represents a major public health and social problem but is a serious challenge to development as well," Syed Hamid told the opening ceremony of ASEAN's 33rd annual foreign ministers' meeting. The crisis requires commitment at the "highest political level," he said, warning that HIV/AIDS could become a transnational problem within the 10-member group. Foreign ministers have recommended their leaders discuss the crisis later this year at an informal summit in Singapore and hold a summit on HIV/AIDS in conjunction with the 7th ASEAN Summit in Brunei next year. "I think people recognized the importance and the adverse impacts on our social development," Syed Hamid told reporters later. "I think it is a real issue that we cannot run away from." Among ASEAN members, Thailand, Cambodia, and Myanmar have some of the highest infection rates in Asia of HIV, the virus that causes AIDS. full text

  14. Tackling unsafe abortion in Mauritius.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyong'o, D; Oodit, G

    1996-01-01

    Despite a contraceptive prevalence rate of 75% Mauritius has a high incidence of unsafe abortions because of unprotected intercourse experienced by many young women in a rapidly industrializing environment. The Mauritius Family Planning Association (MFPA) tackled the issue of unsafe abortion in 1993. Abortion is illegal in the country, and the Catholic Church also strongly opposes modern family planning methods, thus the use of withdrawal and/or calendar methods have been increasing. The MFPA organized an advocacy symposium in 1993 on unsafe abortion with the result of revealing the pressure the Church was exerting relative to abortion and contraceptives. The advocacy campaign of the MFPA consists of having abortion legalized on health grounds and improving family planning services, especially for young unmarried women and men. The full support of the media was secured on the abortion issue: articles appeared, meetings were attended by the press, and public relations support was also received from them. The MFPA worked closely with parliamentarians. A motion was tabled in 1994 in the National Assembly which called for legalization of abortion on health grounds, but the Church squelched its debate. In March 1994 MFPA hosted the IPPF African Regional Conference on Unsafe Abortion in Mauritius with the participation of over 100 representatives from 20 countries, and subsequently a second motion was tabled without parliamentary debate. The deliberations were covered by the media and the Ministry of Women's Rights recognized abortion as an urgent issue as outlined in a white paper prepared for the Fourth World Conference on Women held in Beijing in 1995. The campaign changed the policy climate favorably making the public more conscious of unsafe abortion. The Ministry of Health decided to collect more data and the newly elected government seems to be more open about this issue.

  15. Tackling the undeclared economy in Croatia

    OpenAIRE

    Williams, C.C.; Baric, M.

    2013-01-01

    To evaluate how undeclared work is being tackled in Croatia this paper reports an\\ud e-survey and in-depth interviews with key stakeholders in Croatia. It is revealed\\ud that, compared with the European Economic Area countries, Croatia has a weak\\ud institutional infrastructure for tackling undeclared work and pursues a narrower\\ud range of policy measures. The outcome is a call to develop a single body to better\\ud coordinate actions to tackle the undeclared economy in Croatia and for a shif...

  16. Baltimore District Tackles High Suspension Rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maxwell, Lesli A.

    2007-01-01

    This article reports on how the Baltimore District tackles its high suspension rates. Driven by an increasing belief that zero-tolerance disciplinary policies are ineffective, more educators are embracing strategies that do not exclude misbehaving students from school for offenses such as insubordination, disrespect, cutting class, tardiness, and…

  17. Tackling the high burden of blindness

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... care delivery, and tackling the five major eye conditions that contribute to most blindness could reduce the current burden of blindness. This would open the window for addressing glaucoma, diabetic retinopathy, and macula degeneration which are the new emerging global consequences of non-communicable diseases.

  18. Tackle mechanisms and match characteristics in women's elite football tournaments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tscholl, P; O'Riordan, D; Fuller, C W; Dvorak, J; Junge, A

    2007-08-01

    Several tools have been used for assessing risk situations and for gathering tackle information from international football matches for men but not for women. To analyse activities in women's football and to identify the characteristics and risk potentials of tackles. Retrospective video analysis. Video recordings of 24 representative matches from six women's top-level tournaments were analysed for tackle parameters and their risk potential. 3531 tackles were recorded. Tackles in which the tackling player came from the side and stayed on her feet accounted for nearly half of all challenges for the ball in which body contact occurred. 2.7% of all tackles were classified as risk situations, with sliding-in tackles from behind and the side having the highest risk potential. Match referees sanctioned sliding-in tackles more often than other tackles (20% v 17%, respectively). Tackle parameters did not change in the duration of a match; however, there was an increase in the number of injury risk situations and foul plays towards the end of each half. Match properties provide valuable information for a better understanding of injury situations in football. Staying on feet and jumping vertically tackle actions leading to injury were sanctioned significantly more times by the referee than those not leading to injury (pgame are not adequate or match referees in women's football are not able to distinguish between sliding-in tackles leading to and those not leading to injury.

  19. Factors influencing tackle injuries in rugby union football

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garraway, W. M.; Lee, A. J.; Macleod, D. A.; Telfer, J. W.; Deary, I. J.; Murray, G. D.

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To assess the influence of selected aspects of lifestyle, personality, and other player related factors on injuries in the tackle. To describe the detailed circumstances in which these tackles occurred. METHODS: A prospective case-control study was undertaken in which the tackling and tackled players ("the cases") involved in a tackle injury were each matched with "control" players who held the same respective playing positions in the opposing teams. A total of 964 rugby matches involving 71 senior clubs drawn from all districts of the Scottish Rugby Union (SRU) were observed by nominated linkmen who administered self report questionnaires to the players identified as cases and controls. Information on lifestyle habits, match preparation, training, and coaching experience was obtained. A validated battery of psychological tests assessed players' trait anger and responses to anger and hostility. The circumstances of the tackles in which injury occurred were recorded by experienced SRU coaching staff in interviews with involved players after the match. RESULTS: A total of 71 tackle injury episodes with correct matching of cases and controls were studied. The following player related factors did not contribute significantly to tackle injuries: alcohol consumption before the match, feeling "below par" through minor illness, the extent of match preparation, previous coaching, or practising tackling. Injured and non- injured players in the tackle did not differ in their disposition toward, or expression of, anger or hostility. Some 85% of tackling players who were injured were three quarters, and 52% of injuries occurred when the tackle came in behind the tackled player or within his peripheral vision. Either the tackling or tackled player was sprinting or running in all of these injury episodes. One third of injuries occurred in differential speed tackles--that is, when one player was travelling much faster than the other at impact. The player with the lower

  20. Tackling the problem of fine particulate (HAP) collection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parker, K.; Sanyal, A.

    2000-07-01

    With increasing concern over the emission of hazardous air pollutants (HAPs), measures are being considered to limit their discharge from many industrial sources. The main thrust o the proposed legislation is towards the power generators, because of their potentially large mass emissions, but also at specific targets, such as incinerators. Legislation already exists governing the emission of heavy metals, etc., from various types of incineration process and regulations controlling the emission of pM 2.5 material are proposed for the US. Provided the HAPs are in a solid particulate phase then their collection can be accomplished by correctly designed and operated control systems, such as electrostatic precipitators and bag filters. There are, however, other HAP species which are usually in a gaseous phase at normal back end temperatures, such as elemental mercury, dioxins, furans, etc. These need special consideration and equipment in order to satisfy the proposed regulations. one of the difficulties facing the designers and operators of processes giving rise to these species is the accurate measurement of these trace elements and predicting the uncontrolled emission level in order to size the collection system such as to remain in compliance. The options for the effective collection of these normally gaseous phase pollutants will be examined; these methods will include combined wet and dry collection, absorption and carbon injection systems. Finally, whichever system is finally considered and adopted, in order to satisfy and proposed regulations, will add significant capital and operating cost to the overall installation.

  1. editorial note african social work to tackling emerging social problems

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mugumbate

    In Malawi, social work training started with a community development certificate in 1964 and later a certificate in social welfare in 1978. .... that his main motivation for writing these memoirs was to recognise those who worked with and helped ...

  2. Role of ureogenesis in tackling problems of ammonia toxicity during ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    during exposure to higher ambient ammonia in the air-breathing walking catfish Clarias ... nervous system of most mammals (Meijer et al 1990). It is, therefore ... functional urea cycle with relatively high levels of activity of all the urea cycle ...

  3. Healthy children, healthy nation — tackling the obesity problem ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2016-04-26

    Apr 26, 2016 ... ... restricting sales of unhealthy food and drink in the vicinity of schools, and ... Read the full story of change: Caribbean health: Healthy children, ... the Caribbean by the Canadian International Food Security Research Fund, ...

  4. Adolescence Behaviour Problems: How to Tackle or Prevent?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, V. Jurist Lionial

    2013-01-01

    Adolescence is a transitional stage of physical and mental human development that occurs between child hood and adulthood. Adolescent period starts with puberty. The period during which the capability for sexual reproduction is attained; it is marked by changes in both primary and secondary sexual characteristics and is dated from menarche in…

  5. Radioecological problems, and how they are tackled in practice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bleck-Neuhaus, J.

    1981-01-01

    Evaluation of radioecological hazards is an issue that is in the field of tension between science, law, and government. Licences granted by the authorities, the author states, often are based on expert opinions that rely on incorrect data, or on values obtained by taking the mean, which falsifies real conditions. Examples are given. There is another fact that puts on edge to discussions, namely current practice in this field which accepts that the relevant authorities are given two-fold competency, being the executive power with regard to the Atomic Energy Act on the one hand, and an instrument for implementing the government's strategies to support the utilization of nuclear energy. (DG) [de

  6. Beyond Individual Behaviour Change: The Role of Power, Knowledge and Strategy in Tackling Climate Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenis, Anneleen; Mathijs, Erik

    2012-01-01

    Individual behaviour change is fast becoming a kind of "holy grail" to tackle climate change, in environmental policy, the environmental movement and academic literature. This is contested by those who claim that social structures are the main problem and who advocate collective social action. The objective of the research presented in…

  7. Video Analysis of Primary Shoulder Dislocations in Rugby Tackles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maki, Nobukazu; Kawasaki, Takayuki; Mochizuki, Tomoyuki; Ota, Chihiro; Yoneda, Takeshi; Urayama, Shingo; Kaneko, Kazuo

    2017-06-01

    Characteristics of rugby tackles that lead to primary anterior shoulder dislocation remain unclear. To clarify the characteristics of tackling that lead to shoulder dislocation and to assess the correlation between the mechanism of injury and morphological damage of the glenoid. Case series; Level of evidence, 4. Eleven elite rugby players who sustained primary anterior shoulder dislocation due to one-on-one tackling between 2001 and 2014 were included. Using an assessment system, the tackler's movement, posture, and shoulder and head position were evaluated in each phase of tackling. Based on 3-dimensional computed tomography, the glenoid of the affected shoulder was classified into 3 types: intact, erosion, and bone defect. Orientation of the glenoid defect and presence of Hill-Sachs lesion were also evaluated. Eleven tackles that led to primary shoulder dislocation were divided into hand, arm, and shoulder tackle types based on the site at which the tackler contacted the ball carrier initially. In hand and arm tackles, the tackler's shoulder joint was forcibly moved to horizontal abduction by the impact of his upper limb, which appeared to result from an inappropriate approach to the ball carrier. In shoulder tackles, the tackler's head was lowered and was in front of the ball carrier at impact. There was no significant correlation between tackle types and the characteristics of bony lesions of the shoulder. Although the precise mechanism of primary anterior shoulder dislocation could not be estimated from this single-view analysis, failure of individual tackling leading to injury is not uniform and can be caused by 2 main factors: failure of approach followed by an extended arm position or inappropriate posture of the tackler at impact, such as a lowered head in front of the opponent. These findings indicate that injury mechanisms should be assessed for each type of tackle, as it is unknown whether external force to the glenoid is different in each mechanism

  8. Tackling obesity requires efficient government policies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecchini Michele

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Changes in food supply and eating habits, combined with a dramatic fall in physical activity, have made obesity a global epidemic. Across OECD countries, one in two adults is currently overweight and one in six is obese. Children have not been spared, with up to one in three currently overweight. Obese people are more likely to develop diseases such as diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and cancer, and have a shorter life expectancy than people of normal weight. A prevention strategy combining health promotion campaigns, government regulation, counseling of individuals at risk in primary care, and paying special attention to the most vulnerable, would enhance population health at an affordable cost, with likely beneficial effects on health inequalities. Failure to implement such a strategy would impose heavy burdens on future generations. The new IJHPR paper by Ginsberg and Rosenberg illustrates how particular countries can assess alternative strategies for tackling obesity in a rigorous fashion. This is a commentary on http://www.ijhpr.org/content/1/1/17/

  9. Adaptive Online Sequential ELM for Concept Drift Tackling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arif Budiman

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A machine learning method needs to adapt to over time changes in the environment. Such changes are known as concept drift. In this paper, we propose concept drift tackling method as an enhancement of Online Sequential Extreme Learning Machine (OS-ELM and Constructive Enhancement OS-ELM (CEOS-ELM by adding adaptive capability for classification and regression problem. The scheme is named as adaptive OS-ELM (AOS-ELM. It is a single classifier scheme that works well to handle real drift, virtual drift, and hybrid drift. The AOS-ELM also works well for sudden drift and recurrent context change type. The scheme is a simple unified method implemented in simple lines of code. We evaluated AOS-ELM on regression and classification problem by using concept drift public data set (SEA and STAGGER and other public data sets such as MNIST, USPS, and IDS. Experiments show that our method gives higher kappa value compared to the multiclassifier ELM ensemble. Even though AOS-ELM in practice does not need hidden nodes increase, we address some issues related to the increasing of the hidden nodes such as error condition and rank values. We propose taking the rank of the pseudoinverse matrix as an indicator parameter to detect “underfitting” condition.

  10. Tackling childhood obesity: the importance of understanding the context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knai, Cécile; McKee, Martin

    2010-12-01

    Recommendations to tackle major health problems such as childhood obesity may not be appropriate if they fail to take account of the prevailing socio-political, cultural and economic context. We describe the development and application of a qualitative risk analysis approach to identify non-scientific considerations framing the policy response to obesity in Denmark and Latvia. Interviews conducted with key stakeholders in Denmark and Latvia, undertaken following a review of relevant literature on obesity and national policies. A qualitative risk analysis model was developed to help explain the findings in the light of national context. Non-scientific considerations that appeared to influence the response to obesity include the perceived relative importance of childhood obesity; the nature of stakeholder relations and its impact on decision-making; the place of obesity on the policy agenda; the legitimacy of the state to act for population health and views on alliances between public and private sectors. Better recognition of the exogenous factors affecting policy-making may lead to a more adequate policy response. The development and use of a qualitative risk analysis model enabled a better understanding of the contextual factors and processes influencing the response to childhood obesity in each country.

  11. Tackle-injury epidemiology in koshuis rugby players at Stellenbosch ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Literature has shown a positive relationship with increased frequency of tackles and ... is redistributed between them at impact. Speed differentiation ..... should be accompanied by video analysis. Our current injury ... Laws of the game. Ireland:.

  12. Momentum and Kinetic Energy Before the Tackle in Rugby Union

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendricks, Sharief; Karpul, David; Lambert, Mike

    2014-01-01

    Understanding the physical demands of a tackle in match situations is important for safe and effective training, developing equipment and research. Physical components such as momentum and kinetic energy, and it relationship to tackle outcome is not known. The aim of this study was to compare momenta between ball-carrier and tackler, level of play (elite, university and junior) and position (forwards vs. backs), and describe the relationship between ball-carrier and tackler mass, velocity and momentum and the tackle outcome. Also, report on the ball-carrier and tackler kinetic energy before contact and the estimated magnitude of impact (energy distributed between ball-carrier and tackler upon contact). Velocity over 0.5 seconds before contact was determined using a 2-dimensional scaled version of the field generated from a computer alogorithm. Body masses of players were obtained from their player profiles. Momentum and kinetic energy were subsequently calculated for 60 tackle events. Ball-carriers were heavier than the tacklers (ball-carrier 100 ± 14 kg vs. tackler 93 ± 11 kg, d = 0.52, p = 0.0041, n = 60). Ball-carriers as forwards had a significantly higher momentum than backs (forwards 563 ± 226 Kg.m.s-1 n = 31 vs. backs 438 ± 135 Kg.m.s-1, d = 0.63, p = 0.0012, n = 29). Tacklers dominated 57% of tackles and ball-carriers dominated 43% of tackles. Despite the ball-carrier having a mass advantage before contact more frequently than the tackler, momentum advantage and tackle dominance between the ball-carrier and tackler was proportionally similar. These findings may reflect a characteristic of the modern game of rugby where efficiently heavier players (particularly forwards) are tactically predetermined to carry the ball in contact. Key Points First study to quantify momentum, kinetic energy, and magnitude of impact in rugby tackles across different levels in matches without a device attached to a player. Physical components alone, of either ball-carrier or

  13. Momentum and kinetic energy before the tackle in rugby union.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendricks, Sharief; Karpul, David; Lambert, Mike

    2014-09-01

    Understanding the physical demands of a tackle in match situations is important for safe and effective training, developing equipment and research. Physical components such as momentum and kinetic energy, and it relationship to tackle outcome is not known. The aim of this study was to compare momenta between ball-carrier and tackler, level of play (elite, university and junior) and position (forwards vs. backs), and describe the relationship between ball-carrier and tackler mass, velocity and momentum and the tackle outcome. Also, report on the ball-carrier and tackler kinetic energy before contact and the estimated magnitude of impact (energy distributed between ball-carrier and tackler upon contact). Velocity over 0.5 seconds before contact was determined using a 2-dimensional scaled version of the field generated from a computer alogorithm. Body masses of players were obtained from their player profiles. Momentum and kinetic energy were subsequently calculated for 60 tackle events. Ball-carriers were heavier than the tacklers (ball-carrier 100 ± 14 kg vs. tackler 93 ± 11 kg, d = 0.52, p = 0.0041, n = 60). Ball-carriers as forwards had a significantly higher momentum than backs (forwards 563 ± 226 Kg(.)m(.)s(-1) n = 31 vs. backs 438 ± 135 Kg(.)m(.)s(-1), d = 0.63, p = 0.0012, n = 29). Tacklers dominated 57% of tackles and ball-carriers dominated 43% of tackles. Despite the ball-carrier having a mass advantage before contact more frequently than the tackler, momentum advantage and tackle dominance between the ball-carrier and tackler was proportionally similar. These findings may reflect a characteristic of the modern game of rugby where efficiently heavier players (particularly forwards) are tactically predetermined to carry the ball in contact. Key PointsFirst study to quantify momentum, kinetic energy, and magnitude of impact in rugby tackles across different levels in matches without a device attached to a player.Physical components alone, of either ball

  14. Momentum and Kinetic Energy Before the Tackle in Rugby Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharief Hendricks, David Karpul, Mike Lambert

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Understanding the physical demands of a tackle in match situations is important for safe and effective training, developing equipment and research. Physical components such as momentum and kinetic energy, and it relationship to tackle outcome is not known. The aim of this study was to compare momenta between ball-carrier and tackler, level of play (elite, university and junior and position (forwards vs. backs, and describe the relationship between ball-carrier and tackler mass, velocity and momentum and the tackle outcome. Also, report on the ball-carrier and tackler kinetic energy before contact and the estimated magnitude of impact (energy distributed between ball-carrier and tackler upon contact. Velocity over 0.5 seconds before contact was determined using a 2-dimensional scaled version of the field generated from a computer alogorithm. Body masses of players were obtained from their player profiles. Momentum and kinetic energy were subsequently calculated for 60 tackle events. Ball-carriers were heavier than the tacklers (ball-carrier 100 ± 14 kg vs. tackler 93 ± 11 kg, d = 0.52, p = 0.0041, n = 60. Ball-carriers as forwards had a significantly higher momentum than backs (forwards 563 ± 226 Kg.m.s-1 n = 31 vs. backs 438 ± 135 Kg.m.s-1, d = 0.63, p = 0.0012, n = 29. Tacklers dominated 57% of tackles and ball-carriers dominated 43% of tackles. Despite the ball-carrier having a mass advantage before contact more frequently than the tackler, momentum advantage and tackle dominance between the ball-carrier and tackler was proportionally similar. These findings may reflect a characteristic of the modern game of rugby where efficiently heavier players (particularly forwards are tactically predetermined to carry the ball in contact.

  15. An evaluation of sampling methods and supporting techniques for tackling lead in drinking water in Aberta Province

    Science.gov (United States)

    A collaborative project commenced in August 2013 with the aim of demonstrating a range of techniques that can be used in tackling the problems of lead in drinking water. The main project was completed in March 2014, with supplementary sampling exercises in mid-2014. It involved t...

  16. Geriatric Challenges - Tackling With Innovative Measures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M A Hassan

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available is a natural process. India has 77 million elderly people and is expected to have 177 million by 2025. By the year 2050, one fifth of total population will be graying. Ninety percent of the elderly are from unorganized sector with no social security. Over 73 percent of 60 plus are illiterate and dependent on physical labour. Forty percent people live below the povertyline. Recent studies have shown that 89.62 percent of elderly population has multiple morbidities. The leading symptoms or group of symptoms in both males and females pertain to visual impairment / diminished vision (65% & 56.2% respectively. Other problems include heart diseases, respiratory diseases, joints pains, hearing problems etc.Many innovative experimental studies have been done to reverse the biochemical and pathological changes that occur during ageing by using chemicals and drugs. In various studies it has been established that the use of Ca2 (+ antagonists leads to reversal of atherosclerotic process, similarly 2 - mercapto propionly glycine (MPG and oxidized MPG improve heart functioning. Centrophenoxine considered as an ageing reversal drug is regarded as neuroenergeticum in human therapy. Ginkgo biloba extract can improve the cerebral function. Topically applied all-trans retionic acid can repair and probably prevent photo ageing.

  17. Tackling cyberbullying: A cross-cultural comparison

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helen Cowie

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available This article examines cyberbullying in the UK and Japan and compares the steps that each country is taking to address the issue by exploring the general principles through which central government, parents, charities, teachers, students and ICT providers in each country are working together. It also suggests that peer support schemes have a unique contribution to make and that an emphasis on peer group relationships and processes of collaboration with young people offer useful ways forward. It is essential to acknowledge that the problem is multi-dimensional and without a full understanding of the complex ways in which young people relate to one another it is unlikely that cyberbullying will be reduced.

  18. Making Norms to Tackle Global Challenges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nilsson, Adriana

    2017-01-01

    by mandates, moral standing and technical expertise, IGOs act in two ways: operating with high level of political support, these organisations guide priority setting and norm development through the definition of collective problems and solutions, including STI aspects, establishing a shared vision; involving......This paper argues that Intergovernmental Organisations (IGOs) can play a significant role in the processes of system transformation required by Grand Challenges. The reason is their potential to influence socio-technical regimes connected to policy areas in which they have authority. Supported......, designed by UNITAID to fulfil access and innovation needs in relation to HIV/AIDS drugs, and WIPO Re:Search, set up by WIPO to support collaboration and accelerate discovery and product development for Neglected Tropical Diseases, Malaria and Tuberculosis....

  19. Young Africans Tackle Their Continent's Environmental Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olwoch, Jane Mukarugwiza

    2008-11-01

    Young African Scientists Session at the Fourth International Geosphere-Biosphere Programme Congress; Cape Town, South Africa, 7 May 2008; Africa is often described as a unique and diverse continent. This is reflected in its biodiversity, economic and social circumstances, and diversity in culture and environment. The Young African Scientists (YAS) session at the International Geosphere-Biosphere Programme Congress was one of the congress's highlights. Global environmental change research in Africa was presented to an audience that included visiting international and national scientists, policy makers, and a group of schoolchildren. From the uniqueness of Africa's paleoclimate to the diversity and complexity of current and future impacts of environmental change on Africa, the session not only provided an overview of current projects but also highlighted the problems that are intertwined with poverty. This session was sponsored by the Global Change System for Analysis, Research, and Training (START).

  20. Tackling bogus self-employment: some lessons from Romania

    OpenAIRE

    Williams, C.C.; Horodnic, I.A.

    2017-01-01

    In recent years, recognition that bogus self-employment is rapidly growing, not least because of the advent of what has been called the ‘gig,’ ‘sharing’ or ‘collaborative’ economy, has led governments to search for ways to tackle this form of dependent self-employment that is widely viewed as diminishing the quality of working conditions. Until now, however, there have been few ex-post evaluations of policy initiatives that seek to tackle this phenomenon. Therefore, the aim of this paper is t...

  1. Tackling drought stress: receptor-like kinases present new approaches

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marshall, A.; Aalen, R.B.; Audenaert, D.; Beeckman, T.; Broadley, M.R.; Butenko, M.A.; Caño-Delgado, A.I.; Vries, de S.C.; Dresselhaus, T.; Felix, G.; Graham, N.S.; Foulkes, J.; Granier, C.; Greb, T.; Grossniklaus, U.; Hammond, J.P.; Heidstra, R.; Hodgman, C.; Hothorn, M.; Inzé, D.; Østergaard, L.; Russinova, E.T.; Simon, R.; Skirycz, A.; Stahl, Y.; Zipfel, C.; Smet, De I.

    2012-01-01

    Global climate change and a growing population require tackling the reduction in arable land and improving biomass production and seed yield per area under varying conditions. One of these conditions is suboptimal water availability. Here, we review some of the classical approaches to dealing with

  2. Tackling online inequality: Making digital platforms work for inclusive ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Tackling online inequality: Making digital platforms work for inclusive development. As they become an essential part of the digital experience, online platforms such as Facebook, Amazon, Uber, AirBnB, and Twitter are having a direct bearing on social inclusion and opportunity in many spheres of life for people around the ...

  3. Tackle-injury epidemiology in koshuis rugby players at Stellenbosch ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The tackle contributed to 61% of all injuries, making it the most dangerous phase of play. The tackler is more at risk than the ball carrier, especially for injuries to the face, with lacerations having the highest prevalence. For the ball carrier the location of the most injuries was the head, although joint sprains were the most ...

  4. The Role of Empathy in Preparing Teachers to Tackle Bullying

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Helena; Tubritt, John; Norman, James O'Higgins

    2018-01-01

    Much research on bullying behaviour in schools among students has been carried out since the 1970's, when Olweus started a large-scale project in Norway which is now generally regarded as the first scientific study on bullying. Yet, there has been little research on how teachers respond to reports of bullying and tackle bullying behaviour in…

  5. The Role of Empathy in Preparing Teachers to Tackle Bullying

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helena R Murphy

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Much research on bullying behaviour in schools among students has been carried out since the 1970’s, when Olweus started a large-scale project in Norway which is now generally regarded as the first scientific study on bullying. Yet, there has been little research on how teachers respond to reports of bullying and tackle bullying behaviour in post-primary schools.  This paper reports on a preliminary study investigating teacher empathy levels and their preparedness for tackling bullying in a post-primary school in Ireland. There were two research questions central to this research.  The first looked at how empathic are teachers in this school? The second examined to what extent it prepares them for tackling bullying?  In answering these questions we relied on the Interpersonal Reactivity Index (IRI to gather data on empathy levels among teachers (n=10, with findings related to existing research in the field. The results showed that teacher empathy is an important factor in creating and maintaining a positive school climate, which in turn leads to a prevention of bullying situations.

  6. SpeckTackle: JavaScript charts for spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beisken, Stephan; Conesa, Pablo; Haug, Kenneth; Salek, Reza M; Steinbeck, Christoph

    2015-01-01

    Spectra visualisation from methods such as mass spectroscopy, infrared spectroscopy or nuclear magnetic resonance is an essential part of every web-facing spectral resource. The development of an intuitive and versatile visualisation tool is a time- and resource-intensive task, however, most databases use their own embedded viewers and new databases continue to develop their own viewers. We present SpeckTackle, a custom-tailored JavaScript charting library for spectroscopy in life sciences. SpeckTackle is cross-browser compatible and easy to integrate into existing resources, as we demonstrate for the MetaboLights database. Its default chart types cover common visualisation tasks following the de facto 'look and feel' standards for spectra visualisation. SpeckTackle is released under GNU LGPL to encourage uptake and reuse within the community. The latest version of the library including examples and documentation on how to use and extend the library with additional chart types is available online in its public repository.

  7. The Effects of Verbal Instruction and Shaping to Improve Tackling by High School Football Players

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, Antonio M.; Pyles, David A.

    2013-01-01

    We evaluated verbal instruction and shaping using TAG (teaching with acoustical guidance) to improve tackling by 3 high school football players. Verbal instruction and shaping improved tackling for all 3 participants. In addition, performance was maintained as participants moved more quickly through the tackling procedure.

  8. Non-sanctioning of illegal tackles in South African youth community rugby.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, J C; Boucher, S J; Lambert, M; Viljoen, W; Readhead, C; Hendricks, S; Kraak, W J

    2018-06-01

    The tackle event in rugby union ('rugby') contributes to the majority of players' injuries. Referees can reduce this risk by sanctioning dangerous tackles. A study in elite adult rugby suggests that referees only sanction a minority of illegal tackles. The aim of this study was to assess if this finding was similar in youth community rugby. Observational study. Using EncodePro, 99 South African Rugby Union U18 Youth Week tournament matches were coded between 2011 and 2015. All tackles were coded by a researcher and an international referee to ensure that laws were interpreted correctly. The inter- and intra-rater reliabilities were 0.97-1.00. A regression analysis compared the non-sanctioned rates over time. In total, 12 216 tackles were coded, of which less than 1% (n=113) were 'illegal'. The majority of the 113 illegal tackles were front-on (75%), high tackles (72%) and occurred in the 2nd/4th quarters (29% each). Of the illegal tackles, only 59% were sanctioned. The proportions of illegal tackles and sanctioning of these illegal tackles to all tackles improved by 0.2% per year from 2011-2015 (p<0.05). In these youth community rugby players, 59% of illegal tackles were not sanctioned appropriately. This was better than a previous study in elite adult rugby, where only 7% of illegal tackles were penalised. Moreover, the rates of illegal tackles and non-sanctioned illegal tackles both improved over time. However, it is critical that referees consistently enforce all laws to enhance injury prevention efforts. Further studies should investigate the reasons for non-sanctioning. Copyright © 2017 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. [Family Health Strategies to tackle violence involving adolescents].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieira Netto, Moysés Francisco; Deslandes, Suely Ferreira

    2016-05-01

    The Family Health Strategy (FHS) has an acknowledged potential for the promotion of health and the prevention of violence. This is an integrative bibliographic review with the aim of evaluating the performance of FHS professionals in tackling and preventing violence involving adolescents. It is an integrative review of dissertations and theses on healthcare published from 1994 to 2014. The collection of 17 dissertations and 2 doctoral theses reveals that these studies are recent. The FHS professionals acknowledge the vulnerability of adolescents to inflicting and being subject to violence, however the FHS proves ineffective in tackling and preventing such violence. The predominance of the medical technical care model, the deficiencies in Public Health education in professional training and the lack of institutional support are seen as the main obstacles. Many of these professionals are unaware of the files for notification of violence. The existence of family violence and criminal groups were the aspects most mentioned in the territories. The social representation of adolescents as being "problematic" and the lack of ESF actions that promote an increase youth leadership and empowerment were clearly detected.

  10. Acetabular fractures following rugby tackles: a case series

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morris Seamus

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Rugby is the third most popular team contact sport in the world and is increasing in popularity. In 1995, rugby in Europe turned professional, and with this has come an increased rate of injury. Case presentation In a six-month period from July to December, two open reduction and internal fixations of acetabular fractures were performed in young Caucasian men (16 and 24 years old who sustained their injuries after rugby tackles. Both of these cases are described as well as the biomechanical factors contributing to the fracture and the recovery. Acetabular fractures of the hip during sport are rare occurrences. Conclusion Our recent experience of two cases over a six-month period creates concern that these high-energy injuries may become more frequent as rugby continues to adopt advanced training regimens. Protective equipment is unlikely to reduce the forces imparted across the hip joint; however, limiting 'the tackle' to only two players may well reduce the likelihood of this life-altering injury.

  11. Acetabular fractures following rugby tackles: a case series

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Good, Daniel W

    2011-10-05

    Abstract Introduction Rugby is the third most popular team contact sport in the world and is increasing in popularity. In 1995, rugby in Europe turned professional, and with this has come an increased rate of injury. Case presentation In a six-month period from July to December, two open reduction and internal fixations of acetabular fractures were performed in young Caucasian men (16 and 24 years old) who sustained their injuries after rugby tackles. Both of these cases are described as well as the biomechanical factors contributing to the fracture and the recovery. Acetabular fractures of the hip during sport are rare occurrences. Conclusion Our recent experience of two cases over a six-month period creates concern that these high-energy injuries may become more frequent as rugby continues to adopt advanced training regimens. Protective equipment is unlikely to reduce the forces imparted across the hip joint; however, limiting \\'the tackle\\' to only two players may well reduce the likelihood of this life-altering injury.

  12. Waste collection in developing countries - Tackling occupational safety and health hazards at their source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bleck, Daniela, E-mail: bleck.daniela@baua.bund.de [Federal Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, Germany (BAuA), Friedrich Henkel Weg 1-25, 44149 Dortmund (Germany); Wettberg, Wieland, E-mail: wettberg.wieland@baua.bund.de [Federal Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, Germany (BAuA), Friedrich Henkel Weg 1-25, 44149 Dortmund (Germany)

    2012-11-15

    Waste management procedures in developing countries are associated with occupational safety and health risks. Gastro-intestinal infections, respiratory and skin diseases as well as muscular-skeletal problems and cutting injuries are commonly found among waste workers around the globe. In order to find efficient, sustainable solutions to reduce occupational risks of waste workers, a methodological risk assessment has to be performed and counteractive measures have to be developed according to an internationally acknowledged hierarchy. From a case study in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia suggestions for the transferral of collected household waste into roadside containers are given. With construction of ramps to dump collected household waste straight into roadside containers and an adaptation of pushcarts and collection procedures, the risk is tackled at the source.

  13. Waste collection in developing countries – Tackling occupational safety and health hazards at their source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bleck, Daniela; Wettberg, Wieland

    2012-01-01

    Waste management procedures in developing countries are associated with occupational safety and health risks. Gastro-intestinal infections, respiratory and skin diseases as well as muscular-skeletal problems and cutting injuries are commonly found among waste workers around the globe. In order to find efficient, sustainable solutions to reduce occupational risks of waste workers, a methodological risk assessment has to be performed and counteractive measures have to be developed according to an internationally acknowledged hierarchy. From a case study in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia suggestions for the transferral of collected household waste into roadside containers are given. With construction of ramps to dump collected household waste straight into roadside containers and an adaptation of pushcarts and collection procedures, the risk is tackled at the source.

  14. Tackle characteristics and injury in a cross section of rugby union football.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIntosh, Andrew S; Savage, Trevor N; McCrory, Paul; Fréchède, Bertrand O; Wolfe, Rory

    2010-05-01

    The tackle is the game event in rugby union most associated with injury. This study's main aims were to measure tackle characteristics from video using a qualitative protocol, to assess whether the characteristics differed by level of play, and to measure the associations between tackle characteristics and injury. A cohort study was undertaken. The cohort comprised male rugby players in the following levels: younger than 15 yr, 18 yr, and 20 yr, grade, and elite (Super 12 and Wallabies). All tackle events and technique characteristics were coded in 77 game halves using a standardized qualitative protocol. Game injuries and missed-game injuries were identified and correlated with tackle events. A total of 6618 tackle events, including 81 resulting in a game injury, were observed and coded in the 77 game halves fully analyzed (145 tackle events per hour). An increase in the proportion of active shoulder tackles was observed from younger than 15 yr (13%) to elite (31%). Younger players engaged in more passive tackles and tended to stay on their feet more than experienced players. Younger than 15 yr rugby players had a significantly lower risk of tackle game injury compared with elite players. No specific tackle technique was observed to be associated with a significantly increased risk of game injury. There was a greater risk of game injury associated with two or more tacklers involved in the tackle event, and the greatest risk was associated with simultaneous contact by tacklers, after adjusting for level of play. Tackle characteristics differed between levels of play. The number of tacklers and the sequence of tackler contact with the ball carrier require consideration from an injury prevention perspective.

  15. Tackling Drought Stress: RECEPTOR-LIKE KINASES Present New Approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Alex; Aalen, Reidunn B.; Audenaert, Dominique; Beeckman, Tom; Broadley, Martin R.; Butenko, Melinka A.; Caño-Delgado, Ana I.; de Vries, Sacco; Dresselhaus, Thomas; Felix, Georg; Graham, Neil S.; Foulkes, John; Granier, Christine; Greb, Thomas; Grossniklaus, Ueli; Hammond, John P.; Heidstra, Renze; Hodgman, Charlie; Hothorn, Michael; Inzé, Dirk; Østergaard, Lars; Russinova, Eugenia; Simon, Rüdiger; Skirycz, Aleksandra; Stahl, Yvonne; Zipfel, Cyril; De Smet, Ive

    2012-01-01

    Global climate change and a growing population require tackling the reduction in arable land and improving biomass production and seed yield per area under varying conditions. One of these conditions is suboptimal water availability. Here, we review some of the classical approaches to dealing with plant response to drought stress and we evaluate how research on RECEPTOR-LIKE KINASES (RLKs) can contribute to improving plant performance under drought stress. RLKs are considered as key regulators of plant architecture and growth behavior, but they also function in defense and stress responses. The available literature and analyses of available transcript profiling data indeed suggest that RLKs can play an important role in optimizing plant responses to drought stress. In addition, RLK pathways are ideal targets for nontransgenic approaches, such as synthetic molecules, providing a novel strategy to manipulate their activity and supporting translational studies from model species, such as Arabidopsis thaliana, to economically useful crops. PMID:22693282

  16. More iPhone 3 Development Tackling IPhone SDK 3

    CERN Document Server

    LaMarche, Jeff

    2010-01-01

    Interested in iPhone development? Want to learn more? Whether you're a self-taught iPhone development genius or have just made your way through the pages of Beginning iPhone 3 Development, we have the perfect book for you. More iPhone 3 Development: Tackling iPhone SDK 3 digs deeper into Apple's latest SDK. Best-selling authors Dave Mark and Jeff LaMarche explain concepts as only they can, covering topics like Core Data, peer-to-peer networking using GameKit and network streams, working with data from the web, MapKit, in-application e-mail, and more. All the concepts and APIs are clearly prese

  17. Tackling malnutrition in Latin America and the Caribbean: challenges and opportunities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Galicia

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Undernutrition and micronutrient deficiencies are still a public health problem in Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC, and overweight and obesity have reached epidemic proportions. To assess the nutrition landscape in LAC countries and guide future nutrition efforts and investments, the Pan American Health Organization and the Micronutrient Initiative joined efforts to 1 identify information gaps and describe the current nutritional situation in the region; 2 map existing policies to address malnutrition in Latin America; 3 describe the impact of conditional cash transfer programs (CCTs on nutrition and health outcomes; and 4 identify the challenges and opportunities to address malnutrition in the region. This article summarizes the methods and key findings from that research and describes the current challenges and opportunities in addressing malnutrition in the LAC region. LAC countries have advanced in reducing undernutrition and micronutrient deficiencies, but important gaps in information are a major concern. These countries have policies to address undernutrition and micronutrient deficiencies, but comprehensive and intersectoral policies to tackle obesity are lacking. CCTs in Brazil, Colombia, and Mexico have been reported to have a positive impact on child nutrition and health outcomes, providing an opportunity to integrate nutrition actions in intersectoral platforms. The current epidemiological situation and policy options offer an opportunity for countries, technical agencies, donors, and other stakeholders to jointly scale up nutrition actions. This can support the development of comprehensive and intersectoral policies to tackle the double burden of malnutrition, strengthen national nutrition surveillance systems, incorporate monitoring and evaluation as systematic components of policies and programs, document and increase investments in nutrition, and assess the effectiveness of such policies to support political

  18. Tackle technique and tackle-related injuries in high-level South African Rugby Union under-18 players: real-match video analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burger, Nicholas; Lambert, Michael I; Viljoen, Wayne; Brown, James C; Readhead, Clint; Hendricks, Sharief

    2016-08-01

    The high injury rate associated with rugby union is primarily due to the tackle, and poor contact technique has been identified as a risk factor for injury. We aimed to determine whether the tackle technique proficiency scores were different in injurious tackles versus tackles that did not result in injury using real-match scenarios in high-level youth rugby union. Injury surveillance was conducted at the under-18 Craven Week tournaments (2011-2013). Tackle-related injury information was used to identify injury events in the match video footage and non-injury events were identified for the injured player cohort. Injury and non-injury events were scored for technique proficiency and Cohen's effect sizes were calculated and the Student t test (p<0.05) was performed to compare injury versus non-injury scores. The overall mean score for front-on ball-carrier proficiency was 7.17±1.90 and 9.02±2.15 for injury and non-injury tackle events, respectively (effect size=moderate; p<0.05). The overall mean score for side/behind ball-carrier proficiency was 4.09±2.12 and 7.68±1.72 for injury and non-injury tackle events, respectively (effect size=large; p<0.01). The overall mean score for front-on tackler proficiency was 7.00±1.95 and 9.35±2.56 for injury and non-injury tackle events, respectively (effect size=moderate; p<0.05). The overall mean score for side/behind tackler proficiency was 5.47±1.60 and 8.14±1.75 for injury and non-injury tackle events, respectively (effect size=large; p<0.01). Higher overall mean and criterion-specific tackle-related technique scores were associated with a non-injury outcome. The ability to perform well during tackle events may decrease the risk of injury and may manifest in superior performance. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  19. Tackling HIV Persistence: Pharmacological versus CRISPR-Based Shock Strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darcis, Gilles; Das, Atze T; Berkhout, Ben

    2018-03-29

    Jan Svoboda studied aspects of viral latency, in particular with respect to disease induction by avian RNA tumor viruses, which were later renamed as part of the extended retrovirus family. The course of retroviral pathogenesis is intrinsically linked to their unique property of integrating the DNA copy of the retroviral genome into that of the host cell, thus forming the provirus. Retroviral latency has recently become of major clinical interest to allow a better understanding of why we can effectively block the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) in infected individuals with antiviral drugs, yet never reach a cure. We will discuss HIV-1 latency and its direct consequence-the formation of long-lasting HIV-1 reservoirs. We next focus on one of the most explored strategies in tackling HIV-1 reservoirs-the "shock and kill" strategy-which describes the broadly explored pharmacological way of kicking the latent provirus, with subsequent killing of the virus-producing cell by the immune system. We furthermore present how the clustered regularly interspaced palindromic repeats (CRISPR) and associated protein (Cas) system can be harnessed to reach the same objective by reactivating HIV-1 gene expression from latency. We will review the benefits and drawbacks of these different cure strategies.

  20. Confusion and abdominal symptoms following a rugby tackle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ioannides, Demetris; Davies, Madeleine; Kluzek, Stefan

    2017-09-23

    A 19-year-old man was sent to the emergency department following a pitch-side assessment for suspected concussion, unexplained upper abdominal tenderness and vomiting, following a high-impact tackle during a rugby match. A Focussed Assessment with Sonography for Trauma (FAST) scan performed in the emergency department suggested intra-abdominal free fluid, and subsequent head and abdominal CT imaging showed no intracranial lesion but confirmed a significant haemoperitoneum due to large splenic tear and bleeding. An emergency splenectomy was performed, which confirmed the rupture of an enlarged spleen with blood loss of almost 2 L into the peritoneal cavity. The patient made a full recovery following surgery. A subsequent histological examination revealed granulomatous inflammation characteristic of infectious mononucleosis. This unique case illustrates that physically fit patients with early hypovolaemic shock can present with symptoms mimicking concussion. © BMJ Publishing Group Ltd (unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  1. Views on alternative forums for effectively tackling climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hjerpe, Mattias; Nasiritousi, Naghmeh

    2015-09-01

    This year (2015) marks the 21st formal anniversary of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) and in December a new climate treaty is expected to be reached. Yet, the UNFCCC has not been successful in setting the world on a path to meet a target to prevent temperatures rising by more than 2 °C above pre-industrial levels. Meanwhile, other forums, such as the G20 and subnational forums, have increasingly become sites of climate change initiatives. There has, however, so far been no systematic evaluation of what forums climate change policymakers and practitioners perceive to be needed to effectively tackle climate change. Drawing on survey data from two recent UNFCCC Conference of the Parties (COP), we show that there exists an overall preference for state-led, multilateral forums. However, preferences starkly diverge between respondents from different geographical regions and no clear alternative to the UNFCCC emerges. Our results highlight difficulties in coordinating global climate policy in a highly fragmented governance landscape.

  2. Tackling Critical Catalytic Residues in Helicobacter pylori L-Asparaginase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maristella Maggi

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Bacterial asparaginases (amidohydrolases, EC 3.5.1.1 are important enzymes in cancer therapy, especially for Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia. They are tetrameric enzymes able to catalyze the deamination of L-ASN and, to a variable extent, of L-GLN, on which leukemia cells are dependent for survival. In contrast to other known L-asparaginases, Helicobacter pylori CCUG 17874 type II enzyme (HpASNase is cooperative and has a low affinity towards L-GLN. In this study, some critical amino acids forming the active site of HpASNase (T16, T95 and E289 have been tackled by rational engineering in the attempt to better define their role in catalysis and to achieve a deeper understanding of the peculiar cooperative behavior of this enzyme. Mutations T16E, T95D and T95H led to a complete loss of enzymatic activity. Mutation E289A dramatically reduced the catalytic activity of the enzyme, but increased its thermostability. Interestingly, E289 belongs to a loop that is very variable in L-asparaginases from the structure, sequence and length point of view, and which could be a main determinant of their different catalytic features.

  3. Tour of a Simple Trigonometry Problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poon, Kin-Keung

    2012-01-01

    This article focuses on a simple trigonometric problem that generates a strange phenomenon when different methods are applied to tackling it. A series of problem-solving activities are discussed, so that students can be alerted that the precision of diagrams is important when solving geometric problems. In addition, the problem-solving plan was…

  4. Tackling U.S. energy challenges and opportunities: preliminary policy recommendations for enhancing energy innovation in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anadon, Laura Diaz; Gallagher, Kelly Sims; Bunn, Matthew; Jones, Charles

    2009-02-18

    The report offers preliminary recommendations for near-term actions to strengthen the U.S. effort to develop and deploy advanced energy technologies. The report comes as the Obama Administration and the 111th U.S. Congress face enormous challenges and opportunities in tackling the pressing security, economic, and environmental problems posed by the energy sector. Improving the technologies of energy supply and end-use is a prerequisite for surmounting these challenges in a timely and cost-effective way, and this report elaborates on how policy can support develop of these important energy technologies.

  5. Paralysis due to the high tackle - a black spot South African rugby ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The high tackle around the neck is illegal but still commonplace in South African rugby. An analysis of 40 rugby players who sustained spinal cord injury during the period 1985 1989 revealed that 8 were injured by a high tackle. The case histories and radiographs of these 8 players were analysed. The majority sustained ...

