WorldWideScience

Sample records for taboo

  1. Dutch taboo norms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roest, Sander A; Visser, Tessa A; Zeelenberg, René

    2018-04-01

    This article provides norms for general taboo, personal taboo, insult, valence, and arousal for 672 Dutch words, including 202 taboo words. Norms were collected using a 7-point Likert scale and based on ratings by psychology students from the Erasmus University Rotterdam in The Netherlands. The sample consisted of 87 psychology students (58 females, 29 males). We obtained high reliability based on split-half analyses. Our norms show high correlations with arousal and valence ratings collected by another Dutch word-norms study (Moors et al.,, Behavior Research Methods, 45, 169-177, 2013). Our results show that the previously found quadratic relation (i.e., U-shaped pattern) between valence and arousal also holds when only taboo words are considered. Additionally, words rated high on taboo tended to be rated low on valence, but some words related to sex rated high on both taboo and valence. Words that rated high on taboo rated high on insult, again with the exception of words related to sex many of which rated low on insult. Finally, words rated high on taboo and insult rated high on arousal. The Dutch Taboo Norms (DTN) database is a useful tool for researchers interested in the effects of taboo words on cognitive processing. The data associated with this paper can be accessed via the Open Science Framework ( https://osf.io/vk782/ ).

  2. Recalling taboo and nontaboo words.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jay, Timothy; Caldwell-Harris, Catherine; King, Krista

    2008-01-01

    People remember emotional and taboo words better than neutral words. It is well known that words that are processed at a deep (i.e., semantic) level are recalled better than words processed at a shallow (i.e., purely visual) level. To determine how depth of processing influences recall of emotional and taboo words, a levels of processing paradigm was used. Whether this effect holds for emotional and taboo words has not been previously investigated. Two experiments demonstrated that taboo and emotional words benefit less from deep processing than do neutral words. This is consistent with the proposal that memories for taboo and emotional words are a function of the arousal level they evoke, even under shallow encoding conditions. Recall was higher for taboo words, even when taboo words were cued to be recalled after neutral and emotional words. The superiority of taboo word recall is consistent with cognitive neuroscience and brain imaging research.

  3. Teaching Taboo in the Classroom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgeta Rata

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The goal of the paper is to show how important it is to teach taboo in the classroom. The teaching of taboos is a rather new approach in education. Based on both classical (language dictionaries and modern (internet sites sources, the authors define taboo with the help of both English language dictionaries and specialised dictionaries and encyclopaedias, and provide the etymology and the typology of the word taboo (acts/actions/activities/behaviours, objects, people, places, times, and words going from traditional to current ones. The degree of novelty of the paper is rather high. Research limitations are due to the lack of studies on this topic in Romanian literature. The implications are deep and closely related to the degree of relevance of the paper.

  4. Families Facing the Nuclear Taboo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, Judith Bula

    1988-01-01

    Discusses attitudes of 12 families participating in group which was formed to focus on issues related to the possibility of a nuclear disaster. Why and how these families are facing the nuclear taboo plus various outcomes of doing so are discussed as well as the role of the professional in encouraging such openness about these difficult issues.…

  5. Arab Media Discourse: Breaking Taboos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    El Mustapha Lahlali

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the development and change of Arab media discourse since mid-1990s. The paper looks at how the production and consumption of media discourse have changed dramatically in the Arab world over the last decade or so, notably in relation to taboos such as religion, governance and gender. The paper argues that transnational Arab media, particularly al-Jazeera, have contributed to this change by adopting a liberal and critical approach when dealing with Arab taboos. This change is clearly reflected in the new discourse adopted by both the Arab public and Arab media. Such a discourse practice shapes and is shaped by a new Arab social, cultural and political practice.

  6. Food taboos: their origins and purposes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meyer-Rochow Victor

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Food taboos are known from virtually all human societies. Most religions declare certain food items fit and others unfit for human consumption. Dietary rules and regulations may govern particular phases of the human life cycle and may be associated with special events such as menstrual period, pregnancy, childbirth, lactation, and – in traditional societies – preparation for the hunt, battle, wedding, funeral, etc. On a comparative basis many food taboos seem to make no sense at all, as to what may be declared unfit by one group may be perfectly acceptable to another. On the other hand, food taboos have a long history and one ought to expect a sound explanation for the existence (and persistence of certain dietary customs in a given culture. Yet, this is a highly debated view and no single theory may explain why people employ special food taboos. This paper wants to revive interest in food taboo research and attempts a functionalist's explanation. However, to illustrate some of the complexity of possible reasons for food taboo five examples have been chosen, namely traditional food taboos in orthodox Jewish and Hindu societies as well as reports on aspects of dietary restrictions in communities with traditional lifestyles of Malaysia, Papua New Guinea, and Nigeria. An ecological or medical background is apparent for many, including some that are seen as religious or spiritual in origin. On the one hand food taboos can help utilizing a resource more efficiently; on the other food taboos can lead to the protection of a resource. Food taboos, whether scientifically correct or not, are often meant to protect the human individual and the observation, for example, that certain allergies and depression are associated with each other could have led to declaring food items taboo that were identified as causal agents for the allergies. Moreover, any food taboo, acknowledged by a particular group of people as part of its ways, aids in the

  7. Taboo Language Expressed in American Film "Crank 2"

    OpenAIRE

    RAHMA, ROSIKAH

    2015-01-01

    Keywords: Taboo, types of taboo words, types of anger express, Crank 2. In communication, people use many language. Sometimes people use formal and informal language in communication. Many people communicate with inapproriate language as speaking with friends or family by using impolite language for example taboo language.As we know, taboo language is an unfavourable language in society. But, taboo language becomes common phenomenon today. People free to speak what they want, there are many p...

  8. [Coercion in Psychiatry - a taboo?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meise, Ullrich; Frajo-Apor, Beatrice; Stippler, Stippler; Wancata, Johannes

    2011-01-01

    History shows that the discussion concerning coercive measures against mentally ill is as old as psychiatry itself. The dilemma of psychiatry lies in its double role - having both a therapeutic and a regulatory function. Violence against sick and disabled people conflicts with the ethical principles of helping professions. This, however, is where the danger lies: that the violent parts of psychiatric work - which in the opinion of experts cannot be entirely avoided - are repressed or seen as taboo and are therefore more difficult to control. Comparisons between EU countries of the nature, frequency and duration of coercive measures are difficult because of the heterogeneity of regulation and differences in established practice. Scientific examination of this issue seems to be insufficient. There are only a few studies on important issues such as how patients rate these measures. An open and thorough debate about the meaning and meaninglessness of coercion and violence in psychiatric treatment would be necessary to prevent "routine violence" or the excessive use of force against the mentally ill.

  9. A Dialogue on Menstrual Taboo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manju Kaundal

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Today in the 21st century, we may boast of gender equality and women empowerment but the truth is somewhat implausible. Today women may have excelled in many spheres of life but, somewhere, she is still struggling to get out of her veil. In the name of tradition a women is always told to follow the rules what the society has set for her. A look at major religions of the world shows that, without exception, they have placed restrictions on menstruating women. Judaism, Christianity, Islam, Hinduism and Buddhism have all made statements about menstruation and its negative effect, leading to prohibitions about attending places of worship, cooking, physical intimacy and sometimes requiring women to live separately at this time. Present paper is a compilation of the information available on the menstrual taboo and various practices regarding it. For this extensive search was done on internet along with personal observations. The present study is carried out in order to provoke the need for increased research on the psychosocial aspects of menstruation by exploring the attitudes of society toward this monthly event.

  10. Nutritional Practices and Taboos Among Pregnant Women ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2016 Annals of Medical and Health Sciences Research | Published by Wolters Kluwer - ... Background: Food taboos among rural women have been identified as one of the factors .... items and incorrect knowledge regarding their benefits can ..... 2003;28:183‑9. 33. Ngozi PO. Pica practices of pregnant women in Nairobi,.

  11. Taboo advertising - Response to taboo in advertising - A study of the influence of age and gender

    OpenAIRE

    Schnaider, Jonathan; Härnsäter, David

    2015-01-01

    Problem: Consumer characteristics have proved to be important influencers in how advertisements are perceived among consumers. Researchers have started to investigate if this assumption is valuable also in special and uncommon marketing strategies. A new field of research regarding advertising is the study of taboo themes. Researchers have so far mainly investigated how consumer respond to advertisements containing themes of taboo, but less research examines the influence of consumer characte...

  12. Teaching Cultural Taboos and Taboo Language for Intercultural Awareness and Understanding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgeta Rata

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The goal of the paper is to show that language can support social and intercultural competence of both students and teachers: one of the ways to do it is teaching cultural taboos and taboo language for intercultural awareness and understanding. The current state of the art in the field points to an increasing interest in the teaching of taboos. The material we analysed consisted in 238 offensive, vulgar and obscene English words that both students and teachers should know to attain social and intercultural competence. The method used is the descriptive one. The degree of novelty is rather high in our cultural area. Results show that there are 134 offensive (slang words and expressions (referring to the country of origin or to an ethnic group, to sex and sex-related issues (sexual orientation, to race, etc., 75 vulgar words and expressions (referring to sex and sex-related issues, to body parts, to people, etc., and 29 obscene words and expressions (referring to body secretions, to sex and sex-related issues, to people, etc.. There seems to be no research limitations given the lexicographic sources that we used. The implications of teaching cultural taboos and taboo language at tertiary level concern both the students and teachers and the organisation they belong to. The paper is original and relevant given the process of globalisation.

  13. Taboos and social contracts: Tools for ecosystem management ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Traditional taboos and social contracts played an important role in managing the Manambolomaty RAMSAR site. Taboos are defined as a prohibition imposed by social custom as a protective measure' and social contracts are – in conservation sense – a common agreement for achieving conservation, sustainable ...

  14. Taboos and conflicts in decision making

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Hanselmann

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies suggest that choices are perceived as difficult as well as negatively emotion-laden when they tap into moral considerations. However, we propose that the involvement of moral issues and values can also facilitate decisions because people often insistently preclude them from trade-offs with other values. Because such values are treated as inviolable and absolute, they are called sacred values (e.g., Tetlock et al., 2000. Two experiments examined the influence of sacred values (measured by a recent self-report scale and variation of trade-off type (taboo, tragic, routine trade-offs on perceived decision difficulty and negative emotions. As hypothesized, decision difficulty and negative emotions show diverging patterns as a function of sacred values and trade-off types. When the decision situation involved two conflicting sacred values (i.e., tragic trade-off, people perceived the decision task as emotionally stressful and difficult. However, when the decision situation was associated with only one sacred value (i.e., taboo trade-off, people perceived the task as more negatively emotion-laden, but as easier to solve, compared to a situation not involving sacred values (i.e., routine trade-off. These findings suggest that reliance on sacred values may work as a heuristic.

  15. The Relations Among Threatened Species, Their Protection, and Taboos

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    Johan Colding

    1997-06-01

    Full Text Available We analyzed the role of taboos for the protection of species listed as "threatened" by the World Conservation Union (IUCN, and also for species known to be endemic and keystone. The study was limited to taboos that totally avoid or prohibit any use of particular species and their populations. We call them specific-species taboos . Through a literature review, 70 currently existing examples of specific-species taboos were identified and analyzed. The species avoided were grouped into biological classes. Threat categories were determined for each species, based on the IUCN Red Data Book. We found that ~ 30% of the identified taboos prohibit any use of species listed as threatened by IUCN. Of the specific-species taboos, 60% are set on reptiles and mammals. In these two classes, ~ 50% of the species are threatened, representing all of the threatened species in our analysis, with the exception of one bird species. Both endemic and keystone species that are important for ecosystem functions are avoided by specific-species taboos. Specific-species taboos have important ecological ramifications for the protection of threatened and ecologically important populations of species. We do not suggest that specific-species taboos are placed on species because they are, or have been, endangered; instead, we emphasize that species are avoided for a variety of other reasons. It is urgent to identify and analyze resource practices and social mechanisms of traditional societies, such as taboos, and to investigate their possible ecological significance. Although it may provide insights of value for conservation, not only of species, but also of ecosystem processes and functions, such information is being lost rapidly.

  16. Awareness of traditional beliefs and taboos on pregnancy and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Awareness of traditional beliefs and taboos on pregnancy and lactation in some ... concoctions, inoculation with black powder were all forms of protection. Finally, the paper recommends strategies to be employed by medical librarians to ...

  17. The taboos attached to the translation of biological terms from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The taboos attached to the translation of biological terms from English into Northern Sotho. ... terms in such a way that the readership for whom the translation is intended will not feel offended by the terms used. ... AJOL African Journals Online.

  18. Native American Death Taboo: Implications for Health Care Providers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colclough, Yoshiko Yamashita

    2017-07-01

    This study was conducted to highlight Native American (NA) perspectives on death taboo in order to examine the cultural appropriateness of hospice services for NA patients, if any. Searching literature that addressed taboo and death from historical, psychological, sociological, and anthropological aspects, a comparison of death perspectives was made between NAs and European Americans. A culturally sensitive transition from palliative care to hospice care was suggested for NA patients and their family.

  19. De-tabooing dying control - a grounded theory study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Dying is inescapable yet remains a neglected issue in modern health care. The research question in this study was “what is going on in the field of dying today?” What emerged was to eventually present a grounded theory of control of dying focusing specifically on how people react in relation to issues about euthanasia and physician-assisted suicide (PAS). Methods Classic grounded theory was used to analyze interviews with 55 laypersons and health care professionals in North America and Europe, surveys on attitudes to PAS among physicians and the Swedish general public, and scientific literature, North American discussion forum websites, and news sites. Results Open awareness of the nature and timing of a patient’s death became common in health care during the 1960s in the Western world. Open dying awareness contexts can be seen as the start of a weakening of a taboo towards controlled dying called de-tabooing. The growth of the hospice movement and palliative care, but also the legalization of euthanasia and PAS in the Benelux countries, and PAS in Montana, Oregon and Washington further represents de-tabooing dying control. An attitude positioning between the taboo of dying control and a growing taboo against questioning patient autonomy and self-determination called de-paternalizing is another aspect of de-tabooing. When confronted with a taboo, people first react emotionally based on “gut feelings” - emotional positioning. This is followed by reasoning and label wrestling using euphemisms and dysphemisms - reflective positioning. Rarely is de-tabooing unconditional but enabled by stipulated positioning as in soft laws (palliative care guidelines) and hard laws (euthanasia/PAS legislation). From a global perspective three shapes of dying control emerge. First, suboptimal palliative care in closed awareness contexts seen in Asian, Islamic and Latin cultures, called closed dying. Second, palliative care and sedation therapy, but not euthanasia

  20. [Food taboos in the northern region of Brazil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trigo, M; Roncada, M J; Stewien, G T; Pereira, I M

    1989-12-01

    A study was carried out into alimentary taboos in two localities (São Félix and Murumuru) in the county of Marabá, State of Pará, Brazil. Ninety families were studied in São Félix and thirty-five in Murumuru. As regards the feeding taboos found, the most frequent was that prohibiting the simultaneous ingestion of milk and various types of fruit, including especially mango, orange, cashew and pineapple. The ingestion of eggs with fruit was also considered harmful as well as the eating of mammalian flesh at the same time as fish. Restrictions based on taboos were more frequent during breast feeding than during pregnancy, especially those regarding game flesh and fish that abound in the region under study. The most frequently mentioned reasons for the restrictions were: "the combination causes harm", "the combination kills", "the combination causes congestion" and "it causes vomiting".

  1. Sex Variations in the use of taboo Expressions in Igbo Community: A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study examined sex variations in taboo expressions in Igbo culture area and ... that sex variations in taboo expressions in Igboland is an indication that gender ... all efforts aimed at eliminating all forms of discrimination on the basis of sex.

  2. Social Status, Traditional Food Taboos and Food Security: A Study ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A study was conducted to examine adherence to traditional food taboos by women in Imo State, and relate that to social status and food security. Data was collected from 72 women across the three agricultural zones of the State. It was found that age, income and education are some factors affecting adherence to these ...

  3. A close shave: The taboo on female body hair

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smelik, A.M.

    2015-01-01

    In the past two decades body hair has fast become a taboo for women. The empirical data of sociological and medical research reveal that the vast majority of women remove most of their body hair since the beginning of this century. Body hair is typically a marker that polices significant boundaries:

  4. The allure of the forbidden: breaking taboos, frustration, and attraction to violent video games.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitaker, Jodi L; Melzer, André; Steffgen, Georges; Bushman, Brad J

    2013-04-01

    Although people typically avoid engaging in antisocial or taboo behaviors, such as cheating and stealing, they may succumb in order to maximize their personal benefit. Moreover, they may be frustrated when the chance to commit a taboo behavior is withdrawn. The present study tested whether the desire to commit a taboo behavior, and the frustration from being denied such an opportunity, increases attraction to violent video games. Playing violent games allegedly offers an outlet for aggression prompted by frustration. In two experiments, some participants had no chance to commit a taboo behavior (cheating in Experiment 1, stealing in Experiment 2), others had a chance to commit a taboo behavior, and others had a withdrawn chance to commit a taboo behavior. Those in the latter group were most attracted to violent video games. Withdrawing the chance for participants to commit a taboo behavior increased their frustration, which in turn increased their attraction to violent video games.

  5. Effects of social change on wildlife consumption taboos in northeastern Madagascar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher D. Golden

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In Madagascar, the constellation of taboos serves as a form of informal regulatory institution and is foundational to Malagasy culture, regardless of class, ethnic group affiliation, and educational background. Many researchers have credited rapid social change as a crucial mechanism for disturbing taboos. Others suggest that taboos are innately historical. However, very little empirical research has assessed the effects of social change on taboos or quantified the stability of taboo systems over time. Here, we use a case study of the ensemble of taboos in northeastern Madagascar, still a critical aspect of social life there, as a lens through which we investigate its degree of stability over time. Our aim was: (1 to describe the food taboos of local Malagasy living in northeastern Madagascar, and (2 to quantitatively assess the stability of these taboos to address certain claims regarding cultural erosion using an empirical, hypothesis-driven approach with rich ethnographic material to aid in interpretation. We investigated the temporal stability of taboos and local adherence to the moral framework, finding that approximately 3.0% of 4857 taboos were not adhered to at least once during the course of a 7-yr follow-up study. Additionally, we quantitatively explored the mediating effects of migration, modernization, and the spread of Western religion on number of taboos and level of adherence. We found that the presence of extra-local groups and migration did not decrease the number of taboos abided by locally, but did increase rates of nonadherence. Modernization accompanied by generational shifts tended to increase rather than erode the number of taboos, and younger individuals adhered to taboos to the same degree as older individuals. The effect of Western religion depended on the denomination, but generally reduced the number of taboos, although it did not affect adherence. The ways in which social change affects the stability of taboos are

  6. Aging, Emotion, Attention, and Binding in the Taboo Stroop Task: Data and Theories

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacKay, Donald G.; Johnson, Laura W.; Graham, Elizabeth R.; Burke, Deborah M.

    2015-01-01

    How does aging impact relations between emotion, memory, and attention? To address this question, young and older adults named the font colors of taboo and neutral words, some of which recurred in the same font color or screen location throughout two color-naming experiments. The results indicated longer color-naming response times (RTs) for taboo than neutral base-words (taboo Stroop interference); better incidental recognition of colors and locations consistently associated with taboo versus neutral words (taboo context-memory enhancement); and greater speed-up in color-naming RTs with repetition of color-consistent than color-inconsistent taboo words, but no analogous speed-up with repetition of location-consistent or location-inconsistent taboo words (the consistency type by repetition interaction for taboo words). All three phenomena remained constant with aging, consistent with the transmission deficit hypothesis and binding theory, where familiar emotional words trigger age-invariant reactions for prioritizing the binding of contextual features to the source of emotion. Binding theory also accurately predicted the interaction between consistency type and repetition for taboo words. However, one or more aspects of these phenomena failed to support the inhibition deficit hypothesis, resource capacity theory, or socio-emotional selectivity theory. We conclude that binding theory warrants further test in a range of paradigms, and that relations between aging and emotion, memory, and attention may depend on whether the task and stimuli trigger fast-reaction, involuntary binding processes, as in the taboo Stroop paradigm. PMID:26473909

  7. Aging, Emotion, Attention, and Binding in the Taboo Stroop Task: Data and Theories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donald G. MacKay

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available How does aging impact relations between emotion, memory, and attention? To address this question, young and older adults named the font colors of taboo and neutral words, some of which recurred in the same font color or screen location throughout two color-naming experiments. The results indicated longer color-naming response times (RTs for taboo than neutral base-words (taboo Stroop interference; better incidental recognition of colors and locations consistently associated with taboo versus neutral words (taboo context-memory enhancement; and greater speed-up in color-naming RTs with repetition of color-consistent than color-inconsistent taboo words, but no analogous speed-up with repetition of location-consistent or location-inconsistent taboo words (the consistency type by repetition interaction for taboo words. All three phenomena remained constant with aging, consistent with the transmission deficit hypothesis and binding theory, where familiar emotional words trigger age-invariant reactions for prioritizing the binding of contextual features to the source of emotion. Binding theory also accurately predicted the interaction between consistency type and repetition for taboo words. However, one or more aspects of these phenomena failed to support the inhibition deficit hypothesis, resource capacity theory, or socio-emotional selectivity theory. We conclude that binding theory warrants further test in a range of paradigms, and that relations between aging and emotion, memory, and attention may depend on whether the task and stimuli trigger fast-reaction, involuntary binding processes, as in the taboo Stroop paradigm.

  8. Aging, Emotion, Attention, and Binding in the Taboo Stroop Task: Data and Theories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacKay, Donald G; Johnson, Laura W; Graham, Elizabeth R; Burke, Deborah M

    2015-10-14

    How does aging impact relations between emotion, memory, and attention? To address this question, young and older adults named the font colors of taboo and neutral words, some of which recurred in the same font color or screen location throughout two color-naming experiments. The results indicated longer color-naming response times (RTs) for taboo than neutral base-words (taboo Stroop interference); better incidental recognition of colors and locations consistently associated with taboo versus neutral words (taboo context-memory enhancement); and greater speed-up in color-naming RTs with repetition of color-consistent than color-inconsistent taboo words, but no analogous speed-up with repetition of location-consistent or location-inconsistent taboo words (the consistency type by repetition interaction for taboo words). All three phenomena remained constant with aging, consistent with the transmission deficit hypothesis and binding theory, where familiar emotional words trigger age-invariant reactions for prioritizing the binding of contextual features to the source of emotion. Binding theory also accurately predicted the interaction between consistency type and repetition for taboo words. However, one or more aspects of these phenomena failed to support the inhibition deficit hypothesis, resource capacity theory, or socio-emotional selectivity theory. We conclude that binding theory warrants further test in a range of paradigms, and that relations between aging and emotion, memory, and attention may depend on whether the task and stimuli trigger fast-reaction, involuntary binding processes, as in the taboo Stroop paradigm.

  9. The allure of the forbidden: Breaking taboos, frustration, and attraction to violent video games

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Whitaker, J.L.; Melzer, A.; Steffgen, G.; Bushman, B.J.

    2013-01-01

    Although people typically avoid engaging in antisocial or taboo behaviors, such as cheating and stealing, they may succumb in order to maximize their personal benefit. Moreover, they may be frustrated when the chance to commit a taboo behavior is withdrawn. The present study tested whether the

  10. Effects of context and individual differences on the processing of taboo words.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christianson, Kiel; Zhou, Peiyun; Palmer, Cassie; Raizen, Adina

    2017-07-01

    Previous studies suggest that taboo words are special in regards to language processing. Findings from the studies have led to the formation of two theories, global resource theory and binding theory, of taboo word processing. The current study investigates how readers process taboo words embedded in sentences during silent reading. In two experiments, measures collected include eye movement data, accuracy and reaction time measures for recalling probe words within the sentences, and individual differences in likelihood of being offended by taboo words. Although certain aspects of the results support both theories, as the likelihood of a person being offended by a taboo word influenced some measures, neither theory sufficiently predicts or describes the effects observed. The results are interpreted as evidence that processing effects ascribed to taboo words are largely, but not completely, attributable to the context in which they are used and the individual attitudes of the people who hear/read them. The results also demonstrate the importance of investigating taboo words in naturalistic language processing paradigms. A revised theory of taboo word processing is proposed that incorporates both global resource theory and binding theory along with the sociolinguistic factors and individual differences that largely drive the effects observed here. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Culture-Based Rejection of Taboo-Infringing Imports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brice William D.

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This empirical study analyzes the cultural basis of the United States market response to imported Spanish products that seem to violate strongly-held cultural taboos. Survey responses were obtained from students in two contrasting majors, Art and Business, in two distinct cities and universities, i.e. Little Rock at the University of Arkansas, and Dominguez Hills at California State University. The study focused on a baby doll marketed to piggy-back on the new movement towards breastfeeding babies. Although accepted in its original European market, the United States media reports strong moral objections to this product among U. S. citizens. The toy was overwhelmingly rejected in some, but not all, population sub-groups. This study attempts to discern the cultural basis for product rejection by comparing responses between regions, college majors, genders and gender/major combinations. Differences in acceptance between groups are correlated with specific cultural constructs.

  12. Reframing menstruation in India: metamorphosis of the menstrual taboo with the changing media coverage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yagnik, Arpan Shailesh

    2014-01-01

    In this study I hypothesize metamorphosis of the menstrual taboo by examining the image and perception shifts of two social taboos-HIV/AIDS and homosexuality-from estranged taboos to embraced social issues. Trends identified in their media framing and respective image shifts were applied to menstruation in India. Based on my understanding of theory, topic, and geographical location, I construct a metamorphosis. I contribute the hypothesized final stage of metamorphosis, and explain how framing is likely instrumental in bringing about these changes.

  13. Identifying pregnant women who would adhere to food taboos in a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Identifying pregnant women who would adhere to food taboos in a rural ... Poor maternal nutrition, especially in rural settings, adversely affects pregnancy and ... Data was collected from 405 pregnant women that attended antenatal care at ...

  14. Are precues effective in proactively controlling taboo interference during speech production?

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Katherine K; Abrams, Lise; Hsi, Lisa R; Watkins, Emily C

    2018-02-07

    This research investigated whether precues engage proactive control to reduce emotional interference during speech production. A picture-word interference task required participants to name target pictures accompanied by taboo, negative, or neutral distractors. Proactive control was manipulated by presenting precues that signalled the type of distractor that would appear on the next trial. Experiment 1 included one block of trials with precues and one without, whereas Experiment 2 mixed precued and uncued trials. Consistent with previous research, picture naming was slowed in both experiments when distractors were taboo or negative compared to neutral, with the greatest slowing effect when distractors were taboo. Evidence that precues engaged proactive control to reduce interference from taboo (but not negative) distractors was found in Experiment 1. In contrast, mixing precued trials in Experiment 2 resulted in no taboo cueing benefit. These results suggest that item-level proactive control can be engaged under certain conditions to reduce taboo interference during speech production, findings that help to refine a role for cognitive control of distraction during speech production.

  15. In Search of the Nuclear Taboo. Past, Present, and Future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Potter, W.C.

    2010-01-01

    One of the most puzzling - if positive - phenomena of the past half century is the non-use of nuclear weapons. The puzzle relates to the absence of use despite the demonstrated technical effectiveness of the weapon, the enormous size of nuclear weapons stockpiles globally, the spread of nuclear weapons to states in most regions of the world, the centrality of nuclear weapons in the strategic doctrines and operational war plans of a growing number of states with very different cultures, political systems, and military traditions, and the observation of the tradition of non-use despite the lack of international legal prohibitions - unlike those in place with respect to chemical and biological weapons. This essay seeks to probe the underpinnings of nuclear weapons restraint, the strength and durability of the so-called nuclear 'taboo' - especially in light of the rise of non-states actors who covet nuclear weapons for purposes other than deterrence - and the most likely paths by which existing restraints might be breached, broken, or dissolved. Particular emphasis is placed on alternative futures as a number of other studies, including several important new volumes, have explored in depth the sources of non-use. (author)

  16. Food taboo of taking pineapple and milk at a time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Mahbubur Rahman

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to assess whether potential toxic interactions occur between the pineapple and milk following oral administration in rats by comparing clinical signs, hematological and biochemical parameters with the normal control and toxic standard groups. Pineapple and milk solutions were made by 1:1 (PMS1 and 2:1 (PMS2 ratio, administered 12 mL/kg body weight. Forty rats were equally divided into 4 groups treated for 3 days: a normal control (only vehicle treated; b toxic standard (CCl4 was suspended in corn oil, 20% v/v; treated 1.25 mL/kg, c PMS1 and d PMS2 groups. CCl4 administration altered the normal behavior, changes gross and microscopic morphology. Toxicity related hematological and serum biochemistry changed significantly (p<0.05 than the normal group. However, all these clinical and pathological changes were completely absent in PMS treated groups. These results suggest that taking pineapple with milk is not toxic and this food taboo is wrong.

  17. In Search of the Nuclear Taboo. Past, Present, and Future

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Potter, W.C.

    2010-07-01

    One of the most puzzling - if positive - phenomena of the past half century is the non-use of nuclear weapons. The puzzle relates to the absence of use despite the demonstrated technical effectiveness of the weapon, the enormous size of nuclear weapons stockpiles globally, the spread of nuclear weapons to states in most regions of the world, the centrality of nuclear weapons in the strategic doctrines and operational war plans of a growing number of states with very different cultures, political systems, and military traditions, and the observation of the tradition of non-use despite the lack of international legal prohibitions - unlike those in place with respect to chemical and biological weapons. This essay seeks to probe the underpinnings of nuclear weapons restraint, the strength and durability of the so-called nuclear 'taboo' - especially in light of the rise of non-states actors who covet nuclear weapons for purposes other than deterrence - and the most likely paths by which existing restraints might be breached, broken, or dissolved. Particular emphasis is placed on alternative futures as a number of other studies, including several important new volumes, have explored in depth the sources of non-use. (author)

  18. Culture-Laden Imports: International Market Entry and Cultural Taboos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brice William David

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This empirical study investigates American market responses to a Spanish product that is strongly culture-laden and may violate cultural taboos. Surveys were conducted in two contrasting US universities in Arkansas and California. Contrasting student majors were also chosen: Art and Business. The product is a life-sized baby doll, designed to be breast-fed rather than bottle-fed, which highlights the benefits and normality of breast-feeding babies. Although this product is popular in its original European market, US media accounts suggested strongly negative morality-based American reactions. This study found a strong overall non-acceptance of this product in all groups, but with significant differences between groups. Results quantify the market reaction and illuminate its cultural basis by comparing responses between two culturally different regions, two contrasting college majors, different genders, and different ethnicities. In doing so, this study helps to break new ground in the international marketing of culture-laden products.

  19. Jeux tabous : littératures Taboo plays: Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brigitte Galtier

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available La thèse de Georges Bataille sur l’art comme transgression, et d’abord du tabou concernant la mort, est ici mise à l’épreuve de trois œuvres littéraires du XXe siècle. C’est le tabou des morts en sa violence primitive qui s’y inscrit, mais sans effacer ce qu’il frappe, d’où l’effet libérateur du texte.Georges Bataille’s thesis – art as transgression of taboo, especially taboo regarding death – is tested by three literary works of XXth century. The taboo concerning dead persons is here written, with its primitive violence but what it prohibits is not obliterated. Hence the liberating effect of the text.

  20. Taboo Icons: The Bodily Photography of Andres Serrano

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tyler Shine

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available   Normal 0 false false false EN-US JA X-NONE /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:Verdana;} Andres Serrano’s photography is often dismissed as being shocking for the sake of being shocking. His infamous photograph Piss Christ (1987 is the oft-cited example at the center of the National Endowment for the Arts controversies during the Culture Wars of the 1980s and 1990s. I return to Piss Christ as a way to expand the interpretative scope of Serrano’s early photographs, which I call “taboo icons” because of their ambiguity and ability to crisscross symbolic boundaries in the unstable space between sacred and profane, thus making his images both powerful and potentially dangerous. Building upon previous scholarship that draws connections between modern and early modern aesthetic practices, I look to the material practices of Christianity in medieval Europe characterized by a sophisticated visual culture that mixed both the physical and the spiritual. The intensifying rejection and reverence of matter resulted in divergent responses, yet the contradictory nature of matter remained central to the ideological beliefs of Christianity where the doctrines of Creation, Incarnation, and Resurrection are at its core. Serrano’s visceral photographs are emphatically material and can productively be read vis-à-vis medieval visual culture. In doing so, this reading changes the narrow perception of Serrano’s early photographs and provides an alternative understanding of his artistic project that reinserts religion into contemporary American art discourse.

  1. Riqueza: totem e tabu Welth: totem and taboo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio David Cattani

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available As desigualdades socioeconômicas são analisadas considerando-se, habitualmente, apenas o "pólo pobreza" sendo raros os estudos sociológicos sobre as classes abastadas. As dificuldades para as Ciências Sociais se devem a aspectos materiais (falta de acesso aos dados essenciais mas, também, a equivocados problemas deontológicos. A Apresentação resume as contribuições específicas de cada artigo que compõem o dossiê "Riqueza e Desigualdades" destacando que, apesar da diversidade das contribuições e dos referenciais teóricos empregados, eles possuem uma unidade: pôr em evidência dimensões do "pólo riqueza" ocultadas pela ideologia e pelos efeitos de poder. Um dos desafios para a Sociologia é de desmistificar e desmitificar totens e tabus criados em torno da existência material e social das classes ricas que não são auto-referentes e nem auto-suficientes mas que estabelecem relações específicas de exploração e de dominação sobre a estrutura social.Socioeconomic inequalities are usually only analysed in terms of the "pole of poverty", with sociological studies of affluent classes being rare. The difficulties for the Social Sciences are due to material aspects (lack of access to essential data, but also to mistaken deontological problems. The introduction summarizes the specific contributions of each article included in the "Wealth and Inequalities" file emphasizing that, despite the diversity of contributions and theoretical references employed, they all have one common feature of demonstrating the scale of the "pole of wealth" hidden by ideology and the effects of power. One of the challenges faced by Sociology is that of demystifying and demythologising totems and taboos created around the material and social existence of the wealthy classes which are neither self-referential nor self-sufficient, but which establish specific relations of exploitation and domination over the social structure.

  2. The Functions Of Taboo Words And Their Translation In Subtitling: A Case Study In “The Help”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agus Darma Yoga Pratama

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Translating taboo words in subtitling especially translating them into Indonesian is quite difficult since most of the Indonesian people are not used to uttering taboo or offensive words publicly. In addition, watching movie is more of social activity compared to reading and that is why reading taboo expressions while watching might be embarrassing. This study tries to explore the functions of taboo words found in “The Help” movie and tries to find out how the translator translate the taboo words into the target language in order to produce the closest functions to the source language without ignoring the technical aspects of subtitling. This study also deals with the strategy used by the translator to translate the taboo words. The main theories applied here in are from Karamitroglou (1998, Ljung (2011, Toury (1995, and Gottlieb (1992. There are 70 taboo words found in the raw data and the functions of those taboo words are to express sympathy, surprise, disappointment, disbelief, fear, annoyance, metaphorical interpretation, reaction to mishap, to emphasize the associated item, function as adjectival intensifier, name-calling, anaphoric use of epithet, oath, curse, unfriendly suggestion, and four of the taboo words show non-swearing word or in dysphemism form. The strategies applied are omission (16, transfer (27, and euphemism (26. In terms of the technical aspect in subtitling, all of the subtitles in the target language are presented at the maximum of two lines at once. However, there are three lines of the subtitles which exceed the maximum numbers of characters being proposed. Since taboo word is not only used to offend someone, it is important for the translator to get the closest equivalence in the target language in order to maintain its function. The translator may choose whether he/she wants to follow the source language norms to produce adequate target text or follow the target language norms in order to produce acceptable

  3. The Role of Taboos in the Protection and Recovery of Sea Turtles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LoriKim Alexander

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Despite increased efforts from government agencies, scientists, and non-government organizations over the past few decades, anthropogenic sources of sea turtle mortality continue to threaten the survivorship of sea turtle species around the globe. More recent efforts to engage local people with community-based sea turtle conservation programs have been based primarily on economic incentives and less on cultural and social traditions. But there is growing evidence that informal institutions such as, taboos can be extremely effective at promoting wildlife conservation. Ghana is a culturally diverse country where local traditions have shown to improve protection for primates, crocodiles, and many bird species. This study explores the presence of a sea turtle taboo in fishing communities to demonstrate that traditional practices make residents more receptive to sea turtle conservation and more willing to follow government regulations. Fishers in the communities that are aware of the taboo are also more willing to adjust fishing methods to better protect sea turtles. The traditional taboo and national laws appear to be working synergistically to enhance sea turtle conservation in some regions of Ghana. This paper extends the argument that sea turtle conservation strategies succeed when the cultural and social traditions of local communities are integrated with management activities.

  4. Cultural processes in psychotherapy for perinatal loss: Breaking the cultural taboo against perinatal grief.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markin, Rayna D; Zilcha-Mano, Sigal

    2018-03-01

    This paper argues that there is a cultural taboo against the public recognition and expression of perinatal grief that hinders parents' ability to mourn and their psychological adjustment following a loss. It is proposed that this cultural taboo is recreated within the therapy relationship, as feelings of grief over a perinatal loss are minimized or avoided by the therapist and parent or patient. Importantly, it is suggested that if these cultural dynamics are recognized within the therapy relationship, then psychotherapy has the immense opportunity to break the taboo by validating the parent's loss as real and helping the parent to mourn within an empathic and affect-regulating relationship. Specifically, it is suggested that therapists break the cultural taboo against perinatal grief and help parents to mourn through: acknowledging and not pathologizing perinatal grief reactions, considering intrapsychic and cultural factors that impact a parent's response to loss, exploring cultural reenactments within the therapy relationship, empathizing with the parent's experience of loss and of having to grieve within a society that does not recognize perinatal loss, coregulating the parent's feelings of grief and loss, and helping patients to create personally meaningful mourning rituals. Lastly, the impact of within and between cultural differences and therapist attitudes on the therapy process is discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  5. Teaching More than the Facts of Menstruation: Exercises to Stimulate Dialogue about a Taboo Subject.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Christina J.

    1981-01-01

    Presents nine exercises designed to help students and teachers become more aware of their attitudes about menstruation and to move beyond the realms of mystery, ignorance, and taboos. Participants list and analyze expressions used to refer to menstruation, discuss pleasant and unpleasant experiences, and recall feelings on first learning of…

  6. Hearing taboo words can result in early talker effects in word recognition for female listeners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuft, Samantha E; MᶜLennan, Conor T; Krestar, Maura L

    2018-02-01

    Previous spoken word recognition research using the long-term repetition-priming paradigm found performance costs for stimuli mismatching in talker identity. That is, when words were repeated across the two blocks, and the identity of the talker changed reaction times (RTs) were slower than when the repeated words were spoken by the same talker. Such performance costs, or talker effects, followed a time course, occurring only when processing was relatively slow. More recent research suggests that increased explicit and implicit attention towards the talkers can result in talker effects even during relatively fast processing. The purpose of the current study was to examine whether word meaning would influence the pattern of talker effects in an easy lexical decision task and, if so, whether results would differ depending on whether the presentation of neutral and taboo words was mixed or blocked. Regardless of presentation, participants responded to taboo words faster than neutral words. Furthermore, talker effects for the female talker emerged when participants heard both taboo and neutral words (consistent with an attention-based hypothesis), but not for participants that heard only taboo or only neutral words (consistent with the time-course hypothesis). These findings have important implications for theoretical models of spoken word recognition.

  7. The x-word and its usage : Taboo words and swearwords in general, and x-words in newspapers

    OpenAIRE

    Lindahl, Katarina

    2008-01-01

    All languages have words that are considered taboo – words that are not supposed to be said or used. Taboo words, or swearwords, can be used in many different ways and they can have different meanings depending on what context they appear in. Another aspect of taboo words is the euphemisms that are used in order to avoid obscene speech. This paper will focus on x-words, words like the f-word or the c-word, which replace the words fuck or cunt, but as the study will show they also have other m...

  8. The World After Proliferation, Deterrence and Disarmament if the Nuclear Taboo is Broken

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fitzpatrick, M.

    2009-01-01

    he nuclear taboo is customarily seen as a black and white norm, separating the world of the familiar from that of an unknowable afterlife.1 Nina Tannenwald argues that 'once the threshold between use and non-use is crossed, one is immediately in a new world with all the unimaginable consequences that could follow'. It is not correct, however, to say that the consequences are 'unimaginable'. They are certainly unpredictable, but one can imagine at least some of the consequences. This article attempts to do so with regard to consequences for proliferation, deterrence and disarmament. If the nuclear taboo were broken, whether by design, accident, miscalculation, or a breakdown of command and control, one of the more easily imagined consequences would be the collapse of the Nuclear Non- Proliferation Treaty (NPT). It is safe to assume that the use of nuclear weapons in war for the first time since 1945 would be a transformational event. But would nuclear use spell the failure of deterrence and doom the prospects of a nuclear-weapons free world, making obsolete much of the current thinking about nuclear disarmament and nuclear deterrence? Not every nuclear use scenario would necessarily break the lock on the nuclear Pandora's Box. A 'demonstration shot', for example, would not have the same impact as nuclear obliteration of a city. Both would be breaches of the taboo, but the use of a single nuclear bomb probably would not disrupt the status quo as thoroughly as would a massive attack or a two-way exchange. Breaching the taboo would not necessarily reverse the powerful norm and tradition that has developed in the last 60+ years against use of nuclear weapons. There is no compelling logic to assume that nuclear weapons would thereby become re-legitimized as instruments of war. The breaking of the nuclear taboo could actually spur either or both of two opposite reactions: an increased salience of nuclear weapons and a stimulus to disarmament. Which impulse prevails will

  9. The World After Proliferation, Deterrence and Disarmament if the Nuclear Taboo is Broken

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fitzpatrick, M.

    2009-07-01

    he nuclear taboo is customarily seen as a black and white norm, separating the world of the familiar from that of an unknowable afterlife.1 Nina Tannenwald argues that 'once the threshold between use and non-use is crossed, one is immediately in a new world with all the unimaginable consequences that could follow'. It is not correct, however, to say that the consequences are 'unimaginable'. They are certainly unpredictable, but one can imagine at least some of the consequences. This article attempts to do so with regard to consequences for proliferation, deterrence and disarmament. If the nuclear taboo were broken, whether by design, accident, miscalculation, or a breakdown of command and control, one of the more easily imagined consequences would be the collapse of the Nuclear Non- Proliferation Treaty (NPT). It is safe to assume that the use of nuclear weapons in war for the first time since 1945 would be a transformational event. But would nuclear use spell the failure of deterrence and doom the prospects of a nuclear-weapons free world, making obsolete much of the current thinking about nuclear disarmament and nuclear deterrence? Not every nuclear use scenario would necessarily break the lock on the nuclear Pandora's Box. A 'demonstration shot', for example, would not have the same impact as nuclear obliteration of a city. Both would be breaches of the taboo, but the use of a single nuclear bomb probably would not disrupt the status quo as thoroughly as would a massive attack or a two-way exchange. Breaching the taboo would not necessarily reverse the powerful norm and tradition that has developed in the last 60+ years against use of nuclear weapons. There is no compelling logic to assume that nuclear weapons would thereby become re-legitimized as instruments of war. The breaking of the nuclear taboo could actually spur either or both of two opposite reactions: an increased salience of nuclear weapons and a stimulus to

  10. [Myths and taboos of motherhood: focusing on the health-disease process].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luz, Anna Maria Hecker; Berni, Neiva Iolanda de Oliveira; Selli, Lucilda

    2007-01-01

    To learn about myths and taboos related with motherhood and their implications in the health/disease process. Study carried out using a qualitative approach, in a natural setting, with women of poor classes who experienced motherhood. The selection of subjects was performed intentionally, and data collection was made by means of semi-structured interviews and participant observation at the moment those women were given healthcare attention. Data analysis followed the content analysis. The topic under study permeates, as an ideology, the women's lives. The myths and taboos are related to health/disease: postpartum hygiene; protection of the newborn's integrity; menses; alternatives for a solution of health problems; and gender issues, the conducts the women follow to avoid becoming "saucy" being evidenced. In the research, it was possible to capture elements that translate the cultural values of the women's daily lives and the need for associating scientific knowledge with popular practices.

  11. Food taboos and nutrition-related pregnancy concerns among Ethiopian women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasilevski, Vidanka; Carolan-Olah, Mary

    2016-10-01

    To discuss Ethiopian food taboos during pregnancy and their relation to maternal nutritional status and pregnancy outcomes. Recent waves of migration have seen large groups of Ethiopian refugees moving to countries around the globe. This is of concern as Ethiopian women are at risk of a number of medical and pregnancy complications. Health is further compromised by poor diet and adherence to cultural food beliefs and taboos. In refugee women, many of these factors correspond with significantly higher rates of pregnancy complications and poor birth outcomes. This is a discussion paper informed by a literature review. A search of the Scopus, PubMed, Web of Science and Academic Search Premier databases for the keywords Ethiopian, pregnancy, food and taboos was conducted in the research literature published from 1998-2015. This time is contingent with Ethiopian migration trends. Ethiopian migrant women are at risk of inadequate nutrition during pregnancy. Risks include cultural factors associated with food taboos as well as issues associated with low socioeconomic status. Consequently, Ethiopian women are more likely to have nutritional deficiencies such as anaemia which have been associated with a range of pregnancy complications. There are many serious consequences of poor diet during pregnancy; however, most of these can be avoided by greater awareness about the role of nutrition during pregnancy and by adopting a balanced diet. There is an urgent unmet need for nutrition education among Ethiopian women. Research indicates that Ethiopian women are receptive to nutritional advice during pregnancy and also that pregnant women are generally motivated to act in the baby's interest. These factors suggest that this high-risk group would be amenable to culturally appropriate nutrition education, which would provide much-needed meaningful support in pregnancy. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Genetic evolutionary taboo search for optimal marker placement in infrared patient setup

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riboldi, M; Baroni, G; Spadea, M F; Tagaste, B; Garibaldi, C; Cambria, R; Orecchia, R; Pedotti, A

    2007-01-01

    In infrared patient setup adequate selection of the external fiducial configuration is required for compensating inner target displacements (target registration error, TRE). Genetic algorithms (GA) and taboo search (TS) were applied in a newly designed approach to optimal marker placement: the genetic evolutionary taboo search (GETS) algorithm. In the GETS paradigm, multiple solutions are simultaneously tested in a stochastic evolutionary scheme, where taboo-based decision making and adaptive memory guide the optimization process. The GETS algorithm was tested on a group of ten prostate patients, to be compared to standard optimization and to randomly selected configurations. The changes in the optimal marker configuration, when TRE is minimized for OARs, were specifically examined. Optimal GETS configurations ensured a 26.5% mean decrease in the TRE value, versus 19.4% for conventional quasi-Newton optimization. Common features in GETS marker configurations were highlighted in the dataset of ten patients, even when multiple runs of the stochastic algorithm were performed. Including OARs in TRE minimization did not considerably affect the spatial distribution of GETS marker configurations. In conclusion, the GETS algorithm proved to be highly effective in solving the optimal marker placement problem. Further work is needed to embed site-specific deformation models in the optimization process

  13. Opinion on Korean Cultural Taboos%韩国禁忌文化管见

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    崔文婷

    2011-01-01

    禁忌作为“禁”和“避”意义的融合体,源自于古人对未知力量的内心恐惧和迷信观念.了解一个民族的禁忌文化,对于多元化的了解这个民族的历史、风俗等文化背景有着重要意义.通过了解韩国的禁忌文化,可以使韩国语学习者规范自己的语言,遵守韩国的文化规则,避免在交流过程中出现一些错误.%Taboo, as the fusion of "forbidden" and "avoid" meaning, derived from the fear of the unknown forces and superstitious ideas. Understanding the culture taboo of a nation is of great significance to understand this nation's history, customs, and other cultural backgrounds in a wide range. By understanding the cultural taboo in Korea, the Korean language learners can regulate their own language, comply with the rules of the culture of Korea, and avoid some errors occurred during the exchange.

  14. Bereaved parents' online grief communities: de-tabooing practices or grief-ghettos?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandvik, Kjetil; Christensen, Dorthe Refslund; Hård af Segerstad, Ylva

    , children are not supposed to die before their parents, old people are supposed to die. Losing a child cuts to the core of human existence. A 100 years ago, the most common death was a child. Today, it is an old person. So the percentage of parents who have suffered the death of a child is comparably small...... compared with people who have lost an old relative. Moreover, the traditional view for socially accepted grief and mourning (at least in protestant Nordic countries) is often that you should not to grieve for too long, not too intensely or not to publicly. A taboo can be said to be a rule against something......-tabooing practices going on. In everyday interaction in the physical world there is a taboo against performing parenthood once your child is dead. It is normal for a parent to talk about their children extensively, as long as it lives. What is to be considered normal, or accepted, is a matter of perspective...

  15. Taboo in the Workplace: A Qualitative Study of Taiwanese Nurses' "Not-Eating Pineapple" in Clinical Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Shu-Ling; Tsai, Chang-Hsiung; Hsu, Yu-Chien; Hsieh, Mei-Hui; Kao, Hsia-Tzu; Hsu, Min-Tao

    There has been an increased emphasis on nurses' mental health and well-being in the workplace. Psychologists have established a correlative link between individual's beliefs on luck and mental health. The pineapple taboo has been observed among Taiwanese hospital nurses as a prevalent superstitious belief for bringing luck or warding off increased clinical workloads, but how and why the ritual persists in the hospital workplace remains unknown. This article aims to explore the latent meaning of observance of the taboo and how it is related to nurses' clinical practice and possibly affects their mental health at work. A qualitative research was designed in line with the hermeneutic phenomenological method. Through purposive sampling, 18 nurse participants were recruited for in-depth semistructured interviews. Resulting from the ensuing analysis, 3 modalities were identified as constituting the spectrum of observance of the taboo: (a) "strictly not eating pineapple"; (b) "not eating pineapple at work"; and (c) "eating pineapple without admitting to doing so." Each reflects the position of nurses revealed in relation to the pineapple taboo in clinical settings. Based on the subjective narratives of nurses, it may be understood as an active moral attempt at "being right" rather than a passive avoidance of bad luck in the taboo observation. The findings facilitate an appropriate understanding of the embedded meaning of nurses' workplace-related belief and its seminal function of empowerment for nurses in holistic nursing practice.

  16. A good son is sad if he hears the name of his father : the tabooing of names in China as a way of implementing social values

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Adamek, Piotr

    2012-01-01

    This dissertation deals with the tabooing of names in China, or bihui 避諱. The names of sovereigns, ancestors, officials, teachers, etc. were taboo, meaning that it was prohibited to pronounce or record them. This custom had an enormous impact on Chinese culture and serious consequences for the daily

  17. The importance of sexual health in the elderly: breaking down barriers and taboos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inelmen, Emine Meral; Sergi, Giuseppe; Girardi, Agostino; Coin, Alessandra; Toffanello, Elena Debora; Cardin, Fabrizio; Manzato, Enzo

    2012-06-01

    Aging-related physical changes do not necessarily lead to a decline in sexual functioning: good physical and mental health, a positive attitude toward sex in later life, and access to a healthy partner are associated with continued sexual activity, and regular sexual expression is associated with good physical and mental health. However, it is usually assumed that older adults do not have sexual desires, and elderly people often find it difficult to discuss this topic with their doctor. There are many potential barriers concerning sexuality in older age: the lack of a healthy sexual partner, depression, the monotony of a repetitive sexual relationship, a spouse's physical unattractiveness, hormone variability, and illness and/or iatrogenic factors. Adaptive coping strategies can considerably mitigate the impact of such factors, however, and one way of contributing to breaking down barriers and taboos is undoubtedly to ensure that physicians are willing to discuss their patients' sexual history. The aim of this review was to explore the barriers and taboos to sexual expression in seniors, to propose strategies to foster this aspect of their lives, and to help physicians investigate the sexual history of their elderly patients.

  18. Breaking the taboo: a history of monetary financing in Canada, 1930-1975.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan-Collins, Josh

    2017-12-01

    Monetary financing - the funding of state expenditure via the creation of new money rather than through taxation or borrowing - has become a taboo policy instrument in advanced economies. It is generally associated with dangerously high inflation and/or war. Relatedly, a key institutional feature of modern independent central banks is that they are not obligated to support government expenditure via money creation. Since the financial crisis of 2007-2008, however, unorthodox monetary policies, in particular quantitative easing, coupled with stagnant growth and high levels of public and private debt have led to questions over the monetary financing taboo. Debates on the topic have so far been mainly theoretical with little attention to the social and political dynamics of historical instances of monetary financing. This paper analyses one of the most significant twentieth-century cases: Canada from the period after the Great Depression up until the monetarist revolution of the 1970s. The period was a successful one for the Canadian economy, with high growth and employment and manageable inflation. It offers some interesting insights into the relationship between states and central banks and present-day discussions around the governance of money creation. © London School of Economics and Political Science 2017.

  19. Taboos and forest governance: informal protection of hot spot dry forest in southern Madagascar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tengö, Maria; Johansson, Kristin; Rakotondrasoa, Fanambinantsoa; Lundberg, Jakob; Andriamaherilala, Jean-Aimé; Rakotoarisoa, Jean-Aimé; Elmqvist, Thomas

    2007-12-01

    In the dry forest of southern Madagascar, a region of global conservation priority, formally protected areas are nearly totally absent. We illustrate how the continued existence of unique forest habitats in the Androy region is directly dependent on informal institutions, taboos, regulating human behavior. Qualitative interviews to map and analyze the social mechanisms underlying forest protection have been combined with vegetation analyses of species diversity and composition. Of 188 forest patches, 93% were classified as protected, and in Southern Androy all remaining forest patches larger than 5 ha were protected. Eight different types of forests, with a gradient of social fencing from open access to almost complete entry prohibitions, were identified. Transgressions were well enforced with strong sanctions of significant economic as well as religious importance. Analyses of species diversity between protected and unprotected forests were complicated because of size differences and access restrictions. However, since, for example, in southern Androy >90% of the total remaining forest cover is protected through taboos, these informal institutions represent an important, and presently the only, mechanism for conservation of the highly endemic forest species. We conclude that social aspects, such as local beliefs and legitimate sanctioning systems, need to be analyzed and incorporated along with biodiversity studies for successful conservation.

