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Sample records for tablet form acutely

  1. Formulation of Croton penduliflorus seed into tablet dosage form ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Formulation of Croton penduliflorus seed into tablet dosage form. GC Onunkwo. Abstract. No Abstract. Global Journal of Medical Sciences Vol. 5(1) 2006: 29-33. Full Text: EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT · http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/gjms.v5i1.10145.

  2. Formulation and evaluation of tablet dosage form of Hunteria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The present study was aimed at formulating and evaluating tablet dosage form of Hunteria umbellata (HU) seed aqueous and purified extracts. HU seeds were dried, pulverized and the powder macerated in water to obtain aqueous extract, while alkaloidal extraction process was used to obtain purified extract. Extracts ...

  3. Spectrophotometric Determination of Cilostazol in Tablet Dosage Form

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To develop simple, rapid and selective spectrophotometric methods for the determination of cilostazol in tablet dosage form. Methods: Cilostazol was dissolved in 50 % methanol and its absorbance was scanned by ultraviolet (UV) spectrophotometry. Both linear regression equation and standard absorptivity were ...

  4. ORODISPERSIBLE TABLET: A Patient Friendly Dosage Form (a Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. K. Rameesa

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: The most common and preferred route of drug administration is through the oral route. Orodispersible tablets are gaining importance among novel oral drug delivery system as they have improved patient compliance and have some additional advantages compared to other formulation. They are also solid unit dosage forms, which disintegrate in the mouth within a minute in the presence of saliva due to superdisintegrants in the formulation. Thus this type of drug delivery helps a proper per oral administration in pediatric and geriatric population where swallowing is a matter of trouble. Various scientists have prepared orodispersible tablets by following various methods. However, the most common method is the direct compression method. Other special methods are Freeze Drying,Tablet Molding, Sublimation, Spray Drying, Mass extrusion, Phase transition process, etc. Since these tablets dissolve directly in the mouth, so, their taste is also an important factor. Various approaches have been taken in order to mask the bitter taste of the drug. A number of scientists have explored several drugs in this field. Like all other solid dosage forms, they are also evaluated in the field of hardness, friability, wetting time, moisture uptake, disintegration test and dissolution test.

  5. [Current situations and problem analysis of influencing factors of traditional Chinese medicine tablets on forming quality].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yan-Nian; Wu, Zhen-Feng; Wan, Na; Li, Yuan-Hui; Li, Hui-Ting; Yang, Ming

    2018-04-01

    The compressibility of tablets is the essential operating unit during the preparation of traditional Chinese medicine tablets, as well as a complicated process. Therefore, it is of great significance to comprehensively study the influencing factors on the formation process. This paper aimed to review the evaluation methods for the tablet forming quality and highlight the effects of material powder properties, excipients and preparation technology on the quality of traditional Chinese medicine tablets on the basis of relevant literatures. Furthermore, the common problems in tablet forming process are also analyzed to provide useful references for the development of tablet forming quality of traditional Chinese medicines. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.

  6. Suppressed Release of Clarithromycin from Tablets by Crystalline Phase Transition of Metastable Polymorph Form I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujiki, Sadahiro; Watanabe, Narumi; Iwao, Yasunori; Noguchi, Shuji; Mizoguchi, Midori; Iwamura, Takeru; Itai, Shigeru

    2015-08-01

    The pharmaceutical properties of clarithromycin (CAM) tablets containing the metastable form I of crystalline CAM were investigated. Although the dissolution rate of form I was higher than that of stable form II, the release of CAM from form I tablet was delayed. Disintegration test and liquid penetration test showed that the disintegration of the tablet delayed because of the slow penetration of an external solution into form I tablet. Investigation by scanning electron microscopy revealed that the surface of form I tablet was covered with fine needle-shaped crystals following an exposure to the external solution. These crystals were identified as form IV crystals by powder X-ray diffraction. The phenomenon that CAM releases from tablet was inhibited by fine crystals spontaneously formed on the tablet surface could be applied to the design of sustained-release formulation systems with high CAM contents by minimizing the amount of functional excipients. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. and the American Pharmacists Association.

  7. Spectrophotometric Determination of Lamivudine in Pure and Tablet Forms

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    A. Biksham Babu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Two visible spectrophotometric methods have been developed for the determination of Lamivudine(LMV in pure and tablet forms. Method-A is based on oxidation of 3-methyl-2-benzathiazolinone hydrazone (MBTH in the presence of iodoso benzene diacetate (IBDA to form electrophilic intermediate which is an active coupling species that reacts with the coupler (LMV by electrophillic attack on the most nucleophilic site on cyclic ring of the coupler. Method-B depends on diazonium salt formation and consequent reaction with resorcinol producing colored product. The absorbances are measured at 590 nm and 540 nm for Method-A and Method-B respectively. Beer's law is obeyed in the concentration range of 10.0-60.0 μg/mL for both the methods. The correlation coefficient which is very close to unity indicates that there is good correlation between concentration and absorbance. LOD, LOQ, confidence levels and relative standard deviation are calculated for the developed methods. The developed methods were successfully applied to tablet forms.

  8. Experimental study on acute toxicity of Qingnao tablet to mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Guoqi; Wang, Huamin; Ma, Zhenzhen; Hao, Shaojun; Li, Jun; Wang, Hongyu; Wen, Zhonghua; Zhang, Zhengchen

    2018-04-01

    To investigate the effect of Qingnao tablets on acute toxicity in mice. Forty mice, half male and half female, were randomly divided into normal saline group and Qingnao tablet group. After fasting for 12 hours, the mice were given 0. 4 ml / 10 g in maximum volume. In 1st, the rats were perfused 3 times (every 8 hours). The rats in the saline group were perfused with the same volume of saline in the same way. The mice were observed continuously within 3 hours and then every hour. The mice were given a normal diet for 14 consecutive days, and the changes of autonomous activity, reaction, diet, stool, secretion, eye and nose were observed daily. The mice fasted on the 13th day and weighed on the 14th day. And then put the mice to death, The changes of the liver, heart, spleen, lung, kidney, stomach, intestines, and brain were observed by the naked eye. There was no obvious abnormality in normal saline group. The autonomous activity of mice in the administration group decreased after initial administration, and gradually returned to normal after 2 hours of administration. On the day of administration, the stool of the mice became dark brown, and the feces returned to normal after 1.1 days of normal urination. No other mice had abnormal secretion, reaction, eye nose, diet, etc. On the 14th day, there were no visible heart, liver, spleen, lung, kidney, gastrointestinal tract in normal saline group and Qingnao tablet group. Abnormal changes in brain and other organs (edema, color, etc.). In the normal saline group and Qingnao tablet group, the initial weight of the mice was: 21.70 ± 0.97N 21.71 ± 1.13, and the weight of the mice on the 7th day was 29.70 ± 2.4c28.65 ± 3.11. On the 14th day, the body weight was 32.38 ± 3.40, 33.77 ± 3.82. Qingnao tablet has no obvious toxicity to the main organs of mice, so it can be considered safe in clinical use.

  9. The rationale of scored tablets as dosage form.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rodenhuis, N.; Smet, P.A.G.M. de; Barends, D.M.

    2004-01-01

    The aim of the study was to get insight into the rationale of scored tablets. This was pursued by studying patient's reasons for subdividing ("breaking") scored and unscored tablets. Patients who picked up their prescriptions in 5 community pharmacies in The Netherlands were questioned. Two-hundred

  10. Magnetic resonance imaging and X-ray microtomography studies of a gel-forming tablet formulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laity, P R; Mantle, M D; Gladden, L F; Cameron, R E

    2010-01-01

    The capabilities of two methods for investigating tablet swelling are investigated, based on a study of a model gel-forming system. Results from magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) were compared with results from a novel application of X-ray microtomography (XmicroT) to track the movements of embedded glass microsphere tracers as the model tablets swelled. MRI provided information concerning the movement of hydration fronts into the tablets and the composition of the swollen gel layer, which formed at the tablet surface and progressively thickened with time. Conversely, XmicroT revealed significant axial expansion within the tablet core, at short times and ahead of the hydration fronts, where there was insufficient water to be observed by MRI (estimated to be around 15% by weight for the system used here). Thus, MRI and XmicroT may be regarded as complementary methods for studying the hydration and swelling behaviour of tablets. Copyright 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Spectrophotometric Determination of Cilostazol in Tablet Dosage Form

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Erah

    Purpose: To develop simple, rapid and selective spectrophotometric methods for ... Conclusion: These validated methods may be useful for routine analysis of cilostazol ... Keywords: Cilostazol tablets, UV spectrophotometry, Linear regression ...

  12. Development of fi lm forming formulation and technology of polymeric fi lm coating on Indotril tablets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. I. Kucherenko

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. In previous researches we grounded expedience of «Indotril» tablets development; formulation and technology of "Indotril" tablet cores were developed. Received tablet cores should be covered by protective polymeric film with the purpose of unpleasant taste elimination, increase of tablets expiration date. Objective. The aim of our investigation was to develop the film forming composition and technology of polymeric film coating on «Indotril» tablets in pseudo-fluidized layer. Materials and Methods. As “Indotril” tablets cores should be covered by protective polymeric film we performed research designed to select efficient film forming solution. Thus modern filming agents were studied, besides such factors were investigated: concentration of film forming suspension, increase of tablet coat in mass, air temperature under gas distribution grid. Obtained tablets were checked according to pharmacopeia methods. Results and discussion. First we studied tablet compression force influence on main parameters of «Indotril» cores tablets: on crushing strength, abrasion in pseudo-fluidized layer unit and disintegration. Then for further investigation we chose «Indotril» cores tablets with crushing strength near 70 H, abrasion - up to 0,5% and disintegration time - not more than 10 minutes. We performed research to select film forming solution for covering “Indotril” tablets in pseudo-fluidized layer unit. As filming agents we used different samples of hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC by Japan company Shin-Etsu Chemical Co and English company Colorcon. Water HPMC solutions were prepared which contained plasticizer (propylene glycol, pigment (titanium IV dioxide and dye (tartrazine. Coating process of “Indotril” tablets was performed in laboratory pseudo-fluidized layer unit with the air temperature 75ºC under gas distribution grid. Variance analysis of experimental data on quality of coat surface showed insignificance as

  13. Formulation and optimisation of raft-forming chewable tablets containing H2 antagonist.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prajapati, Shailesh T; Mehta, Anant P; Modhia, Ishan P; Patel, Chhagan N

    2012-10-01

    The purpose of this research work was to formulate raft-forming chewable tablets of H2 antagonist (Famotidine) using a raft-forming agent along with an antacid- and gas-generating agent. Tablets were prepared by wet granulation and evaluated for raft strength, acid neutralisation capacity, weight variation, % drug content, thickness, hardness, friability and in vitro drug release. Various raft-forming agents were used in preliminary screening. A 2(3) full-factorial design was used in the present study for optimisation. The amount of sodium alginate, amount of calcium carbonate and amount sodium bicarbonate were selected as independent variables. Raft strength, acid neutralisation capacity and drug release at 30 min were selected as responses. Tablets containing sodium alginate were having maximum raft strength as compared with other raft-forming agents. Acid neutralisation capacity and in vitro drug release of all factorial batches were found to be satisfactory. The F5 batch was optimised based on maximum raft strength and good acid neutralisation capacity. Drug-excipient compatibility study showed no interaction between the drug and excipients. Stability study of the optimised formulation showed that the tablets were stable at accelerated environmental conditions. It was concluded that raft-forming chewable tablets prepared using an optimum amount of sodium alginate, calcium carbonate and sodium bicarbonate could be an efficient dosage form in the treatment of gastro oesophageal reflux disease.

  14. Influence of disintegrants in different substrate physical form on dimensional recovery of multi-component tablet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkar, Srimanta; Ooi, Shing Ming; Liew, Celine Valeria; Tan, Bing Xun; Heng, Paul Wan Sia

    2014-11-20

    This study investigated the influence of different disintegrants, present in different substrate physical forms, on dimensional recovery of multi-component tablets prepared at different compression pressures. Formulations containing model drug, metformin, (10%, w/w), different disintegrants (10%, w/w), and lactose (80%, w/w) were compressed directly or after granulation using polyvinyl pyrrolidone (1%, w/w) as binder, into tablets (350 mg, 10mm diameter) at 150, 200, and 250 N/mm(2) compression pressures. Tablets were characterized for immediate dimensional recovery (IR) after ejection from the die, latent dimensional recovery (LR) over 24 h, tensile strength, and disintegration. The IR was predominantly contributed by crystalline components whereas LR was brought about by polymeric materials. With increased compression pressure, higher degree of plastic deformation of the polymeric disintegrants resulted in tablet with lower LR and higher tensile strength. Presence of polyvinyl pyrrolidone in the granules contributed considerably to plastic deformation, and the tablets produced had lower LR, higher tensile strength, and longer disintegration time. This study indicated that use of granules as the feed substrate physical form and a prudent selection of components may enable the coating of resultant tablets immediately after compression without the risk of coat damage due to LR. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Physical mechanical and tablet formation properties of hydroxypropylcellulose: In pure form and in mixtures

    OpenAIRE

    Picker-Freyer, Katharina M.; Dürig, Thomas

    2007-01-01

    The aim of the study was to analyze hydroxypropylcellulose (HPC) in pure form and in excipient mixtures and to relate its physical and chemical properties to tablet binder functionality. The materials used were Klucel hydroxypropylcellulose grades ranging from low to high molecular weight (80–1000 kDa) of regular particle size (250 µm mean size) and fine particle size (80 µm mean size). These were compared with microcrystalline cellulose, spray-dried lactose, and dicalcium phosphate dihydrate...

  16. Development and Validation of UV Spectrophotometric Method For Estimation of Dolutegravir Sodium in Tablet Dosage Form

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balasaheb, B.G.

    2015-01-01

    A simple, rapid, precise and accurate spectrophotometric method has been developed for quantitative analysis of Dolutegravir sodium in tablet formulations. The initial stock solution of Dolutegravir sodium was prepared in methanol solvent and subsequent dilution was done in water. The standard solution of Dolutegravir sodium in water showed maximum absorption at wavelength 259.80 nm. The drug obeyed Beer-Lamberts law in the concentration range of 5-40 μg/ mL with coefficient of correlation (R"2) was 0.9992. The method was validated as per the ICH guidelines. The developed method can be adopted in routine analysis of Dolutegravir sodium in bulk or tablet dosage form and it involves relatively low cost solvents and no complex extraction techniques. (author)

  17. Equivalence of Laptop and Tablet Administrations of the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2 Restructured Form.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menton, William H; Crighton, Adam H; Tarescavage, Anthony M; Marek, Ryan J; Hicks, Adam D; Ben-Porath, Yossef S

    2017-06-01

    The present study investigated the comparability of laptop computer- and tablet-based administration modes for the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2-Restructured Form (MMPI-2-RF). Employing a counterbalanced within-subjects design, the MMPI-2-RF was administered via both modes to a sample of college undergraduates ( N = 133). Administration modes were compared in terms of mean scale scores, internal consistency, test-retest consistency, external validity, and administration time. Mean scores were generally similar, and scores produced via both methods appeared approximately equal in terms of internal consistency and test-retest consistency. Scores from the two modalities also evidenced highly similar patterns of associations with external criteria. Notably, tablet administration of the MMPI-2-RF was substantially longer than laptop administration in the present study (mean difference 7.2 minutes, Cohen's d = .95). Overall, results suggest that varying administration mode between laptop and tablet has a negligible influence on MMPI-2-RF scores, providing evidence that these modes of administration can be considered psychometrically equivalent.

  18. Development and Statistical Validation of Spectrophotometric Methods for the Estimation of Nabumetone in Tablet Dosage Form

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. R. Rote

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Three new simple, economic spectrophotometric methods were developed and validated for the estimation of nabumetone in bulk and tablet dosage form. First method includes determination of nabumetone at absorption maxima 330 nm, second method applied was area under curve for analysis of nabumetone in the wavelength range of 326-334 nm and third method was First order derivative spectra with scaling factor 4. Beer law obeyed in the concentration range of 10-30 μg/mL for all three methods. The correlation coefficients were found to be 0.9997, 0.9998 and 0.9998 by absorption maxima, area under curve and first order derivative spectra. Results of analysis were validated statistically and by performing recovery studies. The mean percent recoveries were found satisfactory for all three methods. The developed methods were also compared statistically using one way ANOVA. The proposed methods have been successfully applied for the estimation of nabumetone in bulk and pharmaceutical tablet dosage form.

  19. RP-HPLC Method for the Estimation of Nebivolol in Tablet Dosage Form

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. K. Sahoo

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available A reverse phase HPLC method is described for the determination of nebivolol in tablet dosage form. Chromatography was carried on a Hypersil ODS C18 column using a mixture of methanol and water (80:20 v/v as the mobile phase at a flow rate of 1.0 mL/min with detection at 282 nm. Chlorzoxazone was used as the internal standard. The retention times were 3.175 min and 4.158 min for nebivolol and chlorzoxazone respectively. The detector response was linear in the concentration of 1-400 μg/mL. The limit of detection and limit of quantification was 0.0779 and 0.2361 μg/mL respectively. The percentage assay of nebivolol was 99.974%. The method was validated by determining its sensitivity, accuracy and precision. The proposed method is simple, fast, accurate and precise and hence can be applied for routine quality control of nebivolol in bulk and tablet dosage form.

  20. Spectrophotometric method for simultaneous estimation of atazanavir sulfate and ritonavir in tablet dosage form

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Disha A Patel

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Ritonavir (RTV and atazanavir sulfate (ATV are protease inhibitor and RTV mostly used as a booster for increasing the bioavailability of other protease inhibitors like ATV. Aims: Quality assessment of the new dosage form of RTV and ATV i.e., tablets is very essential and hence this work deals with to develop sensitive, simple and precise method for simultaneous estimation of ATV and RTV in tablet dosage form by absorbance correction method. Materials and Methods: The present work was carried out on Shimadzu Ultraviolate(UV-1700 double beam spectrophotometer with 1 cm path length supported by S Shimadzu, model-1700(Japan, UV-Probe software, version 2.31 was used for spectral measurements with 10 mm matched quartz cells. Standard ATV and RTV were supplied by Cipla Pharmaceutical Ltd. Methanol was purchased from Finar Chemicals Pvt. Ltd. Results and Conclusion: The λmax or the absorption maxima for ATV and RTV were found to be 279 and 240 nm, respectively in methanol as solvent. The drugs follow Beer-Lambert′s law in the concentration range 30-90 and 10-30 μg/mL for ATV and RTV, respectively. The percentage recovery was found to be 100-100.33% and 100-101.5% for ATV and RTV, respectively. The method was validated for different parameters as per the International Conference for Harmonization Guidelines.

  1. Formulation development and in vitro evaluation of solidified self-microemulsion in the form of tablet containing atorvastatin calcium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Kazi Asraf; Mukherjee, Biswajit; Bandyopadhyay, Amal Kumar

    2013-11-01

    The objective of our present study was to prepare solid self-microemulsion in the form of tablet of a poorly water soluble drug, Atorvastatin calcium (ATNC) to increase the solubility, dissolution rate, and minimize the hazards experienced from liquid emulsions. Self-microemulsifying ATNC tablet was formulated mainly by using self-emulsifying base, solidifying agent silicon dioxide and sodium starch glycolate as tablet disintegrant. Self-emulsifying base containing Transcutol P, Gelucire 44/14, and Lutrol F68 with their ratios in the formulation, were best selected by solubility study and ternary phase diagram in different vehicles. Particle size of microemulsion from tablet, physical parameters of the tablet and drug content has been checked. In vitro drug release rate has been carried out in phosphate buffer medium (pH 6.8). Physicochemical characterization of the drug in the optimized formulation has been performed to check drug-excipient incompatibility, if any. Average particle diameter of the emulsions formed from the tablet was found to be below 100 nm in case of formulation F4 and F5, which indicated microemulsions has been formed. In vitro drug release from the formulations F3, F4, and F5 was found to be >90%, indicated the enhancement of solubility of ATNC compared to parent drug. Differential thermal analysis (DTA), Powder X-ray Diffraction (X-RD) and Fourier transform infra red (FTIR) study proved the identity of the drug in the optimized formulation. The tablet form of self-microemulsifying (SME) drug delivery is good for solubility enhancement.

  2. A Simple RP-HPLC Method for Quantitation of Itopride HCl in Tablet Dosage Form.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiruvengada, Rajan Vs; Mohamed, Saleem Ts; Ramkanth, S; Alagusundaram, M; Ganaprakash, K; Madhusudhana, Chetty C

    2010-10-01

    An isocratic reversed phase high-performance liquid chromatographic method with ultraviolet detection at 220 nm has been developed for the quantification of itopride hydrochloride in tablet dosage form. The quantification was carried out using C(8) column (250 mm × 4.6 mm), 5-μm particle size SS column. The mobile phase comprised of two solvents (Solvent A: buffer 1.4 mL ortho-phosphoric acid adjusted to pH 3.0 with triethyl amine and Solvent B: acetonitrile). The ratio of Solvent A: Solvent B was 75:25 v/v. The flow rate was 1.0 mL (-1)with UV detection at 220 nm. The method has been validated and proved to be robust. The calibration curve was linear in the concentration range of 80-120% with coefficient of correlation 0.9995. The percentage recovery for itopride HCl was 100.01%. The proposed method was validated for its selectivity, linearity, accuracy, and precision. The method was found to be suitable for the quality control of itopride HCl in tablet dosage formulation.

  3. Simultaneous UV Spectrophotometric Determination of Cetrizine and Dextromethorphan in Tablet Dosage Form

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Vijayalakshmi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Two accurate, precise, sensitve and economical procedures for simultaneous estimation of cetrizine and dextromethorphan in tablet dosage forms have been developed. First method employs formation and solving of simultaneous equations using 230 nm and 280 nm as two analytical wavelengths for both drugs in methanol. The second method is Q-analysis based on measurement of absorptivity at 224 nm (as isobestic point and 280 nm (λmax of CTZ. Cetrizine and dextromethorphan at their respective λmax 280 nm and 230 nm and at 224 nm (isobestic point shows linearity in a concentration range of 10-30 mcg/mL for both the drugs. The recovery studies confirmed accuracy of the proposed methods and low values of standard deviation confirmed precision of the methods. The methods were validated as per ICH guidelines.

  4. Comparison of intramuscular olanzapine, orally disintegrating olanzapine tablets, oral risperidone solution, and intramuscular haloperidol in the management of acute agitation in an acute care psychiatric ward in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Wen-Yu; Huang, Si-Sheng; Lee, Bo-Shyan; Chiu, Nan-Ying

    2010-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare efficacy and safety among intramuscular olanzapine, intramuscular haloperidol, orally disintegrating olanzapine tablets, and oral risperidone solution for agitated patients with psychosis during the first 24 hours of treatment in an acute care psychiatric ward. Forty-two inpatients from an acute care psychiatric ward of a medical center in central Taiwan were enrolled. They were randomly assigned to 1 of the 4 treatment groups (10-mg intramuscular olanzapine, 10-mg olanzapine oral disintegrating tablet, 3-mg oral risperidone solution, or 7.5-mg intramuscular haloperidol). Agitation was measured by using the excited component of the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS-EC), the Agitation-Calmness Evaluation Scale, and the Clinical Global Impression--Severity Scale during the first 24 hours. There were significant differences in the PANSS-EC total scores for the 4 intervention groups at 15, 30, 45, 60, 75, and 90 minutes after the initiation of treatment. More significant differences were found early in the treatment. In the post hoc analysis, the patients who received intramuscular olanzapine or orally disintegrating olanzapine tablets showed significantly greater improvement in PANSS-EC scores than did patients who received intramuscular haloperidol at points 15, 30, 45, 60, 75, and 90 minutes after injection. These findings suggest that intramuscular olanzapine, orally disintegrating olanzapine tablets, and oral risperidone solution are as effective treatments as intramuscular haloperidol for patients with acute agitation. Intramuscular olanzapine and disintegrating olanzapine tablets are more effective than intramuscular haloperidol in the early phase of the intervention. There is no significant difference in effectiveness among intramuscular olanzapine, orally disintegrating olanzapine tablets, and oral risperidone solution.

  5. Development and validation of a dissolution test with reversed-phase liquid chromatography analysis for rupatadine in tablet dosage forms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sérgio Luiz Dalmora

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A dissolution test for in vitro evaluation of tablet dosage forms containing 10 mg of rupatadine was developed and validated by RP-LC. A discriminatory dissolution method was established using apparatus paddle at a stirring rate of 50 rpm with 900 mL of deaerated 0.01 M hydrochloric acid. The proposed method was validated yielding acceptable results for the parameters evaluated, and was applied for the quality control analysis of rupatadine tablets, and to evaluate the formulation during an accelerated stability study. Moreover, quantitative analyses were also performed, to compare the applicability of the RP-LC and the LC-MS/MS methods.

  6. A Pharmacokinetic Bioequivalence Study Comparing Pirfenidone Tablet and Capsule Dosage Forms in Healthy Adult Volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Lin; Belloni, Paula; Ding, Han Ting; Wang, Jianshuang; Rubino, Christopher M; Putnam, Wendy S

    2017-09-01

    Pirfenidone film-coated tablets were developed to offer an alternative to the marketed capsule formulation. This study assessed the bioequivalence of the tablet and capsule formulations under fed and fasted states. A Phase I, open-label, randomized, four-treatment-period, four-sequence, crossover pharmacokinetics study (NCT02525484) was conducted. Each subject received an 801-mg single dose of pirfenidone as three 267-mg capsules or one 801-mg tablet under fasted and fed conditions. Pirfenidone plasma C max , AUC 0-t and AUC 0-∞ were used to assess bioequivalence. Forty-four subjects were randomized to treatment. The 801-mg tablet in the fasted state met bioequivalence criteria [90% confidence intervals (CI) 80.00-125.00%] for the GLSM ratios of natural log-transformed C max , AUC 0-t and AUC 0-∞ . Under fed conditions, the 801-mg tablet met the bioequivalence criteria for AUC 0-t and AUC 0-∞ , but slightly exceeded the bioequivalence criteria for the C max (90% CI of 108.26-125.60%). The tablet C max was approximately 17% higher than that of the capsules. In the fed state, the tablet C max , and both AUC 0-t and AUC 0-∞ were reduced by 39% and 17%, respectively, relative to the fasted state. The tablet and capsules had acceptable tolerability profiles. The pirfenidone 801-mg tablet met bioequivalence criteria when compared with three 267-mg capsules in the fasted state. The tablet C max was slightly higher relative to capsules in the fed state, but this is not expected to have a clinically meaningful impact on the benefit-risk profile of pirfenidone. This work was supported by F. Hoffmann-La Roche Ltd.

  7. Transmission FTIR derivative spectroscopy for estimation of furosemide in raw material and tablet dosage form

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    Máximo Gallignani

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available A Fourier transform infrared derivative spectroscopy (FTIR-DS method has been developed for determining furosemide (FUR in pharmaceutical solid dosage form. The method involves the extraction of FUR from tablets with N,N-dimethylformamide by sonication and direct measurement in liquid phase mode using a reduced path length cell. In general, the spectra were measured in transmission mode and the equipment was configured to collect a spectrum at 4 cm−1 resolution and a 13 s collection time (10 scans co-added. The spectra were collected between 1400 cm−1 and 450 cm−1. Derivative spectroscopy was used for data processing and quantitative measurement using the peak area of the second order spectrum of the major spectral band found at 1165 cm−1 (SO2 stretching of FUR with baseline correction. The method fulfilled most validation requirements in the 2 mg/mL and 20 mg/mL range, with a 0.9998 coefficient of determination obtained by simple calibration model, and a general coefficient of variation <2%. The mean recovery for the proposed assay method resulted within the (100±3% over the 80%–120% range of the target concentration. The results agree with a pharmacopoeial method and, therefore, could be considered interchangeable.

  8. Successful Thrombolysis and Spasmolysis of Acute Leg Ischemia after Accidental Intra-arterial Injection of Dissolved Flunitrazepam Tablets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radeleff, B.; Stampfl, U.; Sommer, C.-M.; Bellemann, N.; Hyhlik-Duerr, A.; Weber, M.-A.; Boeckler, D.; Kauczor, H.-U.

    2011-01-01

    A 37-year-old man with known intravenous drug abuse presented in the surgical ambulatory care unit with acute leg ischemia after accidental intra-arterial injection of dissolved flunitrazepam tablets into the right femoral artery. A combination of anticoagulation, vasodilatation, and local selective and superselective thrombolysis with urokinase was performed to salvage the leg. As a result of the severe ischemia-induced pain, the patient had to be monitored over the complete therapy period on the intensive care unit with permanent administration of intravenous fluid and analgetics. We describe the presenting symptoms and the interventional technique, and we discuss the recent literature regarding the management of accidental intra-arterial injection of dissolved flunitrazepam tablets.

  9. Development of alternative methods for the determination of raloxifene hydrochloride in tablet dosage form

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Rodrigues Salazar

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Three methods are proposed for the quantitative determination of raloxifene hydrochloride in pharmaceutical dosage form: ultraviolet method (UV high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC and micellar capillary electrophoresis (MEKC. These methods were developed and validated and showed good linearity, precision and accuracy. Also they demonstrated to be specific and robust. The HPLC and MEKC methods were tested in regards to be stability indicating methods and they showed to have this attribute. The UV method used methanol as solvent and optimal wavelength at 284 nm, obeying Lambert-Beer law in these conditions. The chromatographic conditions for the HPLC method included: NST column C18 (250 x 4.6 mm x 5 µm, mobile phase water:acetonitrile:triethylamine (67:33:0,3 v/v, pH 3.5, flow rate 1.0 mL min-1, injection volume 20.0 µl, UV detection 287 nm and analysis temperature 30 °C. The MEKC method was performed on a fused-silica capillary (40 cm effective length x 50 µm i.d. using as background electrolyte 35.0 mmol L-1 borate buffer and 50.0 mmol L-1 anionic detergent sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS at pH 8.8. The capillary temperature was 32°C, applied voltage 25 kV, UV detection at 280 nm and injection was perfomed at 45 mBar for 4 s, hydrodimanic mode. In this MEKC method, potassium diclofenac (200.0 µg mL-1 was used as internal standard. All these methods were statistically analyzed and demonstrated to be equivalent for quantitative analysis of RLX in tablets and were successfully applied for the determination of the drug.

  10. Levothyroxine liquid solution versus tablet form for replacement treatment in pregnant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cappelli, Carlo; Negro, Roberto; Pirola, Ilenia; Gandossi, Elena; Agosti, Barbara; Castellano, Maurizio

    2016-01-01

    To evaluate the need and the magnitude of levothyroxine (LT4) increase in hypothyroid pregnant women on liquid compared to tablet formulations. Patients were recruited by searching our "thyroid patients" database. The selection criteria were as follows: a) pregnant women on treatment for hypothyroidism (both liquid and tablet LT4) who gave birth at our hospital between February 2012 and January 2014; b) thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) and free thyroxine (FT4) levels obtained at least 3 months before missed menstrual cycle, with a TSH value less than 2.5 mIU/L and c) TSH and FT4 obtained within 12 weeks of pregnancy, and each month subsequently. During pregnancy, 8/31 (25.5%) of the women had to increase the dosage of LT4. Of these, 7/17 (41.2%) were on LT4 replacement therapy with tablets, and 1/14 (7.1%) with liquid formulation (p = 0.038). Daily LT4 was significantly increased in the liquid group only (52.9 ± 19.5 versus 67.5 ± 19.2 mcg/day (p = 0.013). A logistic regression analysis showed that the treatment with LT4 tablets was the only predictor of LT4 increase (OR: 0.44; 95% CI: 0.04-0.83; p = 0.031). Pregnant women on optimal replacement therapy before pregnancy require an increase of LT4 dosage more often when on a tablet than liquid formulation.

  11. [A randomized, double-blind, controlled study: Ji-Tai tablet for the treatment of acute withdrawl syndrome of mild heroin dependence].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yuhong; Tang, Cuiqing; Cheng, Shuang; Cui, Guimei; Zhang, Ruiling; Zhang, Zhiyong; Xie, Lingyin; Lin, Yongxiong; Hao, Wei

    2015-02-01

    To investigate the efficacy and safety of Ji-Tai tablet and Ji-Tai tablet combined with buprenorphine in the treatment of patients with acute withdrawal syndrome of mild heroin dependence. A total of 150 patients with mild heroin dependence were recruited, and were randomly assigned to a Ji-Tai tablet group (n=50), a Ji-Tai tablet combined with buprenorphine group (n=50) and a control group (n=50) during a 10-day clinical trial. Opiate withdrawal scale (OWS) was used to measure the severity of withdrawal symptoms. Anxiety symptoms assessments were made at 0 day (baseline), the day 5 (middle), and the day 10 (end) by the Hamilton anxiety scale (HAMA). Symptoms were assessed before and 1 h or 2 h after medication each day. The total withdrawal symptoms scores and the daily reduction rate were used to measure the effect of Ji-Tai tablet vs Ji- Tai tablet plus buprenorphine. Safety evaluation was carried out by the following measures: baseline of treatment, drug side effects after the treatment, vital signs (blood pressure, heart rate, and respiration rate), laboratory examination (routine blood and urine tests and the liver and kidney function tests), and electrocardiograms. A total of 142 mild heroin dependence patients performed the experiments (including 48 in the Ji-Tai tablet group, 48 in the Ji-Tai tablet with buprenorphine group and 46 in the control group). The scores of baseline withdrawal symptoms were 43.520±19.786, 42.640±17.648 and 47.100±24.450, respectively, with no significant differences among the 3 groups (all P>0.05 ). During the 10-day treatment, the reduction rate of acute withdrawal symptoms scores increased daily, the acute withdrawal syndrome scores and the anxiety symptoms scores declined from day 0 to day 10, there was also no significant difference among the 3 groups (all P>0.05). Ji-Tai tablet did not affect vital signs such as blood pressure, heart rate, and respiration rate. Ji-Tai tablet or Ji-Tai tablet combined with buprenorphine

  12. Impact of salt form and molecular weight of chitosan on swelling and drug release from chitosan matrix tablets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huanbutta, Kampanart; Cheewatanakornkool, Kamonrak; Terada, Katsuhide; Nunthanid, Jurairat; Sriamornsak, Pornsak

    2013-08-14

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and gravimetric techniques were used to assess swelling and erosion behaviors of hydrophilic matrix tablets made of chitosan. The impact of salt form, molecular weight (MW) and dissolution medium on swelling behavior and drug (theophylline) release was studied. The matrix tablets made of chitosan glycolate (CGY) showed the greatest swelling in both acid and neutral media, compared to chitosan aspartate, chitosan glutamate and chitosan lactate. MRI illustrated that swelling region of CGY in both media was not different in the first 100 min but glassy region (dry core) in 0.1N HCl was less than in pH 6.8 buffer. The tablets prepared from chitosan with high MW swelled greater than those of low MW. Moreover, CGY can delay drug release in the acid condition due to thick swollen gel and low erosion rate. Therefore, CGY may be suitably applied as sustained drug release polymer or enteric coating material. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Validated UV-Spectrophotometric Methods for Determination of Gemifloxacin Mesylate in Pharmaceutical Tablet Dosage Forms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Rote Ambadas

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Two simple, economic and accurate UV spectrophotometric methods have been developed for determination of gemifloxacin mesylate in pharmaceutical tablet formulation. The first UV-spectrophotometric method depends upon the measurement of absorption at the wavelength 263.8 nm. In second area under curve method the wavelength range for detection was selected from 268.5-258.5 nm. Beer’s law was obeyed in the range of 2 to 12 μgmL-1 for both the methods. The proposed methods was validated statistically and applied successfully to determination of gemifloxacin mesylate in pharmaceutical formulation.

  14. Development and Validation of RP-HPLC Method for Simultaneous Estimation of Aspirin and Esomeprazole Magnesium in Tablet Dosage Form

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dipali Patel

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A simple, specific, precise, and accurate reversed-phase HPLC method was developed and validated for simultaneous estimation of aspirin and esomeprazole magnesium in tablet dosage forms. The separation was achieved by HyperChrom ODS-BP C18 column (200 mm × 4.6 mm; 5.0 μm using acetonitrile: methanol: 0.05 M phosphate buffer at pH 3 adjusted with orthophosphoric acid (25 : 25 : 50, v/v as eluent, at a flow rate of 1 mL/min. Detection was carried out at wavelength 230 nm. The retention times of aspirin and esomeprazole magnesium were 4.29 min and 6.09 min, respectively. The linearity was established over the concentration ranges of 10–70 μg/mL and 10–30 μg/mL with correlation coefficients (r2 0.9986 and 0.9973 for aspirin and esomeprazole magnesium, respectively. The mean recoveries were found to be in the ranges of 99.80–100.57% and 99.70–100.83% for aspirin and esomeprazole magnesium, respectively. The proposed method has been validated as per ICH guidelines and successfully applied to the estimation of aspirin and esomeprazole magnesium in their combined tablet dosage form.

  15. Development and Validation of Spectrophotometric Methods for Simultaneous Estimation of Valsartan and Hydrochlorothiazide in Tablet Dosage Form

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika L. Jadhav

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Two UV-spectrophotometric methods have been developed and validated for simultaneous estimation of valsartan and hydrochlorothiazide in a tablet dosage form. The first method employed solving of simultaneous equations based on the measurement of absorbance at two wavelengths, 249.4 nm and 272.6 nm, λmax for valsartan and hydrochlorothiazide, respectively. The second method was absorbance ratio method, which involves formation of Q-absorbance equation at 258.4 nm (isoabsorptive point and also at 272.6 nm (λmax of hydrochlorothiazide. The methods were found to be linear between the range of 5–30 µg/mL for valsartan and 4–24 μg/mL for hydrochlorothiazide using 0.1 N NaOH as solvent. The mean percentage recovery was found to be 100.20% and 100.19% for the simultaneous equation method and 98.56% and 97.96% for the absorbance ratio method, for valsartan and hydrochlorothiazide, respectively, at three different levels of standard additions. The precision (intraday, interday of methods was found within limits (RSD<2%. It could be concluded from the results obtained in the present investigation that the two methods for simultaneous estimation of valsartan and hydrochlorothiazide in tablet dosage form are simple, rapid, accurate, precise and economical and can be used, successfully, in the quality control of pharmaceutical formulations and other routine laboratory analysis.

  16. 21 CFR 520.1380 - Methocarbamol tablets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS ORAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.1380 Methocarbamol tablets...) Conditions of use. (1) The drug is administered to dogs and cats as an adjunct to therapy for acute...

  17. Development and validation of spectrophotometric methods for simultaneous estimation of citicoline and piracetam in tablet dosage form

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akhila Sivadas

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Citicoline (CN and piracetam (PM combination in tablet formulation is newly introduced in market. It is necessary to develop suitable quality control methods for rapid and accurate determination of these drugs. Aim: The study aimed to develop the methods for simultaneous determination of CN and PM in combined dosage form. Materials and Methods: The first method was developed by formation and solving simultaneous equations using 280.3 and 264.1 nm as two analytical wavelengths. Second method was absorbance ratio in which wavelengths selected were 256.6 nm as its absorptive point and 280.3 nm as λmax of CN. According to International Conference on Harmonization (ICH norm, the parameters - linearity, precision, and accuracy were studied. The methods were validated statistically and by recovery studies. Results: Both the drugs obeyed Beer-Lambert′s law at the selected wavelengths in concentration range of 5-13 μg/ml for CN and 10-22 μg/ml for PM. The percentage of CN and PM in marketed tablet formulation was found to be 99.006 ± 0.173 and 99.257 ± 0.613, respectively; by simultaneous equation method. For Q-Absorption ratio method the percentage of CN and PM was found to be 99.078 ± 0.158 and 99.708 ± 0.838, respectively. Conclusions: The proposed methods were simple, reproducible, precise and robust. The methods can be successfully applied for routine analysis of tablets.

  18. Quantitative determination of solid-state forms of a pharmaceutical development compound in drug substance and tablets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Yong; Tao, Wenle; Morrison, Henry; Chiu, Rick; Jona, Janan; Fang, Jan; Cauchon, Nina

    2008-10-01

    Common analytical techniques including Raman, NIR, and XRD were evaluated for quantitative determination of three solid-state forms (amorphous, Form B and Form C) of a development compound. Raman spectroscopy was selected as the primary analytical technique with sufficient sensitivity to monitor and quantify the neat drug substance alone and in the drug product. A reliable multivariate curve resolution (MCR) method based on the second derivative Raman measurements of the three pure physical forms was developed and validated with 3.5% root mean square error of prediction (RMSEP) for Form B, which was selected as the preferred form for further development. A partial least squares (PLS) algorithm was also used for the multivariate calibration of both the NIR and Raman measurements. The long-term stability of Form B as a neat active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) and in a tablet formulation was quantitatively monitored under various stress conditions of temperature and moisture. Moisture, temperature, excipients and compression were found to have significant effects on the phase transition behavior of Form B.

  19. Estimation of Rabeprazole Sodium and Itopride Hydrochloride in Tablet Dosage Form Using Reverse Phase High Performance Liquid Chromatography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaik Harum Rasheed

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A reversed phase high performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC method was developed, validated and used for the quantitative determination of rabeprazole sodium (RP and itopride hydrochloride (IH, from its tablet dosage form. Chromatographic separation was performed on a Phenomenex C18 column (250 mm × 4.6 mm, 5 μm, with a mobile phase comprising of a mixture of 50 mM ammonium acetate buffer and methanol (20:80v/v, pH 4.5 adjusted with acetic acid, at a flow rate of 1.3 mL/min with detection at 286 nm. Separation was completed in less than 10 min. As per International Conference on Harmonization (ICH guidelines the method was validated for linearity, accuracy, precision, limit of quantitation and limit of detection. Linearity of RP was found to be in the range of 37.5-375 μg/mL and IH was found to be in the range of 5-50 μg/mL. The correlation coefficients were 0.9997 and 0.9995 for RB and IH respectively. The accuracy of the developed method was found to be 98.6-100.7 for RP and 99.42 -100.81 for IH. The experiment shows the developed method is free from interference of excipients. It indicates the developed RP-HPLC method is simple, linear, precise and accurate and it can be conveniently adopted for the routine quality control analysis of the tablet dosage form.

  20. RecoverNow: Feasibility of a Mobile Tablet-Based Rehabilitation Intervention to Treat Post-Stroke Communication Deficits in the Acute Care Setting.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen H Mallet

    Full Text Available Approximately 40% of patients diagnosed with stroke experience some degree of aphasia. With limited health care resources, patients' access to speech and language therapies is often delayed. We propose using mobile-platform technology to initiate early speech-language therapy in the acute care setting. For this pilot, our objective was to assess the feasibility of a tablet-based speech-language therapy for patients with communication deficits following acute stroke.We enrolled consecutive patients admitted with a stroke and communication deficits with NIHSS score ≥1 on the best language and/or dysarthria parameters. We excluded patients with severe comprehension deficits where communication was not possible. Following baseline assessment by a speech-language pathologist (SLP, patients were provided with a mobile tablet programmed with individualized therapy applications based on the assessment, and instructed to use it for at least one hour per day. Our objective was to establish feasibility by measuring recruitment rate, adherence rate, retention rate, protocol deviations and acceptability.Over 6 months, 143 patients were admitted with a new diagnosis of stroke: 73 had communication deficits, 44 met inclusion criteria, and 30 were enrolled into RecoverNow (median age 62, 26.6% female for a recruitment rate of 68% of eligible participants. Participants received mobile tablets at a mean 6.8 days from admission [SEM 1.6], and used them for a mean 149.8 minutes/day [SEM 19.1]. In-hospital retention rate was 97%, and 96% of patients scored the mobile tablet-based communication therapy as at least moderately convenient 3/5 or better with 5/5 being most "convenient".Individualized speech-language therapy delivered by mobile tablet technology is feasible in acute care.

  1. RecoverNow: Feasibility of a Mobile Tablet-Based Rehabilitation Intervention to Treat Post-Stroke Communication Deficits in the Acute Care Setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallet, Karen H; Shamloul, Rany M; Corbett, Dale; Finestone, Hillel M; Hatcher, Simon; Lumsden, Jim; Momoli, Franco; Shamy, Michel C F; Stotts, Grant; Swartz, Richard H; Yang, Christine; Dowlatshahi, Dar

    2016-01-01

    Approximately 40% of patients diagnosed with stroke experience some degree of aphasia. With limited health care resources, patients' access to speech and language therapies is often delayed. We propose using mobile-platform technology to initiate early speech-language therapy in the acute care setting. For this pilot, our objective was to assess the feasibility of a tablet-based speech-language therapy for patients with communication deficits following acute stroke. We enrolled consecutive patients admitted with a stroke and communication deficits with NIHSS score ≥1 on the best language and/or dysarthria parameters. We excluded patients with severe comprehension deficits where communication was not possible. Following baseline assessment by a speech-language pathologist (SLP), patients were provided with a mobile tablet programmed with individualized therapy applications based on the assessment, and instructed to use it for at least one hour per day. Our objective was to establish feasibility by measuring recruitment rate, adherence rate, retention rate, protocol deviations and acceptability. Over 6 months, 143 patients were admitted with a new diagnosis of stroke: 73 had communication deficits, 44 met inclusion criteria, and 30 were enrolled into RecoverNow (median age 62, 26.6% female) for a recruitment rate of 68% of eligible participants. Participants received mobile tablets at a mean 6.8 days from admission [SEM 1.6], and used them for a mean 149.8 minutes/day [SEM 19.1]. In-hospital retention rate was 97%, and 96% of patients scored the mobile tablet-based communication therapy as at least moderately convenient 3/5 or better with 5/5 being most "convenient". Individualized speech-language therapy delivered by mobile tablet technology is feasible in acute care.

  2. In vivo anti-psoriatic activity, biodistribution, sub-acute and sub-chronic toxicity studies of orally administered methotrexate loaded chitin nanogel in comparison with methotrexate tablet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panonnummal, Rajitha; Jayakumar, R; Anjaneyan, Gopikrishnan; Sabitha, M

    2018-04-15

    The anti-psoriatic efficacy of orally administered methotrexate loaded chitin nanogel (MCNG) was evaluated (two doses- 2.715 mg/kg and 5.143 mg/kg) and compared against orally administered methotrexate tablet MTX (5.143 mg/kg). MCNG at both dose levels of 2.715 mg/kg and 5.143 mg/kg exhibited significant anti-psoriatic activity which is very much comparable with MTX, caused normalization of histological features and inflammatory score associated with induced psoriasis. Biodistribution studies revealed the presence of drug in serum and in vital organs at all the three cases with highest amount in MCNG at 5.143 mg/kg dose, followed by MTX tablet and are lowest in MCNG at 2.715 mg/kg dose. MCNG at the highest dose of 5.143 mg/kg caused liver, lung and kidney toxicities on sub acute toxicity studies and MTX tablet was found to be toxic on liver and lung on sub chronic toxicity studies. MCNG 2.715 mg/kg was found to be safe on both sub acute and sub chronic administrations, suggesting that it can provide sufficient serum and tissue level of methotrexate necessary to clear psoriatic lesions, without inducing systemic toxicity and expected to be a better alternative for orally administered conventional methotrexate tablet for patients who need systemic medications for psoriasis. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  3. Simultaneous Estimation of Gemcitabine Hydrochloride and Capecitabine Hydrochloride in Combined Tablet Dosage Form by RP-HPLC Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Rajesh

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A new reverse phase high performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC method has been developed for the simultaneous estimation of gemcitabine hydrochloride and capecitabine hydrochloride in combined tablet dosage form. An inertsil ODS-3 C-18 column having dimensions of 250×4.6 mm and particle size of 5 µm, with mobile phase containing a mixture of acetonitrile : water : triethyelamine in the ratio of (70 : 28 : 2v/v was used. The pH of mobile phase was adjusted to 4.0 with ortho-phosphoric acid. The flow rate was 1 mL/min and the column effluents were monitored at 260 nm. The retention time for gemcitabine hydrochloride and capecitabine hydrochloride was found to be 2.76 and 2.3 min respectively. The proposed method was validated in terms of linearity, accuracy, precision, limit of detection, limit of quantitation and robustness. The method was found to be linear in the range of 10-50 µg/mL and 4-24 µg/mL for gemcitabine hydrochloride and capecitabine hydrochloride, with regression coefficient r = 0.999 and r = 0.999, respectively.

  4. Acute form of multiple sclerosis in a child simulation encephalitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niagolova, S.; Karapasheva, V.; Nikolova, M.

    2007-01-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is considered the most common demyelinating process involving the CNS. Although usually considered an adult disease multiple sclerosis can begin to manifest during childhood. The clinical presentation of the disease in early childhood can range from paraesthesias to dramatic presentations, suggesting diffuse encephalopathy with cerebral oedema, meningismus and impaired consciousness. Multiple sclerosis is usually characterized by a typical relapsing-remitting clinical course. But there are acute, clinically fulminant forms with atypical. neurologic symptoms and death in months. MRI has become increasingly relevant in the diagnosis of multiple sclerosis in the past years. Yet, the specificity is limited. Atypical forms of MS and other diseases of CNS may show similar patterns on MRI. We report a case of 7 years old boy with clinically fulminant Marburg type of multiple sclerosis that ended with death in two months. The patient was a diagnostic problem despite the certain degree of clinical and radiological suspicion. The postmortem diagnosis is based on pathomorphologic changes (gross pathologic and microscopic features) in CNS.The present case is of clinical, radiological and pathomorphologic interest because of its early onset in childhood, unusual clinical course and acute progression. Awareness of the MRI features of multiple sclerosis and MS-variants (subtypes) may help in such atypical presentations in childhood. (authors)

  5. Development and Validation of UV-Visible Spectrophotometric Methods for Simultaneous Estimation of Thiocolchicoside and Dexketoprofen in Bulk and Tablet Dosage Form

    OpenAIRE

    M. T. Harde; S. B. Jadhav; D. L. Dharam; P. D. Chaudhari

    2012-01-01

    Development and validation of two simple, accurate, precise and economical UV Spectrophotometric methods for simultaneous estimation of Thiocolchicoside and Dexketoprofen in bulk and in tablet dosage form. The methods employed were Method-1 Absorbance correction method and Method-2 First order derivative spectroscopic method. In method-1 Absorbance is measured at two wavelengths 370nm at which Dexketoprofen has no absorbance and 255nm at which both the drug have considerable absorbance. In me...

  6. Development of effervescent products, in powder and tablet form, supplemented with probiotics Lactobacillus acidophilus and Saccharomyces boulardii

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnes Izumi Nagashima

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Probiotics are living microorganisms, which when administered in adequate amounts confer health benefits on the host through a beneficial influence on the intestinal microbiota related to competition and to antagonistic and immunological effects. Thus, the objective of this study was the development of effervescent products (tablets and powder supplemented with the probiotics Lactobacillus acidophilus and Saccharomyces boulardii, and the identification of the best formulation in terms of viability of these microorganisms. The physical properties of the tablets (compressive force applied, mean weight, hardness, and friability were assessed, and the viability of the microorganisms in the gastrointestinal tract and their stability during storage were also determined. The results show that the microorganisms remained stable and viable during the 60-day storage period in the effervescent powder. However, the results indicated that the effect of compression force affected the viability of the microorganisms during the production of the effervescent tablets.

  7. Pasteurization as a tool to control the bio-burden in solid herbal dosage forms: A pilot study of formulating Ashoka tablets with an industrial perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pushpalatha, Hulikal Basavarajaiah; Pramod, Kumar; Sundaram, Ramachandran; Shyam, Ramakrishnan

    2014-10-01

    Irradiation and use of preservatives are routine procedures to control bio-burden in solid herbal dosage forms. Use of steam or pasteurization is even though reported in the literature, not many studies are available with respect to its application in reducing the bio-burden in herbal drug formulations. Hence, we undertook a series of studies to explore the suitability of pasteurization as a method to reduce bio-burden during formulation and development of herbal dosage forms, which will pave the way for preparing preservative-free formulations. Optimized Ashoka (Saraca indica) tablets were formulated and developed. The optimized formula was then subjected to pasteurization during formulation, with an aim to keep the microbial count well within the limits of pharmacopoeial standards. Then, three variants of the optimized Ashoka formulation - with preservative, without preservative and formulation without preservative and subjected to pasteurization, were compared by routine in-process parameters and stability studies. The results obtained indicate that Ashoka tablets manufactured by inclusion of the pasteurization technique not only showed the bio-burden to be within the limits of pharmacopoeial standards, but also exhibited the compliance with other parameters, such as stability and quality. The outcome of this pilot study shows that pasteurization can be employed as a distinctive method for reducing bio-burden during the formulation and development of herbal dosage forms, such as tablets.

  8. Simultaneous estimation of Ofloxacin and Cefixime in tablet form in presence of the inactive Ofloxacin USP Related compound A

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lobna A. Hussein

    2017-06-01

    The suggested method was validated in compliance with the ICH guidelines and was successfully applied for the quantification of Ofloxacin, Cefixime and Ofloxacin Related compound A in their commercial tablets. The method was also statistically compared to reference methods with no significant differences in performance.

  9. [Tablets and tablet production - with special reference to Icelandic conditions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skaftason, Jóhannes F; Jóhannesson, Thorkell

    2013-04-01

    Modern tablet compression was instituted in England in 1844 by William Brockedon (1787-1854). The first tablets made according to Brockedon´s procedures contained watersoluble salts and were most likely compressed without expedients. In USA a watershed occurred around 1887 when starch (amylum maydis) was introduced to disperse tablets in aqueous milieu in order to corroborate bioavailability of drugs in the almentary canal. About the same time great advances in tablet production were introduced by the British firm Burroughs Wellcome and Co. In Denmark on the other hand tablet production remained on low scale until after 1920. As Icelandic pharmacies and drug firms modelled themselves mostly upon Danish firms tablet production was first instituted in Iceland around 1930. The first tablet machines in Iceland were hand-driven. More efficent machines came after 1945. Around 1960 three sizeable tablet producers were in Iceland; now there is only one. Numbers of individual tablet species (generic and proprietary) on the market rose from less than 10 in 1913 to 500 in 1965, with wide variations in numbers in between. Tablets have not wiped out other medicinal forms for peroral use but most new peroral drugs have been marketed in the form of tablets during the last decades.

  10. Effects of compound Shenhua tablet on renal tubular Na+-K+-ATPase in rats with acute ischemic reperfusion injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yue; Wei, Ri-bao; Zheng, Xiao-yong; Qiu, Qiang; Cui, Shao-yuan; Yin, Zhong; Shi, Suo-zhu; Chen, Xiang-mei

    2014-03-01

    To observe the effect of Compound Shenhua Tablet (, SHT) on the sodium-potassium- exchanging adenosinetriphosphatase (Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase) in the renal tubular epithelial cells of rats with acute ischemic reperfusion and to investigate the mechanisms underlying the effects of SHT on renal ischemic reperfusion injury (RIRI). Fifty male Wistar rats were randomly divided into the sham surgery group, model group, astragaloside group [150 mg/(kg·d)], SHT low-dose group [1.5 g/(kg·d)] and SHT high-dose group [3.0 g/(kg·d)], with 10 rats in each group. After 1 week of continuous intragastric drug administration, surgery was performed to establish the model. At either 24 or 72 h after the surgery, 5 rats in each group were sacrificed, blood biochemistry, renal pathology, immunoblot and immunohistochemical examinations were performed, and double immunofluorescence staining was observed under a laser confocal microscope. Compared with the sham surgery group, the serum creatinine (SCr) and blood urea nitrogen (BUN) levels were significantly increased, Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase protein level was decreased, and kidney injury molecule-1 (KIM-1) protein level was increased in the model group after the surgery (P<0.01 or P<0.05). Compared with the model group, the SCr, BUN, pathological scores, Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase, and the KIM-1 protein level of the three treatment groups were significantly improved at 72 h after the surgery (P<0.05 or P<0.01). And the SCr, BUN of the SHT low- and high-dose groups, and the pathological scores of the SHT high-dose group were significantly lower than those of the astragaloside group (P<0.05). The localizations of Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase and megalin of the model group were disrupted, with the distribution areas overlapping with each other and alternately arranged. The severity of the disruption was slightly milder in three treatment groups compared with that of the model group. The results of immunofluorescence staining showed that the SHT high-dose group had a

  11. Determination of dasatinib in the tablet dosage form by ultra high performance liquid chromatography, capillary zone electrophoresis, and sequential injection analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez, Aroa Garcia; Taraba, Lukáš; Hraníček, Jakub; Kozlík, Petr; Coufal, Pavel

    2017-01-01

    Dasatinib is a novel oral prescription drug proposed for treating adult patients with chronic myeloid leukemia. Three analytical methods, namely ultra high performance liquid chromatography, capillary zone electrophoresis, and sequential injection analysis, were developed, validated, and compared for determination of the drug in the tablet dosage form. The total analysis time of optimized ultra high performance liquid chromatography and capillary zone electrophoresis methods was 2.0 and 2.2 min, respectively. Direct ultraviolet detection with detection wavelength of 322 nm was employed in both cases. The optimized sequential injection analysis method was based on spectrophotometric detection of dasatinib after a simple colorimetric reaction with folin ciocalteau reagent forming a blue-colored complex with an absorbance maximum at 745 nm. The total analysis time was 2.5 min. The ultra high performance liquid chromatography method provided the lowest detection and quantitation limits and the most precise and accurate results. All three newly developed methods were demonstrated to be specific, linear, sensitive, precise, and accurate, providing results satisfactorily meeting the requirements of the pharmaceutical industry, and can be employed for the routine determination of the active pharmaceutical ingredient in the tablet dosage form. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  12. Acute effects of glucose tablets on craving, withdrawal symptoms, and sustained attention in 12-h abstinent tobacco smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harakas, P; Foulds, J

    2002-05-01

    Glucose administration may decrease desire to smoke in abstinent smokers. Moreover, glucose administration has been associated with improved performance on measures of attention in healthy humans but evidence remains modest. The present study aimed to determine whether reported craving and nicotine withdrawal symptoms can be relieved, and sustained attention on the Rapid Visual Information Processing (RVIP) task improved, with the administration of 12 g oral glucose in nicotine-deprived smokers. Forty-one smokers, abstinent for 12 h, participated in a double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized study to examine the effect of glucose on desire to smoke, withdrawal symptoms, and attention. Participants completed the RVIP task once and then rated craving and nicotine withdrawal symptoms before chewing four 3 g glucose tablets (experimental group) or four matched placebo tablets (control group). Following tablet consumption participants rated craving and withdrawal symptoms at 5-min intervals for 20 min. Subsequently a second RVIP task was performed, followed by a final rating of craving and withdrawal symptoms. Any effect of glucose across time was not statistically significant on craving, withdrawal symptoms, or performance on the RVIP task. There were no differences between the groups in measures of 'satisfaction' or 'sickness'. The present study failed to find a significant effect of 12 g oral glucose on tobacco craving, withdrawal symptoms, or sustained attention in relatively young tobacco smokers after 12 h of tobacco abstinence.

  13. 21 CFR 520.812 - Enrofloxacin tablets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Enrofloxacin tablets. 520.812 Section 520.812 Food... DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS ORAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.812 Enrofloxacin tablets. (a) Specifications. Each tablet contains either 22.7, 68.0, or 136.0 milligrams of enrofloxacin. (b) Sponsor. See No...

  14. Development and validation of indirect visible spectrophotometric methods for oxcarbazepine in pure and the tablet dosage form

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hemavathi N. Deepakumari

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Three simple, accurate and highly sensitive indirect spectrophotometric methods have been developed for the determination of oxcarbazepine (OXC in both pure and in pharmaceutical preparations. The methods are based on the oxidation of oxcarbazepine by a known excess of cerium(IV in acid medium. This was followed by the determination of unreacted cerium(IV, which oxidizes leuco dyes to colored dyes in the same acid medium. In method A, an unreacted cerium(IV oxidizes leuco crystal violet to crystal violet dye which is measured at 580 nm. A bluish-colored malachite green with a maximum absorption at 610 nm is developed in method B. In method C, cerium(IV oxidizes leuco xylene cyanol FF to blue colored xylene cyanol FF having absorption maximum at 610 nm. In all these methods, the amount of cerium(IV reacted corresponds to the amount of OXC and the absorbance is found to decrease linearly with OXC concentration. Beer’s law was obeyed in the concentration range of 0–2.5, 0–2.0 and 0–2.5 μg ml−1 for methods A, B and C, respectively, and the corresponding molar absorptivity values are 3.86 × 104, 4.41 × 104 and 2.16 × 104 l mol−1cm−1. All variables have been optimized and the results were statistically compared with those of a literature method by employing the student’s t-test and F-test. No interference was observed from excipients normally added to the tablets.

  15. Radiation diagnosis of different forms of acute pancreatitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stashuk, G.A.; Dubrova, S.Eh.; Emel'yanova, L.N.; Tripatkhi, S.

    1999-01-01

    Using the data on 123 patient with different forms of pancreatitis the ultrasonic and computerized tomographic semiotics of these states is described. It is shown that ultrasonography and computerized tomography are highly informative in diagnosis of different forms of the disease and its complications. Both methods not only assess the pancreatic parenchyma state, the spreading of process into adjacent anatomic structures, but also the dynamic control and perform diagnostic and treatment measures under visual control [ru

  16. Simultaneous determination of related substances of telmisartan and hydrochlorothiazide in tablet dosage form by using reversed phase high performance liquid chromatographic method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sutirtho Mukhopadhyay

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective : Telmisartan is a potent, long-lasting, nonpeptide antagonist of the angiotensin II type-1 (AT 1 receptor that is indicated for the treatment of essential hypertension. Hydrochlorothiazide is a widely prescribed diuretic and it is indicated for the treatment of edema, control of essential hypertension and management of diabetes insipidus. In the current article a new, accurate, sensitive, precise, rapid, reversed phase high performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC method was developed for determination of related substances of Telmisartan and Hydrochlorthiazide in tablet dosage form. Materials and Methods : Simultaneous determination of related substances was performed on Kromasil C 18 analytical column (250 × 4.6 mm; 5΅m pertical size column at 40°C employing a gradient elution. Mobile phase consisting of solvent A (solution containing 2.0 g of potassium dihydrogen phosphate anhydrous and 1.04 g of Sodium 1- Hexane sulphonic acid monohydrate per liter of water, adjusted to pH 3.0 with orthophosphoric acid and solvent B (mixture of Acetonitrile: Methanol in the ratio 80:20 v/v was used at a flow rate of 1.0 ml min−1 . UV detection was performed at 270 nm. Results : During method validation parameter such as precision, linearity, accuracy, specificity, limit of detection and quantification were evaluated, which remained within acceptable limits. Conclusions : HPLC analytical method is linear, accurate, precise, robust and specific, being able to separate the main drug from its degradation products. It may find application for the routine analysis of the related substances of both Telmisartan and Hydrochlorthiazide in this combination tablets.

  17. Targeted Metabolomics of Serum Acylcarnitines Evaluates Hepatoprotective Effect of Wuzhi Tablet (Schisandra sphenanthera Extract against Acute Acetaminophen Toxicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huichang Bi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Possible prevention and therapeutic intervention strategies to counteract acetaminophen (APAP hepatotoxicity would be of great value. Wuzhi tablet (WZ, extract of Schisandrae sphenanthera possesses hepatoprotective effects against hepatitis and the hepatic dysfunction induced by various chemical hepatotoxins. In this study, the protective effect of WZ on APAP-induced hepatic injury was evaluated and targeted metabolomics by LC-MS-based metabolomics was used to examine whether WZ influences hepatic metabolism. The results demonstrated significant hepatoprotection of WZ against APAP-induced liver injury; pretreatment with WZ prior to APAP administration blocks the increase in serum palmitoylcarnitine and oleoylcarnitine and thus restores the APAP-impaired fatty acid β-oxidation to normal levels. These studies further revealed a significant and prolonged upregulation of the PPARα target genes Cpt1 and Acot1 by WZ mainly contributing to the maintenance of normal fatty acid metabolism and thus potentially contributing to the hepatic protection of WZ against APAP-induced hepatic toxicity. Taken together, the current study provides new insights into understanding the hepatoprotective effect of WZ against APAP-induced liver toxicity.

  18. Seaweed tablet: a natural source of iodine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Briones, Annabelle V.; Ambal, Wilhelmina O.; Monroyo, Evangelina C.; Bonifacio, Teresita S.; Sison, Fe M.

    1997-01-01

    Species of seaweeds namely: Halymenia durvillaei, Laurencia flexilis and Sargassum gigantifolium were processed into dried form and formulated as tablet. Prior to tablet formulation, the seaweeds were assayed for iodine and trace elements. The seaweeds that exhibited significance values of iodine and trace elements were further analyzed for the presence of heavy metals followed by acute oral toxicity test (LD 50 ). Among the seaweeds evaluated, H. durvilaei was found to contain high level of iodine (0.255% w/w) and magnesium (1.65% w/w) with sufficient amount of zinc (25.69 ppm) and phosporous (11.68 ppm). Analysis of heavy metals showed minute amount of mercury (0.0055 ppm), cadmium (0.67 ppm) and lead (1.80 ppm). The median lethal dose (LD 50 ) of H. durvillaei administered orally in Swiss male mice is 119.1489 ± 4.9873 g/kg. Tablet formulation was based on the U.S. recommended daily allowance of 0.15 mg. of iodine per adult and children. The final product was comparable to imported Kelp pills (available in the local market) in terms of physical properties and iodine content. (Author)

  19. Schisandra sphenanthera extract (Wuzhi Tablet protects against chronic-binge and acute alcohol-induced liver injury by regulating the NRF2-ARE pathway in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuezhen Zeng

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Alcohol abuse leads to alcoholic liver disease and no effective therapy is currently available. Wuzhi Tablet (WZ, a preparation of extract from Schisandra sphenanthera that is a traditional hepato-protective herb, exerted a significant protective effect against acetaminophen-induced liver injury in our recent studies, but whether WZ can alleviate alcohol-induced toxicity remains unclear. This study aimed to investigate the contribution of WZ to alcohol-induced liver injury by using chronic-binge and acute models of alcohol feeding. The activities of ALT and AST in serum were assessed as well as the level of GSH and the activity of SOD in the liver. The expression of CYP2E1 and proteins in the NRF2-ARE signaling pathway including NRF2, GCLC, GCLM, HO-1 were measured, and the effect of WZ on NRF2 transcriptional activity was determined. We found that both models resulted in liver steatosis accompanied by increased transaminase activities, but that liver injury was significantly attenuated by WZ. WZ administration also inhibited CYP2E1 expression induced by alcohol, and elevated the level of GSH and the activity of SOD in the liver. Moreover, the NRF2-ARE signaling pathway was activated by WZ and the target genes were all upregulated. Furthermore, WZ significantly activated NRF2 transcriptional activity. Collectively, our study demonstrates that WZ protected against alcohol-induced liver injury by reducing oxidative stress and improving antioxidant defense, possibly by activating the NRF2-ARE pathway.