  6. How to tackle the problem early? The role of education in the prevention of obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietz, W

    1999-05-01

    The major issues that confront the clinician in relation to childhood obesity are identifying children at risk, deciding the goal and focus of therapy, and determining how to maintain weight loss. The severity of obesity and the age at which it is present appear to be significant determinants of whether childhood obesity will persist into adulthood. At any age, severe obesity is more likely to persist, and obesity present in adolescents is much more likely to persist than obesity in young children. If a child has obese parents, the risk that their obesity will persist to adulthood increases, though the magnitude of that risk varies with the age of the child. The goals of therapy depend on the child's age and the severity of obesity-related complications. Assessment of the family's readiness to change represents the first focus of therapy. A reduction in time spent watching television, coupled with family involvement and a diet that aims to reduce or eliminate high caloric density foods is the best approach in most cases. Children or adolescents who have an emergent complication of obesity are candidates for aggressive weight reduction such as the protein modified fast. More aggressive therapies, such as drug therapy or gastric bypass surgery, must be considered as experimental in children and adolescents.

  7. Strange Deja Vu: Tackling Information Sharing Problems for Efforts Against Transnational Organized Crime

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-01

    restaurant experience (e.g., trademarks, product names and packaging, employee uniforms, building architecture , customer service language). However...Schein cautions that an artifact is “both easy to observe and very difficult to decipher.” Schein cites ancient Egyptian and Mayan pyramids as...establishing the institutional architecture that enables agencies to work together as part of a unified, whole-of-government approach is actually the

  8. Tackling the Reproducibility Problem in Systems Research with Declarative Experiment Specifications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jimenez, Ivo [Univ. of California, Santa Cruz, CA (United States); Maltzahn, Carlos [Univ. of California, Santa Cruz, CA (United States); Lofstead, Jay [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States); Moody, Adam [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Mohror, Kathryn [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Arpaci-Dusseau, Remzi [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States); Arpaci-Dusseau, Andrea [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States)

    2015-05-04

    Validating experimental results in the field of computer systems is a challenging task, mainly due to the many changes in software and hardware that computational environments go through. Determining if an experiment is reproducible entails two separate tasks: re-executing the experiment and validating the results. Existing reproducibility efforts have focused on the former, envisioning techniques and infrastructures that make it easier to re-execute an experiment. In this work we focus on the latter by analyzing the validation workflow that an experiment re-executioner goes through. We notice that validating results is done on the basis of experiment design and high-level goals, rather than exact quantitative metrics. Based on this insight, we introduce a declarative format for specifying the high-level components of an experiment as well as describing generic, testable conditions that serve as the basis for validation. We present a use case in the area of storage systems to illustrate the usefulness of this approach. We also discuss limitations and potential benefits of using this approach in other areas of experimental systems research.

  9. Tackling drug and alcohol misuse in Brazil: priorities and challenges for nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rassool, G H; Villar-Luis, M

    2004-12-01

    To provide an overview of the extent of drug and alcohol misuse in Brazil and the policies and approaches in tackling substance misuse. An examination of the challenges facing the nursing profession in working with substance misusers is presented. Alcohol, cocaine, and cannabis are the most commonly misused psychoactive substances in Brazil. One of the biggest public health problems is the interface between the misuse of psychoactive substances and HIV prevalence and other sexually transmitted diseases. Findings from a recent study suggest that undergraduate nurses in Brazil are not adequately prepared in the care and management of substance misuse problems. The nursing profession in Brazil faces numerous challenges in the development of professional competence of nurses in this field. A strategy proposed is the creation of regional centres in Brazil to study the integration of substance use and misuse in the nursing undergraduate curriculum and the giving of specific support in teaching and research to nurse teachers. Nurses have a key role to play in the early recognition, assessment, prevention, and treatment of substance misuse.

  10. The 1998 flood in Bangladesh: is different targeting needed during emergencies and recovery to tackle malnutrition?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hossain, S M; Kolsteren, Patrick

    2003-06-01

    Bangladesh suffered the century's worst flood during July-October 1998 and appealed for assistance. To provide information for appropriate interventions to tackle nutritional problems, a rapid assessment survey was conducted to look at the nutritional situation, problems encountered by the community, their coping mechanisms and rehabilitation priorities in six rural areas. The survey was repeated after four months to measure the outcome of activities during the flood and the necessity for future assistance. There were 3,048 children measured in both surveys (1,597 and 1,451). The sample of most interest was a sub-group of 180 children present in two previous independent surveys. The analysis found that while moving from the crisis period to post-flood phase there was evidence of a 'crossover phenomenon' in the recovery pattern of nutritional status. Sixty-eight per cent of the children who were malnourished (WHZ loan burden had also influenced the recovery pattern of the children's nutritional status as evident from the statistically significant associations. These findings raise questions about targeting acute malnutrition during emergencies, and using the same criteria during both the crisis and rehabilitation phases.

  11. Antimicrobial Peptides: A Promising Therapeutic Strategy in Tackling Antimicrobial Resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuti, Ramya; Goud, Nerella S; Saraswati, A Prasanth; Alvala, Ravi; Alvala, Mallika

    2017-01-01

    Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) has posed a serious threat to global public health and it requires immediate action, preferably long term. Current drug therapies have failed to curb this menace due to the ability of microbes to circumvent the mechanisms through which the drugs act. From the drug discovery point of view, the majority of drugs currently employed for antimicrobial therapy are small molecules. Recent trends reveal a surge in the use of peptides as drug candidates as they offer remarkable advantages over small molecules. Newer synthetic strategies like organometalic complexes, Peptide-polymer conjugates, solid phase, liquid phase and recombinant DNA technology encouraging the use of peptides as therapeutic agents with a host of chemical functions, and tailored for specific applications. In the last decade, many peptide based drugs have been successfully approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA). This success can be attributed to their high specificity, selectivity and efficacy, high penetrability into the tissues, less immunogenicity and less tissue accumulation. Considering the enormity of AMR, the use of Antimicrobial Peptides (AMPs) can be a viable alternative to current therapeutics strategies. AMPs are naturally abundant allowing synthetic chemists to develop semi-synthetics peptide molecules. AMPs have a broad spectrum of activity towards microbes and they possess the ability to bypass the resistance induction mechanisms of microbes. The present review focuses on the potential applications of AMPs against various microbial disorders and their future prospects. Several resistance mechanisms and their strategies have also been discussed to highlight the importance in the current scenario. Breakthroughs in AMP designing, peptide synthesis and biotechnology have shown promise in tackling this challenge and has revived the interest of using AMPs as an important weapon in fighting AMR. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries

  12. Does player time-in-game affect tackle technique in elite level rugby union?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tierney, Gregory J; Denvir, Karl; Farrell, Garreth; Simms, Ciaran K

    2018-02-01

    It has been hypothesised that fatigue may be a major factor in tackle-related injury risk in rugby union and hence more injuries occur in the later stages of a game. The aim of this study is to identify changes in ball carrier or tackler proficiency characteristics, using elite level match video data, as player time-in-game increases. Qualitative observational cohort study. Three 2014/15 European Rugby Champions Cup games were selected for ball carrier and tackler proficiency analysis. Analysis was only conducted on players who started and remained on the field for the entire game. A separate analysis was conducted on 10 randomly selected 2014/15 European Rugby Champions Cup/Pro 12 games to assess the time distribution of tackles throughout a game. A Chi-square test and one-way way ANOVA with post-hoc testing was conducted to identify significant differences (p<0.05) for proficiency characteristics and tackle counts between quarters in the game, respectively. Player time-in-game did not affect tackle proficiency for both the ball carrier and tackler. Any results that showed statistical significance did not indicate a trend of deterioration in proficiency with increased player time-in-game. The time distribution of tackles analysis indicated that more tackles occurring in the final quarter of the game than the first (p=0.04) and second (p=<0.01). It appears that player time-in-game does not affect tackler or ball carrier tackle technique proficiency at the elite level. More tackles occurring in the final quarter of a game provides an alternative explanation to more tackle-related injuries occurring at this stage. Copyright © 2017 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. An investigation of shoulder forces in active shoulder tackles in rugby union football.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usman, Juliana; McIntosh, Andrew S; Fréchède, Bertrand

    2011-11-01

    In rugby union football the tackle is the most frequently executed skill and one most associated with injury, including shoulder injury to the tackler. Despite the importance of the tackle, little is known about the magnitude of shoulder forces in the tackle and influencing factors. The objectives of the study were to measure the shoulder force in the tackle, as well as the effects of shoulder padding, skill level, side of body, player size, and experimental setting on shoulder force. Experiments were conducted in laboratory and field settings using a repeated measures design. Thirty-five participants were recruited to the laboratory and 98 to the field setting. All were male aged over 18 years with rugby experience. The maximum force applied to the shoulder in an active shoulder tackle was measured with a custom built forceplate incorporated into a 45 kg tackle bag. The overall average maximum shoulder force was 1660 N in the laboratory and 1997 N in the field. This difference was significant. The shoulder force for tackling without shoulder pads was 1684 N compared to 1635 N with shoulder pads. There was no difference between the shoulder forces on the dominant and non-dominant sides. Shoulder force reduced with tackle repetition. No relationship was observed between player skill level and size. A substantial force can be applied to the shoulder and to an opponent in the tackle. This force is within the shoulder's injury tolerance range and is unaffected by shoulder pads. Copyright © 2011 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. ASH : Tackling node mobility in large-scale networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pruteanu, A.; Dulman, S.

    2012-01-01

    With the increased adoption of technologies likewireless sensor networks by real-world applications, dynamic network topologies are becoming the rule rather than the exception. Node mobility, however, introduces a range of problems (communication interference, path uncertainty, low quality of

  15. Promoting healthy diets and tackling obesity and diet-related chronic diseases: what are the agricultural policy levers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawkes, Corinna

    2007-06-01

    Diet-related chronic diseases are now a serious global public health problem. Public health groups are calling for the agricultural sector to play a greater role in tackling the threat. To identify potential points of policy intervention in the agricultural sector that could be leveraged to promote healthy diets and tackle obesity and diet-related chronic diseases. A review of the literature on the dietary implications of agriculture, a conceptual analysis of the issues, and the identification of relevant examples. There are two main potential points of intervention in the agricultural sector that could be leveraged to promote healthy diets: agricultural policies and agricultural production practices. Agricultural policies and practices affect diet through their influence on food availability, price, and nutrient quality, which in turn affects food choices available to consumers. Agricultural policies amenable to intervention include input, production, and trade policies; agricultural production practices amenable to intervention include crop breeding, crop fertilization practices, livestock-feeding practices, and crop systems diversity. It is well-known that agricultural policies and production practices influence what farmers choose to grow. Agricultural policies and production practices could also play a role in influencing what consumers choose to eat. To identify how agricultural policies and practices can usefully contribute toward promoting healthy diets and tackling obesity and diet-related chronic diseases, health policymakers need to examine whether current agricultural policies and production practices are contributing to-or detracting from-efforts to attain dietary goals; where and how could agricultural intervention help achieve dietary goals; and whether there are trade-offs between these interventions and other important concerns, such as undernutrition and the livelihoods of agricultural producers. Given the potential of agriculture to contribute to

  16. Integrated Interventions to Tackle Antimicrobial Usage in Animal Production Systems: The ViParc Project in Vietnam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan J. Carrique-Mas

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Antimicrobial usage and antimicrobial resistance (AMR in animal production is now recognized to be an important contributor to the global problem of AMR. Initiatives to curb indiscriminate antimicrobial use in animal production are currently being discussed in many low- and middle-income countries. Well-designed, scientifically sound interventions aimed to tackle excessive antimicrobial usage should provide scientists and policy makers with evidence of the highest quality to guide changes in policy and to formulate better targeted research initiatives. However, since large-scale interventions are costly, they require careful planning in order not to waste valuable resources. Here, we describe the components of the ViParc project (www.viparc.org, one of the first large-scale interventions of its kind to tackle excessive antimicrobial usage in Southeast Asian animal production systems. The project has been formulated as a “randomized before-and-after controlled study” targeting small-scale poultry farms in the Mekong Delta region of Vietnam. It aims to provide farmers with a locally-adapted veterinary support service to help them reduce their reliance on antimicrobials. ViParc has been developed in the backdrop of efforts by the Government of Vietnam to develop a National Action Plan to reduce Antimicrobials in Livestock and Aquaculture. Crucially, the project integrates socio-economic analyses that will provide insights into the drivers of antimicrobial usage, as well as an assessment of the cost-effectiveness of the proposed intervention. Information generated from ViParc should help the Government of Vietnam refine its policies to curb excessive antimicrobial usage in poultry production, while lessons from ViParc will help tackle excessive antimicrobial usage in other productions systems in Vietnam and in the broader Southeast Asian region.

  17. Integrated Interventions to Tackle Antimicrobial Usage in Animal Production Systems: The ViParc Project in Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrique-Mas, Juan J; Rushton, Jonathan

    2017-01-01

    Antimicrobial usage and antimicrobial resistance (AMR) in animal production is now recognized to be an important contributor to the global problem of AMR. Initiatives to curb indiscriminate antimicrobial use in animal production are currently being discussed in many low- and middle-income countries. Well-designed, scientifically sound interventions aimed to tackle excessive antimicrobial usage should provide scientists and policy makers with evidence of the highest quality to guide changes in policy and to formulate better targeted research initiatives. However, since large-scale interventions are costly, they require careful planning in order not to waste valuable resources. Here, we describe the components of the ViParc project (www.viparc.org), one of the first large-scale interventions of its kind to tackle excessive antimicrobial usage in Southeast Asian animal production systems. The project has been formulated as a "randomized before-and-after controlled study" targeting small-scale poultry farms in the Mekong Delta region of Vietnam. It aims to provide farmers with a locally-adapted veterinary support service to help them reduce their reliance on antimicrobials. ViParc has been developed in the backdrop of efforts by the Government of Vietnam to develop a National Action Plan to reduce Antimicrobials in Livestock and Aquaculture. Crucially, the project integrates socio-economic analyses that will provide insights into the drivers of antimicrobial usage, as well as an assessment of the cost-effectiveness of the proposed intervention. Information generated from ViParc should help the Government of Vietnam refine its policies to curb excessive antimicrobial usage in poultry production, while lessons from ViParc will help tackle excessive antimicrobial usage in other productions systems in Vietnam and in the broader Southeast Asian region.

  18. Technical determinants of tackle and ruck performance in International rugby union.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendricks, Sharief; van Niekerk, Tiffany; Sin, Drew Wade; Lambert, Mike; den Hollander, Steve; Brown, James; Maree, Willie; Treu, Paul; Till, Kevin; Jones, Ben

    2018-03-01

    The most frequently occurring contact events in rugby union are the tackle and ruck. The ability repeatedly to engage and win the tackle and ruck has been associated with team success. To win the tackle and ruck, players have to perform specific techniques. These techniques have not been studied at the highest level of rugby union. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to identify technical determinants of tackle and ruck performance at the highest level of rugby union. A total of 4479 tackle and 2914 ruck events were coded for the Six Nations and Championship competitions. Relative risk ratio (RR), the ratio of the probability of an outcome occurring when a characteristic was observed (versus the non-observed characteristic), was determined using multinomial logistic regression. Executing front-on tackles reduced the likelihood of offloads and tackle breaks in both competitions (Six Nations RR 3.0 Behind tackle, 95% confidence interval [95% CI]: 1.9-4.6, effect size [ES] = large, P < 0.001); Championship RR 2.9 Jersey tackle, 95% CI: 1.3-6.4, ES = moderate, P = 0.01). Fending during contact increased the chances of offloading and breaking the tackle in both competitions (Six Nations RR 4.5 Strong, 95% CI: 2.2-9.2, ES = large, P = P < 0.001; Championship RR 5.1 Moderate, 95% CI: 3.5-7.4, ES = large, P < 0.001). For the ruck, actively placing the ball increased the probability of maintaining possession (Six Nations RR 2.2, 95% CI: 1.1-4.3, ES = moderate, P = 0.03); Championship RR 4.0, 95% CI: 1.3-11.8, ES = large, P = 0.01). The techniques identified in this study should be incorporated and emphasised during training to prepare players for competition. Furthermore, these techniques need to be added to coaching manuals for the tackle and ruck.

  19. Tube problems: worldwide statistics reviewed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1994-01-01

    EPRI's Steam Generator Strategic Management Project issues an annual report on the progress being made in tackling steam generator problems worldwide, containing a wealth of detailed statistics on the status of operating units and degradation mechanisms encountered. A few highlights are presented from the latest report, issued in October 1993, which covers the period to 31 December 1992. (Author)

  20. How to tackle stigma and bias: Lessons from childhood diseases and disabilities

    OpenAIRE

    Hennessy, Eilis

    2014-01-01

    This paper considers the importance of tackling the stigma of obesity and focuses particularly on what is known about the way in which stigma develops.  Stigma is considered as a complex construct comprising attitudes, prejudices and discriminatory behaviour.  In light of this conceptualisation of stigma, a range of anti-stigma interventions are discussed that have been designed to tackle the stigma associated with epilepsy, Tourette's syndrome, obesity and mental disorders. The paper conside...

  1. Design of a Robust Stair Climbing Compliant Modular Robot to Tackle Overhang on Stairs

    OpenAIRE

    Bhole, Ajinkya; Turlapati, Sri Harsha; S, Rajashekhar V.; Dixit, Jay; Shah, Suril V.; Krishna, K Madhava

    2016-01-01

    This paper discusses the concept and parameter design of a Robust Stair Climbing Compliant Modular Robot, capable of tackling stairs with overhangs. Modifying the geometry of the periphery of the wheels of our robot helps in tackling overhangs. Along with establishing a concept design, robust design parameters are set to minimize performance variation. The Grey-based Taguchi Method is adopted for providing an optimal setting for the design parameters of the robot. The robot prototype is shown...

  2. Playing the game to tackle work-related stress

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakhuys Roozeboom, M.M.C.; Wiezer, N.M.; Schelvis, R.; Kraker, H. de

    2012-01-01

    The need for evidence-based solutions to the problem of work-related stress among employees in the Netherlands is increasing. Research institute TNO suggested that managers might learn about the issue by playing a specially designed game based around work-related stress. This led to the development

  3. Working underwater: new Remotely Operated Vehicles (ROVs) tackle subsea economics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1958-01-01

    Modular construction is helping to cut remotely operated vehicle (ROV) costs, while work performance is improved by techniques for holding the vehicles onstation. The upper power house contains the propulsion units and electronics, with work modules slung beneath. The solution of a long standing problem of how to hold the maintenance unit steady against a jacket or similar tubular structure has led to two methods currently undergoing testing. The first employs suction and uses a hydraulic clamp; the second fits the ROV with massive mechanical grabs. The new technology saves diving time as well as costs. Other advances are self-propelled ROVs,the use of miniature low-light color TV cameras, and a free-swimming ROV for use where ice may be a problem. 5 figures.

  4. Tackling malnutrition among older people in the community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denny, Anna

    2007-03-01

    Undernutrition - of both macronutrients and micronutrients - is still a surprisingly common problem among older people in the UK. There is a variety of nutritional supplements that community nurses need to be aware of in managing their patients' nutritional requirements. Different supplements are taken for different disease states. This article looks at the various nutrient and energy requirements that relate directly to clients on the district nurse's caseload. Some of the negative consequences of malnutrition of the older adult are discussed, as are the NICE guidelines for nutrition. Factors affecting dietary intake in older people are considered.

  5. TACKLING EVENT DETECTION IN THE CONTEXT OF VIDEO SURVEILLANCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raducu DUMITRESCU

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we address the problem of event detection in the context of video surveillance systems. First we deal with background extraction. Three methods are being tested, namely: frame differencing, running average and an estimate of median filtering technique. This provides information about changing contents. Further, we use this information to address human presence detection in the scene. This is carried out thought a contour-based approach. Contours are extracted from moving regions and parameterized. Human silhouettes show particular signatures of these parameters. Experimental results prove the potential of this approach to event detection. However, these are our first preliminary results to this application.

  6. Specific tackling situations affect the biomechanical demands experienced by rugby union players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seminati, Elena; Cazzola, Dario; Preatoni, Ezio; Trewartha, Grant

    2017-03-01

    Tackling in Rugby Union is an open skill which can involve high-speed collisions and is the match event associated with the greatest proportion of injuries. This study aimed to analyse the biomechanics of rugby tackling under three conditions: from a stationary position, with dominant and non-dominant shoulder, and moving forward, with dominant shoulder. A specially devised contact simulator, a 50-kg punch bag instrumented with pressure sensors, was translated towards the tackler (n = 15) to evaluate the effect of laterality and tackling approach on the external loads absorbed by the tackler, on head and trunk motion, and on trunk muscle activities. Peak impact force was substantially higher in the stationary dominant (2.84 ± 0.74 kN) than in the stationary non-dominant condition (2.44 ± 0.64 kN), but lower than in the moving condition (3.40 ± 0.86 kN). Muscle activation started on average 300 ms before impact, with higher activation for impact-side trapezius and non-impact-side erector spinae and gluteus maximus muscles. Players' technique for non-dominant-side tackles was less compliant with current coaching recommendations in terms of cervical motion (more neck flexion and lateral bending in the stationary non-dominant condition) and players could benefit from specific coaching focus on non-dominant-side tackles.

  7. OpenMinds: creating a mental health workshop for teenagers to tackle stigma and raise awareness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Sammy; Sinha, Kathryn; Swinton, Martin; Millar, Christina; Rayment, Dane; Simmons, Meinou

    2011-09-01

    As a group of four clinical medical students from Cambridge University, we undertook a Student Selected Module (SSC- "OpenMinds") whereby we designed and delivered a workshop about mental health to year 9 pupils. The aim of our SSC was to produce an interactive, informative lesson which addressed the complex issues of stigma and discrimination against those suffering from a mental illness as well as teaching the pupils how to recognise mental health problems and provide them with guidance on how to seek help. We split a fifty minute session into the following sections: tackling stigma; how common mental illness is; celebrity examples; real life examples; role play; and small group work. To engage the pupils we used a combination of teaching modalities targeting all learning. We delivered the workshop to four separate classes and received feedback from the pupils after each. We used this feedback to adapt and improve our presentation and assess the efficacy. Feedback was overwhelmingly positive with the striking results of 101/109 pupils saying that they would recommend the workshop to a friend and 68/109 pupils saying they enjoyed all aspects. Our SSC built upon work by a contingent of trainee Psychiatrists who undertook a similar project of mental health education for teenagers, called "Heads above the rest", in Northern Ireland with great success. By continuing their work we were able to demonstrate that medical students can successfully complete the same project under the guidance of a Psychiatrist, thus increasing the sustainability of the project by reducing the time burden on the Psychiatrists. Participating in the project was also valuable to our own personal development of teaching skills.

  8. How Many Disciplines Does It Take to Tackle Climate Change?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, S.; Calderazzo, J.

    2015-12-01

    Through my involvement in two multidisciplinary climate change education and outreach projects, the website 100 Views of Climate Change and Changing Climates @ Colorado State, I have come to understand that just as this problem is everybody's business, almost everybody has something to contribute to understanding and dealing with it. This is certainly true of the academic disciplines represented on college campuses, where faculty from nearly every department have relevant things to teach their students: speakers in a climate-change lecture series we organized came from 27 departments in 8 colleges, plus numerous other campus and local entities, and more could have been included. As one convener of this AGU session, I have worked to include a good sample of these varied and complementary disciplinary perspectives. Inevitably, though, this sample leaves significant gaps in what would constitute a robust cross-campus climate literacy, and I will talk about some of these missing disciplinary perspectives and why they are important.

  9. Enterprise Policies for Tackling the Digital Skills Shortage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela BORISOV

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays as results of the turbulent crisis, economies are confronted with the effects of the financial crisis, consequently many European states members are faced with strategic challenges in decisions about personnel development. Some of industries have faced shortages in the digital skill attainment of the currently employed personnel, or short supply of IT-related personnel due to the inadequacy of new entrants on the labor market. These problems are encountered in several traditional industries affected too rapidly by the technological advance. Along to these aspects, there are other difficulties for employers and employees as well, such as structural changes in job offering in various sectors or disparity in the employees; age categories – because of high unemployment rates in youth for instance. These are complemented by fewer job opportunities for young individuals (eventually, graduates for the tertiary sector of formal education that fit according to their specializations or even new type of skills’ demand – much oriented on the digitalization. The paper intends to presents some empirical aspects raised from the statistical evidence useful to point out critical aspects in the domestic and eventually, European approach to entreprice policy, in developing proper curricula to empower the academic institutions to provide knowledge, to foster skills for current enrolled students. On short term already, the future workforce needs to be prepared for the digitalization of the professional activity, regardless the specific domain of work and, in this view; companies should be in the position to manage this potential crisis of the labour market.

  10. Tackling the growing number of suspended and orphan wells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cornford, A.

    1996-01-01

    The number of suspended and potentially orphaned wells in the three oil producing Western provinces has grown substantially in recent years. There are currently some 38,000 wells in Alberta, 2,000 in B.C., and some 5,000 in Saskatchewan that have been inactive for at least one year. Governments are now looking at proposals to deal with the issue which, if implemented, will have far reaching implications for the oil and gas and reclamation industry in Western Canada. Proposals to date have not dealt with the potential liability for sulphur-recovery gas plants and oil and gas transmission pipelines and associated facilities. It is estimated that to pay for the expanded orphaned well program in Alberta, the current Orphan Well Program would have to be increased from $2 million to $5 million in the first four years. The recommendation is to levy an annual fee on all inactive wells and facilities. This would put the burden of paying for orphan wells on those who have facilities most in risk of becoming orphans. Informed opinion is that while the cost of addressing the problem is admittedly high, however, preventing it from getting worse is much less than the alternative

  11. A novel system to tackle hospital acquired pressure ulcers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renganathan, B S; Preejith, S P; Nagaiyan, Sridhar; Joseph, Jayaraj; Sivaprakasam, Mohanasankar

    2016-08-01

    Hospital acquired pressure ulcers (HAPUs) is a major problem that affects around one in twenty patients who are admitted in hospital with sudden illness. These ulcers often occur when patients have limited mobility and cannot change positions in bed on their own. Traditionally, the occurrence of HAPUs has been minimized by turning the patient every 2 hours to alternating lateral and supine positions, and by using pressure redistributing mattresses. In many healthcare facilities, such a patient repositioning schedule is not always maintained owing to low caregiver compliance to turning protocols. Difficulty in monitoring patient position continuously, lack of turn reminders/alerts and suboptimal caregiver staffing ratio increases the occurrence of HAPUs. A novel method to address the need for improved pressure ulcer prevention is presented. The proposed method consists of a wearable device which continuously monitors the patient's position and communicates wirelessly with a tablet which enables alerts to be sent to the caregiver when a patient turn is due in accordance with the protocol adopted by the hospital. The patient's position is continuously monitored and the turning procedure carried out is logged and updated on the hospital's cloud system, thereby enabling centralized monitoring. Under a controlled setting, system was able to continuously monitor patient's position and can accurately detect standard patient positions.

  12. Problems in abstract algebra

    CERN Document Server

    Wadsworth, A R

    2017-01-01

    This is a book of problems in abstract algebra for strong undergraduates or beginning graduate students. It can be used as a supplement to a course or for self-study. The book provides more variety and more challenging problems than are found in most algebra textbooks. It is intended for students wanting to enrich their learning of mathematics by tackling problems that take some thought and effort to solve. The book contains problems on groups (including the Sylow Theorems, solvable groups, presentation of groups by generators and relations, and structure and duality for finite abelian groups); rings (including basic ideal theory and factorization in integral domains and Gauss's Theorem); linear algebra (emphasizing linear transformations, including canonical forms); and fields (including Galois theory). Hints to many problems are also included.

  13. Tackling Biocomplexity with Meta-models for Species Risk Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip J. Nyhus

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available We describe results of a multi-year effort to strengthen consideration of the human dimension into endangered species risk assessments and to strengthen research capacity to understand biodiversity risk assessment in the context of coupled human-natural systems. A core group of social and biological scientists have worked with a network of more than 50 individuals from four countries to develop a conceptual framework illustrating how human-mediated processes influence biological systems and to develop tools to gather, translate, and incorporate these data into existing simulation models. A central theme of our research focused on (1 the difficulties often encountered in identifying and securing diverse bodies of expertise and information that is necessary to adequately address complex species conservation issues; and (2 the development of quantitative simulation modeling tools that could explicitly link these datasets as a way to gain deeper insight into these issues. To address these important challenges, we promote a "meta-modeling" approach where computational links are constructed between discipline-specific models already in existence. In this approach, each model can function as a powerful stand-alone program, but interaction between applications is achieved by passing data structures describing the state of the system between programs. As one example of this concept, an integrated meta-model of wildlife disease and population biology is described. A goal of this effort is to improve science-based capabilities for decision making by scientists, natural resource managers, and policy makers addressing environmental problems in general, and focusing on biodiversity risk assessment in particular.

  14. Mechanisms and Factors Associated With Tackle-Related Injuries in South African Youth Rugby Union Players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burger, Nicholas; Lambert, Mike Ian; Viljoen, Wayne; Brown, James Craig; Readhead, Clint; den Hollander, Steve; Hendricks, Sharief

    2017-02-01

    The majority of injuries in rugby union occur during tackle events. The mechanisms and causes of these injuries are well established in senior rugby union. To use information from an injury database and assess video footage of tackle-related injuries in youth rugby union matches to identify environmental factors and mechanisms that are potentially confounding to these injuries. Descriptive epidemiological study. Injury surveillance was conducted at the under-18 Craven Week rugby tournament. Tackle-related injury information was used to identify injury events in match video footage (role-matched noninjury tackle events were identified for the cohort of injured players). Events were coded using match situational variables (precontact, contact, and postcontact). Relative risk ratio (RRR; ratio of probability of an injury or noninjury outcome occurring when a characteristic was observed) was reported by use of logistic regression. In comparison with the first quarter, injury risk was greater in the third (RRR = 9.75 [95% CI, 1.71-55.64]; P = .010) and fourth quarters (RRR = 6.97 [95% CI, 1.09-44.57]; P = .040) for ball carriers and in the fourth quarter (RRR = 9.63 [95% CI, 1.94-47.79]; P = .006) for tacklers. Ball carriers were less likely to be injured when they were aware of impending contact (RRR = 0.14 [95% CI, 0.03-0.66]; P = .012) or when they executed a moderate fend (hand-off) (RRR = 0.22 [95% CI, 0.06-0.84]; P = .026). Tacklers were less likely to be injured when performing shoulder tackles (same side as leading leg) in comparison to an arm-only tackle (RRR = 0.02 [95% CI, 0.001-0.79]; P = .037). Ball carriers (RRR = 0.09 [95% CI, 0.01-0.89]; P = .040) and tacklers (RRR = 0.02 [95% CI, 0.001-0.32]; P =.006) were less likely to be injured when initial contact was made with the tackler's shoulder/arm instead of his head/neck. The relative risk of tackle-related injury was higher toward the end of matches. Incorrect technique may contribute to increased injury

  15. Tackling bioactive glass excessive in vitro bioreactivity: Preconditioning approaches for cell culture tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciraldo, Francesca E; Boccardi, Elena; Melli, Virginia; Westhauser, Fabian; Boccaccini, Aldo R

    2018-05-21

    Bioactive glasses (BGs) are being increasingly considered for biomedical applications in bone and soft tissue replacement approaches thanks to their ability to form strong bonding with tissues. However, due to their high reactivity once in contact with water-based solutions BGs rapidly exchange ions with the surrounding environment leading in most cases to an undesired increase of the pH under static in vitro conditions (due to alkaline ion "burst release"), making difficult or even impossible to perform cell culture studies. Several pre-conditioning treatments have been therefore proposed in laboratories worldwide to limit this problem. This paper presents an overview of the different strategies that have been put forward to pre-treat BG samples to tackle the pH raise issue in order to enable cell biology studies. The paper also discusses the relevant criteria that determine the selection of the optimal pre-treatment depending on the BG composition and morphology (e.g. particles, scaffolds). Bioactive glasses (BGs), since their discovery in 1971 by L.L Hench, have been widely used for bone replacement and repair, and, more recently, they are becoming highly attractive for bone and soft tissue engineering applications. BGs have in fact the ability to form a strong bond with both hard and soft tissues once in contact with biological fluid. The enhanced interaction of BGs with the biological environment is based on their significant surface bioreactivity. This surface effect of BGs is, on the other hand, problematic for cell biology studies by standard (static) cell culture methods: an excessive bioreactivity leads in most cases to a rapid and dramatic increase of the pH of the surrounding medium, which results in cell death and makes cell culture tests on BG samples impossible. The BG research community has been aware of this for many years and numerous pre-treatments have been proposed by different groups worldwide to limit this problem. For the first time, we have

  16. Integrated socio-hydrogeological approach to tackle nitrate contamination in groundwater resources. The case of Grombalia Basin (Tunisia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Re, V; Sacchi, E; Kammoun, S; Tringali, C; Trabelsi, R; Zouari, K; Daniele, S

    2017-09-01

    Nitrate contamination still remains one of the main groundwater quality issues in several aquifers worldwide, despite the perduring efforts of the international scientific community to effectively tackle this problem. The classical hydrogeological and isotopic investigations are obviously of paramount importance for the characterization of contaminant sources, but are clearly not sufficient for the correct and long-term protection of groundwater resources. This paper aims at demonstrating the effectiveness of the socio-hydrogeological approach as the best tool to tackle groundwater quality issues, while contributing bridging the gap between science and society. An integrated survey, including land use, hydrochemical (physicochemical parameters and major ions) and isotopic (δ 15 N NO3 and δ 18 O NO3 ) analyses, coupled to capacity building and participatory activities was carried out to correctly attribute the nitrate origin in groundwater from the Grombalia Basin (North Tunisia), a region where only synthetic fertilizers have been generally identified as the main source of such pollution. Results demonstrates that the basin is characterized by high nitrate concentrations, often exceeding the statutory limits for drinking water, in both the shallow and deep aquifers, whereas sources are associated to both agricultural and urban activities. The public participation of local actors proved to be a fundamental element for the development of the hydrogeological investigation, as it permitted to obtain relevant information to support data interpretation, and eventually guaranteed the correct assessment of contaminant sources in the studied area. In addition, such activity, if adequately transferred to regulators, will ensure the effective adoption of management practices based on the research outcomes and tailored on the real needs of the local population, proving the added value to include it in any integrated investigation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights

  17. Evaluating Behavioral Skills Training to Teach Safe Tackling Skills to Youth Football Players

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tai, Sharayah S. M.; Miltenberger, Raymond G.

    2017-01-01

    With concussion rates on the rise for football players, there is a need for further research to increase skills and decrease injuries. Behavioral skills training is effective in teaching a wide variety of skills but has yet to be studied in the sports setting. We evaluated behavioral skills training to teach safer tackling techniques to six…

  18. Are elementary school teachers prepared to tackle bullying? : A pilot study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oldenburg, Beau; Bosman, Rie; Veenstra, Rene

    The aim of this pilot study was to investigate to what extent elementary school teachers were prepared to tackle bullying. Interview data from 22 Dutch elementary school teachers (M age=43.3, 18 classrooms in eight schools) were combined with survey data from 373 students of these teachers (M

  19. Paralysis due to the high tackle - a black spot South African rugby

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1991-05-18

    May 18, 1991 ... hyper-extension during a tackle from the rear. Disturbingly, 4 of the 8 players sustained ·complete permanent paralysis. This was consequent upon the orthopaedic injuries sustained. - specifically facet dislocations or 'tear-drop' fractures, both injuries carrying with them a high risk of serious spinal cord.

  20. Tackling the climate targets set by the Paris Agreement (COP 21 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tackling the climate targets set by the Paris Agreement (COP 21): Green leadership empowers public hospitals to overcome obstacles and challenges in a ... To improve commitment from all involved roleplayers, political leadership, supportive government policies and financial funding is mandatory, or public hospitals will ...

  1. Influence of Fatigue on Tackling Ability in Rugby League Players: Role of Muscular Strength, Endurance, and Aerobic Qualities.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tim J Gabbett

    Full Text Available This study investigated the influence of repeated high-intensity effort exercise on tackling ability in rugby league players, and determined the relationship between physical qualities and tackling ability under fatigued conditions in these athletes. Eleven semi-professional rugby league players underwent measurements of speed (10 m and 40 m sprint, upper-body strength (4 repetition maximum [RM] bench press and weighted chin-up, upper-body muscular endurance (body mass maximum repetition chin-up, body mass maximum repetition dips, lower-body strength (4RM squat, and estimated maximal aerobic power (multi-stage fitness test. Tackling ability was assessed using a standardized one-on-one tackling test, before, during, and following four bouts of repeated high-intensity effort (RHIE exercise. The relationship between physical qualities and fatigue-induced decrements in tackling ability were determined using Pearson product moment correlation coefficients. Each cycle of the RHIE protocol induced progressive reductions in tackling ability. A moderate reduction (Effect Size = ~-1.17 ± 0.60, -34.1 ± 24.3% in tackling ability occurred after the fourth cycle of the RHIE protocol. Players with greater relative lower-body strength (i.e. 4RM squat/kg had the best tackling ability under fatigued conditions (r = 0.72, p = 0.013. There were no significant relationships between tackling ability under fatigued conditions and any other physical quality. These findings suggest that lower-body strength protects against fatigue-induced decrements in tackling ability. The development of lower-body strength should be a priority to facilitate the development of robust tackling skills that are maintained under fatigue.

  2. Tackling student neurophobia in neurosciences block with team-based learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khurshid Anwar

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Traditionally, neurosciences is perceived as a difficult course in undergraduate medical education with literature suggesting use of the term “Neurophobia” (fear of neurology among medical students. Instructional strategies employed for the teaching of neurosciences in undergraduate curricula traditionally include a combination of lectures, demonstrations, practical classes, problem-based learning and clinico-pathological conferences. Recently, team-based learning (TBL, a student-centered instructional strategy, has increasingly been regarded by many undergraduate medical courses as an effective method to assist student learning. Methods: In this study, 156 students of year-three neuroscience block were divided into seven male and seven female groups, comprising 11–12 students in each group. TBL was introduced during the 6 weeks of this block, and a total of eight TBL sessions were conducted during this duration. We evaluated the effect of TBL on student learning and correlated it with the student's performance in summative assessment. Moreover, the students’ perceptions regarding the process of TBL was assessed by online survey. Results: We found that students who attended TBL sessions performed better in the summative examinations as compared to those who did not. Furthermore, students performed better in team activities compared to individual testing, with male students performing better with a more favorable impact on their grades in the summative examination. There was an increase in the number of students achieving higher grades (grade B and above in this block when compared to the previous block (51.7% vs. 25%. Moreover, the number of students at risk for lower grades (Grade B- and below decreased in this block when compared to the previous block (30.6% vs. 55%. Students generally elicited a favorable response regarding the TBL process, as well as expressed satisfaction with the content covered and felt that such

  3. A Nationwide View of Undergraduates' Interest in Earth-related Careers and Motivation to Tackle Environmental Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kastens, K. A.; Mara, V.; Turrin, M.

    2016-12-01

    The InTeGrate Attitudinal Instrument (IAI) is an on-line survey that probes students' interest in Earth-related careers, their concern about environmental issues, and their motivation to tackle grand challenges of environmental sustainability and resource limitations. The survey has been taken by several thousand students, at the beginning and end of more than a hundred different undergraduate courses throughout the United States. All courses include some Earth/environmental content, but not all in are geoscience departments. Although results vary somewhat between subpopulations, taken in the aggregate the data paint a nation-wide picture of the state of undergraduates' environmental interests and concerns. Regardless of intended career path, respondents place a high value on working for an organization that is committed to environmentally sustainable practices. Respondents consistently indicate that developments such as global climate change, loss of biodiversity, and water resource limitations are a problem; however, these same students are much less consistent when it comes to engaging in personal behaviors that would help mitigate environmental problems, such as washing clothes in cold water or using recyclable bags when shopping. When asked what factors or sources of information influence their decisions to engage in the specified environmentally sustainable behaviors, the factor most often cited, by a wide margin, is "desire to save money," followed by "concern about pollution." A final open-ended question asked students if they can envision using what they have learned in this course to help society overcome problems of environmental degradation, natural resources limitations, or other environmental issues; if yes, how, and if no, why not. Strong majorities said yes. Among the minority who said no, commonly cited reasons include lack of empowerment (I'm only one person, the problems are too big); course was too general and didn't address solutions; and

  4. Tackling Unemployment

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2014-01-31

    Jan 31, 2014 ... Unemployment is synonymous to 'joblessness' and it breeds generalized hardship in life, helplessness, lack of social security, idleness, poverty, depression, suicidal tendencies, loss of self esteem, diseases like hypertension, and dependency even in very minor responsibilities. It has also been implicated ...

  5. The impact of tackle football injuries on the American healthcare system with a neurological focus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael J McGinity

    Full Text Available Recent interest in the study of concussion and other neurological injuries has heightened awareness of the medical implications of American tackle football injuries amongst the public.Using the National Emergency Department Sample (NEDS and the National Inpatient Sample (NIS, the largest publicly available all-payer emergency department and inpatient healthcare databases in the United States, we sought to describe the impact of tackle football injuries on the American healthcare system by delineating injuries, specifically neurological in nature, suffered as a consequence of tackle football between 2010 and 2013.The NEDS and NIS databases were queried to collect data on all patients presented to the emergency department (ED and/or were admitted to hospitals with an ICD code for injuries related to American tackle football between the years 2010 and 2013. Subsequently those with football-related neurological injuries were abstracted using ICD codes for concussion, skull/face injury, intracranial injury, spine injury, and spinal cord injury (SCI. Patient demographics, length of hospital stay (LOS, cost and charge data, neurosurgical interventions, hospital type, and disposition were collected and analyzed.A total of 819,000 patients presented to EDs for evaluation of injuries secondary to American tackle football between 2010 and 2013, with 1.13% having injuries requiring inpatient admission (average length of stay 2.4 days. 80.4% of the ED visits were from the pediatric population. Of note, a statistically significant increase in the number of pediatric concussions over time was demonstrated (OR = 1.1, 95% CI 1.1 to 1.2. Patients were more likely to be admitted to trauma centers, teaching hospitals, the south or west regions, or with private insurance. There were 471 spinal cord injuries and 1,908 total spine injuries. Ten patients died during the study time period. The combined ED and inpatient charges were $1.35 billion.Injuries related to

  6. The impact of tackle football injuries on the American healthcare system with a neurological focus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGinity, Michael J; Grandhi, Ramesh; Michalek, Joel E; Rodriguez, Jesse S; Trevino, Aron M; McGinity, Ashley C; Seifi, Ali

    2018-01-01

    Recent interest in the study of concussion and other neurological injuries has heightened awareness of the medical implications of American tackle football injuries amongst the public. Using the National Emergency Department Sample (NEDS) and the National Inpatient Sample (NIS), the largest publicly available all-payer emergency department and inpatient healthcare databases in the United States, we sought to describe the impact of tackle football injuries on the American healthcare system by delineating injuries, specifically neurological in nature, suffered as a consequence of tackle football between 2010 and 2013. The NEDS and NIS databases were queried to collect data on all patients presented to the emergency department (ED) and/or were admitted to hospitals with an ICD code for injuries related to American tackle football between the years 2010 and 2013. Subsequently those with football-related neurological injuries were abstracted using ICD codes for concussion, skull/face injury, intracranial injury, spine injury, and spinal cord injury (SCI). Patient demographics, length of hospital stay (LOS), cost and charge data, neurosurgical interventions, hospital type, and disposition were collected and analyzed. A total of 819,000 patients presented to EDs for evaluation of injuries secondary to American tackle football between 2010 and 2013, with 1.13% having injuries requiring inpatient admission (average length of stay 2.4 days). 80.4% of the ED visits were from the pediatric population. Of note, a statistically significant increase in the number of pediatric concussions over time was demonstrated (OR = 1.1, 95% CI 1.1 to 1.2). Patients were more likely to be admitted to trauma centers, teaching hospitals, the south or west regions, or with private insurance. There were 471 spinal cord injuries and 1,908 total spine injuries. Ten patients died during the study time period. The combined ED and inpatient charges were $1.35 billion. Injuries related to tackle

  7. Problems in nonlinear resistive MHD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turnbull, A.D.; Strait, E.J.; La Haye, R.J.; Chu, M.S.; Miller, R.L.

    1998-01-01

    Two experimentally relevant problems can relatively easily be tackled by nonlinear MHD codes. Both problems require plasma rotation in addition to the nonlinear mode coupling and full geometry already incorporated into the codes, but no additional physics seems to be crucial. These problems discussed here are: (1) nonlinear coupling and interaction of multiple MHD modes near the B limit and (2) nonlinear coupling of the m/n = 1/1 sawtooth mode with higher n gongs and development of seed islands outside q = 1

  8. VOICE OF THE STUDENTS: HOW CAN THE EU TAKE THE GLOBAL LEAD ON TACKLING CLIMATE CHANGE?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Costica MIHAI

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The EU has always been at the forefront of tackling environmental issues. This paper responds to the EU‟s „call for action‟ towards addressing the issue of climate change – a key priority for the European Commission in the 2030 policy perspective. The topic is addressed through a focus group that seeks to identify and disseminate possible approaches through which the EU can leverage its international „actorness‟ in negotiating a straightforward and binding global agreement for action in climate change mitigation. The focus group involves a sample of students, beneficiaries of an environmentally focused Jean Monnet teaching module (TAG-EU. The diverse academic background of the students (coming from social, natural and exact sciences provides a unique point of view in tackling this ardent issue and can bring valuable and interdisciplinary contributions to the discussion on climate change action.

  9. The evolution of policy and actions to tackle obesity in England.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jebb, S A; Aveyard, P N; Hawkes, C

    2013-11-01

    Tackling obesity has been a policy priority in England for more than 20 years. Two formal government strategies on obesity in 2008 and 2011 drew together a range of actions and developed new initiatives to fill perceived gaps. Today, a wide range of policies are in place, including support for breastfeeding and healthy weaning practices, nutritional standards in schools, restrictions on marketing foods high in fat, sugar and salt to children, schemes to boost participation in sport, active travel plans, and weight management services. Data from annual surveys show that the rate of increase in obesity has attenuated in recent years, but has not yet been reversed. This paper considers the actions taken and what is known about the impact of individual policies and the overarching strategy to tackle obesity in England. © 2013 The Authors. Obesity Reviews published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of the International Association for the Study of Obesity.

  10. What should be done to tackle ghostwriting in the medical literature?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gøtzsche, Peter C; Kassirer, Jerome P; Woolley, Karen L

    2009-01-01

    pharmaceutical companies hiring professional writers to produce papers promoting their products but hiding those contributions and instead naming academic physicians or scientists as the authors. To improve transparency, many editors' associations and journals allow professional medical writers to contribute...... to the writing of papers without being listed as authors provided their role is acknowledged. This debate examines how best to tackle ghostwriting in the medical literature from the perspectives of a researcher, an editor, and the professional medical writer....

  11. Tackling Complex Inequalities and Ecuador's Buen Vivir: Leaving No-one Behind and equality in diversity

    OpenAIRE

    Radcliffe, Sarah Anne

    2017-01-01

    Ecuador's postneoliberal policy of Buen Vivir seeks to reduce social inequality and tackle complex disadvantages associated with gender, location, race-ethnicity and other social differences. The paper analyses governmental Buen Vivir policy thinking and institutional arrangements to explore how Buen Vivir frameworks approach the constitutional commitment to equality in diversity, in light of the global Sustainable Development Goal of "Leaving No-one Behind" (LNOB). In many respects Ecuador ...