  20. Talking about Money Is Taboo: Perceptions of Financial Planning Students and Implications for the Financial Planning Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alsemgeest, Liezel

    2016-01-01

    Communication about money is a social, cultural and psychological taboo and yet it is essential in the financial planning industry, as a financial planner cannot be effective if all information is not disclosed. This article examines how financial planning students perceive communication about money, their willingness to talk about it and their…

  1. Agreed but not preferred: expert views on taboo options for biodiversity conservation, given climate change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagerman, Shannon M; Satterfield, Terre

    2014-04-01

    Recent research indicates increasing openness among conservation experts toward a set of previously controversial proposals for biodiversity protection. These include actions such as assisted migration, and the application of climate-change-informed triage principles for decision-making (e.g., forgoing attention to target species deemed no longer viable). Little is known however, about the levels of expert agreement across different conservation adaptation actions, or the preferences that may come to shape policy recommendations. In this paper, we report findings from a web-based survey of biodiversity experts that assessed: (1) perceived risks of climate change (and other drivers) to biodiversity, (2) relative importance of different conservation goals, (3) levels of agreement/disagreement with the potential necessity of unconventional-taboo actions and approaches including affective evaluations of these, (4) preferences regarding the most important adaptation action for biodiversity, and (5) perceived barriers and strategic considerations regarding implementing adaptation initiatives. We found widespread agreement with a set of previously contentious approaches and actions, including the need for frameworks for prioritization and decision-making that take expected losses and emerging novel ecosystems into consideration. Simultaneously, this survey found enduring preferences for conventional actions (such as protected areas) as the most important policy action, and negative affective responses toward more interventionist proposals. We argue that expert views are converging on agreement across a set of taboo components in ways that differ from earlier published positions, and that these views are tempered by preferences for existing conventional actions and discomfort toward interventionist options. We discuss these findings in the context of anticipating some of the likely contours of future conservation debates. Lastly, we underscore the critical need for

  2. [Profound meaning of acupuncture taboos in Internal Classic based on the fault of reinforcing and reducing technique by mind conduction of acupuncture therapy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Yuge; Wang, Feng; Qin, Yuheng; Li, Li; Li, Mei

    2016-05-01

    By analyzing the acupuncture taboos in Neijing (Internal Classic) on clinical application of mind conduction of acupuncture therapy in going against the actual situation, astronomy and others, it is found that the relevant acupuncture taboo implies many subtle mysteries of human body, qi, mind and astronomy, which have not been discovered yet in modern science and are very significant in qi protection. In Neijing, the acupuncture physicians have been highly required in the mind treatment, in which, accurately regulating qi circulation is the target in the treatment. The mind conduction is used for qi circulation to accomplish accurately the reinforcing or reducing in the deficiency or excess condition. All of the taboos are provided to normalize the accuracy of reinforcing and reducing technique of acupuncture therapy and avoid the damage of qi in human body. Hence, those taboos must be obeyed so as to prevent from serious consequence and ensure the safety of this acupuncture therapy.

  3. Tabus sexuais entre professores e alunos Sexual taboos among teachers and students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antônio Zuin

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available O poder da sexualidade nas relações entre professores e alunos é tão intenso quanto o esforço feito pelos agentes educacionais em negá-lo. O termo tabu representa a exata designação do que tal terminologia suscita: algo misterioso e, principalmente, proibido. De fato, a questão sexual entre professores e alunos concerne a uma esfera tão proibitiva que sequer é mencionada, haja vista a escassez de pesquisas que versam a esse respeito. Daí o objetivo deste artigo, ou seja, analisar a ambivalência dos sentimentos de amor e de ódio que se objetivam na sexualidade existente entre professores e alunos.The power of sexuality in teacher-student relationships is as intense as the effort made by educational institutions to deny it. The term "taboo"represents the exact designation of what such terminology means: something mysterious and mainly forbidden. In fact, the sexual issue among teachers and students concerns such a forbidding sphere that it is hardly mentioned, which explains the little research that has been carried out in this field. Thus, this paper is aimed at analyzing the ambivalence of feelings of love and hate found in the teacher-student sexuality.

  4. Optimising mobile phase composition, its flow-rate and column temperature in HPLC using taboo search.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guillaume, Y C; Peyrin, E

    2000-03-06

    A chemometric methodology is proposed to study the separation of seven p-hydroxybenzoic esters in reversed phase liquid chromatography (RPLC). Fifteen experiments were found to be necessary to find a mathematical model which linked a novel chromatographic response function (CRF) with the column temperature, the water fraction in the mobile phase and its flow rate. The CRF optimum was determined using a new algorithm based on Glover's taboo search (TS). A flow-rate of 0.9 ml min(-1) with a water fraction of 0.64 in the ACN-water mixture and a column temperature of 10 degrees C gave the most efficient separation conditions. The usefulness of TS was compared with the pure random search (PRS) and simplex search (SS). As demonstrated by calculations, the algorithm avoids entrapment in local minima and continues the search to give a near-optimal final solution. Unlike other methods of global optimisation, this procedure is generally applicable, easy to implement, derivative free, conceptually simple and could be used in the future for much more complex optimisation problems.

  5. WTF! Taboo Language in TV Series: An Analysis of Professional and Amateur Translation

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    Micòl Beseghi

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on the topic of censorship associated with the use of strong language and swear words in the translation of contemporary American TV series. In AVT, more specifically in Italian dubbing, the practice of censorship, in the form of suppression or toning down of what might be perceived as offensive, disturbing, too explicit or inconvenient, still remains a problematic issue. By focusing on two recent successful TV series - Girls and Orange is the New Black – which are characterized by the use of strong language (swear words, politically incorrect references and the presence of taboo subjects (homosexuality, sex, drugs, violence – this study will consider the different translation choices applied in dubbing and fansubbing. Previous academic studies have underlined the fact that professional translators tend to remove, more or less consciously, the disturbing elements from the source text, while fansubbers try to adhere as much as possible to the original text, not only in terms of linguistic contents but also in terms of register and style. The results of this analysis seem on the one hand to confirm that there is still not a systematic set of rules that govern the translation of strong language in dubbing, and on the other to indicate that the gap between professional and amateur translation is perhaps becoming less pronounced.

  6. Menstrual taboos among Havik Brahmin women: a study of ritual change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ullrich, H E

    1992-01-01

    Field work among the Havik Brahmins in a 1 village in the Malnad area of Karnataka State, South India provides some understanding of menstrual practices in 1964, 1985, and 1987. Changes in the pollution and purity rituals which were part of their belief system lead to the replacement of religious ritual with hygiene. Women's status reflected in the change from a subordinate one with a menstrual taboos to a more urbanized one with educational opportunities and economic independence. Ethnographic background is provide on social organization, education, women's professions, ritual organization, and the reasons for change. Menstrual beliefs and practices, reproductive beliefs, menarche, and the significance of rituals are also described for 1966 and 1987. The Havik Brahmin have a patrilocal, patrilineal, and patriarchal society with joint family practices. The ideal of a nuclear family was still not predominately attained even in 1987 with 14 nuclear families out of 32 families or in 1964 with 12 out of 28. Women in 1964 supported their husbands, were not included in decision making and had little contact with the outside world. Higher education is still secondary to marriage, and frequently women spend time in college while kin seek a suitable groom. Women 40 years had primarily a 7th grade education, while only 3 40 years did not have at least a high school education. Employment now enhances a woman's marital options. Fathers still view security for their daughters in marriage. Women's religious involvement is restricted to 1 service and they are prohibited from learning sacred Vedic prayers. The village structure is based on castes, residential sites, and ritual statuses. Havik Brahmins are the highest status and their men have a ritual status of purity (maDi) or neutrality, while women during menses become polluted (muTTuceTtu). The rationale for change is the opinion that decreased ritual observance is essential to economic viability, and there are cheating rules

  7. Learning can be all Fun and Games: Constructing and Utilizing a Biology Taboo Wiktionary to Enhance Student Learning in an Introductory Biology Course

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey T. Olimpo

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Most introductory courses in the biological sciences are inherently content-dense and rich with jargon—jargon that is often confusing and nonsensical to novice students. These characteristics present an additional paradox to instructors, who strive to achieve a balance between simply promoting passive, rote memorization of facts and engaging students in developing true, concrete understanding of the terminology. To address these concerns, we developed and implemented a Biology Taboo Wiktionary that provided students with an interactive opportunity to review and describe concepts they had encountered during their first semester of introductory biology. However, much like the traditional Taboo game, the rules were such that students could not use obvious terms to detail the main term. It was our belief that if the student could synthesize a thoughtful, scientific explanation of the term under these conditions, he or she demonstrated a true understanding of the conceptual context and meaning of the term.

  8. Who is Willing to Sacrifice Sacred Values for Money and Social Status? Gender Differences in Reactions to Taboo Trade-offs

    OpenAIRE

    Kennedy, Jessica A.; Kray, Laura J.

    2012-01-01

    Women select into top business degree programs at a lower rate than men and are underrepresented in high-ranking positions in business organizations. We examined taboo trade-off aversion as one possible explanation for these patterns. In Study 1, we found that women implicitly associated business with immorality more than men did. In Study 2, when reading of decisions that compromised ethical values for social status and monetary gains, women reported feeling more moral outrage and perceived ...

  9. TaBoo SeArch Algorithm with a Modified Inverse Histogram for Reproducing Biologically Relevant Rare Events of Proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harada, Ryuhei; Takano, Yu; Shigeta, Yasuteru

    2016-05-10

    The TaBoo SeArch (TBSA) algorithm [ Harada et al. J. Comput. Chem. 2015 , 36 , 763 - 772 and Harada et al. Chem. Phys. Lett. 2015 , 630 , 68 - 75 ] was recently proposed as an enhanced conformational sampling method for reproducing biologically relevant rare events of a given protein. In TBSA, an inverse histogram of the original distribution, mapped onto a set of reaction coordinates, is constructed from trajectories obtained by multiple short-time molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. Rarely occurring states of a given protein are statistically selected as new initial states based on the inverse histogram, and resampling is performed by restarting the MD simulations from the new initial states to promote the conformational transition. In this process, the definition of the inverse histogram, which characterizes the rarely occurring states, is crucial for the efficiency of TBSA. In this study, we propose a simple modification of the inverse histogram to further accelerate the convergence of TBSA. As demonstrations of the modified TBSA, we applied it to (a) hydrogen bonding rearrangements of Met-enkephalin, (b) large-amplitude domain motions of Glutamine-Binding Protein, and (c) folding processes of the B domain of Staphylococcus aureus Protein A. All demonstrations numerically proved that the modified TBSA reproduced these biologically relevant rare events with nanosecond-order simulation times, although a set of microsecond-order, canonical MD simulations failed to reproduce the rare events, indicating the high efficiency of the modified TBSA.

  10. Sobre a atualidade dos tabus com relação aos professores Taboos against teachers today

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio A. S. Zuin

    2003-08-01

    Full Text Available Este texto tem como objetivo argumentar que as atuais representações aversivas dos alunos com relação aos seus mestres, os chamados tabus, são decorrentes da violência simbólica que o professor exerce sobre o aluno, com ênfase na universidade. E se a atitude violenta causa inicialmente uma sensação de mal-estar, logo é identificada como algo "inerente" ao processo de ensino-aprendizagem. Tal violência torna-se valorizada tanto pelos professores quanto pelos alunos que se identificam com o professor na figura do agressor, sendo que tais alunos procuram encontrar oportunidades para poder se desforrar do ressentimento que foi engendrado nas relações cotidianas com seus mestres.This paper intends to argue that the current averse representations students have of their teachers, the so called taboos, follow from the symbolic violence teachers exert on them, mainly in the university. If this violent attitude initially causes a sensation of discomfort, it is soon identified as something "inherent" to the teaching and learning process. Therefore, it is often highly prized by teachers and by the students who identify themselves with the professor as an aggressor, while these students look for opportunities to let go of the resentment generated by their daily relationships to their masters.

  11. Fifty years on: against the stigmatising myths, taboos and traditions embedded within the Suicide Act 1961 (UK).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Julia J A

    2011-06-01

    Although assisted suicide carries a maximum of 14 years imprisonment in England, courts and juries have historically demonstrated a reluctance to convict, most specifically in relation to those travelling abroad to accompany a terminally ill person seeking assisted dying. The possibility of prosecution is still present, however, and there have recently been a number of challenges to the law on assisted dying. During the consultation period of the Coroners and Justice Act 2009 (UK) an amendment was proposed that would have legalised, among other things, assisting suicide overseas. However, it was voted down by peers who believed it to be dangerously radical. In 2008 a multiple sclerosis sufferer requested a clear policy statement, should her partner help her to seek assisted dying abroad in the future. After her application was initially rejected, Mrs Purdy was granted leave to appeal and following a favourable ruling by the House of Lords in 2009, the Director of Public Prosecutions clarified the law on assisted suicide, introducing a Full Code Test which includes the consideration of "public interest factors". Although the new guidelines are not a direct threat to the 50-year-old Suicide Act 1961 (UK), it is clearly an historic development: the latest in a series of high-profile cases and debates which have taken place over the last decade. It is suggested that English law on assisted dying continues to rely on a range of inappropriate concepts, taboos and superstitions, and it is from this perspective that the implications for future legislative reform are addressed.

  12. Wildlife use and the role of taboos in the conservation of wildlife around the Nkwende Hills Forest Reserve; South-west Cameroon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bobo, Kadiri Serge; Aghomo, Fodjou Florence Mariam; Ntumwel, Bonito Chia

    2015-01-07

    Cameroon is known as Africa in miniature because of its multitude of ecosystems and associated biodiversity, cultures and traditions. The country also harbors very ancient human populations whose relationship with nature is very intimate and where animals play important roles for their livelihood. Located in the South-west region of Cameroon, the Nkwende Hills Forest Reserve (NHFR) represents an important wildlife conservation site because of its strategic position at the periphery of Korup National Park (KNP). The periphery of NHFR is inhabited by several ethnic groups amongst which are the Obang and Ngunnchang clans who share particular relationships with wildlife. The present paper studies these relationships and contributes to the growing trend of scientific ethnozoological studies across Africa. From August to December 2011, a questionnaire survey was addressed to 126 randomly chosen household respondents (HRs) in seven villages at the Northwest periphery of NHFR. In households, preference was given to parents, and to the eldest child in case the parents were absent. Questions related to the uses and local taboos on wildlife species were asked to HRs. Both communities have accumulated knowledge on the use of 51 wildlife species of which 50.9% represent mammals, 21.6% birds, 15.7% reptiles, 7.8% fish and 3.9% invertebrates. Four main use categories of wildlife by both communities were identified, namely (1) Food, medicine and sales values (41.2%), (2) Ethnomusical animals and parts used as trophy (29.2%), (3) Decoration and jewelry making values (21.9%) and (4) Magico-religious and multipurpose values (7.8%). Regarding local taboos, species specific taboos (generation totems and acquired totems), habitat taboos (sacred forests), method and segment taboos still persist but are rarely respected among the youth mainly because of the scarcity of wildlife (65.3% of HRs). Like other communities living around forest areas, the studied communities use wildlife in their

  13. Revisitando os Tabus: as cautelas rituais do povo de santo Revisiting taboos: ritualistic cautions among the "povo de santo"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca Bassi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available O presente artigo propõe uma reflexão sobre o papel das interdições rituais pessoais, chamadas de quizilas, no contexto do candomblé da Bahia (Jeje-Nagô. A pesquisa de campo levou à hipótese de que, para além das proibições profiláticas e dos tabus de cunho coletivo, existem interdições pessoais baseadas em sensibilidades negativas, notadamente em ojerizas ou alergias alimentares, que guiam o iniciado numa relação particular com os orixás. A constatação de que a sensibilidade corporal desempenha um papel importante nesse tipo de gesto ritual indica, portanto, a importância de uma prática etnográfica debruçada sobre a noção de "corpo que sente".This article proposes a reflection about the role played by personal ritual prohibitions, known as quizilas, in the context of the candomblé of Bahia (Jeje-Nagô. My fieldwork led to the following hypothesis: besides a system of prophylactic prohibitions and besides collective taboos, there is a system of personal prohibitions based on negative sensitivities -on disgust feelings or on alimentary allergic reactions- and which built an especial relationship of the initiate with the orixás. As such, the ethnography of this kind of ritual behavior should arguably be based on somatic issues and on the concept of the "feeling body".

  14. "Sex Will Make Your Fingers Grow Thin and Then You Die": The Interplay of Culture, Myths, and Taboos on African Immigrant Mothers' Perceptions of Reproductive Health Education with Their Daughters Aged 10-14 Years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agbemenu, Kafuli; Hannan, Margaret; Kitutu, Julius; Terry, Martha Ann; Doswell, Willa

    2018-06-01

    This paper examines the convergence of culture, myths, and taboos surrounding reproductive health issues African immigrant women, living in the United States, learned during childhood in their countries of origin. We also discuss how mothers' perceptions of reproductive health education (RHE) influenced the education of their own daughters aged 10-14 years. This was a qualitative descriptive study. Data were collected via interviews and demographic survey. The sample size was 20 African immigrant mothers living in a mid-sized city in the U.S. Interviews were transcribed verbatim. Qualitative data was analyzed using qualitative content analysis. Myths and taboos related to menstruation, sexual intercourse, pregnancy, and HIV/AIDS were reported by the women interviewed. Discussion of these issues was largely taboo, and most myths the mothers learned growing up pertained to sexual intercourse, pregnancy prevention, and pregnancy termination using non-hormonal ingested substances. Myths and taboos about sexual issues are widespread in Africa and are propagated to control sexual behavior, especially that of unmarried people, particularly women. By examining these myths and taboos, we are able to somewhat contextualize the mothers' immigrant experience regarding RHE. Although myths were reported, the majority of mothers did not appear to believe them. The most significant taboo reported was sexual intercourse. This in turn led to mothers' overemphasis on abstinence for their daughters. It is also noteworthy that this sample contained mainly African women who overall were highly educated, spoke English, and could adequately navigate life in the U.S. It is unclear what the results would be if we were to examine African immigrant women with less achievements in these areas.

  15. Tabud ja reeglid. Sissevaateid eesti laagriromaani / Taboos and Rules. Insights into Prison Camp Novels by Estonian Writers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anneli Kõvamees

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The article concentrates on Estonian novels depicting Soviet prison camps in the 1940s and 1950s. The goal is to map themes, motifs and characteristics in such novels, concentrating on various taboos and rules in the prison camp environment. For a long time the Soviet prison camp theme was not publicly discussed in Estonia due to political reasons. Texts dealing with prison camps could appear in print only outside the Soviet Union; the way Estonians saw these historical events and hellish experiences were depicted mostly in exile novels. Most notable are the novels by Arved Viirlaid (b. 1922, e.g., Kes tappis Eerik Hormi? (Who Killed Eerik Horm? (1974, Surnud ei loe (The Dead do not Read (1975, Vaim ja ahelad (Mind and Chains (1961. Estonian prison camp novels can be seen as “the literature of testimony”, to use the term by Leona Toker. Dramatic historical events are written down to record the events and to show the inhumane nature of Soviet society. These records of the dramatic past follow certain patterns and create certain self- and hetero-images. A prison camp is a closed territory within a closed territory; prison camps can be seen as small models of Soviet society. Prison camp novels give a detailed view of the environment of the prison camp, its inhabitants and activities. Two central aspects are labour and food; the life of the prisoner whirls around these. The most important thing is to survive, which often leads to moral decline, e.g., stealing, cheating. However, there are lines Estonians do not cross, e.g., cannibalism or homosexual relationships with superiors. Estonians are always depicted as political prisoners (not common criminals and heterosexuals, while Russians are portrayed mainly as criminals and often also as homosexuals. Another important component of the image of the Estonians is their enterprising spirit and ability to manage even under very difficult conditions. Therefore, several oppositions can be identified, e

  16. How to Break a Taboo? Comment briser un tabou ? ¿Cómo romper un tabú?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jack Sim

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Prior to 2001, the word toilet and sanitation was a taboo. Polite society avoided the embarrassment of mentioning it. Academia publications about the issues were viewed as too boring to engage mass media. But avoidance of this agenda manifested into neglect of 2.6 billion people without access to proper sanitation and the death of 1.5 million children through diarrhea annually. Jack Sim broke this taboo through the creation of the World Toilet Organization (WTO. With its unique blend of humor and facts, WTO called a spade a spade and took the global media by storm advocating for better toilets, sanitation and hygiene conditions for people all over the world. This article explains how he did it with a shoe-string budget and went on to mobilize everyone to change the world of sanitation and toilets.Avant 2001, les mots « toilettes » et « assainissement » étaient tabous. Il n’était pas de bon ton de les prononcer. Les publications universitaires sur le sujet étaient considérées comme trop ennuyeuses pour pouvoir susciter l'intérêt des médias grand public. Cependant, le fait de se désintéresser du sujet revenait à laisser à l’écart 2,6 milliards de personnes qui n’avaient pas accès à des systèmes d’assainissement corrects et à ignorer le décès de 1,5 million d’enfants dû à une diarrhée chaque année. Jack Sim a brisé ce tabou en créant la World Toilet Organization (WTO. Avec son mélange unique d’humour et de données factuelles, la WTO a appelé un chat un chat et a investi les médias internationaux afin de sensibiliser le maximum de personnes à la nécessité de mettre en place des systèmes de toilettes et d’assainissement plus efficaces et de meilleures conditions d’hygiène dans le monde entier. Cet article explique comment Jack Sim a réussi, avec un budget très limité, à inciter chacun à faire évoluer l’univers des systèmes d’assainissement et de toilettes.Antes de 2001, los términos

  17. Political Experiences and Social Imagery Regarding Reelection in Mexico, 1928-1964. The Transformation of a Civil Right into a Political Principle and Social Taboo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Anaya Merchant

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available This article reviews both the political circumstances that guided constitutional  reforms regarding  the  reelection of legislators (1933 and the  ones  that  led to the  couter-refórm (1964 but were, however, lost in historical oblivion. It is very interesting to observe the process through which a civil right (reelection transforms into a political. principle (nonreelection and then into a taboo that impregnated  social imagery well into the twentieth century.  Although restablishing  the right to reelection in itself contributes only  fragmentarily to a better functioning of legislative power, it implies the possible emergence of both old and new institutional risks and costs, so in Mexico —during the twentieth century- this issue could not be discussed soberly and responsibly in all its complexities.

  18. Is the nuclear weapon taboo? The nuclear weapon is useless and expensive. Let us not leave the nuclear weapon as an inheritance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gauchet, Nathalie; Norlain, Bernard; Beach, Hugh; Beckett, Margaret; Quiles, Paul; Rocard, Michel; Ramsbotham, David

    2012-03-01

    Starting with the definition of the word taboo as stated in a dictionary (a topic it would be unbecoming to evoke, under social and moral proprieties), the author of the first article discusses the status of the nuclear weapon, outlining that it is expensive, useless and monstrous. She notices that conventions on chemical weapons seem to be more efficient than the NPT, that, even if the reasons for abolition are known as well as ways to reach it, it seems difficult to actually address this issue. She evokes different voices coming from different countries or international bodies calling for this abolition. She also states that the nuclear weapon is not a deterrent weapon but a weapon of domination, and calls for the mobilisation of the civil society throughout the world. A second article states that the nuclear weapon is useless and expensive, and that we have to get rid of this hazard for the sake of the planet. Former ministers, Prime ministers, and generals consider that we can and must give up nuclear weapons, notably because the strategic context has completely changed since the fall of the Berlin wall, and support the action of Global Zero

  19. An automatic procedure for high-resolution earthquake locations: a case study from the TABOO near fault observatory (Northern Apennines, Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valoroso, Luisa; Chiaraluce, Lauro; Di Stefano, Raffaele; Latorre, Diana; Piccinini, Davide

    2014-05-01

    The characterization of the geometry, kinematics and rheology of fault zones by seismological data depends on our capability of accurately locate the largest number of low-magnitude seismic events. To this aim, we have been working for the past three years to develop an advanced modular earthquake location procedure able to automatically retrieve high-resolution earthquakes catalogues directly from continuous waveforms data. We use seismograms recorded at about 60 seismic stations located both at surface and at depth. The network covers an area of about 80x60 km with a mean inter-station distance of 6 km. These stations are part of a Near fault Observatory (TABOO; http://taboo.rm.ingv.it/), consisting of multi-sensor stations (seismic, geodetic, geochemical and electromagnetic). This permanent scientific infrastructure managed by the INGV is devoted to studying the earthquakes preparatory phase and the fast/slow (i.e., seismic/aseismic) deformation process active along the Alto Tiberina fault (ATF) located in the northern Apennines (Italy). The ATF is potentially one of the rare worldwide examples of active low-angle (picking procedure that provides consistently weighted P- and S-wave arrival times, P-wave first motion polarities and the maximum waveform amplitude for local magnitude calculation; iii) both linearized iterative and non-linear global-search earthquake location algorithms to compute accurate absolute locations of single-events in a 3D geological model (see Latorre et al. same session); iv) cross-correlation and double-difference location methods to compute high-resolution relative event locations. This procedure is now running off-line with a delay of 1 week to the real-time. We are now implementing this procedure to obtain high-resolution double-difference earthquake locations in real-time (DDRT). We show locations of ~30k low-magnitude earthquakes recorded during the past 4 years (2010-2013) of network operation, reaching a completeness magnitude of

  20. Plantas relacionadas con tabúes del ciclo reproductivo de los Guaraníes de Misiones, Argentina Plants related to taboos of the reproductive cycle of guaranies from Misiones, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Héctor A Keller

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Los guaraníes de las parcialidades Mbya y Ava Chiripa observan normas de conducta específicas durante la etapa reproductiva de los miembros de sus comunidades. Algunas de estas reglas implican tabúes que se relacionan con plantas, las cuales son tratadas en la presente contribución. El manuscrito es ilustrado mediante fotografías de algunas de las especies mencionadas.Guaranis of Mbya and Ava Chiripa groups, observes norms of specific conduct during the reproductive stage of the members of his communities. Someone of these rules imply taboos related with plants, these plants are treated in the present contribution. The manuscript is illustrated by means photographies of someone of the mentioned species.

  1. Dismantling the Taboo against Vaccines in Pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maurizio de Martino

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Vaccinating pregnant women in order to protect them, the fetus, and the child has become universal in no way at all. Prejudice in health professionals add to fears of women and their families. Both these feelings are not supported by even the smallest scientific data. Harmlessness for the mother and the child has been observed for seasonal, pandemic, or quadrivalent influenza, mono, combined polysaccharide or conjugated meningococcal or pneumococcal, tetanus toxoid, acellular pertussis, human papillomavirus, cholera, hepatitis A, Japanese encephalitis, rabies, anthrax, smallpox, yellow fever, mumps, measles and rubella combined, typhoid fever, inactivated or attenuated polio vaccines, and Bacillus Calmétte Guerin vaccines. Instead, the beneficial effects of influenza vaccine for the mother and the child as well as of pertussis vaccine for the child have been demonstrated. Obstetrician-gynecologists, general practitioners, and midwives must incorporate vaccination into their standard clinical care. Strong communication strategies effective at reducing parental vaccine hesitancy and approval of regulatory agencies for use of vaccines during pregnancy are needed. It must be clear that the lack of pre-licensure studies in pregnant women and, consequently, the lack of a statement about the use of the vaccine in pregnant women does not preclude its use in pregnancy.

  2. When disruption was taboo / Tiit Hennoste

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Hennoste, Tiit, 1953-

    2010-01-01

    Väliseesti kultuurist, mil määral oli väliseesti kultuur 1930. aastate eesti kultuuri jätk ja mil määral katkestus. Väliseesti kunsti ja kirjanduse uurimisest, tasemest, pagulaste rollist eesti professionaalse kultuuri arengus, pagulaskunsti ja -kirjanduse kuulumisest eesti kultuuri hulka

  3. [Male Urinary Incontinence--a Taboo Issue].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozomara-Hocke, Marko; Hermanns, Thomas; Poyet, Cédric

    2016-03-02

    Male urinary incontinence is an underestimated and frequently not broached issue. The urinary incontinence is divided into stress-, urge incontinence and hybrid forms as well as overflow incontinence. The fact that there are increasingly more men over 60 means that the prevalence of the urinary incontinence is up to 40%, and urinary incontinence will increasingly gain importance in daily routine practice. Many investigations and therapies can be realized by the general practitioner. Already simple therapy approaches can lead to a considerable clinical improvement of male urinary incontinence. If the initial therapy fails or pathological results (i. e. microhaematuria, recurrent urinary tract infections, raised residual urine and so on) are found, the patient should be referred to a urologist.

  4. Exploring a Taboo of Cultural Reproduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holligan, Chris

    2018-01-01

    Cultural reproduction is rarely, if ever, theorised through clandestine practices of sexual offending by teachers in the gendered hierarchies of state schools. Drawing upon Freedom of Information requests and other official qualitative data provided by a U.K. teaching council, this article endeavours to explain the form of a gendered cultural…

  5. Pythons and Gan Gong birds:Totem and Taboo of Li People 's Creation%蚺蛇与甘工鸟:黎族造物的图腾与禁忌

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁晓莉

    2014-01-01

    embroidered on their clothes, tattooed their bodies, and passed on from generation to generation. Birds are also Li people's consanguinity and Clan symbol. Bird patterns is artistic image that is the most diverse, and the most concentrated reflection of Li's aesthetic wisdom in clothing, headwear and tattoo, especially the five major dialects of the Gan Gong birds, are the ancient myths in the projection of the Li society from barbarism to civilization witness; Bird patterns is Li people based on the old animistic world view, through the fantasy and mystery cognitive , worked on the perceptual processing for natural phenomena and survival situation. This not only reflects the collective consciousness of Li ancestors totem culture perspective, laid the foundation of spirit for the generation and development of witchcraft, and ancestor worship, but also through a special way of thinking expresses the relationship between man and nature, man and society in the original memory. At the same time, the totem worship will surely bring forth the corresponding taboo, it is based on the limit of the method, adjust and develop Li people's internal unity relations between individual and group.

  6. Mitos e tabus da maternidade: um enfoque sobre o processo saúde-doença Mitos y tabús de la maternidad: un enfoque sobre el proceso salud-enfermedad Myths and taboos of motherhood: focusing on the health-disease process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Maria Hecker Luz

    2007-02-01

    traducen los valores culturales del cotidiano de las mujeres y la necesidad de la combinación del conocimiento científico con las prácticas populares.Objective: To learn about myths and taboos related with motherhood and their implications in the health/disease process. Method: Study carried out using a qualitative approach, in a natural setting, with women of poor classes who experienced motherhood. The selection of subjects was performed intentionally, and data collection was made by means of semi-structured interviews and participant observation at the moment those women were given healthcare attention. Data analysis followed the content analysis. Results: The topic under study permeates, as an ideology, the women´s lives. The myths and taboos are related to health/disease: postpartum hygiene; protection of the newborn´s integrity; menses; alternatives for a solution of health problems; and gender issues, the conducts the women follow to avoid becoming "saucy" being evidenced. In the research, it was possible to capture elements that translate the cultural values of the women´s daily lives and the need for associating scientific knowledge with popular practices.

  7. Teaching Taboo Topics: Menstruation, Menopause, and the Psychology of Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chrisler, Joan C.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this article is (a) to consider reasons why women's reproductive processes receive so little attention in psychology courses and (b) to make an argument for why more attention is needed. Menstruation, menopause, and other reproductive events are important to the psychology of women. Reproductive processes make possible a social role…

  8. Gay theatre, AIDS, and taboo: reconsidering Robert Chesley.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gavrila, Rebecca

    2013-01-01

    Theatre was among the first popular culture forms to address HIV/AIDS and did so memorably in such works as The Normal Heart, As Is, Love! Valor! Compassion!, and March of the Falsettos. As a response to criticisms of stage dramas focusing on HIV/AIDS in the main as undifferentiated and melodramatic, the author suggests critical consideration of two works by playwright Robert Chesley. In her analysis of Night Sweats and Jerker, the author argues Chesley offers an alternative perspective that is both liberatory and sex-positive.

  9. Canine Gouging: A Taboo Resurfacing in Migrant Urban Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noman, Anila Virani; Wong, Ferranti; Pawar, Ravikiran Ramakrishna

    2015-01-01

    Cosmopolitan cities have become a pool of migrants from different parts of the world, who carry their cultural beliefs and superstitions with them around the globe. Canine gouging is a kind of infant oral mutilation (IOM) which is widely practiced among rural population of Africa where the primary tooth bud of the deciduous canine is enucleated. The belief is that the life threatening illnesses in children like vomiting, diarrhoea, and fevers are caused by worms which infest on tooth buds. This case report is of a 15-year-old Somalian born boy, who presented at the dental institute with intermittent pain in his lower right permanent canine which was associated with a discharging intra oral buccal sinus. The tooth was endodontically treated and then restored with composite. General dental practitioners need to be vigilant when encountered with tooth presenting unusual morphology, unilateral missing tooth, and shift in the midline due to early loss of deciduous/permanent canines. Identification of any such dental mutilation practice will need further counselling of the individual and family members. It is the duty of every dental professional to educate and safeguard the oral and dental health of general public.

  10. Georges Bataille and the Transgression of Taboos by Stephan Dedalus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shataw Naseri

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available James Joyce's A Portrait of the Artist as a Young Man is not a pornographic novel like Georges Bataille' Story of the Eye; however, the present study attempts to trace Bataille's heterological notions in A Portrait. This paper attempts to see whether or not Stephan Dedalus as the main character of Joyce's literary work, has the potential to carry Batatille's heterogeneous elements which shatter any religious, linguistic, economic and political system. In order to reach this goal, the paper first attempts to establish the powerful dominance of the Catholic discourse, one of the strictest religious systems in the world, over Ireland which is the main setting of A Portrait. In the next part it will trace the authoritarian shadow of Catholicism and its impression upon Stephen Dedalus. Here, the principal aim is to indicate the significance of Stephen's transgressive acts in the novel and to see whether these transgressions have Bataillean nature as they shatter a very strict religious structure. Afterward, Stephen's transgressions as well as the implicit reaction of the religious system toward these transgressions will be investigated regarding Georges Bataille's heterogeneous notions.

  11. Researching and Theorizing the "Age Taboo" on Intergenerational Sexualities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuill, Richard; Elliot, David

    2012-01-01

    By means of an ethnographic project, Sarah Goode's Understanding and Addressing Adult Sexual Attraction to Children aspires to better understand the self-conception and self-identification of pedophiles, with the ultimate aim of deconstructing the phenomenon by which culture demonizes pedophiles in order to better protect children. However, the…

  12. The Historical Taboo: Colonial Discourses and Postcolonial Identities in Belgium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bobineau Julien

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This article examines so-called colonial discourses in Belgium related to the former Sub-Saharan colony owned by Leopold II of Belgium which today is known as the Democratic Republic of Congo (DR Congo or the Congo-Kinshasa. Having introduced the colonial history of the DR Congo from the 15th century until 1910, the study starts with a discussion of Van den Braembussche’s concept of a ‘historical taboo’ and four ways of engaging with such implicit interdictions. Finally, an empirical analysis of colonial discourses in Belgium from the 1890s until today will be presented in conjunction with Belgium’s linguistic-cultural division, taking into account age-related divergence.

  13. Beliefs and taboos related to the care after delivery: their meaning for a women group Creencias y tabúes relacionados al cuidado en el postparto: el significado para un grupo de mujeres Crenças e tabus relacionados ao cuidado no pós-parto: o significado para um grupo de mulheres

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Stefanello

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To identify the meaning of care in the puerperal phase, within the family context. METHODS: It is a qualitative research, developed with 12 puerperal women and their relatives, who helped them with care after delivery. Data collection was performed by means of semi-structured interviews. The data were analyzed based on the technique of thematic content analysis. RESULTS: In the postnatal period, care needs to be doubled, as it affects mother and child, besides the body vulnerability, which is open to diseases. In articulation with these ideas, the recommendations and restrictions as components of postpartum care are justified. CONCLUSION: Care in the puerperal phase is a feminine practice filled with beliefs and taboos that grants women with power of agents in this process, since she bears the knowledge of many generations at the same time that they act as subjects and reinvent the previously established systems, constructing themselves as mothers.OBJETIVO: Identificar los significados del cuidado en la fase puerperal en el contexto familiar. MÉTODOS: Se trata de una investigación cualitativa, desarrollada con 12 puérperas y respectivos familiares (11 que las auxiliaban en el cuidado del postparto. Se utilizó entrevistas semi-estructuradas. Los datos fueron analizados con base en la técnica de análisis de contenido, modalidad temática. RESULTADOS: En el puerperio es preciso tener un cuidado extremo, por tener efectos en la madre y el hijo además de la vulnerabilidad del cuerpo, susceptible a enfermedades. Articuladas a estas ideas es que se justifican las recomendaciones y restricciones como componentes del cuidado en el postparto. CONCLUSIÓN: El cuidado en la fase puerperal es una práctica femenina permeada de creencias y tabúes, que otorga a las mujeres un poder de agentes en ese proceso, ya que traen consigo conocimientos de muchas generaciones a la vez que actúan como sujetos y reinventan sistemas establecidos

  14. Bilingual Obscenities : James Joyce, Ulysses, and the Linguistics of Taboo Words

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kager, A.M.W.

    2016-01-01

    James Joyce’s Ulysses has been notorious as a “dirty book” from the moment of its appearance. It was banned on both sides of the Atlantic Ocean for its supposed obscenity and even Joyce’s experimental peers were shocked by its indecent language. Yet Joyce’s earlier works, Dubliners and A Portrait of

  15. 2013 Copyright © 2013, CRISA Publications tABoo of Alcohol

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... an overview of how the mass media process and disseminate information related to road traffic accidents, ... influence of alcohol is behind a significant number of road traffic accidents in Algeria. The results also ..... Archived by Web. Cite® at ...

  16. 95 Taboos and the Maintenance of Social Order in the Old Ondo ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    First Lady

    2013-01-28

    Jan 28, 2013 ... means of moral purification and transformation (Arifalo: 2010). ..... The market place is an important melting pot for business minded people. It ... who was used as a sacrificial ‗lamb' over the issue of adultery committed by.

  17. Tattoo or taboo? Tattoo stigma and negative attitudes toward tattooed individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broussard, Kristin A; Harton, Helen C

    2017-09-21

    Tattoos are common in the United States; however, tattooed persons may be perceived as having more negative character and as more deviant than people without tattoos. College students (Study 1) and community members (Study 2) viewed images of men and women with tattoos or the same images with the tattoos digitally removed and rated the targets' characteristics. Half of the participants viewed a target with a tattoo, and half viewed that target without it, allowing for both within- (participants all rated one male and one female target with a tattoo and another without) and between-participants (participants rated either the tattooed or non-tattooed version of a single target) comparisons. Tattooed targets, especially women, were rated as stronger and more independent, but were rated more negatively on other character attributes than the same target images with the tattoos removed. The stigma associated with tattoos appears to still exist, despite the prevalence of tattoos in modern culture.

  18. Conceptual Divergence - Canons and Taboos - and Critique

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høyrup, Jens

    2004-01-01

    of notational imperfection versus conceptual divergence is none the less too simplistic, since differences may also be due to deliberate choices and exclusions on the part of the authors of the ancient texts—for instance because such a choice helps to fence off a profession, because it expresses appurtenance...... to a real or imagined tradition, or as a result of a critique in the Kantian sense, an elimination of expressions and forms of reasoning that are found theoretically incoherent. The argument is based throughout on historical examples....

  19. The Touch "Taboo" and the Art of Contact: An Exploration of Contact Improvisation for Prisoners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houston, Sara

    2009-01-01

    The article examines the experience of participating in Contact Improvisation by male prisoners. It specifically focuses on issues of touch for this participant group and how inmates can learn different ways of acting from acquiring Contact skills, contributing to their rehabilitation. The paper looks at the culture in prisons that propagates a…

  20. Bereaved parents’ online grief communities: de-tabooing practices or relationbuilding grief-ghettos?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandvik, Kjetil; Christensen, Dorthe Refslund; Hård af Segerstad, Ylva

    their loss as well as their ability to establish and continue their role as parents. However, with new practices on children’s graves, the growing use of memory tattoos and especially the use of online media as platform for various communities for bereaved parents, this seem to be changing and strengthen...... both the interpersonal communication and social interactions about and with the deceased child. This study presents results from case studies of both open and closed online grief communities for bereaved parents in Denmark and Sweden (Refslund Christensen & Sandvik 2013, Hård af Segerstad & Kasperowski...... media, casting online communities for bereaved parents as grief-ghettos? Studying bereaved parents’ grief work in dynamic communities online enhances our understanding of contemporary and contributes to a nuancing of theoretical understanding of parental grief. References Christensen, D. R., & Sandvik...

  1. Addressing Sexuality as Standard Care in People with an Upper Limb Deficiency : Taboo or Necessary Topic?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verschuren, J.E.A.; Geertzen, J.H.B.; Enzlin, P.; Dijkstra, P. U.; Dekker, R.; Van Der Sluis, C.K.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to analyze whether professionals who work with people with an upper limb deficiency (ULD) received questions about sexuality from their patients and whether they addressed sexuality themselves, and to analyze their knowledge and comfort level, approach and attitudes

  2. Totem and taboo in the grocery store: quasi-religious foodways in North America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin E. Zeller

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This article focuses on food proscriptions such as veganism and gluten-free eating, and prescriptions such as the Paleolithic diet, focusing on the North American context. These quasi-religious foodways serve as means for individuals to engage in discourses of community, personal and group identity, and boundary-marking. Through the daily practice of eating, those who follow quasi-religious foodways mark their identities, literally consuming who they are. These quasi-religious foodways therefore function to allow contemporary consumer-oriented individualistic Americans to engage in discourses of community, identity, and meaning in a highly vernacular manner, that of the marketplace. They also point to the manner in which identity and community have expanded well outside of religious categories.

  3. Quasar Black Hole Mass Estimates from High-Ionization Lines: Breaking a Taboo?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola Marziani

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Can high ionization lines such as CIV λ 1549 provide useful virial broadening estimators for computing the mass of the supermassive black holes that power the quasar phenomenon? The question has been dismissed by several workers as a rhetorical one because blue-shifted, non-virial emission associated with gas outflows is often prominent in CIV λ 1549 line profiles. In this contribution, we first summarize the evidence suggesting that the FWHM of low-ionization lines like H β and MgII λ 2800 provide reliable virial broadening estimators over a broad range of luminosity. We confirm that the line widths of CIV λ 1549 is not immediately offering a virial broadening estimator equivalent to the width of low-ionization lines. However, capitalizing on the results of Coatman et al. (2016 and Sulentic et al. (2017, we suggest a correction to FWHM CIV λ 1549 for Eddington ratio and luminosity effects that, however, remains cumbersome to apply in practice. Intermediate ionization lines (IP ∼ 20–30 eV; AlIII λ 1860 and SiIII] λ 1892 may provide a better virial broadening estimator for high redshift quasars, but larger samples are needed to assess their reliability. Ultimately, they may be associated with the broad-line region radius estimated from the photoionization method introduced by Negrete et al. (2013 to obtain black hole mass estimates independent from scaling laws.

  4. Ad' taboo : the reiterations in advertising : plagiarism or coincidence? / Tomas Bartninkas

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Bartninkas, Tomas

    2006-01-01

    Autor tutvustab maailmapraktikat sarnaste ideede kasutamisest reklaamides ning nendib, et reklaamide plagiaadiks tembeldamine või süütuks kokkusattumuseks pidamine on igaühe enda südametunnistuse asi

  5. Metformin: An Old Taboo yet a New Friend for Targeted Glucose Control in Critically Ill Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarvi Sanaie

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Glucose management in critically ill adults and children has always been controversial. A few recent studies mention that the use of any drug other than insulin for glucose control in intensive care unit is not recommended anymore1. Increased levels of counter-regulatory hormones and insulin resistance at organ levels contribute immensely to the emergence of hyperglycemia in these patients. Consequently, in some patients higher doses of insulin are required for the maintenance of normoglycemia and in such scenarios incidence of hypoglycemia becomes a real concern. Moreover, insulin therapy might lead to hypokalaemia and hypomagnesaemia which in turns promote insulin resistance and higher blood glucose level (BGL. All these events make insulin administration unavoidable; thereby, beginning a vicious cycle with adverse outcomes. One of therapeutic options in this scenario is using insulin sensitizing agents as an adjunct therapy for glycemic control in critically ill patients. Different studies have shown that metformin, similar to insulin, is of anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties, improves lipid profile, decreases nursing workload and lowers the incidence of adverse effects related to high-dose insulin therapy without being associated with the increased risk of lactic acidosis or hypoglycemia2-4. Panahi et al., in their study, showed that metformin therapy in hyperglycemic critically ill patients resulted in similar outcomes with insulin thersapy5. Also, there are some studies reporting that metformin limits ischemia reperfusion injury, modulates inflammation; it consequently contributes to the survival benefits probably through increasing adenosine receptor stimulation6-8. In sepsis, there is a biphasic inflammatory response; Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome (SIRS, as an initial hyperinflammatory phase, and Counterregulatory anti-inflammatory response syndrome as a later hypoactive phase. Therefore, anti-inflammatory drugs like metformin may be associated with the best results only if added prior to the initial hyperinflammatory response and might have detrimental effects if added during hypoactive phase9,10. Timing of metformin administration may be an important factor contributing to its effect in critically ill patients. Finally, in patients with refractoriness to insulin who require high doses of insulin, metformin could be used as a safe adjunct therapy to reach targeted glucose levels. Metformin plus insulin appears to lower the incidence of insulin resistance, insulin requirements while maintaining blood glucose level control, and consequently the incidence of adverse effects related to high-dose insulin therapy, particularly hypoglycaemia. Declined nursing workload is also considered a major benefit.  However, two important items should be noted: first, timing of drug administration and second, characteristics of the patients like renal function, hypoperfusion status and monitoring of drug complications.

  6. Breaking the Taboo: Illicit Drug Use among Adolescents with Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna M. Hogendorf

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The aim of the study was to explore the prevalence of illicit drug use in a group of Polish adolescents with type 1 diabetes (DM1 in comparison with a national cohort of their healthy peers. Methods. Two hundred and nine adolescents with DM1, aged 15–18 years, were studied in 2013 with an anonymous questionnaire prepared for the European School Survey Project on Alcohol and Other Drugs (ESPAD. The control group was a representative sample of 12114 students at the same age who took part in ESPAD in 2011. Metabolic control was regarded as good if self-reported HbA1c was <8% or poor if HbA1c was ≥8%. Results. Lifetime prevalence of illicit drug use was lower among adolescents with DM1 than in the control group [58 (28% versus 5524 (46%, p=10-5]. Cannabis preparations were the most frequently used substances [38 (18.3% versus 3976 (33.1%, p=10-5], followed by tranquilizers, sedatives, and amphetamine. Lifetime and last 12-month use of cannabis were associated with poorer glycemic control (HbA1c ≥ 8%, p<0.01 and 0.02, respectively. Conclusions. Adolescents with DM1 report using illicit drugs to a lesser extent than their healthy peers. The use of cannabis is associated with a poorer metabolic control in teens with DM1.

  7. So It Vanished: Art, Taboo and Shared Space in Contemporary Aotearoa New Zealand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan Barrett

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available In February 2012, The Dowse Art Museum in Lower Hutt, near Wellington, planned to host So It Vanishes, an exhibition by acclaimed Mexican artist Teresa Margolles, whose often shocking works seek to highlight how dispensable human life has become in the parts of Mexico riven by drugs wars. Margolles’s installation would have used infinitesimal amounts of morgue water in a bubble mixture dispensed into an empty, silent room in the same building that sacred Māori treasures are housed. The incorporation of water used to wash corpses in So It Vanishes, particularly in proximity to cultural treasures, would have been deeply offensive, indeed dangerous, for Māori people. Following objections, the exhibition was cancelled. This article analyses the cancellation of So It Vanishes and seeks to answer whether and how transgressive art and indigenous beliefs may be reconciled in contemporary Aotearoa New Zealand.

  8. Comparing the do's & taboos in Chinese Feng-Shui and Indian Vāstu-Shāstra architectural traditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huang, En-Yu

    2012-01-01

    Chinese Feng-Shui and Indian Vāstu-Shāstra are two of the world’s best-known and longest-enduring systems of geomancy which have, for centuries, informed architectural practice of their respective cultural spheres. Albeit developed in different geo-cultural contexts and reinforced by their distinct

  9. Children's Rights-Based Approaches: The Challenges of Listening to Taboo/Discriminatory Issues and Moving beyond Children's Participation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konstantoni, Kristina

    2013-01-01

    Young children's active participation is high on the UK's political, research and policy agendas; at least in rhetoric. However, critiques have emerged regarding the extent to which this rhetoric has been translated into practice and whether participatory rights are linked to the implementation of other human rights. Drawing on an ethnographic…

  10. Gesturing more diminishes recall of abstract words when gesture is allowed and concrete words when it is taboo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews-Saugstad, Krista M; Raymakers, Erik P; Kelty-Stephen, Damian G

    2017-07-01

    Gesture during speech can promote or diminish recall for conversation content. We explored effects of cognitive load on this relationship, manipulating it at two scales: individual-word abstractness and social constraints to prohibit gestures. Prohibited gestures can diminish recall but more so for abstract-word recall. Insofar as movement planning adds to cognitive load, movement amplitude may moderate gesture effects on memory, with greater permitted- and prohibited-gesture movements reducing abstract-word recall and concrete-word recall, respectively. We tested these effects in a dyadic game in which 39 adult participants described words to confederates without naming the word or five related words. Results supported our expectations and indicated that memory effects of gesturing depend on social, cognitive, and motoric aspects of discourse.

  11. Taboo or Tabula Rasa: Cross-Racial/Cultural Dating Preferences Amongst Chinese, Japanese, and Korean International Students in an American University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritter, Zachary S.

    2015-01-01

    International students bring racial attitudes and group preferences that affect campus climates. Forty-seven Chinese, Japanese, and Korean college international students were interviewed, regarding their perceptions of race/ethnicity and nationality, when it comes to dating and romantic relationships on college campuses. Thirty-five out of…

  12. Radicalisation: The Last Taboo in Safeguarding and Child Protection? Assessing Practitioner Preparedness in Preventing the Radicalisation of Looked-After Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matt Dryden

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Radicalisation is fast becoming one of the most acute and pressing safeguarding and child protection issues of the whole century (NSPCC, 2016. However, the issue of looked-after children as potential recruits for extremist groups has been largely overlooked, despite the universal acknowledgement that looked-after children represent the most vulnerable of all demographics within society. This research collected rare and vital primary data by interviewing practitioners within looked-after children’s, residential, and respite services. The study established that practitioners lacked basic awareness of radicalisation and extremism, the Prevent strategy, and the Channel programme. It was discovered that practitioners were unsure of what constitutes the potential indicators of radicalisation, and how and to whom such concerns should be reported. It became apparent that radicalisation as a safeguarding and child protection issue has not been afforded a level of focus adequate and proportionate to the risk posed, and that other issues, namely child sexual exploitation, remain the primary concern in safeguarding contexts.

  13. Sens et enjeux d’un interdit alimentaire dans le judaïsme Food taboos in Judaism: the example of Ashkenazi Jews in London

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurence Faure

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Cet article porte sur la manière dont la prohibition de mêler nourritures lactées et carnées dans le judaïsme se matérialise par les objets de la cuisine et leurs usages quotidiens, à partir d’une recherche réalisée à Londres auprès de couples juifs ashkénazes qui se définissent presque tous comme orthodoxes (modern orthodox et dont la scolarisation dans des écoles juives a parfois pu contribuer à revivifier les pratiques religieuses. Par delà la diversité des habitudes culinaires et de leurs formes (ex : végétarisme, par delà les éventuelles variations individuelles de l’observance religieuse au cours du cycle de vie, l’interdit alimentaire de mêler lait et viande est respecté par l’ensemble des personnes rencontrées. Il s’agit alors d’en comprendre le sens et la portée. Les conséquences matérielles de cet interdit alimentaire permettent de saisir l’importance de la religion dans le logement et les activités de tous les jours. Elles conduisent à articuler le plan matériel et le plan symbolique en suggérant une interprétation anthropologique de cette prohibition, en lien avec les écrits bibliques et les analyses déjà menées sur le sujet.This article is based upon research on Ashkenazi Jewish families living in London. It deals with the way, in Judaïsm, the prohibition of eating meat and dairy foods together is materialised through the use of kitchen utensils on a day to day basis. Material consequences of this dietary law allow us to understand the importance of religion in the Jewish home and in everyday life. Consequences which lead to the linking of material uses and their symbolic significance by suggesting an anthropological interpretation of this dietary law in accordance with Biblical writings.

  14. Science Teachers' Decision-Making in Abstinence-Only-Until-Marriage (AOUM) Classrooms: Taboo Subjects and Discourses of Sex and Sexuality in Classroom Settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gill, Puneet Singh

    2015-01-01

    Sex education, especially in the southeastern USA, remains steeped in an Abstinence-Only-Until-Marriage (AOUM) approach, which sets up barriers to the education of sexually active students. Research confirms that science education has the potential to facilitate discussion of controversial topics, including sex education. Science teachers in the…

  15. How Do Friends and Strangers Play the Game Taboo? A Study of Accuracy, Efficiency, Motivation, and the Use of Shared Knowledge

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pollmann, Monique M. H.; Krahmer, Emiel J.

    2017-01-01

    According to common belief, friends communicate more accurately and efficiently than strangers, because they can use uniquely shared knowledge and common knowledge to explain things to each other, while strangers are restricted to common knowledge. To test this belief, we asked friends and strangers

  16. Same-sex marriage and other moral taboos : cultural acceptances, change in American public opinion and the evidence from the opinion polls

    OpenAIRE

    MORINI, Marco

    2017-01-01

    Published online: 25 January 2017 Creative Commons Licence This article analyzes the evolution of gay and lesbian rights and same-sex marriage in American public opinion. It describes how Obergefell v. Hodges, state-level decisions and the public opinion trends can be considered as the outcome of a grassroots coordinated campaign which began more than a decade ago and was able to conquer the majority of Americans. It also focuses on the American public opinion trends related to moral is...