  20. UHPLC-LTQ-Orbitrap MS combined with spike-in method for plasma metabonomics analysis of acute myocardial ischemia rats and pretreatment effect of Danqi Tongmai tablet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Bingpeng; Deng, Yanping; Hou, Jinjun; Bi, Qirui; Yang, Min; Jiang, Baohong; Liu, Xuan; Wu, Wanying; Guo, Dean

    2015-02-01

    Undoubtedly, metabonomics can reveal the comprehensive efficacies of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) formulae and its complex mechanism at the molecular biological level. In this study, an attempt was made to address the pretreatment effect of a TCM formula. In this case, as a critical point, we should first know how to really reflect the various endogenous metabolites in a disease status before a TCM formula is employed in a therapeutic procedure. Here, we explored an approach that combined high resolution LTQ-Orbitrap mass spectrometry with a spike-in method to characterize endogenous metabolites in acute myocardial ischemia (AMI) rats. As a result, 19 potential biomarkers in rat plasma were identified and 10 related disturbed pathways were perturbed in the early stages of AMI development. Subsequently, the metabonomics method was applied to investigate the pretreatment effect of the TCM formula named the Danqi Tongmai tablet (DQTM). The results revealed that the DQTM pretreatment could reduce the AMI injury and partially regulate the perturbed TCA cycle and amino and nucleotide metabolism, which were presumable related to energy metabolism and myocardial cells apoptosis/necrosis. In conclusion, UHPLC-LTQ-Orbitrap MS combined with a spike-in method were successfully applied to the metabonomics analysis of DQTM, which demonstrated that not only a comprehensive metabolic profile in the early stages of AMI development was achieved, but also that the underlying holistic efficacies were assessed and it was helpful to understand the possible mechanism of pretreatment with DQTM.

  1. Differential diagnosis of pelvic pain in women: acute and chronic forms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Speiser, P. . paul.speiser@univie.ac.at

    2001-01-01

    Acute and chronic forms of pelvic pain are symptoms of various gynaecological entities with a difficult clinical differential diagnosis. Acute pains are generally intensive attacks with a sudden onset, rapid progression, and normally short duration. Chronic pelvic pain is a continuous non-cyclic condition. Transvaginal sonography is an efficient tool to document morphologic abnormalities. Other imaging modalities, especially magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and computed tomography (CT) are valuable to differentiate gynaecological from other abdominal causes pain. (author)

  2. Optimization of Forced Degradation Using Experimental Design and Development of a Stability-Indicating Liquid Chromatographic Assay Method for Rebamipide in Bulk and Tablet Dosage Form

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandeep SONAWANE

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available A novel stability-indicating RP-HPLC assay method was developed and validated for quantitative determination of rebamipide in bulk and tablet dosage form. Rebamipide (drug and drug product solutions were exposed to acid and alkali hydrolysis, thermal stress, oxidation by hydrogen peroxide and photodegradation. Experimental design has been used during forced degradation to determine significant factors responsible for degradation and to obtain optimal degradation conditions. In addition, acid and alkali hydrolysis was performed using a microwave oven. The chromatographic method employed the HiQ sil C-18HS (250 × 4.6 mm; 5 μm column with mobile phase consisting of 0.02 M potassium phosphate (pH adjusted to 6.8 and methanol (40:60, v/v and the detection was performed at 230 nm. The procedure was validated for specificity, linearity, accuracy, precision and robustness. There was no interference observed of excipients and degradation products in the determination of the active pharmaceutical ingredient. The method showed good accuracy and precision (intra and inter day and the response was linear in a range from 0.5 to 5 μg mL−1. The method was found to be simple and fast with less trial and error experimentation by making use of experimental design. Also, it proved that microwave energy can be used to expedite hydrolysis of rebamipide.

  3. A Simple and Specific Stability- Indicating RP-HPLC Method for Routine Assay of Adefovir Dipivoxil in Bulk and Tablet Dosage Form.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darsazan, Bahar; Shafaati, Alireza; Mortazavi, Seyed Alireza; Zarghi, Afshin

    2017-01-01

    A simple and reliable stability-indicating RP-HPLC method was developed and validated for analysis of adefovir dipivoxil (ADV).The chromatographic separation was performed on a C 18 column using a mixture of acetonitrile-citrate buffer (10 mM at pH 5.2) 36:64 (%v/v) as mobile phase, at a flow rate of 1.5 mL/min. Detection was carried out at 260 nm and a sharp peak was obtained for ADV at a retention time of 5.8 ± 0.01 min. No interferences were observed from its stress degradation products. The method was validated according to the international guidelines. Linear regression analysis of data for the calibration plot showed a linear relationship between peak area and concentration over the range of 0.5-16 μg/mL; the regression coefficient was 0.9999and the linear regression equation was y = 24844x-2941.3. The detection (LOD) and quantification (LOQ) limits were 0.12 and 0.35 μg/mL, respectively. The results proved the method was fast (analysis time less than 7 min), precise, reproducible, and accurate for analysis of ADV over a wide range of concentration. The proposed specific method was used for routine quantification of ADV in pharmaceutical bulk and a tablet dosage form.

  4. Analytical Method Development and Validation for the Simultaneous Estimation of Abacavir and Lamivudine by Reversed-phase High-performance Liquid Chromatography in Bulk and Tablet Dosage Forms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raees Ahmad, Sufiyan Ahmad; Patil, Lalit; Mohammed Usman, Mohammed Rageeb; Imran, Mohammad; Akhtar, Rashid

    2018-01-01

    A simple rapid, accurate, precise, and reproducible validated reverse phase high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method was developed for the determination of Abacavir (ABAC) and Lamivudine (LAMI) in bulk and tablet dosage forms. The quantification was carried out using Symmetry Premsil C18 (250 mm × 4.6 mm, 5 μm) column run in isocratic way using mobile phase comprising methanol: water (0.05% orthophosphoric acid with pH 3) 83:17 v/v and a detection wavelength of 245 nm and injection volume of 20 μl, with a flow rate of 1 ml/min. In the developed method, the retention times of ABAC and LAMI were found to be 3.5 min and 7.4 min, respectively. The method was validated in terms of linearity, precision, accuracy, limits of detection, limits of quantitation, and robustness in accordance with the International Conference on Harmonization guidelines. The assay of the proposed method was found to be 99% - 101%. The recovery studies were also carried out and mean % recovery was found to be 99% - 101%. The % relative standard deviation from reproducibility was found to be performance liquid chromatography, UV: Ultraviolet, ICH: International Conference on Harmonization, ABAC: Abacavir, LAMI: Lamivudine, HIV: Human immunodeficiency virus, AIDS: Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome, NRTI: Nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors, ARV: Antiretroviral, RSD: Relative standard deviation, RT: Retention time, SD: Standard deviation.

  5. On the role of API in determining porosity, pore structure and bulk modulus of the skeletal material in pharmaceutical tablets formed with MCC as sole excipient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ridgway, Cathy; Bawuah, Prince; Markl, Daniel; Zeitler, J Axel; Ketolainen, Jarkko; Peiponen, Kai-Erik; Gane, Patrick

    2017-06-30

    The physical properties and mechanical integrity of pharmaceutical tablets are of major importance when loading with active pharmaceutical ingredient(s) (API) in order to ensure ease of processing, control of dosage and stability during transportation and handling prior to patient consumption. The interaction between API and excipient, acting as functional extender and binder, however, is little understood in this context. The API indomethacin is combined in this study with microcrystalline cellulose (MCC) at increasing loading levels. Tablets from the defined API/MCC ratios are made under conditions of controlled porosity and tablet thickness, resulting from different compression conditions, and thus compaction levels. Mercury intrusion porosimetry is used to establish the accessible pore volume, pore size distribution and, adopting the observed region of elastic intrusion-extrusion at high pressure, an elastic bulk modulus of the skeletal material is recorded. Porosity values are compared to previously published values derived from terahertz (THz) refractive index data obtained from exactly the same tablet sample sets. It is shown that the elastic bulk modulus is dependent on API wt% loading under constant tablet preparation conditions delivering equal dimensions and porosity. The findings are considered of novel value in respect to establishing consistency of tablet production and optimisation of physical properties. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Determination of glibenclamide, metformin hydrochloride and rosiglitazone maleate by reversed phase liquid chromatographic technique in tablet dosage form

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Havele Shweta S.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A simple, precise and accurate high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC method was developed for the simultaneous estimation of metformin hydrochloride, rosiglitazone maleate, glibenclamide present in multicomponent dosage forms. Chromatography was performed on a 25 cm × 4.6 mm i.d., 5-μm particle, C18 column with 78:22 (v/v methanol: 20 mM potassium dihydrogen phosphate buffer as mobile phase at a flow rate of 1.0 ml/min and UV detection at 238 nm for metformin hydrochloride, rosiglitazone maleate, and glibenclamide. The total elution time was shorter than 9 min. This method was found to be precise and reproducible. This proposed method was successfully applied for the analysis of metformin hydrochloride, rosiglitazone maleate, glibenclamide as a bulk drug and in pharmaceutical formulation without any interference from the excipients.

  7. Tablet telerounding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaczmarek, Bartosz F; Trinh, Quoc-Dien; Menon, Mani; Rogers, Craig G

    2012-12-01

    To evaluate the feasibility of remote rounding using commercially available standard tablets with videoconferencing system and assess patient satisfaction. Thirty-two patients with at least 2 postoperative days of hospital stay after robotic urologic procedures were included in the study. On the first postoperative day, the physician-patient encounter was performed as telerounding with videoconferencing due to the physician's duties scheduled in another affiliated hospital. On the second day, the personal bedside encounter took place. The tablet we used was an iPad2 (Apple, iOS 5.1; Apple, Cupertino, CA) with a videoconferencing application. A telerounding satisfaction survey was fulfilled by all patients on the touchscreen of the tablet. Average time of telerounding encounter was 4.5 minutes (range, 1.0-13.5 minutes), average age of the patient was 57.7 years (range, 19-80 years), and 19 were men (59%). Patients expressed a high level of satisfaction with 91% of patients stating that their care was better using telerounding and 97% of patients stating that telerounding should be a regular part of patient care in the hospital. Additionally, 94% of patients stated that they could easily communicate with their doctor over the telerounding system, 84% of patients agreed that they would feel comfortable with telerounding daily if they were hospitalized again and 81% of patients would prefer telerounding communication with their doctor than be directly seen by another doctor. Tablet telerounding using videoconferencing can be a strong supplementing tool in doctor-patient communication. It is convenient for the physician and increases the patient's hospital stay satisfaction. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Erroneous Exchange of Asparaginase Forms in the Treatment of Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cheung, Ka-Chun; van den Bemt, Patricia M. L. A.; Torringa, Maarten L. J.; Tamminga, Rienk Y. J.; Pieters, Rob; de Smet, Peter A. G. M.

    For the treatment of children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL), Dutch pediatric oncologists use the Dutch Childhood Oncology Group ALL 10 protocol. This protocol is complex, as it comprises many different drug regimens. One of the drugs is asparaginase which is available in different forms

  9. Erroneous exchange of asparaginase forms in the treatment of acute lymphoblastic leukemia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cheung, K.C.; Bemt, P.M. van den; Torringa, M.L.; Tamminga, R.Y.; Pieters, R.; Smet, P.A. de

    2011-01-01

    For the treatment of children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL), Dutch pediatric oncologists use the Dutch Childhood Oncology Group ALL 10 protocol. This protocol is complex, as it comprises many different drug regimens. One of the drugs is asparaginase which is available in different forms

  10. Microstructure of Tablet-Pharmaceutical Significance, Assessment, and Engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Changquan Calvin

    2017-05-01

    To summarize the microstructure - property relationship of pharmaceutical tablets and approaches to improve tablet properties through tablet microstructure engineering. The main topics reviewed here include: 1) influence of material properties and manufacturing process parameters on the evolution of tablet microstructure; 2) impact of tablet structure on tablet properties; 3) assessment of tablet microstructure; 4) development and engineering of tablet microstructure. Microstructure plays a decisive role on important pharmaceutical properties of a tablet, such as disintegration, drug release, and mechanical strength. Useful information on mechanical properties of a powder can be obtained from analyzing tablet porosity-pressure data. When helium pycnometry fails to accurately measure true density of a water-containing powder, non-linear regression of tablet density-pressure data is a useful alternative method. A component that is more uniformly distributed in a tablet generally exerts more influence on the overall tablet properties. During formulation development, it is highly recommended to examine the relationship between any property of interest and tablet porosity when possible. Tablet microstructure can be engineered by judicious selection of formulation composition, including the use of the optimum solid form of the drug and appropriate type and amount of excipients, and controlling manufacturing process.

  11. Atypical forms of acute Epstein-Barr virus infection in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.V. Sorokman

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Background. Today, there is a tendency to increase in Epstein-Barr virus infection (EBVI morbidity. The purpose of the study was to identify the incidence and features of atypical forms of acute EBVI in children. Material and methods. We have examined 28 children aged 6 months to 18 years with EBVI who were monitored in pediatric polyclinic. The activity of alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase, levels of bilirubin, alkaline phosphatase, gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase, markers of viral hepatitis were evaluated. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was performed with determination of blood markers of EBV (immunoglobulin (Ig M viral capsid antigen (VCA, IgG early antigen, IgG VCA, avidity and cytomegalovirus (CMV (IgM, IgG, avidity, EBV deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA, CMV DNA; polymerase chain reaction was used for serological diagnosis. The data were processed by statistical analysis using Statistica 6 program. Results. In 71.4 % of cases, EBVI had usual course and moderate severity. The atypical forms of acute EBVI were observed in 28.5 % of cases. Clinically atypical forms began mainly from signs of acute respiratory infections followed by lesions of the internal organs (liver and heart, in particular, in children under 1 year of age, and changes in liver functional tests. Conclusions. The incidence of atypical forms of EBVI is 28.5 %. Atypical forms of EBVI are more common in infants and adolescents and associated with the damage to the internal organs (liver and heart.

  12. Pseudomonas aeruginosa forms Biofilms in Acute InfectionIndependent of Cell-to-Cell Signaling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schaber, J. Andy; Triffo, W.J.; Suh, Sang J.; Oliver, Jeffrey W.; Hastert, Mary C.; Griswold, John A.; Auer, Manfred; Hamood, Abdul N.; Rumbaugh, Kendra P.

    2006-09-20

    Biofilms are bacterial communities residing within a polysaccharide matrix that are associated with persistence and antibiotic resistance in chronic infections. We show that the opportunistic pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa forms biofilms within 8 hours of infection in thermally-injured mice, demonstrating that biofilms contribute to bacterial colonization in acute infections. P. aeruginosa biofilms were visualized within burned tissue surrounding blood vessels and adipose cells. Although quorum sensing (QS), a bacterial signaling mechanism, coordinates differentiation of biofilms in vitro, wild type and QS-deficient P. aeruginosa formed similar biofilms in vivo. Our findings demonstrate that P. aeruginosa forms biofilms on specific host tissues independent of QS.

  13. Tablet Use within Medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogue, Rebecca J.

    2013-01-01

    This paper discusses the scholarly literature related to tablet computer use in medicine. Forty-four research-based articles were examined for emerging categories and themes. The most studied uses for tablet computers include: patients using tablets to complete diagnostic survey instruments, medical professionals using tablet computers to view…

  14. 21 CFR 520.1157 - Iodinated casein tablets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Iodinated casein tablets. 520.1157 Section 520...) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS ORAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.1157 Iodinated casein tablets. (a) Specifications. Each 1-gram tablet contains 25 milligrams of iodinated casein. (b) Sponsor...

  15. Development and validation of a RP–HPLC method for the quantization studies of metronidazole in tablets and powders dosage forms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Gabriela Oltean,

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available An isocratic high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC procedure was developed for the quantitative determination of metronidazole in tablets and powders. HPLC separation was carried out by reversed phasechromatography on Kromasil C18 (250 mm x 4.6 mm i.e.; 5 ìm particle size, held in thermostat at 25°C. The mobile phase consisted of methanol/ 0.1% phosphoric acid aq. (20/80v/v, with a flow rate of 1 ml/min and with UV detection at 317 nm. In order to validate the method, the following parameters have been investigated: linearity (r2=0.9999, range, precision, accuracy, specificity, limit of detection and limit of quantification. The described method can be successfully applied for the analysis of the active pharmaceuticalcompound in tablets and powders. This paper aimed to develop and validate an HPLC sensitive applicable method to determine the quantity of metronidazole in tablets and powders, contributing to the quality and safety control of these types of pharmaceutical preparations.

  16. Tablets i skolen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lorentzen, Rasmus Fink

    2012-01-01

    Denne rapport afslutter CELMS undersøgelse af Odder Kommunes projekt med indførelse af iPads på alle kommunens skoler. Undersøgelsen har til formål at belyse om der er pædagogiske og læringsmæssige fordele forbundet med brugen af tablets i undervisningen i grundskolen og i givet fald hvilke...... designer og tablet’ens egenskaber i et generelt perspektiv. Rapporten afsluttes med en række anbefalinger til henholdsvis lærere og skoleledere med henblik på videre udvikling af indsatsen....

  17. Polyols as filler-binders for disintegrating tablets prepared by direct compaction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bolhuis, Gerad K.; Rexwinkel, Erik G.; Zuurman, Klaas

    Background: Although polyols are frequently used as tablet excipients in lozenges, chewing tablets, and orodisperse tablets, special directly compressible (DC) forms are recommended as filler-binder in common disintegrating tablets. Aim: In this article, DC types of isomalt, lactitol, mannitol,

  18. Functional and phenotypic evaluation of eosinophils from patients with the acute form of paracoccidioidomycosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braga, Fernanda Gambogi; Ruas, Luciana Pereira; Pereira, Ricardo Mendes; Lima, Xinaida Taligare; Antunes, Edson; Mamoni, Ronei Luciano; Blotta, Maria Heloisa Souza Lima

    2017-05-01

    Eosinophilia is a typical finding of the acute/juvenile form of paracoccidioidomycosis (PCM), a systemic mycosis endemic in Latin America. This clinical form is characterized by depressed cellular immune response and production of Th2 cytokines. Moreover, it has been shown that the increased number of eosinophils in peripheral blood of patients returns to normal values after antifungal treatment. However, the role of eosinophils in PCM has never been evaluated. This study aimed to assess the phenotypic and functional characteristics of eosinophils in PCM. In 15 patients with the acute form of the disease, we detected expression of MBP, CCL5 (RANTES) and CCL11 (eotaxin) in biopsies of lymph nodes and liver. In addition, there were higher levels of chemokines and granule proteins in the peripheral blood of patients compared to controls. Isolation of eosinophils from blood revealed a higher frequency of CD69+ and TLR2+ eosinophils in patients compared to controls, and a lower population of CD80+ cells. We also evaluated the fungicidal capacity of eosinophils in vitro. Our results revealed that eosinophils from PCM patients and controls exhibit similar ability to kill P. brasiliensis yeast cells, although eosinophils of patients were less responsive to IL-5 stimulation than controls. In conclusion, we suggest that eosinophils might play a role in the host response to fungi and in the pathophysiology of PCM by inducing an intense and systemic inflammatory response in the initial phase of the infection.

  19. Controlled-release tablet formulation of isoniazid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, N K; Kulkarni, K; Talwar, N

    1992-04-01

    Guar (GG) and Karaya gums (KG) alone and in combination with hydroxy-propylmethylcellulose (HPMC) were evaluated as release retarding materials to formulate a controlled-release tablet dosage form of isoniazid (1). In vitro release of 1 from tablets followed non-Fickian release profile with rapid initial release. Urinary excretion studies in normal subjects showed steady-state levels of 1 for 13 h. In vitro and in vivo data correlated (r = 0.9794). The studies suggested the potentiality of GG and KG as release retarding materials in formulating controlled-release tablet dosage forms of 1.

  20. Gastric emptying of enteric-coated tablets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, H.M.; Chernish, S.M.; Rosenek, B.D.; Brunelle, R.L.; Hargrove, B.; Wellman, H.N.

    1984-01-01

    To evaluate the gastric emptying time of pharmaceutical dosage forms in a clinical setting, a relatively simple dual-radionuclide technique was developed. Placebo tablets of six different combinations of shape and size were labeled with indium-111 DTPA and enteric coated. Six volunteers participated in a single-blind and crossover study. Tablets were given in the morning of a fasting stomach with 6 oz of water containing /sup 99m/Tc pertechnetate and continuously observed with a gamma camera. A scintigraph was obtained each minute. The results suggested that the size, shape, or volume of the tablet used in this study had no significant effect in the rate of gastric emptying. The tablets emptied erratically and unpredictably, depending upon their time of arrival in the stomach in relation to the occurrence of interdigestive myoelectric contractions. The method described is a relatively simple and accurate technique to allow one to follow the gastric emptying of tablets

  1. USE OF A NEW FORM OF IBUPROFEN IN CHILDREN WITH FEVER AND ACUTE RESPIRATORY TRACT INFECTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. E. Lokshina

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: to study clinical efficacy, tolerance and safety of a new pelleted ibuprofen form for children in treatment of fever in patients with acute respiratory tract infection. Patients and methods: children aged from 6 to 12 years old with clinical manifestation of respiratory tract infections and requiring antipyretic treatment were included into the study. Children (n = 50 were administered ibuprofen at a single dose of 5–10 mg/kg of body weight, not more than 3–4 times per day. The efficacy assessment included time needed for temperature decrease (assessment was performed in 15, 30 and 60 minutes and duration of the antipyretic effect (assessment in 6, 8 and 12 hours. Rapidity of analgesic effect in children with ear ache, headache and myalgias was performed in 15, 30, 60 minutes and 6, 8 and 12 hours after the drug intake. Results: antipyretic effect of pelleted ibuprofen for children begins in 15 minutes after its intake. Stable temperature decrease during the first 6 hours was observed in 58% of children (the mean temperature was 37,1 ± 0,3 and maintained up for 12 hours. Relief of pain intensity was established in 62,1% of patients during the first 3 hours, and in 37,9% the pain syndrome was arrested completely. Conclusions: the new pelleted form of ibuprofen for children was proved to have high clinical efficacy and safety in treatment of fever in children with acute respiratory tract infections.

  2. Terahertz Technology: A Boon to Tablet Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagh, M. P.; Sonawane, Y. H.; Joshi, O. U.

    2009-01-01

    The terahertz gap has a frequency ranges from ∼0.3 THz to ∼10 THz in the electromagnetic spectrum which is in between microwave and infrared. The terahertz radiations are invisible to naked eye. In comparison with x-ray they are intrinsically safe, non-destructive and non-invasive. Terahertz spectroscopy enables 3D imaging of structures and materials, and the measurement of the unique spectral fingerprints of chemical and physical forms. Terahertz radiations are produced by a dendrimer based high power terahertz source and spectroscopy technologies. It resolves many of the questions left unanswered by complementary techniques, such as optical imaging, Raman and infrared spectra. In the pharmaceutical industries it enables nondestructive, internal, chemical analysis of tablets, capsules, and other dosage forms. Tablet coatings are a major factor in drug bioavailability. Therefore tablet coatings integrity and uniformity are of crucial importance to quality. Terahertz imaging gives an unparalleled certainty about the integrity of tablet coatings and the matrix performance of tablet cores. This article demonstrates the potential of terahertz pulse imaging for the analysis of tablet coating thickness by illustrating the technique on tablets. PMID:20490288

  3. Clinical report of one case of intestinal form of acute radiation sickness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu Changlin; Qiao Jianhui; Luo Weidong; Guo Mei; Wang Danhong; Sun Qiyun; Zhang Shi; Chen Jiankui; Li Xiaobing; Ai Huisheng

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To summarize the irradiation course, estimation of radiation dosage, clinical course, diagnosis and treatment of the patient A in a 60 Co radiation accident on October 21, 2004 in Jining, Shandong Province, China. Methods: According to the simulated test of the scene, chromosome aberration analysis, clinical course and tooth enamel ESR measurement, the total body dose of A was 20-25 Gy and diagnosed as intestinal form of acute radiation sickness. The patient was transferred to our hospital on day 3 post- irradiation, total environmental protection (TEP), antibiotics and emergency HLA-typing from his elder sister were given. On day 7 HLA haplo-identical peripheral blood stem cell transplantation was performed. Results: On day 10 post-transplant (+ 10 d), the counts of WBC began to increase and up to 5.1 x 10 9 /L on + 12 d. Bone marrow feature showed hematopoietic recovery of the three lineage blood cells. Continuous detection of the implantation ratio of donor's cells by STR-PCR showed stable 100% donor-derived chimera. On day 13, severe acute peritonitis and intestinal obstruction occurred; imipenem was much effective to control intestinal bacteria infection. Three days later, hematopoiesis reconstructed rapidly, peritonitis and intestinal obstruction were cured. On day 19, chest X-ray picture and CT scanning suggested that pulmonary mixed infection of bacteria and fungi appeared. The most severe skin irradiation burn damage occurred on day 25 which occupied the 14% of whole body skin surface. The functions of lung, heart and kidney were deteriorated sequentially. On day 30, tracheotomy had to be conducted and respirator was used. The patient died of multiple organ failure (MOF) on day 33. Conclusions: Patient A was exposed to relative well-distributed high dose and high dose rate of irradiation up to 20-25 Gy. This is the first case report of successful HLA haplo-identical peripheral blood stem cell transplantation for intestinal form of acute

  4. Study of drug release and tablet characteristics of silicone adhesive matrix tablets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolia, Gaurav; Li, S Kevin

    2012-11-01

    Matrix tablets of a model drug acetaminophen (APAP) were prepared using a highly compressible low glass transition temperature (T(g)) polymer silicone pressure sensitive adhesive (PSA) at various binary mixtures of silicone PSA/APAP ratios. Matrix tablets of a rigid high T(g) matrix forming polymer ethyl cellulose (EC) were the reference for comparison. Drug release study was carried out using USP Apparatus 1 (basket), and the relationship between the release kinetic parameters of APAP and polymer/APAP ratio was determined to estimate the excipient percolation threshold. The critical points attributed to both silicone PSA and EC tablet percolation thresholds were found to be between 2.5% and 5% w/w. For silicone PSA tablets, satisfactory mechanical properties were obtained above the polymer percolation threshold; no cracking or chipping of the tablet was observed above this threshold. Rigid EC APAP tablets showed low tensile strength and high friability. These results suggest that silicone PSA could eliminate issues related to drug compressibility in the formulation of directly compressed oral controlled release tablets of poorly compressible drug powder such as APAP. No routinely used excipients such as binders, granulating agents, glidants, or lubricants were required for making an acceptable tablet matrix of APAP using silicone PSA. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Stage control of tablets manufacturing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. I. Kucherenko

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Today in Ukraine tuberculosis is the wide-spread infectious disease causing the death in most cases; about 700 thousand persons are suffering from it. In Ukraine epidemic of tuberculosis is progressing and spreading. In spite of all protective measures three inhabitants of our country contract tuberculosis per hour, every hour one patient dies and in common about 1.5% of the population is ill with tuberculosis. Isoniazid is antituberculous drug of the first line and it is the most effective one. Chemotherapy of tuberculosis requests long-lasting administration of antituberculous drugs that causes high risk of side effects. To prevent or lessen side effects of antituberculous medicines antioxidants use in complex therapy is perspective. Fulfilled investigations showed efficacy of combining two medical substances – isoniazid andthiotriazolin – in one dosage form. Objective.The aim of our investigation is working out the methods of standardization, in particularquantitative determination of isoniazid andthiotriazolin content in tablet mass by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC. Materials and Methods.During in-process investigations combined tableted remedy containing isoniazid andthiotriazolin and proper amount of adjuvants has been developed (it contains active substances isoniazid – 0.2 g,thiotriazolin – 0.05 g and adjuvants up to the 0.4 g of the tablet. During stage control of tablets manufacturingspecial attention is paid to the control of tablet mass quality. Especially it concerns quantitative determination of active substances in it. More and more attention is paid to modern physical-chemical methods of standardization in up-to-date analysis of drug products, such as ultraviolet spectrometry, high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC etc. In previous scientific investigations we proved the possibility of standardization of active substances artificial compound by HPLC method and optimal conditions of analysis performing

  6. Electrochemical behavior of the antituberculosis drug isoniazid and its square-wave adsorptive stripping voltammetric estimation in bulk form, tablets and biological fluids at a mercury electrode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghoneim, M M; el-Baradie, K Y; Tawfik, A

    2003-11-24

    Isoniazid, pyridine-4-carboxylic acid hydrazide, is an antituberculosis-agent, which is used to prevent the development of clinical tuberculosis. A validated square-wave adsorptive cathodic stripping voltammetric procedure for the trace determination of the bulk drug at the hanging mercury drop electrode (HMDE) has been developed. Under the optimized conditions, (accumulation potential=-0.9 V, accumulation time=50-300 s, scan increment=8 mV, pulse-amplitude=25 mV, frequency=120 Hz and acetate buffer at pH 5.5) isoniazed generated two irreversible cathodic peaks. The first peak current showed a linear dependence with the drug concentration over the range 5 x 10(-10)-21 x 0(-6) M. The mean percentage recoveries, based on the average of five replicate measurements, for 7 x 10(-9) and 5 x 10(-8) M isoniazid were 97.71+/-2.93 and 99.76+/-0.77, respectively. The achieved limits of detection (LOD) and quantitation (LOQ) were 1.18 x 10(-10) and 3.93 x 10(-10) M isoniazid, respectively. The procedure was applied to the assay of the drug in tablets (Isocid and T.B. Zide), spiked human serum and urine with mean percentage recoveries of 97.81+/-1.49, 97.45+/-2.09, and 97.08+/-1.06, respectively. The limits of detection of 1.47 x 10(-9) and 2.4 x 10(-8) M, and quantitation of 4.9 x 10(-9) and 8 x 10(-8) M drug in human serum and urine, respectively, were achieved. The mean values of the various pharmackinetic parameters of isoniazid (C(max), T(max), t(1/2), AUC, and K(e)), estimated from analysis of plasma of two volunteers by means of the proposed procedure were similar to literature values.

  7. Development and validation of a dissolution test with reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatographic analysis for Candesartan cilexetil in tablet dosage forms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vairappan Kamalakkannan

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available A simple, rapid, selective and reproducible reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatographic (RP-HPLC method has been developed and validated for the estimation of release of Candesartan cilexetil (CC in tablets. Analysis was performed on an Agilent, Zorbax C8 column (150mm × 4.6mm, 5μm with the mobile phase consisting of phosphate buffer (pH2.5–acetonitrile (15:85, v/v at a flow rate of 1.0mL/min. UV detection was performed at 215nm and the retention time for CC was 2.2. The calibration curve was linear (correlation coefficient = 1.000 in the selected range of analyte. The optimized dissolution conditions include the USP apparatus 2 at a paddle rotation rate of 50rpm and 900mL of phosphate buffer (pH7.2 with 0.03% of polysorbate 80 as dissolution medium, at 37.0 ± 0.5°C. The method was validated for precision, linearity, specificity, accuracy, limit of quantitation and ruggedness. The system suitability parameters, such as theoretical plate, tailing factor and relative standard deviation (RSD between six standard replicates were well within the limits. The stability result shows that the drug is stable in the prescribed dissolution medium. Three different batches (A, B and C of the formulation containing 8mg of Candesartan cilexetil was performed with the developed method and the results showed no significant differences among the batches.

  8. Evaluation of Tablets Divisibility in Pharmacoeconomic Aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omer Yemsen

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Divisibility and dose homogeneity in scored tablets which form a part of the drugs those are in tablet forms in Turkey and have an extensive implementation area in drug therapy have a high importance for patient compliance and safety. In this study, it is aimed to evaluate Turkey%u2019s pharmaceutical market about cost differences of dividing scored tablets which has different unit quantities of the same active substance. Material and Method: In Turkey%u2019s pharmaceutical market, to detect cost differences of dividing scored tablets which has different unit quantities of the same active substance, All Drug%u2019s Price List that has been published on Turkish Medicine and Medical Devices Agency%u2019s web site is evaluated by using cost-minimization analysis method. Results: It is determined that the use of scored tablets make a price advantage of about 70%. Discussion: In conclusion, on package leaflets and outer packaging information those are prepared for the use of patients, the warning %u201CDon%u2019t divide, crack or swallow the tablets unless otherwise recommended by your doctor.%u201D should be stated and it is considered that it would be useful if the patient is informed about divisibility by the pharmacist.

  9. Using Tablet on Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Algoufi, Rateeba

    2016-01-01

    Technological advancements in digital devices have made educational methodology to adopt new strategies and procedures to suit the Mobile learning era. Mobile devices such as tablets are growing to be the focus of research studies and educational use around the globe in the present day. With the influence of handy computing tablets in the hands of…

  10. Ghost tablet in feces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwamuro, Masaya; Morishita, Yosuke; Urata, Haruo; Okada, Hiroyuki

    2017-12-01

    Recently, we encountered a female patient who identified the presence of a ghost tablet in her fecal matter. Interestingly, although the patient was prescribed potassium chloride capsules, elemental composition analysis by energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy was unable to detect the presence of either potassium or chloride in the fecal tablet remnant.

  11. Clinical report of an extremely severe bone marrow form of acute radiation sickness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qiao Jianhui; Yu Changlin; Luo Weidong; Guo Mei; Wang Danhong; Sun Qiyun; Zhang Shi; Zhang Xigang; Li Guang; Niu Wenkai; Chen Jiankui; Li Xiaobing; Ge Feijiao; Ai Huisheng

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To sum up the experiences from the diagnosis and treatment of patient B subjected to an accidental 60 Co exposure on October 21st, 2004, in Jining, Shandong Province, China. Methods: Radiation dose of B was assessed by analysis of chromosome aberration and microneucleus assay, simulation test of the accident site, autopsy and electron spin resonance (ESR). The ultimate clinical diagnosis was based on analysis of irradiation dose, clinical manifestations and laboratory results. In therapeutical aspects, total environmental protection, HLA-identical allogeneic peripheral blood stem cell transplantation (PBSCT), anti- infection and protection managements of organs were given. Results: Patient B was diagnosed as extremely severe bone marrow form of acute radiation sickness (ARS). HLA-identical allogeneic PBSCT was performed on the patient from his brother on the 7th day after the accident. The hematopoietic recovery began on the 9th day after transplantation. The patient acquired permanent full donor' engraftment without graft versus host disease (GVHD), But the radiation injury was continuing and the patient complicated with polyinfection in lung, and cardiac insufficiency. On the 45th day after the accident, patient B was performed with tracheotomy and maintained ventilation with respirator. On the 75th day after the accident, patient B died of multiple organ failure. Conclusions: Early triage diagnosis and total environmental protection should be performed as soon as possible for extremely severe bone marrow form of ARS. It is very important to perform a successful HLA-identical allogeneic PBSCT, in order to extend the life time of the patient. Multiple organ injuries and infections of bacteria and fungi usually occurred on this kind of patients, so intense measures of anti-infection and protection of multiple organs should be taken. The important and difficult point in the treatment of this kind ARS might be for help the immune-reconstruction and tissue

  12. Tablet-teknologi i fysioterapi

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Duus, Lene; Støve, Morten Pallisgaard; Harbo, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Projektbaggrund og formål: Med projektet har vi ønsket at udvikle, afdække, implementere og afprøve funktionalitet og design af en app-baseret elektronisk genoptræningsportal. I projektet er der afprøvet en app. rettet mod fysioterapeuten og en app. rettet mod patienten. Formålet var at afdække u...... undervisning i teknologien samt løbende support højt, hvorfor tidsaspektet for deltagerne bliver vigtig. Reference: www.ucviden.dk, Duus, L & Støve Morten P, 2014. Tablet-teknologi i Fysioterapi....

  13. Evaluation of crushed ticagrelor tablet doses: recovery following crushing and naso-gastric tube passage ex vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crean, Barry; Finnie, Cindy; Crosby, Anna

    2013-06-01

    Orally available ticagrelor in combination with low-dose aspirin (75-100 mg/day) is indicated for adult patients with acute coronary syndromes. However, patients with swallowing difficulties may be unable to consume the currently available 90-mg tablet. It is hypothesized that ticagrelor could be given to this patient cohort as a crushed dose administered either orally or via a naso-gastric (NG) tube. To investigate the potential use of crushed ticagrelor tablets (90- and 180-mg doses) for oral dose or NG tube administration. Ticagrelor tablets (90 or 180 mg [two 90-mg tablets]) were prepared to emulate oral and NG tube administration by similar methods. For the oral dose, ticagrelor tablets were crushed using a mortar and pestle and transferred to a dosing cup. 100 mL of water was added to the mortar, stirred, and the contents were transferred to the dosing cup and stirred to form a suspension. At this stage, where the suspension would normally be administered to a patient, it was collected for high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis. The mortar was then flushed with 100 mL of water, and the contents were again transferred to the dosing cup, stirred, and collected for HPLC analysis. For the NG dose, polyvinylchloride, polyurethane, and silicone size CH10 NG tubes were used. The tablets were crushed using a mortar and pestle, diluted with 50 mL of water, and stirred. At this stage, where the suspension would normally be administered to a patient through an NG tube using a syringe, it was collected for HPLC analysis. The mortar was then flushed with two additional 50 mL aliquots of water and the contents were passed through the NG tube. HPLC analysis examined the recoverability of ticagrelor in each of the dose suspensions and flushes and the stability of the suspension when held in a syringe for up to 2 h. One or two crushed 90-mg ticagrelor tablets, prepared for either oral or NG tube administration, delivers a mean dose of ≥97% of the original

  14. Clinical outcomes of isolated renal failure compared to other forms of organ failure in patients with severe acute pancreatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gougol, Amir; Dugum, Mohannad; Dudekula, Anwar; Greer, Phil; Slivka, Adam; Whitcomb, David C; Yadav, Dhiraj; Papachristou, Georgios I

    2017-08-07

    To assess differences in clinical outcomes of isolated renal failure (RF) compared to other forms of organ failure (OF) in patients with severe acute pancreatitis (SAP). Using a prospectively maintained database of patients with acute pancreatitis admitted to a tertiary medical center between 2003 and 2016, those with evidence of persistent OF were classified to renal, respiratory, cardiovascular, or multi-organ (2 or more organs). Data regarding demographics, comorbidities, etiology of acute pancreatitis, and clinical outcomes were prospectively recorded. Differences in clinical outcomes after development of isolated RF in comparison to other forms of OF were determined using independent t and Mann-Whitney U tests for continues variables, and χ 2 test for discrete variables. Among 500 patients with acute pancreatitis, 111 patients developed persistent OF: mean age was 54 years, and 75 (67.6%) were male. Forty-three patients had isolated OF: 17 (15.3%) renal, 25 (21.6%) respiratory, and 1 (0.9%) patient with cardiovascular failure. No differences in demographics, etiology of acute pancreatitis, systemic inflammatory response syndrome scores, or development of pancreatic necrosis were seen between patients with isolated RF vs isolated respiratory failure. Patients with isolated RF were less likely to require nutritional support (76.5% vs 96%, P = 0.001), ICU admission (58.8% vs 100%, P = 0.001), and had shorter mean ICU stay (2.4 d vs 15.7 d, P pancreatitis.

  15. Amorphization within the tablet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Doreth, Maria; Hussein, Murtadha Abdul; Priemel, Petra A.

    2017-01-01

    , the feasibility of microwave irradiation to prepare amorphous solid dispersions (glass solutions) in situ was investigated. Indomethacin (IND) and polyvinylpyrrolidone K12 (PVP) were tableted at a 1:2 (w/w) ratio. In order to study the influence of moisture content and energy input on the degree of amorphization......, tablet formulations were stored at different relative humidity (32, 43 and 54% RH) and subsequently microwaved using nine different power-time combinations up to a maximum energy input of 90 kJ. XRPD results showed that up to 80% (w/w) of IND could be amorphized within the tablet. mDSC measurements...

  16. Android tablets for dummies

    CERN Document Server

    Gookin, Dan

    2015-01-01

    Learn all you need to know about your Android tablet in one quick and easy reference! It's not a computer and it's not a smartphone-so what in the world is it? Whether you're new to Android or new to tablets altogether, you're about to experience mobile computing like never before with this fun, full-color guide! Inside, longtime and bestselling author Dan Gookin walks you through setting up your Android tablet, navigating the interface, browsing the web, setting up email, connecting to social media, finding plenty of apps, music, books, and movies to indulge your interests-and so much more.

  17. COMPARISON OF HYDROCORTISONE 10 MG TABLETS: TABLET HARDNESS OPTIMISED FOR ADULT USE HAS NEGATIVE CONSEQUENCES FOR PAEDIATRIC USE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saimbi, Sarina; Madden, Valerie; Stirling, Heather; Yahyouche, Asma; Batchelor, Hannah

    2016-09-01

    Children's medicines are not always readily available as an age appropriate product and manipulation of adult products is often required. Recently the commercial manufacturing process for 10 mg hydrocortisone tablets has changed and the compression force increased due to tablets fracturing on removal from the blister pack. However, this change led to parents of children requiring hydrocortisone reporting that the tablets were more difficult to manipulate.This study evaluated 10 mg hydrocortisone tablets for their suitability for manipulation in order to deliver an appropriate dose to children (2 mg dose). The physical properties of tablets with the old and new compression force were compared as well as the accuracy of obtaining the paediatric dose. The tablets compared were hydrocortisone Auden 10 mg tablets (Brand A, PL16876/002)-these are the newer, harder tablets- and hydrocortisone 10 mg tablets (Brand B, PL17507/0097). Tablet physical properties including friability (Copley FRV200) and tablet hardness (Copley TBF1000) were compared. The accuracy of split doses (halve and quarter tablets) were recorded on a Sartorius analytical balance. The accuracy of the 2 mg paediatric dosing was assessed by crushing the tablet, adding 10 mL of water and extracting 2 mL. The concentration was measured using UV analysis (Jenway Genova Plus) according to a calibration curve (wavelength=246 nm). Two devices were used to crush the tablets: a spoon onto a plate and a commercially available crushing device (Apothecary Ezy Crush Pill Crusher With Ergo Grip). As anticipated Brand A tablets were harder (51.85 ±5.1 N) compared to Brand B (30.99±4.1 N). Brand A tablets passed the friability testing with Auden tablets which are known to be harder tablets and therefore more force is required to crush these. Some of the experimental work within this project was conducted by Andrew Hackett and Kameron Paul-Thaper whilst at the University of Birmingham on work

  18. Typhoid Fever and Acute Appendicitis: A Rare Association Not Yet Fully Formed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel J. Sartori

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Infections caused by foodborne enteric pathogens including typhoidal and non-typhoidal Salmonella species can mimic symptoms of acute appendicitis. The association between such bacterial pathogens and pathology-proven acute appendicitis has been described, but this link is poorly understood. Here we describe a case of a young man with typhoid fever presenting with histology-proven acute appendicitis requiring urgent appendectomy, and provide a brief review of relevant literature to prompt more widespread recognition of this rare cause of a common surgical emergency.

  19. Grasp interaction with tablets

    CERN Document Server

    Wolf, Katrin

    2015-01-01

    This book presents guidelines for a future device type: a tablet that allows ergonomic front- and back-of-device interaction. These guidelines help designers and developers of user interfaces to build ergonomic applications for tablet devices, in particular for devices that enable back-of-device interaction. In addition, manufacturers of tablet devices obtain arguments that back-of-device interaction is a promising extension of the interaction design space and results in increased input capabilities, enriched design possibilities, and proven usability. The guidelines are derived from empirical studies and developed to fit the users’ skills to the way the novel device type is held. Three particular research areas that are relevant to develop design guidelines for tablet interaction are investigated: ergonomic gestures, interaction areas, and pointing techniques.

  20. Modeling of drug release from multi-unit dosage tablets of theophylline

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    To form the multi-unit dose tablets, granules of A and B were mixed together in various proportions in the ratios (A: B) 2:1, 1:1 and 1:2. The disintegration times of the tablets and their dissolution profiles were measured to investigate consistence with the model. The results showed that the tablets generally disintegrated ...

  1. Pediatric Dispersible Tablets: a Modular Approach for Rapid Prototyping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buck, Jonas; Huwyler, Jörg; Kühl, Peter; Dischinger, Angela

    2016-08-01

    The design of pediatric formulations is challenging. Solid dosage forms for children have to meet the needs of different ages, e.g. high number of dosing increments and strengths. A modular formulation strategy offering the possibility of rapid prototyping was applied. Different tablet compositions and the resulting tablet characteristics were investigated for dispersible tablets using customized analytical methods. Fluid bed granules were blended with extragranular components, and compressed to tablets. Disintegration behavior was studied with a Texture Analyzer and a Tensiometer. Methods for determination of disintegration time and water uptake of tablets were developed with a Texture Analyzer, and a Tensiometer, respectively. Twenty-two different tablet formulations were prepared and analyzed with respect to disintegration time, hardness, friability, and viscosity. Multivariate data analysis revealed a high impact of type and amount of viscosity enhancer on the disintegration behavior of tablets. An optimized formulation was selected with a disintegration time of 24 s. Methods providing additional information on the disintegration behavior of dispersible tablets compared to standard pharmacopoeia methods were established. Selecting the right type and level of viscosity enhancer and superdisintegrant was critical for developing pediatric tablets with a disintegration time of less than 30 s but still pleasant mouth feel.

  2. Relationship between diffusivity of water molecules inside hydrating tablets and their drug release behavior elucidated by magnetic resonance imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kikuchi, Shingo; Onuki, Yoshinori; Kuribayashi, Hideto; Takayama, Kozo

    2012-01-01

    We reported previously that sustained release matrix tablets showed zero-order drug release without being affected by pH change. To understand drug release mechanisms more fully, we monitored the swelling and erosion of hydrating tablets using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Three different types of tablets comprised of polyion complex-forming materials and a hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC) were used. Proton density- and diffusion-weighted images of the hydrating tablets were acquired at intervals. Furthermore, apparent self-diffusion coefficient maps were generated from diffusion-weighted imaging to evaluate the state of hydrating tablets. Our findings indicated that water penetration into polyion complex tablets was faster than that into HPMC matrix tablets. In polyion complex tablets, water molecules were dispersed homogeneously and their diffusivity was relatively high, whereas in HPMC matrix tablets, water molecule movement was tightly restricted within the gel. An optimal tablet formulation determined in a previous study had water molecule penetration and diffusivity properties that appeared intermediate to those of polyion complex and HPMC matrix tablets; water molecules were capable of penetrating throughout the tablets and relatively high diffusivity was similar to that in the polyion complex tablet, whereas like the HPMC matrix tablet, it was well swollen. This study succeeded in characterizing the tablet hydration process. MRI provides profound insight into the state of water molecules in hydrating tablets; thus, it is a useful tool for understanding drug release mechanisms at a molecular level.

  3. A soluble form of CTLA-4 is present in serum of pediatric patients with acute lymphoblastic leukaemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Simone

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available CTLA-4 can regulate and maintain self-telerance, providing a negative signal limiting immunoresponses. Acute lymphoblastic leukemia is a clonal disorder of lymphoid progenitors representing the most frequent malignancy of childhood. Here, we show the presence of significantly elevated levels of a soluble form of CTLA-4 in 70% of B-ALL patients. A possible role of this soluble molecule in the pathogenesis of this neoplastic disease can be envisaged.

  4. Acute Cerebral Insufficiency in Patients with Severe Forms of Alcoholic Psychoses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Zverev

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper summarizes the results of studies of cerebral metabolism in 38 patients with delirium tremens. The findings have led to the conclusion that the leading factor of the pathogenesis of acute cerebral insufficiency in this case is energy deficiency caused by impaired cerebral glucose utilization rather than hypoxia itself.

  5. Challenges in detecting magnesium stearate distribution in tablets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakio, Satu; Vajna, Balázs; Farkas, István; Salokangas, Henri; Marosi, György; Yliruusi, Jouko

    2013-03-01

    Magnesium stearate (MS) is the most commonly used lubricant in pharmaceutical industry. During blending, MS particles form a thin layer on the surfaces of the excipient and drug particles prohibiting the bonding from forming between the particles. This hydrophobic layer decreases the tensile strength of tablets and prevents water from penetrating into the tablet restraining the disintegration and dissolution of the tablets. Although overlubrication of the powder mass during MS blending is a well-known problem, the lubricant distribution in tablets has traditionally been challenging to measure. There is currently no adequate analytical method to investigate this phenomenon. In this study, the distribution of MS in microcrystalline cellulose (MCC) tablets was investigated using three different blending scales. The crushing strength of the tablets was used as a secondary response, as its decrease is known to result from the overlubrication. In addition, coating of the MCC particles by MS in intact tablets was detected using Raman microscopic mapping. MS blending was more efficient in larger scales. Raman imaging was successfully applied to characterize MS distribution in MCC tablets despite low concentration of MS. The Raman method can provide highly valuable visual information about the proceeding of the MS blending process. However, the measuring set-up has to be carefully planned to establish reliable and reproducible results.

  6. Playful subversions: young children and tablet use

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Froes, Isabel; Pajares Tosca, Susana

    2017-01-01

    Drawing on data from empirical studies of small children (4-8 year olds) using tablets in educational settings, we explore the ways they resist the expected use of the various applications in order to invent their own forms of interaction. We propose the category of playful subversion to conceptu...

  7. 21 CFR 520.804 - Enalapril tablets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS ORAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.804 Enalapril tablets. (a...). Enalapril maleate is administered as conjunctive therapy with furosemide and digoxin in the treatment of...

  8. Spectrophotometric Determination of Trimipramine in Tablet Dosage ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To develop and validate simple, rapid and sensitive spectrophotometric procedures for determination of trimipramine in tablet dosage form. Methods: The methods were based on the interaction of trimipramine as n-electron donor with the ο-acceptor, iodine and various π-acceptors, namely: chloranil (CH), ...

  9. A new tablet brittleness index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Xingchu; Sun, Changquan Calvin

    2015-06-01

    Brittleness is one of the important material properties that influences the success or failure of powder compaction. We have discovered that the reciprocal of diametrical elastic strain at fracture is the most suitable tablet brittleness indices (TBIs) for quantifying brittleness of pharmaceutical tablets. The new strain based TBI is supported by both theoretical considerations and a systematic statistical analysis of friability data. It is sufficiently sensitive to changes in both tablet compositions and compaction parameters. For all tested materials, it correctly shows that tablet brittleness increases with increasing tablet porosity for the same powder. In addition, TBI increases with increasing content of a brittle excipient, lactose monohydrate, in the mixtures with a plastic excipient, microcrystalline cellulose. A probability map for achieving less than 1% tablet friability at various combinations of tablet tensile strength and TBI was constructed. Data from marketed tablets validate this probability map and a TBI value of 150 is recommended as the upper limit for pharmaceutical tablets. This TBI can be calculated from the data routinely obtained during tablet diametrical breaking test, which is commonly performed for assessing tablet mechanical strength. Therefore, it is ready for adoption for quantifying tablet brittleness to guide tablet formulation development since it does not require additional experimental work. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Variability in the 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine content of 'ecstasy' tablets in the UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, David Michael; Stribley, Vasoulla; Dargan, Paul Ivor; Davies, Susannah; Holt, David W; Ramsey, John

    2011-09-01

    Toxicity, such as hyperpyrexia, associated with the use of 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA; 'ecstasy') appears to be related to serum MDMA concentrations. However, there does not appear to be a similar association with the number of tablets ingested, suggesting variation in the tablet content of MDMA. Although work has shown this variation in other areas of the world, no studies have reported on the variation of MDMA content in UK ecstasy tablets. Ecstasy tablets seized from individuals attending nightclubs were analysed qualitatively to determine if they contained MDMA and quantitatively to determine the MDMA content per tablet. The mean amount of MDMA hydrochloride in 101 seized ecstasy tablets was 58.7±22.9 mg per tablet, with a range of 20 mg to 131 mg per tablet. The majority (96.0%) of tablets contained less than 100 mg MDMA per tablet. There appeared to be a bimodal distribution of MDMA content at approximately 20-40 mg per tablet and 60-80 mg per tablet. There is variability in the MDMA content of ecstasy tablets in the UK. This variability could potentially put users at increased risk of acute harm due to inadvertent excess ingestion of MDMA, as they are unaware of the differences in the MDMA content. Repeat sampling and quantification of MDMA content of ecstasy tablets in the UK will allow better education of users about the potential harms associated with the variability in the MDMA content. In addition, it will provide information to allow the monitoring of changes in not only the MDMA content, but also other adulterants, in ecstasy tablets.

  11. Optimization of composition and technology for tablets containing aspen bark extract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. I. Onуshkiv

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Summary. Influence of quantitativefactorsof basic quality parameters has been investigated for tabletscontainingextractofaspenbark, receivedbydirect pressingmethodand mathematicalplanningof experiment.To set the optimal composition of tablets containingaspen bark extract the proportion ofProsolv 90, Ludiflash and Polyplasdone XL 10 has been studied. The relationship between the studied factors and parameters of tablets’ regression models has been described. As a result tablets containing aspen bark extractwith mentioned above formula match necessary pharmaco-technological parameters of State Pharmacopoeia of Ukraine. Introduction.Peptic and duodenal ulcer are serious problems in modern medicine. According to statistics this disease is found in 12,83 % of the adult population in Ukraine [1]. Among the remedies for treatment and prevention of peptic ulcers we can find herbal medicines that may be used in the treatment of pre-peptic conditions and during an acute period as a means of adjuvant therapy in combination with strong remedies [2]. An antacid, cytoprotective, anti-inflammatory and reparative actions of aspen bark extract were proved by the researches of domestic and foreign scientists [3, 4]. Previously, we researched the mutual influence of excipients on the main indicators of quality of aspen bark extract tablets obtained by direct compression method. Due to these researches the best excipientshave been selected. It is necessary to establish the optimal quantitative proportion of excipients in order to obtain the tablets with suitable parameters that satisfy the requirements of the State Pharmacopoeia of Ukraine (SPU [5, 6]. Rational selection of excipients requires wide range of studies to obtain the optimal composition of the tablets containing aspen bark extract. Using mathematical planning of the experiment gives the possibility to reduce the number of experiments and to obtain the most detailed results of researches about effects

  12. Teach yourself visually Fire tablets

    CERN Document Server

    Marmel, Elaine

    2014-01-01

    Expert visual guidance to getting the most out of your Fire tablet Teach Yourself VISUALLY Fire Tablets is the comprehensive guide to getting the most out of your new Fire tablet. Learn to find and read new bestsellers through the Kindle app, browse the app store to find top games, surf the web, send e-mail, shop online, and much more! With expert guidance laid out in a highly visual style, this book is perfect for those new to the Fire tablet, providing all the information you need to get the most out of your device. Abundant screenshots of the Fire tablet graphically rich, touch-based Androi

  13. The Nebusarsekim Tablet

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stadhouders, H.A.I.

    2008-01-01

    During the summer of 2007 an internet hype was unleashed by the breaking news that an Old Testament name of some importance, figuring in the Book of Jeremiah Ch. 39, had been positively identified on a cuneiform clay tablet, viz. a bill of receipt from the time of this prophet's floruit. Many a

  14. Effects of Acute Exercise on Circulating Soluble Form of the Urokinase Receptor in Patients With Major Depressive Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Gustafsson

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Inflammation has been proposed to play a role in the generation of depressive symptoms. Previously, we demonstrated that patients with major depressive disorder (MDD have increased plasma levels of the soluble form of the urokinase receptor (suPAR, a marker for low-grade inflammation. The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that acute exercise would induce inflammatory response characterized by increased suPAR and elucidate whether patients with MDD display altered levels of suPAR in response to acute exercise. A total of 17 patients with MDD and 17 controls were subjected to an exercise challenge. Plasma suPAR (P-suPAR was analyzed before, during, and after exercise. There was a significantly higher baseline P-suPAR in the patients with MDD, and the dynamic changes of P-suPAR during the exercise were significantly lower in the patients with MDD, compared with the controls. This study supports the hypothesis that an activation of systemic inflammatory processes, measured as elevated P-suPAR, is involved in the pathophysiology of depression. The study concludes that P-suPAR is influenced by acute exercise, most likely due to release from activated neutrophils.

  15. Security approaches in using tablet computers for primary data collection in clinical research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilcox, Adam B; Gallagher, Kathleen; Bakken, Suzanne

    2013-01-01

    Next-generation tablets (iPads and Android tablets) may potentially improve the collection and management of clinical research data. The widespread adoption of tablets, coupled with decreased software and hardware costs, has led to increased consideration of tablets for primary research data collection. When using tablets for the Washington Heights/Inwood Infrastructure for Comparative Effectiveness Research (WICER) project, we found that the devices give rise to inherent security issues associated with the potential use of cloud-based data storage approaches. This paper identifies and describes major security considerations for primary data collection with tablets; proposes a set of architectural strategies for implementing data collection forms with tablet computers; and discusses the security, cost, and workflow of each strategy. The paper briefly reviews the strategies with respect to their implementation for three primary data collection activities for the WICER project.

  16. Buccals tablets - literature search

    OpenAIRE

    Horáček, Jan

    2007-01-01

    BUCCAL TABLETS Jan Horáček ABSTRACT My diploma thesis was aimed at summarising information about phenomena of bioadhesion in connection with administration of drugs. The work describes anatomy and physiology of oral mucosa and differencies in various parts of oral cavity. It refers about advantages and limits of administrating drugs through the oral mucosa. The part called Bioadhesion / mucoadhesion includes definition, theories, influencing factors and description of methods to determinate b...

  17. HLA-DR-, CD33+, CD56+, CD16- myeloid/natural killer cell acute leukemia: a previously unrecognized form of acute leukemia potentially misdiagnosed as French-American-British acute myeloid leukemia-M3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, A A; Head, D R; Kopecky, K J; Appelbaum, F R; Theil, K S; Grever, M R; Chen, I M; Whittaker, M H; Griffith, B B; Licht, J D

    1994-07-01

    We have identified and characterized a previously unrecognized form of acute leukemia that shares features of both myeloid and natural killer (NK) cells. From a consecutive series of 350 cases of adult de novo acute myeloid leukemia (AML), we identified 20 cases (6%) with a unique immunophenotype: CD33+, CD56+, CD11a+, CD13lo, CD15lo, CD34+/-, HLA-DR-, CD16-. Multicolor flow cytometric assays confirmed the coexpression of myeloid (CD33, CD13, CD15) and NK cell-associated (CD56) antigens in each case, whereas reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) assays confirmed the identity of CD56 (neural cell adhesion molecule) in leukemic blasts. Although two cases expressed CD4, no case expressed CD2, CD3, or CD8 and no case showed clonal rearrangement of genes encoding the T-cell receptor (TCR beta, gamma, delta). Leukemic blasts in the majority of cases shared unique morphologic features (deeply invaginated nuclear membranes, scant cytoplasm with fine azurophilic granularity, and finely granular Sudan black B and myeloperoxidase cytochemical reactivity) that were remarkably similar to those of acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL); particularly the microgranular variant (FAB AML-M3v). However, all 20 cases lacked the t(15;17) and 17 cases tested lacked the promyelocytic/retinoic acid receptor alpha (RAR alpha) fusion transcript in RT-PCR assays; 12 cases had 46,XX or 46,XY karyotypes, whereas 2 cases had abnormalities of chromosome 17q: 1 with del(17)(q25) and the other with t(11;17)(q23;q21) and the promyelocytic leukemia zinc finger/RAR alpha fusion transcript. All cases tested (6/20), including the case with t(11;17), failed to differentiate in vitro in response to all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA), suggesting that these cases may account for some APLs that have not shown a clinical response to ATRA. Four of 6 cases tested showed functional NK cell-mediated cytotoxicity, suggesting a relationship between these unique CD33+, CD56+, CD16- acute leukemias and

  18. Characterization of the coating and tablet core roughness by means of 3D optical coherence tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markl, Daniel; Wahl, Patrick; Pichler, Heinz; Sacher, Stephan; Khinast, Johannes G

    2018-01-30

    This study demonstrates the use of optical coherence tomography (OCT) to simultaneously characterize the roughness of the tablet core and coating of pharmaceutical tablets. OCT is a high resolution non-destructive and contactless imaging methodology to characterize structural properties of solid dosage forms. Besides measuring the coating thickness, it also facilitates the analysis of the tablet core and coating roughness. An automated data evaluation algorithm extracts information about coating thickness, as well as tablet core and coating roughness. Samples removed periodically from a pan coating process were investigated, on the basis of thickness and profile maps of the tablet core and coating computed from about 480,000 depth measurements (i.e., 3D data) per sample. This data enables the calculation of the root mean square deviation, the skewness and the kurtosis of the assessed profiles. Analyzing these roughness parameters revealed that, for the given coating formulation, small valleys in the tablet core are filled with coating, whereas coarse features of the tablet core are still visible on the final film-coated tablet. Moreover, the impact of the tablet core roughness on the coating thickness is analyzed by correlating the tablet core profile and the coating thickness map. The presented measurement method and processing could be in the future transferred to in-line OCT measurements, to investigate core and coating roughness during the production of film-coated tablets. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  19. Feasibility of mini-tablets as a flexible drug delivery tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitra, Biplob; Chang, Jessica; Wu, Sy-Juen; Wolfe, Chad N; Ternik, Robert L; Gunter, Thomas Z; Victor, Michael C

    2017-06-15

    Mini-tablets have potential applications as a flexible drug delivery tool in addition to their generally perceived use as multi-particulates. That is, mini-tablets could provide flexibility in dose finding studies and/or allow for combination therapies in the clinic. Moreover, mini-tablets with well controlled quality attributes could be a prudent choice for administering solid dosage forms as a single unit or composite of multiple mini-tablets in patient populations with swallowing difficulties (e.g., pediatric and geriatric populations). This work demonstrated drug substance particle size and concentration ranges that achieve acceptable mini-tablet quality attributes for use as a single or composite dosage unit. Immediate release and orally disintegrating mini-tablet formulations with 30μm to 350μm (particle size d 90 ) acetaminophen and Compap™ L (90% acetaminophen) at concentrations equivalent to 6.7% and 26.7% acetaminophen were evaluated. Mini-tablets achieved acceptable weight variability, tensile strength, friability, and disintegration time at a reasonable solid fraction for each formulation. The content uniformity was acceptable for mini-tablets of 6.7% formulations with ≤170μm drug substance, mini-tablets of all 26.7% formulations, and composite dosage units containing five or more mini-tablets of any formulation. Results supported the manufacturing feasibility of quality mini-tablets, and their applicability as a flexible drug delivery tool. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Development and evaluation of microporous osmotic tablets of diltiazem hydrochloride

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afifa Bathool

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Microporous osmotic tablet of diltiazem hydrochloride was developed for colon targeting. These prepared microporous osmotic pump tablet did not require laser drilling to deliver the drug to the specific site of action. The tablets were prepared by wet granulation method. The prepared tablets were coated with microporous semipermeable membrane and enteric polymer using conventional pan coating process. The incorporation of sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS, a leachable pore-forming agent, could form in situ delivery pores while coming in contact with gastrointestinal medium. The effect of formulation variables was studied by changing the amounts of sodium alginate and NaCMC in the tablet core, osmogen, and that of pore-forming agent (SLS used in the semipermeable coating. As the amount of hydrophilic polymers increased, drug release rate prolonged. It was found that drug release was increased as the concentration of osmogen and pore-former was increased. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and Differential scanning calorimetry results showed that there was no interaction between drug and polymers. Scanning electron microscopic studies showed the formation of pores after predetermined time of coming in contact with dissolution medium. The formation of pores was dependent on the amount of pore former used in the semipermeable membrane. in vitro results showed acid-resistant, timed release at an almost zero order up to 24 hours. The developed osmotic tablets could be effectively used for prolonged delivery of Diltiazem HCl.

  1. Oral Delivery of Probiotics in Poultry Using pH-Sensitive Tablets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Tao; Li, Hui-Shan; Han, Geon Goo; Singh, Bijay; Kang, Sang-Kee; Bok, Jin-Duck; Kim, Dae-Duk; Hong, Zhong-Shan; Choi, Yun-Jaie; Cho, Chong-Su

    2017-04-28

    As alternatives to antibiotics in livestocks, probiotics have been used, although most of them in the form of liquid or semisolid formulations, which show low cell viability after oral administration. Therefore, suitable dry dosage forms should be developed for livestocks to protect probiotics against the low pH in the stomach such that the products have higher probiotics survivability. Here, in order to develop a dry dosage forms of probiotics for poultry, we used hydroxypropyl methylcellulose phthalate 55 (HPMCP 55) as a tablet-forming matrix to develop probiotics in a tablet form for poultry. Here, we made three different kinds of probiotics-loaded tablet under different compression forces and investigated their characteristics based on their survivability, morphology, disintegration time, and kinetics in simulated gastrointestinal fluid. The results indicated that the probiotics formulated in the tablets displayed higher survival rates in acidic gastric conditions than probiotics in solution. Rapid release of the probiotics from the tablets occurred in simulated intestinal fluid because of fast swelling of the tablets in neutral pH. As a matrix of tablet, HPMCP 55 provided good viability of probiotics after 6 months under refrigeration. Moreover, after oral administration of probiotics-loaded tablets to chicken, more viable probiotics were observed, than with solution type, through several digestive areas of chicken by the tablets.