  12. Tackling the Urban Informal Economy: Some Lessons from a Study of Europe’s Urban Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Colin C. WILLIAMS

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to evaluate themost effective way of tackling the urban informaleconomy. It has been recently argued that theconventional rational economic actor approach(which increases the costs of participating in theurban informal economy so that they outweighthe benefi ts should be replaced or complementedby a social actor approach which focusesupon improving tax morale. To evaluate the effectivenessof these supposedly alternative approachesto tackling the participation of urbanpopulations in the informal economy, we reportthe results of face-to-face interviews conductedin 2013 with 17,886 urban dwellers across the 28Member States of the EU. Multilevel logistic regressionanalysis reveals that both approachesare effective in signifi cantly reducing the urbanpopulation’s participation in the informal economy.When tax morale is high, however, the rationaleconomic actor approach of increasing thecosts has little impact on reducing the probabilityof engagement in the informal economy. The paperconcludes by calling for greater emphasis onimproving the tax morale of the urban populationso as to tackle the informal economy in the urbanareas of Europe and beyond.

  13. Impact of a United Kingdom-wide campaign to tackle antimicrobial resistance on self-reported knowledge and behaviour change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaintarli, Katerina; Ingle, Suzanne M; Bhattacharya, Alex; Ashiru-Oredope, Diane; Oliver, Isabel; Gobin, Maya

    2016-05-12

    As part of the 2014 European Antibiotic Awareness Day plans, a new campaign called Antibiotic Guardian (AG) was launched in the United Kingdom, including an online pledge system to increase commitment from healthcare professionals and members of the public to reduce antimicrobial resistance (AMR). The aim of this evaluation was to determine the impact of the campaign on self-reported knowledge and behaviour around AMR. An online survey was sent to 9016 Antibiotic Guardians (AGs) to assess changes in self-reported knowledge and behaviour (outcomes) following the campaign. Logistic regression models, adjusted for variables including age, sex and pledge group (pledging as member of public or as healthcare professional), were used to estimate associations between outcomes and AG characteristics. 2478 AGs responded to the survey (27.5 % response rate) of whom 1696 (68.4 %) pledged as healthcare professionals and 782 (31.6 %) as members of public (similar proportions to the total number of AGs). 96.3 % of all AGs who responded had prior knowledge of AMR. 73.5 % of participants were female and participants were most commonly between 45 and 54 years old. Two thirds (63.4 %) of participants reported always acting according to their pledge. Members of the public were more likely to act in line with their pledge than professionals (Odds Ratio (OR) =3.60, 95 % Confidence Interval (CI): 2.88-4.51). Approximately half of participants (44.5 %) (both healthcare professionals and members of public) reported that they acquired more knowledge about AMR post-campaign. People that were confused about AMR prior to the campaign acquired more knowledge after the campaign (OR = 3.10, 95 % CI: 1.36-7.09). More participants reported a sense of personal responsibility towards tackling AMR post-campaign, increasing from 58.3 % of participants pre-campaign to 70.5 % post-campaign. This study demonstrated that the campaign increased commitment to tackling AMR in both healthcare

  14. An ontological framework for model-based problem-solving

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scholten, H.; Beulens, A.J.M.

    2012-01-01

    Multidisciplinary projects to solve real world problems of increasing complexity are more and more plagued by obstacles such as miscommunication between modellers with different disciplinary backgrounds and bad modelling practices. To tackle these difficulties, a body of knowledge on problems, on

  15. Tackling the "so what" problem in scientific research: a systems-based approach to resource and publication tracking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Paul A; Kirby, Jacqueline; Swafford, Jonathan A; Edwards, Terri L; Zhang, Minhua; Yarbrough, Tonya R; Lane, Lynda D; Helmer, Tara; Bernard, Gordon R; Pulley, Jill M

    2015-08-01

    Peer-reviewed publications are one measure of scientific productivity. From a project, program, or institutional perspective, publication tracking provides the quantitative data necessary to guide the prudent stewardship of federal, foundation, and institutional investments by identifying the scientific return for the types of support provided. In this article, the authors describe the Vanderbilt Institute for Clinical and Translational Research's (VICTR's) development and implementation of a semiautomated process through which publications are automatically detected in PubMed and adjudicated using a "just-in-time" workflow by a known pool of researchers (from Vanderbilt University School of Medicine and Meharry Medical College) who receive support from Vanderbilt's Clinical and Translational Science Award. Since implementation, the authors have (1) seen a marked increase in the number of publications citing VICTR support, (2) captured at a more granular level the relationship between specific resources/services and scientific output, (3) increased awareness of VICTR's scientific portfolio, and (4) increased efficiency in complying with annual National Institutes of Health progress reports. They present the methodological framework and workflow, measures of impact for the first 30 months, and a set of practical lessons learned to inform others considering a systems-based approach for resource and publication tracking. They learned that contacting multiple authors from a single publication can increase the accuracy of the resource attribution process in the case of multidisciplinary scientific projects. They also found that combining positive (e.g., congratulatory e-mails) and negative (e.g., not allowing future resource requests until adjudication is complete) triggers can increase compliance with publication attribution requests.

  16. Extending systems thinking in planning and evaluation using group concept mapping and system dynamics to tackle complex problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassmiller Lich, Kristen; Urban, Jennifer Brown; Frerichs, Leah; Dave, Gaurav

    2017-02-01

    Group concept mapping (GCM) has been successfully employed in program planning and evaluation for over 25 years. The broader set of systems thinking methodologies (of which GCM is one), have only recently found their way into the field. We present an overview of systems thinking emerging from a system dynamics (SD) perspective, and illustrate the potential synergy between GCM and SD. As with GCM, participatory processes are frequently employed when building SD models; however, it can be challenging to engage a large and diverse group of stakeholders in the iterative cycles of divergent thinking and consensus building required, while maintaining a broad perspective on the issue being studied. GCM provides a compelling resource for overcoming this challenge, by richly engaging a diverse set of stakeholders in broad exploration, structuring, and prioritization. SD provides an opportunity to extend GCM findings by embedding constructs in a testable hypothesis (SD model) describing how system structure and changes in constructs affect outcomes over time. SD can be used to simulate the hypothesized dynamics inherent in GCM concept maps. We illustrate the potential of the marriage of these methodologies in a case study of BECOMING, a federally-funded program aimed at strengthening the cross-sector system of care for youth with severe emotional disturbances. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Factors and root causes of corporal punishment within home and family environment and how to tackle the problem

    OpenAIRE

    Neda Niknami; Reza Mirmehdi; Hoda Niknami

    2011-01-01

    Corporal punishment is one way of disciplining children which has been used by parents and child care takers over long centuries and there are still children who experience and fear violence. Studies indicate that corporal punishment is an important factor in the development of violent attitudes and actions and it has a devastating impact on an individual’s childhood and life. As a result, it has a detrimental effect on development of children and formation of proper norms of discipline. Furt...

  18. Physician-led committee tackles youth-violence problem in one of Canada's fastest-growing cities.

    OpenAIRE

    O'Brien-Bell, J

    1995-01-01

    Dr. John O'Brien-Bell, a past president of the CMA, recently chaired the Advisory Committee on Youth Violence in Surrey, BC. It studied issues such as the incidence of violence, the evolution taking place in the city and society, and the erosion of traditional social values. In its final report, the committee recommended 78 possible steps for reducing violence among young Canadians.

  19. Why tackle a far-off problem? Municipal resistance to climate change adaptation from an organisational change perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Berg, Maya Marieke; Coenen, Franciscus H.J.M.

    2012-01-01

    Although the importance of local government is often emphasized when it comes to climate change adaptation, empirical data reveal that local efforts have been rather limited. Why does one observe this paradoxical situation? This article presents empirical data gathered through a questionnaire (n=70)

  20. Harmonisation of European Insolvency Law and the need to tackle two common problems: common pool and anticommons

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Weijs, R.J.

    2012-01-01

    Insolvency law has finally become a field of law for which harmonisation at a European level is considered both important and feasible. In deciding upon the content of such harmonised rules, there will need to be a common understanding about the goals of insolvency law and, therefore, a European

  1. Industry Responsibilities in Tackling Direct-to-Consumer Marketing of Unproven Stem Cell Treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Master, Z; Fu, W; Paciulli, D; Sipp, D

    2017-08-01

    The direct-to-consumer marketing of unproven stem cell interventions (SCIs) is a serious public health concern. Regulations and education have had modest impact, indicating that different actors must play a role to stop this unfettered market. We consider the role of the biotech industry in tackling unproven SCIs. Grounded in the concept of corporate social responsibility, we argue that biotech companies should screen consumers to ensure that products and services are being used appropriately and educate employees about unproven SCIs. © 2017 ASCPT.

  2. Math word problems for dummies

    CERN Document Server

    Sterling, Mary Jane

    2008-01-01

    Covers percentages, probability, proportions, and moreGet a grip on all types of word problems by applying them to real lifeAre you mystified by math word problems? This easy-to-understand guide shows you how to conquer these tricky questions with a step-by-step plan for finding the right solution each and every time, no matter the kind or level of problem. From learning math lingo and performing operations to calculating formulas and writing equations, you''ll get all the skills you need to succeed!Discover how to: * Translate word problems into plain English* Brush up on basic math skills* Plug in the right operation or formula* Tackle algebraic and geometric problems* Check your answers to see if they work

  3. High School Football Players Use Their Helmets to Tackle Other Players Despite Knowing the Risks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuriyama, Andrew M; Nakatsuka, Austin S; Yamamoto, Loren G

    2017-03-01

    There is greater attention to head-related injuries and concussions in American football. The helmet's structural safety and the way that football players use their helmets are important in preventing head injuries. Current strategies include penalizing players for high-risk behavior such as leading with their helmet or hitting an opposing player above the shoulder. Passive strategies include helmet modification to better protect the head of the players or to change the playing style of the players. Hawai'i high school varsity football players were surveyed to determine how they use their helmets and how a new helmet design would affect their style of play. One hundred seventy-seven surveys were completed; 79% said that they used their helmet to hit an opposing player during a tackle and 46% said they made this contact intentionally. When asked about modifying helmets with a soft material on the outside, 48% said they thought putting a soft cover over a regular helmet would protect their head better. However, many participants said that putting a soft cover over their regular helmet was a bad idea for various reasons. Most young football players use their helmets to block or tackle despite being taught they would be penalized or potentially injured if they did so. By gaining a better understanding of why and how players use their helmets and how they would respond to new helmet designs, steps can be taken to reduce head injuries for all levels of play.

  4. Tackling causes and costs of ED presentation for American football injuries: a population-level study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smart, Blair J; Haring, R Sterling; Asemota, Anthony O; Scott, John W; Canner, Joseph K; Nejim, Besma J; George, Benjamin P; Alsulaim, Hatim; Kirsch, Thomas D; Schneider, Eric B

    2016-07-01

    American tackle football is the most popular high-energy impact sport in the United States, with approximately 9 million participants competing annually. Previous epidemiologic studies of football-related injuries have generally focused on specific geographic areas or pediatric age groups. Our study sought to examine patient characteristics and outcomes, including hospital charges, among athletes presenting for emergency department (ED) treatment of football-related injury across all age groups in a large nationally representative data set. Patients presenting for ED treatment of injuries sustained playing American tackle football (identified using International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification code E007.0) from 2010 to 2011 were studied in the Nationwide Emergency Department Sample. Patient-specific injuries were identified using the primary International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification diagnosis code and categorized by type and anatomical region. Standard descriptive methods examined patient demographics, diagnosis categories, and ED and inpatient outcomes and charges. During the study period 397363 football players presented for ED treatment, 95.8% of whom were male. Sprains/strains (25.6%), limb fractures (20.7%), and head injuries (including traumatic brain injury; 17.5%) represented the most presenting injuries. Overall, 97.9% of patients underwent routine ED discharge with 1.1% admitted directly and fewer than 11 patients in the 2-year study period dying prior to discharge. The proportion of admitted patients who required surgical interventions was 15.7%, of which 89.9% were orthopedic, 4.7% neurologic, and 2.6% abdominal. Among individuals admitted to inpatient care, mean hospital length of stay was 2.4days (95% confidence interval, 2.2-2.6) and 95.6% underwent routine discharge home. The mean total charge for all patients was $1941 (95% confidence interval, $1890-$1992) with substantial

  5. Human Monoclonal antibodies - A dual advantaged weapon to tackle cancer and viruses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kurosawa G

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Human monoclonal antibodies (mAbs are powerful tools as pharmaceutical agents to tackle cancer and infectious diseases. Antibodies (Abs are present in blood at the concentration of 10 mg/ml and play a vital role in humoral immunity. Many therapeutic Abs have been reported since early 1980s. Human mAb technology was not available at that time and only the hybridoma technology for making mouse mAbs had been well established. In order to avoid various potential problems associated with use of mouse proteins, two different technologies to make human/mouse chimeric Ab as well as humanized Ab were developed crossing the various hurdles for almost twenty years and mAb based drugs such as rituximab, anti-CD20 Ab, and trastuzumab, anti-HER2 Ab, have been approved by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA for treatment of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma and breast cancer in 1997 and 1998, respectively. These drugs are well recognized and accepted by clinicians for treatment of patients. The clinical outcome of the treatment with mAb has strongly encouraged the researchers to develop much more refined mAbs. In addition to chimeric Ab and humanized Ab, now human mAbs can be produced by two technologies. The first is transgenic mice that produce human Abs and the second is human Ab libraries using phage-display system. Until now, several hundreds of mAbs against several tens of antigens (Ags have been developed and subjected to clinical examinations. While many Abs have been approved as therapeutic agents against hematological malignancies, the successful mAbs against solid tumors are still limited. However, many researchers have suggested that developing potential mAbs agents should be possible and incurable cancers may become curable within another decade. Though it is hard to say explicitly that this prediction is correct, a passion for this development should be worth supporting to lead to a successful outcome which will lead to patient benefits. Our institute

  6. Neutrino oscillations in the Earth suggest a terrestrial test of solution to solar neutrino problem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dar, A.; Mann, A.; Technicon-Israel Inst. of Tech., Haifa. Space Research Inst.)

    1987-01-01

    The verification of the Mikheyev-Smirnov-Wolfenstein (MSW) solution of the solar neutrino problem is discussed. One verification experiment concerns the detection of sizeable oscillations of atmospheric neutrinos in the earth, which can be detected with the massive underground proton decay detectors. Diurnal and seasonal modulations of the solar neutrino flux can perhaps be detected by the radiochemical Cl and Ga detectors. Moreover, neutrino oscillations in the Earth may modify the values of the oscillation parameters which can solve the solar neutrino problem and help determine their values. (UK)

  7. Quality and quantity tackling real issues in an institutional research repository

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva; Simpson, Pauline

    2005-01-01

    The TARDis project has examined and tackled many practical issues in scaling up from the current individual departmental scholarly communication practices towards an active institutional research repository. This repository must, of necessity, serve a variety of goals for a wide spread of disciplines. We illustrate the steps that have helped move the University of Southampton’s institutional research repository into a key position within the university’s research strategy for both visibility and reporting. We demonstrate the practical activities being developed to manage research assessment in conjunction with the EPrints software. These balance others which we show help fulfill the broad vision of disseminating all research output. These steps are enabling the visions of open access and institutional repositories to come closer together in a constructive fashion.

  8. EUROPEAN UNION INITIATIVES IN TACKLING MIGRATION AND ORGANIZED CRIME AT ITS NEW EASTERN BORDER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian Pop

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available The EU migration strategy in relation to its new eastern neighbours has started to take shape. Among other things, it includes: applying the Global Approach to Migration to the eastern regions neighbouring the EU; securing the necessary funding for migration management through the European Neighbourhood and Partnership Instrument (ENPI and the Thematic Programme for the cooperation with third countries in the areas of migration and asylum; promoting mobility partnerships and circular migration; concluding short-term visa facilitation and readmission agreements; and opening the first Common Visa Application Centre in the capital city of the Republic of Moldova. In addition, the EU has improved its regional focus by the help of the Black Sea Synergy European Commission Communication and extended for 2008-2009 the mandate of its Border Assistance Mission to Moldova and Ukraine (EUBAM, which is set to tackling irregular migration, drugs and cigarettes smuggling, and stolen cars and guns trafficking.

  9. How can “gender planning” contribute to tackle the challenges of demographic change?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wankiewicz Heidrun

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Ageing society, lack of skilled workforce, changes in work life careers and changes in partner and family models, a shift in societal roles of women and men, young and old, migration flows from rural to urban, multiple residences and new forms of housing and the related spatial impacts are in focus of demographic change. It is obvious that demographic change is not to be managed without gender and equality issues. Spatial planning has a crucial role in facing these challenges as spatial planning laws demand to ensure equal access to housing, services and labour markets and to organize transparent and inclusive decision making procedures. The paper explores key concepts, methods and selected case studies from Europe on gender planning trying to focus on the potential for innovating planning discipline and tackling with demographic change issues in rural areas. Cases from Bavaria and Austria compared to rural regions in Eastern Germany with high female emigration show concrete planning approaches.

  10. Delayed rupture of common carotid artery following rugby tackle injury: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abbas Saleh

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Common Carotid Artery (CCA is an uncommon site of injury following a blunt trauma, its presentation with spontaneous delayed rupture is even more uncommon and a rugby tackle leading to CCA injury is a rare event. What makes this case unique and very rare is combination of all of the above. Case presentation Mr H. presented to the Emergency Department with an expanding neck haematoma and shortness of breath. He was promptly intubated and had contrast CT angiography of neck vessels which localized the bleeding spot on posteromedial aspect of his Right CCA. He underwent emergency surgery with repair of the defect and made an uneventful recovery post operatively. Conclusion Delayed post traumatic rupture of the CCA is an uncommon yet potentially life threatening condition which can be caused by unusual blunt injury mechanism. A high index of suspicion and low threshold for investigating carotid injuries in the setting of blunt trauma is likely to be beneficial.

  11. Private Protected Areas as policy instruments to tackle environmental challenges: discussing potentialities and pitfalls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giulia Iannuzzi

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Protected Areas owned and managed by private actors are expected to have a relevant role in nature conservation policy as an additional tool to public-run protected sites. By reducing natural habitats destruction and degradation, well designed and well governed private protected areas (PPAs can have a key role in tackling two intertwined global threats: biodiversity loss and climate change. In this article we will present PPAs diffusion in Europe basing on data collected from the European Common Database on Nationally Designated Areas. In addition, an assessment framework will be proposed, with the purpose of contributing to a broader understanding of PPAs potentialities and pitfalls. The main challenges for PPAs effectiveness deal with their geographical distribution and their ability to provide strong and stable legal structures for private protection, assuring adequate and inclusive governance.

  12. TACKLED - THE IMMERSION OF SOCIAL WORK PROFESSION INTOTHE REALM OF HIGH COLLISION SPORTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiffanie-Victoria Jones

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Imagine a day when social work is tackled by high collision sports. Athletesactually seek services from social workers becausesocial work profession isthoroughly immersed in the realm of these sports.Presently, that image is justthat – a remote idea that, if realized, would alterthe landscape of the field ofmental health, for the benefit of professional athletes who play high collisionsports. Undergirding this paper is a case study ofa professional athlete whoexperienced the worst case of sports-related braindamage presently documented.This paper includes a detailed analysis of social work core values as applied toathletes. As well, mental illness and psychosocialfactors, specific to athletes isanalyzed. Ultimately, this paper seeks to explorethe social workers’ role inserving the mental health needs of an unconventional clientele – professionalathletes in high collision sports.

  13. Enabling professionals to change practices aimed at tackling social inequality through professional development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Bente; Brandi, Ulrik

    2018-01-01

    the impact of a professional development programme on changing practices that can address social inequality in ECEC. The article explores how a professional development programme, VIDA, can contribute to enabling professionals in enhancing the change potentials in ECEC, with a view to enhancing the learning......Research has shown the potential for early childhood education and care (ECEC) in making a difference for all children. However, research also highlights how hard overcoming the ‘gaps’ between children from differing social backgrounds still is. The overall aim of this article is to examine...... conditions and well-being of all children, and socially disadvantaged children in particular. The overall argument is that co-construction as well as openness and reflection in the ECEC field is needed when professionals are to change their pedagogical practices towards tackling the issues of social...

  14. Exercise-Based Interventions for Injury Prevention in Tackle Collision Ball Sports: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sewry, Nicola; Verhagen, Evert; Lambert, Mike; van Mechelen, Willem; Viljoen, Wayne; Readhead, Clint; Brown, James

    2017-09-01

    The injury burden in collision sports is relatively high compared to other team sports. Therefore, participants in these sports would benefit by having effective injury prevention programs. Exercise-based interventions have successfully reduced injuries in soccer, but evidence on exercise-based interventions in tackle collision sports is limited. The objective of this review is to systematically examine the evidence of exercise-based intervention programs reducing injuries in tackle collision sports. PubMed, EBSCOHost, and Web of Science were searched for articles published between January 1995 and December 2015. The methodological quality was assessed using an adapted Cochrane Bone Joint and Muscle Trauma Group quality assessment tool. The inclusion criteria were (1) (randomized) control trials and observational studies; (2) sporting codes: American, Australian and Gaelic Football, rugby union, and rugby league; (3) participants of any age or sex; (4) exercise-based, prehabilitative intervention; and (5) primary outcome was injury rate or incidence (injury risk). The exclusion criteria were (1) unavailability of full-text; and (2) article unavailable in English. Nine studies with a total of 3517 participants were included in this review. Seven of these studies showed a significant decrease in injury risk. These studies included three sporting codes and various age groups, making it difficult to make inferences. The two highest methodological quality studies found no effect of an exercise-based intervention on injury risk. There is evidence that exercise-based injury preventions can be beneficial in reducing injury risk in collision sports, but more studies of high methodological quality are required.

  15. Problem Solution Project: Transforming Curriculum and Empowering Urban Students and Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarrett, Olga S.; Stenhouse, Vera

    2011-01-01

    This article presents findings of 6 years of implementing a Problem Solution Project, an assignment influenced by service learning, problem-based learning, critical theory, and critical pedagogy whereby teachers help children tackle real problems. Projects of 135 teachers in an urban certification/master's program were summarized by cohort year…

  16. TACKLING THE INFORMAL ECONOMY IN THE EUROPEAN UNION: A SOCIAL ACTOR APPROACH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Colin C. Williams

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, participants in the informal economy have started to be viewed less as rational economic actors who engage in the informal economy when the pay-off is greater than the expected cost of being caught and punished, and more as social actors who engage when their tax morale (i.e., motivation to pay taxes is low. To evaluate this new social actor approach and the implications for tackling the informal economy, this paper reports evidence from 41,689 face-to-face interviews conducted across the European Union. Multilevel logistic regression analysis reveals a strong association between participation in the informal economy and the level of tax morale. Finding that higher tax morale (and thus lower participation in the informal economy is strongly correlated at the country-level with greater levels of state intervention and at the individual-level with characteristics such as gender, age, education and employment status, the outcome is to confirm a structuralist political economy explanation and refute the modernization and neo-liberal explanations and remedies, as well as to uncover the importance of some policy solutions not considered until now, including older citizens mentoring of younger people, and improving women’s participation in the labour force.

  17. [Social and organizational innovation to tackle the challenge of integrated care of the chronically ill].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuño-Solinís, Roberto

    2014-01-01

    The increase in life expectancy, coupled with other factors, has led to an increase in the prevalence of chronic diseases and multiple morbidity. This has led to the need to develop new health and social care models, which will allow managing these efficiently and in a sustainable manner. In particular, there seems to be consensus on the need to move towards integrated, patient-centered, and more proactive care. Thus, in recent years, chronic care models have been developed at international, national and regional level, as well as introducing strategies to tackle the challenge of chronic illness. However, the implementation of actions facilitating the change towards this new model of care does not seem to be an easy task. This paper presents some of the strategic lines and initiatives carried out by the Department of Health of the Basque Government. These actions can be described within a social and organizational innovation framework, as a means for effective implementation of interventions and strategies that shape the model required for the improved care of chronic illnesses within a universal and tax-funded health system. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  18. Motor matters: tackling heterogeneity of Parkinson's disease in functional MRI studies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Štefan Holiga

    Full Text Available To tackle the heterogeneity of Parkinson's disease symptoms, most functional imaging studies tend to select a uniform group of subjects. We hypothesize that more profound considerations are needed to account for intra/inter-subject clinical variability and possibly for differing pathophysiological processes. Twelve patients were investigated using functional magnetic resonance imaging during visually-guided finger tapping. To account for disease heterogeneity, the motor score and individual symptom scores from the Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS-III were utilized in the group-level model using two approaches either as the explanatory variable or as the effect of interest. Employment of the UPDRS-III score and symptom scores was systematically tested on the resulting group response to the levodopa challenge, which further accentuated the diversity of the diseased state of participants. Statistics revealed a bilateral group response to levodopa in the basal ganglia. Interestingly, systematic incorporation of individual motor aspects of the disease in the modelling amended the resulting activity patterns conspicuously, evidencing a manifold amount of explained variability by the particular score. In conclusion, the severity of clinical symptoms expressed in the UPDRS-III scores should be considered in the analysis to attain unbiased statistics, draw reliable conclusions and allow for comparisons between research groups studying Parkinson's disease using functional magnetic resonance imaging.

  19. Numerical tackling for viscoelastic fluid flow in rotating frame considering homogeneous-heterogeneous reactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Najwa Maqsood

    Full Text Available This study provides a numerical treatment for rotating flow of viscoelastic (Maxwell fluid bounded by a linearly deforming elastic surface. Mass transfer analysis is carried out in the existence of homogeneous-heterogeneous reactions. By means of usual transformation, the governing equations are changed into global similarity equations which have been tackled by an expedient shooting approach. A contemporary numerical routine bvp4c of software MATLAB is also opted to develop numerical approximations. Both methods of solution are found in complete agreement in all the cases. Velocity and concentration profiles are computed and elucidated for certain range of viscoelastic fluid parameter. The solutions contain a rotation-strength parameter λ that has a considerable impact on the flow fields. For sufficiently large value of λ, the velocity fields are oscillatory decaying function of the non-dimensional vertical distance. Concentration distribution at the surface is found to decrease upon increasing the strengths of chemical reactions. A comparison of present computations is made with those of already published ones and such comparison appears convincing. Keywords: Maxwell fluid, Similarity solution, Numerical method, Chemical reaction, Stretching sheet

  20. Serious game development as a strategy for health promotion and tackling childhood obesity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jéssica David Dias

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objectives: to develop and assess a serious game on healthy eating and physical activity to promote health and tackle childhood obesity. Method: a descriptive, applied and methodological study.For the development of the game, the following steps were taken: conceptualization, pre-production with the development of the game documentation, prototyping, production and assessment of thecomputer and health experts. Results: a prototype has been developed up to beta version. The game was positively assessed both in terms of gameplay and mechanics, and in relation to the content presented, standing out as a powerful strategy for health promotion. The information from the assessment phase contributed to the settings in the software in order to make it available in the future for the target population of this research. The greatest advantage of the proposed game is the fact that it is an open educational resource. Conclusions: the expert assessments showed that the game has great educational potential and it is considered suitable for future application to the target audience.The serious game can become a technological teaching resource available for use in schools and health facilities, and can also be reused for the production of other educational games by accessing its source code.

  1. Building Beautiful Minds: Teaching Through Movies to Tackle Stigma in Psychology Students in the UAE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petkari, Eleni

    2017-12-01

    The use of movie-based educational interventions has been used widely and is considered an effective method aiming at changing the stigmatizing attitudes of future mental health professionals. The purpose of this study was to examine the effectiveness of a 10-week intervention that combined movies and related discussions in a sample of 26 psychology students in the United Arab Emirates, where the opportunities for real contact with patients with mental illness are limited. By means of mixed methods approach, students were assessed at two time points by the Opening Minds Stigma Scale for Health Care Providers [OMS-HC] (T1-T2) and by qualitative questions only at the end of the intervention (T2). The results corroborated changes to some of the students' attitudes, namely agency, compassion, and proximity, but did not prove a general attitudinal change. Additionally, students acknowledged the benefit obtained by their participation with regard to their learning experience, pointing out the importance of combining theory with practical examples of mental illness for spreading awareness and tackling stigma. The results are discussed in the light of their importance for the United Arab Emirates educational context.

  2. Serious game development as a strategy for health promotion and tackling childhood obesity 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias, Jéssica David; Mekaro, Marcelo Shinyu; Cheng Lu, Jennifer Kaon; Otsuka, Joice Lee; Fonseca, Luciana Mara Monti; Zem-Mascarenhas, Silvia Helena

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objectives: to develop and assess a serious game on healthy eating and physical activity to promote health and tackle childhood obesity. Method: a descriptive, applied and methodological study.For the development of the game, the following steps were taken: conceptualization, pre-production with the development of the game documentation, prototyping, production and assessment of thecomputer and health experts. Results: a prototype has been developed up to beta version. The game was positively assessed both in terms of gameplay and mechanics, and in relation to the content presented, standing out as a powerful strategy for health promotion. The information from the assessment phase contributed to the settings in the software in order to make it available in the future for the target population of this research. The greatest advantage of the proposed game is the fact that it is an open educational resource. Conclusions: the expert assessments showed that the game has great educational potential and it is considered suitable for future application to the target audience.The serious game can become a technological teaching resource available for use in schools and health facilities, and can also be reused for the production of other educational games by accessing its source code. PMID:27533268

  3. Numerical tackling for viscoelastic fluid flow in rotating frame considering homogeneous-heterogeneous reactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maqsood, Najwa; Mustafa, M.; Khan, Junaid Ahmad

    This study provides a numerical treatment for rotating flow of viscoelastic (Maxwell) fluid bounded by a linearly deforming elastic surface. Mass transfer analysis is carried out in the existence of homogeneous-heterogeneous reactions. By means of usual transformation, the governing equations are changed into global similarity equations which have been tackled by an expedient shooting approach. A contemporary numerical routine bvp4c of software MATLAB is also opted to develop numerical approximations. Both methods of solution are found in complete agreement in all the cases. Velocity and concentration profiles are computed and elucidated for certain range of viscoelastic fluid parameter. The solutions contain a rotation-strength parameter λ that has a considerable impact on the flow fields. For sufficiently large value of λ , the velocity fields are oscillatory decaying function of the non-dimensional vertical distance. Concentration distribution at the surface is found to decrease upon increasing the strengths of chemical reactions. A comparison of present computations is made with those of already published ones and such comparison appears convincing.

  4. [Repercussions of the Maria da Penha law in tackling gender violence].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meneghel, Stela Nazareth; Mueller, Betânia; Collaziol, Marceli Emer; de Quadros, Maíra Meneghel

    2013-03-01

    This paper presents the declarations about the Maria da Penha law made by a sample of women victims and care workers who handle situations of gender violence in the city of Porto Alegre. The data are part of a study that investigated the critical path followed by women who decide to denounce violence. The statements were selected from 45 semi-structured interviews answered by 21 women and 25 professionals from the police, legal, social and health services and nongovernmental institutions. Data were analyzed using NVivo software and one of the categories selected was the Maria da Penha law. Most respondents mentioned the positive and innovatory aspects of the law, though they also pointed out its limitations. The care workers see the legal device as an important tool for tackling violence, aligned with international conventions, bringing innovations and broadening women's access to justice. In terms of weaknesses, both women and care workers stress the inefficiency in the implementation of protective measures, the lack of material resources and manpower, the fragmentation of the health care network and the movement of conservative sectors in society to delegitimize the law.

  5. The problem of time quantum mechanics versus general relativity

    CERN Document Server

    Anderson, Edward

    2017-01-01

    This book is a treatise on time and on background independence in physics. It first considers how time is conceived of in each accepted paradigm of physics: Newtonian, special relativity, quantum mechanics (QM) and general relativity (GR). Substantial differences are moreover uncovered between what is meant by time in QM and in GR. These differences jointly source the Problem of Time: Nine interlinked facets which arise upon attempting concurrent treatment of the QM and GR paradigms, as is required in particular for a background independent theory of quantum gravity. A sizeable proportion of current quantum gravity programs - e.g. geometrodynamical and loop quantum gravity approaches to quantum GR, quantum cosmology, supergravity and M-theory - are background independent in this sense. This book's foundational topic is thus furthermore of practical relevance in the ongoing development of quantum gravity programs. This book shows moreover that eight of the nine facets of the Problem of Time already occur upon ...

  6. Tackle-related injury rates and nature of injuries in South African Youth Week tournament rugby union players (under-13 to under-18): an observational cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Burger, N.; Lambert, M.I.; Viljoen, W.; Brown, J.; Readhead, C.; Hendricks, S.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: The tackle situation is most often associated with the high injury rates in rugby union. Tackle injury epidemiology in rugby union has previously been focused on senior cohorts but less is known about younger cohorts. The aim of this study was to report on the nature and rates of

  7. The politics of partnerships: a study of police and housing collaboration to tackle anti-social behaviour on Australian public housing estates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, Keith

    2010-01-01

    This paper draws on the findings from a research project on partnership arrangements between the police and housing departments on three Australian public housing estates to tackle problems associated with illicit drug activity and anti-social behaviour (ASB). The analysis focused on the setting up of the partnerships and the interactions that followed from these institutional arrangements. The assumption that informs the paper is that when studying partnerships there is a need for a more critically framed analysis. The temptation to posit "a successful model" of what partnership entails and then to judge practices in relation to this model is considerable, but it inevitably falls into the trap of constructing a narrative of partnership success or failure in terms of individual agency (that is, the degree of commitment from individuals). The analysis undertaken in this paper has therefore sought to fathom a more complex set of organizational processes. Rather than confine the discussion to issues of success and failure, the study foregrounds the subjective accounts of individuals who work within partnership and the constraints they encounter. The paper therefore makes explicit the cultural tensions within and across agencies, contestation as to the extent of the policy "problem," and the divergent perspectives on the appropriate modes of intervention.

  8. Synthesis and review: Tackling the nitrogen management challenge: from global to local scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reis, Stefan; Bekunda, Mateete; Howard, Clare M.; Karanja, Nancy; Winiwarter, Wilfried; Yan, Xiaoyuan; Bleeker, Albert; Sutton, Mark A.

    2016-12-01

    ) and the identification of policy and technology solutions to tackle global nitrogen management issues (IV), this will enable countries to fulfil their regional and global commitments.

  9. Tackling saponin diversity in marine animals by mass spectrometry: data acquisition and integration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decroo, Corentin; Colson, Emmanuel; Demeyer, Marie; Lemaur, Vincent; Caulier, Guillaume; Eeckhaut, Igor; Cornil, Jérôme; Flammang, Patrick; Gerbaux, Pascal

    2017-05-01

    Saponin analysis by mass spectrometry methods is nowadays progressively supplementing other analytical methods such as nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). Indeed, saponin extracts from plant or marine animals are often constituted by a complex mixture of (slightly) different saponin molecules that requires extensive purification and separation steps to meet the requirement for NMR spectroscopy measurements. Based on its intrinsic features, mass spectrometry represents an inescapable tool to access the structures of saponins within extracts by using LC-MS, MALDI-MS, and tandem mass spectrometry experiments. The combination of different MS methods nowadays allows for a nice description of saponin structures, without extensive purification. However, the structural characterization process is based on low kinetic energy CID which cannot afford a total structure elucidation as far as stereochemistry is concerned. Moreover, the structural difference between saponins in a same extract is often so small that coelution upon LC-MS analysis is unavoidable, rendering the isomeric distinction and characterization by CID challenging or impossible. In the present paper, we introduce ion mobility in combination with liquid chromatography to better tackle the structural complexity of saponin congeners. When analyzing saponin extracts with MS-based methods, handling the data remains problematic for the comprehensive report of the results, but also for their efficient comparison. We here introduce an original schematic representation using sector diagrams that are constructed from mass spectrometry data. We strongly believe that the proposed data integration could be useful for data interpretation since it allows for a direct and fast comparison, both in terms of composition and relative proportion of the saponin contents in different extracts. Graphical Abstract A combination of state-of-the-art mass spectrometry methods, including ion mobility spectroscopy, is developed to afford a

  10. Efficient algorithms for accurate hierarchical clustering of huge datasets: tackling the entire protein space.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loewenstein, Yaniv; Portugaly, Elon; Fromer, Menachem; Linial, Michal

    2008-07-01

    UPGMA (average linking) is probably the most popular algorithm for hierarchical data clustering, especially in computational biology. However, UPGMA requires the entire dissimilarity matrix in memory. Due to this prohibitive requirement, UPGMA is not scalable to very large datasets. We present a novel class of memory-constrained UPGMA (MC-UPGMA) algorithms. Given any practical memory size constraint, this framework guarantees the correct clustering solution without explicitly requiring all dissimilarities in memory. The algorithms are general and are applicable to any dataset. We present a data-dependent characterization of hardness and clustering efficiency. The presented concepts are applicable to any agglomerative clustering formulation. We apply our algorithm to the entire collection of protein sequences, to automatically build a comprehensive evolutionary-driven hierarchy of proteins from sequence alone. The newly created tree captures protein families better than state-of-the-art large-scale methods such as CluSTr, ProtoNet4 or single-linkage clustering. We demonstrate that leveraging the entire mass embodied in all sequence similarities allows to significantly improve on current protein family clusterings which are unable to directly tackle the sheer mass of this data. Furthermore, we argue that non-metric constraints are an inherent complexity of the sequence space and should not be overlooked. The robustness of UPGMA allows significant improvement, especially for multidomain proteins, and for large or divergent families. A comprehensive tree built from all UniProt sequence similarities, together with navigation and classification tools will be made available as part of the ProtoNet service. A C++ implementation of the algorithm is available on request.

  11. Challenges in process marginality for advanced technology nodes and tackling its contributors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayana Samy, Aravind; Schiwon, Roberto; Seltmann, Rolf; Kahlenberg, Frank; Katakamsetty, Ushasree

    2013-10-01

    Process margin is getting critical in the present node shrinkage scenario due to the physical limits reached (Rayleigh's criterion) using ArF lithography tools. K1 is used to its best for better resolution and to enhance the process margin (28nm metal patterning k1=0.31). In this paper, we would like to give an overview of various contributors in the advanced technology nodes which limit the process margins and how the challenges have been tackled in a modern foundry model. Advanced OPC algorithms are used to make the design content at the mask optimum for patterning. However, as we work at the physical limit, critical features (Hot-spots) are very susceptible to litho process variations. Furthermore, etch can have a significant impact as well. Pattern that still looks healthy at litho can fail due to etch interactions. This makes the traditional 2D contour output from ORC tools not able to predict accurately all defects and hence not able to fully correct it in the early mask tapeout phase. The above makes a huge difference in the fast ramp-up and high yield in a competitive foundry market. We will explain in this paper how the early introduction of 3D resist model based simulation of resist profiles (resist top-loss, bottom bridging, top-rounding, etc.,) helped in our prediction and correction of hot-spots in the early 28nm process development phase. The paper also discusses about the other overall process window reduction contributors due to mask 3D effects, wafer topography (focus shifts/variations) and how this has been addressed with different simulation efforts in a fast and timely manner.

  12. Tackling some of the most intricate geophysical challenges via high-performance computing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khosronejad, A.

    2016-12-01

    Recently, world has been witnessing significant enhancements in computing power of supercomputers. Computer clusters in conjunction with the advanced mathematical algorithms has set the stage for developing and applying powerful numerical tools to tackle some of the most intricate geophysical challenges that today`s engineers face. One such challenge is to understand how turbulent flows, in real-world settings, interact with (a) rigid and/or mobile complex bed bathymetry of waterways and sea-beds in the coastal areas; (b) objects with complex geometry that are fully or partially immersed; and (c) free-surface of waterways and water surface waves in the coastal area. This understanding is especially important because the turbulent flows in real-world environments are often bounded by geometrically complex boundaries, which dynamically deform and give rise to multi-scale and multi-physics transport phenomena, and characterized by multi-lateral interactions among various phases (e.g. air/water/sediment phases). Herein, I present some of the multi-scale and multi-physics geophysical fluid mechanics processes that I have attempted to study using an in-house high-performance computational model, the so-called VFS-Geophysics. More specifically, I will present the simulation results of turbulence/sediment/solute/turbine interactions in real-world settings. Parts of the simulations I present are performed to gain scientific insights into the processes such as sand wave formation (A. Khosronejad, and F. Sotiropoulos, (2014), Numerical simulation of sand waves in a turbulent open channel flow, Journal of Fluid Mechanics, 753:150-216), while others are carried out to predict the effects of climate change and large flood events on societal infrastructures ( A. Khosronejad, et al., (2016), Large eddy simulation of turbulence and solute transport in a forested headwater stream, Journal of Geophysical Research:, doi: 10.1002/2014JF003423).

  13. Balance Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... often, it could be a sign of a balance problem. Balance problems can make you feel unsteady. You may ... related injuries, such as a hip fracture. Some balance problems are due to problems in the inner ...

  14. Networks in social policy problems

    CERN Document Server

    Scotti, marco

    2012-01-01

    Network science is the key to managing social communities, designing the structure of efficient organizations and planning for sustainable development. This book applies network science to contemporary social policy problems. In the first part, tools of diffusion and team design are deployed to challenges in adoption of ideas and the management of creativity. Ideas, unlike information, are generated and adopted in networks of personal ties. Chapters in the second part tackle problems of power and malfeasance in political and business organizations, where mechanisms in accessing and controlling informal networks often outweigh formal processes. The third part uses ideas from biology and physics to understand global economic and financial crises, ecological depletion and challenges to energy security. Ideal for researchers and policy makers involved in social network analysis, business strategy and economic policy, it deals with issues ranging from what makes public advisories effective to how networks influenc...

  15. Basic Maths Practice Problems For Dummies

    CERN Document Server

    Beveridge, Colin

    2012-01-01

    Fun, friendly coaching and all the practice you need to tackle maths problems with confidence and ease In his popular Basic Maths For Dummies, professional maths tutor Colin Beveridge proved that he could turn anyone - even the most maths-phobic person - into a natural-born number cruncher. In this book he supplies more of his unique brand of maths-made- easy coaching, plus 2,000 practice problems to help you master what you learn. Whether you're prepping for a numeracy test or an employability exam, thinking of returning to school, or you'd just like to be one of those know-it-alls who says

  16. Maintenance problems on reciprocating compressors [Paper No.: VA-3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lakshminarayan, S.

    1981-01-01

    The Heavy Water Plant at Baroda has a number of reciprocting compressors for handling synthesis gas, refrigeration ammonia and air for instrumentation. As these compressors are running continuously, their parts are subjected to wear and tear. Problems generally come up in bearings, valves, stuffing box packings, piston rings and similar such components. These problems and methods of tackling them are discussed. (M.G.B.)

  17. A Knowledge Level Approach to Collaborative Problem Solving

    OpenAIRE

    Jennings, N. R.

    1992-01-01

    This paper proposes, characterizes and outlines the benefits of a new computer level specifically for multi-agent problem solvers. This level is called the cooperation knowledge level and involves describing and developing richer and more explicit models of common social phenomena. We then focus on one particular form of social interaction in which groups of agents decide they wish to work together, in a collaborative manner, to tackle a common problem. A domain independent model (called join...

  18. [Population problem, comprehension problem].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tallon, F

    1993-08-01

    Overpopulation of developing countries in general, and Rwanda in particular, is not just their problem but a problem for developed countries as well. Rapid population growth is a key factor in the increase of poverty in sub-Saharan Africa. Population growth outstrips food production. Africa receives more and more foreign food, economic, and family planning aid each year. The Government of Rwanda encourages reduced population growth. Some people criticize it, but this criticism results in mortality and suffering. One must combat this ignorance, but attitudes change slowly. Some of these same people find the government's acceptance of family planning an invasion of their privacy. Others complain that rich countries do not have campaigns to reduce births, so why should Rwanda do so? The rate of schooling does not increase in Africa, even though the number of children in school increases, because of rapid population growth. Education is key to improvements in Africa's socioeconomic growth. Thus, Africa, is underpopulated in terms of potentiality but overpopulated in terms of reality, current conditions, and possibilities of overexploitation. Africa needs to invest in human resources. Families need to save, and to so, they must refrain from having many children. Africa should resist the temptation to waste, as rich countries do, and denounce it. Africa needs to become more independent of these countries, but structural adjustment plans, growing debt, and rapid population growth limit national independence. Food aid is a means for developed countries to dominate developing countries. Modernization through foreign aid has had some positive effects on developing countries (e.g., improved hygiene, mortality reduction), but these also sparked rapid population growth. Rwandan society is no longer traditional, but it is also not yet modern. A change in mentality to fewer births, better quality of life for living infants, better education, and less burden for women must occur

  19. Emergentism as a default: Cancer as a problem of tissue organization

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2004-09-27

    Sep 27, 2004 ... The optimism of molecular biologists, fueled by early success in tackling relatively simple problems, has now been tempered by the difficulties found when attempting to understand complex biological problems. Here, we analyse experimental data that illustrate the shortcomings of this sort of reductionism.

  20. Promoting Collaborative Problem-Solving Skills in a Course on Engineering Grand Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Tracy X. P.; Mickleborough, Neil C.

    2015-01-01

    The ability to solve problems with people of diverse backgrounds is essential for engineering graduates. A course on engineering grand challenges was designed to promote collaborative problem-solving (CPS) skills. One unique component is that students need to work both within their own team and collaborate with the other team to tackle engineering…

  1. Addressing Complex Challenges through Adaptive Leadership: A Promising Approach to Collaborative Problem Solving

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Tenneisha; Squires, Vicki

    2017-01-01

    Organizations are faced with solving increasingly complex problems. Addressing these issues requires effective leadership that can facilitate a collaborative problem solving approach where multiple perspectives are leveraged. In this conceptual paper, we critique the effectiveness of earlier leadership models in tackling complex organizational…

  2. Social Protection and Its Effectiveness in Tackling Child Labour: the Case of Internal Child Migrants in Indonesia

    OpenAIRE

    Simrin Singh; Sarah McLeish

    2013-01-01

    There is growing recognition amongst policymakers that social protection policies and programmes are uniquely placed to reduce child labour2 because they directly address its root causes: tackling simultaneously the poverty, exclusion and vulnerability that compel families to depend on the meagre incomes they can earn by sending their children to work. Social protection can also address the underlying social and economic causes that prevent children from attending school. Nevertheless, partic...

  3. Does a SLAP lesion affect shoulder muscle recruitment as measured by EMG activity during a rugby tackle?

    OpenAIRE

    Herrington Lee C; Horsley Ian G; Rolf Christer

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background The study objective was to assess the influence of a SLAP lesion on onset of EMG activity in shoulder muscles during a front on rugby football tackle within professional rugby players. Methods Mixed cross-sectional study evaluating between and within group differences in EMG onset times. Testing was carried out within the physiotherapy department of a university sports medicine clinic. The test group consisted of 7 players with clinically diagnosed SLAP lesions, later veri...

  4. Spent nuclear fuel transport problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kondrat'ev, A.N.; Kosarev, Yu.A.; Yulikov, E.I.