  17. Atividade sexual pós-infarto do miocárdio: tabu ou desinformação? Sexual activity after myocardial infarction: taboo or lack of knowledge?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosana Pinheiro Lunelli

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available FUNDAMENTO: O retorno à atividade sexual após síndrome coronária aguda (SCA, apesar da importância clínica e social, é assunto pouco abordado pela equipe de saúde, e que tem recebido pouca ênfase durante a internação. A disfunção erétil tem sido uma queixa freqüente entre pacientes cardiopatas, aliada a dúvidas sobre a segurança no retorno à atividade sexual após evento cardiovascular. OBJETIVO: Descrever o conhecimento dos pacientes quanto ao infarto agudo do miocárdio (IAM e às orientações recebidas para o retorno à atividade sexual. MÉTODOS: Estudo transversal realizado entre junho e julho de 2005. Foram incluídos pacientes que se encontravam no sexto dia pós-IAM. Foi aplicado um instrumento relacionado ao conhecimento sobre o IAM, à freqüência e às expectativas de retorno à atividade sexual no período pós-alta hospitalar. RESULTADOS: Foram incluídos 96 pacientes, dos quais 70% eram do sexo masculino, com média de idade de 59 ± 12 anos, e 80% eram vítimas de primeiro infarto agudo do miocárdio. Desses pacientes, 96% desconheciam as manifestações clínicas e as possíveis limitações provocadas pelo IAM, 63% relataram ter vida sexual ativa antes do evento, 60% tinham dúvidas quanto ao retorno à atividade sexual após a alta, e apenas 4% dos pacientes receberam orientações pelos profissionais de saúde durante o período de internação. CONCLUSÃO: Nossos achados indicam que as orientações dispensadas pela equipe aos pacientes durante a internação são subótimas, no que tange tanto ao IAM quanto ao retorno à atividade sexual. A atualização da equipe de saúde, principalmente dos enfermeiros que despendem mais tempo com os pacientes, são estratégias que podem melhorar esses resultados.BACKGROUND: Despite its clinical and social relevance, resumption of sexual activity after an acute coronary syndrome (ACS is a subject that is poorly addressed by healthcare providers and one that is given scant emphasis during hospitalization. Erectile dysfunction is a common complaint among cardiac patients, and these patients are in doubt regarding the safety of resuming sexual activity after a cardiovascular event. OBJECTIVE: To describe how well informed patients are in regard to acute an myocardial infarction (AMI and what sort of guidance they receive regarding resumption of sexual activity. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was performed from June to July 2005 with patients on the sixth day of AMI. A questionnaire was applied to assess not only patients' knowledge of AMI, but also their expectations regarding their resumption of sexual activity - and frequency of same - following hospital discharge. RESULTS: Ninety-six patients were included in the study (mean age 59 ± 12; 70% of them were male and 80% had experienced their first AMI. Of these, 96% lacked any knowledge of AMI clinical manifestations and possible limitations, 63% reported an active sex life before the event, 60% were in doubt regarding their sex life following hospital discharge, and only 4% received sexual guidance from healthcare providers during their hospital stay. CONCLUSION: According to our findings, the recommendations patients receive during hospitalization are suboptimal in regard to both AMI and resumption of sexual activity. The updating of healthcare providers may change this situation. This is especially true for the nursing staff, since they spend more time with patients.

  18. Salivary detection of human Papilloma virus 16 & 18 in pre-malignant and malignant lesions of oral cavity: Is it feasible in Pakistani context of Socio-Cultural Taboos?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khyani, Iqbal A Muhammad; Qureshi, Masood A; Mirza, Talat; Farooq, M Umar

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate salivary detection of HPV-16 & 18 would be feasible and informative biomarker for oral pre-malignant and malignant lesion in our population. This non-interventional, case control study was carried out at department of E.N.T, Head and Neck Surgery, Dow University of Health Sciences, Dow Medical College and Civil Hospital Karachi, Pakistan between July 2011 to December 2012. Total of 105 cases were recruited. These were divided in three groups 'A', 'B' & 'C' having 35 subjects each. Group'A' constitutes patients having strong clinical evidence of oral pre-malignant lesions (PML). Group 'B' includes histologically proven oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) and Group 'C' comprised disease free subjects as controls. After taking informed consent, relevant clinical history was recorded on institutional approved performa. Saliva from all subjects was procured by standard 'drooling method'. Samples were stored at +4°C and later transferred to Laboratory to store at-20°C before further process. Samples were centrifuged at 4500 rpm for 15 minutes at 4°C. Cell pellets sediments were used for identification of HPV-16 & 18 by real-time PCR method. Data was entered and analysed using SPSS version 16. P-value of 0.05 was taken as standard. In group 'A', HPV-16 was detected in 3 (8.6%) cases while HPV-18 was not detected in any of the subject. In group 'B', HPV-16 was detected in 07 (20%) while HPV-18 was found in 06 (17.1%) cases. Mixed HPV-16 and HPV-18 were found in 02 (5.7%) cases. In group 'C', HPV-16 was detected in 03(8.6%) while HPV-18 was not detected in any of the subjects. Significant relationship was observed between the groups for HPV-18 detection (P= 0.002) while for HPV-16, no significant association was found (P= 0.245). HPV infection for the causation of oral cancer cannot be fully established possibly due to small sample size. More over differences in genetic makeup, environment, indulgence in peculiar risk factor habits, sexual practices and difficult evaluation of the acquisition of viral load due to socio-cultural and religious restrictions could be the reason.

  19. Makanan Tabu di Rokan Hulu, Riau

    OpenAIRE

    Sukandar, Dadang

    2010-01-01

    Food taboo is one of nutrition problem in Indonesia. Solution to overcome this problem is therefore needed. Objectives of this study are 1) to identify taboo foods and 2) to reduce community food taboo through conducting training on food and nutrition. Study was conducted in Rokan Hulu Riau from December 1995 to November 2006. A sample of size 40 households was drawn randomly from household population of size 197. The households population is household farmer who are beneficiary of Spec...

  20. Health complaints of high school students in the Northern Province ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The highest reported taboo theme was homosexuality, followed by tattooing or piercing, and abortion. There is a significant positive correlation between health complaints of the students and taboo themes in their families. The findings call for intensified efforts on enlightenment (life skills) programmes designed to ...

  1. MAKANAN TABU DI BANJAR JAWA BARAT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dadang Sukandar

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available 800x600 Normal 0 false false false IN X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 st1\\:*{behavior:url(#ieooui } /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman","serif";} Food taboo in Indonesia is still a problem because there  are many taboo foods.  As consequences,  pregnant mother, lactating mother and children  do not eat the taboo foods so that it can reduce their food intake and finally it can decrease their nutritional status.   Objectives of this study are  1 to identify taboo foods and 2 to identify reasons of taboo foods and  3 to improve basic nutrition knowledge through training  on food and nutrition.  Study was conducted in Banjar West Java from December 2005 to November 2006.  A sample size 92 households was drawn randomly from household population of size 482. The household of population is farmer household who are beneficiary of Special Program for Food Security, Food and Agriculture Organization. Data were analyzed quantitatively and qualitatively and presented in one way table. Results show that groups which had a large number of food taboo were pregnant women group and lactating mother group. There are 35 taboo foods for pregnant women and 24  taboo foods for lactating mother. Some taboo foods for pregnant women are ambon banana, bee, bee egg, cat fish, coconut plus red sugar, eel, coffee, bogo fish, fishing fish, gabus fish, gnetum gnemon and its leaf, ice, jack fruit, kind of jack fruit (kulur, kind of leaf (leaf of so, etc.  Some  taboo foods for lactating mother are banana, bean sprout, beverage made with such droplets, cucumber, eel, egg, fat food, fish, hot food, ice, innards of gurami, jack fruit

  2. Heritability of fear: Ukrainian experience | Filiptsova | Egyptian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In the former Soviet Union, research on human behavior traits was mostly tabooed. ... Results: As a result of the research, correlation coefficients of fears q between ... one was recorded for fear of aggressive behavior possibility to the relatives.

  3. article_7_2012 Sept. edition

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AJRH Managing Editor

    Identifying pregnant women who would adhere to food taboos in a rural community: a community-based study ..... concentrations during pregnancy and insulin resistance in the offspring: the Pune Maternal. Nutrition Study. Diabetologia 2008 ...

  4. Women's Education in India: Problems and Prospects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, M. C. Reddeppa

    1991-01-01

    Problems in educating women in India include social taboos, dependency, parents' discriminatory attitudes, low social status, early marriage, heavy work load, lack of motivation, and family poverty. Changes in attitudes, laws, and funding are needed to expand opportunities. (SK)

  5. Dramaturgie et interculturel (Dramatics and the Intercultural).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldhendler, Daniel

    1990-01-01

    The use of techniques from drama and psychodrama to explore intercultural differences and relations is described. The process used incorporates eight stages of discovery of perceptions, stereotypes, cultural identity, communication taboos, and bringing together individuals from different cultures. (MSE)

  6. Japan's Nuclear Future: Policy Debate, Prospects, and U.S. Interests

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Chanlett-Avery, Emma; Nikitin, Mary Beth

    2008-01-01

    .... The previous taboo within the Japanese political community of discussing a nuclear weapons capability appears to have been broken, as several officials and opinion leaders have urged an open debate on the topic...

  7. Sammelrezension: Unreliable Narration

    OpenAIRE

    Orth, Dominik

    2009-01-01

    Eva Laass: Broken Taboos, Subjective Truths. Forms and Functions of Unreliable Narration in Contemporary American Cinema. A Contribution to Film NarratologyVolker Ferenz: Don’t believe his lies. The unreliable narrator in contemporary American cinema

  8. A White President of a Predominantly Black College Speaks Out About Race.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tschechtelin, James D.

    1999-01-01

    Asserts that racism and white supremacy are threatening America's social, economic, and political stability. Suggests that inviting community dialog on these taboo topics may lead to solutions, and recounts such steps taken at Baltimore City Community College. (VWC)

  9. Identifying the Core Content and Structure of a Schema for Cultural Understanding

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-06-01

    Guatemala, Haiti, Holland, Honduras, Iraq, Italy, Japan, Korea, Kuwait, Malaysia , Mexico, Nassau, Nicaragua, Pakistan, Panama, Peru, Philippines... Leisure Orientation toward U.S. Military/Civilian Religion Technology Time Work Taboos Social structure Similarities and differences Key

  10. 162 Alienation and Quest for Identity in VS Naipaul's A House for Mr ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    FIRST LADY

    2011-01-18

    Jan 18, 2011 ... Caribbean as a place is regarded as the “Great Wrong” of imperial atrocities perpetrated ... people that guarantee a self-empowered Caribbean future. Introduction. Vidiadhar .... taboos by eating shop bread" (140). In another ...

  11. Direction des Publications

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Synthese

    intelligence artificielle (réseau de ... In this paper, we studied the optimization problem of a flexible manufacturing cell type FJSP (flexible job ... based on artificial intelligence (neural network algorithms evolutionary fuzzy logic, taboo, etc.

  12. Analisis Kata Tabu dan Klasifikasinya di Lirik Lagu Eminem pada Album `The Marshal Mathers LP`

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laily Nur Affini

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available This research is dedicated for readers in the field of linguistics and has a purpose to reveal taboo words based on a certain theory and the classifications. The analysed taboo words exist in Emeninems album,The Marshall Mathers LP. A theory employed in the analysis is using Timothy Jay theory where taboo words are differentiated in seven classifications; cursing, profanity, blasphemy, obscenity, sexual harassment, vulgar language, name-calling and insult.The data was taken into two parts, primary and secondary. The primary data is the lyric itself and the secondary data is taken from books, articles and dictionary. The result of the analysis shows a revelation of the taboo words classifications, shown up in a table.

  13. school-based survey of adolescents' opinion on premarital sex

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PROF. BARTH EKWEME

    Method: A cross sectional descriptive survey design was used. ... a taboo between parents and children. The adolescents learned through the mass media and peers unguided. ... adolescents, males reported more permissive attitudes towards ...

  14. Rwanda Journal ISSN 2305-2678 (Print); ISSN 2305- 5944 (Online ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Education

    Rwanda Journal, Series B: Social Sciences, Volume 4 No 1, 2017 33. Rwanda Journal .... The print media, the political parties manifestos, the official reports ..... and of psychological alienation from taboos by which it was surrounded by the ...

  15. Women NGO's and Women Empowerment in

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    FIRST LADY

    more effective and offer greater benefits in the development of Nigeria and. Nigerian women. ... taboos averse to women education should be dismantled. Keywords: ... were gender blind, and gave no specific place to gender issues in Nigeria.

  16. Translating Music into Hope | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... contents Translating Music into Hope Follow us Translating Music into Hope Black Eyed Peas’ Taboo talks about ... for years as a member of the hit music group Black Eyed Peas. He shares his recent ...

  17. MAKANAN TABU DI BARITO KUALA KALIMANTAN SELATAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dadang Sukandar

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available 800x600 Normal 0 false false false IN X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman","serif";} Food taboo in Indonesia is still a problem. As consequences, pregnant mother, lactating mother and children do not eat the taboo foods so that it can reduce their food intake and finally it can decrease their nutritional status. The objectives of this study are 1 to identify taboo foods, 2 to identify reasons of taboo food and 3 to improve basic nutrition knowledge through training on food and nutrition.  Study was conducted in Barito Kuala South Kalimantan from December 2005 to November 2006. A sample of size 36 households was drawn randomly from household population of size 180. The households population is household farmer who are beneficiary of Special Program for Food Security, Food and Agriculture Organization. Data were analyzed quantitatively and qualitatively and presented in one way table. Results show that groups which had many food taboo were pregnant woman group and lactating mother group. There are 7 taboo foods for pregnant woman and 11 taboo foods for lactating mother. Some taboo foods for pregnant women are ice, twin banana, young coconut, coconut water, young pineapple and fish. Some taboo foods for lactating mother are egg, fresh fish, fish, sugar, salt, jackfruit, fat food, hot food, etc. After attending training, the knowledge on nutrition and food of the farmers increase significantly, therefore it is hoped  that their knowledge can reduce their believe of the food taboo.  Keywords: taboo food, food intake, nutrition knowledge.

  18. Duration Judgments for Verbal Stimuli: Effects of Emotion, Attention, and Memory Encoding

    OpenAIRE

    Johnson, Laura Wendy

    2014-01-01

    In six experiments, this dissertation investigated duration judgments for verbal stimuli, testing predictions of information-processing models of time perception. Experiments 1, 2, and 3 explored the effects of low-valence, high-arousal taboo words on the perception of time. The results revealed that durations of taboo words were underestimated compared to neutral words in prospective timing tasks, including the temporal bisection task in Experiment 1 and the ordinality comparison procedure ...

  19. Social norms and cultural services - community belief system and use of wildlife products in the Northern periphery of the Korup National Park, South-West Cameroon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ngoufo R

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In many traditional societies, beliefs and taboos influence human behaviour towards the natural environment. Such beliefs and taboos are informal institutions where norms rather than official laws determine land use and nature protection in general and wildlife in particular. The present study on beliefs and taboos of the people of the northern periphery of the Korup National Park is an attempt to reveal how norms influence their relation to the environment. A total of 195 households were sampled through a household survey conducted in four villages. The results revealed that before the application of “modern” approaches for wildlife protection and management, the people relied on norms to establish a relationship with wildlife and nature. The enactment of the 1994 legislation on forest, wildlife and fisheries resulted in stiff resistance as it contradicts traditional norms. It was found that 57.4 % of the respondents still perceive wildlife as a resource that can never get extinct. Traditional norms had a differentiated impact especially on game protection. The study recommends that a wildlife benefiting code of beliefs and taboos is developed to provide a basis for establishing a synergy between park management laws and traditional belief/taboo systems that drive the management of wildlife.

  20. Sexualité prémaritale à Antananarivo (Madagascar)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AJRH Managing Editor

    Results show that young men and women share the ideal of abstinence before marriage. The promotion of ... whereas young men have the means—condom use—to transgress the taboo of premarital sex and protect themselves against health risks. Thus, young .... conduite en mars 2006 auprès des étudiants de la capitale ...

  1. The Use of Touch in Therapy: Can We Talk?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Melanie A.

    The empirical literature regarding the use of nonerotic touch in psychotherapy is reviewed. Theoretical and ethical concerns are discussed, including the taboo against touching clients, situations in which touch may be appropriate, and whether or not nonerotic touch leads to erotic touch. It is difficult to design controlled studies for ongoing…

  2. Danish Humor in Cross-Cultural Professional Settings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundquist, Lita Sander

    2014-01-01

    , with no limits or taboos. These characteristics of Danish humor are analyzed here using two different theoretical frameworks: linguistics – where an explanation is found in certain type-specific features of the Danish language, namely the dialogical particles typical of the Nordic languages in general...

  3. Bodily Moral Disgust: What It Is, How It Is Different from Anger, and Why It Is an Unreasoned Emotion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Pascale Sophie; Giner-Sorolla, Roger

    2013-01-01

    With the recent upswing in research interest on the moral implications of disgust, there has been uncertainty about what kind of situations elicit moral disgust and whether disgust is a rational or irrational player in moral decision making. We first outline the benefits of distinguishing between bodily violations (e.g., sexual taboos, such as…

  4. The danger of misunderstanding 'culture'

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Eva Keller

    2009-12-02

    Dec 2, 2009 ... such as eating lemurs or bats or felling trees, taboos seem to provide a ... recounted the following myth: “The Creator asked the Malagasy whether they ... birth of a healthy child is a sign that the ancestors are satisfied and that ...

  5. ETHNO-ZOOLOGICAL KNOWLEDGE AND PERCEPTION OF THE ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Other insects consumed for nutritional purposes are Mallodon downesi, Pupae of scarabaedae beetles and Brachytrypes sp despite certain taboos attached to the utilization of Brachytrypes sp; Macrotermes nigeriense and Anapleptes trifaciata equally, Apis mellifera; Anapleptes trifaciata; Brachytrypes sp; Macrotermes ...

  6. Explaining the emergence of euthanasia law in the Netherlands : how the sociology of law can help the sociology of bioethics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weyers, Heleen

    The debate over the legalisation of voluntary euthanasia is most often seen to be the result of three changes in society: individualisation, diminished taboos concerning death and changes in the balance of power in medicine. The fact that these changes occurred in many western countries but led to

  7. 4. Managing Children with Spina Bifida in sub-Saharan Africa

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Esem

    taboos, religious beliefs, paucity of medical power. 1-5 ... interventions of rehabilitation for children with SB especially in Africa, some ... checked for and the central nervous system (CNS) ..... Thesis,. University of Zambia. 33. Sacko O, Boetto S, Lauwers-Cances V, Dupuy. M, Roux ... Nichols DS, Case-Smith J. Reliability and.

  8. Australian Aboriginal Deaf People and Aboriginal Sign Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Power, Des

    2013-01-01

    Many Australian Aboriginal people use a sign language ("hand talk") that mirrors their local spoken language and is used both in culturally appropriate settings when speech is taboo or counterindicated and for community communication. The characteristics of these languages are described, and early European settlers' reports of deaf…

  9. Parental permissiveness, abuse experience and gender roles as ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Parental abuse as a societal problem has been in obscurity for years especially in Africa where utmost respect is required from children towards their parents. In African society abuse and disrespect to parents are viewed as a taboo. This study examined some factors which could contribute to parent abuse. Descriptive ...

  10. Breaching cultural silence: enhancing resilience among Ugandan ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cultural silence is frequently the outcome of deep-seated taboos regarding adults talking to children about sex and death. This paper examines the impact of cultural silence on the resilience of children orphaned by AIDS in Uganda. Cultural silence is often linked with denial. This article explores the complexities of cultural ...

  11. Estetica e conservazione del passato

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simona Chiodo

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The article investigates the relationship between aesthetics and the architectural preservation of the past through three issues: the analysis of the ontological status of the object to be preserved, the approaches to it and the taboo of death.

  12. Secondary School Students Preferences for Instructional Strategies ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sex is a very sensitive topic and considered a taboo in the Nigerian society. Yet, value pertaining to discipline in sexual attitude among adolescent is gradually being eroded. There is a prevalence of illicit sex, homosexual behaviour and lesbianism, teenage pregnancy etc among our teenagers. These are pointers to the ...

  13. Making Death, Compassion and Partnership "Part of Life" in School Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Carla Jane; Keeffe, Mary; Gardner, Fiona; Farrelly, Cathleen

    2017-01-01

    Death can be considered a social taboo, a common source of fear and public avoidance. School communities are not immune to this, as the topic of death is constantly avoided. It is vital to understand how we can socially and culturally cultivate a positive regard for death, dying and bereavement in our school communities. Community members need to…

  14. Your Art Is Gay and Retarded: Eliminating Discriminating Speech against Homosexual and Intellectually Disabled Students in the Secondary Arts Education Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payne, Brian M.

    2010-01-01

    Issues of gender, race, sexual orientation, and intellectual disability are taboo among teens, as they are consumed with their own struggle for identity and often unable to view the struggles of those around them who may not fit into the social majority in the overwhelming ecosystem of high school peer groups. Some may argue that "gay" and…

  15. Self-control in Online Discussions: Disinhibited Online Behavior as a Failure to Recognize Social Cues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voggeser, Birgit J; Singh, Ranjit K; Göritz, Anja S

    2017-01-01

    In an online experiment we examined the role of self-control in recognizing social cues in the context of disinhibited online behavior (e.g., flaming and trolling). We temporarily lowered participants' self-control capacity with an ego depletion paradigm (i.e., color Stroop task). Next, we measured participants' sensitivity to social cues with an emotional Stroop task containing neutral, negative, and taboo words. Sensitivity to social cues is represented by the increase in reaction time to negative and especially taboo words compared to neutral words. As expected, undepleted participants were slower to process the color of negative and taboo words. By contrast, depleted participants (i.e., those with lowered self-control capacity) did not react differently to taboo or negative words than they did to neutral words. The experiment illustrates that self-control failure may manifest itself in a failure to recognize social cues. The finding underlines the importance of self-control in understanding disinhibited online behavior: Many instances of disinhibited online behavior may occur not because people are unable to control themselves, but because they do not realize that a situation calls for self-control in the first place.

  16. Self-control in Online Discussions: Disinhibited Online Behavior as a Failure to Recognize Social Cues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Birgit J. Voggeser

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In an online experiment we examined the role of self-control in recognizing social cues in the context of disinhibited online behavior (e.g., flaming and trolling. We temporarily lowered participants' self-control capacity with an ego depletion paradigm (i.e., color Stroop task. Next, we measured participants' sensitivity to social cues with an emotional Stroop task containing neutral, negative, and taboo words. Sensitivity to social cues is represented by the increase in reaction time to negative and especially taboo words compared to neutral words. As expected, undepleted participants were slower to process the color of negative and taboo words. By contrast, depleted participants (i.e., those with lowered self-control capacity did not react differently to taboo or negative words than they did to neutral words. The experiment illustrates that self-control failure may manifest itself in a failure to recognize social cues. The finding underlines the importance of self-control in understanding disinhibited online behavior: Many instances of disinhibited online behavior may occur not because people are unable to control themselves, but because they do not realize that a situation calls for self-control in the first place.

  17. Critical Discourse Analysis as Queer Linguistics: Religious pro- and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Kate H

    1996-09-22

    Sep 22, 1996 ... and social taboos (line 45) such as paedophilia (line 48), kleptomania and nymphomania (line. 49). Not only are intolerant arguments presented first and afforded more space in this letter, they are also foregrounded in the text and marked as important. Individual lexical items that are used to topicalise ...

  18. The Relevance of Cultural Factors in Predicting Condom-Use Intentions among Immigrants from the Netherlands Antilles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kocken, P. L.; van Dorst, A. G.; Schaalma, H.

    2006-01-01

    A study into the relevance of cultural factors in predicting condom-use intentions among Antillean migrants in the Netherlands is described in this article. The association between the intention to use condoms with a new sexual partner and a perceived taboo on discussing sex, beliefs about sex education and machismo beliefs on gender and power…

  19. Psychosocial and cultural analysis of childlessness and its ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Results show that Nigerians irrespective of tribe, gender, age, educational status, self-esteem and religion consider childlessness a taboo and hold women solely responsible. This outcome has implications for improved sexual and reproductive health policy with respect to gender mainstreaming and counselling ...

  20. The relevance of cultural factors in predicting condom-use intentions among immigrants from the Netherlands Antilles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kocken, P.L.; Dorst, A.G. van; Schaalma, H.

    2006-01-01

    A study into the relevance of cultural factors in predicting condom-use intentions among Antillean migrants in the Netherlands is described in this article. The association between the intention to use condoms with a new sexual partner and a perceived taboo on discussing sex, beliefs about sex

  1. The Compilation of a Shona Children's Dictionary: Challenges and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... the monolingual Shona Children's Dictionary. The focus is mainly on the problems met in headword selection. Solutions by the team members when dealing with these problems are also presented. Keywords: shona children's dictionary, loanwords, taboo, headword selection, slang, tone marking, illustrations, synonyms, ...

  2. Review Article: Maternal nutrition in Nigeria | Adinma | Tropical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Inadequate intake of calories and micronutrient is a major feature of studies on the dietary pattern of Nigerian pregnant women. Multinutrient malnutrition and micronutrient deficiencies are a consequence of low content of macronutrients and micronutrients in diet and staple foods in Nigeria. Food restriction/taboos occur in ...

  3. Wild Justice: Honor and Fairness among Beasts at Play

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bekoff, Marc; Pierce, Jessica

    2009-01-01

    This essay challenges science's traditional taboo against anthropomorphizing animals or considering their behavior as indicative of feelings similar to human emotions. In their new book "Wild Justice: The Moral Lives of Animals," the authors argue that anthropomorphism is alive and well, as it should be. Here they describe some…

  4. Beliefs And Practice Concerning Pregnancy Delivery And ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... taboos specific to pregnancy, but food restrictions were described. Antenatal and intrapartum care by spiritual and traditional midwives was considered superior to orthodox care. Practices by the midwives include turning a baby in an abnormal lie, massaging the vagina with oil in labour; conducting delivery without gloves ...

  5. Browse Title Index

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 101 - 150 of 163 ... Vol 3, No 1 (2008), Taboos and social contracts: Tools for ecosystem management – lessons from the Manambolomaty Lakes RAMSAR site, western Madagascar, Abstract PDF. J Rabearivony, E Fanameha, J Mampiandra, R Thorstrom. Vol 10, No 1 (2015), Ten years into the marshes – Hapalemur ...

  6. Sex Education and Student Rights: Including the Missing Actor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, Paul T.

    2011-01-01

    In the West, sex education has always been a taboo subject that continues to challenge the public schools. Drawing on recent developments in some Canadian provinces, I argue that we cannot begin to address the issue of responsible sex education until we first acknowledge that students themselves have a moral and constitutional right to this kind…

  7. An Investigation on 3-6-Year-Old Chinese Children's Perception of "Death"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Yan; Cao, Yanhua; Han, Min

    2017-01-01

    Because of the taboo in Chinese culture, there is little research on Chinese children's perception of "death". The research on preschoolers' cognition of "death" could deepen our research on children's cognition process, guide children's life education, and improve the psychologic intervention on the children who experience…

  8. Euphemism vs explicitness: A corpus-based analysis of translated ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article examines the governing initial norms, namely explicitness and euphemism in English source texts and Ndebele translations, focusing on how these norms influenced the strategies chosen by the Ndebele translators in the translation of taboo terms. In the article, a corpus-based approach is used to identify head ...

  9. Plagiarism: More than Meets the Eye

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussin, Habsah; Ismail, Maimunah

    2013-01-01

    Plagiarism is the euphemism for "academic theft", "academic dishonesty" and "academic misconduct in academia"; and is the taboo word among academics in academia. This paper discusses the issue of plagiarism in terms of what constitutes plagiarism, who are normally "the practitioners" of plagiarism, be it…

  10. Oxytocin modulates trait-based rule following

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gross, J.; de Dreu, C.K.W.

    Rules, whether in the form of norms, taboos or laws, regulate and coordinate human life. Some rules, however, are arbitrary and adhering to them can be personally costly. Rigidly sticking to such rules can be considered maladaptive. Here, we test whether, at the neurobiological level, (mal)adaptive

  11. HIV and AIDS Awareness among Children with Mental Retardation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Openness to the subject of sexuality and HIV and AIDS is considered as taboo in many African cultures. To persons with disabilities, let alone individuals with mental retardation, sexuality and HIV are still areas of grave concern, which still require further study and investigation, hence the interest in the present study.

  12. Understanding the innermost nature of genocidal rape: A community ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... of societal norms, values, rules and taboos making sense of normality in sexual intercourse, the refusal of any link with the victim recalling togetherness, and the dismissal of humanity characterized by a total lack of guilt. Key words: genocidal rape, normality, togetherness, humanity, community-based approach, Rwanda ...

  13. Impact of Sexual Harassment on Women Undergraduates' Educational Experience in Anambra State of Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okeke, Carina Maris Amaka

    2010-01-01

    Sexual harassment in educational settings is a common problem globally. While it is well addressed in college and university campuses in most developed countries of the world through specific policies and mechanisms of enforcement, it remains a taboo topic in African colleges and universities particularly in Nigeria. This study investigated the…

  14. Making Smart Choices: A Serious Game for Sex Education for Young Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwan, Alvin C. M.; Chu, Samuel K. W.; Hong, Athena W. L.; Tam, Frankie; Lee, Grace M. Y.; Mellecker, Robin

    2015-01-01

    Current educational resources for sex education in Hong Kong are mainly designed to be used in classroom. They are mostly text-based and are unattractive to the most vulnerable adolescent group. As discussion on sex is still taboo in Chinese society, self-learning resources can supplement classroom teaching. This paper describes an interactive…

  15. Maternal nutrition in Nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2017-08-05

    Aug 5, 2017 ... Results: Undernutrition in women aged 15–49 years decreased from ... Food restrictions/taboos are common with proteins and vegetable. ... This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the ... economic resources—all critical toward good nutrition that ..... Indian J Pediatr 2004;71:1007-14. 23.

  16. An Assessment of the Factors in Office Automation Systems Affecting Air Force Middle Managers and Clerical Workers in the Information Management Career Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-12-01

    organization was important. Informal structures are present in all organizations and include values, ethical standards, taboos, and special relations...impression that the office of the future will evolve into a white collar sweatshop (Steinbrecher:8). This statement points out the basic problem of user

  17. Knowledge of HIV and AIDS in women in sub-Saharan Africa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Lower levels of education, taboos associated with the discussion of sexuality and sexual health, the submissive role of women in a relationship, and male control of decision-making regarding sexual relations might explain why African women are less knowledgeable about HIV/AIDS than men. Although most African men ...

  18. International Journal of Arts and Humanities(IJAH) Ethiopia

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nneka Umera-Okeke

    1991-12-03

    Dec 3, 1991 ... Saale, Lazarus Baribiae, Ph.D. ... In the Ogoni traditional religion, it is a taboo and a .... economic, socio-cultural, religious and psychological laws that control his existence. ..... Ph.D Thesis Department of Religion, Faculty of.

  19. Teaching about Homosexualities to Nigerian University Students: A Report from the Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epprecht, Marc; Egya, Sule E.

    2011-01-01

    Nigeria's diverse cultures, religions and political parties appear to be unified by a strong taboo against homosexuality and gay rights. This has affected academic research, HIV/AIDS programmes, and sexuality education, all which commonly show evidence of heterosexism, self-censorship and even explicit condemnations of homosexuality. Yet a…

  20. Identification of Facilitators and Deterrents of the Quality of Life in Elderly Women and Men: A Phenomenological Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Imanzadeh

    2018-01-01

    Conclusion Our study indicates that to improve the life, the elderly should pay attention to factors such as the role of religious beliefs, proper nutrition, meeting relatives, reminiscence, and establishing proper social relationships. In addition, removing barriers such as breaking the taboo of elderly marriage, financial support, and providing counseling services could improve their quality of life.

  1. Information Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-02-13

    restricted frequency list (JRFL). This list specifies protected, guarded, and taboo frequencies that should not normally be disrupted without prior... frequency list JROC Joint Requirement Oversight Council JSC Joint Spectrum Center JTCB joint targeting coordination board JTF joint task force JWAC joint

  2. Electronic Warfare (EW) Historical Perspectives and Its Relationship to Information Operations (IO) - Considerations for Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-09-01

    Information Operations IW Information Warfare JDAM Joint Direct Attack Munition JRFL Joint Restricted Frequency List JSTARS Joint...through the preparation of the joint restricted frequency list (JRFL), which includes taboo, guarded and protected frequencies. The EC-130H Compass Call

  3. The future of the NPT and measures to reduce nuclear dangers in the age of Trump

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimball, Daryl G.

    2017-11-01

    Through the decades, the international nuclear disarmament and nonproliferation enterprise, though imperfect, has curbed nuclear proliferation and limited the number of nuclear-armed states to nine, forced reductions in major-power nuclear arsenals, ended nuclear testing by all but one state, and created an informal taboo against nuclear weapons use.

  4. The Integration of Religious Traditions in Japanese Children's View of Death and Afterlife

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagara-Rosemeyer, Miharu; Davies, Betty

    2007-01-01

    Open and public discussion of death, particularly among children, remains one of the greatest Japanese societal taboos; therefore, little is known about Japanese children's perceptions of death. To explore Japanese children's notions of life and death, 16 healthy children (7 girls and 9 boys, mean age 8.9) were each interviewed 3 times and asked…

  5. Teacher-Student Sexual Relations: Key Risks and Ethical Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sikes, Pat

    2010-01-01

    Researching actual or purported sexual contact between teachers and students raises many difficult ethical issues, questions and dilemmas, which may help to explain why few have ventured into the field. This experientially based paper addresses key problem areas under the headings of: the ethics of researching a sensitive taboo topic; the ethics…

  6. Surgical Contraception Programme at Nkhoma Hospital

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    societies regardle~s of their level of sophistication as benefi- cial to the health of both the mother and child. Many taboos for its ,protection exist. With the introduction of Western concepts and mass media commercial advertising this harmo- nious con$ensus 011 .the importance of breast feeding has been somewhat eroded.

  7. Author Details

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract PDF · Vol 29 (1996) - Articles Propaganda or counter-propaganda: media strategies for presenting tabooed news. Abstract PDF · Vol 36 (2008) - Articles Question-answer sequences between doctors and patients in a South African HIV/AIDS day clinic. Abstract PDF. ISSN: 2224-3380. AJOL African Journals Online.

  8. The legitimation of global energy governance: a normative exploration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Karlsson-Vinkhuyzen, S.I.S.E.

    2015-01-01

    Global energy governance has very limited legitimacy in the eyes of mostgovernments. Although the concept has been starting to surface in academic papers it is still barely used in policy discussions. It is contested, almost taboo, to raise the need for international norms around energy production

  9. En usædvanlig historie om en skruetrækker i rectum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Spanager, Lene; Mohr, Marlene

    2011-01-01

    in the left gluteal region caused by a perforating screwdriver in the rectosigmoideum. The screwdriver was removed during a laparotomy and he got a temporary stoma but made complete recovery, and a stoma reversal was planned. The risk of insufficient patient counselling due to taboos is discussed....

  10. Sacred and totemic plants among thirty two ethnic groups in Burkina ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study aims to evaluate the diversity of sacred species and totemic species according to the different ethnic groups of Burkina Faso and to determine the influence of these taboos on the conservation of biodiversity. A sample of 2503 people from 32 ethnic groups were investigated in 330 villages based on the liveliness ...

  11. Traditional African Knowledge In Biodiversity Conservation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The tropical forest ecosystem is one of the most important ecosystems of the world, because it contains a large proportion of the world's biodiversity and provides many environmental functions. Local communities have successfully conserved these resources that are of interest to them through laws and taboos. These range ...

  12. Sexual Harassment and Abuse of Adolescent Schoolgirls in South India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leach, Fiona; Sitaram, Shashikala

    2007-01-01

    This article reports on a small exploratory study of adolescent girls' experiences of sexual harassment and abuse while attending secondary school in Karnataka State, South India. In South Asia, public discussion of sexual matters, especially relating to children, is largely taboo, and the study uncovers a hidden aspect of schooling, which…

  13. African Journal of Reproductive Health - Vol 16, No 3 (2012)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Knowledge, Attitudes and Barriers towards Prevention of Mother-To-Child Transmission of HIV among Women Attending Antenatal clinics in Uyam District of ... Identifying pregnant women who would adhere to food taboos in a rural community: a community-based study · EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT

  14. The influence of cultural practices on the HIV and AIDS pandemic in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2010-07-08

    Jul 8, 2010 ... parents of the child agree, then that couple should invite this particular child to ... Breugel mentions that on the last day the girl's head is shaven. (Moyo 2001). ... hyena], because he comes secretly and he is given money by the girl's ... a taboo for a woman to do so in either traditional or modern society in ...

  15. Violence Against Women During the 1991 Ethnic Conflicts of the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    during war time to have sex with them because sex is a dirty act and it makes us ... religious beliefs, taboos, and cultural believes and practices as stated by the respondents .... ate raw cassava because we had no cooking utensils to cook.

  16. Seeing All Beings as Oneself: Internationalizing Higher Education for Universal Harmony

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unkule, Kalyani

    2018-01-01

    The tenets of Hinduism share a complicated relationship with international higher education for an important reason: the purported taboo over crossing oceans. The ethos of Hinduism, however, is deeply embedded in a posited harmony of individuals and cultures. This makes it a faith that at once embraces the value of intercultural exchange while…

  17. The emotional carryover effect in memory for words.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Stephen R; Schmidt, Constance R

    2016-08-01

    Emotional material rarely occurs in isolation; rather it is experienced in the spatial and temporal proximity of less emotional items. Some previous researchers have found that emotional stimuli impair memory for surrounding information, whereas others have reported evidence for memory facilitation. Researchers have not determined which types of emotional items or memory tests produce effects that carry over to surrounding items. Six experiments are reported that measured carryover from emotional words varying in arousal to temporally adjacent neutral words. Taboo, non-taboo emotional, and neutral words were compared using different stimulus onset asynchronies (SOAs), recognition and recall tests, and intentional and incidental memory instructions. Strong emotional memory effects were obtained in all six experiments. However, emotional items influenced memory for temporally adjacent words under limited conditions. Words following taboo words were more poorly remembered than words following neutral words when relatively short SOAs were employed. Words preceding taboo words were affected only when recall tests and relatively short retention intervals were used. These results suggest that increased attention to the emotional items sometimes produces emotional carryover effects; however, retrieval processes also contribute to retrograde amnesia and may extend the conditions under which anterograde amnesia is observed.

  18. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    abp

    2017-11-01

    Nov 1, 2017 ... because of stigma and socio-cultural taboos linked to homosexuality. [3]. However, some studies conducted ... Finally, in Nigeria, a national survey of 879 MSM revealed a 1.1% prevalence rate in Cross River State, .... association of HSH, the contraction of gay wedding. An MSM association is a club where ...

  19. Religion, Repulsion, and Reaction Formation: Transforming Repellent Attractions and Repulsions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Dov; Kim, Emily; Hudson, Nathan W

    2017-06-12

    Protestants were more likely than non-Protestants to demonstrate phenomena consistent with the use of reaction formation. Lab experiments showed that when manipulations were designed to produce taboo attractions (to unconventional sexual practices), Protestants instead showed greater repulsion. When implicitly conditioned to produce taboo repulsions (to African Americans), Protestants instead showed greater attraction. Supportive evidence from other studies came from clinicians' judgments, defense mechanism inventories, and a survey of respondent attitudes. Other work showed that Protestants who diminished and displaced threatening affect were more likely to sublimate this affect into creative activities; the present work showed that Protestants who do not or cannot diminish or displace such threatening affect instead reverse it. Traditional individual difference variables showed little ability to predict reaction formation, suggesting that the observed processes go beyond what we normally study when we talk about self-control. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  20. Sublimation, culture, and creativity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Emily; Zeppenfeld, Veronika; Cohen, Dov

    2013-10-01

    Combining insights from Freud and Weber, this article explores whether Protestants (vs. Catholics and Jews) are more likely to sublimate their taboo feelings and desires toward productive ends. In the Terman sample (Study 1), Protestant men and women who had sexual problems related to anxieties about taboos and depravity had greater creative accomplishments, as compared to those with sexual problems unrelated to such concerns and to those reporting no sexual problems. Two laboratory experiments (Studies 2 and 3) found that Protestants produced more creative artwork (sculptures, poems, collages, cartoon captions) when they were (a) primed with damnation-related words, (b) induced to feel unacceptable sexual desires, or (c) forced to suppress their anger. Activating anger or sexual attraction was not enough; it was the forbidden or suppressed nature of the emotion that gave the emotion its creative power. The studies provide possibly the first experimental evidence for sublimation and suggest a cultural psychological approach to defense mechanisms.

  1. BUTREN-RC an hybrid system for the recharges optimization of nuclear fuels in a BWR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ortiz S, J.J.; Castillo M, J.A.; Valle G, E. del

    2004-01-01

    The obtained results with the hybrid system BUTREN-RC are presented that obtains recharges of nuclear fuel for a BWR type reactor. The system has implemented the methods of optimization heuristic taboo search and neural networks. The optimization it carried out with the technique of taboo search, and the neural networks, previously trained, were used to predict the behavior of the recharges of fuel, in substitution of commercial codes of reactor simulation. The obtained recharges of nuclear fuel correspond to 5 different operation cycles of the Laguna Verde Nuclear Power plant, Veracruz in Mexico. The obtained results were compared with the designs of this cycles. The energy gain with the recharges of fuel proposals is of approximately 4.5% with respect to those of design. The time of compute consumed it was considerably smaller that when a commercial code for reactor simulation is used. (Author)

  2. EKSPLORASI PERSEPSI IBU TENTANG PENDIDIKAN SEKS UNTUK ANAK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shofwatun Amaliyah

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Sex education is the provision of information about sex that aims to reduce the potential risk of sexual behavior. This effort is still taboo in the community, so parents feel hesitant to provide teaching about sex to children. The purpose of this study is to determine the perception of parents to sex education provided to children from an early age. This research was conducted in Jambesari village, Poncokusumo, Malang by using phenomenology approach and involving 5 mothers. The results show that parents perceive sex education as taboo, vulgar and inappropriate to convey to children, thus affecting the involvement and form of education provided by parents to children. The results also show that the need for the competence of sexual education is important to be done by parents.

  3. BUTREN-RC an hybrid system for the recharges optimization of nuclear fuels in a BWR; BUTREN-RC un sistema hibrido para la optimizacion de recargas de combustible nuclear en un BWR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ortiz S, J.J.; Castillo M, J.A. [ININ, Carretera Mexico-Toluca Km. 36.5, 52045 Estado de Mexico (Mexico); Valle G, E. del [IPN, ESFM, 07738 Mexico D.F. (Mexico)

    2004-07-01

    The obtained results with the hybrid system BUTREN-RC are presented that obtains recharges of nuclear fuel for a BWR type reactor. The system has implemented the methods of optimization heuristic taboo search and neural networks. The optimization it carried out with the technique of taboo search, and the neural networks, previously trained, were used to predict the behavior of the recharges of fuel, in substitution of commercial codes of reactor simulation. The obtained recharges of nuclear fuel correspond to 5 different operation cycles of the Laguna Verde Nuclear Power plant, Veracruz in Mexico. The obtained results were compared with the designs of this cycles. The energy gain with the recharges of fuel proposals is of approximately 4.5% with respect to those of design. The time of compute consumed it was considerably smaller that when a commercial code for reactor simulation is used. (Author)

  4. The emotional memory effect: differential processing or item distinctiveness?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Stephen R; Saari, Bonnie

    2007-12-01

    A color-naming task was followed by incidental free recall to investigate how emotional words affect attention and memory. We compared taboo, nonthreatening negative-affect, and neutral words across three experiments. As compared with neutral words, taboo words led to longer color-naming times and better memory in both within- and between-subjects designs. Color naming of negative-emotion nontaboo words was slower than color naming of neutral words only during block presentation and at relatively short interstimulus intervals (ISIs). The nontaboo emotion words were remembered better than neutral words following blocked and random presentation and at both long and short ISIs, but only in mixed-list designs. Our results support multifactor theories of the effects of emotion on attention and memory. As compared with neutral words, threatening stimuli received increased attention, poststimulus elaboration, and benefit from item distinctiveness, whereas nonthreatening emotional stimuli benefited only from increased item distinctiveness.

  5. Three hybridization models based on local search scheme for job shop scheduling problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balbi Fraga, Tatiana

    2015-05-01

    This work presents three different hybridization models based on the general schema of Local Search Heuristics, named Hybrid Successive Application, Hybrid Neighborhood, and Hybrid Improved Neighborhood. Despite similar approaches might have already been presented in the literature in other contexts, in this work these models are applied to analyzes the solution of the job shop scheduling problem, with the heuristics Taboo Search and Particle Swarm Optimization. Besides, we investigate some aspects that must be considered in order to achieve better solutions than those obtained by the original heuristics. The results demonstrate that the algorithms derived from these three hybrid models are more robust than the original algorithms and able to get better results than those found by the single Taboo Search.

  6. Taiwanese adolescents' gender differences in knowledge and attitudes towards menstruation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Ching-Yu; Yang, Kyeongra; Liou, Shwu-Ru

    2007-06-01

    The purpose of the study was to explore gender differences in knowledge and attitudes towards menstruation among Taiwanese adolescents. This study was a secondary data analysis of a cross-sectional comparison study conducted in Taiwan. A total of 287 female and 269 male students at a junior high school participated in the study. The results showed that almost all the students had heard about menstruation and most of them had received menstrual information at school. However, their knowledge about menstruation was not accurate. Moreover, the male students expressed more negative attitudes towards menstruation than the female students. Taboos were heard by most students and, although many female students doubted the reality of the taboos they had heard, they observed them anyway. The study calls for an evaluation of sex education and suggests more open discussions about menstruation among young people in those education sessions. In addition, school nurses and obstetrical/gynecological nurses should be involved more in adolescents' sexual education.

  7. Several Items Comparisons of Intercultural Food Communication

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘智慧

    2011-01-01

    Introduction This paper is included seven parts,food culture introduction,forms and manners of western food,forms and manners of Chinese food,three main kinds of difference of foods,mergence,taboo and conclusion.I will divide it into several parts to analyze them.I adopt ~me examples and history stories.As all of my expressions,I hope you can enjoy my paper and have a good stomach.

  8. Translations on Western Europe, Number 1082

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-06-13

    make political underdogs . It is not good to make /Minister of Justice and leading CDA candidate/ Van Agt an underdog now. He will get votes through...taboo with VARA members of the old brand , Brugsma says: "DE TELEGRAAF is completely indispensable to me." Besides: "I always wanted to become...channels and brands retained." This will probably only be the case during a transition stage, until it has been possible to coordinate research and

  9. Exploring pregnancy termination experiences and needs among Malaysian women: A qualitative study

    OpenAIRE

    Tong Wen; Low Wah; Wong Yut; Choong Sim; Jegasothy Ravindran

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Malaysia has relatively liberal abortion laws in that they permit abortions for both physical and mental health cases. However, abortion remains a taboo subject. The stagnating contraceptive prevalence rate combined with the plunging fertility rate suggests that abortion might be occurring clandestinely. This qualitative study aimed to explore the experiences of women and their needs with regard to abortion. Methods Women from diverse backgrounds were purposively selected ...

  10. Managing Diversity in the Workplace: Analysing the investment banking sector on promoting equal opportunities regarding sexual orientation in the UK

    OpenAIRE

    Yamahaki, Camila

    2007-01-01

    Although there are 3.6 million gay people in Britain and 1.7 million lesbian, gay and bisexual people in Britain's workforce (Stonewall 2006a), dealing explicitly with issues of sexual orientation is still a taboo topic (Stonewall 2004b). Research has shown that LGB people who are out at work are vulnerable to harassment, bullying and discrimination in their careers (Stonewall 2004b). According to 2007 Stonewall Workplace Equality Index, the investment banks are the leaders in promoting e...

  11. Military Personnel Dilemmas: Perspectives on Gender-Related Issues. A selected List of Resource Materials Prepared for the Human Resources Division, HQ FORSCOM

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-08-01

    SOCIOLOGY. March 1982. pp. i032-1063. The strong taboos against homosexuality, bestiality and transvestism that exist in many Western societies are...Transsexualism, and Transvestism ." JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN ACADEMY OF PSYCHOANALYSIS. No Date. Ovesey and Person define gender identity and describe how it...transsexualism, and transvestism . For each disorder a psychodynamic analysis of the symptoms is provided, and a hypothesis for their developmental

  12. History must be re-written

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hahonou, Eric Komlavi; Pelckmans, Lotte

    2012-01-01

    The chapter addresses the silence that characterizes African domestic slavery in West Africa. Whereas the trans-Atlantic slave trade is remembered and commemorated, domestic slavery has long remained a taboo topic. The authors examine the ways in which African domestic slavery is disregarded and ......, they point out how the silence has been broken little by little over the past decade by African anti-slavery activists who aim to revise history in order to assert their rights as citizens in the present....

  13. When Societal Norms and Social Identity Collide: the Race Talk Dilemma for Racial Minority Children

    OpenAIRE

    Pauker, Kristin; Apfelbaum, Evan P.; Spitzer, Brian

    2015-01-01

    Racial minorities face a unique “race talk” dilemma in contemporary American society: their racial background is often integral to their identity and how others perceive them, yet talk of race is taboo. This dilemma highlights the conflict between two fundamental social processes: social identity development and social norm adherence. To examine how, and with what costs, this dilemma is resolved, 9–12-year-old Latino, Asian, Black, and White children (n=108) completed a photo identification t...

  14. Interpersonal dynamics: a communitarian perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Ridley-Duff, R.

    2005-01-01

    Conventional theories of power within organisations focus on the extent to which one party can impose their will on others through social influence. Discussion of the way that same-sex and opposite-sex attraction impacts on the workplace is rarely theorised either because it is considered uncivilised or taboo. Investigations are also hampered by resistance amongst research participants even when care is taken to establish mixed groups from different organisations. As a result, holistic theori...

  15. Proliferation: myth or reality?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    This article analyzes the proliferation approach, its technical condition and political motivation, and the share between the myth (political deception, assumptions and extrapolations) and the reality of proliferation. Its appreciation is complicated by the irrational behaviour of some political actors and by the significant loss of the non-use taboo. The control of technologies is an important element for proliferation slowing down but an efficient and autonomous intelligence system remains indispensable. (J.S.)

  16. The Rising Tide : A New Look at Water and Gender

    OpenAIRE

    Das, Maitreyi Bordia

    2017-01-01

    The report reviews a vast body of literature to present a "thinking device" that visualizes water as an asset, a service, and a "space." It shows water as an arena where gender relations play out in ways that often mirror inequalities between the sexes. And it examines norms and practices related to water that often exacerbate ingrained gender and other hierarchies. Informal institutions, taboos, rituals, and norms all play a part in maintaining these hierarchies and can even reinforce gender...

  17. Sixty years of nuclear dissuasion: status and perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    This paper recalls first the 4 main turns of the history of the atomic bomb, from its invention to the non-proliferation treaty. Then, it analyzes the reasons of the reinforcement of the 'nuclear taboo' and its conformability with the dissuasion theory. The nuclear strategy and the future of nuclear weapons development is discussed with respect to conventional military strategy and weapons. Finally, some false ideas about the French nuclear dissuasion are clarified. (J.S.)

  18. Mitos y tabúes en la sexualidad humana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ignacio González Labrador

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available Se realizan consideraciones muy generales sobre el origen de los géneros y cómo esta formación favorece la presencia de mitos y tabúes en la expresión de la sexualidad de la pareja humana.Very general considerations are presented on the origin of genders and how this formation has favored myths and taboos in the expression of the human couple's sexuality.

  19. Proliferation: myth or reality?; La proliferation: mythe ou realite?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-07-01

    This article analyzes the proliferation approach, its technical condition and political motivation, and the share between the myth (political deception, assumptions and extrapolations) and the reality of proliferation. Its appreciation is complicated by the irrational behaviour of some political actors and by the significant loss of the non-use taboo. The control of technologies is an important element for proliferation slowing down but an efficient and autonomous intelligence system remains indispensable. (J.S.)

  20. The Effect of False Physiological Feedback on Sexual Arousal in Sexually Functional and Dysfunctional Men

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    functioning group 7 LIST OF TABLES Table 1. Zilbergeld’s (1999) Myths of Male Sexuality Table 2. Timeline of Information Collected During the Study...have some degree of calcification in their phallus to aid entry into the vagina . Protracted erections for the purpose of pleasure are extremely rare...or cultural taboos about sex that influenced their cognitive development. In addition, dysfunctional men tend to believe more myths about sex than

  1. The Alto Tiberina Near Fault Observatory (northern Apennines, Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lauro Chiaraluce

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The availability of multidisciplinary and high-resolution data is a fundamental requirement to understand the physics of earthquakes and faulting. We present the Alto Tiberina Near Fault Observatory (TABOO, a research infrastructure devoted to studying preparatory processes, slow and fast deformation along a fault system located in the upper Tiber Valley (northern Apennines, dominated by a 60 km long low-angle normal fault (Alto Tiberina, ATF active since the Quaternary. TABOO consists of 50 permanent seismic stations covering an area of 120 × 120 km2. The surface seismic stations are equipped with 3-components seismometers, one third of them hosting accelerometers. We instrumented three shallow (250 m boreholes with seismometers, creating a 3-dimensional antenna for studying micro-earthquakes sources (detection threshold is ML 0.5 and detecting transient signals. 24 of these sites are equipped with continuous geodetic GPS, forming two transects across the fault system. Geochemical and electromagnetic stations have been also deployed in the study area. In 36 months TABOO recorded 19,422 events with ML ≤ 3.8 corresponding to 23.36e-04 events per day per squared kilometres; one of the highest seismicity rate value observed in Italy. Seismicity distribution images the geometry of the ATF and its antithetic/synthetic structures located in the hanging-wall. TABOO can allow us to understand the seismogenic potential of the ATF and therefore contribute to the seismic hazard assessment of the area. The collected information on the geometry and deformation style of the fault will be used to elaborate ground shaking scenarios adopting diverse slip distributions and rupture directivity models.