  2. Severe forms of fibromyalgia with acute exacerbation of pain: costs, comorbidities, and length of stay in inpatient care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romeyke T

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Tobias Romeyke,1,2 Elisabeth Noehammer,1 Hans Christoph Scheuer,2 Harald Stummer1,3 1Institute for Management and Economics in Health Care, University of Health Sciences, Medical Informatics and Technology (UMIT, Hall in Tirol, Austria; 2Waldhausklinik Deuringen, Acute Hospital for Internal Medicine, Pain Therapy, Complementary, and Individualized Patient-Centered Medicine, Stadtbergen, Germany; 3Institute for Management and Innovation in Healthcare, University Schloss Seeburg, Seekirchen/Wallersee, Austria Background and purpose: As a disease of the musculoskeletal system, fibromyalgia is becoming increasingly important, because of the direct and indirect costs to health systems. The purpose of this study of health economics was to obtain information about staff costs differentiated by service provider, and staff and material costs of the nonmedical infrastructure in inpatient care.Patients and methods: This study looked at 263 patients who received interdisciplinary inpatient treatment for severe forms of fibromyalgia with acute exacerbation of pain between 2011 and 2014. Standardized cost accounting and an analysis of additional diagnoses were performed.Results: The average cost per patient was €3,725.84, with staff and material costs of the nonmedical infrastructure and staff costs of doctors and nurses accounting for the highest proportions of the costs. Each fibromyalgia patient had an average of 6.1 additional diagnoses.Conclusion: Severe forms of fibromyalgia are accompanied by many concomitant diseases and associated with both high clinical staff costs and high medical and nonmedical infrastructure costs. Indication-based cost calculations provide important information for health policy and hospital managers if they include all elements that incur costs in both a differentiated and standardized way. Keywords: fibromyalgia, DRG, cost, length of stay, comorbidities, interdisciplinary care, inpatient care, musculoskeletal, pain

  3. Tablets, læring og nye forretningsmodeller

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Pernille Viktoria Kathja

    2011-01-01

    D. 6 oktober satte Netværk om E-Læring (NoEL) i samarbejde med InVIO fokus på Tablet-computing igennem et heldagsarrangement i Aalborg Universitets nye omgivelser på Nyhavnsgade 14. Formålet med dagen var, at stille skarpt på tablet formatet og udforske potentialerne og udfordringerne med særligt...... vægt på iPads til mobillæring og nye forretningsmodeller. Tablet –computing er de seneste år blevet mere og mere udbredt indenfor både uddannelse, arbejdsliv og i fritiden. Ønsket for dagen var derfor at bidrage med diskussion og videndeling omkring, hvad den nye håndholdte touch teknologi kommer til...... at betyde for læring, samarbejde og forretningsmodeller og dermed hvilke nye vilkår tablet computing kan bidrage med indenfor arbejdsliv og uddannelse....

  4. Effect of a Disintegration Mechanism on Wetting, Water Absorption, and Disintegration Time of Orodispersible Tablets

    OpenAIRE

    Pabari, RM; Ramtoola, Z

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of disintegration mechanism of various types of disintegrants on the absorption ratio (AR), wetting time (WT), and disintegration time (DT) of orodispersible tablets (ODTs). ODTs were prepared by direct compression using mannitol as filler and disintegrants selected from a range of swellable, osmotic, and porous disintegrants. Tablets formed were characterized for their water AR, WT, and DT. The porosity and mechanical strength of the tablet...

  5. A double-blind comparison of slow-release and standard tablet formulations of fentiazac in the treatment of patients with tendinitis and bursitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginsberg, F; Famaey, J P

    1985-01-01

    Two double-blind studies were carried out to compare the effectiveness and tolerance of a slow-release tablet formulation of 300 mg fentiazac, given once daily, with the standard tablet formulations of 100 mg, given 4-times daily, or 200 mg, given twice daily. A total of 60 patients suffering from acute bicipital tendinitis and/or subdeltoid bursitis was studied, 15 patients on the slow-release and 15 on one of the two standard tablets in each of the two trials. Patients were assessed on entry and at Days 7 and 14 of treatment. The results in both studies showed that there was significant improvement in tenderness, pain on movement, overall pain and in the range of movement after treatment, there being no significant difference between those receiving the slow-release form or the standard tablets. Tolerance was good in all groups and only a few minor or moderate side-effects, mainly of a gastro-intestinal type, were reported.

  6. To Study Capping or Lamination Tendency of Tablets Through Evaluation of Powder Rheological Properties and Tablet Mechanical Properties of Directly Compressible Blends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dudhat, Siddhi M; Kettler, Charles N; Dave, Rutesh H

    2017-05-01

    Air entrapment efficiency of the powders is one of the main factors leading to occurrence of capping or lamination tendency of tablets manufactured from the directly compressible powder blends. The purpose of the current research was to study this underlying cause leading to occurrence of capping or lamination of tablets through evaluation of powder rheological properties. Powder blends were prepared by addition of 0% w/w to 100% w/w of individual active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) [two model API: acetaminophen (APAP) and ibuprofen (IBU)] with microcrystalline cellulose without and with 0.5% w/w Magnesium Stearate as lubricant. Powder rheological properties were analyzed using FT4 Powder Rheometer for dynamic, bulk, and shear properties. Tablet mechanical properties of the respective blends were studied by determining the ability of the material to form tablet of specific strength under applied compaction pressure through tabletability profile. The results showed that powder rheometer distinguished the powder blends based on their ability to relieve entrapped air along with the distinctive flow characteristics. Powder blend prepared with increasing addition of APAP displayed low powder permeability as compared to IBU blends with better powder permeability, compressibility and flow characteristics. Also, lubrication of the APAP blends did not ease their ability to relieve air. Tabletability profiles revealed the potential occurrence of capping or lamination in tablets prepared from the powder blends with high APAP content. This study can help scientist to understand tableting performance at the early-developmental stages and can avoid occurrence capping and lamination of tablets.

  7. Disintegration of chemotherapy tablets for oral administration in patients with swallowing difficulties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siden, Rivka; Wolf, Matthew

    2013-06-01

    The administration of oral chemotherapeutic drugs can be problematic in patients with swallowing difficulties. Inability to swallow solid dosage forms can compromise compliance and may lead to poor clinical outcome. The current technique of tablet crushing to aid in administration is considered an unsafe practice. By developing a technique to disintegrate tablets in an oral syringe, the risk associated with tablet crushing can be avoided. The purpose of this study was to determine the feasibility of using disintegration in an oral syringe for the administration of oral chemotherapeutic tablets. Eight commonly used oral chemotherapeutic drugs were tested. Tablets were placed in an oral syringe and allowed to disintegrate in tap water. Various volumes and temperatures were tested to identify which combination allows for complete disintegration of the tablet in the shortest amount of time. The oral syringe disintegration method was considered feasible if disintegration occurred in ≤15 min and in ≤20 mL of water and the dispersion passed through an oral syringe tip. The following tablets were shown to disintegrate within 15 min and in disintegration test. Disintegrating oral chemotherapeutic tablets in a syringe provides a closed system to administer hazardous drugs and allows for the safe administration of oral chemotherapeutic drugs in a tablet form to patients with swallowing difficulties.

  8. Is the OECD acute worm toxicity test environmentally relevant? The effect of mineral form on calculated lead toxicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davies, N.A.Nicola A.; Hodson, M.E.Mark E.; Black, S.Stuart

    2003-01-01

    The current OECD acute worm toxicity test does not relate well to ambient conditions. - In a series of experiments the toxicity of lead to worms in soil was determined following the draft OECD earthworm reproduction toxicity protocol except that lead was added as solid lead nitrate, carbonate and sulphide rather than as lead nitrate solution as would normally be the case. The compounds were added to the test soil to give lead concentrations of 625-12500 μg Pb g -1 of soil. Calculated toxicities of the lead decreased in the order nitrate>carbonate>sulphide, the same order as the decrease in the solubility of the metal compounds used. The 7-day LC 50 (lethal concentration when 50% of the population is killed) for the nitrate was 5321±275 μg Pb g -1 of soil and this did not change with time. The LC 50 values for carbonate and sulphide could not be determined at the concentration ranges used. The only parameter sensitive enough to distinguish the toxicities of the three compounds was cocoon (egg) production. The EC 50 s for cocoon production (the concentration to produce a 50% reduction in cocoon production) were 993, 8604 and 10246 μg Pb g -1 of soil for lead nitrate, carbonate and sulphide, respectively. Standard toxicity tests need to take into account the form in which the contaminant is present in the soil to be of environmental relevance

  9. Novel levocetirizine HCl tablets with enhanced palatability: synergistic effect of combining taste modifiers and effervescence technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Labib GS

    2015-09-01

    effervescent tablets in an orodispersible dosage form can improve oral drug bioavailability and act as an attractive pediatric dosage form. Keywords: antihistaminic, effervescent tablets, 2-hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin, mannitol, taste masking 

  10. Pharmaceutical equivalence of gabapentin tablets with various extragranular binders Pharmaceutical equivalence of gabapentin tablets with various extragranular binders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SWATI C. JAGDALE

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Gabapentin is a high-dose drug widely used as an oral anti-epilepticagent. Due to high crystalline and has poor compaction properties it is difficult to form tablets by direct compression. The aim of this study was to develop gabapentin tablets, pharmaceutically equivalent to the reference product Neurontin (marketed in USA. Gabapentin 800mg tablets were produced by wet granulation by keeping intragranular binder as well as its concentration constant and by changing with various extragranular binders with its concentration (A = PVPK 30, B = HPMC 15 cps, C = Kollidon VA 64, D =Klucel EXF.The tablet having no weight, thickness and hardness variation and having appropriate, friability as well as disintegration profile were coated with a 3% film coating solution .Seven formulations F1 (A in lower concentration F2 (A in higher concentration, F3 (B in lower concentration and F4 (B in higher concentration, F5 (C in lower concentration, F6 (C in higher concentration, F7 (D in lower concentration were formulated. Among them F6 demonstrated adequate hardness, friability, disintegration, uniformity of content, and total drug dissolution after 45minutes. The dissimilarity factor (f1 is 5.93 and the similarity factor (f2 is 67.85. So F6 was found to be equivalent to Neurontin.Gabapentin is widely used as an oral anti-epileptic agent. However, owing to its high crystallinity and poor compaction properties, it is difficult to form tablets of this drug by direct compression. The aim of this study was to develop gabapentin tablets, pharmaceutically equivalent to the brand-name pioneer product Neurontin® (marketed in USA. Gabapentin 800mg tablets were produced by wet granulation with a constant concentration of intragranular binder and a varying concentration of extragranular binders (A = polyvinylpyrrolidone K30, B = hydroxypropylmethylcellulose 15 cps, C = Kollidon VA64, D =Klucel EXF. The tablets that did not vary in weight, thickness or hardness and had

  11. Comparison of Two Forms of Loperamide-Simeticone and a Probiotic Yeast (Saccharomyces boulardii) in the Treatment of Acute Diarrhoea in Adults: A Randomised Non-Inferiority Clinical Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cottrell, Jeremy; Koenig, Kerstin; Perfekt, Roland; Hofmann, Robert

    2015-12-01

    Acute diarrhoea is a frequent health problem in both travellers and residents that has a social and economic impact. This study compared the efficacy and tolerability of two loperamide-simeticone formulations and a Saccharomyces boulardii capsule as symptomatic treatment. This was a prospective, randomised, single (investigator)-blind, three-arm, parallel group, non-inferiority clinical trial in adult subjects with acute diarrhoea at clinics in Mexico and India, with allocation to a loperamide-simeticone 2/125 mg caplet or chewable tablet (maximum eight in 48 h) or S. boulardii (250 mg twice daily for 5 days). The primary outcome measure was the number of unformed stools between 0 and 24 h following the initial dose of study medication (NUS 0-24). The secondary outcome measures were time to last unformed stool (TLUS), time to complete relief of diarrhoea (TCRD), time to complete relief of abdominal discomfort (TCRAD) and the subject's evaluation of treatment effectiveness. Follow-up endpoints at 7 days were feeling of complete wellness; stool passed since final study visit; and continued or recurrent diarrhoea. In this study, 415 subjects were randomised to either a loperamide-simeticone caplet (n = 139), loperamide-simeticone chewable tablet (n = 139) or S. boulardii capsule (n = 137) and were included in the intention-to-treat analysis. With regards to mean NUS 0-24, the loperamide-simeticone caplet was non-inferior to loperamide-simeticone tablets (3.4 vs. 3.3; one-sided 97.5 % confidence interval ≤0.5), with both significantly lower than S. boulardii (4.3; p boulardii); p boulardii. Treatment effectiveness for overall illness, diarrhoea and abdominal discomfort relief was greater (p boulardii. At 7-day follow-up most subjects reported passing stool at least once since the final study visit (loperamide-simeticone caplet 94.1 %, loperamide-simeticone chewable tablet 94.8 %, S. boulardii 97.0 %), did not experience continued or recurrent diarrhoea [loperamide

  12. Preparation and evaluation of diclofenac sodium orally disintegrating tablets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iancu Valeriu

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Orally disintegrating tablets (ODTs are dosage forms which disintegrate in mouth within seconds without need of water. This type of quality in dosage form can be attained by addition of different varieties of excipients. Pharmaburst™ 500 is a co-processed excipient system which allows rapid disintegration and low adhesion to punches. The aim of the present study was to develop and evaluate 25 mg diclofenac sodium ODTs (orodispersible tablets batches by direct compression method at different compression forces 10 kN (F1 and 20 kN (F2 and directly compressible excipients used in different ratio (Avicel PH 102, magnesium stearate and coprocessed excipient Pharmaburst™ 500, 70% and 80% w/w. The obtained batches were analyzed for appearance, tablet thickness, uniformity of weight, hardness, friability, disintegration time, and non-compendial methods (wetting time. Co-processed Pharmaburst™ 500 excipient 70% used for sodium diclofenac ODT obtaining determined good results for quality control tests evaluation.

  13. COMPARISON OF SOME PHYSICAL PARAMETERS OF WHOLE AND SCORED LISINOPRIL AND LISINOPRIL/ HYDROCHLORTHIAZIDE TABLETS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vranić, Edina; Uzunović, Alija

    2008-01-01

    Tablets are one of the most popular and preferred solid dosage forms because they can be accurately dosed, easily manufactured and packaged on a large scale, have good physical and chemical stability, and can contribute to good patient compliance given their ease of administration. The ability to match doses to patients depends on the availability of multiple dose sizes and adequate dose-response information. These are not always provided, so splitting of the tablets is sometimes necessary, Tablet splitting is an accepted practice in dispensing medication, It has been used when a dosage form of the required strength is not available commercially. The aim of our study was to compare some physical parameters of whole and scored lisinopril and lisinopril/hydrochlorthiazide tablets and to accept or exclude their influence on the obtaining of required dosage. According to the results obtained, we may conclude that tablets from batch “I” “IL “III” and “IV” satisfied pharmacopeial requirements concerning crushing strength, friability, disintegration time and mass uniformity. The hardness testing showed acceptable reproducibility and indicate that the data variation was primarily from the irreversible changes in the structure of tablet samples. The act of compacting powders stores energy within the tablets, by shifting or compressing the intermolecular bonds within the particles. The tablets have a natural tendency to relax once pressure is removed, and this tendency works against the interparticle bonding formed during compression. Hardness testing procedure causes irreversible changes in this structure. PMID:19125715

  14. Enhanced oral bioavailability of felodipine by novel solid self-microemulsifying tablets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jing, Boyu; Wang, Zhiyuan; Yang, Rui; Zheng, Xia; Zhao, Jia; Tang, Si; He, Zhonggui

    2016-01-01

    The novel self-microemulsifying (SME) tablets were developed to enhance the oral bioavailability of a poor water-soluble drug felodipine (FDP). Firstly, FDP was dissolved in the optimized liquid self-microemusifying drug delivery systems (SMEDDS) containing Miglyol® 812, Cremophor® RH 40, Tween 80 and Transcutol® P, and the mixture was solidified with porous silicon dioxide and crospovidone as adsorbents. Then after combining the solidified powders with other excipients, the solid SME tablets were prepared by wet granulation-compression method. The prepared tablets possessed satisfactory characterization; the droplet size of the SME tablets following self-emulsification in water was nearly equivalent to the liquid SMEDDS (68.4 ± 14.0 and 64.4 ± 12.0 nm); differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and powder X-ray diffractometry (PXRD) analysis demonstrated that FDP in SME tablets had undergone a polymorphism transition from a crystal form to an amorphous state, which was further confirmed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). A similar dissolution performance of SME tablets and liquid SMEDDS was also obtained under the sink condition (85% within 10 min), both significantly higher than commercial tablets. The oral bioavailability was evaluated for the SME tablets, liquid SMEDDS and commercial conventional tablets in the fasted beagle dogs. The AUC of FDP from the SME tablets was about 2-fold greater than that of conventional tablets, but no significant difference was found when compared with the liquid SMEDDS. Accordingly, these preliminary results suggest that this formulation approach offers a useful large-scale producing method to prepare the solid SME tablets from the liquid SMEDDS for oral bioavailability equivalent enhancement of poorly soluble FDP.

  15. Improving the hardness of dry granulated tablets containing sodium lauryl sulfate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Francis; Okelo, Geoffrey; Colón, Ivelisse; Kushner, Joseph

    2010-11-15

    The impact of the addition of a wetting agent, the surfactant sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS), on the tablet hardness of a dry granulated, solid oral dosage form was investigated. In three batches, SLS was added concurrently with: (1) a poorly soluble, highly hydrophobic active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) and the other excipients prior to the initial blending step, (2) magnesium stearate prior to roller compaction, or (3) magnesium stearate prior to tableting. A fourth batch, which did not contain SLS, served as a control. The maximum hardness of 100 mg, 1/4″-SRC tablets for the four batches--SLS added initially, prior to roller compaction, prior to tableting, and no SLS--were 61±3, 71±3, 89±5, and 86±3N, respectively, suggesting reduced processing of SLS improves tablet hardness by ∼50%. Dissolution of the tablets in 900 ml of simulated gastric fluid with paddles at 75 rpm showed that: (1) there was no impact on the insertion point of SLS into the process on API dissolution, and (2) that the presence of SLS improved dissolution by 5% compared to the control tablets. Adding SLS just prior to tableting can improve tablet hardness and yield similar dissolution performance relative to SLS addition prior to the initial blending step. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Optimization of matrix tablets controlled drug release using Elman dynamic neural networks and decision trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrović, Jelena; Ibrić, Svetlana; Betz, Gabriele; Đurić, Zorica

    2012-05-30

    The main objective of the study was to develop artificial intelligence methods for optimization of drug release from matrix tablets regardless of the matrix type. Static and dynamic artificial neural networks of the same topology were developed to model dissolution profiles of different matrix tablets types (hydrophilic/lipid) using formulation composition, compression force used for tableting and tablets porosity and tensile strength as input data. Potential application of decision trees in discovering knowledge from experimental data was also investigated. Polyethylene oxide polymer and glyceryl palmitostearate were used as matrix forming materials for hydrophilic and lipid matrix tablets, respectively whereas selected model drugs were diclofenac sodium and caffeine. Matrix tablets were prepared by direct compression method and tested for in vitro dissolution profiles. Optimization of static and dynamic neural networks used for modeling of drug release was performed using Monte Carlo simulations or genetic algorithms optimizer. Decision trees were constructed following discretization of data. Calculated difference (f(1)) and similarity (f(2)) factors for predicted and experimentally obtained dissolution profiles of test matrix tablets formulations indicate that Elman dynamic neural networks as well as decision trees are capable of accurate predictions of both hydrophilic and lipid matrix tablets dissolution profiles. Elman neural networks were compared to most frequently used static network, Multi-layered perceptron, and superiority of Elman networks have been demonstrated. Developed methods allow simple, yet very precise way of drug release predictions for both hydrophilic and lipid matrix tablets having controlled drug release. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Mini-tablets versus pellets as promising multiparticulate modified release delivery systems for highly soluble drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaber, Dina M; Nafee, Noha; Abdallah, Osama Y

    2015-07-05

    Whether mini-tablets (tablets, diameters ≤6mm) belong to single- or multiple-unit dosage forms is still questionable. Accordingly, Pharmacopoeial evaluation procedures for mini-tablets are lacking. In this study, the aforementioned points were discussed. Moreover, their potential for oral controlled delivery was assessed. The antidepressant venlafaxine hydrochloride (Vx), a highly soluble drug undergoing first pass effect, low bioavailability and short half-life was selected as a challenging payload. In an attempt to weigh up mini-tablets versus pellets as multiparticulate carriers, Vx-loaded mini-tablets were compared to formulated pellets of the same composition and the innovator Effexor(®)XR pellets. Formulations were prepared using various polymer hydrogels in the core and ethyl cellulose film coating with increasing thickness. Mini-tablets (diameter 2mm) showed extended Vx release (<60%, 8h). Indeed, release profiles comparable to Effexor(®)XR pellets were obtained. Remarkably higher coating thickness was required for pellets to provide equivalent retardation. Ethyl cellulose in the core ensured faster release due to polymer migration to the surface and pore formation in the coat. mini-tablets showed higher stability to pellets upon storage. Industrially speaking, mini-tablets proved to be superior to pellets in terms of manufacturing, product quality and economical aspects. Results point out the urgent need for standardized evaluation procedures for mini-tablets. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  18. [The effects of various factors on the in vitro velocity of drug release from repository tablets. Part 4: Isoniazid (Rimicid) respository tablets (author's transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomassini, L; Michailova, D; Naplatanova, D; Slavtschev, P

    1979-12-01

    The authors investigated the release of isoniazid from repository tablets as related to form, processing technology, strength constant and storage for 5 years. On determining the diffusion coefficient (D), the initial dissolution rate (Vo) and the time required for the diffusion of the releasing medium to the middle of the tablet (t1/2), it was found that the difference in release rate between the flat and the biconvex tablets is small. Furthermore, it was stated that the three-layer tablets have very high D and Vo values and very low t1/2 values, for what reason they are unsuited for repository tablets of the composition under investigation. Moreover, it was found that an increase of the strength constant does not affect the D, t1/2 and Vo values, and that the release of isoniazid is retarded only in flat tablets with the highest strength constant. Storage exerts no effect on the drug release from these tablets. The industrial production of these tablets is under way.

  19. Novel levocetirizine HCl tablets with enhanced palatability: synergistic effect of combining taste modifiers and effervescence technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labib, Gihan S

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Levocetirizine HCl, a second-generation piperazine derivative and H1-selective antihistaminic agent, possesses few side effects. The first objective of the study was to compare and evaluate the taste-masking effect of different ratios of 2-hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin and mannitol on levocetirizine HCl using an inclusion complex and solid dispersion, respectively. The second objective was to study the possibility of preparing and evaluating effervescent tablets from the best-chosen taste-masked blends for the purpose of their use either as orodispersible tablets or as water-soluble effervescent tablets, according to patients’ will. Materials and methods Prepared taste-masked blends were prepared and subjected to palatability, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy, and differential scanning calorimetry studies. Tablets containing different percentages of effervescent mixtures were prepared by direct compression on the selected taste-modified blends. Evaluation tests were conducted, including flowability and compressibility on the precompressed blends and hardness, friability, wetting time, effervescent time, in vitro, in vivo disintegration time, and in vitro dissolution study on the compressed tablets. Formulated tablets were evaluated and compared to marketed orodispersible tablets for mouth feel and palatability. Results All prepared tablets showed convenient physical and palatability properties compared to the selected brand. The in vitro drug-release study revealed fast release of levocetirizine HCl within 5 minutes from all prepared tablets. Conclusion Levocetirizine HCl effervescent tablets are likely to increase patient compliance with drug administration. Moreover, the use of these effervescent tablets in an orodispersible dosage form can improve oral drug bioavailability and act as an attractive pediatric dosage form. PMID:26379426

  20. Tablet splitting and weight uniformity of half-tablets of 4 medications in pharmacy practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tahaineh, Linda M; Gharaibeh, Shadi F

    2012-08-01

    Tablet splitting is a common practice for multiple reasons including cost savings; however, it does not necessarily result in weight-uniform half-tablets. To determine weight uniformity of half-tablets resulting from splitting 4 products available in the Jordanian market and investigate the effect of tablet characteristics on weight uniformity of half-tablets. Ten random tablets each of warfarin 5 mg, digoxin 0.25 mg, phenobarbital 30 mg, and prednisolone 5 mg were weighed and split by 6 PharmD students using a knife. The resulting half-tablets were weighed and evaluated for weight uniformity. Other relevant physical characteristics of the 4 products were measured. The average tablet hardness of the sampled tablets ranged from 40.3 N to 68.9 N. Digoxin, phenobarbital, and prednisolone half-tablets failed the weight uniformity test; however, warfarin half-tablets passed. Digoxin, warfarin, and phenobarbital tablets had a score line and warfarin tablets had the deepest score line of 0.81 mm. Splitting warfarin tablets produces weight-uniform half-tablets that may possibly be attributed to the hardness and the presence of a deep score line. Digoxin, phenobarbital, and prednisolone tablet splitting produces highly weight variable half-tablets. This can be of clinical significance in the case of the narrow therapeutic index medication digoxin.

  1. Emergency CT brain: preliminary interpretation with a tablet device: image quality and diagnostic performance of the Apple iPad.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Mc Laughlin, Patrick

    2012-04-01

    Tablet devices have recently been used in radiological image interpretation because they have a display resolution comparable to desktop LCD monitors. We identified a need to examine tablet display performance prior to their use in preliminary interpretation of radiological images. We compared the spatial and contrast resolution of a commercially available tablet display with a diagnostic grade 2 megapixel monochrome LCD using a contrast detail phantom. We also recorded reporting discrepancies, using the ACR RADPEER system, between preliminary interpretation of 100 emergency CT brain examinations on the tablet display and formal review on a diagnostic LCD. The iPad display performed inferiorly to the diagnostic monochrome display without the ability to zoom. When the software zoom function was enabled on the tablet device, comparable contrast detail phantom scores of 163 vs 165 points were achieved. No reporting discrepancies were encountered during the interpretation of 43 normal examinations and five cases of acute intracranial hemorrhage. There were seven RADPEER2 (understandable) misses when using the iPad display and 12 with the diagnostic LCD. Use of software zoom in the tablet device improved its contrast detail phantom score. The tablet allowed satisfactory identification of acute CT brain findings, but additional research will be required to examine the cause of "understandable" reporting discrepancies that occur when using tablet devices.

  2. 21 CFR 520.623 - Diethylcarbamazine citrate, oxibendazole chewable tablets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... tablets. 520.623 Section 520.623 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS ORAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS... dogs—(1) Amount. Administer orally to dogs at a dosage level of 6.6 milligrams of diethylcarbamazine...

  3. 21 CFR 520.903e - Febantel tablets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...) Limitations. Do not use in pregnant animals. Consider alternative therapy or use with caution in animals with... and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS ORAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.903e Febantel tablets. (a...

  4. Determination of Venlafaxine and Modafinil in Individual Tablet ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To develop a simple and selective isocratic method for the determination of venlafaxine and modafinil in tablet dosage forms. Methods: The compounds were analyzed on Waters symmetry C18 column (4.6 mm x 250 mm i.d, 5ìm) using a mobile phase consisting of a mixture of ammonium acetate buffer (pH was ...

  5. How do tablet properties influence swallowing behaviours?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Shinya; Taniguchi, Hiroshige; Hayashi, Hirokazu; Hori, Kazuhiro; Tsujimura, Takanori; Nakamura, Yuki; Sato, Hideaki; Inoue, Makoto

    2014-01-01

    Behavioural performance of tablet swallowing was evaluated with different tablet conditions in terms of size, number and surface coating. Four different types of tablets were prepared: small or large, and with or without a surface coating. Fourteen normal male adults were instructed to swallow the prepared tablets with 15 ml of water. The number of tablets in one trial was changed from one to three. To evaluate swallowing and tablet transport, electromyographic activity was recorded in the left suprahyoid muscles, and videofluorographic images were examined. All tablet conditions (size, number and surface coating) affected the swallowing performance in terms of total number of swallows, electromyographic burst patterns and location of remaining tablets. Increases in the size and number of tablets increased the number of swallows and electromyographic burst area and duration. In addition, all of these parameters increased while swallowing tablets without a coating compared with tablets with a coating. Location of the remaining tablets was mainly within the mouth. This study only clarified the normal pattern of tablet swallowing under several conditions in healthy subjects, but the results may facilitate comprehensive evaluation and treatment planning in terms of administering medication to dysphagic patients. © 2013 Royal Pharmaceutical Society.

  6. Fast disintegrating tablets: Opportunity in drug delivery system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ved Parkash

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Fast disintegrating tablets (FDTs have received ever-increasing demand during the last decade, and the field has become a rapidly growing area in the pharmaceutical industry. Oral drug delivery remains the preferred route for administration of various drugs. Recent developments in the technology have prompted scientists to develop FDTs with improved patient compliance and convenience. Upon introduction into the mouth, these tablets dissolve or disintegrate in the mouth in the absence of additional water for easy administration of active pharmaceutical ingredients. The popularity and usefulness of the formulation resulted in development of several FDT technologies. FDTs are solid unit dosage forms, which disintegrate or dissolve rapidly in the mouth without chewing and water. FDTs or orally disintegrating tablets provide an advantage particularly for pediatric and geriatric populations who have difficulty in swallowing conventional tablets and capsules. This review describes various formulations and technologies developed to achieve fast dissolution/dispersion of tablets in the oral cavity. In particular, this review describes in detail FDT technologies based on lyophilization, molding, sublimation, and compaction, as well as approaches to enhancing the FDT properties, such as spray drying and use of disintegrants. In addition, taste-masking technologies, experimental measurements of disintegration times, and dissolution are also discussed.

  7. Galileo's Telescopy and Jupiter's Tablet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usher, P. D.

    2003-12-01

    A previous paper (BAAS 33:4, 1363, 2001) reported on the dramatic scene in Shakespeare's Cymbeline that features the descent of the deity Jupiter. The paper suggested that the four ghosts circling the sleeping Posthumus denote the four Galilean moons of Jupiter. The god Jupiter commands the ghosts to lay a tablet upon the prone Posthumus, but says that its value should not be overestimated. When Posthumus wakens he notices the tablet, which he calls a "book." Not only has the deity's "tablet" become the earthling's "book," but it appears that the book has covers which Posthumus evidently recognizes because without even opening the book he ascribes two further properties to it: rarity, and the very property that Jupiter had earlier attributed, viz. that one must not read too much into it. The mystery deepens when the Jovian gift undergoes a second metamorphosis, to "label." With the help of the OED, the potentially disparate terms "tablet," "book," and "label," may be explained by terms appropriate either to supernatural or worldly beings. "Tablet" may recognize the Mosaic artifact, whereas "book" and "label" are probably mundane references to Galileo's Sidereus Nuncius which appeared shortly before Cymbeline. The message of the Olympian god indicates therefore that the book is unique even as its contents have limited value. The first property celebrates the fact that Galileo's book is the first of its kind, and the second advises that all results except the discovery of Jupiter's moons have been reported earlier, in Hamlet.

  8. Reversible Stress Cardiomyopathy Presenting as Acute Coronary Syndrome with Elevated Troponin in the Absence of Regional Wall Motion Abnormalities: A Forme Fruste of Stress Cardiomyopathy?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahesh Anantha Narayanan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a case of reversible stress cardiomyopathy in a surgical patient, described here as a forme fruste due to its atypical features. It is important to recognize such unusual presentation of stress cardiomyopathy that mimics acute coronary syndrome. Stress cardiomyopathy commonly presents as acute coronary syndrome and is characterized by typical or atypical variants of regional wall motion abnormalities. We report a 60-year-old Caucasian male with reversible stress cardiomyopathy following a sternal fracture fixation. Although the patient had several typical features of stress cardiomyopathy including physical stress, ST-segment elevation, elevated cardiac biomarkers and normal epicardial coronaries, there were few features that were atypical, including unusual age, gender, absence of regional wall motion abnormalities, high lateral ST elevation, and high troponin-ejection fraction product. In conclusion, this could represent a forme fruste of stress cardiomyopathy.

  9. Development and Evaluation of Mucoadhesive Chlorhexidine Tablet ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To formulate mucoadhesive chlorhexidine tablets and evaluate their drug release characteristics and mechanism. Methods: Chlorhexidine buccal adhesive tablets were prepared by direct compression using a blend of hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC) and chitosan as the bioadhesive polymers.

  10. 21 CFR 520.2260c - Sulfamethazine sustained-release tablets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... response within 2 to 3 days, reevaluate therapy. Do not crush tablets. Treated animals must not be... SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS ORAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 520...

  11. Formulation and in vivo evaluation of diclofenac sodium sustained release matrix tablet: effect of compression force.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taha, Ehab Ibrahim; Shazly, Gamal Abdel-Ghany; Harisa, Gamaleldin Ibrahim; Barakat, Nahla Sedik; Al-Enazi, Fouza Kayem; Elbagory, Ibrahim Mostafa

    2015-03-01

    In the present study, Diclofenac Sodium (DS) matrix tablets were prepared by direct compression method under different compression forces (5, 10, 15 and 20 KN), using ethylcellulose as matrix forming material. The produced tablets were characterized on the foundation of satisfactory tablet properties such as hardness, friability, drug content, weight variations and in vitro drug release rate. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), Fourier Transform Infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction have been used to investigate any incompatibilities of the tablet's ingredients. Additionally, in vivo bioavailability has been investigated on beagle dogs. Data obtained revealed that, upon increasing compression force the in vitro drug release was sustained and the T(max) value was four hours (for formulations compressed at 15 and 20 kN) compared to the conventional voltarine(®) 50 tablets (T(max) value of 2 hours).

  12. Principles of Tablet Computing for Educators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katzan, Harry, Jr.

    2015-01-01

    In the study of modern technology for the 21st century, one of the most popular subjects is tablet computing. Tablet computers are now used in business, government, education, and the personal lives of practically everyone--at least, it seems that way. As of October 2013, Apple has sold 170 million iPads. The success of tablets is enormous and has…

  13. Touch Screen Tablets and Emergent Literacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neumann, Michelle M.; Neumann, David L.

    2014-01-01

    The use of touch screen tablets by young children is increasing in the home and in early childhood settings. The simple tactile interface and finger-based operating features of tablets may facilitate preschoolers' use of tablet application software and support their educational development in domains such as literacy. This article reviews…

  14. TabletGaze: Unconstrained Appearance-based Gaze Estimation in Mobile Tablets

    OpenAIRE

    Huang, Qiong; Veeraraghavan, Ashok; Sabharwal, Ashutosh

    2015-01-01

    We study gaze estimation on tablets, our key design goal is uncalibrated gaze estimation using the front-facing camera during natural use of tablets, where the posture and method of holding the tablet is not constrained. We collected the first large unconstrained gaze dataset of tablet users, labeled Rice TabletGaze dataset. The dataset consists of 51 subjects, each with 4 different postures and 35 gaze locations. Subjects vary in race, gender and in their need for prescription glasses, all o...

  15. Effect of a disintegration mechanism on wetting, water absorption, and disintegration time of orodispersible tablets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pabari, Rm; Ramtoola, Z

    2012-07-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of disintegration mechanism of various types of disintegrants on the absorption ratio (AR), wetting time (WT), and disintegration time (DT) of orodispersible tablets (ODTs). ODTs were prepared by direct compression using mannitol as filler and disintegrants selected from a range of swellable, osmotic, and porous disintegrants. Tablets formed were characterized for their water AR, WT, and DT. The porosity and mechanical strength of the tablets were also measured. Results show that the DT of formulated ODTs was directly related to the WT and was a function of the disintegration mechanism of the disintegrant used. The lowest WT and DT were observed for tablets formulated using the osmotic disintegrant sodium citrate and these tablets also showed the lowest AR and porosity. The wetting and disintegration of tablets containing the highly swellable disintegrant, sodium starch glycollate, was slowest despite their high water AR and high tablet porosity. Rapid wetting and disintegration of ODTs were therefore not necessarily related to the porosity of the tablets.

  16. Fused-filament 3D printing (3DP) for fabrication of tablets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goyanes, Alvaro; Buanz, Asma B M; Basit, Abdul W; Gaisford, Simon

    2014-12-10

    The use of fused-filament 3D printing (FF 3DP) to fabricate individual tablets is demonstrated. The technology permits the manufacture of tablets containing drug doses tailored to individual patients, or to fabrication of tablets with specific drug-release profiles. Commercially produced polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) filament was loaded with a model drug (fluorescein) by swelling of the polymer in ethanolic drug solution. A final drug-loading of 0.29% w/w was achieved. Tablets of PVA/fluorescein (10 mm diameter) were printed using a 3D printer. It was found that changing the degree of infill percentage in the printer software varied the weight and volume of the printed tablets. The tablets were mechanically strong and no significant thermal degradation of the active occurred during printing. Dissolution tests were conducted in modified Hank's buffer. The results showed release profiles were dependent on the infill percentage used to print the tablet. The study indicates that FF 3DP has the potential to offer a new solution for fabricating personalized-dose medicines or unit dosage forms with controlled-release profiles. In addition, the low cost of FDM printers means the paradigm of extemporaneous or point-of-use manufacture of personalized-dose tablets is both feasible and attainable. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Preparation and scale up of extended-release tablets of bromopride

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guilherme Neves Ferreira

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Reproducibility of the tablet manufacturing process and control of its pharmaceutics properties depends on the optimization of formulation aspects and process parameters. Computer simulation such as Design of Experiments (DOE can be used to scale up the production of this formulation, in particular for obtaining sustained-release tablets. Bromopride formulations are marketed in the form of extended-release pellets, which makes the product more expensive and difficult to manufacture. The aim of this study was to formulate new bromopride sustained release formulations as tablets, and to develop mathematical models to standardize the scale up of this formulation, controlling weight and hardness of the tablets during manufacture according to the USP 34th edition. DOE studies were conducted using Minitab(tm software. Different excipient combinations were evaluated in order to produce bromopride sustained-release matrix tablets. In the scale-up study, data were collected and variations in tableting machine parameters were measured. Data were processed by Minitab(tm software, generating mathematical equations used for prediction of powder compaction behavior, according to the settings of the tableting machine suitable for scale-up purposes. Bromopride matrix tablets with appropriate characteristics for sustained release were developed. The scale-up of the formulation with the most suitable sustained release profile was established by using mathematical models, indicating that the formulation can be a substitute for the pellets currently marketed.

  18. Formulation and evaluation of aceclofenac mouth-dissolving tablet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shailendra Singh Solanki

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Aceclofenac has been shown to have potent analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities similar to indomethacin and diclofenac, and due to its preferential Cox-2 blockade, it has a better safety than conventional Non steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAIDs with respect to adverse effect on gastrointestinal and cardiovascular systems. Aceclofenac is superior from other NSAIDs as it has selectivity for Cox-2, a beneficial Cox inhibitor is well tolerated, has better Gastrointestinal (GI tolerability and improved cardiovascular safety when compared with other selective Cox-2 inhibitor. To provide the patient with the most convenient mode of administration, there is need to develop a fast-disintegrating dosage form, particularly one that disintegrates and dissolves/disperses in saliva and can be administered without water, anywhere, any time. Such tablets are also called as "melt in mouth tablet." Direct compression, freeze drying, sublimation, spray drying, tablet molding, disintegrant addition, and use of sugar-based excipients are technologies available for mouth-dissolving tablet. Mouth-dissolving tablets of aceclofenac were prepared with two different techniques, wet granulation and direct compression, in which different formulations were prepared with varying concentration of excipients. These tablets were evaluated for their friability, hardness, wetting time, and disintegration time; the drug release profile was studied in buffer Phosphate buffered Saline (PBS pH 7.4. Direct compression batch C3 gave far better dissolution than the wet granulation Batch F2, which released only 75.37% drug, and C3, which released 89.69% drug in 90 minutes.

  19. Learning, Tablet, Culture-Coherence?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norqvist, Lars

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents understandings of learning in schools where Internet-enabled Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs) are taken for granted. The context is a full-scale 1:1 tablet project in Danish municipality schools where this study bring forward expressions of learning from one class (12-13 year old children) in order to offer…

  20. Quantitative surface topography assessment of directly compressed and roller compacted tablet cores using photometric stereo image analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Allesø, Morten; Carstensen, Jens Michael; Holm, Per

    2016-01-01

    Surface topography, in the context of surface smoothness/roughness, was investigated by the use of an image analysis technique, MultiRay™, related to photometric stereo, on different tablet batches manufactured either by direct compression or roller compaction. In the present study, oblique...... illumination of the tablet (darkfield) was considered and the area of cracks and pores in the surface was used as a measure of tablet surface topography; the higher a value, the rougher the surface. The investigations demonstrated a high precision of the proposed technique, which was able to rapidly (within...... milliseconds) and quantitatively measure the obtained surface topography of the produced tablets. Compaction history, in the form of applied roll force and tablet punch pressure, was also reflected in the measured smoothness of the tablet surfaces. Generally it was found that a higher degree of plastic...

  1. Development and evaluation of tablets from spray dried extract of yerba mate (Ilex paraguariensis St. Hil A

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Roman

    Full Text Available Introduction: yerba mate (Ilex paraguariensis St. Hil A is a South American plant species of Aquifoliaceae family. The presence of methylxanhtines and clorogenic acids was reported in this species. These compounds have antioxidant activity and could be included in tablets, a pharmaceutical form presently unavailable in the market. Objective: to develop tablets containing yerba mate spray dried extract. Methods: the tablets were produced by direct compression with yerba mate dried extract. The dried extract was evaluated for yield, repose angle, compressibility index, residual moisture and caffeine content. The tablets were evaluated in the following parameters: external appearance, weight, hardness, friability, disintegration and caffeine content. Results: the tablets complied with the general pharmacopoeial specifications. Conclusions: this method is effective to produce tablets containing spray dried extract from yerba mate.

  2. Mammary Gland Pathology Subsequent to Acute Infection with Strong versus Weak Biofilm Forming Staphylococcus aureus Bovine Mastitis Isolates: A Pilot Study Using Non-Invasive Mouse Mastitis Model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jully Gogoi-Tiwari

    Full Text Available Biofilm formation by Staphylococcus aureus is an important virulence attribute because of its potential to induce persistent antibiotic resistance, retard phagocytosis and either attenuate or promote inflammation, depending upon the disease syndrome, in vivo. This study was undertaken to evaluate the potential significance of strength of biofilm formation by clinical bovine mastitis-associated S. aureus in mammary tissue damage by using a mouse mastitis model.Two S. aureus strains of the same capsular phenotype with different biofilm forming strengths were used to non-invasively infect mammary glands of lactating mice. Biofilm forming potential of these strains were determined by tissue culture plate method, ica typing and virulence gene profile per detection by PCR. Delivery of the infectious dose of S. aureus was directly through the teat lactiferous duct without invasive scraping of the teat surface. Both bacteriological and histological methods were used for analysis of mammary gland pathology of mice post-infection.Histopathological analysis of the infected mammary glands revealed that mice inoculated with the strong biofilm forming S. aureus strain produced marked acute mastitic lesions, showing profuse infiltration predominantly with neutrophils, with evidence of necrosis in the affected mammary glands. In contrast, the damage was significantly less severe in mammary glands of mice infected with the weak biofilm-forming S. aureus strain. Although both IL-1β and TNF-α inflammatory biomarkers were produced in infected mice, level of TNF-α produced was significantly higher (p<0.05 in mice inoculated with strong biofilm forming S. aureus than the weak biofilm forming strain.This finding suggests an important role of TNF-α in mammary gland pathology post-infection with strong biofilm-forming S. aureus in the acute mouse mastitis model, and offers an opportunity for the development of novel strategies for reduction of mammary tissue damage

  3. Quantitative Appearance Inspection for Film Coated Tablets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshino, Hiroyuki; Yamashita, Kazunari; Iwao, Yasunori; Noguchi, Shuji; Itai, Shigeru

    2016-01-01

    The decision criteria for the physical appearance of pharmaceutical products are subjective and qualitative means of evaluation that are based entirely on human interpretation. In this study, we have developed a comprehensive method for the quantitative analysis of the physical appearance of film coated tablets. Three different kinds of film coated tablets with considerable differences in their physical appearances were manufactured as models, and their surface roughness, contact angle, color measurements and physicochemical properties were investigated as potential characteristics for the quantitative analysis of their physical appearance. All of these characteristics were useful for the quantitative evaluation of the physical appearances of the tablets, and could potentially be used to establish decision criteria to assess the quality of tablets. In particular, the analysis of the surface roughness and film coating properties of the tablets by terahertz spectroscopy allowed for an effective evaluation of the tablets' properties. These results indicated the possibility of inspecting the appearance of tablets during the film coating process.

  4. Correlation between the viscoelastic properties of the gel layer of swollen HPMC matrix tablets and their in vitro drug release.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamed, Rania; Al Baraghthi, Tamadur; Sunoqrot, Suhair

    2016-11-21

    Drug release from hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC) hydrophilic matrix tablets is controlled by drug diffusion through the gel layer of the matrix-forming polymer upon hydration, matrix erosion or combination of diffusion and erosion mechanisms. In this study, the relationship between viscoelastic properties of the gel layer of swollen intact matrix tablets and drug release was investigated. Two sets of quetiapine fumarate (QF) matrix tablets were prepared using the high viscosity grade HPMC K4M at low (70 mg/tablet) and high (170 mg/tablet) polymer concentrations. Viscoelastic studies using a controlled stress rheometer were performed on swollen matrices following hydration in the dissolution medium for predetermined time intervals. The gel layer of swollen tablets exhibited predominantly elastic behavior. Results from the in vitro release study showed that drug release was strongly influenced by the viscoelastic properties of the gel layer of K4M tablets, which was further corroborated by results from water uptake studies conducted on intact tablets. The results provide evidence that the viscoelastic properties of the gel layer can be exploited to guide the selection of an appropriate matrix-forming polymer, to better understand the rate of drug release from matrix tablets in vitro and to develop hydrophilic controlled-release formulations.

  5. Mechanism of eutectic formation upon compaction and its effects on tablet properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bi, Mingda; Hwang, Sung-Joo; Morris, Kenneth R.

    2003-01-01

    The unique property of a eutectic mixture is a lower melting temperature than that of any of its pure components. What differentiates a eutectic mixture from a simple physical mixture is less well understood. This impedes the ability to anticipate and/or detect unintentional eutectic formation during pharmaceutical tablet manufacturing and any potential negative impact. In this study, a thermodynamic/heat transfer approach was used to explain the mechanism of eutectic formation upon exposure to a physical stress, i.e. compaction, and a differential scanning calorimetric (DSC) method was developed to detect and quantify the amount of eutectic formed in the compacts. Furthermore, the mechanism of eutectic formation upon compaction was tested experimentally by correlating the amount of eutectic formed in tablets with the particle size, compaction force, the estimated intimate contact area between the eutectic-forming materials, calculated tablet tensile strength, and tablet porosity. The effect of the presence of eutectics on tablet properties was also investigated. The results show that intimate contact and mutual solubility between eutectic-forming materials are the necessary and sufficient criteria for eutectic formation upon compaction. The systems of acetaminophen (APAP)/caffeine and APAP/propylphenazone were both shown to exhibit eutectic behavior upon compaction and the extent of formation was dependent upon the amount of intimate contact between eutectic-forming materials. Finally, it was found that eutectic had no negative effect on tablet hardness

  6. Fabrication of ketoprofen controlled-release tablets using biopolymeric hydrophilic matrices: in-vitro studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rashid, S.; Khan, B.A.; Khan, G.M.

    2017-01-01

    Ketoprofen is propionic acid derivative and belongs to the Non-Steroidal anti-inflammatory group of drugs. Due to the short half-life, dosage frequency, patient non-compliance and side effects such as gastrointestinal disturbance, peptic ulceration and gastro intest inal bleeding, it is considered to be good candidate for formulation into controlled release dosage forms. Directly compressed controlled released ( CR) tablets using Acrylic acid derivatives were prepared and evaluated. In-Vitro Physicochemical assessment of the formulated tablets were performed using different physicochemical, dimensional and quality control tests such as weight variation, thickness and diameter, hardness test, friability test, content uniformity, disintegration and dissolution testing. Results of all these tests were formed within acceptable range. The effect of carbomer polymers on the tablet characteristics, drug release rates, release patterns and release kinetics were investigated. The F2-metric technique was applied to compare dissolution profiles of ketoprofen and carbopol tablets with ketoprofen SR - tablets taken as standard preparation. Acrylic acid derivatives when used as polymers resulted in an extended release profile of about 12 h. Using Higuchi's model and the Korsmeyer equation, the drug release mechanism from the tablets was found to be an anomalous type involving diffusion and erosion. Controlled- release Ketoprofen tablets appear to be a good choice for the symptomatic treatment of rheumatoid arthritis and osteoarthritis. Convenient once-daily administration may help improve patient's compliance. (author)

  7. Comparative Plasma Exposure of Albendazole after Administration of Rapidly Disintegrating Tablets in Dogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvina G. Castro

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The main objectives of this study were (a to evaluate the in vitro performance of the rapid disintegration tablets as a way to improve the solid dispersions and (b to study the in vivo pharmacokinetics of the albendazole modified formulation in dogs. Rapid disintegration of tablets seems to be a key factor for efficiency of solid dispersions with regard to improvement of the albendazole bioavailability. The in vivo assays performed on dogs showed a marked increase in drug plasma exposure when albendazole was given in solid dispersions incorporated into rapid disintegration tablets compared with conventional solid dosage form.

  8. Incubation Period and Early Natural History Events of the Acute Form of Paracoccidioidomycosis: Lessons from Patients with a Single Paracoccidioides spp. Exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buccheri, Renata; Khoury, Zarifa; Barata, Luis Carlos Barradas; Benard, Gil

    2016-06-01

    Several aspects of the natural history of paracoccidioidomycosis are still poorly understood. Different from the most prevalent, chronic form of the disease, the acute form represents a continuum from the initial respiratory infection to the full-blown disease, thus providing an opportunity to elucidate the pathogenesis of the early phase of this mycosis. We describe, for the first time, two patients with a single time point exposure to Paracoccidioides spp., for whom we were able to determine the time lapsed between exposure to the fungus Paracoccidioides spp. and the onset of signs and symptoms. In case 1, the pulmonary infection was unapparent, and the first manifestations of the acute/subacute form of the disease presented 4 months after Paracoccidioides spp. In case 2, self-limited, non-specific respiratory and systemic symptoms presented 45 days after infection. Thus, our patients confirm that, within a few weeks of infection, Paracoccidioides spp. affects the pulmonary lymphatic system and initially causes no or mild-to-moderate self-limited symptoms, eventually causing abnormalities on a chest X-ray, all of which spontaneously subside. These cases provide some insight into the natural history of this mycosis, the extent of the host exposure to the fungus, and the determination of its incubation period.

  9. Use of Simvastatin and Risk of Acute Pancreatitis: A Nationwide Case-Control Study in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chih-Ming; Liao, Kuan-Fu; Lin, Cheng-Li; Lai, Shih-Wei

    2017-07-01

    The correlation between simvastatin use and acute pancreatitis is explored. A case-control study was conducted to analyze claim data from the Taiwan National Health Insurance Program. The case group comprising a total of 3882 subjects aged 20 to 84 years with their first acute pancreatitis episode occurring between 1998 and 2011 formed the case group, against 3790 randomly selected controls matched for sex, age, comorbidities, and index year of acute pancreatitis diagnosis. Recent use of simvastatin was defined as subjects whose last remaining simvastatin tablet was noted ≤7 days before the date of acute pancreatitis diagnosis. Remote use of simvastatin was defined as subjects whose last remaining 1 tablet for simvastatin was noted >7 days before the date of acute pancreatitis diagnosis. Never use of simvastatin was defined as subjects who had never been prescribed simvastatin. A multivariable unconditional logistic regression model was used to estimate the odds ratio and 95%CI to explore the correlation between simvastatin use and acute pancreatitis. After adjustment for confounders, multivariable logistic regression analysis revealed that the adjusted odds ratio of acute pancreatitis was 1.3 for subjects with recent use of simvastatin (95%CI 1.02, 1.73), when compared with those with never use of simvastatin. The crude odds ratio decreased to 1.1 for those with remote use of simvastatin (95%CI 0.93, 1.34) but without statistical significance. Recent use of simvastatin is associated with acute pancreatitis. Clinicians should consider the possibility of simvastatin-associated acute pancreatitis for patients presenting for acute pancreatitis without known cause. © 2017, The American College of Clinical Pharmacology.

  10. Formulation, Characterization and Physicochemical Evaluation of Ranitidine Effervescent Tablets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abolfazl Aslani

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The aim of this study was to design, formulate and physicochemically evaluate effervescent ranitidine hydrochloride (HCl tablets since they are easily administered while the elderly and children sometimes have difficulties in swallowing oral dosage forms. Methods: Effervescent ranitidine HCl tablets were prepared in a dosage of 300 mg by fusion and direct compression methods. The powder blend and granule mixture were evaluated for various pre-compression characteristics, such as angle of repose, compressibility index, mean particle size and Hausner's ratio. The tablets were evaluated for post-compression features including weight variation, hardness, friability, drug content, dissolution time, carbon dioxide content, effervescence time, pH, content uniformity and water content. Effervescent systems with appropriate pre and post-compression qualities dissolved rapidly in water were selected as the best formulations. Results: The results showed that the flowability of fusion method is more than that of direct compression and the F5 and F6 formulations of 300 mg tablets were selected as the best formulations because of their physicochemical characteristics. Conclusion: In this study, citric acid, sodium bicarbonate and sweeteners (including mannitol, sucrose and aspartame were selected. Aspartame, mint and orange flavors were more effective for masking the bitter taste of ranitidine. The fusion method is the best alternative in terms of physicochemical and physical properties.

  11. FDA-Approved Natural Polymers for Fast Dissolving Tablets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md Tausif Alam

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Oral route is the most preferred route for administration of different drugs because it is regarded as safest, most convenient, and economical route. Fast disintegrating tablets are very popular nowadays as they get dissolved or facilely disintegrated in mouth within few seconds of administration without the need of water. The disadvantages of conventional dosage form, especially dysphagia (arduousness in swallowing, in pediatric and geriatric patients have been overcome by fast dissolving tablets. Natural materials have advantages over synthetic ones since they are chemically inert, non-toxic, less expensive, biodegradable and widely available. Natural polymers like locust bean gum, banana powder, mango peel pectin, Mangifera indica gum, and Hibiscus rosa-sinenses mucilage ameliorate the properties of tablet and utilized as binder, diluent, and superdisintegrants increase the solubility of poorly water soluble drug, decrease the disintegration time, and provide nutritional supplement. Natural polymers are obtained from the natural origin and they are cost efficacious, nontoxic, biodegradable, eco-friendly, devoid of any side effect, renewable, and provide nutritional supplement. It is proved from the studies that natural polymers are more safe and efficacious than the synthetic polymers. The aim of the present article is to study the FDA-approved natural polymers utilized in fast dissolving tablets.

  12. Viability of lactobacillus acidophilus in various vaginal tablet formulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fazeli M.R.

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available The lactobacilli which are present in vaginal fluids play an important role in prevention of vaginosis and there are considerable interests in formulation of these friendly bacteria into suitable pharmaceutical dosage forms. Formulating these microorganisms for vaginal application is a critical issue as the products should retain viability of lactobacilli during formulation and also storage. The aim of this study was to examine the viability and release of Lactobacillus acidophilus from slow-release vaginal tablets prepared by using six different retarding polymers and from two effervescent tablets prepared by using citric or adipic acid. The Carbomer–based formulations showed high initial viablility compared to those based on HPMC-LV, HPMC-HV, Polycarbophil and SCMC polymers which showed one log decrease in viable cells. All retarding polymers in slow release formulations presented a strong bacterial release at about 2 h except Carbomer polymers which showed to be poor bacterial releasers. Although effervescent formulations produced a quick bacterial release in comparison with polymer based slow-release tablets, they were less stable in cold storage. Due to the strong chelating characteristic of citric acid, the viability was quickly lost for aqueous medium of citric acid in comparison with adipic acid based effervescent tablets.

  13. Dose Uniformity of Scored and Unscored Tablets: Application of the FDA Tablet Scoring Guidance for Industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciavarella, Anthony B; Khan, Mansoor A; Gupta, Abhay; Faustino, Patrick J

    This U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) laboratory study examines the impact of tablet splitting, the effect of tablet splitters, and the presence of a tablet score on the dose uniformity of two model drugs. Whole tablets were purchased from five manufacturers for amlodipine and six for gabapentin. Two splitters were used for each drug product, and the gabapentin tablets were also split by hand. Whole and split amlodipine tablets were tested for content uniformity following the general chapter of the United States Pharmacopeia (USP) Uniformity of Dosage Units , which is a requirement of the new FDA Guidance for Industry on tablet scoring. The USP weight variation method was used for gabapentin split tablets based on the recommendation of the guidance. All whole tablets met the USP acceptance criteria for the Uniformity of Dosage Units. Variation in whole tablet content ranged from 0.5 to 2.1 standard deviation (SD) of the percent label claim. Splitting the unscored amlodipine tablets resulted in a significant increase in dose variability of 6.5-25.4 SD when compared to whole tablets. Split tablets from all amlodipine drug products did not meet the USP acceptance criteria for content uniformity. Variation in the weight for gabapentin split tablets was greater than the whole tablets, ranging from 1.3 to 9.3 SD. All fully scored gabapentin products met the USP acceptance criteria for weight variation. Size, shape, and the presence or absence of a tablet score can affect the content uniformity and weight variation of amlodipine and gabapentin tablets. Tablet splitting produced higher variability. Differences in dose variability and fragmentation were observed between tablet splitters and hand splitting. These results are consistent with the FDA's concerns that tablet splitting can have an effect on the amount of drug present in a split tablet and available for absorption. Tablet splitting has become a very common practice in the United States and throughout the

  14. Acute and second-meal effects of almond form in impaired glucose tolerant adults: a randomized crossover trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Considine Robert V

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Nut consumption may reduce the risk of developing type 2 diabetes. The aim of the current study was to measure the acute and second-meal effects of morning almond consumption and determine the contribution of different nut fractions. Methods Fourteen impaired glucose tolerant (IGT adults participated in a randomized, 5-arm, crossover design study where whole almonds (WA, almond butter (AB, defatted almond flour (AF, almond oil (AO or no almonds (vehicle - V were incorporated into a 75 g available carbohydrate-matched breakfast meal. Postprandial concentrations of blood glucose, insulin, non-esterified free fatty acids (NEFA, glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1 and appetitive sensations were assessed after treatment breakfasts and a standard lunch. Results WA significantly attenuated second-meal and daylong blood glucose incremental area under the curve (AUCI and provided the greatest daylong feeling of fullness. AB and AO decreased blood glucose AUCI in the morning period and daylong blood glucose AUCI was attenuated with AO. WA and AO elicited a greater second-meal insulin response, particularly in the early postprandial phase, and concurrently suppressed the second-meal NEFA response. GLP-1 concentrations did not vary significantly between treatments. Conclusions Inclusion of almonds in the breakfast meal decreased blood glucose concentrations and increased satiety both acutely and after a second-meal in adults with IGT. The lipid component of almonds is likely responsible for the immediate post-ingestive response, although it cannot explain the differential second-meal response to AB versus WA and AO.

  15. Colour Reproduction on Tablet Devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir Zorić

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available With the advent of Internet and mobile devices client services and other print production are migrating more and more to online platforms. In a recent technology changeover it is obvious that there is growing number of printers as well need from the customers for the print service providers to expand their business to online and mobile platforms. With this technological transition there are some open questions regarding the possibilities of using the tablet devices for colour soft proofing and other colour related operations. As a display devices on a hardware level there are large similarities with the desktop display devices but the operating systems which are driving them are not yet colour smart. There have been some initial attempts to characterize the colour reproduction on this type of devices and find a possibility of using them not just for information content but also for colour managed content. In this study we have tested several tablets (Apple iPad2,Asus Transformer TF101, Samsung Galaxy Tab 1 with different display and OS technology and tested a software which is intended for colour managed viewing of the reproduction. We have measured the colour reproduction of the tablets with the digital version of the GretagMacbeth ColorChecker card and have calculated the colour differences between the colour chart data and the displayed data. We have calibrated the Ipad2 with the only existing colour management tool the Spyder Gallery and we have also tested the chart display with and without the colour correction of the software. We have found that there are differences in the colour reproduction of the display technologies and that the possibilities of a real colour managed workflow has yet to be resolved on the OS level of tablet and mobile devices

  16. A comprehensive in vitro and in vivo evaluation of thiolated matrix tablets as a gastroretentive delivery system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senyigit, Zeynep Ay; Vetter, Anja; Guneri, Tamer; Bernkop-Schnürch, Andreas

    2011-08-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the potential of thiolated matrix tablets for gastroretentive delivery systems. Poly(acrylic acid)-cysteine (PAA-Cys) and chitosan-4-thiobuthylamidine (chitosan-TBA) were evaluated as anionic and cationic thiolated polymers and riboflavin was used as a model drug. Tablets were prepared by direct compression and each formulation was characterized in terms of disintegration, swelling, mucoadhesion, and drug release properties. Thereafter, the gastric residence times of tablets were determined with in vivo study in rats. The resulting PAA-Cys and chitosan-TBA conjugates displayed 172.80 ± 30.33 and 371.11 ± 72.74 µmol free thiol groups, respectively. Disintegration studies demonstrated the stability of thiolated tablets up to 24 h, whereas tablets prepared with unmodified PAA and chitosan disintegrated within a time period of 1 h. Mucoadhesion studies showed that mucoadhesion work of PAA-Cys and chitosan-TBA tablets were 1.341- and 2.139-times higher than unmodified ones. The mucoadhesion times of PAA, PAA-Cys, chitosan, and chitosan-TBA tablets were 1.5 ± 0.5, 21 ± 1, 1 ± 0.5, 17 ± 1 h, respectively. These results confirm the theory that thiol groups react with mucin glycoproteins and form covalent bonds to the mucus layer. Release studies indicated that a controlled release was provided with thiolated tablets up to 24 h. These promising in vitro results of thiolated tablets were proved with in vivo studies. The thiolated tablets showed a gastroretention time up to 6 h, whereas unmodified tablets completely disintegrated within 1 h in rat stomach. Consequently, the study suggests that thiolated matrix tablets might be promising formulations for gastroretentive delivery systems.

  17. Experience in stomic X-raying with CO2 generating Unibaryt-tablets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balogh, I.; Szlamka, I.; Szekely, M.

    1983-01-01

    In order to achieve optimal double contrast X-ray exposures of the stomach non selected patients with internal or surgical stomic diseases were given Unibaryt-tablets to test their efficiency. The generated CO 2 opend the stomic and upper duodenum plications very well without forming bubbles or foam and no artefacts appeared. The tablets taken together with the contrast medium were well tolerated by the patients. (orig.) [de

  18. Do the characteristics of xanthan single molecule reflect the behavior of matrix tablets?

    OpenAIRE

    Sepe, Ana; Mikac, Urška; Zupančič-Valant, Andreja; Srčič, Stanko; Govedarica, Biljana; Baumgartner, Saša; Kristl, Julijana

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Xanthan (XAN) is a well known negatively charged biopolymer thatadopts different conformations in media, which are still poorly understood. XAN tablets in contact with water hydrate, forming a gel layer that regulates the drug release rate [1]. The hypothesis was that XAN molecular structure influences the drug release from matrix tablets. Thus, detailed studies on molecular as well as on macro-scale level were performed. Experimental: To determine XAN molecular conformations, i...

  19. Drug release control and system understanding of sucrose esters matrix tablets by artificial neural networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chansanroj, Krisanin; Petrović, Jelena; Ibrić, Svetlana; Betz, Gabriele

    2011-10-09

    Artificial neural networks (ANNs) were applied for system understanding and prediction of drug release properties from direct compacted matrix tablets using sucrose esters (SEs) as matrix-forming agents for controlled release of a highly water soluble drug, metoprolol tartrate. Complexity of the system was presented through the effects of SE concentration and tablet porosity at various hydrophilic-lipophilic balance (HLB) values of SEs ranging from 0 to 16. Both effects contributed to release behaviors especially in the system containing hydrophilic SEs where swelling phenomena occurred. A self-organizing map neural network (SOM) was applied for visualizing interrelation among the variables and multilayer perceptron neural networks (MLPs) were employed to generalize the system and predict the drug release properties based on HLB value and concentration of SEs and tablet properties, i.e., tablet porosity, volume and tensile strength. Accurate prediction was obtained after systematically optimizing network performance based on learning algorithm of MLP. Drug release was mainly attributed to the effects of SEs, tablet volume and tensile strength in multi-dimensional interrelation whereas tablet porosity gave a small impact. Ability of system generalization and accurate prediction of the drug release properties proves the validity of SOM and MLPs for the formulation modeling of direct compacted matrix tablets containing controlled release agents of different material properties. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Analysis of forensic samples of "Ecstasy" tablets seized in Novi Sad during the 2004 year

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zgonjanin Dragana M.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents results of the analysis of illicit synthetic drugs in the form of tablets distributed under the name "Ecstasy", seized by the police in the broader area of Novi Sad 2004. A huge number of tablets has been analyzed (n=121, of various colours and with impressed symbols from the total amount of 93 seizures, which totally amounted to 1458 tablets. Regarding the number of seizures ecstasy (3,4-methylendioxy-N-meth-yl-amphetamine - MDMA is dominant among all, and according to the quantity of seized tablets it is amphetamine (AP, while other amphetamine-type drugs (methamphetamine MA 3,4-methylendioxiamphetamine - MDA, 3,4-methylendioxi-N-ethyl-amphetamine MDEA have been found in rather small quantities and very rarely. Tablets mostly contain caffeine as an additive. In the analytical procedure, the samples of tablets were subjected to liquid-liquid extraction and afterwards analyzed on the GCD (GC-EI Hewlett-Packard instrument. The method is fast reliable and reproducible for the analysis of amphetamine, methamphetamine MDA, MDMA, MDEA, as well as various additives in the samples of seized tablets.