    1977-01-01

    The paper considers the problems of shipping spent fuel from nuclear power stations to reprocessing plants and also the principal ways of solving these problems with a view to achieving maximum economy and safety in transport. The increase in the number of nuclear power plants in the USSR will entail an intensification of spent-fuel shipments. Higher burnup and the need to reduce cooling time call for heavier and more complex shipping containers. The problem of shipping spent fuel should be tackled comprehensively, bearing in mind the requirements of safety and economy. One solution to these problems is to develop rational and cheap designs of such containers. In addition, the world-wide trend towards more thorough protection of the environment against pollution and of the health of the population requires the devotion of constant attention to improving the reliability and safety of shipments. The paper considers the prospects for nuclear power development in the USSR and in other member countries of the CMEA (1976-1980), the composition and design of some Soviet packaging assemblies, the appropriate cooling time for spent fuel from thermal reactor power stations, procedures for reducing fuel-shipping costs, some methodological problems of container calculation and design, and finally problems of testing and checking containers on test rigs. (author)

  5. Mathematica a problem-centered approach

    CERN Document Server

    Hazrat, Roozbeh

    2015-01-01

    This textbook introduces the vast array of features and powerful mathematical functions of Mathematica using a multitude of clearly presented examples and worked-out problems. Each section starts with a description of a new topic and some basic examples. The author then demonstrates the use of new commands through three categories of problems - the first category highlights those essential parts of the text that demonstrate the use of new commands in Mathematica whilst solving each problem presented; - the second comprises problems that further demonstrate the use of commands previously introduced to tackle different situations; and - the third presents more challenging problems for further study. The intention is to enable the reader to learn from the codes, thus avoiding long and exhausting explanations. While based on a computer algebra course taught to undergraduate students of mathematics, science, engineering and finance, the book also includes chapters on calculus and solving equations, and graphics, t...

  6. Violence-prevention summit at Virginia Tech tackles bullying, gender-based violence, more

    OpenAIRE

    Elliott, Jean

    2010-01-01

    Bullying in schools, aggression in the workplace, violence against women -- all are complex problems. On Nov. 12 and 13, Virginia Tech hosts a gathering to make recommendations about violence prevention.

  7. Big questions come in bundles, hence they should be tackled systemically.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunge, Mario

    2014-01-01

    A big problem is, by definition, one involving either multiple traits of a thing, or a collection of things. Because such problems are systemic or global rather than local or sectoral, they call for a systemic approach, and often a multidisciplinary one as well. Just think of individual and public health problems, or of income inequality, gender discrimination, housing, environmental, or political participation issues. All of them are inter-related, so that focusing on one of them at a time is bound to produce either short-term solutions or utter failure. This is also why single-issue political movements are bound to fail. In other words, big problems are systemic and must, therefore be approached systemically--though with the provisos that systemism must not be confused with holism and that synthesis complements analysis instead of replacing it.

  8. Speech Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Speech Problems KidsHealth / For Teens / Speech Problems What's in ... a person's ability to speak clearly. Some Common Speech and Language Disorders Stuttering is a problem that ...

  9. Hemiequilibrium problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Aslam Noor

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available We consider a new class of equilibrium problems, known as hemiequilibrium problems. Using the auxiliary principle technique, we suggest and analyze a class of iterative algorithms for solving hemiequilibrium problems, the convergence of which requires either pseudomonotonicity or partially relaxed strong monotonicity. As a special case, we obtain a new method for hemivariational inequalities. Since hemiequilibrium problems include hemivariational inequalities and equilibrium problems as special cases, the results proved in this paper still hold for these problems.

  10. Does a SLAP lesion affect shoulder muscle recruitment as measured by EMG activity during a rugby tackle?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herrington Lee C

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The study objective was to assess the influence of a SLAP lesion on onset of EMG activity in shoulder muscles during a front on rugby football tackle within professional rugby players. Methods Mixed cross-sectional study evaluating between and within group differences in EMG onset times. Testing was carried out within the physiotherapy department of a university sports medicine clinic. The test group consisted of 7 players with clinically diagnosed SLAP lesions, later verified on arthroscopy. The reference group consisted of 15 uninjured and full time professional rugby players from within the same playing squad. Controlled tackles were performed against a tackle dummy. Onset of EMG activity was assessed from surface EMG of Pectorialis Major, Biceps Brachii, Latissimus Dorsi, Serratus Anterior and Infraspinatus muscles relative to time of impact. Analysis of differences in activation timing between muscles and limbs (injured versus non-injured side and non injured side versus matched reference group. Results Serratus Anterior was activated prior to all other muscles in all (P = 0.001-0.03 subjects. In the SLAP injured shoulder Biceps was activated later than in the non-injured side. Onset times of all muscles of the non-injured shoulder in the injured player were consistently earlier compared with the reference group. Whereas, within the injured shoulder, all muscle activation timings were later than in the reference group. Conclusions This study shows that in shoulders with a SLAP lesion there is a trend towards delay in activation time of Biceps and other muscles with the exception of an associated earlier onset of activation of Serratus anterior, possibly due to a coping strategy to protect glenohumeral stability and thoraco-scapular stability. This trend was not statistically significant in all cases

  11. Does a SLAP lesion affect shoulder muscle recruitment as measured by EMG activity during a rugby tackle?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horsley, Ian G; Herrington, Lee C; Rolf, Christer

    2010-02-25

    The study objective was to assess the influence of a SLAP lesion on onset of EMG activity in shoulder muscles during a front on rugby football tackle within professional rugby players. Mixed cross-sectional study evaluating between and within group differences in EMG onset times. Testing was carried out within the physiotherapy department of a university sports medicine clinic. The test group consisted of 7 players with clinically diagnosed SLAP lesions, later verified on arthroscopy. The reference group consisted of 15 uninjured and full time professional rugby players from within the same playing squad. Controlled tackles were performed against a tackle dummy. Onset of EMG activity was assessed from surface EMG of Pectorialis Major, Biceps Brachii, Latissimus Dorsi, Serratus Anterior and Infraspinatus muscles relative to time of impact. Analysis of differences in activation timing between muscles and limbs (injured versus non-injured side and non injured side versus matched reference group). Serratus Anterior was activated prior to all other muscles in all (P = 0.001-0.03) subjects. In the SLAP injured shoulder Biceps was activated later than in the non-injured side. Onset times of all muscles of the non-injured shoulder in the injured player were consistently earlier compared with the reference group. Whereas, within the injured shoulder, all muscle activation timings were later than in the reference group. This study shows that in shoulders with a SLAP lesion there is a trend towards delay in activation time of Biceps and other muscles with the exception of an associated earlier onset of activation of Serratus anterior, possibly due to a coping strategy to protect glenohumeral stability and thoraco-scapular stability. This trend was not statistically significant in all cases.

  12. Replacing textbook problems with lab experiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Register, Trevor

    2017-10-01

    End-of-the-chapter textbook problems are often the bread and butter of any traditional physics classroom. However, research strongly suggests that students be given the opportunity to apply their knowledge in multiple contexts as well as be provided with opportunities to do the process of science through laboratory experiences. Little correlation has been shown linking the number of textbook problems solved with conceptual understanding of topics in mechanics. Furthermore, textbook problems as the primary source of practice for students robs them of the joy and productive struggle of learning how to think like an experimental physicist. Methods such as Modeling Instruction tackle this problem head-on by starting each instructional unit with an inquiry-based lab aimed at establishing the important concepts and equations for the unit, and this article will discuss ideas and experiences for how to carry that philosophy throughout a unit.

  13. Tackling Error Propagation through Reinforcement Learning: A Case of Greedy Dependency Parsing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Le, M.N.; Fokkens, A.S.

    Error propagation is a common problem in NLP. Reinforcement learning explores erroneous states during training and can therefore be more robust when mistakes are made early in a process. In this paper, we apply reinforcement learning to greedy dependency parsing which is known to suffer from error

  14. Explaining the Mind: Problems, Problems

    OpenAIRE

    Harnad, Stevan

    2001-01-01

    The mind/body problem is the feeling/function problem: How and why do feeling systems feel? The problem is not just "hard" but insoluble (unless one is ready to resort to telekinetic dualism). Fortunately, the "easy" problems of cognitive science (such as the how and why of categorization and language) are not insoluble. Five books (by Damasio, Edelman/Tononi...

  15. Serious game development as a strategy for health promotion and tackling childhood obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias, Jéssica David; Mekaro, Marcelo Shinyu; Cheng Lu, Jennifer Kaon; Otsuka, Joice Lee; Fonseca, Luciana Mara Monti; Zem-Mascarenhas, Silvia Helena

    2016-08-15

    to develop and assess a serious game on healthy eating and physical activity to promote health and tackle childhood obesity. a descriptive, applied and methodological study.For the development of the game, the following steps were taken: conceptualization, pre-production with the development of the game documentation, prototyping, production and assessment of thecomputer and health experts. a prototype has been developed up to beta version. The game was positively assessed both in terms of gameplay and mechanics, and in relation to the content presented, standing out as a powerful strategy for health promotion. The information from the assessment phase contributed to the settings in the software in order to make it available in the future for the target population of this research. The greatest advantage of the proposed game is the fact that it is an open educational resource. the expert assessments showed that the game has great educational potential and it is considered suitable for future application to the target audience.The serious game can become a technological teaching resource available for use in schools and health facilities, and can also be reused for the production of other educational games by accessing its source code. desenvolver e avaliar um serious game (Jogo sério) sobre alimentação saudável e exercício físico para promoção da saúde e auxílio ao enfrentamento da obesidade infantil. estudo descritivo, aplicado e metodológico. Para o desenvolvimento do jogo, foram percorridas as seguintes etapas: conceituação, pré-produção com desenvolvimento da documentação do jogo, prototipagem, produção e avaliação de especialistas de computação e saúde. desenvolveu-se um protótipo até a versão beta. O jogo foi avaliado positivamente tanto em relação à jogabilidade e mecânica, quanto em relação ao conteúdo apresentado, destacando-se como uma estratégia potente para a promoção de saúde. As informações oriundas da fase de

  16. Tackling the knowledge needs of maintenance and operation staff in mouldy housing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonderup, Sirid; Gunnarsen, Lars Bo

    2017-01-01

    Interdisciplinary collaboration is key when it comes to solving and preventing mould problems in housing. Many forms of collaboration is necessary, not just between operating staff, inhabitants, management and tradespersons, but also knowing and working with the building structure in question...... discussed how a digital tool could help operating staff gather, share and systematise knowledge of local conditions and practices in order to improve operation and maintenance....

  17. Tackling Error Propagation through Reinforcement Learning: A Case of Greedy Dependency Parsing

    OpenAIRE

    Le, Minh; Fokkens, Antske

    2017-01-01

    Error propagation is a common problem in NLP. Reinforcement learning explores erroneous states during training and can therefore be more robust when mistakes are made early in a process. In this paper, we apply reinforcement learning to greedy dependency parsing which is known to suffer from error propagation. Reinforcement learning improves accuracy of both labeled and unlabeled dependencies of the Stanford Neural Dependency Parser, a high performance greedy parser, while maintaining its eff...

  18. Environmental Leadership Education for Tackling Water Environmental Issues in Arid Regions

    OpenAIRE

    Akiyama, Tomohiro; Li, Jia

    2013-01-01

    This chapter introduces one of the APIEL fi eld exercises, the Oasis Unit, which is conducted in northwestern China. To equip the students with a wide knowledge base and practical skills, this unit is strongly fi eld-oriented and applies in its course design the Integral Approach proposed by Ken Wilber. The approach provides a trans-/cross-disciplinary framework for identifying environmental problems of complexity, as well as bringing together methodologies from different fi elds and leadersh...

  19. International approaches to tackling corruption: what works and what doesn't?

    OpenAIRE

    Hough, Dan

    2017-01-01

    A well-developed set of international anti-corruption tools now exists. These range from broad conventions to focused initiatives in specific policy areas. This article argues that international agreements work best when they are focused and they speak to the common interests of the parties involved. Solutions need to be creative, they need to bring in a broad coalition of stakeholders and they need to be focused on specific problems. International agreements need to help states with good qua...

  20. Policies to tackle health inequalities in Norway: from laggard to pioneer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahl, Espen; Lie, Marit

    2009-01-01

    This study addresses recent public health policies in Norway, asking how policies on health inequalities have developed over the past 20 years. The authors focus on how the problem has been defined, what goals have been set, and what means have been put forward to achieve them. The data consist of official documents and interviews of key actors in research and the health bureaucracy. The results indicate that the theme of health inequalities has developed from a non-topic to a high-priority topic in Norway's public health policy. This change has been accompanied by formulation of clear goals and an overarching and long-term strategy, including concrete means to reduce health inequalities. Over the past five years, the problem definition has changed from one of individualization with a focus on health behaviors to a structural understanding that emphasizes the problem of the gradient and social determinants of health. Norway is on the move from a state of political indifference toward action in developing comprehensive, coordinating policy.

  1. How to Tackle Key Challenges in the Promotion of Physical Activity among Older Adults (65+): The AEQUIPA Network Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forberger, Sarah; Bammann, Karin; Bauer, Jürgen; Boll, Susanne; Bolte, Gabriele; Brand, Tilman; Hein, Andreas; Koppelin, Frauke; Lippke, Sonia; Meyer, Jochen; Pischke, Claudia R.; Voelcker-Rehage, Claudia; Zeeb, Hajo

    2017-01-01

    The paper introduces the theoretical framework and methods/instruments used by the Physical Activity and Health Equity: Primary Prevention for Healthy Ageing (AEQUIPA) prevention research network as an interdisciplinary approach to tackle key challenges in the promotion of physical activity among older people (65+). Drawing on the social-ecological model, the AEQUIPA network developed an interdisciplinary methodological design including quantitative/qualitative studies and systematic reviews, while combining expertise from diverse fields: public health, psychology, urban planning, sports sciences, health technology and geriatrics. AEQUIPA tackles key challenges when promoting physical activity (PA) in older adults: tailoring of interventions, fostering community readiness and participation, strengthening intersectoral collaboration, using new technological devices and evaluating intervention generated inequalities. AEQUIPA aims to strengthen the evidence base for age-specific preventive PA interventions and to yield new insights into the explanatory power of individual and contextual factors. Currently, the empirical work is still underway. First experiences indicate that the network has achieved a strong regional linkage with communities, local stakeholders and individuals. However, involving inactive persons and individuals from minority groups remained challenging. A review of existing PA intervention studies among the elderly revealed the potential to assess equity effects. The results will add to the theoretical and methodological discussion on evidence-based age-specific PA interventions and will contribute to the discussion about European and national health targets. PMID:28375177

  2. How to Tackle Key Challenges in the Promotion of Physical Activity among Older Adults (65+: The AEQUIPA Network Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Forberger

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper introduces the theoretical framework and methods/instruments used by the Physical Activity and Health Equity: Primary Prevention for Healthy Ageing (AEQUIPA prevention research network as an interdisciplinary approach to tackle key challenges in the promotion of physical activity among older people (65+. Drawing on the social-ecological model, the AEQUIPA network developed an interdisciplinary methodological design including quantitative/qualitative studies and systematic reviews, while combining expertise from diverse fields: public health, psychology, urban planning, sports sciences, health technology and geriatrics. AEQUIPA tackles key challenges when promoting physical activity (PA in older adults: tailoring of interventions, fostering community readiness and participation, strengthening intersectoral collaboration, using new technological devices and evaluating intervention generated inequalities. AEQUIPA aims to strengthen the evidence base for age-specific preventive PA interventions and to yield new insights into the explanatory power of individual and contextual factors. Currently, the empirical work is still underway. First experiences indicate that thenetwork has achieved a strong regional linkage with communities, local stakeholders and individuals. However, involving inactive persons and individuals from minority groups remained challenging. A review of existing PA intervention studies among the elderly revealed the potential to assess equity effects. The results will add to the theoretical and methodological discussion on evidence-based age-specific PA interventions and will contribute to the discussion about European and national health targets.

  3. Natural killer cells as a promising tool to tackle cancer-A review of sources, methodologies, and potentials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preethy, Senthilkumar; Dedeepiya, Vidyasagar Devaprasad; Senthilkumar, Rajappa; Rajmohan, Mathaiyan; Karthick, Ramalingam; Terunuma, Hiroshi; Abraham, Samuel J K

    2017-07-04

    Immune cell-based therapies are emerging as a promising tool to tackle malignancies, both solid tumors and selected hematological tumors. Vast experiences in literature have documented their safety and added survival benefits when such cell-based therapies are combined with the existing treatment options. Numerous methodologies of processing and in vitro expansion protocols of immune cells, such as the dendritic cells, natural killer (NK) cells, NKT cells, αβ T cells, so-called activated T lymphocytes, γδ T cells, cytotoxic T lymphocytes, and lymphokine-activated killer cells, have been reported for use in cell-based therapies. Among this handful of immune cells of significance, the NK cells stand apart from the rest for not only their direct cytotoxic ability against cancer cells but also their added advantage, which includes their capability of (i) action through both innate and adaptive immune mechanism, (ii) tackling viruses too, giving benefits in conditions where viral infections culminate in cancer, and (iii) destroying cancer stem cells, thereby preventing resistance to chemotherapy and radiotherapy. This review thoroughly analyses the sources of such NK cells, methods for expansion, and the future potentials of taking the in vitro expanded allogeneic NK cells with good cytotoxic ability as a drug for treating cancer and/or viral infection and even as a prophylactic tool for prevention of cancer after initial remission.

  4. How to Tackle Key Challenges in the Promotion of Physical Activity among Older Adults (65+): The AEQUIPA Network Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forberger, Sarah; Bammann, Karin; Bauer, Jürgen; Boll, Susanne; Bolte, Gabriele; Brand, Tilman; Hein, Andreas; Koppelin, Frauke; Lippke, Sonia; Meyer, Jochen; Pischke, Claudia R; Voelcker-Rehage, Claudia; Zeeb, Hajo

    2017-04-04

    The paper introduces the theoretical framework and methods/instruments used by the Physical Activity and Health Equity: Primary Prevention for Healthy Ageing (AEQUIPA) prevention research network as an interdisciplinary approach to tackle key challenges in the promotion of physical activity among older people (65+). Drawing on the social-ecological model, the AEQUIPA network developed an interdisciplinary methodological design including quantitative/qualitative studies and systematic reviews, while combining expertise from diverse fields: public health, psychology, urban planning, sports sciences, health technology and geriatrics. AEQUIPA tackles key challenges when promoting physical activity (PA) in older adults: tailoring of interventions, fostering community readiness and participation, strengthening intersectoral collaboration, using new technological devices and evaluating intervention generated inequalities. AEQUIPA aims to strengthen the evidence base for age-specific preventive PA interventions and to yield new insights into the explanatory power of individual and contextual factors. Currently, the empirical work is still underway. First experiences indicate that thenetwork has achieved a strong regional linkage with communities, local stakeholders and individuals. However, involving inactive persons and individuals from minority groups remained challenging. A review of existing PA intervention studies among the elderly revealed the potential to assess equity effects. The results will add to the theoretical and methodological discussion on evidence-based age-specific PA interventions and will contribute to the discussion about European and national health targets.

  5. Prostate Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... know the exact cause of your prostate problem. Prostatitis The cause of prostatitis depends on whether you ... prostate problem in men older than age 50. Prostatitis If you have a UTI, you may be ...

  6. General problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    This article presents the general problems as natural disasters, consequences of global climate change, public health, the danger of criminal actions, the availability to information about problems of environment

  7. Learning Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Learning Problems KidsHealth / For Kids / Learning Problems What's in ... for how to make it better. What Are Learning Disabilities? Learning disabilities aren't contagious, but they ...

  8. Ankle Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Read MoreDepression in Children and TeensRead MoreBMI Calculator Ankle ProblemsFollow this chart for more information about problems that can cause ankle pain. Our trusted Symptom Checker is written and ...

  9. THE PROBLEM OF ILLEGAL MIGRATION OF ETHNIC ROHINGYA IN SOUTHEAST ASIA

    OpenAIRE

    Сомкамнерд, Навапат

    2017-01-01

    The article is devoted to the problem of illegal migration of ethnic Rohingya in the region of South-East Asia, in some ASEAN countries, especially in Myanmar and Thailand. An overview focuses on the role of Thailand, Myanmar, Bangladesh and the role of international and regional organizations, especially the role of the UN and ASEAN in resolution of the problem of illegal migration of Rohingya. Particular emphasis is placed on activities of ASEAN and Thailand to tackle the problem of illegal...

  10. Do Good Without Causing Undue Harm. Experts Tackle Patient Radiation Safety During IAEA's Scientific Forum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henriques, Sasha

    2011-01-01

    Worldwide, about four billion X-ray exams, 35 million nuclear medicine exams and eight million radiation therapy treatment courses are undertaken each year. With millions exposed to ionizing radiation for medical purposes, and developing countries acquiring more machines to treat and diagnose cancer, the safety of patients is an ever-increasing concern. During the IAEA´s Scientific Forum, cancer experts and regulators put their heads together to explore the problems and possible solutions relating to the safe and appropriate use of new radiation medicine technology in developed and developing countries

  11. Imbalanced-learn: A Python Toolbox to Tackle the Curse of Imbalanced Datasets in Machine Learning

    OpenAIRE

    Lemaitre , Guillaume; Nogueira , Fernando; Aridas , Christos ,

    2017-01-01

    International audience; imbalanced-learn is an open-source python toolbox aiming at providing a wide range of methods to cope with the problem of imbalanced dataset frequently encountered in machine learning and pattern recognition. The implemented state-of-the-art methods can be categorized into 4 groups: (i) under-sampling, (ii) over-sampling, (iii) combination of over-and under-sampling, and (iv) ensemble learning methods. The proposed toolbox depends only on numpy, scipy, and scikit-learn...

  12. Radiological protection in medicine: Current problems in Indonesia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hiswara, E.

    2001-01-01

    The medical applications of ionizing radiation in Indonesia have been introduced in the early 20th century. Since then it dominates the application of radiation in various fields. By several regulations, the government has tried to control these applications. However, some problems are still persisting. This paper presents the safety-related regulations that are in place in Indonesia, authorization status regarding medical applications, the existing problems and the efforts to tackle them. Even though the funds are always the scapegoat, it is believed that the real reason for all problems concerning radiation protection in Indonesia is lack of safety culture among the users. (author)

  13. Silverlight 2 Recipes A Problem-solution Approach

    CERN Document Server

    Ghosh, Cameron

    2010-01-01

    Microsoft .NET Architect Evangelist, Jit Ghosh, presents a practical companion guide to developing rich, interactive web applications with Silverlight 2. Common problems, issues, and every--day scenarios are tackled with a detailed discussion of the solution and ready--made code recipes that will save you hours of coding time. The recipes included in Silverlight 2 Recipes: A Problem-Solution Approach have been carefully selected and tested with the professional developer in mind. You'll find clearly and succinctly stated problems, well--architected solutions, and ample discussion of the code a

  14. Creativity in Unique Problem-Solving in Mathematics and Its Influence on Motivation for Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bishara, Saied

    2016-01-01

    This research study investigates the ability of students to tackle the solving of unique mathematical problems in the domain of numerical series, verbal and formal, and its influence on the motivation of junior high students with learning disabilities in the Arab sector. Two instruments were used to collect the data: mathematical series were…

  15. The life and times of the Savings Method for Vehicle Routing Problems

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Forty ve years ago, an academic and practitioner from the north of England published a method of tackling the vehicle routing problem (VRP) in an American journal. Little could they have realised how the method they devised would still be a signicant part of the research agenda nearly half a century later. Adaptations of ...

  16. Return to Play Guidelines Cannot Solve the Football-Related Concussion Problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, L. Syd M.

    2012-01-01

    Background: High school football players are the single largest cohort of athletes playing tackle football, and account for the majority of sport-related concussions. Return to play guidelines (RTPs) have emerged as the preferred approach for addressing the problem of sport-related concussion in youth athletes. Methods: This article reviews…

  17. Disentangling neighbourhood problems: Area-based interventions in Western European cities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Gent, W.P.C.; Musterd, S.; Ostendorf, W.

    2009-01-01

    Urban policies in Western Europe have increasingly taken a territorial focus in addressing social problems through area-based initiatives (ABIs). Policy discourses emphasise the role of the residential environment in the social economic deprivation. However, a territorial focus that tackles both

  18. Tackling non-point source water pollution in British Columbia : an action plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    British Columbia`s approach to water quality management is discussed. The BC efforts include regulating `end of pipe` point discharges from industrial and municipal outfalls. The major remaining cause of water pollution is from non-point sources (NPS). NPS water pollution is caused by the release of pollutants from different and diffuse sources, mostly unregulated and associated with urbanization, agriculture and other forms of land development. The importance of dealing with such problems on an immediate basis to avoid a decline in water quality in the province is emphasized. Major sources of water pollution in British Columbia include: land development, agriculture, storm water runoff, onsite sewage systems, forestry, atmospheric deposition, and marine activities. 3 tabs.

  19. Sociale problemer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Anders Bøggild; Rasmussen, Tove; Bundesen, Peter Verner

    Sociale problemer kan betragtes som selve udgangspunktet for socialt arbejde, hvor ambitionen er at råde bod på problemerne og sikre, at udsatte borgere får en bedre tilværelse. Det betyder også, at diskussionen af sociale problemer er afgørende for den sociale grundfaglighed. I denne bog sætter en...... række fagfolk på tværs af det danske socialfaglige felt fokus på sociale problemer. Det diskuteres, hvad vi overhovedet forstår ved sociale problemer, hvordan de opstår, hvilke konsekvenser de har, og ikke mindst hvordan man som fagprofessionel håndterer sociale problemer i det daglige arbejde. Bogen er...... skrevet som lærebog til professionsuddannelser, hvor sociale problemer udgør en dimension, bl.a. socialrådgiver-, pædagog- og sygeplejerskeuddannelserne....

  20. Tackling Air Pollution in China—What do We Learn from the Great Smog of 1950s in LONDON

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dongyong Zhang

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Since the prolonged, severe smog that blanketed many Chinese cities in first months of 2013, living in smog has become “normal” to most people living in mainland China. This has not only caused serious harm to public health, but also resulted in massive economic losses in many other ways. Tackling the current air pollution has become crucial to China’s long-term economic and social sustainable development. This paper aims to find the causes of the current severe air quality and explore the possible solutions by reviewing the current literature, and by comparing China’s air pollution regulations to that of the post London Killer Smog of 1952, in the United Kingdom (UK. It is hoped that China will learn the lesson from the UK, and decouple its economic growth from the detrimental impact of environment. Policy suggestions are made.

  1. Tackling inequalities in political socialisation: A systematic analysis of access to and mitigation effects of learning citizenship at school.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoskins, Bryony; Janmaat, Jan Germen; Melis, Gabriella

    2017-11-01

    This article tackles the issue of social inequalities in voting and identifies how and when differences in learning political engagement are influenced by social background in the school environment between the ages of 11-16 in England. Using Latent Growth Curve Modelling and Regression Analysis on the Citizenship Education Longitudinal (CELS) data this research identifies two elements that influence the political socialisation process: access to political learning and effectiveness in the form of learning in reducing inequalities in political engagement. The results show that there is unequal access by social background to learning political engagement through political activities in school and through an open classroom climate for discussion. However, there is equal access by social background to Citizenship Education in schools and this method of learning political engagement is effective at the age of 15-16 in reducing inequalities in political engagement. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Strengthening the capacity of SMEs and local authorities in developing countries to tackle environmental requirements in the supply chain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sonnemann, G. [Div. of Technology, Industry and Economics (DTIE), United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP), Paris (France)

    2004-07-01

    UNEP DTIE, through its Life Cycle Initiative, proposes to join with industry to strengthen the capacity of the weakest economic actors in the global supply chains to tackle environmental requirements. Two particularly important target groups for this project are SMEs and local authorities. Although the SMEs are the immediate actors, they need appropriate political institutions to provide an enabling framework. Multinational companies are continuously increasing the environmental requirements that their suppliers have to meet in order to provide a green image for the final product reaching western markets. Some multinational companies have accompanied these requirements with information and training of suppliers. By joining with UNEP they will be able to expand the effectiveness of their outreach and also gain greater visibility for their environmental policies. For SMEs this project is an opportunity to develop environmental management expertise and thus position themselves as reliable suppliers to leading companies. (orig.)

  3. Ademe et Vous. Research Newsletter No. 12, September 2015. Soils: from characterising different types of pollution to tackling climate change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Varet, Anne; Guignard, Stephanie

    2015-09-01

    The research led by ADEME has evolved from characterising different types of pollution to providing a better understanding of complex mechanisms, such as the relationship between soils and climate change. The results of this research have focused on evaluating carbon stocks, their vulnerability to climate change and the impact of land-use change. This letter is the second of a 'triptych' of research letters put together as part of the lead up to COP21. Content: - Soils: from characterising different types of pollution to tackling climate change; - Significant results: GHG flux from soil systems and climate change; - Meeting... Jean-Francois Soussana scientific director (environment) at the French national institute for agricultural research (INRA) and Isabelle Feix national soils expert at ADEME

  4. Tackling Millennium Development Goals (MDGs 4 and 5: the National Health Insurance Scheme (NHIS approach in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shafiu Mohammed

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Developing countries are devising various strategies and mechanisms to accelerate their speed towards the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs by 2015. In Nigeria, different approaches have been used to address the tackling of health-related MDGs. One creative approach has been the implementation of the NHIS Maternal and Child Health (NHIS-MCH Project. The project aims to speed up the achievement of MDGs 4 and 5 (reducing child mortality and improving maternal health in the country. Little is known about the NHISMCH Project’s design and health insurance coverage activities. Project planning and monitoring could be hampered by lack of technical and managerial skills of health insurance most especially at middle and local levels. Challenging debates continue to emanate on the project’s sustainability.

  5. Tackling Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) 4 and 5: The National Health Insurance Scheme (NHIS) Approach in Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammed, Shafiu; Dong, Hengjin

    2012-03-07

    Developing countries are devising various strategies and mechanisms to accelerate their speed towards the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) by 2015. In Nigeria, different approaches have been used to address the tackling of health-related MDGs. One creative approach has been the implementation of the NHIS Maternal and Child Health (NHIS-MCH) Project. The project aims to speed up the achievement of MDGs 4 and 5 (reducing child mortality and improving maternal health) in the country. Little is known about the NHIS-MCH Project's design and health insurance coverage activities. Project planning and monitoring could be hampered by lack of technical and managerial skills of health insurance most especially at middle and local levels. Challenging debates continue to emanate on the project's sustainability.

  6. Tackling optimization challenges in industrial load control and full-duplex radios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gholian, Armen

    In price-based demand response programs in smart grid, utilities set the price in accordance with the grid operating conditions and consumers respond to price signals by conducting optimal load control to minimize their energy expenditure while satisfying their energy needs. Industrial sector consumes a large portion of world electricity and addressing optimal load control of energy-intensive industrial complexes, such as steel industry and oil-refinery, is of practical importance. Formulating a general industrial complex and addressing issues in optimal industrial load control in smart grid is the focus of the second part of this dissertation. Several industrial load details are considered in the proposed formulation, including those that do not appear in residential or commercial load control problems. Operation under different smart pricing scenarios, namely, day-ahead pricing, time-of-use pricing, peak pricing, inclining block rates, and critical peak pricing are considered. The use of behind-the-meter renewable generation and energy storage is also considered. The formulated optimization problem is originally nonlinear and nonconvex and thus hard to solve. However, it is then reformulated into a tractable linear mixed-integer program. The performance of the design is assessed through various simulations for an oil refinery and a steel mini-mill. In the third part of this dissertation, a novel all-analog RF interference canceler is proposed. Radio self-interference cancellation (SIC) is the fundamental enabler for full-duplex radios. While SIC methods based on baseband digital signal processing and/or beamforming are inadequate, an all-analog method is useful to drastically reduce the self-interference as the first stage of SIC. It is shown that a uniform architecture with uniformly distributed RF attenuators has a performance highly dependent on the carrier frequency. It is also shown that a new architecture with the attenuators distributed in a clustered

  7. Safety in numbers? Tackling domestic abuse in couples and network therapies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galvani, Sarah A

    2007-03-01

    Family, network or couples-based therapies have been helping to support people with substance problems for decades. Their value in supporting a person to change their alcohol or drug use is clear. However, as links between substance use and domestic abuse are increasingly recognised, these approaches need to reflect on the potential safety risks they present to people taking part. The prevalence of domestic abuse among people receiving drug and alcohol services is considerably higher than general population estimates, yet this does not appear to have been adequately addressed in network therapies. This article suggests that this needs to change and that safety of service users needs to be at least as important as the intervention itself. It offers for debate a number of potential safety issues raised by network therapies where there is evidence of domestic abuse; it provides examples of three approaches used to marshal social and network support in substance interventions; and offers a number of suggestions for how network therapies can ensure their use remains safe and supportive where there is domestic abuse.

  8. Tackling stress management, addiction, and suicide prevention in a predoctoral dental curriculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brondani, Mario A; Ramanula, Dhorea; Pattanaporn, Komkhamn

    2014-09-01

    Health care professionals, particularly dentists, are subject to high levels of stress. Without proper stress management, problems related to mental health and addiction and, to a lesser extent, deliberate self-harm such as suicide may arise. There is a lack of information on teaching methodologies employed to discuss stress management and suicide prevention in dental education. The purpose of this article is to describe a University of British Columbia Faculty of Dentistry module designed to address stress management and suicide prevention, using students' personal reflections to illustrate the impact of the pedagogies used. The module enrolls more than 200 students per year and has sessions tailored to the discussion of stress management and suicide prevention. The pedagogies include standardized patients, invited guest lectures, in-class activities, video presentation, and self-reflections. More than 500 students' self-reflections collected over the past five years illustrate the seriousness of the issues discussed and the level of discomfort students experience when pondering such issues. The instructors hope to have increased students' awareness of the stressors in their profession. Further studies are needed to unravel the extent to which such pedagogy influences a balanced practice of dentistry.

  9. Tackling Information Asymmetry in Networks: A New Entropy-Based Ranking Index

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barucca, Paolo; Caldarelli, Guido; Squartini, Tiziano

    2018-06-01

    Information is a valuable asset in socio-economic systems, a significant part of which is entailed into the network of connections between agents. The different interlinkages patterns that agents establish may, in fact, lead to asymmetries in the knowledge of the network structure; since this entails a different ability of quantifying relevant, systemic properties (e.g. the risk of contagion in a network of liabilities), agents capable of providing a better estimation of (otherwise) inaccessible network properties, ultimately have a competitive advantage. In this paper, we address the issue of quantifying the information asymmetry of nodes: to this aim, we define a novel index—InfoRank—intended to rank nodes according to their information content. In order to do so, each node ego-network is enforced as a constraint of an entropy-maximization problem and the subsequent uncertainty reduction is used to quantify the node-specific accessible information. We, then, test the performance of our ranking procedure in terms of reconstruction accuracy and show that it outperforms other centrality measures in identifying the "most informative" nodes. Finally, we discuss the socio-economic implications of network information asymmetry.

  10. Hearing Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Read MoreDepression in Children and TeensRead MoreBMI Calculator Hearing ProblemsLoss in the ability to hear or discriminate ... This flow chart will help direct you if hearing loss is a problem for you or a ...

  11. Frameworks and communication: perspectives in tackling the climate change challenge for energy supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lenstra, W.J.; Engelenburg, B.C.W. van; Grootveld, G. van

    1999-01-01

    Energy supply is a major source of greenhouse gas emissions. In the long term these emissions will have to be greatly reduced (especially in the industrialised countries where reductions on the order of 50-80% will be needed) in order to stabilise the greenhouse gases in the atmosphere. Such a reduction is very ambitious and given the inertia of the energy supply system, the path to this goal should preferably be set out immediately. The perspective for thinking about this problem is sustainable development. We will elaborate on the perspective starting from the positive results of the Netherlands governmental research programme on sustainable technological development. The resulting approach or method of this programme can be summarised in five golden rules, which will be explained. The core of the method is the development of a vision regarding a sustainable future. In our case this vision is based on a step-by-step approach towards a climate neutral and possibly renewable energy supply. The costs for emission abatement are assumed to increase in each step. For each step we will present a general picture of the expected changes in the supply system. Such a picture is not the only conceivable reality for energy supply but is an indicative framework. These frameworks are useful tools to structure the discussion about the future of energy supply. We will show that the vision not only leads to drawing general conclusion but also has led to a real project which deals with the development of technologies to produce climate neutral energy-carriers. (Author)

  12. Can MHA graduates tackle financial management? Lessons from American corporate industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hepner, J O; Ameiss, A P

    1984-01-01

    American industry, the major purchaser of medical services, is beginning to use its buying power to intervene in the healthcare system. Management committees hav been established to develop cost analysis and containment approaches to the utilization of medical services. With innovations by corporate industry, does the hospital CEO see an advocate or yet another adversary in addition to government regulation? Specifically, what preparation do master's degree graduates have, prior to their subsequent job experience, to make an informed contribution in financial decision making? Research was conducted to obtain data from health administration graduate programs in the United States and Canada to help find answers to these questions. This study addresses the strengths and weaknesses of the two major inputs to health financial management education--the proper mix and delivery of course presentations, and the student's motivation, maturity, and academic background. In some respects, both have been found wanting--not only from the findings of this investigation, but also by the AUPHA Task Force on Financial Management in the curriculum. About one-fourth of the entrants to master's degree programs have a business school background which includes courses in accounting, economics, and finance. However, the remaining 75% have other academic backgrounds, which suggests that teaching financially oriented courses to these graduate students is a major problem. The question of whether a health administration graduate with some finance training or a pure finance graduate is more desirable remains unanswered. This is especially true in meshing the immediate needs of the healthcare marketplace for financial management personnel and the long-range career goals of the graduate. This article presents the survey results and seven recommendations for action.

  13. Tackling complexities in understanding the social determinants of health: the contribution of ethnographic research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandyopadhyay, Mridula

    2011-11-25

    The complexities inherent in understanding the social determinants of health are often not well-served by quantitative approaches. My aim is to show that well-designed and well-conducted ethnographic studies have an important contribution to make in this regard. Ethnographic research designs are a difficult but rigorous approach to research questions that require us to understand the complexity of people's social and cultural lives. I draw on an ethnographic study to describe the complexities of studying maternal health in a rural area in India. I then show how the lessons learnt in that setting and context can be applied to studies done in very different settings. I show how ethnographic research depends for rigour on a theoretical framework for sample selection; why immersion in the community under study, and rapport building with research participants, is important to ensure rich and meaningful data; and how flexible approaches to data collection lead to the gradual emergence of an analysis based on intense cross-referencing with community views and thus a conclusion that explains the similarities and differences observed. When using ethnographic research design it can be difficult to specify in advance the exact details of the study design. Researchers can encounter issues in the field that require them to change what they planned on doing. In rigorous ethnographic studies, the researcher in the field is the research instrument and needs to be well trained in the method. Ethnographic research is challenging, but nevertheless provides a rewarding way of researching complex health problems that require an understanding of the social and cultural determinants of health.

  14. Tackle-related injury rates and nature of injuries in South African Youth Week tournament rugby union players (under-13 to under-18): an observational cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burger, Nicholas; Lambert, Mike I; Viljoen, Wayne; Brown, James C; Readhead, Clint; Hendricks, Sharief

    2014-08-12

    The tackle situation is most often associated with the high injury rates in rugby union. Tackle injury epidemiology in rugby union has previously been focused on senior cohorts but less is known about younger cohorts. The aim of this study was to report on the nature and rates of tackle-related injuries in South African youth rugby union players representing their provinces at national tournaments. Observational cohort study. Four South African Youth Week tournaments (under-13 Craven Week, under-16 Grant Khomo Week, under-18 Academy Week, under-18 Craven Week). Injury data were collected from 3652 youth rugby union players (population at risk) in 2011 and 2012. Tackle-related injury severity ('time-loss' and 'medical attention'), type and location, injury rate per 1000 h (including 95% CIs). Injury rate ratios (IRR) were calculated and modelled using a Poisson regression. A χ(2) analysis was used to detect linear trends between injuries and increasing match quarters. The 2012 under-13 Craven Week had a significantly greater 'time-loss' injury rate when compared with the 2012 under-18 Academy Week (IRR=4.43; 95% CI 2.13 to 9.21, p<0.05) and under-18 Craven Week (IRR=3.52; 95% CI 1.54 to 8.00, p<0.05). The Poisson regression also revealed a higher probability of 'overall' ('time-loss' and 'medical attention' combined) and 'time-loss' tackle-related injuries occurring at the under-13 Craven Week. The proportion of 'overall' and 'time-loss' injuries increased significantly with each quarter of the match when all four tournaments were combined (p<0.05). There was a difference in the tackle-related injury rate between the under-13 tournament and the two under-18 tournaments, and the tackle-related injury rate was higher in the final quarter of matches. Ongoing injury surveillance is required to better interpret these findings. Injury prevention strategies targeting the tackle may only be effective once the rate and nature of injuries have been accurately determined

  15. Tackle-related injury rates and nature of injuries in South African Youth Week tournament rugby union players (under-13 to under-18): an observational cohort study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burger, Nicholas; Lambert, Mike I; Viljoen, Wayne; Brown, James C; Readhead, Clint; Hendricks, Sharief

    2014-01-01

    Objectives The tackle situation is most often associated with the high injury rates in rugby union. Tackle injury epidemiology in rugby union has previously been focused on senior cohorts but less is known about younger cohorts. The aim of this study was to report on the nature and rates of tackle-related injuries in South African youth rugby union players representing their provinces at national tournaments. Design Observational cohort study. Setting Four South African Youth Week tournaments (under-13 Craven Week, under-16 Grant Khomo Week, under-18 Academy Week, under-18 Craven Week). Participants Injury data were collected from 3652 youth rugby union players (population at risk) in 2011 and 2012. Outcome measures Tackle-related injury severity (‘time-loss’ and ‘medical attention’), type and location, injury rate per 1000 h (including 95% CIs). Injury rate ratios (IRR) were calculated and modelled using a Poisson regression. A χ2 analysis was used to detect linear trends between injuries and increasing match quarters. Results The 2012 under-13 Craven Week had a significantly greater ‘time-loss’ injury rate when compared with the 2012 under-18 Academy Week (IRR=4.43; 95% CI 2.13 to 9.21, p<0.05) and under-18 Craven Week (IRR=3.52; 95% CI 1.54 to 8.00, p<0.05). The Poisson regression also revealed a higher probability of ‘overall’ (‘time-loss’ and ‘medical attention’ combined) and ‘time-loss’ tackle-related injuries occurring at the under-13 Craven Week. The proportion of ‘overall’ and ‘time-loss’ injuries increased significantly with each quarter of the match when all four tournaments were combined (p<0.05). Conclusions There was a difference in the tackle-related injury rate between the under-13 tournament and the two under-18 tournaments, and the tackle-related injury rate was higher in the final quarter of matches. Ongoing injury surveillance is required to better interpret these findings. Injury prevention strategies

  16. Towards a Re-Conceptualization of Teachers' Self-Efficacy Beliefs: Tackling Enduring Problems with the Quantitative Research and Moving On

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyatt, Mark

    2014-01-01

    Various commentators have argued for years that the study of teachers' self-efficacy (TSE) beliefs, largely dominated by quantitative research methodologies, has been confused. Contentious issues include the very conceptualization of these beliefs, how they are defined and accessed through research and how the research is used. One of the…

  17. Problem Posing

    OpenAIRE

    Šilhavá, Marie

    2009-01-01

    This diploma thesis concentrates on problem posing from the students' point of view. Problem posing can be either seen as a teaching method which can be used in the class, or it can be used as a tool for researchers or teachers to assess the level of students' understanding of the topic. In my research, I compare three classes, one mathematics specialist class and two generalist classes, in their ability of problem posing. As an assessment tool it seemed that mathemathics specialists were abl...

  18. Tackling medication non-adherence in severe mental illness: where are we going wrong?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, E; Gray, R

    2015-04-01

    Although people with schizophrenia require medication to manage symptoms such as hearing voices, most do not take it as prescribed (they are non-adherent). We talked to psychiatrists, nurses and pharmacists about how they work with patients to help them be better at sticking with their medication. Although the professionals that we talked to recognized that treatment adherence was a major issue in their clinical work, they did not make best use of evidence-based interventions to address the problem. Often their practice was based on what they believed would work (e.g. patient education) even when the research shows that way of working to be ineffective. As far as we can determine, this is the first study to examine what interventions different mental health professionals report that they use in clinical practice to address patient's medication non-adherence. Non-adherence with medication is common in patients with schizophrenia. Addressing adherence to treatment may enhance clinical outcomes. Our aim was to explore mental health professionals experience and practise managing medication adherence in patients with schizophrenia. In this qualitative study, we interviewed mental health professionals from three key groups involved in promoting adherence: pharmacists, psychiatrists and nurses. Interviews were transcribed and analysed using a thematic approach. Thirty-five health professionals participated. From these interviews, we identified five main themes: my beliefs inform my practice; withholding information; adherence is important; who is responsible for promoting adherence?; and is it ok to pay people to take medication? Our overarching meta-theme was that practice with regard to promoting adherence was informed by beliefs and not by evidence. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to explore different mental health professionals' approaches to working with patients who do not want to take medication. The significance of participants' personal

  19. Tackling the Challenge of Deep Vadose Zone Remediation at the Hanford Site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morse, J. G.; Wellman, D. M.; Gephart, R.

    2010-12-01

    .S Department of Energy recognizes these challenges and is committed to a sustained, focused effort of continuing to apply existing technologies where feasible while investing and developing in new innovative, field-demonstrated capabilities supporting longer-term basic and applied research to establish the technical underpinning for solving intractable deep vadose zone problems and implementing final remedies. This approach will rely upon Multi-Project Teams focusing on coordinated projects across multiple DOE offices, programs, and site contractors plus the facilitation of basic and applied research investments through implementing a Deep Vadose Zone Applied Field Research Center and other scientific studies.

  20. Popular Problems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skovhus, Randi Boelskifte; Thomsen, Rie

    2017-01-01

    This article introduces a method to critical reviews and explores the ways in which problems have been formulated in knowledge production on career guidance in Denmark over a 10-year period from 2004 to 2014. The method draws upon the work of Bacchi focussing on the ‘What's the problem represented...... to be’ (WPR) approach. Forty-nine empirical studies on Danish youth career guidance were included in the study. An analysis of the issues in focus resulted in nine problem categories. One of these, ‘targeting’, is analysed using the WPR approach. Finally, the article concludes that the WPR approach...... provides a constructive basis for a critical analysis and discussion of the collective empirical knowledge production on career guidance, stimulating awareness of problems and potential solutions among the career guidance community....

  1. Sleep Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... For Consumers Consumer Information by Audience For Women Sleep Problems Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing ... 101 KB) En Español Medicines to Help You Sleep Tips for Better Sleep Basic Facts about Sleep ...

  2. Mouth Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... such as sores, are very common. Follow this chart for more information about mouth problems in adults. ... cancers. See your dentist if sharp or rough teeth or dental work are causing irritation. Start OverDiagnosisThis ...