  2. Eating People is Wrong: Famine’s Darkest Secret?

    OpenAIRE

    Cormac Ó Gráda

    2013-01-01

    Cannibalism is one of our darkest secrets and taboos. It is the ultimate measure of the resilience or otherwise of civilizational processes to extreme conditions. How common was cannibalism in times of famine in the past? Both the nature of the evidence for famine cannibalism and the silences about it challenge the empirical historian to the limit. After a review of the global historiography, this paper attempts to assess the evidence for cannibalism during Ireland's many famines, culminating...

  3. Notes on Corruption and Morality

    OpenAIRE

    Hatti, Neelambar; Hoadley, Mason

    2015-01-01

    An actor perspective within a moralistic approach to corruption in india and Southeast Asia contrasts to a (Weberian) institutional one. This emphasizes local values which help explain apparent lack of social constraints to everyday corrupt practices as bribery. In Karnataka the approach indicates that status and power within one’s own community gained by amassing wealth however acquired overrides morality; overstepping moral taboos can easily be rectified through an appropriate ritual. In po...

  4. Benchmarking

    OpenAIRE

    Beretta Sergio; Dossi Andrea; Grove Hugh

    2000-01-01

    Due to their particular nature, the benchmarking methodologies tend to exceed the boundaries of management techniques, and to enter the territories of managerial culture. A culture that is also destined to break into the accounting area not only strongly supporting the possibility of fixing targets, and measuring and comparing the performance (an aspect that is already innovative and that is worthy of attention), but also questioning one of the principles (or taboos) of the accounting or...

  5. How humans drive speciation as well as extinction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bull, Joseph William; Maron, M.

    2016-01-01

    influence upon divergence in microorganisms. Even if human activities resulted in no net loss of species diversity by balancing speciation and extinction rates, this would probably be deemed unacceptable. We discuss why, based upon ‘no net loss’ conservation literature— considering phylogenetic diversity...... and other metrics, risk aversion, taboo trade-offs and spatial heterogeneity. We conclude that evaluating speciation alongside extinction could result in more nuanced understanding of biosphere trends, clarifying what it is we actually value about biodiversity....

  6. Social Engineering a General Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Valerica GREAVU-SERBAN; Oana SERBAN

    2014-01-01

    Social engineering is considered to be a taboo subject in nowadays society. It involves the use of social skills or to obtain usernames, passwords, credit card data, or to compromise or altering the information and systems of an entity. Social engineering methods are numerous and people using it are extremely ingenious and adaptable. This technique takes advantage of the intrinsic nature of mankind, to manipulate and obtain sensitive information, persuading people into divulge it, using excep...

  7. Media in Colombia and the icing on conflict

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adelaida Nikolayeva

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available It has sparked a broad discussion in Colombia on the role of the media in the historical conflict. In good time the ice on this subject, breaks taboo for decades, from the program Hora 20, of the radio station Caracol, one of the distinguished radial country houses, who dared to take the plunge and go to Havana to panelists include as spokespeople peace delegation FARC-EP

  8. Smoking addiction among young women working at night at International call centres in India

    OpenAIRE

    Amrita Gupta

    2018-01-01

    Background Indian women are actively involved in occupations which were regarded as a taboo such as night work. Working at night for international call centres is a significant step in moving ahead of patriarchal control over women´s mobility in India. The job brings about lifestyle changes among employees such as late night partying, smoking, and boozing. The women employees are mainly fresh graduates. The study brings about the prevalence and smoking behaviour among th...

  9. Integrating Menstrual Cycle Data into The Smart Home

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Homewood, Sarah

    2017-01-01

    Menstrual cycle data gathered through self-tracking apps are increasingly used to understand, control and monitor bodies that menstruate. This work-in-progress explores the effects of representing menstrual cycle data within the smart home through critical design and planned fieldwork. Themes...... presented in this paper include the taboo of menstrual cycles, the question of what kinds of data do we represent in the smart home and menstrual cycle tracking technologies as examples of affective computing....

  10. Nanomaterials and the environmental risk: is there some room left for ethics and law?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byk, Christian

    2011-01-01

    How legitimate may be the concern posed by the nanotechnologies for health and environment,this effort for reaching a better knowledge of the biotoxicity of nanomaterials is not enough. As Pr Didier Sicard noted, we believe that the ethical reflection should not be the good conscience that may help science in getting rid of social fears. But the ethical reflection is there also to discuss taboo issues in the perspective of a better societal understanding.

  11. "The Choice of a New Generation": "Pop" Music, Advertising, and Meaning in the MTV Era and Beyond

    OpenAIRE

    Love-Tulloch, Joanna Katherine

    2012-01-01

    Prior to the 1980s it was uncommon for marketers to incorporate pre-existing popular music into television commercials. But following the rise of MTV as an innovative commercial endeavor and Pepsi-Cola's groundbreaking 1984 "Choice of a New Generation" campaign featuring Michael Jackson, musicians and corporations began to realize the benefits of incorporating new songs into commercials. Once considered taboo by many musicians and fans, television commercials have now become such a lucrative ...

  12. Representasi Seksualitas dalam Novel Saman Karya Ayu Utami

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rina Patriana Chairiyani

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Saman is a literature written by Ayu Utami. Showing a representation of a female counterpart ideology that differs from what has already been made in heterosexual and patriarchal society. The community considers sex is taboo to talk openly. In this novel it is represented openly. Women are no longer in a weak position, and have choices. In this paper, research methodology used is qualitative method. 

  13. "A Word can become a Seed": A Lesson Learned about Cultural Humility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Edward Kangsuhp

    2016-12-01

    Culturally competent cancer care approaches are necessary to effectively engage ethnic and racial minorities. This reflection shares personal insights on this subject gained throughout my journey from a young immigrant to a medical and public health student in the USA. The death of a friend prompted me to explore what I had deemed as my family's taboo subjects: discussing illness, cancer, and death in the family. However, I eventually realized that it was I who perceived it as taboo subjects. When I inquired earnestly about their health beliefs and values and asked questions in a way that respected those beliefs and values, my family was quite willing to talk about these uncomfortable topics. Subsequent encounters with minority patients and the process of synthesizing this reflection helped me recognize that the way I successfully addressed what I had erroneously assumed to be taboo subjects embodied the idea of cultural humility and can also be applied to issues with other minority patients and families. This recognition will not only make me a better physician but also allow me to become a strong advocate of cultural humility, especially in cancer care and education.

  14. «Y lo crió a escondidas de los dioses, deseosa de hacerlo inmortal» : algunos tabúes de ciertos héroes (-niños griegos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Rodríguez Pérez

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Se realiza el análisis de algunos tabúes y prescripciones en relación a Erictonio, Sosípolis, Ofeltes y Yamo, todos ellos héroes niños cuyo futuro se truncó por la ruptura de un tabú. Como elemento invariablemente presentado junto a estos héroes aparece la serpiente, cuya importancia en la religión y mito griego es indudable. Así mismo, la miel, el tabú de no tocar el suelo o la difícil posición de los niños en el sistema griego son elementos tratados en este artículo.Analysis of some taboos and proscriptions in relation to some Greek baby heroes whose life was cut short because a taboo had been broken: Erichthonios, Sosipolis, Opheltes, Yamos. The snake, whose prominent role in Greek rites and myths is beyond all doubt, appears in all these accounts to be closely related with those heroes. Moreover, the honey, the taboo of not to touch the earth and the awkward position of the children within the Greek system of thought are also discuss here.

  15. Why latrines are not used: communities' perceptions and practices regarding latrines in a Taenia solium endemic rural area in Eastern Zambia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Séverine Thys

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Taenia solium cysticercosis is a neglected parasitic zoonosis occurring in many developing countries. Socio-cultural determinants related to its control remain unclear. Studies in Africa have shown that the underuse of sanitary facilities and the widespread occurrence of free-roaming pigs are the major risk factors for porcine cysticercosis. The study objective was to assess the communities' perceptions, practices and knowledge regarding latrines in a T. solium endemic rural area in Eastern Zambia inhabited by the Nsenga ethno-linguistic group, and to identify possible barriers to their construction and use. A total of 21 focus group discussions on latrine use were organized separately with men, women and children, in seven villages of the Petauke district. The themes covered were related to perceived latrine availability (absence-presence, building obstacles and perceived latrine use (defecation practices, latrine management, socio-cultural constraints.The findings reveal that latrines were not constructed in every household because of the convenient use of existing latrines in the neighborhood. Latrines were perceived to contribute to good hygiene mainly because they prevent pigs from eating human feces. Men expressed reluctance to abandon the open-air defecation practice mainly because of toilet-associated taboos with in-laws and grown-up children of the opposite gender. When reviewing conceptual frameworks of people's approach to sanitation, we found that seeking privacy and taboos hindering latrine use and construction were mainly explained in our study area by the fact that the Nsenga observe a traditionally matrilineal descent. These findings indicate that in this local context latrine promotion messages should not only focus on health benefits in general. Since only men were responsible for building latrines and mostly men preferred open defecation, sanitation programs should also be directed to men and address related sanitary taboos in

  16. Analysis of patterns of bushmeat consumption reveals extensive exploitation of protected species in eastern Madagascar.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard K B Jenkins

    Full Text Available Understanding the patterns of wild meat consumption from tropical forests is important for designing approaches to address this major threat to biodiversity and mitigate potential pathways for transmission of emerging diseases. Bushmeat consumption has been particularly poorly studied in Madagascar, one of the world's hottest biodiversity hotspots. Studying bushmeat consumption is challenging as many species are protected and researchers must consider the incentives faced by informants. Using interviews with 1154 households in 12 communes in eastern Madagascar, as well as local monitoring data, we investigated the importance of socio-economic variables, taste preference and traditional taboos on consumption of 50 wild and domestic species. The majority of meals contain no animal protein. However, respondents consume a wide range of wild species and 95% of respondents have eaten at least one protected species (and nearly 45% have eaten more than 10. The rural/urban divide and wealth are important predictors of bushmeat consumption, but the magnitude and direction of the effect varies between species. Bushmeat species are not preferred and are considered inferior to fish and domestic animals. Taboos have provided protection to some species, particularly the Endangered Indri, but we present evidence that this taboo is rapidly eroding. By considering a variety of potential influences on consumption in a single study we have improved understanding of who is eating bushmeat and why. Evidence that bushmeat species are not generally preferred meats suggest that projects which increase the availability of domestic meat and fish may have success at reducing demand. We also suggest that enforcement of existing wildlife and firearm laws should be a priority, particularly in areas undergoing rapid social change. The issue of hunting as an important threat to biodiversity in Madagascar is only now being fully recognised. Urgent action is required to ensure

  17. Dinamika Kurikulum di Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Asri

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Education does not have a standard reference, which covers access for revision by the authorities. Because education continues to grow along with the rolling times. Therefore, all matters relating to education also do not have a standard reference, including educational curriculum. The curriculum is one of the important elements that has a role to advance education in Indonesia, in accordance with the ideals of the constitution. Curriculum changes are not taboo for education in developed countries of the world (such as Japan, Finlandia,  USA, etc.. Basically the dynamics of curriculum in Indonesia aims to make education in Indonesia able to compete with the developed countries in the world.

  18. Literature, Advertising and Return of the Repressed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Ghelli

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Since I have faced with the hypothesis elaborated by Francesco Orlando, according to which literature is a form of return of the repressed, I wondered what – in our era of deregulation, end of censorship and taboos – could occupy the place of the repressed. One of the most influential sociologists, Zygmunt Bauman, has outlined the epochal passage from “the uneasiness in civilization” to today's “uneasiness of freedom”. The problem of desire today would not be a clash with a limit, but an indefinite freedom that is likely to turn into lost, loss of intensity and meaning.

  19. [Impacts of numerology on acupuncture].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Min; Wu, Changqiu; Wu, Xueyi

    2016-04-01

    Numerology has a long history in China and has the profound impacts on every academic field in TCM, with acupuncture involved. In this paper, the impacts on acupuncture were discussed in different aspects such as the numbers of meridians, the length of meridian, the time taboo of acupuncture, acupuncture manipulation and time acupuncture. It was found that numerology had laid the critical impact on acupuncture and had the profound imprint nowadays. It is of great significance to study the numerology theory in its impacts on acupuncture, in the exploration on the theories behind acupuncture as well as the comprehensive understanding of acupuncture.

  20. ‘Vive la grande famille des médias tunisiens’ Media reform, authoritarian resilience and societal responses in Tunisia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haugbølle, Rikke Hostrup; Cavatorta, Francesco

    2011-01-01

    Abstract The concept of authoritarian upgrading introduced by Heydemann significantly contributes to explain how Arab authoritarian rulers have been able to maintain their grip on power while introducing a number of liberal reforms. The media reform in Tunisia has been widely interpreted indeed...... the notion that the reform is exclusively about authoritarian upgrading. Perhaps unwittingly, the reform has permitted the arrival on the media scene of new social voices and actors that never had the opportunity to discuss taboo topics and this transforms public debate. While political discussions were...... excluded and political pluralism absent, the new private media managed to challenge previously prevailing notions of national unity and homogeneity....

  1. TRANS-TEXTUALIZATION AND CARNIVALIZATION IN "WHISTLER," BY ONDJAKI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karine Miranda Campos

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to observe the phenomenon of carnivalization and trans­textuality the novel The Whistler, the Angolan writer Ondjaki. Comprise the theoretical analysis of Bakhtin’s theory on carnivalization and its im­portance for social subversion of monologic discourse established by of­ficial bodies, the theory of Gérard Genette on transtextuality pointing five possible textual relationships. An understanding of the theories and car­nivalization transtextuality pervades the concepts of animism and taboo presented the theory of Sigmund Freud.

  2. The Arab Bed Spring? Sexual rights in troubled times across the Middle East and North Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Feki, Shereen

    2015-11-01

    In recent decades, attitudes in many parts of the Arab region have hardened towards non-conforming sexualities and gender roles, a shift fuelled in part by a rise in Islamic conservatism and exploited by authoritarian regimes. While political cultures have proved slow to change in the wake of the 'Arab Spring', a growing freedom of expression, and increasing activity by civil society, is opening space for discreet challenges to sexual taboos in a number of countries, part of wider debates over human rights and personal liberties in the emerging political and social order. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Demoniškojo estetizmo pavidalai šiuolaikinėje Lietuvos kultūroje

    OpenAIRE

    Jekentaitė, Leonarda

    2003-01-01

    One of the most significant trends in postmodern Lithuanian art (the painter Š. Sauka, the writers S. Parulskis, S. Geda, A. Andriuškevičius, G. Radvilavičiūtė, G. Beresnevičius, the theatre director O. Koršunovas) can be characterised using Kierkegaardian terminology as demonic aestheticism. The essence of this phenomenon are: narcissism, existential irony and "debauched" self-will, always challenging and destroying all limits and taboos. The origin of their always extremely strong expressio...

  4. The "Paradox" of Being Young in New Delhi

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ørberg, Elizabeth Williams

    This thesis attempts to understand the ways in which popular film is integrated into the everyday lives of urban middle class youth in India. Approaching the study of film through an audience reception approach, I engaged in participant observation and interviews during a fieldwork period in New...... Delhi in order to better understand how a young audience might negotiate the fantasy of filmic images into the reality of their own lives. The two movies, Salaam Namaste and Kabhi Alvida Naa Kehna (KANK), provided the platform for discussing sensitive or taboo topics in the interviews as well...

  5. Should we be scared of nuclear energy?; Faut-il avoir peur du nucleaire?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allegre, C.

    2011-07-01

    The recent accident of the Fukushima daiichi power plant has re-launched the nuclear debate in France. On the one hand, the nuclear power allows the French consumers to benefit by the cheapest electricity in Europe. On the other hand the undeniable accidents spread fears and doubts about the safety of nuclear facilities. Therefore, should we trust the scientists and technical specialists when they claim that the potential danger is weak? The author takes stock of the question without taboos or prejudices and supplies to us the scientific, technical, economical and political elements allowing anyone to make his own opinion based on reason and not on emotion or fear. (J.S.)

  6. Overcoming test anxiety by using emotional freedom techniques (EFT) in 3. grade of primary school

    OpenAIRE

    Urek, Urška

    2013-01-01

    The role of the teacher in a class is not only teaching, but also developing skills which make it easier for the student to integrate in a social environment and protect himself/herself from negative effects in the vicinity. Anxiety has nowadays spread increasingly and is not treated as a taboo topic anymore. People discuss it in a frank manner. When some experience it to the extent their day-to-day operation is hindered, they are allowed to seek help. The term anxiety covers different typ...

  7. The singular weapon. What remains from the atomic age?; Die Singulaere Waffe. Was bleibt vom Atomzeitalter?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eisenbart, Constanze (ed.) [Forschungsstaette der Evangelischen Studiengemeinschaft (FEST), Heidelberg (Germany)

    2012-07-01

    The book contains the following contributions: Why do we talk about the atomic age? The language of the atomic myth - comments to a protestant debate. Nuclear singularity between fiction and reality. Only one can get through: military singularity of nuclear weapons. Physical singularity of nuclear weapons. Nuclear weapons test and fall-out. Quantitative disarmament and qualitative rearmament. Do mini nukes neutralize the singularity? The vulnerability of the industrial society by the nuclear electromagnetic momentum. Nuclear weapons as national status symbol - the example of India. The general regulations of international laws and the singularity of nuclear weapons. The construction of normative singularity - development and change of the nuclear taboo.

  8. Should we be scared of nuclear energy?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allegre, C.

    2011-01-01

    The recent accident of the Fukushima daiichi power plant has re-launched the nuclear debate in France. On the one hand, the nuclear power allows the French consumers to benefit by the cheapest electricity in Europe. On the other hand the undeniable accidents spread fears and doubts about the safety of nuclear facilities. Therefore, should we trust the scientists and technical specialists when they claim that the potential danger is weak? The author takes stock of the question without taboos or prejudices and supplies to us the scientific, technical, economical and political elements allowing anyone to make his own opinion based on reason and not on emotion or fear. (J.S.)

  9. Dualistic hearts: social class, education, different cultures, and lesbian love in desert hearts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sterling, Eric

    2012-01-01

    Donna Deitch's Desert Hearts, one of the highest-grossing lesbian films ever made, is a groundbreaking and poignant movie about self-discovery and self-acceptance. This article focuses on the societal obstacles-such as vastly different social classes, cultures, and educational backgrounds-that Vivian and Cay must overcome in order to begin their relationship. The article also shows the taboos faced by gays in the 1950s, such as the firing of college professors in that era. The latent lesbian desire of the homophobic Frances, which is rarely addressed in criticism of the film, is discussed in detail.

  10. JA ES BŪTU SMUKS, ES GRIBĒTU BŪT MEITENE! (‘If I Were Pretty, I Would Like To Be A Girl!’. Debating Transsexualism In The Latvian Parliament

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CHOJNICKA JOANNA

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The article investigates a debate on the issues of legal recognition of gender which took place in the Latvian Parliament in 2009 and which is considered a rich source of material for a two-fold analysis. As an example of gendered discourse, it shows the differences between female and male MPs’ ways of tackling this uncomfortable subject. As a discourse about gender, which allows one to study the speakers’ arguments and attitudes, it reveals prejudice, lack of knowledge and conservative thinking. The analysis thus illustrates the language and arguments employed in the public sphere when discussing face-threatening, taboo topics.

  11. Institutions fighting Trafficking in Human Beings in the Contemporary Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lia Pop

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available In the last approximately 15 years, mainly in the last decade, Romania made substantial efforts to establish the institutions fighting THB according with the EU’s Directive 38 /2011’s requirements and the recommendation assumed by the International Treaties signed and ratified in this area. The plethora of institutions were founded, but they are not functioning yet as a system because of the absence of the independent assessing institution. That is why, it must be, immediately, created. Beside, the institutional system needs, as a unavoidable complement the launching of Cultural Strategy in tabooing for good, the THB in Romania.

  12. Plagiarism: More than Meets the Eye

    OpenAIRE

    Habsah Hussin; Maimunah Ismail

    2013-01-01

    Plagiarism is the euphemism for ‘academic theft’, ‘academic dishonesty’ and ‘academic misconduct in academia’; and is the taboo word among academics in academia. This paper discusses the issue of plagiarism in terms of what constitutes plagiarism, who are normally ‘the practitioners’ of plagiarism, be it un-intentionally or otherwise, factors contributing to the practise of plagiarism, effects and implications of plagiarism on the ‘practitioners’, and offers suggestions on how to reduce (if n...

  13. Storytelling in drug treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Ditte

    2014-01-01

    that professionals activate to make sense of inauthenticity: (1) professionals routinely refer to what this study labels the story of institutional conformism, portraying institutionalized clients who have developed a habit of saying the “right” things rather than the “real” things, (2) in the somewhat taboo story...... of ulterior motives, clients are interpreted as making inauthentic claims because they want to obtain something externally from drug treatment (e.g., avoid prison or work training programs), and (3) the story of disorders explains inauthenticity as a result of pathology. The study illuminates how...

  14. 'I am reading the history of religion': a contribution to the knowledge of Freud's building of a theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotti, Patricia

    2014-06-01

    Could Reinach's Cultes, mythes et religions (1908) have served as a model for the theory of religion that Freud was later to put forward in Totem and Taboo (1913)? This hypothesis has been tested by examining Freud's marginalia in his personal copy of Cultes, mythes et religions. In this way it is possible to reconstitute the line of thinking that led Freud to declare, in late summer 1911, that he had found an answer to the question of the origins of tragic guilt and religious sentiment. © The Author(s) 2014.

  15. "My Library Was Dukedom Large Enough": Academic Libraries Mediating the Shakespeare Authorship Debate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Quinn Dudley

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The "Shakespeare Authorship Question" regarding the identity of the poet-playwright has been debated for over 150 years. Now, with the growing list of signatories to the "Declaration of Reasonable Doubt", the creation of a Master's Degree program in Authorship Studies at Brunel University in London, the opening of the Shakespeare Authorship Research Studies Center at the Library of Concordia University in Portland, and the release of two competing high profile books both entitled Shakespeare Beyond Doubt, academic libraries are being presented with a unique and timely opportunity to participate in and encourage this debate, which has long been considered a taboo subject in the academy.

  16. Revelações da crise: moeda fiduciária e as relações Tesouro/Banco Central

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryse Farhi

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The current crisis shed a new light on issues that, previously, were not perceived as serious or important. It highlighted the close ties between fiat currency and government bonds denominated in it or, in other words, the relationship between Treasury and Central Bank. Two ill-conceived views of the "new consensus" on money that had turned into taboos were put in evidence. The first, derived from the quantitative theory, concerns the rejection of unsterilized monetary expansion; the second, directly related to the neoliberal ideology, prohibits or imposes strict limits on the role of central banks in the financing of public debts.

  17. The twenty-five maiden ladies' tomb and predicaments of the feminist movement in Taiwan

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Anru; Tang, Wen-hui Anna

    2010-01-01

    “The Twenty-five Maiden Ladies’ Tomb” is the collective burial site of the female workers who died in a ferry accident on their way to work in 1973. The fact that of the more than 70 passengers on board all 25 who died were unmarried young women, and the taboo in Taiwanese culture that shuns unmarried female ghosts, made the Tomb a fearsome place. Feminists in Gaoxiong (高雄) had for some years wanted the city government to change the tomb’s public image....

  18. Nuclear energy, a French neurosis - After Fukushima, when is the end?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piro, Patrick

    2012-01-01

    With 58 reactors in operation, France is at 75% a nuclear-dependent country for power generation. For forty years no calling into question of this policy has been possible. The Fukushima catastrophe of March 11, 2011 has changed the deal. Several countries, like Germany, Switzerland, Belgium and Italy have taken the decision to get out of nuclear energy. In France, the taboo question of its abandonment has moved to the front of the scene. Some political parties have proposed a significant reduction of the nuclear share in the energy mix while some 'zero nuclear' scenarios are already on the table. (J.S.)

  19. Nuclear energy, a French neurosis - After Fukushima, when is the end?; Le nucleaire, une nevrose francaise - Apres Fukushima, a quand la sortie?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piro, Patrick

    2012-02-09

    With 58 reactors in operation, France is at 75% a nuclear-dependent country for power generation. For forty years no calling into question of this policy has been possible. The Fukushima catastrophe of March 11, 2011 has changed the deal. Several countries, like Germany, Switzerland, Belgium and Italy have taken the decision to get out of nuclear energy. In France, the taboo question of its abandonment has moved to the front of the scene. Some political parties have proposed a significant reduction of the nuclear share in the energy mix while some 'zero nuclear' scenarios are already on the table. (J.S.)

  20. The applied observation of ultrasonography on before and after anti-early pregnancy with mifepristone (reports of 660 cases)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Qinglan; Li Yan; Li Julian; He Lihong

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To estimate the clinical significance of ultrasonography on before and after anti-early pregnancy with mifepristone. Methods: 660 cases of premedical abortion were ultrasonic diagnosed to know the status of inner-uterus pregnancy and exclude the taboo of medical abortion; after-medical abortion ultrasonic were performed to find rudimental embryo in uterus, recuperation of uterus, etc. Results: 88.18% of cases are full abortion; 10.15% of cases are semi-abortion; 1.7% of cases are unsuccessful abortion. Conclusions: It is a quick and safe method to use ultrasonography before and after medical abortion. (authors)

  1. Male victims of sexual assault; 10 years' experience from a Danish Assault Center

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Mie-Louise; Hilden, Malene

    2016-01-01

    This study aims to provide descriptive data regarding male victims of sexual assault seen at the Centre for Victims of Sexual Assault in Copenhagen, Denmark. All 55 male victims attending the center in the time period of March 2001 until December 2010 underwent a standardized data collection. Data...... by another man is considered a taboo subject and it is likely that the dark figure of men exposed to sexual assault is much higher than it is for women. Strengthening our knowledge regarding male victims of sexual assault is necessary to improve both primary and secondary preventive measures in order to make...

  2. Eros y cultura

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Amícola

    2001-11-01

    Full Text Available It is a commonplace the almost non-existent Spanish contribution to erotic literature. This matter has to do, at the same time, with the consideration on what is regarded as "pornographic". However, it is necessary to consider here how far pornography implies the subject who decides to see something as such. Archaeology, on the other hand, has been giving evidences of the changes produced in ancient iconography's reception; and has come, by this way, to enlighten the consideration of the erotic in Spain itself, where the taboo imposed on sexuality by the ecclesiastical power has limited the erotic to a massive and trivial consume.

  3. «Wir sind nicht arm»! Diskursive Konstruktionen von Armut von Schweizer Bauernfamilien

    OpenAIRE

    Sandra Contzen

    2015-01-01

    Although poverty among Swiss farm families is not a new issue, talking about it might still be considered as a taboo, not only in the farmer’s community but also in political discussions. This paper draws on qualitative empirical evidence, which shows that farm families in precarious living conditions tend to deal as long as possible with their situations on their own and only in the very end make use of social assistance. The paper aims at understanding this finding. To do so, it sheds light...

  4. SEX AND SEARCHING FOR CHILDREN AMONG AKA FORAGERS AND NGANDU FARMERS OF CENTRAL AFRICA

    OpenAIRE

    HEWLETT, Barry S.; HEWLETT, Bonnie L.

    2010-01-01

    Few systematic studies exist on the sexual behavior of hunter-gatherers and rural central Africans. This study examines the reasons for having sex, the frequency of sex (coitus) per night, sexual practices during the post-partum sex taboo, and beliefs and practices regarding homosexuality, masturbation, the use of sexual stimulants and a variety of other sexual behaviors. Thirty-fi ve Aka and twenty-one Ngandu adults who were or had been married were interviewed. For adults 18–45 years of age...

  5. Information of French people about nuclear. Detailed results. Ifop for the National Association of local information committees and commissions (ANCCLI)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-05-01

    After a brief presentation of the survey method (sample, survey mode, dates, error margins and confidence interval), this report presents and briefly comments the main results of a survey on perception French people have on nuclear industry and activities. More precisely, questions asked to the people addressed the following issues: the perception of nuclear as a taboo issue, words associated with nuclear, and the perception of the safety distance to be observed in case of a nuclear accident. For these three questions, tables of data are given which contain answers and social and demographic characteristics

  6. Persepsi tentang Seks Pranikah pada Remaja Putri yang Bertempat Tinggal di Kos dan di Rumah di Kasihan, Bantul

    OpenAIRE

    Umi Nur Isnaini; Dewi Astiti; Dyah Pradnya Paramita

    2014-01-01

    Premarital sex now already spread among adolescent, it makes adolescent not taboo anymore with sex. The results of recording by office of religious in Kasihan showed an increase in marriage among an early age, from 15 adolescent couples in January to October, 16 adolescent couples in November and 33 adolescent couples in December. The perception of premarital sex in adolescent should be known to raise awareness and to increase the high number of premarital sex in Yogyakarta. This study was ai...

  7. Involving Employees in Strategy innovation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friis, Ole Uhrskov; Koch, Christian

    2011-01-01

    Strategy as a practice and continuous innovation approaches are combined to conceptualise dilemmas of short versus long term and to analyse a case of employee participation as a particular example of strategy innovation. The case is a medium size textile company developing its strategy involving ...... and Balanced Score Card consultancy, an ‘open space’ workshop and organized strategy projects. Especially the latter two are important in facilitating the employee involvement. The case however also exhibit enterprise situated praxis’s like mitigation of taboos....

  8. Female Force and Mundane Men : Calixthe Beyala’s Writing of Identity From the "Third Space" and in C'est le Soleil qui m'a brûlée

    OpenAIRE

    Lindberg, Ylva

    2016-01-01

    The novels of the Cameroonian author Calixthe Beyala reveal discourses connected to gender, power and violence, as well from an African as from a diasporal point of view. Her writings review how the woman is defined through eroticism, exoticism and culturalism embedded in language. The aim of this article is to show how Beyala take use of African and Western world values and ideologies to make way for a modern female, unbound of traditional systems and taboos. In this respect, the quest for i...

  9. Culture and the environment in Ghana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyasi, Hubert M.

    1985-03-01

    The traditional culture of Ghana stressed a strong relationship with the environment, and a culturally acceptable environmental management resulted from strictures and taboos related to the land. Following its independence in 1957, Ghana has enacted laws that reflect an enlightened environmental policy. These are especially important because of the difficulties Ghana has had in its economic development using Western technology that has damaged the fragile tropical ecosystem. A key aspect of Ghana's policy is the attempt to marry scientific knowledge and traditional beliefs for environmentally sound management of Ghana's resources.

  10. Khmer American Mothers' Knowledge about HPV and HBV Infection and Their Perceptions of Parenting: My English Speaking Daughter Knows More

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haeok Lee, RN, PhD, FAAN

    2015-06-01

    Conclusions: The study suggests that situation-specific conceptual and methodological approaches that take into account the uniqueness of the sociocultural context of CAs is a novel method for identifying factors that are significant in shaping the perception of Khmer mothers' health education related to HBV and HPV prevention among their daughters. The communication between mother and daughter about sex and the risk involved in contracting HBV and HPV has been limited, partly because it is seen as a “taboo subject” and partly because mothers think that schools educate their children regarding sexuality and health.

  11. Challenges Encountered by Vietnamese Nurses When Caring for Patients With Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thuy Nguyen, Ly; Clemenceau Annoussamy, Lourdes; LeBaron, Virginia T

    2017-03-01

    Providing holistic care is acknowledged as central to providing quality care for patients with cancer, but providing competent nursing care consistent with these approaches remains a challenge for nurses in Vietnam. Obstacles for Vietnamese oncology nurses include their low status, the limited scope of nursing practice, work overload in a hierarchical system, and cultural beliefs that view death and dying as taboo. Additional research to support oncology nurses in Vietnam must acknowledge the merits of improving nursing education as an important strategy for enhancing nursing autonomy, quality of care, and outcomes for the increasing number of patients with cancer in low- and middle-income countries.

  12. The truth about nuclear energy - the forbidden choice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lepage, Corinne

    2011-01-01

    In France, nuclear energy is a taboo topic. From the safety of nuclear power plants, to the real cost of this energy source and its constraints on our democracy, the lack of transparency is the key word. Since the Fukushima catastrophe, everything has changed: what would happen in France if such an accident would occur? Are we really prepare to this type of event? What is the weight of the nuclear lobby? In this book, the author, who is a former French Minister of environment and today a member of the European parliament, answers these legitimate questions coming from the public opinion

  13. Ofensores sexuales juveniles: Investigación del perfil psicosocial e intervención judicial en Puerto Rico/Juvenile sexual offenders: Psychosocial profile investigation and judicial intervention in Puerto Rico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gloriam Zaid Mercado-Justiniano

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The population of children in Puerto Rico is the most complicated, it must be in terms biopsicologicals, behavioral, disciplinary, educational and moral due to the age difference. The existing possibility of becoming victims of crimes of violence is the driving reason for this research. It is a psycho-social profile by establishing a real picture-elements, factors and stimuli-conditions that cause a deviation behavioral and a malformation of characters in our childhood. Thus breaking a cultural Puerto Rican "taboo" in the light of the fraud that permeates in this criminal action.

  14. Key barriers to the use of modern contraceptives among women in Albania

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kragelund Nielsen, Karoline; Nielsen, Siff Malue; Butler, Robb

    2012-01-01

    organisations involved in promoting modern contraception, and four focus group discussions with 40 women from Tirana and a rural village in the periphery of Tirana, divided according to age and residence, were also conducted. Content analysis was used to analyse both the interviews and focus group discussions....... Barriers identified included socio-cultural issues such as status of the relationship with partners and the importance of virginity, problems talking about sexual issues and contraception being taboo, health care issues--especially cost and availability--and individual issues such as unfavourable social...

  15. Making Sense of Diversity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wilken, Lisanne

    they categorize differences and perhaps produce or reproduce inequalities of various kinds is becoming equally important. References Bourdieu, Pierre. 1979. Distinction, Critique sociale du jugement. Editions de Minuit, Paris [1984 Distinction: A Social Critique of the Judgment of Taste. Harvard University Press......, Cambridge, Mass Bourdieu, Pierre. 1988. Homo Academicus. Standford University Press. Douglas, M 1966 Purity and Danger: An Analysis of Concepts of Pollution and Taboo. Routledge and Kegan Paul, London. Elias, N and J. L. Scotson. 1965. The Established and the Outsiders: A Sociological Enquiry into Community...

  16. A visit to the village of Saye.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-01-01

    This brief article describes the changes in the village of Saye, Burkina Faso which were recognizable after 20 years absence. Rainfall was plentiful and it was the best season for agriculture in 20 years; the sorghum swayed in the breezes ready for harvest. There are 28 women and village elders who still recognized their visitor, Ramata. The changes in family planning attitudes and sexuality were evident in the way men and women freely joke and laugh about sexual issues in a good humored but not superficial way. The respected El Hadj (meaning that he had visited Mecca) Sawadogo, president of the local Naam group, was the one who cracked jokes which brought laughter to the audience. The taboos are still there, but everyone agrees that family planning is a good idea because it reduces suffering and the people do not still have enough food to eat. Birth spacing is generally accepted, but there is resistance to stopping births. There is growing tolerance toward premarital pregnancies, and polygamy among younger women, which leads to fractious polygamous wives. 20 years ago it was a radical act to show a film on sex education, where pen and ink outlines gave shape to a naked teenaged boy and girl next to each other on the screen. The audience response was a roar of disbelief and the author feared that the local prefet would put him in jail for disturbing public order and violating a taboo.

  17. The Role of the Social Network in Access to Psychosocial Services for Migrant Elderly-A Qualitative Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoenmakers, Daphne; Lamkaddem, Majda; Suurmond, Jeanine

    2017-10-11

    Abstract : Background: Despite high prevalence of mental problems among elderly migrants in The Netherlands, the use of psychosocial care services by this group is low. Scientific evidence points at the crucial role of social support for mental health and the use of psychosocial services. We therefore explored the role of social networks in the access to psychosocial care among elderly migrants in The Netherlands. Methods: A qualitative study was conducted using semi-structured group interviews and individual interviews. The eight group and eleven individual interviews (respectively n = 58 and n = 11) were conducted in The Netherlands with Turkish, Moroccan, Surinamese, and Dutch elderly. The data were analysed through coding and comparing fragments and recognizing patterns. Results: Support of the social network is important to navigate to psychosocial care and is most frequently provided by children. However, the social network of elderly migrants is generally not able to meet the needs of the elderly. This is mostly due to poor mental health literacy of the social network, taboo, and stigma around mental illness and the busy lives of the social network members. Conclusion s : Strategies to address help-seeking barriers should consider mental health literacy in elderly migrants as well as their social networks, and counteract taboos and stigma of mental health problems.

  18. [Sexuality in the elderly: The role of the physicians in maintaining sexual health of older men].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakkalakal, D; Weißbach, L

    2015-12-01

    Sexuality in the elderly is still a social taboo. A commitment by medical practices to address the topic of sexuality in later life is essential, given that the sexual health is part of the quality of life. Identification of barriers and discourse of effects in the physician's behavior when dealing with the sexuality of older people. Review and discussion of interdisciplinary literature and social discourse. Compilation of expert opinions. Although the introduction of phosphodiesterase 5 inhibitors led to a removal of taboos concerning erectile dysfunction, the sexuality of older men became narrowed to physiological aspects. The elderly still complain that consultations concerning their sexuality receives too little attention in medical practice. Problems are boundaries of shame and disregard of the sexuality of elderly. Sexuality in old age will have to become more prominent in medical practices, due to demographic changes and changing self-images of the elderly. The social role of physicians enables straightforward discussions about sexuality. Taking a sexual history and choosing an active approach proved to be practicable to discuss sexual problems with older people.

  19. Barriers beyond words: cancer, culture, and translation in a community of Russian speakers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dohan, Daniel; Levintova, Marya

    2007-11-01

    Language and culture relate in complex ways. Addressing this complexity in the context of language translation is a challenge when caring for patients with limited English proficiency (LEP). To examine processes of care related to language, culture and translation in an LEP population is the objective of this study. We used community based participatory research to examine the experiences of Russian-speaking cancer patients in San Francisco, California. A Russian Cancer Information Taskforce (RCIT), including community-based organizations, local government, and clinics, participated in all phases of the study. A purposeful sample of 74 individuals were the participants of the study. The RCIT shaped research themes and facilitated access to participants. Methods were focus groups, individual interviews, and participant observation. RCIT reviewed data and provided guidance in interpreting results. Four themes emerged. (1) Local Russian-language resources were seen as inadequate and relatively unavailable compared to other non-English languages; (2) a taboo about the word "cancer" led to language "games" surrounding disclosure; (3) this taboo, and other dynamics of care, reflected expectations that Russian speakers derived from experiences in their countries of origin; (4) using interpreters as cultural brokers or establishing support groups for Russian speakers could help address barriers. The language barriers experienced by this LEP population reflect cultural and linguistic issues. Providers should consider partnering with trained interpreters to address the intertwining of language and culture.

  20. Culture, state and varieties of capitalism: a comparative study of life insurance markets in Hong Kong and Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Cheris Shun-Ching

    2012-03-01

    This article examines the interplay between local culture, the state, and economic actors' agency in producing variation across markets. I adopt a political-cultural approach to examining why life insurance has been far more popular in Taiwan than Hong Kong, despite the presence of a cultural taboo on the topic of premature death in both societies. Based on interview data and documentary references, the findings reveal that as an independent state, the Taiwanese government heavily protected domestic insurance firms during their emergence. These domestic firms adopted a market-share approach by re-defining the concept of life insurance to accommodate the local cultural taboo. The colonial Hong Kong government, on the other hand, adopted laissez-faire policies that essentially favoured foreign insurance firms. When faced with the tension between local adaptation and the profitability of the business, these foreign firms chose the latter. Their reluctance to accommodate local cultures, however, resulted in a smaller market. I argue that state actions mediate who the dominant economic players are and that the nature of the dominant players affects the extent of localization. Specifically, the presence of competitive domestic players alongside transnational corporations is more likely to produce varieties of capitalism. © London School of Economics and Political Science 2012.

  1. Chemical and biological weapons in the 'new wars'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilchmann, Kai; Revill, James

    2014-09-01

    The strategic use of disease and poison in warfare has been subject to a longstanding and cross-cultural taboo that condemns the hostile exploitation of poisons and disease as the act of a pariah. In short, biological and chemical weapons are simply not fair game. The normative opprobrium is, however, not fixed, but context dependent and, as a social phenomenon, remains subject to erosion by social (or more specifically, antisocial) actors. The cross cultural understanding that fighting with poisons and disease is reprehensible, that they are taboo, is codified through a web of interconnected measures, principal amongst these are the 1925 Geneva Protocol; the Biological Weapons Convention; and the Chemical Weapons Convention. Whilst these treaties have weathered the storm of international events reasonably well, their continued health is premised on their being 'tended to' in the face of contextual changes, particularly facing changes in science and technology, as well as the changed nature and character of conflict. This article looks at the potential for normative erosion of the norm against chemical and biological weapons in the face of these contextual changes and the creeping legitimization of chemical and biological weapons.

  2. Theory of mind and Darwin's legacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Searle, John

    2013-06-18

    We do not have an adequate theory of consciousness. Both dualism and materialism are mistaken because they deny consciousness is part of the physical world. False claims include (i) behaviorism, (ii) computationalism, (iii) epiphenomenalism, (iv) the readiness potential, (v) subjectivity, and (vi) materialism. Ontological subjectivity does not preclude epistemic objectivity. Observer relative phenomena are created by consciousness, but consciousness is not itself observer relative. Consciousness consists of feeling, sentience, or awareness with (i) qualitativeness, (ii) ontological subjectivity, (iii) unified conscious field, (iv) intentionality, and (v) intentional causation. All conscious states are caused by lower level neurobiological processes in the brain, and they are realized in the brain as higher level features. Efforts to get a detailed scientific account of how brain processes cause consciousness are disappointing. The Darwinian revolution gave us a new form of explanation; two levels were substituted: a causal level, where we specify the mechanism by which the phenotype functions, and a functional level, where we specify the selectional advantage that the phenotype provides. Sociobiology attempted to explain general features of human society, ethics, etc. It failed. For the incest taboo, it confuses inhibition with prohibition. It did not explain the moral force of the taboo. To explain the function of consciousness we cannot ask, "What would be subtracted if we subtracted consciousness but left everything else the same?" We cannot leave everything else the same because consciousness is necessary for higher functions of human and animal life. The unified conscious field gives the organism vastly increased power.

  3. The Prevalence of Traditional Malpractice during Pregnancy, Child Birth, and Postnatal Period among Women of Childbearing Age in Meshenti Town, 2016

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haileyesus Gedamu

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Cultural practices, beliefs, and taboos are often implicated in determining the care received by mothers during pregnancy and child birth which is an important determinant of maternal mortality. Objective. To assess prevalence of cultural malpractice during pregnancy, child birth, and postnatal period among women of childbearing age in Meshenti town, Amhara region, northwest Ethiopia, in 2016. Methods. Community based cross-sectional study was conducted among women of reproductive age group interviewed during the study period from May 10 to June 17, 2016. Total sample size was 318 women of reproductive age group. Systematic sampling technique was conducted. Result. Overall, 50.9% of the respondents had cultural malpractices during their pregnancy. Out of 318 women, 62 (19.5% practiced nutrition taboo, 78 (24.5% practiced abdominal massage, 87 (29.7% delivered their babies at home, 96 (32.8% avoided colostrums, 132 (45.2% washed their baby before 24 hr after delivery, and 6 (6.9% cut the cord by unclean blade. Conclusion and Recommendation. The findings of this study show that different traditional malpractice during perinatal period is still persisting in spite of modern developments in the world. Health education and promoting formal female education are important to decrease or avoid these cultural malpractices.

  4. [Planned children--supporting and inhibiting influences on the development of personality and relationships after technology-assisted reproduction].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebersorger, Karin J

    2016-03-01

    In the western industrial countries more and more couples with an unfulfilled desire for a child use assisted reproductive technology (ART). This focusses on physical processes and doesn't sufficiently provide necessary supportive psychological/psychotherapeutic guidance.Neglecting the psychological dimension causes ART to enhance the risk for negative processes of emotional development of a child.After a brief overview of prevalence and summarizing the legal situation three areas will be discussed which involve a high risk potential and their influences on relationship- and personality development will be described: • The psychological burden for potential parents during the treatment. • Wishes of perfection and high expectations concerning the child which can turn normative crises into severe problems. • The frequent handling of the treatment as a taboo which can become a destructive family secret between parents and child.The paper will conclude with thoughts concerning prevention and treatment.Every person working in the field of childhood and adolescence can contribute to a healthy psychological development of these children. This means acknowledging and working through the emotional burden and the wishes and explaining about the dangers of taboos like in foster care and adoption.

  5. Knowledge, Attitude, and Practice on Menstrual Hygiene Management among School Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, Ram Naresh; Joshi, Shrijana; Poudel, Rajesh; Pandeya, Pawan

    2018-01-01

    Menstrual hygiene management remains a taboo in many communities in Nepal. Cultural beliefs about menstruation such as food taboos and untouchability have negative impact on dignity, health and education of adolescent girls. The objective of the study was to assess the current knowledge, attitude and practice of school adolescents on menstrual hygiene management in Doti District in Far-Western Nepal. This cross-sectional study was carried out from October to December 2016 at seven village development committees in Doti district, Nepal. This study was done among 276 students from grade seven and eight of 11 schools. Self-administered structured questionnaire was used to obtain information from school students. Descriptive analysis was done to analyse the knowledge, attitude and practice of school adolescents on menstrual hygiene management. 67.4% respondents had fair knowledge and 26.4% respondents had good knowledge on menstrual hygiene management. However, out of 141 female adolescent respondents, only 56 (40%) were engaged in good menstrual hygiene practices. Around half of the respondents had positive attitude towards menstrual hygiene management related issues. Although knowledge on menstrual hygiene management among school adolescents is fair, still attitude and practice need to improve. Findings indicate the need of behavior change communication campaigns along with frequent reinforcement of school health education programs.

  6. Religiositas Matematika dalam Sekte Pythagorean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wiwit Kurniawan

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Presently, mathematic is commonly known as scholarly studies specialized on worldly matters, step aside from mysticism. However, such perspective does not prevail on Pythagorean traditional sect. For this sect, mathematics constitutes divine activities and comprises of metaphysical elements. Pythagorean is a group of derived from Pythagoras disciples. Besides studying of mathematic, they also have tight tradition and mystical belief. This paper aims to analyze the religious side of Pythagorean sect which relates to mathematics. Many concept of mathematics in some universities recently come from Pythagoras thoughts. One of Pythagoras ideas used till now is Pythagoras’s theoretical framework of the comparative quadrate of trilateral sides, (a2+b2=c2. This mathematic concept is widely used, taught and taken as irrelevance with mystical matters, metaphysical and religiosity. The religious elements that have been analyzed refer to Durkheim’s concept of religion on belief in a sacred, namely totem, taboo and ritual. This study argues that Pythagorean conviction of mathematics, related to number, geometry and ratio are categorized as a kind of religious form. Pythagorean sect possessed belief to the sacred, totem, taboo and ritual which is connected with their conception on mathematics.

  7. Students' perceptions and doubts about menstruation in developing countries: a case study from India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chothe, Vikas; Khubchandani, Jagdish; Seabert, Denise; Asalkar, Mahesh; Rakshe, Sarika; Firke, Arti; Midha, Inuka; Simmons, Robert

    2014-05-01

    Menstrual education is a vital aspect of adolescent health education. Culture, awareness, and socioeconomic status often exert profound influence on menstrual practices. However, health education programs for young women in developing countries do not often address menstrual hygiene, practices, and disorders. Developing culturally sensitive menstrual health education and hygiene programs for adolescent females has been recommended by professional health organizations like the World Health Organization and UNICEF. These programs cannot be developed without understanding existing myths and perceptions about menstruation in adolescent females of developing countries. Thus, the purpose of this qualitative study from India was to document existing misconceptions regarding menstruation and perceptions about menarche and various menstrual restrictions that have been understudied. Out of the 612 students invited to participate by asking questions, 381 girls participated by asking specific questions about menstruation (response rate = 62%). The respondents consisted of 84 girls from sixth grade, 117 from seventh grade, and 180 from eighth grade. The questions asked were arranged into the following subthemes: anatomy and physiology, menstrual symptoms, menstrual myths and taboos, health and beauty, menstrual abnormalities, seeking medical advice and home remedies; sanitary pads usage and disposal; diet and lifestyle; and sex education. Results of our study indicate that students had substantial doubts about menstruation and were influenced by societal myths and taboos in relation to menstrual practices. Parents, adolescent care providers, and policy makers in developing countries should advocate for comprehensive sexuality education and resources (e.g., low-cost sanitary pads and school facilities) to promote menstrual health and hygiene promotion.

  8. Mechanisms of social avoidance learning can explain the emergence of adaptive and arbitrary behavioral traditions in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindström, Björn; Olsson, Andreas

    2015-06-01

    Many nonhuman animals preferentially copy the actions of others when the environment contains predation risk or other types of danger. In humans, the role of social learning in avoidance of danger is still unknown, despite the fundamental importance of social learning for complex social behaviors. Critically, many social behaviors, such as cooperation and adherence to religious taboos, are maintained by threat of punishment. However, the psychological mechanisms allowing threat of punishment to generate such behaviors, even when actual punishment is rare or absent, are largely unknown. To address this, we used both computer simulations and behavioral experiments. First, we constructed a model where simulated agents interacted under threat of punishment and showed that mechanisms' (a) tendency to copy the actions of others through social learning, together with (b) the rewarding properties of avoiding a threatening punishment, could explain the emergence, maintenance, and transmission of large-scale behavioral traditions, both when punishment is common and when it is rare or nonexistent. To provide empirical support for our model, including the 2 mechanisms, we conducted 4 experiments, showing that humans, if threatened with punishment, are exceptionally prone to copy and transmit the behavior observed in others. Our results show that humans, similar to many nonhuman animals, use social learning if the environment is perceived as dangerous. We provide a novel psychological and computational basis for a range of human behaviors characterized by the threat of punishment, such as the adherence to cultural norms and religious taboos. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  9. Playing doctor, seriously: graduation follies at an American medical school.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segal, D

    1984-01-01

    In American medical schools, the period of time between the announcement of internships and graduation is known as FYBIGMI, for "Fuck You Brother I Got My Internship." At University Medical School (pseudonym), as at most American medical schools, this period culminates in an elaborate musical comedy (attended by faculty and relatives) in which faculty are abused, patients are represented in terms of stigmatized stereotypes, and the students demonstrate a profane familiarity with cultural taboos. Using the analytic methods of cultural anthropology, this examination of the FYBIGMI performance at U.M.S. focuses primarily on the seniors' presentation of their newly acquired professional identity, which is constituted in the skits by recurring oppositions to socially stigmatized, medically self-destructive patients. In this oppositional logic, racial stereotypes play a particularly large role. In addition, the seniors establish their new social status by inverting their relationship to their (former) supervisors on a personal basis, and by confronting the audience with their professional ability to treat cultural taboos with profane familiarity. The FYBIGMI theatrical, and its representation of professional identity, is analyzed in relation to a proposed model of the underlying structure of the process of medical education, that is, an escalating dialectic of intimidation and self-congratulation.

  10. Feminist Refiguring of La Malinche in Sandra Cisneros’ Never Marry A Mexican

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dian Natalia Sutanto

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available La Malinche, the mistress of Spanish conquistador Hernán Cortés, has evolved from a historical figure into Mexican national myth that connotes all the negative aspects of woman’s sexuality in Mexican and Mexican-American Culture. Sandra Cisneros in her Never Marry A Mexican reinterpretsLa Malinchein a more positive light and points out how women sexuality can be the site for women empowerment.By drawing on insights from feminist theories on motherhood, marriage, and incest taboo, this study identifies the way Cisneros revises the negative image of La Malinche as a dupe, passive and submissive mistress. This study identifies that Cisneros has created a strong protagonist character named Clemencia, who exerts her subjectivity and claims for her sexual agency totransgress patriarchal construction of woman passive sexuality, imposition of maternal identity as asexual mother and taboo on incestuous relationship. Cisneros’s La Malinche is no longer depicted as the victim duped by the patriarchy, but as the survivor who is able to preserve her sense of herself in the dominating patriarchal world.   DOI: https://doi.org/10.24071/llt.2015.180103

  11. Fattigdomens hjälplöshet – too hot to handle? Hur Astrid Lindgrens böcker om Madicken översatts i USA och Storbritannien

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolowski-Bogomoloff, Angelika

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available In children’s literature, power relations are fundamentally assymetrical. This is furthermore accentuated in the process of translation where translation norms, social and cultural norms as well as the power game of adult authorities play a major part.The Swedish author Astrid Lindgren’s ideology is based on the notion that no aspects of life should be hidden from the child, making her thematize as well as break taboos in her writing for children. There has been extensive research on Lindgren’s authorship per se, but research on translations of her books seems to be limited. The fact that discussions on taboo elements in children’s books in general, and Lindgren’s source texts and target texts in particular are sparse indicates that this is a vast – and interesting – field still to be explored.This paper focuses on the American and British translations of Lindgren’s Madicken (1960 and Madicken och Junibackens Pims (1976 in order to find out why and to what extent these books were censored in translation.

  12. The Role of the Social Network in Access to Psychosocial Services for Migrant Elderly—A Qualitative Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daphne Schoenmakers

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: Background: Despite high prevalence of mental problems among elderly migrants in The Netherlands, the use of psychosocial care services by this group is low. Scientific evidence points at the crucial role of social support for mental health and the use of psychosocial services. We therefore explored the role of social networks in the access to psychosocial care among elderly migrants in The Netherlands. Methods: A qualitative study was conducted using semi-structured group interviews and individual interviews. The eight group and eleven individual interviews (respectively n = 58 and n = 11 were conducted in The Netherlands with Turkish, Moroccan, Surinamese, and Dutch elderly. The data were analysed through coding and comparing fragments and recognizing patterns. Results: Support of the social network is important to navigate to psychosocial care and is most frequently provided by children. However, the social network of elderly migrants is generally not able to meet the needs of the elderly. This is mostly due to poor mental health literacy of the social network, taboo, and stigma around mental illness and the busy lives of the social network members. Conclusions: Strategies to address help-seeking barriers should consider mental health literacy in elderly migrants as well as their social networks, and counteract taboos and stigma of mental health problems.