  1. Can Tablet Computers Enhance Faculty Teaching?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayan, Aditee P; Whicker, Shari A; Benjamin, Robert W; Hawley, Jeffrey; McGann, Kathleen A

    2015-06-01

    Learner benefits of tablet computer use have been demonstrated, yet there is little evidence regarding faculty tablet use for teaching. Our study sought to determine if supplying faculty with tablet computers and peer mentoring provided benefits to learners and faculty beyond that of non-tablet-based teaching modalities. We provided faculty with tablet computers and three 2-hour peer-mentoring workshops on tablet-based teaching. Faculty used tablets to teach, in addition to their current, non-tablet-based methods. Presurveys, postsurveys, and monthly faculty surveys assessed feasibility, utilization, and comparisons to current modalities. Learner surveys assessed perceived effectiveness and comparisons to current modalities. All feedback received from open-ended questions was reviewed by the authors and organized into categories. Of 15 eligible faculty, 14 participated. Each participant attended at least 2 of the 3 workshops, with 10 to 12 participants at each workshop. All participants found the workshops useful, and reported that the new tablet-based teaching modality added value beyond that of current teaching methods. Respondents developed the following tablet-based outputs: presentations, photo galleries, evaluation tools, and online modules. Of the outputs, 60% were used in the ambulatory clinics, 33% in intensive care unit bedside teaching rounds, and 7% in inpatient medical unit bedside teaching rounds. Learners reported that common benefits of tablet computers were: improved access/convenience (41%), improved interactive learning (38%), and improved bedside teaching and patient care (13%). A common barrier faculty identified was inconsistent wireless access (14%), while no barriers were identified by the majority of learners. Providing faculty with tablet computers and having peer-mentoring workshops to discuss their use was feasible and added value.

  2. Specifications development for "Karbatril" codenamed tablets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. I. Kucherenko

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. According to current legislation of Ukraine the specifications of tablets include the following indicators: description, identification, average weight, disintegration and assay. The aim of the study. The development of specifications and project of quality control methods for "Karbatril" codenamed tablets. Materials and methods. During the study we analyzed 6 series of tablets "Karbatril." For the description, identification, determination of the average mass, disintegration, active ingredients quantify of "Karbatril" codenamed tablets we used appropriate methods and instruments. Results and discussion. Tablets "Karbatril" were analyzed for the following parameters: - Overview - Tablets white or nearly white; - Average weight - during the study the average weight of 6 series of obtained tablets ranged from 339,0 mg to 369,9 mg according to SPU from 337,0 mg to 373,0 mg; - Disintegration – according to SPU the disintegration for tablet without shell shall not exceed 15 min. Analyzed tablets disintegrated in the period from 5 to 10 minutes; - Identification and quantification of the active ingredients of tablets were conducted using modified HPLC methods. During the identification obtained chromatograms show compliance with SPU. In quantitative determination of the active ingredients content in "Karbatril" codenamed tablets we found carbamazepine from 148.18 mg to 150.19 mg, thiotriazoline - from 98.93 mg to 99.71 mg. This data is consistent to SPU which regulates content of carbamazepine - 150 mg ± 7,5%, thiotriazoline - 100 mg ± 10%. Conclusions. This study has developed specification for "Karbatril" codenamed tablets and also methods of HPLC qualitative and quantitative determination of active ingredients. In the specification the following parameters are included: description, identification, average weight, disintegration and assay. The study drafted quality control methods which are planned to be later offered to the

  3. Pharmaceutical and analytical evaluation of triphalaguggulkalpa tablets

    OpenAIRE

    Savarikar, Shreeram S.; Barbhind, Maneesha M.; Halde, Umakant K.; Kulkarni, Alpana P.

    2011-01-01

    Aim of the Study: Development of standardized, synergistic, safe and effective traditional herbal formulations with robust scientific evidence can offer faster and more economical alternatives for the treatment of disease. The main objective was to develop a method of preparation of guggulkalpa tablets so that the tablets meet the criteria of efficacy, stability, and safety. Materials and Methods: Triphalaguggulkalpa tablet, described in sharangdharsanhita and containing guggul and triphala p...

  4. Tablet surface characterisation by various imaging techniques

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seitavuopio, Paulus; Rantanen, Jukka; Yliruusi, Jouko

    2003-01-01

    The aim of this study was to characterise tablet surfaces using different imaging and roughness analytical techniques including optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), laser profilometry and atomic force microscopy (AFM). The test materials compressed were potassium chloride (KCl......) and sodium chloride (NaCl). It was found that all methods used suggested that the KCl tablets were smoother than the NaCl tablets and higher compression pressure made the tablets smoother. Imaging methods like optical microscopy and SEM can give useful information about the roughness of the sample surface...

  5. Pure drug nanoparticles in tablets: what are the dissolution limitations?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heng, Desmond; Ogawa, Keiko; Cutler, David J.; Chan, Hak-Kim; Raper, Judy A.; Ye Lin; Yun, Jimmy

    2010-01-01

    There has been increasing interests for drug companies to incorporate drug nanoparticles into their existing formulations. However, technical knowledge in this area is still in its infancy and more study needs to be done to stimulate growth in this fledging field. There is a need to scrutinize the performance of pure drug nanoparticles in tablets, particularly relating formulation variables to their dissolution performance. Application of the pure form, synthesized without the use of surfactants or stabilizers, is often preferred to maximize drug loading and also to minimize toxicity. Cefuroxime axetil, a poorly water-soluble cephalosporin antibiotic, was used as the model drug in the formulation development. Drug release rate, tablet disintegration time, tensile strength and energy of failure were predominantly influenced by the amount of super-disintegrant, amount of surfactant, compression force and diluent species, respectively. The compression rate had minimal impact on the responses. The main hurdle confronting the effective use of pure drug nanoparticles in tablets is the difficulty in controlling aggregation in solution, which could potentially be aggravated by the tabletting process. Through the use of elevated levels of surfactants (8 w/w% sodium dodecyl sulphate), drug release from the nanoparticle preparation was enhanced from 58.0 ± 2.7% to 72.3 ± 0.7% in 10 min. Hence, it is recommended that physical formulations for pure drug nanoparticles be focused on the particle de-aggregation step in solution, if much higher rates are to be desired. In conclusion, even though pure drug nanoparticles could be easily synthesized, limitations from aggregation may need to be overcome, before successful application in tablets can be fully realized.

  6. Erosive potential of vitamin and vitamin+mineral effervescent tablets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wegehaupt, Florian J; Lunghi, Nancy; Hogger, Vanessa M G; Attin, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    The extrinsic sources for erosion-causing acids are primarily acidic beverages and foodstuffs. Effervescent tablets also contain organic acids (e.g. citric, tartaric, malic) in order to form carbon dioxide by contact with water – with the help of the carbonate salts of the tablets. To adequately inform patients about the possible erosive potential of effervescent tablets, this study was undertaken in order to investigate the erosive potential of effervescent tablets (ET), containing either a combination of vitamins and minerals or vitamins only, commercially available in Switzerland. One hundred and ninety-two bovine enamel samples were prepared and allocated to 16 groups (A–H and 1–8; n = 12/group). Samples were eroded (120 s/erosive cycle) in freshly prepared solutions (200 ml/12 samples) comprised of tap water and a supplement as follows: none (control groups, A and 1); vitamin+mineral ET: Qualite and Prix (B), Optisana (C), Well and Active (D), Actilife All in One (E), Berocca (F), Isostar (G) and Qualite and Prix Mg + Vit C (H); vitamin ET: Actilife-Multivitamin (2), Sunlife Vitamin C (3), Optisana Vitamin C (4), Optisana Multivitamin (5), Well and Active Multivitamin (6), Kneipp Vitamin C+Zink (7) and Sunlife Multivitamin (8). Enamel loss was measured using profilometry after 10 and 20 erosive cycles. For the vitamin+mineral ET, no loss was observed in groups B–E. Significantly highest enamel loss (mean ± SD) after 20 cycles was observed for Isostar (5.26 ± 0.76 µm) and Qualite and Prix Mg + Vit C (5.12 ± 0.67 µm). All vitamine ET showed erosive enamel loss. Significantly highest loss was observed for Sunlife Multivitamin (8.45 ± 1.08 µm), while the lowest loss was observed for Actilife-Multivitamin (5.61 ± 1.08 µm) after 20 cycles. Some of the tested effervescent tablets showed a considerable erosive potential and patients should be informed accordingly.

  7. Pharmaceutical equivalence of metformin tablets with various binders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. C. Block

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available

    Metformin hydrochloride is a high-dose drug widely used as an oral anti-hyperglycemic agent. As it is highly crystalline and has poor compaction properties, it is difficult to form tablets by direct compression. The aim of this study was to develop adequate metformin tablets, pharmaceutically equivalent to the reference product, Glucophage® (marketed as Glifage® in Brazil. Metformin 500mg tablets were produced by wet granulation with various binders (A = starch, B = starch 1500®, C = PVP K30®, D = PVP K90®. The tablets were analyzed for their hardness, friability, disintegration, dissolution, content uniformity and dissolution profile (basket apparatus at 50 rpm, pH 6.8 phosphate buffer. The 4 formulations, F1 (5% A and 5% C, F2 (5% B and 5% C, F3 (10% C and F4 (5% D, demonstrated adequate uniformity of content, hardness, friability, disintegration and total drug dissolution after 30 minutes (F1, F2 and F4, and after 60 minutes (F3. The drug release time profiles fitted a Higuchi model (F1, F2 and F3, similarly to the pharmaceutical reference, or a zero order model (F4. The dissolution efficiency for all the formulations was 75%, except for F3 (45%. F1 and F2 were thus equivalent to Glifage®. Keywords: dissolution; metformin; tablet; binder; pharmaceutical equivalence

  8. Pure drug nanoparticles in tablets: what are the dissolution limitations?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heng, Desmond [Institute of Chemical and Engineering Sciences (Singapore); Ogawa, Keiko [Nitto Denko Co. Ltd., Medical Division (Japan); Cutler, David J.; Chan, Hak-Kim, E-mail: kimc@pharm.usyd.edu.a [University of Sydney, Advanced Drug Delivery Group, Faculty of Pharmacy, A15 (Australia); Raper, Judy A. [University of Wollongong, Vice Chancellor' s Unit (Australia); Ye Lin [University of Sydney, School of Aerospace, Mechanical and Mechatronic Engineering (Australia); Yun, Jimmy [Nanomaterials Technology Pty. Ltd. (Singapore)

    2010-06-15

    There has been increasing interests for drug companies to incorporate drug nanoparticles into their existing formulations. However, technical knowledge in this area is still in its infancy and more study needs to be done to stimulate growth in this fledging field. There is a need to scrutinize the performance of pure drug nanoparticles in tablets, particularly relating formulation variables to their dissolution performance. Application of the pure form, synthesized without the use of surfactants or stabilizers, is often preferred to maximize drug loading and also to minimize toxicity. Cefuroxime axetil, a poorly water-soluble cephalosporin antibiotic, was used as the model drug in the formulation development. Drug release rate, tablet disintegration time, tensile strength and energy of failure were predominantly influenced by the amount of super-disintegrant, amount of surfactant, compression force and diluent species, respectively. The compression rate had minimal impact on the responses. The main hurdle confronting the effective use of pure drug nanoparticles in tablets is the difficulty in controlling aggregation in solution, which could potentially be aggravated by the tabletting process. Through the use of elevated levels of surfactants (8 w/w% sodium dodecyl sulphate), drug release from the nanoparticle preparation was enhanced from 58.0 {+-} 2.7% to 72.3 {+-} 0.7% in 10 min. Hence, it is recommended that physical formulations for pure drug nanoparticles be focused on the particle de-aggregation step in solution, if much higher rates are to be desired. In conclusion, even though pure drug nanoparticles could be easily synthesized, limitations from aggregation may need to be overcome, before successful application in tablets can be fully realized.

  9. Pure drug nanoparticles in tablets: what are the dissolution limitations?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heng, Desmond; Ogawa, Keiko; Cutler, David J.; Chan, Hak-Kim; Raper, Judy A.; Ye, Lin; Yun, Jimmy

    2010-06-01

    There has been increasing interests for drug companies to incorporate drug nanoparticles into their existing formulations. However, technical knowledge in this area is still in its infancy and more study needs to be done to stimulate growth in this fledging field. There is a need to scrutinize the performance of pure drug nanoparticles in tablets, particularly relating formulation variables to their dissolution performance. Application of the pure form, synthesized without the use of surfactants or stabilizers, is often preferred to maximize drug loading and also to minimize toxicity. Cefuroxime axetil, a poorly water-soluble cephalosporin antibiotic, was used as the model drug in the formulation development. Drug release rate, tablet disintegration time, tensile strength and energy of failure were predominantly influenced by the amount of super-disintegrant, amount of surfactant, compression force and diluent species, respectively. The compression rate had minimal impact on the responses. The main hurdle confronting the effective use of pure drug nanoparticles in tablets is the difficulty in controlling aggregation in solution, which could potentially be aggravated by the tabletting process. Through the use of elevated levels of surfactants (8 w/w% sodium dodecyl sulphate), drug release from the nanoparticle preparation was enhanced from 58.0 ± 2.7% to 72.3 ± 0.7% in 10 min. Hence, it is recommended that physical formulations for pure drug nanoparticles be focused on the particle de-aggregation step in solution, if much higher rates are to be desired. In conclusion, even though pure drug nanoparticles could be easily synthesized, limitations from aggregation may need to be overcome, before successful application in tablets can be fully realized.

  10. [Application of β-cyclodextrin in the formulation of ODT tablets containing ibuprofen].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmer, Łukasz; Kasperek, Regina; Poleszak, Ewa

    2014-01-01

    Oral disintegrating tablet (ODT) dissolves or disintegrates in saliva and then it is swallowed. Diluent in direct compression formulation has a dual role: it increases bulk of the dosage form and it promotes binding of the constituent particles of the formulation. Hence, selection of diluent is important in tablets produced by direct compression method. The aim of this work was to exame feasibility of preparing and optimizing oral disintegrating tablet formulation using β-cyclodextrin as a diluent. 400 mg round tablets were prepared by direct compression method on single punch tablet press using flat plain-face. 60% β-CD and MCC (microcrystalline cellulose - MCC-Vivapur 102) were used at different proportions for all the formulations. 5% of Kollidon CL was added as superdisintegrant. The eight formulations prepared were assessed for weight variation, thickness, disintegration time, hardness and dissolution rate according to FP IX. A dissolution test was performed at 37ºC using the paddle method at 50 rpm with 900 mL phosphate buffer (pH 6.8) as a dissolution medium. The content of ibuprofen sodium was found inside the ± 5% of the theoretical value. Hardness values of presented tablets were in the range 0.11-0.15 kG/mm2. Friability of the tablets lower than 1% indicates that the developed formulations can be processed and handled without excessive care. Disintegration time was in the range of 86 to 161 s. The results confirm the good mechanical properties of tablets containing β-CD. A composition with 20% β-CD and 40% MCC fulfilled a maximum requisite of an optimum formulation. These properties were similar to Ludiflash, the formulation used for comparison purposes. In the present study, higher concentration of β cyclodextrin was found to improve the hardness of tablets without increasing the disintegration time.

  11. A study on friability, hardness and fiber content analysis of fiber enriched milk tablet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzihaque, M. U. H.; Irfan, M. H.; Ibrahim, U. K.

    2017-06-01

    This study was performed to analyze the friability, hardness and fiber content of fiber enriched milk tablet derived from five different local fiber sources such as carrot, spinach, dragon fruit, mango and watermelon. Cow milk was mixed to complement with the tablet as a protein source. The powder were spray dried at 100°C, 120°C and 140°C and freeze dried at -60°C. The mixture of fruits and milk were made into equal ratio with the addition of 15 maltodextrin as a carrier. Tablets formed were used for friability and hardness test while dried powder were used for fiber content analysis. Dragon fruit tablet dried at 140°C have the highest friability with 11. 42 of weight loss. The second highest friability was spinach tablet dried at 100°C and 120°C drying temp erature with 9.30 and 9.28 respectively. The lowest friability was exhibited by carrot, mango and watermelon tablet at 100°C and dragon fruit at 120°C while carrot and spinach at 140°C. In contras t, none of the freeze dried tablets showed any weight loss hence they are not friable. For hardness test, all of the freeze dried showed to have higher tensile strength than spray dried, where carrot showed to be the highest at 2.27 Newton and the lowest were spray dried mango at 0.16 Newton. In fiber content analysis, freeze dried mango have the highest fiber content followed by freeze dried carrot and 140°C s pray dried carrot. It can be concluded that the higher the spray dry temperature, the more friable is the tablet. While, high friability leads to lower hardness of tablets. In terms of fiber content, the higher the spray dry temperature, the lower the fiber content found.

  12. Dissolution testing of orally disintegrating tablets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraemer, Johannes; Gajendran, Jayachandar; Guillot, Alexis; Schichtel, Julian; Tuereli, Akif

    2012-07-01

    For industrially manufactured pharmaceutical dosage forms, product quality tests and performance tests are required to ascertain the quality of the final product. Current compendial requirements specify a disintegration and/or a dissolution test to check the quality of oral solid dosage forms. These requirements led to a number of compendial monographs for individual products and, at times, the results obtained may not be reflective of the dosage form performance. Although a general product performance test is desirable for orally disintegrating tablets (ODTs), the complexity of the release controlling mechanisms and short time-frame of release make such tests difficult to establish. For conventional oral solid dosage forms (COSDFs), disintegration is often considered to be the prerequisite for subsequent dissolution. Hence, disintegration testing is usually insufficient to judge product performance of COSDFs. Given the very fast disintegration of ODTs, the relationship between disintegration and dissolution is worthy of closer scrutiny. This article reviews the current status of dissolution testing of ODTs to establish the product quality standards. Based on experimental results, it appears that it may be feasible to rely on the dissolution test without a need for disintegration studies for selected ODTs on the market. © 2012 The Authors. JPP © 2012 Royal Pharmaceutical Society.

  13. Compaction behaviour and mechanical strength of lactose-sodium starch glycolate and lactose-croscarmellose sodium binary tablets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashikin Yaakub, Nur; Shamsul Anuar, Mohd; Tahir, Suraya Mohd

    2018-04-01

    The focus of this study is to elucidate the effects of adding super disintegrants (SSG and Acdisol) to a filler (lactose) in terms of the compaction behaviour and mechanical strength of the formed binary tablets. The tablets were formed in a uniaxial die compaction process with compaction pressures ranging from 37.7MPa to 150.7 MPa. Consequently, the findings indicated that the increasing of the compaction pressure and the percentage mass composition of the super disintegrants would led to the increased in the strength of the tablets as well as their plastic energies, where this was more apparent for the case of the binary lactose/Acdisol tablets. In addition, as the compaction pressure increased, the maximum ejection pressure required to eject the tablet from the die cavity also increased. In contrast, a decreased in the maximum ejection pressure was observed as the composition of both super disintegrants increased in the lactose-super disintegrant binary tablets. In conclusion, the addition of super disintegrant; SSG with lactose and Acdisol with lactose; would enhanced the mechanical strength of lactose based tablets especially for the case of acdisol-lactose binary tablets in the experimental conditions adopted in this current work.

  14. Prevalidation of a model for predicting acute neutropenia by colony forming unit granulocyte/macrophage (CFU-GM) assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pessina, A; Albella, B; Bueren, J; Brantom, P; Casati, S; Gribaldo, L; Croera, C; Gagliardi, G; Foti, P; Parchment, R; Parent-Massin, D; Sibiril, Y; Van Den Heuvel, R

    2001-12-01

    This report describes an international prevalidation study conducted to optimise the Standard Operating Procedure (SOP) for detecting myelosuppressive agents by CFU-GM assay and to study a model for predicting (by means of this in vitro hematopoietic assay) the acute xenobiotic exposure levels that cause maximum tolerated decreases in absolute neutrophil counts (ANC). In the first phase of the study (Protocol Refinement), two SOPs were assessed, by using two cell culture media (Test A, containing GM-CSF; and Test B, containing G-CSF, GM-CSF, IL-3, IL-6 and SCF), and the two tests were applied to cells from both human (bone marrow and umbilical cord blood) and mouse (bone marrow) CFU-GM. In the second phase (Protocol Transfer), the SOPs were transferred to four laboratories to verify the linearity of the assay response and its interlaboratory reproducibility. After a further phase (Protocol Performance), dedicated to a training set of six anticancer drugs (adriamycin, flavopindol, morpholino-doxorubicin, pyrazoloacridine, taxol and topotecan), a model for predicting neutropenia was verified. Results showed that the assay is linear under SOP conditions, and that the in vitro endpoints used by the clinical prediction model of neutropenia are highly reproducible within and between laboratories. Valid tests represented 95% of all tests attempted. The 90% inhibitory concentration values (IC(90)) from Test A and Test B accurately predicted the human maximum tolerated dose (MTD) for five of six and for four of six myelosuppressive anticancer drugs, respectively, that were selected as prototype xenobiotics. As expected, both tests failed to accurately predict the human MTD of a drug that is a likely protoxicant. It is concluded that Test A offers significant cost advantages compared to Test B, without any loss of performance or predictive accuracy. On the basis of these results, we proposed a formal Phase II validation study using the Test A SOP for 16-18 additional

  15. Swelling, erosion and drug release characteristics of salbutamol sulfate from hydroxypropyl methylcellulose-based matrix tablets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaibva, Faith A; Khamanga, Sandile M M; Walker, Roderick B

    2010-12-01

    Hydrophilic matrix formulations are important and simple technologies that are used to manufacture sustained release dosage forms. Hydroxypropyl methylcellulose-based matrix tablets, with and without additives, were manufactured to investigate the rate of hydration, rate of erosion, and rate and mechanism of drug release. Scanning electron microscopy was used to assess changes in the microstructure of the tablets during drug release testing and whether these changes could be related to the rate of drug release from the formulations. The results revealed that the rate of hydration and erosion was dependent on the polymer combination(s) used, which in turn affected the rate and mechanism of drug release from these formulations. It was also apparent that changes in the microstructure of matrix tablets could be related to the different rates of drug release that were observed from the test formulations. The use of scanning electron microscopy provides useful information to further understand drug release mechanisms from matrix tablets.

  16. Application and Characterization of Gum from Bombax buonopozense Calyxesas an Excipient in Tablet Formulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngwuluka, Ndidi C.; Kyari, Jehu; Taplong, John; Uwaezuoke, Onyinye J.

    2012-01-01

    This study was undertaken to explore gum from Bombax buonopozense calyxes as a binding agent in formulation of immediate release dosage forms using wet granulation method. The granules were characterized to assess the flow and compression properties and when compressed, non-compendial and compendial tests were undertaken to assess the tablet properties for tablets prepared with bombax gum in comparison with those prepared with tragacanth and acacia gums. Granules prepared with bombax exhibited good flow and compressible properties with angle of repose 28.60°, Carr’s compressibility of 21.30% and Hausner’s quotient of 1.27. The tablets were hard, but did not disintegrate after one hour. Furthermore, only 52.5% of paracetamol was released after one hour. The drug release profile followed zero order kinetics. Tablets prepared with bombax gum have the potential to deliver drugs in a controlled manner over a prolonged period at a constant rate. PMID:24300296

  17. Development of tablets containing semipurified extract of guaraná (Paullinia cupana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Traudi Klein

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the technological feasibility of producing a semipurified extract of guaraná (Paullinia cupana Kunth, Sapindaceae in tablet form, using a direct-compression process. Maltodextrin and gum arabic were used to produce the extract microparticles, in order to protect the microparticles against such factors as temperature, oxidation, and humidity. Using pharmacopoeial methodologies, technological and physicochemistry tests (determination of residual moisture, of bulk and tapped density, Hausner ratio, compressibility and compactibility index, appearance, mean weight, hardness, friability, disintegration time, determination of EPA amount in tablets and in vitro release profile were conducted. The formulation containing 200 mg of microparticles, 170 mg microcrystalline cellulose, and 10 mg lactose gave the best results in terms of hardness (116 N, friabilility (0.28%, mean weight (0.3821 g, and disintegration time (25 min for a tablet designed for oral administration. The results met pharmacopoeial specifications, and the tablets are suitable for oral administration.

  18. In vivo effect of the D-(-) isomer or natural form of 3-hydroxybutyrate on initial release of lactate dehydrogenase from the acutely ischaemic myocardium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lammerant, J; Huynh-Thu, T; Kolanowski, J

    1986-07-01

    D-(-)-3-hydroxybutyrate, the isomer found in the circulation and in the urine of diabetic patients, generally is believed to be the physiologically important form of 3-hydroxybutyrate [10]. Little is known concerning the effects of an elevated plasma level of the D-(-) isomer of 3-hydroxybutyrate upon the acutely ischaemic heart. Using anaesthetized intact dogs with a balloon catheter inserted into the proximal part of the left anterior descending coronary artery (LAD), we have recently demonstrated that a 1 mM ketonaemia induced with the arginine salt of D-(-)-3-hydroxybutyric acid reduces the uptake of non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA) in the myocardial area distal to the inflated balloon [4]. The question arises as to whether the concomitant increase in ketone uptake in this area could be detrimental to the acutely ischaemic myocardium. Indeed, a previous study on isolated coronary ligated hearts from normal rats has shown that the rate of release of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) during the first 90 min of ischaemia can be enhanced by replacing glucose (11 mM) in the perfusion fluid with either albumin-bound palmitate (0.9 mM) or sodium DL-3-hydroxybutyrate (10 mM) as the sole energy substrate [11]. This would suggest that the ketone might be as deleterious as its metabolic precursors for membrane integrity in the acutely ischaemic myocardium. In the present report, we examine the effect of arginine D-(-)-3-hydroxybutyrate on LDH release from ischaemic myocardium in our in vivo preparation. The dogs were treated with lidocaine in order to minimize the frequency and, hence, the adverse metabolic effects of ectopic beats.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  19. Product development of pumpkin tablet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamgoed, T.

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available The development of pumpkin tablet was studied and the drying conditions of pumpkin using a double drum dryer were optimized. The study factors were drying agents (maltodextrin D.E.13-16 andtapioca flour at different levels (3 and 5%, drying temperatures (130 and 140oC and drum dryer speeds (4 and 5 rpm. The results showed that the optimal conditions were using 3% maltodextrin D.E.13-16, dryingtemperature of 130oC and drum dryer speed of 4 rpm. The moisture, fat, bulk density, reducing sugars and granulometric retention of the obtained pumpkin powder were 3.39%, 1.42%, 1.004 g/ml, 12.63% and 0.67%, respectively and L*, a* and b* values were 73.85, -0.60 and 35.23, respectively. A study of suitable amount of icing sugar using different contents for tablet production (0, 10, 20, 30 and 40% was performedand showed that using 20% icing sugar was the most acceptable. The obtained pumpkin tablet was subjected to chemical, physical and microbiological analysis. The ash, moisture, protein, fat, fiber and carbohydratecontents were 1.87, 3.60, 3.34, 1.00, 2.26 and 87.99%, respectively. The reducing sugars and β-carotene contents were 5.44±0.61% and 3.79±0.57 mg/100g, respectively. The Aw, hardness and solubility were 0.56,3.25 kgf and 25.00 %, respectively. The L*, a* and b* values were 79.85, 0.28 and 23.64, respectively. The total microbial count and the yeast and mould count were <10 CFU/g. The shelf life of the pumpkin tabletwas at least 4 months at room temperature (35±2oC.

  20. Study of the variables which influence the impregnation of globules, compressed tablets and tablet triturates used in homeopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Santos de Souza

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Globules, compressed tablets and tablet triturates are solid dosage forms used in homeopathy. Divergences can be noted between the preparation techniques described in official compendiums as well as those applied in homeopathic pharmacies. The difficulty associated with standardization of the impregnation of these dosage forms occurs due to the lack of detail provided for the techniques in the literature, leaving it up to each pharmacy to decide on the exact method of preparation. The objective was to optimize the impregnation technique, through investigating the variables that influence the impregnation of globules, compressed tablets and tablet triturates, applying the statistical tool of factorial design. The independent variables were the dosage form, percentage and type of impregnation and drying temperature, and the dependent variables were the mass gain, disintegration time, friability and hardness. For the globules, the greatest mass gain was for 10% impregnation and drying at 20 ºC. For the tablet triturates and compressed tablets the greatest mass gain was for 15% impregnation and there was no difference between the results obtained using simple and triple impregnation or different drying temperatures. The results can contribute to improving the final product quality, besides aiding in the establishment of standardized techniques for the official compendiums.Glóbulos, comprimidos e tabletes são formas farmacêuticas sólidas utilizadas em homeopatia. Constatam-se divergências entre técnicas de preparação descritas nos compêndios oficiais, bem como em farmácias homeopáticas. A dificuldade de padronização na impregnação destas formas farmacêuticas também ocorre devido à falta de detalhamento das técnicas na literatura existente, deixando para cada farmácia a escolha de como executá-las. O objetivo foi otimizar a técnica de impregnação, através do estudo de variáveis que interferem na impregnação de gl

  1. 3D extrusion printing of high drug loading immediate release paracetamol tablets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khaled, Shaban A; Alexander, Morgan R; Wildman, Ricky D; Wallace, Martin J; Sharpe, Sonja; Yoo, Jae; Roberts, Clive J

    2018-03-01

    The manufacture of immediate release high drug loading paracetamol oral tablets was achieved using an extrusion based 3D printer from a premixed water based paste formulation. The 3D printed tablets demonstrate that a very high drug (paracetamol) loading formulation (80% w/w) can be printed as an acceptable tablet using a method suitable for personalisation and distributed manufacture. Paracetamol is an example of a drug whose physical form can present challenges to traditional powder compression tableting. Printing avoids these issues and facilitates the relatively high drug loading. The 3D printed tablets were evaluated for physical and mechanical properties including weight variation, friability, breaking force, disintegration time, and dimensions and were within acceptable range as defined by the international standards stated in the United States Pharmacopoeia (USP). X-ray Powder Diffraction (XRPD) was used to identify the physical form of the active. Additionally, XRPD, Attenuated Total Reflectance Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) were used to assess possible drug-excipient interactions. The 3D printed tablets were evaluated for drug release using a USP dissolution testing type I apparatus. The tablets showed a profile characteristic of the immediate release profile as intended based upon the active/excipient ratio used with disintegration in less than 60 s and release of most of the drug within 5 min. The results demonstrate the capability of 3D extrusion based printing to produce acceptable high-drug loading tablets from approved materials that comply with current USP standards. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Transforming the Classroom With Tablet Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sargent, Lana; Miles, Elizabeth

    Identifying the most effective models for integrating new technology into the classroom and understanding its effects on educational outcomes are essential for nurse educators. This article describes an educational intervention with tablet technology (iPads) using an innovative case-based learning model in a nursing program. Students reported positive learning outcomes when using the tablet technology for learning course content.

  3. 21 CFR 520.1510 - Nitenpyram tablets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... order of a licensed veterinarian. (d) Conditions of use—(1) Dogs—(i) Amount—(A) One 11.4-mg tablet for dogs weighing less than 25 pounds (lb) or one 57-mg tablet for dogs weighing more than 25 lb, as needed...

  4. How Tablets Are Utilized in the Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ditzler, Christine; Hong, Eunsook; Strudler, Neal

    2016-01-01

    New technologies are a large part of the educational landscape in the 21st century. Emergent technologies are implemented in the classroom at an exponential rate. The newest technology to be added to the daily classroom is the tablet computer. Understanding students' and teachers' perceptions about the role of tablet computers is important as this…

  5. Quantitative Determination of Metformin Hydrochloride in Tablet ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To develop and validate a suitable method for the assay of metformin hydrochloride (HCl) in tablets containing croscarmellose sodium as an additive. Methods: Methanol and ethanol (99%) were assessed as solvents for sample preparation for the assay of metformin HCl in tablets containing croscarmellose ...

  6. Breaking of scored tablets : a review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Santen, E; Barends, D M; Frijlink, H W

    The literature was reviewed regarding advantages, problems and performance indicators of score lines. Scored tablets provide dose flexibility, ease of swallowing and may reduce the costs of medication. However, many patients are confronted with scored tablets that are broken unequally and with

  7. Tablet Keiti: Does it Contain Astronomical Instructions?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wieczorek, Rafal

    2010-01-01

    Ethnographic data collected on Easter Island in the late XIX and first half of the XX century suggest that the extant rongorongo tablets contain songs, legends or other chanted traditions. However, we have yet to succeed in relating any one of the rongorongo texts to one of the many legends...... collected by ethnographers. An interesting observation is that, while none of the Rapanuis with whom early visitors to the island were acquainted mentioned anything about astronomy in the context of rongorongo tablets, the only piece of rongorongo texts whose meaning we are certain of is the “calendar...... tablet Mamari”. In the four lines of this tablet, also known as rongorongo text C, we encounter 30 moon glyphs arranged in a pattern that mirrors the Rapa Nui lunar calendar as recorded by early Western visitors. This presentation argues that yet another rongorongo item – tablet Keiti, also known as text...

  8. Colorimetric determination of a paracetamole in raw material and in pharmaceutical dosage forms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Usifoh, C.O; Adelusi, S.A.; Adebambo, R.F.

    2002-01-01

    A rapid, accurate and simple method is proposed for the determination of p-acetaminophen (paracetamole) in raw material, tablets and syrups. The method is based on measuring the intensity of the yellow color that developed when acute acetaminophen is allowed to react with p-dimethylaminobenzaldehyde in 2M HCl after heating. The color which absorbs in the visible region of gamma 450 nm is stable for several hours and the intensity is directly proportional to the concentration of the drug, that is, Beer lambert law is obeyed. The method can be used to analyse paracetamole in raw material and in pharmaceutical dosage forms. (author)

  9. Extractive Spectrophotometric Methods for the Determination of Etoricoxib in Tablets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamal Shah

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Two simple, rapid, sensitive, precise and economic spectrophotometric methods have been developed for the estimation of etoricoxib in tablet formulation. During the course of study, it was observed that acidic solution of the drug formed colored ion-association complexes with Bromocresol Green (BCG and Bromocresol Purple (BCP which were soluble in chloroform. This property of the drug was followed for the development of colorimetric methods for analysis of drug. The complex of etoricoxib with BCG and BCP showed λmax at 416 nm and 408 nm respectively. These methods were validated statistically. Recovery studies gave satisfactory results indicating that none of common additives and excipients interfere the assay method. The proposed methods are found to be simple, accurate and reproducible that was successfully applied for the analysis of tablet formulation.

  10. Application of guar gum biopolymer in the prescription of tablets with sodium ibuprofen--quality tests and pharmaceutical availability in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berner-Strzelczyk, Aneta; Kołodziejska, Justyna; Zgoda, Marian Mikołaj

    2006-01-01

    The increasing interest of the technology of drug form in natural biopolymers has become the reason for undertaking investigations on the possibility of guar gum application in the prescription of oral solid form of a drug. Alternative compositions and technology of the production of tablets of regulated in time sodium ibuprofen release were worked out for children. Two series of tablets were prepared with guar gum (5 and 10% content) and a series without the biopolymer. The tablet mass in each case contained keryostatic sorbitol and bioadhesive polyvinylpyrrolidone. All tablets were tested as regards the quality of production, compliance with the requirements of Polish Pharmacopoeia VI and potential therapeutic usefulness, manifestation of which is pharmaceutical availability of the therapeutic agent (sodium ibuprofen). The tests demonstrated that the produced tablets with sodium ibuprofen have proper physicochemical properties, in compliance with Polish Pharmacopoeia VI requirements. Application of biopolymer of guar gum type as adjuvant substance contributes to the improvement of the tablet hardness parameters and prevents technological problems (lining mixture of powders to tableting machine punch). The designed tablets demonstrate proper pharmaceutical availability of over 80%. Introduction of guar gum into their prescription prolonged their disintegration time and the rate of sodium ibuprofen release, which predisposes the produced form of a drug to have the function of a tablet with slowed-down release.

  11. Mathematical tablets from Tell Harmal

    CERN Document Server

    Gonçalves, Carlos

    2015-01-01

    This work offers a re-edition of twelve mathematical tablets from the site of Tell Harmal, in the borders of present-day Baghdad. In ancient times, Tell Harmal was Šaduppûm, a city representative of the region of the Diyala river and of the kingdom of Ešnunna, to which it belonged for a time. These twelve tablets were originally published in separate articles in the beginning of the 1950s and mostly contain solved problem texts. Some of the problems deal with abstract matters such as triangles and rectangles with no reference to daily life, while others are stated in explicitly empirical contexts, such as the transportation of a load of bricks, the size of a vessel, the number of men needed to build a wall and the acquisition of oil and lard. This new edition of the texts is the first to group them, and takes into account all the recent developments of the research in the history of Mesopotamian mathematics. Its introductory chapters are directed to readers interested in an overview of the mathematical con...

  12. An In Vitro Analysis of Disintegration Times of Different Formulations of Olanzapine Orodispersible Tablet: A Preliminary Report

    OpenAIRE

    Hobbs, David; Karagianis, Jamie; Treuer, Tamas; Raskin, Joel

    2013-01-01

    Background Orodispersible tablets (ODTs) are tablet or wafer forms of medication that disintegrate in the mouth, aided only by saliva. ODTs rely on different fast dissolve/disintegration manufacturing technologies. Objectives Disintegration time differences for several olanzapine ODT forms were investigated. Risperdal M-Tab® was included as a non-olanzapine ODT comparator. Research Design and Methods Eleven olanzapine ODT examples and orodispersible risperidone strengths were evaluated in vit...

  13. Assessing gastrointestinal motility and disintegration profiles of magnetic tablets by a novel magnetic imaging device and gamma scintigraphy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodman, Kirsteen; Hodges, Lee Ann; Band, Janet; Stevens, Howard N E; Weitschies, Werner; Wilson, Clive G

    2010-01-01

    To validate Magnetic Moment Imaging (MMI) for the investigation of gastrointestinal transit and disintegration of solid dosage forms and to correlate the MMI findings with the corresponding gamma scintigraphic data. Three magnetic tablets (MTs) were investigated using in vitro and in vivo tests. The clinical study was a four-way, crossover study with the following arms: (a) immediate-release tablets administered in fasted state; (b) immediate-release tablets administered after 400mL of Clinutren ISO; (c) enteric-coated tablets administered in the fasted state; and (d) non-disintegrating tablets studied in the lightly fed state (100mL of Clinutren ISO). In both the in vitro and in vivo studies, tablets were detected successfully by MMI and scintigraphy. There was a good correlation between gastric residence times and positional data (in the x, y and y, z-axes). In addition, MMI revealed early swelling behaviour of the tablet matrix. There was excellent agreement for the disintegration times of MT(A) in the fasted arm (scintigraphy 12.0+/-4.4min, MMI 11.8+/-4.4min). In the MT(A)-fed arm, onset times determined by scintigraphy were delayed in three subjects when compared to the corresponding MMI results. Delayed disintegration was observed with MT(A) administered after food (pdisintegration of a magnetic tablet through the gastrointestinal tract. Copyright 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Mammary Gland Pathology Subsequent to Acute Infection with Strong versus Weak Biofilm Forming Staphylococcus aureus Bovine Mastitis Isolates: A Pilot Study Using Non-Invasive Mouse Mastitis Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gogoi-Tiwari, Jully; Williams, Vincent; Waryah, Charlene Babra; Costantino, Paul; Al-Salami, Hani; Mathavan, Sangeetha; Wells, Kelsi; Tiwari, Harish Kumar; Hegde, Nagendra; Isloor, Shrikrishna; Al-Sallami, Hesham; Mukkur, Trilochan

    2017-01-01

    Biofilm formation by Staphylococcus aureus is an important virulence attribute because of its potential to induce persistent antibiotic resistance, retard phagocytosis and either attenuate or promote inflammation, depending upon the disease syndrome, in vivo. This study was undertaken to evaluate the potential significance of strength of biofilm formation by clinical bovine mastitis-associated S. aureus in mammary tissue damage by using a mouse mastitis model. Two S. aureus strains of the same capsular phenotype with different biofilm forming strengths were used to non-invasively infect mammary glands of lactating mice. Biofilm forming potential of these strains were determined by tissue culture plate method, ica typing and virulence gene profile per detection by PCR. Delivery of the infectious dose of S. aureus was directly through the teat lactiferous duct without invasive scraping of the teat surface. Both bacteriological and histological methods were used for analysis of mammary gland pathology of mice post-infection. Histopathological analysis of the infected mammary glands revealed that mice inoculated with the strong biofilm forming S. aureus strain produced marked acute mastitic lesions, showing profuse infiltration predominantly with neutrophils, with evidence of necrosis in the affected mammary glands. In contrast, the damage was significantly less severe in mammary glands of mice infected with the weak biofilm-forming S. aureus strain. Although both IL-1β and TNF-α inflammatory biomarkers were produced in infected mice, level of TNF-α produced was significantly higher (pmastitis model, and offers an opportunity for the development of novel strategies for reduction of mammary tissue damage, with or without use of antimicrobials and/or anti-inflammatory compounds for the treatment of bovine mastitis.

  15. Crystal Structure of a Monomeric Form of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus Endonuclease Nsp15 Suggests a Role for Hexamerization As An Allosteric Switch

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joseph, J.S.; Saikatendu, K.S.; Subramanian, V.; Neuman, B.W.; Buchmeier, M.J.; Stevens, R.C.; Kuhn, P.; /Scripps Res. Inst.

    2007-07-09

    Mature nonstructural protein-15 (nsp15) from the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) contains a novel uridylate-specific Mn{sup 2+}-dependent endoribonuclease (NendoU). Structure studies of the full-length form of the obligate hexameric enzyme from two CoVs, SARS-CoV and murine hepatitis virus, and its monomeric homologue, XendoU from Xenopus laevis, combined with mutagenesis studies have implicated several residues in enzymatic activity and the N-terminal domain as the major determinant of hexamerization. However, the tight link between hexamerization and enzyme activity in NendoUs has remained an enigma. Here, we report the structure of a trimmed, monomeric form of SARS-CoV nsp15 (residues 28 to 335) determined to a resolution of 2.9 Angstroms. The catalytic loop (residues 234 to 249) with its two reactive histidines (His 234 and His 249) is dramatically flipped by {approx}120 degrees into the active site cleft. Furthermore, the catalytic nucleophile Lys 289 points in a diametrically opposite direction, a consequence of an outward displacement of the supporting loop (residues 276 to 295). In the full-length hexameric forms, these two loops are packed against each other and are stabilized by intimate intersubunit interactions. Our results support the hypothesis that absence of an adjacent monomer due to deletion of the hexamerization domain is the most likely cause for disruption of the active site, offering a structural basis for why only the hexameric form of this enzyme is active.

  16. Highly anisotropic conductivity of tablets pressed from polyaniline-montmorillonite nanocomposite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tokarský, Jonáš; Kulhánková, Lenka; Neuwirthová, Lucie; Mamulová Kutláková, Kateřina; Vallová, Silvie; Stýskala, Vítězslav; Čapková, Pavla

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Montmorillonite (MMT) can be intercalated with polyaniline (PANI) chains. • Tablets pressed from PANI/MMT exhibit high anisotropy in electrical conductivity. • Pressure 28MPa is sufficient to reach the anisotropy. • Tablets pressed from pure PANI also exhibit anisotropy in electrical conductivity. - Abstract: Polyaniline-montmorillonite nanocomposite was prepared from anilinium sulfate (precursor) and ammonium peroxodisulfate (oxidizing agent) using simple one-step method. The resulting nanocomposite obtained in powder form has been pressed into tablets using various compression pressures (28–400 MPa). Electrical conductivities of tablets in two perpendicular directions, i.e. direction parallel with the main surface of tablet (σ=) and in orthogonal direction (σ⊥), and corresponding anisotropy factors (i.e., the ratio σ=/σ⊥) have been studied in dependence on compression pressure used during the preparation. Polyaniline-montmorillonite nanocomposite was characterized using X-ray diffraction analysis, raman spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy, thermogravimetric analysis and molecular modeling which led to the understanding of the internal structure. Measurement of hardness performed on pressed tablets has been also involved. Taking into account the highest value of anisotropy factor reached (σ=/σ⊥ = 490), present study shows a chance to design conductors with nearly two-dimensional conductivity.

  17. Risperidone oral disintegrating mini-tablets: A robust-product for pediatrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Say, Khalid M; Ahmed, Tarek A; Abdelbary, Maged F; Ali, Bahaa E; Aljaeid, Bader M; Zidan, Ahmed S

    2015-12-01

    This study was aimed at developing risperidone oral disintegrating mini-tablets (OD-mini-tablets) as age-appropriate formulations and to assess their suitability for infants and pediatric use. An experimental Box-Behnken design was applied to assure high quality of the OD-mini-tablets and reduce product variability. The design was employed to understand the influence of the critical excipient combinations on the production of OD-mini-tablets and thus guarantee the feasibility of obtaining products with dosage form uniformity. The variables selected were mannitol percent in Avicel (X1), swelling pressure of the superdisintegrant (X2), and the surface area of Aerosil as a glidant (X3). Risperidone-excipient compatibilities were investigated using FTIR and the spectra did not display any interaction. Fifteen formulations were prepared and evaluated for pre- and post-compression characteristics. The prepared OD-mini-tablet batches were also assessed for disintegration in simulated salivary fluid (SSF, pH 6.2) and in reconstituted skimmed milk. The optimized formula fulfilled the requirements for crushing strength of 5 kN with minimal friability, disintegration times of 8.4 and 53.7 s in SSF and skimmed milk, respectively. This study therefore proposes the risperidone OD-mini-tablet formula having robust mechanical properties, uniform and precise dosing of medication with short disintegration time suitable for pediatric use.

  18. Formulation and in vitro evaluation of sustained release matrix tablets using cross-linked natural gum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamil, Qurratul Ain; Masood, Muhammad Irfan; Jamil, Muhammad Nauman; Masood, Imran; Iqbal, Shahid Muhammad

    2017-03-01

    Polysaccharide gums because of their biocompatibility, biodegradability and non-immunogenic properties are considered as the best choice for preparing sustained release tablets as compared to their synthetic counterpart. The cross linking of natural gums in matrix tablets increase the sustained release property of matrix tablets. Isoniazid is a first line therapy of tuberculosis, belongs to BCS I with half-life of 3-4 hours. These characteristics make isoniazid a good candidate for sustained release dosage form. Karaya gum crossed linked with trisodium tri metaphosphate was used as release rate retardant for preparing isoniazid cross-linked matrix tablet. Total 8 sustained release formulations were prepared. Both granules and tablets were evaluated under in vitro condition against different parameters. Dissolution studies were performed with all eight formulations for 12 hours using USP apparatus I. Four formulations designated as F1, F2, F3, F4 have drug and karaya gum while other four formulations F5, F6, F7, F8 have drug and crossed linked polymer in ratios of 1:1, 1:2, 1:3 and 1:4 respectively. Dissolution data was analyzed by using different kinetic models. Best fit model for most efficient formulation was zero order while release mechanism was super case I. Formulation 8 showed sufficiently slow release kinetics and about 83% of drug was released in 10 hours, indicating that cross-linked karaya gum proved efficient in preparing sustained release tablets.

  19. Effect of gel formation on the dissolution behavior of clarithromycin tablets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inukai, Koki; Takiyama, Kei; Noguchi, Shuji; Iwao, Yasunori; Itai, Shigeru

    2017-04-15

    Clarithromycin (CAM) is a macrolide antibiotic that is widely used at clinical sites. We found that release of CAM is suppressed when tablets of CAM were exposed to an external solvent containing carboxylate buffers such as citrate. The suppressed release of CAM can be attributed to the formation of gels on the tablet surfaces, which inhibits penetration of the solvent into the tablet and thus disintegration of the tablets. Delayed disintegration of the tablets was also observed for commercial tablets. This suggests that taking CAM and carboxylates at the same time might be avoided. The crystal structure of CAM citrate reveals that molecular chains of CAM are cross-linked by hydrogen bond between citrate groups in the crystal. The crystal structure indicates that cross-linked CAM chains of the three-dimensional mesh structure might also be formed in high concentration CAM solutions in the presence of carboxylates, resulting in gel formation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Experimental study of tensile strength of pharmaceutical tablets: effect of the diluent nature and compression pressure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juban Audrey

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In the pharmaceutical field, tablets are the most common dosage form for oral administration in the world. Among different manufacturing processes, direct compression is widely used because of its economics interest and it is a process which avoids the steps of wet granulation and drying processes. Tablets are composed of at least two ingredients: an active pharmaceutical ingredient (API which is mixed with a diluent. The nature of the powders and the processing conditions are crucial for the properties of the blend and, consequently, strongly influence the mechanical characteristics of tablets. Moreover, tablets have to present a suitable mechanical strength to avoid crumbling or breaking when handling, while ensuring an appropriate disintegration after administration. Accordingly, this mechanical property is an essential parameter to consider. Experimental results showed that proportion of the diluent, fragmentary (DCPA or plastic (MCC, had a large influence on the tensile strength evolution with API content as well as the compression load applied during tableting process. From these results a model was developed in order to predict the tensile strength of binary tablets by knowing the compression pressure. The validity of this model was demonstrated for the two studied systems and a comparison was made with two existing models.

  1. Experimental study of tensile strength of pharmaceutical tablets: effect of the diluent nature and compression pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juban, Audrey; Briançon, Stéphanie; Puel, François; Hoc, Thierry; Nouguier-Lehon, Cécile

    2017-06-01

    In the pharmaceutical field, tablets are the most common dosage form for oral administration in the world. Among different manufacturing processes, direct compression is widely used because of its economics interest and it is a process which avoids the steps of wet granulation and drying processes. Tablets are composed of at least two ingredients: an active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) which is mixed with a diluent. The nature of the powders and the processing conditions are crucial for the properties of the blend and, consequently, strongly influence the mechanical characteristics of tablets. Moreover, tablets have to present a suitable mechanical strength to avoid crumbling or breaking when handling, while ensuring an appropriate disintegration after administration. Accordingly, this mechanical property is an essential parameter to consider. Experimental results showed that proportion of the diluent, fragmentary (DCPA) or plastic (MCC), had a large influence on the tensile strength evolution with API content as well as the compression load applied during tableting process. From these results a model was developed in order to predict the tensile strength of binary tablets by knowing the compression pressure. The validity of this model was demonstrated for the two studied systems and a comparison was made with two existing models.

  2. Risperidone oral disintegrating mini-tablets: A robust-product for pediatrics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    El-Say Khalid M.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This study was aimed at developing risperidone oral disintegrating mini-tablets (OD-mini-tablets as age-appropriate formulations and to assess their suitability for infants and pediatric use. An experimental Box-Behnken design was applied to assure high quality of the OD-mini-tablets and reduce product variability. The design was employed to understand the influence of the critical excipient combinations on the production of OD-mini-tablets and thus guarantee the feasibility of obtaining products with dosage form uniformity. The variables selected were mannitol percent in Avicel (X1, swelling pressure of the superdisintegrant (X2, and the surface area of Aerosil as a glidant (X3. Risperidone-excipient compatibilities were investigated using FTIR and the spectra did not display any interaction. Fifteen formulations were prepared and evaluated for preand post-compression characteristics. The prepared ODmini- tablet batches were also assessed for disintegration in simulated salivary fluid (SSF, pH 6.2 and in reconstituted skimmed milk. The optimized formula fulfilled the requirements for crushing strength of 5 kN with minimal friability, disintegration times of 8.4 and 53.7 s in SSF and skimmed milk, respectively. This study therefore proposes the risperidone OD-mini-tablet formula having robust mechanical properties, uniform and precise dosing of medication with short disintegration time suitable for pediatric use.

  3. Highly anisotropic conductivity of tablets pressed from polyaniline-montmorillonite nanocomposite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tokarský, Jonáš, E-mail: jonas.tokarsky@vsb.cz [Nanotechnology centre, VŠB-TU Ostrava, 17. listopadu 15/2172, 708 33 Ostrava—Poruba (Czech Republic); IT4Innovations Centre of Excellence, VŠB-TU Ostrava, 17. listopadu 15/2172, 708 33 Ostrava—Poruba (Czech Republic); Kulhánková, Lenka [Faculty of Metallurgy and Materials Engineering, VŠB-TU Ostrava, 17. listopadu 15/2172, 708 33 Ostrava—Poruba (Czech Republic); Neuwirthová, Lucie; Mamulová Kutláková, Kateřina [Nanotechnology centre, VŠB-TU Ostrava, 17. listopadu 15/2172, 708 33 Ostrava—Poruba (Czech Republic); Vallová, Silvie [Faculty of Metallurgy and Materials Engineering, VŠB-TU Ostrava, 17. listopadu 15/2172, 708 33 Ostrava—Poruba (Czech Republic); Stýskala, Vítězslav [Faculty of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, VŠB-TU Ostrava, 17. listopadu 15/2172, 708 33 Ostrava—Poruba (Czech Republic); Čapková, Pavla [Faculty of Science, University of J.E. Purkyně, České mládeže 8, 400 96 Ústí nad Labem (Czech Republic)

    2016-03-15

    Highlights: • Montmorillonite (MMT) can be intercalated with polyaniline (PANI) chains. • Tablets pressed from PANI/MMT exhibit high anisotropy in electrical conductivity. • Pressure 28MPa is sufficient to reach the anisotropy. • Tablets pressed from pure PANI also exhibit anisotropy in electrical conductivity. - Abstract: Polyaniline-montmorillonite nanocomposite was prepared from anilinium sulfate (precursor) and ammonium peroxodisulfate (oxidizing agent) using simple one-step method. The resulting nanocomposite obtained in powder form has been pressed into tablets using various compression pressures (28–400 MPa). Electrical conductivities of tablets in two perpendicular directions, i.e. direction parallel with the main surface of tablet (σ=) and in orthogonal direction (σ⊥), and corresponding anisotropy factors (i.e., the ratio σ=/σ⊥) have been studied in dependence on compression pressure used during the preparation. Polyaniline-montmorillonite nanocomposite was characterized using X-ray diffraction analysis, raman spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy, thermogravimetric analysis and molecular modeling which led to the understanding of the internal structure. Measurement of hardness performed on pressed tablets has been also involved. Taking into account the highest value of anisotropy factor reached (σ=/σ⊥ = 490), present study shows a chance to design conductors with nearly two-dimensional conductivity.

  4. Design and evaluation of microwave-treated orally disintegrating tablets containing polymeric disintegrant and mannitol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sano, Syusuke; Iwao, Yasunori; Noguchi, Shuji; Kimura, Susumu; Itai, Shigeru

    2013-05-01

    Microwave (MW) treatment was used to develop a formulation process for the preparation of wet molded orally disintegrating tablets (ODTs) consisting of mannitol and polymeric disintegrant with improved hardness and disintegration properties. The wet molded tablets were prepared in accordance with the conventional methods and subsequently heated by MW irradiation to induce the swelling of the tablet. Croscarmellose sodium, crospovidone, and low-substituted hydroxypropylcellulose (L-HPC) were evaluated for their use with this technology. NBD-020, which is a grade of L-HPC, provided the better hardness and disintegration results. In addition, the crystalline forms of mannitol impacted on hardness and disintegration properties of the ODT upon MW irradiation. The effects of the disintegrant ratio, δ and β crystalline mannitol ratio, amount of water, and compression force on the ODT properties were evaluated using the design of experiment method. MW-induced swelling was enhanced by an increase in the disintegrant ratio. Although the hardness of the tablet increased following MW treatment, the disintegration time became less than that of the MW-untreated tablets as the β-mannitol ratios increased. Taken together, the results indicated that the polymeric disintegrant greatly improved the properties of the molded tablets in combination with MW treatment. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. A critical review on tablet disintegration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quodbach, Julian; Kleinebudde, Peter

    2016-09-01

    Tablet disintegration is an important factor for drug release and can be modified with excipients called tablet disintegrants. Tablet disintegrants act via different mechanisms and the efficacy of these excipients is influenced by various factors. In this review, the existing literature on tablet disintegration is critically reviewed. Potential disintegration mechanisms, as well as impact factors on the disintegration process will be discussed based on experimental evidence. Search terms for Scopus and Web of Science included "tablet disintegration", "mechanism tablet disintegration", "superdisintegrants", "disintegrants", "swelling force", "disintegration force", "disintegration mechanisms", as well as brand names of commonly applied superdisintegrants. References of identified papers were screened as well. Experimental data supports swelling and shape recovery as main mechanisms of action of disintegrants. Other tablet excipients and different manufacturing techniques greatly influence the disintegration process. The use of different excipients, experimental setups and manufacturing techniques, as well as the demand for original research led to a distinct patchwork of knowledge. Broader, more systematic approaches are necessary not only to structure the past but also future findings.

  6. A non-inflammatory form of immune competence prevails in acute pre-pubescent malnutrition: new evidence based on critical mRNA transcripts in the mouse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monk, Jennifer M; Richard, Cynthia L; Woodward, Bill

    2012-05-01

    The declining inflammatory immune competence of acute (i.e. wasting) pre-pubescent protein-energy malnutrition has been regarded as reflecting an unregulated immunological disintegration. Recent evidence, however, suggests that malnutrition stimulates a regulated immunological reconfiguration to achieve a non-inflammatory form of competence, perhaps offering protection against autoimmune reactions - the 'Tolerance Model'. Our objective was to determine the influence of acute pre-pubescent malnutrition on the expression of genes critical to tolerogenic regulation. Male and female C57BL/6J mice, initially 19 d old, consumed a complete purified diet either ad libitum (age-matched controls) or in restricted daily quantities (mimicking marasmus), or consumed an isoenergetic low-protein diet ad libitum (mimicking incipient kwashiorkor) for 14 d (six animals per dietary group). Gene expression in the spleen, typically an inflammatory organ, and in the small intestine, a site designed for non-inflammatory defence, was assessed by real-time quantitative RT-PCR, and normalised to β-actin. In the spleen of the malnourished groups, both IL-10 and transforming growth factor-β1 mRNA expression increased compared with controls (P 0.05). Moreover, forkhead box P3 mRNA expression, indicative of cell-based tolerogenic potential, was sustained in both the spleen and intestine of the malnourished groups (P>0.05). Thus, despite limited supplies of energy and substrates, the spleen shifted towards a non-inflammatory character and the intestine was sustained in this mode in advanced pre-pubescent weight loss. These findings provide the first support for the Tolerance Model at the level of mRNA transcript expression.

  7. Dissolution test for glibenclamide tablets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabeth Aparecida dos Santos Gianotto

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work is to develop and validate a dissolution test for glibenclamide tablets. Optimal conditions to carry out the dissolution test are 500 mL of phosphate buffer at pH 8.0, paddles at 75 rpm stirring speed, time test set to 60 min and using equipment with six vessels. The derivative UV spectrophotometric method for determination of glibenclamide released was developed, validated and compared with the HPLC method. The UVDS method presents linearity (r² = 0.9999 in the concentration range of 5-14 µg/mL. Precision and recoveries were 0.42% and 100.25%, respectively. The method was applied to three products commercially available on the Brazilian market.

  8. Bio-predictive tablet disintegration: effect of water diffusivity, fluid flow, food composition and test conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radwan, Asma; Wagner, Manfred; Amidon, Gordon L; Langguth, Peter

    2014-06-16

    Food intake may delay tablet disintegration. Current in vitro methods have little predictive potential to account for such effects. The effect of a variety of factors on the disintegration of immediate release tablets in the gastrointestinal tract has been identified. They include viscosity of the media, precipitation of food constituents on the surface of the tablet and reduction of water diffusivity in the media as well as changes in the hydrodynamics in the surrounding media of the solid dosage form. In order to improve the predictability of food affecting the disintegration of a dosage form, tablet disintegration in various types of a liquefied meal has been studied under static vs. dynamic (agitative) conditions. Viscosity, water diffusivity, osmolality and Reynolds numbers for the different media were characterized. A quantitative model is introduced which predicts the influence of the Reynolds number in the tablet disintegration apparatus on the disintegration time. Viscosity, water diffusivity and media flow velocity are shown to be important factors affecting dosage form disintegration. The results suggest the necessity of considering these parameters when designing a predictive model for simulating the in vivo conditions. Based on these experiments and knowledge on in vivo hydrodynamics in the GI tract, it is concluded that the disintegration tester under current pharmacopoeial conditions is operated in an unphysiological mode and no bioprediction may be derived. Recommendations regarding alternative mode of operation are made. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Comparative investigations of tablet crushing force testers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sonnergaard, Jørn; Jensen, C.G.; Poulsen, L.

    2005-01-01

    The performance of 16 tablet breaking force testers was evaluated in terms of accuracy, reproducibility and repeatability. Three tablet formulations with different plastic or brittle deformation mechanisms and with target breaking forces of 50, 100 and 150 N were tested. Statistically significant...... by the concept of components of variance was 5-7 % depending on the model tablet excipient. The standard deviation within testers (repeatability) was affected by the type of model formulation showing increasing variability with increasing brittleness of the compressed material. No specific effect of altering...

  10. Teach yourself visually Windows 8 tablets

    CERN Document Server

    McFedries, Paul

    2012-01-01

    A visual guide to all the features of the new Windows 8 Tablet This must-have resource features visually rich, step-by-step instructions that show you how to get the most enjoyment from your Windows 8 tablet. Learn about the exciting new Metro UI, optimized specifically for touch devices. The most popular and commonly used apps and functions are covered too, along with the basics of syncing with a network, setting up e-mail, watching videos, listening to music, and common productivity tasks. This book provides all the guidance needed to enjoy all the best the new Windows 8 tablets have to offe

  11. Android Tablet Application Development For Dummies

    CERN Document Server

    Felker, Donn

    2011-01-01

    Get up to speed on the hottest opportunity in the application development arena App development for tablets is a booming business. Android tablets, including the popular Motorola Xoom, are gaining market share at breakneck speed, and this book can have even novice programmers creating great Android apps specifically for tablets quickly and easily. A little Java knowledge is helpful but not essential to get started creating apps. Android expert Donn Felker helps you get the Android environment up and running, use XML to create application menus, create an icon for your app, and submit your app

  12. Development of midazolam sublingual tablets: in vitro study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odou, P; Barthelemy, C; Robert, H

    1998-01-01

    Midazolam is a benzodiazepine with short elimination half-life, used as induction or continuous agent for general anesthesia. At present, only injectable solution is available from French hospital pharmacies. The aim of the study is the development of 5 mg midazolam sublingual tablets to realize a short general anesthesia without intravenous or intramuscular injection. Incorporation of citric acid in the tablet formulation leads to an increase of dissolution rates of active drug, but a decrease of diffusion through lipid membranes is observed with 10 mg of citric acid when using the Dibbern's Resomat three phases apparatus. One explanation of this result is that midazolam (pKa = 6.1) in presence of 10 mg of citric acid is ionised. The ionised form, more hydrophilic, cannot cross the artificial lipid membrane and therefore the diffusion decreases. On the other hand, the decrease of diffusion's rate, when pH increases, is explained by the precipitation of midazolam at pH higher than 6. A compromise between dissolution and diffusion results leads us to choose the sublingual formulation containing 5 mg of citric acid per tablet.

  13. Near-Infrared Spatially Resolved Spectroscopy for Tablet Quality Determination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Igne, Benoît; Talwar, Sameer; Feng, Hanzhou; Drennen, James K; Anderson, Carl A

    2015-12-01

    Near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy has become a well-established tool for the characterization of solid oral dosage forms manufacturing processes and finished products. In this work, the utility of a traditional single-point NIR measurement was compared with that of a spatially resolved spectroscopic (SRS) measurement for the determination of tablet assay. Experimental designs were used to create samples that allowed for calibration models to be developed and tested on both instruments. Samples possessing a poor distribution of ingredients (highly heterogeneous) were prepared by under-blending constituents prior to compaction to compare the analytical capabilities of the two NIR methods. The results indicate that SRS can provide spatial information that is usually obtainable only through imaging experiments for the determination of local heterogeneity and detection of abnormal tablets that would not be detected with single-point spectroscopy, thus complementing traditional NIR measurement systems for in-line, and in real-time tablet analysis. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. and the American Pharmacists Association.