  3. Kidney Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... our e-newsletter! Aging & Health A to Z Kidney Problems Basic Facts & Information The kidneys are two ... kidney (renal) diseases are called nephrologists . What are Kidney Diseases? For about one-third of older people, ...

  4. Knapsack problems

    CERN Document Server

    Kellerer, Hans; Pisinger, David

    2004-01-01

    Thirteen years have passed since the seminal book on knapsack problems by Martello and Toth appeared. On this occasion a former colleague exclaimed back in 1990: "How can you write 250 pages on the knapsack problem?" Indeed, the definition of the knapsack problem is easily understood even by a non-expert who will not suspect the presence of challenging research topics in this area at the first glance. However, in the last decade a large number of research publications contributed new results for the knapsack problem in all areas of interest such as exact algorithms, heuristics and approximation schemes. Moreover, the extension of the knapsack problem to higher dimensions both in the number of constraints and in the num­ ber of knapsacks, as well as the modification of the problem structure concerning the available item set and the objective function, leads to a number of interesting variations of practical relevance which were the subject of intensive research during the last few years. Hence, two years ago ...

  5. The Unknown Component Problem Theory and Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Villa, Tiziano; Brayton, Robert K; Mishchenko, Alan; Petrenko, Alexandre; Sangiovanni-Vincentelli, Alberto

    2012-01-01

    The Problem of the Unknown Component: Theory and Applications addresses the issue of designing a component that, combined with a known part of a system, conforms to an overall specification. The authors tackle this problem by solving abstract equations over a language. The most general solutions are studied when both synchronous and parallel composition operators are used. The abstract equations are specialized to languages associated with important classes of automata used for modeling systems. The book is a blend of theory and practice, which includes a description of a software package with applications to sequential synthesis of finite state machines. Specific topologies interconnecting the components, exact and heuristic techniques, and optimization scenarios are studied. Finally the scope is enlarged to domains like testing, supervisory control, game theory and synthesis for special omega languages. The authors present original results of the authors along with an overview of existing ones.

  6. Operation problems as viewed by EDF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheimanoff, Andre; Gaborit, Jean; Thom, Roger

    1983-01-01

    The installation of a plant such as Eurodif, whose power will reach, when fully operational, a maximum of 3,200 MW, and of a nuclear power plant of 4x900 MW, such as the one located in the Tricastin area, has considerable effects on the structure and operation of the EDF's network, both at the national and regional levels. The paper presents the situation regarding the Tricastin-Eurodif complex in the context of the EDF's network, the main operation problems that are encountered and the organization that had to be created to tackle these problems. Finally, it affords the opportunity to give an appreciation of the situation about the operation of the complex in 1982 [fr

  7. The integration problem: Interlacing language, action and perception

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cowley, Stephen

    2014-01-01

    Human thinking uses other peoples' experience. While often pictured as computation or based on the workings of a language-system in the mind or brain, the evidence suggests alternatives to representationalism. In terms proposed here, embodiment is interlaced with wordings as people tackle...... the integration problem. Using a case study, the paper shows how a young man uses external resources in an experimental task. He grasps a well-defined problem by using material resources, talking about his doings and switching roles and procedures. Attentional skills enable him to act as an air cadet who, among...

  8. The growing problems of dental caries and obesity: an Australian perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopcraft, M S; Beaumont, S

    2016-10-07

    Preventable diet-related diseases such as dental caries and obesity are a growing global problem, causing a significant burden on public health systems. Although there has been good evidence for the links between sugar consumption and dental caries for many decades, we are now seeing stronger links implicating sugar in obesity. There is a growing worldwide movement to tackle these problems by targeting the consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages through a range of public policy measures.

  9. Investigation of Problem Solving Skills among 12th Grade Engineering Students

    OpenAIRE

    Shanta, Susheela

    2017-01-01

    US competitiveness in the 21st century global economy depends on a workforce that is science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM) literate, and has knowledge and skills to tackle complex technological problems. In response to the need for a STEM literate workforce equipped with 21st century skills there is a push for K-12 educational reform. STEM literacy is the ability to use content knowledge and skills in science, technology, engineering and math in solving human problems in a c...

  10. On the Solution of the Eigenvalue Assignment Problem for Discrete-Time Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    El-Sayed M. E. Mostafa

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The output feedback eigenvalue assignment problem for discrete-time systems is considered. The problem is formulated first as an unconstrained minimization problem, where a three-term nonlinear conjugate gradient method is proposed to find a local solution. In addition, a cut to the objective function is included, yielding an inequality constrained minimization problem, where a logarithmic barrier method is proposed for finding the local solution. The conjugate gradient method is further extended to tackle the eigenvalue assignment problem for the two cases of decentralized control systems and control systems with time delay. The performance of the methods is illustrated through various test examples.

  11. A Randomized Controlled Trial to Examine the Effects of the Tackling Teenage Psychosexual Training Program for Adolescents with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visser, Kirsten; Greaves-Lord, Kirstin; Tick, Nouchka T.; Verhulst, Frank C.; Maras, Athanasios; van der Vegt, Esther J. M.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Previous research underscores the importance of psychosexual guidance for adolescents with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Such guidance is provided in the Tackling Teenage Training (TTT) program, in which adolescents with ASD receive psycho-education and practice communicative skills regarding topics related to puberty, sexuality, and…

  12. Evidence in support of the call to ban the tackle and harmful contact in school rugby: a response to World Rugby.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollock, Allyson M; White, Adam John; Kirkwood, Graham

    2017-08-01

    In a paper published in BJSM (June 2016), World Rugby employees Ross Tucker and Martin Raftery and a third coauthor Evert Verhagen took issue with the recent call to ban tackling in school rugby in the UK and Ireland. That call (to ban tackling) was supported by a systematic review published in BJSM Tucker et al claim that: (1) the mechanisms and risk factors for injury along with the incidence and severity of injury in youth rugby union have not been thoroughly identified or understood; (2) rugby players are at no greater risk of injury than other sports people, (3) this is particularly the case for children under 15 years and (4) removing the opportunity to learn the tackle from school pupils might increase rates of injuries. They conclude that a ban 'may be unnecessary and may also lead to unintended consequences such as an increase in the risk of injury later in participation.' Here we aim to rebut the case by Tucker et al We share new research that extends the findings of our original systematic review and meta-analysis. A cautionary approach requires the removal of the tackle from school rugby as the quickest and most effective method of reducing high injury rates in youth rugby, a public health priority. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  13. Calculus problems

    CERN Document Server

    Baronti, Marco; van der Putten, Robertus; Venturi, Irene

    2016-01-01

    This book, intended as a practical working guide for students in Engineering, Mathematics, Physics, or any other field where rigorous calculus is needed, includes 450 exercises. Each chapter starts with a summary of the main definitions and results, which is followed by a selection of solved exercises accompanied by brief, illustrative comments. A selection of problems with indicated solutions rounds out each chapter. A final chapter explores problems that are not designed with a single issue in mind but instead call for the combination of a variety of techniques, rounding out the book’s coverage. Though the book’s primary focus is on functions of one real variable, basic ordinary differential equations (separation of variables, linear first order and constant coefficients ODEs) are also discussed. The material is taken from actual written tests that have been delivered at the Engineering School of the University of Genoa. Literally thousands of students have worked on these problems, ensuring their real-...

  14. Responsibility without legal authority? Tackling alcohol-related health harms through licensing and planning policy in local government.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martineau, F P; Graff, H; Mitchell, C; Lock, K

    2014-09-01

    The power to influence many social determinants of health lies within local government sectors that are outside public health's traditional remit. We analyse the challenges of achieving health gains through local government alcohol control policies, where legal and professional practice frameworks appear to conflict with public health action. Current legislation governing local alcohol control in England and Wales is reviewed and analysed for barriers and opportunities to implement effective population-level health interventions. Case studies of local government alcohol control practices are described. Addressing alcohol-related health harms is constrained by the absence of a specific legal health licensing objective and differences between public health and legal assessments of the relevance of health evidence to a specific place. Local governments can, however, implement health-relevant policies by developing local evidence for alcohol-related health harms; addressing cumulative impact in licensing policy statements and through other non-legislative approaches such as health and non-health sector partnerships. Innovative local initiatives-for example, minimum unit pricing licensing conditions-can serve as test cases for wider national implementation. By combining the powers available to the many local government sectors involved in alcohol control, alcohol-related health and social harms can be tackled through existing local mechanisms. © The Author 2013. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Faculty of Public Health.

  15. Recovery strategies for tackling the impact of phenolic compounds in a UASB reactor treating coal gasification wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wei; Han, Hongjun

    2012-01-01

    The impact of phenolic compounds (around 3.2 g/L) resulted in a completely failed performance in a mesophilic UASB reactor treating coal gasification wastewater. The recovery strategies, including extension of HRT, dilution, oxygen-limited aeration, and addition of powdered activated carbon were evaluated in batch tests, in order to obtain the most appropriate way for the quick recovery of the failed reactor performance. Results indicated that addition of powdered activated carbon and oxygen-limited aeration were the best recovery strategies in the batch tests. In the UASB reactor, addition of powdered activated carbon of 1 g/L shortened the recovery time from 25 to 9 days and oxygen-limited aeration of 0-0.5 mgO2/L reduced the recovery time to 17 days. Reduction of bioavailable concentration of phenolic compounds and recovery of sludge activity were the decisive factors for the recovery strategies to tackle the impact of phenolic compounds in anaerobic treatment of coal gasification wastewater. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Asylum, Immigration Restrictions and Exploitation: Hyper-precarity as a lens for understanding and tackling forced labour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hannah Lewis

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The topic of forced labour is receiving a growing amount of political and policy attention across the globe. This paper makes two clear contributions to emerging debates. First, we focus on a group who are seldom explicitly considered in forced labour debates: forced migrants who interact with the asylum system. We build an argument of the production of susceptibility to forced labour through the United Kingdom’s (UK asylum system, discussing the roles of compromised socio-legal status resulting from restrictive immigration policy, neoliberal labour market characteristics and migrants’ own trajectories. Second, we argue that forced labour needs to be understood as part of, and an outcome of, widespread normalised precarious work. Precarity is a concept used to describe the rise of insecure, casualised and sub-contracted work and is useful in explaining labour market processes that are conducive to the production of forced labour. Using precarity as a lens to examine forced labour encourages the recognition of extreme forms of exploitation as part of a wider picture of systematic exploitation of migrants in the labour market. To understand the reasons why forced migrants might be drawn into severe labour exploitation in the UK, we introduce the concept of hyper-precarity to explain how multidimensional insecurities contribute to forced labour experiences, particularly among forced migrants in the global north. Viewing forced labour as connected to precarity also suggests that avenues and tools for tackling severe labour exploitation need to form part of the wider struggle for migrant labour rights.

  17. Nearly isentropic flow at sizeable $\\eta/s$ arXiv

    CERN Document Server

    Kurkela, Aleksi; Wu, Bin

    Non-linearities in the harmonic spectra of hadron-nucleus and nucleus-nucleus collisions provide evidence for the dynamical response to azimuthal spatial eccentricities. Here, we demonstrate within the framework of transport theory that even the mildest interaction correction to a picture of free-streaming particle distributions, namely the inclusion of one perturbatively weak interaction ("one-hit dynamics"), will generically give rise to all observed linear and non-linear structures. We further argue that transport theory naturally accounts within the range of its validity for realistic signal sizes of the linear and non-linear response coefficients observed in azimuthal momentum anisotropies with a large mean free path of the order of the system size in peripheral ($\\sim 50 \\%$ centrality) PbPb or central pPb collisions. The shear viscosity to entropy density ratio $\\eta/s$ of such a transport theory is approximately an order of magnitude larger than that of an almost perfect fluid. The phenomenological su...

  18. Sizeable beta-strength in 31Ar (beta 3p) decay

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    T. Koldste, G.; Blank, B.; J. G. Borge, M.

    2014-01-01

    We present for the first time precise spectroscopic information on the recently discovered decay mode beta-delayed 3p-emission. The detection of the 3p events gives an increased sensitivity to the high energy part of the Gamow-Teller strength distribution from the decay of 31Ar revealing that as ...... that as much as 30% of the strength resides in the beta-3p decay mode. A simplified description of how the main decay modes evolve as the excitation energy increases in 31Cl is provided....

  19. Sizeable acquired subglottic cyst in a baby with Williams-Beuren syndrome: association or coincidence?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christoforidis, Athanasios; Tsakalides, Christos; Chatziavramidis, Angelos; Karagianni, Paraskevi; Dimitriadou, Meropi; Konstantinidis, Iordanis

    2013-10-15

    We describe a case of an acquired subglottic cyst presented with persistent stridor and voice hoarsening in a baby diagnosed with Williams-Beuren syndrome that was born premature and required intubation during neonatal period. We also comment on whether this is a coincidence or there can be an association between impaired elastogenesis, a feature of patients with the syndrome and the formation of a subglottic cyst. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Thyroid Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home › Aging & Health A to Z › Thyroid Problems Font size A A A Print Share Glossary Basic ... enough thyroid hormone, usually of the thyroxine (T4) type of hormone. Your T4 levels can drop temporarily ...

  1. Balance Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... fully trust your sense of balance. Loss of balance also raises the risk of falls. This is a serious and even life-threatening ... 65. Balance disorders are serious because of the risk of falls. But occasionally balance problems may warn of another health condition, such ...

  2. Tackling Health Inequalities Locally

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Diderichsen, Finn; Scheele, Christian Elling; Little, Ingvild Gundersen

    of this study. It is based on three sources: 1. Interviews with policymakers (administrators and politicians) within healthcare administrations, childhood/education, and labour market administrations from September 2014 to March 2015*. 2. Textual analysis of available policy documents from regions...... of translating small inequalities in wealth into small inequalities in health. Denmark, Norway and Sweden all have legislation that indifferent ways offers local governments key roles in public health. This is partly due to local governments’ responsibility for many policy areas of great relevance to health...... state model, including its health policy, as an area of Nordic collaboration (104). However, realising the principle of health (equity) in all policiesis no simple matter. The national authorities and local government federations in Denmark, Norway and Sweden have therefore initiated various activities...

  3. Tackling Africa's digital divide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavery, Martin P. J.; Abadi, Mojtaba Mansour; Bauer, Ralf; Brambilla, Gilberto; Cheng, Ling; Cox, Mitchell A.; Dudley, Angela; Ellis, Andrew D.; Fontaine, Nicolas K.; Kelly, Anthony E.; Marquardt, Christoph; Matlhane, Selaelo; Ndagano, Bienvenu; Petruccione, Francesco; Slavík, Radan; Romanato, Filippo; Rosales-Guzmán, Carmelo; Roux, Filippus S.; Roux, Kobus; Wang, Jian; Forbes, Andrew

    2018-05-01

    Innovations in `sustainable' photonics technologies such as free-space optical links and solar-powered equipment provide developing countries with new cost-effective opportunities for deploying future-proof telecommunication networks.

  4. Plastic Surgery: Tackling Misconceptions

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    will succeed. First impressions tend to last, and if young people's first impression of plastic surgeons is that they spend much of their time doing cosmetic surgery then this is a first impression that might be long ... Res 2014;4 Suppl S3:169‑70. Access this article online. Quick Response Code: Website: www.amhsr.org. DOI:.

  5. Smith Tackles Oakland Unified

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mellon, Ericka

    2011-01-01

    As a 20-something, Anthony "Tony" Smith had fulfilled one dream: playing professional football for the Green Bay Packers and the San Francisco 49ers. Next up, he thought, was law school, but a former mentor reminded him that he is a teacher. Smith never became a classroom teacher, but his background in sports--where he learned the power…

  6. Tackling Tuwaitha's radioactive ruins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    Full text: Some 1000 Iraqi men, women and children in a village near the former Tuwaitha nuclear site are living inside an area contaminated by radioactive residues and ruins. A project to clean-up the site, and other contaminated facilities in Iraq, was kick-started earlier this year at IAEA headquarters. Inhabitants of the Ishtar village, based within the Tuwaitha site boundary, some 20 kilometres south of Baghdad, are living in an area where levels of radiation are known to be higher than normal and prolonged exposure could prove risky over time. US authorities have supplied the IAEA with photographs of the Tuwaitha reactor that show crumbling facades and interiors of rubble, spray-painted with warnings like 'radioactive' and 'HOT'. (See Photo Essay). Once at the heart of Iraq's nuclear programme, the Tuwaitha complex was inspected and largely dismantled during IAEA-led weapons inspections in the 1990s and subsequently bombed in the 2003 war. It is one of a number of sites in the country identified as needing decommissioning or remediation where radioactive material was used or waste are buried. The Iraqi Government has requested the IAEA's assistance to prepare plans and programmes to decommission contaminated facilities in the country. The project's groundwork was set at an IAEA meeting in Vienna in February 2006, attended by the Iraqi Minister for Science and Technology, representatives from sixteen countries, including the US, and the European Commission. 'This is a huge task, one that could take many years,' says Mr. Dennis Reisenweaver, the IAEA safety expert in charge of the effort. Among the first steps is to identify, cordon off, and prioritise contaminated areas that pose the most risk to the public. Some of the challenges facing the clean-up effort include determining now unknown locations where contaminated equipment and materials might be buried, and recovering lost records about the contents of radioactive materials stored in waste containers. 'Given the magnitude of the task ahead, the project needs to be carried out through a combined effort between Iraq organizations and the IAEA's Member States,' Mr. Reisenweaver says. Background: The Tuwaitha facility was looted in 2003, making media headlines in April shortly after the war broke out, when barrels containing low-level uranium ore concentrate known as 'yellowcake' were stolen. The barrels were emptied and sold to local people who used them for storing water or food, or to wash clothes. Under its nuclear safeguards agreement with Iraq, the IAEA inspected the site, reporting its findings in July 2003. The report noted that the missing material posed no proliferation concern and that efforts were required to recover the dispersed material. Initial efforts by Iraqi and US teams to collect environmental and radiological data have already started, as have studies on the health effects for people living in Ishtar village. During the project's first phase, it is expected the IAEA will assist with training, equipment and analysis of data to prioritise sites and facilities that need to be decommissioned first on radiation safety grounds. The IAEA also is assisting Iraq in several areas related to radiation safety and waste management. They include regional technical cooperation projects to upgrade capabilities for controlling radiation sources and responding to radiation emergencies. (IAEA)

  7. Nanomedicine: AFM tackles osteoarthritis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aigner, Thomas; Schmitz, Nicole; Haag, Jochen

    2009-03-01

    Current diagnostic tools detect cartilage degeneration only at advanced stages, but the atomic force microscope can now detect structural changes earlier, paving the way for treatment of joint diseases.

  8. Tackling Absenteeism in Chicago

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allensworth, Elaine; Evans, Shayne

    2016-01-01

    Incisive research from the University of Chicago Urban Education Institute on the prevalence and consequences of absenteeism in Chicago schools has highlighted the dramatic effects of even moderate amounts of absences on grades, graduation rates, and student success in college. These insights spurred not only an ambitious 98% attendance goal on…

  9. Complementarity problems

    CERN Document Server

    Isac, George

    1992-01-01

    The study of complementarity problems is now an interesting mathematical subject with many applications in optimization, game theory, stochastic optimal control, engineering, economics etc. This subject has deep relations with important domains of fundamental mathematics such as fixed point theory, ordered spaces, nonlinear analysis, topological degree, the study of variational inequalities and also with mathematical modeling and numerical analysis. Researchers and graduate students interested in mathematical modeling or nonlinear analysis will find here interesting and fascinating results.

  10. Agricultural problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bickerton, George E.

    1997-01-01

    Although there were not reasons to deplore against major activity release from any of the 110 industrial reactors authorized to operate in US, the nuclear incident that occurred at the Three Mile Island Plant in 1979 urged the public conscience toward the necessity of readiness to cope with events of this type. The personnel of the Emergency Planning Office functioning in the frame of US Department of Agriculture has already participated in around 600 intervention drillings on a federal, local or state scale to plan, test or asses radiological emergency plans or to intervene locally. These exercises allowed acquiring a significant experience in elaborating emergency plans, planning the drillings, working out scenarios and evaluation of the potential impact of accidents from the agricultural point of view. We have also taken part in different international drillings among which the most recent are INEX 1 and RADEX 94. We have found on these occasions that the agricultural problems are essential preoccupations in most of the cases no matter if the context is international, national, local or of state level. The paper poses problems specifically related to milk, fruits and vegetables, soils, meat and meat products. Finally the paper discusses issues like drilling planning, alarm and notification, sampling strategy, access authorizations for farmers, removing of contamination wastes. A number of social, political and economical relating problems are also mentioned

  11. The right tool for the task: 'boundary spanners' in a partnership approach to tackle fuel poverty in rural Northern Ireland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rugkåsa, Jorun; Shortt, Niamh K; Boydell, Leslie

    2007-05-01

    To date, research on fuel poverty has largely focused on the outcomes of interventions, with little attention being accorded to intervention processes. In reporting on an evaluation of a fuel poverty intervention in rural Northern Ireland, the present authors explore some of the mechanisms that secured the project's perceived success. Specifically, they focus on the role of the 'boundary spanner', a concept that is increasingly applied to the analysis of local health partnerships. Initiated by a health action zone (HAZ), the project was implemented by a partnership of 21 organisations from the statutory, community and voluntary sectors. The role of the HAZ manager was described as ensuring that partners stayed engaged, that the project secured support from organisations and that it impacted on policy-makers. A full-time community energy advisor carried responsibility for the partnership's communication with the recipient communities. She worked closely with community associations and project recipients. The project was consistently described by stakeholders as community-led and as having been very successful. The authors suggest that this was because of the roles of two individuals who, at different levels, communicated and negotiated with partners and recipients, maintained momentum, and facilitated the ongoing involvement of the communities. The literature on boundary spanners usually focuses on how the role enables organisations from a range of sectors to participate in partnerships and tackle issues outside the remit of single organisations. As such, it usually describes spanning boundaries 'across and upwards'. While such insight is important and valuable, this study shows that a fuller understanding of the success or failure of local partnership interventions can be gained by also exploring the process of spanning 'downwards'. The authors conclude that, by extending the concept of the boundary spanner to include spanning 'downwards', the concept's explanatory

  12. Evaluation of the “Eat Better Feel Better” Cooking Programme to Tackle Barriers to Healthy Eating

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ada L. Garcia

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available We evaluated a 6-week community-based cooking programme, “Eat Better Feel Better”, aimed at tackling barriers to cooking and healthy eating using a single-group repeated measures design. 117 participants enrolled, 62 completed baseline and post-intervention questionnaires, and 17 completed these and a 3–4 months follow-up questionnaire. Most participants were female, >45 years, and socioeconomically deprived. Confidence constructs changed positively from baseline to post-intervention (medians, scale 1 “not confident” to 7 “very confident”: “cooking using raw ingredients” (4, 6 p < 0.003, “following simple recipe” (5, 6 p = 0.003, “planning meals before shopping” (4, 5 p = <0.001, “shopping on a budget (4, 5 p = 0.044, “shopping healthier food” (4, 5 p = 0.007, “cooking new foods” (3, 5 p < 0.001, “cooking healthier foods” (4, 5 p = 0.001, “storing foods safely” (5, 6 p = 0.002; “using leftovers” (4, 5 p = 0.002, “cooking raw chicken” (5, 6 p = 0.021, and “reading food labels” (4, 5 p < 0.001. “Microwaving ready-meals” decreased 46% to 39% (p = 0.132. “Preparing meals from scratch” increased 48% to 59% (p = 0.071. Knowledge about correct portion sizes increased 47% to 74% (p = 0.002. Spending on ready-meals/week decreased. Follow-up telephone interviewees (n = 42 reported developing healthier eating patterns, spending less money/wasting less food, and preparing more meals/snacks from raw ingredients. The programme had positive effects on participants’ cooking skills confidence, helped manage time, and reduced barriers of cost, waste, and knowledge.

  13. The nanostructure problem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Billinge, S.

    2010-01-01

    Diffraction techniques are making progress in tackling the difficult problem of solving the structures of nanoparticles and nanoscale materials. The great gift of x-ray crystallography has made us almost complacent in our ability to locate the three-dimensional coordinates of atoms in a crystal with a precision of around 10 -4 nm. However, the powerful methods of crystallography break down for structures in which order only extends over a few nanometers. In fact, as we near the one hundred year mark since the birth of crystallography, we face a resilient frontier in condensed matter physics: our inability to routinely and robustly determine the structure of complex nanostructured and amorphous materials. Knowing the structure and arrangement of atoms in a solid is so fundamental to understanding its properties that the topic routinely occupies the early chapters of every solid-state physics textbook. Yet what has become clear with the emergence of nanotechnology is that diffraction data alone may not be enough to uniquely solve the structure of nanomaterials. As part of a growing effort to incorporate the results of other techniques to constrain x-ray refinements - a method called 'complex modeling' which is a simple but elegant approach for combining information from spectroscopy with diffraction data to solve the structure of several amorphous and nanostructured materials. Crystallography just works, so we rarely question how and why this is so, yet understanding the physics of diffraction can be very helpful as we consider the nanostructure problem. The relationship between the electron density distribution in three dimensions (i.e., the crystal structure) and an x-ray diffraction pattern is well established: the measured intensity distribution in reciprocal space is the square of the Fourier transform of the autocorrelation function of the electron density distribution ρ(r). The fact that we get the autocorrelation function (rather than just the density

  14. Skeletal muscle mechanics: questions, problems and possible solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herzog, Walter

    2017-09-16

    Skeletal muscle mechanics have been studied ever since people have shown an interest in human movement. However, our understanding of muscle contraction and muscle mechanical properties has changed fundamentally with the discovery of the sliding filament theory in 1954 and associated cross-bridge theory in 1957. Nevertheless, experimental evidence suggests that our knowledge of the mechanisms of contraction is far from complete, and muscle properties and muscle function in human movement remain largely unknown.In this manuscript, I am trying to identify some of the crucial challenges we are faced with in muscle mechanics, offer possible solutions to questions, and identify problems that might be worthwhile exploring in the future. Since it is impossible to tackle all (worthwhile) problems in a single manuscript, I identified three problems that are controversial, important, and close to my heart. They may be identified as follows: (i) mechanisms of muscle contraction, (ii) in vivo whole muscle mechanics and properties, and (iii) force-sharing among synergistic muscles. These topics are fundamental to our understanding of human movement and movement control, and they contain a series of unknowns and challenges to be explored in the future.It is my hope that this paper may serve as an inspiration for some, may challenge current beliefs in selected areas, tackle important problems in the area of muscle mechanics, physiology and movement control, and may guide and focus some of the thinking of future muscle mechanics research.

  15. [Method for projecting indicators for the goals of the Strategic Action Plan for Tackling Chronic Non-Communicable Diseases in Brazil according to Capitals and the Federal District].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernal, Regina Tomie Ivata; Malta, Deborah Carvalho; Iser, Betine Pinto Moehlecke; Monteiro, Rosane Aparecida

    2016-01-01

    to present the indicators' projection method of the Strategic Action Plan for Tackling Chronic Non-Communicable Diseases (NCDs) in Brazilian State capitals and the Federal District, 2012-2022. simple linear regression model was used to calculate the indicators' projections with data from the Surveillance System of Risk and Protective Factors for Chronic Diseases by Telephone Survey (Vigitel). in most of the capitals, there was an increase in the prevalence of obesity (annual change: 0.36%;1.29%), overweight (annual change: 1.11%;2.00%), recommended (annual change: 1.45%;2.66%) and regular (annual change: 0.45%;1.46%) consumption of fruits and vegetables; smoking presented a decreasing trend (annual change: -1.34%;-0.20%); whereas physical inactivity, heavy drinking and mammography and Pap smears examinations were stable. most of the goals are possible; however, effective actions are necessary, especially for tackling overweight and heavy drinking.

  16. THE MULTIPLE CHOICE PROBLEM WITH INTERACTIONS BETWEEN CRITERIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Flavio Autran Monteiro Gomes

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT An important problem in Multi-Criteria Decision Analysis arises when one must select at least two alternatives at the same time. This can be denoted as a multiple choice problem. In other words, instead of evaluating each of the alternatives separately, they must be combined into groups of n alternatives, where n = 2. When the multiple choice problem must be solved under multiple criteria, the result is a multi-criteria, multiple choice problem. In this paper, it is shown through examples how this problemcan be tackled on a bipolar scale. The Choquet integral is used in this paper to take care of interactions between criteria. A numerical application example is conducted using data from SEBRAE-RJ, a non-profit private organization that has the mission of promoting competitiveness, sustainable developmentand entrepreneurship in the state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. The paper closes with suggestions for future research.

  17. Building Science and Technology Solutions for National Problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bishop, Alan R.

    2012-01-01

    The nation's investment in Los Alamos has fostered scientific capabilities for national security missions. As the premier national security science laboratory, Los Alamos tackles: (1) Multidisciplinary science, technology, and engineering challenges; (2) Problems demanding unique experimental and computational facilities; and (3) Highly complex national security issues requiring fundamental breakthroughs. Our mission as a DOE national security science laboratory is to develop and apply science, technology, and engineering solutions that: (1) ensure the safety, security, and reliability of the US nuclear deterrent; (2) protect against the nuclear threat; and (3) solve national security challenges.

  18. Cosmology problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lukash, V.N.

    1983-01-01

    Information discussed at the 18th General Assembly of the International Astronomical Union and Symposium on ''Early Universe Evolution and Its Modern Structure'' on the problems of relic radiation, Hubble expansion, spatial structure and physics of the early Universe is presented. The spectrum of relic radioemission differs but slightly from the equilibrium one in the maximum range. In G. Smith (USA) opinion such difference may be caused by any radiosources radiating in the same wave range. The absence of unanimous opinion of astronomers on Hubble constant value is pointed out. G.Tam-man (Switzerland) estimates the Hubble constant 50+-7 km/s. J. Voculer (USA) gives a twice greater value. Such divergence is ca sed by various methods of determining distances up to remote galaxies and galaxy clusters. Many reports deal with large-scale Universe structure. For the first time considered are the processes which occurred in the epoch at times about 10 -35 c from the beginning of the Universe expansion. Such possibility is presented by the theory of ''great unification'' which permits to explain some fundamental properties of the Universe: spatial uniformity of isotropic expansion, existence of small primary density perturbations

  19. Modeling an integrated hospital management planning problem using integer optimization approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sitepu, Suryati; Mawengkang, Herman; Irvan

    2017-09-01

    Hospital is a very important institution to provide health care for people. It is not surprising that nowadays the people’s demands for hospital is increasing. However, due to the rising cost of healthcare services, hospitals need to consider efficiencies in order to overcome these two problems. This paper deals with an integrated strategy of staff capacity management and bed allocation planning to tackle these problems. Mathematically, the strategy can be modeled as an integer linear programming problem. We solve the model using a direct neighborhood search approach, based on the notion of superbasic variables.

  20. Local Search Approaches in Stable Matching Problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toby Walsh

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The stable marriage (SM problem has a wide variety of practical applications, ranging from matching resident doctors to hospitals, to matching students to schools or, more generally, to any two-sided market. In the classical formulation, n men and n women express their preferences (via a strict total order over the members of the other sex. Solving an SM problem means finding a stable marriage where stability is an envy-free notion: no man and woman who are not married to each other would both prefer each other to their partners or to being single. We consider both the classical stable marriage problem and one of its useful variations (denoted SMTI (Stable Marriage with Ties and Incomplete lists where the men and women express their preferences in the form of an incomplete preference list with ties over a subset of the members of the other sex. Matchings are permitted only with people who appear in these preference lists, and we try to find a stable matching that marries as many people as possible. Whilst the SM problem is polynomial to solve, the SMTI problem is NP-hard. We propose to tackle both problems via a local search approach, which exploits properties of the problems to reduce the size of the neighborhood and to make local moves efficiently. We empirically evaluate our algorithm for SM problems by measuring its runtime behavior and its ability to sample the lattice of all possible stable marriages. We evaluate our algorithm for SMTI problems in terms of both its runtime behavior and its ability to find a maximum cardinality stable marriage. Experimental results suggest that for SM problems, the number of steps of our algorithm grows only as O(n log(n, and that it samples very well the set of all stable marriages. It is thus a fair and efficient approach to generate stable marriages. Furthermore, our approach for SMTI problems is able to solve large problems, quickly returning stable matchings of large and often optimal size, despite the

  1. A Hybrid ACO Approach to the Matrix Bandwidth Minimization Problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pintea, Camelia-M.; Crişan, Gloria-Cerasela; Chira, Camelia

    The evolution of the human society raises more and more difficult endeavors. For some of the real-life problems, the computing time-restriction enhances their complexity. The Matrix Bandwidth Minimization Problem (MBMP) seeks for a simultaneous permutation of the rows and the columns of a square matrix in order to keep its nonzero entries close to the main diagonal. The MBMP is a highly investigated {NP}-complete problem, as it has broad applications in industry, logistics, artificial intelligence or information recovery. This paper describes a new attempt to use the Ant Colony Optimization framework in tackling MBMP. The introduced model is based on the hybridization of the Ant Colony System technique with new local search mechanisms. Computational experiments confirm a good performance of the proposed algorithm for the considered set of MBMP instances.

  2. Something Old, Something New, Something Borrowed and Something Blue
    Tackling Diffuse Water Pollution from Agriculture in China: Drawing Inspiration from the European Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liping Dai

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Diffuse water pollution caused by agriculture is increasingly recognized as a major contributor to water pollution both in China and in Europe. A great deal of effort has been spent on mechanisms to address such pollution, especially through legislation and policy. The legal challenge for China is to develop an adequate legal framework to tackle diffuse pollution. By providing an overview of the current policy design regarding diffuse water pollution management in both China and the European Union, this article discusses the extent to which the EU legal framework could provide inspiration for China.

  3. A heuristics-based solution to the continuous berth allocation and crane assignment problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Hamdy Elwany

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Effective utilization plans for various resources at a container terminal are essential to reducing the turnaround time of cargo vessels. Among the scarcest resources are the berth and its associated cranes. Thus, two important optimization problems arise, which are the berth allocation and quay crane assignment problems. The berth allocation problem deals with the generation of a berth plan, which determines where and when a ship has to berth alongside the quay. The quay crane assignment problem addresses the problem of determining how many and which quay crane(s will serve each vessel. In this paper, an integrated heuristics-based solution methodology is proposed that tackles both problems simultaneously. The preliminary experimental results show that the proposed approach yields high quality solutions to such an NP-hard problem in a reasonable computational time suggesting its suitability for practical use.

  4. Injury risk and a tackle ban in youth Rugby Union: reviewing the evidence and searching for targeted, effective interventions. A critical review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, Ross; Raftery, Martin; Verhagen, Evert

    2016-08-01

    It has recently been proposed that the tackle, an integral part of Rugby Union, be banned in school rugby, as a means to reduce the risk of injury. This proposal held that harmful contact should be removed in response to what was termed an unacceptably high-injury risk. Such a ban would represent a significant intervention that could change the nature of Rugby Union. As such, the basis and rationale for such a ban is worthy of critical evaluation. This review aims to describe the research on which such a ban is proposed. It does so through an assessment (identification), estimation (understanding of the magnitude and occurrence) and evaluation (determining acceptability) of the risk before decisions can be made about implementing any risk mitigation strategies. The body of literature describing injury risk, particularly among youths, is indeed thin and fraught with methodological differences that makes definitive conclusions impossible. We describe these, and their implications, arguing that the complete ban on the tackle may be unnecessary in young children, in whom injury risk may not be as high as is often argued, but also that it may have detrimental consequences. Finally, we propose alternative strategies and research questions which must be pursued to effectively reduce risk without creating unintended consequences or changing the nature of the sport. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  5. Problems of environmental pollution in a modern society. I problemi dell'inquinamento nella societa moderna

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pinchera, G C

    1983-10-01

    The paper deals with the problem of environmental deterioration in Italy and of systematic acquisition of data on the state of environment. Manners in which some countries are tackling the problems of regulating air pollution control are analysed and compared. Then, attention is given to farming practices which made agriculture notoriously exposed to pollution caused by other human activities, becoming itself a significant source of adverse ecological effects. Possible directions for recovering, recycling and utilizing wastes of urban, agrozootechnical and industrial origin are discussed. Finally, some suggestions are made for the improvement of environmental risk management in Italy.

  6. An overview on polynomial approximation of NP-hard problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paschos Vangelis Th.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The fact that polynomial time algorithm is very unlikely to be devised for an optimal solving of the NP-hard problems strongly motivates both the researchers and the practitioners to try to solve such problems heuristically, by making a trade-off between computational time and solution's quality. In other words, heuristic computation consists of trying to find not the best solution but one solution which is 'close to' the optimal one in reasonable time. Among the classes of heuristic methods for NP-hard problems, the polynomial approximation algorithms aim at solving a given NP-hard problem in poly-nomial time by computing feasible solutions that are, under some predefined criterion, as near to the optimal ones as possible. The polynomial approximation theory deals with the study of such algorithms. This survey first presents and analyzes time approximation algorithms for some classical examples of NP-hard problems. Secondly, it shows how classical notions and tools of complexity theory, such as polynomial reductions, can be matched with polynomial approximation in order to devise structural results for NP-hard optimization problems. Finally, it presents a quick description of what is commonly called inapproximability results. Such results provide limits on the approximability of the problems tackled.

  7. Inverse problem and uncertainty quantification: application to compressible gas dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Birolleau, Alexandre

    2014-01-01

    This thesis deals with uncertainty propagation and the resolution of inverse problems together with their respective acceleration via Polynomial Chaos. The object of this work is to present a state of the art and a numerical analysis of this stochastic spectral method, in order to understand its pros and cons when tackling the probabilistic study of hydrodynamical instabilities in Richtmyer-Meshkov shock tube experiments. The first chapter is introductory and allows understanding the stakes of being able to accurately take into account uncertainties in compressible gas dynamics simulations. The second chapter is both an illustrative state of the art on generalized Polynomial Chaos and a full numerical analysis of the method keeping in mind the final application on hydrodynamical problems developing shocks and discontinuous solutions. In this chapter, we introduce a new method, naming iterative generalized Polynomial Chaos, which ensures a gain with respect to generalized Polynomial Chaos, especially with non smooth solutions. Chapter three is closely related to an accepted publication in Communication in Computational Physics. It deals with stochastic inverse problems and introduces bayesian inference. It also emphasizes the possibility of accelerating the bayesian inference thanks to iterative generalized Polynomial Chaos described in the previous chapter. Theoretical convergence is established and illustrated on several test-cases. The last chapter consists in the application of the above materials to a complex and ambitious compressible gas dynamics problem (Richtmyer-Meshkov shock tube configuration) together with a deepened study of the physico-numerical phenomenon at stake. Finally, in the appendix, we also present some interesting research paths we quickly tackled during this thesis. (author) [fr

  8. Tackling soil degradation and environmental changes in Lake Manyara Basin, Tanzania to support sustainable landscape/ecosystem management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munishi, Linus; Mtei, Kelvin; Bode, Samuel; Dume, Bayu; Navas, Ana; Nebiyu, Amsalu; Semmens, Brice; Smith, Hugh; Stock, Brian; Boeckx, Pascal; Blake, Will

    2017-04-01

    The Lake Manyara Basin (LMB), which encompasses Lake Manyara National Park a world ranking World Biosphere Reserve, is of great ecological and socio-economic value because it hosts a small-holder rain fed and extensive irrigation agriculture, grazing grounds for pastoralists, terrestrial and aquatic habitat for wildlife and tourism business contributing to poverty alleviation. Despite these multiple ecosystem services that support the local communities, the LMB is threatened by; (a) siltation from eroded soil fed from the wider catchment and rift escarpment of the basin and (b) declining water levels due to water capture by agriculture and possibly climate change. These threats to the ecosystem and its services are augmented by increasing human population, pollution by agricultural pesticides, poaching, human encroachment and infrastructure development, and illegal fisheries. Despite these challenges, here is a dearth of information on erosion hotspots and to date soil erosion and siltation problems in LMB have been interpreted largely in qualitative terms, and no coherent interpretative framework of these records exists. Despite concerns that modern sediment fluxes to the Lake may exceed long-term fluxes, little is known about erosion sources, how erosion rates and processes vary across the landscape and how erosion rates are influenced by the strong climate gradients in the basin. This contribution describes a soil erosion and sediment management project that aims to deliver a demonstration dataset generated from inter-disciplinary sediment-source tracing technologies and approaches to assess erosion hotspots, processes and spatial patterns of erosion in the area. The work focuses on a sub basin, the Monduli Sub catchment, located within the greater LMB. This is part of efforts to establish an understanding of soil erosion and landscape degradation in the basin as a pathway for generating and developing knowledge, building capacity to assist conservationists

  9. Environmental security: The problems of Northwestern Russia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yablokov, A.V.

    1999-01-01

    The review of main existing environmental problems of North-West Russia covers the radioactive pollution, atmospheric pollution, destroying of the tundra and forest ecosystems, inland and water pollution, consequences of space activities. This region includes: Karelia and Komi republics; Yamalo-Nenetzk autonomous region; Murmansk; Leningrad and Vologda regions; White Sea; Southern and eastern parts of Barents Sea; eastern part of Kara Sea; and eastern part of the Baltic (Finnish Bay). The environmental situation in northwestern Russia is extremely unsafe. The fundamental reason for this situation is Soviet over-militarization in the past. There is an urgent need now to tackle the international environmental security in the Arctic and Scandinavian regions at least in two fields: 1. The existing radioactive pollution (mostly connected with military activities), and even more dangerous - the potential radioactive pollution of the Arctic and Scandinavia. 2. Atmospheric pollution (long distance transportation of pollutant, mostly sulphur dioxide and heavy metals, from melting factories on Kola Peninsula). Several other problems relating to the environmental security of the region (among them deforestation, oil/gas pollution of the ocean, development of the diamond industry) need international attention in the nearest future. It is unrealistic to think that Russia alone can overcome these long-standing problems in the foreseeable future: we need international support for this. But foreign money for solving our environmental problems is not the solution, firstly, because for environmental restoration and recovery Russia needs much more than the international community can allocate; secondly, because there is much money inside Russia (every month, during 1993-1996, up to two billions US dollars were flowing out from Russia to western banks). To utilize this money in a proper way, we drastically need international help to awaken the Russian public environmental awareness

  10. Class and Home Problems: Optimization Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Brian J.; Hissam, Robin S.; Shaeiwitz, Joseph A.; Turton, Richard

    2011-01-01

    Optimization problems suitable for all levels of chemical engineering students are available. These problems do not require advanced mathematical techniques, since they can be solved using typical software used by students and practitioners. The method used to solve these problems forces students to understand the trends for the different terms…

  11. Minimizing total weighted tardiness for the single machine scheduling problem with dependent setup time and precedence constraints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamidreza Haddad

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper tackles the single machine scheduling problem with dependent setup time and precedence constraints. The primary objective of this paper is minimization of total weighted tardiness. Since the complexity of the resulted problem is NP-hard we use metaheuristics method to solve the resulted model. The proposed model of this paper uses genetic algorithm to solve the problem in reasonable amount of time. Because of high sensitivity of GA to its initial values of parameters, a Taguchi approach is presented to calibrate its parameters. Computational experiments validate the effectiveness and capability of proposed method.

  12. Tackling inequalities in obesity: a protocol for a systematic review of the effectiveness of public health interventions at reducing socioeconomic inequalities in obesity among adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bambra, Clare L; Hillier, Frances C; Moore, Helen J; Cairns-Nagi, Joanne-Marie; Summerbell, Carolyn D

    2013-05-10

    Socioeconomic inequalities in obesity and associated risk factors for obesity are widening throughout developed countries worldwide. Tackling obesity is high on the public health agenda both in the United Kingdom and internationally. However, what works in terms of interventions that are able to reduce inequalities in obesity is lacking. The review will examine public health interventions at the individual, community and societal level that might reduce inequalities in obesity among adults aged 18 years and over, in any setting and in any country. The following electronic databases will be searched: MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, PsycINFO, Social Science Citation Index, ASSIA, IBSS, Sociological Abstracts, and the NHS Economic Evaluation Database. Database searches will be supplemented with website and gray literature searches. No studies will be excluded based on language, country or publication date. Randomized and non-randomized controlled trials, prospective and retrospective cohort studies (with/without control groups) and prospective repeat cross-sectional studies (with/without control groups) that have a primary outcome that is a proxy for body fatness and have examined differential effects with regard to socioeconomic status (education, income, occupation, social class, deprivation, poverty) or where the intervention has been targeted specifically at disadvantaged groups or deprived areas will be included. Study inclusion, data extraction and quality appraisal will be conducted by two reviewers. Meta-analysis and narrative synthesis will be conducted. The main analysis will examine the effects of 1) individual, 2) community and 3) societal level public health interventions on socioeconomic inequalities in adult obesity. Interventions will be characterized by their level of action and their approach to tackling inequalities. Contextual information on how such public health interventions are organized, implemented and delivered will also be examined. The review

  13. Mapping the use of research to support strategies tackling maternal and child health inequities: evidence from six countries in Africa and Latin America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargas, Emily; Becerril-Montekio, Victor; Gonzalez-Block, Miguel Ángel; Akweongo, Patricia; Hazel, Cynthia N A; Cuembelo, Maria de Fatima; Limbani, Felix; Bernardo, Wanderley; Muñoz, Fernando

    2016-01-07

    Striving to foster collaboration among countries suffering from maternal and child health (MCH) inequities, the MASCOT project mapped and analyzed the use of research in strategies tackling them in 11 low- and middle-income countries. This article aims to present the way in which research influenced MCH policies and programs in six of these countries - three in Africa and three in Latin America. Qualitative research using a thematic synthesis narrative process was used to identify and describe who is producing what kind of research, how research is funded, how inequities are approached by research and policies, the countries' research capacities, and the type of evidence base that MCH policies and programs use. Four tools were designed for these purposes: an online survey for researchers, a semi-structured interview with decision makers, and two content analysis guides: one for policy and programs documents and one for scientific articles. Three modalities of research utilization were observed in the strategies tackling MCH inequities in the six included countries - instrumental, conceptual and symbolic. Instrumental utilization directly relates the formulation and contents of the strategies with research results, and is the least used within the analyzed policies and programs. Even though research is considered as an important input to support decision making and most of the analyzed countries count five or six relevant MCH research initiatives, in most cases, the actual impact of research is not clearly identifiable. While MCH research is increasing in low- and middle-income countries, the impact of its outcomes on policy formulation is low. We did not identify a direct relationship between the nature of the financial support organizations and the kind of evidence utilization within the policy process. There is still a visible gap between researchers and policymakers regarding their different intentions to link evidence and decision making processes.