  13. [Childhood in flux--Part II: Modern times until today].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardt, Jochen; Hoffmann, Sven Olaf

    2006-01-01

    At the end of the 19th century, the Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Children was founded in New York, after a barbarous case of neglect and abuse of a girl became public. From then on, children received more and more protection. Only in the 1950s were doctors in the USA bound by law to report cases of putative physical abuse to officials. In Sweden, physical punishment of children has been forbidden since 1989, and in Germany since 2001. The existence of sexual abuse of children had been a taboo subject for centuries, even though individual attempts to break that taboo were made--e. g., by S. Freud in the theory of seduction (Verführungstheorie). Only with the birth of the women's liberation movement in the early 1970s has public awareness arisen. Due to the work of J. Bowlby in the 1950s, it became clear that children of primates need more than air, water and food, namely a relationship between the child and an adult person (attachment). To what degree the basic needs of children are being fulfilled in Western societies today is still a controversial issue.

  14. Pendidikan Seks Bagi Remaja Menurut Abdullah Nasih Ulwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Indra Saputra

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Reproductive health, in this case, is the Sex and the problem is difficult to solve. During this time people view sex as "taboo" and inappropriate to talk about. In this case, that sex should not be taboo, but sexual problems should be presented to children and adolescents in strict accordance with the guidance of the Shari'ah. Adolescence in the developmental process is a period that is very prone to moral development,  both physically  and socially.  For those  who are  weak beliefs  or moral principles which have less, often leads to destructive and immoral. In connection  with the  trend of  promiscuity adolescents,  reproductive health problems are not be underestimated. The solution is to give an explanation regarding reproductive  or sexual  health information  that is  positive for  young people with reproductive  or sexual  health education  in  Islamic.  In this  case, the authors are interested  to further  investigate the  Nasih  Ulwan  Abdullah thinking about the concept of Sex Education For Teens.

  15. On law’s origin
    Derrida reading Freud, Kafka and Lévi-Strauss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacques de Ville

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available This article's main focus is 'Before the Law', a text by Derrida on Kafka's Before the Law, in which Derrida also comments on Freud's Totem and Taboo. Freud, in this text, enquires into the origins of religion, morality, social institutions and law. He contends that this origin is to be found in a crime, the killing of the primal father by a band of brothers, followed by the institution of totemism and the incest prohibition. Freud's psychoanalytical account of the origins of the totem and the prohibition of incest has been challenged from various quarters. The article enquires whether Freud's Totem and Taboo and its theory of the primal horde in relation to the origins of law should be dismissed in light of these challenges, or whether some insight can still be gained from it. The second option is affirmed, with Derrida's 'Before the Law' pointing to the importance of reading Freud in a way analogous to Kafka's Before the Law, and more specifically to the need for a reconsideration of the originary nature of the Oedipus complex, so as to arrive eventually at a kind of 'pre-origin' of law.

  16. Axial design of nuclear fuel using path relinking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castillo, A.; Torres, M.; Ortiz, J. J.; Perusquia, R.; Hernandez, J. L.; Montes, J. L.

    2008-01-01

    In the present work the preliminary results were obtained with the zoctli system whose purpose is the axial design of assembly of nuclear fuel under certain considerations. For the mentioned design well-know cells were already used and that they have been proven in diverse cycles of operation in the nuclear power plant of Laguna Verde. The design contemplates fuels assemblies of 10x10 and with 2 water channels. The assembly was distributed in 6 axial zones according to its structure. In order to take to end the optimization is was used the well-known technique like Path relinking and to find the group of previous solutions required by this technique uses the technical Taboo search. In order to work with Path relinking, 5 trajectories was taken in to account from a set of 5 previous solutions generated with theTaboo search, the update of the group of solutions is carried out in dynamic form. In the case of the Taboo search it was used a list of variable size, it was implement an aspiration approach, it was used the vector of frequencies and due to the cost of the evaluation of the objective function, only it was review 5% of the vicinity. For the objective function was considered the limit thermal, the axial profile of power, the effective multiplication factor and the margin of having turned off in cold. In order to prove the design system, it was used a balance cycle with a value of reference of 0.9928 for the effective multiplication factor that is equivalent to a produced energy of 10896 MWd/TU at the end of operation to full power. The designed assemblies were placed both in one of lots different from fresh assemblies on which it counts the referred cycle. At the end one a comparison with the results obtained with other techniques and under similar conditions is made. The results obtained until the moment show an appropriate performance of the system. It is possible to indicate that a small inconvenient is the amount of consumed resources of calculation during

  17. Agnieszka, Antigone: The Antigone Myth in Andrzej Wajda’s Katyn and in Dominik Smole’s Antigona

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreja N. Inkret

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The article considers two modern works which employ the Antigone myth. The Polish film director Andrzej Wajda included several implicit allusions to the myth in his Katyn (2007,a film about the mass murder of Polish officers and intelligentsia – a Soviet crime which remained a taboo for almost half a century. On the other hand, Dominik Smole, a Slovenian playwright, wrote a play about Antigone (1960, which is set from beginning to end in ancient Thebes. It has been suggested that his play indirectly calls attention to the Slovenian post-war killings of the Slovenian Home Guard members, which were likewise long tabooed. Inquiring how the two works relate to Sophocles’ Antigone, the article points out that Andrzej Wajda seems inspired not only by Sophocles’ ideas but also by his dramatic techniques. A scene that seems especially interesting in this respect presents Agnieszka (Antigone going to the theatre to sell her hair in order to buy a tombstone for her dead brother Piotr (Polyneikes. The action in the theatre is so full of metaphors and subtle imagery that it can be compared to one of the most compelling scenes in Sophocles’ Antigone (801—943. In the latter, Sophocles employs a popular ancient dramatic technique, incorporating ritual elements in the dramatic action in order to create an atmosphere rich in meanings and connotations. While Wajda’s film includes at least two other scenes which seem directly inspired by the dramaturgical composition of Sophocles’ tragedy, Dominik Smole does not appear to make much use of Sophoclean techniques. To both authors, however, Sophocles is a key reference for their characters, situations, and dilemmas; both the film and the play refer to the ancient tragedy either through similarities or differences established in relation to the ancient Antigone. With regard to the differences, Smole’s only new persona dramatis, the page who survives Antigone as her devoted follower, appears to be

  18. The education of kind in the educational professional's initial formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josefa Caridad López-Ferrera

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In the context Cuban they visualize improvements in relation to the woman in the sociocultural and educational, but still the treatment is necessary to the focus of kind in the pedagogic technical training, as from the educational influence and takes of conscience for the human development. The purpose of this work is to reflect about the relations of kind with the intensity of transforming the knowledge on kind and it excluding and patriarchal modes of acting stereotyped, in modes of equity, solidarity, tolerance and respect that you favor the formation of a free professional of prejudices, taboos and to surpass the culture of die inherited; I eat civic of high self-esteem and realization, with capability of influencing the social development, for the attributes it has been in educated, and forming human complete, happy, critical, reflexive and ethical beings, than contribute to the perfecting of the social project Cuban.

  19. Felling Ficus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cotee-Jones, H. Eden W.; Whitaker, Robert J.

    2015-01-01

    ethnographic techniques to assess the attudes of villagers towards fig trees in the village of Komargoan and its surroundings in Assam, India. As reported for other parts of South Asia, we found fig trees have significant sacred status, which included taboos against cutng them down. However, we discovered...... mixed and sometmes contradictory understandings of the religious atributes of fig trees, which were sometmes believed to be inhabited by gods or ancestral spirits. The benefits most commonly associated with fig trees by interviewees were their aesthetc beauty, large size, and shade during the daytme...... heat. When the presence of these trees incurred economic costs, their religious, aesthetc, and practcal benefits were not sufficient reasons to prevent people from cutng them down, although often saplings would be planted in another place as compensaton. Unexpectedly, figs were only planted...

  20. Energy, Economic Growth and Environmental Sustainability: Five Propositions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven Sorrell

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper advances five linked and controversial propositions that have both deep historical roots and urgent contemporary relevance. These are: (a the rebound effects from energy efficiency improvements are significant and limit the potential for decoupling energy consumption from economic growth; (b the contribution of energy to productivity improvements and economic growth has been greatly underestimated; (c the pursuit of improved efficiency needs to be complemented by an ethic of sufficiency; (d sustainability is incompatible with continued economic growth in rich countries; and (e a zero-growth economy is incompatible with a fractional reserve banking system. These propositions run counter to conventional wisdom and each highlights either a "blind spot" or "taboo subject" that deserves closer scrutiny. While accepting one proposition reinforces the case for accepting the next, the former is neither necessary nor sufficient for the latter.

  1. “On the brink of the absolutely forbidden”: In Conversation with Mary Morrissy

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    Loredana Salis

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Mary Morrissy (Dublin, 1957 belongs to the generation of womenwriters excluded from the Field Day Anthology in the 1990s, only tobe included in a dedicated volume in 2003. By then she had becomea distinguished literary voice in Ireland (having published a collectionof short stories, and two novels. After The Rising of Bella Casey (2013,Morrissy returned to the short story in the form of an adaptation ofJoyce’s “An Encounter” (2014, and a collection of short stories entitledProsperity Drive (2016. Situated where history, biography andfiction intersect, her works deal with Ireland’s recent cultural developmentsand situations of marginality risking social exclusion, genderinequality, an indelible past and the dominance of religion. Standing“on the brink of the absolutely forbidden”, her protagonists, like herwriting, yearn to break taboos and

  2. A Sociolinguistic Analysis of Polish and American Prison Slang within the Context of Selected Translation Techniques in Films with Subtitles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarzyna Sandra Nosek

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Cultural differences around the world may pose problems for translators who face issues connected with finding equivalents in source and target language occurred in the films. One of the most difficult styles is constantly changing, the hermetic and colloquial variety known as slang. Depending on the environment, it may vary, even in one language, of which an example is prison slang used by convicts to communicate with one another. Although very pejorative and full of negative connotations, it is a very curious subject matter to analyze, as well as, to investigate how it is translated, because more and more films about criminal environments are being produced. This study examines which translation techniques were used in the cases of the movies: Lockdown (2000, American Me (1992 and Animal Factory (2000. The research focuses on the issues connected with the most often used translation techniques, the reasons of using them, the other possible solutions, the untranslatable phrases and with translating taboo words.

  3. Emotion-induced impairments in speeded word recognition tasks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeelenberg, René; Bocanegra, Bruno R; Pecher, Diane

    2011-01-01

    Recent studies show that emotional stimuli impair the identification of subsequently presented, briefly flashed stimuli. In the present study, we investigated whether emotional distractors (primes) impaired target processing when presentation of the target stimulus was not impoverished. In lexical decision, animacy decision, rhyme decision, and nonword naming, targets were presented in such a manner that they were clearly visible (i.e., targets were not masked and presented until participants responded). In all tasks taboo-sexual distractors caused a slowdown in responding to the subsequent neutral target. Our results indicate that the detrimental effects of emotional distractors are not confined to paradigms in which visibility of the target is limited. Moreover, impairments were obtained even when semantic processing of stimuli was not required.

  4. A standard diagnostic and education procedure for nurses in recognizing the symptoms of aging man

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Korol Agnieszka

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. In the aging process a weakening of the multiple organ systems and endocrine system occur, which in turn, leads to male hormones deficiency – androgens release, including testosterone. It is believed that the year-to-year, women awareness of the menopausal problems increases, however, their knowledge of the consequences of menopause is still insufficient. Unfortunately, only a small percentage of the population is aware that the same problem can also affect men. Male menopause symptoms are still largely an area of social taboo subject, which is not discussed at all or very little. As a consequence, men are not informed, enlightened, and therefore also ready for the changes that are to take place in themselves and their lives.

  5. Renal Artery Stenosis in Patients with Resistant Hypertension: Stent It or Not?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van der Niepen, Patricia; Rossignol, Patrick; Lengelé, Jean-Philippe; Berra, Elena; Sarafidis, Pantelis; Persu, Alexandre

    2017-01-01

    After three large neutral trials in which renal artery revascularization failed to reduce cardiovascular and renal morbidity and mortality, renal artery stenting became a therapeutic taboo. However, this is probably unjustified as these trials have important limitations and excluded patients most likely to benefit from revascularization. In particular, patients with severe hypertension were often excluded and resistant hypertension was either poorly described or not conform to the current definition. Effective pharmacological combination treatment can control blood pressure in most patients with renovascular hypertension. However, it may also induce further renal hypoperfusion and thus accelerate progressive loss of renal tissue. Furthermore, case reports of patients with resistant hypertension showing substantial blood pressure improvement after successful revascularization are published over again. To identify those patients who would definitely respond to renal artery stenting, properly designed randomized clinical trials are definitely needed.

  6. [Conversations on the "good death": the bioethical debate on euthanasia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siqueira-Batista, Rodrigo; Schramm, Fermin Roland

    2005-01-01

    Despite extensive current debate on euthanasia, many open and apparently unsolvable issues persist, awaiting a better conceptual treatment. The area includes "prejudices and fundamentalisms" in relation to the theme, still viewed as taboo by a major share of society, specifically in the case of Brazil, while semantic imprecision in the term and argumentative tensions surround the issue, focusing on the principles of sacredness of life, quality of life, and autonomy and the so-called "slippery slope" argument. The purpose of the current essay is thus to serve as a sphere of inquiry concerning euthanasia, moving from historical antecedents towards a better solution to the problem and the demarcation of necessary future perspectives for enhanced understanding of the issue.

  7. Kenyan pastors' perspectives on communicating about sexual behaviour and HIV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Ann Neville; Kizito, Mary N; Mwithia, Jesica Kinya; Njoroge, Lucy; Ngula, Kyalo Wa; Davis, Kristin

    2011-09-01

    The article presents an analysis of in-depth interviews with 18 leaders of Christian churches in Nairobi, Kenya, regarding the content and context of messages they disseminate to their congregations about sexual behaviour and HIV. The content of messages was nearly consistent across the different denominations. However, three sorts of tensions were identified within pastoral communication about these topics: the need to discuss sex and HIV versus societal taboos against speaking about those issues from the pulpit; traditional cultural norms versus current lifestyles; and the ideals of abstinence and fidelity versus the reality of congregants' sexual behaviour. Although some of the religious leaders accepted the idea of condom use, no denominational patterns were noted on that subject, except with respect to Catholic priests. Pentecostal leaders were notable for describing proactive strategies to address both the ideal/real dilemma and the tension between church norms and current media content about sexuality and HIV.

  8. Reviving Markov processes and applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cai, H.

    1988-01-01

    In this dissertation we study a procedure which restarts a Markov process when the process is killed by some arbitrary multiplicative functional. The regenerative nature of this revival procedure is characterized through a Markov renewal equation. An interesting duality between the revival procedure and the classical killing operation is found. Under the condition that the multiplicative functional possesses an intensity, the generators of the revival process can be written down explicitly. An intimate connection is also found between the perturbation of the sample path of a Markov process and the perturbation of a generator (in Kato's sense). The applications of the theory include the study of the processes like piecewise-deterministic Markov process, virtual waiting time process and the first entrance decomposition (taboo probability)

  9. Postpartum sexual abstinence, breastfeeding, and childspacing, among Yoruba women in urban Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feyisetan, B J

    1990-01-01

    This paper examines the extent to which the traditional practice of sexual abstinence during lactation has broken down among Yoruba women residents in urban areas. The first major finding is that there is a gradual erosion of the tradition, and the dominant factors of modernization are education of the woman and the use of contraception. The second major finding is that the breakdown of postpartum sexual taboos has statistically significant negative consequences on duration of lactation, although the negative impact of woman's education is greater. The third major finding is that duration of breastfeeding reduces birth interval significantly only when it is less than 15 months, and that both durations of breastfeeding and birth intervals have declined over time. The first two findings suggest further reductions in the proportion of women who abstain from sexual relations during lactation and in durations of breastfeeding as more women become more educated. Significant declines in birth intervals may follow soon after.

  10. Love in the Time of War. Affections and Disaffections in the Testimonial Literature of Central America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Domingo Carrillo Padilla

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The article aims to know the relationships established between the militants of the armed movements. Also want to be aware of the relationship model that prevailed. To achieve the proposed objectives, leave aside the narratives that glorify the armed movements, prevents build heroes to taste, rather, is a narrative of the adventures and the loving sinventuras who sought by weapons, to relieve the power ruler in Central America in the second half of the 20th century. The relationships established between the militants of the armed movements, regulated by traditional institutions such as marriage and free joints. In this article, because the nature of the sources this was said, emphasis in heterosexual affective relationships. There is know in the same way, homosexual relations between the guerrillas. Taboo because it means to infringe against the virility of men in arms and the model of femininity established by society. Son amores that even they dare not speak its name.

  11. Perception of sexuality and fertility in women living with HIV

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wessman, Maria; Aho, Inka; Thorsteinsson, Kristina

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: As the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-positive population ages, issues concerning sexuality and fertility, among others, are becoming relevant. HIV is still surrounded by stigma and taboos, and there have been few studies conducted in industrialized settings concerning...... these questions. We therefore wanted to investigate the perception of sexuality and fertility in women living with HIV (WLWH) in an industrialized setting, using a questionnaire. METHODS: WLWH were recruited at their regular outpatient clinic visits, at the major Departments of Infectious Diseases in Denmark...... Finland) or from a national HIV cohort (in Denmark). Statistical analysis was performed using STATA, version 11. RESULTS: In total, 560 women were included in the study. The median age was 44 years. The majority were of white European origin, with fully suppressed HIV viral load, CD4 cell count >350 µ...

  12. The cultural and ecological impacts of aboriginal tourism: a case study on Taiwan's Tao tribe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Tzu-Ming; Lu, Dau-Jye

    2014-01-01

    We show that tourism activities severely impact the ecology of Orchid Island, its natural resources, and the culture of the Tao tribe. For example, highway widening, in response to the increased traffic volumes caused by tourism, required many Pandanus trees to be cut and removed, which has placed the coconut crabs in danger of extinction. To promote eco-tourism, observation trips to observe Elegant Scops owls and Birdwing butterflies have taken place, which has affected the breeding of these two protected species. The Elegant Scops owls- and Birdwing butterflies-related tourism activities also break the "evil spirits" taboo of the Tao people and have caused the disappearance of the specifications for using traditional natural resources, causing natural ecosystems to face the threat of excessive use. In addition to promoting and advocating aboriginal tourism of the Tao people on Orchid Island, the Taiwanese government should help the Tao people to develop a management model that combines traditional regulations and tourism activities.

  13. Influence of non-economic factors in the use of personal care products: the case of male Peruvian consumer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Otto Regalado Pezúa

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Over the past decade, the supply of male personal care products and services has increased considerably on a global scale. In the case of the Peruvian market, this phenomenon is still incipient despite a favorable economic outlook that has boosted the consumption in different categories. This research identifies factors that influence the consumption decision of this kind of products for the male segment. To do this, the authors used the Theory of Planned Behavior of Ajzen. The results show that male consumers´ perception of his environment (subjective norm restrains the intention of consumption of personal care products, even though the male consumer has a positive attitude toward using of these products. These factors would reflect the existence of deeply rooted taboos in Peruvian culture, based on a traditional view of man.

  14. Development and psychometric validation of the verbal affective memory test

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Christian Gaden; Hjordt, Liv V; Stenbæk, Dea S

    2015-01-01

    . Furthermore, larger seasonal decreases in positive recall significantly predicted larger increases in depressive symptoms. Retest reliability was satisfactory, rs ≥ .77. In conclusion, VAMT-24 is more thoroughly developed and validated than existing verbal affective memory tests and showed satisfactory...... psychometric properties. VAMT-24 seems especially sensitive to measuring positive verbal recall bias, perhaps due to the application of common, non-taboo words. Based on the psychometric and clinical results, we recommend VAMT-24 for international translations and studies of affective memory.......We here present the development and validation of the Verbal Affective Memory Test-24 (VAMT-24). First, we ensured face validity by selecting 24 words reliably perceived as positive, negative or neutral, respectively, according to healthy Danish adults' valence ratings of 210 common and non...

  15. Relación entre turismo, género y sexo. El caso de Buzios – Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norrild, Juana A.

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The relationship between sex and tourism has followed different paths starting from the Gay / Lesbian friendly market to nudist tourism or prostitution. Not withstanding, there are sill few initiatives to stop this kind of tourism that brings with its huge social problems and scandalizes the public opinion. This is probably due to the fact that from an historic point of view matters related to sex are associated with taboo and therefore are not easy to understand. This article describes a case study made in Buzios, Brazil, by means of three variables in which women are implied and tourism appears as an indicator of the sexism that is evident in present society. Two variables show the efficiency of social policies of con-sciousness

  16. Neo-Fascisme, norme, literatuur: Oor Pieter Stoffberg se Die hart van ’n bond

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. de Jong

    1992-05-01

    Full Text Available In this article it is argued that Pieter Stoffberg's collection of stories, Die hart van ’n hond, forces the reader to constitute racist frames in order to interpret. Furthermore the author proposes that Kristeva's formalisation of the 'negation of negation', developed in The Revolution of Poetic Language, can theorise the textual process in these stories as a transgression in which the taboo on political rightist conservatism in a "New South Africa' is broken. To produce this transgression, the text places the reader in the position of the other, a position in which normative decision-taking is precluded. This itself could, however, constitute an ethical moment. On the basis of the Neo-Fascist aspects of Die hart van ’n hond, the article proposes a re-introduction of the ethical in literary’ discourse and critically comments on Afrikaans literary culture in this respect.

  17. L’ombra de l’eunuc o el gris del clarobscur: representació terrorista i condicionants morals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xavier Barceló Pinya

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available L’ombra de l’eunuc, by Jaume Cabré (1996, presents the inner conflict of a former terrorist during Franco’s regime, and the consequences that the unsuccessful armed struggle has in his later life. The context surrounding the writing of the book is one of discredit to the concept of armed struggle as seen in democratic Spain and, in particular, in Catalonia. In contrast with that view, the author proposes a representation of the terrorist based on the individual, at a time when terrorism was a means to fight against a totalitarian governmentality, so that it consequently became partially legitimised. This recontextualization permits a re-evaluation of the violence taboo and the weakening of the Otherness barrier, thus disrupting the simplified and stereotyped perceptions of the menace and the threatened by using perspective and characterisation.

  18. "Stuck in the muck": an eco-idiom of distress from childhood respiratory diseases in an urban mangrove in Northeast Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nations, Marilyn; Gondim, Ana Paula Soares

    2013-02-01

    Situated in neo-democratic globalizing Northeast Brazil, this anthropological study probes the role of ecological context in framing, experiencing, and expressing human distress. Ethnographic interviews, narratives, and "contextualized semantic analysis" reveal the lived experience of childhood respiratory diseases among 22 urban mangrove dwellers. Informants speak an "eco-idiom of respiratory distress" based on a popular "eco-logic", reflecting the harsh reality of "living in dampness". "Higher-up" residents legitimize their feelings of superiority by stigmatizing "lowlanders" as taboo, diseased (with porcine cysticercosis, swine flu) "filthy pigs, stuck in the muck" (atolados na lama). Animalizing inhabitants' identities demotes them to nonpersons. Besides infections, children suffer social stigma, ostracism, and barriers for accessing care. Promoting a "favorable environment" requires reducing ecological risk, challenging class-based prejudice, and restoring human dignity.

  19. Social Engineering a General Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valerica GREAVU-SERBAN

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Social engineering is considered to be a taboo subject in nowadays society. It involves the use of social skills or to obtain usernames, passwords, credit card data, or to compromise or altering the information and systems of an entity. Social engineering methods are numerous and people using it are extremely ingenious and adaptable. This technique takes advantage of the intrinsic nature of mankind, to manipulate and obtain sensitive information, persuading people into divulge it, using exceptional communication skills. Thus, five models of persuasion were identified, based on: simplicity, interest, incongruity, confidence and empathy, exploiting key factors which predispose people to fall victim to attacks of social engineering such as greed, self-interest, guilt or ignorance. It is well known fact that security is as strong as the weakest link in its chain (individuals therefore, beyond technical measures, staff training is the key to success in defending against such attacks.

  20. [Contraindications of spirit (shen) in acupuncture and moxibustion].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Zheng-Han; Yan, Ji-Lan; Wang, Shu-Bin; Zu, Na

    2014-07-01

    ABSTRACT The taboos of man-spirit (RenShen) and bottom-spirit (KaoShen) are two kinds of time-related contraindications that are more commonly seen in the literature of acupuncture and moxibustion. The meaning of man-spirit is often extended to qi-blood or mind, or else directly equals to heaven-spirit (TianShen). It is highly possible that the bottom-spirit is subordinate to man-spirit, and both Taoist philosophy and the SanCai theory declare the importance of bottom in human body. The violation of contraindications could lead to diseases in the neighborhood where man-spirit travels. However, the results are generally recorded as ulcer, lingering disease and death in most medical texts. From Ming dynasty, more and more doctors have expressed disapproval of man-spirit and bottom-spirit.

  1. Darwinism and cultural struggles in rural Askov and metropolitan Copenhagen in nineteenth-century Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjermitslev, Hans Henrik

    In the 1870s, when Charles Darwin's On the Origin of Species and Descent of Man were translated into Danish by the botanist-turned-poet J. P. Jacobsen, evolutionary thought played a seminal role in the modern breakthrough advocated by the freethinker and literary critic Georg Brandes. A group...... of students and artists assembled around Brandes in the capital of Copenhagen - the only Danish city hosting a university in the late nineteenth century - and used Darwinism in their cultural struggle against what they regarded as reactionary Christian and conservative values which dominated in the country....... At the same time in the village of Askov in rural Jutland, a liberal fraction of the Evangelical-Lutheran State Church, the Grundtvigians, had a stronghold at their high-profile folk high school. Here materialism and Darwinism associated with the Brandes circle were tabooed and later condemned. However...

  2. Encounters with service professionals experienced by children from families with alcohol problems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Werner, Anne; Malterud, Kirsti

    2016-01-01

    Aim: The aim of this study was to explore encounters with service professionals experienced in childhood and adolescence by children who grew up with parental alcohol abuse. We focused on their accounts from situations indicating children’s struggles or parental drinking problems. Methods: Semi......-structured qualitative interview study was conducted with retrospective data from nine adults. Systematic text condensation was used to understand childhood experiences from encounters with professionals. Results: Participants believed that professionals rarely recognised their parents’ drinking problems. The children...... parental drinking. Even when problems were obvious, participants felt that professionals took no further action. Medical and social problems were managed within very confined perspectives. Conclusions: Specific commitment to confront cultural taboos is needed to attend to children’s unmet needs...

  3. Masculinity and violence in David Fincher’s "Fight Club"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leire Ituarte Pérez

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In this article we address a hermeneutic approach to David Fincher’s Fight Club. Inspired by some of the methodological principles of Psychoanalysis and Queer Theory the study tries to thresh the details of the representation of Masculinity in the film. Departing from the hypothesis that such representation in the film is closely linked to the masculine castration anxiety, the essay traces the recurrent and more or less parodic, more or less subliminal allusions to emasculation as well as the fetishistic compensatory strategies displayed. The analysis concludes that the overwhelming mise en scène of the masculine Oedipal scenario in the film pursues to underpin an hegemonic discourse of Masculinity threatened by the taboo of Homosexuality. Hence, the prominent erotisization of masculine masochism reveals itself, in all its ambivalence, as a performative strategy to institutionalise a heteronormative sexual regime.

  4. The experiences of staff who support people with intellectual disability on issues about death, dying and bereavement: A metasynthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lord, Ailsa J; Field, Stephen; Smith, Ian C

    2017-11-01

    Historically, people with intellectual disabilities have tended to be excluded from knowing about death, dying and bereavement. Staff in intellectual disability services can play a valuable role in improving understanding of these issues in those they support. This qualitative metasynthesis aimed to understand the experiences of staff supporting adults with intellectual disabilities with issues of death, dying and bereavement. Thirteen papers were identified following a systematic review of six databases. Three themes were developed following a lines-of-argument synthesis: (i) talking about death is hard: negotiating the uncertainty in death, dying and bereavement; (ii) the commitment to promoting a "good death"; and (iii) the grief behind the professional mask. "A cautious silence: The taboo of death" was an overarching theme. A more open culture around issues of death, dying and bereavement in intellectual disability settings is essential and could be promoted through staff training and support. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Optimization of joint energy micro-grid with cold storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Bin; Luo, Simin; Tian, Yan; Chen, Xianda; Xiong, Botao; Zhou, Bowen

    2018-02-01

    To accommodate distributed photovoltaic (PV) curtailment, to make full use of the joint energy micro-grid with cold storage, and to reduce the high operating costs, the economic dispatch of joint energy micro-grid load is particularly important. Considering the different prices during the peak and valley durations, an optimization model is established, which takes the minimum production costs and PV curtailment fluctuations as the objectives. Linear weighted sum method and genetic-taboo Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) algorithm are used to solve the optimization model, to obtain optimal power supply output. Taking the garlic market in Henan as an example, the simulation results show that considering distributed PV and different prices in different time durations, the optimization strategies are able to reduce the operating costs and accommodate PV power efficiently.

  6. Study of the scenarios for the Cycle 12 of the Unit 1 of the CNLV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castillo, A.; Ortiz, J.J.; Montes, J.L.; Perusquia, R.

    2005-01-01

    In this work the preliminary results of a study of scenarios of it loads of fuel and operation of the Cycle 12 of the Unit 1 of the Laguna Verde power station are presented. Based on the Plan of Energy Use (PUE) for this cycle, they were studied different possibilities, with the idea to satisfy the energy demand under sure performance of the reactor. In this work were contemplated similar fuel assemblies to those that are using at the moment in the Cycle 11 of that unit. The reload proposals using the Haling principle and patterns of control bars with the intelligent technique not exhaustive well-known as taboo search are analyzed. The simulator Cm-Presto was used to evaluate the scenarios. This study even continuous analyzing different options and improving the results. (Author)

  7. Student journals: a means of assessing transformative learning in aging related courses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Adrienne L; Pitman Brown, Pamela; Morales, Justin P

    2015-01-01

    In courses where topics are sensitive or even considered taboo for discussion, it can be difficult to assess students' deeper learning. In addition, incorporating a wide variety of students' values and beliefs, designing instructional strategies and including varied assessments adds to the difficulty. Journal entries or response notebooks can highlight reflection upon others' viewpoints, class readings, and additional materials. These are useful across all educational levels in deep learning and comprehension strategies assessments. Journaling meshes with transformative learning constructs, allowing for critical self-reflection essential to transformation. Qualitative analysis of journals in a death and dying class reveals three transformative themes: awareness of others, questioning, and comfort. Students' journal entries demonstrate transformative learning via communication with others through increased knowledge/exposure to others' experiences and comparing/contrasting others' personal beliefs with their own. Using transformative learning within gerontology and geriatrics education, as well as other disciplined aging-related courses is discussed.

  8. When Societal Norms and Social Identity Collide: the Race Talk Dilemma for Racial Minority Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pauker, Kristin; Apfelbaum, Evan P; Spitzer, Brian

    2015-11-01

    Racial minorities face a unique "race talk" dilemma in contemporary American society: their racial background is often integral to their identity and how others perceive them, yet talk of race is taboo. This dilemma highlights the conflict between two fundamental social processes: social identity development and social norm adherence. To examine how, and with what costs, this dilemma is resolved, 9-12-year-old Latino, Asian, Black, and White children ( n =108) completed a photo identification task in which acknowledging racial difference is beneficial to performance. Results indicate minority children are just as likely to avoid race as White children, and such avoidance exacted a cost to performance and nonverbal comfort. Results suggest that teachers are particularly important social referents for instilling norms regarding race. Norms that equate colorblindness with socially appropriate behavior appear more broadly influential than previously thought, stifling talk of race even among those for whom it may be most meaningful.

  9. Does Emotional Arousal Influence Swearing Fluency?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephens, Richard; Zile, Amy

    2017-08-01

    This study assessed the effect of experimentally manipulated emotional arousal on swearing fluency. We hypothesised that swear word generation would be increased with raised emotional arousal. The emotional arousal of 60 participants was manipulated by having them play a first-person shooter video game or, as a control, a golf video game, in a randomised order. A behavioural measure of swearing fluency based on the Controlled Oral Word Association Test was employed. Successful experimental manipulation was indicated by raised State Hostility Questionnaire scores after playing the shooter game. Swearing fluency was significantly greater after playing the shooter game compared with the golf game. Validity of the swearing fluency task was demonstrated via positive correlations with self-reported swearing fluency and daily swearing frequency. In certain instances swearing may represent a form of emotional expression. This finding will inform debates around the acceptability of using taboo language.

  10. Life after stoma creation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Danielsen, Anne Kjærgaard

    2013-01-01

    , as well as an alteration in the bodily design. Research in the field may provide additional information about central elements when adapting to life with a stoma. There are currently no studies that adequately focus on the relationship between health-related quality of life and stoma construction...... in a Danish context, neither for temporary or permanent construction, nor in relation to the importance of stoma handling. Purpose: The overall objective of the study was to investigate health-related quality of life related to stoma creation and patient education. Methodologically, the project......: Impact on everyday life and Educational Needs. The study included 15 participants who were interviewed in groups related to whether they were treated for cancer or non-cancer. The results showed that participants often experienced the stoma as a taboo, and emotions related to stigma were identified...

  11. 'Please, sir, can I have some more?' Food, lifestyle, diets: respect and moral responsibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Beaufort, Inez

    2014-04-01

    This article is about respect for food, responsibility for lifestyle and diet and responsibility for those who suffer from lack of food. After some general reflections on food, feasts, flatulence, taboos and waste, I argue that we have a responsibility to live a healthy lifestyle, but that there are also morally good reasons for taking risks with our health as we cherish other goals and values. Then I discuss situations, using the example of obesity, in which people are not free to choose their lifestyle. Governments and doctors have responsibilities in enabling people to chose healthy eating habits, e.g. by facilitating access to healthy foods and by criticizing scientifically unfounded weight loss diets. I continue to defend that we need to respect food and those who prepare it, and that we have a moral responsibility to contribute to the solution of the food gap in the world. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Emotional Effects of Positive Forms of Communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Светлана Валентиновна Ионова

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses the problem of emotional significance of a positive form of speech. Based on the methodology of emotions linguistics, linguoecology, communicative linguistics and the methods of description, comparison and discourse analysis, the author distinguishes some types of speech situations that demonstrate visible differences between positive expression of emotions and their content and the pragmatic effect. The difference between the notions of “positive communication” and “positive form of communication” is demonstrated. Special attention is given to the following types of positive emotional communication: tolerant emotional communication, emotional emphasis, emotional neglect, and emotional tabooing. The utterances in situations of real and textual communication demonstrate negative effects of statements expressed in a positive form and identify the specifics of positive forms of emotional communication in comparison with rational communication.

  13. Inviting Grief into Games

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harrer, Sabine; Schoenau-Fog, Henrik

    2015-01-01

    facilitation process with Jocoi. It will trace key moments in moving from kick-off workshop to the final game. Finally, the ensuing discussion will highlight learnings for a broader understanding of introducing diversity into games. The question of appropriateness seems to be of particular importance for game......This paper investigates how designers might initiate a dialogue with underrepresented groups, infusing design with individuals’ personal stories and imaginations. It does so alongside the example of Jocoi, a game aiming at mediating the experience of loss and grief over a dead baby. Apart from...... being a taboo subject in general, there is no explanation for the absence of this fairly common experience in games. Drawing on the emotional worlds and tastes of individuals identifying as bereft parents, Jocoi involved a collaboration with an Austrian self-help group for affected parents. The stories...

  14. All Eyes on Egypt: Islam and the Medical Use of Dead Bodies Amidst Cairo's Political Unrest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamdy, Sherine

    2016-01-01

    Using dead bodies for medical purposes has long been considered taboo in Egypt. Public health campaigns, physicians' pleas, and the urgings of religious scholars all failed to alter public opinion regarding the donation of dead bodies either for instructional material or for therapeutic treatments. Yet in 2011, amid revolutionary turmoil in Egypt, a campaign was launched for people to donate their eyes upon death; this time, people readily signed up to be donors. Focusing on mass eye trauma that occurred in Egypt amid the political uprisings of 2011, I raise questions about when and why Islam can explain people's attitudes and behaviors, particularly toward death and medicine. The case of mass eye trauma in Egypt and citizens' reformulations of questions once jealously controlled by state-aligned doctors, politicians, and religious scholars unsettles the boundaries between 'religion' and 'secularism' in medical practice. [Formula: see text].

  15. Strategic Stability Reconsidered: Prospects for Escalation and Nuclear War in the Middle East

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Russell, J.A.

    2009-07-01

    This paper addresses the prospect that nuclear weapons could be used in the Middle East - breaking the so-called 'taboo' against the use of these weapons since the United States dropped a nuclear bomb on Nagasaki on August 9, 1945 and which remained unbroken throughout the Cold War and continues to endure. It argues that unstable dynamics of the coercive bargaining framework surrounding Iran's nuclear program may be pushing the world closer toward the use of nuclear weapons than is generally realized - perhaps closer than any time since the Cuban missile crisis - and proposes a number of near- and longer-term scenarios to illustrate the ways in which structural uncertainties in the regional interstate bargaining framework could result in the use of nuclear weapons. In itself, the 'taboo' against nuclear use is unlikely to prevent regional states and/or non-state actors from using these weapons to protect themselves and to secure their vital interests. While the very use of the word 'taboo' in connection with nuclear weapons offers an attractive metaphor, it has little use as a meaningful term to describe the policies and attitudes of states' and non-state actors toward the use of nuclear weapons. It is difficult to argue that any country has ever obtained nuclear weapons with the idea that the weapons would not be used. A case in point is the United States, for example, which, while embracing the concept of nuclear deterrence, has made a point of not forswearing the first use of nuclear weapons, and has repeatedly articulated a range of plausible conditions under which the weapons would be used. The paper agrees with political scientist Michael Mandelbaum, who declared more than a decade ago that: '..like all taboos, this one will be violated under necessity. Individuals will eat forbidden foods, even one another, if the alternative is starvation; nations will acquire and use forbidden weapons if they deem it necessary

  16. Does culture affect divorce? evidence from European immigrants in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furtado, Delia; Marcén, Miriam; Sevilla, Almudena

    2013-06-01

    This article explores the role of culture in determining divorce by examining country-of-origin differences in divorce rates of immigrants in the United States. Because childhood-arriving immigrants are all exposed to a common set of U.S. laws and institutions, we interpret relationships between their divorce tendencies and home-country divorce rates as evidence of the effect of culture. Our results are robust to controlling for several home-country variables, including average church attendance and gross domestic product (GDP). Moreover, specifications with country-of-origin fixed effects suggest that immigrants from countries with low divorce rates are especially less likely to be divorced if they reside among a large number of coethnics. Supplemental analyses indicate that divorce culture has a stronger impact on the divorce decisions of females than of males, pointing to a potentially gendered nature of divorce taboos.

  17. Not to declare dead someone still alive: Case reports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anđelić Slađana

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Diagnosing death represents an activity that carries a great deal of public responsibility for medical professionals and is continually exposed to the control of citizens and media. Although this is a taboo subject in medical circles, unfortunately in medical practice there are situations when the physician issues a death diagnosis form without even examining the person or for an already buried person. Such physician’s action is impermissible and it leads to the possibility of professional and criminal law punishment. Case Outline. By giving examples from practice, we wish to point out the need for exceptional caution when confirming and diagnosing death in order to diagnose the true, i.e. rule out apparent death and consequently avoid the mistake of declaring dead someone still alive. Conclusion. When confirming and declaring death, exceptional caution of the physician is necessary so as not to declare dead someone still alive!

  18. Focus Groups Investigating Mental Health Attitudes and Beliefs of Parents and Teachers in South Lebanon: Are They Culturally Determined?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doumit, Myrna A A; Farhood, Laila F; Hamady, Carmen

    2018-05-01

    The wars that Lebanon had endured led to a devastating number of deaths, injuries, and displacements. Such tragedies have detrimentally affected its civilians psychologically. To identify knowledge, attitudes, and practices of teachers and parents concerning child/adolescent mental health. Using purposeful sampling, five focus groups were conducted with teachers and parents of students from elementary, middle, and secondary levels in two private hub schools in South Lebanon. A total of 27 teachers and 18 parents participated separately in focus groups. Three themes emerged: (a) Mental health care is a priority for overall health, (b) Mental illness is a cultural taboo, and (c) There is a need for better education and cultural understanding about mental health. This is the first study in Lebanon directly targeted at parents' and teachers' mental health concerns. Such findings will add to transcultural nursing knowledge about the importance of mental health care.

  19. Historical perspective of sexually transmitted infections and their control in Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García, P J

    2010-04-01

    In designing an effective national response to sexually transmitted infections (STIs), one must incorporate a historical perspective of previous efforts that have addressed different aspects of STIs. One must understand who have been the key players, what aspects of STIs were the focus of efforts (prevention, treatment or control), and which, if any, societal subgroups were targeted (i.e. sex workers, military, men who have sex with men [MSM], etc.). In addition, one must consider historical and modern attitudes towards sex, sexuality and STIs, especially in terms of taboos and stigmas that may be attached to each. Most importantly, one must recognize which efforts have succeeded, which have failed, and why. This paper presents a historical overview of the perceptions of and responses to STIs at different points in Peru's history, and discusses current efforts to build upon past successes and avoid repeating previous failures that could be helpful for other countries in the Latin American region.

  20. Enabling optimization in LCA: from “ad hoc” to “structural” LCA approach—based on a biodiesel well-to-wheel case study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herrmann, Ivan Tengbjerg; Lundberg-Jensen, Martin; Jørgensen, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    for searching or screening product systems for environmental optimization potentials. In the presented case, the design has been a rather simple full factorial design. More complicated problems or designs, such as fractional designs, nested designs, split plot designs, and/or unbalanced data, in the context...... 2005). Through a biodiesel well-to-wheel study, we demonstrate a generic approach of applying explanatory variables and corresponding impact categories within the LCA methodology. Explanatory variables are product system variables that can influence the environmental impacts from the system....... Furthermore, using the structural approach enables two different possibilities for optimization: (1) single-objective optimization (SO) based on response surface methodology (Montgomery 2005) and (2) multiobjective optimization (MO) by the hypervolume estimation taboo search (HETS) method. HETS enables MO...

  1. The shift from biological to social fatherhood--counselling men and their partners considering donor insemination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorn, Petra

    2013-03-01

    Men and women are likely to suffer from infertility in similar ways, but gender differences account for different ways in revealing--and not revealing--this emotional pain. The following article is based on this understanding. It seeks to describe counselling tasks and interventions that support men and their partners considering donor insemination. This pre-treatment counselling comprises a range of issues, including the provision of medical and legal information, supporting the grieving process, managing the taboo and stigma surrounding donor insemination, supporting disclosure, and last but not least raising awareness of the needs of the future child. The aim of counselling is to explore the short- and long-term implications and thus facilitate the shift from biological to social fatherhood for men and their partners.

  2. Radon Laboratory: A Proposal for Scientific Culture Dissemination Among Young Students in Italy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Groppi, Flavia; Manenti, Simone; Gini, Luigi; Bonardi, Mauro L.; Bazzocchi, Anna

    2009-01-01

    In Italy the 'nuclear issue' was for a long time a taboo. A way to approach this theme to make the public more trusting of nuclear issues is to discuss radioactivity and ionizing radiation starting from young students. An experimental activity that involves secondary school students has been developed. The approach is to have students engaged in activities that will allow them to understand how natural radioactivity is a part of our everyday environment. This would include how radiation enters our lives in different ways, to demonstrate that natural radioactive sources found in soil, water, and air contribute to our exposure to natural ionizing radiation and how this exposure effects human health. Another objective is to develop a new technique for teaching physics which will enhance scientific interest of students in applications of nuclear physics in both environmental and physical sciences.

  3. Censoring the Press: A Barometer of Government Tolerance for Anti-regime Dissent under Authoritarian Rule

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Ann Stein

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes that dissident leaders aiming to build mass opposition movements follow the mainstream press to help them gauge government tolerance for anti-government mass actions in repressive authoritarian regimes. Under conditions of censorship, media–state interactions serve as a barometer of the government’s disposition toward and capacity to impede public displays of dissent. Observing trends in coverage and the government’s reaction to this coverage helps activist leaders assess when it should be safest to plan anti-government mass actions, such as demonstrations, marches, or strikes. Using original data derived from coding content from the Brazilian newspaper Folha de São Paulo over the period of 1974–1982, I test whether opposition mass actions followed trends in taboo content and government treatment of the press during the period of political liberalization of Brazil’s military regime.

  4. Sexualidad femenina durante la gestación

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ignacio González Labrador

    2001-10-01

    Full Text Available Se realizó una revisión sobre diferentes criterios de la conveniencia, presencia y frecuencia de las relaciones sexuales durante el proceso de gestación, y brindamos resultados de algunos trabajos realizados al respecto. Los tabúes, los prejuicios, la desinformación y muchas veces el desconocimiento alrededor de este tema que tanta atención precisa, han llevado a que se le investigue poco o se trate de forma equivocadaA review of the various criteria about the convenience, presence and frequency of sexual relations during pregnancy was made and the results of some papers are also presented. Taboos, prejudices, distorted information and lack of knowledge about this topic that requires so much attention have led to insufficient research or to wrong analyses of the subject

  5. THE EXPRESSIONS OF EXCLAMATION: A CROSS-CULTURAL ANALYSIS IN AUSTRALIAN ENGLISH AND BAHASA INDONESIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrefiza Adrefiza

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated and compared exclamatory expressions performed by native speakers of Australian English and Bahasa Indonesia. Three different contexts and situations were selected as the prompts for the respondents to express their exclamations: (a surprise; (b enthusiasm; and (c annoyance. Based on data from 36 respondents of both languages, the findings revealed that both Australian English and Bahasa Indonesia were likely to utilize different types of exclamatory words, phrases or expressions of surprise, enthusiastic and annoyance. Te expressions seemed to be systematic in their constructions and the selection of words or phrases remained personal and indicated the speakers‟ feeling, attitude, and emotion. In expressing surprise and enthusiasm, in particular, the selection of words or phrases by both language communities tended to use positive and socially acceptable exclamatory expressions. However, when they turned to express annoyance, most of the words, phrases, or expressions used were often taboo and socially unacceptable.

  6. The Famous Women Dinner Service: In Conversation with Contemporary Art

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judy Chicago

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available This conversation between Judy Chicago, The Women’s Art League, and Hana Leaper, filmed by Jonathan Law at the Elizabeth A. Sackler Center for Feminist Art, Brooklyn Museum, will be published in early 2018. The participants will discuss the Famous Women Dinner Service in relation to contemporary artworks, focusing on The Dinner Party (Judy Chicago, 1974–79 and Vagina China (The Women’s Art League, 2016–present. Questions explored will include: the role of hospitality and domesticity in feminist art projects; the evolution of iconography as it relates to aesthetic freedom and the visibility of women and their bodies; the strategies of shared authorship and collective practice; and what each of the artworks discussed offers their respective eras in terms of confronting taboos associated with women and their histories.

  7. The Great Society: An Introduction to Stereotype Threat and Social Perceptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shackelford, R.; Ali, N. A.; Mendez, B.; Meinke, B. K.

    2015-11-01

    This workshop introduced the concept of stereotype threat, in which an individual's academic performance is affected by awareness of stereotypes. We explored how stereotype threat builds into perceptions and creates contradictions in our society that can impact work with particular groups, with an emphasis on working with Afro-American and urban audiences. Through the “The Great Society” activity, participants worked in groups to develop aesthetics and taboos for fictional societies. We discussed the ways in which each group's values are compatible and conflicting, how they influence our perceptions of self and others, and how similar interactions may be experienced while working with diverse audiences in earth and space science education and outreach efforts. This workshop sought to give participants a conceptual framework for cultivating awareness of their own and their audience's perceptions, which can then be used to work with cultural sensitivity with diverse audiences.

  8. A Feminism of Their Own?: Irish Women’s History and Contemporary Irish Women’s Writing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary Ryan

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available For a long time, Irish women’s lives were strictly confined to the private domain, and women’s issues were largely silenced and hidden from public knowledge. Additionally, both Church and state maintained that women should hold a certain morality, particularly relating to areas of sexuality and reproduction. As a result, until relatively recently, Irish women’s issues remained largely ignored and therefore unremarked upon. This paper will examine two major areas in which Irish women’s lives have traditionally been repressed: women’s sexuality and domestic violence, both issues which were once considered taboo for open discussion. This paper will also discuss how these same issues are being represented in Irish chick lit novels, thus providing a frank and positive voice for these largely female issues and for the everyday experiences of women in Ireland.

  9. Cooperate without looking: why we care what people think and not just what they do.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Moshe; Yoeli, Erez; Nowak, Martin A

    2015-02-10

    Evolutionary game theory typically focuses on actions but ignores motives. Here, we introduce a model that takes into account the motive behind the action. A crucial question is why do we trust people more who cooperate without calculating the costs? We propose a game theory model to explain this phenomenon. One player has the option to "look" at the costs of cooperation, and the other player chooses whether to continue the interaction. If it is occasionally very costly for player 1 to cooperate, but defection is harmful for player 2, then cooperation without looking is a subgame perfect equilibrium. This behavior also emerges in population-based processes of learning or evolution. Our theory illuminates a number of key phenomena of human interactions: authentic altruism, why people cooperate intuitively, one-shot cooperation, why friends do not keep track of favors, why we admire principled people, Kant's second formulation of the Categorical Imperative, taboos, and love.

  10. Cooperate without looking: Why we care what people think and not just what they do

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Moshe; Yoeli, Erez; Nowak, Martin A.

    2015-01-01

    Evolutionary game theory typically focuses on actions but ignores motives. Here, we introduce a model that takes into account the motive behind the action. A crucial question is why do we trust people more who cooperate without calculating the costs? We propose a game theory model to explain this phenomenon. One player has the option to “look” at the costs of cooperation, and the other player chooses whether to continue the interaction. If it is occasionally very costly for player 1 to cooperate, but defection is harmful for player 2, then cooperation without looking is a subgame perfect equilibrium. This behavior also emerges in population-based processes of learning or evolution. Our theory illuminates a number of key phenomena of human interactions: authentic altruism, why people cooperate intuitively, one-shot cooperation, why friends do not keep track of favors, why we admire principled people, Kant’s second formulation of the Categorical Imperative, taboos, and love. PMID:25624473

  11. Cultural perspectives in cancer care: impact of Islamic traditions and practices in Middle Eastern countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silbermann, Michael; Hassan, Esmat A

    2011-10-01

    People's attitudes to cancer and its treatment are influenced by the patient's and his family's faith, beliefs, societal traditions, and cultural taboos and stigmatism. In most Middle Eastern countries Islam is the dominant religion, yet there are differences as to people's acceptance of cancer, starting with the realization of the diagnosis and the subsequent treatment planning. In many societies in the Middle East, patients prefer that their families will be the first to know about the disease and to agree to the planned treatment protocols. Whereas in Western societies the patient is usually the first to know, understand, and agree to the proposed therapeutic procedures; this is not the case in various Muslim societies. Health care professionals have to accept these kinds of practices and find ways to cope with their patients' sensitivities, thereby preserving their dignity and faith.

  12. Desire and the female analyst.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaverien, J

    1996-04-01

    The literature on erotic transference and countertransference between female analyst and male patient is reviewed and discussed. It is known that female analysts are less likely than their male colleagues to act out sexually with their patients. It has been claimed that a) male patients do not experience sustained erotic transferences, and b) female analysts do not experience erotic countertransferences with female or male patients. These views are challenged and it is argued that, if there is less sexual acting out by female analysts, it is not because of an absence of eros in the therapeutic relationship. The literature review covers material drawn from psychoanalysis, feminist psychotherapy, Jungian analysis, as well as some sociological and cultural sources. It is organized under the following headings: the gender of the analyst, sexual acting out, erotic transference, maternal and paternal transference, gender and power, countertransference, incest taboo--mothers and sons and sexual themes in the transference.

  13. Implementation gap between the theory and practice of biodiversity offset multipliers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bull, Joseph William; Lloyd, Samuel P.; Strange, Niels

    2017-01-01

    literature on multipliers. Then, we collate data on multipliers implemented in practice, rep- resenting the most complete such assessment to date. Finally, we explore remaining design gaps relating to social, ethical, and governance considerations. Multiplier values should theoretically be tens or hundreds...... when considering, for example, ecological uncertainties. We propose even larger multipliers required to satisfy previously ignored considerations – including prospect theory, taboo trades, and power relationships. Conversely, our data analyses show that multipliers are smaller in practice, regularly...... for the implementation gap we have identified. At the same time, there is a need to explore when and where the social, ethical, and governance requirements for NNL reviewed here can be met through approaches other than multipliers....

  14. Dedovshchina and the Committee of Soldiers’ Mothers under Gorbachev

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julie Elkner

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available This article provides an historical account of the Committee of Soldiers’ Mothers’ role in breaking the taboo on dedovshchina in the Soviet military in the late 1980s. I argue that soldiers’ mothers’ activism on this issue played a crucial role in opening up the military to public scrutiny and in influencing public perceptions of military service. The article also traces the military’s unsuccessful attempts to counteract the soldiers’ mothers’ exposure of barracks violence and to reinstate the old boundaries of acceptable public debates on military issues. It also examines the ways in which protesting soldiers’ mothers made use of public representations of maternal grief over peacetime deaths. This outpouring of grief is contrasted with the repression of maternal grief during the early years of the war in Afghanistan. I argue that the military’s failure to formulate an appropriate response to soldiers’ mothers’ grief was particularly damaging for the military’s public image under Gorbachev.