  14. Physicochemical and tablet properties of Cyperus alulatus rhizomes starch granules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paramakrishnan, N; Jha, S; Kumar, K Jayaram

    2015-05-01

    The starch extracted from rhizomes of Cyperus alulatus (CA) was characterized for its physicochemical, morphological and tableting properties. Rhizomes of CA yield a significant quantity of starch granules (CASG) i.e., 11.93%. CASG was characterized in terms of moisture, ash and amylose contents, solubility and swelling power, paste clarity and water retention capacity. The swelling power was found to be significantly improved with the increase in temperature. Scanning electron micrographs revealed that the granule's surface was smooth, the granules were spherical, mostly round, disc like, and the size range was 6.65-12.13 μm. Finger print region in FTIR spectra confirmed its carbohydrate nature. The evaluated micromeritic properties of extracted granule's bulk density, tapped density, Carr's index, Hausner ratio, true density and porosity render unique practicability of CASG being used as an adjuvant in pharmaceutical solid dosage forms. Tablets prepared by using CASG showed higher mechanical strength and more disintegration time, which depicted the characteristic binding nature of the starch granules. As CASG is imparting better binding properties in less concentration and also it can be used in combination with the established starches to get the synergistic effect; this starch can be used commercially in the tablet preparation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Quantitative surface topography assessment of directly compressed and roller compacted tablet cores using photometric stereo image analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allesø, Morten; Holm, Per; Carstensen, Jens Michael; Holm, René

    2016-05-25

    Surface topography, in the context of surface smoothness/roughness, was investigated by the use of an image analysis technique, MultiRay™, related to photometric stereo, on different tablet batches manufactured either by direct compression or roller compaction. In the present study, oblique illumination of the tablet (darkfield) was considered and the area of cracks and pores in the surface was used as a measure of tablet surface topography; the higher a value, the rougher the surface. The investigations demonstrated a high precision of the proposed technique, which was able to rapidly (within milliseconds) and quantitatively measure the obtained surface topography of the produced tablets. Compaction history, in the form of applied roll force and tablet punch pressure, was also reflected in the measured smoothness of the tablet surfaces. Generally it was found that a higher degree of plastic deformation of the microcrystalline cellulose resulted in a smoother tablet surface. This altogether demonstrated that the technique provides the pharmaceutical developer with a reliable, quantitative response parameter for visual appearance of solid dosage forms, which may be used for process and ultimately product optimization. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Mechanochemical effect on swelling and drug release of natural polymer matrix tablets by X-ray computed tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hattori, Yusuke; Takaku, Tomomi; Otsuka, Makoto

    2018-03-25

    The relationships between the physicochemical properties of milled starch and drug release from tablets were investigated quantitatively using a drug release kinetic method and X-ray computed tomography (XCT). The samples were prepared from raw β-starch by milling in a planetary ball mill. The tablets, containing 5% theophylline (TH), 94% milled starch, and 1% magnesium stearate, were compressed at 6 kN. The drug-release and gel-forming processes were measured simultaneously using an original dissolution tester with an XCT instrument. Drug release from the tablet was delayed with increasing milling time, because the TH tablet formed a typical gel-layer on the outside of the tablet. The relationship between the crystallinity of milled starch and mean drug release time (MDT) for the TH tablets showed almost a straight inverse proportional relationship. The plots of MDT against area under the curve of the swelling ratio profiles of the TH tablets had a good straight line. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Spectrophotometeric determination of metoprolol in tablet dosage form

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Metoprolol, a beta-1 selective adrenegic receptor blocker antihypertensive agent is fairly new in Nigeria. In view of the endemic faking and adulterating of drugs in Nigeria, a simple, quick, and accurate method was developed for its assay. Metoprolol was coupled with 4-chloro-7-nitrobenzo-2-oxa-1, 3 diazole (NBD-Cl) in ...

  18. Discrete particle modeling and micromechanical characterization of bilayer tablet compaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yohannes, B; Gonzalez, M; Abebe, A; Sprockel, O; Nikfar, F; Kiang, S; Cuitiño, A M

    2017-08-30

    A mechanistic particle scale model is proposed for bilayer tablet compaction. Making bilayer tablets involves the application of first layer compaction pressure on the first layer powder and a second layer compaction pressure on entire powder bed. The bonding formed between the first layer and the second layer particles is crucial for the mechanical strength of the bilayer tablet. The bonding and the contact forces between particles of the first layer and second layer are affected by the deformation and rearrangement of particles due to the compaction pressures. Our model takes into consideration the elastic and plastic deformations of the first layer particles due to the first layer compaction pressure, in addition to the mechanical and physical properties of the particles. Using this model, bilayer tablets with layers of the same material and different materials, which are commonly used pharmaceutical powders, are tested. The simulations show that the strength of the layer interface becomes weaker than the strength of the two layers as the first layer compaction pressure is increased. The reduction of strength at the layer interface is related to reduction of the first layer surface roughness. The reduced roughness decreases the available bonding area and hence reduces the mechanical strength at the interface. In addition, the simulations show that at higher first layer compaction pressure the bonding area is significantly less than the total contact area at the layer interface. At the interface itself, there is a non-monotonic relationship between the bonding area and first layer force. The bonding area at the interface first increases and then decreases as the first layer pressure is increased. These results are in agreement with findings of previous experimental studies. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. A Pilot Stability Study of Dehydroepiandrosterone Rapid-dissolving Tablets Prepared by Extemporaneous Compounding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rush, Steven D; Vernak, Charlene; Zhao, Fang

    2017-01-01

    Dehydroepiandrosterone supplementation is used to treat a variety of conditions. Rapid-dissolving tablets are a relatively novel choice for compounded dehydroepiandrosterone dosage forms. While rapid-dissolving tablets offer ease of administration, there are uncertainties about the physical and chemical stability of the drug and dosage form during preparation and over long-term storage. This study was designed to evaluate the stability of dehydroepiandrosterone rapid-dissolving tablets just after preparation and over six months of storage. The Professional Compounding Centers of America rapid-dissolving tablet mold and base formula were used to prepare 10-mg strength dehydroepiandrosterone rapid-dissolving tablets. The formulation was heated at 100°C to 110°C for 30 minutes, released from the mold, and cooled at room temperature for 30 minutes. The resulting rapid-dissolving tablets were individually packaged in amber blister packs and stored in a stability chamber maintained at 25°C and 60% relative humidity. The stability samples were pulled at pre-determined time points for evaluation, which included visual inspection, tablet weight check, United States Pharmacopeia disintegration test, and stability-indicating high-performance liquid chromatography. The freshly prepared dehydroepiandrosterone rapiddissolving tablets exhibited satisfactory chemical and physical stability. Time 0 samples disintegrated within 40 seconds in water kept at 37°C. The high-performance liquid chromatographic results confirmed that the initial potency was 101.9% of label claim and that there was no chemical degradation from the heating procedure. Over six months of storage, there were no significant changes in visual appearance, physical integrity, or disintegration time for any of the stability samples. The high-performance liquid chromatographic results also indicated that dehydroepiandrosterone rapid-dissolving tablets retained >95% label claim with no detectable degradation

  20. FORMULATION AND EVALUATION OF LEVITIRACETAM MATRIX TABLETS

    OpenAIRE

    Kalepu Swathi*and Dr. P. Narayana Raju

    2018-01-01

    For many years the treatment of acute or chronic sicknesses were carried out normally via the transport of medication to sufferers through diverse pharmaceutical forms encompass pills, pills, creams, suppositories, drinks, ointments, aerosols and injectables. The kinds conventional oral drug delivery systems are regarded to provide delivery of the drug. Therefore to reap as well as to hold the drug awareness within the range of healing effectiveness required for the treatment. Levetiracetam m...

  1. Formulation and Evaluation of Fast-Disintegrating Sublingual Tablets of Atropine Sulfate: the Effect of Tablet Dimensions and Drug Load on Tablet Characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aodah, Alhussain; Bafail, Rawan S; Rawas-Qalaji, Mutasem

    2017-07-01

    In this study, we formulated and evaluated the effects of tablet dimensions and drug load on the characteristics of atropine sulfate (AS) fast-disintegrating sublingual tablets (FDSTs). We aim to develop AS FDSTs as an alternative non-invasive and portable dosage form for the emergency treatment of organophosphate (OP) toxicity. AS autoinjector, AtroPen®, is the only self-administered dosage form available as an antidote for-out-of-hospital emergency use, but it is associated with several limitations and drawbacks. Seven FDST formulations of two tablet sizes, 150 mg (A) and 50 mg (B), and of several AS loads, 0 mg (A1, B1), 2 mg (A2, B2), 4 mg (B3), and 8 mg (B4a, B4b), were formulated and manufactured by direct compression. AS FDST characteristics were evaluated using USP and non-USP tests. Results were statistically compared at p < 0.05. All FDSTs passed the USP content uniformity and friability tests, disintegrated and released AS in ≤30 and 60 s. B1 and B2 were significantly harder than A1 and A2. Water uptake of A1 was significantly the highest. However, B1 and B2 had shorter disintegration and wetting times and higher amounts of AS dissolved than did A1 and A2 (p < 0.05). Increasing AS negatively affected FDST tensile strength (p < 0.05 for B4a) and water uptake (p < 0.05 for B3, B4a and B4b), however, without affecting AS dissolution. Formulation of AS up to 16% into smaller FDSTs was successful. Smaller FDSTs were harder and disintegrated more quickly. These AS FDSTS have the potential for further in vivo testing to evaluate their OP antidote potential.

  2. Performance of tablet disintegrants: impact of storage conditions and relative tablet density.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quodbach, Julian; Kleinebudde, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Tablet disintegration can be influenced by several parameters, such as storage conditions, type and amount of disintegrant, and relative tablet density. Even though these parameters have been mentioned in the literature, the understanding of the disintegration process is limited. In this study, water uptake and force development of disintegrating tablets are analyzed, as they reveal underlying processes and interactions. Measurements were performed on dibasic calcium phosphate tablets containing seven different disintegrants stored at different relative humidities (5-97%), and on tablets containing disintegrants with different mechanisms of action (swelling and shape recovery), compressed to different relative densities. Disintegration times of tablets containing sodium starch glycolate are affected most by storage conditions, which is displayed in decreased water uptake and force development kinetics. Disintegration times of tablets with a swelling disintegrant are only marginally affected by relative tablet density, whereas the shape recovery disintegrant requires high relative densities for quick disintegration. The influence of relative tablet density on the kinetics of water uptake and force development greatly depends on the mechanism of action. Acquired data allows a detailed analysis of the influence of storage conditions and mechanisms of action on disintegration behavior.

  3. ASSESSING FACTORS THAT FORM PATIENT’S ATTITUDE TO TREATMENT PRECEDING HOSPITALIZATION FOR ACUTE CORONARY SYNDROM (DATA OF QUESTIONNAIRE WITHIN THE LIS REGISTER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu. V. Lukina

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To determine the most significant factors forming patient’s attitude to treatment and factors of adherence to treatment preceding hospitalization in patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS.Material and methods. A register of patients admitted to Lyubertsy Regional Hospital №2 for ACS from 01.12.2011 to 01.12.2012 was used in the study. A total of 272 patients (men – 157, women – 115 were enrolled into the study. Age range was between 31 and 89 years, mean age was 63.6±12.6 years. Acute myocardial infarction was diagnosed in 181 patients, unstable angina pectoris – in 91 patients. While in hospital all the patients had filled out the questionnaire on therapy adherence.Results. Half of the 272 patients (133 persons enrolled into the study had regularly been followed-up for chronic diseases in different medical centers; 138 patients (50.7% had not been followed-up before the reference hospitalization. According to the valid Morisky-Green test results 120 patients (44.1% were adherent to treatment, in 141 (51.8% patients the adherence was unsatisfactory, 11 persons (4.1% did not answer the test questions. Younger patients adhered to doctors’ recommendations better. According to the patients (125 patients – 46% the most effective strategy to improve treatment adherence was the obtaining of detailed information about their disease and methods of its treatment provided by the doctor. 32 patients (11.8% pointed out the importance of lowering drug costs. 11 patients of 272 respondents demanded more care from their doctor; 4 persons suggested that better quality of medical care organization would help to ameliorate treatment adherence. Regular follow-up for chronic diseases with detailed informing about the condition by a physician positively influences adherence to recommended therapy. Patients of commercial medical centers and patients without any medical follow-up least of all adhered to treatment.Conclusion. Specially designed

  4. ASSESSING FACTORS THAT FORM PATIENT’S ATTITUDE TO TREATMENT PRECEDING HOSPITALIZATION FOR ACUTE CORONARY SYNDROM (DATA OF QUESTIONNAIRE WITHIN THE LIS REGISTER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu. V. Lukina

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To determine the most significant factors forming patient’s attitude to treatment and factors of adherence to treatment preceding hospitalization in patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS.Material and methods. A register of patients admitted to Lyubertsy Regional Hospital №2 for ACS from 01.12.2011 to 01.12.2012 was used in the study. A total of 272 patients (men – 157, women – 115 were enrolled into the study. Age range was between 31 and 89 years, mean age was 63.6±12.6 years. Acute myocardial infarction was diagnosed in 181 patients, unstable angina pectoris – in 91 patients. While in hospital all the patients had filled out the questionnaire on therapy adherence.Results. Half of the 272 patients (133 persons enrolled into the study had regularly been followed-up for chronic diseases in different medical centers; 138 patients (50.7% had not been followed-up before the reference hospitalization. According to the valid Morisky-Green test results 120 patients (44.1% were adherent to treatment, in 141 (51.8% patients the adherence was unsatisfactory, 11 persons (4.1% did not answer the test questions. Younger patients adhered to doctors’ recommendations better. According to the patients (125 patients – 46% the most effective strategy to improve treatment adherence was the obtaining of detailed information about their disease and methods of its treatment provided by the doctor. 32 patients (11.8% pointed out the importance of lowering drug costs. 11 patients of 272 respondents demanded more care from their doctor; 4 persons suggested that better quality of medical care organization would help to ameliorate treatment adherence. Regular follow-up for chronic diseases with detailed informing about the condition by a physician positively influences adherence to recommended therapy. Patients of commercial medical centers and patients without any medical follow-up least of all adhered to treatment.Conclusion. Specially designed

  5. Tablets for Learning in Higher Education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Godsk, Mikkel

    Based on a small-scale literature review this paper identifies the top 10 affordances of post PC tablets (sometimes referred to as ‘tablet computers’) for higher education in settings where the technology is used for learning. The review shows that the predominant affordances of the technology...... are related to its ability to support engaging, inclusive, and/or collaborative learning, to provide flexibility in place, and to include multimedia and interactive content in teaching practice. However, performing the review also revealed that the notion of tablets for learning is equivocal. As a consequence......, the concepts of tabletcasts and tabletcasting are introduced as one possible framing for future research on tablets as an educational technology....

  6. Portable Tablets in Science Museum Learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gronemann, Sigurd Trolle

    2016-01-01

    Despite the increasing use of portable tablets in learning, their impact has received little attention in research. In five different projects, this media-ethnographic and design-based analysis of the use of portable tablets as a learning resource in science museums investigates how young people...... is identified. It is argued that, paradoxically, museums’ decisions to innovate by introducing new technologies, such as portable tablets, and new pedagogies to support them conflict with many young people’s traditional ideas of museums and learning. The assessment of the implications of museums’ integration...... of portable tablets indicates that in making pedagogical transformations to accommodate new technologies, museums risk opposing didactic intention if pedagogies do not sufficiently attend to young learners’ systemic expectations to learning and to their expectations to the digital experience influenced...

  7. Pharmacokinetic Studies on Metoprolol - Eudragit Matrix Tablets ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    HP

    Zero order release of drug was observed from all the tablets. ... Conclusion: It can be concluded from this single-dose study that the reference and test ... effect [2]. The mean time to reach maximum plasma concentration and mean elimination.

  8. Lattice-Boltzmann Simulation of Tablet Disintegration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Jiaolong; Sun, Ning; Gersappe, Dilip

    Using the lattice-Boltzmann method, we developed a 2D model to study the tablet disintegration involving the swelling and wicking mechanisms. The surface area and disintegration profile of each component were obtained by tracking the tablet structure in the simulation. Compared to pure wicking, the total surface area is larger for swelling and wicking, which indicates that the swelling force breaks the neighboring bonds. The disintegration profiles show that the tablet disintegrates faster than pure wicking, and there are more wetted active pharmaceutical ingredient particles distributed on smaller clusters. Our results indicate how the porosity would affect the disintegration process by changing the wetting area of the tablet as well as by changing the swelling force propagation.

  9. Direct and indirect effects of paliperidone extended-release tablets on negative symptoms of schizophrenia

    OpenAIRE

    Bossie, Cynthia

    2008-01-01

    Ibrahim Turkoz, Cynthia A Bossie, Bryan Dirks, Carla M CanusoOrtho-McNeil Janssen Scientific Affairs, LLC, Titusville, NJ, USAAbstract: Direct and indirect effects of the new psychotropic paliperidone extended-release (paliperidone ER) tablets on negative symptom improvement in schizophrenia were investigated using path analysis. A post hoc analysis of pooled data from three 6-week, double-blind, placebo-controlled studies of paliperidone ER in patients experiencing acute exacerbation was con...

  10. Changes in Some Hematology Parameters in poisoning with Rice Tablet (Aluminum Phosphide)

    OpenAIRE

    Farshid Fayyaz (PhD)

    2015-01-01

    Background and Objective: Aluminum Phosphide (ALP) is a solid non-organic phosphide with dark gray or dark yellow crystals. It reacts with stomach acid after ingestion and causes phosphine gas to be released. It is thought that phosphine causes toxicity from enzymatic interference and may even lead to cell death. This study aimed to investigate the effects of poisoning with rice tablet on levels of platelets, hemoglobin, white blood cells. Methods: The clinical records of 67 cases of acute...

  11. Preparation of fluconazole buccal tablet and influence of formulation expedients on its properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamed, Saifulla P; Muzzammil, Shariff; Pramod, Kumar T M

    2011-04-01

    The aim of present study was to prepare buccal tablets of fluconazole for oral candidiasis. The dosage forms were designed to release the drug above the minimum inhibitory concentration for prolonged period of time so as to reduce the frequency of administration and to overcome the side effects of systemic treatment. The buccal tablets were prepared by using Carbopol 71G and Noveon AA-1 by direct compression method. Microcrystalline cellulose was used as the filler and its effect was also studied. The prepared dosage forms were evaluated for physicochemical properties, in vitro release studies and mucoadhesive properties using sheep buccal mucosa as a model tissue. Tablets containing 50% of polymers (Carbopol & Noveon) were found to be the best with moderate swelling along with favorable bioadhesion force, residence time and in vitro drug release. The in vitro drug release studies revealed that drug released for 8 h, which in turn may reduce dosing frequency and improved patient compliance in oral candidiasis patients.

  12. Distribution of crushing strength of tablets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sonnergaard, Jørn

    2002-01-01

    The distribution of a given set of data is important since most parametric statistical tests are based on the assumption that the studied data are normal distributed. In analysis of fracture mechanics the Weibull distribution is widely used and the derived Weibull modulus is interpreted as a mate...... data from nine model tablet formulations and four commercial tablets are shown to follow the normal distribution. The importance of proper cleaning of the crushing strength apparatus is demonstrated....

  13. Penggunaan Tablet di Binus Online Learning

    OpenAIRE

    Agus Putranto; Wawan Saputra

    2014-01-01

    Utilization of e-learning can improve learning effectiveness and flexibility. Features of e-learning that are important in teaching and learning activities are tasks features, discussion forums and discussion face to face in a video conference. BINUS Online Learning is a program that offers students to conduct online lectures. Online BINUS need to think about software and hardware that must be provided in a tablet. Therefore, this study will analyze the use of the tablet which will be used fo...

  14. Electronic acquisition of OSCE performance using tablets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hochlehnert, Achim

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Objective Structured Clinical Examinations (OSCEs often involve a considerable amount of resources in terms of materials and organization since the scores are often recorded on paper. Computer-assisted administration is an alternative with which the need for material resources can be reduced. In particular, the use of tablets seems sensible because these are easy to transport and flexible to use.Aim: User acceptance concerning the use of tablets during OSCEs has not yet been extensively investigated. The aim of this study was to evaluate tablet-based OSCEs from the perspective of the user (examiner and the student examinee.Method: For two OSCEs in Internal Medicine at the University of Heidelberg, user acceptance was analyzed regarding tablet-based administration (satisfaction with functionality and the subjective amount of effort as perceived by the examiners. Standardized questionnaires and semi-standardized interviews were conducted (complete survey of all participating examiners. In addition, for one OSCE, the subjective evaluation of this mode of assessment was gathered from a random sample of participating students in semi-standardized interviews.Results: Overall, the examiners were very satisfied with using tablets during the assessment. The subjective amount of effort to use the tablet was found on average to be “hardly difficult”. The examiners identified the advantages of this mode of administration as being in particular the ease of use and low rate of error. During the interviews of the examinees, acceptance for the use of tablets during the assessment was also detected.Discussion: Overall, it was found that the use of tablets during OSCEs was well accepted by both examiners and examinees. We expect that this mode of assessment also offers advantages regarding assessment documentation, use of resources, and rate of error in comparison with paper-based assessments; all of these aspects should be followed up on in

  15. Tablets Helping Elderly and Disabled People

    OpenAIRE

    Castro, Mercedes de; Ruiz-Mezcua, Belén; Sánchez-Pena, José Manuel; García-Crespo, Ángel; Iglesias, Ana; Pajares, José Luis

    2012-01-01

    Proceedings of: Ambient Assisted Living Joint Programme Forum 2011 (AAL JP Forum 2011), Lecce (Italy), September 26-28, 2011 The article introduces the basics by which tablets are considered as appropriate tools for integration and promotion of the elderly in the digital world. To prove this, the paper presents three research projects carried out by CESyA that integrate Automatic Speech Recognition (ASR), Voice Synthesis, subtitling, audiodescription or audio navigation tools into tablets ...

  16. Attitudes towards Smart Phones and Tablets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Akbar Ansarin

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the perceptions of advantages of smart phones and tablets on basic and general English students' language learning, self-sufficiency, and interest using smart phones and tablets at an Iranian university college during one university term. Through a survey administered to 333 basic and general English students and through selective observations and interviews, the following questions were examined: 1 Students' perceived impact of smart phones and tablets on increasing their confidence throughout the course,2  Students’ perceived comfort/enjoyment with smart phones and tablets for the students at the beginning and end of the semester,3 Students' perceived impact of devices through a comparison between pre and post survey measures on improvement of reading comprehension, reading speed, vocabulary and spelling, motivation, and preparing them for class tests and quizzes. Tablets were evaluated more positively than smart phones by the students as a means to increase confidence. Both tablets and smart phones were evaluated positively, both as a means of improving students’ motivation to learn, and as a means to develop reading comprehension, spelling, and vocabulary. However, students’ expectations regarding the impact of such devices on their reading speed, preparation for tests and quizzes, as well as comfort and enjoyment were not met.

  17. Characterization of changes in composition and function of erythrocyte membrane proteins in patients with bone marrow form of acute radiation sickness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Jinying; Wei Shanjian; Hu Xiaojian

    1998-01-01

    Objective: The delayed effect of radiation on erythrocyte membrane protein, the composition and function of the membrane proteins in five patients with bone marrow form of acute radiation sickness (ARS) were follow up at six years after the Shanghai 60 Co irradiation accident. Methods: Percoll centrifugation, SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, and analysis of NO 2 - transport rate and DIDS inhibition rate were performed. Results: The injuries of the membrane proteins induced by radiation, characterized by reduced content of band 8 and declined anion transport function of band 3 protein remained the same as initially observed. The further study showed that the inhibition of DIDS on the anion transport of the ARS erythrocytes was decreased and the transport time for NO 2 - by band 3 was significantly prolonged in younger erythrocytes than those in middle-or old-aged cells. Conclusion: It is suggested that the radiation damage to erythrocyte membrane proteins might occur at the stage of erythropoiesis in bone marrow. The exo-facial site in band 3 may be changed after radiation, which could result in the abnormalities in anion transport. It is believed that the aging of erythrocytes might be present in advanced stage of ARS

  18. A soluble form of CTLA-4 is present in paediatric patients with acute lymphoblastic leukaemia and correlates with CD1d+ expression.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita Simone

    Full Text Available CTLA-4 is a key factor in regulating and maintaining self tolerance, providing a negative signal to the T cell and thus limiting immune responses. Several polymorphisms within the CTLA-4 gene have been associated with an increased risk of developing autoimmune diseases and, very recently, with susceptibility to human cancer. Acute lymphoblastic leukemia is a clonal disorder of lymphoid progenitors representing the most frequent malignancy of childhood. Here, we show the presence at significantly elevated levels of a circulating soluble form of CTLA-4 in 70% of B-ALL pediatric patients with active disease, the positive correlation between the percentage of leukemic B lymphocytes and the amount of serum sCTLA-4, and the expression of sCTLA-4 transcript by B cells in patients. Finally, a correlation between CD1d expression (a negative prognostic marker and the sCTLA-4 in B-ALL patients was observed. This suggests a possible role of this soluble molecule as a marker of progression or severity of the neoplastic disease.

  19. Pembuatan Selulosa Mikrokristal dan Ekstrak Etanol Daun Nanas (Ananas Comosus (L.) Merr.) yang Diformulasikan Menjadi Sediaan Tablet

    OpenAIRE

    Kaban, Vera Estefania

    2016-01-01

    Background: The leaves of pineapple (Ananas comosus(L.) Merr.) including waste containing cellulose, can be isolate and made into a crystalline form. Microcrystalline cellulose is an additional ingredient that is often use in the manufacture of tablets by direct compression methods. Purpose: The aims of this study was isolated and characterize the microcrystalline cellulose and ethanol extract from pineapple leaves was formulated into dosage tablet. Methods: Dried material powder was ex...

  20. Formulation and Characterization of Matrix and Triple-Layer matrix tablets for Controlled Delivery of Metoprolol tartrate

    OpenAIRE

    Izhar Ahmed Syed; Lakshmi Narsu Mangamoori; Yamsani Madhusudan Rao

    2011-01-01

    In the present study matrix and triple layer matrix tablets of metoprolol tartrate were formulated by using xanthan gum as the matrix forming agent and Sodium Carboxy Methyl Cellulose (Na CMC) as barrier layers. The prepared tablets were analysed for their hardness, friability, drug content and in-vitro drug release studies. Marked differences in dissolution characteristics of (M3) and (M3L3) were observed and showed a significant difference statistically. Mean dissolution time (MDT) for M3 a...

  1. Formulation of Peperomia pellucida (L Kunth extract tablet by modified filler

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nanang Yunarto

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available AbstrakLatar belakang: Peperomia pelusida telah banyak digunakan dalam pengobatan tradisional. Pada saat ini, bentuk-bentuk yang ada masih konvensional seperti jus dan infusum, karena itu, perlu dirumuskan lebih praktis dan berat seragam seperti bentuk tablet. Tujuan dari penelitian ini adalah untuk mendapatkan formula optimum pelusida tablet ekstrak P. pellucida. Metode: P. pelusida ekstrak tablet yang diproduksi dengan variasi selulosa mikrokristalin (MCC PH 101 - laktosa dengan metode granulasi basah dalam tiga formula, formula I (100% MCC PH 101, II (laktosa 100%, dan III (MCC PH 101: laktosa = 50%: 50%. Butiran dievaluasi karakteristik fisik termasuk laju aliran, penyerapan air, dan kompaktibilitas untuk mendapatkan formula optimum dengan menggunakan desain simplex lattice dan jumlah respon. Formula yang digunakan untuk membuat tablet dan diuji karakteristik fisik (keseragaman bobot, kekerasan, dan kerapuhan dan waktu hancur. Hasil: Laktosa secara signifikan dipengaruhi oleh laju alirannya, sedangkan MCC PH 101 - laktosa dengan metode granulasi basah dalam tiga formula, formula I (100% MCC PH 10PH 101 dipengaruhi penyerapan kompaktibilitas dan air. Berdasarkan karakteristik fisik granul dan jumlah responsnya, kombinasi formula MCC PH 101 80% dan laktosa 20% dapat disimpulkan menjadi yang paling optimal untuk tablet filler. Formula tablet ini yang memiliki karakteristik fisik terbaik dengan berat 620,84 ± 1,04 mg, kekerasan 8,54 ± 0,68 kg, kerapuhan 0,26% ± 0,04 dan waktu hancur 4,58 ± 0,17 menit.Kesimpulan: Proporsi MCC PH 101 80% dan laktosa 20% merupakan formula optimum terbaik dan memenuhi persyaratan karakteristik fisik tablet. (Health Science Indones 2013;1:32-6 Key words: formulasi, extract P. pellucida, optimalAbstractBackground: Peperomia pellucida has been widely used in traditional medicine. Recently, its existing forms are still conventional such as juice and infusum; therefore, it needs to be formulated more practically and

  2. In-Situ Measurement of Vitamin C Content in Commercial Tablet Products by Terahertz Time-Domain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, JuHee; Song, Jeonghun; Jung, Tae Sub; Kwak, Kyungwon; Chun, Hyang Sook

    2018-04-01

    Terahertz time-domain spectroscopy (THz-TDS) was applied to investigate the feasibility of in-situ measuring vitamin C content in commercial tablet products without any pretreatments. Characteristic absorption peaks of vitamin C were analyzed with quantum mechanical calculation to reveal the molecular origin of them. The peak appearing at 1.08 THz was then selected and tested for its suitability as a fingerprint signal for analyzing the vitamin C content in dietary supplement tablets. There are a couple of factors influencing THz absorbance other than concentration. Among those, the effects of tablet thickness and types of excipients in the tablet products were found to be significant, and were corrected with the calibration curve to determine vitamin C concentration in tablet forms. Furthermore, commercial tablet products in the market were analyzed using THz-TDS and the measured vitamin C contents were in good agreement with those determined using a reference method (high-performance liquid chromatography). Thus, our results suggest that THz-TDS can be used for the in-situ analysis of vitamin C in commercial tablet products.

  3. [Effect of Reading a Book on a Tablet Computer on Cerebral Blood Flow in the Prefrontal Cortex].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugiura, Akihiro; Eto, Takuya; Kinoshita, Fumiya; Takada, Hiroki

    2018-01-01

    By measuring cerebral blood flow in the prefrontal cortex, we aimed to determine how reading a book on a tablet computer affects sleep. Seven students (7 men age range, 21-32 years) participated in this study. In a controlled illuminance environment, the subjects read a novel in printed form or on a tablet computer from any distance. As the subjects were reading, the cerebral blood flow in their prefrontal cortex was measured by near-infrared spectroscopy. The study protocol was as follows. 1) Subjects mentally counted a sequence of numbers for 30 s as a pretest to standardized thinking and then 2) read the novel for 10 min, using the printed book or tablet computer. In step 2), the use of the book or tablet computer was in a random sequence. Subjects rested between the two tasks. Significantly increased brain activity (increase in regional cerebral blood flow) was observed following reading a novel on a tablet computer compared with that after reading a printed book. Furthermore, the region around Broca's area was more active when reading on a tablet computer than when reading a printed book. Considering the results of this study and previous studies on physiological characteristics during nonrapid eye movement sleep, we concluded that reading a book on a tablet computer before the onset of sleep leads to the potential inhibition of sound sleep through mechanisms other than the suppression of melatonin secretion.

  4. Evaluation of Certain Pharmaceutical Quality Attributes of Lisinopril Split Tablets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khairi M. S. Fahelelbom

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Tablet splitting is an accepted practice for the administration of drugs for a variety of reasons, including dose adjustment, ease of swallowing and cost savings. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the physical properties of lisinopril tablets as a result of splitting the tablets either by hand or with a splitting device. The impact of the splitting technique of lisinopril (Zestril® tablets, 20 mg on certain physical parameters such as weight variation, friability, disintegration, dissolution and drug content were studied. Splitting the tablets either by hand or with a splitter resulted in a minute but statistically significant average weight loss of <0.25% of the tablet to the surrounding environment. The variability in the weight of the hand-split tablet halves was more pronounced (37 out of 40 tablet halves varied by more than 10% from the mean weight than when using the tablet splitter (3 out of 40 tablet halves. The dissolution and drug content of the hand-split tablets were therefore affected because of weight differences. However, the pharmacopoeia requirements for friability and disintegration time were met. Hand splitting of tablets can result in an inaccurate dose and may present clinical safety issues, especially for drugs with a narrow therapeutic window in which large fluctuations in drug concentrations are undesirable. It is recommended to use tablets with the exact desired dose, but if this is not an option, then a tablet splitter could be used.

  5. Astronomy Learning Activities for Tablets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilachowski, Catherine A.; Morris, Frank

    2015-08-01

    Four web-based tools allow students to manipulate astronomical data to learn concepts in astronomy. The tools are HTML5, CSS3, Javascript-based applications that provide access to the content on iPad and Android tablets. The first tool “Three Color” allows students to combine monochrome astronomical images taken through different color filters or in different wavelength regions into a single color image. The second tool “Star Clusters” allows students to compare images of stars in clusters with a pre-defined template of colors and sizes in order to produce color-magnitude diagrams to determine cluster ages. The third tool adapts Travis Rector’s “NovaSearch” to allow students to examine images of the central regions of the Andromeda Galaxy to find novae. After students find a nova, they are able to measure the time over which the nova fades away. A fourth tool, Proper Pair, allows students to interact with Hipparcos data to evaluate close double stars are physical binaries or chance superpositions. Further information and access to these web-based tools are available at www.astro.indiana.edu/ala/.

  6. Clinical pharmacokinetic study for the effect of glimepiride matrix tablets developed by quality by design concept.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Tarek A; Suhail, Mohammad A A; Hosny, Khaled M; Abd-Allah, Fathy I

    2018-01-01

    Implementation of a new pharmaceutical technique to improve aqueous solubility and thus dissolution, enhancement of drug permeation, and finally formulation of a controlled release tablet loaded with glimepiride (GLMP). Improve GLMP bioavailability and pharmacokinetics in type II diabetic patients. Different polymers were used to enhance aqueous GLMP solubility of which a saturated polymeric drug solution was prepared and physically adsorbed onto silica. An experimental design was employed to optimize the formulation parameters affecting the preparation of GLMP matrix tablets. A compatibility study was conducted to study components interactions. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) was performed before and after the tablets were placed in the dissolution medium. An in vivo study in human volunteers was performed with the optimized GLMP tablets, which were compared to pure and marketed drug products. Enhancement of GLMP aqueous solubility, using the polymeric drug solution technique, by more than 6-7 times when compared with the binary system. All the studied formulation factors significantly affected the studied variables. No significant interaction was detected among components. SEM illustrated the surface and inner tablet structure, and confirmed the drug release which was attributed to diffusion mechanism. The volunteer group administered the optimized GLMP tablet exhibited higher drug plasma concentration (147.4 ng/mL), longer time to reach maximum plasma concentration (4 h) and longer t 1/2 (7.236 h) compared to other groups. Matrix tablet loaded with a physically modified drug form could represent a key solution for drugs with inconsistent dissolution and absorption profiles.

  7. Effect of repeated compaction of tablets on tablet properties and work of compaction using an instrumented laboratory tablet press.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamlen, Michael John Desmond; Martini, Luigi G; Al Obaidy, Kais G

    2015-01-01

    The repeated compaction of Avicel PH101, dicalcium phosphate dihydrate (DCP) powder, 50:50 DCP/Avicel PH101 and Starch 1500 was studied using an instrumented laboratory tablet press which measures upper punch force, punch displacement and ejection force and operates using a V-shaped compression profile. The measurement of work compaction was demonstrated, and the test materials were ranked in order of compaction behaviour Avicel PH101 > DCP/Avicel PH101 > Starch > DCP. The behaviour of the DCP/Avicel PH101 mixture was distinctly non-linear compared with the pure components. Repeated compaction and precompression had no effect on the tensile fracture strength of Avicel PH101 tablets, although small effects on friability and disintegration time were seen. Repeated compaction and precompression reduced the tensile strength and the increased disintegration time of the DCP tablets, but improved the strength and friability of Starch 1500 tablets. Based on the data reported, routine laboratory measurement of tablet work of compaction may have potential as a critical quality attribute of a powder blend for compression. The instrumented press was suitable for student use with minimal supervisor input.

  8. Development of Bilayer Tablets with Modified Release of Selected Incompatible Drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhiman, Neha; Awasthi, Rajendra; Jindal, Shammy; Khatri, Smriti; Dua, Kamal

    2016-01-01

    The oral route is considered to be the most convenient and commonly-employed route for drug delivery. When two incompatible drugs need to be administered at the same time and in a single formulation, bilayer tablets are the most appropriate dosage form to administer such incompatible drugs in a single dose. The aim of the present investigation was to develop bilayered tablets of two incompatible drugs; telmisartan and simvastatin. The bilayer tablets were prepared containing telmisartan in a conventional release layer using croscarmellose sodium as a super disintegrant and simvastatin in a slow-release layer using HPMC K15M, Carbopol 934P and PVP K 30 as matrix forming polymers. The tablets were evaluated for various physical properties, drug-excipient interactions using FTIR spectroscopy and in vitro drug release using 0.1M HCl (pH 1.2) for the first hour and phosphate buffer (pH 6.8) for the remaining period of time. The release kinetics of simvastatin from the slow release layer were evaluated using the zero order, first order, Higuchi equation and Peppas equation. All the physical parameters (such as hardness, thickness, disintegration, friability and layer separation tests) were found to be satisfactory. The FTIR studies indicated the absence of interactions between the components within the individual layers, suggesting drug-excipient compatibility in all the formulations. No drug release from the slow-release layer was observed during the first hour of the dissolution study in 0.1M HCl. The release-controlling polymers had a significant effect on the release of simvastatin from the slow-release layer. Thus, the formulated bilayer tablets avoided incompatibility issues and proved the conventional release of telmisartan (85% in 45 min) and slow release of simvastatin (80% in 8 h). Stable and compatible bilayer tablets containing telmisartan and simvastatin were developed with better patient compliance as an alternative to existing conventional dosage forms.

  9. Angular circulation speed of tablets in a vibratory tablet coating pan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Rahul; Wassgren, Carl

    2013-03-01

    In this work, a single tablet model and a discrete element method (DEM) computer simulation are developed to obtain the angular circulation speed of tablets in a vibratory tablet coating pan for range of vibration frequencies and amplitudes. The models identify three important dimensionless parameters that influence the speed of the tablets: the dimensionless amplitude ratio (a/R), the Froude number (aω2/g), and the tablet-wall friction coefficient, where a is the peak vibration amplitude at the drum center, ω is the vibration angular frequency, R is the drum radius, and g is the acceleration due to gravity. The models predict that the angular circulation speed of tablets increases with an increase in each of these parameters. The rate of increase in the angular circulation speed is observed to decrease for larger values of a/R. The angular circulation speed reaches an asymptote beyond a tablet-wall friction coefficient value of about 0.4. Furthermore, it is found that the Froude number should be greater than one for the tablets to start circulating. The angular circulation speed increases as Froude number increases but then does not change significantly at larger values of the Froude number. Period doubling, where the motion of the bed is repeated every two cycles, occurs at a Froude number larger than five. The single tablet model, although much simpler than the DEM model, is able to predict the maximum circulation speed (the limiting case for a large value of tablet-wall friction coefficient) as well as the transition to period doubling.

  10. A Lower Temperature FDM 3D Printing for the Manufacture of Patient-Specific Immediate Release Tablets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okwuosa, Tochukwu C; Stefaniak, Dominika; Arafat, Basel; Isreb, Abdullah; Wan, Ka-Wai; Alhnan, Mohamed A

    2016-11-01

    The fabrication of ready-to-use immediate release tablets via 3D printing provides a powerful tool to on-demand individualization of dosage form. This work aims to adapt a widely used pharmaceutical grade polymer, polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP), for instant on-demand production of immediate release tablets via FDM 3D printing. Dipyridamole or theophylline loaded filaments were produced via processing a physical mixture of API (10%) and PVP in the presence of plasticizer through hot-melt extrusion (HME). Computer software was utilized to design a caplet-shaped tablet. The surface morphology of the printed tablet was assessed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The physical form of the drugs and its integrity following an FDM 3D printing were assessed using x-ray powder diffractometry (XRPD), thermal analysis and HPLC. In vitro drug release studies for all 3D printed tablets were conducted in a USP II dissolution apparatus. Bridging 3D printing process with HME in the presence of a thermostable filler, talc, enabled the fabrication of immediate release tablets at temperatures as low as 110°C. The integrity of two model drugs was maintained following HME and FDM 3D printing. XRPD indicated that a portion of the loaded theophylline remained crystalline in the tablet. The fabricated tablets demonstrated excellent mechanical properties, acceptable in-batch variability and an immediate in vitro release pattern. Combining the advantages of PVP as an impeding polymer with FDM 3D printing at low temperatures, this approach holds a potential in expanding the spectrum of drugs that could be used in FDM 3D printing for on demand manufacturing of individualised dosage forms.

  11. The use of compaction in the manufacture of tablets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. V. Tryhubchak

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available In the production of tablets direct compression method, wet and dry granulationare used. Dry granulation can be used if materials have sufficient cohesive properties to form granules. Scientific publications of recent years clearly demonstrate the prospects of roller compaction using in pharmaceutical industry. Aim. The aim of work is to generalize available data regarding to the use of compaction in the pharmaceutical industry. Materials and methods. We have studied and analyzed the available scientific sources in order to generalize the available literature on the use of compacting in the production of the tablets. During this study we used methods of observation and systematization analysis. Results. Materials for compaction characteristics of the process, its benefits and conditions of application have been collected and systematized, parameters of process have been selected, theories of compaction have been generalized, the characteristics and examples of compaction equipment have been adduced, and the key characteristics of the material used in the pharmaceutical industry have been demonstrated. Compacting is dry granulation technology in which powder containing active ingredients and excipients are compacted between two opposing spinning rollers by applying mechanical pressure. Compared with the original powder, granules after compression are characterized by much better fluidity and higher density by reducing the volume. The roller consolidation process substantially affects the particle size distribution, flowability, homogeneity, pressing, compaction substances and excipients, therefore, can affect dissolution, time of disintegration, resistance to crushing, abrasion of tablets. The main parameters of compacting are seal and method of its application, conditions and speed of the process. Conclusions. It has been established that the use of compacting decreases or increases particles size to form granules, which leads to improved

  12. Evaluation of rate of swelling and erosion of verapamil (VRP) sustained-release matrix tablets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khamanga, Sandile M; Walker, Roderick B

    2006-01-01

    Tablets manufactured in-house were compared to a marketed sustained-release product of verapamil to investigate the rate of hydration, erosion, and drug-release mechanism by measuring the wet and subsequent dry weights of the products. Swelling and erosion rates depended on the polymer and granulating fluid used, which ultimately pointed to their permeability characteristics. Erosion rate of the marketed product was highest, which suggests that the gel layer that formed around these tablets was weak as opposed to the robust and resistant layers of test products. Anomalous and near zero-order transport mechanisms were dominant in tests and commercial product, respectively.

  13. Tablet PCs in a Paperless Classroom: Student and Teacher Perceptions on Screen Size

    Science.gov (United States)

    Runnels, Judith; Rutson-Griffiths, Arthur

    2013-01-01

    A paperless classroom, when all materials required to complete a class are available in an electronic form, has been shown to have positive impacts on student and teacher motivation, engagement, productivity, and efficiency. Recent trends suggest that of all of the technological tools available, tablet PCs can support many aspects of a paperless…

  14. The effect of hydrophilic and hydrophobic polymers on release profiles of diclofenac sodium from matrix tablets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md Imamul Islam

    2013-01-01

    Conclusion: The present study demonstrated that Diclofenac could be successfully prepared using an appropriate amount of Methocel K15 MCR® and CA in the form of matrix tablets with similar dissolution profile of patent product Voltaren SR® . The type of polymers used was found to induce a profound effect on release rate and mechanism.

  15. DC Calcium lactate, a new filler-binder for direct compaction of tablets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bolhuis, GK; Eissens, AC; Zoestbergen, E

    2001-01-01

    In this paper, a directly compressible form of calcium lactate is introduced as a filler-binder for direct compaction of tablets. Calcium lactate is one of the most important calcium sources and has, in comparison with other organic calcium salts, a good solubility and bioavailability. Two different

  16. UJI DISOLUSI DAN PENETAPAN KADAR TABLET LORATADIN INOVATOR DAN GENERIK BERMEREK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Raini

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Antihistamines Loratadin available in tablet form, as loratadin tablets innovator, branded generic preparations. Socializing generic drugs need information about quality of these drugs, to ensure that the quality of generic drugs not lower or similar to its innovator drugs. The impact of economic crisis caused the price of very expensive drugs. The information quality of generic drugs is expected to increase the use of generic drugs by health practitioners and public. It is necessary for the laboratory data that are qualityparameters, such as dissolution profiles, dissolution testing and determinationof drug dosage levels. Dissolution test method anddetermination of levelsconducted in accordanceto the requirements of the USP (United State of Pharmacopeia. Loratadin dissolution test resultsof tablets A, B and Cin accordancewith the requirements of the USP. Loratadin contentin tablet Ais 103, 73%, B=99,62% and C=100,21%. Loratadin levels in all of these tablets meet the requirements of the USP.   Key words: innovator,branded generic drug, dissolution, content

  17. The Disintegration Process in Microcrystalline Cellulose Based Tablets, Part 1: Influence of Temperature, Porosity and Superdisintegrants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yassin, Samy; Goodwin, Daniel J; Anderson, Andrew; Sibik, Juraj; Wilson, D Ian; Gladden, Lynn F; Zeitler, J Axel

    2015-01-01

    Disintegration performance was measured by analysing both water ingress and tablet swelling of pure microcrystalline cellulose (MCC) and in mixture with croscarmellose sodium using terahertz pulsed imaging (TPI). Tablets made from pure MCC with porosities of 10% and 15% showed similar swelling and transport kinetics: within the first 15 s, tablets had swollen by up to 33% of their original thickness and water had fully penetrated the tablet following Darcy flow kinetics. In contrast, MCC tablets with a porosity of 5% exhibited much slower transport kinetics, with swelling to only 17% of their original thickness and full water penetration reached after 100 s, dominated by case II transport kinetics. The effect of adding superdisintegrant to the formulation and varying the temperature of the dissolution medium between 20°C and 37°C on the swelling and transport process was quantified. We have demonstrated that TPI can be used to non-invasively analyse the complex disintegration kinetics of formulations that take place on timescales of seconds and is a promising tool to better understand the effect of dosage form microstructure on its performance. By relating immediate-release formulations to mathematical models used to describe controlled release formulations, it becomes possible to use this data for formulation design. © 2015 The Authors. Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. and the American Pharmacists Association J Pharm Sci 104:3440–3450, 2015 PMID:26073446

  18. Evaluation of Maltose-Induced Chemical Degradation at the Interface of Bilayer Tablets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuzaki, Naoya; Yamamoto, Yousuke; Murayama, Daisuke; Katakawa, Yoshifumi; Mimura, Hisashi; Kimura, Shin-Ichiro; Iwao, Yasunori; Itai, Shigeru

    2017-01-01

    Fixed dose combination tablets consisting of mirabegron (MB) and solifenacin succinate (SS) were developed and formulated into bilayer tablets in the current study. The results of a chemical stability study showed that the original formulation for the tablets led to a significant increase of unknown degradants in the SS layer. Two compatibility studies were conducted to simulate the interface between the MB and SS layers, and the results revealed that the degradants only formed in the presence of both active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs), and that the presence of maltose in the SS layer was critical to inducing degradation. High resolution mass spectroscopy coupled with high performance liquid chromatography was used to determine the chemical structures of the degradants, which were identified to MB derivatives bearing one or two sugar units. These findings therefore suggested that the degradation of the API could be attributed to the addition of sugar units from maltose to MB under the acidic conditions caused by SS. With this in mind, we developed a new formulation by replacing maltose with hydroxypropyl cellulose as a polymer-type binder. The results showed that this formulation suppressed the formation of the degradants. The results of this study have shown that chemical degradation can occur at the interface of bilayer tablets and that an alternative strategy is available to formulate more stable MB/SS bilayer tablets.

  19. OPTIMIZATION OF FUROSEMIDE LIQUISOLID TABLETS PREPARATION PROCESS LEADING TO THEIR MASS AND SIZE REDUCTION.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurek, Mateusz; Woyna-Orlewicz, Krzysztof; Khalid, Mohammad Hassan; Jachowicz, Renata

    2016-09-01

    The great number of drug substances currently used in solid oral dosage forms is characterized by poor water solubility. Therefore, various methods of dissolution rate enhancement are an important topic of research interest in modem drug technology. The purpose of this study was to enhance the furosemide dissolution rate from liquisolid tablets while maintaining an acceptable size and mass. Two types of dibasic calcium phosphate (Fujicalin®/Emcompress®) and microcrystalline cellulose (Vivapur® 102/Vivapur® 12) were used as carriers and magnesium aluminometasilicate (Neusilin® US2) was used as a coating material. The flowable liquid retention potential for those excipients was tested by measuring the angle of slide. To evaluate the impact of used excipients on tablet properties fourteen tablet formulations were prepared. It was found that LS2 tablets containing spherically granulated dibasic calcium phosphate and magnesium aluminometasilicate exhibit the best dissolution profile and mechanical properties while tablets composed only with Neusilin® US2 was characterized by the smallest size and mass with preserved good mechanical properties and furosemide dissolution.

  20. A flexible-dose dispenser for immediate and extended release 3D printed tablets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pietrzak, Katarzyna; Isreb, Abdullah; Alhnan, Mohamed A

    2015-10-01

    The advances in personalised medicine increased the demand for a fast, accurate and reliable production method of tablets that can be digitally controlled by healthcare staff. A flexible dose tablet system is presented in this study that proved to be suitable for immediate and extended release tablets with a realistic drug loading and an easy-to-swallow tablet design. The method bridges the affordable and digitally controlled Fused Deposition Modelling (FDM) 3D printing with a standard pharmaceutical manufacturing process, Hot Melt Extrusion (HME). The reported method was compatible with three methacrylic polymers (Eudragit RL, RS and E) as well as a cellulose-based one (hydroxypropyl cellulose, HPC SSL). The use of a HME based pharmaceutical filament preserved the linear relationship between the mass and printed volume and was utilized to digitally control the dose via an input from computer software with dose accuracy in the range of 91-95%. Higher resolution printing quality doubled the printing time, but showed a little effect on in vitro release pattern of theophylline and weight accuracy. Physical characterization studies indicated that the majority of the model drug (theophylline) in the 3D printed tablet exists in a crystal form. Owing to the small size, ease of use and the highly adjustable nature of FDM 3D printers, the method holds promise for future individualised treatment. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  1. Effect of binders on 500mg metformin hydrochloride tablets produced by wet granulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LUCIANA CATIA BLOCK

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Metformin hydrochloride (MH is an oral hypoglycemic agent and a high-dose drug that has poor flow and compression properties. In this study, the feasibility of developing adequate, low cost 500mg tablets of metformin hydrochloride by wet granulation was tested with several binders (Starch / PVP K30®; Starch 1500® /PVP K30®, PVP K30® and PVP K90® in a simple tablet press of the type used in small pharmaceutical laboratories. The drug powder was tested for ability to flow, by determining Carr’s Index (CI and the Hausner ratio (HR. Differential scanning calorimetry and thermogravimetric analysis were carried out on isolated MH and 1:1 (w/w binary mixtures with the excipients. The size distribution, friability, flow properties and drug content of the granules were analyzed, as were the hardness, friability, disintegration, dissolution and uniformity of the dosage form. The drug powder showed CI > 22% and HR > 1.25, characteristic of a poor flow powder, and no significant incompatibilities with the excipients. All the granules showed adequate flow properties and were suitable for pressing into tablets, all of which complied with pharmacopeial specifications. The starch /PVP K30® and starch 1500® /PVP K30® mixtures were best for producing 500 mg MH tablets. Keywords: Metformin hydrochloride. Tablets. Wet granulation. Binders.

  2. The Disintegration Process in Microcrystalline Cellulose Based Tablets, Part 1: Influence of Temperature, Porosity and Superdisintegrants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yassin, Samy; Goodwin, Daniel J; Anderson, Andrew; Sibik, Juraj; Wilson, D Ian; Gladden, Lynn F; Zeitler, J Axel

    2015-10-01

    Disintegration performance was measured by analysing both water ingress and tablet swelling of pure microcrystalline cellulose (MCC) and in mixture with croscarmellose sodium using terahertz pulsed imaging (TPI). Tablets made from pure MCC with porosities of 10% and 15% showed similar swelling and transport kinetics: within the first 15 s, tablets had swollen by up to 33% of their original thickness and water had fully penetrated the tablet following Darcy flow kinetics. In contrast, MCC tablets with a porosity of 5% exhibited much slower transport kinetics, with swelling to only 17% of their original thickness and full water penetration reached after 100 s, dominated by case II transport kinetics. The effect of adding superdisintegrant to the formulation and varying the temperature of the dissolution medium between 20°C and 37°C on the swelling and transport process was quantified. We have demonstrated that TPI can be used to non-invasively analyse the complex disintegration kinetics of formulations that take place on timescales of seconds and is a promising tool to better understand the effect of dosage form microstructure on its performance. By relating immediate-release formulations to mathematical models used to describe controlled release formulations, it becomes possible to use this data for formulation design. © 2015 The Authors. Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. and the American Pharmacists Association J Pharm Sci 104:3440-3450, 2015. © 2015 The Authors. Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. and the American Pharmacists Association.

  3. Characterization of the Roman curse tablet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wen; Zhang, Boyang; Fu, Lin

    2017-08-01

    The Roman curse tablet, produced in ancient Rome period, is a metal plate that inscribed with curses. In this research, several techniques were used to find out the physical structure and chemical composition of the Roman curse tablet, and testified the hypothesis that whether the tablet is made of pure lead or lead alloy. A sample of Roman Curse Tablet from the Johns Hopkins Archaeological Museum was analyzed using several different characterization techniques to determine the physical structure and chemical composition. The characterization techniques used were including optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM), and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). Because of the small sample size, X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and X-ray fluorescence (XRF) cannot test the sample. Results from optical microscopy and SEM, enlarged images of the sample surface were studied. The result revealed that the sample surface has a rough, non-uniform, and grainy surface. AFM provides three-dimensional topography of the sample surface, studying the sample surface in atomic level. DSC studies the thermal property, which is most likely a lead-alloy, not a pure lead. However, none of these tests indicated anything about the chemical composition. Future work will be required due to the lack of measures finding out its chemical composition. Therefore, from these characterization techniques above, the Roman curse tablet sample is consisted of lead alloy, not pure lead.

  4. Iodine tablets and a nuclear accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paile, W.

    1992-01-01

    Radioactive iodine is one of the major substances released during severe nuclear accidents. Radioactive iodine is easily gasified, and if present in fallout it can enter the lungs, and thereby the circulatory system, with the inhalation of air. Once in a body, radioactive iodine accumulates in the thyroid and may result in tumours in the thyroid and, in extreme cases, impaired thyroid function. Accumulation of radioactive iodine can be prevented by taking non-radioactive, 'cold' iodine as tablets. Iodine tablets dilute the radioactive iodine that has entered the body. A dose of iodine also paralyses the thyroid temporarily by saturating its iodine-carrying capacity. To be useful iodine tablets should be taken immediately when a radioactive emission has occurred. If the tablets are taken too early or too late, they give little protection. Iodine tablets should not be taken just to be on the safe side, since their use may involve harmful side effects. Dosing instructions should also be followed with care. (orig.)

  5. Steady-state pharmacokinetics of fluvastatin in healthy subjects following a new extended release fluvastatin tablet, Lescol XL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barilla, Denise; Prasad, Pratapa; Hubert, Martine; Gumbhir-Shah, Kavita

    2004-03-01

    This was an open-label, randomized, three-period, three-treatment, multiple dose, crossover study in 12 healthy male and female subjects. This study evaluated single dose and steady-state pharmacokinetics of fluvastatin following single and multiple dose administrations of a new extended release fluvastatin 8 h matrix tablet, Lescol XL 80 mg and 160 mg doses once a day. The study also included a twice a day administration of an immediate release (IR) form of fluvastatin capsule, Lescol, for comparative purposes. All doses were administered for 7 days. The safety and tolerability were also assessed. The pharmacokinetics of fluvastatin were evaluated on days 1 and 7 following each treatment. Fluvastatin systemic exposure was 50% less when administered as Lescol XL 80 mg qd compared with Lescol IR 40 mg bid. Conversely, fluvastatin systemic exposure was 22% higher when administered as Lescol XL 160 mg qd compared with Lescol IR 40 mg bid. Single doses of Lescol XL 80 mg and 160 mg were dose proportional but, deviation (30%) from dose proportionality was observed for the Lescol XL 160 mg at steady-state. There appeared to be moderate (20%-40%) accumulation of serum fluvastatin maximal concentrations and exposure after multiple doses of Lescol XL tablets. Both Lescol XL 80 mg and 160 mg showed delayed absorption and longer apparent elimination half-life compared with fluvastatin IR capsule. Single and multiple doses of fluvastatin were generally well tolerated in this healthy volunteer population. Adverse event profiles were consistent with the published safety profile of the marketed formulations. Aside from one incidence of creatine phosphokinase (CPK) elevation (following Lescol XL 160 mg qd treatment), there were no safety concerns with any of the treatments when administered acutely (7 days). Copyright 2004 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  6. Magnetic images of the disintegration process of tablets in the human stomach by ac biosusceptometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cora, L A; Andreis, U; Romeiro, F G; Americo, M F; Oliveira, R B; Baffa, O; Miranda, J R A

    2005-01-01

    Oral administration of solid dosage forms is usually preferred in drug therapy. Conventional imaging methods are essential tools to investigate the in vivo performance of these formulations. The non-invasive technique of ac biosusceptometry has been introduced as an alternative in studies focusing on gastrointestinal motility and, more recently, to evaluate the behaviour of magnetic tablets in vivo. The aim of this work was to employ a multisensor ac biosusceptometer system to obtain magnetic images of disintegration of tablets in vitro and in the human stomach. The results showed that the transition between the magnetic marker and the magnetic tracer characterized the onset of disintegration (t 50 ) and occurred in a short time interval (1.1 ± 0.4 min). The multisensor ac biosusceptometer was reliable to monitor and analyse the in vivo performance of magnetic tablets showing accuracy to quantify disintegration through the magnetic images and to characterize the profile of this process

  7. Concentration of mercury in wheat samples stored with mercury tablets as preservative

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lalit, B.Y.; Ramachandran, T.V.

    1977-01-01

    Tablets consisting of mercury in the form of a dull grey powder made by triturating mercury with chalk and sugar are used in Indian household for storing food-grains. The contamination of wheat samples by mercury, when stored with mercury tablets for period of upto four years has been assessed by using non-destructive neutron activation analysis. The details of the analytical procedure used have also been briefly described. The concentration of mercury in wheat increases with storage period. Loss of weight of mercury tablet is proportional to the storage period to a first approximation. In the present experiment, the average weight loss at the and end of first year was 0.009716 g corresponding to 6 ppm in wheat. (T.G.)

  8. Concentration of mercury in wheat samples stored with mercury tablets as preservative. [Neutrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lalit, B Y; Ramachandran, T V [Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Bombay (India). Air Monitoring Section

    1977-01-01

    Tablets consisting of mercury in the form of a dull grey powder made by triturating mercury with chalk and sugar are used in Indian household for storing food-grains. The contamination of wheat samples by mercury, when stored with mercury tablets for period of upto four years has been assessed by using non-destructive neutron activation analysis. The details of the analytical procedure used have also been briefly described. The concentration of mercury in wheat increases with storage period. Loss of weight of mercury tablet is proportional to the storage period to a first approximation. In the present experiment, the average weight loss at the and end of first year was 0.009716 g corresponding to 6 ppm in wheat.

  9. Magnetic images of the disintegration process of tablets in the human stomach by ac biosusceptometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cora, L A [Departamento de Fisica e BioFisica, IBB, UNESP, Botucatu, SP (Brazil); Andreis, U [Departamento de Fisica e BioFisica, IBB, UNESP, Botucatu, SP (Brazil); Romeiro, F G [Departamento de ClInica Medica, FMB, UNESP, Botucatu, SP (Brazil); Americo, M F [Departamento de ClInica Medica, FMRP, USP, Ribeirao Preto, SP (Brazil); Oliveira, R B [Departamento de ClInica Medica, FMRP, USP, Ribeirao Preto, SP (Brazil); Baffa, O [Departamento de Fisica e Matematica, FFCLRP, USP, Ribeirao Preto, SP (Brazil); Miranda, J R A [Departamento de Fisica e BioFisica, IBB, UNESP, Botucatu, SP (Brazil)

    2005-12-07

    Oral administration of solid dosage forms is usually preferred in drug therapy. Conventional imaging methods are essential tools to investigate the in vivo performance of these formulations. The non-invasive technique of ac biosusceptometry has been introduced as an alternative in studies focusing on gastrointestinal motility and, more recently, to evaluate the behaviour of magnetic tablets in vivo. The aim of this work was to employ a multisensor ac biosusceptometer system to obtain magnetic images of disintegration of tablets in vitro and in the human stomach. The results showed that the transition between the magnetic marker and the magnetic tracer characterized the onset of disintegration (t{sub 50}) and occurred in a short time interval (1.1 {+-} 0.4 min). The multisensor ac biosusceptometer was reliable to monitor and analyse the in vivo performance of magnetic tablets showing accuracy to quantify disintegration through the magnetic images and to characterize the profile of this process.

  10. Magnetic images of the disintegration process of tablets in the human stomach by ac biosusceptometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corá, L. A.; Andreis, U.; Romeiro, F. G.; Américo, M. F.; Oliveira, R. B.; Baffa, O.; Miranda, J. R. A.

    2005-12-01

    Oral administration of solid dosage forms is usually preferred in drug therapy. Conventional imaging methods are essential tools to investigate the in vivo performance of these formulations. The non-invasive technique of ac biosusceptometry has been introduced as an alternative in studies focusing on gastrointestinal motility and, more recently, to evaluate the behaviour of magnetic tablets in vivo. The aim of this work was to employ a multisensor ac biosusceptometer system to obtain magnetic images of disintegration of tablets in vitro and in the human stomach. The results showed that the transition between the magnetic marker and the magnetic tracer characterized the onset of disintegration (t50) and occurred in a short time interval (1.1 ± 0.4 min). The multisensor ac biosusceptometer was reliable to monitor and analyse the in vivo performance of magnetic tablets showing accuracy to quantify disintegration through the magnetic images and to characterize the profile of this process.

  11. Tablet computers for recording tuberculosis data at a community ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tablet computers for recording tuberculosis data at a community health centre in King Sabata Dalindyebo Local Municipality, ... South African Family Practice ... They expressed a desire to extend the use of tablets to other areas of their work.

  12. Formulation of Fast-Dissolving Tablets of Promethazine Theoclate

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Erah

    tablet containing β-cyclodextrin, crospovidone, and camphor, using direct compression method. A 33 full factorial design ... fast dissolving tablets (FDT) is the use of ... All the raw materials were passed ..... delivery systems: critical review in.

  13. The Women at work in the Linear B Tablets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nosch, Marie-Louise Bech

    2003-01-01

    The article investigates the role of women in Mycenaean society according to the Linear B tablets......The article investigates the role of women in Mycenaean society according to the Linear B tablets...

  14. Evaluation of disintegration and dissolution of chloroquine tablets in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Evaluation of disintegration and dissolution of chloroquine tablets in some States in Northern Nigeria. ... This study seeks to assess the quality of chloroquine tablets in some States in Northern Nigeria by determining ... HOW TO USE AJOL.

  15. Correlation of ibuprofen bioavailability with gastrointestinal transit by scintigraphic monitoring of 171Er-labeled sustained-release tablets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parr, A.F.; Beihn, R.M.; Franz, R.M.; Szpunar, G.J.; Jay, M.