  14. Knowledge assessment of sports-related concussion among parents of children aged 5 years to 15 years enrolled in recreational tackle football.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mannings, Carol; Kalynych, Colleen; Joseph, Madeline Matar; Smotherman, Carmen; Kraemer, Dale F

    2014-09-01

    Sports-related concussion among professional, collegiate, and, more recently, high school athletes has received much attention from the media and medical community. To our knowledge, there is a paucity of research regarding parental knowledge of sports-related concussion. The aim of this study was to evaluate parental knowledge of concussion in young children who participated in recreational tackle football. Parents of children aged 5 years to 15 years attending recreational tackle football games were asked to complete an anonymous questionnaire based on the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's Heads Up: Concussion in Youth Sports Quiz. The parents were asked about their level of agreement regarding statements that represent definition, symptoms, and treatment of concussion. A total of 310 of 369 parents (84% response rate) voluntarily completed the questionnaire, with 94% believing that their child had never had a concussion. However, only 13% (n = 41) could correctly identify all seven statements. Most did not identify that a concussion is considered a mild traumatic brain injury and can be achieved from something other than a direct blow to the head. Race, sex, and zip code had no significant association with correctly answering statements. Education (r = 0.24, p child played (r = 0.11, p = 0.049) had a small association. Fifty-three percent and 58% of the parents reported that someone had discussed the definition and the symptoms of concussion with them, respectively, with only about half reporting that information came from their health care provider. No parent was able to classify all symptoms listed as correctly related or not related to concussion. However, identification of correct concussion statements correlated with identification of correct symptoms (r = 0.25, p < 0.001). While most parents of young athletes demonstrated some knowledge regarding concussion, important misconceptions remain regarding the definition, symptoms, and treatment of

  15. Tackling heterogeneity: a leaf disc-based assay for the high-throughput screening of transient gene expression in tobacco.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Piotrzkowski

    Full Text Available Transient Agrobacterium-mediated gene expression assays for Nicotiana tabacum (N. tabacum are frequently used because they facilitate the comparison of multiple expression constructs regarding their capacity for maximum recombinant protein production. However, for three model proteins, we found that recombinant protein accumulation (rpa was significantly influenced by leaf age and leaf position effects. The ratio between the highest and lowest amount of protein accumulation (max/min ratio was found to be as high as 11. Therefore, construct-based impacts on the rpa level that are less than 11-fold will be masked by background noise. To address this problem, we developed a leaf disc-based screening assay and infiltration device that allows the rpa level in a whole tobacco plant to be reliably and reproducibly determined. The prototype of the leaf disc infiltration device allows 14 Agrobacterium-mediated infiltration events to be conducted in parallel. As shown for three model proteins, the average max/min rpa ratio was reduced to 1.4 using this method, which allows for a sensitive comparison of different genetic elements affecting recombinant protein expression.

  16. A geographic information system screening tool to tackle diffuse pollution through the use of sustainable drainage systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todorovic, Zorica; Breton, Neil P

    2014-01-01

    Sustainable drainage systems (SUDS) offer many benefits that traditional solutions do not. Traditional approaches are unable to offer a solution to problems of flood management and water quality. Holistic consideration of the wide range of benefits from SUDS can result in advantages such as improved flood resilience and water quality enhancement through consideration of diffuse pollution sources. Using a geographical information system (GIS) approach, diffuse pollutant sources and opportunities for SUDS are easily identified. Consideration of potential SUDS locations results in source, site and regional controls, leading to improved water quality (to meet Water Framework Directive targets). The paper will discuss two different applications of the tool, the first of which is where the pollutant of interest is known. In this case the outputs of the tool highlight and isolate the areas contributing the pollutants and suggest the adequate SUDS measures to meet the required criteria. The second application is where the tool identifies likely pollutants at a receiving location, and SUDS measures are proposed to reduce pollution with assessed efficiencies.

  17. Binary Cockroach Swarm Optimization for Combinatorial Optimization Problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibidun Christiana Obagbuwa

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The Cockroach Swarm Optimization (CSO algorithm is inspired by cockroach social behavior. It is a simple and efficient meta-heuristic algorithm and has been applied to solve global optimization problems successfully. The original CSO algorithm and its variants operate mainly in continuous search space and cannot solve binary-coded optimization problems directly. Many optimization problems have their decision variables in binary. Binary Cockroach Swarm Optimization (BCSO is proposed in this paper to tackle such problems and was evaluated on the popular Traveling Salesman Problem (TSP, which is considered to be an NP-hard Combinatorial Optimization Problem (COP. A transfer function was employed to map a continuous search space CSO to binary search space. The performance of the proposed algorithm was tested firstly on benchmark functions through simulation studies and compared with the performance of existing binary particle swarm optimization and continuous space versions of CSO. The proposed BCSO was adapted to TSP and applied to a set of benchmark instances of symmetric TSP from the TSP library. The results of the proposed Binary Cockroach Swarm Optimization (BCSO algorithm on TSP were compared to other meta-heuristic algorithms.

  18. Modeling a four-layer location-routing problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohsen Hamidi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Distribution is an indispensable component of logistics and supply chain management. Location-Routing Problem (LRP is an NP-hard problem that simultaneously takes into consideration location, allocation, and vehicle routing decisions to design an optimal distribution network. Multi-layer and multi-product LRP is even more complex as it deals with the decisions at multiple layers of a distribution network where multiple products are transported within and between layers of the network. This paper focuses on modeling a complicated four-layer and multi-product LRP which has not been tackled yet. The distribution network consists of plants, central depots, regional depots, and customers. In this study, the structure, assumptions, and limitations of the distribution network are defined and the mathematical optimization programming model that can be used to obtain the optimal solution is developed. Presented by a mixed-integer programming model, the LRP considers the location problem at two layers, the allocation problem at three layers, the vehicle routing problem at three layers, and a transshipment problem. The mathematical model locates central and regional depots, allocates customers to plants, central depots, and regional depots, constructs tours from each plant or open depot to customers, and constructs transshipment paths from plants to depots and from depots to other depots. Considering realistic assumptions and limitations such as producing multiple products, limited production capacity, limited depot and vehicle capacity, and limited traveling distances enables the user to capture the real world situations.

  19. The Coral Reefs Optimization Algorithm: A Novel Metaheuristic for Efficiently Solving Optimization Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salcedo-Sanz, S.; Del Ser, J.; Landa-Torres, I.; Gil-López, S.; Portilla-Figueras, J. A.

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a novel bioinspired algorithm to tackle complex optimization problems: the coral reefs optimization (CRO) algorithm. The CRO algorithm artificially simulates a coral reef, where different corals (namely, solutions to the optimization problem considered) grow and reproduce in coral colonies, fighting by choking out other corals for space in the reef. This fight for space, along with the specific characteristics of the corals' reproduction, produces a robust metaheuristic algorithm shown to be powerful for solving hard optimization problems. In this research the CRO algorithm is tested in several continuous and discrete benchmark problems, as well as in practical application scenarios (i.e., optimum mobile network deployment and off-shore wind farm design). The obtained results confirm the excellent performance of the proposed algorithm and open line of research for further application of the algorithm to real-world problems. PMID:25147860

  20. Solving large-scale sparse eigenvalue problems and linear systems of equations for accelerator modeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gene Golub; Kwok Ko

    2009-01-01

    The solutions of sparse eigenvalue problems and linear systems constitute one of the key computational kernels in the discretization of partial differential equations for the modeling of linear accelerators. The computational challenges faced by existing techniques for solving those sparse eigenvalue problems and linear systems call for continuing research to improve on the algorithms so that ever increasing problem size as required by the physics application can be tackled. Under the support of this award, the filter algorithm for solving large sparse eigenvalue problems was developed at Stanford to address the computational difficulties in the previous methods with the goal to enable accelerator simulations on then the world largest unclassified supercomputer at NERSC for this class of problems. Specifically, a new method, the Hemitian skew-Hemitian splitting method, was proposed and researched as an improved method for solving linear systems with non-Hermitian positive definite and semidefinite matrices.

  1. Alexithymia and psychosocial problems among Italian preadolescents. A latent class analysis approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mannarini, Stefania; Balottin, Laura; Toldo, Irene; Gatta, Michela

    2016-10-01

    The study, conducted on Italian preadolscents aged 11 to 13 belonging to the general population, aims to investigate the relationship between the emotional functioning, namely, alexithymia, and the risk of developing behavioral and emotional problems measured using the Strength and Difficulty Questionnaire. The latent class analysis approach allowed to identify two latent variables, accounting for the internalizing (emotional symptoms and difficulties in emotional awareness) and for the externalizing problems (conduct problems and hyperactivity, problematic relationships with peers, poor prosocial behaviors and externally oriented thinking). The two latent variables featured two latent classes: the difficulty in dealing with problems and the strength to face problems that was representative of most of the healthy participants with specific gender differences. Along with the analysis of psychopathological behaviors, the study of resilience and strengths can prove to be a key step in order to develop valuable preventive approaches to tackle psychiatric disorders. © 2016 Scandinavian Psychological Associations and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Tackling malnutrition: a systematic review of 15-year research evidence from INDEPTH health and demographic surveillance systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuelina S. Arthur

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Nutrition is the intake of food in relation to the body's dietary needs. Malnutrition results from the intake of inadequate or excess food. This can lead to reduced immunity, increased susceptibility to disease, impaired physical and mental development, and reduced productivity. Objective: To perform a systematic review to assess research conducted by the International Network for the Demographic Evaluation of Populations and their Health (INDEPTH of health and demographic surveillance systems (HDSSs over a 15-year period on malnutrition, its determinants, the effects of under and over nutrition, and intervention research on malnutrition in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs. Methods: Relevant publication titles were uploaded onto the Zotero research tool from different databases (60% from PubMed. Using the keywords ‘nutrition’, ‘malnutrition’, ‘over and under nutrition’, we selected publications that were based only on data generated through the longitudinal HDSS platform. All titles and abstracts were screened to determine inclusion eligibility and full articles were independently assessed according to inclusion/exclusion criteria. For inclusion in this study, papers had to cover research on at least one of the following topics: the problem of malnutrition, its determinants, its effects, and intervention research on malnutrition. One hundred and forty eight papers were identified and reviewed, and 67 were selected for this study. Results: The INDEPTH research identified rising levels of overweight and obesity, sometimes in the same settings as under-nutrition. Urbanisation appears to be protective against under-nutrition, but it heightens the risk of obesity. Appropriately timed breastfeeding interventions were protective against malnutrition. Conclusions: Although INDEPTH has expanded the global knowledge base on nutrition, many questions remain unresolved. There is a need for more investment in nutrition research

  3. Tackling malnutrition: a systematic review of 15-year research evidence from INDEPTH health and demographic surveillance systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arthur, Samuelina S.; Nyide, Bongiwe; Soura, Abdramane Bassiahi; Kahn, Kathleen; Weston, Mark; Sankoh, Osman

    2015-01-01

    Background Nutrition is the intake of food in relation to the body's dietary needs. Malnutrition results from the intake of inadequate or excess food. This can lead to reduced immunity, increased susceptibility to disease, impaired physical and mental development, and reduced productivity. Objective To perform a systematic review to assess research conducted by the International Network for the Demographic Evaluation of Populations and their Health (INDEPTH) of health and demographic surveillance systems (HDSSs) over a 15-year period on malnutrition, its determinants, the effects of under and over nutrition, and intervention research on malnutrition in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). Methods Relevant publication titles were uploaded onto the Zotero research tool from different databases (60% from PubMed). Using the keywords ‘nutrition’, ‘malnutrition’, ‘over and under nutrition’, we selected publications that were based only on data generated through the longitudinal HDSS platform. All titles and abstracts were screened to determine inclusion eligibility and full articles were independently assessed according to inclusion/exclusion criteria. For inclusion in this study, papers had to cover research on at least one of the following topics: the problem of malnutrition, its determinants, its effects, and intervention research on malnutrition. One hundred and forty eight papers were identified and reviewed, and 67 were selected for this study. Results The INDEPTH research identified rising levels of overweight and obesity, sometimes in the same settings as under-nutrition. Urbanisation appears to be protective against under-nutrition, but it heightens the risk of obesity. Appropriately timed breastfeeding interventions were protective against malnutrition. Conclusions Although INDEPTH has expanded the global knowledge base on nutrition, many questions remain unresolved. There is a need for more investment in nutrition research in LMICs in order to

  4. Preventing Diabetes Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Problems Diabetes, Sexual, & Bladder Problems Clinical Trials Preventing Diabetes Problems View or Print All Sections Heart Disease & ... to help control symptoms and restore intimacy. Depression & Diabetes Depression is common among people with a chronic, ...

  5. The Chicken Problem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reeves, Charles A.

    2000-01-01

    Uses the chicken problem for sixth grade students to scratch the surface of systems of equations using intuitive approaches. Provides students responses to the problem and suggests similar problems for extensions. (ASK)

  6. Problems in differential equations

    CERN Document Server

    Brenner, J L

    2013-01-01

    More than 900 problems and answers explore applications of differential equations to vibrations, electrical engineering, mechanics, and physics. Problem types include both routine and nonroutine, and stars indicate advanced problems. 1963 edition.

  7. Nuclear power plant decommissioning: an unresolved problem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pollock, C.

    1987-01-01

    In 1984, the Critical Mass Energy Project asserted that at least 11 US reactors had gone through one-third of their operating lives without collecting any decommissioning funds and that nationwide only $600 million had been collected. This lack of financial planning prompted 10 states to require mandatory periodic deposits into external accounts: California, Colorado, Connecticut, Maine, Massachusetts, Mississippi, New Hampshire, Pennsylvania, Vermont, and Wisconsin. Setting aside decommissioning funds is essential in every country that uses nuclear power. Regardless of a nation's future energy plans, existing plants must eventually be scrapped. Just as today's cities would not be habitable without large fleets of garbage trucks and extensive landfills, the international nuclear industry is not viable without a sound decommissioning strategy. Thirty years after the first nuclear plant started producing electricity, such a strategy has yet to be formulated. More than 500 reactors, including those currently under construction, will have to be decommissioned. Preparing to safely retire these plants requires aggressive, well-funded research and development programs, policy makers willing to tackle unpleasant, long-term problems, and robust retirement accounts funded by today's utility customers

  8. Ebola Virus Infection Modelling and Identifiability Problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Van-Kinh eNguyen

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The recent outbreaks of Ebola virus (EBOV infections have underlined the impact of the virus as a major threat for human health. Due to the high biosafety classification of EBOV (level 4, basic research is very limited. Therefore, the development of new avenues of thinking to advance quantitative comprehension of the virus and its interaction with the host cells is urgently neededto tackle this lethal disease. Mathematical modelling of the EBOV dynamics can be instrumental to interpret Ebola infection kinetics on quantitative grounds. To the best of our knowledge, a mathematical modelling approach to unravel the interaction between EBOV and the host cells isstill missing. In this paper, a mathematical model based on differential equations is used to represent the basic interactions between EBOV and wild-type Vero cells in vitro. Parameter sets that represent infectivity of pathogens are estimated for EBOV infection and compared with influenza virus infection kinetics. The average infecting time of wild-type Vero cells in EBOV is slower than in influenza infection. Simulation results suggest that the slow infecting time of EBOV could be compensated by its efficient replication. This study reveals several identifiability problems and what kind of experiments are necessary to advance the quantification of EBOV infection. A first mathematical approach of EBOV dynamics and the estimation of standard parametersin viral infections kinetics is the key contribution of this work, paving the way for future modelling work on EBOV infection.

  9. Monte Carlo event generators in atomic collisions: A new tool to tackle the few-body dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciappina, M. F.; Kirchner, T.; Schulz, M.

    2010-04-01

    We present a set of routines to produce theoretical event files, for both single and double ionization of atoms by ion impact, based on a Monte Carlo event generator (MCEG) scheme. Such event files are the theoretical counterpart of the data obtained from a kinematically complete experiment; i.e. they contain the momentum components of all collision fragments for a large number of ionization events. Among the advantages of working with theoretical event files is the possibility to incorporate the conditions present in a real experiment, such as the uncertainties in the measured quantities. Additionally, by manipulating them it is possible to generate any type of cross sections, specially those that are usually too complicated to compute with conventional methods due to a lack of symmetry. Consequently, the numerical effort of such calculations is dramatically reduced. We show examples for both single and double ionization, with special emphasis on a new data analysis tool, called four-body Dalitz plots, developed very recently. Program summaryProgram title: MCEG Catalogue identifier: AEFV_v1_0 Program summary URL:http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/AEFV_v1_0.html Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen's University, Belfast, N. Ireland Licensing provisions: Standard CPC licence, http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/licence/licence.html No. of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 2695 No. of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 18 501 Distribution format: tar.gz Programming language: FORTRAN 77 with parallelization directives using scripting Computer: Single machines using Linux and Linux servers/clusters (with cores with any clock speed, cache memory and bits in a word) Operating system: Linux (any version and flavor) and FORTRAN 77 compilers Has the code been vectorised or parallelized?: Yes RAM: 64-128 kBytes (the codes are very cpu intensive) Classification: 2.6 Nature of problem: The code deals with single and double

  10. Artificial immune algorithm for multi-depot vehicle scheduling problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Zhongyi; Wang, Donggen; Xia, Linyuan; Chen, Xiaoling

    2008-10-01

    In the fast-developing logistics and supply chain management fields, one of the key problems in the decision support system is that how to arrange, for a lot of customers and suppliers, the supplier-to-customer assignment and produce a detailed supply schedule under a set of constraints. Solutions to the multi-depot vehicle scheduling problems (MDVRP) help in solving this problem in case of transportation applications. The objective of the MDVSP is to minimize the total distance covered by all vehicles, which can be considered as delivery costs or time consumption. The MDVSP is one of nondeterministic polynomial-time hard (NP-hard) problem which cannot be solved to optimality within polynomial bounded computational time. Many different approaches have been developed to tackle MDVSP, such as exact algorithm (EA), one-stage approach (OSA), two-phase heuristic method (TPHM), tabu search algorithm (TSA), genetic algorithm (GA) and hierarchical multiplex structure (HIMS). Most of the methods mentioned above are time consuming and have high risk to result in local optimum. In this paper, a new search algorithm is proposed to solve MDVSP based on Artificial Immune Systems (AIS), which are inspirited by vertebrate immune systems. The proposed AIS algorithm is tested with 30 customers and 6 vehicles located in 3 depots. Experimental results show that the artificial immune system algorithm is an effective and efficient method for solving MDVSP problems.

  11. Diagnosing plant problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheryl A. Smith

    2008-01-01

    Diagnosing Christmas tree problems can be a challenge, requiring a basic knowledge of plant culture and physiology, the effect of environmental influences on plant health, and the ability to identify the possible causes of plant problems. Developing a solution or remedy to the problem depends on a proper diagnosis, a process that requires recognition of a problem and...

  12. Islamic Education Research Problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul Muthalib

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper will discuss Islamic educational studies that is reviewing how to find, limit and define problems and problem-solving concepts. The central question of this paper is to describe how to solve the problem in Islamic educational research. A researcher or educator who has the knowledge, expertise, or special interest on education for example is usually having a sensitivity to issues relating to educational research. In the research dimension of religious education, there are three types of problems, namely: Problems foundation, structural problems and operational issues. In doing research in Islamic education someone should understand research problem, limiting and formulating the problem, how to solve the problem, other problem relating to the point of research, and research approach.

  13. Applying OR to problem situations within community organisations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tavella, Elena; Papadopoulos, Thanos

    2017-01-01

    This paper focuses on how the use of Community OR (COR), specifically Systems Thinking (ST) and the Viable System Model (VSM) can help in addressing complex and uncertain problem situations within community organisations, in particular Alternative Food Networks (AFNs). Literature has highlighted...... within a member-driven food cooperative in Copenhagen, Denmark, and the changes in decision making and the organisational structure of the cooperative. We illustrate the application of the VSM and in particular the methodology for organisational self-transformation within ‘localist green communitarianism......’ and ‘nonprofit management’ to tackle issues, enhance democratic and participative decision making, and changes in the organisational structure that foster coordination and cohesion. The implications for COR and Soft OR, limitations and future research directions are also provided....

  14. A simulated annealing approach for redesigning a warehouse network problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khairuddin, Rozieana; Marlizawati Zainuddin, Zaitul; Jiun, Gan Jia

    2017-09-01

    Now a day, several companies consider downsizing their distribution networks in ways that involve consolidation or phase-out of some of their current warehousing facilities due to the increasing competition, mounting cost pressure and taking advantage on the economies of scale. Consequently, the changes on economic situation after a certain period of time require an adjustment on the network model in order to get the optimal cost under the current economic conditions. This paper aimed to develop a mixed-integer linear programming model for a two-echelon warehouse network redesign problem with capacitated plant and uncapacitated warehouses. The main contribution of this study is considering capacity constraint for existing warehouses. A Simulated Annealing algorithm is proposed to tackle with the proposed model. The numerical solution showed the model and method of solution proposed was practical.

  15. Diversity Controlling Genetic Algorithm for Order Acceptance and Scheduling Problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng Chen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Selection and scheduling are an important topic in production systems. To tackle the order acceptance and scheduling problem on a single machine with release dates, tardiness penalty, and sequence-dependent setup times, in this paper a diversity controlling genetic algorithm (DCGA is proposed, in which a diversified population is maintained during the whole search process through survival selection considering both the fitness and the diversity of individuals. To measure the similarity between individuals, a modified Hamming distance without considering the unaccepted orders in the chromosome is adopted. The proposed DCGA was validated on 1500 benchmark instances with up to 100 orders. Compared with the state-of-the-art algorithms, the experimental results show that DCGA improves the solution quality obtained significantly, in terms of the deviation from upper bound.

  16. Nonlinear programming for classification problems in machine learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Astorino, Annabella; Fuduli, Antonio; Gaudioso, Manlio

    2016-10-01

    We survey some nonlinear models for classification problems arising in machine learning. In the last years this field has become more and more relevant due to a lot of practical applications, such as text and web classification, object recognition in machine vision, gene expression profile analysis, DNA and protein analysis, medical diagnosis, customer profiling etc. Classification deals with separation of sets by means of appropriate separation surfaces, which is generally obtained by solving a numerical optimization model. While linear separability is the basis of the most popular approach to classification, the Support Vector Machine (SVM), in the recent years using nonlinear separating surfaces has received some attention. The objective of this work is to recall some of such proposals, mainly in terms of the numerical optimization models. In particular we tackle the polyhedral, ellipsoidal, spherical and conical separation approaches and, for some of them, we also consider the semisupervised versions.

  17. New York City's healthcare transportation during a disaster: a preparedness framework for a wicked problem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sternberg, Ernest; Lee, George C

    2009-01-01

    During a disaster, victims with varied morbidities are located at incident sites, while healthcare facilities with varied healthcare resources are distributed elsewhere. Transportation serves an essential equilibrating role: it helps balance the patients' need for care with the supply of care. Studying the special case of New York City, this article sets out the healthcare transportation components as: (1) incident morbidity; (2) transportation assets; and (3) healthcare capacity. The relationship between these three components raises an assignment problem: the management of healthcare transportation within a dynamic and partly unpredictable incident-transportation-healthcare nexus, under urban disruption. While the routine dispatch problem can be tackled through better geographic allocation software and technical algorithms, the disaster assignment problem must be confronted through real-time, mutual adjustment between institutions. This article outlines institutional alternatives for managing the assignment problem and calls for further research on the merits of alternative institutional models.

  18. Ecological literacy and beyond: Problem-based learning for future professionals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewinsohn, Thomas M; Attayde, José Luiz; Fonseca, Carlos Roberto; Ganade, Gislene; Jorge, Leonardo Ré; Kollmann, Johannes; Overbeck, Gerhard E; Prado, Paulo Inácio; Pillar, Valério D; Popp, Daniela; da Rocha, Pedro L B; Silva, Wesley Rodrigues; Spiekermann, Annette; Weisser, Wolfgang W

    2015-03-01

    Ecological science contributes to solving a broad range of environmental problems. However, lack of ecological literacy in practice often limits application of this knowledge. In this paper, we highlight a critical but often overlooked demand on ecological literacy: to enable professionals of various careers to apply scientific knowledge when faced with environmental problems. Current university courses on ecology often fail to persuade students that ecological science provides important tools for environmental problem solving. We propose problem-based learning to improve the understanding of ecological science and its usefulness for real-world environmental issues that professionals in careers as diverse as engineering, public health, architecture, social sciences, or management will address. Courses should set clear learning objectives for cognitive skills they expect students to acquire. Thus, professionals in different fields will be enabled to improve environmental decision-making processes and to participate effectively in multidisciplinary work groups charged with tackling environmental issues.

  19. Genetic Algorithm for Traveling Salesman Problem with Modified Cycle Crossover Operator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abid Hussain

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Genetic algorithms are evolutionary techniques used for optimization purposes according to survival of the fittest idea. These methods do not ensure optimal solutions; however, they give good approximation usually in time. The genetic algorithms are useful for NP-hard problems, especially the traveling salesman problem. The genetic algorithm depends on selection criteria, crossover, and mutation operators. To tackle the traveling salesman problem using genetic algorithms, there are various representations such as binary, path, adjacency, ordinal, and matrix representations. In this article, we propose a new crossover operator for traveling salesman problem to minimize the total distance. This approach has been linked with path representation, which is the most natural way to represent a legal tour. Computational results are also reported with some traditional path representation methods like partially mapped and order crossovers along with new cycle crossover operator for some benchmark TSPLIB instances and found improvements.

  20. The Markov moment problem and extremal problems

    CERN Document Server

    Kreĭn, M G; Louvish, D

    1977-01-01

    In this book, an extensive circle of questions originating in the classical work of P. L. Chebyshev and A. A. Markov is considered from the more modern point of view. It is shown how results and methods of the generalized moment problem are interlaced with various questions of the geometry of convex bodies, algebra, and function theory. From this standpoint, the structure of convex and conical hulls of curves is studied in detail and isoperimetric inequalities for convex hulls are established; a theory of orthogonal and quasiorthogonal polynomials is constructed; problems on limiting values of integrals and on least deviating functions (in various metrics) are generalized and solved; problems in approximation theory and interpolation and extrapolation in various function classes (analytic, absolutely monotone, almost periodic, etc.) are solved, as well as certain problems in optimal control of linear objects.

  1. Tackling gender inequalities and intimate partner violence in the response to HIV: moving towards effective interventions in Southern and Eastern Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbs, Andrew

    2016-07-01

    Ending intimate partner violence (IPV) and reducing gender inequalities are recognised as critical to "'ending AIDS" by 2030. Amongst women, experiencing IPV has been shown to increase HIV acquisition, reduce women's ability to use HIV prevention strategies and reduce adherence to antiretroviral therapy (ART). In Southern and Eastern Africa there has recently been a significant push to strengthen programming around this through broad funding and programming streams. However, while gender inequality underpins IPV and HIV acquisition, in different contexts a variety of other factors intersect to shape this vulnerability. Using reflections focused on young women living in urban informal settlements and the Stepping Stones and Creating Futures intervention, this paper illustrates the need to understand the specific drivers of HIV and IPV in any given context and the need for interventions to prevent this. Any intervention needs to include three key components: 1) resonate with the lived realities of women they target; 2) tackle multiple factors shaping women's vulnerability to IPV and HIV simultaneously; and 3) consider how best to work with men and boys to achieve improved outcomes for women. Such an approach, it is argued, resonating with the "slow research" movement, will yield better outcomes for interventions, but will also require a fundamental rethinking of how interventions to prevent IPV and HIV amongst women are conceptualised, with a greater emphasis on understanding the ways in which gender resonates in each context and how interventions can operate.

  2. Social capital and health: measuring and understanding social capital at a local level could help to tackle health inequalities more effectively.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilkington, Paul

    2002-09-01

    This paper examines whether an understanding of the concept of social capital and its local measurement can help to tackle inequalities in health within and across communities. The paper concludes that the concept of social capital offers a valuable opportunity to help public health professionals understand how to approach inequalities in health with a greater awareness of the social processes affecting the health of communities. The measurement of social capital has been problematic. However, new guidance from the Health Development Agency (HDA) provides a useful tool for developing social capital research. A greater understanding of whether, and how social capital relates to health will help to improve strategies to reduce health inequalities at the community level. Public health professionals contributing to community development strategies such as Neighbourhood Renewal Projects, Community Safety Partnerships, Health Action Zones and Health Improvement Programmes (HImPs) should encourage thought to be given about the role that an understanding of social capital could play in making these strategies more effective. Using the HDA measurement tool locally could be one way of doing this.

  3. 'McDonalds and KFC, it's never going to happen': the challenges of working with food outlets to tackle the obesogenic environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanratty, Barbara; Milton, Beth; Ashton, Matthew; Whitehead, Margaret

    2012-12-01

    Food outlets may make an important contribution to an obesogenic environment. This study investigated barriers and facilitators to public health work with food outlets in disadvantaged areas. In-depth qualitative interviews with 36 directors, managers and public health service delivery staff in a coterminous primary care trust and local authority in northwest England. Data were analysed using the constant comparative method. Three interventions were available to engage with businesses; awards for premises that welcomed breastfeeding mothers or offered healthy menu options and local authority planning powers. Sensitivity to the potential conflict between activities that generate profit and those that promote health, led to compromises, such as awards for cafés that offer only one healthy option on an otherwise unhealthy menu. An absence of existing relationships with businesses and limited time were powerful disincentives to action, leading to greater engagement with public rather than private sector organizations. Hiring staff with commercial experience and incentives for businesses were identified as useful strategies, but seldom used. Encouraging food outlets to contribute to tackling the obesogenic environment is a major challenge for local public health teams that requires supportive national policies. Commitment to engage with the local public health service should be part of any national voluntary agreements with industry.

  4. Tackling the climate targets set by the Paris Agreement (COP 21: Green leadership empowers public hospitals to overcome obstacles and challenges in a resource-constrained environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E Weimann

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The healthcare sector itself contributes to climate change, the creation of hazardous waste, use of toxic metals such as mercury, and water and air pollution. To mitigate the effect of healthcare provision on the deteriorating environment and avoid creating further challenges for already burdened health systems, Global Green Hospitals was formed as a global network. Groote Schuur Hospital (GSH, as the leading academic hospital in Africa, joined the network in 2014. Since then, several projects have been initiated to reduce the amount of general waste, energy consumption and food waste, and create an environmentally friendlier and more sustainable hospital in a resource-constrained public healthcare setting. We outline the various efforts made to reduce the carbon footprint of GSH and reduce waste and hazardous substances such as mercury and polystyrene, and elaborate how obstacles and resistance to change were overcome. The hospital was able to halve the amount of coal and water used, increase recycling by 50% over 6 months, replace polystyrene cups and packaging with Forest Stewardship Council recyclable paper-based products, reduce the effect of food wastage by making use of local farmers, and implement measures to reduce the amount of expired pharmaceutical drugs. To improve commitment from all involved roleplayers, political leadership, supportive government policies and financial funding is mandatory, or public hospitals will be unable to tackle the exponentially increasing costs related to climate change and its effects on healthcare.

  5. Review shows that Icelandic society is taking firmer steps to tackle the diverse forms of child abuse and neglect that its children are exposed to.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunnlaugsson, Geir; Einarsdóttir, Jónína

    2018-04-04

    This review examined and summarised the research published on child abuse in Iceland, which was mainly in the country's native language, to make the findings more accessible to English speakers. It specifically focused on child rearing and the physical, emotional and sexual abuse, neglect and intrafamilial conflicts suffered by children at the hands of their parents and other carers. The review drew on published research, books and reports and compared the findings with Nordic research and global estimates of child abuse. Qualitative and quantitative research revealed that the prevalence of different forms of child abuse, child neglect and intra-familial conflicts in Iceland was similar to, or higher than, global and Nordic estimates. Younger respondents reported less physical abuse than older respondents, but higher levels of emotional abuse. Legislation, greater awareness, public debates and research on child abuse in Iceland have contributed to the growing recognition of the negative consequences of child abuse and strengthened support for prevention strategies. Icelandic children have reportedly experienced diverse forms of child abuse and neglect from their parents and other carers. Diverse initiatives have been put in place that underline the urgent need to tackle such behaviour. ©2018 The Authors. Acta Paediatrica published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Foundation Acta Paediatrica.

  6. Tackling the climate targets set by the Paris Agreement (COP 21): Green leadership empowers public hospitals to overcome obstacles and challenges in a resource-constrained environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weimann, E; Patel, B

    2016-12-21

    The healthcare sector itself contributes to climate change, the creation of hazardous waste, use of toxic metals such as mercury, and water and air pollution. To mitigate the effect of healthcare provision on the deteriorating environment and avoid creating further challenges for already burdened health systems, Global Green Hospitals was formed as a global network. Groote Schuur Hospital (GSH), as the leading academic hospital in Africa, joined the network in 2014. Since then, several projects have been initiated to reduce the amount of general waste, energy consumption and food waste, and create an environmentally friendlier and more sustainable hospital in a resource-constrained public healthcare setting. We outline the various efforts made to reduce the carbon footprint of GSH and reduce waste and hazardous substances such as mercury and polystyrene, and elaborate how obstacles and resistance to change were overcome. The hospital was able to halve the amount of coal and water used, increase recycling by 50% over 6 months, replace polystyrene cups and packaging with Forest Stewardship Council recyclable paper-based products, reduce the effect of food wastage by making use of local farmers, and implement measures to reduce the amount of expired pharmaceutical drugs. To improve commitment from all involved roleplayers, political leadership, supportive government policies and financial funding is mandatory, or public hospitals will be unable to tackle the exponentially increasing costs related to climate change and its effects on healthcare.

  7. The Catholic response to the population problem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vicente, A A

    1977-03-01

    A survey of efforts led or sponsored by the Catholic church in response to the population problem in the Philippines. These efforts stem from the Church's belief that population growth is related to the overall picture of development, and that priority must go to social and economic justice. The Catholic Church of the Philippines (to which 85% of the population belong) views it as a problem basically involving care of people, and directs its efforts primarily at internal human sexual control rather than external contraceptive control. Family Life Education began as a program in the church in the 1960s. Efforts by priests, nuns, and lay leaders in Mindanao eventually resulted in counseling in husband-wife relations, marriage commitment, human sexuality, parent-child relations, and responsible parenthood, and to the creation of college courses to prepare teachers in tackling sex education. A program offering natural family planning was also started, initially for employees of a packing firm and later expanding throughout the province. In 1975, the program was launched in Manila, and a year later had 3 family life centers. The ovulation (or Billings) method is offered -- an advantage to low income people because it does not require purchase of a thermometer. Success of this method requires a sense of responsibility on the part of both husband and wife. Widespread international interest in the ovulation method has led to formation of an International Federation for Family Life Promotion, to which the Philippine Federation for Natural Family Planning has applied for membership. The IFFLP is working with the WHO Human Reproduction Unit on 2 projects, part of one of them (a field trial for evaluation) being conducted in Iligan City, Iloilo City, and Manila. Among the concerns of the IFFLP-WHO collaboration is developing a standardized Natural Family Planning curriculum or educational package.

  8. Blended Learning and Problem Based Learning in a multinational and multidisciplinary setting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Jens Myrup; Lazaro, José; Mank, Lea

    2017-01-01

    , and a project part where the students work in groups across nationalities and disciplines on real-world Projects posed by companies. This paper presents the evaluations carried out by all participating students, and discusses the experiences with the different learning components including different features...... of the Learning Management System Moodle, which was used for the modules. Moreover, it introduces the concept of just-in-time resources for Problem Based Learning, where we tackle the challenge of providing the students with methods and tools to be used in the projects just when they need it....

  9. A Novel Linear Programming Formulation of Maximum Lifetime Routing Problem in Wireless Sensor Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cetin, Bilge Kartal; Prasad, Neeli R.; Prasad, Ramjee

    2011-01-01

    In wireless sensor networks, one of the key challenge is to achieve minimum energy consumption in order to maximize network lifetime. In fact, lifetime depends on many parameters: the topology of the sensor network, the data aggregation regime in the network, the channel access schemes, the routing...... protocols, and the energy model for transmission. In this paper, we tackle the routing challenge for maximum lifetime of the sensor network. We introduce a novel linear programming approach to the maximum lifetime routing problem. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first mathematical programming...

  10. Differential equations problem solver

    CERN Document Server

    Arterburn, David R

    2012-01-01

    REA's Problem Solvers is a series of useful, practical, and informative study guides. Each title in the series is complete step-by-step solution guide. The Differential Equations Problem Solver enables students to solve difficult problems by showing them step-by-step solutions to Differential Equations problems. The Problem Solvers cover material ranging from the elementary to the advanced and make excellent review books and textbook companions. They're perfect for undergraduate and graduate studies.The Differential Equations Problem Solver is the perfect resource for any class, any exam, and

  11. Using Lie Symmetry Analysis to Solve a Problem That Models Mass Transfer from a Horizontal Flat Plate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Sinkala

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We use Lie symmetry analysis to solve a boundary value problem that arises in chemical engineering, namely, mass transfer during the contact of a solid slab with an overhead flowing fluid. This problem was earlier tackled using Adomian decomposition method (Fatoorehchi and Abolghasemi 2011, leading to the Adomian series form of solution. It turns out that the application of Lie group analysis yields an elegant form of the solution. After introducing the governing mathematical model and some preliminaries of Lie symmetry analysis, we compute the Lie point symmetries admitted by the governing equation and use these to construct the desired solution as an invariant solution.

  12. An Introduction to Optimal Control Problems in Life Sciences and Economics From Mathematical Models to Numerical Simulation with MATLAB®

    CERN Document Server

    Anita, Sebastian; Capasso, Vincenzo

    2011-01-01

    Combining control theory and modeling, this textbook introduces and builds on methods for simulating and tackling concrete problems in a variety of applied sciences. Emphasizing "learning by doing," the authors focus on examples and applications to real-world problems. An elementary presentation of advanced concepts, proofs to introduce new ideas, and carefully presented MATLAB(R) programs help foster an understanding of the basics, but also lead the way to new, independent research. With minimal prerequisites and exercises in each chapter, this work serves as an excellent textbook a

  13. The sign problem in real-time path integral simulations: Using the cumulant action to implement multilevel blocking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mak, C. H.

    2009-01-01

    A practical method to tackle the sign problem in real-time path integral simulations is proposed based on the multilevel blocking idea. The formulation is made possible by using a cumulant expansion of the action, which in addition to addressing the sign problem, provides an unbiased estimator for the action from a statistically noisy sample of real-time paths. The cumulant formulation also allows the analytical gradients of the action to be computed with little extra computational effort, and it can easily be implemented in a massively parallel environment.

  14. The Vicious Circle of Illiteracy, Over Population and Poverty--Functional Literacy and Family Life Planning Education Approach to Tackle It

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khajapeer, M.

    1976-01-01

    The interrelated nature of the problems of illiteracy, overpopulation, and poverty in developing countries is explored and an integrated approach to solving these problems in India, the Functional Literacy and Family Life Planning Education program, is described. (MS)

  15. Towards overcoming the Monte Carlo sign problem with tensor networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bañuls Mari Carmen

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The study of lattice gauge theories with Monte Carlo simulations is hindered by the infamous sign problem that appears under certain circumstances, in particular at non-zero chemical potential. So far, there is no universal method to overcome this problem. However, recent years brought a new class of non-perturbative Hamiltonian techniques named tensor networks, where the sign problem is absent. In previous work, we have demonstrated that this approach, in particular matrix product states in 1+1 dimensions, can be used to perform precise calculations in a lattice gauge theory, the massless and massive Schwinger model. We have computed the mass spectrum of this theory, its thermal properties and real-time dynamics. In this work, we review these results and we extend our calculations to the case of two flavours and non-zero chemical potential. We are able to reliably reproduce known analytical results for this model, thus demonstrating that tensor networks can tackle the sign problem of a lattice gauge theory at finite density.

  16. The core of the global warming problem: energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu, E.

    2005-01-01

    From the thermodynamic point of view, the global warming problem is an 'energy balance' problem. The heat (energy) accumulation in the earth and its atmosphere is the cause of global warming. This accumulation is mainly due to the imbalance of (solar) energy reaching and the energy leaving the earth, caused by 'greenhouse effect' in which the CO 2 and other greenhouse gases play a critical role; so that balance of the energy entering and leaving the earth should be the key to solve the problem. Currently in the battle of tackling the global warming, we mainly focus on the development of CO 2 -related measures, i.e., emission reduction, CO 2 sequestration, and CO 2 recycle technologies. It is right in technical aspect, because they are attempting to thin the CO 2 'blanket' around the earth. However, 'Energy' that is the core of the problem has been overlooked, at least in management/policy aspect. This paper is proposing an 'Energy Credit' i.e., the energy measure concept as an alternative to the 'CO 2 credit' that is currently in place in the proposed emission trading scheme. The proposed energy credit concept has the advantages such as covering broad activities related to the global warming and not just direct emissions. Three examples are given in the paper to demonstrate the concept of the energy measure and its advantages over the CO 2 credit concept. (Author)

  17. Side Effects: Sleep Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sleep problems are a common side effect during cancer treatment. Learn how a polysomnogram can assess sleep problems. Learn about the benefits of managing sleep disorders in men and women with cancer.

  18. The internal percolation problem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bezsudnov, I.V.; Snarskii, A.A.

    2010-01-01

    The internal percolation problem (IP) as a new type of the percolation problem is introduced and investigated. In spite of the usual (or external) percolation problem (EP) when the percolation current flows from the top to the bottom of the system, in IP case the voltage is applied through bars which are present in the hole located within the system. The EP problem has two major parameters: M-size of the system and a 0 -size of inclusions, bond size, etc. The IP problem holds one parameter more: size of the hole L. Numerical simulation shows that the critical indexes of conductance for the IP problem are very close to those in the EP problem. On the contrary, the indexes of the relative spectral noise density of 1/f noise and higher moments differ from those in the EP problem. The basics of these facts is discussed.

  19. Challenging problems in algebra

    CERN Document Server

    Posamentier, Alfred S

    1996-01-01

    Over 300 unusual problems, ranging from easy to difficult, involving equations and inequalities, Diophantine equations, number theory, quadratic equations, logarithms, more. Detailed solutions, as well as brief answers, for all problems are provided.

  20. Study the Problem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choate, Joyce S.

    1990-01-01

    The initial step of a strategic process for solving mathematical problems, "studying the question," is discussed. A lesson plan for teaching students to identify and revise arithmetic problems is presented, involving directed instruction and supervised practice. (JDD)

  1. Brittany. Brest tackles marine energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Du Guerny, Stanislas

    2015-01-01

    This article illustrates how the Brittany region finances the extension and diversification of the Brest harbour so that it will be able get new contracts and to enable the setting up of plants related to marine energies. Some local actors are already committed in this sector, notably DCNS with the first submerged marine current power installation. Moreover, a contract has been signed between the region and DCNS to develop floating offshore wind energy. Some important local actors are indicated (an existing and a projected techno-pole, Alcatel-Lucent, a research centre). They are located in Rennes, Saint-Malo, Lannion, Lorient or Fougeres

  2. CERN innovators tackle humanitarian needs

    CERN Multimedia

    Katarina Anthony

    2015-01-01

    At last year's THE Port hackathon, the Better Body Bags team emerged with a new approach to body-bag technology that catered to the needs of humanitarian organisations. What started as a weekend hack has developed into a full-scale R& D project, as the team joins forces with the International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC) to put their body bags into production.   Ricardo Páramo Peláez, the team's product designer, presented the first prototype at THE Port Hackathon 2014. The "body" is his fellow team mate, João Cordovil Bárcia. A typical body bag is essentially a long plastic bag with handles: it breaks, leaks, smells and isn't cheap. “Little thought had gone into using new technology to improve the bags,” says Tim Head, an LHCb physicist who is leading the Better Body Bags team. “Simple improvements can keep bodies in better condition, thus improving the identification ...

  3. Tackling the complexity in speech

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    section includes four carefully selected chapters. They deal with facets of speech production, speech acoustics, and/or speech perception or recognition, place them in an integrated phonetic-phonological perspective, and relate them in more or less explicit ways to aspects of speech technology. Therefore......, we hope that this volume can help speech scientists with traditional training in phonetics and phonology to keep up with the latest developments in speech technology. In the opposite direction, speech researchers starting from a technological perspective will hopefully get inspired by reading about...... the questions, phenomena, and communicative functions that are currently addressed in phonetics and phonology. Either way, the future of speech research lies in international, interdisciplinary collaborations, and our volume is meant to reflect and facilitate such collaborations...

  4. Tackling Misconceptions about Linear Associations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huey, Maryann E.; Baker, Deidra L.

    2015-01-01

    Many teachers of required secondary school mathematics classes are introducing statistics and probability topics traditionally relegated to college or AP Statistics courses. As a result, they need guidance in preparing lesson plans and orchestrating effective classroom discussions. In this article, the authors will describe the students' learning…

  5. Virgin's Knight tackles climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banks, Michael

    2008-11-01

    "There is no greater or more immediate challenge than that posed by climate change," said Sir Richard Branson, chairman of the Virgin group, via video-link at the 59th International Astronautical Congress (IAC) held in Glasgow in the UK at the end of September. That grand statement may seem like a lot of hot air for the entrepreneur best known for his attempt to circumnavigate the globe by balloon. But Branson went on to reveal that Virgin Galactic, which aims to fly passengers 100 km into space for 200 000 per trip, will also provide room on its craft for a series of scientific experiments to study the Earth's atmosphere.

  6. Cosmological constant problem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weinberg, S.

    1989-01-01

    Cosmological constant problem is discussed. History of the problem is briefly considered. Five different approaches to solution of the problem are described: supersymmetry, supergravity, superstring; anthropic approach; mechamism of lagrangian alignment; modification of gravitation theory and quantum cosmology. It is noted that approach, based on quantum cosmology is the most promising one

  7. The Complete Problem Solver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, John R.

    This book, designed for a college course on general problem-solving skills, focuses on skills that can be used by anyone in solving problems that occur in everyday life. Part I considers theory and practice: understanding problems, search, and protocol analysis. Part II discusses memory and knowledge acquisition: the structure of human memory,…

  8. The rational complementarity problem

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heemels, W.P.M.H.; Schumacher, J.M.; Weiland, S.

    1999-01-01

    An extension of the linear complementarity problem (LCP) of mathematical programming is the so-called rational complementarity problem (RCP). This problem occurs if complementarity conditions are imposed on input and output variables of linear dynamical input/state/output systems. The resulting

  9. The triangle scheduling problem

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dürr, Christoph; Hanzálek, Zdeněk; Konrad, Christian; Seddik, Yasmina; Sitters, R.A.; Vásquez, Óscar C.; Woeginger, Gerhard

    2017-01-01

    This paper introduces a novel scheduling problem, where jobs occupy a triangular shape on the time line. This problem is motivated by scheduling jobs with different criticality levels. A measure is introduced, namely the binary tree ratio. It is shown that the Greedy algorithm solves the problem to

  10. Pollution problems plague Poland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bajsarowicz, J.F.

    1989-01-01

    Poland's environmental problems are said to stem from investments in heavy industries that require enormous quantities of power and from the exploitation of two key natural resources: coal and sulfur. Air and water pollution problems and related public health problems are discussed

  11. Classifying IS Project Problems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munk-Madsen, Andreas

    2006-01-01

    The literature contains many lists of IS project problems, often in the form of risk factors. The problems sometimes appear unordered and overlapping, which reduces their usefulness to practitioners as well as theoreticians. This paper proposes a list of criteria for formulating project problems...