  15. Plagiarism: More than Meets the Eye

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Habsah Hussin

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Plagiarism is the euphemism for ‘academic theft’, ‘academic dishonesty’ and ‘academic misconduct in academia’; and is the taboo word among academics in academia. This paper discusses the issue of plagiarism in terms of what constitutes plagiarism, who are normally ‘the practitioners’ of plagiarism, be it un-intentionally or otherwise, factors contributing to the practise of plagiarism, effects and implications of plagiarism on the ‘practitioners’, and offers suggestions on how to reduce (if not eliminate any involvement in plagiarism. Knowledge and awareness about plagiarism would help academics and aspiring scholars to steer away from this act, as plagiarism would have dire and long term repercussions on their career, reputation and those who come to be associated with them.

  16. Ordinary tales from endoscopic odysseys: fiction, ethics, and the gastroenterological journey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meulenberg, Frans; de Beaufort, Inez D

    2014-04-01

    Fiction (i.e. novels, short stories, and movies) provides an opportunity for imaginative moral reflection and can serve as a basis for moral argument. Narratives play a role in moral reasoning because they are exemplars as well as tests. Those who care for sick people, should be interested in patient's and literary stories. Exploring the representation of gastroenterological ailments in fiction gives insight in the experience of undergoing colonoscopy, farting, pain, the borders of intimacy, hygiene and the lack of it, taboos and the doctor-patient-relationship. Included authors are, among others: Michel Faber, Alan Bennett, Charles Bukowski, Charlotte Roche and James Joyce. Several movies are discussed as well. Though in general gastroenterological problems don't seem often at foreground in fiction, in some cases they are represented in a more symbolic way, and touch upon some fundamental aspects of the human condition. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Outside the Limits of the Ego

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia León-López

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Freud never ceases to inquire into the gap between religion and psychoanalysis. The last lines he wrote illustrate his insistence on the question: “Mysticism is the dark self perception of the realm outside the ego, the realm of the id”. By tracking this gap through the equivalence Freud establishes between Kant's categorical imperative, taboo, and the restrictions of obsessive neurosis, we can see how religion captures the subject's possibility of accepting its subjective division. On the basis of Lacan and resorting to a proposition set forth by Agamben, we argue that psychoanalysis invites human beings to profane, to recover the relationship with the cause of their desire, which has been confiscated by religion

  18. Cultural beliefs and values in cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daher, M

    2012-04-01

    In 2008, the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) released its World Cancer Report, which indicated that cancer accounts for approximately 12% of all-cause mortality worldwide. IARC estimated that globally 7.6 million people died from cancer and that 12.4 million new cases were diagnosed in 2008. The report went on to project that, due to increases in life expectancy, improvements in clinical diagnostics, and shifting trends in health behaviors (e.g. increases in smoking and sedentary lifestyles), in the absence of significant efforts to improve global cancer control, cancer mortality could increase to 12.9 million and cancer incidence to 20 million by the year 2030. Looking deeper into the data, it becomes clear that cancer-related stigma and myths about cancer are important problems that must be addressed, although different from a country to another. Stigmas about cancer present significant challenges to cancer control: stigma can have a silencing effect, whereby efforts to increase cancer awareness are negatively affected. The social, emotional, and financial devastation that all too often accompanies a diagnosis of cancer is, in large part, due to the cultural myths and taboos surrounding the disease. Combating stigma, myths, taboos, and overcoming silence will play important roles in changing this provisional trajectory. There are several reasons that cancer is stigmatized. Many people in our area perceived cancer to be a fatal disease. Cancer symptoms or body parts affected by the disease can cultivate stigma. Fears about treatment can also fuel stigma. There was evidence of myths associated with cancer, such as the belief that cancer is contagious, or cancer may be seen as a punishment. After reviewing these different examples of cultural myths and taboos met in cancer care, we can report these lessons learned: 1. Around the world, cancer continues to carry a significant amount of stigma, myths, and taboos; however, there are opportunities to

  19. Focus Groups as Transformative Spiritual Encounters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharon Moloney PhD

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Focus groups are a valuable method for exploring the construction and negotiation of meanings. In her doctoral research the author explored how Australian women's experiences of menstruation, birth, and spirituality are invested with meaning and how that meaning influences and shapes those experiences. The focus group has been described as a potentially liminal space, which enables the discussion of taboo subjects by breaking the ice and giving people permission to comment. In addition, she discovered that the groups could be occasions of empowerment and transformation for both participants and researcher. In a way that far exceeded her expectations, the group format was ideally suited to feminist research and the organic inquiry methodology she used. Some groups became deeply spiritual encounters that were nourishing and transformative for all. This article explores how focus groups can be vehicles of spiritual transformation, examining one group in particular to highlight the points raised.

  20. Place of menstruation in the reproductive lives of women of rural North India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Singh A

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective : To ascertain the perceptions and experiences of women regarding menstruation. Methods : An integrated qualitative and quantitative study on reproductive health of Indian women was conducted in two primary health centre areas of rural north India. Present article reports on the perceptions of 1205 women regarding various aspects of menstruation. Results : Major source of information about menarche/menstruation was friends/relatives (72%. Mean age at menarche was ~ 15 years. Very few women (0.4% used sanitary napkins. Majority of women had strong beliefs about effect of diet on menstruation. Most of them considered menstruation a dirty act and indulged in various taboo behaviours. Initial reaction was of fear/apprehension at menarche in majority of girls. Conclusion: Women in rural north India still hold tranditional beliefs regarding menstruation. Provision of a balanced and healthy family health education package to all girls is recommended.

  1. Sexual harassment in care work - Dilemmas and consequences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Maj Britt D; Kjær, Susie; Aldrich, Per T

    2017-01-01

    , sexual harassment is a taboo. The managers, shop stewards and safety representatives in this study were often not aware of the frequency and the impact of the episodes had on the care workers. The workplaces participating in this study, rarely had guidelines or policies for managing and/or preventing......) with 39 care workers. SETTINGS: Ten workplaces participated in the study, including hospitals, nursing homes, community health centres, rehabilitations care centres, and psychiatric residential facilities. PARTICIPANTS: We conducted group interviews with care workers (employees), managers, shop stewards...... and/or safety representatives. The majority of the interviewees were trained nurses. RESULTS: The interviews revealed that sexual harassment is a complex and multifaceted phenomenon. The care workers often separated between intentional and unintentional behaviours initiated by cognitively impaired...

  2. [A cooperative project in the district of Mettmann: preventive assistance for mentally ill parents and their children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hipp, Michael; Schatte, Dirk; Altrogge, Birgit

    2010-01-01

    Mentally ill parents are impaired in their ability to care for their children. To support the affected families from the perspective of the parents and the children alike a close cooperation between the institutions of psychiatry and child-welfare is of utmost importance. In the district of Mettmann a cooperation agreement was concluded to realize a cross-system concept to care for the families with mentally ill parents. To prevent children from developing psychiatric disorders the taboo of the psychiatric diseases has to be overcome, an early diagnostic clarification to be reached, and multiinstitutional help to be implemented. In the article the experience in dealing with the affected families in a multidisciplinary context is described.

  3. The Elephants in the Room: Sex, HIV, and LGBT Populations in MENA. Intersectionality in Lebanon; Comment on “Improving the Quality and Quantity of HIV Data in the Middle East and North Africa: Key Challenges and Ways Forward”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel L. Kaplan

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available In response to this insightful editorial, we wish to provide commentary that seeks to highlight recent successes and illuminate the often unspoken hurdles at the intersections of culture, politics, and taboo. We focus on sexual transmission and draw examples from Lebanon, where the pursuit of data in quality and quantity is teaching us lessons about the way forward and where we are experiencing many of the challenges referenced in the editorial such as discrepancies between national statistics and rates derived via research as well as the impact of protracted political conflict and displacement. Two important points were raised in the editorial about HIV in Middle East and North Africa (MENA that we would like to expand further: (1 The epidemic is largely driven by drug-related and sexual behavior among key populations; and (2 Several key populations continue to be criminalized and excluded from surveillance programs.

  4. PA11 The dreamers - life, death and dreams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wischer, Pippa

    2015-04-01

    Palliative Care Victoria is building community capacity to have end of life conversations. To create a conversation resource. In partnership with Pippa Wischer, we published The Dreamers, an exploration of life, death and dreams through interviews and photographs of forty palliative care patients. The Dreamers was an effective advocacy tool during the 2014 Victorian State Election. Palliative care services are using it with patients and families. The photographs are being exhibited at a rural regional gallery with several other galleries expressing interest. Other applications are being explored (e.g. conversation cards). The Dreamers highlights the importance of personal stories in overcoming the taboos around death and the value of the arts to foster community engagement and social change. © 2015, Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  5. AHP 40: NAMUYI TIBETAN pha⁵⁴ tsə⁵⁴ RITUALS AND ORAL CHANTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Libu Lakhi (Li Jianfu

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available sa54 da54 (b. 1939 is a Namuyi pha54 tsə54 - a traditional Namuyi religious practitioner/ specialist - who chants and conducts religious rituals. He lives and practices in Liangshan Yi Autonomous Prefecture, Sichuan Province, China. This article introduces pha54 tsə54 sa54 da54 and the many hours of his oral materials recorded by Libu Lakhi in 2009 that are archived at http://tinyurl.com/lgf3row. In addition, aspects of Namuyi religion are described, including terms of mountain deities, ill omens and taboos, the pha54 tsə54, sa54 da54, chants, and a personal account of a ritual done in Dashui Village, Minsheng Township, Xichang City, Sichuan Province in March 2013. An appendix, seven photographs, and a diagram provide additional detail.

  6. ENHANCING SPIRITUALISM IN VIRTUAL WORLD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kiran Lata DANGWAL

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Spiritualism is one word which puts man on the highest plinth of life. Spirituality is the way we find meaning, hope, comfort and inner peace in life. Spirituality in the virtual World is generally known as Virtual Spirituality. A goldmine of wisdom from all kinds of religious and spiritual philosophies, traditions and practices can be found in virtual World now. Technology and Spirituality together forms the material to which man can incline on to and work for the development of a globe in which war will be considered a taboo and violence a rejected dogma. Therefore there is an urgent nee to made the world a safe place to live in and the spiritual reconstruction can help us in achieving this.Spiritualism, Virtual World, Online Technology.

  7. Lights, camera and action: learning necrophilia in a psychiatry movie club.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalra, Gurvinder S

    2013-04-01

    Kissed (1996) is a serious film that portrays the disturbing and taboo issue of necrophilia in a delicate and viewer friendly way. Being a rare paraphilia, it may sometimes be difficult to get necrophilia related literature or even understand this complex behavior. An interested person may have to rely on the few case reports from forensic journals or law books in order to understand what and how necrophiles do what they do! A movie club can be an interesting and novel way to learn various issues in medicine and psychiatry, including necrophilia. This paper discusses the use of this film in academic sessions in order to learn necrophilia. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd and Faculty of Forensic and Legal Medicine. All rights reserved.

  8. Corporeality in the communication of young people

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kornélia Jakubíková

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The study describes communication of young people with the emphasis on its content dedicated to corporeality and determines a content-based classification of topics from a normative perspective: what topics are regular, intimate, or tabooed; participants; and gender differences. The study is divided into parts, which thematically describe: starting points, research, sample; communication content and topics; participants in communication; gender differences; factors of communication and the language of communication. The study is elaborated on the basis of information coming from professional literature and field research conducted by semi-structured interviews with university students and university educated people – 15 women and 15 men in age 22–28 (year of birth 1987–1993 coming from an urban environment in Slovakia.

  9. Etant entendu que parler c’est exister pour l’autre. Le donne algerine nella guerra di liberazione

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jolanda Guardi

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Until recent years the only scholarly reference about women in the Algerian revolution was Les femmes algériennes dans la guerre (Paris, Plon, 1991 by former fighter Djamila Amrane. Starting from 2000, a great deal of memoirs, books and essays have been published, authored by women and focusing both on women’s role and experience during the battle of Algiers, and on the revolutionary process in a broader sense. This paper focuses on some of these women’s narratives, underlying the difference between their narrations and the State discourse. Though tackling taboo subjects like torture and sexual violence, women authors are nevertheless aware of the social and political implication of their struggle; today, after sixty years of independence, they still struggle for their right to be full citizens of Algeria.

  10. Sex education among Asian American college females: who is teaching them and what is being taught.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Christine; Tran, Denise Yen; Thoi, Deanna; Chang, Melissa; Wu, Lisa; Trieu, Sang Leng

    2013-04-01

    Many parents are reluctant to educate their Asian American adolescents on sexual health topics because sexuality is taboo in most Asian cultures. A survey was conducted with Chinese, Filipina, Korean, and Vietnamese college females ages 18-25 to assess sources of abstinence and birth control education and age of sexual debut. Parents were the least reported source of sex education for all four ethnic groups, with the majority of respondents reporting school as their source of sex education. Respondents who reported family as their source of abstinence education had a sexual debut of 6 months later than those who did not. Females who reported family as their source of birth control education began having sex more than 7 months later than those who reported other sources. Disaggregation of data by Asian ethnic groups and examining differences in delivery of sex education among ethnic groups may improve school curricula and sexual health.

  11. Study of the scenarios for the Cycle 12 of the Unit 1 of the CNLV; Estudio de escenarios para el ciclo 12 de la Unidad 1 de la CNLV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castillo, A.; Ortiz, J.J.; Montes, J.L.; Perusquia, R. [ININ, 52045 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)]. e-mail: jacm@nuclear.inin.mx

    2005-07-01

    In this work the preliminary results of a study of scenarios of it loads of fuel and operation of the Cycle 12 of the Unit 1 of the Laguna Verde power station are presented. Based on the Plan of Energy Use (PUE) for this cycle, they were studied different possibilities, with the idea to satisfy the energy demand under sure performance of the reactor. In this work were contemplated similar fuel assemblies to those that are using at the moment in the Cycle 11 of that unit. The reload proposals using the Haling principle and patterns of control bars with the intelligent technique not exhaustive well-known as taboo search are analyzed. The simulator Cm-Presto was used to evaluate the scenarios. This study even continuous analyzing different options and improving the results. (Author)

  12. The Open Book

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meier, Ninna; Wegener, Charlotte

    The Open Book is a radical genre blend: it is an experimental co-memoir exploring the role of writing in academia. It contains stories about life without censoring and without distinguishing between traditional work/life domains and academic/non-academic ways of writing. This is done through...... discussions of conferences, research collaborations, supervision, taboo pleasures of ‘fun’ writing projects, the temptations of other work, and the everyday life encounters and experiences that stimulate academic thought and writing. Some of the main characters you will meet are researchers, their colleagues...... Writing Community: a collaboration of academics from different disciplines and countries that seeks to push the boundaries of how we understand and practice academic work and writing. http://tinyurl.com/jvhve5a...

  13. Measurement of ionizing radiations for the orthodontics diagnosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serrano Rivas, Karla; Coste Murillo, Pedro; Gatica Arias, Gabriela; Rodriguez Alfaro, Keilor; Shedden Rojas, Carol; Viquez Nunez, Laura; Zuniga Leon, Jessica

    2005-01-01

    The amount of radiation which is subjected a child during the taking of x-rays of routine for the orthodontics diagnosis is analyzed. The study was made to 26 children (men and women) between 7 and 13 years of age with healthy teething. During the taking of different radiographs a thermoluminescent crystal of lithium fluoride was positioned beforehand in the place of entrance of the ray. Itself proceeded to read the crystals in the Laboratorio de Fisica Nuclear de la Universidad de Costa Rica. Later the comparisons with the standards already established at worldwide level were made. As main conclusions obtained are that taboo in existence at present on x-rays do not include ionizing radiations for the orthodontics use and that the anterior-posterior radiographs are those that release more photons followed of the cephalometric radiography. (author) [es

  14. Investigating the "self" in deliberate self-harm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Joanna; Rodham, Karen; Gavin, Jeff

    2005-12-01

    In this study, the authors explored how a group of young people aged 16 to 26 years (who identified themselves as having engaged in deliberate self-harm) made sense of the self by conducting two online focus groups and four e-mail interviews. They analyzed data using interpretive phenomenological analysis. The concept of validation was the primary means of making sense of the self and concerned the desire to be considered legitimate and of worth. This desire was clearly evident across three realms of conflict: (a) the intrinsic or extrinsic self, which marked the distinction between objective fact and subjective opinion; (b) the accepted or denied self; and (c) the notion of normality. It is possible that having one's denied self validated online might lead to an exacerbation of an individual's self-harming behavior. Further work is needed to explore the effects of online discussion forums on such taboo forms of behavior.

  15. Integration of religious traditions in Japanese children's view of death and afterlife.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagara-Rosemeyer, Miharu; Davies, Betty

    2007-03-01

    Open and public discussion of death, particularly among children, remains one of the greatest Japanese societal taboos; therefore, little is known about Japanese children's perceptions of death. To explore Japanese children's notions of life and death, 16 healthy children (7 girls and 9 boys, mean age 8.9) were each interviewed 3 times and asked to draw and describe pictures of what "to live" and "to die" meant to them. Transcribed interviews were interpreted based on thematic analysis, incorporating paradigm cases and exemplars within the hermeneutical tradition. The children perceived life as an evolving process that leads to death, and regarded death as a transitional point to an afterlife. Some children perceived this process, or flow, as linear; others as circular. Their notions of death and the afterlife incorporated three main religious traditions in Japan (Shintoism, Buddhism, and Confucianism) as well as Christianity, as illustrated by 3 case examples and children's drawings.

  16. Medical Eschatologies: The Christian Spirit of Hospital Protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langford, Jean M

    2016-01-01

    If much has been written of the forms of bodiliness reinforced by hospitals, less attention has been paid to the medicalization of the soul. The medical management of death institutionalizes divisions between body and soul, and matter and spirit, infusing end-of-life care with latent Christian theological presumptions. The invisibility of these presumptions is partly sustained by projecting religiosity on those who endorse other cosmologies, while retaining for medicine a mask of secular science. Stories of conflict with non-Christian patients force these presumptions into visibility, suggesting alternative ethics of care and mourning rooted in other understandings. In this article, I explore one such story. Considering the story as an allegory for how matter and spirit figure in contemporary postmortem disciplines, I suggest that it exposes both the operation of a taboo against mixing material and spiritual agendas, and an assumption that appropriate mourning is oriented toward symbolic homage, rather than concern for the material welfare of the dead.

  17. Buddhist Revelations in Davaakhuugin Soyolmaa's Contemporary Mongolian Art

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uranchimeg Tsultemin

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In 1990, a seven-decade socialist taboo on religion was lifted in newly transforming Mongolia, where democratic reforms and a peaceful transition to a market economy and multiparty government system were taking place. The country entered into a critical period of transition in 1992, when revisions to the constitution changed the Mongolian People’s Republic into the Republic of Mongolia. While political studies of this transitional period have been conducted, along with studies of the economic boost of 2008, very little has been written about Mongolian art since 1990. This essay explores that relatively untrodden ground by focusing on contemporary artist Davaakhuugin Soyolmaa (b. 1977, whose work exemplifies the revival of Buddhist art and culture in contemporary Mongolia.

  18. Strategic Stability Reconsidered: Prospects for Escalation and Nuclear War in the Middle East

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Russell, J.A.

    2009-01-01

    This paper addresses the prospect that nuclear weapons could be used in the Middle East - breaking the so-called 'taboo' against the use of these weapons since the United States dropped a nuclear bomb on Nagasaki on August 9, 1945 and which remained unbroken throughout the Cold War and continues to endure. It argues that unstable dynamics of the coercive bargaining framework surrounding Iran's nuclear program may be pushing the world closer toward the use of nuclear weapons than is generally realized - perhaps closer than any time since the Cuban missile crisis - and proposes a number of near- and longer-term scenarios to illustrate the ways in which structural uncertainties in the regional interstate bargaining framework could result in the use of nuclear weapons. In itself, the 'taboo' against nuclear use is unlikely to prevent regional states and/or non-state actors from using these weapons to protect themselves and to secure their vital interests. While the very use of the word 'taboo' in connection with nuclear weapons offers an attractive metaphor, it has little use as a meaningful term to describe the policies and attitudes of states' and non-state actors toward the use of nuclear weapons. It is difficult to argue that any country has ever obtained nuclear weapons with the idea that the weapons would not be used. A case in point is the United States, for example, which, while embracing the concept of nuclear deterrence, has made a point of not forswearing the first use of nuclear weapons, and has repeatedly articulated a range of plausible conditions under which the weapons would be used. The paper agrees with political scientist Michael Mandelbaum, who declared more than a decade ago that: '..like all taboos, this one will be violated under necessity. Individuals will eat forbidden foods, even one another, if the alternative is starvation; nations will acquire and use forbidden weapons if they deem it necessary for survival'. The paper first draws upon

  19. A Lacanian Reading of the Two Novels The Scarlet Letter And Private Memoirs And Confessions of A Justified Sinner

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marjan Yazdanpanahi

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses two novels The Private Memoirs and Confessions of a Justified Sinner and The Scarlet Letter written by James Hogg and Nathaniel Hawthorn from the perspective of Jacques Lacan theories: the mirror stage, the-name-of-the-father and desire. The mirror stage refers to historical value and an essential libidinal relationship with the body-image. The-name-of-the-father is defined as the prohibitive role of the father as the one who lays down the incest taboo in the Oedipus complex. Meanwhile, desire is neither the appetite for satisfaction, nor the demand for love, but the difference that results from the subtraction of the first from the second.

  20. Networking to improve end of life care

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    Network organisations are increasingly common in healthcare. This paper describes an example of clinically led networking, which improved end of life care (EOLC) in care homes, differentiating between a ‘network’ as a formal entity and the more informal process of ‘networking’. The paper begins with a brief discussion of networks and their development in healthcare, then an overview of EOLC policy, the case setting and methods. The paper describes four key features of this networking; (1) how it enabled discussions and implemented processes to help people address difficult taboos about dying; (2) how personal communication and ‘distributed leadership’ facilitated learning; (3) how EOLC occasionally lapsed during the handover of patient care, where personal relationship and communication were weaker; and (4) how successful learning and sharing of best practice was fragile and could be potentially undermined by wider financial pressures in the NHS. PMID:25949588

  1. The Discursive Representation of Dictatorship in Lygia Bojunga’s A casa da madrinha

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alice Atsuko Matsuda

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The children’s novel A casa da madrinha [The Godmother's House], by Lygia Bojunga (2002, published in 1978, incorporates libertarian ideals of the children’s and youth production of that decade. Its plot breaks with the tradition of euphoric literary production around the 1940s and 1950s, intended to children and young people, talks about taboo subjects like abandonment of minors and child labor, bringing to the center an inhuman social reality in which children and youths are neither protected nor supported or respected, having their rights disregarded. This justify, thus, the objective of this text, which is to analyze how these ideals are configured in the discursive representation of said work, considering that it was published during a military dictatorship.

  2. TIPE KESANTUNAN TUTURAN JAWA PADA MASYARAKAT JAWA PESISIR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Suryadi

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Javanese coastal communities have a different form of civility with the standard Java language. This difference is very substantial. Standard Java language still maintains strong normative rules, being at the coast of Java language has undergone a shift. The shift that has occurred: (1 type P_1 (model civility good manners: Speakers have the freedom to use the lexicon of krama or krama inggil for yourself (or good manner self, (2 type P_2 (model civility verbal reduplication: speakers have freedom of speech that has been reiterated by the partners speech. Two shifts are to be taboo for speakers of the standard Java language, and otherwise be inappropriate for polite Javanese coastal communities because of the high frequency of use.

  3. Risk perception and communication strategies for the disposal of nuclear material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taghizadegan, R.; Tschurlovits, M.

    2005-01-01

    The public perception of the risk due to disposal of nuclear material depends less on risk as a quantifiable measure, but rather on particular patterns of societal communication. Only an understanding of these patterns and the underlying motives permits effective risk communication in the form of a risk dialogue. Risk becomes a social code word and risk communication a social process, which is determined by ''rituals'' like stigmas and taboos on one hand, and on the other hand competing world views. The latter are analyzed by means of ''Cultural Theory'' and thus diverging perceptions of risks are explained. Finally, some communication strategies on the risks and uncertainties of the disposal of nuclear material are presented. (orig.)

  4. Inattentional blindness and the von Restorff effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Stephen R; Schmidt, Constance R

    2015-02-01

    Sometimes we fail to notice distinctive or unusual items (inattentional blindness), while other times we remember distinctive items more than expected items (the von Restorff effect). A three-factor framework is presented and tested in two experiments in an attempt to reconcile these seemingly contradictory phenomena. Memory for different types of unexpected stimuli was tested after an easy or difficult Stroop color-naming task. Highly arousing taboo words were well remembered even when the difficult Stroop task limited attentional resources. However, a conceptual isolation effect was only observed when the nature of the category change was highlighted by the Stroop task, the Stroop task was easy, and/or the isolated targets enjoyed a retrieval advantage relative to comparison targets. As proposed in the three-factor framework, the arousing qualities of the stimuli, the attentional demands of the primary task, and the relevance of isolated features at encoding and retrieval combine to produce inattentional blindness and the von Restorff effect.

  5. Performing the Breastfeeding Body: Lactivism and Art Interventions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel Epp Buller

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available “Performing the Breastfeeding Body: Lactivism and Art Interventions” addresses the ways in which three contemporary North American artist-parents position themselves and their work as potential agents of cultural change around the topic of breastfeeding. Their socially engaged works challenge the increasing social divisions, seen particularly in the United States, around the breastfeeding body. By employing collaboration, intervening in institutional spaces as well as moving outside of them, and creating works that actively counter societal treatment of the breastfeeding body, these artists create raise critical questions and alter public and private spaces in ways that make visible and challenge one of the many taboos still surrounding motherhood. In order to destabilize the perceived spectacle of the breastfeeding body, each of these artist-activists stages a spectacle of her own, placing the breastfeeding body front and center by enacting breastfeeding as a private / public performance and simultaneously confronting public discomfort and culturally normative behaviors.

  6. Women's role in reproductive health decision making and vulnerability to STD and HIV/AIDS in Ekiti, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orubuloye, I O; Oguntimehin, F; Sadiq, T

    1997-01-01

    An exploratory study of women's role in reproductive decision making in Ekiti shows that women in the state are increasingly taking active decisions on matters affecting their daily lives. More women than ever before believed that they could take decisions on family size, when to have a baby and choice of spacing period. The cultural barrier against short postpartum abstinence appeared to have diminished and sex during lactation was not considered a major cultural and religious taboo. Knowledge of contraception has become universal in recent years, and the majority of women take decisions on the method and timing of family planning. All women who used family planning considered their decision in this regard very important. The ability of women to take decisions on these issues may not only enhance their bargaining power but also reduce their vulnerability to STDs including AIDS from diseased or high-risk partners.

  7. Traditional Postpartum Practices Among Malaysian Mothers: A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fadzil, Fariza; Shamsuddin, Khadijah; Wan Puteh, Sharifa Ezat

    2016-07-01

    To briefly describe the postpartum practices among the three major ethnic groups in Malaysia and to identify commonalities in their traditional postpartum beliefs and practices. This narrative review collated information on traditional postpartum practices among Malaysian mothers through a literature search for published research papers on traditional postpartum practices in Malaysia. This review shows that Malaysian mothers have certain postpartum practices that they considered to be important for preventing future ill health. Despite the perceived differences in intra-ethnic postpartum practices, most Malaysian mothers, although from different ethnicities, share similarities in their postpartum regimens and practices in terms of beliefs and adherence to food taboos, use of traditional postpartum massage and traditional herbs, and acknowledgment of the role of older female family members in postpartum care. Health care providers should be aware of multiethnic traditional postpartum practices and use the commonalities in these practices as part of their postpartum care regimen.

  8. Female resistance. Regional contemporary art from a gender perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Soledad Geat

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This article explores the capacity of gender theory to address the artistic production of women in the city of Resistencia (Chaco, Argentina in order to analyze their work from notions, concepts and issues that have been read in their works. The selection corresponds to productions of three authors who live and work currently in Resistencia and who have raised, by their works on female sexuality as a theme, the questioning of ideas through their aesthetic and personal commitment. In order to reflect on aesthetic creation from the topic of sexuality in different artistic expressions, the iconographic description, analysis of works and reading in terms of gender converge in this paper and allow to question categories and concepts herein addressed such as domestic work, stereotypes of women, motherhood, certain taboos that persist in culture, ways of violence, desire and female sexual enjoyment.

  9. Gender bias in a patriarchal society A media analysis on virginity and reproductive health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Billy K. Sarwono

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Women and health are two very close issues as family health lies most often in the hands of women. Ironically, their awareness toward their own health is still low. Cultural constraints have made single, unmarried women or virgins feel reluctant to go to obgyn clinics, though there is an increasing prevalence of cervical cancer in Indonesia. Related to the role of the media to reduce the number of women with cervical cancer, a question rises. How do the media represent this conflict? The object of the study is a documentary film about several problems faced by women. The unit of analysis is the episode that contains issues related to the virtue of virginity, and data were collected through an analysis of the media text. The findings show that the media seem to have an awareness of the problems, but they have not fully adopted gender perspectives, and this leads to the strengthening of myths, taboos and traditional values surrounding virginity.

  10. Strategy Innovation with Employee Involvement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friis, Ole Uhrskov; Koch, Christian

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to investigate how employees can be involved in strategy innovation processes and how new strategy practices (new tools and procedures) are used to change strategy praxis in order to sustain value creation. In the strategizing actions, we found that even...... if the managers still dominate, some processes of direct involvement of employees occur, in particular when employees are asked to supplement overall strategic goals and when they directly shape several sub-strategies. Strategy practices found include strategy planning, an open space workshop and organised...... strategy projects. Especially the latter two are important in facilitating the employee involvement. The case, however, also exhibits enterprise-situated praxises related to unplanned events, like the mitigation of taboos....

  11. At the edge? HIV stigma and centrality in a community's social network in Namibia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Rachel A; Baker, Michelle

    2012-04-01

    Social network analysis was used to examine the relationship between HIV/AIDS stigmatization, perceived risk, and centrality in the community network (via participation in community groups). The findings from respondents in Keetmanshoop, Namibia (N = 375) showed an interaction between stigma and risk perceptions\\hose who perceived higher HIV risk and stronger HIV stigma participated in fewer community groups and participated in groups with members who participated less widely across the network. In contrast, those who perceived higher HIV risk and weaker HIV stigma participated more, and were in community groups that are located on a greater share of the paths between entities in the network. Taboo, secrecy, resistance, knowing a person living with HIV/AIDS, and desire for diagnosis secrecy were also related to centrality. Findings suggest that the interaction of perceived HIV risk and HIV stigma are related to structural-level features of community networks based on participation in community groups.

  12. Employee Perceptions of HIV & AIDS on the Hospitality Industry in Zimbabwe

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    Forbes Kabote

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available HIV & AIDS prevalence is causing lots of deaths in the hospitality industry affecting the most productive population. The study was conducted to explore employee perceptions of HIV & AIDS on the hospitality industry. Using qualitative research philosophy data was collected using semi-structured questionnaires from employees at selected hotel establishments. The data was analyzed thematically. Two critical themes emerged from the study. Firstly HIV & AIDS was being treated as a taboo subject and secondly; there are no clear organizational policies on HIV & AIDS. The researchers concluded that hospitality organizations are still ignorant of devastating existence of HIV & AIDS. Three recommendations were made from the study. Hospitality establishments should embrace the fact that HIV & AIDS exist, Organizations should work with employees to produce workable policies and that organizations should take heed of government efforts in tackling HIV & AIDS and do their part in this international cause

  13. Ficción y serial killer, cuando las mujeres recurren a la violencia

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    Marina López Martínez

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available This article deals with the figure of the serial killer, a character whose extreme violence has constituted it as the maximum exponent of evilness in our cultural representations. My main interest is to see the treatment that some French police novel writers reserve to him: Brigitte Aubert, Maud Tabachnik, Fred Vargas and Virginie Despentes. The cinematographic adaptation of Despente’s Baise-moi (2000 is specially revealing: while the bloodthirsty murders of Hannibal Lecter or other masculine serial killers receive the approval of the great public and the critic in general, the crimes committed by the two heroins of Virginie Despentes have been put under the censorship. I try to demonstrate from this example that the use of violent women is still disturbing, a taboo after which remains old generic prejudices.

  14. The Dubbing of Gay-themed TV Series in Italy: Corpus-based Evidence of Manipulation and Censorship

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    Annalisa Sandrelli

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The manipulation and censorship of taboo and sensitive references in AVT has attracted the interest of several scholars over the last few years, but systematic studies of the impact of such practices on different genres in different countries are still needed. The paper analyses the Italian dubbing of three gay-themed TV series, Queer as Folk, Queer as Folk (US remake, and The L Word. Gay-themed series are less mainstream on Italian TV channels than in the UK and the USA, and gayspeak as a linguistic phenomenon is not well-known to Italian audiences. Consequently, the Italian dubbed dialogues are the product of different degrees of manipulation and even censorship. The paper finds empirical evidence of such alterations in data from the DubTalk corpus and attempts a tentative evaluation of the impact of such practices on the Italian versions of the above-mentioned series.

  15. Egypt's fundamentalists say condoms immoral.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soliman, S

    1995-06-01

    The first AIDS case in Egypt was reported almost 10 years ago, yet Egypt still does not have reliable statistics on the HIV/AIDS epidemic (officially, 513 HIV infections and 88 AIDS cases; more likely, 3000 and 10,000, respectively). HIV/AIDS bears a stigma. The government claims that every HIV-infected Egyptian acquired the infection through a blood transfusion while in the Gulf or through sexual intercourse in Europe. Cultural, social, and religious norms that discourage promiscuity may explain the low HIV/AIDS rate but these same taboos put women at risk by making it difficult for them to protect themselves. Islamic fundamentalist women reinforce the Islamic principle of forbidding sex education. They consider AIDS a plague of immoral Western society. They refuse to accept the fact that many men do not practice safer sex. These women consider condoms immoral. They think God will curse women who refuse to have sexual intercourse at their husbands' bidding. Many nongovernmental organizations consider an intensive education program as the only means to avert disaster. Egypt has yet to implement its model AIDS program. All hospitals in Cairo and some hospitals in rural areas have equipment to test for HIV. Surveillance systems have been limited to high risk groups. In Egypt, it is mandatory to test foreigners for HIV. Prisoners, prostitutes, homosexuals, and blood donors are tested randomly without their consent. Positive results are often reported to authorities before the persons learn their HIV status. A campaign for widespread sex education is the only action recommended so far. It includes a mass media component and community meetings and conferences. An Egyptian physician has found an anti-viral drug that stimulates the immune system, but his work does not receive much coverage outside Egypt. Egyptians need to tackle their cultural taboos about discussion of sex to curb the HIV/AIDS epidemic.

  16. THE USES OF HUMOR IN SOCIAL WORK PRACTICE: ANALYSIS OF SOCIAL WORKERS’ EXPERIENCE

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    Gabrielė Vaitulionytė

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses how humor could enrich social work practice and guideline social workers. Social work field is not that traditionally relates with humor. While social work scholars argue that social work field is full of contradictions and humor is relevant tool to express those contradictions and paradoxes. In micro level practice Gitterman (2003 suggests humor could be a creative tool that “must be used differently based on client background, level of functioning, and specific situation”. Article presents results of qualitative study. The analysis of social workers’ professional experiences is based on social constructionism perspective with the aim to explain how humor is used in everyday practice and how use of purposive humor could be helpful in social work intervention. Episodic interviews with six social workers working in intercultural social work field were conducted. Transcripts of interviews were analyzed through conceptualization, developing story and maximizing aims of the study. Anonymity and confidentiality was considered. The results of analysis demonstrate that humor is unique experience in the sociocultural context. Discursive categories explain the purpose of humor for practice, circumstances and conditions for using that determine how the use of humor could contribute to the success of a social worker-client interaction. Using humor is considered as professional competence, which suggests that “having a good sense of humor” and appropriate use of humor with ability to demonstrate empathy and honesty in social worker-client interaction is an important part of social worker competence. Humor as a professional competence contained understanding of the humorous taboo. During analysis were explored how using humor and cultural stories of clients create mezzo level strategies for professional social work practice. Keywords: humor in social work practice, social work process, humor taboo.

  17. Barriers to early diagnosis of symptomatic breast cancer: a qualitative study of Black African, Black Caribbean and White British women living in the UK

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Claire E L; Maben, Jill; Lucas, Grace; Davies, Elizabeth A; Jack, Ruth H; Ream, Emma

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Understanding barriers to early diagnosis of symptomatic breast cancer among Black African, Black Caribbean and White British women in the UK. Design In-depth qualitative interviews using grounded theory methods to identify themes. Findings validated through focus groups. Participants 94 women aged 33–91 years; 20 Black African, 20 Black Caribbean and 20 White British women diagnosed with symptomatic breast cancer were interviewed. Fourteen Black African and 20 Black Caribbean women with (n=19) and without (n=15) breast cancer participated in six focus groups. Setting Eight cancer centres/hospital trusts in London (n=5), Somerset (n=1), West Midlands (n=1) and Greater Manchester (n=1) during 2012–2013. Results There are important differences and similarities in barriers to early diagnosis of breast cancer between Black African, Black Caribbean and White British women in the UK. Differences were influenced by country of birth, time spent in UK and age. First generation Black African women experienced most barriers and longest delays. Second generation Black Caribbean and White British women were similar and experienced fewest barriers. Absence of pain was a barrier for Black African and Black Caribbean women. Older White British women (≥70 years) and first generation Black African and Black Caribbean women shared conservative attitudes and taboos about breast awareness. All women viewed themselves at low risk of the disease, and voiced uncertainty over breast awareness and appraising non-lump symptoms. Focus group findings validated and expanded themes identified in interviews. Conclusions Findings challenged reporting of Black women homogenously in breast cancer research. This can mask distinctions within and between ethnic groups. Current media and health promotion messages need reframing to promote early presentation with breast symptoms. Working with communities and developing culturally appropriate materials may lessen taboos and stigma

  18. Challenging tradition in Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Supriya, K E

    1991-01-01

    In Nigeria since 1987, the National Association of Nigeria Nurses and Midwives (NSNNM) has used traditional medial and traditional health care workers to curtail the practice of female circumcision. Other harmful traditions are being changed also, such as early marriage, taboos of pregnancy and childbirth, and scarification. 30,000 member of NANNM are involved in this effort to halt the harmful practices themselves and to change community opinion. The program involved national and state level workshops on harmful health consequences of traditional practices and instruction on how to conduct focus group discussions to assess women's beliefs and practices. The focus groups were found to be a particularly successful method of opening up discussion of taboo topics and expressing deep emotions. The response to the knowledge that circumcision was not necessary was rage and anger, which was channeled into advocacy roles or change in the practice. The result was the channeled into advocacy roles for change in the practice. The result was the development of books, leaflets and videos. One community group designed a dress with a decorative motif of tatoos and bodily cuts to symbolize circumcision and scarring. Plays and songs were written and performed. Artists provided models of female genitalia both before and after circumcision. The campaign has been successful in bringing this issue to the public attention in prominent ways, such a national television, health talk shows, and women;s magazines. One of the most important results of the effort has been the demonstration that culture and tradition can be changed from within, rather than from outside imposition of values and beliefs.

  19. Theory of mind and Darwin’s legacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Searle, John

    2013-01-01

    We do not have an adequate theory of consciousness. Both dualism and materialism are mistaken because they deny consciousness is part of the physical world. False claims include (i) behaviorism, (ii) computationalism, (iii) epiphenomenalism, (iv) the readiness potential, (v) subjectivity, and (vi) materialism. Ontological subjectivity does not preclude epistemic objectivity. Observer relative phenomena are created by consciousness, but consciousness is not itself observer relative. Consciousness consists of feeling, sentience, or awareness with (i) qualitativeness, (ii) ontological subjectivity, (iii) unified conscious field, (iv) intentionality, and (v) intentional causation. All conscious states are caused by lower level neurobiological processes in the brain, and they are realized in the brain as higher level features. Efforts to get a detailed scientific account of how brain processes cause consciousness are disappointing. The Darwinian revolution gave us a new form of explanation; two levels were substituted: a causal level, where we specify the mechanism by which the phenotype functions, and a functional level, where we specify the selectional advantage that the phenotype provides. Sociobiology attempted to explain general features of human society, ethics, etc. It failed. For the incest taboo, it confuses inhibition with prohibition. It did not explain the moral force of the taboo. To explain the function of consciousness we cannot ask, “What would be subtracted if we subtracted consciousness but left everything else the same?” We cannot leave everything else the same because consciousness is necessary for higher functions of human and animal life. The unified conscious field gives the organism vastly increased power. PMID:23754416

  20. ALEITAMENTO MATERNO E AS CRENÇAS ALIMENTARES LACTANCIA MATERNA Y LAS CREENCIAS ALIMENTARIAS BREASTFEEDING AND NUTRITIONAL BELIEFS

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    Sueli Mutsumi Tsukuda Ichisato

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available A hipogalactia tem levado ao desmame precoce. As crenças e os tabus influenciam a alimentação materna durante a lactação. O presente estudo tem como objetivo identificar lactogogos regionais utilizados como suporte do aleitamento materno (AM, pautados nos tabus e crenças. Trata-se de um estudo de caso utilizando a análise de prosa(12. Alimentar-se ou não de certos alimentos, ter vivenciado a amamentação, as crenças transmitidas por familiares e médicos, crescimento e desenvolvimento da criança foram os fatores que estimularam o AM na nossa pesquisaLa hipogalactacemia ha sido uno de las razones que han llevado a las madres al destete precoz. Las creencias y los tabúes influyen en la alimentación materna durante la lactancia. El presente estudio tiene como objetivo identificar lactogogos regionales utilizados como soporte del alimento materno (AM, basados en los tabues y las creencias. Se trata de un estudio de caso utilizando el análisis de prosa(12. Alimentarse o no de ciertos alimentos, haber vivido la lactancia, las creencias transmitidas por familiares y médicos, crecimiento y desarrollo del niño fueron los factores que estimularon el AM en nuestra investigación.Hypogalactia has been one of the reasons that lead mothers to early weaning. Beliefs and taboos influence breastfeeding during lactation. This study aims at identifying regional lactagogues used as a support to breastfeeding based on taboos and beliefs. It is a case report which uses prose analysis(12. The findings show that feeding oneself with certain types of food or not, having experienced breastfeeding, beliefs transmitted by family members and physicians and the child's growth and development were factors which stimulated breastfeeding.

  1. Violence in society

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    António Pedro de Andrade Dores

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The recent interest in the sociology of violence has arisen at the same time that western societies are being urged to consider the profound social crisis provoked by global financial turmoil. Social changes demand the evo- lution of sociological practices. The analysis herein proposed, based on the studies of M. Wieviorka, La Violence (2005, and of R. Collins, Violence: A Micro-sociological Theory (2008, concludes that violence is subject to sociological treatments cen- tered on the aggressors, on the struggles for power and on male gender. There is a lack of connection between prac- tical proposals for violence prevention and the sociol- ogy of violence. It is accepted that violence as a subject of study has the potential, as well as the theoretical and social centrality, to promote the debate necessary to bring social theory up to date. This process is more likely to oc- cur in periods of social transformation, when sociology is open to considering subjects that are still taboo in its study of violence, such as the female gender and the state. The rise of the sociology of violence confronts us with a dilemma. We can either collaborate with the construc- tion of a sub discipline that reproduces the limitations and taboos of current social theory, or we can use the fact that violence has become a “hot topic” as an opportunity to open sociology to themes that are taboo in social the- ory (such as the vital and harmonious character of the biological aspects of social mechanisms or the normative aspects of social settings. ResumenEl interés reciente en la sociología de la violencia ha surgido al mismo tiempo que las sociedades occidenta- les están requiriendo considerar la profunda crisis social provocada por la agitación financiera global. Los cambios sociales demandan la evolución de las prácticas socioló- gicas. El análisis aquí expuesto, basado en los estudios de M. Wieviorka, La Violence (2005, and of R. Collins

  2. Barriers to early diagnosis of symptomatic breast cancer: a qualitative study of Black African, Black Caribbean and White British women living in the UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Claire E L; Maben, Jill; Lucas, Grace; Davies, Elizabeth A; Jack, Ruth H; Ream, Emma

    2015-03-13

    Understanding barriers to early diagnosis of symptomatic breast cancer among Black African, Black Caribbean and White British women in the UK. In-depth qualitative interviews using grounded theory methods to identify themes. Findings validated through focus groups. 94 women aged 33-91 years; 20 Black African, 20 Black Caribbean and 20 White British women diagnosed with symptomatic breast cancer were interviewed. Fourteen Black African and 20 Black Caribbean women with (n=19) and without (n=15) breast cancer participated in six focus groups. Eight cancer centres/hospital trusts in London (n=5), Somerset (n=1), West Midlands (n=1) and Greater Manchester (n=1) during 2012-2013. There are important differences and similarities in barriers to early diagnosis of breast cancer between Black African, Black Caribbean and White British women in the UK. Differences were influenced by country of birth, time spent in UK and age. First generation Black African women experienced most barriers and longest delays. Second generation Black Caribbean and White British women were similar and experienced fewest barriers. Absence of pain was a barrier for Black African and Black Caribbean women. Older White British women (≥70 years) and first generation Black African and Black Caribbean women shared conservative attitudes and taboos about breast awareness. All women viewed themselves at low risk of the disease, and voiced uncertainty over breast awareness and appraising non-lump symptoms. Focus group findings validated and expanded themes identified in interviews. Findings challenged reporting of Black women homogenously in breast cancer research. This can mask distinctions within and between ethnic groups. Current media and health promotion messages need reframing to promote early presentation with breast symptoms. Working with communities and developing culturally appropriate materials may lessen taboos and stigma, raise awareness, increase discussion of breast cancer and promote

  3. Isichazamazwi SesiNdebele as Reflector of the Moral and Ideological Values of Society

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    Nobuhle Moyo

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available

    Abstract: Isichazamazwi SesiNdebele (henceforth the ISN reflect the moral and ideological values of society. This article analyses the ISN as reflector of the moral and ideological values of the Ndebele society. The ISN highlights fundamental beliefs and ideas of the Ndebele people. The study stems from the observation that the culture of a people will always reflect in a dictionary as culture and language are inextricably intertwined. The aim of this article is to discuss the ways in which the ISN reflects the moral and ideological values of society. The article examines how the society in which the dictionary was created influenced the choice of lemmas and the phrasing of definitions. The focus is on sexist definitions, terms referring to ethnic groups and the treatment of taboo words and religious terms. These terms denote cultural attitudes harboured by the Ndebele society. The article discusses how the treatment of these terms reflects on the values prevalent in the culture of the Ndebele community.

    Keywords: MONOLINGUAL DICTIONARY, DEFINITIONS, LANGUAGE, CULTURE, TABOO WORDS, IDEOLOGICAL VALUES, SEXIST ATTITUDES

    Opsomming: Isichazamazwi SesiNdebele as reflekteerder van die morele en ideologiese waardes van die gemeenskap. Isichazamazwi SesiNdebele (voortaan die ISN weerspieël die morele en ideologiese waardes van die gemeenskap. Hierdie artikel ontleed die ISN as reflekteerder van die morele en ideologiese waardes van die Ndebelegemeenskap. Die ISN belig fundamentele beskouings en opvattings van die Ndebelevolk. Die studie spruit voort uit die waarneming dat die kultuur van 'n volk altyd in 'n woordeboek weerspieël sal word omdat kul-tuur en taal onlosmaaklik vervleg is. Die doel van die artikel is om die maniere te bespreek waarop die ISN die morele en ideologiese waardes van die gemeenskap reflekteer. Die artikel ondersoek hoe die gemeenskap waarin die woordeboek tot stand gekom het die keuse van lemmas en die bewoording

  4. Dėl indoeuropiečių „ugnies“ vardų

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    Vytautas Mažiulis

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available ON THE INDO-EUROPEAN NAMES FOR ‘FIRE’SummaryThe Indo-Europeans used ‘fire’ in two main meanings: a ‘hearth (→ camp fire’ (‘I fire’ and b ‘lightening-thunder (→ blaze fire’ (‘II fire’. Both I.-E. fires are taboo, especially ‘II fire’; this is why it was very open to euphemism and mythologisation. It seems, that both I.-E. fire names later experienced certain contaminations in dialects, in some places reflected by ‘I fire’, and elsewhere by ‘II fire’.The archaic Lith. ugnìs (= Latv. *ugnis most likely derives from I.-E. *n̥gni-, which gave rise to b.-sl. *ungnis, turning this into b.-sl. *ugnis (> Lith. ugnìs, etc. due to the loss of the root’s nasality from alliteral dissimilation (AD. The AD rule influenced not only Baltic and Slavic words, but other Indo-European words with root alliteration.The I.-E. * n̥gni- (‘I fire’ is most likely linked with I.-E. *angli- ‘hearth (ember fire’ having the apophonic root I.-E. *ang- (> Lith. anglìs ‘coal’, etc.. They can both presuppose the ‘I fire’ synonymous heteroclit forms n̥g-i/n-and *ang-i/l-, which are derived from heteroclit I.-E. forms of non I.-E. verb. * n̥g-//*ang-.The component titi- of the Lith. (dial. compound titi-nagas and component Tit- of Lith. hydronyms quite clearly presupposes the I.-E. ‘II fire’ heteroclit *titi-, which is a derivative of the I.-E. formant *-i/n- from non I.-E. verb. *tit-, meaning ‘to gleam (to lighten’.It seems that the the above-mentioned I-E. ‘II fire’ was older than I.-E. r/n- heteroclit ‘II fire’, which due to its strong taboo was euphemistically reworked from *peHur- /*peHun- to *peHnu- (metathesis > *penu- > West Balt. *panu ‘fire’.