    1987-01-01

    External gamma scintigraphy was used to monitor the gastrointestinal (GI) transit of radiolabeled sustained-release tablets containing 800 mg ibuprofen in eight fasted healthy volunteers. Ibuprofen serum concentrations were determined from blood samples drawn sequentially over a 24-hr period. Serum concentrations and related parameters were correlated to the position of the dosage form in the GI tract from the scintiphotos. The sustained-release tablets were radiolabeled intact utilizing a neutron activation procedure, by incorporating 0.18% of 170 Er2O3 (enriched to greater than 96% 170 Er) into the bulk formulation. After manufacture of the final dosage forms, the tablets were irradiated in a neutron flux (4.4 x 10(13) n/cm2.sec) for 2 min, converting the stable 170 Er to radioactive 171 Er (t1/2 = 7.5 hr). Each tablet contained 50 microCi of 171 Er at the time of administration. The scintigraphy studies suggested that the greatest proportion of ibuprofen was absorbed from this dosage form while the tablet was in the large bowel. The dosage forms eroded slowly in the small bowel and appeared to lose their integrity in the large bowel. In vitro studies showed only minimal effects of the neutron irradiation procedure on the dosage form performance

  16. Cyclodextrins as excipients in tablet formulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conceição, Jaime; Adeoye, Oluwatomide; Cabral-Marques, Helena Maria; Lobo, José Manuel Sousa

    2018-04-22

    This paper aims to provide a critical review of cyclodextrins as excipients in tablet formulations, highlighting: (i) the principal pharmaceutical applications of cyclodextrins; (ii) the most relevant technological aspects in pharmaceutical formulation development; and (iii) the actual regulatory status of cyclodextrins. Moreover, several illustrative examples are presented. Cyclodextrins can be used as complexing excipients in tablet formulations for low-dose drugs. By contrast, for medium-dose drugs and/or when the complexation efficiency is low, the methods to enhance the complexation efficiency play a key part in reducing the cyclodextrin quantity. In addition, these compounds are used as fillers, disintegrants, binders and multifunctional direct compression excipients of the tablets. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Resveratrol cocrystals with enhanced solubility and tabletability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Zhengzheng; Li, Wanying; Sun, Wei-Jhe; Lu, Tongbu; Tong, Henry H Y; Sun, Changquan Calvin; Zheng, Ying

    2016-07-25

    Two new 1:1 cocrystals of resveratrol (RES) with 4-aminobenzamide (RES-4ABZ) and isoniazid (RES-ISN) were synthesized by liquid assisted grinding (LAG) and rapid solvent removal (RSR) methods using ethanol as solvent. Their physiochemical properties were characterized using PXRD, DSC, solid state and solution NMR, FT-IR, and HPLC. Pharmaceutically relevant properties, including tabletability, solubility, intrinsic dissolution rate, and hygroscopicity, were evaluated. Temperature-composition phase diagram for RES-ISN cocrystal system was constructed from DSC data. Both cocrystals show higher solubility than resveratrol over a broad range of pH. They are phase stable and non-hygroscopic even under high humidity conditions. Importantly, both cocrystals exhibit improved solubility and tabletability compared with RES, which make them more suitable candidates for tablet formulation development. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Damage-tolerance strategies for nacre tablets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shengnan; Zhu, Xinqiao; Li, Qiyang; Wang, Rizhi; Wang, Xiaoxiang

    2016-05-01

    Nacre, a natural armor, exhibits prominent penetration resistance against predatory attacks. Unraveling its hierarchical toughening mechanisms and damage-tolerance design strategies may provide significant inspiration for the pursuit of high-performance artificial armors. In this work, relationships between the structure and mechanical performance of nacre were investigated. The results show that other than their brick-and-mortar structure, individual nacre tablets significantly contribute to the damage localization of nacre. Affected by intracrystalline organics, the tablets exhibit a unique fracture behavior. The synergistic action of the nanoscale deformation mechanisms increases the energy dissipation efficiency of the tablets and contributes to the preservation of the structural and functional integrity of the shell. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Estimation of citicoline sodium in tablets by difference spectrophotometric method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sagar Suman Panda

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The present work deals with development and validation of a novel, precise, and accurate spectrophotometric method for the estimation of citicoline sodium (CTS in tablets. This spectrophotometric method is based on the principle that CTS shows two different forms that differs in the absorption spectra in basic and acidic medium. Materials and Methods: The present work was being carried out on Shimadzu 1800 Double Beam UV-visible spectrophotometer. Difference spectra were generated using 10 mm quartz cells over the range of 200-400 nm. Solvents used were 0.1 M NaOH and 0.1 M HCl. Results: The maxima and minima in the difference spectra of CTS were found to be 239 nm and 283 nm, respectively. Amplitude was calculated from the maxima and minima of spectrum. The drug follows linearity in the range of 1-50 μ/ml (R 2 = 0.999. The average % recovery from the tablet formulation was found to be 98.47%. The method was validated as per International Conference on Harmonization of Technical Requirements for Registration of Pharmaceuticals for Human Use: ICH Q2(R1 Validation of Analytical Procedures: Text and Methodology guidelines. Conclusion: This method is simple and inexpensive. Hence it can be applied for determination of the drug in pharmaceutical dosage forms.

  20. Determination of Finasteride in Tablets by High Performance Liquid Chromatography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Basavaiah

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available A rapid, highly sensitive high performance liquid chromatographic method has been developed for the determination of finasteride(FNS in bulk drug and in tablets. FNS was eluted from a ODS C18 reversed phase column at laboratory temperature (30 ± 2°C with a mobile phase consisting of methanol and water (80+20 at a flow rate of 1 mL min-1 with UV detection at 225 nm. The retention time was ∼ 6.1 min and each analysis took not more than 10 min. Quantitation was achieved by measurement of peak area without using any internal standard. Calibration graph was linear from 2.0 to 30 μg mL-1 with limits of detection (LOD and quantification (LOQ being 0.2 and 0.6 μg mL-1, respectively. The method was validated according to the current ICH guidelines. Within-day co efficients of variation (CV ranged from 0.31 to 0.69% and between-day CV were in the range 1.2-3.2%. Recovery of FNS from the pharmaceutical dosage forms ranged from 97.89 – 102.9 with CV of 1.41-4.13%. The developed method was compared with the official method for FNS determination in its tablet forms.

  1. Optimization of fast dissolving etoricoxib tablets prepared by sublimation technique

    OpenAIRE

    Patel D; Patel M

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to develop fast dissolving tablets of etoricoxib. Granules containing etoricoxib, menthol, crospovidone, aspartame and mannitol were prepared by wet granulation technique. Menthol was sublimed from the granules by exposing the granules to vacuum. The porous granules were then compressed in to tablets. Alternatively, tablets were first prepared and later exposed to vacuum. The tablets were evaluated for percentage friability and disintegration time. A 3 2 ...

  2. Application of a radiotelemetric system to evaluate the performance of enteric coated and plain aspirin tablets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lui, C Y; Oberle, R; Fleisher, D; Amidon, G L

    1986-05-01

    The bioavailability of enteric coated and plain aspirin tablets was studied in four beagle dogs. Blood sampling for enteric coated tablets was planned with the aid of a radiotelemetric system. The release of aspirin from its dosage form was detected by monitoring the change in intestinal pH. Aspirin and salicylic acid levels in plasma obtained from the enteric coated dosage form exhibited familiar concentration versus time absorption profiles. Variation in the plasma concentrations of these two compounds within each dog studied (four runs each) was relatively small when time zero was adjusted to the commencement of tablet dissolution. The plasma levels obtained from plain aspirin (three runs each), however, show atypical absorption. The estimated absolute bioavailability was 0.432 +/- 0.0213 and 0.527 +/- 0.0260 for enteric coated and plain aspirin, respectively. Other pharmacokinetic parameters for these two dosage forms such as the highest observed plasma concentration (Cmax) (10.9 +/- 0.535 microgram/mL versus 13.6 +/- 1.88 micrograms/mL) and the time to reach Cmax (tmax) (26.6 +/- 1.94 min versus 31.0 +/- 7.04 min) agree well. The mean values for gastric emptying time, in vivo coating dissolution time, and in vivo disintegration/dissolution time of the tablet core for enteric coated aspirin are 48.7 +/- 7.23 min, 44.3 +/- 3.80 min, and 34.7 +/- 2.04 min, respectively.

  3. Tablet PC Support of Students' Learning Styles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shreya Kothaneth

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In the context of rapid technology development, it comes as no surprise that technology continues to impact the educational domain, challenging traditional teaching and learning styles. This study focuses on how students with different learning styles use instructional technology, and in particular, the tablet PC, to enhance their learning experience. The VARK model was chosen as our theoretical framework as we analyzed responses of an online survey, both from a quantitative and qualitative standpoint. Results indicate that if used correctly, the tablet PC can be used across different learning styles to enrich the educational experience.

  4. Influence of pH modifiers on the dissolution and stability of hydrochlorothiazide in the bi- and three-layer tablets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blatnik Sandra Urek

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available During the past few years, the studies of bi- and multi-layered tablets increased due to the consumption of several different drugs per day by a patient and requests for appropriate patient compliance. The demographic shift toward older population increases the use of combination therapy as polypharmacy. Hydrochlorothiazide (HCTZ, as a model drug, is most commonly used in the treatment of hypertension, congestive heart failure and as a diuretic. The aim of the present study is to investigate the effect of the local environment on dissolution and stability behaviour of HCTZ in fixed multilayered tablet combinations, which are commonly used in polypharmacy. For this purposes, three different systems were introduced: (i two conventional tablets (HCTZ and pH modifying placebo, (ii 2-layer tablets (HCTZ, pH modifying placebo and (iii 3-layer tablets (HCTZ, barrier and pH modifying placebo. Disintegration of tablets, dissolution of HCTZ from tablets and HCTZ related substances were monitored for all systems. Results showed that there was a significant difference between dissolution profiles of the conventional two-tablet system (HCTZ tablet and pH modifying tablet and the 2-layer and 3-layer tablets, which include the pH modifying layer. In the case of the conventional two-tablets system, 85 % of HCTZ was dissolved in less than 15 minutes. The dissolution profiles of HCTZ from 2-layered and 3-layered tablets showed a decrease in the dissolution rate. In addition, during the stability studies, it has been confirmed that the typical degradation product of HCTZ is formed, impurity B (4-amino-6-chloro-1,3-benzenedisulfonamide, which implies formation of formaldehyde as hydrolytic impurity not reported in the Ph. Eur. (16. Both impurities are particularly raised in 2-layered tablets with alkaline and neutral placebo layers. Stability of HCTZ was improved in the case of the 3-layer tablet, where the intermediate separation layer of glycerol monostearate was

  5. Portable Tablets in Science Museum Learning: Options and Obstacles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gronemann, Sigurd Trolle

    2017-01-01

    Despite the increasing use of portable tablets in learning, their impact has received little attention in research. In five different projects, this media-ethnographic and design-based analysis of the use of portable tablets as a learning resource in science museums investigates how young people's learning with portable tablets matches the…

  6. Ispaghula Husk-Based Extended Release Tablets of Diclofenac ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To formulate extended-release tablets of diclofenac sodium based on ispaghula husk. Methods: Tablets with varying proportions of diclofenac sodium and ispaghula husk were formulated by wet granulation technique at a fixed compression force of 10 kN. The formulated tablets were evaluated for ...

  7. 21 CFR 520.1409 - Methylprednisolone, aspirin tablets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Methylprednisolone, aspirin tablets. 520.1409... Methylprednisolone, aspirin tablets. (a) Specifications. Each tablet contains 0.5 milligram of methylprednisolone and 300 milligrams of aspirin. (b) Sponsor. See No. 000009 in § 510.600(c) of this chapter. (c) NAS/NRC...

  8. The Formulation of Diclofenac Sodium Hydrogel Tablets | Onyechi ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The dissolution data fitted to Higuchi and Hixson-Crowell equations indicating the existence of diffusion mechanism controlling diclofenac release from the tablets. Keywords: Sustained release, diclofenac sodium hydrogel tablets, Voltarol retard tablets, film coating, dissolution profiles. Nigerian Journal of Pharmaceutical ...

  9. Double-layer Tablets of Lornoxicam: Validation of Quantification ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Double-layer Tablets of Lornoxicam: Validation of Quantification Method, In vitro Dissolution and Kinetic Modelling. ... Satisfactory results were obtained from all the tablet formulations met compendial requirements. The slowest drug release rate was obtained with tablet cores based on PVP K90 (1.21 mg%.h-1).

  10. Quality of Artesunate Tablets Sold in Pharmacies in Kumasi, Ghana ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: The study was carried out to evaluate the quality of artesunate tablets sold in retail and wholesale pharmacies in Kumasi, Ghana. In particular, the study sought to ascertain the presence or otherwise of counterfeit artesunate tablets in Kumasi. Method: Artesunate tablets were purchased from pharmacies in Kumasi ...

  11. 21 CFR 520.1696d - Penicillin V potassium tablets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Penicillin V potassium tablets. 520.1696d Section... Penicillin V potassium tablets. (a) Specifications. Each tablet contains penicillin V potassium equivalent to 125 milligrams (200,000 units) or 250 milligrams (400,000 units) of penicillin V. (b) Sponsors. See...

  12. 21 CFR 520.434 - Chlorphenesin carbamate tablets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Chlorphenesin carbamate tablets. 520.434 Section 520.434 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... Chlorphenesin carbamate tablets. (a) Specifications. Each tablet contains 400 milligrams of chlorphenesin...

  13. Formulation and Evaluation of Ascorbic acid Tablets by Direct ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PURPOSE: To evaluate the tableting properties of microcrystalline starch (MCS) used as a direct compression excipient in the formulation of ascorbic acid tablets and to compare with the properties of tablets produced using microcrystalline cellulose (MCC). METHODS: MCS was obtained by partial hydrolysis of cassava ( ...

  14. Fast Dissolving Tablets of Aloe Vera Gel | Madan | Tropical Journal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: The objective of this work was to prepare and evaluate fast dissolving tablets of the nutraceutical, freeze dried Aloe vera gel. Methods: Fast dissolving tablets of the nutraceutical, freeze-dried Aloe vera gel, were prepared by dry granulation method. The tablets were evaluated for crushing strength, disintegration ...

  15. Formulation and Evaluation of Ascorbic acid Tablets by Direct ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Formulation and Evaluation of Ascorbic acid Tablets by Direct Compression using Microcrystalline Starch as a Direct Compression Excipient. ... Abstract. PURPOSE: To evaluate the tableting properties of microcrystalline starch (MCS) used as a direct ... RESULTS: Mechanical properties of tablets formulated with MCS were

  16. 21 CFR 520.1200 - Ivermectin, fenbendazole, and praziquantel tablets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ivermectin, fenbendazole, and praziquantel tablets... Ivermectin, fenbendazole, and praziquantel tablets. (a) Specifications. Each chewable tablet contains either: (1) 68 micrograms (µg) ivermectin, 1.134 grams fenbendazole, and 57 milligrams (mg) praziquantel; or...

  17. The tabletting properties of Stearolac-S | Onyechi | Journal of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    press was used to determine the unit ejection force of tablets made from the direct compression formulations. The effects of the excipients on tablet hardness, friability, disintegration and dissolution rate were also evaluated. Tablets containing 3 - 4 % w/w STEAROLAC-S gave unit ejection force values comparable to those ...

  18. Optimization of the formulation of fast disintegrating tablets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kamp, Herman Vincent van

    1987-01-01

    Chapter 1 presents general information on tableting and is an introduction to the other chapters. Chapter 2 covers the mechanism of action of tablet disintegrants, in particular modern super disintegrants. The results indicate that when the tablets contain a slightly swelling but hydrophilic

  19. Amorphous Formulation and in Vitro Performance Testing of Instantly Disintegrating Buccal Tablets for the Emergency Delivery of Naloxone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alqurshi, Abdulmalik; Kumar, Zahrae; McDonald, Rebecca; Strang, John; Buanz, Asma; Ahmed, Shagufta; Allen, Elizabeth; Cameron, Peter; Rickard, James A; Sandhu, Verity; Holt, Chris; Stansfield, Rebecca; Taylor, David; Forbes, Ben; Royall, Paul G

    2016-05-02

    The aim of this study was to develop a freeze-dried buccal tablet for the rapid delivery of naloxone in opioid overdose. The tablet composition was optimized to produce an amorphous matrix, which was confirmed by the absence of peaks associated with crystallinity observed by differential scanning calorimetry and powder X-ray diffraction. Tablets with high gelatin content lacked adequate porosity. Mannitol was added to the formulation to bridge and intercalate gelatin's tight polymer aggregates, however sodium bicarbonate was also required to prevent crystallization within the tablets. A linear reduction in mannitol's recrystallization enthalpy was observed with increasing sodium bicarbonate concentration (ΔrecryH = -20.3[NaHCO3] + 220.9; r(2) = 0.9, n = 18). The minimum sodium bicarbonate concentration for full inhibition of mannitol crystallization was 10.9% w/w. Freeze-dried tablets with lower amounts of sodium bicarbonate possessed a crystalline fraction that PXRD identified as mannitol hemihydrate from the unique peak at 9.7° 2θ. Mannitol's greater affinity for both ions and residual water rather than its affinity for self-association was the mechanism for the inhibition of crystallization observed here. The optimized tablet (composition mannitol 24% w/w (4.26 mg), gelatin 65% w/w (11.7 mg), sodium bicarbonate 11% w/w (1.98 mg), and naloxone 800 μg) formed predominantly amorphous tablets that disintegrated in less than 10 s. Optimized tablets were chemically and physically stable over 9 months storage at 25 °C. As speed of drug liberation is the critical performance attribute for a solid dosage form designed to deliver drug in an emergency, a novel imaging based in vitro disintegration assay for buccal tablets was developed. The assay was optimized with regard to conditions in the buccal cavity: i.e., temperature 33-37 °C, volume of medium (0.1-0.7 mL), and use of mucin-containing biorelevant medium. The disintegration assay was sensitive to temperature

  20. A Three-Pulse Release Tablet for Amoxicillin: Preparation, Pharmacokinetic Study and Physiologically Based Pharmacokinetic Modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jin; Chai, Hongyu; Li, Yang; Chai, Xuyu; Zhao, Yan; Zhao, Yunfan; Tao, Tao; Xiang, Xiaoqiang

    2016-01-01

    amoxicillin. In vitro release study firstly indicated a three-pulse release profile of the tablet. Later the pulse tablet was found to generate the sustained release of amoxicillin in beagle dogs. Furthermore, the Simcyp® software was used to simulate the in vivo concentration time curve model of the three-pulse release tablet for amoxicillin in both human and beagle dog. The prediction by PBPK model nicely fitted the observation in human and beagle dog. This study has demonstrated the interrelation of factors affecting the pulsatile formulation of amoxicillin using a Box-Behnken design. The three-pulse release tablets of amoxicillin were proven to generate pulsatile release in vitro and sustained release in vivo. This formulation was also found to extend the effective plasma concentration in human compared to the tablet of immediate release based on the simulation data by PBPK modeling. This study provides an example of using PBPK to guide the development of pulsatile dosage forms.

  1. QUALITY CONTROL OF HYDROCHLOROTHIAZIDE TABLETS MARKETED IN SINOP-MT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. K. Órfão

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The thiazide diuretics are of the classes of drugs most frequently used for the treatment of hypertension. Hydrochlorothiazide is the representative of this class and is found in tablet form in doses of 25 and 50 mg. It is marketed in three different categories of drugs: reference, similar and generic. According to the regulator in Brazil, the National Health Surveillance Agency (ANVISA, before pharmaceuticals are released for use, the pharmaceutical industry must meet product quality specifications, but the consumption of counterfeit drugs, contraband or without registration with government laws It is growing in Brazil, which affect the entire drug production chain affecting the health of those who use these medicines. In view of the reported problems about the quality of marketed drugs and being the state of Mato Grosso considered a fake gateway drug, due to its proximity to Bolivia, this study aimed to assess the quality of tablets containing hydrochlorothiazide is already one of the most widely used drugs in the treatment of hypertension in Sinop-MT municipality according local search. Samples from five laboratories that produce hydrochlorothiazide tablets at a dose of 25 mg, and the most market in the municipality of Sinop / MT were analyzed as stablished in the Brazilian Pharmacopoeia. It was found that four of the five samples of drugs in Mato Grosso, performed all the requirements for approval in quality testing, with the exception of a product that has lower hardness values than recommended, which can lead to problems drug presentation as well as directly affect the absorption, bioavailability and action of the therapeutic drug. It was concluded that medicinal products containing hydrochlorothiazide showed adequate quality, ensuring their effectiveness.

  2. Examination of formulation and process factors on the characteristics of fast dissolving and fast disintegrating tablets manufactured by a direct compression process.

    OpenAIRE

    Pabari, Ritesh M

    2010-01-01

    Oral dosage forms are the safest and most convenient dosage forms and of these tablets are the most popular with patients because of their portability, ease and convenience of dose intake and with manufacturers because of their simple and low cost manufacturing process. Fast disintegrating dissolving tablets (FDDTs), a more recent innovation, have gained a great deal of attention particularly for use in various patient groups such as the paediatric, geriatric, travelling patients and patients...

  3. Floating matrix tablets based on low density foam powder: effects of formulation and processing parameters on drug release.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Streubel, A; Siepmann, J; Bodmeier, R

    2003-01-01

    The aim of this study was to develop and physicochemically characterize single unit, floating controlled drug delivery systems consisting of (i). polypropylene foam powder, (ii). matrix-forming polymer(s), (iii). drug, and (iv). filler (optional). The highly porous foam powder provided low density and, thus, excellent in vitro floating behavior of the tablets. All foam powder-containing tablets remained floating for at least 8 h in 0.1 N HCl at 37 degrees C. Different types of matrix-forming polymers were studied: hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC), polyacrylates, sodium alginate, corn starch, carrageenan, gum guar and gum arabic. The tablets eroded upon contact with the release medium, and the relative importance of drug diffusion, polymer swelling and tablet erosion for the resulting release patterns varied significantly with the type of matrix former. The release rate could effectively be modified by varying the "matrix-forming polymer/foam powder" ratio, the initial drug loading, the tablet geometry (radius and height), the type of matrix-forming polymer, the use of polymer blends and the addition of water-soluble or water-insoluble fillers (such as lactose or microcrystalline cellulose). The floating behavior of the low density drug delivery systems could successfully be combined with accurate control of the drug release patterns.

  4. Tablet splitting of narrow therapeutic index drugs: a nationwide survey in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, Chia-Lin; Hsu, Chia-Chen; Chou, Chia-Yu; Chen, Tzeng-Ji; Chou, Li-Fang; Chou, Yueh-Ching

    2015-12-01

    Tablet splitting or pill splitting frequently occurs in daily medical practice. For drugs with special pharmacokinetic characters, such as drugs with narrow therapeutic index (NTI), unequal split tablets might lead to erroneous dose titration and it even cause toxicity. The aim of this study was to investigate the frequency of prescribing split NTI drugs at ambulatory setting in Taiwan. A population-based retrospective study was conducted using the National Health Insurance Research Database in Taiwan. All ambulatory visits were analyzed from the longitudinal cohort datasets of the National Health Insurance Research Database. The details of ambulatory prescriptions containing NTI drugs were extracted by using the claims datasets of one million beneficiaries from National Healthcare Insurance Research Database in 2010 in Taiwan. The analyses were stratified by dosage form, patient age and the number of prescribed tablets in a single dose for each NTI drugs. Main outcome measures Number and distinct dosage forms of available NTI drug items in Taiwan, number of prescriptions involved split NTI drugs, and number of patients received split NTI drugs. A total of 148,548 patients had received 512,398 prescriptions of NTI drugs and 41.8 % (n = 62,121) of patients had received 36.3 % (n = 185,936) of NTI drug prescriptions in form of split tablets. The percentage of splitting was highest in digoxin prescriptions (81.0 %), followed by warfarin (72.0 %). In the elderly patients, split tablets were very prevalent with digoxin (82.4 %) and warfarin (84.5 %). NTI drugs were frequently prescribed to be taken in split forms in Taiwan. Interventions may be needed to provide effective and convenient NTI drug use. Further studies are needed to evaluate the clinical outcome of inappropriate split NTI drugs.

  5. Multivariate modelling of the tablet manufacturing process with wet granulation for tablet optimization and in-process control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westerhuis, J.A; Coenegracht, P.M J; Lerk, C.F

    1997-01-01

    The process of tablet manufacturing with granulation is described as a two-step process. The first step comprises wet granulation of the powder mixture, and in the second step the granules are compressed into tablets. For the modelling of the pharmaceutical process of wet granulation and tableting,

  6. Prediction of effects of punch shapes on tableting failure by using a multi-functional single-punch tablet press

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takashi Osamura

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available We previously determined “Tableting properties” by using a multi-functional single-punch tablet press (GTP-1. We proposed plotting “Compactability” on the x-axis against “Manufacturability” on the y-axis to allow visual evaluation of “Tableting properties”. Various types of tableting failure occur in commercial drug production and are influenced by the amount of lubricant used and the shape of the punch. We used the GTP-1 to measure “Tableting properties” with different amounts of lubricant and compared the results with those of tableting on a commercial rotary tableting machine. Tablets compressed with a small amount of lubricant showed bad “Manufacturability”, leading to sticking of powder on punches. We also tested various punch shapes. The GTP-1 correctly predicted the actual tableting results for all punch shapes. With punches that were more likely to cause tableting failure, our system predicted the effects of lubricant quantity in the tablet formulation and the occurrence of sticking in the rotary tableting machine.

  7. Compressibility of tableting materials and properties of tablets with glyceryl behenate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mužíková Jitka

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper studies the compressibility of directly compressible tableting materials with dry binders, spray-dried lactose and microcrystalline cellulose, and glyceryl dibehenate at various concentrations. Compressibility was evaluated by means of the energy profile of compression and tensile strength of tablets. Release rate of the active ingredient, salicylic acid, from the tablets was also examined. In the case of microcrystalline cellulose, a higher concentration of glyceryl dibehenate increased the strength of tablets, while this did not occur in the case of spray-dried lactose. Increasing concentration of glyceryl dibehenate prolonged the release of salicylic acid; however, no statistically significant difference was found compared to the type of the dry binder used

  8. Carnauba wax as a promising excipient in melt granulation targeting the preparation of mini-tablets for sustained release of highly soluble drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nart, Viviane; Beringhs, André O'Reilly; França, Maria Terezinha; de Espíndola, Brenda; Pezzini, Bianca Ramos; Stulzer, Hellen Karine

    2017-01-01

    Mini-tablets are a new tendency in solid dosage form design for overcoming therapeutic obstacles such as impaired swallowing and polypharmacy therapy. Among their advantages, these systems offer therapeutic benefits such as dose flexibility and combined drug release patterns. The use of lipids in the formulation has also drawn considerable interest as means to modify the drug release from the dosage form. Therefore, this paper aimed at developing sustained release mini-tablets containing the highly soluble drugs captopril and metformin hydrochloride. Carnauba wax was used as a lipid component in melt granulation, targeting the improvement of the drugs poor flowability and tabletability, as well as to sustain the drug release profiles in association with other excipients. To assist sustaining the drug release, Ethocel™ (EC) and Kollicoat® SR 30D associated with Opadry® II were employed as matrix-forming and reservoir-forming materials, respectively. The neat drugs, granules and the bulk formulations were evaluated for their angle of repose, compressibility index, Hausner ratio and tabletability. Mini-tablets were evaluated for their weight variation, hardness, friability, drug content and in-vitro drug release. The results indicated that melt granulation with carnauba wax improved the flow and the tabletability of the drugs, allowing the preparation of mini-tablets with adequate tensile strength under reduced compaction pressures. All mini-tablet formulations showed acceptable hardness (within the range of 1.16 to 3.93Kp) and friability (carnauba wax proved to be a promising excipient in melt granulation targeting the preparation of mini-tablets for sustained release of soluble drugs. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Research Article. Kinetics and Mechanism of Drug Release from Loratadine Orodispersible Tablets Developed without Lactose

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ciurba Adriana

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of this study is to develop lactose-free orodispersible tablets with loratadine for patients with lactose intolerance. Materials and methods: Seven compositions (F1-F7 of 10 mg loratadine were prepared in form of orally disintegrating tablets, by direct compression, using croscarmellose sodium and pre-gelatinized starch in various concentrations as superdisintegrants, diluted with microcrystalline cellulose and combined with mannitol and maltodextrin as binder agents. The tablets had been studied in terms of their pharmacotechnical characteristics, by determining: the weight uniformity of the tablets, their friability, breaking strength and disintegration time, drug content and the dissolution profile of loratadine. The statistical analyses were performed with GraphPad Prism Software Inc. As dependent variables, both the hardness of the tablets and their disintegration ability differ between batches due to their compositional differences (as independent variables. DDSolver were used for modeling the kinetic of the dissolution processes by fitting the dissolution profiles with time-dependent equations (Zero-order, First-order, Higuchi, Korsmeyer-Peppas, Peppas-Sahlin. Results: All proposed formulas shows rapid disintegration, in less than 15 seconds, and the dissolution loratadine spans a period of about 10 minutes. Akaike index as well as R2 adjusted parameter have demonstrated that the studied dissolution profiles are the best fitted by Zero-order kinetic. Conclusion: In conclusion, association of croscarmellose sodium (7.5% with pre-gelatinized starch (6% as superdisintegrants and mannitol as the binder agent (35%, positively influences the dissolution properties of loratadine from orally fast dispersible tablets.

  10. Preparation and Evaluation of Hot-Melt Extruded Patient-Centric Ketoprofen Mini-Tablets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alshetaili, Abdullah S; Almutairy, Bjad K; Tiwari, Roshan V; Morott, Joseph T; Alshehri, Sultan M; Feng, Xin; Alsulays, Bader B; Park, Jun-Bom; Zhang, Feng; Repka, Michael A

    2016-01-01

    Bitter tasting drugs represent a large portion of active pharmaceutical ingredients. Mini-tablets are specifically designed for patients with difficulty in swallowing particular in young children up to 10 years of age, geriatric patients and patients with esophagitis. The present study was aimed to prepare, taste-masked mini-tablets, which are easily swallowed dosage forms, primarily to be used by pediatric and geriatric patients. Ketoprofen (10%-50% w/w) and Eudragit® EPO were blended and extruded with a 5-mm strand die and cut into consistent mini-tablets by using an adapted downstream pelletizer. Differential scanning calorimetry and polarized light microscopy-hot stage microscopy studies confirmed that the binary mixtures were miscible under the employed extrusion temperatures. In-vitro release studies showed that drug release was less than 0.5% within the first 2 min in simulated salivary fluid (pH 6.8) and more than 90% in the first 20 min in gastric media (pH 1.0). The results of the electronic tongue analysis were well correlated with the drug release profile of the mini-tablets in the artificial saliva. Scanning electron microscopy revealed no cracks on the surface of the minitablets, confirming that the mini-tablets were compact solids. Chemical imaging confirmed the uniform distribution of ketoprofen inside the polymer matrices. Eudragit® EPO containing ketoprofen at various drug loads were successfully melt extruded into tastedmasked mini-tablets. The reduced drug release at salivary pH correlated well with Astree e-Tongue studies for taste masking efficiency.

  11. Astronomical Content in Rongorongo Tablet Keiti

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wieczorek, Rafal

    2011-01-01

    Th e fi eld of rongorongo research: the study of Easter Island’s native script is in a peculiar state at the moment. While relative progress has been made in structural and statistical analysis in the last decades, at the level of both single glyphs as well as entire texts, little to no advanceme...... has been achieved in the actual decipherment. To shed new light on rongorongo research, a hypothesis regarding the contents of tablet Keiti, one of the 25 obtained artifacts, is proposed. Th e content, as well as the meaning, of all but one of these 25 rongorongo texts is still unknown....... In this publication, an interpretation for the recto side of tablet Keiti is presented. It is argued that the tablet contains astronomical observations or instructions regarding the Rapa Nui lunar calendar, and is similar in content to the only other rongorongo text whose function has been partially ascertained......: tablet Mamari. If the calendrical contents of this artifact were confi rmed, this would be a major boost to our understanding of Oceania’s only native script....

  12. Research on Mobile Learning Activities Applying Tablets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurilovas, Eugenijus; Juskeviciene, Anita; Bireniene, Virginija

    2015-01-01

    The paper aims to present current research on mobile learning activities in Lithuania while implementing flagship EU-funded CCL project on application of tablet computers in education. In the paper, the quality of modern mobile learning activities based on learning personalisation, problem solving, collaboration, and flipped class methods is…

  13. ( Phaseolus lunatus ) starch as a tablet disintegrant

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ) was evaluated. The starch from the seeds was extracted and its disintegrant ability was compared with that of maize starch BP in paracetamol based tablets at concentrations of 0, 2.5, 5, 7.5 and 10 %w/w. The following properties of the starch ...

  14. Comparative bioequivalence assessment of aspirin tablets marketed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: In the last few years, aspirin has become a life saver against cardiovascular accidents. This investigation was carried out to determine possible bioequivalence between regular aspirin and soluble aspirin tablets marketed in Nigeria. Methods: The in vivo bioavailability profiles of three commercial brands of aspirin ...

  15. Evaluation of tablet disintegrant properties of microcrystalline ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was aimed at exploring the application of microcrystalline cellulose from cassava fermentation waste as a disintegrant in the formulation of paracetamol tablets for immediate release. Alkali delignification of the dried cassava fermentation fibres, followed by bleaching and acid depolymerisation was employed in ...

  16. Optimization of Premix Powders for Tableting Use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todo, Hiroaki; Sato, Kazuki; Takayama, Kozo; Sugibayashi, Kenji

    2018-05-08

    Direct compression is a popular choice as it provides the simplest way to prepare the tablet. It can be easily adopted when the active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) is unstable in water or to thermal drying. An optimal formulation of preliminary mixed powders (premix powders) is beneficial if prepared in advance for tableting use. The aim of this study was to find the optimal formulation of the premix powders composed of lactose (LAC), cornstarch (CS), and microcrystalline cellulose (MCC) by using statistical techniques. Based on the "Quality by Design" concept, a (3,3)-simplex lattice design consisting of three components, LAC, CS, and MCC was employed to prepare the model premix powders. Response surface method incorporating a thin-plate spline interpolation (RSM-S) was applied for estimation of the optimum premix powders for tableting use. The effect of tablet shape identified by the surface curvature on the optimization was investigated. The optimum premix powder was effective when the premix was applied to a small quantity of API, although the function of premix was limited in the case of the formulation of large amount of API. Statistical techniques are valuable to exploit new functions of well-known materials such as LAC, CS, and MCC.

  17. Development and characterization of orodispersible tablets of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Method: Orodispersible tablets of famotidine were prepared using camphor as subliming agent and sodium starch glycollate together with crosscarmellose sodium as superdisintegrants. The formulations were evaluated for weight variation, hardness, friability, drug content, wetting time, in vitro and in-vivo dispersion, mouth ...

  18. Bioadhesive Controlled Release Clotrimazole Vaginal Tablets | Bhat ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Conclusion: This study indicates the possible use of suitable mixtures of natural and semi-synthetic cellulosic polymers for the preparation of clotrimazole mucoadhesive tablets for application as a vaginal controlled delivery system. Keywords: Clotrimazole, Swelling, Cellulosic polymers, Guar gum, Bioadhesion, Release ...

  19. Optimized furosemide taste masked orally disintegrating tablets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Abbas Ibrahim

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Optimized orally disintegrating tablets (ODTs containing furosemide (FUR were prepared by direct compression method. Two factors, three levels (32 full factorial design was used to optimize the effect of taste masking agent (Eudragit E100; X1 and superdisintegarant; croscarmellose sodium (CCS; X2 on tablet properties. A composite was prepared by mixing ethanolic solution of FUR and Eudragit E100 with mannitol prior to mixing with other tablet ingredients. The prepared ODTs were characterized for their FUR content, hardness, friability and wetting time. The optimized ODT formulation (F1 was evaluated in term of palatability parameters and the in vivo disintegration. The manufactured ODTs were complying with the pharmacopeia guidelines regarding hardness, friability, weight variation and content. Eudragit E100 had a very slightly enhancing effect on tablets disintegration. However, the effects of both Eudragit E100 (X1 and CCS (X2 on ODTs disintegration time (Y1 were insignificant (p > 0.05. Moreover, X1 exhibited antagonistic effect on the dissolution after 5 and 30 min (D5 and D30, respectively, but only its effect on D30 is significant (p = 0.0004. Furthermore, the optimized ODTs formula showed good to acceptable taste in term of palatability, and in vivo disintegration time of this formula was about 10 s.

  20. BIOWAIVER STUDY OF ORAL TABLETTED ETHYLCELLULOSE ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Preferred Customer

    classification of drugs on the basis of their solubility and permeability. ..... velocity of drug release was slower from tablets with low polymer ... when the drug solubility is high, (b) loading dose in the polymeric matrix is large and (c) lack of.

  1. Design and characterization of controlled release tablet of metoprolol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gautam Singhvi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Metoprolol succinate is a selective beta-adrenergic receptor blocker useful in treatment of hypertension, angina and heart failure. The purpose of the present work was to design and evaluate controlled release matrix type tablet of Metoprolo succinate using HPMC K15M and Eudragit (RLPO and RSPO as a matrix forming agents. Effect of various polymer alone and combinations were studied in pH 1.2 buffer using USP type II paddle at 50 rpm. HPMC was used to form firm gel with Eudragit polymer. Formulation with Equal proportion (1:1 of Eudragit RSPO and RLPO showed optimum drug release t50 =7 hrs and t100 =16 hrs indicate optimum permeability for drug release from matrix. The drug release mechanism was predominantly found to be Non-Fickian diffusion controlled.

  2. A novel automated alternating current biosusceptometry method to characterization of controlled-release magnetic floating tablets of metronidazole.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrari, Priscileila Colerato; dos Santos Grossklauss, Dany Bruno Borella; Alvarez, Matheus; Paixão, Fabiano Carlos; Andreis, Uilian; Crispim, Alexandre Giordano; de Castro, Ana Dóris; Evangelista, Raul Cesar; de Arruda Miranda, José Ricardo

    2014-08-01

    Alternating Current Biosusceptometry is a magnetically method used to characterize drug delivery systems. This work presents a system composed by an automated ACB sensor to acquire magnetic images of floating tablets. The purpose of this study was to use an automated Alternating Current Biosusceptometry (ACB) to characterize magnetic floating tablets for controlled drug delivery. Floating tablets were prepared with hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC) as hydrophilic gel material, sodium bicarbonate as gas-generating agent and ferrite as magnetic marker. ACB was used to characterize the floating lag time and the tablet hydration rate, by quantification of the magnetic images to magnetic area. Besides the buoyancy, the floating tablets were evaluated for weight uniformity, hardness, swelling and in vitro drug release. The optimized tablets were prepared with equal amounts of HPMC and ferrite, and began to float within 4 min, maintaining the flotation during more than 24 h. The data of all physical parameters lied within the pharmacopeial limits. Drug release at 24 h was about 40%. The ACB results showed that this study provided a new approach for in vitro investigation of controlled-release dosage forms. Moreover, using automated ACB will also be possible to test these parameters in humans allowing to establish an in vitro.in vivo correlation (IVIVC).

  3. The Milky Way: paediatric milk-based dispersible tablets prepared by direct compression - a proof-of-concept study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orubu, Samuel E F; Hobson, Nicholas J; Basit, Abdul W; Tuleu, Catherine

    2017-04-01

    Dispersible tablets are proposed by the World Health Organization as the preferred paediatric formulation. It was hypothesised that tablets made from a powdered milk-base that disperse in water to form suspensions resembling milk might be a useful platform to improve acceptability in children. Milk-based dispersible tablets containing various types of powdered milk and infant formulae were formulated. The influence of milk type and content on placebo tablet properties was investigated using a design-of-experiments approach. Responses measured included friability, crushing strength and disintegration time. Additionally, the influence of compression force on the tablet properties of a model formulation was studied by compaction simulation. Disintegration times increased as milk content increased. Compaction simulation studies showed that compression force influenced disintegration time. These results suggest that the milk content, rather than type, and compression force were the most important determinants of disintegration. Up to 30% milk could be incorporated to produce 200 mg 10-mm flat-faced placebo tablets by direct compression disintegrating within 3 min in 5-10 ml of water, which is a realistic administration volume in children. The platform could accommodate 30% of a model active pharmaceutical ingredient (caffeine citrate). © 2016 Royal Pharmaceutical Society.

  4. Influence of barium sulfate X-ray imaging contrast material on properties of floating drug delivery tablets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diós, Péter; Szigeti, Krisztián; Budán, Ferenc; Pócsik, Márta; Veres, Dániel S; Máthé, Domokos; Pál, Szilárd; Dévay, Attila; Nagy, Sándor

    2016-12-01

    The objective of the study was to reveal the influence of necessarily added barium sulfate (BaSO 4 ) X-ray contrast material on floating drug delivery tablets. Based on literature survey, a chosen floating tablet composition was determined containing HPMC and carbopol 943P as matrix polymers. One-factor factorial design with five levels was created for evaluation of BaSO 4 (X 1 ) effects on experimental parameters of tablets including: floating lag time, total floating time, swelling-, erosion-, dissolution-, release kinetics parameters and X-ray detected volume changes of tablets. Applied concentrations of BaSO 4 were between 0 and 20.0% resulting in remarkable alteration of experimental parameters related especially to flotation. Drastic deterioration of floating lag time and total floating time could be observed above 15.0% BaSO 4 . Furthermore, BaSO 4 showed to increase the integrity of tablet matrix by reducing eroding properties. A novel evaluation of dissolutions from floating drug delivery systems was introduced, which could assess the quantity of drug dissolved from dosage form in floating state. In the cases of tablets containing 20.0% BaSO 4 , only the 40% of total API amount could be dissolved in floating state. In vitro fine resolution X-ray CT imagings were performed to study the volume change and the voxel distributions as a function of HU attenuations by histogram analysis of the images. X-ray detected relative volume change results did not show significant difference between samples. After 24h, all tablets containing BaSO 4 could be segmented, which highlighted the fact that enough BaSO 4 remained in the tablets for their identification. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Multiple-unit tablet of probiotic bacteria for improved storage stability, acid tolerability, and in vivo intestinal protective effect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Park HJ

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Hee Jun Park,1 Ga Hyeon Lee,1 Joonho Jun,1 Miwon Son,1 Myung Joo Kang2 1Dong-A Pharmaceutical Co. Ltd., Yongin, Gyeonggi, 2College of Pharmacy, Dankook University, Cheonan, Chungnam, Korea Abstract: The aim of this study was to formulate probiotics-loaded pellets in a tablet form to improve storage stability, acid tolerability, and in vivo intestinal protective effect. Bacteria-loaded pellets primarily prepared with hydroxypropyl methylcellulose acetate succinate were compressed into tablets with highly compressible excipients and optimized for flow properties, hardness, and disintegration time. The optimized probiotic tablet consisted of enteric-coated pellets (335 mg, microcrystalline cellulose (Avicel PH102, 37.5 mg, and porous calcium silicate (25 mg and allowed whole survival of living bacteria during the compaction process with sufficient tablet hardness (13 kp and disintegration time (14 minutes. The multiple-unit tablet showed remarkably higher storage stability under ambient conditions (25°C/60% relative humidity over 6 months and resistance to acidic medium compared to uncoated strains or pellets. Repeated intake of this multiple-unit tablet significantly lowered plasma level of endotoxin, a pathogenic material, compared to repeated intake of bare probiotics or marketed products in rats. These results, therefore, suggest that the multiple-unit tablet is advantageous to better bacterial viability and gain the beneficial effects on the gut flora, including the improvement of intestinal barrier function. Keywords: probiotics, multiple-unit tablet, bacterial viability, acid resistance, intestinal barrier function

  6. NIR analysis of cellulose and lactose--application to ecstasy tablet analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baer, Ines; Gurny, Robert; Margot, Pierre

    2007-04-11

    Cellulose and lactose are the most frequently used excipients in illicit ecstasy production. The aim of this project was to use near infrared reflectance spectroscopy (NIRS) for the determination of the different chemical forms of these two substances, as well as for the differentiation of their origin (producer). It was possible to distinguish between the different chemical forms of both compounds, as well as between their origins (producers), although within limits. Furthermore, the possibilities to apply NIR for the analysis of substances such as found in illicit tablets were studied. First, a few cellulose and lactose samples were chosen to make mixtures with amphetamine at three degrees of purity (5, 10 and 15%), in order to study the resulting changes in the spectra as well as to simultaneously quantify amphetamine and identify the excipient. A PLS2 model could be build to predict concentrations and excipient. Secondarily, the technique was to be applied to real ecstasy tablets. About 40 ecstasy seizures were analysed with the aim to determine the excipient and to check them against each other. Identification of the excipients was not always obvious, especially when more than one excipient were present. However, a comparison between tablets appeared to give groups of similar samples. NIR analysis results in spectra representing the tablet blend as a whole taking into account all absorbing compounds. Although NIRS seems to be an appropriate method for ecstasy profiling, little is known about intra- and intervariability of compression batches.

  7. Drugs targeting 5-hydroxytryptamine receptors in acute treatments of migraine attacks. A review of new drugs and new administration forms of established drugs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tfelt-Hansen, Peer C; Pihl, Thomas Peter Boye; Hougaard, Anders

    2014-01-01

    of migraines. Areas covered: This evaluation reviews the recent advances in acute migraine therapy targeting the 5-HT receptor. Specifically, the authors review the pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics, clinical efficacy and safety of 5-HT1F receptor agonists and new formulations of sumatriptan...

  8. Formulation of Dipyridamole Sustained Release Tablet Using Floating System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lenny Mauilida Valentina

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Dipyridamole is a drug for prevention of postoperative thromboembolic complication of heart valve replacement and long term therapy of angina pectoris will be well absorbed in stomach. To maintain therapeutic plasma concentration in long time and to increase bioavalaibility is needed a sustained release dosage form having the long residence time in the stomach. The objective of this research was to make floating sustained release tablet of dipyridamole conforming to the requirement that was set up by dipyridamol therapeutic concentration. Tablets were made by wet granulation method using aquadest as a liquid binder, HPMC K4M, Ac-di-sol, Avicel PH 102, talk, and Mg stearat. Dissolution assay was carried out using type 2 release tester at rotation speed of 50 rpm in medium 900 mL HCl 0.1 N at 37 ± 0.5 °C for 8 hours. The formulation containing of 50 mg dipirydamole, HPMC K4M (30%, Ac-di-sol (20%, Avicel PH 102 (37%, talk (2%, and Mg stearat (1% released 59.61 ± 6.73% and 89.34 ± 5.87% of dipyridamole respectively after 4 and 8 hours that conformed to the requirement.

  9. Smartphones, tablets and mobile applications for radiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Székely, András; Talanow, Roland; Bágyi, Péter

    2013-05-01

    Smartphones are phone devices that may also be used for browsing, navigation and running smaller computer programs called applications. One may consider them as compact personal computers which are primarily to be used for making phone calls. Tablets or "tablet PCs" are fully functioning standalone computers the size of a thin LCD monitor that use the screen itself for control and data input. Both of these devices may be categorized based on the mobile operating system that they use. The aim of this study is to illustrate how smartphones and tablets can be used by diagnostic imaging professionals, radiographers and residents, and to introduce relevant applications that are available for their field. A search was performed on iTunes, Android Market, Blackberry App World, and Windows Phone Marketplace for mobile applications pertinent to the field of diagnostic imaging. The following terms were applied for the search strategy: (1) radiology, (2) X-ray, (3) ultrasound, (4) MRI, (5) CT, (6) radiographer, (7) nuclear medicine. Two radiologists and one radiology resident reviewed the results. Our review was limited to english-language software. Additional applications were identified by reviewing the list of similar software provided in the description of each application. We downloaded and installed all applications that appeared relevant to an appropriate mobile phone or tablet device. We identified and reviewed a total of 102 applications. We ruled out 1 non-English application and 20 other applications that were created for entertainment purposes. Thus our final list includes 81 applications in the following five categories: diagnostic reading, decision support applications, medical books, interactive encyclopedias, and journal reading programs. Smartphones and tablets offer new opportunities for diagnostic imaging practitioners; these easy-to-use devices equipped with excellent display may be used for diagnostic reading, reference, learning, consultation, and for

  10. Smartphones, tablets and mobile applications for radiology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Székely, András, E-mail: andras.szekely@gmail.com [Kenézy Hospital Department of Radiology, 4043 Debrecen, Bartók Béla út 2-26 (Hungary); Talanow, Roland, E-mail: roland@talanow.info [P.O. Box 1570, Lincoln, CA 95648 (United States); Bágyi, Péter [Kenézy Hospital Department of Radiology, 4043 Debrecen, Bartók Béla út 2-26 (Hungary)

    2013-05-15

    Background: Smartphones are phone devices that may also be used for browsing, navigation and running smaller computer programs called applications. One may consider them as compact personal computers which are primarily to be used for making phone calls. Tablets or “tablet PCs” are fully functioning standalone computers the size of a thin LCD monitor that use the screen itself for control and data input. Both of these devices may be categorized based on the mobile operating system that they use. The aim of this study is to illustrate how smartphones and tablets can be used by diagnostic imaging professionals, radiographers and residents, and to introduce relevant applications that are available for their field. Materials and methods: A search was performed on iTunes, Android Market, Blackberry App World, and Windows Phone Marketplace for mobile applications pertinent to the field of diagnostic imaging. The following terms were applied for the search strategy: (1) radiology, (2) X-ray, (3) ultrasound, (4) MRI, (5) CT, (6) radiographer, (7) nuclear medicine. Two radiologists and one radiology resident reviewed the results. Our review was limited to english-language software. Additional applications were identified by reviewing the list of similar software provided in the description of each application. We downloaded and installed all applications that appeared relevant to an appropriate mobile phone or tablet device. Results: We identified and reviewed a total of 102 applications. We ruled out 1 non-English application and 20 other applications that were created for entertainment purposes. Thus our final list includes 81 applications in the following five categories: diagnostic reading, decision support applications, medical books, interactive encyclopedias, and journal reading programs. Conclusion: Smartphones and tablets offer new opportunities for diagnostic imaging practitioners; these easy-to-use devices equipped with excellent display may be used for

  11. Developing a mapping tool for tablets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaughan, Alan; Collins, Nathan; Krus, Mike

    2014-05-01

    Digital field mapping offers significant benefits when compared with traditional paper mapping techniques in that it provides closer integration with downstream geological modelling and analysis. It also provides the mapper with the ability to rapidly integrate new data with existing databases without the potential degradation caused by repeated manual transcription of numeric, graphical and meta-data. In order to achieve these benefits, a number of PC-based digital mapping tools are available which have been developed for specific communities, eg the BGS•SIGMA project, Midland Valley's FieldMove®, and a range of solutions based on ArcGIS® software, which can be combined with either traditional or digital orientation and data collection tools. However, with the now widespread availability of inexpensive tablets and smart phones, a user led demand for a fully integrated tablet mapping tool has arisen. This poster describes the development of a tablet-based mapping environment specifically designed for geologists. The challenge was to deliver a system that would feel sufficiently close to the flexibility of paper-based geological mapping while being implemented on a consumer communication and entertainment device. The first release of a tablet-based geological mapping system from this project is illustrated and will be shown as implemented on an iPad during the poster session. Midland Valley is pioneering tablet-based mapping and, along with its industrial and academic partners, will be using the application in field based projects throughout this year and will be integrating feedback in further developments of this technology.

  12. Smartphones, tablets and mobile applications for radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Székely, András; Talanow, Roland; Bágyi, Péter

    2013-01-01

    Background: Smartphones are phone devices that may also be used for browsing, navigation and running smaller computer programs called applications. One may consider them as compact personal computers which are primarily to be used for making phone calls. Tablets or “tablet PCs” are fully functioning standalone computers the size of a thin LCD monitor that use the screen itself for control and data input. Both of these devices may be categorized based on the mobile operating system that they use. The aim of this study is to illustrate how smartphones and tablets can be used by diagnostic imaging professionals, radiographers and residents, and to introduce relevant applications that are available for their field. Materials and methods: A search was performed on iTunes, Android Market, Blackberry App World, and Windows Phone Marketplace for mobile applications pertinent to the field of diagnostic imaging. The following terms were applied for the search strategy: (1) radiology, (2) X-ray, (3) ultrasound, (4) MRI, (5) CT, (6) radiographer, (7) nuclear medicine. Two radiologists and one radiology resident reviewed the results. Our review was limited to english-language software. Additional applications were identified by reviewing the list of similar software provided in the description of each application. We downloaded and installed all applications that appeared relevant to an appropriate mobile phone or tablet device. Results: We identified and reviewed a total of 102 applications. We ruled out 1 non-English application and 20 other applications that were created for entertainment purposes. Thus our final list includes 81 applications in the following five categories: diagnostic reading, decision support applications, medical books, interactive encyclopedias, and journal reading programs. Conclusion: Smartphones and tablets offer new opportunities for diagnostic imaging practitioners; these easy-to-use devices equipped with excellent display may be used for

  13. DEVELOPMENT OF SUSTAINED RELEASE TABLETS ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2013-12-31

    Dec 31, 2013 ... The SR dosage forms that release drugs pH independently in .... were determined; Post compression parameters such as weight variation test, hardness, ... Based on the ICH guidelines 12, the stability studies were carried out ...

  14. Preparation of venlafaxine hydrochloride sustained-release tablets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GUO Lingling

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available To prepare venlafxine hydrochloride sustained-release tablets.Hydroxypropylmethyl cellulose(HPMC and methyl cellulose(MC were used as main materials to prepare sustained-release tablets of velafaxine hydrochloride and the influence of important factors on in vitro release curves of venlafaxine hydrochloride sustained-release tablets was investigated.Results:The optimal prescription included 100 mg HPMC,25 mg MC,and 2.5% glidant in one tablet prepared with 30kN.The tablets were prepared with the method of wet granulation by NO.16 mesh sieve.The tablets exhibited good sustained-release property in phosphate buffered solution (pH=6.8.The as-prepared venlafxine hydrochloride sustained-release tablets have good sustained-release property.

  15. Investigation of excipients’ nature influence on the quality indices of effervescent tablets of acetylsalicylic acid, paracetamol and ascorbic acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    О. V. Tryhubchak

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The priority objective of pharmaceutical science remains the creation and rational use of medicines. In recent years among these medicines particular attention is paid to the form of sparkling (fast-dissolving, gaseous or effervescent solid dosage formstablets, granules, powders, microspheres, capsules, suppositories and others. In the development of effervescent tablets, which are absent in the domestic market, a combination of acetylsalicylic acid, paracetamol and ascorbic acid was selected for experimental studies. The purpose of the work is to study the influence of excipients on the pharmaco-technological properties of effervescent tablets of acetylsalicylic acid, paracetamol and ascorbic acid. Materials and methods. In the course of the experiment, nine excipients from groups of fillers, leavens and binders were investigated. By studying qualitative factors, one of the plans of dispersion analysis was used, namely a three-factorial experiment based on the Hyper-Greek-Latin square. In experiments we used modern equipment for determining the bulk density of powders (ERWEKA GT, Germany, bulk density (ERWEKA SVM 202, Germany, tablet press (Korsh XL-100, Germany, uniformity of the weight of tablets (Mettler Toledo AB54-S, Switzerland, crushing resistance (ERWEKA TBH-525 WTO, Germany, abradability (ERWEKA TAR 200, Germany, disintegration time (ERWEKA ZT 33, Germany. Results. As a result of the statistical processing of experimental results, the influence of excipients on the pharmaco-technological parameters of mass for tableting (bulk density, density after compression, Carr's index, flow ability, slope angle, tableting process, tablet appearance, mass uniformity, abradability, resistance to crushing, disintegration and transparency of the solution were investigated. Conclusions. The influence of nine excipients on the pharmaco-technological characteristics of effervescent tablets of acetylsalicylic acid, paracetamol and ascorbic acid was

  16. Development of a multi-layered vaginal tablet containing dapivirine, levonorgestrel and acyclovir for use as a multipurpose prevention technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McConville, Christopher; Major, Ian; Devlin, Brid; Brimer, Andrew

    2016-07-01

    Multipurpose prevention technologies (MPTs) are preferably single dosage forms designed to simultaneously address multiple sexual and reproductive health needs, such as unintended pregnancy, HIV infection and other sexually transmitted infections (STIs). This manuscript describes the development of a range of multi-layered vaginal tablets, with both immediate and sustained release layers capable of delivering the antiretroviral drug dapivirine, the contraceptive hormone levonorgestrel, and the anti-herpes simplex virus drug acyclovir at independent release rates from a single dosage form. Depending on the design of the tablet in relation to the type (immediate or sustained release) or number of layers, the dose of each drug could be individually controlled. For example one tablet design was able to provide immediate release of all three drugs, while another tablet design was able to provide immediate release of both acyclovir and levonorgestrel, while providing sustained release of Dapivirine for up to 8h. A third tablet design was able to provide immediate release of both acyclovir and levonorgestrel, a large initial burst of Dapivirine, followed by sustained release of Dapivirine for up to 8h. All of the tablets passed the test for friability with a percent friability of less than 1%. The hardness of all tablet designs was between 115 and 153N, while their drug content met the European Pharmacopeia 2.9.40 Uniformity of Dosage units acceptance value at levels 1 and 2. Finally, the accelerated stability of all three actives was significantly enhanced in comparison with a mixed drug control. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Research studies on in vitro and ex vivo yield of the miconazole nitrate from oral biomucoadhesive tablets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birsan, Magdalena; Cojocaru, Ileana; Scutariu, Mihaela Monica; Popovici, Iuliana

    2014-01-01

    Among the various routes of drug administration, the oral mucosa is perhaps the most often preferred by patients and medical staff. However, oral administration of drugs has disadvantages, which may limit or prevent oral administration of some drugs, especially peptides and proteins, little when they are inserted in special administration systems for the colon. The disaggregation of some oral biomucoadhesive tablets and the in vitro yield of the miconazole nitrate was evaluated and in parallel with this, the evaluation of the in vivo yield of the antifungal from the pharmaceutical form. Thus, for a clear determination of the oral mucobioadhesive tablets' disintegration with miconazole nitrate, it was necessary to implement a method to simulate the conditions of the oral cavity at a flow of solution (artificial saliva) similar to that of the human one. miconazole nitrate. The determination of disintegration time according to method A (FRX); the disaggregation of oral biomucoadhesive tablets with miconazole nitrate by means of simulation methods of in vitro conditions; the quantitative determination of the miconazole nitrate by means of HPLC method, after the in vitro dissolution test; the study of miconazole nitrate's yield in dynamic condition from biomucoadhesive tablets in the presence of artificial saliva (AFNOR). The yield profile of the miconazole nitrate in the disintegration solutions by means of classical method from FR X, by HPLC dosage was researched. The release of miconazole nitrate from the oral mucobioadhesive tablets was determined, that varies in time, depending on the type and relation of matrix forming polymers; a low yield speed of the miconazole nitrate from the tablets was determined; the yield profile of miconazole nitrate in disintegration solutions by means of the new suggested method was researched. The release of miconazole nitrate from the formulated biomucoadhesive tablets is of swelling and erosion.

  18. [Comparative analysis of application of highly intensive laser irradiation and electrocoagulation during laparoscopic cholecystectomy performed for destructive forms of an acute calculous cholecystitis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nichitayio, M Yu; Bazyak, A M; Klochan, V V; Grusha, P K; Goman, A V

    2015-02-01

    Comparative analysis of results of the laser diode (the wave length 940 nm) and elec- trocoagulation application while performing laparoscopic cholecystectomy was con- ducted. For an acute calculous cholecystitis 52 patients were operated, in whom instead of electrocoagulation the laser was applied, provide for reduction of thermal impact on tissues, the complications absence, reduction of the patients stationary treatment duration postoperatively from (5.2 ± 1.2) to (4.9 ± 0.6) days.

  19. Confectionery-based dose forms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tangso, Kristian J; Ho, Quy Phuong; Boyd, Ben J

    2015-01-01

    Conventional dosage forms such as tablets, capsules and syrups are prescribed in the normal course of practice. However, concerns about patient preferences and market demands have given rise to the exploration of novel unconventional dosage forms. Among these, confectionery-based dose forms have strong potential to overcome compliance problems. This report will review the availability of these unconventional dose forms used in treating the oral cavity and for systemic drug delivery, with a focus on medicated chewing gums, medicated lollipops, and oral bioadhesive devices. The aim is to stimulate increased interest in the opportunities for innovative new products that are available to formulators in this field, particularly for atypical patient populations.

  20. Key Technical Aspects Influencing the Accuracy of Tablet Subdivision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teixeira, Maíra T; Sá-Barreto, Lívia C L; Gratieri, Taís; Gelfuso, Guilherme M; Silva, Izabel C R; Cunha-Filho, Marcílio S S

    2017-05-01

    Tablet subdivision is a common practice used mainly for dose adjustment. The aim of this study was to investigate how the technical aspects of production as well as the method of tablets subdivision (employing a tablet splitter or a kitchen knife) influence the accuracy of this practice. Five drugs commonly used as subdivided tablets were selected. For each drug, the innovator drug product, a scored-generic and a non-scored generic were investigated totalizing fifteen drug products. Mechanical and physical tests, including image analysis, were performed. Additionally, comparisons were made between tablet subdivision method, score, shape, diluent composition and coating. Image analysis based on surface area was a useful tool as an alternative assay to evaluate the accuracy of tablet subdivision. The tablet splitter demonstrates an advantage relative to a knife as it showed better results in weight loss and friability tests. Oblong, coated and scored tablets had better results after subdivision than round, uncoated and non-scored tablets. The presence of elastic diluents such as starch and dibasic phosphate dehydrate conferred a more appropriate behaviour for the subdivision process than plastic materials such as microcrystalline cellulose and lactose. Finally, differences were observed between generics and their innovator products in all selected drugs with regard the quality control assays in divided tablet, which highlights the necessity of health regulations to consider subdivision performance at least in marketing authorization of generic products.

  1. Validated Method for the Determination of Piroxicam by Capillary Zone Electrophoresis and Its Application to Tablets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arın Gül Dal

    2014-01-01

    piroxicam in tablets. The separation of piroxicam was conducted in a fused-silica capillary by using 10 mM borate buffer (pH 9.0 containing 10% (v/v methanol as background electrolyte. The optimum conditions determined were 25 kV for separation voltage and 1 s for injection time. Analysis was carried out with UV detection at 204 nm. Naproxen sodium was used as an internal standard. The method was linear over the range of 0.23–28.79 µg/mL. The accuracy and precision were found to be satisfied within the acceptable limits (<2%. The LOD and LOQ were found to be 0.07 and 0.19 µg/mL, respectively. The method described here was applied to tablet dosage forms and the content of a tablet was found in the limits of USP-24 suggestions. To compare the results of capillary electrophoretic method, UV spectrophotometric method was developed and the difference between two methods was found to be insignificant. The capillary zone electrophoretic method developed in this study is rapid, simple, and suitable for routine analysis of piroxicam in pharmaceutical tablets.

  2. Comparison of desmopressin (DDAVP tablet and intranasal spray in the treatment of central diabetes insipidus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    "Bagher Larijani

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Desmoperssin is the drug of choice for treatment of central diabetes insipidus and most commonly it is used as intranasal spray. In this study, efficacy and side effects of oral desmopressin was compared with the intranasal spray. This study was before -after clinical trial on 14 outpatients (9 F, 5 M, age 14 -50 Y with central diabetes insipidus who had been treated with intranasal spray of desmopressin previously. Weight, pulse rate and blood pressure (sitting -standing, biochemical profile, serum electrolytes, 24h urine volume, specific gravity of urine and LFT was measured before and after 1 month study. Starting dose for each patient was one oral tablet of DDAVP (0.1 mg per 8 hours. Paired Samples T-Test was used for data analysis. No clinically significant changes were found as regard to weight, pulse rate, blood pressure, blood chemistry, electrolyte and urinalysis. Single reported adverse effect was headache (43% in tablet group and dyspnea (7% in spray group. Both dosage forms were able to control diurnal polyuria and nocturnal polyuria. The antidiuretic dose - equivalence ratio for intranasal to oral desmopressin was 1: 18. Spray was superior in terms of rapid onset of action and duration of antidiuretic action in 100% and 78% of cases (not significant, respectively. Tablets were more available and much more easily consumed as reported by patients, in 86% (P=0.0006. Treatment with tablets offers a good alternative to the intranasal route, especially in patients with chronic rhinitis or common cold and similar conditions.

  3. Formulation and evaluation of bilayer tablets of metoclopramide hydrochloride and diclofenac sodium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gattani, Surendra G; Khabiya, Sohan S; Amrutkar, Jitendra R; Kushare, Sachin S

    2012-01-01

    The main objective of the present research work was to develop a bilayer tablet of metoclopramide hydrochloride (MTH) and diclofenac sodium (DS) in separate layers to avoid incompatibility and thus to maximize the efficacy of both drugs in combination for the effective treatment of migraine headaches. MTH and DS were formulated as immediate and sustained release layers respectively. In vitro dissolution kinetic studies of an optimized (D10) batch of DS in both sustained release layer and bilayer tablet forms show good linearity of regression coefficient 0.9773 (first order equation). The results reveal that an optimized immediate release layer (M5) of MTH and a sustained release layer (D10) of DS might be suitable for the treatment of migraine by sequential release of the two drugs in a bilayer tablet. Migraine is a type of recurring headache of moderate to severe intensity associated with gastrointestinal, neurological, and autonomic symptoms. In migraine, a combination of pretreatment with antiemetics is required for symptomatic treatment, when nausea and vomiting are severe. In our present research, we have selected the metoclopramide hydrochloride (MTH) active ingredient for study because it has an antiemetic effect and is a prokinetic agent. MTH is more effective to counteract gastric stasis associated with migraine, and it enhances the rate of absorption of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). In the present investigation we combine MTH and a second active ingredient, diclofenac sodium, as a formulated bilayer tablet to prevent degradation of MTH.

  4. THE EMOTIONAL ANALYSIS OF CHILDREN WITH SPECIAL NEEDS DURING TABLET USAGE IN EDUCATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emrah Soykan

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research is to determine the emotions of the students who need special education during the teaching process through Tablet. Document analysis method was used to determine the emotions of the students who need of special education in the process of teaching through tablet. Five years old, three mentally retarded students were involved in the process of using the software. In the study, descriptive analysis method of Strauss & Corbin was used for the analysis of data obtained through interviews and observation forms. According to the results of the artificial intelligence emotions analysis, it is seen that the students are happy and eager to learn in the process of teaching with tablet. Another common point is that they are a bit confused sometimes, although they are eager in the initial teaching sessions. As a result, it can be said that the positive results of the emotional analysis and positive results obtained from the teaching sessions with the tablet support each other.

  5. Comparison of directly compressed vitamin B12 tablets prepared from micronized rotary-spun microfibers and cast films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sebe, István; Bodai, Zsolt; Eke, Zsuzsanna; Kállai-Szabó, Barnabás; Szabó, Péter; Zelkó, Romána

    2015-01-01

    Fiber-based dosage forms are potential alternatives of conventional dosage forms from the point of the improved extent and rate of drug dissolution. Rotary-spun polymer fibers and cast films were prepared and micronized in order to direct compress after homogenization with tabletting excipients. Particle size distribution of powder mixtures of micronized fibers and films homogenized with tabletting excipients were determined by laser scattering particle size distribution analyzer. Powder rheological behavior of the mixtures containing micronized fibers and cast films was also compared. Positron annihilation lifetime spectroscopy was applied for the microstructural characterization of micronized fibers and films. The water-soluble vitamin B12 release from the compressed tablets was determined. It was confirmed that the rotary spinning method resulted in homogeneous supramolecularly ordered powder mixture, which was successfully compressed after homogenization with conventional tabletting excipients. The obtained directly compressed tablets showed uniform drug release of low variations. The results highlight the novel application of micronized rotary-spun fibers as intermediate for further processing reserving the original favorable powder characteristics of fibrous systems.