  12. Inverse problems of geophysics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yanovskaya, T.B.

    2003-07-01

    This report gives an overview and the mathematical formulation of geophysical inverse problems. General principles of statistical estimation are explained. The maximum likelihood and least square fit methods, the Backus-Gilbert method and general approaches for solving inverse problems are discussed. General formulations of linearized inverse problems, singular value decomposition and properties of pseudo-inverse solutions are given

  13. Countering the demand for, and supply of, illicit tobacco: an assessment of the 'North of England Tackling Illicit Tobacco for Better Health' Programme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNeill, Ann; Iringe-Koko, Belinda; Bains, Manpreet; Bauld, Linda; Siggens, Geoffrey; Russell, Andrew

    2014-05-01

    Illicit tobacco (IT) undermines the effectiveness of tobacco control strategies. We assessed the implementation and impact of a new programme designed to reduce demand for, as well as supply of, IT, in the north of England, where IT was prevalent. 'Mixed methods' research was undertaken. Qualitative methods included stakeholder interviews (at outset and 1 year later) and ethnographic research. Indicators reflecting those supply and demand issues for which data were available were identified and monitored, including relevant items on two cross-sectional surveys carried out in 2009 and 2011 with over 4000 individuals from which a social marketing campaign was also developed. IT reports to two existing hotlines, promoted through the programme, were assessed. Initially, concerns abounded about the different philosophies and ways of working of local and national enforcement and health agencies, but these were much reduced at follow-up. A protocol was developed which greatly facilitated the flow of intelligence about IT supply. A social marketing campaign was developed highlighting two messages: IT makes it easier for children to start smoking and brings crime into the community, thereby avoiding misleading messages about relative harms of illicit and licit tobacco. Public and stakeholder awareness of IT increased as did calls to both hotlines. A partnership of agencies, with competing values, was established to tackle IT, a complex public health issue and, inter alia, implemented a social marketing campaign using novel messages. This improved the flow of intelligence about the supply of IT and increased awareness of IT. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  14. An evaluation of the 'Yaka Ŋarali'' Tackling Indigenous Smoking program in East Arnhem Land: Yolŋu people and their connection to ŋarali'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tane, Moana P; Hefler, Marita; Thomas, David P

    2018-04-01

    Smoking prevalence estimated between 65% and 84% has been reported among the Yolŋu peoples of East Arnhem Land, Northern Territory. We report on findings of an evaluation of the Yaka Ŋarali' Tackling Indigenous Smoking program in East Arnhem Land. Qualitative interviews with Yolŋu (N = 23) and non-Yolŋu (N = 7) informants were conducted in seven communities between June 2014 and September 2015, with the support of Cultural Mentors, in homeland communities throughout East Arnhem Land. The data was coded using NVivo software, analysed line-by-line and categorised by the researcher (MT) under three a priori categories established as evaluation parameters. In addition, the meanings of ŋarali' and Yolŋu cultural obligations to ŋarali' were analysed using an inductive process. Data were coded under three a priori themes: Yolŋu trying to quit smoking (interest in quitting, access to support); the Yaka Ŋarali program (efficacy and recognition); Yolŋu workforce (roles and responsibilities). Yolŋu informants, including Elders and leaders, both smokers and non-smokers uniformly acknowledged the deep cultural and traditional connection with ŋarali' attributing this relationship with its introduction by the Macassans and its subsequent adoption into ceremony. Given the strong cultural and traditional connection to ŋarali', care must be taken to ensure tobacco control measures maintain congruence with local values and expectations. SO WHAT?: Tailored, localised programs, developed in consultation with communities, Elders and leaders are needed to respect and accommodate the tight connection that the Yolŋu have with ŋarali', maintained over hundreds of years. © 2017 Australian Health Promotion Association.

  15. An efficient heuristic method for dynamic portfolio selection problem under transaction costs and uncertain conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Najafi, Amir Abbas; Pourahmadi, Zahra

    2016-04-01

    Selecting the optimal combination of assets in a portfolio is one of the most important decisions in investment management. As investment is a long term concept, looking into a portfolio optimization problem just in a single period may cause loss of some opportunities that could be exploited in a long term view. Hence, it is tried to extend the problem from single to multi-period model. We include trading costs and uncertain conditions to this model which made it more realistic and complex. Hence, we propose an efficient heuristic method to tackle this problem. The efficiency of the method is examined and compared with the results of the rolling single-period optimization and the buy and hold method which shows the superiority of the proposed method.

  16. Climate is the real challenge, not shortage. New problems arising for global energy supply

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pestel, E.

    1988-11-01

    The author of the article is Professor E. Pestel who, as an executive member of the Club of Rome, belongs to the group of experts who first gave impetus to start thinking about the global problems of mankind. In his publications on the problems linked with CO/sub 2/ emission he explains the unavoidable dilemma created by the growing world population and the growing demand for energy on the one hand, and the resulting hazards to the global climate on the other. His analyses take away the soft cushion of hopeful make-believe still widespread in the Western World, and in his capacity as an expert and realist he decidedly calls for decisions and measures to tackle the problem.

  17. Exact and Heuristic Solutions to Minimize Total Waiting Time in the Blood Products Distribution Problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir Salehipour

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a novel application of operations research to support decision making in blood distribution management. The rapid and dynamic increasing demand, criticality of the product, storage, handling, and distribution requirements, and the different geographical locations of hospitals and medical centers have made blood distribution a complex and important problem. In this study, a real blood distribution problem containing 24 hospitals was tackled by the authors, and an exact approach was presented. The objective of the problem is to distribute blood and its products among hospitals and medical centers such that the total waiting time of those requiring the product is minimized. Following the exact solution, a hybrid heuristic algorithm is proposed. Computational experiments showed the optimal solutions could be obtained for medium size instances, while for larger instances the proposed hybrid heuristic is very competitive.

  18. A heuristic algorithm for a multi-product four-layer capacitated location-routing problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohsen Hamidi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to solve a complex multi-product four-layer capacitated location-routing problem (LRP in which two specific constraints are taken into account: 1 plants have limited production capacity, and 2 central depots have limited capacity for storing and transshipping products. The LRP represents a multi-product four-layer distribution network that consists of plants, central depots, regional depots, and customers. A heuristic algorithm is developed to solve the four-layer LRP. The heuristic uses GRASP (Greedy Randomized Adaptive Search Procedure and two probabilistic tabu search strategies of intensification and diversification to tackle the problem. Results show that the heuristic solves the problem effectively.

  19. History of global environmental problems. Chikyu kankyo mondai no rekishi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsui, S [Kyoto University, Kyoto (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    1994-04-15

    This paper takes general view of the history of global environmental problems. A UN human environment conference was held in Stockholm in 1972, at which the human environment declaration and an action plan were adopted. The most important among the results of the Stockholm Conference were the treaty on international transactions of wild animal and plant species feared of extinction in the 1970's, the international treaty on prevention of pollution caused by ocean vessels, and the treaty on prevention of ocean pollution caused by dumping of wastes and other materials. Also adopted in the 1970's include the action plan to prevent desertification, the action plan on the world population, and the world weather plan. The UN Nairobi Conference in 1982 has sounded the alarm on the delay in tackling with the facing problems and the progress of aggravation in the global environment. In 1987, the ozone layer protection protocol was adopted. The earth summit at Rio de Janeiro in 1992 adopted the Agenda 21, with which the participating nations, autonomous bodies, and civil organizations have prepared their own Agenda 21, and are now about to begin challenging the global environmental problems. 7 refs., 4 tabs.

  20. The Strength of the Strongest Ties in Collaborative Problem Solving

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Montjoye, Yves-Alexandre; Stopczynski, Arkadiusz; Shmueli, Erez; Pentland, Alex; Lehmann, Sune

    2014-06-01

    Complex problem solving in science, engineering, and business has become a highly collaborative endeavor. Teams of scientists or engineers collaborate on projects using their social networks to gather new ideas and feedback. Here we bridge the literature on team performance and information networks by studying teams' problem solving abilities as a function of both their within-team networks and their members' extended networks. We show that, while an assigned team's performance is strongly correlated with its networks of expressive and instrumental ties, only the strongest ties in both networks have an effect on performance. Both networks of strong ties explain more of the variance than other factors, such as measured or self-evaluated technical competencies, or the personalities of the team members. In fact, the inclusion of the network of strong ties renders these factors non-significant in the statistical analysis. Our results have consequences for the organization of teams of scientists, engineers, and other knowledge workers tackling today's most complex problems.

  1. Automated bond order assignment as an optimization problem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dehof, Anna Katharina; Rurainski, Alexander; Bui, Quang Bao Anh; Böcker, Sebastian; Lenhof, Hans-Peter; Hildebrandt, Andreas

    2011-03-01

    Numerous applications in Computational Biology process molecular structures and hence strongly rely not only on correct atomic coordinates but also on correct bond order information. For proteins and nucleic acids, bond orders can be easily deduced but this does not hold for other types of molecules like ligands. For ligands, bond order information is not always provided in molecular databases and thus a variety of approaches tackling this problem have been developed. In this work, we extend an ansatz proposed by Wang et al. that assigns connectivity-based penalty scores and tries to heuristically approximate its optimum. In this work, we present three efficient and exact solvers for the problem replacing the heuristic approximation scheme of the original approach: an A*, an ILP and an fixed-parameter approach (FPT) approach. We implemented and evaluated the original implementation, our A*, ILP and FPT formulation on the MMFF94 validation suite and the KEGG Drug database. We show the benefit of computing exact solutions of the penalty minimization problem and the additional gain when computing all optimal (or even suboptimal) solutions. We close with a detailed comparison of our methods. The A* and ILP solution are integrated into the open-source C++ LGPL library BALL and the molecular visualization and modelling tool BALLView and can be downloaded from our homepage www.ball-project.org. The FPT implementation can be downloaded from http://bio.informatik.uni-jena.de/software/.

  2. Les accidents de la route : un problème mondial qui peut être abordé avec succès ! = Road accidents : worldwide a problem that can be tackled successfully !

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wegman, F.C.M. Holló, P. Lundebeye, S. Smith, G. & Werring, L.

    1996-01-01

    The present road safety situation is reviewed for Europe, Australia, Canada, Japan, and the developing countries. Every year, there are about 500,000 road accident fatalities worldwide. Although increasing traffic would lead to an increase in fatalities and injuries, in the absence of effective road

  3. Semidefinite linear complementarity problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eckhardt, U.

    1978-04-01

    Semidefinite linear complementarity problems arise by discretization of variational inequalities describing e.g. elastic contact problems, free boundary value problems etc. In the present paper linear complementarity problems are introduced and the theory as well as the numerical treatment of them are described. In the special case of semidefinite linear complementarity problems a numerical method is presented which combines the advantages of elimination and iteration methods without suffering from their drawbacks. This new method has very attractive properties since it has a high degree of invariance with respect to the representation of the set of all feasible solutions of a linear complementarity problem by linear inequalities. By means of some practical applications the properties of the new method are demonstrated. (orig.) [de

  4. Matrix interdiction problem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pan, Feng [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Kasiviswanathan, Shiva [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2010-01-01

    In the matrix interdiction problem, a real-valued matrix and an integer k is given. The objective is to remove k columns such that the sum over all rows of the maximum entry in each row is minimized. This combinatorial problem is closely related to bipartite network interdiction problem which can be applied to prioritize the border checkpoints in order to minimize the probability that an adversary can successfully cross the border. After introducing the matrix interdiction problem, we will prove the problem is NP-hard, and even NP-hard to approximate with an additive n{gamma} factor for a fixed constant {gamma}. We also present an algorithm for this problem that achieves a factor of (n-k) mUltiplicative approximation ratio.

  5. Creativity for Problem Solvers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vidal, Rene Victor Valqui

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents some modern and interdisciplinary concepts about creativity and creative processes specially related to problem solving. Central publications related to the theme are briefly reviewed. Creative tools and approaches suitable to support problem solving are also presented. Finally......, the paper outlines the author’s experiences using creative tools and approaches to: Facilitation of problem solving processes, strategy development in organisations, design of optimisation systems for large scale and complex logistic systems, and creative design of software optimisation for complex non...

  6. Perturbed asymptotically linear problems

    OpenAIRE

    Bartolo, R.; Candela, A. M.; Salvatore, A.

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this paper is investigating the existence of solutions of some semilinear elliptic problems on open bounded domains when the nonlinearity is subcritical and asymptotically linear at infinity and there is a perturbation term which is just continuous. Also in the case when the problem has not a variational structure, suitable procedures and estimates allow us to prove that the number of distinct crtitical levels of the functional associated to the unperturbed problem is "stable" unde...

  7. The stochastic goodwill problem

    OpenAIRE

    Marinelli, Carlo

    2003-01-01

    Stochastic control problems related to optimal advertising under uncertainty are considered. In particular, we determine the optimal strategies for the problem of maximizing the utility of goodwill at launch time and minimizing the disutility of a stream of advertising costs that extends until the launch time for some classes of stochastic perturbations of the classical Nerlove-Arrow dynamics. We also consider some generalizations such as problems with constrained budget and with discretionar...

  8. The pear thrips problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruce L. Parker

    1991-01-01

    As entomologists, we sometimes like to think of an insect pest problem as simply a problem with an insect and its host. Our jobs would be much easier if that were the case, but of course, it is never that simple. There are many other factors besides the insect, and each one must be fully considered to understand the problem and develop effective management solutions....

  9. A numerical approach of thermal problems coupling fluid solid and radiation in complex geometries; Approche numerique de problemes thermiques couplant fluides, solides et rayonnement en geometries complexes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peniguel, C; Rupp, I

    1995-11-01

    In many industrial problems, heat transfer does play an important part. Quite often, radiation, convection and radiation are present simultaneously. This paper presents the numerical tool handling simultaneously these phenomena. Fluid is tackled by the finite element code N3S, radiation (restricted to a non participating medium) and conduction are handled with SYRTHES respectively by a radiosity method and a finite element method. The main originality of the product is that meshes used to solve each phenomenon are completely independent. This allows users to choose the most appropriate spatial discretization for each part or phenomenon. This flexibility requires of course robust and fast data exchange procedures (temperature, convective flux, radiative flux) between the independent grids. This operation is done automatically by the code SYRTHES. One simple problem illustrating the interest of this development is presented at the end of the paper. (author). 6 refs., 8 figs.

  10. THE PROBLEM OF SUPPLIER

    OpenAIRE

    Raffo Lecca, Eduardo

    2014-01-01

    This is a famous problem from the annals of literature in operations research. G. Dantzig in [1] refers to W.W. Jacobs with his paper "The Caterer Problem" Nav. Log Res. Quart. 1 1954; as well as Gaddum, Hoffman and Sokolowsky "On the Solution of the Caterer Problem" Naval Res Logist. Quart., Vol.1, No. 3, september, 1954, and William Prager "On the Caterer Problem" of Management Sci, Vol 3, No. 1 october 1956 and Management Sci, Vol 3, No. 2 january 1957. Subsequently both G. Hadley presents...

  11. The Problem of Evil

    OpenAIRE

    Araki,Naoki

    2018-01-01

    The Problem of Evil has been discussed as one of the major problems in monotheism. “Why does Almighty God allow evil to exist?” Various solutions to this problem have been proposed, including the Free Will Defence. But none of them is convincing. The Problem of Evil has an assumption, which is that God exists. One of the proofs of God’s existence is René Descartes’s Ontological Argument. But none of them is persuasive. Every logic has its own assumption, which needs to be verified. So this pr...

  12. Numerical problems in physics

    CERN Document Server

    Singh, Devraj

    2015-01-01

    Numerical Problems in Physics, Volume 1 is intended to serve the need of the students pursuing graduate and post graduate courses in universities with Physics and Materials Science as subject including those appearing in engineering, medical, and civil services entrance examinations. KEY FEATURES: * 29 chapters on Optics, Wave & Oscillations, Electromagnetic Field Theory, Solid State Physics & Modern Physics * 540 solved numerical problems of various universities and ompetitive examinations * 523 multiple choice questions for quick and clear understanding of subject matter * 567 unsolved numerical problems for grasping concepts of the various topic in Physics * 49 Figures for understanding problems and concept

  13. Simon on problem solving

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foss, Kirsten; Foss, Nicolai Juul

    2006-01-01

    as a general approach to problem solving. We apply these Simonian ideas to organisational issues, specifically new organisational forms. Specifically, Simonian ideas allow us to develop a morphology of new organisational forms and to point to some design problems that characterise these forms.......Two of Herbert Simon's best-known papers are 'The Architecture of Complexity' and 'The Structure of Ill-Structured Problems.' We discuss the neglected links between these two papers, highlighting the role of decomposition in the context of problems on which constraints have been imposed...

  14. On Euler's problem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Egorov, Yurii V

    2013-01-01

    We consider the classical problem on the tallest column which was posed by Euler in 1757. Bernoulli-Euler theory serves today as the basis for the design of high buildings. This problem is reduced to the problem of finding the potential for the Sturm-Liouville equation corresponding to the maximum of the first eigenvalue. The problem has been studied by many mathematicians but we give the first rigorous proof of the existence and uniqueness of the optimal column and we give new formulae which let us find it. Our method is based on a new approach consisting in the study of critical points of a related nonlinear functional. Bibliography: 6 titles.

  15. Shielding benchmark problems, (2)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, Shun-ichi; Sasamoto, Nobuo; Oka, Yoshiaki; Shin, Kazuo; Tada, Keiko.

    1980-02-01

    Shielding benchmark problems prepared by Working Group of Assessment of Shielding Experiments in the Research Committee on Shielding Design in the Atomic Energy Society of Japan were compiled by Shielding Laboratory in Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute. Fourteen shielding benchmark problems are presented newly in addition to twenty-one problems proposed already, for evaluating the calculational algorithm and accuracy of computer codes based on discrete ordinates method and Monte Carlo method and for evaluating the nuclear data used in codes. The present benchmark problems are principally for investigating the backscattering and the streaming of neutrons and gamma rays in two- and three-dimensional configurations. (author)

  16. Art as metontological problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radovanović Saša Ž.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The author explains the link between fundamental ontology and metontology in Heidegger's thought. In this context, he raises the question about art as a metontological problem. Then he goes to show that the problem of metontology stems from imanent transformation of fundamental ontology. In this sense, two aspects of the problem of existence assume relevance, namely, universality and radicalism. He draws the conclusion that metontology and art as its problem, as opposed to fundamental ontology, were not integrated into Heidegger's later thought.

  17. Combinatorial problems and exercises

    CERN Document Server

    Lovász, László

    2007-01-01

    The main purpose of this book is to provide help in learning existing techniques in combinatorics. The most effective way of learning such techniques is to solve exercises and problems. This book presents all the material in the form of problems and series of problems (apart from some general comments at the beginning of each chapter). In the second part, a hint is given for each exercise, which contains the main idea necessary for the solution, but allows the reader to practice the techniques by completing the proof. In the third part, a full solution is provided for each problem. This book w

  18. An outer approximation method for the road network design problem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asadi Bagloee, Saeed; Sarvi, Majid

    2018-01-01

    Best investment in the road infrastructure or the network design is perceived as a fundamental and benchmark problem in transportation. Given a set of candidate road projects with associated costs, finding the best subset with respect to a limited budget is known as a bilevel Discrete Network Design Problem (DNDP) of NP-hard computationally complexity. We engage with the complexity with a hybrid exact-heuristic methodology based on a two-stage relaxation as follows: (i) the bilevel feature is relaxed to a single-level problem by taking the network performance function of the upper level into the user equilibrium traffic assignment problem (UE-TAP) in the lower level as a constraint. It results in a mixed-integer nonlinear programming (MINLP) problem which is then solved using the Outer Approximation (OA) algorithm (ii) we further relax the multi-commodity UE-TAP to a single-commodity MILP problem, that is, the multiple OD pairs are aggregated to a single OD pair. This methodology has two main advantages: (i) the method is proven to be highly efficient to solve the DNDP for a large-sized network of Winnipeg, Canada. The results suggest that within a limited number of iterations (as termination criterion), global optimum solutions are quickly reached in most of the cases; otherwise, good solutions (close to global optimum solutions) are found in early iterations. Comparative analysis of the networks of Gao and Sioux-Falls shows that for such a non-exact method the global optimum solutions are found in fewer iterations than those found in some analytically exact algorithms in the literature. (ii) Integration of the objective function among the constraints provides a commensurate capability to tackle the multi-objective (or multi-criteria) DNDP as well.

  19. ITOUGH2 sample problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Finsterle, S.

    1997-11-01

    This report contains a collection of ITOUGH2 sample problems. It complements the ITOUGH2 User's Guide [Finsterle, 1997a], and the ITOUGH2 Command Reference [Finsterle, 1997b]. ITOUGH2 is a program for parameter estimation, sensitivity analysis, and uncertainty propagation analysis. It is based on the TOUGH2 simulator for non-isothermal multiphase flow in fractured and porous media [Preuss, 1987, 1991a]. The report ITOUGH2 User's Guide [Finsterle, 1997a] describes the inverse modeling framework and provides the theoretical background. The report ITOUGH2 Command Reference [Finsterle, 1997b] contains the syntax of all ITOUGH2 commands. This report describes a variety of sample problems solved by ITOUGH2. Table 1.1 contains a short description of the seven sample problems discussed in this report. The TOUGH2 equation-of-state (EOS) module that needs to be linked to ITOUGH2 is also indicated. Each sample problem focuses on a few selected issues shown in Table 1.2. ITOUGH2 input features and the usage of program options are described. Furthermore, interpretations of selected inverse modeling results are given. Problem 1 is a multipart tutorial, describing basic ITOUGH2 input files for the main ITOUGH2 application modes; no interpretation of results is given. Problem 2 focuses on non-uniqueness, residual analysis, and correlation structure. Problem 3 illustrates a variety of parameter and observation types, and describes parameter selection strategies. Problem 4 compares the performance of minimization algorithms and discusses model identification. Problem 5 explains how to set up a combined inversion of steady-state and transient data. Problem 6 provides a detailed residual and error analysis. Finally, Problem 7 illustrates how the estimation of model-related parameters may help compensate for errors in that model

  20. Managing Classroom Problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, James D.

    Schools need to meet unique problems through the development of special classroom management techniques. Factors which contribute to classroom problems include lack of supervision at home, broken homes, economic deprivation, and a desire for peer attention. The educational atmosphere should encourage creativity for both the student and the…

  1. Inverse logarithmic potential problem

    CERN Document Server

    Cherednichenko, V G

    1996-01-01

    The Inverse and Ill-Posed Problems Series is a series of monographs publishing postgraduate level information on inverse and ill-posed problems for an international readership of professional scientists and researchers. The series aims to publish works which involve both theory and applications in, e.g., physics, medicine, geophysics, acoustics, electrodynamics, tomography, and ecology.

  2. GREECE--SELECTED PROBLEMS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MARTONFFY, ANDREA PONTECORVO; AND OTHERS

    A CURRICULUM GUIDE IS PRESENTED FOR A 10-WEEK STUDY OF ANCIENT GREEK CIVILIZATION AT THE 10TH-GRADE LEVEL. TEACHING MATERIALS FOR THE UNIT INCLUDE (1) PRIMARY AND SECONDARY SOURCES DEALING WITH THE PERIOD FROM THE BRONZE AGE THROUGH THE HELLENISTIC PERIOD, (2) GEOGRAPHY PROBLEMS, AND (3) CULTURAL MODEL PROBLEM EXERCISES. THOSE CONCEPTS WITH WHICH…

  3. Solar neutrino problem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faulkner, D J [Australian National Univ., Canberra. Mount Stromlo and Siding Spring Observatories

    1975-10-01

    This paper reviews several recent attempts to solve the problem in terms of modified solar interior models. Some of these have removed the count rate discrepancy, but have violated other observational data for the sun. One successfully accounts for the Davis results at the expense of introducing an ad hoc correction with no current physical explanation. An introductory description of the problem is given.

  4. Reconfigurable layout problem

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meng, G.; Heragu, S.S.; Heragu, S.S.; Zijm, Willem H.M.

    2004-01-01

    This paper addresses the reconfigurable layout problem, which differs from traditional, robust and dynamic layout problems mainly in two aspects: first, it assumes that production data are available only for the current and upcoming production period. Second, it considers queuing performance

  5. The Problems of Dissection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Pat

    1997-01-01

    Describes some problems of classroom dissection including the cruelty that animals destined for the laboratory suffer. Discusses the multilevel approach that the National Anti-Vivisection Society (NAVS) has developed to address the problems of animal dissection such as offering a dissection hotline, exhibiting at science teacher conferences, and…

  6. The solar neutrino problem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roxburgh, I.W.

    1981-01-01

    The problems posed by the low flux of neutrinos from the sun detected by Davis and coworkers are reviewed. Several proposals have been advanced to resolve these problems and the more reasonable (in the author's opinion) are presented. Recent claims that the neutrino may have finite mass are also considered. (orig.)

  7. Word Problem Wizardry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassidy, Jack

    1991-01-01

    Presents suggestions for teaching math word problems to elementary students. The strategies take into consideration differences between reading in math and reading in other areas. A problem-prediction game and four self-checking activities are included along with a magic password challenge. (SM)

  8. Problems in baryon spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Capstick, S. [Florida State Univ., Tallahassee, FL (United States)

    1994-04-01

    Current issues and problems in the physics of ground- and excited-state baryons are considered, and are classified into those which should be resolved by CEBAF in its present form, and those which may require CEBAF to undergo an energy upgrade to 8 GeV or more. Recent theoretical developments designed to address these problems are outlined.

  9. Problems Facing Rural Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, C. E.; And Others

    Problems facing rural Scottish schools range from short term consideration of daily operation to long term consideration of organizational alternatives. Addressed specifically, such problems include consideration of: (1) liaison between a secondary school and its feeder primary schools; (2) preservice teacher training for work in small, isolated…

  10. Adaptive Problem Solving

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-03-01

    Borrajo and Raquel Fuentetaja, Universidad Carlos III de Madrid on the meta-level search architecture for finding good combinations of representations and...heuristics on a problem-by-problem basis. The other is with Carlos Linares also from Universidad Carlos III de Madrid on developing effective

  11. On vector equilibrium problem

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    [G] Giannessi F, Theorems of alternative, quadratic programs and complementarity problems, in: Variational Inequalities and Complementarity Problems (eds) R W Cottle, F Giannessi and J L Lions (New York: Wiley) (1980) pp. 151±186. [K1] Kazmi K R, Existence of solutions for vector optimization, Appl. Math. Lett. 9 (1996).

  12. Users are problem solvers!

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brouwer-Janse, M.D.

    1991-01-01

    Most formal problem-solving studies use verbal protocol and observational data of problem solvers working on a task. In user-centred product-design projects, observational studies of users are frequently used too. In the latter case, however, systematic control of conditions, indepth analysis and

  13. Problems in quantum mechanics

    CERN Document Server

    Goldman, Iosif Ilich; Geilikman, B T

    2006-01-01

    This challenging book contains a comprehensive collection of problems in nonrelativistic quantum mechanics of varying degrees of difficulty. It features answers and completely worked-out solutions to each problem. Geared toward advanced undergraduates and graduate students, it provides an ideal adjunct to any textbook in quantum mechanics.

  14. A youth-led social marketing intervention to encourage healthy lifestyles, the EYTO (European Youth Tackling Obesity) project: a cluster randomised controlled0 trial in Catalonia, Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llauradó, Elisabet; Aceves-Martins, Magaly; Tarro, Lucia; Papell-Garcia, Ignasi; Puiggròs, Francesc; Arola, Lluís; Prades-Tena, Jordi; Montagut, Marta; Moragas-Fernández, Carlota M; Solà, Rosa; Giralt, Montse

    2015-07-03

    The encouragement of healthy lifestyles for obesity prevention in young people is a public health priority. The European Youth Tackling Obesity (EYTO) project is a multicentric intervention project with participation from the United Kingdom, Portugal, the Czech Republic and Spain. The general aim of the EYTO project is to improve lifestyles, including nutritional habits and physical activity practice, and to prevent obesity in socioeconomically disadvantaged and vulnerable adolescents. The EYTO project works through a peer-led social marketing intervention that is designed and implemented by the adolescents of each participating country. Each country involved in the project acts independently. This paper describes the "Som la Pera" intervention Spanish study that is part of the EYTO project. In Spain, the research team performed a cluster randomised controlled intervention over 2 academic years (2013-2015) in which 2 high-schools were designated as the control group and 2 high-schools were designated as the intervention group, with a minimum of 121 schoolchildren per group. From the intervention group, 5 adolescents with leadership characteristics, called "Adolescent Challenge Creators" (ACCs), were recruited. These 5 ACCs received an initial 4 h training session about social marketing principles and healthy lifestyle theory, followed by 24 sessions (1.30 h/session) divided in two academic years to design and implement activities presented as challenges to encourage healthy lifestyles among their peers, the approximately 180-200 high-school students in the intervention group. During the design of the intervention, it was essential that the ACCs used the 8 social marketing criteria (customer orientation, behaviour, theory, insight, exchange, competition, segmentation and methods mix). The expected primary outcomes from the Spanish intervention will be as follows: increases in the consumption of fruits and vegetables and physical activity practice along with

  15. Early breastfeeding problems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feenstra, Maria Monberg; Kirkeby, Mette Jørgine; Thygesen, Marianne

    2018-01-01

    Objectives Breastfeeding problems are common and associated with early cessation. Stilllength of postpartum hospital stay has been reduced. This leaves new mothers to establish breastfeeding at home with less support from health care professionals. The objective was to explore mothers’ perspectives...... on when breastfeeding problems were the most challenging and prominent early postnatal. The aim was also toidentify possible factors associated with the breastfeeding problems. Methods In a cross-sectional study, a mixed method approach was used to analyse postal survey data from 1437 mothers with full...... term singleton infants. Content analysis was used to analyse mothers’ open text descriptions of their most challenging breastfeeding problem. Multiple logistic regression was used to calculate odds ratios for early breastfeeding problems according to sociodemographic- and psychosocial factors. Results...

  16. Solved problems in electrochemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piron, D.L.

    2004-01-01

    This book presents calculated solutions to problems in fundamental and applied electrochemistry. It uses industrial data to illustrate scientific concepts and scientific knowledge to solve practical problems. It is subdivided into three parts. The first uses modern basic concepts, the second studies the scientific basis for electrode and electrolyte thermodynamics (including E-pH diagrams and the minimum energy involved in transformations) and the kinetics of rate processes (including the energy lost in heat and in parasite reactions). The third part treats larger problems in electrolysis and power generation, as well as in corrosion and its prevention. Each chapter includes three sections: the presentation of useful principles; some twenty problems with their solutions; and, a set of unsolved problems

  17. The Guderley problem revisited

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramsey, Scott D.; Kamm, James R.; Bolstad, John H.

    2009-01-01

    The self-similar converging-diverging shock wave problem introduced by Guderley in 1942 has been the source of numerous investigations since its publication. In this paper, we review the simplifications and group invariance properties that lead to a self-similar formulation of this problem from the compressible flow equations for a polytropic gas. The complete solution to the self-similar problem reduces to two coupled nonlinear eigenvalue problems: the eigenvalue of the first is the so-called similarity exponent for the converging flow, and that of the second is a trajectory multiplier for the diverging regime. We provide a clear exposition concerning the reflected shock configuration. Additionally, we introduce a new approximation for the similarity exponent, which we compare with other estimates and numerically computed values. Lastly, we use the Guderley problem as the basis of a quantitative verification analysis of a cell-centered, finite volume, Eulerian compressible flow algorithm.

  18. Problem Solving and Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Chandralekha

    2009-07-01

    One finding of cognitive research is that people do not automatically acquire usable knowledge by spending lots of time on task. Because students' knowledge hierarchy is more fragmented, "knowledge chunks" are smaller than those of experts. The limited capacity of short term memory makes the cognitive load high during problem solving tasks, leaving few cognitive resources available for meta-cognition. The abstract nature of the laws of physics and the chain of reasoning required to draw meaningful inferences makes these issues critical. In order to help students, it is crucial to consider the difficulty of a problem from the perspective of students. We are developing and evaluating interactive problem-solving tutorials to help students in the introductory physics courses learn effective problem-solving strategies while solidifying physics concepts. The self-paced tutorials can provide guidance and support for a variety of problem solving techniques, and opportunity for knowledge and skill acquisition.

  19. Structural Identification Problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suvorov Aleksei

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The identification problem of the existing structures though the Quasi-Newton and its modification, Trust region algorithms is discussed. For the structural problems, which could be represented by means of the mathematical modelling of the finite element code discussed method is extremely useful. The nonlinear minimization problem of the L2 norm for the structures with linear elastic behaviour is solved by using of the Optimization Toolbox of Matlab. The direct and inverse procedures for the composition of the desired function to minimize are illustrated for the spatial 3D truss structure as well as for the problem of plane finite elements. The truss identification problem is solved with 2 and 3 unknown parameters in order to compare the computational efforts and for the graphical purposes. The particular commands of the Matlab codes are present in this paper.

  20. The moment problem

    CERN Document Server

    Schmüdgen, Konrad

    2017-01-01

    This advanced textbook provides a comprehensive and unified account of the moment problem. It covers the classical one-dimensional theory and its multidimensional generalization, including modern methods and recent developments. In both the one-dimensional and multidimensional cases, the full and truncated moment problems are carefully treated separately. Fundamental concepts, results and methods are developed in detail and accompanied by numerous examples and exercises. Particular attention is given to powerful modern techniques such as real algebraic geometry and Hilbert space operators. A wide range of important aspects are covered, including the Nevanlinna parametrization for indeterminate moment problems, canonical and principal measures for truncated moment problems, the interplay between Positivstellensätze and moment problems on semi-algebraic sets, the fibre theorem, multidimensional determinacy theory, operator-theoretic approaches, and the existence theory and important special topics of multidime...

  1. Problems in equilibrium theory

    CERN Document Server

    Aliprantis, Charalambos D

    1996-01-01

    In studying General Equilibrium Theory the student must master first the theory and then apply it to solve problems. At the graduate level there is no book devoted exclusively to teaching problem solving. This book teaches for the first time the basic methods of proof and problem solving in General Equilibrium Theory. The problems cover the entire spectrum of difficulty; some are routine, some require a good grasp of the material involved, and some are exceptionally challenging. The book presents complete solutions to two hundred problems. In searching for the basic required techniques, the student will find a wealth of new material incorporated into the solutions. The student is challenged to produce solutions which are different from the ones presented in the book.

  2. Brauer type embedding problems

    CERN Document Server

    Ledet, Arne

    2005-01-01

    This monograph is concerned with Galois theoretical embedding problems of so-called Brauer type with a focus on 2-groups and on finding explicit criteria for solvability and explicit constructions of the solutions. The advantage of considering Brauer type embedding problems is their comparatively simple condition for solvability in the form of an obstruction in the Brauer group of the ground field. This book presupposes knowledge of classical Galois theory and the attendant algebra. Before considering questions of reducing the embedding problems and reformulating the solvability criteria, the

  3. Astronauts' menu problem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lesso, W. G.; Kenyon, E.

    1972-01-01

    Consideration of the problems involved in choosing appropriate menus for astronauts carrying out SKYLAB missions lasting up to eight weeks. The problem of planning balanced menus on the basis of prepackaged food items within limitations on the intake of calories, protein, and certain elements is noted, as well as a number of other restrictions of both physical and arbitrary nature. The tailoring of a set of menus for each astronaut on the basis of subjective rankings of each food by the astronaut in terms of a 'measure of pleasure' is described, and a computer solution to this problem by means of a mixed integer programming code is presented.

  4. Where is the problem?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levy-Leblond, J.-M.

    1990-01-01

    This paper examines the problem of the reduction of the state vector in quantum theory. The author suggest that this issue ceases to cause difficulties if viewed from the correct perspective, for example by giving the state vector an auxiliary rather than fundamental status. He advocates changing the conceptual framework of quantum theory and working with quantons rather than particles and/or waves. He denies that reduction is a psychophysiological problem of observation, and raises the relevance of experimental apparatus. He concludes by venturing the suggestion that the problem of the reduction of the quantum state vector lies, not in quantum theory, but in classical perspectives. (UK)

  5. Some mass measurement problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Merritt, J.S.

    1976-01-01

    Concerning the problem of determining the thickness of a target, an uncomplicated approach is to measure its mass and area and take the quotient. This paper examines the mass measurement aspect of such an approach. (author)

  6. The cosmological constant problem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dolgov, A.D.

    1989-05-01

    A review of the cosmological term problem is presented. Baby universe model and the compensating field model are discussed. The importance of more accurate data on the Hubble constant and the Universe age is stressed. 18 refs

  7. Diabetic Eye Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... damage your eyes. The most common problem is diabetic retinopathy. It is a leading cause of blindness ... You need a healthy retina to see clearly. Diabetic retinopathy damages the tiny blood vessels inside your ...

  8. Problems in optics

    CERN Document Server

    Rousseau, Madeleine; Ter Haar, D

    1973-01-01

    This collection of problems and accompanying solutions provide the reader with a full introduction to physical optics. The subject coverage is fairly traditional, with chapters on interference and diffraction, and there is a general emphasis on spectroscopy.

  9. Mouth Problems and HIV

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... teeth (periodontitis), canker sores, oral warts, fever blisters, oral candidiasis (thrush), hairy leukoplakia (which causes a rough, white patch on the tongue), and dental caries. Read More Publications Cover image Mouth Problems + HIV Publication files Download Language English PDF — ...

  10. Enuresis: A Social Problem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, James E.

    1978-01-01

    Several theories and treatments of enuresis are described. The authors conclude that enuresis is a social problem (perhaps due to maturational lag, developmental delay or faulty learning) which requires teacher and parental tolerance and understanding. (SE)

  11. Problem Based Game Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reng, Lars; Schoenau-Fog, Henrik

    2011-01-01

    At Aalborg University’s department of Medialogy, we are utilizing the Problem Based Learning method to encourage students to solve game design problems by pushing the boundaries and designing innovative games. This paper is concerned with describing this method, how students employ it in various ...... projects and how they learn to analyse, design, and develop for innovation by using it. We will present various cases to exemplify the approach and focus on how the method engages students and aspires for innovation in digital entertainment and games.......At Aalborg University’s department of Medialogy, we are utilizing the Problem Based Learning method to encourage students to solve game design problems by pushing the boundaries and designing innovative games. This paper is concerned with describing this method, how students employ it in various...

  12. Neutrosophic Integer Programming Problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mai Mohamed

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we introduce the integer programming in neutrosophic environment, by considering coffecients of problem as a triangulare neutrosophic numbers. The degrees of acceptance, indeterminacy and rejection of objectives are simultaneously considered.

  13. Open problems in mathematics

    CERN Document Server

    Nash, Jr, John Forbes

    2016-01-01

    The goal in putting together this unique compilation was to present the current status of the solutions to some of the most essential open problems in pure and applied mathematics. Emphasis is also given to problems in interdisciplinary research for which mathematics plays a key role. This volume comprises highly selected contributions by some of the most eminent mathematicians in the international mathematical community on longstanding problems in very active domains of mathematical research. A joint preface by the two volume editors is followed by a personal farewell to John F. Nash, Jr. written by Michael Th. Rassias. An introduction by Mikhail Gromov highlights some of Nash’s legendary mathematical achievements. The treatment in this book includes open problems in the following fields: algebraic geometry, number theory, analysis, discrete mathematics, PDEs, differential geometry, topology, K-theory, game theory, fluid mechanics, dynamical systems and ergodic theory, cryptography, theoretical computer sc...

  14. [Current problems of deontology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimov, A S

    2010-01-01

    The scope of knowledge in medical ethics continues to extend. Deontology as a science needs systematization of the accumulated data. This review may give impetus to classification of problems pertaining to this important area of medical activity.

  15. Health Problems at School

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the Word Shop AAP Find a Pediatrician Ages & Stages Prenatal Baby Toddler Preschool Gradeschool Fitness Nutrition Puberty School Teen Young Adult Healthy Children > Ages & Stages > Gradeschool > School > Health Problems at School Ages & Stages ...

  16. Challenging problems in geometry

    CERN Document Server

    Posamentier, Alfred S

    1996-01-01

    Collection of nearly 200 unusual problems dealing with congruence and parallelism, the Pythagorean theorem, circles, area relationships, Ptolemy and the cyclic quadrilateral, collinearity and concurrency and more. Arranged in order of difficulty. Detailed solutions.

  17. A nonlinear oscillatory problem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Qingqing.

    1991-10-01

    We have studied the nonlinear oscillatory problem of orthotropic cylindrical shell, we have analyzed the character of the oscillatory system. The stable condition of the oscillatory system has been given. (author). 6 refs

  18. Problems of research politics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luest, R.

    1977-01-01

    The development in the FRG is portrayed. Illustrated by a particular example, the problems of basic research and of the scientists are presented looking back, looking at the present, and into the future. (WB) [de

  19. Quantum first passage problem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, N.

    1984-07-01

    Quantum first passage problem (QUIPP) is formulated and solved in terms of a constrained Feynman path integral. The related paradox of blocking of unitary evolution by continuous observation on the system implicit in QUIPP is briefly discussed. (author)

  20. Teaching Creative Problem Solving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, Kip W.; Martin, Loren

    1992-01-01

    Interpersonal and cognitive skills, adaptability, and critical thinking can be developed through problem solving and cooperative learning in technology education. These skills have been identified as significant needs of the workplace as well as for functioning in society. (SK)

  1. To the confinement problem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Savvidi, G.K.

    1985-01-01

    Such a viewpoint is proposed for separation of the physical quantities into observable and unobservable ones, when the latters are connected with the Hermitian operator for which the eigenvalue problem is unsolvable

  2. Accelerator shielding benchmark problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirayama, H.; Ban, S.; Nakamura, T.

    1993-01-01

    Accelerator shielding benchmark problems prepared by Working Group of Accelerator Shielding in the Research Committee on Radiation Behavior in the Atomic Energy Society of Japan were compiled by Radiation Safety Control Center of National Laboratory for High Energy Physics. Twenty-five accelerator shielding benchmark problems are presented for evaluating the calculational algorithm, the accuracy of computer codes and the nuclear data used in codes. (author)

  3. Shielding benchmark problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, Shun-ichi; Sasamoto, Nobuo; Oka, Yoshiaki; Kawai, Masayoshi; Nakazawa, Masaharu.

    1978-09-01

    Shielding benchmark problems were prepared by the Working Group of Assessment of Shielding Experiments in the Research Comittee on Shielding Design of the Atomic Energy Society of Japan, and compiled by the Shielding Laboratory of Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute. Twenty-one kinds of shielding benchmark problems are presented for evaluating the calculational algorithm and the accuracy of computer codes based on the discrete ordinates method and the Monte Carlo method and for evaluating the nuclear data used in the codes. (author)

  4. The solar neutrino problem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bahcall, J.N.

    1986-01-01

    The observed capture rate for solar neutrinos in the /sup 37/Cl detector is lower than the predicted capture rate. This discrepancy between theory and observation is known as the 'solar neutrino problem.' The author reviews the basic elements in this problem: the detector efficiency, the theory of stellar (solar) evolution, the nuclear physics of energy generation, and the uncertainties in the predictions. He also answers the questions of: So What? and What Next?

  5. Solving radwaste problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oyen, L.C.

    1976-01-01

    The combination of regulatory changes and increased waste volume has resulted in design changes in waste processing systems. Problems resulting from waste segregation as a basis for design philosophy are considered, and solutions to the problems are suggested. The importance of operator training, maintenance procedures, good housekeeping, water management, and offsite shipment of solids is discussed. Flowsheets for radioactive waste processing systems for boiling water reactors and pressurized water reactors are included

  6. Problems in fluid flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brasch, D.J.

    1986-01-01

    Chemical and mineral engineering students require texts which give guidance to problem solving to complement their main theoretical texts. This book has a broad coverage of the fluid flow problems which these students may encounter. The fundamental concepts and the application of the behaviour of liquids and gases in unit operation are dealt with. The book is intended to give numerical practice; development of theory is undertaken only when elaboration of treatments available in theoretical texts is absolutely necessary

  7. The gauge hierarchy problem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Natale, A.A.; Shellard, R.C.

    1981-01-01

    The problem of gauge hierarchy in Grand Unified Theories using a toy model with O(N) symmetry is discussed. It is shown that there is no escape to the unnatural adjustment of coupling constants, made only after the computation of several orders in perturbation theory is performed. The propositions of some authors on ways to overcome the gauge hierarchy problem are commented. (Author) [pt

  8. Problems of Forecast

    OpenAIRE

    Kucharavy , Dmitry; De Guio , Roland

    2005-01-01

    International audience; The ability to foresee future technology is a key task of Innovative Design. The paper focuses on the obstacles to reliable prediction of technological evolution for the purpose of Innovative Design. First, a brief analysis of problems for existing forecasting methods is presented. The causes for the complexity of technology prediction are discussed in the context of reduction of the forecast errors. Second, using a contradiction analysis, a set of problems related to ...

  9. A technical overview of air pollution problems and its control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rusheed, A.

    1997-01-01

    Air pollution is a well known phenomenon experienced in every day life. The air we breathe consist of gases and aerosol particles on which pollutants such as toxic elements and bacteria reside. These microscopic particles are transported to long distances from the source of origin the direction and magnitude of which depends upon the prevailing meteorological conditions. In order to assess the impact of air pollution, systematic studies are carried out which consist of: 1) sampling of air, 2) measurement of pollutants, 3) identification of pollutant source and 4) adoption of control methods. Each of these topics are fairly exhaustive and their understanding requires accurate scientific approach. An overview of these topic has been presented in this talk. Air samples are best collected by filtering air through suitable medium and analyses are carried out by diverse analytical techniques. Source identifications is a very important step which is done either by emission modeling or receptor modeling techniques. A general survey of these techniques, especially receptor modeling is presented in this talk. The control of air pollution is carried out by using carried devices and the processes especially developed for this purpose. Air pollution has given rise to a number of global problems such as depletion of stratospheric ozone, acid rain and greenhouse effect, which are being tackled on international scale. These problems have been discussed very briefly and a summary of international efforts has been presented. (author)

  10. Applying Constructionism and Problem Based Learning for Developing Dynamic Educational Material for Mathematics At Undergraduate University Level

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Triantafyllou, Eva; Timcenko, Olga

    2013-01-01

    As a result of changes in society and education, assumptions about the knowledge of entrants to university have become obsolete. One area in which this seems to be true is mathematics. This paper presents our research aiming at tackling with this problem by developing digital educational material...... for mathematics education, which will be student-driven, dynamic, and multimodal. Our approach will be supported by the theories of Constructionism and PBL. The impact of its use will be evaluated in university settings. It is expected that the evaluation will demonstrate an improvement in student engagement...

  11. An Equilibrium Chance-Constrained Multiobjective Programming Model with Birandom Parameters and Its Application to Inventory Problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhimiao Tao

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available An equilibrium chance-constrained multiobjective programming model with birandom parameters is proposed. A type of linear model is converted into its crisp equivalent model. Then a birandom simulation technique is developed to tackle the general birandom objective functions and birandom constraints. By embedding the birandom simulation technique, a modified genetic algorithm is designed to solve the equilibrium chance-constrained multiobjective programming model. We apply the proposed model and algorithm to a real-world inventory problem and show the effectiveness of the model and the solution method.