  5. Attitudes and local ecological knowledge of experts fishermen in relation to conservation and bycatch of sea turtles (reptilia: testudines), Southern Bahia, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background The use of ethnoecological tools to evaluate possible damage and loss of biodiversity related to the populations of species under some degree of threat may represent a first step towards integrating the political management of natural resources and conservation strategies. From this perspective, this study investigates fishermen’s ecological knowledge about sea turtles and attitudes towards the conservation and bycatch in Ilhéus, Southern Bahia, Brazil. Methods Fishermen experts semi-structured interviews were performed using snowball sampling method. The interviews consisted of a series of questions relating to the fishermen’s profile, structure and work equipment, the local ecological knowledge of fishermen about sea turtles and bycatch, a projective test, attitudes towards turtle conservation and beliefs and taboos regarding turtles. Indicators for quantitative comparisons of respondents in terms of their broad knowledge and attitudes towards turtle conservation were created. Correlation analyses were made between indicators of knowledge and attitude as well as the relationship between education level and knowledge and attitudes. Results Thirty experts were interviewed for the study. The local ecological knowledge and attitudes of fishermen towards the conservation of sea turtles were respectively medium (0.43) and moderate (0.69) according to experts (based on Likert scale and Cronbach’s Alpha). Potential areas of spawning were reported from Barra Grande to Una covering the entire coast of Ilhéus. Methods for identifying the animal, behavior, and popular names were described by fishermen. The most recent captures of turtles were attributed to fishing line, but according to the respondents, lobster nets and shrimp traps are more likely to capture turtles. Knowledge and attitudes were weakly inversely correlated (r = −0.38, p = 0.04), and the education level of the respondent showed a positive correlation with positive attitudes

  6. Maternal care practices among the ultra poor households in rural Bangladesh: a qualitative exploratory study

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    Choudhury Nuzhat

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although many studies have been carried out to learn about maternal care practices in rural areas and urban-slums of Bangladesh, none have focused on ultra poor women. Understanding the context in which women would be willing to accept new practices is essential for developing realistic and relevant behaviour change messages. This study sought to fill in this knowledge gap by exploring maternal care practices among women who participated in a grant-based livelihood programme for the ultra poor. This is expected to assist the designing of the health education messages programme in an effort to improve maternal morbidity and survival towards achieving the UN millennium Development Goal 5. Methods Qualitative method was used to collect data on maternal care practices during pregnancy, delivery, and post-partum period from women in ultra poor households. The sample included both currently pregnant women who have had a previous childbirth, and lactating women, participating in a grant-based livelihood development programme. Rangpur and Kurigram districts in northern Bangladesh were selected for data collection. Results Women usually considered pregnancy as a normal event unless complications arose, and most of them refrained from seeking antenatal care (ANC except for confirmation of pregnancy, and no prior preparation for childbirth was taken. Financial constraints, coupled with traditional beliefs and rituals, delayed care-seeking in cases where complications arose. Delivery usually took place on the floor in the squatting posture and the attendants did not always follow antiseptic measures such as washing hands before conducting delivery. Following the birth of the baby, attention was mainly focused on the expulsion of the placenta and various maneuvres were adapted to hasten the process, which were sometimes harmful. There were multiple food-related taboos and restrictions, which decreased the consumption of protein during

  7. POLA KONSUMSI PANGAN, KEBIASAAN MAKAN, DAN DENSITAS GIZI PADA MASYARAKAT KASEPUHAN CIPTAGELAR JAWA BARAT

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    Linda Dwi Jayati

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTThe purpose of this study was to determine food consumption patterns, eating habits, and its effect on the density of nutrient intake in Kasepuhan Ciptagelar a traditional village community in West Java. Cross–sectional design was implied for this study. A total of 65 eligible households participated in the study. Household’s food consumption data which were used to calculate nutrient density score and density of nutrient intake were collected using 24-hour recall. Nutrient density scores were calculated by using Nutrient Rich Food Index 9.3 to compare nutrient intake of food with Daily Value based on FAO standards. Stepwise linear regression analysis showed that socio-economic factors most affecting iron density was age of husband. Meanwhile, food habits factor significantly affecting protein density was meal frequency. Food preference significantly affected on calcium density. Other socio-economic factors including family size, household income, and the amount of rice in rice barn; and socio-cultural factors of food taboos have no significant effect on density of nutrient intake. Nutrient intake from more variety foods should be increased to fulfill nutrient adequacy of individuals, especially girl adolescent and pregnant mothers who observed food taboos in this community.Keywords: density of nutrient intake, nutrient density, traditional communityABSTRAKPenelitian ini bertujuan menganalisis pola konsumsi pangan dan kebiasaan makan serta pengaruhnya terhadap densitas asupan zat gizi pada masyarakat Kasepuhan Ciptagelar di Jawa Barat. Desain penelitian ini adalah cross-sectional dengan total subjek sebanyak 65 rumah tangga. Skor densitas zat gizi pangan dihitung menggunakan metode Nutrient Rich Food Index 9.3. Analisis menggunakan regresi linear menunjukkan bahwa variabel umur suami berpengaruh terhadap densitas asupan zat besi rumah tangga. Salah satu variabel kebiasaan makan yaitu frekuensi makan rumah tangga berpengaruh

  8. Determinants of health and nutritional status of rural Nigerian women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ene-Obong, H N; Enugu, G I; Uwaegbute, A C

    2001-12-01

    This study was undertaken to determine the effects of socioeconomic and cultural factors on the health and nutritional status of 300 women of childbearing age in two rural farming communities in Enugu State, Nigeria. The women were engaged in farming, trading, and teaching. A cross-sectional survey was conducted using both qualitative and quantitative data-collection methods. The study involved focus-group discussions (FGDs), interviews using a questionnaire, measurement of food/nutrient intake, assessment of activity patterns, anthropometry, and observations of clinical signs of malnutrition. The better-educated women had higher incomes than those with little or no education. Poor education was mainly attributed to lack of monetary support by parents (34%), marriage while in school (27%), and sex discrimination (21%). The teachers had significantly (p nutrition knowledge, food habits, nutrient intake, and self-concept, and adhered less to detrimental cultural practices. However, none of the women met their iron, riboflavin and niacin requirements. More cases of chronic energy deficiency were observed among the farmers (16%) and traders (13%) than among the teachers (5%). Generally, the women worked long hours with reported working hours (6-7 hours) being lower than the observed working hours (11 hours) for the traders and teachers. Income had a significant (p nutritional variables, except vitamin C, age-at-marriage (r = 0.719), and nutrition knowledge (r = 0.601). Age-at-marriage had a positive correlation with body mass index (BMI) and all nutritional variables but was significant (p teachers were dependent on the availability of food in the household. Food taboos had no effect on their nutrient intake, since only 5-11% of women adhered to taboos. Although most women gave their children and husbands preference in food distribution, not much difference was found in the amount of food consumed by these women. The ratio of wife's portion to husband's was 1:1.4 for

  9. Wisata Kampung Adat Huaulu di Pulau Seram, Maluku

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    Lucas Wattimena

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Traditional tourist village research of Huaulu on the Seram Island Central Mollucas, Mollucas Province. Is an early overview of their potential cultural resources and their supporters can be developed as a tourist destination. The purpose of this research is to know and understand the aspects of what can be developed from the cultural resources and support as a tourism destination.A qualitative approach as a method of research using data collection techniques; interviews, surveys or observation, and literature study. The results showed that the traditional tourist village of Huaulu is potential as a tourism village with emphasis on material cultural resources as a major capital management, conservation and development. Cultural resource material in question is among other things: 1 The potential for tourism and residential architecture; People of Huaulu building houses about the shape and type technique. Settlement pattern based on the rule monodualisme (good and bad, up and down, and taboos or no taboos. Aspects of technology and knowledge; is a key element in the understanding and knowledge of architecture and settlements and life cycle People of Huaulu on the environment and natural surroundings as well as human society outside their own group. 2 Potential tourism traditional arts and crafts; variety of decorative patterns and motifs People of Huaulu, and gender in the management and execution of traditional crafts. Penelitian wisata kampung adat Orang Huaulu di Pulau Seram, Kabupaten Maluku Tengah Propinsi Maluku adalah merupakan pandangan awal tentang potensi-potensi sumberdaya budaya yang ada beserta pendukungnya dapat dikembangkan sebagai tujuan pariwisata. Tujuan penelitian adalah untuk mengetahui dan memahami aspek-aspek apa saja yang dapat dikembangkan dari sumberdaya budaya dan pendukung tersebut sebagai destinasi pariwisata. Pendekatan kualitatif sebagai metode penelitian dengan menggunakan teknik pengumpulan data; wawancara

  10. Studying A Portrait of the Artist as a Young Man through Heterogeneous Philosophy of Georges Bataille

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    Shataw Naseri

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Georges Bataille believes that most of his contemporary discourses were spiritual and/or intellectual ones. They were, for him, vegetation-like discourses looking upward and underlining the role of head and thinking in their paradigms. He, instead, introduced the notion of "base materialism" which highlights the role of the lower parts of the body; it is here that Bataille raises the notion of "Acéphale" who has beheaded himself with a dagger in his right hand, and thus has beheaded the ruling head of his own body as well as the heads of his surrounding social discourses. For George Bataille, humans are linguistic being entrapped forever in a language system. However, he believes that this system is full of fissures and that through transgressive moments one can experience these voids within language. Through transgression one can look directly in the abyss of language, though he/she cannot see the extremity of these voids and thus Bataille believes that one cannot reach any signified, and therefore, any Bataillean "Impossible." As one can witness, linguistic human being is entrapped within narratives of language system defining him in terms of cause and effect and their related items namely linear time and space. Georges Bataille believes that any heterogeneous element which crosses the defined taboos of the body of self and society at some transgressive moments is regarded as a "foreign body" and an "alterity." This foreign body, as he regards, at the instants of transgression experiences "sovereignty" which means that he is at the epic of being a "sovereign being," of course momentarily, because he at those moments has stepped upon any ruling borders and is bound with no taboo and thus is the "sovereign" of instants. The present study endeavors to analyze Stephen Dedalus in A Portrait of the Artist as a Young Man and his Bataillean experiences in terms of narrative and language. A Portrait will be concentrated in the light of the

  11. YOUTH VANDALISM IN THE ENVIRONMENT OF MEGALOPOLIS: BORDERS OF STANDARD AND DEVIATION

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    D. V. Rudenkin

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Nowadays, modern urban youth is socialized under entirely different conditions than earlier. Moral relativism of society, diversification of information flows and increasing hedonistic orientations can form a tolerant attitude of young people to many taboo practices, and the specificity of the development of the modern urban environment contributes to the intensification of its vandal behaviour.The aim of the present publication is to identify the understanding of vandalism that is read by modern urban youth and to assess the acceptability of specific vandal practices in the social daily life of young people.Methodology and research methods. The analytical review of scientific works enabled the authors to reconstruct explanatory models of emergence and development of vandalism among young people. The specifics of perception of vandalism of young people were investigated on the basis of a social survey. The data was processed by the methods of correlation and factorial analysis. Statistical calculations were run with application of Population Viability Analysis software – Vortex.Results and scientific novelty. The authors made the complex analysis of the attitude of youth towards vandalism. The dominants of vandalism perception among young people are emphasized. The study was conducted among the representatives of Yekaterinburg (n=304, 18–30 years. It was found that more than 30 % of respondents have a real experience in the implementation of vandalism in the urban environment, but only 2 % of respondents recognize and openly declare this experience. The reason is in the narrowed substantial understanding of vandalism by most of youth representatives; they consider it only as the destructive actions which are not beyond doubt. Moreover, young people do not consider many less obvious offenses as vandalism. Thus, the conclusion is drawn that non-conscious vandalism is widespread among young people: a considerable part of young

  12. “Disarmed”: Disability, Trauma, and Emasculation in Contemporary Japanese Cinema

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    Sean O’Reilly

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Disability, especially when war-related, is dangerous ground for entertainment films. Depictions of battle-scarred living bodies are necessarily political, since they cannot avoid commenting on the conflict of which they are a stark visual reminder. Yet depictions are politically multivalent: seeing the disabled has a wide range of effects on audiences. Unsurprisingly, then, disabled survivors of the war have rarely appeared on postwar screens. But the trend of avoiding the messy reality of war-related disability, and disabled bodies more generally, has ended, as the emphatic success of period drama Love and Honor (2006 can attest. In the new century, many films have tackled this once-taboo topic, winning success at the box office or, like Caterpillar (2010, at film festivals. In this article, I analyze depictions of disabled war survivors and other disabled bodies in recent Japanese films, drawing a contrast between Love and Honor and the aforementioned Caterpillar; I explore what motivated this more visceral retelling of both war trauma and general disability, and why each succeeded either commercially or critically. The trend towards depicting disability coincides perfectly with Japanese cinema’s resurgent success against Hollywood. Visceral depictions of traumatized bodies that are symbolically—or literally—disarmed have resonated with domestic audiences, perhaps because disability not only emasculates, it can also empower: the disabled, many believe, can speak with greater authority on the war or the human condition than anyone else. But what will they (be made to say?

  13. Participatory research with indigenous communities in the Philippines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahinay, A

    1995-06-01

    Oxfam encourages its partners to integrate gender issues into their work. Accordingly, the organization drew a team of six researchers from local partners to conduct a gender-needs assessment in Arakan Valley, North Cotabo, on the island of Mindanao, Philippines. There are five million indigenous people in the Philippines belonging to more than forty different tribal groups. They are oppressed and exploited by foreign and local elites, with many having lost their ancestral lands to agribusiness plantations, ranches, mining and logging concessions of multinational corporations, and government projects. Focus group discussions, participant observation, key informant feedback, and case studies conducted over a twelve-month period found the existence of physical violence between husbands and wives; men typically having two-three wives, with women pressuring men to take more wives so that there will be more labor for farming and housework; incest is taboo, but it is not unusual for sisters to be married to one man; and women's labor responsibilities relative to men's have increased. Study results are being shared with participants in the local language.

  14. Cultural and Economic Motivation of Pig Raising Practices in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nahar, Nazmun; Uddin, Main; Gurley, Emily S; Jahangir Hossain, M; Sultana, Rebeca; Luby, Stephen P

    2015-12-01

    The interactions that pig raisers in Bangladesh have with their pigs could increase the risk of zoonotic disease transmission. Since raising pigs is a cultural taboo to Muslims, we aimed at understanding the motivation for raising pigs and resulting practices that could pose the risk of transmitting disease from pigs to humans in Bangladesh, a predominantly Muslim country. These understandings could help identify acceptable strategies to reduce the risk of disease transmission from pigs to people. To achieve this objective, we conducted 34 in-depth interviews among pig herders and backyard pig raisers in eight districts of Bangladesh. Informants explained that pig raising is an old tradition, embedded in cultural and religious beliefs and practices, the primary livelihood of pig herders, and a supplemental income of backyard pig raisers. To secure additional income, pig raisers sell feces, liver, bile, and other pig parts often used as traditional medicine. Pig raisers have limited economic ability to change the current practices that may put them at risk of exposure to diseases from their pigs. An intervention that improves their financial situation and reduces the risk of zoonotic disease may be of interest to pig raisers.

  15. Tchen's Sacred Isolation—Prelude to Malraux's Fraternal Humanism

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    Roch C. Smith

    1982-09-01

    Full Text Available While Malraux's life-long quest was to seek new values in man's perennial and shared struggle against an overwhelming fate, his early protagonist, particularly the assassin, turns to destruction and terrorism in a frenzied search for absolutes. This attempt to identify with the very fatality that has the power to destroy him is especially developed in Tchen, who embodies a despairing fascination with totalistic nihilism that Malraux must overcome in his search for a new notion of man. Tchen's initiation to murder in La Condition humaine marks a transgression of a taboo that thrusts him into what Georges Bataille calls the realm of the "sacred." His attempt to reconcile life and death by identifying with his victim irredeemably isolates Tchen from other, uninitiated men. Transformed by murder, he leaves the reality of revolution for the inhuman world of cosmic existence and individual death. Seeking to escape the human condition, he becomes obsessed with killing Chang-Kai-shek in order to kill himself and thereby "possess" his fate. But the illusion of such an escape dies with Tchen. Even his admiring disciples repudiate his nihilistic temptation as Malraux begins to seek in human fraternity the foundations of a new humanism.

  16. Condom vending machines stir controversy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-12-01

    This article reports on the public debate on whether condoms should be made publicly available on the streets, in neighborhoods, and in schools, which could trigger discussions about sex in China. Condom vending machines have been installed in China since August 1999, and most regard the installations as a symbol of China's openness and progress, as well as an improvement in livelihood. However, some have objected to the public display and sale of condoms. Some teachers see it as damaging the reputation of the schools. Others suggest that they represent greater tolerance for premarital sex among youths, and a professor of sexual ethics stated that, while breaking the sex taboo is evidence of progress, condoms are a special type of commodity which should not be made available anywhere. In addition to the public debate concerning condoms, the banning of commercials featuring a condom-shaped cartoon character overcoming AIDS and sexually transmitted diseases touched off a debate between reproductive health advocates and government regulators. Reports indicate that the commercial was banned because it contravened the Advertisement Law, which provides that no sex product advertisement be aired or printed in the media. However, Zhang Konglai contended that condoms are not sex products but merely a means for preventing pregnancy and diseases and should be promoted actively. Moreover, Qui Renzong described the government's ban as a mistake and called on them to revise the law.

  17. Adolescent homosexuality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stronski Huwiler, S M; Remafedi, G

    1998-01-01

    Homosexuality has existed in all civilizations, but societal disapproval and cultural taboos have negatively influenced its recognition. A significant percentage of youths identify themselves as homosexual, and even more experience sex with the same sex or are confused about sexual feelings. A unifying etiological theory attributes the expression of sexual orientation to genes that shape the central nervous system's development, organization, and structure via prenatal sex steroids. Environmental factors may influence the expression of genetic potential. Several models of psychosocial development describe initial stages of awareness and confusion about same-sex attractions, followed by acknowledgement of homosexuality, disclosure to others, and eventual integration of sexual identity into a comprehensive sense of self. Stressors related to isolation, stigma, and violence may predispose homosexual adolescents to impaired social, emotional, and physical health, resulting in depression and suicide, school problems, substance abuse, running away eating disorders, risky sexual behavior, and illegal conduct. As with all adolescents, the overall goals in the care of homosexual youth are to promote normal adolescent development, social and emotional well-being, and physical health. A comprehensive, multidisciplinary approach is required to address medical, mental health, and psychosocial issues within the context of the adolescents' community and culture.

  18. Sacred Groves: Myths, Beliefs, and Biodiversity Conservation—A Case Study from Western Himalaya, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sushma Singh

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Religious and traditional beliefs, cultural mores, and practices play a crucial role in the conservation of environment and biodiversity. The present paper describes a case study of two sacred groves in Western Himalaya. Sacred groves (SGs are patches of land that are communally protected with religious zeal. A preliminary survey was conducted in these SGs to study their role in biodiversity conservation. The data collected included the general information regarding the SGs and the associated deity, nearest human habitation, access to them, and their floral and faunal diversity. Ethnomedicinal property of plants was collected from the indigenous communities. Many taboos are associated with both the SGs, which help in managing resources well through ritual representation. Different festivals are organized, where the local communities reaffirm their commitment to the forest and the deity. Sacred groves, in general, are a valuable tool of biodiversity conservation. But people’s changing attitudes, erosion of traditional beliefs, and human impact have caused degradation of sacred groves over the years. Their conservation would not be possible without the active participation of the local people. By improving their living standards and by giving benefits of conservation to them, long-term conservation goals in these SGs can be achieved.

  19. Food restrictions during pregnancy among Indigenous Temiar women in peninsular Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharifah Zahhura, S A; Nilan, P; Germov, J

    2012-08-01

    A qualitative comparative case study was conducted to compare and contrast food taboos and avoidance practices during pregnancy among Orang Asli or indigenous Temiar women in four distinct locations that represent different lifestyle experiences and cultural practices. Through snowballing sampling, a total of 38 participants took part in five focus groups: one group each in Pos Simpor and Pos Tohoi in Kelantan state, one group in Batu 12, Gombak in Selangor state, and two groups in a regroupment scheme (RPSOA) in Kuala Betis, Kelantan. All the transcripts were coded, categorised and 'thematised' using the software package for handling qualitative data, NVivo 8. Variant food prohibitions were recorded among the Temiar women residing in different locations, which differ in food sources and ways of obtaining food. Consumption of seventeen types of food items was prohibited for a pregnant Temiar woman and her husband during the prenatal period. Fear of difficulties during labour and delivery, convulsions or sawan, harming the baby (such as foetal malformation), and twin pregnancy seemed to trigger many food proscriptions for the pregnant Temiar women, most of which have been passed on from generation to generation. The findings of this study confirm that beliefs about food restrictions are strong among those Temiar living a traditional lifestyle. However, those who have adopted a more modern lifestyle also preserve them to some extent.

  20. Beyond love: a qualitative analysis of factors associated with teenage pregnancy among young women with pregnancy experience in Bolgatanga, Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krugu, John Kingsley; Mevissen, Fraukje; Münkel, Meret; Ruiter, Robert

    2017-03-01

    Globally, an estimated 16 million young women aged 15 to 19 years give birth every year. Most teenage pregnancies are unintended and being pregnant or delivering a baby as a teenager can have serious adverse consequences. Knowledge of the environmental factors and social cognitive determinants influencing young women's failure to protect against unintended pregnancy is necessary to address the high rate of teenage pregnancies. We conducted semi-structured in-depth interviews with 21 young women, who had experience of pregnancy, in Bolgatanga, Ghana. The interview protocol included themes (relationships, sex, pregnancy, family planning) and determinants (knowledge, attitudes, self-efficacy, norms, risk perceptions) derived from empirical studies and theories related to sexuality behaviour. Findings show that young women's motivations for sexual relationships are mostly 'beyond love' and seem to focus on economic factors. The main means of sexual protection seems to be condom use. Other forms of contraception were believed to be linked to infertility. Sexuality remains a largely taboo topic for open discussion and sex education in schools seems limited to abstinence-only messages. The need for more open communication on matters of sexuality with young people and the provision of a more comprehensive sexuality education in school to address teenage pregnancies in Ghana, is discussed.

  1. Culturally sanctioned suicide: Euthanasia, seppuku, and terrorist martyrdom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierre, Joseph M

    2015-01-01

    Suicide is one of the greatest concerns in psychiatric practice, with considerable efforts devoted to prevention. The psychiatric view of suicide tends to equate it with depression or other forms of mental illness. However, some forms of suicide occur independently of mental illness and within a framework of cultural sanctioning such that they aren’t regarded as suicide at all. Despite persistent taboos against suicide, euthanasia and physician-assisted suicide in the context of terminal illness is increasingly accepted as a way to preserve autonomy and dignity in the West. Seppuku, the ancient samurai ritual of suicide by self-stabbing, was long considered an honorable act of self-resolve such that despite the removal of cultural sanctioning, the rate of suicide in Japan remains high with suicide masquerading as seppuku still carried out both there and abroad. Suicide as an act of murder and terrorism is a practice currently popular with Islamic militants who regard it as martyrdom in the context of war. The absence of mental illness and the presence of cultural sanctioning do not mean that suicide should not be prevented. Culturally sanctioned suicide must be understood in terms of the specific motivations that underlie the choice of death over life. Efforts to prevent culturally sanctioned suicide must focus on alternatives to achieve similar ends and must ultimately be implemented within cultures to remove the sanctioning of self-destructive acts. PMID:25815251

  2. Domestic violence during pregnancy: Midwives׳ experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mauri, Elisa Marta; Nespoli, Antonella; Persico, Giuseppina; Zobbi, Virna Franca

    2015-05-01

    the aim of this qualitative study was to explore midwives׳ knowledge and clinical experience of domestic violence among pregnant women, with particular emphasis on their perceptions of their professional role. the data collected for this phenomenological-hermeneutical qualitative study were collected using semi-structured interviews, and analysed according to Denzin and Lincoln (2011). fifteen hospital and community midwives working in the local health district of Monza and Brianza in northern Italy were recruited between July and October 2012. three main themes emerged: 'it is difficult to recognise domestic violence' because of a limited knowledge of the most common signs and symptoms of violence, a lack of training, cultural taboos, and the women׳s unwillingness to disclose abuse; 'we have a certain number of means of identifying violence', such as relationships with the woman, specific professional training and screening tools, which have advantages and disadvantages; 'the professionals involved' in identifying and managing family violence highlight the importance of a interdisciplinary approach. midwives acknowledge their crucial role in identifying and managing domestic violence but are still unprepared to do so and indicate various barriers that need to be overcome. There is a need to implement basic university education on the subject and provide specific professional training. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Gender boundaries and sexual categories in the Arab world.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abukhalil, A

    1997-01-01

    This essay considers the construction of gender and sexual images in the Arab world and how Western responses to Islam have affected the way Islam is perceived and interpreted. After a brief introduction, the essay discusses the problems of using Islam as a standard methodological yardstick in the face of the diversity of Muslim lifestyles and interpretations. The next section describes gender boundaries and social barriers in Islam that involve rigid segregation of the sexes. While Islam is shown not to favor full gender equality, the dynamic interaction between a Middle Eastern culture and the Islamic religion, each of which promote the ostensible inferiority of women, makes it difficult to determine whether culture or religion has had more influence on gender relations. The essay continues with a look at controversies about homosexuality, the condition that defined the difference between Christianity and Islam. Characteristics of present-day sexism and sexuality among the Arabs are highlighted in a look at the persistence of male dominance, the restriction of women from the public sphere, theories about the toleration of homosexuality, and the taboo extended towards lesbians and others practicing free sex. It is concluded that the study of gender and sexuality in the Middle East remains incomplete and preliminary, although gender studies have progressed in the past two decades. Social and sexual tensions have been exacerbated by the rise of fundamentalism, and homosexuality remains a forbidden topic for Muslim scholars.

  4. A preliminary mapping of individual, relational, and social factors that impede disclosure of childhood sexual abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collin-Vézina, Delphine; De La Sablonnière-Griffin, Mireille; Palmer, Andrea M; Milne, Lise

    2015-05-01

    Uncovering the pathways to disclosures of child sexual abuse (CSA) and the factors influencing the willingness of victims to talk about the abuse is paramount to the development of powerful practice and policy initiatives. Framed as a long interview method utilizing a grounded theory approach to analyze data, the objective of the current study was to provide a preliminary mapping of the barriers to CSA disclosures through an ecological systemic lens, from a sample of 67 male and female CSA adult survivors, all of whom had recently received counselling services. The current project led to the identification of three broad categories of barriers that were each comprised of several subthemes, namely: Barriers from Within (internalized victim-blaming, mechanisms to protect oneself, and immature development at time of abuse); Barriers in Relation to Others (violence and dysfunction in the family, power dynamics, awareness of the impact of telling, and fragile social network); and Barriers in Relation to the Social World (labelling, taboo of sexuality, lack of services available, and culture or time period). This study points to the importance of using a broad ecological framework to understand the factors that inhibit disclosure of CSA, as barriers to disclosure do not constrain solely the victims. Results are discussed in light of their implications for research, prevention and intervention programs, and social policies and media campaigns, as the burden is on the larger community to create a climate of safety and transparency that makes the telling of CSA possible. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. A brief note on the history of psychosurgery in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nudeshima, Jiro; Taira, Takaomi

    2017-09-01

    In Japan, there has been no neurosurgical treatment for psychiatric disorders since the 1970s. Even deep brain stimulation (DBS) has not been studied or used for psychiatric disorders. Neurosurgery for psychiatric disorders has been thwarted by social taboos for many years, and psychiatrists today seem to simply ignore modern developments and therapies offered by neurosurgery such as DBS. As a result, most patients and their families do not know such "last-resort" options exist. Historically, as in other countries, frontal lobotomies were widely performed in Japan in the 1940s and 1950s, and some Japanese neurosurgeons used stereotactic methods for the treatment of psychiatric disorders until the 1960s. However, in the 1960s and 1970s such surgical treatments began to receive condemnation based on political judgment, rather than on medical and scientific evaluation. Protest campaigns at the time hinged on the prevailing political beliefs, forming a part of the new "left" movement against leading authorities across a wide range of societal institutions including medical schools. Finally, the Japanese Society for Psychiatry and Neurology banned the surgical treatment for psychiatric disorders in 1975. Even today, Japan's dark history continues to exert an enormous negative influence on neurosurgery for psychiatric disorders.

  6. Palliative social media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taubert, Mark; Watts, Gareth; Boland, Jason; Radbruch, Lukas

    2014-03-01

    The uses of social media have become ubiquitous in contemporary society at an astonishingly fast-paced rate. The internet and in particular platforms such as Facebook, Twitter and YouTube are now part of most people's vocabulary and are starting to replace many face-to-face interactions. The online world, in particular, is alive with discussions, comments and anecdotes about the topics of illness, disease, hospitals, death and dying. The topic of death and dying had in the not too distant past been seen as taboo, but willingness and need to talk openly about it appears to be on the increase. In parallel to this, many public awareness campaigns are highlighting society's need to be more prepared for dying and death. This will have a significant impact on the way terminally ill patients and their families approach the last years, months and weeks of their lives and how they might expect palliative health and social care professionals working with them through these difficult periods to interact with them. We pay particular attention to the areas of digital posterity creation and memorialisation within the wider holistic context of end-of-life care.

  7. The Functional Role of Music in Communicating Death through/in YouTube Videos

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    Panagiotis Pentaris

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Since the establishment of thanatology, the science of death, in the early 20th century, death has not only been considered a controversial subject, but it has also been regarded as a taboo topic. Various ways of communicating death have developed over the last few decades. With the advent of different mass and social media and their increasing impact on everyday life in the 21st century, death can now be communicated via a number of media platforms, such as television, radio, and online videos. This type of communication is underpinned by a series of dimensions, in particular music, that shape the conveyed message. Music has been extensively used in the dissemination of information in the wider media outlet. It is widely seen as a means of evoking emotions and of facilitating the process of assimilating information that is communicated via media. This paper seeks to discuss the functional role of music in communicating death in online video platforms. In particular, the example of the YouTube platform is used to identify the links between death, music and video platforms. This paper is part of a large-scale study on the functional role of music in communicating death through YouTube videos. It is suggested that music may serve as a link between media and death. The conclusions that are drawn in this paper are supported by the authors’ current and ongoing study and critical analysis of the deployment of music in the communication of death.

  8. Female sexual dysfunction in patients with endometriosis: Indian scenario

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vineet V Mishra

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Female sexual dysfunction (FSD in Indian women is often overlooked due to cultural beliefs and considered as social taboos. Sexuality is an important and integral part of life. There are many causes of sexual dysfunction, but the prevalence of FSD in endometriotic patients is still underdiagnosed. Materials and Methods: Study design - Cross-sectional observational study conducted at tertiary care center, from June 2015 to March 2016. Sample size - Fifty-one patients in reproductive age group (18-47 years who were diagnosed with endometriosis on diagnostic laparoscopy were included. Methods - FSD was assessed with a detailed 19-item female sexual function index questionnaire. All six domains of sexual dysfunction, i.e., desire, arousal, lubrication, orgasm, satisfaction, and pain were studied. Exclusion - Patients with other gynecological, medical or surgical history were excluded. Results: Out of 51 patients with endometriosis, 47.06% of patients had sexual dysfunction. With the increase in staging of endometriosis, sexual dysfunction prevalence is also rising. FSD was 100% in patients with severe endometriosis as compared to 33.33% in minimal endometriosis. Conclusion: Every individual deserves good sexual life. The sexual dysfunction associated with endometriosis should also be taken into consideration while managing these patients.

  9. Routes to diagnosis for men with prostate cancer: men's cultural beliefs about how changes to their bodies and symptoms influence help-seeking actions. A narrative review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King-Okoye, Michelle; Arber, Anne; Faithfull, Sara

    2017-10-01

    To examine the findings of existing studies in relation to men's cultural beliefs about changes to their bodies relevant to prostate cancer and how these affect interpretation of bodily changes and help-seeking actions. We undertook a narrative review of studies conducted from 2004 to 2017 in 6 databases that highlighted men's beliefs and help-seeking actions for bodily changes suggestive of prostate cancer. Eighteen (18) studies reflecting men from various ethnicities and nationalities were included. The belief that blood and painful urination were warning signs to seek medical help delayed help-seeking among men compared to men that did not experience these symptoms. The belief that urinary symptoms such as dribbling, cystitis and urinary hesitancy were transient and related to ageing, normality and infection significantly delayed symptom appraisal and help-seeking. Men also held the belief that sexual changes, such as impotence and ejaculation dysfunction were private, embarrassing and a taboo. These beliefs impeded timely help-seeking. Cultural beliefs, spirituality and the role of wives/partners were significant for men to help appraise symptoms as requiring medical attention thus sanctioning the need for help-seeking. This review underscores a critical need for further empirical research into men's beliefs about bodily changes relevant to prostate health and how these beliefs affect their interpretation of symptoms and subsequent help-seeking actions. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  10. Methodology based in the fuzzy logic for constructing the objective functions in optimization problems of nuclear fuel: application to the cells radial design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barragan M, A.M.; Martin del Campo M, C.; Palomera P, M.A.

    2005-01-01

    A methodology based on Fuzzy Logic for the construction of the objective function of the optimization problems of nuclear fuel is described. It was created an inference system that responds, in certain form, as a human expert when it has the task of qualifying different radial designs of fuel cells. Specifically it is detailed how an inference system based based on Fuzzy Logic that has five enter variables and one exit variable was built, which corresponds to the objective function for the radial design of a fuel cell for a BWR. The use of Fuzzy with Mat lab offered the visualization capacity of the exit variable in function of one or two enter variables at the same time. This allowed to build, in appropriate way, the combination of the inference rules and the membership functions of those diffuse sets used for each one of the enter variables. The obtained objective function was used in an optimization process based on Taboo search. The new methodology was proven for the design of a cell used in a fuel assemble of the Laguna Verde reactor obtaining excellent results. (Author)

  11. The role of masturbation in healthy sexual development: perceptions of young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaestle, Christine E; Allen, Katherine R

    2011-10-01

    Despite efforts to identify masturbation as a strategy to improve sexual health, promote relational intimacy, and reduce unwanted pregnancy, STIs, and HIV transmission, masturbation as a context for healthy sexual development has been met with silence or trepidation in the scientific and educational communities. Relegated to the realm of commercial media, rather than rational discourse in families, schools, and the general public, young people receive mixed messages about this non-reproductive sexual behavior. In order to explore how young adults have learned about masturbation and currently perceive masturbation, we conducted a grounded theory study of 72 college students (56 females; 16 males) enrolled in a human sexuality class. Findings revealed that a young adult's perceptions of and feelings toward masturbation were the result of a developmental process that included: (1) learning about the act of masturbation and how to do it, (2) learning and internalizing the social contradiction of stigma and taboo surrounding this pleasurable act, and (3) coming to terms with this tension between stigma and pleasure. Although nearly all participants learned about masturbation through the media and peers (not parents or teachers), gender was salient in coming to terms with the contradiction of stigma and pleasure. Most of the women reported either still struggling with the contradiction or accepting it as normal. Most of the men recognized the beneficial aspects for healthy sexual development that result from masturbation. Both male and female participants identified differential sexual scripts as contributing to the double standard.

  12. Firewood use in Bulamogi County, Uganda: species selection, harvesting and consumption patterns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tabuti, J.R.S.; Dhillion, S.S.; Lye, K.A.

    2003-01-01

    This study was carried out in Bulamogi, Uganda, with the main objective of determining preferred firewood species, their harvesting and consumption patterns. Data collected through household and key-informants interviews, using open- and close-ended questionnaires and semi-structured interviews, showed that 48 plant species in 36 genera and 20 families are used as firewood. These plants have other uses as herbal medicines and in traditional cultural rites. There is almost total dependence on firewood for domestic cooking and small-scale industries. Firewood is used to fire bricks (55%), distil spirits (26%), cure fish (10%), cook food in restaurants (6%) and to produce charcoal (3%). Firewood for domestic use is collected mainly by women, and largely comprises of dead wood. The distances travelled to firewood collection areas are short and little time is spent. The harvesting of firewood for domestic use may have a lower direct impact on the native flora, than the harvesting of fuelwood for commercial use by small-scale industries and to make charcoal, which requires large amounts of wood that is often green. According to the community response, firewood is abundant but declining. This decline may be related to increasing demands generated by the growing human population of Bulamogi, and growing national need for charcoal. Cultural taboos that have hitherto played an important role in plant conservation appear to be weakening. There is limited trading of firewood in the community. (author)

  13. Rhazes, a pioneer in contribution to trials in medical practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghaffari, Farzaneh; Naseri, Mohsen; Jafari Hajati, Razieh; Zargaran, Arman

    2017-12-01

    Medical history explains that Persian physicians used scientific methods based on clinical experiences and observations for treatment from pre-Islamic time (before 637 AD) and centuries later (in the Islamic era). Rhazes was one of the Persian physicians acknowledged as a pharmacist, chemist and prominent scientific writer on various subjects of medicine and philosophy. In this study, we aimed to investigate clinical experiences, as well as the ethical and critical views of Rhazes in medical practice. Rhazes promoted ethics in the medical profession. He expressed critical key points about ancient written texts. He broke ancient physicians' taboos in medical theories and evaluated them based on his own experiences. He designed animal and preclinical evaluations for his theories and also performed the first clinical trials with control groups in the history. His critical views about medical sciences as well as his beliefs in experiments resulted in many medical, chemical and pharmaceutical findings. Therefore, in history, he can be considered as the pioneer in using trials and experiments for approving medical methods.

  14. Cultural Approach to HIV/AIDS Harm Reduction in Muslim Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasnain Memoona

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Muslim countries, previously considered protected from HIV/AIDS due to religious and cultural norms, are facing a rapidly rising threat. Despite the evidence of an advancing epidemic, the usual response from the policy makers in Muslim countries, for protection against HIV infection, is a major focus on propagating abstention from illicit drug and sexual practices. Sexuality, considered a private matter, is a taboo topic for discussion. Harm reduction, a pragmatic approach for HIV prevention, is underutilized. The social stigma attached to HIV/AIDS, that exists in all societies is much more pronounced in Muslim cultures. This stigma prevents those at risk from coming forward for appropriate counseling, testing, and treatment, as it involves disclosure of risky practices. The purpose of this paper is to define the extent of the HIV/AIDS problem in Muslim countries, outline the major challenges to HIV/AIDS prevention and treatment, and discuss the concept of harm reduction, with a cultural approach, as a strategy to prevent further spread of the disease. Recommendations include integrating HIV prevention and treatment strategies within existing social, cultural and religious frameworks, working with religious leaders as key collaborators, and provision of appropriate healthcare resources and infrastructure for successful HIV prevention and treatment programs in Muslim countries.

  15. The Greek mirror: the Uranians and their use of Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mader, D H

    2005-01-01

    The Uranians comprised a loosely knit group of British and American homosexual poets writing between approximately 1880 and 1930, sharing a number of basic cultural and literary assumptions derived on one hand from Walter Pater, and on the other from Walt Whitman. Although they used Oriental, Christian and other motifs, one of the major elements many shared was a use of various allusions and themes from ancient Greece, including paganism, male companionship or intimate friendship (which was not defined in terms of sameness), and democracy and a natural aristocracy of virtue, which they applied to the concerns of their own society and era. The model of male relationships which they advocated (and in at least some cases practiced) was almost uniformly asymmetrical, either by age or class, or both. In addition to their poetry, various theoretical writings by members of the group are also involved in the discussion, and this article argues that these historical/ literary allusions and themes should not be understood as means of evasion which allowed them to write of tabooed subjects safely, but as part of a consciously adopted artistic/cultural strategy for homosexual emancipation. It also suggests that their arguments should be reexamined as a corrective to the present egalitarian model of homosexuality.

  16. SACRED LANDSCAPES AS REPOSITORIES OF BIODIVERSITY. A CASE STUDY FROM THE HARIYALI DEVI SACRED LANDSCAPE, UTTARAKHAND

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    Yogesh GOKHALE

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The present study was carried out in the Hariyali Devi sacred landscape of Garhwal Himalaya in Uttarakhand State of India. The study area falls under the jurisdiction of the Forest Department, having the status of reserve forest. The land scape is dedicated to the deity “Hariyali Devi” and that plays a major role in conserving the biodiversity of this land scape. Taboos, rituals and socio-cultural practices are associated with conservation practices. The study recorded 98 plant species, representing 88 genera and 46 families with different economic values. The dominant family was Rosaceae, which recorded the highest (10 number of species. Out of 98 plant species the dominant life form contribution was of herbs (52, shrubs (26 and tree species (21. Almost 82 plants species in the landscape are of medicinal importance, 15 species are used for timber and construction purposes, 19 species with different edible plant parts, such as fruits, flowers, seeds and rhizomes. The information about the uses/economic value of different plant species was gathered directly by interviewing knowledgeable elderly local villagers (including women.

  17. Secularization and its Impact on the Jews’ Religious Life

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    Vasile Adrian

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Secularization brings forward a desacralized world, exclusively oriented to the material and concerned with the “fashion of the day” rather than with the Spirit of God. Secularism made man wander from god and ignore the religious, spiritual and moral principles found in Christianity and Judaism. Secularization caused all social, economic or political aspects be expressed outside these principles and, many times, against them. Man’s religiousness has become something personal and original that has nothing to do with community or the life of the community, thus becoming a strictly private or intimate option, and in many case even a taboo. Therefore we speak about a privatization of the religious feeling that has no connection to Christianity or Judaism. Unfortunately Judaism has been affected in some other way besides what concerns religious life. We are referring to the anti-Semite feeling that reached its peak at the beginning of the last century and tragically ended in the holocaust in which millions of Jews lost their lives.

  18. Shakespeare and Warwickshire Dialect

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    Rosalind Barber

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The article investigates whether Shakespeare used Warwickshire, Cotswold or Midlands dialect, focusing on the sources of recent claims by Bate, Kathman and Wood, most of which derive from early dialect dictionaries compiled by 18th and 19th century antiquarians. It determines that all of these claims – frequently used as a defence against the Shakespeare authorship question – fall into four categories: those based on errors of fact, well-known or widely-used words, poetic inventions, and those derived through circular reasoning. Two problems are identified. Firstly, the source texts on which these dialect claims rest were written two- to three-hundred years after the plays, by which time language use would not only have evolved, but would have been influenced by Shakespeare. Secondly, the continuing academic taboo surrounding the authorship question has meant that these claims, though easily refuted by searching the Oxford English Dictionary and the digitized texts of EEBO, have gone unchallenged in academia. It demonstrates that querying the validity of arguments derived from an assumed biography can – without in any way disproving that the man from Stratford wrote the body of works we call ‘Shakespeare’ – lead to a better understanding of the way Shakespeare actually used language, and the meanings he intended.

  19. Target Users' Expectations versus the Actual Compilation of a Shona Children's Dictionary

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    Esau Mangoya

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: The article discusses the challenges that confronted the team of compilers working on the monolingual Shona Children's Dictionary (henceforth SCD. It looks at the active involvement of the target users in shaping the project and discusses the considerations for the implementation of their recommenda-tions. Matters of concern include issues of headword selection, especially problems of dialect representation in the dictionary. The article also discusses the inclusion of grammatical information such as tone marking. The SCD is one of the many efforts to promote and raise the functions of the indigenous languages in Zim-babwe. Of special interest in this article is therefore the discussion on the inclusion of international words like those denoting weight, distance and mathematical and scientific concepts. The article also considers the treatment of taboo words in the SCD, which takes into account that society has to open up culturally to be able to unequivocally view some of the aspects of life with which present-day children are confronted. The article lastly discusses how a balance was reached for accommodating the target users' proposal for the inclusion of an elaborate back matter in view of the limited available scope and space of the SCD.

  20. [Historical Transition of Sexuality Education in Japan and Outline of Reproductive Health/Rights].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishioka, Emiko

    2018-01-01

    In this paper, we describe the historical transition of sexuality education in Japan and the direction of sexuality education taken by the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology (MEXT). Reproductive health/rights, a key concept in sex education, is also discussed. In Japanese society, discussion on sexuality has long been considered taboo. After the Second World War, sexuality education in Japan began as "purity education." From 1960 until the early 1970s, physical aspects such as genital organs, function, secondary sexual characteristics, and gender differences were emphasized. Comprehensive education as a human being, including physiological, psychological, and social aspects, began to be adopted in the late 1970s. In 2002, it was criticized that teaching genital terms at primary schools and teaching about sexual intercourse and contraceptive methods at junior high schools were "overdue guidance" and "extreme contents." Sexuality education in schools has become a problem and has stagnated for about 10 years. Currently, schools teach sexuality education that does not deviate from the MEXT course guidelines. The direction of MEXT regarding sexuality education should be examined from the basic position that sexual activity by children is inappropriate. Reproductive health/rights apply the concept of human rights to sexuality and reproduction. Reproductive health/rights are key concepts that support sex education and women's health.

  1. Organizational Careers: A forward theory

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    Barney G. Glaser, Ph.D., Hon. Ph.D.

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available In general, organizations obtain work from people by offering them some kind of career within their structures. The operation of organizations, therefore, depends on people’s assuming a career orientation toward them. To generate this orientation, organizations distribute rewards, working conditions, and prestige to their members according to career level; thus these benefits are properties of the organizational career. To advance in this career is to receive more or better of all or some of these benefits. Generally speaking, therefore, people work to advance their organizational careers. But also, generally speaking, people do not like to talk about their careers or to be asked about them in everyday conversations with many or unknown people. In this sense, a person’s own organizational career is a sensitive or “taboo topic.” Discussions with others about one’s career occur only under the most private, discreet conditions. As a result, while people may talk abstractly and generally about careers, these discussions are typically based on a combination of the little they know of their own career and much speculation. They often have very little particular or general knowledge based on actual careers. These observations apply also to a large sector or the sociological community, as indicated by a brief perusal of the table of contents of sociological monographs and readers on organizations. The topic of careers is seldom discussed and almost never concertedly focused upon.

  2. Gender and health analysis of sexual behaviour in south-western Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jegede, A S; Odumosu, O

    2003-04-01

    This paper reports the main results of a series of interviews conducted among the Yoruba of south-western Nigeria. Fifty men and fifty women differing in socio-demographic backgrounds were studied. The study revealed that during their first sexual experience, Yoruba girls are at risk of contacting sexually transmitted diseases and of having unplanned pregnancies because of the traditional control measures and lack of adequate sex education even among those from non-traditional backgrounds. Choice of marriage partner is influenced by the kin, which encourages early marriage and multiple sexual relationships through polygyny. Yoruba men do not like contraceptives and the women suffer more of the consequences of sexual relationships than men. Sexual decision-making in Yoruba culture is characterised by certain specific problems of structural and cultural origins such as separate lifestyle of men and women, seeing the discussion of sexuality as a taboo, male dominance, and the perceived side effects of contraceptives. There is need for expanded sexual and reproductive health education strategies targeted at both males and females in this community especially among the adolescent group.

  3. From Folklore to Scientific Evidence: Breast-Feeding and Wet-Nursing in Islam and the Case of Non-Puerperal Lactation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moran, Lia; Gilad, Jacob

    2007-01-01

    Breast-feeding practice has an important medical and socio-cultural role. It has many anthropological aspects concerning the “power structures” that find their expression in breast-feeding and the practices that formed around it, both socially, scientifically, and legally-speaking. Breast-feeding has been given much attention by religions and taboos, folklore, and misconception abound around it making it a topic of genuine curiosity. This paper aims at expanding the spectrum of folklore associated with breast-feeding. The paper deals with historical, religious, and folkloristic aspects of breast-feeding, especially wet-nursing, in Islam and focuses on an intriguing Islamic tale on breast-feeding - lactation by non-pregnant women (or non-puerperal lactation). Apparently, accounts of non-puerperal lactation are not restricted to Islam but have been documented in various societies and religions throughout centuries. Two medical situations - hyperprolactinemia and induced lactation, appear as possible explanations for this phenomenon. This serves as an excellent example for the value of utilizing contemporary scientific knowledge in order to elucidate the origin, anthropology and evolvement of ancient myth and superstition. PMID:23675050

  4. Sexuality and Aging: discussions about AIDS

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    Michele Marinho da Silveira

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The aging population as well as the sexual liberation has caused many taboos to be broken, and even greater access to drugs that stimulate sexual activity provided for the elderly a sense of greater security to maintain sexual activity, this has generated an increase in cases of AIDS in these individuals. AIDS is a disease caused by the HIV virus that affects the body's immune system and presented as one of the most complex and challenging ever faced by mankind pandemics. Sexuality in the elderly that was neglected by researchers, professionals and society in general, until very recently, today is cause for concern. Based on this, the objective of this study was a reflection on the process of aging of the population and a rising rate of HIV infection among the elderly. It is intended to emphasize that, despite its increase, this segment still appears to be invisible to the eyes of society and the state and that the frequency and quality of sexual activity has not been accompanied by information and actions for the prevention of sexually transmitted diseases that portion of the population.

  5. When and how will wind power be given substantial room to develop? A critical discussion of current case law and practical paths to resolution; Wann und wie wird der Windenergie substanziell Raum verschafft? Eine kritische Diskussion der aktuellen Rechtsprechung und praktische Loesungsansaetze

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bovet, Jana [Helmholtz-Zentrum fuer Umweltforschung GmbH, Leipzig (Germany). Dept. fuer Umwelt- und Planungsrecht; Kindler, Lars [Kammergericht Berlin (Germany)

    2013-11-01

    The present article starts out by presenting current climate policy goals at the European and national level regarding the use of renewable energy. These goals are then set in relation to the findings of current land requirement studies. In addressing wind power, the authors outline the legal framework governing regional planning for wind power plant siting and then go on to pick up current lines of discussion on this issue. These relate to the development of a planning procedure towards establishing a coherent overall development concept, this having been declared mandatory by some courts, and to a differentiation between ''hard and soft taboo criteria''. This is followed by an investigation of the question when wind is to be given room to develop ''in substantial manner'', and the possibility of steering developments to this end by means of quantitative goals is discussed. The article closes by explaining the influence of the typing of areas under Article 8 Section 7 of the German Regional Planning Law on the development of wind power.

  6. “The Foresight to Become a Mermaid”: Folkloric Cyborg Women in Éilís Ní Dhuibhne’s Short Stories

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    Rebecca Graham

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Éilís Ní Dhuibhne is both a folklorist and a feminist, who “took an interest in rewriting or re-inventing women’s history, a history which had been largely unwritten” (Ní Dhuibhne, “Negotiating” 73. Folklore stories and motifs abound in her writing. Elke D’hoker argues that Ní Dhuibhne reimagines and rewrites folktales to “reflect and interpret the social values and attitudes of a postmodern society” (D’hoker 137. The repurposing of folklore allows Ní Dhuibhne to interrogate some of the complex and controversial ways that Irish society has attempted to represent and control women, entrenching taboos about female behaviours and sexualities. Using Donna Haraway’s cyborg feminism and Karen Barad’s deployment of Haraway’s theory of diffraction, this article focuses on issues of voice and orality, and the female body in “The Mermaid Legend”, “Midwife to the Fairies”, and “Holiday in the Land of Murdered Dreams”, to argue that Ní Dhuibhne’s repurposing of folklore is a radically feminist undertaking. All three short stories, which feature female protagonists, reveal diverse, transgressive, sexual mothers and maidens whose symbolic connections with folklore allow them to challenge the restrictive constructions of women in Irish society, creating spaces to explore alternative, heterogeneous, feminist re-conceptions of identity and belonging.

  7. Making death 'good': instructional tales for dying in newspaper accounts of Jade Goody's death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frith, Hannah; Raisborough, Jayne; Klein, Orly

    2013-03-01

    Facilitating a 'good' death is a central goal for hospices and palliative care organisations. The key features of such a death include an acceptance of death, an open awareness of and communication about death, the settling of practical and interpersonal business, the reduction of suffering and pain, and the enhancement of autonomy, choice and control. Yet deaths are inherently neither good nor bad; they require cultural labour to be 'made over' as good. Drawing on media accounts of the controversial death of UK reality television star Jade Goody, and building on existing analyses of her death, we examine how cultural discourses actively work to construct deaths as good or bad and to position the dying and those witnessing their death as morally accountable. By constructing Goody as bravely breaking social taboos by openly acknowledging death, by contextualising her dying as occurring at the end of a life well lived and by emphasising biographical continuity and agency, newspaper accounts serve to position themselves as educative rather than exploitative, and readers as information-seekers rather than ghoulishly voyeuristic. We argue that popular culture offers moral instruction in dying well which resonates with the messages from palliative care. © 2012 The Authors. Sociology of Health & Illness © 2012 Foundation for the Sociology of Health & Illness/Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  8. Working-Class Ideas and Experiences of Sexuality in Twentieth-Century Britain: Regionalism as a Category of Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Helen

    2018-03-01

    This article will explore region as a category of analysis for understanding gender, sexual cultures, and the expression of same-sex desire. In unpicking the notion of regional difference in both its tangible and intangible forms, it outlines the corresponding impact on how sexual cultures developed and were experienced in twentieth-century Britain. By recognizing that the area in which an individual lived could have as much impact on their sense of self and their sexual experiences as issues of race, gender, and class, a new and fruitful avenue of interpretation is opened up for the history of sexuality and twentieth-century British history more broadly. Such a methodology has the potential to add a new dimension to all histories of non-state-sanctioned sexual experience such as illegitimacy, premarital sex, extramarital affairs, and prostitution. In using regional case studies and interrogating ideas of sexual taboo, this article offers a unique interpretation of sexual experience that destabilizes current London-centric narratives and offers a more democratic and nuanced history of sex.

  9. CAROLIN GOERZIG. TALKING TO TERRORISTS: CONCESSIONS AND THE RENUNCIATION OF VIOLENCE. REVIEWED BY: SCOTT NICHOLAS ROMANIUK

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    Scott Nicholas Romaniuk

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available “Talking to terrorists remains a taboo” (Goerzig, 2010: p. 125. The adoption and reinforcement of such a moral position by many Western and non-Western governments alike has played no small role in, to a large extent, states to contain the violence and insecurity bred by terror activist in the post-Cold war and post-9/11 periods. Yet, few policymakers seem to recognize the danger in building political and social environments in which dialogue between states and terrorist groups and organizations is little more than depravity or even a betrayal to entire populations. To be sure, the protection of civilian populations has been entrusted to states that might otherwise learn better means of terrorism deterrence if lines of communication between states and terrorists were less constrained. The taboo of which Carolin Goerzig speaks, is one that “has been institutionalized in a legal framework in which … academics are being asked to report on their students and in which attempting to understand the subjectivities of ‘terrorist’ suspects could be interpreted as a ‘glorification of terrorism’” (Jackson quoted in Goerzig, 2010: p. 125.

  10. Assessing Iranian adolescent girls' needs for sexual and reproductive health information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosavi, Seyed Abbas; Babazadeh, Raheleh; Najmabadi, Khadijeh Mirzaii; Shariati, Mohammad

    2014-07-01

    To explore the views and experiences of adolescent girls and key adults regarding the necessity of providing sexual and reproductive health (SRH) information and services for adolescent girls in Iran. This was a qualitative study; the data were coded and categorized in content analysis by MAXQDA10 and were gathered through focus groups with adolescent girls and their mothers and semi-structured interviews with school counselors, sociologists, health providers, state and nongovernmental directors of health programs, clergy, and health policy makers in the Iranian cities of Mashhad, Tehran, Shahroud, and Qom. There were six main reasons for the need to provide SRH services for adolescent girls: a lack of adequate knowledge about SRH, easy access to inaccurate information sources, cultural and social changes, increasing risky sexual behaviors among adolescents, religion's emphasis on sex training of children and adolescents, and the existence of cultural taboos. Most participants confirmed the necessity of providing SRH services for adolescent girls, so instead of talking about provision or non-provision of these services, it is important for policy makers to plan and provide SRH services that can be consistent with cultural and religious values for adolescent girls. Copyright © 2014 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Are e-cigarettes beneficial for public health: Hume's guillotine – The debate continues?

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    Sundeep Mishra

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Cigarette smoking is the most common preventable cause of death which has led to a search for healthier alternatives to tobacco smoke. Electronic cigarettes are devoid of many harmful constituents found in cigarette smoke and are therefore being positioned as safer alternative to tobacco smoke. The carcinogenic potential may be of lower magnitude compared with cigarette smoke, but it is still there. The use of e-cigarettes, however, is fairly new, so its long-term effects are still unknown. Moreover, they continue to posses the cardiovascular side-effects and are certainly as addicting. Thus on one hand while their substitution could lead to reduction of some side-effects of tobacco smoke, its use may be just shifting the modality of addiction and will be unlikely to lead to total abstinence from tobacco products. On the other hand there is a fear that its use could lead to loosening of the taboo currently associated with use of tobacco products and so the benefits of years of advocacy to ban tobacco products might be lost. Thus currently the scientific community is divided about role of e-cigarettes.

  12. Effect of attitudes towards patients on sexual history taking: a survey of Iranian-American physicians in California, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rashidian, Mitra; Minichiello, Victor; Knutsen, Synnove F; Ghamsary, Mark

    2017-11-01

    Although obtaining sexual history from patients is essential, the attitudes of physicians can become a barrier to sexual health care. Iranian-American physicians may face particular challenges because talking about sexuality is considered a taboo within their culture. Our study examined these physicians' attitudes when taking a sexual history from their patients. In 2013, a self-administrated questionnaire was sent to 1550 Iranian-American physicians in California, USA. Using factor analysis, the principal components approach with a Varimax rotation was used on a set of 12-item questions (five-point Likert scales) to detect latent factors that explain attitudes affecting sexual history taking. Scores are generated to determine physicians' attitudes towards sexual history taking. In total, 354 questionnaires were returned (23% response rate). Three factors were identified as internally consistent (Cronbach's α=0.84 - 0.94): (1) attitude towards various patients; (2) female sexuality; and (3) age and marriage. Significant association were found between these three factors and some variables such as physicians' gender, country of medical graduation, religion, birthplace and age. Results revealed that cultural attitudes are important factors affecting physicians' involvement in sexual history taking. Additional studies from this population and other subpopulations of US physicians are needed. New strategies that reflect on physicians' attitude on sexual healthcare delivery is needed. If confirmed in other studies, our findings could have implications for the training of medical graduates globally.