  6. The Vindolanda Tablets and the Ancient Economy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Evers, Kasper Grønlund

    The Vindolanda Tablets are rightly famous for the insights they provide into the life of Roman auxiliaries on the province of Britain’s northern frontier around the turn of the first century AD. Various authors over the years have dealt with the archaeological excavations at Vindolanda, the evide......The Vindolanda Tablets are rightly famous for the insights they provide into the life of Roman auxiliaries on the province of Britain’s northern frontier around the turn of the first century AD. Various authors over the years have dealt with the archaeological excavations at Vindolanda......, the aim is to investigate how best to comprehend the economic system attested at Vindolanda and to consider the wider implications for studies of the ancient economy in general. This is accomplished by a three-step approach: first, the nature of the Vindolandan evidence is assessed, and the state...

  7. [Safety evaluation of niuhuang jiedu tablet].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Yu-Ling; Miao, Jia-wei; Li, Jing; Sung, An-Sheng; Liu, Jie

    2014-09-01

    Realgar-containing Niuhuang Jiedu tablet (NHJD) has been applied in clinic for more than 800 years. However, because realgar contains arsenic (As), it has aroused wide concerns and controversies both at home and abroad. Currently, there are two misunderstandings about realgar-containing Chinese patent medicines. First, some people exaggerated realgar's toxicity as that of arsenic. Second, they recommended to remove realgar from traditional Chinese medicine compounds. In this paper, the authors summarized the advance in studies on NHJD, and proposed different opinions: (1) It is inappropriate to take total As as the index in safety evaluation of NHJD. (2) The toxicity of NHJD is dependent on the dose and duration of administration. (3) Realgar is an active ingredient of NHJD, and shall be deeply studied. Classic realgar-containing traditional Chinese medicine prescriptions, such as Niuhuang Jiedu tablet, shall be evaluated with rigorous modern scientific basis, with the aim to guide rational and safe application.

  8. Magnetic resonance imaging of tablet dissolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nott, Kevin P

    2010-01-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is the technique of choice for measuring hydration, and its effects, during dissolution of tablets since it non-invasively maps (1)H nuclei associated with 'mobile' water. Although most studies have used MRI systems with high-field superconducting magnets, low-field laboratory-based instruments based on permanent magnet technology are being developed that provide key data for the formulation scientist. Incorporation of dissolution hardware, in particular the United States Pharmacopeia (USP) apparatus 4 flow-through cell, allows measurements under controlled conditions for comparison against other dissolution methods. Furthermore, simultaneous image acquisition and measurement of drug concentration allow direct comparison of the drug release throughout the hydration process. The combination of low-field MRI with USP-4 apparatus provides another tool to aid tablet formulation. Copyright 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Teaching Form as Form

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keiding, Tina Bering

    2012-01-01

    understanding of form per se, or, to use an expression from this text, of form as form. This challenge can be reduced to one question: how can design teaching support students in achieving not only the ability to recognize and describe different form-related concepts in existing design (i.e. analytical...

  10. Formulation studies for mirtazapine orally disintegrating tablets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yıldız, Simay; Aytekin, Eren; Yavuz, Burçin; Bozdağ Pehlivan, Sibel; Ünlü, Nurşen

    2016-01-01

    Orally disintegrating tablets (ODTs) recently have gained much attention to fulfill the needs for pediatric, geriatric, and psychiatric patients with dysphagia. Aim of this study was to develop new ODT formulations containing mirtazapine, an antidepressant drug molecule having bitter taste, by using simple and inexpensive preparation methods such as coacervation, direct compression and to compare their characteristics with those of reference product (Remereon SolTab). Coacervation method was chosen for taste masking of mirtazapine. In vitro characterization studies such as diameter and thickness, weight variation, tablet hardness, tablet friability and disintegration time were performed on tablet formulations. Wetting time and in vitro dissolution tests of developed ODTs also studied using 900 mL 0.1 N HCl medium, 900 mL pH 6.8 phosphate buffer or 900 mL pH 4.5 acetate buffer at 37 ± 0.2 °C as dissolution medium. Ratio of Eudragit® E-100 was chosen as 6% (w/w) since the dissolution profile of A1 (6% Eudragit® E-100) was found closer to the reference product than A2 (4% Eudragit® E-100) and A3 (8% Eudragit® E-100). Group D, E and F formulations were presented better results in terms of disintegration time. Dissolution results indicated that Group E and F formulations showed optimum properties in all three dissolution media. Formulations D1, D4, D5, E3, E4, F1 and F5 found suitable as ODT formulations due to their favorable disintegration times and dissolution profiles. Developed mirtazapine ODTs were found promising in terms of showing the similar characteristics to the original formulation.

  11. Evaluation of the ease of taking mini-tablets compared with other tablet formulations in healthy volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayakawa, Yoshiyuki; Uchida, Shinya; Namiki, Noriyuki

    2016-03-10

    "Mini-tablets" (MTs) are tablets of diameter≤3mm and have been widely studied and developed. However, reports comparing MTs with other tablet formulations are few. We wished to evaluate the ease of taking a MT quantitatively in comparison with an orally disintegrating mini-tablet (ODMT), conventional tablet (CT) and conventional orally disintegrating tablet (ODT). Four types of tablets were prepared. We prepared tablets of two diameters (3mm for MTs and ODMTs vs. 8mm for CTs and ODTs) and two formulations (MTs and CTs vs. ODMTs and ODTs). Our randomized crossover trial in 18 healthy volunteers (8 men and 10 women; mean age, 22.5years) indicated that the visual analog scale (VAS) score for the ease and amount of water required for intake of MTs was significantly lower than those of CTs. An ODMT required the least amount of water and smallest VAS score for the ease of taking a tablet. Our results showed that the advantage of MTs with regard to the ease of taking and decreased amount of water required was exerted for a unit of dosing comprising tablets. These data suggested the usefulness of MTs and the importance of the number of MTs for comfortable consumption by patients. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  12. Iodine tablets - many benefits and few disadvantages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paile, W.

    1996-01-01

    The number of thyroid cancers among children has increased steeply around Chernobyl after the nuclear catastrophe. An iodine tablet taken at the right time would have protected the thyroid from the effects of radioiodine. Nuclear fallout may contain large amounts of radioactive iodine. If this enters the body, either through inhalation or ingestion, most of it ends up in the thyroid. As a result, the thyroid may be exposed to a considerable radiation dose. High doses endanger the functioning of the thyroid, and even smaller doses may cause benign or malignant tumours in the thyroid. Sensitivity of the thyroid to radiation depends largely on the person's age. The younger the child, the higher the risk. Adults probably have a low risk. It has not been shown that people over 40 years of age would have any risk of contracting radiation-induced thyroid cancer. Iodine tablets are particularly important for children. Iodine has fewer side effects than had been thought previously. At least for children, the risk of side effects caused by one dose of iodine is so small that it can be ignored when considering whether iodine should be given in a fallout situation. The risk increases with age. It must unconditionally be left for the authorities to decide who should be given iodine tablets and when. (orig.)

  13. Tablet fragmentation without a disintegrant: A novel design approach for accelerating disintegration and drug release from 3D printed cellulosic tablets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arafat, Basel; Wojsz, Magdalena; Isreb, Abdullah; Forbes, Robert T; Isreb, Mohammad; Ahmed, Waqar; Arafat, Tawfiq; Alhnan, Mohamed A

    2018-06-15

    Fused deposition modelling (FDM) 3D printing has shown the most immediate potential for on-demand dose personalisation to suit particular patient's needs. However, FDM 3D printing often involves employing a relatively large molecular weight thermoplastic polymer and results in extended release pattern. It is therefore essential to fast-track drug release from the 3D printed objects. This work employed an innovative design approach of tablets with unique built-in gaps (Gaplets) with the aim of accelerating drug release. The novel tablet design is composed of 9 repeating units (blocks) connected with 3 bridges to allow the generation of 8 gaps. The impact of size of the block, the number of bridges and the spacing between different blocks was investigated. Increasing the inter-block space reduced mechanical resistance of the unit, however, tablets continued to meet pharmacopeial standards for friability. Upon introduction into gastric medium, the 1 mm spaces gaplet broke into mini-structures within 4 min and met the USP criteria of immediate release products (86.7% drug release at 30 min). Real-time ultraviolet (UV) imaging indicated that the cellulosic matrix expanded due to swelling of hydroxypropyl cellulose (HPC) upon introduction to the dissolution medium. This was followed by a steady erosion of the polymeric matrix at a rate of 8 μm/min. The design approach was more efficient than a comparison conventional formulation approach of adding disintegrants to accelerate tablet disintegration and drug release. This work provides a novel example where computer-aided design was instrumental at modifying the performance of solid dosage forms. Such an example may serve as the foundation for a new generation of dosage forms with complicated geometric structures to achieve functionality that is usually achieved by a sophisticated formulation approach. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Evaluation about wettability, water absorption or swelling of excipients through various methods and the correlation between these parameters and tablet disintegration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Baixue; Wei, Chen; Yang, Yang; Wang, Qifang; Li, Sanming

    2018-04-06

    To evaluate parameters about wettability, water absorption or swelling of excipients in forms of powders or dosage through various methods systematically and explore its correlation with tablet disintegration. The water penetration and swelling of powders with different proportions of excipients including microcrystalline cellulose (MCC), mannitol, low-substituted hydroxypropyl cellulose (L-HPC), crospolyvinylpyrrolidone (PVPP), carboxymethyl starch sodium (CMS-Na), croscarmellose sodium (CCMC-Na) and magnesium stearate (MgSt) were determined by Washburn capillary rise. Both contact angle of water on the excipient compacts and surface swelling volume were measured by sessile drop technique. Moreover, the test about water absorption and swelling of compacts was fulfilled by a modified method. Eventually, the disintegration of tablets with or without loratadine was performed according to the method described in USP. These parameters were successfully identified by the methods above, which proved that excipient wettability or swelling properties varied with the structure of excipients. For example, MgSt could improve the water uptake, while impeded tablet swelling. Furthermore, in the present study it is verified that tablet disintegration was closely related to these parameters, especially wetting rate and initial water absorption rate. The higher wetting rate of water on tablet or initial water absorption rate, the faster swelling it be, resulting in the shorter tablet disintegration time. The methods utilized in the present study were feasible and effective. The disintegration of tablets did relate to these parameters, especially wetting rate and initial water absorption rate.

  15. ESR accident dosimetry using medicine tablets coated with sugar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kai, A.; Miki, T.; Ikeya, M.

    1990-01-01

    Properties of radiation-induced radicals in medicine tablets were investigated using electron spin resonance (ESR). A sharp ESR signal sensitive to gamma ray irradiation was observed in the sugar coating part of the tablets. The signal has anisotropic g values of g 1 = 2.0009, g 2 = 2.0007 and g 3 = 2.0002. The signal grows linearly with dose at least up to about 20 Gy. No fading was observed at room temperature even when exposed to sunlight. The dose to artificially irradiated tablets was estimated using the signal intensity and a previously determined calibration curve. The signal in sugar coated tablets can be utilised for dose measurements. In particular, the wide distribution of sugar coated tablets allows the use of the tablets as accident dosemeters. (author)

  16. The variability of ecstasy tablets composition in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Togni, Loraine R; Lanaro, Rafael; Resende, Rodrigo R; Costa, Jose L

    2015-01-01

    The content of ecstasy tablets has been changing over the years, and nowadays 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) is not always present in the tablets. The aim of this study was to investigate the chemical composition in the seized tablets labeled as ecstasy. We analyzed samples from 150 different seizures made by Sao Paulo's State Police by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. MDMA was present in 44.7% of the analyzed samples, and another twenty different active substances were identified in these tablets, such as caffeine, 2C-B, piperazines, amphetamines, phencyclidine, and others. Methamphetamine was present in 22% of these samples. The results demonstrate a huge shift in the pattern of trafficking of synthetic drugs, where MDMA has been replaced in tablets mostly by illicit psychoactive substances, in a clear attempt to bypass the law. The great variability in the tablets composition may lead to an increased risk of drug poisoning. © 2014 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  17. Acute toxicity evaluation of in situ gel-forming controlled drug delivery system based on biodegradable poly(ε-caprolactone)-poly(ethylene glycol)-poly(ε-caprolactone) copolymer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fang Fang; Gong Changyang; Dong Pengwei; Fu Shaozhi; Gu Yingchun; Guo Gang; Zhao Xia; Wei Yuquan; Qian Zhiyong

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, biodegradable poly(ε-caprolactone)-poly(ethylene glycol)-poly(ε-caprolactone) (PCL-PEG-PCL) triblock copolymer was synthesized, and was characterized by FTIR, 1 H-NMR and GPC. The PCL-PEG-PCL/dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) solution displayed in situ gelling behavior when subcutaneously injected into the body. Toxicity tests and a histopathological study were performed in BALB/c mice. We focused mainly on acute organ toxicity of BALB/c mice by subcutaneous injection. In the acute toxicity test, the dose of subcutaneous injection was 5 g/kg body weight (b.w.), and the mice were observed continuously for 14 days. For the histopathological study, samples including heart, lung, liver, kidneys, spleen, stomach and intestine were histochemically prepared and stained with hematoxylin-eosin for histopathological examination. No mortality or significant signs of toxicity were observed during the whole observation period, and there is no significant lesion to be shown in histopathological study of major organs in the mice. Therefore, the maximal tolerance dose of dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) solution of PCL-PEG-PCL copolymer by subcutaneous injection was calculated to be higher than 5 g/kg b.w. Therefore, the PCL-PEG-PCL/DMSO system was thought to be non-toxic after subcutaneous injection, and it might be a candidate for an in situ gelling controlled drug delivery system.

  18. 'Tablet burden' in patients with metastatic breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milic, Marina; Foster, Anna; Rihawi, Karim; Anthoney, Alan; Twelves, Chris

    2016-03-01

    The implications for patients with cancer, of the 'tablet burden' resulting from increasing use of oral anticancer drugs and medication for co-morbidities have not previously been well explored. We sought to (i) quantify tablet burden in women with metastatic breast cancer (MBC), (ii) establish which groups of drug contribute most to this burden and (iii) gain insight into patients' attitudes towards oral anti-cancer treatment. One hundred patients with MBC anonymously completed a questionnaire describing their medication histories and attitudes towards their tablets. The patients (mean age 60, range 31-95) were all female and taking a median of six tablets (range 0-31) daily; 37 patients were taking >10 tablets. Oral anticancer treatment constituted the category of treatment taken by the highest proportion of patients, followed by symptomatic cancer treatments, proton pump inhibitors and cardiovascular medication. Numerically, however, symptomatic drugs accounted for 44% of all tablets and specific anti-cancer treatment for 15%; medication not directly related to the cancer accounted for the remaining 40% of tablets. A quarter of patients reported inconvenience in taking their tablets, the main reason being tablet size and one third reported forgetting their tablets at least once a week. Nearly two thirds of patients expressing a preference favoured oral anticancer treatment, the commonest reason being greater convenience. Tablet burden is considerable for many patients with MBC and can be problematic. A significant proportion of tablets represent treatment for co-morbidities, the significance of which may be questionable in women with MBC. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Replacing Smartphones With Mini Tablet Technology: An Evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maneval, Rhonda; Mechtel, Marci

    Handheld technology allows students to access point-of-care resources throughout the clinical experience. To assess the viability of replacing student smartphones with tablets, an evaluation project was undertaken. Overall, students were equally dissatisfied with the 2 types of tablets that were evaluated. Students saw the potential usefulness of tablets to manage clinical assignments, interact with the learning management system, and communicate with faculty, but not for retrieving information currently accessible on their phones.

  20. Evaluation of powder and tableting properties of chitosan

    OpenAIRE

    Picker-Freyer, Katharina M.; Brink, Diana

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the process of tablet formation and the properties of the resulting tablets for 3 N-deacetylated chitosans, with a degree of deacetylation of 80%, 85%, or 90%. Material properties, such as water content, particle size and morphology, glass transition temperature, and molecular weight were studied. The process of tablet formation was analyzed by 3-D modeling, Heckel analysis, the pressure time function, and energy calculations in combination with elastic re...

  1. Preventive distribution and plans of iodine tablets stocks management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    This official note includes two parts: one concerns the new preventive distribution of iodine tablets on the areas defined by the Particular Intervention Plans (P.P.I.) around nuclear facilities and the other one the setting up of iodine tablets stocks beyond the P.P.I. areas. In annexe is a guide for the elaboration of stocks management plans for steady iodine tablets. (N.C.)

  2. Development of natural gum based fast disintegrating tablets of glipizide

    OpenAIRE

    Antesh Kumar Jha; Dipak Chetia

    2012-01-01

    Dysphagia and risk of choking are leading causes of patient non-compliance in the self-administration of conventional tablets. To overcome these limitations of conventional tablets fast-disintegrating tablets were developed, using natural gums. Natural gums were evaluated for bulk swelling capacity. Powder mix containing natural gums and glipizide was evaluated for water sorption, swelling index and capillary action. For faster onset and immediate hypoglycemic action, the fast disintegrating ...

  3. Profil Disolusi Terbanding Tablet Rifampisin Merek Dan Generik

    OpenAIRE

    Nurtanti, Mutiara Poetri; Kusuma, Anjar Mahardian; Siswanto, Agus

    2010-01-01

    Obat generik saat ini masih dipandang sebelah mata oleh masyarakat karena alasan kualitas dari obat generik lebih rendah dibandingkan obat merek. Tujuan penelitian ini untuk mengetahui perbandingan profil disolusi rifampisin tablet merek (A, B, C) dengan tablet rifampisin generik (D, E). Parameter penting dalam menentukan mutu obat dalam bentuk tablet adalah penetapan kekerasan, penetapan waktu hancur dan uji disolusi. Pengambilan sampel dilakukan berdasarkan produk yang beredar di pasaran ya...

  4. Effects of Lactobacillus salivarius-containing tablets on caries risk factors: a randomized open-label clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishihara, Tetsuyo; Suzuki, Nao; Yoneda, Masahiro; Hirofuji, Takao

    2014-09-02

    To evaluate the effects of the lactic acid bacterium Lactobacillus salivarius on caries risk factors. The study was performed in 64 healthy volunteers to evaluate the effects of L. salivarius-containing tablets on caries risk factors. The participants were divided randomly into four groups, and took tablets containing L. salivarius WB21, L. salivarius TI 2711, Ovalgen® DC (antibody against glucosyltransferase from Streptococcus mutans), or xylitol. Levels of mutans streptococci and lactobacilli, amount of salivary flow, salivary pH, and salivary buffering capacity were assessed before and after taking the tablets. Subsequently, a short-term administration trial using L. salivarius WB21-containing tablets was performed in eight healthy volunteers. The participants took L. salivarius WB21-containing tablets (2.0 × 10(9) colony forming units/day) for 2 weeks, and the numbers of mutans streptococci in saliva were counted. The levels of mutans streptococci seemed to decrease in the L. salivarius WB21, TI 2711, and Ovalgen® DC groups compared to the xylitol group, with no significant differences between the groups. Lactobacilli levels significantly increased in the L. salivarius WB21 and TI 2711 groups compared to the other groups. Concerning salivary flow and salivary pH, no significant differences were observed between the groups. The salivary buffering capacity significantly increased in the L. salivarius TI 2711 group (P = 0.003) and Ovalgen® DC group (P = 0.002) compared to the xylitol group. The short-term administration trial showed that the L. salivarius WB21-containing tablets significantly decreased the number of mutans streptococci (P = 0.039). L. salivarius-containing tablets were suggested to increase resistance to caries risk factors. UMIN000013160 (registration date: February 14, 2014).

  5. Fabricating a Shell-Core Delayed Release Tablet Using Dual FDM 3D Printing for Patient-Centred Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okwuosa, Tochukwu C; Pereira, Beatriz C; Arafat, Basel; Cieszynska, Milena; Isreb, Abdullah; Alhnan, Mohamed A

    2017-02-01

    Individualizing gastric-resistant tablets is associated with major challenges for clinical staff in hospitals and healthcare centres. This work aims to fabricate gastric-resistant 3D printed tablets using dual FDM 3D printing. The gastric-resistant tablets were engineered by employing a range of shell-core designs using polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) and methacrylic acid co-polymer for core and shell structures respectively. Filaments for both core and shell were compounded using a twin-screw hot-melt extruder (HME). CAD software was utilized to design a capsule-shaped core with a complementary shell of increasing thicknesses (0.17, 0.35, 0.52, 0.70 or 0.87 mm). The physical form of the drug and its integrity following an FDM 3D printing were assessed using x-ray powder diffractometry (XRPD), thermal analysis and HPLC. A shell thickness ≥0.52 mm was deemed necessary in order to achieve sufficient core protection in the acid medium. The technology proved viable for incorporating different drug candidates; theophylline, budesonide and diclofenac sodium. XRPD indicated the presence of theophylline crystals whilst budesonide and diclofenac sodium remained amorphous in the PVP matrix of the filaments and 3D printed tablets. Fabricated tablets demonstrated gastric resistant properties and a pH responsive drug release pattern in both phosphate and bicarbonate buffers. Despite its relatively limited resolution, FDM 3D printing proved to be a suitable platform for a single-process fabrication of delayed release tablets. This work reveals the potential of dual FDM 3D printing as a unique platform for personalising delayed release tablets to suit an individual patient's needs.

  6. Evaluation of spray and freeze dried excipient bases containing disintegration accelerators for the formulation of metoclopramide orally disintegrating tablets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alanazi, Fars K.

    2007-01-01

    Orally disintegrating tablets (ODT) are gaining attractiveness over conventional tablets especially for patients having difficulty in swallowing such as pediatric, geriatric, bedridden and disable patients. ODT technologies render the tablets disintegrate in the mouth without chewing or additional water intake. So far there have been many patents for ODT, but only few publications are dealing with this dosage form. The aim of the present study was to formulate metoclopramide in ODT with sufficient mechanical strength and fast disintegration from bases prepared by both spray (SD) and freeze drying (FD) techniques. Different disintegration accelerators (DA) were utilized to prepare proper ODT using various super-disintegrants (Ac-Di-Sol, Kollidon and Sodium Starch glycolate), a volatilizing solvent (ethanol) and an amino acid (glycine). Metoclopramide, an antiemetic medication, was used a model drug in the formulated ODT. It was noted that the disintegration of ODT depends on utilization of DA in both SD and FD techniques to prepare tablet bases for ODT and so many other factors such as drying processes. The good disintegration property of the prepared tablets was related to the excellent wettability of the ingredients after being subjected to the drying processes. Results also showed that the addition of DA to the tablet bases before drying process results in lengthening of the disintegration time in comparison to their addition to the tablet bases after the drying process. Those findings be utilized for many drugs and they may be considered versatile in their applications. Also, the disintegration of the ODT in the buccal cavity may favor fast absorption via the mucus membrane in the oral cavity. (author)

  7. Tablet-Based Functional MRI of the Trail Making Test: Effect of Tablet Interaction Mode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahta Karimpoor

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The Trail Making Test (TMT is widely used for assessing executive function, frontal lobe abilities, and visual motor skills. Part A of this pen-and-paper test (TMT-A involves linking numbers randomly distributed in space, in ascending order. Part B (TMT-B alternates between linking numbers and letters. TMT-B is more demanding than TMT-A, but the mental processing that supports the performance of this test remains incompletely understood. Functional MRI (fMRI may help to clarify the relationship between TMT performance and brain activity, but providing an environment that supports real-world pen-and-paper interactions during fMRI is challenging. Previously, an fMRI-compatible tablet system was developed for writing and drawing with two modes of interaction: the original cursor-based, proprioceptive approach, and a new mode involving augmented reality to provide visual feedback of hand position (VFHP for enhanced user interaction. This study characterizes the use of the tablet during fMRI of young healthy adults (n = 22, with half of the subjects performing TMT with VFHP and the other half performing TMT without VFHP. Activation maps for both TMT-A and TMT-B performance showed considerable overlap between the two tablet modes, and no statistically differences in brain activity were detected when contrasting TMT-B vs. TMT-A for the two tablet modes. Behavioral results also showed no statistically different interaction effects for TMT-B vs. TMT-A for the two tablet modes. Tablet-based TMT scores showed reasonable convergent validity with those obtained by administering the standard pen-and-paper TMT to the same subjects. Overall, the results suggest that despite the slightly different mechanisms involved for the two modes of tablet interaction, both are suitable for use in fMRI studies involving TMT performance. This study provides information for using tablet-based TMT methods appropriately in future fMRI studies involving patients and healthy

  8. Placing wireless tablets in clinical settings for patient education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stribling, Judy C; Richardson, Joshua E

    2016-04-01

    The authors explored the feasibility and possible benefit of tablet-based educational materials for patients in clinic waiting areas. We distributed eight tablets preloaded with diagnosis-relevant information in two clinic waiting areas. Patients were surveyed about satisfaction, usability, and effects on learning. Technical issues were resolved. Thirty-seven of forty patients completed the survey. On average, the patients were satisfied in all categories. Placing tablet-based educational materials in clinic waiting areas is relatively easy to implement. Patients using tablets reported satisfaction across three domains: usability, education, and satisfaction.

  9. Placing wireless tablets in clinical settings for patient education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judy C. Stribling, MA, MLS

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The authors explored the feasibility and possible benefit of tablet-based educational materials for patients in clinic waiting areas. Methods: We distributed eight tablets preloaded with diagnosis-relevant information in two clinic waiting areas. Patients were surveyed about satisfaction, usability, and effects on learning. Technical issues were resolved. Results: Thirty-seven of forty patients completed the survey. On average, the patients were satisfied in all categories. Conclusions: Placing tablet-based educational materials in clinic waiting areas is relatively easy to implement. Patients using tablets reported satisfaction across three domains: usability, education, and satisfaction.

  10. Ginger Orally Disintegrating Tablets to Improve Swallowing in Older People.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirata, Ayumu; Funato, Hiroki; Nakai, Megumi; Iizuka, Michiro; Abe, Noriaki; Yagi, Yusuke; Shiraishi, Hisashi; Jobu, Kohei; Yokota, Junko; Hirose, Kahori; Hyodo, Masamitsu; Miyamura, Mitsuhiko

    2016-01-01

    We previously prepared and pharmaceutically evaluated ginger orally disintegrating (OD) tablets, optimized the base formulation, and carried out a clinical trial in healthy adults in their 20 s and 50s to measure their effect on salivary substance P (SP) level and improved swallowing function. In this study, we conducted clinical trials using the ginger OD tablets in older people to clinically evaluate the improvements in swallowing function resulting from the functional components of the tablet. The ginger OD tablets were prepared by mixing the excipients with the same amount of mannitol and sucrose to a concentration of 1% ginger. Eighteen healthy older adult volunteers aged 63 to 90 were included in the swallowing function test. Saliva was collected before and 15 min after administration of the placebo and ginger OD tablets. Swallowing endoscopy was performed by an otolaryngologist before administration and 15 min after administration of the ginger OD tablets. A scoring method was used to evaluate the endoscopic swallowing. Fifteen minutes after taking the ginger OD tablets, the salivary SP amount was significantly higher than prior to ingestion or after taking the placebo (pginger OD tablets. Our findings showed that the ginger OD tablets increased the salivary SP amount and improved swallowing function in older people with appreciably reduced swallowing function.

  11. [Formulation optimization of panax notoginsenoside orally fast disintegration tablets].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhi; Wei, Li; Chen, Ting

    2008-07-01

    To optimize the formulation of panax notoginsenoside orally fast disintegrating tablets. Mannitol, microcrystalline cellulose (PH 102) and lactose 80 were used as diluent. A polynomial regression algorithm was used to evaluate the relationship between the controlling factor, compacting pressure and diluent ratio, and disintegration time, tensile strength of tablets. Optimum formulation and process parameters could be determined by contrast the contour plot of tensile strength to that of disintegration time. The disintegration time and tensile strength of panax notoginsenoside oral disintegrating tablets were good, and the taste was satisfactory. Panax notoginsenoside oral disintegrating tablets achieve the goal of design and this method can be fairly used in formulation screening.

  12. SIMULTANEOUS SPECTROPHOTOMETRIC DETERMINATION OF MONTELUKAST SODIUM AND BAMBUTEROL HYDROCHLORIDE IN TABLETS

    OpenAIRE

    Patel Satish A; Patel Dhara J; Patel Natavarlal J.

    2011-01-01

    The present manuscript describe simple, sensitive, rapid, accurate, precise and economical first derivative spectrophotometric method for the simultaneous determination of montelukast sodium and bambuterol hydrochloride in combined tablet dosage form. The derivative spectrophotometric method was based on the determination of both the drugs at their respective zero crossing point (ZCP). The first order derivative spectra was obtained in chloroform and the determinations were made at 241 nm (ZC...

  13. Polymeric materials and formulation technologies for modified-release tablet development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarate, J; Igartua, M; Hernández, R M; Pedraz, J L

    2009-11-01

    Over the last years significant advances have been made in the area of drug delivery with the development of modified-release (MR) dosage forms. The present review is divided into two parts, one dealing with technologies for the design of modified-release drug delivery tablets and the other with the use of synthetic and natural polymers that are capable of controlling drug release.

  14. Development of Coprocessed Chitin-Calcium Carbonate as Multifunctional Tablet Excipient for Direct Compression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaheen, Mohammad; Sanchez-Ballester, Noelia M; Bataille, Bernard; Yassine, Ahmad; Belamie, Emmanuel; Sharkawi, Tahmer

    2018-04-24

    Owing to the increasing interest in multifunctional excipients for tableting, coprocessing of individual excipients is regularly used to produce excipients of improved multifunctionality superior to individual excipients or their physical mix. The use of chitin as an excipient in tablet formulation is limited because of certain drawbacks such as poor flowability and low true density. The objective of this work is to improve these properties through coprocessing of chitin with calcium carbonate (CaCO 3 ) by precipitating CaCO 3 on chitin particles using different methods. In addition, optimization of the coprocessed chitin was carried out to improve the excipient's properties. Physicochemical (CaCO 3 content, true density, X-ray diffraction, infrared spectroscopy, and scanning electron microscopy) and functional testing (swelling force, flowability, tensile strength, deformation mechanism, and disintegration time) were used to characterize the coprocessed product. Results showed that the calcite CaCO 3 polymorph is precipitated on the chitin surface and that it interacts with chitin at carbonyl- and amide-group level. In addition, the coprocessed excipient has an improved true density and powder flowability, with CaCO 3 forming single layer on the chitin particles surface. Tableting studies showed that the coprocessed powder exhibited an intermediate deformation behavior between CaCO 3 (most brittle) and chitin (most plastic). Tablets showed acceptable tensile strength and rapid disintegration (2-4 s). These results show the potential use of coprocessed chitin-CaCO 3 as a multifunctional excipient for fast disintegration of tablets produced by direct compression. Copyright © 2018 American Pharmacists Association®. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. A simple and convenient method for the simultaneous in vitro study of metformin and glimepiride tablets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Rehan

    2014-11-01

    A simple and convenient method was developed for the simultaneous determination of metformin HCl and glimepiride in tablet dosage form of different pharmaceuticals companies. This method was validated and proved to be applicable for assay determination in intermediate and finished staged. More over a single medium dissolution of metformin HCl and glimepiride was established and the media was evaluated for comparative studies for different formulations. Reverse phase HPLC equipped with UV detector was used for the determination of metformin HCl and glimepiride. A mixture of acetonitrile and ammonium acetate buffer 0.05M pH 3.0 was used as mobile phase at flow rate of 1.0ml/min. Promocil C18 5µ 100Aº 4.6 x 100mm C18 silica column was used and detection was carried out at 270nm. Method was found to be linear over the range of 4ppm to 16ppm for glimepiride and 170ppm to 680ppm for metformin HCl. Regression co-efficient were found to be 0.9949 and 0.9864 for glimepiride and metformin HCl respectively. Dissolution was performed in 500ml 0.2% sodium lauryl sulfate at 37°C for 45min using paddle apparatus. Dissolution of glimepiride was found to be 98.60% and 101.08% in Orinase Met1 tablet and Amaryl M tablet respectively whereas metformin was found 99.41% and 98.59% in Orinase Met 1 tablet and Amaryl M tablet. RSD for all the dissolutions was less than 2.0% after completion.

  16. Isolation and preliminary evaluation of Mulva Neglecta mucilage: a novel tablet binder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haroon Rahim

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The aim of this study was to evaluate binding potential of Mulva neglecta mucilage (MNM with subsequent comparison to PVP K30. Eight batches of Diclofenac sodium tablets were prepared by wet granulation technique keeping different concentrations (4, 6, 8 & 10% w/w of Mulva neglecta mucilage (extracted from leaves of Mulva neglecta and PVP K30 as standard binder. The granules of formulated batches showed bulk density (g/mL 0.49 ± 0.00 to 0.57 ± 0.00, tapped density (g/mL 0.59 ± 0.01 to 0.70 ± 0.01, Carr's index 09.27 ± 0.95 to 19.65 ± 0.59, Hausner's ratio 1.12 ± 0.00 to 1.24 ± 0.01 and angle of repose 30.37 ± 2.90 °C to 36.86 ± 0.94 °C. Tablets were compressed to hardness 7.50 to 7.95 kg/cm2. The tablets showed 0.39 ± 0.02 to 0.39 ± 0.01% friability and 7:20 to 14:00 min disintegration time. Granules and post-compression evaluation revealed that parameters assessed were all found to be within the pharmacopoeial limits. The results (hardness, disintegration and dissolution proved that Mulva neglecta mucilage has better binding capacity for preparation of uncoated tablet dosage form as compared to PVP K30. Among all the formulations, MN-1 to MN-4 showed slow release as compared to PV-1 to PV-4 and thereby Mulva neglecta mucilage exhibited satisfactory drug release phenomenon tablets of diclofenac sodium.

  17. 78 FR 1247 - Certain Electronic Devices, Including Wireless Communication Devices, Tablet Computers, Media...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-08

    ... Wireless Communication Devices, Tablet Computers, Media Players, and Televisions, and Components Thereof... devices, including wireless communication devices, tablet computers, media players, and televisions, and... wireless communication devices, tablet computers, media players, and televisions, and components thereof...

  18. Systematic evaluation of common lubricants for optimal use in tablet formulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Shubhajit; Sun, Changquan Calvin

    2018-05-30

    As an essential formulation component for large-scale tablet manufacturing, the lubricant preserves tooling by reducing die-wall friction. Unfortunately, lubrication also often results in adverse effects on tablet characteristics, such as prolonged disintegration, slowed dissolution, and reduced mechanical strength. Therefore, the choice of lubricant and its optimal concentration in a tablet formulation is a critical decision in tablet formulation development to attain low die-wall friction while minimizing negative impact on other tablet properties. Three commercially available tablet lubricants, i.e., magnesium stearate, sodium stearyl fumerate, and stearic acid, were systematically investigated in both plastic and brittle matrices to elucidate their effects on reducing die-wall friction, tablet strength, tablet hardness, tablet friability, and tablet disintegration kinetics. Clear understanding of the lubrication efficiency of commonly used lubricants as well as their impact on tablet characteristics would help future tablet formulation efforts. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Evaluation of the performance characteristics of bilayer tablets: Part II. Impact of environmental conditions on the strength of bilayer tablets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kottala, Niranjan; Abebe, Admassu; Sprockel, Omar; Bergum, James; Nikfar, Faranak; Cuitiño, Alberto M

    2012-12-01

    Ambient air humidity and temperature are known to influence the mechanical strength of tablets. The objective of this work is to understand the influence of processing parameters and environmental conditions (humidity and temperature) on the strength of bilayer tablets. As part of this study, bilayer tablets were compressed with different layer ratios, dwell times, layer sequences, material properties (plastic and brittle), first and second layer forces, and lubricant concentrations. Compressed tablets were stored in stability chambers controlled at predetermined conditions (40C/45%RH, 40C/75%RH) for 1, 3, and 5 days. The axial strength of the stored tablets was measured and a statistical model was developed to determine the effects of the aforementioned factors on the strength of bilayer tablets. As part of this endeavor, a full 3 × 2(4) factorial design was executed. Responses of the experiments were analyzed using PROC GLM of SAS (SAS Institute Inc, Cary, North Carolina, USA). A model was fit using all the responses to determine the significant interactions (p < 0.05). Results of this study indicated that storage conditions and storage time have significant impact on the strength of bilayer tablets. For Avicel-lactose and lactose-Avicel tablets, tablet strength decreased with the increasing humidity and storage time. But for lactose-lactose tablets, due to the formation of solid bridges upon storage, an increase in tablet strength was observed. Significant interactions were observed between processing parameters and storage conditions on the strength of bilayer tablets.

  20. Carbon Break Even Analysis: Environmental Impact of Tablets in Higher Education

    OpenAIRE

    Fadi Safieddine; Imad Nakhoul

    2016-01-01

    With the growing pace of tablets use and the large focus it is attracting especially in higher education, this paper looks at an important aspect of tablets; their carbon footprint. Studies have suggested that tablets have positive impact on the environment; especially since tablets use less energy than laptops or desktops. Recent manufacturers’ reports on the carbon footprint of tablets have revealed that a significant portion, as much as 80%, of the carbon footprint of tablets comes from pr...

  1. Effect of protective coating of aspirin tablets with acrylatemethacrylate copolymers on tablet disintegration times and dissolution rates

    OpenAIRE

    Okor R; Eichie F; Uhumwangho M; Aka-Aha A

    2007-01-01

    Tablets of aspirin (a moisture degradable drug) have been film coated with two analogous Eudragit RL and RS copolymers designated here as A and B which differ only in their cation content in the ratio 2:1 (A:B). A, is therefore more hydrophilic than B. The tablets were film coated with ethanol solutions of these two polymers. Film coating with either A or B significantly reduced the moisture uptake potentials of the tablets but caused an increase in the disintegration times of the tablets and...

  2. VERIFICATION HPLC METHOD OF QUANTITATIVE DETERMINATION OF AMLODIPINE IN TABLETS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khanin V. A

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Amlodipine ((±-2-[(2-aminoetoksimethyl]-4-(2-chlorophenyl-1,4-dihydro-6-methyl-3,5-pyridine dicarboxylic acid 3-ethyl 5-methyl ester as besylate and small tally belongs to the group of selective long-acting calcium channel blockers, dihydropyridine derivatives. In clinical practice, as antianginal and antihypertensive agent for the treatment of cardiovascular diseases. It is produced in powder form, substance and finished dosage forms (tablets of 2.5, 5 and 10 mg. The scientific literature describes methods of quantitative determination of the drug by spectrophotometry – by his own light absorption and by reaction product with aloksan, chromatography techniques, kinetic-spectrophotometric method in substances and preparations and methods chromatomass spectrometry and stripping voltammetry. For the quantitative determination of amlodipine besylate British Pharmacopoeia and European Pharmacopoeia recommend the use of liquid chromatography method. In connection with the establishment of the second edition of SPhU and when it is comprised of articles on the finished product, we set out to analyze the characteristics of the validation of chromatographic quantitative determination of amlodipine besylate tablets and to verify the analytical procedure. Material & methods. In conducting research using substance amlodipine besylate series number AB0401013. Analysis subject pill “Amlodipine” series number 20113 manufacturer of “Pharmaceutical company “Zdorovye”. Analytical equipment used is: 2695 chromatograph with diode array detector 2996 firms Waters Corp. USA using column Nova-Pak C18 300 x 3,9 mm with a particle size of 4 μm, weight ER-182 company AND Japan, measuring vessel class A. Preparation of the test solution. To accurately sample powder tablets equivalent to 50 mg amlodipine, add 30 ml of methanol, shake for 30 minutes, dilute the solution to 50.0 ml with methanol and filtered. 5 ml of methanol solution adjusted to

  3. Hot-melt sub- and outercoating combined with enteric aqueous coating to improve the stability of aspirin tablets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiuzhi Wang

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Aspirin is apt to hydrolyze. In order to improve its stability, a new method has been developed involving the application of hot-melt sub- and outercoating combined with enteric aqueous coating. The main aim was to investigate the influence of these factors on the stability of ASA and understand how they work. Satisfactory storage stability were obtained when the aspirin tablet core coated with Eudragit L30D55 film was combined with glycerin monostearate (GMS as an outercoat. Hygroscopicity testing indicated that the moisture penetrating into the tablet may result in a significant change in the physical properties of the coating film observed by scanning electron microscopy. Investigation of the compatibility between the drug and film excipients shows that the talc and methacrylic acid had a significant catalytic effect on ASA. A hypothesis was proposed that the hydrolysis of ASA enteric coated tablets (ASA-ECT was mostly concentrated in the internal film and the interfaces between the film and tablet core. In conclusion, hot-melt coating technology is an alternative to subcoating or outercoating. Also, GMS sub-coating was a better choice for forming a stable barrier between the tablet core and the polymer coating layer, and increases the structure and chemical stability.

  4. The effect of food on gastrointestinal (GI) transit of sustained-release ibuprofen tablets as evaluated by gamma scintigraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borin, M.T.; Khare, S.; Beihn, R.M.; Jay, M.

    1990-01-01

    The GI transit of radiolabeled sustained-release ibuprofen 800-mg tablets in eight healthy, fed volunteers was monitored using external gamma scintigraphy. Ibuprofen serum concentrations were determined from blood samples drawn over 36 hr following dosing. Sustained-release ibuprofen tablets containing 0.18% of 170Er2O3 (greater than 96% 170Er) in the bulk formulation were manufactured under pilot-scale conditions and were radiolabeled utilizing a neutron activation procedure which converted stable 170Er to radioactive 171Er (t1/2 = 7.5 hr). At the time of dosing, each tablet contained 50 mu Ci of 171Er. Dosage form position were reported at various time intervals. In five subjects the sustained-release tablet remained in the stomach and eroded slowly over 7-12 hr, resulting in gradual increases in small bowel radioactivity. In the remaining three subjects, the intact tablet was ejected from the stomach and a gastric residence time of approximately 4 hr was measured. This is in marked contrast to a previous study conducted in fasted volunteers in which gastric retention time ranged from 10 to 60 min. Differences in GI transit between fed and fasted volunteers had little effect on ibuprofen bioavailability. AUC and Tmax were unaltered and Cmax was increased by 24%, which is in agreement with results from a previous, crossover-design food effect study

  5. Pectin/anhydrous dibasic calcium phosphate matrix tablets for in vitro controlled release of water-soluble drug.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mamani, Pseidy Luz; Ruiz-Caro, Roberto; Veiga, María Dolores

    2015-10-15

    Different pectin/anhydrous dibasic calcium phosphate (ADCP) matrix tablets have been developed in order to obtain controlled release of a water-soluble drug (theophylline). Swelling, buoyancy and dissolution studies have been carried out in different aqueous media (demineralized water, progressive pH medium, simulated gastric fluid, simulated intestinal fluid and simulated colonic fluid), to characterize the matrix tablets. When the pectin/ADCP ratio was ≥0.26 (P1, P2, P3 and P4 tablets) a continuous swelling and low theophylline dissolution rate from the matrices were observed. So, pectin gel forming feature predominated over the ADCP properties, yielding pH-independent drug release behavior from these matrices. On the contrary, pectin/ADCP ratios ≤0.11 (P5 and P6 tablets) allowed to achieve drug dissolution pH dependent. Consequently, the suitable selection of the pectin/ADCP ratio will allow to tailor matrix tablets for controlled release of water-soluble drugs in a specific manner in the gastrointestinal tract. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Quantitative evaluation of polymer concentration profile during swelling of hydrophilic matrix tablets using 1H NMR and MRI methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumgartner, Sasa; Lahajnar, Gojmir; Sepe, Ana; Kristl, Julijana

    2005-02-01

    Many pharmaceutical tablets are based on hydrophilic polymers, which, after exposure to water, form a gel layer around the tablet that limits the dissolution and diffusion of the drug and provides a mechanism for controlled drug release. Our aim was to determine the thickness of the swollen gel layer of matrix tablets and to develop a method for calculating the polymer concentration profile across the gel layer. MR imaging has been used to investigate the in situ swelling behaviour of cellulose ether matrix tablets and NMR spectroscopy experiments were performed on homogeneous hydrogels with known polymer concentration. The MRI results show that the thickest gel layer was observed for hydroxyethylcellulose tablets, followed by definitely thinner but almost equal gel layer for hydroxypropylcellulose and hydroxypropylmethylcellulose of both molecular weights. The water proton NMR relaxation parameters were combined with the MRI data to obtain a quantitative description of the swelling process on the basis of the concentrations and mobilities of water and polymer as functions of time and distance. The different concentration profiles observed after the same swelling time are the consequence of the different polymer characteristics. The procedure developed here could be used as a general method for calculating polymer concentration profiles on other similar polymeric systems.

  7. A novel spray-dried nanoparticles-in-microparticles system for formulating scopolamine hydrobromide into orally disintegrating tablets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Feng-Qian; Yan, Cheng; Bi, Juan; Lv, Wei-Lin; Ji, Rui-Rui; Chen, Xu; Su, Jia-Can; Hu, Jin-Hong

    2011-01-01

    Scopolamine hydrobromide (SH)-loaded microparticles were prepared from a colloidal fluid containing ionotropic-gelated chitosan nanoparticles using a spray-drying method. The spray-dried microparticles were then formulated into orally disintegrating tablets (ODTs) using a wet granulation tablet formation process. A drug entrapment efficiency of about 90% (w/w) and loading capacity of 20% (w/w) were achieved for the microparticles, which ranged from 2 μm to 8 μm in diameter. Results of disintegration tests showed that the formulated ODTs could be completely dissolved within 45 seconds. Drug dissolution profiles suggested that SH is released more slowly from tablets made using the microencapsulation process compared with tablets containing SH that is free or in the form of nanoparticles. The time it took for 90% of the drug to be released increased significantly from 3 minutes for conventional ODTs to 90 minutes for ODTs with crosslinked microparticles. Compared with ODTs made with noncrosslinked microparticles, it was thus possible to achieve an even lower drug release rate using tablets with appropriate chitosan crosslinking. Results obtained indicate that the development of new ODTs designed with crosslinked microparticles might be a rational way to overcome the unwanted taste of conventional ODTs and the side effects related to SH’s intrinsic characteristics. PMID:21720502

  8. Atorvastatin Use Associated With Acute Pancreatitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Shih-Wei; Lin, Cheng-Li; Liao, Kuan-Fu

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Few data are present in the literature on the relationship between atorvastatin use and acute pancreatitis. The aim of this study was to explore this issue in Taiwan. Using representative claims data established from the Taiwan National Health Insurance Program, this case–control study consisted of 5810 cases aged 20 to 84 years with a first-time diagnosis of acute pancreatitis during the period 1998 to 2011and 5733 randomly selected controls without acute pancreatitis. Both cases and controls were matched by sex, age, comorbidities, and index year of diagnosing acute pancreatitis. Subjects who at least received 1 prescription for other statins or nonstatin lipid-lowering drugs were excluded from the study. If subjects never had 1 prescription for atorvastatin, they were defined as never use of atorvastatin. Current use of atorvastatin was defined as subjects whose last remaining 1 tablet of atorvastatin was noted ≤7 days before the date of diagnosing acute pancreatitis. Late use of atorvastatin was defined as subjects whose last remaining 1 tablet of atorvastatin was noted >7 days before the date of diagnosing acute pancreatitis. The odds ratio with 95% confidence interval of acute pancreatitis associated with atorvastatin use was calculated by using the logistic regression analysis. The logistic regression analysis revealed that the odds ratio of acute pancreatitis was 1.67 for subjects with current use of atorvastatin (95% confidence interval 1.18, 2.38), when compared with subjects with never use of atorvastatin. The odds ratio decreased to 1.15 for those with late use of atorvastatin (95% confidence interval 0.87, 1.52), but without statistical significance. Current use of atorvastatin is associated with the diagnosis of acute pancreatitis. Clinically, clinicians should consider the possibility of atorvastatin-associated acute pancreatitis when patients present with a diagnosis of acute pancreatitis without a definite etiology but are taking

  9. THE USE OF LAPTOP COMPUTERS, TABLETS AND GOOGLE EARTH/GOOGLE MAPS APPLICATIONS DURING GEOGRAPHY CLUB SEMINARS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FLORIN GALBIN

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In the current study, we aim to investigate the use of Google Earth and Google Maps Applications on tablet and laptop computers. The research was carried out during the Geography Club seminars organized at “Radu Petrescu” High School in the 2013-2014 school year. The research involved 13 students in various gymnasium and high school grades. The activities included: navigation with Google Earth/Maps, image capturing techniques, virtual tours, measuring distances or river lengths, identifying relief forms, and locating geographical components of the environment. In order to retrieve students’ opinions regarding the use of tablets and laptop computers with these two applications, they were asked to respond to a questionnaire after the activities took place. Conclusions revealed that students enjoyed using these applications with laptops and tablets and that the learning process during Geography classes became more interesting.

  10. INFLUENCE OF CARBOXYMETHYLCELLULOSE SODIUM AND LUTROL ON THE SWELLING INDEX AND DISINTEGRATION TIME OF BIOMUCOADHESIVE TABLETS WITH MICONAZOLE NITRATE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birsan, Magdalena; Scutariu, Monica Mihaela; Cojocaru, Ileana

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE. To develop original pharmaceutical formulation with miconazole nitrate, biomucoadhesive tablets, used in antifungal medication. The oral biomucoadhesive tablets with miconazole nitrate were developed by direct compression of the excipient mixture: carboxymethylcellulose sodium and lutrol 6000, excipients used for bioadhesivity, mannitol as a sugar substitute and aerosil as a lubricant. The main goal of the study is to determine the disintegration time and the swelling index of biomucoadhesive tablets with miconazole nitrate in order to estimate the time of contact with mucosa, respectively the prolongation of drug substance release. The swelling index was calculated depending on time in all the 5 formulations that included the carboxymethylcellulose sodium and Lutrol 6000 as matrix-forming, and the studied were time and association ratio between polymers. Analysing the results, we noticed that out of the four excipients we used, carboxymethylcellulose sodium had the higher influence on the swelling index and disintegration time.

  11. Construct validity and inter-rater reliability of the Dutch activity measure for post-acute care "6-clicks" basic mobility form to assess the mobility of hospitalized patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geelen, Sven Jacobus Gertruda; Valkenet, Karin; Veenhof, Cindy

    2018-05-12

    To evaluate the construct validity and the inter-rater reliability of the Dutch Activity Measure for Post-Acute Care "6-clicks" Basic Mobility short form measuring the patient's mobility in Dutch hospital care. First, the "6-clicks" was translated by using a forward-backward translation protocol. Next, 64 patients were assessed by the physiotherapist to determine the validity while being admitted to the Internal Medicine wards of a university medical center. Six hypotheses were tested regarding the construct "mobility" which showed that: Better "6-clicks" scores were related to less restrictive pre-admission living situations (p = 0.011), less restrictive discharge locations (p = 0.001), more independence in activities of daily living (p = 0.001) and less physiotherapy visits (p Dutch "6-clicks" shows a good construct validity and moderate-to-excellent inter-rater reliability when used to assess the mobility of hospitalized patients. Implications for Rehabilitation Even though various measurement tools have been developed, it appears the majority of physiotherapists working in a hospital currently do not use these tools as a standard part of their care. The Activity Measure for Post-Acute Care "6-clicks" Basic Mobility is the only tool which is designed to be short, easy to use within usual care and has been validated in the entire hospital population. This study shows that the Dutch version of the Activity Measure for Post-Acute Care "6-clicks" Basic Mobility form is a valid, easy to use, quick tool to assess the basic mobility of Dutch hospitalized patients.

  12. Taste-masking assessment of orally disintegrating tablets and lyophilisates with cetirizine dihydrochloride microparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandra Amelian

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Orally disintegrating tablets and oral lyophilisates are novel attractive dosage forms that disintegrate or dissolve in the buccal cavity within seconds without necessity of drinking. The major limitation in designing of these dosage forms is unpleasant taste of the drug substance. Cetirizine dihydrochloride is a H1-antihistamine substance indicated for the treatment of allergy. It is characterized by extremely bitter taste, therefore in order to deliver cetirizine dihydrochloride using orodispersible formulations, effective taste-masking is required. The aim of this study was to investigate whether microparticles containing cetirizine dihydrochloride could be successfully used to formulate orally disintegrating tablets by direct compression method and oral lyophilisates by freeze-drying process. Taste masking of cetirizine dihydrochloride was achieved by the spray-drying technique using Eudragit® E PO as the drug agent carrier. Based on the preliminary studies, optimal compositions of microparticles, tablets and lyophilisates were chosen. Obtained dosage forms were characterized for drug content, disintegration time and mechanical properties. In order to determine whether the microparticles subjected to direct compression and freeze-drying process effectively mask the bitter taste of cetirizine dihydrochloride, the in vivo and in vitro evaluation was performed. The results showed that designed formulates with microparticles containing cetirizine dihydrochloride were characterized by appropriate mechanical properties, uniformity of weight and thickness, short disintegration time, and the uniform content of the drug substance. Taste-masking assessment performed by three independent methods (e-tongue evaluation, human test panel and the in vitro drug release revealed that microparticles with Eudragit® E PO are effective taste – masking carriers of cetirizine dihydrochloride and might be used to formulate orally disintegrating tablets and oral

  13. Keyboards: from Typewriters to Tablet Computers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gintautas Grigas

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The evolution of Lithuanian keyboards is reviewed. Keyboards are divided up to three categories according to flexibility of their adaptation for typing of Lithuanian texts: 1 mechanical typewriter keyboards (heavily adaptable, 2 electromechanical desktop or laptop computer keyboards, and 3 programmable touch screen tablet computer keyboards (easily adaptable. It is discussed how they were adapted for Lithuanian language, with solutions in other languages are compared. Both successful and unsuccessful solutions are discussed. The reasons of failures as well as their negative impact on writing culture and formation of bad habits in the work with computer are analyzed. The recommendations how to improve current situation are presented.

  14. Tramadol and acetaminophen tablets for dental pain.

    OpenAIRE

    Medve, R. A.; Wang, J.; Karim, R.

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of this work was to compare the efficacy and time to analgesia of a new tramadol/acetaminophen combination tablet to those of tramadol or acetaminophen (APAP) alone. A meta-analysis was performed of 3 separate single-dose, double-blind, parallel-group trials in patients with moderate or severe pain following extraction of 2 or more third molars. Patients in each study were evenly randomized to a single dose of tramadol/APAP (75 mg/650 mg), tramadol 75 mg, APAP 650 mg, ibuprofen 40...

  15. An in vitro analysis of disintegration times of different formulations of olanzapine orodispersible tablet: a preliminary report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hobbs, David; Karagianis, Jamie; Treuer, Tamas; Raskin, Joel

    2013-12-01

    Orodispersible tablets (ODTs) are tablet or wafer forms of medication that disintegrate in the mouth, aided only by saliva. ODTs rely on different fast dissolve/disintegration manufacturing technologies. Disintegration time differences for several olanzapine ODT forms were investigated. Risperdal M-Tab(®) was included as a non-olanzapine ODT comparator. Eleven olanzapine ODT examples and orodispersible risperidone strengths were evaluated in vitro for formulation composition, manufacturing method, disintegration and dissolution characteristics, and formulation differences in comparison with freeze dried Zydis(®) ODT. Automated dissolution test equipment captured ODT dissolution rates by measuring real-time release of active ingredient. A high-speed video camera was used to capture tablet disintegration times in warm simulated saliva. The main outcome measure was the disintegration and dissolution characteristics of the ODT formulations. The ODT manufacturing method was associated with time to disintegrate; the fastest were freeze dried tablets, followed by soft compressed tablets and then hard/dense tablets. Olanzapine Zydis(®) was the only ODT that completely disintegrated in less than 4 s for all strengths (5, 10, 15, and 20 mg), followed by 5-mg Prolanz FAST(®) (12 s) and then risperidone ODT 4 mg (40 s). Reasons for slow dissolution of the olanzapine generics may include low product potency, excipient binding, excipient solubility, active ingredient particle size and incomplete disintegration. Differences in the formulation and manufacturing process of olanzapine ODTs appear to have a strong influence on the disintegration time of the active compound; differences that may potentially impact their use in clinical practice.

  16. A methodological evaluation and predictive in silico investigation into the multi-functionality of arginine in directly compressed tablets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    ElShaer, Amr; Kaialy, Waseem; Akhtar, Noreen; Iyire, Affiong; Hussain, Tariq; Alany, Raid; Mohammed, Afzal R

    2015-10-01

    The acceleration of solid dosage form product development can be facilitated by the inclusion of excipients that exhibit poly-/multi-functionality with reduction of the time invested in multiple excipient optimisations. Because active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs) and tablet excipients present diverse densification behaviours upon compaction, the involvement of these different powders during compaction makes the compaction process very complicated. The aim of this study was to assess the macrometric characteristics and distribution of surface charges of two powders: indomethacin (IND) and arginine (ARG); and evaluate their impact on the densification properties of the two powders. Response surface modelling (RSM) was employed to predict the effect of two independent variables; Compression pressure (F) and ARG percentage (R) in binary mixtures on the properties of resultant tablets. The study looked at three responses namely; porosity (P), tensile strength (S) and disintegration time (T). Micrometric studies showed that IND had a higher charge density (net charge to mass ratio) when compared to ARG; nonetheless, ARG demonstrated good compaction properties with high plasticity (Y=28.01MPa). Therefore, ARG as filler to IND tablets was associated with better mechanical properties of the tablets (tablet tensile strength (σ) increased from 0.2±0.05N/mm(2) to 2.85±0.36N/mm(2) upon adding ARG at molar ratio of 8:1 to IND). Moreover, tablets' disintegration time was shortened to reach few seconds in some of the formulations. RSM revealed tablet porosity to be affected by both compression pressure and ARG ratio for IND/ARG physical mixtures (PMs). Conversely, the tensile strength (σ) and disintegration time (T) for the PMs were influenced by the compression pressure, ARG ratio and their interactive term (FR); and a strong correlation was observed between the experimental results and the predicted data for tablet porosity. This work provides clear evidence of the

  17. Recurrence of a t(8;21-Positive Acute Myeloid Leukemia in the Form of a Granulocytic Sarcoma Involving Cranial Bones: A Diagnostic and Therapeutic Challenge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ambra Di Veroli

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Granulocytic sarcoma (GS is a rare extramedullary solid tumor defined as an accumulation of myeloblasts or immature myeloid cells. It can cooccur with or precede the acute myeloid leukemia (AML as well as following treated AML. The incidence of GS in AML patients is 3–8% but it significantly rises in M2 FAB subtype AML. This variety of AML harbors t(8;21 in up to 20–25% of cases (especially in children and black ones of African origin and, at a molecular level, it is characterized by the generation of a fusion gene known as RUNX1-RUNX1T1. Approximately 10% of M2 AML patients will develop GS, as a consequence, the t(8;21 and the relative transcript represent the most common cytogenetic and molecular abnormalities in GS. FLT3-ITD mutation was rarely described in AML patients presenting with GS. FLT3 ITD is generally strongly associated with poor prognosis in AML, and is rarely reported in patients with t(8;21. GS presentation is extremely variable depending on organs involved; in general, cranial bones and sinus are very rarely affected sites. We report a rare case of GS occurring as a recurrence of a previously treated t(8;21, FLT3-ITD positive AML, involving mastoid bones and paravertebral tissues.

  18. Quantitative response of bone marrow colony-forming units (CFU-C and PFU-C) in weaning beagles exposed to acute whole-body γ irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilson, F.D.; Stitzel, K.A.; Klein, A.K.; Shifrine, M.; Graham, R.; Jones, M.; Bradley, E.; Rosenblatt, L.S.

    1978-01-01

    Using a methylcellulose-supported bone marrow culture system, the dose-response relationships of suspended granulocyte-monocyte colonies (CFU-C) and adherent fibroblastic colonies (PFU-C) were investigated in 2- to 3-month-old beagles exposed to acute whole-body γ irradiation. Groups of weanling beagles were exposed at a rate of 140 R/hr delivered from a 60 Co γ source achieving total exposures ranging from 0 to 586 R. Twenty-four hours following irradiation, bone marrow was collected, plated into methylcellulose, and after 1 week of incubation both colony types were quantitated. In addition, bone marrow cellularity determinations were made for a variety of bones using an 59 Fe-labeling technique. The results show a D 37 for the linear part of the slope of 70 R for CFU-C. Although within the limits of the experiment a D 37 could not be established for the fibroblastic populations, the results indicate a substantial degree of radioresistance for these elements supporting our previous studies on PFU-C, performed on mice, which suggested a D 37 of approximately 400 R for the progenitors of these fibroblastic elements

  19. Active Reading Behaviors in Tablet-Based Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palilonis, Jennifer; Bolchini, Davide

    2015-01-01

    Active reading is fundamental to learning. However, there is little understanding about whether traditional active reading frameworks sufficiently characterize how learners study multimedia tablet textbooks. This paper explores the nature of active reading in the tablet environment through a qualitative study that engaged 30 students in an active…

  20. Equivalency of Paper versus Tablet Computer Survey Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravert, Russell D.; Gomez-Scott, Jessica; Donnellan, M. Brent

    2015-01-01

    Survey responses collected via paper surveys and computer tablets were compared to test for differences between those methods of obtaining self-report data. College students (N = 258) were recruited in public campus locations and invited to complete identical surveys on either paper or iPad tablet. Only minor homogeneity differences were found…

  1. Students' Opinions on the Use of Tablet Computers in Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duran, Muharrem; Aytaç, Tufan

    2016-01-01

    One of the most important tools for the integration of ICT in education, especially with tablet computers, has been employed in Turkey through the FATIH Project. This study aimed to determine students' views on the use of tablet computers in learning and teaching processes. Eighty-four first-year high school students studying at three schools in…

  2. Tablet use in primary education: Adoption hurdles and attitude determinants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Deursen, Alexander Johannes Aloysius Maria; Ben Allouch, Soumaya; Ruijter, Laura P.

    2016-01-01

    In the Netherlands, six primary schools recently participated in a pilot program, creating an educational environment in which children use a tablet PC. In these six schools, two studies are conducted. The first study highlights the process by which primary schools adopted tablet PCs by means of

  3. Graphics Tablet Technology in Second Year Thermal Engineering Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrillo, Antonio; Cejudo, José Manuel; Domínguez, Fernando; Rodríguez, Eduardo

    2013-01-01

    Graphics tablet technology is well known in markets such as manufacturing, graphics arts and design but it has not yet found widespread acceptance for university teaching. A graphics tablet is an affordable teaching tool that combines the best features from traditional and new media. It allows developing a progressive, interactive lecture (as a…

  4. Tablet Use in Primary Education: Adoption Hurdles and Attitude Determinants

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Deursen, Alexander J. A. M.; ben Allouch, Somaya; Ruijter, Laura P.

    2016-01-01

    In the Netherlands, six primary schools recently participated in a pilot program, creating an educational environment in which children use a tablet PC. In these six schools, two studies are conducted. The first study highlights the process by which primary schools adopted tablet PCs by means of interviews based on diffusion of innovation theory.…

  5. Enhancing the Classroom Experience: Instructor Use of Tablets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cummings, Jeff; Hill, Stephen

    2015-01-01

    Instructors continually search for innovative approaches to interact with and engage students in the classroom. The tablet offers a potential innovation for this purpose. Tablet devices from Apple, Microsoft, and other hardware vendors have overcome many of the challenges of the past (e.g. cost and limited applications) to become useful tools for…

  6. Exploring the Use of Tablets for Student Teaching Supervision

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Joseph A.; Wesley, Whitney M.; Yerrick, Randy

    2016-01-01

    While research on the use of tablets in the field of education is emerging, existing research on the use of this tool for the purposes of student teaching supervision is very limited. This study aimed to explore the application of iPad tablets for student teacher supervision in a teacher preparation program at a large state university in the…

  7. Tablet-Based Education to Reduce Depression-Related Stigma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Catherine; Winkelman, Megan; Wong, Shane Shucheng

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: This study investigated the efficacy of a tablet-based multimedia education application, the Project Not Alone Depression Module, in improving depression literacy and reducing depression stigma among a community-based mental health clinic population. Methods: A total of 93 participants completed either a tablet-based multimedia…

  8. Endometrial safety of ultra-low-dose estradiol vaginal tablets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simon, James; Nachtigall, Lila; Ulrich, Lian G

    2010-01-01

    To evaluate the endometrial hyperplasia and carcinoma rate after 52-week treatment with ultra-low-dose 10-microgram 17ß-estradiol vaginal tablets in postmenopausal women with vaginal atrophy.......To evaluate the endometrial hyperplasia and carcinoma rate after 52-week treatment with ultra-low-dose 10-microgram 17ß-estradiol vaginal tablets in postmenopausal women with vaginal atrophy....

  9. Endometrial safety of ultra-low-dose estradiol vaginal tablets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simon, James; Nachtigall, Lila; Ulrich, Lian G

    2010-01-01

    To evaluate the endometrial hyperplasia and carcinoma rate after 52-week treatment with ultra-low-dose 10-microgram 17β-estradiol vaginal tablets in postmenopausal women with vaginal atrophy.......To evaluate the endometrial hyperplasia and carcinoma rate after 52-week treatment with ultra-low-dose 10-microgram 17β-estradiol vaginal tablets in postmenopausal women with vaginal atrophy....

  10. Effect of antacids in didanosine tablet on bioavailability of isoniazid.

    OpenAIRE

    Gallicano, K; Sahai, J; Zaror-Behrens, G; Pakuts, A

    1994-01-01

    The antacids in two didanosine placebo tablets had no significant effect on the plasma pharmacokinetics of a single oral dose of 300 mg of isoniazid administered to 12 healthy volunteers. These results suggest that isoniazid bioavailability will be unaffected by the antacids in didanosine tablets when the two medications are administered simultaneously to human immunodeficiency virus-seropositive patients.