  12. Problem-based learning in communication systems using MATLAB and Simulink

    CERN Document Server

    Choi, Kwonhue

    2016-01-01

    Designed to help teach and understand communication systems using a classroom-tested, active learning approach. This book covers the basic concepts of signals, and analog and digital communications, to more complex simulations in communication systems. Problem-Based Learning in Communication Systems Using MATLAB and Simulink begins by introducing MATLAB and Simulink to prepare readers who are unfamiliar with these environments in order to tackle projects and exercises included in this book. Discussions on simulation of signals, filter design, sampling and reconstruction, and analog communications are covered next. The book concludes by covering advanced topics such as Viterbi decoding, OFDM and MIMO. In addition, this book contains examples of how to convert waveforms, constructed in simulation, into electric signals. It also includes problems illustrating how to complete actual wireless communications in the band near ultrasonic frequencies. A content-m pping table is included in this book to help instruc...

  13. Determining the number of fingers in the lifting Hele-Shaw problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda, Jose; Dias, Eduardo

    2013-11-01

    The lifting Hele-Shaw cell flow is a variation of the celebrated radial viscous fingering problem for which the upper cell plate is lifted uniformly at a specified rate. This procedure causes the formation of intricate interfacial patterns. Most theoretical studies determine the total number of emerging fingers by maximizing the linear growth rate, but this generates discrepancies between theory and experiments. In this work, we tackle the number of fingers selection problem in the lifting Hele-Shaw cell by employing the recently proposed maximum-amplitude criterion. Our linear stability analysis accounts for the action of capillary, viscous normal stresses, and wetting effects, as well as the cell confinement. The comparison of our results with very precise laboratory measurements for the total number of fingers shows a significantly improved agreement between theoretical predictions and experimental data. We thank CNPq (Brazilian Sponsor) for financial support.

  14. A numerical approach of thermal problems coupling fluid solid and radiation in complex geometries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peniguel, C.; Rupp, I.

    1995-11-01

    In many industrial problems, heat transfer does play an important part. Quite often, radiation, convection and radiation are present simultaneously. This paper presents the numerical tool handling simultaneously these phenomena. Fluid is tackled by the finite element code N3S, radiation (restricted to a non participating medium) and conduction are handled with SYRTHES respectively by a radiosity method and a finite element method. The main originality of the product is that meshes used to solve each phenomenon are completely independent. This allows users to choose the most appropriate spatial discretization for each part or phenomenon. This flexibility requires of course robust and fast data exchange procedures (temperature, convective flux, radiative flux) between the independent grids. This operation is done automatically by the code SYRTHES. One simple problem illustrating the interest of this development is presented at the end of the paper. (author). 6 refs., 8 figs

  15. Solving non-standard packing problems by global optimization and heuristics

    CERN Document Server

    Fasano, Giorgio

    2014-01-01

    This book results from a long-term research effort aimed at tackling complex non-standard packing issues which arise in space engineering. The main research objective is to optimize cargo loading and arrangement, in compliance with a set of stringent rules. Complicated geometrical aspects are also taken into account, in addition to balancing conditions based on attitude control specifications. Chapter 1 introduces the class of non-standard packing problems studied. Chapter 2 gives a detailed explanation of a general model for the orthogonal packing of tetris-like items in a convex domain. A number of additional conditions are looked at in depth, including the prefixed orientation of subsets of items, the presence of unusable holes, separation planes and structural elements, relative distance bounds as well as static and dynamic balancing requirements. The relative feasibility sub-problem which is a special case that does not have an optimization criterion is discussed in Chapter 3. This setting can be exploit...

  16. Tackling inequalities in obesity: a protocol for a systematic review of the effectiveness of public health interventions at reducing socioeconomic inequalities in obesity amongst children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bambra Clare L

    2012-02-01

    Index, ASSIA, IBSS, Sociological Abstracts and the NHS Economic Evaluation Database. Database searches will be supplemented with website and grey literature searches. No studies will be excluded on the basis of language, country of origin or publication date. Study inclusion, data extraction and quality appraisal will be conducted by two reviewers. Meta-analysis and narrative synthesis will be conducted. The main analysis will examine the effects of (1 individual, (2 community and (3 societal level public health interventions on socioeconomic inequalities in childhood obesity. Interventions will be characterised by their level of action and their approach to tackling inequalities. Contextual information on how such public health interventions are organised, implemented and delivered will also be examined. Discussion In this review, we consider public health strategies which reduce and prevent inequalities in the prevalence of childhood obesity, highlight any gaps in the evidence base and seek to establish how such public health interventions are organised, implemented and delivered. PROSPERO registration number: CRD42011001740

  17. Tackling inequalities in obesity: a protocol for a systematic review of the effectiveness of public health interventions at reducing socioeconomic inequalities in obesity amongst children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bambra, Clare L; Hillier, Frances C; Moore, Helen J; Summerbell, Carolyn D

    2012-02-23

    NHS Economic Evaluation Database. Database searches will be supplemented with website and grey literature searches. No studies will be excluded on the basis of language, country of origin or publication date. Study inclusion, data extraction and quality appraisal will be conducted by two reviewers. Meta-analysis and narrative synthesis will be conducted. The main analysis will examine the effects of (1) individual, (2) community and (3) societal level public health interventions on socioeconomic inequalities in childhood obesity. Interventions will be characterised by their level of action and their approach to tackling inequalities. Contextual information on how such public health interventions are organised, implemented and delivered will also be examined. In this review, we consider public health strategies which reduce and prevent inequalities in the prevalence of childhood obesity, highlight any gaps in the evidence base and seek to establish how such public health interventions are organised, implemented and delivered. PROSPERO registration number: CRD42011001740.

  18. Impact of the parenting style of foster parents on the behaviour problems of foster children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuentes, M J; Salas, M D; Bernedo, I M; García-Martín, M A

    2015-09-01

    Few studies have analysed the effects of the parenting style used by foster carers on children's behaviour problems. This study examines the role played by the quality of the emotional relationship with foster carers and the kind of discipline they use as regard internalizing and externalizing problems among foster children. Participants were 104 foster children (56 boys and 48 girls) and their respective foster families. The Child Behaviour Checklist, the Affect and Communication Scale, and the Rules and Demands Scale were completed by foster parents. A series of linear regression analyses were performed using the stepwise method. The main findings were as follows: an authoritarian parenting style explained the internalizing problems presented by foster children (11% of the variance); criticism/rejection, authoritarian parenting and permissive parenting explained externalizing problems (37% of the variance); and criticism/rejection and authoritarian parenting explained total problems (29% of the variance). These results indicate that criticism/rejection on the part of foster parents, as well as the use of inappropriate parenting styles (authoritarian and permissive), has an important effect in relation to the behaviour problems of foster children. This highlights the key role that foster carers play in terms of tackling the behaviour problems that foster children present. The findings also suggest that preparation for fostering should focus especially on ways of helping foster parents both to acquire positive parenting strategies and to avoid authoritarian and permissive parenting. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Solving lot-sizing problem with quantity discount and transportation cost

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Amy H. I.; Kang, He-Yau; Lai, Chun-Mei

    2013-04-01

    Owing to today's increasingly competitive market and ever-changing manufacturing environment, the inventory problem is becoming more complicated to solve. The incorporation of heuristics methods has become a new trend to tackle the complex problem in the past decade. This article considers a lot-sizing problem, and the objective is to minimise total costs, where the costs include ordering, holding, purchase and transportation costs, under the requirement that no inventory shortage is allowed in the system. We first formulate the lot-sizing problem as a mixed integer programming (MIP) model. Next, an efficient genetic algorithm (GA) model is constructed for solving large-scale lot-sizing problems. An illustrative example with two cases in a touch panel manufacturer is used to illustrate the practicality of these models, and a sensitivity analysis is applied to understand the impact of the changes in parameters to the outcomes. The results demonstrate that both the MIP model and the GA model are effective and relatively accurate tools for determining the replenishment for touch panel manufacturing for multi-periods with quantity discount and batch transportation. The contributions of this article are to construct an MIP model to obtain an optimal solution when the problem is not too complicated itself and to present a GA model to find a near-optimal solution efficiently when the problem is complicated.

  20. The Elder Problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John W. Elder

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an autobiographical and biographical historical account of the genesis, evolution and resolution of the Elder Problem. It begins with John W. Elder and his autobiographical story leading to his groundbreaking work on natural convection at Cambridge in the 1960’s. His seminal work published in the Journal of Fluid Mechanics in 1967 became the basis for the modern benchmark of variable density flow simulators that we know today as “The Elder Problem”. There have been well known and major challenges with the Elder Problem model benchmark—notably the multiple solutions that were ultimately uncovered using different numerical models. Most recently, it has been shown that the multiple solutions are indeed physically realistic bifurcation solutions to the Elder Problem and not numerically spurious artefacts. The quandary of the Elder Problem has now been solved—a major scientific breakthrough for fluid mechanics and for numerical modelling. This paper—records, reflections, reminiscences, stories and anecdotes—is an historical autobiographical and biographical memoir. It is the personal story of the Elder Problem told by some of the key scientists who established and solved the Elder Problem. 2017 marks the 50 year anniversary of the classical work by John W. Elder published in Journal of Fluid Mechanics in 1967. This set the stage for this scientific story over some five decades. This paper is a celebration and commemoration of the life and times of John W. Elder, the problem named in his honour, and some of the key scientists who worked on, and ultimately solved, it.

  1. The Steiner tree problem

    CERN Document Server

    Hwang, FK; Winter, P

    1992-01-01

    The Steiner problem asks for a shortest network which spans a given set of points. Minimum spanning networks have been well-studied when all connections are required to be between the given points. The novelty of the Steiner tree problem is that new auxiliary points can be introduced between the original points so that a spanning network of all the points will be shorter than otherwise possible. These new points are called Steiner points - locating them has proved problematic and research has diverged along many different avenues. This volume is devoted to the assimilation of the rich field of intriguing analyses and the consolidation of the fragments. A section has been given to each of the three major areas of interest which have emerged. The first concerns the Euclidean Steiner Problem, historically the original Steiner tree problem proposed by Jarník and Kössler in 1934. The second deals with the Steiner Problem in Networks, which was propounded independently by Hakimi and Levin and has enjoyed the most...

  2. A complex approach to the blue-loop problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostrowski, Jakub; Daszynska-Daszkiewicz, Jadwiga

    2015-08-01

    The problem of the blue loops during the core helium burning, outstanding for almost fifty years, is one of the most difficult and poorly understood problems in stellar astrophysics. Most of the work focused on the blue loops done so far has been performed with old stellar evolution codes and with limited computational resources. In the end the obtained conclusions were based on a small sample of models and could not have taken into account more advanced effects and interactions between them.The emergence of the blue loops depends on many details of the evolution calculations, in particular on chemical composition, opacity, mixing processes etc. The non-linear interactions between these factors contribute to the statement that in most cases it is hard to predict without a precise stellar modeling whether a loop will emerge or not. The high sensitivity of the blue loops to even small changes of the internal structure of a star yields one more issue: a sensitivity to numerical problems, which are common in calculations of stellar models on advanced stages of the evolution.To tackle this problem we used a modern stellar evolution code MESA. We calculated a large grid of evolutionary tracks (about 8000 models) with masses in the range of 3.0 - 25.0 solar masses from the zero age main sequence to the depletion of helium in the core. In order to make a comparative analysis, we varied metallicity, helium abundance and different mixing parameters resulting from convective overshooting, rotation etc.The better understanding of the properties of the blue loops is crucial for our knowledge of the population of blue supergiants or pulsating variables such as Cepheids, α-Cygni or Slowly Pulsating B-type supergiants. In case of more massive models it is also of great importance for studies of the progenitors of supernovae.

  3. Solved problems in electromagnetics

    CERN Document Server

    Salazar Bloise, Félix; Bayón Rojo, Ana; Gascón Latasa, Francisco

    2017-01-01

    This book presents the fundamental concepts of electromagnetism through problems with a brief theoretical introduction at the beginning of each chapter. The present book has a strong  didactic character. It explains all the mathematical steps and the theoretical concepts connected with the development of the problem. It guides the reader to understand the employed procedures to learn to solve the exercises independently. The exercises are structured in a similar way: The chapters begin with easy problems increasing progressively in the level of difficulty. This book is written for students of physics and engineering in the framework of the new European Plans of Study for Bachelor and Master and also for tutors and lecturers. .

  4. The curve shortening problem

    CERN Document Server

    Chou, Kai-Seng

    2001-01-01

    Although research in curve shortening flow has been very active for nearly 20 years, the results of those efforts have remained scattered throughout the literature. For the first time, The Curve Shortening Problem collects and illuminates those results in a comprehensive, rigorous, and self-contained account of the fundamental results.The authors present a complete treatment of the Gage-Hamilton theorem, a clear, detailed exposition of Grayson''s convexity theorem, a systematic discussion of invariant solutions, applications to the existence of simple closed geodesics on a surface, and a new, almost convexity theorem for the generalized curve shortening problem.Many questions regarding curve shortening remain outstanding. With its careful exposition and complete guide to the literature, The Curve Shortening Problem provides not only an outstanding starting point for graduate students and new investigations, but a superb reference that presents intriguing new results for those already active in the field.

  5. Atomic policies: history, problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galvan, Cesare Giuseppe.

    1993-01-01

    Two kinds of problems follow from the development of nuclear technology: its use in (diversion to) armaments, and its dangers for the population. Both arise as social phenomena: technology can be diverted to military aims; and installations require specific measures in order not to expose human life to danger. The diffusion of this technology required a series of tentative solutions for such problems. Its history constitutes our first part. The second part aims at understanding the dynamics, which led to the diffusion of such a technology in the capitalist world. The concept of subsumption (especially of its realization) is suited to interpret the meanings of the social interests, which led content ro this diffusion. Subsumption is found between labor and capital, but also between society and state. At both levels, it shows that there was some social meaning in the diffusion of nuclear technology notwithstanding its problems. 590 refs

  6. Some Problems for Biolinguistics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Derek Bickerton

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Biolinguistics will have to face and resolve several problems before it can achieve a pivotal position in the human sciences. Its relationship to the Minimalist Program is ambiguous, creating doubts as to whether it is a genuine subdiscipline or merely another name for a particular linguistic theory. Equally ambiguous is the relationship it assumes between ‘knowledge of language’ and the neural mechanisms that actually construct sentences. The latter issue raises serious questions about the validity of covert syntactic operations. Further problems arise from the attitudes of many biolinguists towards natural selection and evo-devo: The first they misunderstand, the second they both misunderstand and overestimate. One consequence is a one-sided approach to language evolution crucially involving linguistic ‘precursors’ and the protolanguage hypothesis. Most of these problems arise through the identification of biolinguistics with internalist and essentialist approaches to language, thereby simultaneously narrowing its scope and hindering its acceptance by biologists.

  7. Problem Based Learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Graaff, Erik; Guerra, Aida

    , the key principles remain the same everywhere. Graaff & Kolmos (2003) identify the main PBL principles as follows: 1. Problem orientation 2. Project organization through teams or group work 3. Participant-directed 4. Experiental learning 5. Activity-based learning 6. Interdisciplinary learning and 7...... model and in general problem based and project based learning. We apply the principle of teach as you preach. The poster aims to outline the visitors’ workshop programme showing the results of some recent evaluations.......Problem-Based Learning (PBL) is an innovative method to organize the learning process in such a way that the students actively engage in finding answers by themselves. During the past 40 years PBL has evolved and diversified resulting in a multitude in variations in models and practices. However...

  8. Computational problems in engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Mladenov, Valeri

    2014-01-01

    This book provides readers with modern computational techniques for solving variety of problems from electrical, mechanical, civil and chemical engineering. Mathematical methods are presented in a unified manner, so they can be applied consistently to problems in applied electromagnetics, strength of materials, fluid mechanics, heat and mass transfer, environmental engineering, biomedical engineering, signal processing, automatic control and more.   • Features contributions from distinguished researchers on significant aspects of current numerical methods and computational mathematics; • Presents actual results and innovative methods that provide numerical solutions, while minimizing computing times; • Includes new and advanced methods and modern variations of known techniques that can solve difficult scientific problems efficiently.  

  9. Distributed Problem-Solving

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chemi, Tatiana

    2016-01-01

    This chapter aims to deconstruct some persistent myths about creativity: the myth of individualism and of the genius. By looking at literature that approaches creativity as a participatory and distributed phenomenon and by bringing empirical evidence from artists’ studios, the author presents a p......, what can educators at higher education learn from the ways creative groups solve problems? How can artists contribute to inspiring higher education?......This chapter aims to deconstruct some persistent myths about creativity: the myth of individualism and of the genius. By looking at literature that approaches creativity as a participatory and distributed phenomenon and by bringing empirical evidence from artists’ studios, the author presents...... a perspective that is relevant to higher education. The focus here is on how artists solve problems in distributed paths, and on the elements of creative collaboration. Creative problem-solving will be looked at as an ongoing dialogue that artists engage with themselves, with others, with recipients...

  10. Spent fuel transportation problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kondrat'ev, A.N.; Kosarev, Yu.A.; Yulikov, E.A.

    1977-01-01

    In this paper, problems of transportation of nuclear spent fuel to reprocessing plants are discussed. The solutions proposed are directed toward the achievement of the transportation as economic and safe as possible. The increase of the nuclear power plants number in the USSR and the great distances between these plants and the reprocessing plants involve an intensification of the spent fuel transportation. Higher burnup and holdup time reduction cause the necessity of more bulky casks. In this connection, the economic problems become still more important. One of the ways of the problem solution is the development of rational and cheap cask designs. Also, the enforcement in the world of the environmental and personnel health protection requires to increase the transportation reliability and safety. The paper summarizes safe transportation rules with clarifying the following questions: the increase of the transport unit quantity of the spent fuel; rational shipment organization that minimizes vehicle turnover cycle duration; development of the reliable calculation methods to determine strength, thermal conditions and nuclear safety of transport packaging as applied to the vehicles of high capacity; maximum unification of vehicles, calculation methods and documents; and cask testing on models and in pilot scale on specific test rigs to assure that they meet the international safe fuel shipment rules. Besides, some considerations on the choice and use of structural materials for casks are given, and problems of manufacturing such casks from uranium and lead are considered, as well as problems of the development of fireproof shells, control instrumentation, vehicles decontamination, etc. All the problems are considered from the point of view of normal and accidental shipment conditions. Conclusions are presented [ru

  11. Integrating Multimedia and Physics Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Titus, Aaron P.

    1997-11-01

    Although expert problem solvers typically use pictorial representations when solving problems, novices tend to proceed from the given problem statement to a mathematical solution without first developing a visual representation of the problem. For this reason, multimedia may be an effective tool to enhance students' success at solving problems. However, merely presenting a video of motion described in a problem is not necessarily the most effective method as was found in a recent study of students' responses on Web-based homework questions. Rather, multimedia-focused problems, where data relevant to solving the problem is embedded in a video or animation, may be the best use of multimedia in problem solving. Examples of multimedia-enhanced problems and multimedia-focused problems will be demonstrated, and their differences from "traditional" problems will be highlighted. Recommendations on the use of multimedia with problem solving and preliminary data on students' success at solving these problems will be discussed.

  12. Electric circuits problem solver

    CERN Document Server

    REA, Editors of

    2012-01-01

    Each Problem Solver is an insightful and essential study and solution guide chock-full of clear, concise problem-solving gems. All your questions can be found in one convenient source from one of the most trusted names in reference solution guides. More useful, more practical, and more informative, these study aids are the best review books and textbook companions available. Nothing remotely as comprehensive or as helpful exists in their subject anywhere. Perfect for undergraduate and graduate studies.Here in this highly useful reference is the finest overview of electric circuits currently av

  13. Advanced calculus problem solver

    CERN Document Server

    REA, Editors of

    2012-01-01

    Each Problem Solver is an insightful and essential study and solution guide chock-full of clear, concise problem-solving gems. All your questions can be found in one convenient source from one of the most trusted names in reference solution guides. More useful, more practical, and more informative, these study aids are the best review books and textbook companions available. Nothing remotely as comprehensive or as helpful exists in their subject anywhere. Perfect for undergraduate and graduate studies.Here in this highly useful reference is the finest overview of advanced calculus currently av

  14. Problems over Information Systems

    KAUST Repository

    Chikalov, Igor

    2011-01-01

    The problems of estimation of the minimum average time complexity of decision trees and design of efficient algorithms are complex in general case. The upper bounds described in Chap. 2.4.3 can not be applied directly due to large computational complexity of the parameter M(z). Under reasonable assumptions about the relation of P and NP, there are no polynomial time algorithms with good approximation ratio [12, 32]. One of the possible solutions is to consider particular classes of problems and improve the existing results using characteristics of the considered classes. © Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2011.

  15. Solving Environmental Problems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ørding Olsen, Anders; Sofka, Wolfgang; Grimpe, Christoph

    2017-01-01

    for Research and Technological Development (FP7), our results indicate that the problem-solving potential of a search strategy increases with the diversity of existing knowledge of the partners in a consortium and with the experience of the partners involved. Moreover, we identify a substantial negative effect...... dispersed. Hence, firms need to collaborate. We shed new light on collaborative search strategies led by firms in general and for solving environmental problems in particular. Both topics are largely absent in the extant open innovation literature. Using data from the European Seventh Framework Program...

  16. The Problem Revisited

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ovesen, Nis

    2015-01-01

    Problem-based learning (PBL) is becoming increasingly popular in design educations, but how is it taught and practiced? This paper presents a case study of a three-day workshop that has the purpose of introducing PBL to design students. A theoretical background on PBL and problems in design is es...... is established and is backing up the case study. The study shows that design engineering and architectural students without experience in PBL in general finds the approach to be beneficial when working on a design challenge in a student team....

  17. Matrices in Engineering Problems

    CERN Document Server

    Tobias, Marvin

    2011-01-01

    This book is intended as an undergraduate text introducing matrix methods as they relate to engineering problems. It begins with the fundamentals of mathematics of matrices and determinants. Matrix inversion is discussed, with an introduction of the well known reduction methods. Equation sets are viewed as vector transformations, and the conditions of their solvability are explored. Orthogonal matrices are introduced with examples showing application to many problems requiring three dimensional thinking. The angular velocity matrix is shown to emerge from the differentiation of the 3-D orthogo

  18. Calculus problems and solutions

    CERN Document Server

    Ginzburg, Abraham

    2011-01-01

    Ideal for self-instruction as well as for classroom use, this text helps students improve their understanding and problem-solving skills in analysis, analytic geometry, and higher algebra. More than 1,200 problems appear in the text, with concise explanations of the basic notions and theorems to be used in their solution. Many are followed by complete answers; solutions for the others appear at the end of the book. Topics include sequences, functions of a single variable, limit of a function, differential calculus for functions of a single variable, fundamental theorems and applications of dif

  19. [Medical problems of musicians].

    Science.gov (United States)

    van de Wiel, Albert; Rietveld, Boni

    2010-01-01

    Most individuals enjoy making music, but pleasure may be diminished by physical complaints. The most common complaints in musicians include injuries of the upper part of the body including the shoulder and spine, skin disorders and hearing problems. Injuries are not so much related to the extent of rehearsing and playing but are mostly the result of a wrong position and misuse of the instrument. Adequate preparation before playing and professional coaching to avoid injuries or to detect problems at an early stage are exceptions rather than the rule. Because of the large number of amateur and professional musicians in the Netherlands, music medicine deserves a more prominent role.

  20. Classic Problems of Probability

    CERN Document Server

    Gorroochurn, Prakash

    2012-01-01

    "A great book, one that I will certainly add to my personal library."—Paul J. Nahin, Professor Emeritus of Electrical Engineering, University of New Hampshire Classic Problems of Probability presents a lively account of the most intriguing aspects of statistics. The book features a large collection of more than thirty classic probability problems which have been carefully selected for their interesting history, the way they have shaped the field, and their counterintuitive nature. From Cardano's 1564 Games of Chance to Jacob Bernoulli's 1713 Golden Theorem to Parrondo's 1996 Perplexin

  1. Toward Solving the Problem of Problem Solving: An Analysis Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roesler, Rebecca A.

    2016-01-01

    Teaching is replete with problem solving. Problem solving as a skill, however, is seldom addressed directly within music teacher education curricula, and research in music education has not examined problem solving systematically. A framework detailing problem-solving component skills would provide a needed foundation. I observed problem solving…

  2. Designing, implementing and evaluating an online problem-based learning (PBL) environment--a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Manwa L; Bridges, Susan; Law, Sam Po; Whitehill, Tara

    2014-01-01

    Problem-based learning (PBL) has been shown to be effective for promoting student competencies in self-directed and collaborative learning, critical thinking, self-reflection and tackling novel situations. However, the need for face-to-face interactions at the same place and time severely limits the potential of traditional PBL. The requirements of space and for meeting at a specific location at the same time create timetabling difficulties. Such limitations need to be tackled before all potentials of PBL learning can be realized. The present study aimed at designing and implementing an online PBL environment for undergraduate speech/language pathology students, and assessing the associated pedagogical effectiveness. A group of eight PBL students were randomly selected to participate in the study. They underwent 4 weeks of online PBL using Adobe Connect. Upon completion of the experiment, they were assessed via a self-reported questionnaire and quantitative comparison with traditional PBL students based on the same written assignment. The questionnaire revealed that all participating students enjoyed online PBL, without any perceived negative effects on learning. Online PBL unanimously saved the students travel time to and from school. Statistical analysis indicated no significant difference in assignment grades between the online and traditional PBL groups, indicating that online PBL learning appears to be similarly effective as traditional face-to-face PBL learning.

  3. NURSING AND ITS PROBLEMS*

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1971-07-10

    Jul 10, 1971 ... not enough stress was laid on the exceedingly importa~t part played by the nursing staff .... trained to take more of the load off the sister, and on the other hand the sister should .... a world problem. Employment of Nurse Aides.

  4. The Caterer's Problem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krause, Eugene F.

    1983-01-01

    An approach to teaching problem solving to preservice and in-service middle school teachers is described. They examined an unsolved question as a class research project. The process of developing the solution is detailed, and difficulties contained within the process are noted. (MP)

  5. Introspection in Problem Solving

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jäkel, Frank; Schreiber, Cornell

    2013-01-01

    Problem solving research has encountered an impasse. Since the seminal work of Newell und Simon (1972) researchers do not seem to have made much theoretical progress (Batchelder and Alexander, 2012; Ohlsson, 2012). In this paper we argue that one factor that is holding back the field is the widespread rejection of introspection among cognitive…

  6. Problem Solving in Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greene, Kim; Heyck-Williams, Jeff; Timpson Gray, Elicia

    2017-01-01

    Problem solving spans all grade levels and content areas, as evidenced by this compilation of projects from schools across the United States. In one project, high school girls built a solar-powered tent to serve their city's homeless population. In another project, 4th graders explored historic Jamestown to learn about the voices lost to history.…

  7. Target reactor development problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lathrop, K.D.; Vigil, J.C.

    1977-01-01

    Target-blanket design studies are discussed for an accelerator-breeder concept employing a linear accelerator in conjunction with a modified conventional power reactor to produce both fissile fuel and power. The following problems in target and blanket system design are discussed: radiation damage, heat removal, neutronic design, and economics

  8. A Geometric Dissection Problem

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 7; Issue 7. A Geometric Dissection Problem. M N Deshpande. Think It Over Volume 7 Issue 7 July 2002 pp 91-91. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: https://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/007/07/0091-0091. Author Affiliations.

  9. Microbiological problems in radiosterilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Czerniawski, E.

    1997-01-01

    Microbiological problems connected with radiosterilization of medical materials, pharmaceuticals and cosmetics have been discussed in detail. Dose-response relationship for different bacteria has been shown. Recommended sterilization and postirradiation control procedures have been described. 24 refs, 6 figs, 5 tabs

  10. Multiobjective suspension control problem

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jager, de A.G.

    1995-01-01

    The paper describes a (controller) design problem in the field of suspension systems for transport vehicles. A ten degrees-of-freedom model for a tractor-semitrailer vehicle is presented, using parameters derived from a real vehicle, which should be used for design and verification purposes. Road

  11. Catastrophes control problem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Velichenko, V.V.

    1994-01-01

    The problem of catastrophe control is discussed. Catastrophe control aims to withdraw responsible engineering constructions out of the catastrophe. The mathematical framework of catastrophes control systems is constructed. It determines the principles of systems filling by the concrete physical contents and, simultaneously, permits to employ modern control methods for the synthesis of optimal withdrawal strategy for protected objects

  12. Unfolding a Problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Currier, Sarah Cox

    2015-01-01

    In this article, Sarah Currier, a math specialist at Elizabeth Hall International School in Minnesota, describes how she used origami in a deliberate manner to teach content. She shares how she uses paper folding to teach mathematical concepts, reinforce vocabulary, and as a problem-solving model. She also offers ideas for using origami in other…

  13. The solar neutrino problem

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    to a research problem that now commands the attention of a large number of physicists ... the first comparison between theory and experiment was made. .... prior probability assigned to hypothesis А. The integration in the denominator is .... The key feature of figure 5, which is well known, is the marked reduction in the Be.

  14. Problem-based learning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loyens, Sofie; Kirschner, Paul A.; Paas, Fred

    2010-01-01

    Loyens, S. M. M., Kirschner, P. A., & Paas, F. (2011). Problem-based learning. In S. Graham (Editor-in-Chief), A. Bus, S. Major, & L. Swanson (Associate Editors), APA educational psychology handbook: Vol. 3. Application to learning and teaching (pp. 403-425). Washington, DC: American Psychological

  15. "Righting" the Writing Problem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaughnessy, Michael F.; Eastham, Nicholas

    The problem of college students' writing skills or lack thereof is generally agreed upon in academia. One cause is the inordinate amount of multiple choice/true false/fill in the blank type of tests that students take in high school and college. Not only is there is a dearth of actual classes in writing available, few students recognize the need…

  16. The Bycatch Problem

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 12; Issue 5. The Bycatch Problem - Effects of Commercial Fisheries on Non-Target Species in India. Aaron Savio Lobo. General Article Volume 12 Issue 5 May 2007 pp 60-70 ...

  17. U(1) problem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McDougall, N.A. (Oxford Univ. (UK). Dept. of Theoretical Physics)

    1984-08-23

    The resolution of the U(1) problem requires the quark condensates to have a specific THETA dependence. We show that the required THETA dependence arises naturally upon application of the index theorem during the calculation of the dynamically generated quark mass.

  18. The Problem of Consciousness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crick, Francis; Koch, Christof

    1992-01-01

    Discusses approaches to the problem presented in understanding consciousness as a yet undiscovered process of interacting neuron activity. Presents the historical context of research in the area of human awareness and identifies research necessary to scientifically explain how the brain relates to the mind. (MCO)

  19. Dynamical impurity problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Emery, V.J.; Kivelson, S.A.

    1993-01-01

    In the past few years there has been a resurgence of interest in dynamical impurity problems, as a result of developments in the theory of correlated electron systems. The general dynamical impurity problem is a set of conduction electrons interacting with an impurity which has internal degrees of freedom. The simplest and earliest example, the Kondo problem, has attracted interest since the mid-sixties not only because of its physical importance but also as an example of a model displaying logarithmic divergences order by order in perturbation theory. It provided one of the earliest applications of the renormalization group method, which is designed to deal with just such a situation. As we shall see, the antiferromagnetic Kondo model is controlled by a strong-coupling fixed point, and the essence of the renormalization group solution is to carry out the global renormalization numerically starting from the original (weak-coupling) Hamiltonian. In these lectures, we shall describe an alternative route in which we identify an exactly solvable model which renormalizes to the same fixed point as the original dynamical impurity problem. This approach is akin to determining the critical behavior at a second order phase transition point by solving any model in a given universality class

  20. Human Population Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emmel, Thomas C.; Sligh, Michael M.

    1970-01-01

    Asserts that overpopulation is the most pressing world problem. Topics discussed include population control in primitive societies, population growth and control in modern societies, methods of motivational population control, consequences of no population control, and mass famines during the 1970's in underdeveloped countries. Cities 33…

  1. Problem Patron Manual.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Marion, Comp.; And Others

    This document presents guidelines for handling disruptive behavior in the Schenectady County Public Library (New York). Specific responses are listed for dealing with questions about library selection policy and sudden patron illness or injury. Also listed are responses to problem situations involving angry or irate patrons, assault or physically…

  2. Problems in photoradiation effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milinchuk, V.K.

    1986-01-01

    This paper discusses the most interesting photoradiation effects observed in recent years and directs attention to problems whose solution has a bearing on progress in photoradiation chemistry, and which also are significant for divisions of modern physical chemistry such as the kinetics and mechanisms of elementary processes in solid organic materials, the radiation resistance of organic materials, and aging in polymers

  3. Dynamical impurity problems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Emery, V.J. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States); Kivelson, S.A. [California Univ., Los Angeles, CA (United States). Dept. of Physics

    1993-12-31

    In the past few years there has been a resurgence of interest in dynamical impurity problems, as a result of developments in the theory of correlated electron systems. The general dynamical impurity problem is a set of conduction electrons interacting with an impurity which has internal degrees of freedom. The simplest and earliest example, the Kondo problem, has attracted interest since the mid-sixties not only because of its physical importance but also as an example of a model displaying logarithmic divergences order by order in perturbation theory. It provided one of the earliest applications of the renormalization group method, which is designed to deal with just such a situation. As we shall see, the antiferromagnetic Kondo model is controlled by a strong-coupling fixed point, and the essence of the renormalization group solution is to carry out the global renormalization numerically starting from the original (weak-coupling) Hamiltonian. In these lectures, we shall describe an alternative route in which we identify an exactly solvable model which renormalizes to the same fixed point as the original dynamical impurity problem. This approach is akin to determining the critical behavior at a second order phase transition point by solving any model in a given universality class.

  4. A Large-Scale Study of Fingerprint Matching Systems for Sensor Interoperability Problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helala AlShehri

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The fingerprint is a commonly used biometric modality that is widely employed for authentication by law enforcement agencies and commercial applications. The designs of existing fingerprint matching methods are based on the hypothesis that the same sensor is used to capture fingerprints during enrollment and verification. Advances in fingerprint sensor technology have raised the question about the usability of current methods when different sensors are employed for enrollment and verification; this is a fingerprint sensor interoperability problem. To provide insight into this problem and assess the status of state-of-the-art matching methods to tackle this problem, we first analyze the characteristics of fingerprints captured with different sensors, which makes cross-sensor matching a challenging problem. We demonstrate the importance of fingerprint enhancement methods for cross-sensor matching. Finally, we conduct a comparative study of state-of-the-art fingerprint recognition methods and provide insight into their abilities to address this problem. We performed experiments using a public database (FingerPass that contains nine datasets captured with different sensors. We analyzed the effects of different sensors and found that cross-sensor matching performance deteriorates when different sensors are used for enrollment and verification. In view of our analysis, we propose future research directions for this problem.

  5. A Large-Scale Study of Fingerprint Matching Systems for Sensor Interoperability Problem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    AlShehri, Helala; Hussain, Muhammad; AboAlSamh, Hatim; AlZuair, Mansour

    2018-03-28

    The fingerprint is a commonly used biometric modality that is widely employed for authentication by law enforcement agencies and commercial applications. The designs of existing fingerprint matching methods are based on the hypothesis that the same sensor is used to capture fingerprints during enrollment and verification. Advances in fingerprint sensor technology have raised the question about the usability of current methods when different sensors are employed for enrollment and verification; this is a fingerprint sensor interoperability problem. To provide insight into this problem and assess the status of state-of-the-art matching methods to tackle this problem, we first analyze the characteristics of fingerprints captured with different sensors, which makes cross-sensor matching a challenging problem. We demonstrate the importance of fingerprint enhancement methods for cross-sensor matching. Finally, we conduct a comparative study of state-of-the-art fingerprint recognition methods and provide insight into their abilities to address this problem. We performed experiments using a public database (FingerPass) that contains nine datasets captured with different sensors. We analyzed the effects of different sensors and found that cross-sensor matching performance deteriorates when different sensors are used for enrollment and verification. In view of our analysis, we propose future research directions for this problem.

  6. Towards a more efficient environmental policy. A socio-economic analysis of four persistent environmental problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-11-01

    For the benefit of the National Environmental Policy Plan that will be published in 2001, the Netherlands Bureau for Economic Policy Analysis analysed four persistent environmental problems. These problems are the environmental effects of the manure surplus in the agricultural sector; the climate problem; the acidification by traffic and the air traffic noise around the airport Schiphol. This study not only looks ahead, but also looks back on 30 years of environmental policy. From a welfare economic perspective an analysis is made of the efficiency and effectiveness of that policy. Several questions are answered,e.g.: how could the manure problem of such a small sector as the livestock breeding persist for so many years?; how effective were the agreements with the industry and other sectors on energy efficiency improvement?; what made the acidification policy directed on traffic so successful?; why is the noise production of air traffic still a problem whereas the number of seriously bothered houses is decreased? The answers on these questions provide information which can be useful for the formulation of the future environmental policy. This information refers to the conditions for formulating adequate policy goals, the relation between those goals and policy instruments and the differences between direct versus indirect steering. This report also gives some points of interest for tackling complex international environmental problems. refs

  7. NUMERICAL SIMULATION OF ELECTRICAL IMPEDANCE TOMOGRAPHY PROBLEM AND STUDY OF APPROACH BASED ON FINITE VOLUME METHOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ye. S. Sherina

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This research has been aimed to carry out a study of peculiarities that arise in a numerical simulation of the electrical impedance tomography (EIT problem. Static EIT image reconstruction is sensitive to a measurement noise and approximation error. A special consideration has been given to reducing of the approximation error, which originates from numerical implementation drawbacks. This paper presents in detail two numerical approaches for solving EIT forward problem. The finite volume method (FVM on unstructured triangular mesh is introduced. In order to compare this approach, the finite element (FEM based forward solver was implemented, which has gained the most popularity among researchers. The calculated potential distribution with the assumed initial conductivity distribution has been compared to the analytical solution of a test Neumann boundary problem and to the results of problem simulation by means of ANSYS FLUENT commercial software. Two approaches to linearized EIT image reconstruction are discussed. Reconstruction of the conductivity distribution is an ill-posed problem, typically requiring a large amount of computation and resolved by minimization techniques. The objective function to be minimized is constructed of measured voltage and calculated boundary voltage on the electrodes. A classical modified Newton type iterative method and the stochastic differential evolution method are employed. A software package has been developed for the problem under investigation. Numerical tests were conducted on simulated data. The obtained results could be helpful to researches tackling the hardware and software issues for medical applications of EIT.

  8. TAGUCHI METHOD FOR THREE-STAGE ASSEMBLY FLOW SHOP SCHEDULING PROBLEM WITH BLOCKING AND SEQUENCE-DEPENDENT SET UP TIMES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AREF MALEKI-DARONKOLAEI

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This article considers a three-stage assembly flowshop scheduling problem minimizing the weighted sum of mean completion time and makespan with sequence-dependent setup times at the first stage and blocking times between each stage. To tackle such an NP-hard, two meta-heuristic algorithms are presented. The novelty of our approach is to develop a variable neighborhood search algorithm (VNS and a well-known simulated annealing (SA for the problem. Furthermore, to enhance the performance of the (SA, its parameters are optimized by the use of Taguchi method, but to setting parameters of VNS just one parameter has been used without Taguchi. The computational results show that the proposed VNS is better in mean and standard deviation for all sizes of the problem than SA, but on the contrary about CPU Time SA outperforms VNS.

  9. Meta-heuristic algorithms for parallel identical machines scheduling problem with weighted late work criterion and common due date.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Zhenzhen; Zou, Yongxing; Kong, Xiangjie

    2015-01-01

    To our knowledge, this paper investigates the first application of meta-heuristic algorithms to tackle the parallel machines scheduling problem with weighted late work criterion and common due date ([Formula: see text]). Late work criterion is one of the performance measures of scheduling problems which considers the length of late parts of particular jobs when evaluating the quality of scheduling. Since this problem is known to be NP-hard, three meta-heuristic algorithms, namely ant colony system, genetic algorithm, and simulated annealing are designed and implemented, respectively. We also propose a novel algorithm named LDF (largest density first) which is improved from LPT (longest processing time first). The computational experiments compared these meta-heuristic algorithms with LDF, LPT and LS (list scheduling), and the experimental results show that SA performs the best in most cases. However, LDF is better than SA in some conditions, moreover, the running time of LDF is much shorter than SA.

  10. Common Sleep Problems (For Teens)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Common Sleep Problems KidsHealth / For Teens / Common Sleep Problems What's ... have emotional problems, like depression. What Happens During Sleep? You don't notice it, of course, but ...

  11. How to solve mathematical problems

    CERN Document Server

    Wickelgren, Wayne A

    1995-01-01

    Seven problem-solving techniques include inference, classification of action sequences, subgoals, contradiction, working backward, relations between problems, and mathematical representation. Also, problems from mathematics, science, and engineering with complete solutions.

  12. No Problem? No Research, Little Learning ... Big Problem!

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Ornelas Marques

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The motivation to carry out this study stemmed from the generalized perception that nowadays youth lacks the skills for the 21st century. Especially the high-level competences like critical thinking, problem solving and autonomy. Several tools can help to improve these competences (e.g. the SCRATCH programming language, but, as researchers and educators, we are mostly concerned with the skill to recognize problems. What if we do not find problems to solve? What if we do not even feel the need to find or solve problems? The problem is to recognize the problem; the next step is to equate the problem; finally we have to feel the need to solve it. No need? No invention. Recognizing a problem is probably the biggest problem of everyday life, because we are permanently faced with problems (many ill-defined problems, which we need to identify, equate and solve.

  13. FBST for Cointegration Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diniz, M.; Pereira, C. A. B.; Stern, J. M.

    2008-11-01

    In order to estimate causal relations, the time series econometrics has to be aware of spurious correlation, a problem first mentioned by Yule [21]. To solve the problem, one can work with differenced series or use multivariate models like VAR or VEC models. In this case, the analysed series are going to present a long run relation i.e. a cointegration relation. Even though the Bayesian literature about inference on VAR/VEC models is quite advanced, Bauwens et al. [2] highlight that "the topic of selecting the cointegrating rank has not yet given very useful and convincing results." This paper presents the Full Bayesian Significance Test applied to cointegration rank selection tests in multivariate (VAR/VEC) time series models and shows how to implement it using available in the literature and simulated data sets. A standard non-informative prior is assumed.

  14. Fusion reactor problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carruthers, R.

    It is pointed out that plasma parameters for a fusion reactor have been fairly accurately defined for many years, and the real plasma physics objective must be to find the means of achieving and maintaining these specifiable parameters. There is good understanding of the generic technological problems: breading blankets and shields, radiation damage, heat transfer and methods of magnet design. The required plasma parameters for fusion self-heated reactors are established at ntausub(E) approximately 2.10 14 cm -3 sec, plasma radius 1.5 to 3 m, wall loading 5 to 10 MW cm -2 , temperature 15 keV. Within this model plasma control by quasi-steady burn as a key problem is studied. It is emphasized that the future programme must interact more closely with engineering studies and should concentrate upon research which is relevant to reactor plasmas. (V.P.)

  15. RTD problems at Darlington

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McAllindon, D.; Sloan, D.; Mayer, P.

    1997-01-01

    Resistance Temperature Detectors (RTDs) and their measurement circuit components have been a significant maintenance item at Darlington. Analysis of the problems has shown that RTDs and electrical penetrations (EPs) have been the largest sources of faults. A failure mechanism in which the RTD electrical resistance shifts upward was identified as a major source of RTD failures, which prompted a detailed failure investigation by Ontario Hydro Technologies (OHT). The investigation concluded that the root cause failure mechanism is chlorine contamination of the platinum wire during manufacture which resulted in surface damage to the wire and flaking of the wire surface during operation. Electrical penetrations in Darlington are of a pre-built modular design with two crimps internal to the EP. Spurious resistance in poor quality crimps in the EPs lead to errors in resistance measurement. The problem led to a complex and costly job to insert new modules in existing spare EPs. (author)

  16. 2-Sensor Problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Segal

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: Ad-hoc networks of sensor nodes are in general semi-permanently deployed. However, the topology of such networks continuously changes over time, due to the power of some sensors wearing out to new sensors being inserted into the network, or even due to designers moving sensors around during a network re-design phase (for example, in response to a change in the requirements of the network. In this paper, we address the problem of covering a given path by a limited number of sensors — in our case to two, and show its relation to the well-studied matrix multiplication problem.

  17. Routing and scheduling problems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reinhardt, Line Blander

    couple of decades. To deliver competitive service and price, transportation today needs to be cost effective. A company requiring for things to be shipped will aim at having the freight shipped as cheaply as possible while often satisfying certain time constraints. For the transportation company......, the effectiveness of the network is of importance aiming at satisfying as many costumer demands as possible at a low cost. Routing represent a path between locations such as an origin and destination for the object routed. Sometimes routing has a time dimension as well as the physical paths. This may...... set cost making the cost of the individual vehicle routes inter-dependant. Depending on the problem type, the size of the problems and time available for solving, different solution methods can be applicable. In this thesis both heuristic methods and several exact methods are investigated depending...

  18. The generation problem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ecker, G.

    1983-01-01

    Evidence for the generation structure of quarks and leptons is reviewed. The two main aspects of the generation problem are emphasized. The concept and possible problems of horizontal symmetries are discussed. Two different mechanisms for horizontal symmetries are considered leading to a generalized permutation symmetry in SU(2)sub(L) x u(1) in one case. The second mechanism uses the discrete unbroken subgroup of an axial U(1) with hypercolour anomalies in composite models. A concrete realization in the rishon model is investigated. The two different approaches produce almost identical quark mass matrices for three generations. In addition to a correct prediction for the Cabibbo angle the models yield a very small Kobayashi-Maskawa mixing angle Theta 3 and thus provide for a natural explanation of the smallness of CP violation. (Author)

  19. Problems of judiciary trust

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vuković Slobodan

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Topic of the article is problem of trust in judiciary as a most important part of legal system. For all empirical researches so far have shown very law degree of this trust many authors were searching for the causes of this phenomenon. Among multifold causes some are special worth while to be mentioned here: historical inheritance, political pressures, delaying of judiciary decisions, respect of the laws, transferring of responsibility from political power to the judiciary, public comments of judiciary decisions, media pressures, efficiency of judiciary and police. Among inner factors author pays attention to competency of judges, modes of penal policy, modes of judges’ entitlement, problems of communication, involvement into criminal and corruptional affairs, etc.

  20. MCNP: Photon benchmark problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whalen, D.J.; Hollowell, D.E.; Hendricks, J.S.

    1991-09-01

    The recent widespread, markedly increased use of radiation transport codes has produced greater user and institutional demand for assurance that such codes give correct results. Responding to these pressing requirements for code validation, the general purpose Monte Carlo transport code MCNP has been tested on six different photon problem families. MCNP was used to simulate these six sets numerically. Results for each were compared to the set's analytical or experimental data. MCNP successfully predicted the analytical or experimental results of all six families within the statistical uncertainty inherent in the Monte Carlo method. From this we conclude that MCNP can accurately model a broad spectrum of photon transport problems. 8 refs., 30 figs., 5 tabs