  13. Family matters: effects of birth order, culture, and family dynamics on surrogate decision-making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Christopher T; McMahan, Ryan D; Williams, Brie A; Sharma, Rashmi K; Sudore, Rebecca L

    2014-01-01

    Cultural attitudes about medical decision-making and filial expectations may lead some surrogates to experience stress and family conflict. Thirteen focus groups with racially and ethnically diverse English and Spanish speakers from county and Veterans Affairs hospitals, senior centers, and cancer support groups were conducted to describe participants' experiences making serious or end-of-life decisions for others. Filial expectations and family dynamics related to birth order and surrogate decision-making were explored using qualitative, thematic content analysis, and overarching themes from focus group transcripts were identified. The mean age of the 69 participants was 69 ± 14, and 29% were African American, 26% were white, 26% were Asian or Pacific Islander, and 19% were Latino. Seventy percent of participants engaged in unprompted discussions about birth order and family dynamics. Six subthemes were identified within three overarching categories: communication (unspoken expectations and discussion of death as taboo), emotion (emotional stress and feelings of loneliness), and conflict (family conflict and potential solutions to prevent conflict). These findings suggest that birth order and family dynamics can have profound effects on surrogate stress and coping. Clinicians should be aware of potential unspoken filial expectations for firstborns and help facilitate communication between the patient, surrogate, and extended family to reduce stress and conflict. © Published 2013. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the U.S.A.

  14. Family Matters: Effects of Birth Order, Culture, and Family Dynamics on Surrogate Decision Making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Christopher T.; McMahan, Ryan D.; Williams, Brie A.; Sharma, Rashmi K.; Sudore, Rebecca L.

    2014-01-01

    Cultural attitudes about medical decision making and filial expectations may lead some surrogates to experience stress and family conflict. Thirteen focus groups with racially and ethnically diverse English- and Spanish-speakers from county and Veterans hospitals, senior centers, and cancer support groups were conducted to describe participants’ experiences making serious or end-of-life decisions for others. Filial expectations and family dynamics related to birth order and surrogate decision making were explored using qualitative, thematic content analysis and overarching themes from focus group transcripts were identified. The mean age of the 69 participants was 69 years ± 14 and 29% were African American, 26% were White, 26% were Asian/Pacific Islander, and 19% were Latino. Seventy percent of participants engaged in unprompted discussions about birth order and family dynamics. Six subthemes were identified within 3 overarching categories of communication, emotion, and conflict: Communication – (1) unspoken expectations and (2) discussion of death as taboo; Emotion – (3) emotional stress and (4) feelings of loneliness; and Conflict – (5) family conflict and (6) potential solutions to prevent conflict. These findings suggest that birth order and family dynamics can have profound effects on surrogate stress and coping. Clinicians should be aware of potential unspoken filial expectations for firstborns and help facilitate communication between the patient, surrogate, and extended family to reduce stress and conflict. PMID:24383459

  15. A qualitative analysis of multi-level barriers to HIV testing among women in Lebanon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Kirsty A; Keene, Danya E; Pachankis, John E; Fattal, Omar; Rizk, Nesrine; Khoshnood, Kaveh

    2017-09-01

    While the number of HIV cases in the Middle East and North Africa region is low compared to other regions, recent studies show that incidence is increasing especially among high-risk populations; in particular, little is known about women and HIV in the region. Through semi-structured interviews with sexual healthcare providers and staff at non-governmental organisations, we sought to understand barriers to HIV testing among women in Lebanon. Using snowball sampling, key informants were recruited from greater Beirut (12 physicians, 9 non-governmental organisation staff). Data were analysed using a grounded theory framework. Findings identified barriers to HIV testing among women at each level of an adapted social-ecological model (i.e. social-cultural barriers, policy barriers, interpersonal healthcare provider barriers and intrapersonal barriers). Primary findings include the culture of sex as taboo; lack of sexual health education among women; fear of disclosing HIV testing and diagnosis; financial barriers linked to stigmatising insurance policies; and provider attitudes towards women. Findings can be used to inform HIV-related sexual health interventions at multiple levels for women in Lebanon and the greater region.

  16. Perspectives in the selection of hyaluronic acid fillers for facial wrinkles and aging skin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hannah E John, Richard D Price

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Hannah E John, Richard D PriceDepartment of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, Addenbrookes Hospital, Cambridge University Teaching Hospitals NHS Trust, Cambridge, UKAbstract: Aesthetic surgery is, in the USA at least, no longer a taboo subject. Outside North America, public acceptance continues to grow as more procedures are performed each year. While there appears, anecdotally, to be a decrease in patients undergoing cosmetic treatments because of the global financial crisis, the overall trend remains upward. Although popular television programs espouse the benefits of surgery, it is nonsurgical procedures that account, numerically, for the majority of procedures performed; in the USA, there was a 48% growth from 2000 to 2008 in nonsurgical treatments undertaken by women, and 64% in men and while the average surgeon might perform 60 blepharoplasty operations in 2007, (she would also undertake 375 botulinum injections, and almost 200 filler injections of varying sorts. Clearly there is enthusiasm for nonsurgical treatments, and this trend appears to be rising. With this in mind, we present an overview of the commonest filler injection material, hyaluronic acid. We present the mechanism of action, the purported risks and benefits, and briefly discuss technique.Keywords: hyaluronic acid, filler injection, nonsurgical procedures, technique

  17. Neuvěřitelné – vozíčkáři jezdí na kole, tančí nebo skáčou s padákem! Kolektivní sportovní aktivity vozíčkářů v létě 2015 a resocializace hendikepovaných prostřednictvím sportu

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martina Henrichová

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available My study concerns issues dealing with the social rehabilitation of people with spinal cord injuries. I want to show that disability still remains a taboo for many people. The greatest barriers facing disabled people are prejudice, discrimination and social isolation. This is largely caused by the media representation of disability, which is often stereotypical and one-dimensional. I presume that sport is a very good means of returning to active life. It also has a great influence on physical, psychological and social health. The positive images of athletes with disabilities can change the stereotypes of disability in the media and in film, as well as the perception of disability by the public. I work with my own experience – since 2013 I have been a quadriplegic, and sport (especially dancing helps me with physical and social rehabilitation. My research has a quantitative and qualitative part. Materials were collected on my own, with the help of informants at the sports courses of Centrum Paraple and Sportovní klub vozíčkářů Praha. In the quantitative part, I am interested in statistical information regarding gender, age, diagnosis, etc. The qualitative part deals with personal assistance during the courses and the relationship between assistant and wheelchair user.

  18. Gestación y desplazamiento: fusión de prácticas para el bienestar del hijo

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    Alix Zoraida Bohórquez-De Figueroa

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To describe the meaning of caring for pregnant women displaced from their values, beliefs and practices in regard to self care and her child to be born. Methodology: This study was conducted in Cúcuta (NS on the year 2006. We use as methodology as ethno nursing (Leininger with a view to exploring the prospect emic of pregnant women. For data analysis method was used by James P. Spradley. 7 pregnant women who participated were formed in the key informants. It performs sampling saturation by-case basis and by subject, on average 3 interviews were conducted by an informant. Results and Discussion: On the present study was established as a central theme: “pregnancy in the displacement: stage merger of practice for the welfare of the unborn child”, were found 7 practice for to protect the unborn child. On each of these are practices that reflect different beliefs, myths and taboos aimed at ensuring the welfare of the child. Conclusions: In reviewing each of the dimensions we found that some of these ptractics are beneficial, others harmless and some of them damaging to health of mother and unborned child, bringing important implications for prenatal care not just on nursing, but also for the different disciplines involved in caring for pregnant women Kaywords: Culture, prenatal care, persons displacement, Pregnant women- ethnology.

  19. The semantics of English Borrowings in Arabic Media Language: The case of Arab Gulf States Newspapers

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    Anwar A. H. Al-Athwary

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The present paper investigates the semantics of English loanwords in Arabic media language (AML. The loanword data are collected from a number of Arab Gulf states newspapers (AGSNs. They  are analyzed semantically from the points of view of semantic change, semantic domains, and the phenomenon of synonymy resulting from lexical borrowing. The semantic analysis has revealed that AML borrowings from English occur in fifteen distinctive semantic domains. Domains that are related to terms of technical and scientific nature are found ranking much higher (9% - 18% than those domains containing nontechnical elements (1% - 8% with the computer and technology category (18% is the most dominant domain. Almost all common mechanisms of semantic change (extension, restriction, amelioration, pejoration, and metaphorical extension are found at work in the context of AML borrowings. The tendency of semantic change in the overwhelming majority of AML borrowings is towards restriction.  Factors like need, semantic similarity, and factors of social and psychological considerations (e.g. prestige, taboo seem to be the potent factors at interplay in semantic change. The first two, i.e. need and semantic similarity, are the most common reasons in most types of semantic change. The problem of synonymy lies in those loanwords that have “Arabic equivalents” in the language. The study claims that this phenomenon could be attributed to the two simultaneous processes of lexical borrowing and?ištiqa:q (the modern efforts of deriving equivalent neologisms.

  20. Globalized mobility and the loss of the collective? Refugees and global palyers: An ethnopsychoanlaytical study

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    Ernestine Wohlfart

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The essay sheds a light on mobile individuals, the motivation behind their movement, and their experience in foreign social contexts. It is based on group analytical and interdisciplinary discourses. The focus lies on possible changings of the collective in globalized worlds- approached by the view of individuals. What could imply the loss of the primary group and the perception of this loss for the individual. What are the mobile individuals (refugees and global players looking to find abroad, what are the promises, the demands and necessities. Material: I am offering for discussion texts from an ethnopsychoanalytical study focusing on two very different groups of mobile individuals. On one hand, interviews with so-called "global players" or "job nomads" and on the other hand interviews with African refugees. The analysis of the material leads to the first hypothesis: The option offered by a globalised world to find an individual place and freedom everywhere in the world is associated with a lack of intersubjective spaces, a lack of embodiment in a group, less sharing of common meanings, rules and taboos.Keywords: Intersubjective space; Mobility; Global players; Refugees

  1. Globalized mobility and the loss of the collective? Refugees and global palyers: An ethnopsychoanlaytical study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ernestine Wohlfart

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The essay sheds a light on mobile individuals, the motivation behind their movement, and their experience in foreign social contexts. It is based on group analytical and interdisciplinary discourses. The focus lies on possible changings of the collective in globalized worlds- approached by the view of individuals. What could imply the loss of the primary group and the perception of this loss for the individual. What are the mobile individuals (refugees and global players looking to find abroad, what are the promises, the demands and necessities. Material: I am offering for discussion texts from an ethnopsychoanalytical study focusing on two very different groups of mobile individuals. On one hand, interviews with so-called "global players" or "job nomads" and on the other hand interviews with African refugees. The analysis of the material leads to the first hypothesis: The option offered by a globalised world to find an individual place and freedom everywhere in the world is associated with a lack of intersubjective spaces, a lack of embodiment in a group, less sharing of common meanings, rules and taboos.Keywords: Intersubjective space; Mobility; Global players; Refugees

  2. Contradictory sexual norms and expectations for young people in rural Northern Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wight, Daniel; Plummer, Mary L; Mshana, Gerry; Wamoyi, Joyce; Shigongo, Zachayo S; Ross, David A

    2006-02-01

    There has been a long-running debate as to whether sexual cultures in sub-Saharan Africa are permissive or characterised by restrictive rules, rituals and self-restraint. This paper, based on participant observation data, outlines the main features of sexual culture in rural northern Tanzania and highlights both permissive and restrictive norms and expectations for young people. It also illustrates how sexual beliefs are socially constructed and subject to social change. Sexual activity is constrained by clear norms of school pupil abstinence, female sexual respectability and taboos around the discussion of sex. However, these norms are incompatible with several widely held expectations: that sexual activity is inevitable unless prevented, sex is a female resource to be exploited, restrictions on sexual activity are relaxed at festivals, and masculine esteem is boosted through sexual experience. Differential commitment to these norms and expectations reflects conflicts between generations and genders. Young people appear to manage the contradictions in these norms by concealing their sexual relationships. This almost certainly contributes to their short duration and the high levels of partner change, since relationships are not reinforced through social recognition and there is little scope to develop intimacy through non-sexual contacts.

  3. Bangladesh women report postpartum health problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodburn, L

    1994-02-01

    The Bangladesh Rural Advancement Committee conducted operational research in Bangladesh to examine postpartum health problems. Researchers conducted focus groups, indepth interviews, and observation. More than 40% of the postpartum women had a delivery-related health problem by 2 weeks after delivery. 52% had signs or symptoms of anemia. Body needs after pregnancy, lactation, and blood loss during delivery exacerbate the nutritional anemia common to Bangladeshi women. 17% of the postpartum women had signs of infections. More than 50% had severe malnutrition, worsened by food taboos during the postpartum period. 60% of infant deaths occur in the neonatal period. The mortality risk is elevated in low birth weight (LBW) infants. In this study, more than 50% of the newborns were LBW infants. Many Bangladeshi mothers discard the colostrum and begin breast feeding several days after delivery. 11% of the postpartum women had breast problem (e.g., cracked nipples). Women believed that susceptibility to evil spirits accounted for their being more vulnerable to health problems during the postpartum. They feared leaving the household. These findings show a need for home visits to provide valuable postpartum care.

  4. Air pollution: a smoking gun for cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wei; Qian, Chao-Nan; Zeng, Yi-Xin

    2014-04-01

    Once considered a taboo topic or stigma, cancer is the number one public health enemy in the world. Once a product of an almost untouchable industry, tobacco is indisputably recognized as a major cause of cancer and a target for anticancer efforts. With the emergence of new economic powers in the world, especially in highly populated countries such as China, air pollution has rapidly emerged as a smoking gun for cancer and has become a hot topic for public health debate because of the complex political, economic, scientific, and technologic issues surrounding the air pollution problem. This editorial and the referred articles published in this special issue of the Chinese Journal of Cancer discuss these fundamental questions. Does air pollution cause a wide spectrum of cancers? Should air pollution be considered a necessary evil accompanying economic transformation in developing countries? Is an explosion of cancer incidence coming to China and how soon will it arrive? What must be done to prevent this possible human catastrophe? Finally, the approaches for air pollution control are also discussed.

  5. Gender Bias Affects Forests Worldwide

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    Marlène Elias

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Gender biases persist in forestry research and practice. These biases result in reduced scientific rigor and inequitable, ineffective, and less efficient policies, programs, and interventions. Drawing from a two-volume collection of current and classic analyses on gender in forests, we outline five persistent and inter-related themes: gendered governance, tree tenure, forest spaces, division of labor, and ecological knowledge. Each emerges across geographic regions in the northern and southern hemisphere and reflects inequities in women’s and men’s ability to make decisions about and benefit from trees, forests, and their products. Women’s ability to participate in community-based forest governance is typically less than men’s, causing concern for social equity and forest stewardship. Women’s access to trees and their products is commonly more limited than men’s, and mediated by their relationship with their male counterparts. Spatial patterns of forest use reflect gender norms and taboos, and men’s greater access to transportation. The division of labor results in gender specialization in the collection of forest products, with variations in gender roles across regions. All these gender differences result in ecological knowledge that is distinct but also complementary and shifting across the genders. The ways gender plays out in relation to each theme may vary across cultures and contexts, but the influence of gender, which intersects with other factors of social differentiation in shaping forest landscapes, is global.

  6. ROMANIAN SOCIAL CARE WORKERS' EXPOSURE TO WORKPLACE VIOLENCE

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    Oana I. ZIGMAN

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Workplace violence in the social care sector is not a problem that appeared overnight. It was and still is a major concern, and its disastrous effects, on both organization and employees have been largely documented in various papers and studies around the world. This study analyses social care workers’ perceptions and experiences with workplace violence, phenomenon which, until a few years ago, has been largely ignored in the Romanian research field, and is still considered to this day a taboo subject in the organizational environment. Even if most employers recognize its general existence they tend to deny or refuse to accept that their institution or company is affected by it. The present paper will provide information concerning problematic issues in studying the phenomenon and will try to provide an image of the social care workers’ perception and attitude towards risk and workplace violence. The research will try to identify differences in experience, exposure and resistance to violence in the workplace based on various variables like sex or job characteristics.

  7. Gender and social change: new forms of independence for Simbu women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, P

    1988-12-01

    This article discusses gender roles and behavior and changing relationships between the sexes resulting from Western influence on the Simbu people in Papua New Guinea. Sexual segregation and taboos, cult secrecy, and male domination of women have weakened during 50 years of contact with the West. The observations upon which this paper is based were made during 1958-65 and through individual and group interviews obtained in 1976, 1984, 1985, and 1987. Simbu women have been self-sufficient while appearing to comply with male dominance and group claims. More younger women are now asserting their individuality. With Westernization, many home crafts have been abandoned. Women have responded to new ideas and economic goals by promoting the education of their children. A notable few women have achieved professional positions or business success and have joined a new class of elite citizens with opportunities to expand their lives in ways formerly unimaginable. Both urban men and women retain close ties with their rural families. Urban men depend upon rural support groups to achieve their political ambitions. When successful, these men distribute favors to their rural supporters. Urban women may incorporate rural relatives into their urban households, but many reject their own domestic roles. This new urban elite is still in the formative stage and it is impossible to predict whether it will ultimately reject its rural foundation to embrace an urban multi-ethnic affiliation.

  8. PERSEPSI PEREMPUAN TENTANG PERCERAIAN DI KOTA PADANG

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    Rozalinda

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Woman Perception on Divorce in Padang Central City. Islam set down marriage rule as a means of acquiring happiness. In reality, however, it marriage conflict may occur, and often cannot be resolved and that it leads to divorce. This study is a qualitative study seeking to reveal the causes of increasing divorce rate in the Religious Court of Padang, and to unveil women’s perceptions concerning divorce in Padang. By using qualitative method, the data is collected from the documents of the Grade I A Religious Court of Padang, and interviews with those women who file legal divorce suit, judges, clerks, lawyers, and women scholars. The findings reveal that the undelying factors of divorce rate increase are due to women’s education improvement, increasinglegal awareness, the availability of career opportunities, changing social stigma against divorced women and weakening understanding of religious values among women. Women in Padang perceive that divorce is no longer a taboo and embarrassing, since grants womens’ rights to file divorce in the court, and thus seen as an alternative solution to.

  9. Automatic imitation of pro- and antisocial gestures: Is implicit social behavior censored?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cracco, Emiel; Genschow, Oliver; Radkova, Ina; Brass, Marcel

    2018-01-01

    According to social reward theories, automatic imitation can be understood as a means to obtain positive social consequences. In line with this view, it has been shown that automatic imitation is modulated by contextual variables that constrain the positive outcomes of imitation. However, this work has largely neglected that many gestures have an inherent pro- or antisocial meaning. As a result of their meaning, antisocial gestures are considered taboo and should not be used in public. In three experiments, we show that automatic imitation of symbolic gestures is modulated by the social intent of these gestures. Experiment 1 (N=37) revealed reduced automatic imitation of antisocial compared with prosocial gestures. Experiment 2 (N=118) and Experiment 3 (N=118) used a social priming procedure to show that this effect was stronger in a prosocial context than in an antisocial context. These findings were supported in a within-study meta-analysis using both frequentist and Bayesian statistics. Together, our results indicate that automatic imitation is regulated by internalized social norms that act as a stop signal when inappropriate actions are triggered. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Towards gender equality in health in Afghanistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samar, Sima; Aqil, Anwer; Vogel, Joanna; Wentzel, Lora; Haqmal, Sharifullah; Matsunaga, Etsuko; Vuolo, Elena; Abaszadeh, Nigina

    2014-01-01

    The Afghanistan gender inequality index shows that 70% loss in development is due to the limited participation of women in the workforce, low education and poor women's health outcomes. However, since the fall of the Taliban regime in 2002, gender inequalities in health have improved. This paper will review factors that led to these improvements. The review draws upon information from various sources, including formative and applied research, surveys and existing information systems. The review showed gender differentials in morbidity, mortality and accessing and utilising health services. Health professionals have expressed inadequate medical knowledge and interpersonal skills to address sensitive issues, such as domestic, physical and sexual violence. Discussing sexuality and its impact on health remains taboo both within and outside of the medical profession. Strict cultural norms restrict a woman's autonomy to seek health care, choose a marriage partner and have control over her body, indicating a need to increase awareness about how harmful social practices adversely affect health. The policy review showed that the Ministry of Public Health has made a commitment to reducing gender inequity in health and developed a two-pronged action plan to improve health providers' skills in handling gender-sensitive issues and mass media campaigns to change social norms.

  11. Bereavement, silence and culture within a peer-led HIV/AIDS-prevention strategy for vulnerable children in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van der Heijden, Ingrid; Swartz, Sharlene

    2010-04-01

    In addressing the psychosocial effects of the HIV and AIDS pandemic among vulnerable children, the issue of bereavement appears inadequately addressed. Amid the global discourse on children orphaned and made vulnerable by HIV and AIDS, this paper explores how cultural contexts and social environments in South Africa shape children's experience of grief. The argument draws on a number of qualitative studies and uses empirical evidence from an evaluation of a peer-led HIV/AIDS-prevention strategy aimed at providing psychosocial support for 10- to 13-year-old South African children living in resource-poor communities. The paper reveals a central paradox regarding how the intervention's objective of talking about death and eliciting memories of deceased loved ones with young children is confounded by cultural practices located in notions of silence and the need to protect children. The paper acknowledges the 'culture of silence' surrounding death in some African contexts, but concludes that peer-led strategies have the potential to naturally circumvent these cultural taboos, simultaneously creating a much-needed space for young children to cry and talk among themselves, even if remaining silent at home in the presence of adults.

  12. Religion, an obstacle to workplace spirituality and employee wellness?

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    Alan Bester

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A desperate need for employee wellness is echoed in work-related stories. Workplace spirituality is presented as an integral part of achieving and maintaining employee wellness. However, there is an observed gap of spirituality in employee wellness programmes and in the absence of the workplace spiritual helper in multidisciplinary wellness teams. Using a postfoundational notion of practical theology, I have explored one of the reasons for this gap, namely workplace spirituality�s association to religion. When spirituality is viewed through the lens of religion, it is overlooked as a vehicle of help. This is a consequence of the obstacles of the taboo of religious discussion, the complexity of religious plurality, the dominant voice of secularism and unhelpful religiosity. A proposal is made for a definition of spirituality that describes the relationship between spirituality and religion that overcomes the religionrelated obstacles to the development of workplace spirituality and so enable spirituality�s contribution in wellness.Intradisciplinary and/or interdisciplinary implications: The research includes an interdisciplinary collaboration with a Human Resource (HR manager, social worker, arts therapist, clinical pastoral counsellor, medical practitioner, psychologist, businessperson and two psychiatrists that underscores the collaborative effort in wellness. There is an intradisciplinary challenge to those who restrict the view of spirituality to the experience of religion.

  13. Prevalence and determinants of child maltreatment among high school students in Southern China: A large scale school based survey

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    Chen WQ

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Child maltreatment can cause significant physical and psychological problems. The present study aimed to investigate the prevalence and determinants of child maltreatment in Guangzhou, China, where such issues are often considered a taboo subject. Methods A school-based survey was conducted in southern China in 2005. 24 high schools were selected using stratified random sampling strategy based on their districts and bandings. The self-administered validated Chinese version of parent-child Conflict Tactics Scale (CTSPC was used as the main assessment tool to measure the abusive experiences encountered by students in the previous six months. Results The response rate of this survey was 99.7%. Among the 6592 responding students, the mean age was 14.68. Prevalence of parental psychological aggression, corporal punishment, severe and very serve physical maltreatment in the past 6 months were 78.3%, 23.2%, 15.1% and 2.8% respectively. The prevalence of sexual abuse is 0.6%. The most commonly cited reasons for maltreatment included 'disobedience to parents', 'poor academic performance', and 'quarrelling between parents'. Age, parental education, places of origins and types of housing were found to be associated with physical maltreatments whereas gender and fathers' education level were associated with sexual abuse. Conclusion Though largely unspoken, child maltreatment is a common problem in China. Identification of significant determinants in this study can provide valuable information for teachers and health professionals so as to pay special attention to those at-risk children.

  14. AIDS education from a front line worker's perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waines, R

    1993-01-01

    The author is an AIDS educator working in Vancouver, Canada, who does not agree with current HIV prevention tactics which bombard audiences with information on HIV and its consequences and preventive approaches. It should be clear by now that inundating people with information while ignoring the emotions behind their choices does not work. Efforts must be made to close the gap between individual knowledge and action. The author has learned over his four-year tenure as youth educator that educational sessions should be small and interactive. The educator should stress that no question, topic, feeling, or prejudice is taboo and encourage open discussion of pertinent issues. No person should be allowed to dominate the discussion and only minimal time spent on topics such as whether mosquitoes can transmit HIV. The focus should be taken off of condoms, because people have heard enough already, and alternatives to unprotected anal, vaginal, and oral sex encouraged. Women should be encouraged to choose what kind of sex they want, participants should be encouraged to discuss and adhere to what they have learned after the session, and obstacles raise by conservative parents' groups must be fought. Further, the educator must prepare for the session and follow up on opinions afterwards. The author also critiques Catholic education as puritan and disrespectful of the rights of youth to information and free choice, and assails discrimination against people with AIDS and all people in general.

  15. 1480 W Plts Solar Power Plant Architecture With Solar Tracker For Controlling Microcontroller-Based Solar Panel In Tigaraja Village Sub-District Of Tigadolok Regency Of Simalungun

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    Robert Samosir

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Electrical energy has become a basic need for human being. In some remote areas however electricity is unreachable and poses a taboo subject and cannot be enjoyed by local people such as in Tigaraja Village Sub-District of Tigadolok Regency of Simalungun. The sun is a renewable energy that it is beneficial for power plant use. With PLTS solar energy can be changed into the sun through the solar panel. Battery Charge Regulator BCR operates stabilizing voltage from solar panel to battery. The battery will save electrical power to be distributed for household consumption. Since battery power has direct current however Inverter operates changing its direct current into alternating current. To optimize absorption of solar energy a servo motor is used to make solar panel moving by following the suns path. Arduino Uno as direct control of solar panel using solar sensor gives current for servo motor. Then the servo motor can move in reverse and forward. Therefore Household goods like water pumps lamps and televisions have been worked when people come home from their work.

  16. The Gravity of the Grotesque

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    Galin Tihanov

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available I propose to take the grotesque, both as a discursive genre and a cultural attitude and practice, as a point of departure that allows us to comment more widely on Bakhtin‘s Rabelais book and its significance for current debates on subjectivity. In carnival, the epic reverberates in humanity‘s boundless memory ―of cosmic perturbations in the distant past, while the novelistic lives in the grotesque fluctuation and removal of distance, and in the irreverent and joyful celebration of resilience through laughter. Like the epic, carnival is about the maintaining of traditional practices, but in an open and charitably insecure, ―novelistic‖ way. The book on Rabelais seems to be the point where, on reconciling and synthesizing culture and life in the acts of the human body, reworking and redrawing the boundaries of cultural taboos, and championing a symbiosis between the epic and the novelistic, Bakhtin sponsors a new sense of tradition inscribed in the irreverent life of folk (community culture. This celebration of the people re-opens the vexing question about the political implications of Bakhtin‘s pronouncements on the epic and the novelistic, on communitarian and individual culture, and on their desired synthesis. But it also enables us to locate Bakhtin‘s style of thinking and his specific brand of decentred, indeed dislocated, humanism.

  17. Methodology based in the fuzzy logic for constructing the objective functions in optimization problems of nuclear fuel: application to the cells radial design; Metodologia basada en logica difusa para construir las funciones objetivo en problemas de optimizacion de combustible nuclear: aplicacion al diseno radial de celdas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barragan M, A.M.; Martin del Campo M, C.; Palomera P, M.A. [FI-UNAM, Circuito Exterior, Ciudad Universitaria, 04510 Mexico D.F. (Mexico)]. E-mail: ale_bar_m@yahoo.com.mx

    2005-07-01

    A methodology based on Fuzzy Logic for the construction of the objective function of the optimization problems of nuclear fuel is described. It was created an inference system that responds, in certain form, as a human expert when it has the task of qualifying different radial designs of fuel cells. Specifically it is detailed how an inference system based based on Fuzzy Logic that has five enter variables and one exit variable was built, which corresponds to the objective function for the radial design of a fuel cell for a BWR. The use of Fuzzy with Mat lab offered the visualization capacity of the exit variable in function of one or two enter variables at the same time. This allowed to build, in appropriate way, the combination of the inference rules and the membership functions of those diffuse sets used for each one of the enter variables. The obtained objective function was used in an optimization process based on Taboo search. The new methodology was proven for the design of a cell used in a fuel assemble of the Laguna Verde reactor obtaining excellent results. (Author)

  18. PERSEPSI GURU MENGENAI SEX EDUCATION DI SEKOLAH DASAR KELAS VI

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    Regina Lichteria Panjaitan

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The role of technology, especially information technology in Indonesia in the building society XXI century. Indonesia has begun to enter the stage of the telematics community will certainly have a major impact on all levels of life of the Indonesian nation, especially in children. The emergence of a great revolution throughout the world of children's playground, Internet presence replaces the open airy space for children's play, besides presenting impression's Internet pornography and violence can harm the development of children's personality. Sexual deviance behavior at the level of schooling is quite surprising, of course. This is a challenge for education and should be used as a rationale for the need for innovation in learning. Things into consideration are for this. Sex education in early childhood is considered taboo in society. Guru is one of the determining factors of high and low quality of education has a strategic position in transforming sex education to learners. Therefore, this study tries to analyze how perceptions of teachers on sex education at the primary school level, the research method used is a descriptive method. Keywords: Perception of teachers, sex education, learners in primary schools.

  19. Tropes of Fear: the Impact of Globalization on Batek Religious Landscapes

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    Ivan Tacey

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The Batek are a forest and forest-fringe dwelling population numbering around 1,500 located in Peninsular Malaysia. Most Batek groups were mobile forest-dwelling foragers and collectors until the recent past. The Batek imbue the forest with religious significance that they inscribe onto the landscape through movement, everyday activities, storytelling, trancing and shamanic journeying. However, as processes of globalization transform Malaysian landscapes, many Batek groups have been deterritorialized and relocated to the forest fringes where they are often pressured into converting to world religions, particularly Islam. Batek religious beliefs and practices have been re-shaped by their increasing encounters with global flows of ideologies, technologies, objects, capital and people, as landscapes are opened up to development. This article analyzes the ways these encounters are incorporated into the fabric of the Batek’s religious world and how new objects and ideas have been figuratively and literally assimilated into their taboo systems and cosmology. Particular attention is paid to the impacts of globalization as expressed through tropes of fear.

  20. Nine centuries waiting: The experiences of Iranians surrogacy commissioning mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zandi, Mitra; Vanaki, Zohreh; Shiva, Marziyeh; Mohammadi, Eesa

    2014-05-01

    There are a few studies about commissioning mothers' understanding from the surrogacy during 9 months of waiting for delivery in Iran and other countries. This study was conducted with an aim to explore and explain the nature of concerns (experiences) of commissioning mothers. A qualitative design with a conventional content analysis approach was used to gather and analyze the experiences of commissioning mothers. They were selected from Royan Research Centre and other infertility centers in Iran. After purposive sampling for the selection of the participants, unstructured interviews were held for data collection. Twenty-four unstructured interviews were conducted with 12 commissioning mothers, 2 surrogate mothers, and 2 infertility center social workers who directly and continuously dealt with these mothers. TWO MAIN THEMES EMERGED FROM THE DATA ANALYSIS: 1. cultural dilemma (consisting of three subthemes: Social taboo, concerns about disclosure to others and the child, concerns about altering maternal and child's identity, and 2. uncertain waiting (consisting of three subthemes: Concerns about health of fetus and surrogate, concerns about an unfamiliar surrogate, and concerns about lack of preparation for maternal role). The study reveals the importance of maternal emotional care in this group and introduces a new arena for nurses' activity. These findings help the mothers by nurses' activities in health care clinics and anywhere they deliver nursing care.

  1. The Effect of Religiosity on Product Involvement in a Muslim Society

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    Dursun Yener

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Religion has an important place in social life. It does not only affect the structure of society by shaping behavior and attitudes of people but also is affected from the social construct. Since religion has been perceived as a taboo subject, the number of researches about the relationship between religiosity and marketing are limited. Most of existing papers is relevant to Christianity and other religions. This study aims to present the effect of religiosity on product involvement using Allport’s intrinsic/extrinsic religious orientation scale (ROS in a Muslim sample. Three different product categories were selected (food, cosmetics and cleaning products to analyze. Sample size of the research is 282 people which were selected by convenience sampling method. In metho dology part, correlation and regression analyses and ANOVA and independent sample t-test were used. As a result, participants' level of involvement for each product group is differentiated according to their religiosity orientation. Since the scale was app lied on a Muslim sample in Turkey, the study is also important.

  2. Maternal perceptions of factors contributing to severe under-nutrition among children in a rural African setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abubakar, A; Holding, P; Mwangome, M; Maitland, K

    2011-01-01

    In developing countries, severe undernutrition in early childhood is associated with increased mortality and morbidity, and 10-40% of hospital admissions. The current study aimed to elicit maternal perceptions of factors that contribute to severe undernutrition among children in a rural Kenyan community in order to identify appropriate and acceptable targeted interventions. The study consisted of 10 focus group discussions (FGDs) of between eight and ten mothers each, in a rural coastal community in Kenya. A grounded theory approach was used to analyse the FGD data. In all FGDs 'financial constraints' was the main reason given for severe undernutrition of children. The mothers reported the additional factors of inadequate food intake, ill health, inadequate care of children, heavy workload for mothers, inadequate control of family resources by women and a lack of resources for generating income for the family. The mothers also reported their local cultural belief that severe malnutrition was due to witchcraft and the violation of sexual taboos. The mothers in the study community recognised multiple aetiologies for severe undernutrition. A multidisciplinary approach is needed address the range of issues raised and so combat severe undernutrition. Suggested interventions include poverty alleviation, medical education and psychosocial strategies. The content and approach of any program must address the need for variability, determined by individual and local needs, concerns, attitudes and beliefs.

  3. The Value of Inequality

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    Gustaaf Bos

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Over the last two decades, inclusion and participation have become leading policy concepts within the Dutch chronic care and social welfare sector. People with an intellectual or psychiatric disability ought to get a chance to participate in, and belong to, the mainstream of our society—on the basis of equality and equivalence. Although on an international level this pursuit has been going on for at least five decades, it still raises all kinds of questions and debates. What does it mean if we want people with intellectual and/or psychiatric disabilities to participate in our society? Based on which idea(ls about humanity do we define equality and equivalence? And by doing so, how much space is left for individual differences? In the following dialogue the two authors navigate the tension between similarity and difference in thinking about—and working towards—more space for marginalized people. In an attempt to withstand the contemporary dominance of equality thinking, marked by a strong focus on tenability and autonomy—and by extension an increasing climate of taboo around vulnerability and dependency—both authors stress the importance of recognizing and valuing difference, while discussing encounters between people with and without a severe intellectual and/or multiple disability.

  4. Sociocultural dimensions of tuberculosis: an overview of key concepts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, P H; Degeling, C; Denholm, J

    2015-10-01

    Biomedical innovations are unlikely to provide effective and ethical tuberculosis (TB) control measures without complementary social science research. However, a strong interest in interdisciplinary work is often undermined by differences in language and concepts specific to each disciplinary approach. Accordingly, biological and social scientists need to learn how to communicate with each other. This article will outline key concepts relating to TB from medical anthropology and health sociology. Distilling these concepts in an introductory framework is intended to make this material accessible to researchers in laboratory, clinical and fieldwork settings, as well as to encourage more social scientists to engage with TB research among target groups critical for successful programmatic interventions. For pedagogical purposes, the relevant concepts are grouped into three categories: 1) structures and settings, which includes overarching themes such as syndemics, local biologies, medicalisation, structural violence and surveillance; 2) practices and processes, encompassing gender, stigma, taboo, and victim blaming; and 3) experience and enculturation, which includes illness narratives, biographical disruption and dynamic nominalism. By helping to navigate this literature, we hope to foster more cross-disciplinary conversations between qualitative and quantitative researchers. TB, a quintessential social disease, will be controlled more effectively using a multistranded research approach.

  5. Perspectives in the selection of hyaluronic acid fillers for facial wrinkles and aging skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    John, Hannah E; Price, Richard D

    2009-11-03

    Aesthetic surgery is, in the USA at least, no longer a taboo subject. Outside North America, public acceptance continues to grow as more procedures are performed each year. While there appears, anecdotally, to be a decrease in patients undergoing cosmetic treatments because of the global financial crisis, the overall trend remains upward. Although popular television programs espouse the benefits of surgery, it is nonsurgical procedures that account, numerically, for the majority of procedures performed; in the USA, there was a 48% growth from 2000 to 2008 in nonsurgical treatments undertaken by women, and 64% in men and while the average surgeon might perform 60 blepharoplasty operations in 2007, (s)he would also undertake 375 botulinum injections, and almost 200 filler injections of varying sorts. Clearly there is enthusiasm for nonsurgical treatments, and this trend appears to be rising. With this in mind, we present an overview of the commonest filler injection material, hyaluronic acid. We present the mechanism of action, the purported risks and benefits, and briefly discuss technique.

  6. Pesantren dan Upaya Pendidikan Kesehatan Reproduksi Remaja (Pesantren and Adolescent Reproductive Health Education Effort

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    Setia Pranata

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Although there was Pesantren Health Post, but the promotion and education of reproductive health did notproceed well. Students at the Pesantren are mostly teenagers, therefore sexuality and reproduction problems in pesantrenhad become potential threats. This study described there productive health education in pesantren, that focused on theeducation system, material, and factors supporting and inhibiting reproductive health education efforts. Methods: This was a qualitative study. The data were collected by means of purposive sampling. The study was conducted at two pesantrens in Sampang, Balikpapan and West Lombok regencies. Data were collected by indepth interviews to managers, teachers and students. Results: This study indicated that reproductive education was not something new to the pesantren. The Classic Buku Kuning had been the reference of reproductive education among santri. The kyai used bandongan teaching methods which tend to be monologue. Further more this method did not employ evaluation system. The large number of santri, the high commitment and responsibility of the manager of pesantren, and the availibility of 24 hours assistance were factors that supported reproductive health education in pesantren. The inhibiting factors were limited understanding of reproductive health issues, lack of transparency of the pesantren community regarding issues that were considered taboo, and limitations of supporting infrastructure. Another aspect was the lack of external support that were relevance to the issue of adolescent reproductive health services. Recomendations: It is recommended to enrich the materials on reproductive health education in pesantren,

  7. Recent historiography on the Civil War: historical rigour against rigor mortis. When ‘revisionism’ is nothing more than a return to yesterday’s myths expressed with the indignant voice of the past | La historiografía reciente sobre la Guerra Civil: el rigor histórico contra el rigor mortis. Cuando el «revisionismo» no es nada más que la vuelta a los mitos de ayer expresados con la voz indignada del pasado

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    Chris Ealham

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available This article analyses the evolution of the historiography of the Spanish civil war in recent years. Over 70 years on from the conflict, it is possible to say that there are fewer and fewer taboos relating to the war, just as there is growing freedom for researchers to write on the civil war. However, despite the fact that Francoist myths are completely discredited in the universities, they continue to have an impact within civil society, owing to the enduring influence of primitive right-wing opinion. | Este artículo analiza la evolución de la historiografía de la guerra civil española en los últimos años. Mas que setenta años después del conflicto, podemos decir que cada vez son menos los temas tabú sobre la Guerra y cada vez más la libertad de los investigadores para escribir sin trabas sobre éstos. Pero pese a que los mitos franquistas están totalmente desacreditados en las universidades, éstos siguen dando coletazos a través de una derecha primitiva y ejerciendo su influencia dentro de la sociedad civil.

  8. "Recovery" in bipolar disorder: how can service users be supported through a self-management intervention? A qualitative focus group study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todd, Nicholas J; Jones, Steven H; Lobban, Fiona A

    2012-04-01

    Bipolar disorder (BD) is a chronic and recurrent affective disorder. Recovery is defined as the process by which people can live fulfilling lives despite experiencing symptoms. To explore how an opportunistically recruited group of service users with BD experience recovery and self-management to understand more about how a service users' recovery may be supported. Twelve service users with BD took part in a series of focus groups. Service users' responses to questions about their personal experiences of self-management and recovery were analysed. Focus groups were transcribed verbatim and thematic analysis ([ Braun, V., & Clarke, V. (2006). Using thematic analysis in psychology. Qualitative Research in Psychology, 3(2), 77-101]) was employed to identify common themes in the data. Four key themes were identified: (1) Recovery is not about being symptom free; (2) Recovery requires taking responsibility for your own wellness; (3) Self-management: building on existing techniques; (4) Overcoming barriers to recovery: negativity, stigma and taboo. Service users with BD have provided further support for the concept of recovery and have suggested a number of ways recovery can be supported. A self-management approach informed by the recovery literature has been proposed as a way to support service users' recovery.

  9. Improving business IQ in medicine through mentorship and education.

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    Hill, Austin D

    2014-09-01

    Business intelligence in the field of medicine, particularly with physicians, has been an abstract concept at best with no objective metric. Furthermore, in many arenas, it was taboo for medical students, residents, and physicians to discuss the business and finances of their work for fear that it would interfere with their sacred duties as health care providers. There has been a substantial shift in this philosophy over the last few decades with the growth and evolution of the health care industry in the United States. In 2012, health care expenditures accounted for 17.2% of the United States Gross Domestic Product, averaging $8915 per person. The passage of the Affordable Care Act in March of 2010 sent a clear message to all that change is coming, and it is more important now than ever to have physician leaders whose skills and knowledge in business, management, and health care law rival their acumen within their medical practice. Students, residents, and fellows all express a desire to gain more business knowledge throughout their education and training, but many do not know where to begin or have access to programs that can further their knowledge. Whether you are an employed or private practice physician, academic or community based, improving your business intelligence will help you get a seat at the table where decisions are made and give you the skills to influence those decisions.

  10. "It's my secret": fear of disclosure among sub-Saharan African migrant women living with HIV/AIDS in Belgium.

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    Agnes Ebotabe Arrey

    Full Text Available Patients with HIV not only have to deal with the challenges of living with an incurable disease but also with the dilemma of whether or not to disclose their status to their partners, families and friends. This study explores the extent to which sub-Saharan African (SSA migrant women in Belgium disclose their HIV positive status, reasons for disclosure/non-disclosure and how they deal with HIV disclosure. A qualitative study consisting of interviews with twenty-eight SSA women with HIV/AIDS was conducted. Thematic content analysis was employed to identify themes as they emerged. Our study reveals that these women usually only disclose their status to healthcare professionals because of the treatment and care they need. This selective disclosure is mainly due to the taboo of HIV disease in SSA culture. Stigma, notably self-stigma, greatly impedes HIV disclosure. Techniques to systematically incorporate HIV disclosure into post-test counseling and primary care services are highly recommended.

  11. Attitude and beliefs of traditional birth attendants to prematurely erupted teeth of infants in urban local government areas in Ibadan, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bankole, Olubunmi; Taiwo, Juliana; Nasiru, Olukemi

    Traditional birth attendants (TBAs) can be invaluable in assisting to dispel myths commonly associated with natal/neonatal teeth. To ensure correct delivery of the message, baseline data of their beliefs is important. To assess the attitude and beliefs of some Nigerian TBAs to prematurely erupted teeth in infants, a total enumeration of the TBAs in the five urban Local Government Areas in Ibadan was conducted and 163 consenting TBAs were recruited using an interviewer-administered questionnaire. The attitude of the TBAs was that of fear and shock (35.6%) while 30 (18.4%) will consider the child weird. Perceived causes of the variation include evil spirits (31.9%), contravening cultural taboos (9.2%), and prolonged gestation (4.9%). Beliefs on the effect of natal/neonatal teeth on the child include strange behavior (31.3%), child developing evil spiritual powers (41.1%), and mental retardation (3.1%). Practices included advising parents to get rid of/or hide the child (4.9%) and immediate extraction of the teeth with/without sacrifices (35.6%). There is an urgent need to address knowledge gaps by giving health education to TBAs.

  12. TRADISI KEPERCAYAAN MASYARAKAT PESISIR MENGENAl KESEHATAN IBU DI DESA TANJUNG LIMAU MUARA BADAK KALIMANTAN TIMUR TAHUN 2008

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    Annisa Nurrachmawati

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Reproductive health covers biological and socio-cultural aspects. In the local context of East Kalimantan, the traditional culture may affect the behavior including antenatal, delivery and postpartum care, either in positive or negative manner. Objective: To explore community perspectives related to reproductive health particularly maternal health and its cultural beliefs. Methode: A qualitative research using phenomenology approach employed focus group discussion (FGD and in-depth interview. FGD was held separately for pregnant women and community informant. In-depth interview was carried out to midwives and traditional birth attendants. The data were analyzed using interactive analyzes model. Result: The study site was Tanjung Limau Village in East Kalimantan. Village community hold their traditional beliefs for pregnant women mainly food restriction such as salted fish, calamari, pine-apple or cempedak. Also they were not allowed to go out in the evening around "maghrib" time with certain superstitious reason. The aim of those beliefs was to avoid delivery complication, and to keep the baby as being healthy and save. Conclusion: Traditional birth attendance still played a big role in delivery process. Community in Tanjung Limau Village in East Kalimantan still applied traditional beliefs regarding maternal health, thus health providers must learn its symbolic meaning in regard to educate community and change their behavior using acceptable approach.   Keywords : Traditional beliefs, pregnancy taboos, traditional birth attendance

  13. Barriers and facilitators of HIV prevention with heterosexual Latino couples: beliefs of four stakeholder groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Jiménez, David; Seal, David W; Serrano-García, Irma

    2009-01-01

    Although HIV prevention interventions for women are efficacious, long-term behavior change maintenance within power-imbalanced heterosexual relationships has been difficult. To explore the feasibility, content, and format of an HIV intervention for Latino couples, the authors conducted 13 focus groups with HIV/AIDS researchers, service providers, and heterosexual men and women in Puerto Rico, the Dominican Republic, and Mexico. Reasons that participants thought that men should be involved in prevention efforts included promotion of shared responsibility, creation of a safe environment for open conversation about sex, and increased sexual negotiation skills. Perceived barriers to men's involvement included cultural taboos, sexual conservatism associated with Catholicism and machismo, and power-imbalanced relationships. Participants stressed the need for recruitment of men within naturally occurring settings or by influential community leaders. Participants indicated that couples-level interventions would be successful if they used strong coed facilitators, included both unigender and mixed-gender discussion opportunities, and addressed personally meaningful topics. Implications of these findings are discussed.

  14. An exploration of jealousy in nursing: a Kleinian analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Alicia M; Traynor, Michael; Glass, Nel

    2014-06-01

    It is well established that nursing practice produces considerable anxiety, and it can also give rise to envy and jealousy. While envy in nursing was identified in the literature more than 50 years ago, there remains a paucity of articles addressing either envy or jealousy for nurses. In a recent research study on current experiences of clinical practice, we analysed a fragment of nurses' speech via Klein's theory of jealousy. The results revealed that the nurses expressed jealousy at the privilege afforded to doctors. We argue that it is important to acknowledge jealousy in nursing practice because it has the potential for 'spoiling' effective care delivery and as such, can have detrimental ramifications in the health system. Also, jealousy may keep the nurse from fully focusing on their nursing practice in that it divides the nurse's attention and so limits the nurse's treatment of the patient. Nurses' jealousy of doctors is a taboo topic in nursing, and yet it warrants serious consideration due to the potential deleterious consequences that can arise when this dynamic is present. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Contraceptive social marketing in Albania - the NESMARK story.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paravani, Ardian; Orgocka, Aida

    2013-06-01

    To present the history of social marketing of modern contraceptives in Albania. We review documentation and activity of NESMARK, an Albanian non-governmental social marketing organisation, and national data on adoption of modern contraception. During 15 years of awareness raising, sales of affordable products, and provider training, NESMARK has impacted the introduction and adoption of modern contraception in Albania. NESMARK is the country's main distributor of emergency contraception (EC) and complements the public sector in the distribution of condoms and oral contraceptives. NESMARK has made major efforts to overcome prevalent taboos and misinformation held by medical and nursing personnel, pharmacists and the general public, regarding the effectiveness and safety of condoms, oral contraceptives, and EC. NESMARK has contributed to increasing the choices for modern contraception methods in Albania by providing affordable contraceptives, training providers, and educating the general population. However, widespread use of withdrawal coupled with the belief that it is as or more effective than modern contraception, continues to limit uptake of new methods and is a significant challenge to comprehensive and sustained social marketing programmes.

  16. The effect of visible facial difference on personal space during encounters with the general public.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, R M; Gierasch, A

    2013-01-01

    Previous research has found that people with visible differences are granted more physical space than people without visible differences during encounters with the general public. This study aimed to examine whether given significant sociocultural changes, this remains the case in contemporary Australia. The personal space afforded to a person with a visible difference (with a temporary difference--a scar and a permanent difference--a strawberry hemangioma) or a person without a visible difference by 408 pedestrians on a busy pedestrian walkway in the central business district of Adelaide, Australia, was measured. This was a replication and extension of a study by N. Rumsey, R. Bull, and D. Gahagan (1982). Pedestrians stood no further away from the model in the visibly different conditions than in the nonvisibly different conditions. Pedestrians stood an average of 128 cm away in the control condition, 120 cm away in the scar condition, and 140 cm away in the birthmark condition. People did not stand to the nonvisibly different (left) side of the model more frequently in the visibly different conditions than in the nonvisibly different conditions. As the original research by N. Rumsey et al. is frequently cited as representing the current situation for people with visible differences, failing to replicate the result is significant. Changes may be due to either recent sociocultural changes promoting inclusion of disability or increasing social taboo against expressing overt prejudice.

  17. Social Cultural Influences on Breast Cancer Views and Breast Health Practices Among Chinese Women in the United Kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shang, Chenyu; Beaver, Kinta; Campbell, Malcolm

    2015-01-01

    Incidence rates for breast cancer have increased significantly among Chinese women, accompanied by low utilization of breast screening and delay in symptom presentation. The aims of this study were to explore (1) views on breast cancer and breast health among Chinese women in the United Kingdom and (2) the potential influence of social and cultural context on views and screening behavior. Qualitative interviews were carried out with 22 Chinese women. Pertinent aspects of Grounded Theory methods, including simultaneous data collection and analysis, constant comparison, and memo writing, were used. Four themes emerged: cultural views on breast cancer, information sources and knowledge, breast screening practice, and views on healthcare services. The theme views on breast cancer had 3 subthemes: a fearful disease, taboo, and fatalism. Aspects of traditional Chinese culture had important influences on Chinese women's views on breast cancer. Self-care formed the most significant strategy to promote health and prevent illness. Although the study found high utilization of breast screening when offered, only 6 women reported breast awareness practices. This study found that traditional beliefs were not the sole determinant of breast health behavior. The way in which breast screening services are offered in the United Kingdom may reduce the significance of cultural views and shape individuals' health behavior. Findings indicate that information on breast awareness should be delivered to this group of women in Chinese by health professionals through Chinese mass media.

  18. Review of Black Soldier Fly (Hermetia illucens as Animal Feed and Human Food

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    Yu-Shiang Wang

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Food futurists accept that sustainability-minded humanity will increasingly incorporate insects as alternative protein. The most studied and easily reared species are not necessarily the most sustainable, acceptable, or delicious. Here, we review the literature on the black soldier fly, Hermetia illucens, which is capable of efficiently converting a wide variety of organic materials, from food waste to manure, into insect biomass. They can be grown and harvested without dedicated facilities and are not pestiferous. Their larvae are 42% crude protein and 29% fat, although they are higher in saturated fats than most insects. They do not concentrate pesticides or mycotoxins. They are already grown and recommended for use as animal feed, but with regional legal restrictions on how this is done. For commercial use in human foods, larvae could potentially be milled and converted into a textured protein with a strong flavor. Their biggest advantage over other insects is their ability to convert waste into food, generating value and closing nutrient loops as they reduce pollution and costs. This general advantage is also their greatest disadvantage, for the social stigmas and legal prohibitions against eating organisms that eat waste are added to extant taboos facing insect consumption.

  19. Review of Black Soldier Fly (Hermetia illucens) as Animal Feed and Human Food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yu-Shiang; Shelomi, Matan

    2017-10-18

    Food futurists accept that sustainability-minded humanity will increasingly incorporate insects as alternative protein. The most studied and easily reared species are not necessarily the most sustainable, acceptable, or delicious. Here, we review the literature on the black soldier fly, Hermetia illucens, which is capable of efficiently converting a wide variety of organic materials, from food waste to manure, into insect biomass. They can be grown and harvested without dedicated facilities and are not pestiferous. Their larvae are 42% crude protein and 29% fat, although they are higher in saturated fats than most insects. They do not concentrate pesticides or mycotoxins. They are already grown and recommended for use as animal feed, but with regional legal restrictions on how this is done. For commercial use in human foods, larvae could potentially be milled and converted into a textured protein with a strong flavor. Their biggest advantage over other insects is their ability to convert waste into food, generating value and closing nutrient loops as they reduce pollution and costs. This general advantage is also their greatest disadvantage, for the social stigmas and legal prohibitions against eating organisms that eat waste are added to extant taboos facing insect consumption.

  20. Impact of African traditional worldviews on climate change adaptation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanganyado, Edmond; Teta, Charles; Masiri, Busani

    2018-03-01

    Recent studies show cultural worldviews are a key determinant of environmental risk perceptions; thus, they could influence climate change adaptation strategies. African traditional worldviews encourage harmony between humans and the environment through a complex metaphysical belief system transmitted through folklore, taboos, and traditional knowledge. However, African traditional worldviews hold a belief in traditional gods that was shown to have a low connectedness to nature and a low willingness to change. In Makueni District, Kenya, 45% of agropastoralists surveyed believed drought was god's plan and could not be changed. In contrast, traditional knowledge, which is shaped by African traditional worldviews, is often used to frame adaptive strategies such as migration, changing modes of production, and planting different crop varieties. Furthermore, traditional knowledge has been used as a complement to science in areas where meteorological data was unavailable. However, the role of African traditional worldviews on climate change adaption remains understudied. Hence, there is a need to systematically establish the influence of African traditional worldviews on climate change risk perception, development of adaptive strategies, and policy formulation and implementation. In this commentary, we discuss the potential impacts of African traditional worldviews on climate change adaptation. Integr Environ Assess Manag 2018;14:189-193. © 2018 SETAC. © 2018 SETAC.