  11. Effect of antacids in didanosine tablet on bioavailability of isoniazid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallicano, K; Sahai, J; Zaror-Behrens, G; Pakuts, A

    1994-04-01

    The antacids in two didanosine placebo tablets had no significant effect on the plasma pharmacokinetics of a single oral dose of 300 mg of isoniazid administered to 12 healthy volunteers. These results suggest that isoniazid bioavailability will be unaffected by the antacids in didanosine tablets when the two medications are administered simultaneously to human immunodeficiency virus-seropositive patients.

  12. Effect Of Formulating Additives On The Properties Of Ibuprofen Tablets

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A study of the comparative effects of different formulating additives and film coating on the properties of ibuprofen tablets was made. The tested properties were hardeness (H), friability (F), the disintegration time (D) and dissolution characteristics of ibuprofen tablets. The hardeness, friability, the hardeness friability ratio ...

  13. Tablets in English Class: Students' Activities Surrounding Online Dictionary Work

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunting, Leona

    2015-01-01

    Tablets have become increasingly popular among young people in Sweden and this rapid increase also resonates in school, especially in classrooms for younger children. The aim of the present study is to analyze and describe how the students deal with the open instructions for a task of using online dictionaries on tablets. Specific focus is on how…

  14. 21 CFR 520.2150b - Stanozolol chewable tablets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ....2150b Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... treatment in dogs. (2) Administered orally to small breeds of dogs, 1/2 to 1 tablet twice daily for several weeks; to large breeds of dogs, 1 to 2 tablets twice daily for several weeks. (3) Federal law restricts...

  15. 21 CFR 520.2362 - Thenium closylate tablets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ....2362 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED...) Conditions of use. (1) The tablets are administered orally to dogs as a single day treatment of canine... Uncinaria stenocephala (hookworms). Dogs weighing 10 pounds and over are administered 1 tablet as a single...

  16. Design and Evaluation of an Oral Floating Matrix Tablet of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To develop floating matrix tablets of salbutamol sulphate using ethyl cellulose and acrycoat S-100 as polymers, and sodium bicarbonate, citric acid and tartaric acid as gas generating agents. Methods: Twenty four formulations were prepared and segregated into four major categories, A to D. The floating tablets ...

  17. Absorption from iron tablets given with different types of meals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallberg, L; Björn-Rasmussen, E; Ekenved, G; Garby, L; Rossander, L; Pleehachinda, R; Suwanik, R; Arvidsson, B

    1978-09-01

    The absorption of iron from tablets given with 5 types of meals was studied in 153 subjects. The meals were: a hamburger meal with beans and potatoes, a simple breakfast meal, a Latin American meal composed of black beans, rice and maize and two Southeast Asian meals composed of rice, vegetables and spices served with and without fish. The groups were directly compared by relating the absorption from the iron tablets to the absorption from a standardized reference dose of iron given on an empty stomach. The composition of meals with respect to content of meat or fish or the presence of large amounts of phytates seemed to have no influence on the absorption of iron from tablets. The absorption from iron tablets was about 40% higher when they were given with rice meals than when they were given with the other meals studied. The average decrease in absorption by meals was about 50-60% based on a comparison when tablets were given on an empty stomach. When tablets from which the iron was released more slowly were used, the absorption increased by about 30% except when they were given with rice meals, where the absorption was unchanged. The differences among the meals in their effect on the absorption of iron from tablets thus disappeared when the slow-release tablets were given.

  18. Absorption from iron tablets given with different types of meals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hallberg, L; Bjoern-Rasmussen, E; Ekenved, G; Garby, L; Rossander, L; Pleehachinda, R; Suwanik, R; Arvidsson, B

    1978-01-01

    The absorption from iron tablets given with 5 types of meals was studied in 153 subjects. The meals were: a hamburger meal with beans and potatoes, a simple breakfast meal, a Latin American meal composed of black beans, rice and maize and two Southeast Asian meals composed of rice, vegetables, and spices served with and without fish. The groups were directly compared by relating the absorption from the iron tablets to the absorption from a standardized reference dose of iron given on an empty stomach. The composition of meals with respect to content of meat or fish or the presence of large amounts of phytates seemed to have no influence on the absorption of iron from tablets. The absorption from iron tablets was about 40% higher when they were given with rice meals than when they were given with the other meals studied. The average decrease in absorption by meals was about 50-60% based on a comparison when tablets were given on an empty stomach. When tablets from which the iron was released more slowly were used, the absorption increased by about 30% except when they were given with rice meals, where the absorption was unchanged. The differences among the meals in their effect on the absorption of iron from tablets thus disappeared when the slow-release tablets were given.

  19. Determination of Letrozole in Tablet Formulations by Reversed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Determination of Letrozole in Tablet Formulations by Reversed Phase High Performance Liquid Chromatography. ... The assay values for the two branded letrozole tablets tested were 99.2 and 100.2 %, respectively with % relative standard deviation (RSD) of 0.781 and 0.568, respectively. The bench top stability data of the ...

  20. Absorption from iron tablets given with different types of meals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hallberg, L.; Bjoern-Rasmussen, E.; Ekenved, G.; Garby, L.; Rossander, L.; Pleehachinda, R.; Suwanik, R.; Arvidsson, B.

    1978-01-01

    The absorption from iron tablets given with 5 types of meals was studied in 153 subjects. The meals were: a hamburger meal with beans and potatoes, a simple breakfast meal, a Latin American meal composed of black beans, rice and maize and two Southeast Asian meals composed of rice, vegetables, and spices served with and without fish. The groups were directly compared by relating the absorption from the iron tablets to the absorption from a standardized reference dose of iron given on an empty stomach. The composition of meals with respect to content of meat or fish or the presence of large amounts of phytates seemed to have no influence on the absorption of iron from tablets. The absorption from iron tablets was about 40% higher when they were given with rice meals than when they were given with the other meals studied. The average decrease in absorption by meals was about 50-60% based on a comparison when tablets were given on an empty stomach. When tablets from which the iron was released more slowly were used, the absorption increased by about 30% except when they were given with rice meals, where the absorption was unchanged. The differences among the meals in their effect on the absorption of iron from tablets thus disappeared when the slow-release tablets were given. (author)

  1. Evaluation of some anionic exchange resins as potential tablet ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of resin concentration and compression force on the properties of tablets using the selected resin was investigated. In addition, the disintegrant efficacy of the selected resin in the tablet formulations containing either a basic drug, e.g., dextromethorphan hydrobromide (DMP), or an acidic drug, e.g., diclofenac ...

  2. The influence of granulating solvents on drug release from tablets ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... significantly lower than the other wet granulated tablets, but higher than the matrix tablets. The granulating solvent influenced the release of drug which increased with increase in the water content. Key Words: Grewia gum: Granulating solvents; Release mechanisms. Journal of Pharmacy and Bioresources Vol.1(1) 2004: ...

  3. Formulation of Sustained-Release Diltiazem Matrix Tablets Using ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Formulation of Sustained-Release Diltiazem Matrix Tablets Using Hydrophilic Gum Blends. A Moin, H.G Shivakumar. Abstract. Purpose: To develop sustained release matrix tablets of diltiazem hydrochloride (DTZ) using karaya gum (K) alone or in combination with locust bean gum (LB) and hydroxypropyl methylcellulose ...

  4. Formulation of Fast-Dissolving Tablets of Promethazine Theoclate ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To optimize and formulate promethazine theoclate fast-dissolving tablets that offer a suitable approach to the treatment of nausea and vomiting. Method: The solubility of promethazine theoclate was increased by formulating it as a fast-dissolving tablet containing β-cyclodextrin, crospovidone, and camphor, using ...

  5. Optimization and Formulation of Orodispersible Tablets of Meloxicam

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... 98.5% and fast drug release rate of 99.5% within 30 min, as compared with the conventional tablet (49.5%) . Conclusion: It is feasible to formulate orodispersible tablets of meloxican with acceptable disintegration time, rapid drug release and good hardness, which could be amenable to replication on an industrial scale.

  6. Comparative photostability study of Fancimef tablet and its active ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fancimef tablet is one of the multi-component drugs recently introduced into malaria therapy to combat the resistant strains of Plasmodium parasite. Like most complex organic compounds, it is expected that the organic compounds in Fancimef tablet will absorb light spectra leading to its photodecomposition and all its ...

  7. Tensile and shear methods for measuring strength of bilayer tablets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Shao-Yu; Li, Jian-Xin; Sun, Changquan Calvin

    2017-05-15

    Both shear and tensile measurement methods have been used to quantify interfacial bonding strength of bilayer tablets. The shear method is more convenient to perform, but reproducible strength data requires careful control of the placement of tablet and contact point for shear force application. Moreover, data obtained from the shear method depend on the orientation of the bilayer tablet. Although more time-consuming to perform, the tensile method yields data that are straightforward to interpret. Thus, the tensile method is preferred in fundamental bilayer tableting research to minimize ambiguity in data interpretation. Using both shear and tensile methods, we measured the mechanical strength of bilayer tablets made of several different layer combinations of lactose and microcrystalline cellulose. We observed a good correlation between strength obtained by the tensile method and carefully conducted shear method. This suggests that the shear method may be used for routine quality test of bilayer tablets during manufacturing because of its speed and convenience, provided a protocol for careful control of the placement of the tablet interface, tablet orientation, and blade is implemented. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Prescription Tablets in the Digital Age: A Cross-Sectional Study Exploring Patient and Physician Attitudes Toward the Use of Tablets for Clinic-Based Personalized Health Care Information Exchange.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Vishal; Hale, Timothy M; Palakodeti, Sandeep; Kvedar, Joseph C; Jethwani, Kamal

    2015-10-19

    To reduce the cost of health care while increasing efficiency and quality, health systems are seeking innovative means to engage and empower patients. Improved use of information technology and electronic health record (EHR) infrastructure is essential, and required for "meaningful use" as mandated by the federal government. Providing personalized health information using tablets at the point of care could enhance the clinical experience and enable efficient collection of patient reported outcome measures to guide clinical decision making. The aim of this study is to explore patient and provider attitudes and interest in a proposed clinic-based tablet system for personal health information exchange. To provide a context to understand patients' use of tablets during their clinic visit, we also examine patients' current activities and time spent in the waiting room, and their use of health information resources. Surveys were administered to 84 patients in the waiting room of a community health center affiliated with Massachusetts General Hospital (MGH) in Boston, MA. This survey included a vignette and illustration describing a proposed tablet-based system in which the patient, upon sign in at the clinic, receives a tablet loaded with personalized information tailored to their specific medical conditions and preferences. Patients were queried about their interest in such a system in comparison to traditional forms of patient education as well as their current health information seeking behaviors and activities and time spent in the waiting room. Interviews with five MGH-affiliated health care providers were conducted to assess their opinions regarding the proposed tablet system. The majority (>60%) of patients were "very" or "extremely" interested in the proposed tablet system and thought it would improve their knowledge about their medical condition (60%), assist them in making healthy choices (57%), and help them to feel more comfortable talking with their provider

  9. Development and evaluation of ofloxacin orally disintegrating tablets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Badrinath Pralhadrao Mohite

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Bitter taste of ofloxacin, a broad spectrum bactericidal agent, is masked and orally disintegrating tablets were formulated. The bitter taste is masked by forming complex between drug and weak cation exchange resins, Tulsion 335 and Indion 204. Effect of pH and drug:resin ratio on the drug loading was studied. Maximum drug loading was observed at pH 6. Ratio of 1:2 of drug:resin masked almost complete bitterness of ofloxacin. Formation of complexes was confirmed by IR spectroscopy. Physical characterization of taste masked complexes was carried out. Present work envisages the taste masking of ofloxacin and development of orally disintegrating tablets. The effect of pH and resin quantities on drug loading were studied to find the optimum conditions of drug loading for complete taste masking. Effect of superdisintegrants like sodium starch glycolate, croscarmellose sodium and polyplasdone XL at varying level on physical parameters of compressed tablets was also assessed. The formulations containing 5 % w/w polyplasdone XL showed about 90 % of drug release within 5 minutes. No significant differences were observed in the physical parameters of resinates as well as tablets prepared from Tulsion 335 and Indion 204.O gosto amargo de ofloxacina, agente bactericida de largo espectro, é mascarado e formularam-se comprimidos dispersíveis. O sabor amargo é mascarado pela formação de complexo entre o fármaco e resinas de troca catiônica fraca, Tulsion 335 e Indion 204. Efeito do pH e da proporção fármaco: resina sobre a carga de fármaco foi estudada. Carga de fármaco máxima foi observada em pH 6. Proporção 1:2 do fármaco: resina mascarou quase completamente o gosto amargo de ofloxacina. A formação de complexos foi confirmada por espectroscopia no IV. Caracterização física dos complexos de sabor mascarado foi realizada. O presente trabalho preconiza o mascaramento do gosto de ofloxacina e desenvolvimento decomprimidos por via oral, se

  10. Graphics tablet technology in second year thermal engineering teaching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Carrillo Andrés

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Graphics tablet technology is well known in markets such as manufacturing, graphics arts and design but they have not yet found widespread acceptance for university teaching. A graphics tablet is an affordable and efficient teaching tool that combines the best features from traditional and new media. It allows developing a progressive, interactive lecture (as a traditional blackboard does. However, the tablet is more versatile, being able to integrate graphic material such as tables, graphs, colours, etc. In addition to that, lecture notes can be saved and posted on a course website. The objective of this paper is to show the usefulness of tablet technology in undergraduate engineering teaching by sharing experiences made using a graphics tablet for lecturing a second year Thermal Engineering course. Students’ feedback is definitely positive, though there are some caveats regarding technical and operative problems.

  11. Multispectral UV imaging for determination of the tablet coating thickness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Novikova, Anna; Carstensen, Jens Michael; Zeitler, J. Axel

    2017-01-01

    The applicability of off-line multispectral ultraviolet (UV) imaging in combination with multivariate data analysis was investigated to determine the coating thickness and its distribution on the tablet surface during lab scale coating. The UV imaging results were compared with the weight gain...... measured for each individual tablet and the corresponding coating thickness and its distribution measured by terahertz pulsed imaging (TPI). Three different tablet formulations were investigated, two of which contained UV active tablet cores. Three coating formulations were applied: Aquacoat® ECD (a mainly...... translucent coating) and Eudragit® NE (a turbid coating containing solid particles). It was shown that UV imaging is a fast and non-destructive method to predict individual tablet weight gain as well as coating thickness. The coating thickness distribution profiles determined by UV imaging correlated...

  12. Actual and Potential Pedagogical Use of Tablets in Schools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenni Rikala

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study reviews the potential of tablet technology for teaching and learning. In autumn 2012, we conducted a focused survey comprising quantitative and qualitative questions with Finnish teachers (N = 171, from 54 schools. We focused on perceived pedagogical opportunities and the actualized pedagogical potential of tablets at schools. The survey results indicate that the actual usefulness of tablets in schools was significantly less than what teachers perceived as the pedagogical potential. However, the results demonstrate the positive impact these devices are having on teaching and learning, as well as prompting changes in pedagogical perspectives. Teachers stated that tablets can diversify and enhance teaching and learning in many ways, particularly in supporting learners’ motivation and independent learning, and promoting engaging teaching methods. Nevertheless, teachers voiced concern that the student-to-device ratio at the moment is too low, thus serving as a barrier to widespread use of tablets.

  13. Use of tablets for instruction and learning in microbiology labs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Karen Louise; Jelsbak, Vibe Alopaeus; Georgsen, Marianne

    of this project are to develop a technological infrastructure to support students’ work in the lab and to develop teaching and learning resources. Our research question is: How is teaching and learning in the laboratory influenced by the tablets and the following multimodal teaching and learning materials...... and taken notes by hand. Use of tablets in the lab offers new opportunities. In September 2012, nine tablets were introduced into one of the labs of the college. Groups of students use the tablets to access documents, watch video instructions, and to document results and procedures digitally. The objectives......? The empirical part of the project has been documented through field observations in the lab (in writing and with photos). We have found the following to be characteristic of the work of the students: the students use the tablets collaboratively, take more photos than requested, use the video based instructions...

  14. Demonstration of pharmaceutical tablet coating process by injection molding technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puri, Vibha; Brancazio, David; Harinath, Eranda; Martinez, Alexander R; Desai, Parind M; Jensen, Keith D; Chun, Jung-Hoon; Braatz, Richard D; Myerson, Allan S; Trout, Bernhardt L

    2018-01-15

    We demonstrate the coating of tablets using an injection molding (IM) process that has advantage of being solvent free and can provide precision coat features. The selected core tablets comprising 10% w/w griseofulvin were prepared by an integrated hot melt extrusion-injection molding (HME-IM) process. Coating trials were conducted on a vertical injection mold machine. Polyethylene glycol and polyethylene oxide based hot melt extruded coat compositions were used. Tablet coating process feasibility was successfully demonstrated using different coating mold designs (with both overlapping and non-overlapping coatings at the weld) and coat thicknesses of 150 and 300 μm. The resultant coated tablets had acceptable appearance, seal at the weld, and immediate drug release profile (with an acceptable lag time). Since IM is a continuous process, this study opens opportunities to develop HME-IM continuous processes for transforming powder to coated tablets. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. A classification system for tableting behaviors of binary powder mixtures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Changquan Calvin Sun

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The ability to predict tableting properties of a powder mixture from individual components is of both fundamental and practical importance to the efficient formulation development of tablet products. A common tableting classification system (TCS of binary powder mixtures facilitates the systematic development of new knowledge in this direction. Based on the dependence of tablet tensile strength on weight fraction in a binary mixture, three main types of tableting behavior are identified. Each type is further divided to arrive at a total of 15 sub-classes. The proposed classification system lays a framework for a better understanding of powder interactions during compaction. Potential applications and limitations of this classification system are discussed.

  16. Monitoring tablet surface roughness during the film coating process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seitavuopio, Paulus; Heinämäki, Jyrki; Rantanen, Jukka

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the change of surface roughness and the development of the film during the film coating process using laser profilometer roughness measurements, SEM imaging, and energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) analysis. Surface roughness and texture changes developing during...... the process of film coating tablets were studied by noncontact laser profilometry and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). An EDX analysis was used to monitor the magnesium stearate and titanium dioxide of the tablets. The tablet cores were film coated with aqueous hydroxypropyl methylcellulose, and the film...... coating was performed using an instrumented pilot-scale side-vented drum coater. The SEM images of the film-coated tablets showed that within the first 30 minutes, the surface of the tablet cores was completely covered with a thin film. The magnesium signal that was monitored by SEM-EDX disappeared after...

  17. Formulation and evaluation of glipizide floating-bioadhesive tablets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jayvadan K. Patel

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was formulation and in vitro evaluation of floating-bioadhesive tablets to lengthen the stay of glipizide in its absorption area. Effervescent tablets were made using chitosan (CH, hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC, carbopolP934 (CP, polymethacrylic acid (PMA, citric acid, and sodium bicarbonate. Tablets with 5% effervescent base had longer lag time than 10%. The type of polymer had no significant effect on the floating lag time. All tablets floated atop the medium for 23-24 hr. Increasing carbopolP934 caused higher bioadhesion than chitosan (p < 0.05. All formulations showed a Higuchi, non-Fickian release mechanism. Tablets with 10% effervescent base, 80% CH/20% HPMC, or 80% CP/20% PMA seemed desirable.

  18. Determination of Modafinil in Tablet Formulation Using Three New Validated Spectrophotometric Methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basniwal, P.K.; Jain, D.; Basniwal, P.K.

    2014-01-01

    In this study, three new UV spectrophotometric methods viz. linear regression equation (LRE), standard absorptivity (SA) and first order derivative (FOD) method were developed and validated for determination of modafinil in tablet form. The Beer-Lamberts law was obeyed as linear in the range of 10-50 μg/ mL and all the methods were validated for linearity, accuracy, precision and robustness. These methods were successfully applied for assay of modafinil drug content in tablets in the range of 100.20 - 100.42 %, 100.11 - 100.58 % and 100.25 - 100.34 %, respectively with acceptable standard deviation (less than two) for all the methods. The validated spectrophotometric methods may be successfully applied for assay, dissolution studies, bio-equivalence studies as well as routine analysis in pharmaceutical industries. (author)

  19. Optimasi Formula Tablet Salut Enterik Natrium Diklofenak dengan Bahan Penyalut Kollicoat 30 D

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nanang Yunarto

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Diclofenac sodium is an analgetic and antiinflammation drug and commonly used by oral administration. Because of it’s side effects that can cause stomach irritation, nausea and vomiting, it’s made in the form of enteric-coated. Enteric-coated formulations developed used organic solvent having toxicity and flammability risks. The aim of this study is to develop diclofenac sodium enteric-coated tablets with a water-based coating material. Coating material used is Kollicoat 30 D which is a derivative of acrylic polymer that can dispersed in water. Optimalization of the formula is done by the weight gain 4%, 6% and 8%. The result showed that enteric coated tablets used coating material with weight gain 8% gave the best result with all parameters meet the requirements of the test, there was no change in acid medium for 2 hours and stable released active ingredient

  20. Release mechanisms of acetaminophen from polyethylene oxide/polyethylene glycol matrix tablets utilizing magnetic resonance imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tajiri, Tomokazu; Morita, Shigeaki; Sakamoto, Ryosaku; Suzuki, Masazumi; Yamanashi, Shigeyuki; Ozaki, Yukihiro; Kitamura, Satoshi

    2010-08-16

    Release mechanism of acetaminophen (AAP) from extended-release tablets of hydrogel polymer matrices containing polyethylene oxide (PEO) and polyethylene glycol (PEG) were achieved using flow-through cell with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The hydrogel forming abilities are observed characteristically and the layer thickness which is corresponding to the diffusion length of AAP has a good correlation with the drug release profiles. In addition, polymeric erosion contribution to AAP releasing from hydrogel matrix tablets was directly quantified using size-exclusion chromatography (SEC). The matrix erosion profile indicates that the PEG erosion kinetic depends primarily on the composition ratio of PEG to PEO. The present study has confirmed that the combination of in situ MRI and SEC should be well suited to investigate the drug release mechanisms of hydrogel matrix such as PEO/PEG. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Predicting nurse burnout from demands and resources in three acute care hospitals under different forms of ownership: a cross-sectional questionnaire survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Niklas; Sverke, Magnus; Näswall, Katharina

    2009-01-01

    Health care organizations have changed dramatically over the last decades, with hospitals undergoing restructurings and privatizations. The aim of this study is to enhance the understanding of the origin and prevalence of burnout in health care by investigating factors in the psychosocial work environment and comparing three Swedish emergency hospitals with different types of ownership. A cross-sectional design was used. We selected a total sample of 1800 registered nurses from three acute care hospitals, one private for-profit, one private non-profit and one publicly administered. A total of 1102 questionnaires were included in the analyses. The examined ownership types were a private for-profit, a private non-profit and a traditional publicly administered hospital. All were situated in the Stockholm region, Sweden. Data were collected by questionnaires using validated instruments, in accordance with the Job Demands-Resources Model and Maslach's Burnout Inventory. Descriptive statistics, correlation analyses, multivariate covariance analyses and multiple regression analyses were conducted. The results showed that the burnout levels were the highest at the private for-profit hospital and lowest at the publicly administered hospital. However, in contrast to expectations the demands were not higher overall at the for-profit organization or lowest at the public administration unit, and overall, resources were not better in the private for-profit or worse at the publicly administered hospital. Multiple regression analyses showed that several of the demands included were related to higher burnout levels. Job resources were linked to lower burnout levels, but not for all variables. Profit orientation in health care seems to result in higher burnout levels for registered nurses compared to a publicly administered hospital. In general, demands were more predictive of burnout than resources, and there were only marginal differences in the pattern of predictors across

  2. [Troubleshooting of bioinequivalence of compound valsartan tablets].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Da; Zhang, Yi-Fan; Zhan, Yan; Chen, Xiao-Yan; Zhong, Da-Fang

    2014-04-01

    The study aims to evaluate the bioequivalence of valsartan hydrochlorothiazide tablets, and to investigate the potential cause of bioinequivalence. This was a single-center study with an open, randomized double-way crossover design. Test and reference preparations containing 160 mg of valsartan and 25 mg of hydrochlorothiazide were given to 36 healthy male volunteers. Plasma concentrations of valsartan and hydrochlorothiazide were determined simultaneously by LC-MS/MS. The pharmacokinetic parameters and relative bioavailability were calculated, while the bioequivalence between test and reference preparations were evaluated. The dissolution profiles of test and reference preparations in four different mediums were determined via dissolution test and HPLC. The similarity was investigated according to the similarity factors (f2). The F(o-t) and F(0-infinity) were (139.4 +/- 65.2)% and (137.5 +/- 61.2)% for valsartan of test preparations. It led to get the conclusion that test and reference preparations were not bioequivalent for valsartan. A significant difference was observed between test and reference tablets in the valsartan dissolution test of pH 1.2 hydrochloric acid solution. The key factor of the bioinequivalence might be that dissolution of valsartan in acid medium has marked difference between two preparations.

  3. Relationships between response surfaces for tablet characteristics of placebo and API-containing tablets manufactured by direct compression method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashi, Yoshihiro; Tsuji, Takahiro; Shirotori, Kaede; Oishi, Takuya; Kosugi, Atsushi; Kumada, Shungo; Hirai, Daijiro; Takayama, Kozo; Onuki, Yoshinori

    2017-10-30

    In this study, we evaluated the correlation between the response surfaces for the tablet characteristics of placebo and active pharmaceutical ingredient (API)-containing tablets. The quantities of lactose, cornstarch, and microcrystalline cellulose were chosen as the formulation factors. Ten tablet formulations were prepared. The tensile strength (TS) and disintegration time (DT) of tablets were measured as tablet characteristics. The response surfaces for TS and DT were estimated using a nonlinear response surface method incorporating multivariate spline interpolation, and were then compared with those of placebo tablets. A correlation was clearly observed for TS and DT of all APIs, although the value of the response surfaces for TS and DT was highly dependent on the type of API used. Based on this knowledge, the response surfaces for TS and DT of API-containing tablets were predicted from only two and four formulations using regression expression and placebo tablet data, respectively. The results from the evaluation of prediction accuracy showed that this method accurately predicted TS and DT, suggesting that it could construct a reliable response surface for TS and DT with a small number of samples. This technique assists in the effective estimation of the relationships between design variables and pharmaceutical responses during pharmaceutical development. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Acute regulation of circulating parathyroid hormone (PTH) molecular forms by calcium: utility of PTH fragments/PTH(1-84) ratios derived from three generations of PTH assays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Amour, Pierre; Räkel, Agnès; Brossard, Jean-Hugues; Rousseau, Louise; Albert, Caroline; Cantor, Tom

    2006-01-01

    The quantitative evaluation of circulating PTH peaks revealed by PTH assays after HPLC separation constitutes the best way to study the behavior of PTH molecular forms, but it is also impractical. The objective of the study was to investigate the regulation of circulating PTH molecular forms by calcium through the use of PTH fragments/PTH (1-84) ratios derived from PTH assays with different specificities before and after HPLC separation of circulating PTH. CaCl2 and Na citrate were infused in eight volunteers. PTH was measured in serum and HPLC fractions at different calcium concentrations in PTH assays reacting with regions 1-2 (CA), 12-18 (T), and 65-69 (C) of the PTH structure. From hypo- to hypercalcemia, the C/CA ratio had the highest range (1.92 to 9.75; P < 0.001), and the C/T ratio had a higher range (1.69 to 6.11; P < 0.01) than the T/CA ratio (1.15 to 1.86). Human (h) PTH (1-84) represented 32.7 and 4.3% of circulating PTH in hypo- and hypercalcemic HPLC profiles, respectively. These numbers were 5 and 0.9% for amino-terminal (N)-PTH, an amino-terminal form of PTH distinct from hPTH (1-84), 7.3 and 6.8% for non-(1-84) PTH or large C-PTH fragments with a partially preserved N structure, and 54.9 and 88.1% for C-PTH fragments missing a N structure. The HPLC C-PTH fragments to hPTH (1-84) ratio had the most extensive range (1.67 to 20.58). Despite their quantitative differences, all ratios identified identical behavior of PTH fragments relative to PTH (1-84). PTH assay ratios are an adequate tool to investigate the modulation of PTH molecular forms, even if all PTH assays show some undesirable cross-reactivity with certain circulating forms of PTH.

  5. Using a Virtual Tablet Machine to Improve Student Understanding of the Complex Processes Involved in Tablet Manufacturing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattsson, Sofia; Sjöström, Hans-Erik; Englund, Claire

    2016-06-25

    Objective. To develop and implement a virtual tablet machine simulation to aid distance students' understanding of the processes involved in tablet production. Design. A tablet simulation was created enabling students to study the effects different parameters have on the properties of the tablet. Once results were generated, students interpreted and explained them on the basis of current theory. Assessment. The simulation was evaluated using written questionnaires and focus group interviews. Students appreciated the exercise and considered it to be motivational. Students commented that they found the simulation, together with the online seminar and the writing of the report, was beneficial for their learning process. Conclusion. According to students' perceptions, the use of the tablet simulation contributed to their understanding of the compaction process.

  6. Complexity in differentiating the expression of truncated or matured forms of MMP-2 and MMP-9 through zymography in rat brain tissues after acute ischaemic stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alam, Mustafa; Shuaib, Ashfaq

    2013-05-30

    Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) play an important role in the pathogenesis of ischaemic stroke. In particular, the mature forms of MMPs 2 and 9 have similar sizes and share gelatine as a common substrate. Both MMPs are upregulated in ischaemic stroke and play detrimental roles during stroke pathogenesis. Throughout this study, we demonstrated that pro-MMP-2 and pro-MMP-9 from ischaemic rat brain tissue homogenate is detected either through immunoblotting or zymography because of the remarkable size difference between these enzymes (72 versus 95 kDa, respectively). However, the mature MMP-2 and MMP-9 cannot be discriminated through zymography because of the almost identical sizes of these forms (66 and 67 kDa, respectively). The use of gelatine zymography on ischaemic rat brain tissue homogenate revealed a 65-kDa MMP band, corresponding to the heterogeneous band of mature MMP-2 and/or MMP-9. Furthermore, we also detected mature MMPs of 65 kDa generated from both recombinant human MMP-2 and MMP-9. Using a pull down assay in rat brain tissue homogenate with gelatine-agarose beads, we showed increased activities for both the pro and mature forms of MMP-2 and MMP-9. However, we could not determine the origin of the respective mature MMPs from the heterogeneous band. Thus, in this study, we demonstrated that the identification and quantification of mature MMP-2 and MMP-9 could not be achieved using zymography alone. Therefore, the development of a reliable technique to identify and measure the respective MMPs is needed to test new stroke therapies targeting MMP-2 and MMP-9. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Investigation of the Sensitivity of Transmission Raman Spectroscopy for Polymorph Detection in Pharmaceutical Tablets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Hanzhou; Bondi, Robert W; Anderson, Carl A; Drennen, James K; Igne, Benoît

    2017-08-01

    Polymorph detection is critical for ensuring pharmaceutical product quality in drug substances exhibiting polymorphism. Conventional analytical techniques such as X-ray powder diffraction and solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance are utilized primarily for characterizing the presence and identity of specific polymorphs in a sample. These techniques have encountered challenges in analyzing the constitution of polymorphs in the presence of other components commonly found in pharmaceutical dosage forms. Laborious sample preparation procedures are usually required to achieve satisfactory data interpretability. There is a need for alternative techniques capable of probing pharmaceutical dosage forms rapidly and nondestructively, which is dictated by the practical requirements of applications such as quality monitoring on production lines or when quantifying product shelf lifetime. The sensitivity of transmission Raman spectroscopy for detecting polymorphs in final tablet cores was investigated in this work. Carbamazepine was chosen as a model drug, polymorph form III is the commercial form, whereas form I is an undesired polymorph that requires effective detection. The concentration of form I in a direct compression tablet formulation containing 20% w/w of carbamazepine, 74.00% w/w of fillers (mannitol and microcrystalline cellulose), and 6% w/w of croscarmellose sodium, silicon dioxide, and magnesium stearate was estimated using transmission Raman spectroscopy. Quantitative models were generated and optimized using multivariate regression and data preprocessing. Prediction uncertainty was estimated for each validation sample by accounting for all the main variables contributing to the prediction. Multivariate detection limits were calculated based on statistical hypothesis testing. The transmission Raman spectroscopic model had an absolute prediction error of 0.241% w/w for the independent validation set. The method detection limit was estimated at 1.31% w/w. The

  8. Design and in vivo evaluation of oxycodone once-a-day controlled-release tablets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim JY

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Ju-Young Kim,1,* Sung-Hoon Lee,2,3,* Chun-Woong Park,4 Yun-Seok Rhee,5 Dong-Wook Kim,6 Junsang Park,3 Moonseok Lee,3 Jeong-Woong Seo,2 Eun-Seok Park2 1College of Pharmacy, Woosuk University, Wanju-gun, Republic of Korea; 2School of Pharmacy, Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon, Republic of Korea; 3GL Pharmtech, Seongnam, Republic of Korea; 4College of Pharmacy, Chungbuk National University, Cheongju, Republic of Korea; 5College of Pharmacy and Research Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Gyeongsang National University, Jinju, Republic of Korea; 6Department of Pharmaceutical Engineering, Cheongju University, Cheongju, Republic of Korea *These authors contributed equally to this work Abstract: The aim of present study was to design oxycodone once-a-day controlled-release (CR tablets and to perform in vitro/in vivo characterizations. Release profiles to achieve desired plasma concentration versus time curves were established by using simulation software and reported pharmacokinetic parameters of the drug. Hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC 100,000 mPa·s was used as a release modifier because the polymer was found to be resistant to changes in conditions of the release study, including rotation speed of paddle and ion strength. The burst release of the drug from the CR tablets could be suppressed by applying an additional HPMC layer as a physical barrier. Finally, the oxycodone once-a-day tablet was comprised of two layers, an inert HPMC layer and a CR layer containing drug and HPMC. Commercial products, either 10 mg bis in die (bid [twice a day] or once-a-day CR tablets (20 mg were administered to healthy volunteers, and calculated pharmacokinetic parameters indicated bioequivalence of the two different treatments. The findings of the present study emphasize the potential of oxycodone once-a-day CR tablets for improved patient compliance, safety, and efficacy, which could help researchers to develop new CR dosage forms of oxycodone. Keywords

  9. A novel spray-dried nanoparticles-in-microparticles system for formulating scopolamine hydrobromide into orally disintegrating tablets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li FQ

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Feng-Qian Li1, Cheng Yan2, Juan Bi1, Wei-Lin Lv3, Rui-Rui Ji3, Xu Chen1, Jia-Can Su3, Jin-Hong Hu31Department of Pharmaceutics, Shanghai Eighth People’s Hospital, Shanghai, People’s Republic of China; 2Department of Pharmacy, Bethune International Peace Hospital, Shijiazhuang, People’s Republic of China; 3Changhai Hospital, Second Military Medical University, Shanghai, People’s Republic of ChinaAbstract: Scopolamine hydrobromide (SH-loaded microparticles were prepared from a colloidal fluid containing ionotropic-gelated chitosan nanoparticles using a spray-drying method. The spray-dried microparticles were then formulated into orally disintegrating tablets (ODTs using a wet granulation tablet formation process. A drug entrapment efficiency of about 90% (w/w and loading capacity of 20% (w/w were achieved for the microparticles, which ranged from 2 µm to 8 µm in diameter. Results of disintegration tests showed that the formulated ODTs could be completely dissolved within 45 seconds. Drug dissolution profiles suggested that SH is released more slowly from tablets made using the microencapsulation process compared with tablets containing SH that is free or in the form of nanoparticles. The time it took for 90% of the drug to be released increased significantly from 3 minutes for conventional ODTs to 90 minutes for ODTs with crosslinked microparticles. Compared with ODTs made with noncrosslinked microparticles, it was thus possible to achieve an even lower drug release rate using tablets with appropriate chitosan crosslinking. Results obtained indicate that the development of new ODTs designed with crosslinked microparticles might be a rational way to overcome the unwanted taste of conventional ODTs and the side effects related to SH’s intrinsic characteristics.Keywords: scopolamine hydrobromide, chitosan, nanoparticles-in-microparticles system, spray-drying, orally disintegrating tablets

  10. Roll Compaction/Dry Granulation of Dibasic Calcium Phosphate Anhydrous-Does the Morphology of the Raw Material Influence the Tabletability of Dry Granules?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grote, Simon; Kleinebudde, Peter

    2018-04-01

    The influence of raw material particle morphology on the tabletabilty of dry granules was investigated. Therefore, dibasic calcium phosphate anhydrous was used as a model material. One milled grade, 2 agglomerated grades with different porosities, and a functionalized structure, that is, an agglomerate formed by very small primary particles, were included. Particle size, density, and specific surface area of raw materials were measured. The starting materials and 2 fractions of dry granules were compressed to tablets. The tabletability of granules was compared to that of the powders and the influence of specific compaction force, granule size, and lubrication on tablet tensile strength was evaluated. All materials showed a loss in tabletability induced by a previous compaction step but to a varying extent. Only in case of the functionalized calcium phosphate morphology, this effect depended on the specific compaction force. In contrast to the other materials, the tabletability of functionalized calcium phosphate was influenced by the granule size. This effect was not related to an overlubrication as internal and external lubrication resulted in similar tensile strengths. A clear influence of the particle morphology on tablet strength was demonstrated by the study. The functionalized structure showed aspects of a more plastic deformation behavior. The functionalized dibasic calcium phosphate and the more porous agglomerate performed as potential filler/binder in the field of roll compaction/dry granulation. Copyright © 2018 American Pharmacists Association®. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Preparation and in-vitro in-vivo evaluation of sustained release matrix diclofenac sodium tablets using PVP-K90 and natural gums.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iqbal, Zafar; Khan, Raza; Nasir, Fazli; Khan, Jamshaid Ali; Rashid, Abdur; Khan, Abbas; Khan, Abad

    2011-10-01

    Conventional dosage form is nowadays mostly replaced by sustained release formulation in order to increase drug efficacy and patient compliance. The sustained release properties of the PVP K90 alone and in combination with guar gum, xanthan gum and gum tragacanth were evaluated using diclofenac sodium (100 mg/tablet) as a model drug. Tablets were processed using wet granulation method and evaluated for sustained drug release properties. The drug release from the formulations was studied in relationship with Commercially available Diclofenac Sodium SR, used as a reference tablets and results were expressed as similarity (f1) and differential factor (f2). The tablets prepared using PVP K90 160 mg/tablet sustained the release of diclofenac sodium for 12 hours. Formulations where the PVP K90 was partially replaced with different gums also sustained the release of drug for 12 hours. The release of the drug from these formulations mainly followed Higuchi model and super case-II and Non-Fickian diffusion. The in-vivo drug release was studied in healthy human volunteers using non-blinded cross over, two period design using Diclofenac Sodium SR Tablets as a reference drug. The relative bioavailability of the formulation containing PVP K90 and gum tragacanth was 0.91. The studies showed that the use of the PVP K90 in combination with gum tragacanth both in-vitro and in-vivo sustained the release of the drug.

  12. Værsgo' ta' en tablet. Om brugen af tablets i dansk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lorentzen, Rasmus Fink

    2014-01-01

    Hvordan kan vi udvikle elevernes faglighed ved hjælp af it? Hvad er det i det hele taget vigtigt at lære i en tidssvarende folkeskole, så eleverne bliver klædt på til fremtidens samfund? Og kan iPads bruges til dette? Dette kapitel handler om fagdidaktik og tablets i undervisningen.......Hvordan kan vi udvikle elevernes faglighed ved hjælp af it? Hvad er det i det hele taget vigtigt at lære i en tidssvarende folkeskole, så eleverne bliver klædt på til fremtidens samfund? Og kan iPads bruges til dette? Dette kapitel handler om fagdidaktik og tablets i undervisningen....

  13. Composition profiling of seized ecstasy tablets by Raman spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, S E; Burns, D T; Dennis, A C; Matchett, L J; Speers, J S

    2000-10-01

    Raman spectroscopy with far-red excitation has been investigated as a simple and rapid technique for composition profiling of seized ecstasy (MDMA, N-methyl-3,4-methylenedioxyamphetamine) tablets. The spectra obtained are rich in vibrational bands and allow the active drug and excipient used to bulk the tablets to be identified. Relative band heights can be used to determine drug/excipient ratios and the degree of hydration of the drug while the fact that 50 tablets per hour can be analysed allows large numbers of spectra to be recorded. The ability of Raman spectroscopy to distinguish between ecstasy tablets on the basis of their chemical composition is illustrated here by a sample set of 400 tablets taken from a large seizure of > 50,000 tablets that were found in eight large bags. The tablets are all similar in appearance and carry the same logo. Conventional analysis by GC-MS showed they contained MDMA. Initial Raman studies of samples from each of the eight bags showed that despite some tablet-to-tablet variation within each bag the contents could be classified on the basis of the excipients used. The tablets in five of the bags were sorbitol-based, two were cellulose-based and one bag contained tablets with a glucose excipient. More extensive analysis of 50 tablets from each of a representative series of sample bags have distribution profiles that showed the contents of each bag were approximately normally distributed about a mean value, rather than being mixtures of several discrete types. Two of the sorbitol-containing sample sets were indistinguishable while a third was similar but not identical to these, in that it contained the same excipient and MDMA with the same degree of hydration but had a slightly different MDMA/sorbitol ratio. The cellulose-based samples were badly manufactured and showed considerable tablet-to-tablet variation in their drug/excipient ratio while the glucose-based tablets had a tight distribution in their drug/excipient ratios

  14. Influence of different types of low substituted hydroxypropyl cellulose on tableting, disintegration, and floating behaviour of floating drug delivery systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diós, Péter; Pernecker, Tivadar; Nagy, Sándor; Pál, Szilárd; Dévay, Attila

    2015-11-01

    The object of the present study is to evaluate the effect of application of low-substituted hydroxypropyl cellulose (L-HPC) 11 and B1 as excipients promoting floating in gastroretentive tablets. Directly compressed tablets were formed based on experimental design. Face-centred central composite design was applied with two factors and 3 levels, where amount of sodium alginate (X 1) and L-HPC (X2 ) were the numerical factors. Applied types of L-HPCs and their 1:1 mixture were included in a categorical factor (X 3). Studied parameters were floating lag time, floating time, floating force, swelling behaviour of tablets and dissolution of paracetamol, which was used as a model active substance. Due to their physical character, L-HPCs had different water uptake and flowability. Lower flowability and lower water uptake was observed after 60 min at L-HPC 11 compared to L-HPC B1. Shorter floating times were detected at L-HPC 11 and L-HPC mixtures with 0.5% content of sodium alginate, whereas alginate was the only significant factor. Evaluating results of drug release and swelling studies on floating tablets revealed correlation, which can serve to help to understand the mechanism of action of L-HPCs in the field development of gastroretentive dosage forms.

  15. 78 FR 15956 - Guidance for Industry on Tablet Scoring: Nomenclature, Labeling, and Data for Evaluation...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-13

    ...] Guidance for Industry on Tablet Scoring: Nomenclature, Labeling, and Data for Evaluation; Availability...) is announcing the availability of a guidance for industry entitled ``Tablet Scoring: Nomenclature... evaluating and labeling tablets that have been scored. (A scoring feature facilitates tablet splitting, which...

  16. Characterising the disintegration properties of tablets in opaque media using texture analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Scheuerle, Rebekah L.; Gerrard, Stephen E.; Kendall, Richard A.; Tuleu, Catherine; Slater, Nigel K.H.; Mahbubani, Krishnaa T.

    2015-01-01

    Tablet disintegration characterisation is used in pharmaceutical research, development, and quality control. Standard methods used to characterise tablet disintegration are often dependent on visual observation in measurement of disintegration times. This presents a challenge for disintegration studies of tablets in opaque, physiologically relevant media that could be useful for tablet formulation optimisation. In this study is explored an application of texture analysis disintegration testin...

  17. Quality Enhancement by Inclusion Complex Formation of Simvastatin Tablets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emőke Rédai

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Simvastatin is an inhibitor of hydroxy-methyl-glutaryl-coenzyme A reductase, used in the treatment of hypercholesterolemia. To enhance its bioavailability by inclusion complexation, as host molecule randommethyl-β-cyclodextrin had been used. After evaluating the complexes we chose the kneading product in 1:2 molar ratio for incorporation of 10 mg simvastatin tablets. Materials and methods: We prepared homogenous mixtures of the inclusion complex and some excipients. The tablets were prepared by direct compression. The tablets were evaluated in regard to: weight uniformity, thickness, diameter, hardness, friability, disintegration and dissolution profile. Results: Weights are in the range of 196-208 mg, diameter 6.83-6.86 mm, height 3.86-4.01 mm, hardness 78.3-113.1 N, friability 0.75- 1.19 %, disintegration above 15 minutes. The dissolved amounts of simvastatin from the tablets are higher compared to the dissolution of pure simvastatin, but lower than the dissolution of the complex itself. Excipients, like disintegrants and lubricants greatly influence the dissolution properties of the tablets. Conclusions: According to our results, tablets containing inclusion complex of simvastatin exhibit better solubility, according to the dissolved amount of simvastatin, than pure drug alone. Proper physical parameters of the tablets are obtained by application of 5 % Primellose

  18. Tablet based distributed intelligent load management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Yan; Zhou, Siyuan

    2018-01-09

    A facility is connected to an electricity utility and is responsive to Demand Response Events. A plurality of devices is each individually connected to the electricity grid via an addressable switch connected to a secure network that is enabled to be individually switched off by a server. An occupant of a room in control of the plurality of devices provides via a Human Machine Interface on a tablet a preferred order of switching off the plurality of devices in case of a Demand Response Event. A configuration file based at least partially on the preferred order and on a severity of the Demand Response Events determines which devices which of the plurality devices will be switched off. The server accesses the configuration file and switches off the devices included in the configuration file.

  19. TABLET (MOBILE TECHNOLOGY FOR PROFESSIONAL MUSIC EDUCATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gorbunova Irina B.

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The article highlights issues associated with the introduction of cloud-centric and tablet (mobile devices in music education, use of which confronts the teacher-musician fundamentally new challenges. So, it's a development of practical teaching skills with the assistance of modern technology, a search of approaches to the organization of educational process, a creation of conditions for the continuity between traditional music learning and information technologies in educational process. Authors give the characteristics of cloud computing and the perspective of its use in music schools (distance learning, sharing, cloud services, etc.. Also you can see in this article the overview of some mobile applications (for OS Android and iOS and their use in the educational process.

  20. Once Upon a Tablet: A School Toy in the Making

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Froes, Isabel

    2015-01-01

    exploring what emergent behaviors are present when preschool children use and play with tablets in their formal learning environments. In order to map the array of play and usage of such devices for this research, after the first round of observations, the tablet taxonomy was outlined and has been applied......The current paper introduces the definitions of playful literacy and multimodal hyper-intertextuality, key concepts when researching children’s use of digital tablets. The pilot investigation, which took place in spring 2014 in Denmark, is part of a larger cross-cultural comparative project...

  1. Authentication of gold nanoparticle encoded pharmaceutical tablets using polarimetric signatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carnicer, Artur; Arteaga, Oriol; Suñé-Negre, Josep M; Javidi, Bahram

    2016-10-01

    The counterfeiting of pharmaceutical products represents concerns for both industry and the safety of the general public. Falsification produces losses to companies and poses health risks for patients. In order to detect fake pharmaceutical tablets, we propose producing film-coated tablets with gold nanoparticle encoding. These coated tablets contain unique polarimetric signatures. We present experiments to show that ellipsometric optical techniques, in combination with machine learning algorithms, can be used to distinguish genuine and fake samples. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report using gold nanoparticles encoded with optical polarimetric classifiers to prevent the counterfeiting of pharmaceutical products.

  2. Determination of uranium by luminescent method (tablet variant)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sergeev, A.N.; Yufa, B.Ya.

    1985-01-01

    A new tablet variant of luminescent determination of uranium in rocks is developed. The analytical process includes the following operations: sample decomposition, uranium separation from luminescence quencher impurities, preparation of luminescent sample (tablet), photometry of the tablet. The method has two variants developed: the first one is characterized by a more hard decomposition, sample mass being 0.2 g; the second variant has a better detection limit (5x10 -6 %), the sample mass being 0.2-1 g. Procedures of the sample preparation for both variants of analysis are described

  3. Effects of protoporphyrin disodium (Prolmon tablets) during radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iwata, Takeo; Fukutomi, Toshio

    1981-01-01

    Effects of Prolmon tablets (medicine for hepatitis) on radiation syndrome (fatigue, nausea, vomiting, etc) which appeared during an early stage of radiotherapy were studied. Two tablets of Prolmon were administered to 10 patients with various tumors three times a day with concurrent use of other medicines during radiotherapy. A marked change in GOT and GPT values did not found, and the treatment was completed without any radiation syndrome in all patients. It was suggested that the administration of Prolmon tablets together with nutrients and vitamine preparations was effective to prevent radiation syndrome. (Tsunoda, M.)

  4. Co-Processed Chitin-Mannitol as a New Excipient for Oro-Dispersible Tablets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nidal Daraghmeh

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This study describes the preparation, characterization and performance of a novel excipient for use in oro-dispersible tablets (ODT. The excipient (Cop–CM consists of chitin and mannitol. The excipient with optimal physicochemical properties was obtained at a chitin: mannitol ratio of 2:8 (w/w and produced by roll compaction (RC. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC, Fourier transform-Infrared (FT-IR, X-ray powder diffraction (XRPD and scanning electron microscope (SEM techniques were used to characterize Cop–CM, in addition to characterization of its powder and ODT dosage form. The effect of particle size distribution of Cop–CM was investigated and found to have no significant influence on the overall tablet physical properties. The compressibility parameter (a for Cop–CM was calculated from a Kawakita plot and found to be higher (0.661 than that of mannitol (0.576 due to the presence of the highly compressible chitin (0.818. Montelukast sodium and domperidone ODTs produced, using Cop–CM, displayed excellent physicochemical properties. The exceptional binding, fast wetting and superdisintegration properties of Cop–CM, in comparison with commercially available co-processed ODT excipients, results in a unique multifunctional base which can successfully be used in the formulation of oro-dispersible and fast immediate release tablets.

  5. Development of Orodispersible Tablets of Candesartan Cilexetil-β-cyclodextrin Complex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maddukuri Sravya

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the use of inclusion complexation technique employing β-cyclodextrin in improving the dissolution profile of candesartan cilexetil, a BCS class-II drug, and to formulate the inclusion complex into orodispersible tablets. The inclusion complexes were formed by physical mixing, kneading, coevaporation, and lyophilisation methods. Inclusion complexes were characterized by FTIR, DSC, XRD, NMR, and mass spectral studies. Inclusion complexes prepared using kneading, and lyophilisation techniques in the molar ratio 1 : 5 with β-cyclodextrin were used for formulating orodispersible tablets by direct compression with different superdisintegrants like croscarmellose sodium, crospovidone, sodium starch glycolate, and low substituted hydroxypropyl cellulose in varying concentrations. The directly compressible powder was evaluated for precompression parameters, and the prepared orodispersible tablets were evaluated for postcompression parameters. Drug-excipient compatibility studies showed no interaction, and characterization proved the formation of inclusion complex. In vitro disintegration time was found to be within 3 minutes, and all the formulations showed complete drug release of 100% within 20 minutes. The optimized formulation was found to be stable after 6 months and showed no significant change in drug content. This work proved β-cyclodextrins to be effective solubilizing agent in improving the solubility of poorly water soluble drugs.

  6. Does the performance of wet granulation and tablet hardness affect the drug dissolution profile of carvedilol in matrix tablets?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Košir, Darjan; Ojsteršek, Tadej; Vrečer, Franc

    2018-06-14

    Wet granulation is mostly used process for manufacturing matrix tablets. Compared to the direct compression method, it allows for a better flow and compressibility properties of compression mixtures. Granulation, including process parameters and tableting, can influence critical quality attributes (CQAs) of hydrophilic matrix tablets. One of the most important CQAs is the drug release profile. We studied the influence of granulation process parameters (type of nozzle and water quantity used as granulation liquid) and tablet hardness on the drug release profile. Matrix tablets contained HPMC K4M hydrophilic matrix former and carvedilol as a model drug. The influence of selected HPMC characteristics on the drug release profile was also evaluated using two additional HPMC batches. For statistical evaluation, partial least square (PLS) models were generated for each time point of the drug release profile using the same number of latent factors. In this way, it was possible to evaluate how the importance of factors influencing drug dissolution changes in dependence on time throughout the drug release profile. The results of statistical evaluation show that the granulation process parameters (granulation liquid quantity and type of nozzle) and tablet hardness significantly influence the release profile. On the other hand, the influence of HPMC characteristics is negligible in comparison to the other factors studied. Using a higher granulation liquid quantity and the standard nozzle type results in larger granules with a higher density and lower porosity, which leads to a slower drug release profile. Lower tablet hardness also slows down the release profile.

  7. Formulation and evaluation of controlled release matrix mucoadhesive tablets of domperidone using Salvia plebeian gum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gurpreet Arora

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of study was to prepare controlled release matrix mucoadhesive tablets of domperidone using Salvia plebeian gum as natural polymer. Tablets were formulated by direct compression technology employing the natural polymer in different concentrations (5, 10, 15 and 20% w/w. The prepared batches were evaluated for drug assay, diameter, thickness, hardness and tensile strength, swelling index, mucoadhesive strength (using texture analyzer and subjected to in vitro drug release studies. Real-time stability studies were also conducted on prepared batches. In vitro drug release data were fitted in various release kinetic models for studying the mechanism of drug release. Tensile strength was found to increase from 0.808 ± 0.098 to 1.527 ± 0.10 mN/cm 2 and mucoadhesive strength increased from 13.673 ± 1.542 to 40.378 ± 2.345 N, with an increase in the polymer concentration from 5 to 20% (A1 to A4. Swelling index was reported to increase with both increase in the concentration of gum and the time duration. The in vitro drug release decreased from 97.76 to 83.4% (A1 to A4 with the increase in polymer concentration. The drug release from the matrix tablets was found to follow zero-order and Higuchi models, indicating the matrix-forming potential of natural polymer. The value of n was found to be between 0.5221 and 0.8992, indicating the involvement of more than one drug release mechanism from the formulation and possibly the combination of both diffusion and erosion. These research findings clearly indicate the potential of S. plebeian gum to be used as binder, release retardant and mucoadhesive natural material in tablet formulations.

  8. Determination of the in vitro disintegration profile of rapidly disintegrating tablets and correlation with oral disintegration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdelbary, G; Eouani, C; Prinderre, P; Joachim, J; Reynier, Jp; Piccerelle, Ph

    2005-03-23

    The assessment of the in vitro disintegration profile of rapidly disintegrating tablets (RDT) is very important in the evaluation and the development of new formulations of this type. So far neither the US Pharmacopoeia nor the European Pharmacopoeia has defined a specific disintegration test for RDT; currently, it is only possible to refer to the tests on dispersible or effervescent tablets for the evaluation of RDT's disintegration capacity. In the present study, we have evaluated the disintegration profile of RDT manufactured by main commercialised technologies, using the texture analyser (TA). In order to simulate as much as possible the oral disintegration of these dosage forms, a new operating structure was developed. This structure mimics the situation in the patient's mouth and provides a gradual elimination of the detached particles during the disintegration process. The obtained time-distance profiles or disintegration profiles enabled the calculation of certain quantitative values as the disintegration onset (t1) and the total disintegration time (t2). These values were used in the characterisation of the effect of test variables as the disintegration medium and temperature on the disintegration time of RDT. Moreover, the oral disintegration time of the same products was evaluated by 14 healthy volunteers. Results obtained when artificial saliva at 37 degrees C was employed as disintegration medium were used to correlate the in vitro (t2) and oral disintegration times. Excellent correlation was found and in addition, we were able to achieve a qualitative measure of the mouthfeel by comparing the thickness of the tablets and the penetration distance obtained from the disintegration profile. This method also permitted the discrimination between different RDT, where differences in the disintegration mechanism were reflected on the disintegration profile achieved for each tablet.

  9. The present and the future of the tablet periodicals in Czech Republic

    OpenAIRE

    Kubíčková, Jana Ada

    2016-01-01

    The Thesis maps the Czech tablet magazine market tablet and describes possible approaches to tablet magazines' creation and distribution. First chapter outlines the historical timeline of tablet magazines development both in the Czech Republic and abroad, and maps the current situation of the Czech market. The chapter defines a concept of "strictly tablet magazine" and presents possible approaches to a production of such magazines. The following chapter analyses the concept from the new media...

  10. Security Approaches in Using Tablet Computers for Primary Data Collection in Clinical Research

    OpenAIRE

    Wilcox, Adam B.; Gallagher, Kathleen; Bakken, Suzanne

    2013-01-01

    Next-generation tablets (iPads and Android tablets) may potentially improve the collection and management of clinical research data. The widespread adoption of tablets, coupled with decreased software and hardware costs, has led to increased consideration of tablets for primary research data collection. When using tablets for the Washington Heights/Inwood Infrastructure for Comparative Effectiveness Research (WICER) project, we found that the devices give rise to inherent security issues asso...

  11. Life-Span Differences in the Uses and Gratifications of Tablets: Implications for Older Adults

    OpenAIRE

    Magsamen-Conrad, Kate; Dowd, John; Abuljadail, Mohammad; Alsulaiman, Saud; Shareefi, Adnan

    2015-01-01

    This study extends Uses and Gratifications theory by examining the uses and gratifications of a new technological device, the tablet computer, and investigating the differential uses and gratifications of tablet computers across the life-span. First, we utilized a six-week tablet training intervention to adapt and extend existing measures to the tablet as a technological device. Next, we used paper-based and online surveys (N=847), we confirmed four main uses of tablets: 1) Information Seekin...

  12. Orodispersible tablets containing taste-masked solid lipid pellets with metformin hydrochloride: Influence of process parameters on tablet properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrovick, Gustavo Freire; Kleinebudde, Peter; Breitkreutz, Jörg

    2018-01-01

    Compaction of multiparticulates into tablets, particularly into orodispersible tablets (ODTs), is challenging. The compression of pellets, made by solid lipid extrusion/spheronization processes, presents peculiar difficulties since solid lipids usually soften or melt at relatively low temperature ranges and due to applied mechanical forces. Until now, there are no reports in literature about the development of ODTs based on solid lipid pellets. To investigate the feasibility of producing such tablets, a design of experiment (DoE) approach was performed to elucidate the influence of compression force and amount of two co-processed excipients (Ludiflash ® and Parteck ® ODT) on properties of the tablets (friability, tensile strength, and disintegration time). ODTs (15 mm, flat-faced) with solid lipid pellets (250-1000 µm in diameter) containing 500 mg of metformin HCl, presenting immediate drug release profile and taste-masked properties, were targeted. During compression, a strong lamination of the tablets containing Parteck ® ODT was observed. This phenomenon was prominently observed when high compression forces (≥5 kN) and high excipient amounts (≥40%; w/w) were used. On the other hand, the DoE focused on tablets with Ludiflash ® showed better results regarding the production of ODTs. A positive influence of the compression force on the tensile strength and disintegration time of the tablets, regarding specifications of the Ph. Eur., was observed. The increase in the amount of this excipient resulted in fast disintegrating tablets, however, a negative influence on the tensile strength was noticed. After optimization of the parameters and formulation, based on the DoE results and considering the Ph. Eur. specifications for tablets, ODTs based on lipid pellets containing metformin HCl presenting immediate release profile (85% drug release in less than 30 min) and taste-masked properties (determined by an electronic tongue) were successfully

  13. Mobile based optical form evaluation system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asım Sinan YÜKSEL

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Optical forms that contain multiple-choice answers are widely used both for electing students and evaluating student achievements in education systems in our country and worldwide. Optical forms are evaluated by employing optical mark recognition techniques through optical readers. High cost of these machines, limited access to them, long waiting time for evaluation results make the process hard for educationists working in cities or countries. In this study, a mobile application was developed for the educationists who own mobile phones or tablets for the purpose of evaluating students' answer sheets quickly and independent of location and optical readers. Optical form recognition, reading and evaluation processes are done on the image of student's answer sheet that is taken with the mobile phone or tablet of educationist. The Android based mobile application that we developed has a user-friendly interface, high success rate and is the first of our knowledge application that operates on mobile platforms in this field.

  14. Spectrophotometric determination of pizotefin maleate in pure form ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Two simple, quick and sensitive methods were described for the spectrophotometric determination of pizotefin maleate (PZT) either in pure form or pharmaceutical form (tablets). The methods were based on the reaction of pizotefin maleate as 'n' electron donor with chloranilic acid (p-CLA) and 7,7,8 ...

  15. Antibacterial Properties of Tebipenem Pivoxil Tablet, a New Oral Carbapenem Preparation against a Variety of Pathogenic Bacteria in Vitro and in Vivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qi Yao

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims: To systemically investigate the in vitro and in vivo antibacterial properties of tebipenem pivoxil tablet. In addition, acute toxicity of this preparation was also studied. Methods: In vitro, minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC or minimal inhibitory concentration (MBC were determined by using the serial 2-fold broth or agar dilution methods. Further, cumulative MIC inhibition curves were then made to assess the antibacterial effects of the drug at various concentrations. In vivo, minimum lethal dose (MLD in combination with maximum tolerance dose (MTD was used to measure the acute toxicity of the tebipenem pivoxil tablet in mice. After that, sepsis mouse models challenged with Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Klebsiella pneumoniae, respectively, were established to evaluate the anti-infective effect of this preparation. Results: The MIC90 values of tebipenem pivoxil against Gram-positive bacteria such as methicillin-sensitive Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA, methicillin-sensitive Staphylococcus epidermidis (MSSE, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus epidermidis (MRSE, Pyogenic streptococcus, and Enterococcus faecalis were ≤0.125, 16, 0.5, 8, ≤0.125, and 32 μg/mL, respectively. Correspondingly, the MIC90 values of tebipenem pivoxil against Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Enterobacter aerogenes, Haemophilus influenzae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Acinetobacter baumannii were 1, 0.5, ≤0.125, 0.25, 64, 64 μg/mL, respectively. The MBC values of tebipenem pivoxil against Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella pneumoniae were 0.016–2, 0.063–32, 0.031–32 μg/mL, respectively. The acute toxicity study showed that the MLD of the tebipenem pivoxil tablet was 4.00 g/kg and the MTD was 3.40 g/kg in mice. In all the sepsis mouse models, the simultaneous administration of the tebipenem pivoxil tablets significantly reduced mortality of

  16. Bioequivalence of 2 Formulations of Sildenafil Oral Soluble Film 100 mg and Sildenafil Citrate (Viagra) 100 mg Oral Tablets in Healthy Male Volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dadey, Eric

    Sildenafil citrate tablets (VIAGRA; Pfizer Inc) have been used since 1998 as an oral therapy for the treatment of erectile dysfunction. However, in some cases, patients may have difficulty in swallowing tablets, and the need to use water to aid in the oral administration of the tablets has the potential to interrupt the sexual encounter, reduce spontaneity, and therefore decrease the quality of the experience. Two oral soluble film (OSF) formulations of sildenafil were developed using MonoSol Rx's proprietary PharmFilm technology. Both films were formulated to dissolve rapidly on the tongue, thereby releasing the drug into the oral cavity, whereupon it is swallowed without the use of water. From a patient perspective, it is anticipated that the film formulations of sildenafil citrate will provide a more compliant and discreet dosage form. The purpose of this clinical study was to compare the bioequivalence of the 2 sildenafil OSF 100 mg formulations (MonoSol Rx, LLC) with the sildenafil citrate 100 mg tablets. The design was a single-dose, randomized, open-label, 3-period, 6-sequence, 3-treatment, single-center, crossover study conducted in 18 healthy, nonsmoking male volunteers under fasting conditions, with each treatment period separated by a 7-day washout period. Plasma sildenafil concentrations were measured predose and then periodically to 24 hours after dosing. The 90% confidence intervals for plasma sildenafil AUC0-t, AUC0-∞, and Cmax for both sildenafil OSF formulations as compared with sildenafil citrate tablets were all within the 80%-125% range, indicating bioequivalence of both film formulations to sildenafil citrate tablets. Overall, the demonstrated bioequivalence coupled with the performance advantages of an OSF dosage form (ie, rapid dissolution in the mouth, can be taken without water, and can be dosed discreetly) suggest that the sildenafil OSF may provide an attractive alternative to sildenafil citrate oral tablets.

  17. Diclofenac transdermal patch versus the sustained release tablet: A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    polyvinyl pyrrolidone K30, with turpentine oil and sesame oil as penetration enhancers. ... therapeutic advantages over conventional oral tablets in terms of prolonged release and improvement of ..... is simple to adopt and cost-effective. In this ...

  18. Touchscreen Tablets: Coordinating Action and Perception for Mathematical Cognition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duijzer, A.C.G.; Shayan, S.; Bakker, A.; van der Schaaf, M.F.; Abrahamson, Dor

    2017-01-01

    Proportional reasoning is important and yet difficult for many students, who often use additive strategies, where multiplicative strategies are better suited. In our research we explore the potential of an interactive touchscreen tablet application to promote proportional reasoning by creating

  19. wax matrix tablets and its implication on dissolution prof

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    acetaminophen-wax matrix tablet and hence its implication on dissolution profile. Acetaminophen-wax ... inertness, cost effectiveness, non- toxicity and more importantly their ... Liver Poole, England) at constant load (30 arbitrary units on the ...

  20. Microbiological Quality of Blister Pack Tablets in Community ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Keywords: Blister pack, Community pharmacy, Good Manufacturing Practice, Microbial contamination,. Quality control ... High levels of microbial contamination in blister-packed tablets ... and their drugs approved by the Jordan Food and Drug ...